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Sample records for zinc sulphate znso4

  1. Degradation of Organic Matter from Stabilized Leachate by Using Zinc Sulphate as Coagulant Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, M. A.; Yusoff, MS; Adam, N. H.; Maz, M. R. R.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Alrozi, R.; Zawawi, M. H.

    2018-06-01

    Stabilized landfill leachate often contains higher organic fractions than the young one. The organics require several sequential treatments to render the leachate parameters concentrations to permissible discharge limits before being discharged to receiving water. This study focused on the application of Zinc Sulphate (ZnSO4) as coagulant agent followed with microfiltration of 0.45 µm pore size under different condition of landfill leachates. The results indicated that the sludge volume index (SVI), soluble COD and turbidity concentrations were inter-related to each other when compared under different ZnSO4 dosages. However, that was not the case when correlation between stabilized and young leachate were compared side by side. To conform the finding, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted and the results were further explained by the adequacy and significant of confidence interval. Finally, it was proven that, soluble and particulate COD had significant CI of 95% applicable for stabilized leachate alone.

  2. Enhancement of osteogenic differentiation of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells by zinc sulphate under electromagnetic field via the PKA, ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh

    2017-01-01

    Zinc ion as an essential trace element and electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has been reported to be involved in the regulation of bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) in the presence of EMF as a strategy in osteoporosis therapy. Alkaline phophatase (ALP) activity measurement, calcium assay and expression of several osteoblastic marker genes were examined to assess the effect of ZnSO4 on the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs under EMF. The expression of cAMP and PKA was evaluated by ELISA. The expression of β-catenin, Wnt1, Wnt3a, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and reduced dickkopf1 (DKK1) genes were used to detect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. It was found that ZnSO4, in the presence of EMF, resulted in an increase in the expression of osteogenic genes, ALP activity and calcium levels. EMF, in the presence of ZnSO4, increased the cAMP level and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Treatment of ADSCs with (MAPK)/ERK kinase 1/2 inhibitor, or PKA inhibitor, significantly inhibited the promotion of osteogenic markers, indicating that the induction of osteogenesis was dependent on the ERK and PKA signaling pathways. Real-time PCR analysis showed that ZnSO4, in the presence of EMF, increased the mRNA expressions of β-catenin, Wnt1, Wnt3a, LRP5 and DKK1. In this study, it was shown that 0.432 μg/ml ZnSO4, in the presence of 50 Hz, 20 mT EMF, induced the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs via PKA, ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. PMID:28339498

  3. The effect of feed supplementation with zinc chelate and zinc sulphate on selected humoral and cell-mediated immune parameters and cytokine concentration in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Łukasz; Marek, Agnieszka; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Kalinowski, Marcin

    2017-06-01

    The ability of poultry to withstand infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses or protozoa depends upon the integrity of the immune system. Zinc is important for proper functioning of heterophils, mononuclear phagocytes and T lymphocytes. Numerous data indicate that the demand for zinc in poultry is not met in Poland due to its low content in feeds of vegetable origin. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supplementation of inorganic (ZnSO 4 and ZnSO 4 + phytase enzyme), and organic forms of zinc (Zn with glycine and Zn with glycine and phytase enzyme) on selected parameters of the cellular and humoral immune response in broiler chickens by evaluating the percentage of CD3 + CD4 + , CD3 + CD8 + , CD25 + , MHC Class II, and BU-1 + lymphocytes, the phagocytic activity of monocytes and heterophils, and the concentration of IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-α in the peripheral blood. Flow cytometry was used to determine selected cell-mediated immune response parameters. Phagocytic activity in whole blood was performed using the commercial Phagotest kit (ORPEGEN-Pharma, Immuniq, Poland). The results showed that supplementation with zinc chelates causes activation of the cellular and humoral immune response in poultry, helping to maintain the balance between the Th1 and Th2 response and enhancing resistance to infections. In contrast with chelates, the use of zinc in the form of sulphates has no immunomodulatory effect and may contribute to the development of local inflammatory processes in the digestive tract, increasing susceptibility to infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Reinvestigation of growth of 'L-valine zinc sulphate' crystal.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R; Jyai, Rita N

    2014-01-01

    A reinvestigation of the growth of l-valine zinc sulphate crystal is reported. The slow evaporation of an aqueous solution containing l-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate results in the fractional crystallization of l-valine and not the organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical l-valine zinc sulphate crystal, as reported by Puhal Raj and Ramachandra Raja (2012). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of ZnSO4 and Zn-EDTA broadcast or banded to soil on Zn bioavailability in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Zn fractions in soil.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Aiqing; Yang, Shu; Wang, Bini; Tian, Xiaohong; Zhang, Youlin

    2018-08-01

    Human Zn deficiency is prevalent in developing countries, and staple grains are commonly bio-fortified to increase their Zn contents. We measured Zn content, distribution, and bioavailability in calcareous soil and in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) in Shaanxi Province, China, when either an organic Zn-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Zn-EDTA) or an inorganic zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O) Zn source was banded below the seedbed or broadcasted into soil. Compared with ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O, Zn-EDTA fertilization produced higher Zn concentration and uptake in wheat plants. However, Zn bioavailability in grain remained low, with [phytate]/[Zn] ratio >15 and the resulting estimated dietary total absorbed zinc (TAZ) < 3 mg Zn/d. ZnSO 4 banded into soil had little short-term effect on grain Zn concentration but had a high residual effect and promoted the maintenance of a high concentration of the Zn fraction bound to loose organic matter (LOM-Zn) in rhizosphere soil. Both ZnSO 4 and Zn-EDTA were more efficient if uniformly mixed through the soil than if banded to soil. Both ZnSO 4 and Zn-EDTA had limited effects on Zn bioavailability in wheat plants due to the high rate of Zn fixation in this calcareous soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of ZnSO4-induced peripheral anosmia on zebrafish behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Ana C V V; Rodriguez, Rubens; Kalueff, Allan V; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2017-03-01

    Olfaction plays a key role in modulating behavioral and physiological responses of various animal species, including fishes. Olfactory deficits can be induced in fish experimentally, and utilized to examine the role of olfaction in their normal and pathological behaviors. Here, we examine whether experimental anosmia, evoked by ZnSO 4 in adult zebrafish can be associated with behavioral and/or physiological responses. We show that experimental ZnSO 4 -induced anosmia caused acute, but not prolonged, anxiogenic-like effects on zebrafish behavior tested in the novel tank test. The procedure also elevated whole-body cortisol levels in zebrafish. Moreover, ZnSO4 treatment, but not sham, produced damage to olfactory epithelium, inducing overt basal cell vacuolization and intercellular edema. The loss of olfaction, assessed by the fish food preference behavior in the aquatic Y-maze, was present 1h, but not 24h, after the treatment. Collectively, this suggests that transient experimental anosmia by ZnSO 4 modulates zebrafish behavior and olfaction, which can be used to evoke and assess their stress-related anxiety-like states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Zinc Glycinate on Productive and Reproductive Performance, Zinc Concentration and Antioxidant Status in Broiler Breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yong-Xia; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Jiang-Shui; Wang, Qian; Li, Kai-Xuan; Guo, Tian-Yu; Zhan, Xiu-An

    2017-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc glycinate (Zn-Gly) supplementation as an alternative for zinc sulphate (ZnSO 4 ) on productive and reproductive performance, zinc (Zn) concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders. Six hundred 39-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 6 groups consisting of 4 replicates with 25 birds each. Breeders were fed a basal diet (control group, 24 mg Zn/kg diet), basal diet supplemented with 80 mg Zn/kg diet from ZnSO 4 or basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg Zn/kg diet from Zn-Gly. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks after a 4-week pre-test with the basal diet, respectively. Results showed that Zn supplementation, regardless of sources, improved (P < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio (kilogram of feed/kilogram of egg) and decreased broken egg rate, and elevated (P < 0.05) the qualified chick rate. Compared with the ZnSO 4 group, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly increased (P < 0.05) average egg weight, fertility, hatchability and qualified chick rate, whereas it decreased (P < 0.05) broken egg rate. The Zn concentrations in liver and muscle were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group than that in ZnSO 4 group. Compared with ZnSO 4 group, 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly elevated (P < 0.05) the mRNA abundances of metallothionein (MT) and copper-zinc superoxide (Cu-Zn SOD), as well as the Cu-Zn SOD activity and MT concentration in liver. Moreover, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group had higher (P < 0.05) serum T-SOD and Cu-Zn SOD activities than that in the ZnSO 4 group. This study indicated that supplementation of Zn in basal diet improved productive and reproductive performance, Zn concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders, and the 80 mg Zn/kg from Zn-Gly was the optimum choice for broiler breeders compared with other levels of Zn from Zn-Gly and 80 mg/kg Zn from ZnSO 4 .

  8. [Concordance between the zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites].

    PubMed

    Inês, Elizabete De Jesus; Pacheco, Flavia Thamiris Figueiredo; Pinto, Milena Carneiro; Mendes, Patrícia Silva de Almeida; Da Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Soares, Neci Matos; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina Aquino

    2016-12-01

    The diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections depends on the parasite load, the specific gravity density of the parasite eggs, oocysts or cysts, and the density and viscosity of flotation or sedimentation medium where faeces are processed. To evaluate the concordance between zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation in the recovery of parasites in faecal samples of children. Faecal samples of 330 children from day care centers were evaluated by zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation techniques. The frequencies of detection of parasites by each method were determined and the agreement between the diagnostic techniques was evaluated using the kappa index, with 95% confidence intervals. The faecal flotation in zinc sulphate diagnosed significantly more cases of Trichuris trichiura infection when compared to centrifugal sedimentation (39/330; 11.8% vs. 13/330; 3.9%, p<0.001), with low diagnostic concordance between methods (kappa=0.264; 95% CI: 0.102-0.427). Moreover, all positive samples for Enterobius vermicularis eggs (n=5) and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (n=3) were diagnosed only by zinc sulphate. No statistical differences were observed between methods for protozoa identification. The results showed that centrifugal flotation in zinc sulphate solution was significantly more likely to detect light helminths eggs such as those of T. trichiura and E. vermicularis in faeces than the centrifugal sedimentation process.

  9. Oral zinc sulphate causes murine hair hypopigmentation and is a potent inhibitor of eumelanogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Plonka, P M; Handjiski, B; Michalczyk, D; Popik, M; Paus, R

    2006-07-01

    C57BL/6 a/a mice have been widely used to study melanogenesis, including in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies. Zinc cations modulate melanogenesis, but the net effect of Zn2+ in vivo is unclear, as the reported effects of Zn2+ on melanogenesis are ambiguous: zinc inhibits tyrosinase and glutathione reductase in vitro, but also enhances the activity of dopachrome tautomerase (tyrosinase-related protein-2) and has agonistic effects on melanocortin receptor signalling. To determine in a C57BL/6 a/a murine pilot study whether excess zinc ions inhibit, enhance or in any other way alter hair follicle melanogenesis in vivo, and to test the usefulness of EPR for this study. ZnSO(4).7H2O was continuously administered orally to C57BL/6 a/a mice during spontaneous and depilation-induced hair follicle cycling (20 mg mL-1; in drinking water; mean+/-SD daily dose 1.2+/-0.53 mL), and hair pigmentation was examined macroscopically, by routine histology and by EPR. Oral zinc cations induced a bright brown lightening of new hair shafts produced during anagen, but without inducing an EPR-detectable switch from eumelanogenesis to phaeomelanogenesis. The total content of melanin in the skin and hair shafts during the subsequent telogen phase, i.e. after completion of a full hair cycle, was significantly reduced in Zn-treated mice (P=0.0005). Compared with controls, melanin granules in precortical hair matrix keratinocytes, hair bulb melanocytes and hair shafts of zinc-treated animals were reduced and poorly pigmented. Over the course of several hair cycles, lasting hair shaft depigmentation was seen during long-term exposure to high-dose oral Zn2+. High-dose oral Zn2+ is a potent downregulator of eumelanin content in murine hair shafts in vivo. The C57BL/6 mouse model offers an excellent tool for further dissecting the as yet unclear underlying molecular basis of this phenomenon, while EPR technology is well suited for the rapid, qualitative and quantitative monitoring of

  10. Optimisation of the zinc sulphate turbidity test for the determination of immune status.

    PubMed

    Hogan, I; Doherty, M; Fagan, J; Kennedy, E; Conneely, M; Crowe, B; Lorenz, I

    2016-02-13

    Failure of passive transfer of maternal immunity occurs in calves that fail to absorb sufficient immunoglobulins from ingested colostrum. The zinc sulphate turbidity test has been developed to test bovine neonates for this failure. The specificity of this test has been shown to be less than ideal. The objective was to examine how parameters of the zinc sulphate turbidity test may be manipulated in order to improve its diagnostic accuracy. One hundred and five blood samples were taken from calves of dairy cows receiving various rates of colostrum feeding. The zinc sulphate turbidity test was carried out multiple times on each sample, varying the solution strength, time of reaction and wavelength of light used and the results compared with those of a radial immunodiffusion test, which is the reference method for measuring immunoglobulin concentration in serum. Reducing the time over which the reaction occurs, or increasing the wavelength of light used to read the turbidity, resulted in decreased specificity without improving sensitivity. Increasing the concentration of the zinc sulphate solution used in the test was shown to improve the specificity without decreasing sensitivity. Examination of the cut-off points suggested that a lower cut-off point would improve the performance. British Veterinary Association.

  11. A randomised controlled trial of oral zinc sulphate for primary dysmenorrhoea in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Zekavat, Omid R; Karimi, Mohammad Y; Amanat, Aida; Alipour, Farzaneh

    2015-08-01

    Primary dysmenorrhoea, the most common gynaecologic problem of adolescent females, is commonly treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or oral contraceptive pills. To compare the effect of zinc sulphate with that of placebo on the control of pain severity and duration in adolescent girls with primary dysmenorrhoea. In a three-month randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 120 adolescent females with primary dysmenorrhoea were randomly divided into two groups of sixty: an intervention group (zinc) and a control group (placebo). Zinc was administered in the form of a capsule containing 50 mg/day zinc sulphate beginning on the first day of menses and continuing until three days prior to the end of menses. Each month, the duration and severity of primary dysmenorrhoea were determined. Severity scoring was performed by using a 0-10 scaling system. In the first month, the duration of pain was significantly lower in the zinc group compared with the placebo group (P-value = 0.044), while there was no significant difference in pain severity between the groups (P-value = 0.497). In the second and third month, pain severity and duration in the zinc group were significantly lower than the placebo group (P-value <0.001). Both pain duration and pain severity were decreased by taking oral zinc. The results of our interventional study suggests that zinc may be used to treat primary dysmenorrhoea in adolescents. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Effect of zinc and benzene on respiration and excretion of mussel larvae (Perna perna) (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca; Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Jorge, R A D L V C; Lemos, D; Moreira, G S

    2007-02-01

    The presence of pollutants in the ocean may affect different physiological parameters of animals. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were evaluated in D-shaped larvae of mussels (Perna perna) exposed to zinc sulphate (ZnSO(4)) and benzene (C(6)H(6)). When compared to the control group, both pollutants presented a significant reduction in oxygen consumption. A reduction in the ammonia excretion was also observed, both for ZnSO(4) and C(6)H(6) and also in the oxygen consumption. The results indicate that anaerobic metabolism may occur at the beginning of P. perna mussels development, as observed in veliger larvae. The O:N ratio under experimental conditions showed low values indicating that catabolism in veliger larvae was predominantly proteic.

  13. Structural, thermal and optical properties of a semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystal: glycine zinc sulphate.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, T; Ramamurthi, K

    2007-10-01

    Glycine zinc sulphate salt was synthesized and the solubility and metastable zonewidth were estimated from the aqueous solution. Single crystals of glycine zinc sulphate were grown by solvent evaporation method from aqueous solution. Grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectral analyses. The range and percentage of optical transmission was ascertained by recording UV-vis-NIR spectrum. Thermal properties of the crystal were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Microhardness study was carried out on (01-1) face of the grown crystal. Its powder second harmonic generation efficiency was measured using Nd:YAG laser and the value was observed to be 0.7 times that of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate.

  14. Hexagonal ZnO porous plates prepared from microwave synthesized layered zinc hydroxide sulphate via thermal decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Machovsky, Michal, E-mail: machovsky@ft.utb.cz; Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin; Kuritka, Ivo, E-mail: ivo@kuritka.net

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zinc hydroxy sulphate was synthesized in 3 min via microwave hydrothermal route. • Zinc hydroxy sulphate was converted into mesh like porous ZnO by calcining at 900°. • The process of transformation is topotactic. - Abstract: Layered zinc hydroxide sulphate (ZHS) was prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal precipitation of zinc sulphate monohydrate with hexamethylenetetramine. Under ambient conditions, the structure of ZHS determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) was found to be a mixture of zinc hydroxide sulphate pentahydrate Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}·5H{sub 2}O and tetrahydrate Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}·4H{sub 2}O. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was usedmore » for characterization of the prepared materials. Based on the interpretation of ZHS's thermal decomposition profile obtained by thermogravimetric analysis, ZnO of high purity was prepared by calcination at 900 °C for 2 h. The structure of the resulting ZnO was confirmed by the XRD. The morphology examination by scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous mesh-like ZnO structure developed from the ZHS precursor at the expense of mass removal due to the release of water and sulphate during the calcination.« less

  15. The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Carol A.; Kartal, S. Nami; Arango, Rachel A.; Green, Frederick

    2011-06-01

    Historically most residential wood preservatives were aqueous soluble metal formulations, but recently metals ground to submicron size and dispersed in water to give particulate formulations have gained importance. In this study, the specific role nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) particle size and leach resistance plays in termite mortality resulting from exposure to particulate ZnO-treated wood was investigated. Southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood impregnated with three concentrations of two particle sizes (30 and 70 nm) of ZnO were compared to wood treated with soluble zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) preservative for leach resistance and termite resistance. Less than four percent leached from the particulate nano-ZnO-treated specimens, while 13 to 25% of the zinc sulphate leached from the soluble treated wood. Nano-ZnO was essentially non-leachable from wood treated with 5% formulation for the 30-nm particle size. In a no-choice laboratory test, eastern subterranean termites ( Reticulitermes flavipes) consumed less than 10% of the leached nano-ZnO-treated wood with 93 to 100% mortality in all treatment concentrations. In contrast, termites consumed 10 to 12% of the leached ZnSO4-treated wood, but with lower mortality: 29% in the 1% treatment group and less than 10% (5 and 8%, respectively) in the group of wood blocks treated with 2.5 and 5.0% ZnSO4. We conclude that termites were repelled from consuming wood treated with nano-ZnO, but when consumed it was more toxic to eastern subterranean termites than wood treated with the soluble metal oxide formulation. There were no differences in leaching or termite mortality between the two particle sizes of nano-ZnO.

  16. Effects of In Vitro Zinc Sulphate Additive to The Semen Extender on Water Buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) Spermatozoa before and after Freezing

    PubMed Central

    Dorostkar, Kamran; Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Khaki, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of in vitro zinc sulphate additive to semen extender on sperm parameters (progressive motility, viability, membrane integrity and DNA stability) after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods In this Prospective longitudinal laboratory study, semen samples of 5 buffalo bulls of 3-5 years old were collected at 5 different occasions from Iran, Urmia during summer and autumn 2011, 25 samples were used in each treatment. Sperm progressive motility, viability and abnormal morphology were measured before and at 0.5 (T0), 1(T1) and 2(T2) hours after diluting semen(1:10 v/v) in Tris-citric acid based extender (without egg yolk and glycerol) at 37˚C containing none (control group), 0.072, 0.144, 0.288, 0.576 and 1.152 mg/L zinc sulphate to investigate dose and time effects. Next, a Tris-citric acid-egg yolk-glycerol extender (20% egg yolk and 7% glycerol) containing the same amount of zinc sulphate was prepared, diluted semen (1:10 v/v) was cooled and kept into a refrigerated chamber (4˚C) for 4 hours to equilibrate. Sperm progressive motility, viability, abnormal morphology, membrane integrity and DNA damage were estimated.The equilibrated semen was loaded in 0.5 ml French straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Later, the frozen semen was thawed and the same parameters as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the frozen-thawed semen were determined. Results The results showed that zinc sulphate additive at the rate of 0.288 mg/L gave a higher protection of sperm progressive motility (53.7 ± 1.8% vs. 40.5 ± 1.7%), viability (70.8 ± 1.8% vs. 60.1 ± 1.5%), membrane integrity (67.3 ± 1.6% vs. 56.6 ± 1.7%), DNA stability (10.1 ± 0.47% vs. 11.8 ± 0.33% damaged DNA) through the process of dilution, equilibration and freeze-thawing and caused a higher TAC level (81 ± 3.3% vs. 63 ± 3.2 µmol/L) after freez-thawing compared to the control group. Adding 0.576 and 1.152 mg/L zinc sulphate, however

  17. Using Synchrotron-Based Approaches To Examine the Foliar Application of ZnSO4 and ZnO Nanoparticles for Field-Grown Winter Wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng; Sun, Hongda; Lv, Zhiyuan; Cui, Lili; Mao, Hui; Kopittke, Peter M

    2018-03-21

    The effects of foliar-applied ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and ZnSO 4 on the winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) grain yield and grain quality were studied under field conditions, with the distribution and speciation of Zn within the grain examined using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Although neither of the two Zn compounds improved the grain yield or quality, both increased the grain Zn concentration (average increments were 5 and 10 mg/kg for ZnSO 4 and ZnO NP treatments, respectively). Across all treatments, this Zn was mainly located within the aleurone layer and crease of the grain, although the application of ZnO NPs also slightly increased Zn within the endosperm. This Zn within the grain was found to be present as Zn phosphate, regardless of the form in which Zn was applied. These results indicate that the foliar application of ZnO NPs appears to be a promising approach for Zn biofortification, as required to improve human health.

  18. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution.

    PubMed

    Stojković, Aleksandra; Tajber, Lidia; Paluch, Krzysztof J; Djurić, Zorica; Parojčić, Jelena; Corrigan, Owen I

    2014-03-01

    Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO4)2(Cl)2(ciprofloxacin)2 × nH2O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests.

  19. Apoptosis induced by microtubule disrupting drugs in cultured human lymphoma cells. Inhibitory effects of phorbol ester and zinc sulphate.

    PubMed

    Takano, Y; Okudaira, M; Harmon, B V

    1993-03-01

    The effects of the microtubule disrupting drugs (MDD) vinblastine, vincristine and colchicine on a human lymphoma cell line, BM 13674, were investigated. Twelve hours after administration of vinblastine (10(-3) mg/ml), vincristine (10(-2) mg/ml) or colchicine (10(-2) mg/ml), cell death with the characteristic morphology of apoptosis was observed in 71.6%, 82.2% and 76.9% of the cells respectively. The mode of death was confirmed as apoptotic by the occurrence of internucleosomal DNA cleavage, which was demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis. For the purpose of casting light on the mechanism involved, inhibition tests were performed on apoptosis induced by one of these drugs, vinblastine, using a phorbol ester (PDBu), zinc sulphate and cycloheximide. PDBu, an activator of protein kinase C, and zinc sulphate, a putative inhibitor of the endonuclease were thought to be responsible for internucleosomal DNA cleavage; both markedly reduced the induction of apoptosis. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, on the other hand, had no inhibitory effect. Moreover, cycloheximide treatment per se enhanced apoptosis. This suggests that new protein synthesis is not required for the execution of vinblastine-induced apoptosis. Such a finding is in accord with recent reports suggesting that the "death program" within many cell types may be primed but unable to proceed due to concomitant production of specific "apoptotic inhibitors". It is suggested that phorbol esters prevent vinblastine-induced apoptosis in the BM 13674 cells by activating one or more of these specific "apoptotic inhibitors", possibly by means of PKC-mediated phosphorylation.

  20. Transient Anosmia Induces Depressive-like and Anxiolytic-like Behavior and Reduces Amygdalar Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone in a ZnSO4-Induced Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sangzin; Choi, Mooseok; Kim, Hyunju; Yang, Eun-Jeong; Mahmood, Usman; Kang, Seong-Il; Shin, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Dae Woo; Kim, Hye-Sun

    2018-04-23

    Olfactory loss is known to affect both mood and quality of life. Transient anosmia was induced in mice to study the resulting changes in mood, behavior, and on a molecular level. Transient anosmia was induced by a single intranasal instillation of ZnSO4 in BALB/c mice. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and potato chip finding test were performed to confirm olfactory loss. Tail suspension, forced swim, and splash tests were performed to evaluate depression-related behavior; while the open field, and elevated plus maze tests were used to evaluate anxiety-related behavior. The mRNA levels of amygdalar corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were quantified using real-time PCR to confirm relevant molecular change. Olfactory loss was confirmed 1-2.5 weeks after induction, and this loss was subsequently reversed over time. The results of the behavioral tests indicated increased depression-like and reduced anxiety-like behavior at week 1. Accordingly, PCR data identified decreased amygdalar CRH expression at week 1. These results suggest that transient anosmia induces both depressive and anxiolytic behavior as a result of decreased amygdalar CRH in a mouse model of anosmia.

  1. Potentiated virucidal activity of pomegranate rind extract (PRE) and punicalagin against Herpes simplex virus (HSV) when co-administered with zinc (II) ions, and antiviral activity of PRE against HSV and aciclovir-resistant HSV

    PubMed Central

    Houston, David M. J.; Bugert, Joachim J.; Denyer, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a clinical need for new therapeutic products against Herpes simplex virus (HSV). The pomegranate, fruit of the tree Punica granatum L, has since ancient times been linked to activity against infection. This work probed the activity of pomegranate rind extract (PRE) and co-administered zinc (II) ions. Materials and methods PRE was used in conjunction with zinc (II) salts to challenge HSV-1 and aciclovir-resistant HSV in terms of virucidal plaque assay reduction and antiviral activities in epithelial Vero host cells. Cytotoxicity was determined by the MTS assay using a commercial kit. Results Zinc sulphate, zinc citrate, zinc stearate and zinc gluconate demonstrated similar potentiated virucidal activity with PRE against HSV-1 by up to 4-fold. A generally parabolic relationship was observed when HSV-1 was challenged with PRE and varying concentrations of ZnSO4, with a maximum potentiation factor of 5.5. Punicalagin had 8-fold greater virucidal activity than an equivalent mass of PRE. However, antiviral data showed that punicalagin had significantly lower antiviral activity compared to the activity of PRE (EC50 = 0.56 μg mL-1) a value comparable to aciclovir (EC50 = 0.18 μg mL-1); however, PRE also demonstrated potency against aciclovir-resistant HSV (EC50 = 0.02 μg mL-1), whereas aciclovir showed no activity. Antiviral action of PRE was not influenced by ZnSO4. No cytotoxicity was detected with any test solution. Conclusions The potentiated virucidal activity of PRE by coadministered zinc (II) has potential as a multi-action novel topical therapeutic agent against HSV infections, such as coldsores. PMID:28665969

  2. Studies on the synthesis, spectral, optical and thermal properties of l-Valine Zinc Sulphate: an organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical crystal.

    PubMed

    Puhal Raj, A; Ramachandra Raja, C

    2012-11-01

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) organic inorganic hybrid l-Valine Zinc Sulphate (LVZS) was synthesized and single crystals were obtained from saturated aqueous solution by slow evaporation method at 36°C using a constant temperature bath (CTB) with an accuracy of ±0.01°C. This crystal is reported with its characterization by single crystal and powder XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR, TG/DTA analysis and SHG test. Single crystal XRD study reveals that LVZS crystallizes in monoclinic system with the lattice constants a=9.969(3) Å, b=7.238(3) Å, c=24.334(9) Å and cell volume is 1736.00Å(3). Sharp peaks observed in powder X-ray diffraction studies confirm the high degree of crystallinity of grown crystal. The incorporation of sulphate ion with l-valine is confirmed by FTIR spectrum in LVZS crystal(.) A remarkable increase in optical transparency has been observed in LVZS when compared to l-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate Thermal properties of LVZS have been reported by using TG/DTA analysis. Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test confirms NLO property of the crystal and SHG efficiency of LVZS was found to be 1.34 times more than pure l-valine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Zinc Improves Cognitive and Neuronal Dysfunction During Aluminium-Induced Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K

    2017-01-01

    Metals are considered as important components of a physiologically active cell, and imbalance in their levels can lead to various diseased conditions. Aluminium (Al) is an environmental neurotoxicant, which is etiologically related to several neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's, whereas zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element that regulates a large number of metabolic processes in the brain. The objective of the present study was to understand whether Zn provides any physiological protection during Al-induced neurodegeneration. Male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 140-160 g received either aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ) orally (100 mg/kg b.wt./day), zinc sulphate (ZnSO 4 ) in drinking water (227 mg/L) or combined treatment of aluminium and zinc for 8 weeks. Al treatment resulted in a significant decline in the cognitive behaviour of rats, whereas zinc supplementation caused an improvement in various neurobehavior parameters. Further, Al exposure decreased (p ≤ 0.001) the levels of neurotransmitters, acetylcholinesterase activity, but increased (p ≤ 0.001) the levels of L-citrulline as well as activities of nitric oxide and monoamine oxidase in the brain. However, zinc administration to Al-treated animals increased the levels of neurotransmitters and regulated the altered activities of brain markers. Western blot of tau, amyloid precursor protein (APP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin, α-synuclein and Hsp 70 were also found to be elevated after Al exposure, which however were reversed following Zn treatment. Al treatment also revealed alterations in neurohistoarchitecture in the form of loss of pyramidal and Purkinje cells, which were improved upon zinc co-administration. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that zinc improves cognitive functions by regulating α-synuclein and APP-mediated molecular pathways during aluminium-induced neurodegeneration.

  4. Effect of L-aspartic acid on the growth, structure and spectral studies of Zinc (tris) Thiourea Sulphate (ZTS) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Bincy Susan; Krishnamurthy, R.; Rajasekaran, R.

    2014-11-01

    Single crystals of pure and L-aspartic acid doped Zinc (Tris) Thiourea Sulphate (ZTS) were grown from aqueous solution by solution growth method. The cell parameters and structure of the grown crystals were determined by X-ray diffraction studies. The presence of functional group in the compound has been confirmed by FTIR and FT-Raman analysis. The optical transparency range has been studied through UV-Vis spectroscopy. TGA/DTA studies show thermal stability of the grown crystals. Microhardness study reveals that the hardness number (Hv) increases with load for pure and doped ZTS crystals. Dielectric studies have been carried out and the results are discussed. The second harmonic generation was confirmed for L-aspartic acid doped ZTS which is greater than pure ZTS.

  5. Crystalline perfection, optical and piezoelectric properties of a novel semi-organic single crystal: Zinc guanidinium sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandhini, S.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc Guanidinium Sulfate (ZGuS), a semi-organic single crystal, was synthesized using slow evaporation solution growth technique. It is a non-centrosymmetric crystal with space group I4 ¯2d . The crystalline nature of the crystal and the strain were determined using powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was revealed using HR-XRD analysis. The UV-vis-NIR transmittance spectrum depicts 60% transparency with lower-cut off wavelength of 210 nm. The emission spectrum of the crystal was determined using photoluminescence study. Piezoelectricity was confirmed by determining the piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33). These findings shows that the title compound can be employed for photonic and transducer applications.

  6. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  7. Comparative effect of ZnO NPs, ZnO bulk and ZnSO4 in the antioxidant defences of two plant species growing in two agricultural soils under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Concepción; Obrador, Ana; González, Demetrio; Babín, Mar; Fernández, María Dolores

    2017-07-01

    The present study has investigated the toxicity of ZnO NPs to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) crops grown to maturity under greenhouse conditions using an acidic (soil pH5.4) and a calcareous soil (soil pH8.3). The potentially available Zn in the soils and the Zn accumulation in the leaves from NPs applied to the soil (3, 20 and 225mgZnkg -1 ) and changes in the chlorophylls, carotenoids and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured at 15, 30, 60 and 90days and compared with those caused by bulk ZnO and ZnSO 4 . The available Zn in the soil and the leaf Zn content did not differ among the Zn chemical species, except in the acidic soil at the highest concentration of Zn applied as Zn ions, where the highest values of the two variables were found. The ZnO NPs showed comparable Zn toxicity or biostimulation to their bulk counterparts and Zn salts, irrespective of certain significant differences suggesting a higher activity of the Zn ion. The treatments altered the photosynthetic pigment concentration and induced oxidative stress in plants. ROS formation was observed at Zn plant concentrations ranging from 590 to 760mgkg -1 , but the effects on the rest of the parameters were highly dependent on the plant species, exposure time and especially soil type. In general, the effects were higher in the acidic soil than in the calcareous soil for the bean and the opposite for the tomato. The similar uptakes and toxicities of the different Zn forms suggest that the Zn ions derived from the ZnO NPs exerted a preferential toxicity in plants. However, several results obtained in soils treated with NPs at 3mgZnkg -1 soil indicated that may exist other underlying mechanisms related to the intrinsic nanoparticle properties, especially at low NP concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Coadministration of Atazanavir-Ritonavir and Zinc Sulfate: Impact on Hyperbilirubinemia and Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Moyle, Graeme; Else, Laura; Jackson, Akil; Back, David; Yapa, Manisha H.; Seymour, Natalia; Ringner-Nackter, Lisa; Karolia, Zeenat; Gazzard, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Atazanavir (ATV) causes an elevation of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia (HBR) as a result of UDP glucuronyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 inhibition. Zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) reduces unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in individuals with Gilbert's syndrome. We assessed the changes in total, conjugated, and unconjugated bilirubin and the effect on ATV pharmacokinetics (PK) after single and 14-day dosing of ZnSO4. HIV patients, stable on ATV/ritonavir (ATV/r)-containing regimens with a total bilirubin level of >25mmol/liter received 125 mg daily of ZnSO4 as Solvazinc tablets for 14 days. ATV/r and bilirubin concentrations were measured pre-ATV/r dose and 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h post-ATV/r dose; before ZnSO4 initiation (phase 1), after a single dose (phase 2) and after 14 days (phase 3). Changes in bilirubin and ATV/r concentrations in the absence or presence of ZnSO4 were evaluated by geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs; we used phase 1 as a reference). Sixteen male patients completed the study maintaining virologic suppression; ZnSO4 was well tolerated. Statistically significant declines in total bilirubin Cmax and AUC0–24 of 16 and 17% were seen in phase2 and 20% in phase 3. Although there were no significant changes in conjugated bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin Cmax and AUC0–24 of were lower (17 and 19%, phase 2; 20 and 23% during phase 3). The ATV GMRs (90% CI) for Ctrough, Cmax, and AUC0–24 were 0.74 (0.62 to 0.89), 0.82 (0.70 to 0.97), and 0.78 (0.70 to 0.88). Intake of ZnSO4 decreases total and unconjugated bilirubin and causes modest declines in ATV exposure. ZnSO4 supplementation may be useful in management of ATV-related HBR in selected patients. PMID:23689708

  9. Effect of Jahn-Teller ion in zinc sodium sulphate hexahydrate: a case of low hyperfine coupling constant for Cu(II) ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, K. C.; Shiyamala, C.; Mithira, S.; Natarajan, B.; Venkatesan, R.; Rao, P. S.

    2005-06-01

    Single crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of Cu(II) doped zinc sodium sulphate hexahydrate are carried out from room temperature (RT) to 123 K. The RT spectra show unresolved hyperfine lines and hence angular variation studies are also carried out at 123 K to obtain spin Hamiltonian parameters. The spin Hamiltonian parameters calculated from the 123 K spectra are: g(11)=2.039, g(22)=2.232, g(33)=2.394, A(11)=5.64 mT, A(22)=4.20 mT, and A(33)=7.94 mT. The g-matrix values at RT and 123 K have matched fairly well with each other. The low hyperfine value (A(33)), obtained at 123 K, has been explained by considering considerable admixture of d(x 2-y 2) ground state with d(z 2) excited state and the delocalization of the unpaired spin density onto the ligands. The admixture coefficients of ground state wave function are: a=0.346, b=0.935, c=0.055, d=0.040, e=-0.040, where a and b correspond to admixture coefficients for d(z 2) and d(x 2-y 2), respectively. Angular variation of Cu(II) resonances in the three orthogonal axes shows that the impurity has entered a substitutional site in the host lattice in place of Zn(II). Bonding parameters, kappa=0.295, P=245.4x10(-4), alpha(2)=0.709, alpha=0.8421 and alpha'=0.6034, have also been calculated to fully characterize the EPR.

  10. Comparative Study of Antidiabetic Activity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Zinc Sulfate in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Nazarizadeh, Ali; Asri-Rezaie, Siamak

    2016-08-01

    In the current study, antidiabetic activity and toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) were investigated in diabetic rats compared to zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) with particular emphasis on oxidative stress parameters. One hundred and twenty male Wistar rats were divided into two healthy and diabetic groups, randomly. Each major group was further subdivided into five subgroups and then orally supplemented with various doses of ZnO (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) and ZnSO4 (30 mg/kg) for 56 consecutive days. ZnO showed greater antidiabetic activity compared to ZnSO4 evidenced by improved glucose disposal, insulin levels, and zinc status. The altered activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes as well as raised levels of lipid peroxidation and a marked reduction of total antioxidant capacity were observed in rats receiving ZnO. ZnO nanoparticles acted as a potent antidiabetic agent, however, severely elicited oxidative stress particularly at higher doses.

  11. Zinc use efficiency is enhanced in wheat through nanofertilization.

    PubMed

    Dapkekar, Ashwin; Deshpande, Paresh; Oak, Manoj D; Paknikar, Kishore M; Rajwade, Jyutika M

    2018-05-01

    Ferti-fortification of wheat with zinc, an essential micronutrient is one of the strategies for combating 'hidden hunger' in a large proportion of people all over the world. During fertilization, application of large quantities of micronutrients often results in nutrient wastage and subsequent environmental pollution. Here, we report zinc complexed chitosan nanoparticles (Zn-CNP) for ferti-fortification of durum wheat in field-scale experiments. The efficacy of Zn-CNP was assessed vis-à-vis conventionally applied ZnSO 4 (0.2%; 400 mgL -1 zinc) in two durum wheat genotypes (MACS 3125, an indigenous high yielding genotype and UC 1114, a genotype containing the Gpc-B1gene). The observed grain zinc enrichment using Zn-CNP nanocarrier (~36%) and conventional ZnSO 4 (~50%) were comparable, despite 10 folds less zinc (40 mgL -1 ) used in the former. Nanofertilizer application increased grain zinc content without affecting grain yield, protein content, spikelets per spike, thousand kernel weight, etc. Grain zinc enrichment observed in the four-year field trials on plots with varying soil zinc content was consistent, proving the utility of Zn-CNP as a novel nanofertilizer which enhanced fertilizer use efficiency. Our work describes a new paradigm in micronutrient fortification, viz. 'use nanofertilizers at the right place, right time and in right doses'.

  12. Genomic instability related to zinc deficiency and excess in an in vitro model: is the upper estimate of the physiological requirements recommended for children safe?

    PubMed

    Padula, Gisel; Ponzinibbio, María Virginia; Gambaro, Rocío Celeste; Seoane, Analía Isabel

    2017-08-01

    Micronutrients are important for the prevention of degenerative diseases due to their role in maintaining genomic stability. Therefore, there is international concern about the need to redefine the optimal mineral and vitamin requirements to prevent DNA damage. We analyzed the cytostatic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic effect of in vitro zinc supplementation to determine the effects of zinc deficiency and excess and whether the upper estimate of the physiological requirement recommended for children is safe. To achieve zinc deficiency, DMEM/Ham's F12 medium (HF12) was chelated (HF12Q). Lymphocytes were isolated from healthy female donors (age range, 5-10 yr) and cultured for 7 d as follows: negative control (HF12, 60 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ); deficient (HF12Q, 12 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ); lower level (HF12Q + 80 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ); average level (HF12Q + 180 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ); upper limit (HF12Q + 280 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ); and excess (HF12Q + 380 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ). The comet (quantitative analysis) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assays were used. Differences were evaluated with Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA (p < 0.05). Olive tail moment, tail length, micronuclei frequency, and apoptotic and necrotic percentages were significantly higher in the deficient, upper limit, and excess cultures compared with the negative control, lower, and average limit ones. In vitro zinc supplementation at the lower and average limit (80 and 180 μg/dl ZnSO 4 ) of the physiological requirement recommended for children proved to be the most beneficial in avoiding genomic instability, whereas the deficient, upper limit, and excess (12, 280, and 380 μg/dl) cultures increased DNA and chromosomal damage and apoptotic and necrotic frequencies.

  13. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  14. Zinc

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  15. Long-range ordering effect in electrodeposition of zinc and zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Sheng; Shi, Zi-Liang; Ma, Guo-Bin; Wang, Mu; Peng, Ru-Wen; Hao, Xi-Ping; Ming, Nai-Ben

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, we report the long-range ordering effect observed in the electro-crystallization of Zn and ZnO from an ultrathin aqueous electrolyte layer of ZnSO4 . The deposition branches are regularly angled, covered with random-looking, scalelike crystalline platelets of ZnO. Although the orientation of each crystalline platelet of ZnO appears random, transmission electron microscopy shows that they essentially possess the same crystallographic orientation as the single-crystalline zinc electrodeposit underneath. Based on the experimental observations, we suggest that this unique long-range ordering effect results from an epitaxial nucleation effect in electrocrystallization.

  16. Effects of exogenous zinc on cell cycle, apoptosis and viability of MDAMB231, HepG2 and 293 T cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-hong; Li, Ke-jin; Mao, Li; Hu, Xin; Zhao, Wen-jie; Hu, An; Lian, Hong-zhen; Zheng, Wei-juan

    2013-09-01

    As a non-toxic metal to humans, zinc is essential for cell proliferation, differentiation, regulation of DNA synthesis, genomic stability and mitosis. Zinc homeostasis in cells, which is crucial for normal cellular functioning, is maintained by various protein families including ZnT (zinc transporter/SLC30A) and ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-like proteins/SLC39A) that decrease and increase cytosolic zinc availability, respectively. In this study, we investigated the influences of a specific concentration range of ZnSO4 on cell cycle and apoptosis by flow cytometry, and cell viability by MTT method in MDAMB231, HepG2 and 293 T cell lines. Fluorescent sensors NBD-TPEA and the counterstain for nuclei Hoechst 33342 were used to stain the treated cells for observing the localisation and amount of Zn(2+) via laser scanning confocal microscope. It was found that the influence manners of ZnSO4 on cell cycle, apoptosis and cell viability in various cell lines were different and corresponding to the changes of Zn(2+) content of the three cell lines, respectively. The significant increase on intracelluar zinc content of MDAMB231 cells resulted in cell death, G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased apoptotic fraction. Additionally, the mRNA expression levels of ZnT and ZIP families in the three cell lines, when treated with high concentration of ZnSO4, increased and decreased corresponding to their functions, respectively.

  17. Efficiency of a zinc lignosulfonate as Zn source for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) under hydroponic culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustin

    2009-01-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a zinc lignosulfonate (ZnLS) as Zn source for wheat and corn plants under hydroponic conditions. The Zn-complexing capacity of three commercial lignosulfonates (byproducts of the paper and pulp industry) was tested, and a LS-NH4, from spruce wood, was selected. Its efficacy as Zn fertilizer for wheat and corn plants was assessed at different pH values (7.0 and 8.0) in comparison with a chelate (ZnEDTA) and an inorganic salt (ZnSO4). For wheat at pH 7.0, it was concluded that the efficacy of the Zn fertilizers followed the sequence Zn-EDTA > Zn-LS approximately ZnSO4 > zero-Zn; and for wheat and corn at pH 8.0, similar results were obtained: Zn-LS > ZnSO4 approximately 0 Zn. These data give evidence that ZnLS could be used as Zn source to the roots of wheat and corn and seems to be more efficient than ZnSO4 to correct Zn deficiency in both plants.

  18. Modulation of ruminal and intestinal fermentation by medicinal plants and zinc from different sources.

    PubMed

    Váradyová, Zora; Mravčáková, Dominika; Holodová, Monika; Grešáková, Ľubomira; Pisarčíková, Jana; Barszcz, Marcin; Taciak, Marcin; Tuśnio, Anna; Kišidayová, Svetlana; Čobanová, Klaudia

    2018-06-14

    Two experiments were conducted on sheep to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with zinc and a medicinal plant mixture on haematological parameters and microbial activity in the rumen and large intestine. In Experiment 1, 24 male lambs were randomly divided into four groups: One group was fed an unsupplemented basal diet (control), and three groups were fed a diet supplemented with 70 mg Zn/kg diet in the form of Zn sulphate (ZnSO 4 ), a Zn-chelate of glycine hydrate (Zn-Gly) or a Zn-proteinate (Zn-Pro), for five months. The ruminal content was collected separately from each lamb, and batch cultures of ruminal fluid were incubated in vitro with mixture of medicinal plants (Mix) with different roughage:concentrate ratios (800:200 and 400:600, w/w). Bioactive compounds in Mix were quantified by UPLC/MS/MS. In Experiment 2, four sheep were fed a diet consisting of meadow hay and barley grain (400:600, w/w), with Zn-Gly (70 mg Zn/kg diet), Mix (10% replacement of meadow hay) or Zn-Gly and Mix (Zn-Gly-Mix) as supplements in a Latin square design. Mix decreased total gas (p < 0.001) and methane (p < 0.01) production in vitro. In Experiment 1, caecal isobutyrate and isovalerate concentrations varied among the dietary treatments (p < 0.01). The isovalerate concentration of the zinc-supplemented groups in the distal colon was higher (p < 0.001) compared with the control. In Experiment 2, the molar proportion of isobutyrate was the highest in the faeces of the sheep fed the diet with Zn-Gly-Mix (p < 0.01). The plasma zinc concentration was higher in the groups fed a diet supplemented with zinc (p < 0.001). The haematological profile and antioxidant status did not differ between the dietary groups (p > 0.05). The diets containing medicinal plants and organic zinc thus helped to modulate the characteristics of fermentation in ruminants. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Effects of zinc and influence of Acremonium lolii on growth parameters, chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activities of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv Apollo).

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M; Camares, O; Veisseire, P

    2000-05-01

    The effects of zinc on growth, mineral content, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and detoxifying enzyme activity (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), EC 1.11.1.11; superoxide dismutase (SOD), EC 1.15.1.1) of ryegrass infected or not by Acremonium lolii, and treated with nutrient solution containing 0-50 mM ZnSO(4) were studied. The introduction of zinc induces stress with a decrease in growth at 1, 5 and 10 mM ZnSO(4) and a cessation of growth at 50 mM ZnSO(4), in ryegrass plants infected by A. lolii or not. This decrease in growth may be due to an accumulation of zinc in leaves. Nevertheless, symbiotic plants showed higher values in tiller number, an advantage conferred by the fungus. After 24 d of Zn exposure, leaf fresh weights and leaf water content were lower in plants growing with Zn in the culture medium and no advantage was conferred by the fungus to its host. An increase in Zn supply resulted in a decrease of the Ca, K, Mg, and Cu content of the leaves, a reduction in the quantum yield of electron flow throughout photosystem II (DeltaF/F(1)(m))and a lowering of the efficiency of photosynthetic energy conversion (F(v)/F(m)), compared to control plants. To counter this zinc stress, detoxifying enzymes APX and SOD increased (100%) when Zn reached the value of 50 mM in the nutrient solution. At 10 mM ZnSO(4), the presence of the fungus in the plant led to an increase in the threshold toxicity of plants to zinc by a diminution of APX activity.

  20. Calcium sulphate in ammonium sulphate solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, E.C.

    1905-01-01

    Calcium sulphate, at 25?? C., is two-thirds as soluble in dilute (o.i mol per liter) and twice as soluble in concentrated (3 mois per liter) ammonium sulphate solution as in water. The specific electric conductivity of concentrated ammonium sulphate solutions is lessened by saturating with calcium sulphate. Assuming that dissociation of ammonium sulphate takes place into 2NH4?? and SO4" and of calcium sulphate into Ca and SO4" only, and that the conductivity is a measure of such dissociation, the solubility of calcium sulphate in dilute ammonium sulphate solutions is greater than required by the mass-law. The conductivity of the dilute mixtures may be accurately calculated by means of Arrhenius' principle of isohydric solutions. In the data obtained in these calculations, the concentration of non-dissociated calcium sulphate decreases with increasing ammonium sulphate. The work as a whole is additional evidence of the fact that we are not yet in possession of all the factors necessary for reconciling the mass-law to the behavior of electrolytes. The measurements above described were made in the chemical laboratory of the University of Michigan.

  1. Evaluation of Spin Hamiltonian Parameters and Local Structure of Cu2+-doped Ion in xK2SO4-(50 - x)Na2SO4-50ZnSO4 Glasses with Various K2SO4 Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ch.-Ch.; Wu, Sh.-Y.; Xu, Y.-Q.; Zhang, L.-J.; He, J.-J.

    2018-03-01

    The spin Hamiltonian parameters (SHPs), i.e., g factors and hyperfine structure constants, and local structures are theoretically studied by analyzing tetragonally elongated 3d9 clusters for Cu2+ in xK2SO4-(50 - x)Na2SO4-50ZnSO4 glasses with various K2SO4 concentrations x. The concentration dependences of the SHPs are attributed to the parabolic decreases of the cubic field parameter Dq, orbital reduction factor k, relative tetragonal elongation ratio τ, and core polarization constant κ with x. The [CuO6]10- clusters are found to undergo significant elongations of about 17% due to the Jahn-Teller effect. The calculated cubic field splittings and the SHPs at various concentrations agree well with the experimental data.

  2. Electrodeposition of zinc hydroxysulfate nanosheets and reduction to zinc metal microdendrites on polypyrrole films.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, Enrico; Rooney, Denise A; Redington, Wynette; Gunning, Robert; Breslin, Carmel B

    2012-01-01

    Nanothin sheets made of zinc sulfate hydroxide hydrate, ZnSO4[Zn(OH)2]3 x 5H2O, are easily and quickly prepared using an innovative electrochemical route onto polypyrrole-polystyrene sulfonate (PPy-PSS) films. The sheets are characterized using a range of experimental techniques. The deposits are formed on the film surface with instantaneous nucleation to grow into a network of entangled nanosheets. The effect of the experimental conditions on the deposition is reported. Interestingly, the formation of the nanosheets is observed on PPy-PSS films only, and not on films doped with other sulfate/sulfonate dopants. The zinc nanosheets can be easily electrochemically reduced to metallic zinc microdentrites.

  3. Sulphate in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Elliott, Aoife; Bowling, Francis G.

    2015-01-01

    Sulphate is an obligate nutrient for healthy growth and development. Sulphate conjugation (sulphonation) of proteoglycans maintains the structure and function of tissues. Sulphonation also regulates the bioactivity of steroids, thyroid hormone, bile acids, catecholamines and cholecystokinin, and detoxifies certain xenobiotics and pharmacological drugs. In adults and children, sulphate is obtained from the diet and from the intracellular metabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids. Dietary sulphate intake can vary greatly and is dependent on the type of food consumed and source of drinking water. Once ingested, sulphate is absorbed into circulation where its level is maintained at approximately 300 μmol/L, making sulphate the fourth most abundant anion in plasma. In pregnant women, circulating sulphate concentrations increase by twofold with levels peaking in late gestation. This increased sulphataemia, which is mediated by up-regulation of sulphate reabsorption in the maternal kidneys, provides a reservoir of sulphate to meet the gestational needs of the developing foetus. The foetus has negligible capacity to generate sulphate and thereby, is completely reliant on sulphate supply from the maternal circulation. Maternal hyposulphataemia leads to foetal sulphate deficiency and late gestational foetal death in mice. In humans, reduced sulphonation capacity has been linked to skeletal dysplasias, ranging from the mildest form, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, to achondrogenesis Type IB, which results in severe skeletal underdevelopment and death in utero or shortly after birth. Despite being essential for numerous cellular and metabolic functions, the nutrient sulphate is largely unappreciated in clinical settings. This article will review the physiological roles and regulation of sulphate during pregnancy, with a particular focus on animal models of disturbed sulphate homeostasis and links to human pathophysiology. PMID:25746011

  4. Field evidence of cadmium phytoavailability decreased effectively by rape straw and/or red mud with zinc sulphate in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Yang, Junxing; Wei, Dongpu; Chen, Shibao; Li, Jumei; Ma, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg-1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils.

  5. Field Evidence of Cadmium Phytoavailability Decreased Effectively by Rape Straw and/or Red Mud with Zinc Sulphate in a Cd-Contaminated Calcareous Soil

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Yang, Junxing; Wei, Dongpu; Chen, Shibao; Li, Jumei; Ma, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg−1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils. PMID:25303439

  6. Determination of chemical availability of cadmium and zinc in soils using inert soil moisture samplers.

    PubMed

    Knight, B P; Chaudri, A M; McGrath, S P; Giller, K E

    1998-01-01

    A rapid method for extracting soil solutions using porous plastic soil-moisture samplers was combined with a cation resin equilibration based speciation technique to look at the chemical availability of metals in soil. Industrially polluted, metal sulphate amended and sewage sludge treated soils were used in our study. Cadmium sulphate amended and industrially contaminated soils all had > 65% of the total soil solution Cd present as free Cd2+. However, increasing total soil Cd concentrations by adding CdSO4 resulted in smaller total soil solution Cd. Consequently, the free Cd2+ concentrations in soil solutions extracted from these soils were smaller than in the same soil contaminated by sewage sludge addition. Amendment with ZnSO4 gave much greater concentrations of free Zn2+ in soil solutions compared with the same soil after long-term Zn contamination via sewage sludge additions. Our results demonstrate the difficulty in comparing total soil solution and free metal ion concentrations for soils from different areas with different physiochemical properties and sources of contamination. However, when comparing the same Woburn soil, Cd was much less available as Cd2+ in soil solution from the CdSO4 amended soils compared with soil contaminated by about 36 years of sewage sludge additions. In contrast, much more Zn was available in soil solution as free Zn2+ in the ZnSO4 amended soils compared with the sewage sludge treated soils.

  7. Tissue-Specific Regulation of the Contents and Correlations of Mineral Elements in Hens by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Feng, Yan-Ni; Li, Lan; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Yu-Na; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Huang, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Li; Shen, Wei; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2017-06-01

    Due to their small size, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are readily absorbed and easily cross biological barriers, which make them promising candidates as diet additives. However, some studies have reported that ZnO NPs cause toxicity; therefore, their safety and potency as diet additives for farm animals should be established. This study was the first to fully evaluate the effects of ZnO NPs on the homeostasis of eight elements in seven organs/tissues. The regulation of element homeostasis was found to be organ specific with no influence on oxidation status, anti-oxidation capability, or organ damage. ZnO NPs may specifically regulate the homeostasis of mineral elements and affect the following correlations: (1) between the element content in each organ and the concentration of Zn used in ZnSO 4 or ZnO NP treatments; (2) between ZnO NP and ZnSO 4 treatments for the same element in each organ; and (3) between elements (in each organ in ZnSO 4 or ZnO NP treatments) in layers' organs/tissues. The use of ZnO NPs as diet additives for animals should be implemented cautiously because, among other uncertainties, they may affect mineral element content.

  8. Therapeutic effects of transdermal systems containing zinc-related materials on thermal burn rats.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Haruna; Shikamura, Masayuki; Otsuka, Kuniko; Ito, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of slow zinc (Zn) release from β-tricalcium phosphate powder (ZnTCP) containing 10 mol% Zn on rats with thermal burns. The first-aid tapes were contained zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) solution, ZnTCP suspensions or zinc oxide ointment. After thermal burn treatments were performed on Zn-deficient rats, the groups D1, D2 and D3 were treated with tapes containing ZnTCP, ZnSO4 and zinc oxide ointment. The effects of the tapes on wound area, plasma Zn levels and alkaline phosphatase activity (Alp) were investigated. The wound area profiles of all rat groups could be separated into before and after the scab formation at around day 6. The area under the curve (Aw-AUC) for wound area profiles, therefore, was evaluated as an index of therapeutic scores for the thermal wound. The order of Aw-AUC was D3>C>D2>D1. The degree of expansion at the initial stage by thermal burns of group D1 was the lowest and that of group D2 was the highest, and the order was D1

  9. Zinc transport by respiratory epithelial cells and interaction with iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhongping; Dailey, Lisa A; Soukup, Joleen; Stonehuerner, Jacqueline; Richards, Judy D; Callaghan, Kimberly D; Yang, Funmei; Ghio, Andrew J

    2009-10-01

    Despite recurrent exposure to zinc through inhalation of ambient air pollution particles, relatively little information is known about the homeostasis of this metal in respiratory epithelial cells. We describe zinc uptake and release by respiratory epithelial cells and test the postulate that Zn(2+) transport interacts with iron homeostasis in these same cells. Zn(2+) uptake after 4 and 8 h of exposure to zinc sulfate was concentration- and time-dependent. A majority of Zn(2+) release occurred in the 4 h immediately following cell exposure to ZnSO(4). Regarding metal importers, mRNA for Zip1 and Zip2 showed no change after respiratory epithelial cell exposure to zinc while mRNA for divalent metal transporter (DMT)1 increased. Western blot assay for DMT1 protein supported an elevated expression of this transport protein following zinc exposure. RT-PCR confirmed mRNA for the metal exporters ZnT1 and ZnT4 with the former increasing after ZnSO(4). Cell concentrations of ferritin increased with zinc exposure while oxidative stress, measured as lipid peroxides, was decreased supporting an anti-oxidant function for Zn(2+). Increased DMT1 expression, following pre-incubations of respiratory epithelial cells with TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and endotoxin, was associated with significantly decreased intracellular zinc transport. Finally, incubations of respiratory epithelial cells with both zinc sulfate and ferric ammonium citrate resulted in elevated intracellular concentrations of both metals. We conclude that exposure to zinc increases iron uptake by respiratory epithelial cells. Elevations in cell iron can possibly affect an increased expression of DMT1 and ferritin which function to diminish oxidative stress. Comparable to other metal exposures, changes in iron homeostasis may contribute to the biological effects of zinc in specific cells and tissues.

  10. Particulate nanocomposite from oyster (Crassostrea rivularis) hydrolysates via zinc chelation improves zinc solubility and peptide activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziran; Zhou, Feibai; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Mouming

    2018-08-30

    An oyster protein hydrolysates-zinc complex (OPH-Zn) was prepared and investigated to improve zinc bioaccessibility. Zinc ions chelating with oyster protein hydrolysates (OPH) cause intramolecular and intermolecular folding and aggregation, homogeneously forming the OPH-Zn complex as nanoclusters with a Z-average at 89.28 nm (PDI: 0.16 ± 0.02). The primary sites of zinc-binding in OPH were carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, and amino groups, and they were related to the high number of charged amino acid residues. Furthermore, formation of the OPH-Zn complex could significantly enhance zinc solubility both under specific pH conditions as well as during simulated gastrointestinal digestion, compared to the commonly used ZnSO 4 . Additionally, after digestion, either preserved or enhanced antioxidant activity of OPH was found when chelated with zinc. These results indicated that the OPH-Zn complex could be a potential functional ingredient with improved antioxidant bioactivity and zinc bioaccessibility. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The sulphation of chondroitin sulphate in embryonic chicken cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, H. C.

    1969-01-01

    1. Whole tissue preparations and subcellular fractions from embryonic chicken cartilage were used to measure the rate of incorporation of inorganic sulphate into chondroitin sulphate in vitro. 2. In cartilage from 14-day-old embryos, [35S]sulphate is incorporated to an equal extent into chondroitin 4-sulphate and chondroitin 6-sulphate at a rate of 1·5nmoles of sulphate/hr./mg. dry wt. of cartilage. 3. Microsomal and soluble enzyme preparations from embryonic cartilage catalyse the transfer of sulphate from adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-sulphatophosphate into both chondroitin 4-sulphate and chondroitin 6-sulphate. 4. The effects of pH, ionic strength, adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-sulphatophosphate concentration and acceptor chondroitin sulphate concentration on the soluble sulphotransferase activity were examined. These factors all influence the activity of the sulphotransferase, and pH and incubation time also influence the percentage of chondroitin 4-sulphate formed. PMID:5807213

  12. Efficacy of zinc compounds in controlling Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol formation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; de Souza, Stephany Ramos; Costa, Maíra E B; Santos, Cristina M R; Scussel, Vildes M

    2015-07-16

    The efficiency of zinc compounds (zinc sulfate, ZnSO4 and zinc oxide, ZnO in regular and nanosize, respectively) on wheat plants was evaluated against growth of Fusarium graminearum and DON formation. In addition, any possible effects on the grain microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the remaining residue of Zn on wheat plants was analyzed. The plants were inoculated with F. graminearum and treated with Zn compounds (100mM) onto spikelets at the anthesis stage. When wheat plants reached maturation, grains were harvested and evaluated for Fusarium (number of colonies, CFU/g), DON formation, and SEM observation, followed by determination of possible remaining Zn residue. The groups treated with ZnSO4 and ZnO-NP showed a reduction in number of CFU of F. graminearum when compared to the control. Similarly for DON formation, i.e. the toxin was reduced to non-detected levels in the treated group. ZnO-NP efficiently reduced F. graminearum and DON formation in the grains at low concentration. Zn remained within the international recommended level for consumption and the treatment did not cause any damage to wheat grains. New strategies of control using Zn compounds in addition to conventional treatments could increase the efficiency against FBH and DON formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of zinc formulations, sodium chloride, and hydroxytyrosol on the growth/no-growth boundaries of table olive related yeasts.

    PubMed

    Romero-Gil, V; Rejano-Zapata, L; Garrido-Fernández, A; Arroyo-López, F N

    2016-08-01

    This study uses a mathematical approach to assessing the inhibitory effect of Zn(2)(+)(0-10 mM, obtained from ZnCl2 and ZnSO4) in presence of NaCl (0-8%) and hydroxytyrosol (0-2588 mg/L), on a yeast cocktail formed by species Pichia galeiformis, Pichia kudriavzevii, Pichia manshurica and Candida thaimueangensis obtained from spoilt green olive packages. The logistic/probabilistic models were built in laboratory medium using a total of 1980 responses (1188 for NaCl and 792 for hydroxytyrosol). ZnCl2 showed significantly higher inhibitory effect than ZnSO4 in the presence of both NaCl (p < 0.033) and hydroxytyrosol (p < 0.009). NaCl did not interfere the effect of Zn(2)(+)while hydroxytyrosol, at high levels, had a slight antagonistic effect. According to models, Zn(2)(+)inhibits (p = 0.01) the yeast cocktail in the range 4.5-5.0 mM for ZnCl2, or 8.5-9.5 mM for ZnSO4. Therefore, this work confirms the fungicidal activity of zinc compounds (mainly ZnCl2) in synthetic medium, and also shows that the loss of zinc effectiveness in real green Spanish-style olive packaging is not due to the presence of NaCl or hydroxytyrosol, two of the most abundant chemical compounds in the product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intracellular zinc flux causes reactive oxygen species mediated mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cell death in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Anjali; Singh, Krishn Pratap; Mandal, Abhishek; Paswan, Ranjeet Kumar; Sinha, Preeti; Das, Pradeep; Ali, Vahab; Bimal, Sanjiva; Lal, Chandra Shekhar

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania parasite is a global threat to public health and one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Therefore, the discovery of novel drug targets and effective drug is a major challenge and an important goal. Leishmania is an obligate intracellular parasite that alternates between sand fly and human host. To survive and establish infections, Leishmania parasites scavenge and internalize nutrients from the host. Nevertheless, host cells presents mechanism like nutrient restriction to inhibit microbial growth and control infection. Zinc is crucial for cellular growth and disruption in its homeostasis hinders growth and survival in many cells. However, little is known about the role of zinc in Leishmania growth and survival. In this study, the effect of zinc on the growth and survival of L.donovani was analyzed by both Zinc-depletion and Zinc-supplementation using Zinc-specific chelator N, N, N', N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN) and Zinc Sulfate (ZnSO4). Treatment of parasites with TPEN rather than ZnSO4 had significantly affected the growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The pre-treatment of promastigotes with TPEN resulted into reduced host-parasite interaction as indicated by decreased association index. Zn depletion resulted into flux in intracellular labile Zn pool and increased in ROS generation correlated with decreased intracellular total thiol and retention of plasma membrane integrity without phosphatidylserine exposure in TPEN treated promastigotes. We also observed that TPEN-induced Zn depletion resulted into collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential which is associated with increase in cytosolic calcium and cytochrome-c. DNA fragmentation analysis showed increased DNA fragments in Zn-depleted cells. In summary, intracellular Zn depletion in the L. donovani promastigotes led to ROS-mediated caspase-independent mitochondrial dysfunction resulting into apoptosis-like cell death. Therefore, cellular

  15. Green Manure Addition to Soil Increases Grain Zinc Concentration in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A.; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H.; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg−1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg−1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg−1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  16. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  17. Iron Bioavailability from Ferric Pyrophosphate in Extruded Rice Cofortified with Zinc Sulfate Is Greater than When Cofortified with Zinc Oxide in a Human Stable Isotope Study.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Laura; Zimmermann, Michael B; Zeder, Christophe; Parker, Megan; Johns, Paul W; Hurrell, Richard F; Moretti, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Background: Extruded rice grains are often cofortified with iron and zinc. However, it is uncertain if the addition of zinc to iron-fortified rice affects iron absorption and whether this is zinc-compound specific. Objective: We investigated whether zinc, added as zinc oxide (ZnO) or zinc sulfate (ZnSO 4 ), affects human iron absorption from extruded rice fortified with ferric pyrophosphate (FePP). Methods: In 19 iron-depleted Swiss women (plasma ferritin ≤16.5 μ/L) aged between 20 and 39 y with a normal body mass index (in kg/m 2 ; 18.7-24.8), we compared iron absorption from 4 meals containing fortified extruded rice with 4 mg Fe and 3 mg Zn. Three of the meals contained extruded rice labeled with FePP ( 57 FePP): 1 ) 1 meal without added zinc ( 57 FePP-Zn), 2 ) 1 cofortified with ZnO ( 57 FePP+ZnO), and 3 ) 1 cofortified with ZnSO 4 ( 57 FePP+ZnSO 4 ). The fourth meal contained extruded rice without iron or zinc, extrinsically labeled with ferrous sulfate ( 58 FeSO 4 ) added as a solution after cooking. All 4 meals contained citric acid. Iron bioavailability was measured by isotopic iron ratios in red blood cells. We also measured relative in vitro iron solubility from 57 FePP-Zn, 57 FePP+ZnO, and 57 FePP+ZnSO 4 expressed as a fraction of FeSO 4 solubility. Results: Geometric mean fractional iron absorption (95% CI) from 57 FePP+ZnSO 4 was 4.5% (3.4%, 5.8%) and differed from 57 FePP+ZnO (2.7%; 1.8%, 4.1%) ( P < 0.03); both did not differ from 57 FePP-Zn: 4.0% (2.8%, 5.6%). Relative iron bioavailabilities compared with 58 FeSO 4 were 62%, 57%, and 38% from 57 FePP+ZnSO 4 , 57 FePP-Zn, and 57 FePP+ZnO, respectively. In vitro solubility from 57 FePP+ZnSO 4 differed from that of 57 FePP-Zn (14.3%; P < 0.02) but not from that of 57 FePP+ZnO (10.2% compared with 13.1%; P = 0.08). Conclusions: In iron-depleted women, iron absorption from FePP-fortified extruded rice cofortified with ZnSO 4 was 1.6-fold (95% CI: 1.4-, 1.9-fold) that of rice cofortified with Zn

  18. Thermometric titration of sulphate.

    PubMed

    Williams, M B; Janata, J

    1970-06-01

    Direct thermometric titration of sulphate with a solution of barium perchlorate is proposed. The stoichiometry of the titration is shown to be critically dependent on the concentration of ethanol in the titration medium. The titration is rapid and suffers from only a few interferences.

  19. Cadmium and zinc activate adaptive mechanisms in Nicotiana tabacum similar to those observed in metal tolerant plants.

    PubMed

    Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Gómez-Méndez, María F; Amezcua-Romero, Julio C; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Rosas-Santiago, Paul; Pantoja, Omar

    2017-09-01

    Tobacco germinated and grew in the presence of high concentrations of cadmium and zinc without toxic symptoms. Evidence suggests that these ions are sequestered into the vacuole by heavy metal/H + exchanger mechanisms. Heavy metal hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance are traits shared by a small set of plants which show specialized physiological and molecular adaptations allowing them to accumulate and sequester toxic metal ions. Nicotiana tabacum was used to test its potential as a metal-accumulator in a glass house experiment. Seed germination was not affected in the presence of increasing concentrations of zinc and cadmium. Juvenile and adult plants could concentrate CdCl 2 and ZnSO 4 to levels exceeding those in the hydroponic growth medium and maintained or increased their leaf dry weight when treated with 0.5- or 1-mM CdCl 2 or 1-mM ZnSO 4 for 5 days. Accumulation of heavy metals did not affect the chlorophyll and carotenoid levels, while variable effects were observed in cell sap osmolarity. Heavy metal-dependent H + transport across the vacuole membrane was monitored using quinacrine fluorescence quenching. Cadmium- or zinc-dependent fluorescence recovery revealed that increasing concentrations of heavy metals stimulated the activities of the tonoplast Cd 2+ or Zn 2+ /H + exchangers. Immunodetection of the V-ATPase subunits showed that the increased proton transport by zinc was not due to changes in protein amount. MTP1 and MTP4 immunodetection and semiquantitative RT-PCR of NtMTP1, NtNRAMP1, and NtZIP1 helped to identify the genes that are likely involved in sequestration of cadmium and zinc in the leaf and root tissue. Finally, we demonstrated that cadmium and zinc treatments induced an accumulation of zinc in leaf tissues. This study shows that N. tabacum possesses a hyperaccumulation response, and thus could be used for phytoremediation purposes.

  20. Developmental Toxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles to Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Transcriptomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Soo; Kim, Ryeo-Ok; Yoon, Seokjoo

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being utilized in an increasing number of fields and commercial applications. While their general toxicity and associated oxidative stress have been extensively studied, the toxicological pathways that they induce in developmental stages are still largely unknown. In this study, the developmental toxicity of ZnO NPs to embryonic/larval zebrafish was investigated. The transcriptional expression profiles induced by ZnO NPs were also investigated to ascertain novel genomic responses related to their specific toxicity pathway. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L ZnO NPs for 96 h post-fertilization. The toxicity of ZnO NPs, based on their Zn concentration, was quite similar to that in embryonic/larval zebrafish exposed to corresponding ZnSO4 concentrations. Pericardial edema and yolk-sac edema were the principal malformations induced by ZnO NPs. Gene-expression profiling using microarrays demonstrated 689 genes that were differentially regulated (fold change >1.5) following exposure to ZnO NPs (498 upregulated, 191 downregulated). Several genes that were differentially regulated following ZnO NP exposure shared similar biological pathways with those observed with ZnSO4 exposure, but six genes (aicda, cyb5d1, edar, intl2, ogfrl2 and tnfsf13b) associated with inflammation and the immune system responded specifically to ZnO NPs (either in the opposite direction or were unchanged in ZnSO4 exposure). Real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed that the responses of these genes to ZnO NPs were significantly different from their response to ZnSO4 exposure. ZnO NPs may affect genes related to inflammation and the immune system, resulting in yolk-sac edema and pericardia edema in embryonic/larval developmental stages. These results will assist in elucidating the mechanisms of toxicity of ZnO NPs during development of zebrafish. PMID:27504894

  1. Effects of dietary zinc supplementation on hen performance, ammonia volatilization, and nitrogen retention in manure.

    PubMed

    Kim, W K; Patterson, P H

    2005-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dietary ZnSO4 supplementation on ammonia volatilization and nitrogen retention in hen manure. One hundred twenty, 45-wk-old commercial Leghorn laying hens were sequentially fed diets with 1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm Zn as ZnSO4 (Zn-1000, Zn-2000, and Zn-3000), then followed by two control dietary periods with 114 ppm Zn (Control-1 and Control-2) for a total of five consecutive eight-day experiment periods, respectively. When hens were fed the 1000 and 2000 ppm Zn treatment diets, room ammonia levels were significantly reduced compared to the control diets. Dietary Zn treatments reduced the decomposition of uric acid, resulting in an increase in manure total-N retention compared to the control fed birds. The 1000 ppm Zn supplement had no adverse effects on hen body weight, feed consumption, egg production, egg weight, albumen height, or shell thickness. However, hens fed the diet containing 3000 ppm Zn had significantly depressed body weight, feed consumption, egg production, egg weight, and shell thickness. Zinc levels of egg contents increased linearly as dietary Zn levels increased. These levels in eggs would not be a problem for human consumption because these are much less than the daily Zn recommended dietary allowance. Although land application of such manure will not cause environmental problems or crop toxicity, proper monitoring of soil and crop Zn levels and effective nutrient management planning would be well advised.

  2. Interaction Between Phosphorus and Zinc on the Biomass Yield and Yield Attributes of the Medicinal Plant Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana)

    PubMed Central

    Das, Kuntal; Dang, Raman; Shivananda, T. N.; Sur, Pintu

    2005-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore to study the interaction effect between phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) on the yield and yield attributes of the medicinal plant stevia. The results show that the yield and yield attributes have been found to be significantly affected by different treatments. The total yield in terms of biomass production has been increased significantly with the application of Zn and P in different combinations and methods, being highest (23.34 g fresh biomass) in the treatment where Zn was applied as both soil (10 kg ZnSO4/ha) and foliar spray (0.2% ZnSO4). The results also envisaged that the different yield attributes viz. height, total number of branches, and number of leaves per plant have been found to be varied with treatments, being highest in the treatment where Zn was applied as both soil and foliar spray without the application of P. The results further indicated that the yield and yield attributes of stevia have been found to be decreased in the treatment where Zn was applied as both soil and foliar spray along with P suggesting an antagonistic effect between Zn and P. PMID:15915292

  3. Agronomic Approach of Zinc Biofortification Can Increase Zinc Bioavailability in Wheat Flour and thereby Reduce Zinc Deficiency in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dunyi; Liu, Yumin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xinping; Zou, Chunqin

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a common disorder of humans in developing countries. The effect of Zn biofortification (via application of six rates of Zn fertilizer to soil) on Zn bioavailability in wheat grain and flour and its impacts on human health was evaluated. Zn bioavailability was estimated with a trivariate model that included Zn homeostasis in the human intestine. As the rate of Zn fertilization increased, the Zn concentration increased in all flour fractions, but the percentages of Zn in standard flour (25%) and bran (75%) relative to total grain Zn were constant. Phytic acid (PA) concentrations in grain and flours were unaffected by Zn biofortification. Zn bioavailability and the health impact, as indicated by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) saved, increased with the Zn application rate and were greater in standard and refined flour than in whole grain and coarse flour. The biofortified standard and refined flour obtained with application of 50 kg/ha ZnSO4·7H2O met the health requirement (3 mg of Zn obtained from 300 g of wheat flour) and reduced DALYs by >20%. Although Zn biofortification increased Zn bioavailability in standard and refined flour, it did not reduce the bioavailability of iron, manganese, or copper in wheat flour. PMID:28481273

  4. Zinc isotope evidence for sulfate-rich fluid transfer across subduction zones.

    PubMed

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Debret, Baptiste; Bouilhol, Pierre; Delacour, Adélie; Williams, Helen

    2016-12-16

    Subduction zones modulate the chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle. Water and volatile elements in the slab are released as fluids into the mantle wedge and this process is widely considered to result in the oxidation of the sub-arc mantle. However, the chemical composition and speciation of these fluids, which is critical for the mobility of economically important elements, remain poorly constrained. Sulfur has the potential to act both as oxidizing agent and transport medium. Here we use zinc stable isotopes (δ 66 Zn) in subducted Alpine serpentinites to decipher the chemical properties of slab-derived fluids. We show that the progressive decrease in δ 66 Zn with metamorphic grade is correlated with a decrease in sulfur content. As existing theoretical work predicts that Zn-SO 4 2- complexes preferentially incorporate heavy δ 66 Zn, our results provide strong evidence for the release of oxidized, sulfate-rich, slab serpentinite-derived fluids to the mantle wedge.

  5. Sulphate absorption across biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2016-01-01

    1. Sulphonation is unusual amongst the common Phase II (condensation; synthetic) reactions experienced by xenobiotics, in that the availability of the conjugating agent, sulphate, may become a rate-limiting factor. This sulphate is derived within the body via the oxygenation of sulphur moieties liberated from numerous ingested compounds including the sulphur-containing amino acids. Preformed inorganic sulphate also makes a considerable contribution to this pool. 2. There has been a divergence of opinion as to whether or not inorganic sulphate may be readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and this controversy still continues in some quarters. Even more so, is the vexing question of potential absorption of inorganic sulphate via the lungs and through the skin. 3. This review examines the relevant diverse literature and concludes that sulphate ions may move across biological membranes by means of specific transporters and, although the gastrointestinal tract is by far the major portal of entry, some absorption across the lungs and the skin may take place under appropriate circumstances.

  6. Differential Regulation of Gene and Protein Expression by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Hen's Ovarian Granulosa Cells: Specific Roles of Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Shen, Wei; Liu, Jing; Yang, Fen-Fang; Liu, Hong-Bo; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Annually, tons and tons of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are produced in the world. And they are applied in almost all aspects of our life. Their release from the products into environment may pose issue for human health. Although many studies have reported the adverse effects of ZnO NPs on organisms, little is known about the effects on female reproductive systems or the related mechanisms. Quantitative proteomics have not been applied although quantitative transcriptomics have been used in zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) research. Genes are very important players however proteins are the real actors in the biological systems. By using hen's ovarian granulosa cells, it was found that ZnO-NP-5μg/ml and ZnSO4-10μg/ml treatments produced the same amount of intracellular Zn and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And NPs were found in the treated cells. However, ZnO-NP-5μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of genes and proteins compared with that in ZnSO4-10μg/ml treatment. For the first time, this investigation reports that intact NPs produce different impacts on the expression of genes and proteins involved in specific pathways compared to that by Zn2+. The findings enrich our knowledge for the molecular insights of zinc oxide nanoparticles effects on the female reproductive systems. This also may raise the health concern that ZnO NPs may adversely affect the female reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways.

  7. Anglesite and silver recovery from jarosite residues through roasting and sulfidization-flotation in zinc hydrometallurgy.

    PubMed

    Han, Haisheng; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Jia, Baoliang; Tang, Honghu

    2014-08-15

    Hazardous jarosite residues contain abundant valuable minerals that are difficult to be recovered by traditional flotation process. This study presents a new route, roasting combined with sulfidization-flotation, for the recovery of anglesite and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. Surface appearance and elemental distribution of jarosite residues was examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis, respectively. Decomposition and transformation mechanisms of jarosite residues were illustrated by differential thermal analysis. Results showed that after roasting combined with flotation, the grade and recovery of lead were 43.89% and 66.86%, respectively, and those of silver were 1.3 kg/t and 81.60%, respectively. At 600-700 °C, jarosite was decomposed to release encapsulated valuable minerals such as anglesite (PbSO4) and silver mineral; silver jarosite decomposed into silver sulfate (Ag2SO4); and zinc ferrite (ZnO · Fe2O3) decomposed into zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and hematite (Fe2O3). Bared anglesite and silver minerals were modified by sodium sulfide and easily collected by flotation collectors. This study demonstrates that the combination of roasting and sulfidization-flotation provides a promising process for the recovery of zinc, lead, and silver from jarosite residues of zinc hydrometallurgy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Heparan sulphates, amyloidosis and neurodegeneration].

    PubMed

    Vera, C; Alvarez-Orozco, J A; Maiza, A; Chantepie, S; Chehin, R N; Ouidja, M O; Papy-Garcia, D

    2017-11-16

    A number of neurodegenerative disorders have been linked directly to the accumulation of amyloid fibres. These fibres are made up of proteins or peptides with altered structures and which join together in vivo in association with heparan sulphate-type polysaccharides. To examine the most recent concepts in the biology of heparan sulphates and their role in the aggregation of the peptide Abeta, of tau protein, of alpha-synuclein and of prions. The study also seeks to analyse their implications in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease and prion diseases. In vitro, heparan sulphates have played an important role in the process of oligomerisation and fibrillation of amyloidogenic proteins or peptides, in the stabilisation of these bodies and their resistance to proteolysis, thereby participating in the formation of a wide range of amyloid fibres. Heparan sulphates have also been related to the internalisation of pro-amyloid fibres during the process of intercellular propagation (spreading), which is considered to be crucial in the development of proteinopathies, the best example of which is Alzheimer's disease. This study suggests that the fine structures of heparan sulphates, their localisation in cells and tissues, together with their local concentration, may regulate the amyloidosis processes. The advances made in the understanding of this area of glyconeurobiology will make it possible to improve the understanding of the cell and molecular mechanisms underlying the neurodegenerative process.

  9. Regulation of biokinetics of (65)Zn by curcumin and zinc in experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kinnri; Dhawan, Devinder K

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of curcumin and zinc on the biokinetics and biodistribution of (65)Zn during colon carcinogenesis. Male wistar rats were divided into five groups, namely normal control, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treated, DMH + curcumin treated, DMH + zinc treated, and DMH + curcumin + zinc treated. Weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) for 16 weeks initiated colon carcinogenesis. Curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight orally) and ZnSO4 (227 mg/L in drinking water) were supplemented for 16 weeks. This study revealed a significant depression in the fast (Tb1) and slow component (Tb2) of biological half-life of (65)Zn in the whole body of DMH-treated rats, whereas liver showed a significant elevation in these components. Further, DMH treatment showed a significant increase in the uptake values of (65)Zn in colon, small intestine, and kidneys. Subcellular distribution depicted a significant increase in (65)Zn uptake values in mitochondrial, microsomal, and postmicrosomal fractions of colon. However, curcumin and zinc supplementation when given separately or in combination reversed the trends and restored the uptake values close to normal range. Our study concludes that curcumin and zinc supplementation during colon carcinogenesis shall prove to be efficacious in regulating the altered zinc metabolism.

  10. Phenolic sodium sulphates of Frankenia laevis L.

    PubMed

    Hussein, S A M

    2004-04-01

    Four new phenolic anionic conjugates have been isolated from the whole plant aqueous alcohol extract of Frankenia laevis L. Their structures were established, mainly on the basis of ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic evidence, as gallic acid-3-methyl ether-5-sodium sulphate, acetophenone-4-methyl ether-2-sodium sulphate, ellagic acid-3,3'-dimethyl ether-4,4'-di-sodium sulphate and ellagic acid-3-methyl ether-4-sodium sulphate.

  11. Effects of enhanced zinc and copper in drinking water on spatial memory and fear conditioning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chrosniak, L.D.; Smith, L.N.; McDonald, C.G.; Jones, B.F.; Flinn, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Ingestion of enhanced zinc can cause memory impairments and copper deficiencies. This study examined the effect of zinc supplementation, with and without copper, on two types of memory. Rats raised pre- and post-natally on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 or ZnSO4 in the drinking water were tested in a fear-conditioning experiment at 11 months of age. Both zinc groups showed a maladaptive retention of fearful memories compared to controls raised on tap water. Rats raised on 10 mg/kg ZnCO3, 10 mg/kg ZnCO3 + 0.25 mg/kg CuCl2, or tap water, were tested for spatial memory ability at 3 months of age. Significant improvements in performance were found in the ZnCO3 + CuCl2 group compared to the ZnCO3 group, suggesting that some of the cognitive deficits associated with zinc supplementation may be remediated by addition of copper. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Uptake and Distribution of Soil Applied Zinc by Citrus Trees—Addressing Fertilizer Use Efficiency with 68Zn Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Hippler, Franz Walter Rieger; Boaretto, Rodrigo Marcelli; Quaggio, José Antônio; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Abreu-Junior, Cassio Hamilton; Mattos, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    The zinc (Zn) supply increases the fruit yield of Citrus trees that are grown, especially in the highly weathered soils of the tropics due to the inherently low nutrient availability in the soil solution. Leaf sprays containing micronutrients are commonly applied to orchards, even though the nutrient supply via soil could be of practical value. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zn fertilizers that are applied to the soil surface on absorption and partitioning of the nutrient by citrus trees. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with one-year-old sweet orange trees. The plants were grown in soils with different textures (18.1 or 64.4% clay) that received 1.8 g Zn per plant, in the form of either ZnO or ZnSO4 enriched with the stable isotope 68Zn. Zinc fertilization increased the availability of the nutrient in the soil and the content in the orange trees. Greater responses were obtained when ZnSO4 was applied to the sandy loam soil due to its lower specific metal adsorption compared to that of the clay soil. The trunk and branches accumulated the most fertilizer-derived Zn (Zndff) and thus represent the major reserve organ for this nutrient in the plant. The trees recovered up to 4% of the applied Zndff. Despite this relative low recovery, the Zn requirement of the trees was met with the selected treatment based on the total leaf nutrient content and increased Cu/Zn-SOD activity in the leaves. We conclude that the efficiency of Zn fertilizers depends on the fertilizer source and the soil texture, which must be taken into account by guidelines for fruit crop fertilization via soil, in substitution or complementation of traditional foliar sprays. PMID:25751056

  13. Uptake and distribution of soil applied zinc by citrus trees-addressing fertilizer use efficiency with 68Zn labeling.

    PubMed

    Hippler, Franz Walter Rieger; Boaretto, Rodrigo Marcelli; Quaggio, José Antônio; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Abreu-Junior, Cassio Hamilton; Mattos, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    The zinc (Zn) supply increases the fruit yield of Citrus trees that are grown, especially in the highly weathered soils of the tropics due to the inherently low nutrient availability in the soil solution. Leaf sprays containing micronutrients are commonly applied to orchards, even though the nutrient supply via soil could be of practical value. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zn fertilizers that are applied to the soil surface on absorption and partitioning of the nutrient by citrus trees. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with one-year-old sweet orange trees. The plants were grown in soils with different textures (18.1 or 64.4% clay) that received 1.8 g Zn per plant, in the form of either ZnO or ZnSO4 enriched with the stable isotope 68Zn. Zinc fertilization increased the availability of the nutrient in the soil and the content in the orange trees. Greater responses were obtained when ZnSO4 was applied to the sandy loam soil due to its lower specific metal adsorption compared to that of the clay soil. The trunk and branches accumulated the most fertilizer-derived Zn (Zndff) and thus represent the major reserve organ for this nutrient in the plant. The trees recovered up to 4% of the applied Zndff. Despite this relative low recovery, the Zn requirement of the trees was met with the selected treatment based on the total leaf nutrient content and increased Cu/Zn-SOD activity in the leaves. We conclude that the efficiency of Zn fertilizers depends on the fertilizer source and the soil texture, which must be taken into account by guidelines for fruit crop fertilization via soil, in substitution or complementation of traditional foliar sprays.

  14. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or sulphate...

  15. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or sulphate...

  16. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or sulphate...

  17. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or sulphate...

  18. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or sulphate...

  19. Molecular evidence of offspring liver dysfunction after maternal exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yanan; Liu, Jing; Feng, Yanni; Yu, Shuai; Zhang, Weidong; Li, Lan; Min, Lingjiang; Zhang, Hongfu; Shen, Wei; Zhao, Yong

    2017-08-15

    Recently, reproductive, embryonic and developmental toxicity have been considered as one important sector of nanoparticle (NP) toxicology, with some studies already suggesting varying levels of toxicity and possible transgenerational toxic effects. Even though many studies have investigated the toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), little is known of their impact on overall reproductive outcome and transgenerational effects. Previously we found ZnO NPs caused liver dysfunction in lipid synthesis. This investigation, for the first time, explored the liver dysfunction at the molecular level of gene and protein expression in offspring after maternal exposure to ZnO NPs. Three pathways were investigated: lipid synthesis, growth related factors and cell toxic biomarkers/apoptosis at 5 different time points from embryonic day-18 to postnatal day-20. It was found that the expression of 15, 16, and 16 genes in lipid synthesis, growth related factors and cell toxic biomarkers/apoptosis signalling pathway respectively in F1 animal liver were altered by ZnO NPs compared to ZnSO 4 . The proteins in these signalling pathways (five in each pathways analyzed) in F1 animal liver were also changed by ZnO NPs compared to ZnSO 4 . The results suggest that ZnO NPs caused maternal liver defects can also be detected in offspring that might result in problems on offspring liver development, mainly on lipid synthesis, growth, and lesions or apoptosis. Along with others, this study suggests that ZnO NPs may pose reproductive, embryonic and developmental toxicity; therefore, precautions should be taken with regard to human exposure during daily life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential Regulation of Gene and Protein Expression by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Hen’s Ovarian Granulosa Cells: Specific Roles of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Shen, Wei; Liu, Jing; Yang, Fen-Fang; Liu, Hong-Bo; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Annually, tons and tons of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are produced in the world. And they are applied in almost all aspects of our life. Their release from the products into environment may pose issue for human health. Although many studies have reported the adverse effects of ZnO NPs on organisms, little is known about the effects on female reproductive systems or the related mechanisms. Quantitative proteomics have not been applied although quantitative transcriptomics have been used in zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) research. Genes are very important players however proteins are the real actors in the biological systems. By using hen’s ovarian granulosa cells, it was found that ZnO-NP-5μg/ml and ZnSO4-10μg/ml treatments produced the same amount of intracellular Zn and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And NPs were found in the treated cells. However, ZnO-NP-5μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of genes and proteins compared with that in ZnSO4-10μg/ml treatment. For the first time, this investigation reports that intact NPs produce different impacts on the expression of genes and proteins involved in specific pathways compared to that by Zn2+. The findings enrich our knowledge for the molecular insights of zinc oxide nanoparticles effects on the female reproductive systems. This also may raise the health concern that ZnO NPs may adversely affect the female reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways. PMID:26460738

  1. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  2. Quantitative studies of sulphate conjugation by isolated rat liver cells using [35S]sulphate.

    PubMed

    Dawson, J; Knowles, R G; Pogson, C I

    1991-06-21

    We have developed a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the study of sulphate conjugation in isolated liver cells based on the incorporation of 35S from [35S]sulphate. Excess [35S]sulphate is removed by a barium precipitation procedure, leaving [35S]sulphate conjugates in solution. We have used this method to examine the kinetics of sulphation of N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (acetaminophen), 4-nitrophenol and 1-naphthol in isolated rat liver cells. The efficiency of recovery of the sulphate conjugates was greater than 86%. The method is applicable to the quantitative study of sulphate conjugation of any substrate which forms a sulphate conjugate that is soluble in the presence of barium, without the need for standards or radiolabelled sulphate acceptors.

  3. Nanocarrier-mediated foliar zinc fertilization influences expression of metal homeostasis related genes in flag leaves and enhances gluten content in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Paresh; Dapkekar, Ashwin; Oak, Manoj; Paknikar, Kishore; Rajwade, Jyutika

    2018-01-01

    Wheat is the staple food for most of the world's population; however, it is a poor source of zinc. Foliar fertilization of zinc via zinc loaded chitosan nanocarriers (Zn-CNP) post-anthesis has proved to be a promising approach for grain zinc enhancement in durum wheat as evidenced in our earlier study. However, the molecular mechanism of uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP remains unclear. Foliar application of Zn-CNP was performed at post anthesis stages in two durum wheat cultivars (MACS 3125 and UC1114, containing the Gpc-B1 gene), and expression levels of several metal-related genes were analyzed during early senescence. Zn-CNP application indeed caused changes in gene expression as revealed by qPCR data on representative genes involved in metal homeostasis, phloem transporters, and leaf senescence. Furthermore, zinc-regulated transporters and iron (Fe)-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) family [ZIP1, ZIP7, ZIP15], CA (carbonic anhydrase), and DMAS (2'-deoxymugineic acid synthase) in flag leaves exhibited significant correlation with zinc content in the seeds. The analysis of grain endosperm proteins showed enhancement of gamma gliadins while other gluten subunits decreased. Gene expression within ZIP family members varied with the type of cultivar mostly attributed to the Gpc-B1, concentration of external zinc ions as well as the type of tissue analyzed. Correlation analysis revealed the involvement of the selected genes in zinc enhancement. At the molecular level, uptake of zinc via Zn-CNP nanocarrier was comparable to the uptake of zinc via common zinc fertilizers i.e. ZnSO4.

  4. Syntheses of vanadyl and zinc(II) complexes of 1-hydroxy-4,5,6-substituted 2(1H)-pyrimidinones and their insulin-mimetic activities.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Mika; Wakasugi, Kei; Saito, Ryota; Adachi, Yusuke; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Sakurai, Hiromu; Katoh, Akira

    2006-02-01

    Control of the glucose level in the blood plasma has been achieved in vitro and in vivo by administration of vanadium and zinc in form of inorganic salts. It has been shown that elements are poorly absorbed in their inorganic forms and required high doses which have been associated with undesirable side effects. Many researchers, therefore, have focused on metal complexes that were prepared from VOSO(4) or ZnSO(4) and low-molecular-weight bidentate ligands. Seven kinds of 1-hydroxy-4,6-disubstituted and 1-hydroxy-4,5,6-trisubstituted-2(1H)-pyrimidinones were synthesized by reaction of N-benzyloxyurea and beta-diketones and subsequent removal of the protecting group. Six kinds of 1-hydroxy-4-(substituted)amino-2(1H)-pyrimidinones were synthesized by the substitution reaction of 1-benzyloxy-4-(1',2',4'-triazol-1'-yl)-2(1H)-pyrimidinone with various alkyl amines or amino acids. Treatment with VOSO(4) and ZnSO(4) or Zn(OAc)(2) afforded vanadyl(IV) and zinc(II) complexes which were characterized by means of (1)H NMR, IR, EPR, and UV-vis spectroscopies, and combustion analysis. The in vitro insulin-mimetic activity of these complexes was evaluated from 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) on free fatty acid (FFA) release from isolated rat adipocytes treated with epinephrine. Vanadyl complexes of 4,6-disubstituted-2(1H)-pyrimidinones showed higher insulin-mimetic activities than those of 4,5,6-trisubstituted ones. On the other hand, Zn(II) complexes showed lower insulin-mimetic activities than VOSO(4) and ZnSO(4) as positive controls. It was found that the balance of the hydrophilicity and/or hydrophobicity is important for higher insulin-mimetic activity. The in vivo insulin-mimetic activity was evaluated with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose levels were lowered from hyperglycemic to normal levels after the treatment with bis(1,2-dihydro-4,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-1-pyrimidinolato)oxovanadium(IV) by daily intraperitoneal injections. The improvement in

  5. Intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions in alveolar epithelial cells exposed to airborne ZnO nanoparticles at the air–liquid interface

    PubMed Central

    Mihai, Cosmin; Chrisler, William B.; Xie, Yumei; Hu, Dehong; Szymanski, Craig J.; Tolic, Ana; Klein, Jessica A.; Smith, Jordan N.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Orr, Galya

    2015-01-01

    Airborne nanoparticles (NPs) that enter the respiratory tract are likely to reach the alveolar region. Accumulating observations support a role for zinc oxide (ZnO) NP dissolution in toxicity, but the majority of in-vitro studies were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in growth media, where large doses of dissolved ions are shed into the exposure solution. To determine the precise intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions (Zn2+) shed by airborne NPs in the cellular environment, we exposed alveolar epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air–liquid interface (ALI). Using a fluorescent indicator for Zn2+, together with organelle-specific fluorescent proteins, we quantified Zn2+ in single cells and organelles over time. We found that at the ALI, intracellular Zn2+ values peaked 3 h post exposure and decayed to normal values by 12 h, while in submerged cultures, intracellular Zn2+ values continued to increase over time. The lowest toxic NP dose at the ALI generated peak intracellular Zn2+ values that were nearly three-folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of NPs in submerged cultures, and eight-folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of ZnSO4 or Zn2+. At the ALI, the majority of intracellular Zn2+ was found in endosomes and lysosomes as early as 1 h post exposure. In contrast, the majority of intracellular Zn2+ following exposures to ZnSO4 was found in other larger vesicles, with less than 10% in endosomes and lysosomes. Together, our observations indicate that low but critical levels of intracellular Zn2+ have to be reached, concentrated specifically in endosomes and lysosomes, for toxicity to occur, and point to the focal dissolution of the NPs in the cellular environment and the accumulation of the ions specifically in endosomes and lysosomes as the processes underlying the potent toxicity of airborne ZnO NPs. PMID:24289294

  6. Comparison of the effects and distribution of zinc oxide nanoparticles and zinc ions in activated sludge reactors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongqing; Trzcinski, Antoine P; Oh, Hyun-Suk; Chew, Evelyn; Liu, Yu; Tan, Soon Keat; Ng, Wun Jern

    2017-09-19

    Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being increasingly applied in the industry, which results inevitably in the release of these materials into the hydrosphere. In this study, simulated waste-activated sludge experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of Zinc Oxide NPs and to compare it with its ionic counterpart (as ZnSO 4 ). It was found that even 1 mg/L of ZnO NPs could have a small impact on COD and ammonia removal. Under 1, 10 and 50 mg/L of ZnO NP exposure, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiencies decreased from 79.8% to 78.9%, 72.7% and 65.7%, respectively. The corresponding ammonium (NH 4 + N) concentration in the effluent significantly (P < 0.05) increased from 11.9 mg/L (control) to 15.3, 20.9 and 28.5 mg/L, respectively. Under equal Zn concentration, zinc ions were more toxic towards microorganisms compared to ZnO NPs. Under 50 mg/L exposure, the effluent Zn level was 5.69 mg/L, implying that ZnO NPs have a strong affinity for activated sludge. The capacity for adsorption of ZnO NPs onto activated sludge was found to be 2.3, 6.3, and 13.9 mg/g MLSS at influent ZnO NP concentrations of 1.0, 10 and 50 mg/L respectively, which were 1.74-, 2.13- and 2.05-fold more than under Zn ion exposure.

  7. Sulphates Removal from Acid Mine Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luptáková, Alena; Mačingová, Eva; Kotuličová, Ingrida; Rudzanová, Dominika

    2016-10-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) are a worldwide problem leading to ecological destruction in river basins and the contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. In order to minimize negative impacts of AMD appropriate treatment techniques has to be chosen. Treatment processes are focused on neutralizing, stabilizing and removing pollutants. From this reason efficient and environmental friendly methods are needed to be developed in order to reduce heavy metals as well as sulphates. Various methods are used for remediation of acid mine drainage, but any of them have been applied under commercial-scale conditions. Their application depends on geochemical, technical, natural, financial, and other factors. The aim of the present work was to interpret the study of biological methods for sulphates removal from AMD out-flowing from the shaft Pech of the deposit Smolmk in Slovak Republic. In the experimental works AMD were used after removal of heavy metals by precipitation and sorption using the synthetic sorbent Slovakite. The base of the studied method for the sulphates elimination was the anaerobic bacterial sulphate reduction using sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera Desulfovibrio. SRB represent a group of bacteria that uses sulphates as a terminal electron acceptor for their metabolism. These bacteria realize the conversion of sulphate to hydrogen sulphide under anaerobic conditions. For the purposes of experiments a few variants of the selective medium DSM-63 culture media were used in term of the sulphates and sodium lactate contents in the selective medium as well as sulphates in the studied AMD.

  8. The extraction of plasma 3-hydroxy-17-oxo steroid sulphates and the measurement of the constituent dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and androsterone sulphate

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Jean; Rippon, A. E.

    1965-01-01

    1. A simple method for the extraction of 17-oxo steroid sulphates of plasma is described; glucosiduronates and orthophosphates are extracted, but to a smaller extent. 2. Four methods of analyses of the extracts are given and are relatively simple. Three of these are specific for steroid sulphates and two measure the sulphate conjugates directly. 3. Values for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and androsterone sulphate concentrations of normal and pathological plasmas are given. PMID:14333546

  9. Alteration of gene expression by zinc oxide nanoparticles or zinc sulfate in vivo and comparison with in vitro data: A harmonious case.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Dong; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Wang, Shu-Kun; Hao, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Jing; Yuan, Yu-Qing; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Yang, Hong-Di; Shen, Wei; Li, Lan

    2016-08-01

    Granulosa cells (GCs) are those somatic cells closest to the female germ cell. GCs play a vital role in oocyte growth and development, and the oocyte is necessary for multiplication of a species. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) readily cross biologic barriers to be absorbed into biologic systems that make them promising candidates as food additives. The objective of the present investigation was to explore the impact of intact NPs on gene expression and the functional classification of altered genes in hen GCs in vivo, to compare the data from in vivo and in vitro studies, and finally to point out the adverse effects of ZnO NPs on the reproductive system. After a 24-week treatment, hen GCs were isolated and gene expression was quantified. Intact NPs were found in the ovary and other organs. Zn levels were similar in ZnO-NP-100 mg/kg- and ZnSO4-100 mg/kg-treated hen ovaries. ZnO-NP-100 mg/kg and ZnSO4-100 mg/kg regulated the expression of the same sets of genes, and they also altered the expression of different sets of genes individually. The number of genes altered by the ZnO-NP-100 mg/kg and ZnSO4-100 mg/kg treatments was different. Gene Ontology (GO) functional analysis reported that different results for the two treatments and, in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment, 12 pathways (out of the top 20 pathways) in each treatment were different. These results suggested that intact NPs and Zn(2+) had different effects on gene expression in GCs in vivo. In our recent publication, we noted that intact NPs and Zn(2+) differentially altered gene expression in GCs in vitro. However, GO functional classification and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses revealed close similarities for the changed genes in vivo and in vitro after ZnO NP treatment. Furthermore, close similarities were observed for the changed genes after ZnSO4 treatments in vivo and in vitro by GO functional classification and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses. Therefore

  10. Prenatal zinc reduces stress response in adult rat offspring exposed to lipopolysaccharide during gestation.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Marcella C; Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Carvalho, Virgínia M; Bernardi, Maria M; Kirsten, Thiago B

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg, intraperitoneally) on gestation day (GD) 9.5 in rats, which mimics infections by Gram-negative bacteria, induces short- and long-term behavioral and neuroimmune changes in the offspring. Because LPS induces hypozincemia, dams were treated with zinc after LPS in an attempt to prevent or ameliorate the impairments induced by prenatal LPS exposure. LPS can also interfere with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis development; thus, behavioral and neuroendocrine parameters linked to HPA axis were evaluated in adult offspring after a restraint stress session. We prenatally exposed Wistar rats to LPS (100 μg/kg, intraperitoneally, on GD 9.5). One hour later they received zinc (ZnSO4, 2 mg/kg, subcutaneously). Adult female offspring that were in metestrus/diestrus were submitted to a 2 h restraint stress session. Immediately after the stressor, 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, open field behavior, serum corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and striatal and hypothalamic neurotransmitter and metabolite levels were assessed. Offspring that received prenatal zinc after LPS presented longer periods in silence, increased locomotion, and reduced serum corticosterone and striatal norepinephrine turnover compared with rats treated with LPS and saline. Prenatal zinc reduced acute restraint stress response in adult rats prenatally exposed to LPS. Our findings suggest a potential beneficial effect of prenatal zinc, in which the stress response was reduced in offspring that were stricken with infectious/inflammatory processes during gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vibrational spectroscopic study of sulphated silk proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, P.; Freddi, G.; Arosio, C.; Tsukada, M.; Arai, T.; Taddei, P.

    2007-05-01

    Degummed Bombyx mori ( B. m.) silk fibroin fabric and mutant naked pupa cocoons (Nd-s) consisting of almost pure silk sericin were treated with chlorosulphonic acid in pyridine and investigated by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopies. Untreated silk fibroin and sericin displayed typical spectral features due to characteristic amino acid composition and molecular conformation (prevailing β-sheet with a less ordered structure in sericin). Upon sulphation, the degree of molecular disorder increased in both proteins and new bands appeared. The IR bands at 1049 and 1014 cm -1 were attributed to vibrations of sulphate salts and that at 1385 cm -1 to the νasSO 2 mode of organic covalent sulphates. In the 1300-1180 cm -1 range various contributions of alkyl and aryl sulphate salts, sulphonamides, sulphoamines and organic covalent sulphates, fell. Fibroin covalently bound sulphate groups through the hydroxyl groups of tyrosine and serine, while sericin through the hydroxyl groups of serine, since the δOH vibrations at 1399 cm -1 in IR and at 1408 cm -1 in Raman disappeared almost completely. Finally, the increase of the I850/ I830 intensity ratio of Raman tyrosine doublet in fibroin suggested a change towards a more exposed state of tyrosine residues, in good agreement with the more disordered conformation taken upon sulphation.

  12. Zinc Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Eye Conditions Clinical Digest: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Related Resources From Other Agencies Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc ( ODS ) Follow NCCIH: Read our disclaimer ...

  13. Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L−1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the

  14. Regulation of MicroRNAs, and the Correlations of MicroRNAs and Their Targeted Genes by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Ovarian Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Min, Ling-Jiang; Zhu, Lian-Qin; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ge, Wei; Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Jing-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been applied in numerous industrial products and personal care products like sunscreens and cosmetics. The released ZnO NPs from consumer and household products into the environment might pose potential health issues for animals and humans. In this study the expression of microRNAs and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes in ZnO NPs treated chicken ovarian granulosa cells were investigated. ZnSO4 was used as the sole Zn2+ provider to differentiate the effects of NPs from Zn2+. It was found that ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs involved in embryonic development although ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml and ZnSO4-10 μg/ml treatments produced the same intracellular Zn concentrations and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml also specifically regulated the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes. This is the first investigation that intact NPs in ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml treatment specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs, and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes compared to that by Zn2+. This expands our knowledge for biological effects of ZnO NPs and at the same time it raises the health concerns that ZnO NPs might adversely affect our biological systems, even the reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways. PMID:27196542

  15. Regulation of MicroRNAs, and the Correlations of MicroRNAs and Their Targeted Genes by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Ovarian Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Min, Ling-Jiang; Zhu, Lian-Qin; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ge, Wei; Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Jing-Cai; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been applied in numerous industrial products and personal care products like sunscreens and cosmetics. The released ZnO NPs from consumer and household products into the environment might pose potential health issues for animals and humans. In this study the expression of microRNAs and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes in ZnO NPs treated chicken ovarian granulosa cells were investigated. ZnSO4 was used as the sole Zn2+ provider to differentiate the effects of NPs from Zn2+. It was found that ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs involved in embryonic development although ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml and ZnSO4-10 μg/ml treatments produced the same intracellular Zn concentrations and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml also specifically regulated the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes. This is the first investigation that intact NPs in ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml treatment specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs, and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes compared to that by Zn2+. This expands our knowledge for biological effects of ZnO NPs and at the same time it raises the health concerns that ZnO NPs might adversely affect our biological systems, even the reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways.

  16. Binding of endostatin to endothelial heparan sulphate shows a differential requirement for specific sulphates.

    PubMed

    Blackhall, Fiona H; Merry, Catherine L R; Lyon, Malcolm; Jayson, Gordon C; Folkman, Judah; Javaherian, Kashi; Gallagher, John T

    2003-10-01

    Endostatin is a naturally occurring proteolytic fragment of the C-terminal domain of collagen XVIII. It inhibits angiogenesis by a mechanism that appears to involve binding to HS (heparan sulphate). We have examined the molecular interaction between endostatin and HS from micro- and macrovessel endothelial cells. Two discrete panels of oligosaccharides were prepared from metabolically radiolabelled HS, using digestion with either heparinase I or III, and then examined for their endostatin affinity using a sensitive filter-binding assay. Two types of endostatin-binding regions were identified: one comprising sulphated domains of five or more disaccharides in length, enriched in 6-O-sulphate groups, and the other contained long heparinase I-resistant fragments. In the latter case, evidence from the present study suggests that the binding region encompasses a sulphated domain fragment and a transition zone of intermediate sulphation. The contribution to binding of specific O-sulphate groups was determined using selectively desulphated HS species, namely HS from Hs2st-/- mutant cells, and by comparing the compositions of endostatin-binding and non-binding oligosaccharides. The results indicate that 6-O-sulphates play a dominant role in site selectivity and 2-O-sulphates are not strictly essential.

  17. Binding of endostatin to endothelial heparan sulphate shows a differential requirement for specific sulphates.

    PubMed Central

    Blackhall, Fiona H; Merry, Catherine L R; Lyon, Malcolm; Jayson, Gordon C; Folkman, Judah; Javaherian, Kashi; Gallagher, John T

    2003-01-01

    Endostatin is a naturally occurring proteolytic fragment of the C-terminal domain of collagen XVIII. It inhibits angiogenesis by a mechanism that appears to involve binding to HS (heparan sulphate). We have examined the molecular interaction between endostatin and HS from micro- and macrovessel endothelial cells. Two discrete panels of oligosaccharides were prepared from metabolically radiolabelled HS, using digestion with either heparinase I or III, and then examined for their endostatin affinity using a sensitive filter-binding assay. Two types of endostatin-binding regions were identified: one comprising sulphated domains of five or more disaccharides in length, enriched in 6-O-sulphate groups, and the other contained long heparinase I-resistant fragments. In the latter case, evidence from the present study suggests that the binding region encompasses a sulphated domain fragment and a transition zone of intermediate sulphation. The contribution to binding of specific O-sulphate groups was determined using selectively desulphated HS species, namely HS from Hs2st-/- mutant cells, and by comparing the compositions of endostatin-binding and non-binding oligosaccharides. The results indicate that 6-O-sulphates play a dominant role in site selectivity and 2-O-sulphates are not strictly essential. PMID:12812520

  18. Inhibition of bacterial biofilms by carboxymethyl chitosan combined with silver, zinc and copper salts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Randys Caldeira; da Silva, Diego Pereira; Signini, Roberta; Naves, Plínio Lázaro Faleiro

    2017-12-01

    Investigation of the antimicrobial action of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh) is among the alternative approaches in the control of pathogenic microorganisms. This study aimed to screen the toxicity using the brine shrimp lethality assay and to investigate the inhibitory activity of carboxymethyl in isolation or in combination with silver nitrate, copper sulfate and zinc sulfate on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Escherichia coli ATCC 25312, and Burkholderia cepacia ATCC 17759. The CMCh was obtained by reacting chitosan with monochloroacetic acid under alkaline conditions, and the occurrence of carboxymethylation was evidenced by FTIR and 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The CMCh was combined with metallic salts (AgNO 3 , CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O and ZnSO 4 ) to perform the bioassays to screen the toxicity, to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration and the impact of sub-inhibitory concentrations against biofilm formation. Although CMCh did not show inhibitory activity against bacterial growth, it had an interesting level of inhibition of bacterial biofilm. The results suggest that sub-inhibitory concentrations of compounds were effective against biofilm formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dendritic Zinc Growth in Acid Electrolyte: Effect of the pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengoa, Leandro N.; Pary, Paola; Seré, Pablo R.; Conconi, M. Susana; Egli, Walter A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, dendritic growth at the edges of electrogalvanized steel strip has been studied using a specially designed rotating washer electrode which simulates the fluid dynamic conditions and the current density distribution at the steel strip edge found in a production line. The effect of electrolyte pH and current density on dendritic growth in an acidic zinc plating bath (ZnSO4 and H2SO4) was addressed. The temperature was kept constant at 60 °C. Solution pH was adjusted to 1, 2 or 3 using different amounts of H2SO4. In addition, the influence of temperature on the pH of the solution was determined. The current density was set at 40 or 60 A/dm2, similar to that used in the industry. Deposits were characterized using SEM and XRD. The results showed that pH strongly affects dendrites shape, length and texture. Furthermore, the morphology of dendrites at the washer edge and of deposits on the flat portion of the washer changed considerably as solution pH was increased from 1 to 3. It was found that the morphology of dendrites at the washer edge stems from the morphology of the deposit on its flat portion, which in turn determines their shape.

  20. Foliar zinc biofortification effects in Lolium rigidum and Trifolium subterraneum grown in cadmium-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Damon, Paul; Rengel, Zed

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an important micronutrient that can alleviate cadmium (Cd) toxicity to plants and limit Cd entry into the food chain. However, little is known about the Zn-Cd interactions in pasture plants. We characterized the effects of foliar Zn application and Cd uptake by ryegrass (Lolium rigidum L.) and clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) grown on Cd-contaminated soils; all combinations of foliar Zn applications (0, 0.25 and 0.5% (w/v) ZnSO4·7H2O) and soil Cd concentrations (0, 2.5 and 5 mg Cd kg-1) were tested. For both plant species, soil concentrations of DTPA-extractable Cd and Zn increased with an increase in the Cd and Zn treatments, respectively. Compared with L. rigidum, T. subterraneum accumulated, respectively, 3.3- and 4.1-fold more Cd in the 2.5-Cd and 5-Cd treatments and about 1.3-, 2.3- and 2.8-fold more Zn in the No-Zn, 0.25-Zn and 0.5-Zn treatments. Also, DTPA-Zn concentration was higher in soil after T. subterraneum than L. rigidum growth regardless of Zn applications. Foliar application of 0.25% (w/v) Zn significantly decreased the total Cd concentration in shoots of both species grown in the Cd-contaminated soil and ameliorated the adverse effects of Cd exposure on root growth, particularly in T. subterraneum. PMID:28950025

  1. Antioxidative response of olive to air emissions from tire burning under various zinc nutritional treatments.

    PubMed

    Hatami, Ashkan; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir Hossein

    2016-12-01

    Uniform 2-year old seedlings of a commercial olive cultivar (Olea europaea L., cv. Mahzam) were exposed or unexposed to the air pollution from the controlled burning of waste tires. The plants were supplied with zinc sulfate (ZnSO 4 ) or synthesized Zn(Glycine) 2 (Zn-Gly) or unsupplied with Zn. Exposure to air pollution resulted in oxidative damage to the olive, as indicated by the higher production of malondialdehyde (MDA). Supplement with Zn partly alleviated oxidative damage induced by the air emissions on the olive. Leaf concentration of MDA was higher at the active period of tire burning than that of the inactive one. Exposure to the emissions from tire burning significantly increased leaf ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. Supplement with Zn increased APX activity in plants exposed to the air pollution. According to the results, Zn nutrition was effective in alleviating oxidative stress induced by air pollution on the olive. APX seemed to play a significant role in alleviating oxidative damages induced by air emissions from tire burning on the olive; however, the role of other antioxidant enzymes should be addressed in future studies.

  2. Regulation of neuroendocrine cells and neuron factors in the ovary by zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Hao, Ya-Nan; Song, Ran; Li, Lan; Feng, Yan-Ni; Hao, Zhi-Hui; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Yang, Hong-Di; Zhao, Yong

    2016-08-10

    The pubertal period is an important window during the development of the female reproductive system. Development of the pubertal ovary, which supplies the oocytes intended for fertilization, requires growth factors, hormones, and neuronal factors. It has been reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) cause cytotoxicity of neuron cells. However, there have been no reports of the effects of ZnO NPs on neuronal factors and neuroendocrine cells in the ovary (in vivo). For the first time, this in vivo study investigated the effects of ZnO NPs on gene and protein expression of neuronal factors and the population of neuroendocrine cells in ovaries. Intact NPs were detected in ovarian tissue and although ZnO NPs did not alter body weight, they reduced the ovary organ index. Compared to the control or ZnSO4 treatments, ZnO NPs treatments differentially regulated neuronal factor protein and gene expression, and the population of neuroendocrine cells. ZnO NPs changed the contents of essential elements in the ovary; however, they did not alter levels of the steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone. These data together suggest that intact ZnO NPs might pose a toxic effect on neuron development in the ovary and eventually negatively affect ovarian developmental at puberty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acanthus ilicifolius L. a promising candidate for phytostabilization of zinc.

    PubMed

    Shackira, A M; Puthur, Jos T; Nabeesa Salim, E

    2017-06-01

    The potential of a halophyte species-Acanthus ilicifolius L.-to phytostabilize zinc (Zn) grown under hydroponics culture conditions was critically evaluated in this study. The propagules after treating with ZnSO 4 (4 mM) were analysed for the bioaccumulation pattern, translocation rate of Zn to the shoot, effects of Zn accumulation on organic solutes and the antioxidant defence system. It was found that most of the Zn absorbed by the plant was retained in the root (47%) and only a small portion was transported to stem (12%) and leaves (11%). This is further confirmed by the high BCF root (bioconcentration factor) value (1.99) and low TF shoot/root (translocation factor) value (0.5), which indicates the increased retention of Zn in the root itself. Moreover, treatment with Zn resulted in an increased accumulation of organic solutes (proline, free amino acids and soluble sugars) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione and phenol) in the leaf and root tissue. Likewise, the activity of antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) recorded an enhanced activity upon exposure to Zn as compared to the control plants. Thus, the increased tolerance for Zn in A. ilicifolius may be attributed to the efficient free radical scavenging mechanisms operating under excess Zn. In addition, being a high accumulator (53.7 mg of Zn) and at the same time a poor translocator of Zn to the aerial parts of the plant, A. ilicifolius can be recommended as a potential candidate for the phytostabilization of Zn in the contaminated wetlands.

  4. Metabolism of dietary sulphate: absorption and excretion in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Florin, T; Neale, G; Gibson, G R; Christl, S U; Cummings, J H

    1991-01-01

    Dietary sulphate may affect colonic pathophysiology because sulphate availability determines in part the activity of sulphate reducing bacteria in the bowel. The main product of sulphate reducing bacterial oxidative metabolism, hydrogen sulphide, is potentially toxic. Although it is generally believed that the sulphate ion is poorly absorbed, there are no available data on how much sulphate reaches the colon nor on the relative contributions from diet and endogenous sources. To resolve these questions, balance studies were performed on six healthy ileostomists and three normal subjects chosen because they did not have detectable sulphate reducing bacteria in their faeces. The subjects were fed diets which varied in sulphate content from 1.6-16.6 mmol/day. Sulphate was measured in diets, faeces (ileal effluent in ileostomists), and urine by anion exchange chromatography with conductivity detection. Overall there was net absorption of dietary sulphate, with the absorptive capacity of the gastrointestinal tract plateauing at 5 mmol/day in the ileostomists and exceeding 16 mmol/day in the normal subjects. Endogenous secretion of sulphate in the upper gastrointestinal tract was from 0.96-2.6 mmol/day. The dietary contribution to the colonic sulphate pool ranged up to 9 mmol/day, there being linear identity between diet and upper gastrointestinal losses for intakes above 7 mmol/day. Faecal losses of sulphate were trivial (less than 0.5 mmol/day) in the normal subjects at all doses. It is concluded that diet and intestinal absorption are the principal factors affecting the amounts of sulphate reaching the colon. Endogenous secretion of sulphate by colonic mucosa may also be important in determining amounts of sulphate in the colon. PMID:1855683

  5. Detecting sulphate aerosol geoengineering with different methods

    DOE PAGES

    Lo, Y. T. Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J.; Lott, Fraser C.; ...

    2016-12-15

    Sulphate aerosol injection has been widely discussed as a possible way to engineer future climate. Monitoring it would require detecting its effects amidst internal variability and in the presence of other external forcings. Here, we investigate how the use of different detection methods and filtering techniques affects the detectability of sulphate aerosol geoengineering in annual-mean global-mean near-surface air temperature. This is done by assuming a future scenario that injects 5 Tg yr -1 of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere and cross-comparing simulations from 5 climate models. 64% of the studied comparisons would require 25 years or more for detection whenmore » no filter and the multi-variate method that has been extensively used for attributing climate change are used, while 66% of the same comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection using a trend-based filter. This then highlights the high sensitivity of sulphate aerosol geoengineering detectability to the choice of filter. With the same trend-based filter but a non-stationary method, 80% of the comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection. This does not imply sulphate aerosol geoengineering should be deployed, but suggests that both detection methods could be used for monitoring geoengineering in global, annual mean temperature should it be needed.« less

  6. Effects of Different Zinc Species on Cellar Zinc Distribution, Cell Cycle, Apoptosis and Viability in MDAMB231 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-hong; Zhao, Wen-jie; Zheng, Wei-juan; Mao, Li; Lian, Hong-zhen; Hu, Xin; Hua, Zi-chun

    2016-03-01

    Intracellular metal elements exist in mammalian cells with the concentration range from picomoles per litre to micromoles per litre and play a considerable role in various biological procedures. Element provided by different species can influence the availability and distribution of the element in a cell and could lead to different biological effects on the cell's growth and function. Zinc as an abundant and widely distributed essential trace element, is involved in numerous and relevant physiological functions. Zinc homeostasis in cells, which is regulated by metallothioneins, zinc transporter/SLC30A, Zrt-/Irt-like proteins/SLC39A and metal-response element-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), is crucial for normal cellular functioning. In this study, we investigated the influences of different zinc species, zinc sulphate, zinc gluconate and bacitracin zinc, which represented inorganic, organic and biological zinc species, respectively, on cell cycle, viability and apoptosis in MDAMB231 cells. It was found that the responses of cell cycle, apoptosis and death to different zinc species in MDAMB231 cells are different. Western blot analysis of the expression of several key proteins in regulating zinc-related transcription, cell cycle, apoptosis, including MTF-1, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, caspase-8 and caspase-9 in treated cells further confirmed the observed results on cell level.

  7. Regulation of egg quality and lipids metabolism by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ding, Zhao-Peng; Wang, Shi-Wen; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-04-01

    This investigation was designed to explore the effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NP) on egg quality and the mechanism of decreasing of yolk lipids. Different concentration of ZnO NP and ZnSO4 were used to treat hens for 24 weeks. The body weight and egg laying frequency were recorded and analyzed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk color score were analyzed by an Egg Multi Tester. Breaking strength was determined by an Egg Force Reader. Egg shell thickness was measured using an Egg Shell Thickness Gouge. Shell color was detected by a spectrophotometer. Egg shape index was measured by Egg Form Coefficient Measuring Instrument. Albumen and yolk protein was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Amino acids were determined by an amino acids analyzer. Trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, and P (mg/kg wet mass) were determined in digested solutions using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. TC and TG were measured using commercial analytical kits. Yolk triglyceride, total cholesterol, pancreatic lipase, and phospholipids were determined by appropriate kits. β-carotene was determined by spectrophotometry. Lipid metabolism was also investigated with liver, plasma, and ovary samples. ZnO NP did not change the body weight of hens during the treatment period. ZnO NP slowed down egg laying frequency at the beginning of egg laying period but not at later time. ZnO NP did not affect egg protein or water contents, slightly decreased egg physical parameters (12 to 30%) and trace elements (20 to 35%) after 24 weeks treatment. However, yolk lipids content were significantly decreased by ZnO NP (20 to 35%). The mechanism of Zinc oxide nanoparticles decreasing yolk lipids was that they decreased the synthesis of lipids and increased lipid digestion. These data suggested ZnO NP affected egg quality and specifically regulated lipids metabolism in hens through altering the function of hen's ovary and liver. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Changes in zinc speciation with mine tailings acidification in a semiarid weathering environment.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sarah M; O'Day, Peggy A; Webb, Sam M; Maier, Raina M; Chorover, Jon

    2011-09-01

    High concentrations of residual metal contaminants in mine tailings can be transported easily by wind and water, particularly when tailings remain unvegetated for decades following mining cessation, as is the case in semiarid landscapes. Understanding the speciation and mobility of contaminant metal(loid)s, particularly in surficial tailings, is essential to controlling their phytotoxicities and to revegetating impacted sites. In prior work, we showed that surficial tailings samples from the Klondyke State Superfund Site (AZ, USA), ranging in pH from 5.4 to 2.6, represent a weathering series, with acidification resulting from sulfide mineral oxidation, long-term Fe hydrolysis, and a concurrent decrease in total (6000 to 450 mg kg(-1)) and plant-available (590 to 75 mg kg(-1)) Zn due to leaching losses and changes in Zn speciation. Here, we used bulk and microfocused Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data and a six-step sequential extraction procedure to determine tailings solid phase Zn speciation. Bulk sample spectra were fit by linear combination using three references: Zn-rich phyllosilicate (Zn(0.8)talc), Zn sorbed to ferrihydrite (Zn(adsFeOx)), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO(4) · 7H(2)O). Analyses indicate that Zn sorbed in tetrahedral coordination to poorly crystalline Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides decreases with acidification in the weathering sequence, whereas octahedral zinc in sulfate minerals and crystalline Fe oxides undergoes a relative accumulation. Microscale analyses identified hetaerolite (ZnMn(2)O(4)), hemimorphite (Zn(4)Si(2)O(7)(OH)(2) · H(2)O) and sphalerite (ZnS) as minor phases. Bulk and microfocused spectroscopy complement the chemical extraction results and highlight the importance of using a multimethod approach to interrogate complex tailings systems.

  9. Changes in zinc speciation with mine tailings acidification in a semi-arid weathering environment

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Sarah M.; O’Day, Peggy A.; Webb, Sam M.; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of residual metal contaminants in mine tailings can be transported easily by wind and water, particularly when tailings remain unvegetated for decades following mining cessation, as is the case in semi-arid landscapes. Understanding the speciation and mobility of contaminant metal(loid)s, particularly in surficial tailings, is essential to controlling their phytotoxicities and to revegetating impacted sites. In prior work, we showed that surficial tailings samples from the Klondyke State Superfund Site (AZ, USA), ranging in pH from 5.4 to 2.6, represent a weathering series, with acidification resulting from sulfide mineral oxidation, long-term Fe hydrolysis, and a concurrent decrease in total (6,000 to 450 mg kg−1) and plant-available (590 to 75 mg kg−1) Zn due to leaching losses and changes in Zn speciation. Here, we used bulk and micro-focused Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data and a six-step sequential extraction procedure to determine tailings solid phase Zn speciation. Bulk sample spectra were fit by linear combination using three references: Zn-rich phyllosilicate (Zn0.8talc), Zn sorbed to ferrihydrite (ZnadsFeOx), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4·7H2O). Analyses indicate that Zn sorbed in tetrahedral coordination to poorly-crystalline Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides decreases with acidification in the weathering sequence, whereas octahedral zinc in sulfate minerals and crystalline Fe oxides undergoes a relative accumulation. Micro-scale analyses identified hetaerolite (ZnMn2O4), hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2·H2O) and sphalerite (ZnS) as minor phases. Bulk and micro-focused spectroscopy complement the chemical extraction results and highlight the importance of using a multi-method approach to interrogate complex tailings systems. PMID:21761897

  10. Biochemical properties of a keratan sulphate/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan expressed in primate pluripotent stem cells*

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Susan; Bennett, William; Andrade, Jessica; Reubinoff, Benjamin E; Thomson, James; Pera, Martin F

    2002-01-01

    We previously identified a pericellular matrix keratan sulphate/chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan present on the surface of human embryonal carcinoma stem cells, cells whose differentiation mimics early development. Antibodies reactive with various epitopes on this molecule define a cluster of differentiation markers for primate pluripotent stem cells. We describe the purification of a form of this molecule which is secreted or shed into the culture medium. Biochemical analysis of the secreted form of this molecule shows that the monomeric form, whilst containing keratan sulphate, resembles mucins in its structure and its modification with O-linked carbohydrate. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting data show that monkey and human pluripotent stem cells react with antibodies directed against epitopes on either carbohydrate side chains or the protein core of the molecule. PMID:12033730

  11. Intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions in alveolar epithelial cells exposed to airborne ZnO nanoparticles at the air–liquid interface

    DOE PAGES

    Mihai, Cosmin; Chrisler, William B.; Xie, Yumei; ...

    2013-12-02

    Airborne nanoparticles (NPs) that enter the respiratory tract are likely to reach the alveolar region. Accumulating observations support a role for zinc oxide (ZnO) NP dissolution in toxicity, but the majority of in vitro studies were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in growth media, where large doses of dissolved ions are shed into the exposure solution. To determine the precise intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions (Zn 2+) shed by airborne NPs in the cellular environment, we exposed alveolar epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Using a fluorescent indicator for Zn 2+, togethermore » with organelle-specific fluorescent proteins, we quantified Zn 2+ in single cells and organelles over time. We found that at the ALI, intracellular Zn 2+ values peaked 3 h post exposure and decayed to normal values by 12 h, while in submersed cultures, intracellular Zn 2+ values continued to increase over time. The lowest toxic NP dose at the ALI generated peak intracellular Zn 2+ values that were nearly 3 folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of NPs in submersed cultures, and 8 folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of ZnSO4 or Zn 2+. At the ALI, the majority of intracellular Zn 2+ was found in endosomes and lysosomes as early as 1 h post exposure. In contrast, the majority of intracellular Zn 2+ following exposures to ZnSO 4 was found in other larger vesicles, with less than 10% in endosomes and lysosomes. In conclusion, together, our observations indicate that low but critical levels of intracellular Zn 2+ have to be reached, concentrated specifically in endosomes and lysosomes, for toxicity to occur, and point to the focal dissolution of the NPs in the cellular environment and the accumulation of the ions specifically in endosomes and lysosomes as the processes underlying the potent toxicity of airborne ZnO NPs.« less

  12. Intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions in alveolar epithelial cells exposed to airborne ZnO nanoparticles at the air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Mihai, Cosmin; Chrisler, William B; Xie, Yumei; Hu, Dehong; Szymanski, Craig J; Tolic, Ana; Klein, Jessica A; Smith, Jordan N; Tarasevich, Barbara J; Orr, Galya

    2015-02-01

    Airborne nanoparticles (NPs) that enter the respiratory tract are likely to reach the alveolar region. Accumulating observations support a role for zinc oxide (ZnO) NP dissolution in toxicity, but the majority of in-vitro studies were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in growth media, where large doses of dissolved ions are shed into the exposure solution. To determine the precise intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions (Zn(2+)) shed by airborne NPs in the cellular environment, we exposed alveolar epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Using a fluorescent indicator for Zn(2+), together with organelle-specific fluorescent proteins, we quantified Zn(2+) in single cells and organelles over time. We found that at the ALI, intracellular Zn(2+) values peaked 3 h post exposure and decayed to normal values by 12 h, while in submerged cultures, intracellular Zn(2+) values continued to increase over time. The lowest toxic NP dose at the ALI generated peak intracellular Zn(2+) values that were nearly three-folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of NPs in submerged cultures, and eight-folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of ZnSO4 or Zn(2+). At the ALI, the majority of intracellular Zn(2+) was found in endosomes and lysosomes as early as 1 h post exposure. In contrast, the majority of intracellular Zn(2+) following exposures to ZnSO4 was found in other larger vesicles, with less than 10% in endosomes and lysosomes. Together, our observations indicate that low but critical levels of intracellular Zn(2+) have to be reached, concentrated specifically in endosomes and lysosomes, for toxicity to occur, and point to the focal dissolution of the NPs in the cellular environment and the accumulation of the ions specifically in endosomes and lysosomes as the processes underlying the potent toxicity of airborne ZnO NPs.

  13. Intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions in alveolar epithelial cells exposed to airborne ZnO nanoparticles at the air–liquid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Mihai, Cosmin; Chrisler, William B.; Xie, Yumei

    Airborne nanoparticles (NPs) that enter the respiratory tract are likely to reach the alveolar region. Accumulating observations support a role for zinc oxide (ZnO) NP dissolution in toxicity, but the majority of in vitro studies were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in growth media, where large doses of dissolved ions are shed into the exposure solution. To determine the precise intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions (Zn 2+) shed by airborne NPs in the cellular environment, we exposed alveolar epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Using a fluorescent indicator for Zn 2+, togethermore » with organelle-specific fluorescent proteins, we quantified Zn 2+ in single cells and organelles over time. We found that at the ALI, intracellular Zn 2+ values peaked 3 h post exposure and decayed to normal values by 12 h, while in submersed cultures, intracellular Zn 2+ values continued to increase over time. The lowest toxic NP dose at the ALI generated peak intracellular Zn 2+ values that were nearly 3 folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of NPs in submersed cultures, and 8 folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of ZnSO4 or Zn 2+. At the ALI, the majority of intracellular Zn 2+ was found in endosomes and lysosomes as early as 1 h post exposure. In contrast, the majority of intracellular Zn 2+ following exposures to ZnSO 4 was found in other larger vesicles, with less than 10% in endosomes and lysosomes. In conclusion, together, our observations indicate that low but critical levels of intracellular Zn 2+ have to be reached, concentrated specifically in endosomes and lysosomes, for toxicity to occur, and point to the focal dissolution of the NPs in the cellular environment and the accumulation of the ions specifically in endosomes and lysosomes as the processes underlying the potent toxicity of airborne ZnO NPs.« less

  14. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  15. Zinc phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc phoshide ; CASRN 1314 - 84 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  16. The binding of sodium dodecyl sulphate to various proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pitt-Rivers, Rosalind; Impiombato, F. S. Ambesi

    1968-01-01

    1. The binding of sodium dodecyl sulphate to proteins by equilibrium dialysis was investigated. 2. Most of the proteins studied bound 90–100% of their weight of sodium dodecyl sulphate. 3. The glycoproteins studied bound 70–100% of their weight of sodium dodecyl sulphate, calculated in terms of the polypeptide moiety of the molecule. 4. Proteins not containing S·S groups bound about 140% of their weight of sodium dodecyl sulphate. 5. Reduction of four proteins containing S·S groups caused a rise in sodium dodecyl sulphate binding to 140% of the weight of protein. 6. The apparent micellar molecular weights of the protein–sodium dodecyl sulphate complexes were measured by the dye-solubilization method; they were all found to have approximately the same micellar molecular weight (34000–41000) irrespective of the molecular weight of the protein to which they were attached. PMID:4177067

  17. Aluminum and sulphate removal by a highly Al-resistant dissimilatory sulphate-reducing bacteria community.

    PubMed

    Martins, Mónica; Taborda, Rita; Silva, Gonçalo; Assunção, Ana; Matos, António Pedro; Costa, Maria Clara

    2012-09-01

    A highly Al-resistant dissimilatory sulphate-reducing bacteria community was isolated from sludge of the wetland of Urgeiriça mine (community W). This community showed excellent sulphate removal at the presence of Al³⁺. After 27 days of incubation, 73, 86 and 81% of sulphate was removed in the presence of 0.48, 0.90 and 1.30 mM of Al³⁺, respectively. Moreover, Al³⁺ was simultaneously removed: 55, 85 and 78% of metal was removed in the presence of 0.48, 0.90 and 1.30 mM of Al³⁺, respectively. The dissociation of aluminium-lactate soluble complexes due to lactate consumption by dissimilatory sulphate-reducing bacteria can be responsible for aluminum removal, which probably precipitates as insoluble aluminium hydroxide. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that this community was mainly composed by bacteria closely related to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. However, bacteria affiliated to Proteus and Ralstonia were also present in the community.

  18. Bioavailability of zinc in two zinc sulfate by-products of the galvanizing industry.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H M; Boling, S D; Emmert, J L; Baker, D H

    1998-10-01

    Two Zn depletion/repletion assays were conducted with chicks to determine the relative bioavailability (RBV) of Zn from two new by-products of the galvanizing industry. Using a soy concentrate-dextrose diet, slope-ratio methodology was employed to evaluate two different products: Fe-ZnSO4 x H2O with 20.2% Fe and 13.0% Zn, and Zn-FeSO4 x H2O with 14.2% Fe and 20.2% Zn. Feed-grade ZnSO4 x H2O was used as a standard. Weight gain, tibia Zn concentration, and total tibia Zn responded linearly (P < 0.01) to Zn supplementation from all three sources. Slope-ratio calculations based on weight gain established average Zn RBV values of 98% for Fe-ZnSO4 x H2O and 102% for Zn-FeSO4 x H2O, and these values were not different (P > 0.10) from the ZnSO4 standard (100%). Slope-ratio calculations based on total tibia Zn established average Zn RBV values of 126% for Fe-ZnSO4 x H2O and 127% for Zn-FeSO4 x H2O, and these values were greater (P < 0.01) than those of the ZnSO4 standard (100%). It is apparent that both mixed sulfate products of Fe and Zn are excellent sources of bioavailable Zn.

  19. The Effect of Sulphate Anions on the Ultrafine Titania Nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsyubynsky, Volodymyr O.; Myronyuk, Ivan F.; Chelyadyn, Volodymyr L.; Hrubiak, Andriy B.; Moklyak, Volodymyr V.; Fedorchenko, Sofia V.

    2017-05-01

    The phenomenological model of sulphate anions effect on the nanodispersed titania synthesis during hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride was studied. It was proposed that both chelating and bridging bidentate complexes formation between sulphate anions and octahedrally coordinated [Ti(OH)h(OH2)6-h](4-h)+ mononers is the determinative factor for anatase phase nucleation.

  20. Effects of zinc sulfate pretreatment on heat tolerance of Bama miniature pig under high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Cao, Y; Zhou, X; Wang, F; Shan, T; Li, Z; Xu, W; Li, C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the heat tolerance of Bama miniature pigs under high ambient temperature (40°C) and Zn interactive functions during heat treatment (HT). Bama miniature pigs (male; n = 24; 6-mo old; BW = 10.79 ± 0.06 kg) were randomly allotted to 4 groups and were fed a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 1,500 mg of Zn (ZnSO4·H2O)/kg diet for 38 d. At 7 mo of age (d 30), the thermal neutral (TN) groups remained at 25°C, whereas the HT groups were exposed to ambient temperature at 40°C for 5 h daily for 8 consecutive days. Pigs in 4 groups were sacrificed on d 38. Individual rectal temperatures, skin temperatures, and breathing rates were recorded at 3 h after the onset of HT and the blood samples were collected immediately after HT on d 30, 34, and 38. Pigs fed diets with or without Zn doubled their breathing rates (P < 0.05) and increased body surface, scrotal, and rectal temperatures during HT on d 30, 34, and 38, respectively. Zinc supplementation increased BW gain (BWG; P < 0.05) during 38-d experiment period, and HT decreased BWG only from d 30 to 34 (P < 0.05). Heat treatment increased serum testosterone on d 30 (P < 0.05). Zinc supplementation decreased the heat-induced increase of testosterone in HT on d 30 and 34 (P < 0.05). The relative weight of liver increased in HT groups (P < 0.05). Zinc supplementation decreased the relative weights of spleen (P < 0.05) and testis (P < 0.01). The values of abnormal lymphocyte count and large unstained cell count declined approximately 5 times in groups of Zn supplementation, whereas Zn supplementation increased the values of red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Zinc concentrations increased in serum, liver, kidney, epididymis, longissimus, hair, and feces in groups fed with Zn (P < 0.01). However, additional Zn decreased Zn concentrations in lung, spleen, and testis (P < 0.01). Moreover, HT decreased serum Zn

  1. Sulphate release from construction and demolition material in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Stefan; Wessolek, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    In Berlin and many other cities soils are heavily influenced by anthropogenic activities and deposited substrates. A widespread technical substrate in technosols is construction and demolition material from residential and industrial buildings. Existing rubble landfills without sealing facilities pose threats to ground water quality. In the central city of Berlin rising sulphate concentrations of groundwaters (up to 1200 mg/L) are measured since more than two decades. Previous studies point out that the high sulphate concentrations are mainly attributed to World War II rubble. The major part of debris was deposited in form of landfills and contains approximately 0.3 wt% gypsum. The scope of our research is to determine mechanisms of sulphate release from debris material, interactions between sulphate release, soil hydraulic properties and potential sinks of sulphur. To estimate equilibrium concentration and kinetics of sulphate release of various debris components batch and column experiments are conducted. The same method is applied to determine potential adsorptive character of common debris components. To analyse the impacts of soil hydraulic properties on sulphate leaching we carry out soil column experiments with defined upper and lower boundary conditions, varying water flow velocity and induced preferential flow. Simultaneously we monitor sulphate concentration of soil leachate in a 2 m³ lysimeter. First results of the batch experiments show that gypsum from broken stucco is the main source of sulphate in the observed technosols. Other components as mortar and slag show a quite low sulphate release. Similar results are found within the column experiments. For brigs medium and strongly time dependent sulphate release is determined. Concentrations up to 1500 mg/L are measured in the soil leachate from the lysimeter.

  2. UNCOUPLING THE COUPLED CALCIUM AND ZINC DYSHOMEOSTASIS IN CARDIAC MYOCYTES AND MITOCHONDRIA SEEN IN ALDOSTERONISM

    PubMed Central

    Kamalov, German; Ahokas, Robert A.; Zhao, Wenyuan; Zhao, Tieqiang; Shahbaz, Atta U.; Johnson, Patti L.; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Sun, Yao; Gerling, Ivan C.; Weber, Karl T.

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular [Ca2+]i overloading in cardiomyocytes is a fundamental pathogenic event associated with chronic aldosterone/salt treatment (ALDOST) and accounts for an induction of oxidative stress that leads to necrotic cell death and consequent myocardial scarring. This prooxidant response to Ca2+ overloading in cardiac myocytes and mitochondria is intrinsically coupled to simultaneous increased Zn2+ entry serving as an antioxidant. Herein, we investigated whether Ca2+ and Zn2+ dyshomeostasis and prooxidant:antioxidant dysequilibrium seen at 4 wks, the pathologic stage of ALDOST, could be uncoupled in favor of antioxidants, using cotreatment with a ZnSO4 supplement, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a Zn2+ ionophore, or ZnSO4 in combination with amlodipine (Amlod), a Ca2+ channel blocker. We monitored and compared responses in cardiomyocyte free [Ca2+]i and [Zn2+]i together with biomarkers of oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes and mitochondria. At wk 4 ALDOST and compared to controls, we found: i) an elevation in [Ca2+]i coupled with [Zn2+]i; and ii) increased mitochondrial H2O2 production, and increased mitochondrial and cardiac 8-isoprostane levels. Cotreatment with the ZnSO4 supplement alone, PDTC, or ZnSO4+Amlod augmented the rise in cardiomyocyte [Zn2+]i beyond that seen with ALDOST alone, while attenuating the rise in [Ca2+]i which together served to reduce oxidative stress. Thus, a coupled dyshomeostasis of intracellular Ca2+ and Zn2+ was demonstrated in cardiac myocytes and mitochondria during 4 wks ALDOST, where prooxidants overwhelm antioxidant defenses. This intrinsically coupled Ca2+ and Zn2+ dyshomeostasis could be uncoupled in favor of antioxidant defenses by selectively increasing free [Zn2+]i and/or reducing [Ca2+]i using cotreatment with ZnSO4 or PDTC alone or ZnSO4+Amlod in combination. PMID:20051880

  3. Sulfur and Zinc Availability from Co-granulated Zn-Enriched Elemental Sulfur Fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; da Silva, Rodrigo C; Degryse, Fien; Baird, Roslyn; Gupta, Vadakattu V S R; McLaughlin, Michael J

    2017-02-15

    Acidification by oxidation of elemental sulfur (ES) can solubilize ZnO, providing slow release of both sulfur (S) and zinc (Zn) in soil. For this study, a new granular fertilizer with ES and ZnO was produced and evaluated. The effect of incorporating microorganisms or a carbon source in the granule was also evaluated. Four granulated ES-Zn fertilizers with and without S-oxidizing microorganisms, a commercial ES pastille, ZnSO 4 , and ZnO were applied to the center of Petri dishes containing two contrasting pH soils. Soil pH, CaCl 2 -extractable S and Zn, and remaining ES were evaluated at 30 and 60 days in two soil sections (0-5 and 5-9 mm from the fertilizer application site). A visualization test was performed to evaluate Zn diffusion over time. A significant pH decrease was observed in the acidic soil for all ES-Zn fertilizer treatments and in the alkaline soil for the Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans-inoculated treatment only. In agreement with Zn visualization tests, extractable-Zn concentrations were higher from the point of application in the acidic (62.9 mg dm -3 ) compared to the alkaline soil (5.5 mg dm -3 ). Elemental S oxidation was greater in the acidic soil (20.9%) than slightly alkaline soil (12%). The ES-Zn granular fertilizers increased S and Zn concentrations in soil and can provide a strategically slow release of nutrients to the soil.

  4. Effect of Zinc on Appetite Regulatory Peptides in the Hypothalamus of Salmonella-Challenged Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiyi; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Li, Xianlei; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Zhang, Bingkun; Song, Zhigang

    2016-07-01

    The effects of dietary Zinc (Zn) supplementation on the gene expression of appetite regulatory peptides were investigated in Salmonella-infected broiler chickens. Broiler chickens (Arbor Acres, 1 day old) were allocated randomly into 24 pens of 10 birds. The chickens from 12 pens were fed with basal diet and the other with basal diet supplemented with Zn (ZnSO4·H2O, 120 mg/kg). At 5 days of age, the chickens were divided into 4 treatments with 6 pens: basal diet; basal diet and Salmonella challenge; Zn-supplemented diet; Zn-supplemented diet and Salmonella challenge. At 42 days of age, the hypothalamus from 6 chickens per treatment (1 chicken per pen) was individually collected for gene expression determination. Results showed that dietary supplementation of Zn reduced the gene expression of hypothalamic ghrelin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (P < 0.05). Salmonella infection upregulated the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and TNF-α. Zn supplementation and Salmonella inoculation were significantly correlated with the mRNA levels of toll-like receptor 2-1 (P < 0.05). However, neither dietary Zn supplementation nor Salmonella inoculation had significant effect on hypothalamic agouti-related protein, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and pro-opiomelanocortin. This study shows that dietary Zn supplementation promoted orexigenic appetite regulatory peptides and reduced the expression of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in the hypothalamus of Salmonella-challenged broilers.

  5. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  6. [Bioaccumulation of cadmium and zinc in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)].

    PubMed

    Sbartai, Hana; Djebar, Med Reda; Sbartai, Ibtissem; Berrabbah, Houria

    2012-09-01

    This work aims at evaluating the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) (trace elements) in the organs of young tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. Rio Grande) and their effects on the rate of chlorophyll and enzyme activities involved in the antioxidant system: catalase (CAT), glutathion-S-transferase (GST) and peroxysase ascorbate (APX). Plants previously grown on a basic nutrient solution were undergoing treatment for 7 days, either by increasing concentrations of CdCl(2) or ZnSO(4) (0, 50, 100, 250, 500 μM) or by the combined concentrations of Cd and Zn (100/50, 100/100, 100/250, 100/500 μM). The results concerning the determination of metals in the various compartments of tomato plants as a function of increasing concentrations of Cd or Zn, suggest a greater accumulation of Cd and Zn in the roots compared to leaves. The combined treatment (Cd/Zn) interferes with the absorption of the two elements according to their concentrations in the culture medium. The presence of Zn at low concentrations (50 μM of Zn/100 μM Cd) has little influence on the accumulation of Cd in the roots and leaves, while the absorption of these two elements in the leaves increases and decreases in roots when their concentrations are equivalent (100/100 μM) compared to treatment alone. When the concentration of Zn is higher than that of Cd (500 μM of Zn/100 μM Cd) absorption of the latter is inhibited in the roots while increasing their translocation to the leaves. Meanwhile, the dosage of chlorophylls shows that they tend to decrease in a dose-dependent for both treatments (Cd or Cd/Zn), however, treatment with low concentrations of Zn (50 and 100 μM) stimulates chlorophyll synthesis. However, treatment with different concentrations of Cd seems to induce the activity of the enzymes studied (CAT, APX, GST). It is the same for treatment with different concentrations of Zn and this particularly for the highest concentrations. Finally, the combined treatment (Zn

  7. Abnormal Excretion of Corticosteroid Sulphates in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, P. C.; Lockwood, E.; Pennington, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    In a preliminary study, the 24-hour urinary excretion of corticosteroid sulphates and free cortisol have been measured in a group of patients with breast cancer and compared with the excretion of the same compounds in a group of normal women of similar age. Excretion of corticosteroid sulphates in the breast cancer group was found to be markedly raised. In a small number of patients with localized cancer of sites other than the breast the level of corticosteroid sulphate was not raised. If proved metastases were present a noticeable rise was observed. Imagesp330-a PMID:4685623

  8. Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Caroline A; Brown, Julie; McKinlay, Christopher J D; Middleton, Philippa

    2014-08-15

    Magnesium sulphate has been used in some settings as a tocolytic agent to inhibit uterine activity in women in preterm labour with the aim of preventing preterm birth. To assess the effects of magnesium sulphate therapy given to women in threatened preterm labour with the aim of preventing preterm birth and its sequelae. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (last searched 31 January 2014). Randomised controlled trials of magnesium sulphate as the only tocolytic, administered by any route, compared with either placebo, no treatment or alternative tocolytic therapy (not magnesium sulphate) to women considered to be in preterm labour. At least two review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and undertook data extraction independently. The 37 included trials (total of 3571 women and over 3600 babies) were generally of moderate to high risk of bias. Antenatal magnesium sulphate was compared with either placebo, no treatment, or a range of alternative tocolytic agents.For the primary outcome of giving birth within 48 hours after trial entry, no significant differences were seen between women who received magnesium sulphate and women who did not (whether placebo/no alternative tocolytic drug, betamimetics, calcium channel blockers, cox inhibitors, prostaglandin inhibitors, or human chorionic gonadotropin) (19 trials, 1913 women). Similarly for the primary outcome of serious infant outcome, there were no significant differences between the infants exposed to magnesium sulphate and those not (whether placebo/no alternative tocolytic drug, betamimetics, calcium channel blockers, cox inhibitors, prostaglandin inhibitors, human chorionic gonadotropin or various tocolytic drugs) (18 trials; 2187 babies). No trials reported the outcome of extremely preterm birth. In the seven trials that reported serious maternal outcomes, no events were recorded.In the group treated with magnesium sulphate compared with women receiving

  9. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    PubMed

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  10. Update on zinc biology.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2013-01-01

    Zinc has become a prominent nutrient of clinical and public health interest in the new millennium. Functions and actions for zinc emerge as increasingly ubiquitous in mammalian anatomy, physiology and metabolism. There is undoubtedly an underpinning in fundamental biology for all of the aspects of zinc in human health (clinical and epidemiological) in pediatric and public health practice. Unfortunately, basic science research may not have achieved a full understanding as yet. As a complement to the applied themes in the companion articles, a selection of recent advances in the domains homeostatic regulation and transport of zinc is presented; they are integrated, in turn, with findings on genetic expression, intracellular signaling, immunity and host defense, and bone growth. The elements include ionic zinc, zinc transporters, metallothioneins, zinc metalloenzymes and zinc finger proteins. In emerging basic research, we find some plausible mechanistic explanations for delayed linear growth with zinc deficiency and increased infectious disease resistance with zinc supplementation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  12. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  13. Impact of zinc supplementation on the improved fructose/xylose utilization and butanol production during acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Li-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass and dedicated energy crops such as Jerusalem artichoke are promising alternatives for biobutanol production by solventogenic clostridia. However, fermentable sugars such as fructose or xylose released from the hydrolysis of these feedstocks were subjected to the incomplete utilization by the strains, leading to relatively low butanol production and productivity. When 0.001 g/L ZnSO4·7H2O was supplemented into the medium containing fructose as sole carbon source, 12.8 g/L of butanol was achieved with butanol productivity of 0.089 g/L/h compared to only 4.5 g/L of butanol produced with butanol productivity of 0.028 g/L/h in the control without zinc supplementation. Micronutrient zinc also led to the improved butanol production up to 8.3 g/L derived from 45.2 g/L xylose as sole carbon source with increasing butanol productivity by 31.7%. Moreover, the decreased acids production was observed under the zinc supplementation condition, resulting in the increased butanol yields of 0.202 g/g-fructose and 0.184 g/g-xylose, respectively. Similar improvements were also observed with increasing butanol production by 130.2 % and 8.5 %, butanol productivity by 203.4% and 18.4%, respectively, in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations from sugar mixtures of fructose/glucose (4:1) and xylose/glucose (1:2) simulating the hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and corn stover. The results obtained from transcriptional analysis revealed that zinc may have regulatory mechanisms for the sugar transport and metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum L7. Therefore, micronutrient zinc supplementation could be an effective way for economic development of butanol production derived from these low-cost agricultural feedstocks. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of agmatine sulphate on facial nerve injuries.

    PubMed

    Surmelioglu, O; Sencar, L; Ozdemir, S; Tarkan, O; Dagkiran, M; Surmelioglu, N; Tuncer, U; Polat, S

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of agmatine sulphate on facial nerve regeneration after facial nerve injury using electron and light microscopy. The study was performed on 30 male Wistar albino rats split into: a control group, a sham-treated group, a study control group, an anastomosis group, and an anastomosis plus agmatine sulphate treatment group. The mandibular branch of the facial nerve was dissected, and a piece was removed for histological and electron microscopic examination. Regeneration was better in the anastomosis group than in the study control group. However, the best regeneration findings were seen in the agmatine sulphate treatment group. There was a significant difference between the agmatine group and the others in terms of median axon numbers (p < 0.004) and diameters (p < 0.004). Agmatine sulphate treatment with anastomosis in traumatic facial paralysis may enhance nerve regeneration.

  15. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancement of indirect sulphation of limestone by steam addition.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael C; Manovic, Vasilije; Anthony, Edward J; Macchi, Arturo

    2010-11-15

    The effect of water (H₂O(g)) on in situ SO₂ capture using limestone injection under (FBC) conditions was studied using a thermobalance and tube furnace. The indirect sulphation reaction was found to be greatly enhanced in the presence of H₂O(g). Stoichiometric conversion of samples occurred when sulphated with a synthetic flue gas containing 15% H₂O(g) in under 10 h, which is equivalent to a 45% increase in conversion as compared to sulphation without H₂O(g). Using gas pycnometry and nitrogen adsorption methods, it was shown that limestone samples sulphated in the presence of H₂O(g) undergo increased particle densification without any significant changes to pore area or volume. The microstructural changes and observed increase in conversion were attributed to enhanced solid-state diffusion in CaO/CaSO₄ in the presence of H₂O(g). Given steam has been shown to have such a strong influence on sulphation, whereas it had been previously regarded as inert, may prompt a revisiting of the classically accepted sulphation models and phenomena. These findings also suggest that steam injection may be used to enhance sulfur capture performance in fluidized beds firing low-moisture fuels such as petroleum coke.

  17. Anthropogenic influence on the distribution of tropospheric sulphate aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, J.; Rodhe, H.; Crutzen, P. J.; Zimmermann, P.

    1992-10-01

    HUMAN activities have increased global emissions of sulphur gases by about a factor of three during the past century, leading to increased sulphate aerosol concentrations, mainly in the Northern Hemisphere. Sulphate aerosols can affect the climate directly, by increasing the backscattering of solar radiation in cloud-free air, and indirectly, by providing additional cloud condensation nuclei1-4. Here we use a global transport-chemistry model to estimate the changes in the distribution of tropospheric sulphate aerosol and deposition of non-seasalt sulphur that have occurred since pre-industrial times. The increase in sulphate aerosol concentration is small over the Southern Hemisphere oceans, but reaches a factor of 100 over northern Europe in winter. Our calculations indicate, however, that at most 6% of the anthropogenic sulphur emissions is available for the formation of new aerosol particles. This is because about one-half of the sulphur dioxide is deposited on the Earth's surface, and most of the remainder is oxidized in cloud droplets so that the sulphate becomes associated with pre-existing particles. Even so, the rate of formation of new sulphate particles may have doubled since pre-industrial times.

  18. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sulphate-containing wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Colleran, E; Pender, S

    2002-01-01

    The effect of sulphate at an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD):sulphate ratio of 4 on the operational performance of anaerobic hybrid reactors treating molasses wastewater was investigated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions in a long-term laboratory-scale study over a 1,081 day period. The presence of sulphate reduced the COD removal efficiency under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. At 55 degrees C, effluent acetate levels were consistently greater than 4000 mg l(-1) indicating that thermophilic acetate-utilising methane-producing bacteria (MPB) or sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) had not developed in the reactor under the conditions applied. At 37 degrees C, acetate was exclusively utilised by acetoclastic methanogens, whereas H2-utilising SRB predominated over H2-utilising MPB in the competition for hydrogen. By contrast, hydrogenotrophic MPB were shown to outcompete H2-utilising SRB during long-term thermophilic operation. 16SrDNA analysis of the seed sludge and reactor biomass on conclusion of the 37 degrees C and 55 degrees C trials illustrated that the dominant methanogen present on conclusion of the thermophilic trial in the absence of influent sulphate was related to Methanocorpusculum parvuum, and was capable of growth on both acetate and hydrogen. By contrast, an organism closely related to Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was the dominant methanogen present in the sulphate-fed reactor on completion of the thermophilic trial.

  19. Placental sulphate transport: a review of functional and molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Shennan, D B

    2012-08-01

    Sulphate is required by the feto-placental unit for a number of important conjugation and biosynthetic pathways. Functional studies performed several decades ago established that sulphate transport in human placental microvillus and basal membrane vesicles was mainly via a DIDS-sensitive anion-exchange mechanism. In contrast, no evidence was found for Na⁺-dependent transport. Studies performed using isolated human placental tissue confirmed anion-exchange as the main mechanism. More recently, molecular studies have established the presence of anion-exchange proteins which could play a role in transplacental sulphate movement. However, the presence of transcripts for NaS2 has been reported and has prompted the suggestion that Na⁺-sulphate cotransport may play an important role in maternal-fetal sulphate transport. This article reviews our present knowledge of placental sulphate transport, both functional and molecular, and attempts to form a model based on the available evidence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intralesional bleomycin and sodium tetradecyl sulphate for haemangiomas and lymphangiomas.

    PubMed

    Harjai, Man Mohan; Jha, Manvendu

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of intralesional bleomycin and sodium tetradecyl sulphate in treatment of haemangiomas and lymphangiomas. Between July 2007 and May 2009, 120 patients, sixty each of peripheral haemangiomas and lymphangiomas, were administered intralesional injection of bleomycin in a dose of 0.5-1 U/kg in children less than one year of age and 1 to 15 units in children more than one year of age and 1 to 3 ml of 2% sodium tetradecyl sulphate, depending on the size of the lesion at intervals of 14 days. Patients more than 20 years of age and those with diffuse or visceral lesions were excluded from the study. Complete resolution occurred in 16 patients (53%) of haemangiomas and 14 patients (47%) of lymphangiomas treated with bleomycin, while the results were 12 patients (40%) and 10 patients (33%), respectively, in sodium tetradecyl sulphate group. The satisfactory resolution (resolution more than 50%) occurred in eight patients (27%) of haemangiomas and lymphangiomas groups treated with bleomycin, while the results were six patients (20%) and eight patients (27%), respectively, in sodium tetradecyl sulphate group. Poor response rate was observed in six patients (20%) of haemangiomas and eight patients (27%) of lymphangiomas of bleomycin group and 12 patients (40%) of haemangiomas and lymphangiomas in sodium tetradecyl sulphate group. No pulmonary fibrosis or other serious side effects were found. Intralesional bleomycin and sodium tetradecyl sulphate are effective sclerosants in peripheral haemangiomas and lymphangiomas, but bleomycin was found to be more efficacious.

  1. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  2. Quantification of 19-nortestosterone sulphate and boldenone sulphate in urine from male horses using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Grace, Philip B; Drake, Erica C; Teale, Philip; Houghton, Edward

    2008-10-01

    Following administration of the anabolic steroid 19-nortestosterone or its esters to the horse, a major urinary metabolite is 19-nortestosterone-17beta-sulphate. The detection of 19-nortestosterone in urine from untreated animals has led to it being considered a naturally occurring steroid in the male horse. Recently, we have demonstrated that the majority of the 19-nortestosterone found in extracts of 'normal' urine from male horses arises as an artefact through decarboxylation of the 19-carboxylic acid of testosterone. The aim of this investigation was to establish if direct analysis of 19-nortestosterone-17beta-sulphate by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) had potential for the detection of 19-nortestosterone misuse in the male horse. The high concentrations of sulphate conjugates of the female sex hormones naturally present in male equine urine were overcome by selective hydrolysis of the aryl sulphates using glucuronidase from Helix pomatia; this was shown to have little or no activity for alkyl sulphates such as 19-nortestosterone-17beta-sulphate. The 'free' phenolic steroids were removed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) prior to LC/MS/MS analysis. The method also allowed for the quantification of the sulphate conjugate of boldenone, a further anabolic steroid endogenous in the male equine with potential for abuse in sports. The method was applied to the quantification of these analytes in a population of samples. This paper reports the results of that study along with the development and validation of the LC/MS/MS method. The results indicate that while 19-nortestosterone-17beta-sulphate is present at low levels as an endogenous substance in urine from 'normal' male horses, its use as an effective threshold substance may be viable.

  3. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  4. Zinc oxide overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  5. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children

    PubMed Central

    Lazzerini, Marzia; Wanzira, Humphrey

    2016-01-01

    from dehydration. Giving fluids by mouth (using an oral rehydration solution (ORS)) has been shown to save children's lives, but it has no effect on the length of time the children suffer with diarrhoea. Zinc supplementation could help reduce the duration and the severity of diarrhoea, and therefore have an additional benefit over ORS in reducing children mortality. What is oral zinc and how may it shorten the duration and severity of diarrhoea Zinc is usually given as zinc sulphate, zinc acetate, or zinc gluconate, which are all water-soluble compounds. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) recommend 10 mg to 20 mg of zinc per day for children with diarrhoea. There are several mechanism of action of zinc on acute diarrhoea, some of which are specific to the gastrointestinal system: zinc restores mucosal barrier integrity and enterocyte brush-border enzyme activity, it promotes the production of antibodies and circulating lymphocytes against intestinal pathogens, and has a direct effect on ion channels, acting as a potassium channel blocker of adenosine 3-5-cyclic monophosphate-mediated chlorine secretion. Cochrane researchers examined the evidence available up to 30 September 2016. What the evidence in the review suggests Thirty-three trials that included 10,841 children met the inclusion criteria of this review. Among children with acute diarrhoea, we don't know if treating children with zinc has an effect on death or number of children hospitalized (very low certainty evidence). In children older than six months, zinc supplementation may shorten the average duration of diarrhoea by around half a day (low certainty evidence), and probably reduces the number of children whose diarrhoea persists until day seven (moderate certainty evidence). In children with signs of malnutrition the effect appears greater, reducing the duration of diarrhoea by around a day (high certainty evidence). Conversely, in children younger than six

  6. Zinc induces distinct changes in the metabolism of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in the roots of two Brassica species with different sensitivity to zinc stress

    PubMed Central

    Feigl, Gábor; Lehotai, Nóra; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Marta; Palma, José M.; Corpas, Francisco J.; Erdei, László; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient naturally present in soils, but anthropogenic activities can lead to accumulation in the environment and resulting damage to plants. Heavy metals such as Zn can induce oxidative stress and the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), which can reduce growth and yield in crop plants. This study assesses the interplay of these two families of molecules in order to evaluate the responses in roots of two Brassica species under high concentrations of Zn. Methods Nine-day-old hydroponically grown Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and B. napus (oilseed rape) seedlings were treated with ZnSO4 (0, 50, 150 and 300 µm) for 7 d. Stress intensity was assessed through analyses of cell wall damage and cell viability. Biochemical and cellular techniques were used to measure key components of the metabolism of ROS and RNS including lipid peroxidation, enzymatic antioxidants, protein nitration and content of superoxide radical (O2·−), nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO−). Key Results Analysis of morphological root damage and alterations of microelement homeostasis indicate that B. juncea is more tolerant to Zn stress than B. napus. ROS and RNS parameters suggest that the oxidative components are predominant compared with the nitrosative components in the root system of both species. Conclusions The results indicate a clear relationship between ROS and RNS metabolism as a mechanism of response against stress caused by an excess of Zn. The oxidative stress components seem to be more dominant than the elements of the nitrosative stress in the root system of these two Brassica species. PMID:25538112

  7. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  8. Magnesium sulphate for treatment of tetanus in adults.

    PubMed

    Mathew, P J; Samra, T; Wig, J

    2010-01-01

    There are reports that suggest that magnesium sulphate alone may control muscle spasms thereby avoiding sedation and mechanical ventilation in tetanus, but this has not been confirmed. We examined the efficacy and safety of intravenous magnesium sulphate for control of rigidity and spasms in adults with tetanus. A prospective clinical study of intravenous magnesium sulphate was carried out over a period of two years in a tertiary care teaching hospital. In addition to human tetanus immunoglobulin and parenteral antibiotics, patients with tetanus received magnesium sulphate 70 mg/kg intravenously followed by infusion. The infusion was increased by 0.5 g/hour every six hours until cessation of spasms or abolishment of patellar tendon jerk. The primary outcome measure was efficacy determined by control of spasms. Secondary outcomes included frequency of autonomic instability, duration of ventilatory support, hospital stay and mortality. Thirty-three patients were enrolled. At presentation, the incidence of severity of tetanus was as follows: Grade I: 5 (15%), Grade II: 13 (39%), Grade III: 14 (42%) and Grade IV: 1 (3%). Rigidity and mild spasms were controlled with magnesium therapy alone in six patients; all were Grades I or II. Additional sedatives were required in severe forms of tetanus. The average duration of ventilatory support was 18.3 +/- 16.0 days and the overall mortality was 22.9%. Asymptomatic hypocalcaemia was a universal finding. Magnesium sulphate therapy alone may not be efficacious for the treatment of severe tetanus.

  9. Prevention of thaumasite formation in concrete exposed to sulphate attack

    SciTech Connect

    Bellmann, F.; Stark, J.

    2007-08-15

    Thermodynamic calculations were performed to investigate at which sulphate ion concentration hardened concrete can be damaged by the formation of thaumasite. It is indicated that thaumasite can be formed from C-S-H phases and portlandite at very low sulphate concentrations in an aggressive solution. Higher sulphate ion concentrations are required in the absence of portlandite. Still higher sulphate ion concentrations are needed if C-S-H phases with a low calcium/silicon ratio are consumed. Therefore, it is suggested that the formation of thaumasite at low and moderate sulphate concentrations in the attacking solution can be avoided by lowering the calcium/silicon ratio in themore » C-S-H phases. This can be achieved by the addition of pozzolanic and latently hydraulic admixtures. During the reaction of these materials, portlandite is consumed and the calcium/silicon ratio of the C-S-H phases is lowered. The aforementioned concept was confirmed by studies published in the literature and also by experimental investigations reported in this paper.« less

  10. An Optimal Dietary Zinc Level of Brown-Egg Laying Hens Fed a Corn-Soybean Meal Diet.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shizhen; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Xichun; Liao, Xiudong; Zhang, Liyang; Guo, Yanli; Luo, Xugang

    2017-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to estimate the optimal dietary zinc (Zn) level of brown-egg laying hens fed a corn-soybean meal diet from 20 to 40 weeks of age. A total of 120 20-week-old Beijing Red commercial laying hens were randomly allotted by bodyweight to one of five treatments with six replicates of four birds each in a completely randomized design, and fed a Zn-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 27.95 mg Zn/kg by analysis and the basal diets supplemented with 30, 60, 90, or 120 mg Zn/kg as Zn sulfate (reagent grade ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O) for a duration of 20 weeks. Laying performance, egg quality, tissue Zn concentrations, and activities of serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and liver copper-Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) were measured. Regression analyses were performed to estimate an optimal dietary Zn level whenever a significant quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed. Tibia Zn concentration (P = 0.002) and serum AKP activity (P = 0.010) showed significant quadratic responses to dietary supplemental Zn levels. The estimates of dietary Zn requirements for brown-egg laying hens from 20 to 40 weeks of age were 71.95 and 64.63 mg/kg for tibia Zn concentration and serum AKP activity, respectively. The results from this study indicate that the tibia Zn might be a more suitable and reliable parameter for Zn requirement estimation, and the optimal dietary Zn level would be about 72 mg/kg for brown-egg laying hens fed a corn-soybean meal diet from 20 to 40 weeks of age.

  11. Alteration in the expression of antioxidant and detoxification genes in Chironomus riparius exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan Nair, Prakash M; Chung, Ill Min

    2015-12-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are widely used in several commercial products due to their unique physicochemical properties. However, their release into the aquatic environments through various anthropogenic activities will lead to toxic effect in aquatic organisms. Although several investigations have been reported on the effect of ZnONPs in aquatic organisms using traditional end points such as survival, growth, and reproduction, the molecular level end points are faster and sensitive. In this study, the expression of different genes involved in oxidative stress response, detoxification, and cellular defense was studied in an ecotoxicologically important bio-monitoring organism Chironomus riparius in order to understand the subcellular effects of ZnONPs. The fourth instar larvae were exposed to 0, 0.2, 2, 10, and 20 mg/L of ZnONPs and Zn ions (in the form of ZnSO4.7H2O) for 24 and 48 h period. The expression of CuZn superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase, phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase 1 and delta-3, sigma-4 and epsilon-1 classes of glutathione S-transferases, cytochrome p4509AT2, and heat shock protein 70 were studied using real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Gene expression results showed that the expression of genes related to oxidative stress response was more pronounced as a result of ZnONPs exposure as compared to Zn ions. The mRNA expression of genes involved in detoxification and cellular protection was also modulated. Significantly higher expression levels of oxidative stress-related genes shows that oxidative stress is an important mechanism of toxicity as a result of ZnONPs exposure in C. riparius. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Kinetic studies of the murine foetal thymus using vincristine sulphate.

    PubMed

    Riches, A C; Carr, H M; McQueen, L; Thomas, D B

    1981-01-01

    The turnover time of the foetal thymus has been evaluated in CD1 mice using the metaphase arrest drug vincristine sulphate and also by direct cell counting and found to be 18 h (range 12--26) and 11.9 h (range 10.9--13.1) respectively. Vincristine sulphate can be used for cell kinetic studies on foetal thymus provided an appropriate dose (5 mgm per kgm body weight given intravenously) and time scale (less than 1 hour after injection) are used for these measurements. These conditions are different from those used for adult tissues. Using 125I-iododeoxyuridine uptake measurements, it was found that vincristine sulphate suppressed DNA synthesis in the foetal thymus but not in the maternal thymus at this dose. Only the G2 cohort of cells in the thymus entered mitosis.

  13. The ecology and biotechnology of sulphate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Muyzer, Gerard; Stams, Alfons J M

    2008-06-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are anaerobic microorganisms that use sulphate as a terminal electron acceptor in, for example, the degradation of organic compounds. They are ubiquitous in anoxic habitats, where they have an important role in both the sulphur and carbon cycles. SRB can cause a serious problem for industries, such as the offshore oil industry, because of the production of sulphide, which is highly reactive, corrosive and toxic. However, these organisms can also be beneficial by removing sulphate and heavy metals from waste streams. Although SRB have been studied for more than a century, it is only with the recent emergence of new molecular biological and genomic techniques that we have begun to obtain detailed information on their way of life.

  14. Corrosion Performance of Inconel 625 in High Sulphate Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Azzura

    2016-05-01

    Inconel 625 (UNS N06625) is a type of nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of corrosive media, being especially resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion. However, in aggressive environment, Inconel 625 will suffer corrosion attack like other metals. This research compared the corrosion performance of Inconel 625 when exposed to higher sulphate content compared to real seawater. The results reveal that Inconel 625 is excellent in resist the corrosion attack in seawater. However, at increasing temperature, the corrosion resistance of this metal decrease. The performance is same in seawater with high sulphate content at increasing temperature. It can be concluded that sulphate promote perforation on Inconel 625 and become aggressive agents that accelerate the corrosion attack.

  15. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  16. Folic acid improve developmental toxicity induced by aluminum sulphates.

    PubMed

    Yassa, Heba A; George, Safaa M; Mohamed, Heba K

    2017-03-01

    Aluminum sulphate has a significant toxic effects for humans. Aluminum is one of the most abundant metal on the Earth crust. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of short term exposure to aluminum sulphate on the bone development of the fetuses in rats, and if folic acid has a protective role upon that effects or not. Forty female rats were used, ten per group, GI served as negative control (receive nothing except normal feeding and water), GII served as positive control (receive water by gastric gavage), GIII treated with aluminum sulphate orally by gastric gavage and GIV treated with aluminum sulphate with folic acid. Mating occurred and known by presence of vaginal plug in the female rats. Rats were killed on day 18 of gestation. The female rats weight were significantly reduced in the treated group if compared with the control group (p>0.001), all parameters of the fetuses, fetal weight, malformation and the crown rump length reduced significantly p value were <0.000, <0.001, and <0.000 respectively. In histopathological results the aluminum treated group showed severe limited area of preossfication in fetuses vertebrae. Folic acid gave a protective role for all the hazardous effects of aluminum sulphate and prove the diameters measured and also the histopathological effects. Aluminum sulphate can produce hazardous effects on bone of the fetuses, which may affect the life style of these fetuses later on. Folic acid might give a protective role and so should be given to females who tried to conceive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Zinc Signals and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc. PMID:29064429

  18. Zinc and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Juan P.; Guo, Liang; Yoo, Changwon; Stewart, Tiffanie S

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative process through which cells overcome stressful conditions. Inasmuch as faulty autophagy has been associated with aging, neuronal degeneration disorders, diabetes, and fatty liver, autophagy is regarded as a potential therapeutic target. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning the role of zinc in the regulation of autophagy, the role of autophagy in zinc metabolism, and the potential role of autophagy as a mediator of the protective effects of zinc. Data from in vitro studies consistently support the notion that zinc is critical for early and late autophagy. Studies have shown inhibition of early and late autophagy in cells cultured in medium treated with zinc chelators. Conversely, excess zinc added to the medium has shown to potentiate the stimulation of autophagy by tamoxifen, H2O2, ethanol and dopamine. The potential role of autophagy in zinc homeostasis has just begun to be investigated.Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy dysregulation causes significant changes in cellular zinc homeostasis. Autophagy may mediate the protective effect of zinc against lipid accumulation, apoptosis and inflammation by promoting degradation of lipid droplets, inflammasomes, p62/SQSTM1 and damaged mitochondria.Studies with humans and animal models are necessary to determine whether autophagy is influenced by zinc intake. PMID:25012760

  19. Impact of tropospheric sulphate aerosols on the terrestrial carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, Alexey V.

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric sulphate aerosols (TSAs) may oxidise the photosynthesising tissues if they are taken up by plants. A parameterisation of this impact of tropospheric sulphate aerosols (TSAs) on the terrestrial gross primary production is suggested. This parameterisation is implemented into the global Earth system model developed at the A.M. Obukhov Institute of the Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS CM). With this coupled model, the simulations are performed which are forced by common anthropogenic and natural climate forcings based on historical reconstructions followed by the RCP 8.5 scenario. The model response to sulphate aerosol loading is subdivided into the climatic (related to the influence of TSA on the radiative transport in the atmosphere) and ecological (related to the toxic influence of sulphate aerosol on terrestrial plants) impacts. We found that the former basically dominates over the latter on a global scale and modifies the responses of the global vegetation and soil carbon stocks to external forcings by 10%. At a regional scale, however, ecological impact may be as much important as the climatic one.

  20. Microstructural Effects of Sulphate Attack in Sustainable Grouts for Micropiles.

    PubMed

    Ortega Álvarez, José Marcos; Esteban Pérez, María Dolores; Rodríguez Escribano, Raúl Rubén; Pastor Navarro, José Luís; Sánchez Martín, Isidro

    2016-11-08

    Nowadays, the use of micropiles has undergone a great development. In general, they are made with cement grout, reinforced with steel tubing. In Spain, these grouts are prepared using OPC, although the standards do not forbid the use of other cements, like sustainable ones. Micropiles are in contact with soils and groundwater, in which the presence of sulphates is common. Their deleterious effects firstly affect to the microstructure. Then, the aim of this research is to study the effects of sulphate attack in the microstructure of micropiles grouts, prepared with OPC, fly ash and slag commercial cements, compared to their behaviour when they are exposed to an optimum hardening condition. The microstructure evolution has been studied with the non-destructive impedance spectroscopy technique, which has never been used for detecting the effects of sulphate attack when slag and fly ash cements are used. Its results have been contrasted with mercury intrusion porosimetry and "Wenner" resistivity ones. The 28-day compressive strength of grouts has been also determined. The results of microstructure characterization techniques are in agreement, although impedance spectroscopy is the most sensitive for following the changes in the porous network of grouts. The results showed that micropiles made using fly ash and slag cements could have a good performance in contact with aggressive sodium sulphate media, even better than OPC ones.

  1. Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions.

    PubMed

    Dołhań, Agnieszka; Jelińska, Anna; Bębenek, Marcelina

    2014-01-01

    Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions was studied. Chromatographic separation and quantitative determination were performed by using a high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-DAD detection. During the stability study, poly(vinylchloride) minibags were filled with a solution containing 5 mg of ceftiofur sodium or cefquinome sulphate and diluted to 0.2 mg/mL with suitable intravenous solution depending on the test conditions. The solutions for the study were protected from light and stored at room temperature (22°C), refrigerated (6°C), frozen (-20°C) for 30 days, and then thawed at room temperature. A comparison of results obtained at 22°C and 6°C for the same intravenous solutions showed that temperature as well as components of solutions and their concentration had an influence on the stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate. It was found that ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate dissolved in intravenous solutions used in this study may be stored at room temperature and at 6°C for up to 48 h.

  2. Characterisation of chlorophyll a solubilised in sodium lauryl sulphate micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Sapre, A. V.; Mittal, Jai P.

    1980-01-01

    Poisson statistics has been applied to the problem of solubilisation of chlorophyll a in sodium lauryl sulphate micelles. Dilution experiments have been carried out to support the finding that each unit of chlorophyll a contributing to the 740 nm band contains just one chlorophyll a molecule.

  3. Microstructural Effects of Sulphate Attack in Sustainable Grouts for Micropiles

    PubMed Central

    Ortega Álvarez, José Marcos; Esteban Pérez, María Dolores; Rodríguez Escribano, Raúl Rubén; Pastor Navarro, José Luís; Sánchez Martín, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the use of micropiles has undergone a great development. In general, they are made with cement grout, reinforced with steel tubing. In Spain, these grouts are prepared using OPC, although the standards do not forbid the use of other cements, like sustainable ones. Micropiles are in contact with soils and groundwater, in which the presence of sulphates is common. Their deleterious effects firstly affect to the microstructure. Then, the aim of this research is to study the effects of sulphate attack in the microstructure of micropiles grouts, prepared with OPC, fly ash and slag commercial cements, compared to their behaviour when they are exposed to an optimum hardening condition. The microstructure evolution has been studied with the non-destructive impedance spectroscopy technique, which has never been used for detecting the effects of sulphate attack when slag and fly ash cements are used. Its results have been contrasted with mercury intrusion porosimetry and “Wenner” resistivity ones. The 28-day compressive strength of grouts has been also determined. The results of microstructure characterization techniques are in agreement, although impedance spectroscopy is the most sensitive for following the changes in the porous network of grouts. The results showed that micropiles made using fly ash and slag cements could have a good performance in contact with aggressive sodium sulphate media, even better than OPC ones. PMID:28774026

  4. Impact of ammonia and sulphate concentration on thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Siles, J A; Brekelmans, J; Martín, M A; Chica, A F; Martín, A

    2010-12-01

    The effect of increasing concentrations of ammonia and sulphate on thermophilic anaerobic digestion (52 degrees C) was studied at laboratory-scale. The substrate consisted of a synthetic solution supplemented with ammonia and sodium sulphate. In terms of biogas production, the results showed that the C/N and C/SO(4)(2-) thresholds were 4.40 and 1.60, respectively, corresponding to 620 mg FA (free ammonia)/L and 1400 mg SO(4)(2-)/L. No reduction in biogas production was observed until reaching the above concentration of sulphate in the sulphate toxicity test. However, when the concentration of ammonia was increased to 620 mg FA/L in the ammonia toxicity test, a gradual decrease of 21% was observed for the biogas. In order to characterise each set of experiments kinetically, a biogas production first-order kinetic model was used to fit the experimental data. The proposed model accurately predicted the behaviour of the microorganisms affecting the thermophilic anaerobic digestion, allowing its evolution to be predicted. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring structural transformation of hydroxy-sulphate green rust in the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmoula, M.; Zegeye, A.; Jorand, F.; Carteret, C.

    2006-01-01

    The activities of bacterial consortia enable organisms to maximize their metabolic capabilities. This article assesses the synergetic relationship between iron reducing bacteria (IRB), Shewanella putrefaciens and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) Desulfovibrio alaskensis. Thus, the aim of this study was first to form a biogenic hydroxy-sulpahte green rust GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) through the bioreduction of lepidocrocite by S. putrefaciens and secondly to investigate if sulfate anions intercalated in the biogenic GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) could serve as final electron acceptor for a sulfate reducing bacterium, D. alaskensis. The results indicate that the IRB lead to the formation of GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) and this mineral serve as an electron acceptor for SRB. GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) precipitation and its transformation was demonstrated by using X-ray diffraction (DRX), Mössbauer spectroscopy (TMS) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). These observations point out the possible acceleration of steel corrosion in marine environment in presence of IRB/SRB consortia.

  6. Local and systemic tolerability of magnesium sulphate for tocolysis.

    PubMed

    Zygmunt, M; Heilmann, L; Berg, C; Wallwiener, D; Grischke, E; Münstedt, K; Spindler, A; Lang, U

    2003-04-25

    An open-label, randomised, parallel-group, study was conducted in three study centres in women with premature labor and indication for a single agent intravenous tocolysis therapy with magnesium sulphate. The aim of this study was to examine the local and general tolerability and side-effects of magnesium sulphate for tocolysis. Furthermore, we tested the tolerability of a ready-for-use magnesium solution. No measurements of efficacy were performed during this study. Initially, patients received a loading dose of 4.0 g magnesium sulphate administered over 30 min. Thereafter, a continuous intravenous infusion of 1-2 g magnesium sulphate per hour up to 21 days was given. Venous score (Maddox), vital signs, adverse events as well as general tolerability (assessed by investigator and patients) and blood parameters were assessed. We showed good local and systemic tolerability of high dose magnesium sulphate for tocolysis. Only seven patients (15%) were withdrawn from the study prematurely due to minor adverse events. Potential serious complications of MgSO(4) such as respiratory arrest or clinically relevant respiratory depression were not observed. The most frequently reported local adverse events were injection site pain, itching, erythema, swelling, induration and palpable venous cord. The most common systemic adverse events considered to be possibly related to the study drugs involved the nervous system (dizziness) followed by the digestive system (nausea, constipation). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure changed only slightly during the treatment. Respiratory rate and body temperature remained stable also. Toxic magnesium levels (>2.5 mmol/l) were not observed. The assessment of the clinical investigators with regard to tolerability was very good or good in 72.5% of the patients. The introduction of the ready-to-use solution has the advantage of eliminating the need to mix the solution prior to administration. This means a lower risk of overdose and

  7. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  8. Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

  9. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciTech Connect

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remainedmore » constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.« less

  10. Role of dietary sulphate in the regulation of methanogenesis in the human large intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Christl, S U; Gibson, G R; Cummings, J H

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen produced during colonic fermentation may be excreted, or removed by H2 consuming bacteria such as methanogenic and sulphate reducing bacteria. In vitro, sulphate reducing bacteria compete with methanogenic bacteria for hydrogen when sulphate is present. In this study the hypothesis that sulphate in the diet could alter CH4 production in vivo has been tested. Six methane excreting volunteers were fed a low sulphate diet (1.6 mmol/d) for 34 days with the addition of 15 mmol sodium sulphate from days 11-20. Breath methane was measured and viable counts and metabolic activities of methanogenic bacteria and sulphate reducing bacteria determined in faeces. Whole gut transit time and daily stool weight were also measured. When sulphate was added to the diet, breath methane excretion decreased in three of the subjects while faecal sulphate reduction rates rose from 7.5 (0.5) to 20.3 (4.3) nmol SO4 reduced/h/g faeces. Sulphate reducing bacteria, which were not detected during the control diet, were found and viable counts of methanogenic bacteria fell from 10(7)-10(9)/g faeces to 10(6)/g. Methanogenic counts and breath CH4 recovered after sulphate addition was stopped. No change was found in the other three subjects. Faecal weights and transit times were not different between study periods. It is concluded that methanogenesis is regulated by dietary sulphate if sulphate reducing bacteria are present. Dietary sulphate may allow growth of sulphate reducing bacteria which inhibit the growth of methanogenic bacteria. This may explain the absence of CH4 in the breath of many people in western populations. PMID:1427377

  11. Characterization of dross and its recovery by sulphuric acid leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, S. A.; Meidianto, A.; Amal, M. I.; Wismogroho, A. S.; Widayatno, W. B.

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the characterization of dross from galvanizing process and its recovery using acidic leaching method. The diffraction profile of dross showed identical peaks with that of ZnO. The X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis identified the content of following metals: Zn, Fe, Mn, Ga, Co, and W. The thermal behaviour examination revealed the existence of some volatiles within the initial sample. The acidic leaching at various concentrations of sulphuric acid was conducted to determine the optimum concentration for zinc recovery and the highest yield of zinc sulphate. It is concluded that the optimum concentration of H2SO4 for this kind of dross is 4 M with 71.9% yield of ZnSO4. The result of leaching process was confirmed by infrared spectrum, where various absorptions corresponding to SO4 2- and Zn-O bands were observed.

  12. Sulphation of proteochondroitin and 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xyloside-chondroitin formed by mouse mastocytoma cells cultured in sulphate-deficient medium.

    PubMed Central

    Silbert, J E; Sugumaran, G; Cogburn, J N

    1993-01-01

    Mouse mastocytoma cells were cultured in medium containing [3H]GlcN and concentrations of [35S]sulphate varying from 0.01 to 0.5 mM. Intracellular [35S]sulphate incorporation increased severalfold from the lowest concentrations, reaching a maximum at 0.1-0.2 mM, whereas incorporation of [3H]hexosamine remained constant at all sulphate concentrations. Proteo[3H]-chondroitin [35S]sulphate was isolated and incubated with chondroitin ABC lyase, yielding 35S-labelled and/or 3H-labelled delta Di-0S and delta Di-4S disaccharide products. The increasing percentage of delta Di-4S was consistent with the increasing sulphate incorporation at each higher [35S]sulphate concentration. Examination of proteochondroitin [35S]sulphate size by Sepharose CL-6B chromatography indicated a range consistent with various numbers of glycosaminoglycan chains on the protease-resistant serglycin core protein. Alkali-cleaved chondroitin [35S]sulphate products indicated similar size distributions at all sulphate concentrations with no indication of preferential sulphation being related to smaller or larger size. DEAE-cellulose chromatography of [3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate glycosaminoglycans indicated a random undersulphation as [35S]sulphate concentration was lowered. Addition of 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xyloside to the cultures resulted in a 2-2.5-fold stimulation of [3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate synthesis with formation of beta-xyloside-[3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate which was much smaller, as estimated by Sepharose CL-6B chromatography, than the decreased amount of [3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate derived from proteo[3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate. Much higher concentrations of sulphate were necessary to produce sulphation of the beta-xyloside-[3H]chondroitin comparable with that of proteo[3H]-chondroitin, as indicated by chondroitin ABC lyase products and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The specific radioactivities of the [3H]GalN in the proteo[3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate and beta-xyloside-[3

  13. Zinc supplements for treating thalassaemia and sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Swe, Kye Mon Min; Abas, Adinegara B L; Bhardwaj, Amit; Barua, Ankur; Nair, N S

    2013-06-28

    control group, mean difference 47.40 (95% confidence interval -12.95 to 107.99). Regarding anthropometry, in one trial, height velocity was significantly increased in patients who received zinc supplementation for one to seven years duration, mean difference 3.37 (95% confidence interval 2.36 to 4.38) (total number of participants = 26). In one trial, however, there was no difference in body mass index between treatment groups.Zinc acetate supplementation for three months (in one trial) and one year (in two trials) (total number of participants = 71) was noted to increase the serum zinc level significantly in patients with sickle cell anaemia, mean difference 14.90 (95% confidence interval 6.94 to 22.86) and 20.25 (95% confidence interval 11.73 to 28.77) respectively. There was no significant difference in haemoglobin level between intervention and control groups, at either three months (one trial) or one year (one trial), mean difference 0.06 (95% confidence interval -0.84 to 0.96) and mean difference -0.07 (95% confidence interval -1.40 to 1.26) respectively. Regarding anthropometry, one trial showed no significant changes in body mass index or weight after one year of zinc acetate supplementation. In patients with sickle cell disease, the total number of sickle cell crises at one year were significantly decreased in the zinc sulphate supplemented group as compared to controls, mean difference -2.83 (95% confidence interval -3.51 to -2.15) (total participants 130), but not in zinc acetate group, mean difference 1.54 (95% confidence interval -2.01 to 5.09) (total participants 22). In one trial at three months and another at one year, the total number of clinical infections were significantly decreased in the zinc supplemented group as compared to controls, mean difference 0.05 (95% confidence interval 0.01 - 0.43) (total number of participants = 36), and mean difference -7.64 (95% confidence interval -10.89 to -4.39) (total number of participants = 21) respectively

  14. Zinc triggers microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, Tiina M.; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, “amoeboid” morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other pro-inflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with an NF-kB reporter gene showed a several-fold increase in NF-kB activity in response to 30 μM zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15 – 30 μM zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-κB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-κB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders. PMID:18509044

  15. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  16. [Zinc and chronic enteropathies].

    PubMed

    Giorgi, P L; Catassi, C; Guerrieri, A

    1984-01-01

    In recent years the nutritional importance of zinc has been well established; its deficiency and its symptoms have also been recognized in humans. Furthermore, Acrodermatitis Enteropathica has been isolated, a rare but severe disease, of which skin lesions, chronic diarrhoea and recurring infections are the main symptoms. The disease is related to the malfunctioning of intestinal absorption of zinc and can be treated by administering pharmacological doses of zinc orally. Good dietary sources of zinc are meat, fish and, to a less extent, human milk. The amount of zinc absorbed in the small intestine is influenced by other nutrients: some compounds inhibit this process (dietary fiber, phytate) while others (picolinic acid, citric acid), referred to as Zn-binding ligands (ZnBL) facilitate it. Citric acid is thought to be the ligand which accounts for the high level of bioavailability of zinc in human milk. zinc absorption occurs throughout the small intestine, not only in the prossimal tract (duodenum and jejunum) but also in the distal tract (ileum). Diarrhoea is one of the clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, thus many illnesses distinguished by chronic diarrhoea entail a bad absorption of zinc. In fact, in some cases of chronic enteropathies in infants, like coeliac disease and seldom cystic fibrosis, a deficiency of zinc has been isolated. Some of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, like retarded growth and hypogonadism, have been related to hypozinchemia which is present in this illness. Finally, it is possible that some of the dietary treatments frequently used for persistent post-enteritis diarrhoea (i.e. cow's milk exclusion, abuse and misuse of dietary fiber like carrot and carub powder, use of soy formula) can constitute a scarce supply of zinc and therefore could promote the persistency of diarrhoea itself.

  17. Solubility of glucose isomerase in ammonium sulphate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayen, N.; Akins, J.; Campbell-Smith, S.; Blow, D. M.

    1988-07-01

    In order to quantify protein crystallization techniques, a method for measuring protein solubility in high salt concentration has been developed. It is based on a sensitive protein concentration assay, using binding to Coomassie blue dye. The protein concentration in a supernatant from which glucose isomerase is crystallising has been studied as a function of time. Equilibrium is established in 3-5 weeks, and the protein concentration remaining in solution is defined as the solubility of the protein. The solubility of glucose isomerase has been determined as a function of ammonium sulphate concentration; its variation with pH in 1.50M ammonium sulphate has also been studied. A remarkable dependence on pH over the range of 5.5 to 6.5 has been observed.

  18. Physicochemical and in vitro deposition properties of salbutamol sulphate/ipratropium bromide and salbutamol sulphate/excipient spray dried mixtures for use in dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Deirdre O; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2006-09-28

    The physicochemical and aerodynamic properties of spray dried powders of the drug/drug mixture salbutamol sulphate/ipratropium bromide were investigated. The in vitro deposition properties of spray dried salbutamol sulphate and the spray dried drug/excipient mixtures salbutamol sulphate/lactose and salbutamol sulphate/PEG were also determined. Spray drying ipratropium bromide monohydrate resulted in a crystalline material from both aqueous and ethanolic solution. The product spray dried from aqueous solution consisted mainly of ipratropium bromide anhydrous. There was evidence of the presence of another polymorphic form of ipratropium bromide. When spray dried from ethanolic solution the physicochemical characterisation suggested the presence of an ipratropium bromide solvate with some anhydrous ipratropium bromide. Co-spray drying salbutamol sulphate with ipratropium bromide resulted in amorphous composites, regardless of solvent used. Particles were spherical and of a size suitable for inhalation. Twin impinger studies showed an increase in the fine particle fraction (FPF) of spray dried salbutamol sulphate compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate:ipratropium bromide 10:1 and 5:1 systems also showed an increase in FPF compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Most co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate/excipient systems investigated demonstrated FPFs greater than that of micronised drug alone. The exceptions to this were systems containing PEG 4000 20% or PEG 20,000 40% both of which had FPFs not significantly different from micronised salbutamol sulphate. These two systems were crystalline unlike most of the other spray dried composites examined which were amorphous in nature.

  19. Novel Rechargeable M3V2(PO4)3//Zinc (M = Li, Na) Hybrid Aqueous Batteries with Excellent Cycling Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, H. B.; Hu, C. J.; Cheng, H. W.; Fang, J. H.; Xie, Y. P.; Fang, W. Y.; Doan, T. N. L.; Hoang, T. K. A.; Xu, J. Q.; Chen, P.

    2016-01-01

    A rechargeable hybrid aqueous battery (ReHAB) containing NASICON-type M3V2(PO4)3 (M = Li, Na) as the cathodes and Zinc metal as the anode, working in Li2SO4-ZnSO4 aqueous electrolyte, has been studied. Both of Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na3V2(PO4)3 cathodes can be reversibly charge/discharge with the initial discharge capacity of 128 mAh g−1 and 96 mAh g−1 at 0.2C, respectively, with high up to 84% of capacity retention ratio after 200 cycles. The electrochemical assisted ex-XRD confirm that Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na3V2(PO4)3 are relative stable in aqueous electrolyte, and Na3V2(PO4)3 showed more complicated electrochemical mechanism due to the co-insertion of Li+ and Na+. The effect of pH of aqueous electrolyte and the dendrite of Zn on the cycling performance of as designed MVP/Zn ReHABs were investigated, and weak acidic aqueous electrolyte with pH around 4.0–4.5 was optimized. The float current test confirmed that the designed batteries are stable in aqueous electrolytes. The MVP//Zn ReHABs could be a potential candidate for future rechargeable aqueous battery due to their high safety, fast dynamic speed and adaptable electrochemical window. Moreover, this hybrid battery broadens the scope of battery material research from single-ion-involving to double-ions -involving rechargeable batteries. PMID:27174224

  20. Novel Rechargeable M3V2(PO4)3//Zinc (M = Li, Na) Hybrid Aqueous Batteries with Excellent Cycling Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. B.; Hu, C. J.; Cheng, H. W.; Fang, J. H.; Xie, Y. P.; Fang, W. Y.; Doan, T. N. L.; Hoang, T. K. A.; Xu, J. Q.; Chen, P.

    2016-05-01

    A rechargeable hybrid aqueous battery (ReHAB) containing NASICON-type M3V2(PO4)3 (M = Li, Na) as the cathodes and Zinc metal as the anode, working in Li2SO4-ZnSO4 aqueous electrolyte, has been studied. Both of Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na3V2(PO4)3 cathodes can be reversibly charge/discharge with the initial discharge capacity of 128 mAh g-1 and 96 mAh g-1 at 0.2C, respectively, with high up to 84% of capacity retention ratio after 200 cycles. The electrochemical assisted ex-XRD confirm that Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na3V2(PO4)3 are relative stable in aqueous electrolyte, and Na3V2(PO4)3 showed more complicated electrochemical mechanism due to the co-insertion of Li+ and Na+. The effect of pH of aqueous electrolyte and the dendrite of Zn on the cycling performance of as designed MVP/Zn ReHABs were investigated, and weak acidic aqueous electrolyte with pH around 4.0-4.5 was optimized. The float current test confirmed that the designed batteries are stable in aqueous electrolytes. The MVP//Zn ReHABs could be a potential candidate for future rechargeable aqueous battery due to their high safety, fast dynamic speed and adaptable electrochemical window. Moreover, this hybrid battery broadens the scope of battery material research from single-ion-involving to double-ions -involving rechargeable batteries.

  1. Soil acidification from atmospheric ammonium sulphate in forest canopy throughfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breemen, N.; Burrough, P. A.; Velthorst, E. J.; van Dobben, H. F.; de Wit, Toke; Ridder, T. B.; Reijnders, H. F. R.

    1982-10-01

    Acid rain commonly has high concentrations of dissolved SO2-4, NH+4 and NO-3. Sulphuric and nitric acids are usually considered to be the acidic components, whereas ammonium has a tendency to increase the pH of rainwater1. Ammonium can be transformed to nitric acid in soil but this source of acidity is generally less important than wet and dry deposition of free acids2,3. Here we describe the occurrence of high concentrations of ammonium in canopy throughfall (rainwater falling through the tree canopy) and stemflow in woodland areas in the Netherlands, resulting in acid inputs to soils two to five times higher than those previously described for acid atmospheric deposition2-5. The ammonium is present as ammonium sulphate, which probably forms by interaction of ammonia (volatilized from manure) with sulphur dioxide (from fossil fuels), on the surfaces of vegetation. After leaching by rainwater the ammonium sulphate reaching the soil oxidizes rapidly to nitric and sulphuric acid, producing extremely low pH values (2.8-3.5) and high concentrations of dissolved aluminium in the non-calcareous soils studied. Deposition of ammonium sulphate on the surfaces of vegetation and its environmental consequences are probably most important in areas with intensive animal husbandry.

  2. Tracing nitrates and sulphates in river basins using isotope techniques.

    PubMed

    Rock, L; Mayer, B

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to outline how stable isotope techniques can contribute to the elucidation of the sources and the fate of riverine nitrate and sulphate in watershed studies. The example used is the Oldman River Basin (OMRB), located in southern Alberta (Canada). Increasing sulphate concentrations and decreasing delta(34)S values along the flowpath of the Oldman River indicate that oxidation of pyrite in tills is a major source of riverine sulphate in the agriculturally used portion of the OMRB. Chemical and isotopic data showed that manure-derived nitrogen contributes significantly to the increase in nitrate concentrations in the Oldman River and its tributaries draining agricultural land. It is suggested that hydrological conditions control agricultural return flows to the surface water bodies in southern Alberta and impart significant seasonal variations on concentrations and isotopic compositions of riverine nitrate. Combining isotopic, chemical, and hydrometric data permitted us to estimate the relative contribution of major sources to the total solute fluxes. Hence, we submit that isotopic measurements can make an important contribution to the identification of nutrient and pollutant sources and to river basin management.

  3. Magnesium sulphate attenuates arterial pressure increase during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Jee, D; Lee, D; Yun, S; Lee, C

    2009-10-01

    Magnesium is well known to inhibit catecholamine release and attenuate vasopressin-stimulated vasoconstriction. We investigated whether i.v. magnesium sulphate attenuates the haemodynamic stress responses to pneumoperitoneum by changing neurohumoral responses during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Thirty-two patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to two groups; a control group was given saline, and a magnesium group received magnesium sulphate 50 mg kg(-1) immediately before pneumoperitoneum. Arterial pressure, heart rate, serum magnesium, plasma renin activity (PRA), and catecholamine, cortisol, and vasopressin levels were measured. Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures were greater in the control group (P<0.05) than in the magnesium group at 10, 20, and 30 min post-pneumoperitoneum. Norepinephrine or epinephrine levels [pg ml(-1), mean (SD)] were higher in the control group than in the magnesium group at 5 [211 (37) vs 138 (18)] or 10 min [59 (19) vs 39 (9)] post-pneumoperitoneum, respectively (P<0.05). In the control group, vasopressin levels [pg ml(-1), mean (SD)] were higher compared with the magnesium group at 5 [64 (18) vs 35 (9), P<0.01] and 10 min [65 (18) vs 47 (11), P<0.05] post-pneumoperitoneum. There were no significant differences between the groups in PRA and cortisol levels. I.V. magnesium sulphate before pneumoperitoneum attenuates arterial pressure increases during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This attenuation is apparently related to reductions in the release of catecholamine, vasopressin, or both.

  4. Physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity of sulphated zirconia nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mftah, Ae; Alhassan, Fatah H; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Webster, Thomas J; Sh-eldin, Mohammed; Rasedee, Abdullah; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Rashid, Shah Samiur

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle sulphated zirconia with Brønsted acidic sites were prepared here by an impregnation reaction followed by calcination at 600°C for 3 hours. The characterization was completed using X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunner-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the anticancer and antimicrobial effects were investigated for the first time. This study showed for the first time that the exposure of cancer cells to sulphated zirconia nanoparticles (3.9–1,000 μg/mL for 24 hours) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth, as determined by (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Similar promising results were observed for reducing bacteria functions. In this manner, this study demonstrated that sulphated zirconia nanoparticles with Brønsted acidic sites should be further studied for a wide range of anticancer and antibacterial applications. PMID:25632233

  5. Molecular structure of dextran sulphate sodium in aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Every, Hayley A.; Jiskoot, Wim; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Buijs, Wim

    2018-03-01

    Here we propose a 3D-molecular structural model for dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in a neutral aqueous environment based on the results of a molecular modelling study. The DSS structure is dominated by the stereochemistry of the 1,6-linked α-glucose units and the presence of two sulphate groups on each α-glucose unit. The structure of DSS can be best described as a helix with various patterns of di-sulphate substitution on the glucose rings. The presence of a side chain does not alter the 3D-structure of the linear main chain much, but affects the overall spatial dimension of the polymer. The simulated polymers have a diameter similar to or in some cases even larger than model α-hemolysin nano-pores for macromolecule transport in many biological processes, indicating a size-limited translocation through such pores. All results of the molecular modelling study are in line with previously reported experimental data. This study establishes the three-dimensional structure of DSS and summarizes the spatial dimension of the polymer, serving as the basis for a better understanding on the molecular level of DSS-involved electrostatic interaction processes with biological components like proteins and cell pores.

  6. Designing Hydrolytic Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element required for the function of more than 300 enzymes spanning all classes. Despite years of dedicated study, questions regarding the connections between primary and secondary metal ligands and protein structure and function remain unanswered, despite numerous mechanistic, structural, biochemical, and synthetic model studies. Protein design is a powerful strategy for reproducing native metal sites that may be applied to answering some of these questions and subsequently generating novel zinc enzymes. From examination of the earliest design studies introducing simple Zn(II)-binding sites into de novo and natural protein scaffolds to current studies involving the preparation of efficient hydrolytic zinc sites, it is increasingly likely that protein design will achieve reaction rates previously thought possible only for native enzymes. This Current Topic will review the design and redesign of Zn(II)-binding sites in de novo-designed proteins and native protein scaffolds toward the preparation of catalytic hydrolytic sites. After discussing the preparation of Zn(II)-binding sites in various scaffolds, we will describe relevant examples for reengineering existing zinc sites to generate new or altered catalytic activities. Then, we will describe our work on the preparation of a de novo-designed hydrolytic zinc site in detail and present comparisons to related designed zinc sites. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the significant progress being made toward building zinc metalloenzymes from the bottom up. PMID:24506795

  7. The effectiveness of a dentifrice without sodium lauryl sulphate on dental plaque and gingivitis - a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sälzer, S; Rosema, Nam; Hennequin-Hoenderdos, N L; Slot, D E; Timmer, C; Dörfer, C E; Van der Weijden, G A

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect on dental plaque and gingivitis of a dentifrice without sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) compared to two SLS-containing dentifrices. For this double-blind, parallel study, 90 volunteers having moderate gingival inflammation (≥40%) were randomly divided among three groups: one group using non-SLS dentifrice containing enzymes, colostrum and low concentrations of zinc and two control groups each using different SLS-containing dentifrices. Dental plaque scores (Turesky modification of Quigley & Hein) and gingivitis scores (Bleeding On Marginal Probing) were assessed at baseline, after 2 and 4 weeks. Eighty-nine participants provided evaluable data. A slight decrease in gingivitis scores was observed for all groups over 4 weeks, which was statistically significant for the non-SLS group. Mean values for dental plaque scores did not show major differences over 4 weeks. For both parameters, no significant differences between groups could be observed at any time point. Patient appreciation was in favour of the SLS groups especially regarding the foaming effect. No significant differences could be observed with respect to the effect on plaque and gingivitis between SLS-containing and SLS-free dentifrice containing enzymes, colostrum and low concentration zinc. Patients enjoyed the duration of taste and the 'foaming effect' of SLS-containing dentifrices better. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Combined strong anion-exchange HPLC and PAGE approach for the purification of heparan sulphate oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Vivès, R R; Goodger, S; Pye, D A

    2001-02-15

    Heparan sulphates are highly sulphated linear polysaccharides involved in many cellular functions. Their biological properties stem from their ability to interact with a wide range of proteins. An increasing number of studies, using heparan sulphate-derived oligosaccharides, suggest that specific structural features within the polysaccharide are responsible for ligand recognition and regulation. In the present study, we show that strong anion-exchange HPLC alone, a commonly used technique for purification of heparan sulphate-derived oligosaccharides, may not permit the isolation of highly pure heparan sulphate oligosaccharide species. This was determined by PAGE analysis of hexa-, octa- and decasaccharide samples deemed to be pure by strong anion-exchange HPLC. In addition, subtle differences in the positioning of sulphate groups within heparan sulphate hexasaccharides were impossible to detect by strong anion-exchange HPLC. PAGE analysis on the other hand afforded excellent resolution of these structural isomers. The precise positioning of specific sulphate groups has been implicated in determining the specificity of heparan sulphate interactions and biological activities; hence, the purification of oligosaccharide species that differ in this way becomes an important issue. In this study, we have used strong anion-exchange HPLC and PAGE techniques to allow production of the homogeneous heparan sulphate oligosaccharide species that will be required for the detailed study of structure/activity relationships.

  9. The action of diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate on rat blood vessels: a comparison with cromakalim.

    PubMed Central

    Newgreen, D. T.; Bray, K. M.; McHarg, A. D.; Weston, A. H.; Duty, S.; Brown, B. S.; Kay, P. B.; Edwards, G.; Longmore, J.; Southerton, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    1. The actions of diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate have been compared with those of cromakalim in rat aorta and portal vein. 2. Diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate hyperpolarized the rat portal vein in a similar manner to cromakalim. 3. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate increased 42K and 86Rb efflux from rat portal vein, although minoxidil sulphate had only a small effect on 86Rb efflux. 4. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate increased 42K efflux from rat aorta but only cromakalim and diazoxide increased 86Rb efflux from this tissue. 5. Glibenclamide inhibited the relaxant actions of cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate on rat aorta and the increase in 42K efflux produced by these agents in this tissue. 6. Diazoxide relaxed an 80 mM KCl-induced contraction of rat aorta, whilst cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate were without effect. 7. Cromakalim, diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate had no effect on cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP concentrations in rat aorta. 8. It is concluded that diazoxide and minoxidil sulphate like cromakalim exhibit K+ channel opening properties in vascular smooth muscle. Diazoxide exerts an additional inhibitory action not related to the production of cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP. The action of minoxidil sulphate may be primarily located at a K+ channel which is relatively impermeable to 86Rb. PMID:2167738

  10. Transcriptional response of Medicago truncatula sulphate transporters to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis with and without sulphur stress.

    PubMed

    Casieri, Leonardo; Gallardo, Karine; Wipf, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Sulphur is an essential macronutrient for plant growth, development and response to various abiotic and biotic stresses due to its key role in the biosynthesis of many S-containing compounds. Sulphate represents a very small portion of soil S pull and it is the only form that plant roots can uptake and mobilize through H(+)-dependent co-transport processes implying sulphate transporters. Unlike the other organically bound forms of S, sulphate is normally leached from soils due to its solubility in water, thus reducing its availability to plants. Although our knowledge of plant sulphate transporters has been growing significantly in the past decades, little is still known about the effect of the arbuscular mycorrhiza interaction on sulphur uptake. Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur measurements in plant parts and expression analysis of genes encoding putative Medicago sulphate transporters (MtSULTRs) were performed to better understand the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal interaction on Medicago truncatula plants colonized by Glomus intraradices at different sulphate concentrations. Mycorrhization significantly promoted plant growth and sulphur content, suggesting increased sulphate absorption. In silico analyses allowed identifying eight putative MtSULTRs phylogenetically distributed over the four sulphate transporter groups. Some putative MtSULTRs were transcribed differentially in roots and leaves and affected by sulphate concentration, while others were more constitutively transcribed. Mycorrhizal-inducible and -repressed MtSULTRs transcripts were identified allowing to shed light on the role of mycorrhizal interaction in sulphate uptake.

  11. [MORPHOFUNCTIONAL ADJUSTMENT VASCULAR AND CELLULAR COMPONENTS OF THE CEREBELLAR CORTEX IN EXPOSURE TO BODY SULFATES OF COPPER, ZINC AND IRON].

    PubMed

    Grintsova, N; Vasko, L; Kiptenko, L; Gortinsky, A; Murenets, N

    2015-09-01

    In order to analyze the morphological and morphometric reconstructions of the vascular bed, and Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex of rats in long-term action (for 90 days) on the body of sulphates of copper, zinc and iron, an experiment was conducted on 48 adult white male rats weighing 200-250 g in age 5-7 months. We used anatomical, morphometric, statistical and common methods of microanatomical research. It was found that the combined effect on the body of sulphates of copper and zinc, and iron in the cerebellum has enough expressive toxicity, which affects the condition of the vascular bed, and Purkinje cells. The degree of morphological transformations is in direct proportion to the duration of the experiment. In the pathogenesis of violations leading role played by hypoxia, develop signs of swelling of the cerebellar cortex with signs hemorrhagic infiltration, the severity of which is maximum on the 60th day of the experiment.

  12. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  13. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  14. Anticoagulant, antiherpetic and antibacterial activities of sulphated polysaccharide from Indian medicinal plant Tridax procumbens L. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Naqash, Shabeena Yousuf; Nazeer, R A

    2011-10-01

    The sulphated polysaccharide from the widespread Tridax procumbens plant was studied for the anticoagulant, antiherpetic and antibacterial activity. The anticoagulant activity was determined by the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. The sulphated polysaccharide from T. procumbens represented potent anticoagulant reaching the efficacy to heparin and chondroitin sulphate. Moreover, the sulphated polysaccharide extracted from T. procumbens was found non-toxic on Vero cell lines up to the concentration of 200 μg/ml. Sulphated polysaccharide exhibited detectable antiviral effect towards HSV-1 with IC(50) value 100-150 μg/ml. Furthermore, sulphated polysaccharide from T. procumbens was highly inhibitory against the bacterial strains Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi isolated from oil sardine.

  15. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  16. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and formore » that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to

  17. Bioelectrochemical sulphate reduction on batch reactors: Effect of inoculum-type and applied potential on sulphate consumption and pH.

    PubMed

    Gacitúa, Manuel A; Muñoz, Enyelbert; González, Bernardo

    2018-02-01

    Microbial electrolysis batch reactor systems were studied employing different conditions, paying attention on the effect that biocathode potential has on pH and system performance, with the overall aim to distinguish sulphate reduction from H 2 evolution. Inocula from pure strains (Desulfovibrio paquesii and Desulfobacter halotolerans) were compared to a natural source conditioned inoculum. The natural inoculum possess the potential for sulphate reduction on serum bottles experiments due to the activity of mutualistic bacteria (Sedimentibacter sp. and Bacteroides sp.) that assist sulphate-reducing bacterial cells (Desulfovibrio sp.) present in the consortium. Electrochemical batch reactors were monitored at two different potentials (graphite-bar cathodes poised at -900 and -400mV versus standard hydrogen electrode) in an attempt to isolate bioelectrochemical sulphate reduction from hydrogen evolution. At -900mV all inocula were able to reduce sulphate with the consortium demonstrating superior performance (SO 4 2- consumption: 25.71gm -2 day -1 ), despite the high alkalinisation of the media. At -400mV only the pure Desulfobacter halotolerans inoculated system was able to reduce sulphate (SO 4 2- consumption: 17.47gm -2 day -1 ) and, in this potential condition, pH elevation was less for all systems, confirming direct (or at least preferential) bioelectrochemical reduction of sulphate over H 2 production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Stable isotopic evidence for anaerobic maintained sulphate discharge in a polythermal glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, A. H.

    2016-03-01

    To understand the sources and sinks of sulphate and associated biogeochemical processes in a High Arctic environment, late winter snowpacks, the summer melt-waters and rock samples were collected and analysed for major ions and stable isotope tracers (δ18O, δ34S). The SO42bar/Clbar ratio reveal that more than 87% of sulphate (frequently > 95%) of total sulphate carried by the subglacial runoff and proglacial streams was derived from non-snowpack sources. The proximity of non-snowpack sulphate δ34S (∼8-19‰) to the δ34S of the major rocks in the vicinity (∼-6 to +18‰) suggest that the non-snowpack sulphate was principally derived from rock weathering. Furthermore, Ca2++Mg2+/SO42ˉ molar shows that sulphate acquisition in the meltwaters was controlled by two major processes: 1) coupled-sulphide carbonate weathering (molar ratio ∼ 2) and, 2) re-dissolution of secondary salts (molar ratio ∼ 1). The δ34S-SO4 = +19.4‰ > δ34S-S of rock, accompanied by increased sulphate concentration also indicates an input from re-dissolution of secondary salts. Overall, δ18O composition of these non-snowpack sulphate (-11.9 to -2.2‰) mostly stayed below the threshold δ18O value (-6.7 to -3.3‰) for minimum O2 condition, suggesting that certain proportion of sulphate was regularly supplied from anaerobic sulphide oxidation.

  19. Dielectric dispersion in pure and doped lithium rubidium sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassem, M. E.; El-Muraikhi, M.; Al-Houty, L.; Mohamed, A. A.

    The frequency (102 - 105 Hz) dependence of the dielectric properties of lithium rubidium sulphate (LRS) are reported in the vicinity of the transition temperature Tc = 477 K. The a.c. conductivity σ(ω) shows a strong temperature dependence and weak frequency response. The dielectric constant in this region shows a strong frequency dispersion. A Cole-Cole diagram was used to determine the distribution parameter and the molecular relaxation time. The effect of doping with Dy+3, Sm+3 and V+3, was also studied. It was found that doping gives rise to localized states which produce a disorder in the structure of LiRbSO4.

  20. Pyroelectric effect in tryglicyne sulphate single crystals - Differential measurement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trybus, M.

    2018-06-01

    A simple mathematical model of the pyroelectric phenomenon was used to explain the electric response of the TGS (triglycine sulphate) samples in the linear heating process in ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Experimental verification of mathematical model was realized. TGS single crystals were grown and four electrode samples were fabricated. Differential measurements of the pyroelectric response of two different regions of the samples were performed and the results were compared with data obtained from the model. Experimental results are in good agreement with model calculations.

  1. Impedance spectroscopy of water soluble resin modified by zirconium sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Anandraj; Joshi, Girish M.

    2018-04-01

    We successfully modified water soluble resin polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by loading zirconium sulphate (ZrSO4). We demonstrated the measurement of electrical properties by using impedance analyser across frequency range (10 Hz-1 MHz) and the temperature range of (30°C to 150°C). The impedance spectroscopy demonstrates decrease in bulk resistance as a function of temperature loading of zirconia 2.5 wt. %. Increase in AC (10-5 S/cm and DC conductivity (10- 2 S/m) observed due to ionic contribution of zirconia. However, the electrical properties of PVA/ZrSO4 composite useful to develop battery electrolyte applications.

  2. Endogenous Zinc in Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized. PMID:20396459

  3. 99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  4. Suppression of zinc dendrites in zinc electrode power cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damjanovic, A.; Diggle, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Addition of various tetraalkyl quarternary ammonium salts, to alkaline zincate electrolyte of cell, prevents formation of zinc dendrites during charging of zinc electrode. Electrode capacity is not impaired and elimination of dendrites prolongs cell life.

  5. Effect of copper sulphate treatment on natural phytoplanktonic communities.

    PubMed

    Le Jeune, Anne-Hélène; Charpin, Marie; Deluchat, Véronique; Briand, Jean-François; Lenain, Jean-François; Baudu, Michel; Amblard, Christian

    2006-12-01

    Copper sulphate treatment is widely used as a global and empirical method to remove or control phytoplankton blooms without precise description of the impact on phytoplanktonic populations. The effects of two copper sulphate treatments on natural phytoplanktonic communities sampled in the spring and summer seasons, were assessed by indoor mesocosm experiments. The initial copper-complexing capacity of each water sample was evaluated before each treatment. The copper concentrations applied were 80 microg l(-1) and 160 microg l(-1) of copper, below and above the water complexation capacity, respectively. The phytoplanktonic biomass recovered within a few days after treatment. The highest copper concentration, which generated a highly toxic environment, caused a global decrease in phytoplankton diversity, and led to the development and dominance of nanophytoplanktonic Chlorophyceae. In mesocosms treated with 80 microg l(-1) of copper, the effect on phytoplanktonic community size-class structure and composition was dependent on seasonal variation. This could be related to differences in community composition, and thus to species sensitivity to copper and to differences in copper bioavailability between spring and summer. Both treatments significantly affected cyanobacterial biomass and caused changes in the size-class structure and composition of phytoplanktonic communities which may imply modifications of the ecosystem structure and function.

  6. Polyferric sulphate: preparation, characterisation and application in coagulation experiments.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, A I; Moussas, P A; Vasilakou, F

    2008-07-15

    The process of coagulation is a core environmental protection technology, which is mainly used in the water or wastewater treatment facilities. Research is now focused on the development of inorganic pre-polymerised coagulants. A characteristic example is PFS (polyferric sulphate), a relatively new pre-polymerised inorganic coagulant with high cationic charge. In this paper, the role of major parameters, including temperature, types of chemical reagents, ratio r=[OH]/[Fe], rate of base addition in the preparation stages of PFS were investigated. Furthermore, the prepared PFS was characterised based on typical properties, such as the percentage of the polymerised iron present in the compound, z-potential, pH, etc. Moreover, dynamics of coagulation process were examined by means of the Photometric Dispersion Analyzer (PDA). Finally, the coagulation efficiency of PFS in treating kaolin suspension and biologically pre-treated wastewater was evaluated in comparison with the respective conventional coagulant agent. The results indicate that certain parameters, such as the r value, the rate of base addition and the duration and temperature of the polymerisation stage, significantly affected the properties of the PFS. Additionally, the prepared PFS polymerised coagulants exhibit a significantly better coagulation performance than the respective non-polymerised one, i.e. ferric sulphate.

  7. Textured fluorapatite bonded to calcium sulphate strengthen stomatopod raptorial appendages.

    PubMed

    Amini, Shahrouz; Masic, Admir; Bertinetti, Luca; Teguh, Jefri Sanusi; Herrin, Jason S; Zhu, Xi; Su, Haibin; Miserez, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Stomatopods are shallow-water crustaceans that employ powerful dactyl appendages to hunt their prey. Deployed at high velocities, these hammer-like clubs or spear-like devices are able to inflict substantial impact forces. Here we demonstrate that dactyl impact surfaces consist of a finely-tuned mineral gradient, with fluorapatite substituting amorphous apatite towards the outer surface. Raman spectroscopy measurements show that calcium sulphate, previously not reported in mechanically active biotools, is co-localized with fluorapatite. Ab initio computations suggest that fluorapatite/calcium sulphate interfaces provide binding stability and promote the disordered-to-ordered transition of fluorapatite. Nanomechanical measurements show that fluorapatite crystalline orientation correlates with an anisotropic stiffness response and indicate significant differences in the fracture tolerance between the two types of appendages. Our findings shed new light on the crystallochemical and microstructural strategies allowing these intriguing biotools to optimize impact forces, providing physicochemical information that could be translated towards the synthesis of impact-resistant functional materials and coatings.

  8. Textured fluorapatite bonded to calcium sulphate strengthen stomatopod raptorial appendages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Shahrouz; Masic, Admir; Bertinetti, Luca; Teguh, Jefri Sanusi; Herrin, Jason S.; Zhu, Xi; Su, Haibin; Miserez, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Stomatopods are shallow-water crustaceans that employ powerful dactyl appendages to hunt their prey. Deployed at high velocities, these hammer-like clubs or spear-like devices are able to inflict substantial impact forces. Here we demonstrate that dactyl impact surfaces consist of a finely-tuned mineral gradient, with fluorapatite substituting amorphous apatite towards the outer surface. Raman spectroscopy measurements show that calcium sulphate, previously not reported in mechanically active biotools, is co-localized with fluorapatite. Ab initio computations suggest that fluorapatite/calcium sulphate interfaces provide binding stability and promote the disordered-to-ordered transition of fluorapatite. Nanomechanical measurements show that fluorapatite crystalline orientation correlates with an anisotropic stiffness response and indicate significant differences in the fracture tolerance between the two types of appendages. Our findings shed new light on the crystallochemical and microstructural strategies allowing these intriguing biotools to optimize impact forces, providing physicochemical information that could be translated towards the synthesis of impact-resistant functional materials and coatings.

  9. Sulphate transport by H+ symport and by the dicarboxylate carrier in mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Saris, N E

    1980-01-01

    1. Swelling of mitochondria was induced in non-respiring mitochondria by 30 mM or more Na2SO4 or by respiration in the presence of K2SO4. Respiration-drive swelling resulted in loss of respiratory control. Sulphate, when present at 10 mM concentration, promoted the release of accumulated Ca2+. 2. Swelling was prevented by N-ethylmaleimide and formaldehyde, known inhibitors of the phosphate carrier. Sulphate-induced swelling was more sensitive to the inhibitors than was phosphate-induced swelling. At lower concentration of sulphate, 5 mM, an alkalinisation of the medium was observed in addition of sulphate, indicating H+-sulphate symport. There was competition between sulphate and phosphate for transport by this mechanism. It is suggested that sulphate may be transported, though at a comparatively slow rate, by the phosphate carrier. 3. Uptake of sulphate was stimulated when preceded by energy-dependent accumulation of Ba2+, especially when acetate was also present, indicating precipitation of BaSO4 in the matrix. Using this system the influx of sulphate was studied at lower concentrations, 10 mM or less. the contributions of the H+ symporter (sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide) and the dicarboxylate carrier (sensitive to butylmalonate) could then be studied. The dicarboxylate carrier had a lower Km and was mainly responsible for sulphate transport at lower concentration range. At 10 mM-sulphate the transport rates by the two systems appeared to be similar; at still higher concentrations the H+ symporter may become more important. PMID:7236245

  10. Correlation analysis between sulphate content and leaching of sulphates in recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes.

    PubMed

    Barbudo, Auxi; Galvín, Adela P; Agrela, Francisco; Ayuso, Jesús; Jiménez, Jose Ramón

    2012-06-01

    In some recycled aggregates applications, such as component of new concrete or roads, the total content of soluble sulphates should be measured and controlled. Restrictions are usually motivated by the resistance or stability of the new structure, and in most cases, structural concerns can be remedied by the use of techniques such as sulphur-resistant cements. However, environmental risk assessment from recycling and reuse construction products is often forgotten. The purpose of this study is to analyse the content of soluble sulphate on eleven recycled aggregates and six samples prepared in laboratory by the addition of different gypsum percentages. As points of reference, two natural aggregates were tested. An analysis of the content of the leachable amount of heavy metals regulated by European regulation was included. As a result, the correlation between solubility and leachability data allow suggest a limiting gypsum amount of 4.4% on recycled aggregates. This limit satisfies EU Landfill Directive criteria, which is currently used as reference by public Spanish Government for recycled aggregates in construction works. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1998-02-03

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  12. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Gangwal, Santosh K.; Jain, Suresh C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  13. Massive Volcanic SO2 Oxidation and Sulphate Aerosol Deposition in Cenozoic North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volcanic eruptions release a large amount of sulphur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere. SO2 is oxidized to sulphate and can subsequently form sulphate aerosol, which can affect the Earth's radiation balance, biologic productivity and high-altitude ozone co...

  14. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; York, D.

    1981-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

  15. Sultr4;1 mutant seeds of Arabidopsis have an enhanced sulphate content and modified proteome suggesting metabolic adaptations to altered sulphate compartmentalization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sulphur is an essential macronutrient needed for the synthesis of many cellular components. Sulphur containing amino acids and stress response-related compounds, such as glutathione, are derived from reduction of root-absorbed sulphate. Sulphate distribution in cell compartments necessitates specific transport systems. The low-affinity sulphate transporters SULTR4;1 and SULTR4;2 have been localized to the vacuolar membrane, where they may facilitate sulphate efflux from the vacuole. Results In the present study, we demonstrated that the Sultr4;1 gene is expressed in developing Arabidopsis seeds to a level over 10-fold higher than the Sultr4;2 gene. A characterization of dry mature seeds from a Sultr4;1 T-DNA mutant revealed a higher sulphate content, implying a function for this transporter in developing seeds. A fine dissection of the Sultr4;1 seed proteome identified 29 spots whose abundance varied compared to wild-type. Specific metabolic features characteristic of an adaptive response were revealed, such as an up-accumulation of various proteins involved in sugar metabolism and in detoxification processes. Conclusions This study revealed a role for SULTR4;1 in determining sulphate content of mature Arabidopsis seeds. Moreover, the adaptive response of sultr4;1 mutant seeds as revealed by proteomics suggests a function of SULTR4;1 in redox homeostasis, a mechanism that has to be tightly controlled during development of orthodox seeds. PMID:20426829

  16. History of zinc in agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, over 20 years would past before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure a parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it wa...

  17. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  18. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  19. An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Rasch, Philip J.; Tilmes, S.; Turco, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    We provide an overview of geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosols. The state of understanding about this topic as of early 2008 is reviewed, summarizing the past 30 years of work in the area, highlighting some very recent studies using climate models, and discussing methods used to deliver sulphur species to the stratosphere. The studies reviewed here suggest that sulphate aerosols can counteract the globally averaged temperature increase associated with increasing greenhouse gases, and reduce changes to some other components of the Earth system. There are likely to be remaining regional climate changes after geoengineering, with some regions experiencing significant changesmore » in temperature or precipitation. The aerosols also serve as surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry resulting in increased ozone depletion. The delivery of sulphur species to the stratosphere in a way that will produce particles of the right size is shown to be a complex and potentially very difficult task. Two simple delivery scenarios are explored, but similar exercises will be needed for other suggested delivery mechanisms. While the introduction of the geoengineering source of sulphate aerosol will perturb the sulphur cycle of the stratosphere signicantly, it is a small perturbation to the total (stratosphere and troposphere) sulphur cycle. The geoengineering source would thus be a small contributor to the total global source of ‘acid rain’ that could be compensated for through improved pollution control of anthropogenic tropospheric sources. Some areas of research remain unexplored. Although ozone may be depleted, with a consequent increase to solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) energy reaching the surface and a potential impact on health and biological populations, the aerosols will also scatter and attenuate this part of the energy spectrum, and this may compensate the UVB enhancement associated with ozone depletion. The aerosol will also change the ratio of diffuse to direct

  20. An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Philip J; Tilmes, Simone; Turco, Richard P; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Stenchikov, Georgiy L; Garcia, Rolando R

    2008-11-13

    We provide an overview of geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosols. The state of understanding about this topic as of early 2008 is reviewed, summarizing the past 30 years of work in the area, highlighting some very recent studies using climate models, and discussing methods used to deliver sulphur species to the stratosphere. The studies reviewed here suggest that sulphate aerosols can counteract the globally averaged temperature increase associated with increasing greenhouse gases, and reduce changes to some other components of the Earth system. There are likely to be remaining regional climate changes after geoengineering, with some regions experiencing significant changes in temperature or precipitation. The aerosols also serve as surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry resulting in increased ozone depletion. The delivery of sulphur species to the stratosphere in a way that will produce particles of the right size is shown to be a complex and potentially very difficult task. Two simple delivery scenarios are explored, but similar exercises will be needed for other suggested delivery mechanisms. While the introduction of the geoengineering source of sulphate aerosol will perturb the sulphur cycle of the stratosphere signicantly, it is a small perturbation to the total (stratosphere and troposphere) sulphur cycle. The geoengineering source would thus be a small contributor to the total global source of 'acid rain' that could be compensated for through improved pollution control of anthropogenic tropospheric sources. Some areas of research remain unexplored. Although ozone may be depleted, with a consequent increase to solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) energy reaching the surface and a potential impact on health and biological populations, the aerosols will also scatter and attenuate this part of the energy spectrum, and this may compensate the UVB enhancement associated with ozone depletion. The aerosol will also change the ratio of diffuse to direct energy

  1. Antimicrobial activity of flavanoid sulphates and other fractions of Argyreia speciosa (Burm.f) Boj.

    PubMed

    Habbu, P V; Mahadevan, K M; Shastry, R A; Manjunatha, H

    2009-02-01

    Antimicrobial activity of flavanoid sulphates and different fractions of A. speciosa root was studied against bacteria, fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv sensitive strain by in vitro and in vivo assays. Flavanoid sulphates such as quercetin 3'7 di-O methyl 3- sulphate and kaempferol 7-O methyl 3-sulphate were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of 80% methanolic extract of the plant. The structures of the isolated flavanoids were confirmed by spectral studies. Ethyl acetate (EAAS) fraction and flavanoid sulphates inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis Rv sensitive strain at MIC values 50 and 25 microg/ml, respectively. Ethanolic fraction (EtAS) showed significant inhibition of gram positive organism with a MIC of 31.25 microg/ml. More inhibition was observed with a less MIC (2 microg/ml) for flavanoid sulphates against Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram negative organism and it is almost comparable with the standards. Interestingly, chloroform fraction alone exhibited significant antifungal activity with a MIC of 100 microg/ml. A synergistic effect between flavanoids sulphates and commercially available antitubercular drugs was observed with FIC index of 0.443 +/- 0.245, 0.487 +/- 0.247 for isoniazid and 0.468 +/- 0.333, 0.417 +/- 0.345 for rifampicin, whereas EAAS fraction showed partial synergistic effect. A synergistic effect was observed for EAAS fraction and flavanoids sulphates with FIC index < 0.5 with antibiotics. Hemolysis assay on RBCs suggested that EAAS and flavanoids sulphates exhibited least cellular toxicity to erythrocytes as compared to chloramphenicol. In vivo studies in mice infected with K. pneumoniae demonstrated that on day 10 post treatment of different fractions and isolated compounds of A. speciosa, about 60% of the animals treated with EAAS, 70% of animals treated with flavanoids sulphates and 40% of animals treated with EtAS were survived.

  2. Particulate sulphate and ozone in rural air: Preliminary results from three sites in central England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A.; Barber, F. R.

    Daily particulate sulphate concentrations in air have been measured at a 'background' rural site and at two other sites near rural power stations. The samples were collected by drawing air through filter papers and were analysed by X-ray fluorescence. At the background site the concentration of particulate sulphates was strongly dependent on the O 3 and total S in air. Above a certain 'critical' level of daily O 3, 28% of the daily S in air was particulate on average, but the amounts were not related to the actual O 3 levels. At lower O 3 levels, there appeared to be a constant background of about 2 μg of particulate sulphate per cubic meter of air, together with about 5% of the total S in air as particulate. When black smoke in air was low, the particulate sulphate was also low, despite the O 3 levels. Near the power stations, there was no significantly different rate of production or loss of particulate sulphate. On average, at all three sites over the year, about 12% of the daily total S was particulate, probably corresponding to an average conversion rate of SO 2 of less than 1% per hour. Estimates of hourly particulate sulphates are available from previous measurements at the background site, using a different analysis technique. Particulate sulphate was not found every hour, but typically during 20 h a day in early summer and 8 h a day in early winter. An influence of humidity as well as O 3 was apparent in the peak hourly particulate sulphate values, which reached 60% of the total S. No correlation could be found of particulate sulphate with solar radiation, wind direction, concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in air or ammonium or sulphate in rainwater, but further measurements are planned.

  3. Sulphate, more than a nutrient, protects the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii from cadmium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique; Abalde, Julio

    2014-03-01

    Sulphur is an essential macroelement that plays important roles in living organisms. The thiol rich sulphur compounds, such as cysteine, γ-Glu-Cys, glutathione and phytochelatins participate in the tolerance mechanisms against cadmium toxicity. Plants, algae, yeasts and most prokaryotes cover their demand for reduced sulphur by reduction of inorganic sulphate. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a bifactorial experimental design, the effect of different sulphate concentrations in the nutrient solution on cadmium toxicity in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Cell growth, kinetic parameters of sulphate utilization and intracellular concentrations of low-molecular mass thiol compounds were determined. A mathematical model to describe the growth of this microalga based on the effects of sulphate and cadmium was obtained. An ANOVA revealed an interaction between them, 16% of the effect sizes was explained by this interaction. A higher amount of sulphate in the culture medium allowed a higher cadmium tolerance due to an increase in the thiol compound biosynthesis. The amount of low-molecular mass thiol compounds, mainly phytochelatins, synthesized by this microalga was significantly dependent on the sulphate and cadmium concentrations; the higher phytochelatin content was obtained in cultures with 4 mg Cd/L and 1mM sulphate. The maximum EC50 value (based on nominal cadmium concentration) reached for this microalga was 4.46 ± 0.42 mg Cd/L when the sulphate concentration added to the culture medium was also 1mM. An increase in the sulphate concentration, in deficient environments, could alleviate the toxic effect of this metal; however, a relative excess is also negative. The results obtained showed a substrate inhibition for this nutrient. An uncompetitive model for sulphate was chosen to establish the mathematical model that links both factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Corrosion of cordierite ceramics by sodium sulphate at 1000 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianco, Robert; Jacobson, Nathan

    1989-01-01

    The corrosion of a sintered cordierite (2MgO-2Al2O3-5SiO2) ceramic by sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) was investigated at 1000 C. Laboratory tests with thin films of Na2SO4/O2 and Na2SO4/1 percent SO2-O2 were performed. In the Na2SO4/O2 case, the cordierite reacted to form NaAlSiO4. After several hours of corrosion, the Na2SO4 appeared to induce surface cracks in the cordierite. In the Na2SO4/1 percent SO2-O2 case, other dissolution reactions occurred. The material was also tested in a burner rig with No. 2 Diesel fuel and 2 ppm sodium. The corrosion process was similar to that observed in the Na2SO4/O2 furnace tests, with more severe attack occurring.

  5. Modelling the growth of triglycine sulphate crystals in Spacelab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, Hak-Do; Wilcox, William R.; Lal, Ravindra; Trolinger, James D.

    1988-01-01

    Two triglycine sulphate crystals were grown from an aqueous solution in Spacelab 3 aboard a Space Shuttle. Using a diffusion coefficient of 0.00002 sq cm/s, a computerized simulation gave reasonable agreement between experimental and theoretical crystal sizes and interferometric lines in the solution near the growing crystal. This diffusion coefficient is larger than most measured values, possibly due to fluctuating accelerations on the order of .001 g (Earth's gravity). The average acceleration was estimated to be less than .000001 g. At this level, buoyancy driven convection is predicted to add approx. 20 percent to the steady state growth rate. Only very slight distortion of the interferometric lines was observed at the end of a 33 hr run. It is suggested that the time to reach steady state convective transport may be inversely proportional to g at low g, so that the full effect of convection was not realized in these experiments.

  6. Multifunctional chondroitin sulphate for cartilage tissue-biomaterial integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-An; Varghese, Shyni; Sharma, Blanka; Strehin, Iossif; Fermanian, Sara; Gorham, Justin; Fairbrother, D. Howard; Cascio, Brett; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.

    2007-05-01

    A biologically active, high-strength tissue adhesive is needed for numerous medical applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Integration of biomaterials or implants with surrounding native tissue is crucial for both immediate functionality and long-term performance of the tissue. Here, we use the biopolymer chondroitin sulphate (CS), one of the major components of cartilage extracellular matrix, to develop a novel bioadhesive that is readily applied and acts quickly. CS was chemically functionalized with methacrylate and aldehyde groups on the polysaccharide backbone to chemically bridge biomaterials and tissue proteins via a twofold covalent link. Three-dimensional hydrogels (with and without cells) bonded to articular cartilage defects. In in vitro and in vivo functional studies this approach led to mechanical stability of the hydrogel and tissue repair in cartilage defects.

  7. Impact of sulphate geoengineering on rice yield in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Pei; Zhu, Wenquan; Zheng, Zhoutao; Zhang, Donghai; Li, Nan

    2017-04-01

    Sulphate geoengineering is one of the mostly discussed mitigation methods against global warming for its feasibility and inexpensiveness. With SO2 consistently injected into the stratosphere to balance the radiative force caused by anthropogenic emission, sulphate engineering will significantly influence the climate over the planet and moreover, affect agriculture productivity. In our study, BNU-ESM model was used to simulate the impact of sulphate engineering on climate and ORYZA(v3) model was used to simulate the impact of climate change on rice yield/production in China. Firstly, the ORYZA(v3) model was evaluated and calibrated using daily climate data, management data and county-level yield record during 1981-2010 in 19 provinces in China. Then climate anomalies of sulphate geoengineering simulated by BNU-ESM model was used to perturb the observed climate data over 318 stations evenly distribute in China during 1981-2010. In our study, a 30-year climate record of anomalies were extracted from BNU-ESM model to match the observed climate data, which consisted of a 15-year geoengineering record and a 15-year post-geoengineering record. Lastly, the perturbed climate data was used in calibrated-ORYZA(v3) model to simulate the rice yield over the 318 stations, which were later averaged into corresponding provincial yield. The results showed that (1) geoengineering would balance solar radiation for approximate 140 W ṡ m-2 per year (about 0.9 K per year in temperature), which would meet the pre-concerted goal of geoengineering but it would take only about 3 years for temperature to recover after the termination of geoengineering. In spite of this, there would be a declining of vapour pressure for about 0.12 KPa per year during geoengineering period, and it would take about 15 years to recover during post-geoengineering period. The simulation showed that geoengineering would have a little declining impact on average precipitation and would not have much impact on wind

  8. Bioactivity and Applications of Sulphated Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina), and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS). It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS) or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review. PMID:23344113

  9. Experimental study of the replacement of calcite by calcium sulphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Putnis, C. V.; Hövelmann, J.; Álvarez-Lloret, P.; Ibáñez-Velasco, A.; Putnis, A.

    2015-05-01

    Among the most relevant mineral replacement reactions are those involving sulphates and carbonates, which have important geological and technological implications. Here it is shown experimentally that during the interaction of calcite (CaCO3) cleavage surfaces with sulphate-bearing acidic solutions, calcite is ultimately replaced by gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O) and anhydrite (CaSO4), depending on the reaction temperature. Observations suggest that this occurs most likely via an interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation reaction, in which the substrate is replaced pseudomorphically by the product. At 120 and 200 °C gypsum and/or bassanite (CaSO4·0.5H2O) form as precursor phases for the thermodynamically stable anhydrite. Salinity promotes the formation of less hydrated precursor phases during the replacement of calcite by anhydrite. The reaction stops before equilibrium with respect to calcite is reached and during the course of the reaction most of the bulk solutions are undersaturated with respect to the precipitating phase(s). A mechanism consisting of the dissolution of small amounts of solid in a thin layer of fluid at the mineral-fluid interface and the subsequent precipitation of the product phase from this layer is in agreement with these observations. PHREEQC simulations performed in the framework of this mechanism highlight the relevance of transport and surface reaction kinetics on the volume change associated with the CaCO3-CaSO4 replacement. Under our experimental conditions, this reaction occurs with a positive volume change, which ultimately results in passivation of the unreacted substrate before calcite attains equilibrium with respect to the bulk solution.

  10. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  11. Zinc and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 66 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  12. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  13. Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1984-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

  14. A comparison of glycosaminoglycan distributions, keratan sulphate sulphation patterns and collagen fibril architecture from central to peripheral regions of the bovine cornea

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Leona T.Y.; Harris, Anthony M.; Tanioka, Hidetoshi; Yagi, Naoto; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Caterson, Bruce; Quantock, Andrew J.; Young, Robert D.; Meek, Keith M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in collagen fibril architecture and the sulphation status of keratan sulphate (KS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) epitopes from central to peripheral corneal regions. Freshly excised adult bovine corneal tissue was examined as a function of radial position from the centre of the cornea outwards. Corneal thickness, tissue hydration, hydroxyproline content, and the total amount of sulphated GAG were all measured. High and low-sulphated epitopes of keratan sulphate were studied by immunohistochemistry and quantified by ELISA. Chondroitin sulphate (CS) and dermatan sulphate (DS) distributions were observed by immunohistochemistry following specific enzyme digestions. Electron microscopy and X-ray fibre diffraction were used to ascertain collagen fibril architecture. The bovine cornea was 1021 ± 5.42 μm thick at its outer periphery, defined as 9–12 mm from the corneal centre, compared to 844 ± 8.10 μm at the centre. The outer periphery of the cornea was marginally, but not significantly, more hydrated than the centre (H = 4.3 vs. H = 3.7), and was more abundant in hydroxyproline (0.12 vs. 0.06 mg/mg dry weight of cornea). DMMB assays indicated no change in the total amount of sulphated GAG across the cornea. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of both high- and low-sulphated epitopes of KS, as well as DS, throughout the cornea, and CS only in the peripheral cornea before the limbus. Quantification by ELISA, disclosed that although both high- and low-sulphated KS remained constant throughout stromal depth at different radial positions, high-sulphated epitopes remained constant from the corneal centre to outer-periphery, whereas low-sulphated epitopes increased significantly. Both small angle X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis revealed that collagen fibril diameter remained relatively constant until the outer periphery was reached, after which fibrils became more widely spaced (from small angle x-ray diffraction analysis

  15. New tools for carbohydrate sulphation analysis: Heparan Sulphate 2- O -sulphotransferase (HS2ST) is a target for small molecule protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Dominic P; Li, Yong; Ramakrishnan, Krithika; Barsukov, Igor L; Yates, Edwin A; Eyers, Claire E; Papy-Garcia, Dulcé; Chantepie, Sandrine; Pagadala, Vijayakanth; Lu, Jian; Wells, Carrow; Drewry, David H; Zuercher, William J; Berry, Neil G; Fernig, David G; Eyers, Patrick A

    2018-06-22

    Sulphation of carbohydrate residues occurs on a variety of glycans destined for secretion, and this modification is essential for efficient matrix-based signal transduction. Heparan sulphate (HS) glycosaminoglycans control physiological functions ranging from blood coagulation to cell proliferation. HS biosynthesis involves membrane-bound Golgi sulphotransferases, including heparan sulphate 2- O -sulphotransferase (HS2ST), which transfers sulphate from the co-factor PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulphate) to the 2- O  position of a-L-iduronate in the maturing polysaccharide chain. The current lack of simple non-radioactive enzyme assays that can be used to quantify the levels of carbohydrate sulphation hampers kinetic analysis of this process and the discovery of HS2ST inhibitors.  In this paper, we describe a new procedure for thermal shift analysis of purified HS2ST. Using this approach, we quantify HS2ST-catalyzed oligosaccharide sulphation using a novel synthetic fluorescent substrate and screen the Published Kinase Inhibitor Set (PKIS), to evaluate compounds that inhibit catalysis. We report the susceptibility of HS2ST to a variety of cell permeable compounds in vitro , including polyanionic polar molecules, the protein kinase inhibitor rottlerin and oxindole-based RAF kinase inhibitors. In a related study, published back-to-back with this article, we demonstrate that Tyrosyl Protein Sulpho Tranferases (TPSTs) are also inhibited by a variety of protein kinase inhibitors. We propose that appropriately validated small molecule compounds could become new tools for rapid inhibition of glycan (and protein) sulphation in cells, and that protein kinase inhibitors might be repurposed or redesigned for the specific inhibition of HS2ST. ©2018 The Author(s).

  16. Zinc supplementation in public health.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary Edith

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is necessary for physiological processes including defense against infections. Zinc deficiency is responsible for 4% of global child morbidity and mortality. Zinc supplements given for 10-14 days together with low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (Lo-ORS) are recommended for the treatment of childhood diarrhea. In children aged ≥ 6 months, daily zinc supplements reduce the duration of acute diarrhea episodes by 12 h and persistent diarrhea by 17 h. Zinc supplements could reduce diarrhea mortality in children aged 12-59 months by an estimated 23%; they are very safe but are associated with an increase in vomiting especially with the first dose. Heterogeneity between the results of trials is not understood but may be related to dose and the etiology of the diarrhea infection. Integration of zinc and Lo-ORS into national programs is underway but slowly, procurement problems are being overcome and the greatest challenge is changing health provider and caregiver attitudes to diarrhea management. Fewer trials have been conducted of zinc adjunct therapy in severe respiratory tract infections and there is as yet insufficient evidence to recommend addition of zinc to antibiotic therapy. Daily zinc supplements for all children >12 months of age in zinc deficient populations are estimated to reduce diarrhea incidence by 11-23%. The greatest impact is in reducing multiple episodes of diarrhea. The effect on duration of diarrheal episodes is less clear, but there may be up to 9% reduction. Zinc is also efficacious in reducing dysentery and persistent diarrhea. Zinc supplements may also prevent pneumonia by about 19%, but heterogeneity across studies has not yet been explained. When analyses are restricted to better quality studies using CHERG (Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group) methodology, zinc supplements are estimated to reduce diarrheal deaths by 13% and pneumonia deaths by 20%. National-level programs to combat childhood zinc deficiency should be

  17. Carbon isotope equilibration during sulphate-limited anaerobic oxidation of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, Marcos Y.; Holler, Thomas; Goldhammer, Tobias; Wegener, Gunter; Pohlman, John W.; Brunner, Benjamin; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Elvert, Marcus

    2014-03-01

    Collectively, marine sediments comprise the largest reservoir of methane on Earth. The flux of methane from the sea bed to the overlying water column is mitigated by the sulphate-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane by marine microbes within a discrete sedimentary horizon termed the sulphate-methane transition zone. According to conventional isotope systematics, the biological consumption of methane leaves a residue of methane enriched in 13C (refs , , ). However, in many instances the methane within sulphate-methane transition zones is depleted in 13C, consistent with the production of methane, and interpreted as evidence for the intertwined anaerobic oxidation and production of methane. Here, we report results from experiments in which we incubated cultures of microbial methane consumers with methane and low levels of sulphate, and monitored the stable isotope composition of the methane and dissolved inorganic carbon pools over time. Residual methane became progressively enriched in 13C at sulphate concentrations above 0.5 mM, and progressively depleted in 13C below this threshold. We attribute the shift to 13C depletion during the anaerobic oxidation of methane at low sulphate concentrations to the microbially mediated carbon isotope equilibration between methane and carbon dioxide. We suggest that this isotopic effect could help to explain the 13C-depletion of methane in subseafloor sulphate-methane transition zones.

  18. Administration of magnesium sulphate before rocuronium: effects on speed of onset and duration of neuromuscular block.

    PubMed

    Kussman, B; Shorten, G; Uppington, J; Comunale, M E

    1997-07-01

    The speeds of onset of pancuronium, atracurium and vecuronium are increased by prior administration of magnesium sulphate. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, clinical study was performed to examine the effects of prior i.v. administration of magnesium sulphate 60 mg kg-1 on the neuromuscular blocking effects of rocuronium 0.6 mg kg-1 during isoflurane anaesthesia. Neuromuscular function was measured electromyographically (Relaxograph) in 30 patients who received either magnesium sulphate 60 mg kg-1 or normal saline, 1-min before rocuronium 0.6 mg kg-1. Mean onset times were similar in the two groups (magnesium sulphate 71 (SD 20) s; normal saline 75 (23) s), but times to initial, 10% and 25% recovery from neuromuscular block were significantly longer in the magnesium sulphate group (42.1 (16.3), 49.0 (12.4) and 56.5 (13.2) min, respectively) than in the saline group (25.1 (9.1), 33.0 (11.1) and 35.6 (13.2) min, respectively) (P < 0.05 in all three cases). Administration of magnesium sulphate was not associated with adverse haemodynamic effects. Prior administration of magnesium sulphate, under the study conditions described, prolonged rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block but did not increase speed of onset.

  19. The degradation of intravenously injected chondroitin 4-sulphate in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Keith M.; Wusteman, Frederick S.; Curtis, C. Gerald

    1973-01-01

    The degradation of chondroitin 4-[35S]sulphate isolated from chick-embryo cartilage was studied in the rat by experiments on free-range animals, on wholly anaesthetized animals with ureter cannulae, by perfusion of isolated liver, by whole-body radioautography and by isolation of liver lysosomes. After injection into rats 68% of the radioactivity was recovered in the urine after 24h, approximately one-half of this being in the form of low-molecular-weight material, chiefly inorganic sulphate. Cannulation experiments demonstrated that the proportion of low-molecular-weight components excreted in the urine increased with time until, after 12h, virtually all was inorganic sulphate. Whole-body radioautography identified the liver as the major site of radioisotope accumulation after injection of labelled polysaccharide. Perfusion through isolated liver indicated that this organ has the ability to metabolize the polymer with the release of low-molecular-weight products, principally inorganic sulphate. Incubation of a lysosomal fraction prepared from rat liver after injection of chondroitin 4-[35S]sulphate gave rise to degradation products of low molecular weight, and experiments in vitro with rat liver lysosomes confirmed that these organelles are capable of the entire degradative process from chondroitin sulphate to free inorganic sulphate. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4762749

  20. Sulphation of acetaminophen by the human cytosolic sulfotransferases: a systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Akihiro; Liu, Ming-Yih; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Saeki, Yuichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2015-01-01

    Sulphation is known to be critically involved in the metabolism of acetaminophen in vivo. This study aimed to systematically identify the major human cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) enzyme(s) responsible for the sulphation of acetaminophen. A systematic analysis showed that three of the twelve human SULTs, SULT1A1, SULT1A3 and SULT1C4, displayed the strongest sulphating activity towards acetaminophen. The pH dependence of the sulphation of acetaminophen by each of these three SULTs was examined. Kinetic parameters of these three SULTs in catalysing acetaminophen sulphation were determined. Moreover, sulphation of acetaminophen was shown to occur in HepG2 human hepatoma cells and Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells under the metabolic setting. Of the four human organ samples tested, liver and intestine cytosols displayed considerably higher acetaminophen-sulphating activity than those of lung and kidney. Collectively, these results provided useful information concerning the biochemical basis underlying the metabolism of acetaminophen in vivo previously reported. PMID:26067475

  1. Acute changes in cellular zinc alters zinc uptake rates prior to zinc transporter gene expression in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Holland, Tai C; Killilea, David W; Shenvi, Swapna V; King, Janet C

    2015-12-01

    A coordinated network of zinc transporters and binding proteins tightly regulate cellular zinc levels. Canonical responses to zinc availability are thought to be mediated by changes in gene expression of key zinc transporters. We investigated the temporal relationships of actual zinc uptake with patterns of gene expression in membrane-bound zinc transporters in the human immortalized T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line. Cellular zinc levels were elevated or reduced with exogenous zinc sulfate or N,N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), respectively. Excess zinc resulted in a rapid 44 % decrease in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of metallothionein (positive control) increased, as well as the zinc exporter, ZnT1; however, the expression of zinc importers did not change during this time period. Zinc chelation with TPEN resulted in a rapid twofold increase in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of ZnT1 decreased, while again the expression of zinc importers did not change. Overall, zinc transporter gene expression kinetics did not match actual changes in cellular zinc uptake with exogenous zinc or TPEN treatments. This suggests zinc transporter regulation may be the initial response to changes in zinc within Jurkat cells.

  2. Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ananda S

    2008-01-01

    Although the essentiality of zinc for plants and animals has been known for many decades, the essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized only 40 years ago in the Middle East. The zinc-deficient patients had severe immune dysfunctions, inasmuch as they died of intercurrent infections by the time they were 25 years of age. In our studies in an experimental human model of zinc deficiency, we documented decreased serum testosterone level, oligospermia, severe immune dysfunctions mainly affecting T helper cells, hyperammonemia, neurosensory disorders, and decreased lean body mass. It appears that zinc deficiency is prevalent in the developing world and as many as two billion subjects may be growth retarded due to zinc deficiency. Besides growth retardation and immune dysfunctions, cognitive impairment due to zinc deficiency also has been reported recently. Our studies in the cell culture models showed that the activation of many zinc-dependent enzymes and transcription factors were adversely affected due to zinc deficiency. In HUT-78 (T helper 0 [Th(0)] cell line), we showed that a decrease in gene expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-2 receptor alpha(IL-2Ralpha) were due to decreased activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in zinc deficient cells. Decreased NF-kappaB activation in HUT-78 due to zinc deficiency was due to decreased binding of NF-kappaB to DNA, decreased level of NF-kappaB p105 (the precursor of NF-kappaB p50) mRNA, decreased kappaB inhibitory protein (IkappaB) phosphorylation, and decreased Ikappa kappa. These effects of zinc were cell specific. Zinc also is an antioxidant and has anti-inflammatory actions. The therapeutic roles of zinc in acute infantile diarrhea, acrodermatitis enteropathica, prevention of blindness in patients with age-related macular degeneration, and treatment of common cold with zinc have been reported. In HL-60 cells (promyelocytic leukemia cell line), zinc enhances the up-regulation of A20 mRNA, which, via TRAF

  3. Preparation and Physiological activities of sulphated derivative extracted from corn bran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Qing; Dai, Linghao; Ma, Jianjun; Zhao, Xiaojing; Zhu, Linghui

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the sulphated derivative (S-CBP) with the degree of substitution (0.46) was successfully prepared from the polysaccharide extracted from corn bran. Compared with native polysaccharide, the structures of the sulphated derivative were confirmed by FT-IR and SEC-LLS and the molecular weight were changed by chemical modification. Sulfation enhanced the antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent way, which seemed to be dependent on the character of the substituted group. The results suggest that the sulphated derivative, extracted from corn bran, are potential natural antioxidant and blood fat reduce agent.

  4. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  5. Zinc and Zinc Transporters: Novel Regulators of Ventricular Myocardial Development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen; Li, Deqiang

    2018-06-01

    Ventricular myocardial development is a well-orchestrated process involving different cardiac structures, multiple signal pathways, and myriad proteins. Dysregulation of this important developmental event can result in cardiomyopathies, such as left ventricle non-compaction, which affect the pediatric population and the adults. Human and mouse studies have shed light upon the etiology of some cardiomyopathy cases and highlighted the contribution of both genetic and environmental factors. However, the regulation of ventricular myocardial development remains incompletely understood. Zinc is an essential trace metal with structural, enzymatic, and signaling function. Perturbation of zinc homeostasis has resulted in developmental and physiological defects including cardiomyopathy. In this review, we summarize several mechanisms by which zinc and zinc transporters can impact the regulation of ventricular myocardial development. Based on our review, we propose that zinc deficiency and mutations of zinc transporters may underlie some cardiomyopathy cases especially those involving ventricular myocardial development defects.

  6. Effects of feeding different concentration and forms of zinc on the performance and tissue mineral status of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ao, T; Pierce, J L; Pescatore, A J; Cantor, A H; Dawson, K A; Ford, M J; Paul, M

    2011-08-01

    1. Two studies were conducted to investigate the effect of feeding different concentration and forms of zinc (Zn) on the performance and tibia Zn status of broiler chicks. 2. In Experiment 1, chicks fed on the control or the diet supplemented with 12?mg of Zn as sulphate had lower feed intake, weight gain and tibia Zn content than other treatment groups. Chicks given 12 and 24 mg of organic Zn in starter and grower phases, respectively, had the same performance and tibia Zn content as those fed 40 mg of Zn as sulphate and the same performance but higher tibia Zn content than those given 12 mg of Zn as organic over the 42 d. 3. In Experiment 2, chicks given 24 mg organic Zn had greater weight gain than chicks fed on the other treatment diets in the starter period. Chicks fed on the control diet had lower tibia Zn content than chicks fed other treatment diets. Chicks given 80 mg Zn as sulphate had higher tibia Zn content than chicks fed the other treatment diets except those given 40 mg of Zn as sulphate. 4. The results from these trials indicate that feeding lower concentration of Zn as organic form may better promote the growth performance of broiler chicks.

  7. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.; Jura, M.

    1982-01-01

    IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that zinc is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.

  8. Detecting the global and regional effects of sulphate aerosol geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; Highwood, Ellie

    2017-04-01

    Climate warming is unequivocal. In addition to carbon dioxide emission mitigation, some geoengineering ideas have been proposed to reduce future surface temperature rise. One of these proposals involves injecting sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere to increase the planet's albedo. Monitoring the effectiveness of sulphate aerosol injection (SAI) would require us to be able to distinguish and detect its cooling effect from the climate system's internal variability and other externally forced temperature changes. This research uses optimal fingerprinting techniques together with simulations from the GeoMIP data base to estimate the number of years of observations that would be needed to detect SAI's cooling signal in near-surface air temperature, should 5 Tg of sulphur dioxide be injected into the stratosphere per year on top of RCP4.5 from 2020-2070. The first part of the research compares the application of two detection methods that have different null hypotheses to SAI detection in global mean near-surface temperature. The first method assumes climate noise to be dominated by unforced climate variability and attempts to detect the SAI cooling signal and greenhouse gas driven warming signal in the "observations" simultaneously against this noise. The second method considers greenhouse gas driven warming to be a non-stationary background climate and attempts to detect the net cooling effect of SAI against this background. Results from this part of the research show that the conventional multi-variate detection method that has been extensively used to attribute climate warming to anthropogenic sources could also be applied for geoengineering detection. The second part of the research investigates detection of geoengineering effects on the regional scale. The globe is divided into various sub-continental scale regions and the cooling effect of SAI is looked for in the temperature time series in each of these regions using total least squares multi

  9. Effect of Dietary Zinc Oxide on Morphological Characteristics, Mucin Composition and Gene Expression in the Colon of Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Pieper, Robert; Rieger, Juliane; Vahjen, Wilfried; Davin, Roger; Plendl, Johanna; Meyer, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The trace element zinc is often used in the diet of weaned piglets, as high doses have resulted in positive effects on intestinal health. However, the majority of previous studies evaluated zinc supplementations for a short period only and focused on the small intestine. The hypothesis of the present study was that low, medium and high levels of dietary zinc (57, 164 and 2,425 mg Zn/kg from zinc oxide) would affect colonic morphology and innate host defense mechanisms across 4 weeks post-weaning. Histological examinations were conducted regarding the colonic morphology and neutral, acidic, sialylated and sulphated mucins. The mRNA expression levels of mucin (MUC) 1, 2, 13, 20, toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, interleukin (IL)-1β, 8, 10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were also measured. The colonic crypt area increased in an age-depending manner, and the greatest area was found with medium concentration of dietary zinc. With the high concentration of dietary zinc, the number of goblet cells containing mixed neutral-acidic mucins and total mucins increased. Sialomucin containing goblet cells increased age-dependently. The expression of MUC2 increased with age and reached the highest level at 47 days of age. The expression levels of TLR2 and 4 decreased with age. The mRNA expression of TLR4 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 were down-regulated with high dietary zinc treatment, while piglets fed with medium dietary zinc had the highest expression. It is concluded that dietary zinc level had a clear impact on colonic morphology, mucin profiles and immunological traits in piglets after weaning. Those changes might support local defense mechanisms and affect colonic physiology and contribute to the reported reduction of post-weaning diarrhea. PMID:24609095

  10. Zinc Signal in Brain Diseases.

    PubMed

    Portbury, Stuart D; Adlard, Paul A

    2017-11-23

    The divalent cation zinc is an integral requirement for optimal cellular processes, whereby it contributes to the function of over 300 enzymes, regulates intracellular signal transduction, and contributes to efficient synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Given the critical role of zinc in a breadth of cellular processes, its cellular distribution and local tissue level concentrations remain tightly regulated via a series of proteins, primarily including zinc transporter and zinc import proteins. A loss of function of these regulatory pathways, or dietary alterations that result in a change in zinc homeostasis in the brain, can all lead to a myriad of pathological conditions with both acute and chronic effects on function. This review aims to highlight the role of zinc signaling in the central nervous system, where it may precipitate or potentiate diverse issues such as age-related cognitive decline, depression, Alzheimer's disease or negative outcomes following brain injury.

  11. Carbon Monoxide as an Electron Donor for the Biological Reduction of Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Parshina, Sofiya N.; Sipma, Jan; Henstra, Anne Meint; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Several strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are able to use carbon monoxide (CO) as a carbon source and electron donor for biological sulphate reduction. These strains exhibit variable resistance to CO toxicity. The most resistant SRB can grow and use CO as an electron donor at concentrations up to 100%, whereas others are already severely inhibited at CO concentrations as low as 1-2%. Here, the utilization, inhibition characteristics, and enzymology of CO metabolism as well as the current state of genomics of CO-oxidizing SRB are reviewed. Carboxydotrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria can be applied for biological sulphate reduction with synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) as an electron donor. PMID:20628586

  12. Severe acute copper sulphate poisoning: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sinkovic, Andreja; Strdin, Alenka; Svensek, Franci

    2008-03-01

    As copper sulphate pentahydrate (CSP) is a common compound used in agriculture and industry, chronic occupational exposures to CSP are well known, but acute poisoning is rare in the Western world. This case report describes acute poisoning of a 33-year-old woman who attempted suicide by ingesting an unknown amount of CSP. On admission to the hospital, she had symptoms and signs of severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, dehydration, renal dysfunction and methaemoglobinaemia with normal serum copper level. Therapy included early gastric lavage, fluid replacement, vasoactive drugs, furosemide, antiemetic drugs, ranitidine, and antidotes methylene blue and 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate (DMPS). However, the patient developed severe intravascular haemolysis, acute severe hepatic and renal failure, as well as adrenal insufficiency. After prolonged, but successful hospital treatment, including haemodialysis and IV hydrocortisone, the patient was discharged with signs of mild renal and liver impairment. Our conclusion is that in severe cases of copper poisoning early supportive measures are essential. In addition, antidotes such as methylene blue for methaemoglobinaemia and chelating agent such as DMPS improve morbidity and survival of severely poisoned victims.

  13. Particle engineering using sonocrystallization: salbutamol sulphate for pulmonary delivery.

    PubMed

    Dhumal, Ravindra S; Biradar, Shailesh V; Paradkar, Anant R; York, Peter

    2009-02-23

    The aim of present work was to produce fine elongated crystals of salbutamol sulphate (SS) by sonocrystallization for pulmonary delivery and compare with micronized and spray dried SS (SDSS) for in vitro aerosolization behavior. Application of ultrasound during anti-solvent crystallization resulted in fine elongated crystals (sonocrystallized SS; SCSS) compared to aggregates of large irregular crystals obtained without sonication. Higher sonication amplitude, time, concentration and lower processing temperatures favored formation of smaller crystals with narrow particle size distribution (PSD). SCSS was separated from dispersion by spray drying in the form of loose aggregates (SD-SCSS). The fine particle fraction (FPF) of formulations with coarse lactose carrier in cascade impactor increased from 16.66% for micronized SS to 31.12% for SDSS (obtained by spray drying aqueous SS solution) and 44.21% for SD-SCSS, due to reduced cohesive/adhesive forces and aerodynamic size by virtue of elongated shape of crystals. SD-SCSS was stable without any change in crystallinity and aerodynamic behavior for 3 months at 40 degrees C/75% RH, but amorphous SDSS showed recrystallization with poor aerosolization performance on storage. Sonocrystallization, a rapid and simple technique is reported for production of SS crystals suitable for inhalation delivery.

  14. Chitosan microparticles for sustaining the topical delivery of minoxidil sulphate.

    PubMed

    Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Gratieri, Taís; Simão, Patrícia Sper; de Freitas, Luís Alexandre Pedro; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna

    2011-01-01

    Given the hypothesis that microparticles can penetrate the skin barrier along the transfollicular route, this work aimed to obtain and characterise chitosan microparticles loaded with minoxidil sulphate (MXS) and to study their ability to sustain the release of the drug, attempting a further application utilising them in a targeted delivery system for the topical treatment of alopecia. Chitosan microparticles, containing different proportions of MXS/polymer, were prepared by spray drying and were characterised by yield, encapsulation efficiency, size and morphology. Microparticles selected for further studies showed high encapsulation efficiency (∼82%), a mean diameter of 3.0 µm and a spherical morphology without porosities. When suspended in an ethanol/water solution, chitosan microparticles underwent instantaneous swelling, increasing their mean diameter by 90%. Release studies revealed that the chitosan microparticles were able to sustain about three times the release rate of MXS. This feature, combined with suitable size, confers to these microparticles the potential to target and improve topical therapy of alopecia with minoxidil.

  15. Zinc Excess Triggered Polyamines Accumulation in Lettuce Root Metabolome, As Compared to Osmotic Stress under High Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Rouphael, Youssef; Colla, Giuseppe; Bernardo, Letizia; Kane, David; Trevisan, Marco; Lucini, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as salinity and metal contaminations are the major environmental stresses that adversely affect crop productivity worldwide. Crop responses and tolerance to abiotic stress are complex processes for which “-omic” approaches such as metabolomics is giving us a newest view of biological systems. The aim of the current research was to assess metabolic changes in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), by specifically probing the root metabolome of plants exposed to elevated isomolar concentrations of NaCl and ZnSO4. Most of the metabolites that were differentially accumulated in roots were identified for stress conditions, however the response was more intense in plants exposed to NaCl. Compounds identified in either NaCl or ZnSO4 conditions were: carbohydrates, phenolics, hormones, glucosinolates, and lipids. Our findings suggest that osmotic stress and the consequent redox imbalance play a major role in determining lettuce root metabolic response. In addition, it was identified that polyamines and polyamine conjugates were triggered as a specific response to ZnSO4. These findings help improve understanding of how plants cope with abiotic stresses. This information can be used to assist decision-making in breeding programs for improving crop tolerance to salinity and heavy metal contaminations. PMID:27375675

  16. Determination of Oversulphated Chondroitin Sulphate and Dermatan Sulphate in unfractionated heparin by (1)H-NMR - Collaborative study for quantification and analytical determination of LoD.

    PubMed

    McEwen, I; Mulloy, B; Hellwig, E; Kozerski, L; Beyer, T; Holzgrabe, U; Wanko, R; Spieser, J-M; Rodomonte, A

    2008-12-01

    Oversulphated Chondroitin Sulphate (OSCS) and Dermatan Sulphate (DS) in unfractionated heparins can be identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). The limit of detection (LoD) of OSCS is 0.1% relative to the heparin content. This LoD is obtained at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 2000:1 of the heparin methyl signal. Quantification is best obtained by comparing peak heights of the OSCS and heparin methyl signals. Reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD) has been obtained. The accuracy of quantification was good.

  17. [The effect of cytostatic therapy with vincristin sulphate on disaccarchidases of rat intestinal mucosa (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hartwich, G; Leicher, H; Müller, H; Domschke, W; Matzkies, F

    1976-01-01

    This report shows that appropriate doses of vincristin sulphate may decrease disaccharidase activities of intestinal mucosa. With the higher doses of the cytostatic drug, the drastic drop of enzyme activities is associated with morphological alterations of the mucosa; disacchardiase activities remain depressed at least for a couple of days even after full morphological restoration of the mucosa. Studies in man should reveal whether similar intestinal lesions occur due to therapeutic doses of vincristin sulphate.

  18. Determination of chondroitin-6-sulphate by a competitive enzyme immunoassay using a biotinylated antigen.

    PubMed

    Kähnert, H; Brinkmann, T; Gässler, N; Kleesiek, K

    1994-04-01

    A competitive enzyme immunoassay was developed to determine chondroitin-6-sulphate in body fluids and cell cultures. The assay uses a monoclonal anti-chondroitin-6-sulphate antibody, immobilised to microtitre plates, and it involves a competitive binding reaction between chondroitin-6-sulphate in the samples and the biotinylated antigen. This assay enables the quantification of chondroitin-6-sulphate in the low concentration range of 16-120 micrograms/l. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation are below 6.5% and 9.0%, respectively. More than 90% of chondroitin-6-sulphate was recovered when added to 0.1 mol/l phosphate-buffered saline, an albumin solution (40 g/l in phosphate-buffered saline) and cell culture medium (containing 100 ml/l foetal calf serum). Chondroitin-6-sulphate was also determined in sera of healthy male (n = 90) and female (n = 90) blood donors. The normal range was 55-169 micrograms/l. In men the mean value was estimated at 102.2 +/- 37.1 micrograms/l and in women at 98.7 +/- 26.4 micrograms/l. No age or sex dependence was observed. The urine excretion of chondroitin-6-sulphate in men (n = 16) was 44.5 +/- 21.1 mg/kg creatinine (mean +/- standard deviation) and in females (n = 10) 53.5 +/- 21.3 mg/kg creatinine. The clearance rate in men was 0.41 +/- 0.22 ml x min-1 and in women 0.38 +/- 0.15 ml x min-1. No sex dependence was found. Furthermore, the enzyme immunoassay was modified to measure the specific incorporation of a radioactively labelled precursor ([14C]galactosamine) into chondroitin-6-sulphate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Nature of the interaction of chondroitin 4-sulphate and chondroitin sulphate–proteoglycan with collagen

    PubMed Central

    Öbrink, Björn; Wasteson, Åke

    1971-01-01

    The electrostatic interaction of chondroitin sulphate and the chondroitin sulphate–proteoglycan with collagen was studied by chromatography of the glycosaminoglycan and the proteoglycan on a collagen gel. The observed binding between the macromolecules increased with decreasing pH and ionic strength, and was significant under physiological conditions. A study of the interaction between chondroitin sulphate and a preparation of soluble collagen, with a partition-equilibrium technique, afforded similar results. PMID:4256063

  20. Isobolographic analysis of the interaction between cadmium (II) and sodium sulphate: toxicological consequences.

    PubMed

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique; Abalde, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Sulphate is an essential nutrient for autotrophic organisms and has been shown to have important implications in certain processes of tolerance to cadmium toxicity. Sodium sulphate is the main salt of sulphate in the natural environments. The concentration of this salt is increasing in the aquatic environments due to environmental pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate, using an analysis of isobolograms, the type and the degree of the interaction between Cd(II) and sodium sulphate in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Two blocks of experiments were performed, one at sub-optimal sodium sulphate concentrations (<14.2 mg/L) and the other at supra-optimal concentrations (>14.2 mg/L). Three fixed ratios (2:1, 1:1, and 1:2) of the individual EC50 for cadmium and sodium sulphate were used within each block. The isobolographic analysis of interaction at sub-optimal concentrations showed a stronger antagonistic effect with values of interaction index (γ) between 1.46 and 3.4. However, the isobologram with sodium sulphate at supra-optimal concentrations revealed a slight but significant synergistic effect between both chemicals with an interaction index between 0.54 and 0.64. This synergic effect resulted in the potentiation of the toxic effects of cadmium, synergy that was related to the increase of the ionic strength and of two species of cadmium, CdSO4 (aq), and Cd(SO4)2(2-) , in the medium. Results of the current study suggest that sodium sulphate is able to perform a dual antagonist/synergist effect on cadmium toxicity. This role was concentration dependent.

  1. Sulphate production by Paracoccus pantotrophus ATCC 35512 from different sulphur substrates: sodium thiosulphate, sulphite and sulphide.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Daniel Derrossi; Andrino, Felipe Gabriel; Possedente de Lira, Simone; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Corção, Gertrudes; Brandelli, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    One of the problems in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) is the increase in emissions of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), which can cause damage to the health of human populations and ecosystems. To control emissions of this gas, sulphur-oxidizing bacteria can be used to convert H2S to sulphate. In this work, sulphate detection was performed by spectrophotometry, ion chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry, using Paracoccus pantotrophus ATCC 35512 as a reference strain growing in an inorganic broth supplemented with sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3·5H2O), sodium sulphide (Na2S) or sodium sulphite (Na2SO3), separately. The strain was metabolically competent in sulphate production. However, it was only possible to observe significant differences in sulphate production compared to abiotic control when the inorganic medium was supplemented with sodium thiosulphate. The three methods for sulphate detection showed similar patterns, although the chromatographic method was the most sensitive for this study. This strain can be used as a reference for sulphate production in studies with sulphur-oxidizing bacteria originating from environmental samples of WWTPs.

  2. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the developing vertebral column of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Hannesson, Kirsten O; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Takle, Harald; Enersen, Grethe; Bæverfjord, Grete; Pedersen, Mona E

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the developing vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 700, 900, 1100 and 1400 d° was examined by light microscopy. The mineralization pattern was outlined by Alizarin red S and soft structures by Alcian blue. The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of different types of GAGs: chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, chondroitin-0-sulphate and keratan sulphate were addressed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the different GAGs. The specific pattern obtained with the different antibodies suggests a unique role of the different GAG types in pattern formation and mineralization. In addition, the distribution of the different GAG types in normal and malformed vertebral columns from 15 g salmon was compared. A changed expression pattern of GAGs was found in the malformed vertebrae, indicating the involvement of these molecules during the pathogenesis. The molecular size of proteoglycans (PGs) in the vertebrae carrying GAGs was analysed with western blotting, and mRNA transcription of the PGs aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin and lumican by real-time qPCR. Our study reveals the importance of GAGs in development of vertebral column also in Atlantic salmon and indicates that a more comprehensive approach is necessary to completely understand the processes involved.

  3. Characteristics and antioxidant of Ulva intestinalis sulphated polysaccharides extracted with different solvents.

    PubMed

    Peasura, Napassorn; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Wanlapa, Sorada

    2015-11-01

    Ulva intestinalis, a tubular green seaweed, is a rich source of nutrient, especially sulphated polysaccharides. Sulphated polysaccharides from U. intestinalis were extracted with distilled water, 0.1N HCl, and 0.1N NaOH at 80°C for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h to study the effect of the extraction solvent and time on their chemical composition and antioxidant activity. Different types of solvents and extraction time had a significant influence on the chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity (p<0.05). Monosaccharide composition and FT-IR spectra analyses revealed that sulphated polysaccharides from all solvent extractions have a typical sugar backbone (glucose, rhamnose, and sulphate attached at C-2 or C-3 of rhamnose). Sulphated polysaccharides extracted with acid exhibited greater antioxidant activity than did those extracted with distilled water and alkali. The results indicated that solvent extraction could be an efficacious method for enhancing antioxidant activity by distinct molecular weight and chemical characteristic of sulphated polysaccharides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Zinc supplementation for tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Person, Osmar C; Puga, Maria Es; da Silva, Edina Mk; Torloni, Maria R

    2016-11-23

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound without external acoustic stimuli. Patients with severe tinnitus may have physical and psychological complaints and their tinnitus can cause deterioration in their quality of life. At present no specific therapy for tinnitus has been found to be satisfactory in all patients. In recent decades, a number of reports have suggested that oral zinc supplementation may be effective in the management of tinnitus. Since zinc has a role in cochlear physiology and in the synapses of the auditory system, there is a plausible mechanism of action for this treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral zinc supplementation in the management of patients with tinnitus. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the ENT Trials Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 6); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 14 July 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing zinc supplementation versus placebo in adults (18 years and over) with tinnitus. We used the standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Our primary outcome measures were improvement in tinnitus severity and disability, measured by a validated tinnitus-specific questionnaire, and adverse effects. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, change in socioeconomic impact associated with work, change in anxiety and depression disorders, change in psychoacoustic parameters, change in tinnitus loudness, change in overall severity of tinnitus and change in thresholds on pure tone audiometry. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included three trials involving a total of 209 participants. The studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. All included studies had differences in participant selection criteria, length of follow-up and outcome measurement

  5. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  6. Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.

    PubMed

    Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

    2011-11-01

    Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility.

  7. Zinc starvation induces autophagy in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Horie, Tetsuro; Matsunami, Miou; Sasaki, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2017-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most zinc is bound to protein. Because zinc serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain zinc homeostasis under severely zinc-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of zinc, but to date the fate of existing zinc-binding proteins under zinc starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome. In this study, we investigated how autophagy functions under zinc starvation. Zinc depletion induced non-selective autophagy, which is important for zinc-limited growth. Induction of autophagy by zinc starvation was not directly related to transcriptional activation of Zap1. Instead, TORC1 inactivation directed zinc starvation-induced autophagy. Abundant zinc proteins, such as Adh1, Fba1, and ribosomal protein Rpl37, were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. But the targets of autophagy were not restricted to zinc-binding proteins. When cellular zinc is severely depleted, this non-selective autophagy plays a role in releasing zinc from the degraded proteins and recycling zinc for other essential purposes. PMID:28264932

  8. Zinc starvation induces autophagy in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Horie, Tetsuro; Matsunami, Miou; Sasaki, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2017-05-19

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most zinc is bound to protein. Because zinc serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain zinc homeostasis under severely zinc-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of zinc, but to date the fate of existing zinc-binding proteins under zinc starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome. In this study, we investigated how autophagy functions under zinc starvation. Zinc depletion induced non-selective autophagy, which is important for zinc-limited growth. Induction of autophagy by zinc starvation was not directly related to transcriptional activation of Zap1. Instead, TORC1 inactivation directed zinc starvation-induced autophagy. Abundant zinc proteins, such as Adh1, Fba1, and ribosomal protein Rpl37, were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. But the targets of autophagy were not restricted to zinc-binding proteins. When cellular zinc is severely depleted, this non-selective autophagy plays a role in releasing zinc from the degraded proteins and recycling zinc for other essential purposes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Development of zinc oxide nanoparticle by sonochemical method and study of their physical and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Samreen Heena, E-mail: samreen.heena.khan@gmail.com; Suriyaprabha, R.; Pathak, Bhawana, E-mail: bhawana.pathak@cug.ac.in

    With the miniaturization of crystal size, the fraction of under-coordinated surface atoms becomes dominant, and hence, materials in the nano-regime behave very differently from the similar material in a bulk. Zinc oxide (ZnO), particularly, exhibits extraordinary properties such as a wide direct band gap (3.37 eV), large excitation binding energy (60 meV), low refractive index (1.9), stability to intense ultraviolet (UV) illumination, resistance to high-energy irradiation, and lower toxicity as compared to other semiconductors. This very property makes Zinc Oxide a potential candidate in many application fields, particularly as a prominent semiconductor. Zinc Oxide plays a significant role in manymore » technological advances with its application in semiconductor mediated photocatalytic processes and sensor, solar cells and others. In present study, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) has been synthesized using three different precursors by sonochemical method. Zinc Acetate Dihydrate, Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate and Zinc Sulphate Heptahydrate used as a precursor for the synthesis process. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticle has been found under the range of ∼50 nm. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterized using different characterizing tools. The as-synthesized ZnO was characterized by Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) for the determination of functional group; Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for Morphology and elemental detection respectively, Transmission Electron Microscopy for Particle size distribution and morphology and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for the confirmation of crystal structure of the nanomaterial. The optical properties of the ZnO were examined by UV-VIS spectroscopy equipped with Diffuse Reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) confirmed the optical band gap of ZnO-3 around 3.23 eV resembles with the band gap of bulk ZnO (3.37eV). The TEM micrograph of the as-synthesized material showed perfectly spherical

  10. The effect of zinc thickness on corrosion film breakdown of Colombian galvanized steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval-Amador, A.; E Torres Ramirez, J.; Cabrales-Villamizar, P. A.; Laverde Cataño, D.; Y Peña-Ballesteros, D.

    2017-12-01

    This work studies the corrosion behaviour of Colombian galvanized steel in solutions of chloride and sulphate ions. The effect of the thickness and exposure time on the film’s breakdown susceptibility and protectiveness of the corrosion products were studied using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion products were analysed using SEM-EDS and XRD. The samples with a higher thickness level in the zinc film (Z180) have the lowest corrosion rate. In this case, one of the products that was formed by the chemical reactions that occurred was Zinc hydroxide, which exhibits a passive behaviour as observed in the Pourbaix curves of the obtained potentials and in how the different Ph levels of the solutions worked. The sheets with the highest thickness (Z180) had the best performance, since at the end of the study they showed the least amount of damage on the surface of the zinc layer. This is because the thickness of the zinc layer favours the formation of simonkolleite, which is the corrosion product that protects the material under the conditions of the study.

  11. Copper sulphate use in South African traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Street, Renée A; Kabera, Gaëtan M; Connolly, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential element to humans; however, exposure to elevated concentrations through occupational hazard and/or environmental means may be detrimental. This paper provides results of a cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of copper sulphate (CuSO 4 ) use in South African traditional medicine by traditional health practitioners (THPs) and details the use thereof. A total of 201 THPs were enrolled from two main municipal areas of KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Information on demographic characteristics of THPs, reasons for using or not using CuSO 4 as well as administration methods and age groups of recipients were collected. Of the 201 THPs interviewed, 145 (72 %) use CuSO 4 for healing purposes. The use of CuSO 4 was strongly associated with gender (p = 0.009) where the proportion of CuSO 4 users was higher for female than male THPs. CuSO 4 was reportedly administered to individuals of all ages, including infants and children. The main routes of administration were enema (n = 110; 76 %), oral (n = 40; 28 %) and use in bath (n = 40; 28 %). The reasons cited for use are diverse and included skin rashes (n = 43; 30 %), aches, pains and swelling (n = 38; 28 %) as well as sexually transmitted diseases (n = 28; 19 %). This study identified a high prevalence of THPs using CuSO 4 for healing purposes. These findings support the need to regulate South African traditional medicine to safeguard the user.

  12. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal pain in workers.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, A; Prodi, A; Pesel, G; Ronchese, F; Bovenzi, M; Negro, C; Larese Filon, F

    2017-12-30

    The serum level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) has been suggested as a biological marker of stress. To assess the association between serum DHEA-S, psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal (MS) pain in university workers. The study population included voluntary workers at the scientific departments of the University of Trieste (Italy) who underwent periodical health surveillance from January 2011 to June 2012. DHEA-S level was analysed in serum. The assessment tools included the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and a modified Nordic musculoskeletal symptoms questionnaire. The relation between DHEA-S, individual characteristics, pain perception and psychological factors was assessed by means of multivariable linear regression analysis. There were 189 study participants. The study population was characterized by high reward and low effort. Pain perception in the neck, shoulder, upper limbs, upper back and lower back was reported by 42, 32, 19, 29 and 43% of people, respectively. In multivariable regression analysis, gender, age and pain perception in the shoulder and upper limbs were significantly related to serum DHEA-S. Effort and overcommitment were related to shoulder and neck pain but not to DHEA-S. The GHQ score was associated with pain perception in different body sites and inversely to DHEA-S but significance was lost in multivariable regression analysis. DHEA-S was associated with age, gender and perception of MS pain, while effort-reward imbalance dimensions and GHQ score failed to reach the statistical significance in multivariable regression analysis. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Thermochemical sulphate reduction can improve carbonate petroleum reservoir quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Worden, Richard H.; Yang, Changbing

    2018-02-01

    Interest in the creation of secondary pore spaces in petroleum reservoirs has increased because of a need to understand deeper and more complex reservoirs. The creation of new secondary porosity that enhances overall reservoir quality in deeply buried carbonate reservoirs is controversial and some recent studies have concluded it is not an important phenomenon. Here we present petrography, geochemistry, fluid inclusion data, and fluid-rock interaction reaction modeling results from Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Sichuan Basin, China, core samples and explore the relative importance of secondary porosity due to thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR) during deep burial diagenesis. We find that new secondary pores result from the dissolution of anhydrite and possibly from dissolution of the matrix dolomite. Assuming porosity before TSR was 16% and the percentage of anhydrite was 6%, modelling shows that, due to TSR, 1.6% additional porosity was created that led to permeability increasing from 110 mD (range 72-168 mD within a 95% confidence interval) to 264 mD (range 162-432 mD within a 95% confidence interval). Secondary porosity results from the density differences between reactant anhydrite and product calcite, the addition of new water during TSR, and the generation of acidity during the reaction of new H2S with the siderite component in pre-existing dolomite in the reservoir. Fluid pressure was high during TSR, and approached lithostatic pressure in some samples; this transient overpressure may have led to the maintenance of porosity due to the inhibition of compactional processes. An additional 1.6% porosity is significant for reserve calculations, especially considering that it occurs in conjunction with elevated permeability that results in faster flow rates to the production wells.

  14. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli. PMID:28629136

  15. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-06-17

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  16. The soil sulphate effect and maize plant (Zea mays L.) growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) inoculation in acid sulfate soils with the different soil water condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmarlaili, S.; Rauf, A.; Hanafiah, D. S.; Sudarno, Y.; Abdi, P.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the potential application of sulphate reducing bacteria on acid sulfate soil with different water content in the green house. The research was carried out in the Laboratory and Green House, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sumatera Utara. This research used Randomized Block Design with two treatments factors, ie sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) isolate (control, LK4, LK6, TSM4, TSM3, AP4, AP3, LK4 + TSM3, LK4 + AP4, LK4 + AP3, LK6 + TSM3, LK6 + AP4, LK6 + AP3, TSM4 + TSM3, TSM4 + AP4, TSM4 + AP3) and water condition (100% field capacity and 110% field capacity). The results showed that application of isolate LK4 + AP4 with water condition 110% field capacity decreased the soil sulphate content (27.38 ppm) significantly after 6 weeks. Application of isolate LK4 + AP3 with water condition 110% field capacity increased soil pH (5.58) after-week efficacy 6. Application of isolate LK4 with water condition 110% field capacity increased plant growth (140 cm; 25.74 g) significantly after week 6. The best treatment was application isolate LK4 with water condition 110% field Capacity (SRB population 2.5x108; soil sulphate content 29.10ppm; soil acidity 4.78; plant height 140cm; plant weight 25.74g).

  17. Impact of maternal heat stress in conjunction with dietary zinc supplementation on hatchability, embryonic development, and growth performance in offspring broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y W; Li, W X; Lu, L; Zhang, L Y; Ji, C; Lin, X; Liu, H C; Odle, J; Luo, X G

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal dietary supplementations with different zinc (Zn) sources could reduce the deleterious effect of maternal heat stress on hatchability performance and progeny growth performance. A completely randomized design (n = 6) with 2 maternal environmental temperatures [normal 21 ± 1°C (NT) vs. high 32 ± 1°C (HT)] × 3 maternal dietary supplemental Zn levels [Zn-unsupplemented control diet (CON), the control diet + 110 mg of Zn/kg of diet as either inorganic ZnSO4 (iZn) or organic Zn with a moderate chelation strength (oZn)] was used. HT decreased (P < 0.05) fertility, hatchability, chick hatch weight, and embryonic survival. HT also decreased (P ≤ 0.05) progeny BW, ADG, and ADFI at one to 21, 22 to 28, and 29 to 42 d of age as well as breast muscle ratio and plasma aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase activities at 42 d of age. Maternal dietary Zn supplementation with either iZn or oZn increased (P < 0.004) Zn contents in yolk and liver, non-weak chick ratio, as well as progeny BW, ADFI, and survivability at one to 21 d of age. Notably, the addition of oZn increased (P < 0.05) hatchability and progeny thigh meat quality by reducing b* value. The progeny ADG at one to 21 d and 22 to 28 d of age and BW at 28 d of age from maternal NT were not affected (P > 0.46) by maternal dietary Zn supplementation, but the above 3 indices from HT-iZn (P < 0.05) and HT-oZn (P < 0.003) were higher than those from HT-CON. Our results indicate that maternal heat stress impairs hatching performance, embryonic development, and progeny growth performance, inducing metabolic changes, while supplementation of Zn in maternal diets regardless of Zn sources improved hatch chick quality and survivability of offspring and alleviated the negative effect of maternal heat stress on growth performance of offspring during the starter period. In addition, maternal dietary supplementation with the organic Zn improved

  18. Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Inga; Maywald, Martina; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery of zinc deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that zinc is essential for the function of the immune system. Zinc ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. Zinc homeostasis is largely controlled via the expression and action of zinc “importers” (ZIP 1–14), zinc “exporters” (ZnT 1–10), and zinc-binding proteins. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of zinc have long been documented, however, underlying mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Here, we report molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype during zinc deficiency. Furthermore, we describe links between altered zinc homeostasis and disease development. Consequently, the benefits of zinc supplementation for a malfunctioning immune system become clear. This article will focus on underlying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular signaling by alterations in zinc homeostasis. Effects of fast zinc flux, intermediate “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals will be discriminated. Description of zinc homeostasis-related effects on the activation of key signaling molecules, as well as on epigenetic modifications, are included to emphasize the role of zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function. PMID:29186856

  19. The microbial communities and potential greenhouse gas production in boreal acid sulphate, non-acid sulphate, and reedy sulphidic soils.

    PubMed

    Šimek, Miloslav; Virtanen, Seija; Simojoki, Asko; Chroňáková, Alica; Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav; Yli-Halla, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Acid sulphate (AS) soils along the Baltic coasts contain significant amounts of organic carbon and nitrogen in their subsoils. The abundance, composition, and activity of microbial communities throughout the AS soil profile were analysed. The data from a drained AS soil were compared with those from a drained non-AS soil and a pristine wetland soil from the same region. Moreover, the potential production of methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide from the soils was determined under laboratory conditions. Direct microscopic counting, glucose-induced respiration (GIR), whole cell hybridisation, and extended phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis confirmed the presence of abundant microbial communities in the topsoil and also in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil. The patterns of microbial counts, biomass and activity in the profile of the AS soil and partly also in the non-AS soil therefore differed from the general tendency of gradual decreases in soil profiles. High respiration in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil (5.66 μg Cg(-1)h(-1), as compared to 2.71 μg Cg(-1)h(-1) in a top Ap horizon) is unusual but reasonable given the large amount of organic carbon in this horizon. Nitrous oxide production peaked in the BCgc horizon of the AS and in the BC horizon of the non-AS soil, but the peak value was ten-fold higher in the AS soil than in the non-AS soil (82.3 vs. 8.6 ng Ng(-1)d(-1)). The data suggest that boreal AS soils on the Baltic coast contain high microbial abundance and activity. This, together with the abundant carbon and total and mineral nitrogen in the deep layers of AS soils, may result in substantial gas production. Consequently, high GHG emissions could occur, for example, when the generally high water table is lowered because of arable farming. © 2013.

  20. Timescales for migration of atmospherically derived sulphate through an alpine/subalpine watershed, Loch Vale Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, Robert L.; Campbell, Donald H.; Clow, David W.; Turk, John T.

    2000-01-01

    Sulphur 35, a cosmogenically produced radioisotope with a short half‐life (87 days), was measured in snowpack during 1993–1997 and at four locations within the Loch Vale watershed during 1995–1997. The four sites include the two main drainages in the watershed, Andrews Creek and Icy Brook, a small south facing catchment flowing into Andrews Creek (Andrews Spring 1), and a similar north facing catchment flowing out of a scree field into Icy Brook (Spring 19). Concentrations ranged from a high of almost 50 mBq/L for a sample from Spring 19 in June 1996 to a concentration near the detection limit for a sample from Andrews Creek in April 1997. Sulphur 35 concentrations were normalized to sulphate (as mBq/mg SO4−2) and were decay‐corrected to a Julian day of 90 (April 1) for each year. Snowpack had the highest 35S concentration with an average concentration of 53 mBq/mg SO4−2. Concentrations in the streams were much lower, even when corrected for decay relative to JD 90. The large 35S concentrations found in Spring 19 were the result of increases in concentration due to sublimation and/or evapotranspiration and were lower than snowpack when normalized to sulphate. Using 35S concentrations found in snowpack as of JD 90 as a beginning concentration, the fraction of sulphate in streamflow that was derived from atmospheric deposition within the prior water year was estimated. For Icy Brook and Andrews Creek the fraction of the sulphate in streamflow derived from that year's snowpack and precipitation was low prior to the beginning of the main spring melt, reached a maximum during the period of maximum flow, and decreased as the summer progressed. A calculation of the seasonal flux indicated that about 40% of the sulphate that flowed out of the watershed was derived from atmospheric sulphate deposited during the previous year. This suggests that more than half of the sulphate deposited in the watershed by atmospheric processes during the previous year was

  1. The zinc paradigm for metalloneurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Barr, Chelsea A; Burdette, Shawn C

    2017-05-09

    Neurotransmission and sensory perception are shaped through metal ion-protein interactions in various brain regions. The term "metalloneurochemistry" defines the unique field of bioinorganic chemistry focusing on these processes, and zinc has been the leading target of metalloneurochemists in the almost 15 years since the definition was introduced. Zinc in the hippocampus interacts with receptors that dictate ion flow and neurotransmitter release. Understanding the intricacies of these interactions is crucial to uncovering the role that zinc plays in learning and memory. Based on receptor similarities and zinc-enriched neurons (ZENs) in areas of the brain responsible for sensory perception, such as the olfactory bulb (OB), and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), zinc participates in odor and sound perception. Development and improvement of methods which allow for precise detection and immediate manipulation of zinc ions in neuronal cells and in brain slices will be critical in uncovering the synaptic action of zinc and, more broadly, the bioinorganic chemistry of cognition. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  2. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  3. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate...

  4. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate...

  5. Effects of zinc supplementation on obesity: study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Kumari M; Silva, Kdrr; Jayawardena, Ranil

    2016-11-04

    The prevalence of obesity is escalating alarmingly worldwide, and it is now becoming a rapidly growing epidemic in developing countries. Recent studies have reported that zinc has been implicated in altered lipid markers, insulin resistance and some obesity markers. There is a lack of evidence on zinc as a potential therapeutic agent to reduce weight and improve metabolic parameters in obese adults. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of zinc supplementation on obese adults in Sri Lanka. Furthermore, we aim to evaluate the effects of zinc supplementation on metabolic parameters in this population. This study will be conducted as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial for a period of 3 months at the clinical laboratory, Department of Applied Nutrition, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka to assess the efficacy of daily zinc 20 mg supplementation in obese subjects. There will be a total of 80 subjects, aged between 18-60 years, of both genders, who are obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥25). Subjects will be stratified according to age, gender and BMI and randomly assigned into the test and placebo groups in a 1:1 ratio. The treatment drug is a capsule containing elemental zinc 20 mg as the active ingredient (as zinc sulphate). The placebo capsule will contain lactose monohydrate. The subjects will receive either zinc capsules or placebo daily for 3 months. The study treatments will be double blinded to both investigator and subject. The visits and the evaluations will be as follows: screening (visit 0), baseline (visit 1) and 3 month (visit 2). The primary outcome will be weight reduction among the obese subjects. Secondary outcome measures include glycaemic status (fasting blood glucose), lipid parameters (total cholesterol, triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and blood pressure. The trial protocol will aim to establish the effects of zinc supplementation on weight

  6. Methane production and simultaneous sulphate reduction in anoxic, salt marsh sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Marsh, L.M.; Polcin, S.

    1982-01-01

    It has been generally believed that sulphate reduction precludes methane generation during diagenesis of anoxic sediments1,2. Because most biogenic methane formed in nature is thought to derive either from acetate cleavage or by hydrogen reduction of carbon dioxide3-6, the removal of these compounds by the energetically more efficient sulphate-reducing bacteria can impose a substrate limitation on methanogenic bacteria 7-9. However, two known species of methanogens, Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanococcus mazei, can grow on and produce methane from methanol and methylated amines10-13. In addition, these compounds stimulate methane production by bacterial enrichments from the rumen11,14 and aquatic muds13,14. Methanol can enter anaerobic food webs through bacterial degradation of lignins15 or pectin16, and methylated amines can be produced either from decomposition of substances like choline, creatine and betaine13,14 or by bacterial reduction of trimethylamine oxide17, a common metabolite and excretory product of marine animals. However, the relative importance of methanol and methylated amines as precursors of methane in sediments has not been previously examined. We now report that methanol and trimethylamine are important substrates for methanogenic bacteria in salt marsh sediments and that these compounds may account for the bulk of methane produced therein. Furthermore, because these compounds do not stimulate sulphate reduction, methanogenesis and sulphate reduction can operate concurrently in sulphate-containing anoxic sediments. ?? 1982 Nature Publishing Group.

  7. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of the sulphate-halide mineral sulphohalite - implications for evaporites.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; Scholz, Ricardo; López, Andrés; Theiss, Frederick L

    2014-12-10

    The mineral sulphohalite - Na6(SO4)2FCl is a rare sodium halogen sulphate and occurs associated with evaporitic deposits. Sulphohalite formation is important in saline evaporites and in pipe scales. Sulphohalite is an anhydrous sulphate-halide with an apparent variable anion ratio of formula Na6(SO4)2FCl. Such a formula with oxyanions lends itself to vibrational spectroscopy. The Raman band at 1003cm(-1) is assigned to the (SO4)(2-) ν1 symmetric stretching mode. Shoulders to this band are found at 997 and 1010cm(-1). The low intensity Raman bands at 1128, 1120 and even 1132cm(-1) are attributed to the (SO4)(2-) ν3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations. Two symmetric sulphate stretching modes are observed indicating at least at the molecular level the non-equivalence of the sulphate ions in the sulphohalite structure. The Raman bands at 635 and 624cm(-1) are assigned to the ν4 SO4(2-) bending modes. The ν2 (SO4)(2-) bending modes are observed at 460 and 494cm(-1). The observation of multiple bands supports the concept of a reduction in symmetry of the sulphate anion from Td to C3v or even C2v. No evidence of bands attributable to the halide ions was found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Resistance of class C fly ash belite cement to simulated sodium sulphate radioactive liquid waste attack.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, A; Goñi, S; Allegro, V R

    2009-01-30

    The resistance of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) to concentrated sodium sulphate salts associated with low level wastes (LLW) and medium level wastes (MLW) is discussed. This study was carried out according to the Koch and Steinegger methodology by testing the flexural strength of mortars immersed in simulated radioactive liquid waste rich in sulphate (48,000 ppm) and demineralised water (used as a reference), at 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C over a period of 180 days. The reaction mechanisms of sulphate ion with the mortar was carried out through a microstructure study, which included the use of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the FABC mortar was stable against simulated sulphate radioactive liquid waste (SSRLW) attack at the two chosen temperatures. The enhancement of mechanical properties was a result of the formation of non-expansive ettringite inside the pores and an alkaline activation of the hydraulic activity of cement promoted by the ingress of sulphate. Accordingly, the microstructure was strongly refined.

  9. Biotechnological engineering of heparin/heparan sulphate: a novel area of multi-target drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Rusnati, Marco; Oreste, Pasqua; Zoppetti, Giorgio; Presta, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Heparin is a sulphated glycosaminoglycan currently used as an anticoagulant and antithrombotic drug. It consists largely of 2-O-sulphated IdoA not l&r arrow N, 6-O-disulphated GlcN disaccharide units. Other disaccharides containing unsulphated IdoA or GlcA and N-sulphated or N-acetylated GlcN are also present as minor components. This heterogeneity is more pronounced in heparan sulphate (HS), where the low-sulphated disaccharides are the most abundant. Heparin/HS bind to a variety of biologically active polypeptides, including enzymes, growth factors and cytokines, and viral proteins. This capacity can be exploited to design multi-target heparin/HS-derived drugs for pharmacological interventions in a variety of pathologic conditions besides coagulation and thrombosis, including neoplasia and viral infection. The capsular K5 polysaccharide from Escherichia coli has the same structure as the heparin precursor N-acetyl heparosan. The possibility of producing K5 polysaccharide derivatives by chemical and enzymatic modifications, thus generating heparin/HS-like compounds, has been demonstrated. These K5 polysaccharide derivatives are endowed with different biological properties, including anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antineoplastic, and anti-AIDS activities. Here, the literature data are discussed and the possible therapeutic implications for this novel class of multi-target "biotechnological heparin/HS" molecules are outlined.

  10. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Jaana; Karjalainen, Anna K; Schultz, Eija; Järvistö, Johanna; Leppänen, Matti; Vuori, Kari-Matti

    2015-03-01

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mineral resource of the month: zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tolcin, Amy C.

    2009-01-01

    The article provides information on zinc, the fourth most-widely consumed metal. It traces the first use of zinc with the Romans' production of brass. It describes the presence of zinc in Earth's crust and the importance of sphalerite as a source of zinc and other some minor metal production. The production and consumption of zinc as well as the commercial and industrial uses of this metal are also discussed.

  12. Zinc: an essential but elusive nutrient123

    PubMed Central

    King, Janet C

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is essential for multiple aspects of metabolism. Physiologic signs of zinc depletion are linked with diverse biochemical functions rather than with a specific function, which makes it difficult to identify biomarkers of zinc nutrition. Nutrients, such as zinc, that are required for general metabolism are called type 2 nutrients. Protein and magnesium are examples of other type 2 nutrients. Type 1 nutrients are required for one or more specific functions: examples include iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate, and copper. When dietary zinc is insufficient, a marked reduction in endogenous zinc loss occurs immediately to conserve the nutrient. If zinc balance is not reestablished, other metabolic adjustments occur to mobilize zinc from small body pools. The location of those pools is not known, but all cells probably have a small zinc reserve that includes zinc bound to metallothionein or zinc stored in the Golgi or in other organelles. Plasma zinc is also part of this small zinc pool that is vulnerable to insufficient intakes. Plasma zinc concentrations decline rapidly with severe deficiencies and more moderately with marginal depletion. Unfortunately, plasma zinc concentrations also decrease with a number of conditions (eg, infection, trauma, stress, steroid use, after a meal) due to a metabolic redistribution of zinc from the plasma to the tissues. This redistribution confounds the interpretation of low plasma zinc concentrations. Biomarkers of metabolic zinc redistribution are needed to determine whether this redistribution is the cause of a low plasma zinc rather than poor nutrition. Measures of metallothionein or cellular zinc transporters may fulfill that role. PMID:21715515

  13. A dynamic model for predicting growth in zinc-deficient stunted infants given supplemental zinc.

    PubMed

    Wastney, Meryl E; McDonald, Christine M; King, Janet C

    2018-05-01

    Zinc deficiency limits infant growth and increases susceptibility to infections, which further compromises growth. Zinc supplementation improves the growth of zinc-deficient stunted infants, but the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc supplementation required to restore growth in an individual child is unknown. A dynamic model of zinc metabolism that predicts changes in weight and length of zinc-deficient, stunted infants with dietary zinc would be useful to define effective zinc supplementation regimens. The aims of this study were to develop a dynamic model for zinc metabolism in stunted, zinc-deficient infants and to use that model to predict the growth response when those infants are given zinc supplements. A model of zinc metabolism was developed using data on zinc kinetics, tissue zinc, and growth requirements for healthy 9-mo-old infants. The kinetic model was converted to a dynamic model by replacing the rate constants for zinc absorption and excretion with functions for these processes that change with zinc intake. Predictions of the dynamic model, parameterized for zinc-deficient, stunted infants, were compared with the results of 5 published zinc intervention trials. The model was then used to predict the results for zinc supplementation regimes that varied in the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc dosing. Model predictions agreed with published changes in plasma zinc after zinc supplementation. Predictions of weight and length agreed with 2 studies, but overpredicted values from a third study in which other nutrient deficiencies may have been growth limiting; the model predicted that zinc absorption was impaired in that study. The model suggests that frequent, smaller doses (5-10 mg Zn/d) are more effective for increasing growth in stunted, zinc-deficient 9-mo-old infants than are larger, less-frequent doses. The dose amount affects the duration of dosing necessary to restore and maintain plasma zinc concentration and growth.

  14. The origin of sulphur in gypsum and dissolved sulphate in the Central Namib Desert, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckardt, F. D.; Spiro, B.

    1999-02-01

    This study investigates the sulphur source of gypsum sulphate and dissolved groundwater sulphate in the Central Namib Desert, home to one of Africa's most extensive gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) accumulations. It investigates previously suggested sulphate precursors such as bedrock sulphides and decompositional marine biogenic H 2S and studies the importance of other potential sources in order to determine the origin of gypsum and dissolved sulphate in the region. An attempt has been made to sample all possible sulphur sources, pathways and types of gypsum accumulations in the Central Namib Desert. We have subjected those samples to sulphur isotopic analyses and have compiled existing results. In addition, ionic ratios of Cl/SO 4 are used to determine the presence of non-sea-salt (NSS) sulphur in groundwater and to investigate processes affecting groundwater sulphate. In contrast to previous work, this study proposes that the sulphur cycle, and the formation of gypsum, in the Namib Desert appears to be dominated by the deposition of atmospheric sulphates of phytoplanktonic origin, part of the primary marine production of the Benguela upwelling cells. The aerosol sulphates are subjected to terrestrial storage within the gypsum deposits on the hyper-arid gravel plain and are traceable in groundwater including coastal sabkhas. The hypothesis of decompositional marine biogenic H 2S or bedrock sulphide sources, as considered previously for the Namib Desert, cannot account for the widespread accumulation of gypsum in the region. The study area in the Central Namib Desert, between the Kuiseb and Omaruru rivers, features extensive gypsum accumulations in a ca. 50-70 km wide band, parallel to the shore. They consist of surficial or shallow pedogenic gypsum crusts in the desert pavement, hydromorphic playa or sabkha gypsum, as thin isolated pockets on bedrock ridges and as discrete masses of gypsum selenite along some faults. The sulphur isotopic values (δ 34S ‰CDT) of these

  15. Antifungal Long-Chain Alkenyl Sulphates Isolated from Culture Broths of the Fungus Chaetopsina sp.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Gloria; González-Menéndez, Víctor; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Martín, Jesús; Cautain, Bastien; Sánchez, Pilar; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Vicente, Francisca; Genilloud, Olga; Reyes, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    During a high-throughput screening program focused on the discovery and characterization of new antifungal compounds, a total of 8320 extracts from Fundacion MEDINA's collection were screened against a panel of 6 fungal parasitic strains, namely Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans , and Aspergillus fumigatus . A total of 127 extracts displayed antifungal properties and, after LC/MS dereplication, 10 were selected for further fractionation. Bioassay-guided fractionation from a 1-L fermentation of one of these extracts, belonging to the fungus Chaetopsina sp., led to the isolation of linoleyl sulphate ( 1 ), linolenyl sulphate ( 2 ), and oleyl sulphate ( 3 ) as the compounds responsible for the antifungal activity. These molecules were previously described as synthetic products with the ability to produce the allosteric inhibition of soybean lipoxygenase and human lipoxygenase. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Sulphates for skin preservation--a novel approach to reduce tannery effluent salinity hazards.

    PubMed

    Vankar, Padma S; Dwivedi, Ashish Kr

    2009-04-15

    In tanneries microorganisms are able to find environment suitable for their growth. Raw hide of buffalo and other animals like goat that are economically important, are an ideal source of nutrients for bacterial and fungal growth. In the past, preservatives like sodium chloride provided effective protection to fresh hides however the ill effect of their excessive use was not evaluated. But recently concern over potential ecological hazards has become more deliberate and sodium chloride features lot of disadvantages in agriculture as most of the tannery effluent is flown in agricultural fields in India. After rigorous laboratory experimentation on moisture content, SEM of hide, pure sodium sulphate as well as sodium sulphate in addition with sodium chloride (i.e. 10% w/w and 20% w/w) proved as most preferable option for curing of buffalo hide which gives effective preservation. Pollution load studies put forward sodium sulphate as an effective curing agent for buffalo hide to apply at industrial scale also.

  17. Serum thymulin in human zinc deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, A S; Meftah, S; Abdallah, J; Kaplan, J; Brewer, G J; Bach, J F; Dardenne, M

    1988-01-01

    The activity of thymulin (a thymic hormone) is dependent on the presence of zinc in the molecule. We assayed serum thymulin activity in three models of mildly zinc-deficient (ZD) human subjects before and after zinc supplementation: (a) two human volunteers in whom a specific and mild zinc deficiency was induced by dietary means; (b) six mildly ZD adult sickle cell anemia (SCA) subjects; and (c) six mildly ZD adult non-SCA subjects. Their plasma zinc levels were normal and they showed no overt clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency. The diagnosis of mild zinc deficiency was based on the assay of zinc in lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets. Serum thymulin activity was decreased as a result of mild zinc deficiency and was corrected by in vivo and in vitro zinc supplementation, suggesting that this parameter was a sensitive indicator of zinc deficiency in humans. An increase in T101-, sIg-cells, decrease in T4+/T8+ ratio, and decreased IL 2 activity were observed in the experimental human model during the zinc depletion phase, all of which were corrected after repletion with zinc. Similar changes in lymphocyte subpopulation, correctable with zinc supplementation, were also observed in mildly ZD SCA subjects. Inasmuch as thymulin is known to induce intra- and extrathymic T cell differentiation, our studies provide a possible mechanism for the role of zinc on T cell functions. Images PMID:3262625

  18. Stabilized nickel-zinc battery

    SciTech Connect

    Himy, A.; Wagner, O.C.

    An alkaline nickel-zinc cell which has (1) a nickel-nickel hydroxide cathode; (2) a zinc-zinc oxide anode containing (A) a corrosion inhibitor such as PBO, SNO2, Tl2O3, in(OH)3 or mixtures thereof; (B) a slight corrosion accelerator such as cdo, bi2o3, ga2o3, or mixtures thereof; and (C) a zinc active material; (3) a mass-transport separator; (4) an alkaline electrolyte; and (5) means for charging the cell with an interrupted current having a frequency of from more than zero to 16 hertz with a rest period of not less than 60 milliseconds. Another desirable feature is the use of a pressure-cutoff switch tomore » terminate charging when the internal pressure of the cell reaches a selected value in the range of from 5 to 8 psig.« less

  19. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ross G.

    2008-01-01

    The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl2 inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

  20. Synthesis and conformational studies of carrabiose and its 4'-sulphate and 2,4'-disulphate.

    PubMed

    Parra, E; Caro, H N; Jiménez-Barbero, J; Martín-Lomas, M; Bernabé, M

    1990-12-15

    Methyl alpha-carrabioside (13), and its 4-sulphate (19) and 2,4-disulphate (20) have been synthesised via glycosylation of methyl 3,6-anhydro-2-O-benzyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside with 2,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-4-O-benzyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl bromide and subsequent partial or complete debenzylation, sulphation, and deprotection of the resulting disaccharide derivatives. Conformational studies have been carried out on 13, 19, and 20 on the basis of 1D and 2D 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy and molecular mechanics calculations.

  1. Thalassiolin D: a new flavone O-glucoside Sulphate from the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii.

    PubMed

    Hawas, Usama W; Abou El-Kassem, Lamia T

    2017-10-01

    Thalassiolin D, a new flavone O-glucoside sulphate along with three flavonoids, two steroids, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone and nitrogen compound, octopamine were isolated from the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii, collected from the Saudi Red Sea coast. By extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR and MS data, the structure of the new compound was elucidated as diosmetin 7-O-β-glucosyl-2″-sulphate. The new compound displayed moderately in vitro antiviral HCV protease activity with IC 50 value 16 μM.

  2. Magnesium sulphate at 30 to 34 weeks' gestational age: neuroprotection trial (MAGENTA)--study protocol.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa F; Wilkinson, Dominic; Ashwood, Pat; Haslam, Ross

    2013-04-09

    Magnesium sulphate is currently recommended for neuroprotection of preterm infants for women at risk of preterm birth at less than 30 weeks' gestation, based on high quality evidence of benefit. However there remains uncertainty as to whether these benefits apply at higher gestational ages.The aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess whether giving magnesium sulphate compared with placebo to women immediately prior to preterm birth between 30 and 34 weeks' gestation reduces the risk of death or cerebral palsy in their children at two years' corrected age. Randomised, multicentre, placebo controlled trial. Women, giving informed consent, at risk of preterm birth between 30 to 34 weeks' gestation, where birth is planned or definitely expected within 24 hours, with a singleton or twin pregnancy and no contraindications to the use of magnesium sulphate.Trial entry & randomisation: Eligible women will be randomly allocated to receive either magnesium sulphate or placebo.Treatment groups: Women in the magnesium sulphate group will be administered 50 ml of a 100 ml infusion bag containing 8 g magnesium sulphate heptahydrate [16 mmol magnesium ions]. Women in the placebo group will be administered 50 ml of a 100 ml infusion bag containing isotonic sodium chloride solution (0.9%). Both treatments will be administered through a dedicated IV infusion line over 30 minutes.Primary study outcome: Death or cerebral palsy measured in children at two years' corrected age. 1676 children are required to detect a decrease in the combined outcome of death or cerebral palsy, from 9.6% with placebo to 5.4% with magnesium sulphate (two-sided alpha 0.05, 80% power, 5% loss to follow up, design effect 1.2). Given the magnitude of the protective effect in the systematic review, the ongoing uncertainty about benefits at later gestational ages, the serious health and cost consequences of cerebral palsy for the child, family and society, a trial of magnesium sulphate for women at

  3. Simultaneous removal of ammonium-nitrogen and sulphate from wastewaters with an anaerobic attached-growth bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q I; Li, W; You, S J

    2006-01-01

    Some industrial wastewaters may contain ammonium-nitrogen and/or sulphate, which need to be removed before their discharge into natural water bodies to eliminate their severe pollution. In this paper, simultaneous removal of ammonium-nitrogen and sulphate with an anaerobic attached-growth bioreactor of 3.8 L incubated with sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) was investigated. Artificial wastewater containing sodium sulphate as electron acceptor, ammonium chlorine as electron donor and glucose as carbon source for bacteria growth was used as the feed for the bioreactor. The loading rates of ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate and COD were 2.08 gN/m3 x d, 2.38 gS/m3 x d, 104.17 gCOD/m3 x d, respectively, with a N/S ratio of 1:1.14. The results demonstrated that removal rates of ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate and COD could reach 43.35%, 58.74% and 91.34%, respectively. Meanwhile, sulphur production was observed in effluent as well as molecular nitrogen in biogas, whose amounts increased with time substantially, suggesting the occurrence of simultaneous removal of ammonium-nitrogen and sulphate. This novel reaction provided the possibility to eliminate ammonium-nitrogen and sulphate simultaneously with accomplishment of COD removal from wastewater, making wastewater treatment more economical and sustainable.

  4. Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate inhibits persistent sodium currents in rat medial prefrontal cortex via activation of sigma-1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zheng-Xiang; Lan, Dan-Mei; Wu, Pei-Ying; Zhu, Yan-Hua; Dong, Yi; Ma, Lan; Zheng, Ping

    2008-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate is one of the most important neurosteroids. In the present paper, we studied the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate on persistent sodium currents and its mechanism and functional consequence with whole-cell patch clamp recording method combined with a pharmacological approach in the rat medial prefrontal cortex slices. The results showed that dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate inhibited the amplitude of persistent sodium currents and the inhibitory effect was significant at 0.1 microM, reached maximum at 1 microM and decreased with the increase in the concentrations of above 1 microM. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate on persistent sodium currents was canceled by the Gi protein inhibitor and the protein kinase C inhibitor, but not by the protein kinase A inhibitor. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate on persistent sodium currents was also canceled by the sigma-1 receptor blockers and the sigma-1 receptor agonist could mimic the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate had no significant influence on neuronal excitability but could significantly inhibit chemical inhibition of mitochondria-evoked increase in persistent sodium currents. These results suggest that dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate inhibits persistent sodium currents via the activation of sigma-1 receptors-Gi protein-protein kinase C-coupled signaling pathway, and the main functional consequence of this effect of DHEAS is presumably to protect neurons under ischemia.

  5. Zinc in innate and adaptive tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Zinc is important. It is the second most abundant trace metal with 2-4 grams in humans. It is an essential trace element, critical for cell growth, development and differentiation, DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, cell division, and cell activation. Zinc deficiency has adverse consequences during embryogenesis and early childhood development, particularly on immune functioning. It is essential in members of all enzyme classes, including over 300 signaling molecules and transcription factors. Free zinc in immune and tumor cells is regulated by 14 distinct zinc importers (ZIP) and transporters (ZNT1-8). Zinc depletion induces cell death via apoptosis (or necrosis if apoptotic pathways are blocked) while sufficient zinc levels allows maintenance of autophagy. Cancer cells have upregulated zinc importers, and frequently increased zinc levels, which allow them to survive. Based on this novel synthesis, approaches which locally regulate zinc levels to promote survival of immune cells and/or induce tumor apoptosis are in order. PMID:21087493

  6. Zinc for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Das, Rashmi R

    2011-02-16

    The common cold is one of the most widespread illnesses and is a leading cause of visits to the doctor and absenteeism from school and work. Trials conducted since 1984 investigating the role of zinc for the common cold symptoms have had mixed results. Inadequate treatment masking and reduced bioavailability of zinc from some formulations have been cited as influencing results. To assess the effect of zinc on common cold symptoms. We searched CENTRAL (2010, Issue 2) which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to May week 3, 2010) and EMBASE (1974 to June 2010). Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials using zinc for at least five consecutive days to treat, or for at least five months to prevent the common cold. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We included 13 therapeutic trials (966 participants) and two preventive trials (394 participants). Intake of zinc is associated with a significant reduction in the duration (standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.56 to -0.38) (P = 0.001), and severity of common cold symptoms (SMD -0.39; 95% CI -0.77 to -0.02) (P = 0.04). There was a significant difference between the zinc and control group for the proportion of participants symptomatic after seven days of treatment (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.00) (P = 0.05). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of developing a cold (IRR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.88) (P = 0.006), school absence (P = 0.0003) and prescription of antibiotics (P < 0.00001) was lower in the zinc group. Overall adverse events (OR 1.59; 95% CI 0.97 to 2.58) (P = 0.06), bad taste (OR 2.64; 95% CI 1.91 to 3.64) (P < 0.00001) and nausea (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 to 3.23) (P = 0.002) were higher in the zinc group. Zinc administered within 24 hours of onset of symptoms reduces the duration and severity of the common cold in healthy people. When supplemented for at least five months, it reduces cold

  7. Zinc Absorption by Young Adults from Supplemental Zinc Citrate Is Comparable with That from Zinc Gluconate and Higher than from Zinc Oxide123

    PubMed Central

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnić, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with 67Zn and 70Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6–71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6–71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9–57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

  8. Climatic and ecological impacts of tropospheric sulphate aerosols on the terrestrial carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, Alexey V.

    2015-04-01

    Tropospheric sulphate aerosols (TSA) may oxidise the photosynthesising tissues if they are taken up by plants. A parametrisation of this impact of tropospheric sulphate aerosols (TSA) on the terrestrial gross primary production is suggested. This parametrisation is implemented into the global Earth system model developed at the A.M. Obukhov Institute of the Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS CM). With this coupled model, the simulations are performed which are forced by common anthropogenic and natural climate forcings based on historical reconstructions followed by the RCP 8.5 scenario. The model response to sulphate aerosol loading is subdivided into the climatic (related to the influence of TSA on the radiative transport in the atmosphere) and ecological (related to the toxic influence of sulphate aerosol on terrestrial plants) impacts. We found that the former basically dominates over the latter on the global scale and modifies the responses of the global vegetation and soil carbon stocks to external forcings by 10%. At regional scale, however, ecological impact may be as much important as the climatic one.

  9. Conductance and bulk vertical detachment energy of hydrated sulphate and oxalate dianions: a theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Arup Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Analytical expressions have been derived for the vertical detachment energy (VDE) for hydrated sulphate (SO2 -4) and oxalate (C2O2 -4) dianions that can be used to calculate the same over a wide range of cluster sizes including the bulk from the knowledge of VDE for a finite number of stable clusters. The calculated bulk detachment energies are found to be very good in agreement (within 5%) with the available experimental results for both the systems. It is observed that two or more water molecules will be essential for the stability of sulphate and oxalate dianions against spontaneous electron loss and this is consistent with the experiment. We have, for the first time, provided a scheme to calculate the radius of the solvent berg for sulphate and oxalate dianions. The calculated conductivity values for the sulphate and oxalate dianions using Stokes-Einstein relation and the radius of solvent berg are found to be very good in agreement (within 4%) with the available experimental results.

  10. Assessment of Barium Sulphate Formation and Inhibition at Surfaces with Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction (SXRD)

    SciTech Connect

    E Mavredaki; A Neville; K Sorbie

    2011-12-31

    The precipitation of barium sulphate from aqueous supersaturated solutions is a well-known problem in the oil industry often referred to as 'scaling'. The formation and growth of barite on surfaces during the oil extraction process can result in malfunctions within the oil facilities and serious damage to the equipment. The formation of barium sulphate at surfaces remains an important topic of research with the focus being on understanding the mechanisms of formation and means of control. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) was used to investigate the formation of barium sulphate on a stainless steel surface. The effect of Poly-phosphinocarboxylicmore » acid (PPCA) and Diethylenetriamine-penta-methylenephosphonic acid (DETPMP) which are two commercial inhibitors for barium sulphate was examined. The in situ SXRD measurements allowed the identification of the crystal faces of the deposited barite in the absence and presence of the two inhibitors. The preferential effect of the inhibitors on some crystal planes is reported and the practical significance discussed.« less

  11. Does sulphate enrichment promote the expansion of Typha domingensis (cattail) in the Florida Everglades?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, S.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Hao, Chen; Orem, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    1. The expansion of Typha domingensis into areas once dominated by Cladium jamaicense in the Florida Everglades has been attributed to altered hydrology and phosphorus enrichment, although increased concentrations of sulphate and phosphorus often coincide. The potential importance of hydrogen sulphide produced from sulphate in the expansion of Typha has received little attention. The present study aimed to quantify the comparative growth and photosynthetic responses of Cladium and Typha to sulphate/sulphide. 2. Laboratory experiments showed that Cladium is less tolerant of sulphide than Typha. Cladium was adversely affected at sulphide concentrations of approximately 0.22 mm, while Typha continued to grow well and appeared healthy up to 0.69 mm sulphide. 3. Experiments in field mesocosms provided strong support for species-specific differences in physiology and growth. Regardless of interstitial sulphide concentrations attained, Typha grew faster and had a higher photosynthetic capacity than Cladium. However, sulphide concentrations in the mesocosms reached only 0.18 mm which, based on the hydroponic study, was insufficient to affect the growth or photosynthetic responses of either species. Nevertheless, the upper range of sulphide (0.25-0.375 mm) in Everglades' soil is high enough, based on our results, to impact Cladium but not Typha. 4. This research supports the hypothesis that sulphide accumulation could affect plant species differentially and modify species composition. Consequently, the role of sulphate loading should be considered, in conjunction with hydroperiod, phosphorus availability and disturbances, in developing future management plans for the Everglades. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Greener iodination of arenes using sulphated ceria-zirconia catalysts in polyethylene glycol

    EPA Science Inventory

    An environmentally benign method for the selective monoiodination of diverse aromatic compounds has been developed using reusable sulphated ceria-zirconia under mild conditions. The protocol provides moderate to good yields of aryl iodides in PEG-200 as a greener solvent. The cat...

  13. Sulphation of secreted phosphoprotein I (SPPI, osteopontin) is associated with mineralized tissue formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, T.; Todescan, R.; Goldberg, H.A.

    Secreted phosphoprotein I (SPPI) is a prominent structural protein in mineralized connective tissues. Rat bone cells in culture produce several forms of SPPI that differ in post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and sulphation. To determine the significance of protein sulphation in bone formation, the synthesis of SPPI was studied in vitro using rat bone marrow cells (RBMC) which form bone-like tissue when grown in the presence of dexamethasone (Dex) and beta-glycerophosphate (beta-GP). In the presence of 10(-7) M Dex SPPI expression was stimulated 4-5-fold. Radiolabelling multilayered RBMCs for 48 h with (35S)-methionine, Na2(35SO4), or Na3(32PO4) revealed that two major phosphorylatedmore » forms of SPPI were secreted into the culture medium: a highly phosphorylated form migrating at 44 kDa on 15% SDS-PAGE and a less phosphorylated 55 kDa form. In the mineralized tissue formed in the presence of Dex and beta-GP, both forms of SPPI, in addition to proteoglycans and a 67 kDa protein, incorporated significant amounts of (35SO4). Sulphation of SPPI was not observed in the absence of mineral formation, indicating that the sulphation of SPPI is closely associated with mineralization and that it can be used as a sensitive and specific marker for the osteoblastic phenotype.« less

  14. Effect of cadmium and zinc on antioxidant enzyme activity in the gastropod, Achatina fulica.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Rashmi; Sivakumar, A A; Mohandass, S; Aruchami, M

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal stress results in the production of O(2)(.-), H(2)O(2) and (.)OH, which affect various cellular processes, mostly the functioning of membrane systems. Cells are normally protected against free oxyradicals by the operation of intricate antioxidant systems. The aim of the present work is to examine the effect of CdCl(2) and ZnSO(4) on antioxidative enzyme activity in the gastropod, Achatina fulica. The concentrations of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (Cat) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)--and nonenzymatic antioxidants--glutathione and vitamin-C--were found to be decreased in both digestive gland and kidney of the gastropod, Achatina fulica treated with individual concentrations of 0.5 ppm and 1ppm of CdCl(2) and ZnSO(4), compared to that of control animals. Based on the above study, it is evident that Achatina fulica can be used as a bioindicator to monitor the environmental heavy metal pollution.

  15. Zinc for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Das, Rashmi R

    2013-06-18

    The common cold is one of the most widespread illnesses and is a leading cause of visits to the doctor and absenteeism from school and work. Trials conducted in high-income countries since 1984 investigating the role of zinc for the common cold symptoms have had mixed results. Inadequate treatment masking and reduced bioavailability of zinc from some formulations have been cited as influencing results. To assess whether zinc (irrespective of the zinc salt or formulation used) is efficacious in reducing the incidence, severity and duration of common cold symptoms. In addition, we aimed to identify potential sources of heterogeneity in results obtained and to assess their clinical significance. In this updated review, we searched CENTRAL (2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1966 to January week 2, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to January 2013), CINAHL (1981 to January 2013), Web of Science (1985 to January 2013), LILACS (1982 to January 2013), WHO ICTRP and clinicaltrials.gov. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials using zinc for at least five consecutive days to treat, or for at least five months to prevent the common cold. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Five trials were identified in the updated searches in January 2013 and two of them did not meet our inclusion criteria. We included 16 therapeutic trials (1387 participants) and two preventive trials (394 participants). Intake of zinc was associated with a significant reduction in the duration (days) (mean difference (MD) -1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.72 to -0.34) (P = 0.003) (I(2) statistic = 89%) but not the severity of common cold symptoms (MD -1.06, 95% CI -2.36 to 0.23) (P = 0.11) (I(2) statistic = 84%). The proportion of participants who were symptomatic after seven days of treatment was significantly smaller (odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.00) (P = 0.05) than those in the control, (I(2 )statistic = 75%). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of developing a

  16. History of Zinc in Agriculture12

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Forrest H.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732

  17. Influence of DNA-methylation on zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells: Regulation of zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Jana Elena; Wessels, Inga; Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar; Uciechowski, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of intracellular zinc, predominantly regulated through zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins, is required to support an efficient immune response. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are involved in the expression of these genes. In demethylation experiments using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) increased intracellular (after 24 and 48h) and total cellular zinc levels (after 48h) were observed in the myeloid cell line HL-60. To uncover the mechanisms that cause the disturbed zinc homeostasis after DNA demethylation, the expression of human zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins were investigated. Real time PCR analyses of 14 ZIP (solute-linked carrier (SLC) SLC39A; Zrt/IRT-like protein), and 9 ZnT (SLC30A) zinc transporters revealed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the zinc importer ZIP1 after AZA treatment. Because ZIP1 protein was also enhanced after AZA treatment, ZIP1 up-regulation might be the mediator of enhanced intracellular zinc levels. The mRNA expression of ZIP14 was decreased, whereas zinc exporter ZnT3 mRNA was also significantly increased; which might be a cellular reaction to compensate elevated zinc levels. An enhanced but not significant chromatin accessibility of ZIP1 promoter region I was detected by chromatin accessibility by real-time PCR (CHART) assays after demethylation. Additionally, DNA demethylation resulted in increased mRNA accumulation of zinc binding proteins metallothionein (MT) and S100A8/S100A9 after 48h. MT mRNA was significantly enhanced after 24h of AZA treatment also suggesting a reaction of the cell to restore zinc homeostasis. These data indicate that DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism affecting zinc binding proteins and transporters, and, therefore, regulating zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Sulphation of CaO-Based Sorbent Modified in CO2 Looping Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manovic, Vasilije; Anthony, Edward J.; Loncarevic, Davor

    CaO-based looping cycles for CO2 capture at high temperatures are based on cyclical carbonation of CaO and regeneration of CaCO3. The main limitation of natural sorbents is the loss of carrying capacity with increasing numbers of reaction cycles, resulting in spent sorbent ballast. Use of spent sorbent from CO2 looping cycles for SO2 capture is a possible solution investigated in this study. Three limestones were investigated: Kelly Rock (Canada), La Blanca (Spain) and Katowice (Poland). Carbonation/calcination cycles were performed in a tube furnace with original limestones and samples thermally pretreated for different times (i.e., sintered). The spent sorbent samples were sulphated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Changes in the resulting pore structure were then investigated using mercury porosimetry. Final conversions of both spent and pretreated sorbents after longer sulphation times were comparable or higher than those observed for the original sorbents. Maximum sulphation levels strongly depend on sorbent porosity and pore surface area. The shrinkage of sorbent particles during calcination/cycling resulted in a loss of sorbent porosity (≤48%), which corresponds to maximum sulphation levels ˜55% for spent Kelly Rock and Katowice. However, this is ˜10% higher than for the original samples. By contrast, La Blanca limestone had more pronounced particle shrinkage during pretreatment and cycling, leading to lower porosity, <35%, resulting in sulphation conversion of spent samples <30%, significantly lower than for the original sample (45%). These results showed that spent sorbent samples from CO2 looping cycles can be used as sorbents for SO2 retention if significant porosity loss does not occur during CO2 reaction cycles. For spent Kelly Rock and Katowice samples final conversions are determined by the total pore volume available for the bulky CaSO4 product.

  19. Controlled hypotension for middle ear surgery: a comparison between remifentanil and magnesium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Ryu, J-H; Sohn, I-S; Do, S-H

    2009-10-01

    This prospective, randomized study was designed to compare remifentanil and magnesium sulphate during middle ear surgery in terms of postoperative pain and other complications. Eighty patients undergoing middle ear surgery were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomized into two groups of 40 to receive remifentanil (Group R) or magnesium sulphate (Group M) infusion. Propofol 2 mg kg(-1) was administered to induce anaesthesia, which was maintained using sevoflurane. Group R received a continuous infusion of remifentanil titrated between 3 and 4 ng ml(-1) using target-controlled infusion, whereas Group M received an i.v. magnesium sulphate bolus of 50 mg kg(-1) followed by a 15 mg kg(-1) h(-1) continuous infusion to maintain a mean arterial pressure (MAP) between 60 and 70 mm Hg. Haemodynamic variables, surgical conditions, postoperative pain, and adverse effects, such as postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and shivering, were recorded. Controlled hypotension was well maintained in both groups. MAP and heart rate were higher in Group R than in Group M after operation. Surgical conditions were not different between the two groups. Postoperative pain scores were significantly lower in Group M than in Group R (P<0.05). Seventeen patients in Group R (43%) and seven patients in Group M (18%) developed PONV (P=0.01). Both magnesium sulphate and remifentanil when combined with sevoflurane provided adequate controlled hypotension and proper surgical conditions for middle ear surgery. However, patients administered magnesium sulphate had a more favourable postoperative course with better analgesia and less shivering and PONV.

  20. Zinc finger proteins in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Jen, Jayu; Wang, Yi-Ching

    2016-07-13

    Zinc finger proteins are the largest transcription factor family in human genome. The diverse combinations and functions of zinc finger motifs make zinc finger proteins versatile in biological processes, including development, differentiation, metabolism and autophagy. Over the last few decades, increasing evidence reveals the potential roles of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression. However, the underlying mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression vary in different cancer types and even in the same cancer type under different types of stress. Here, we discuss general mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in transcription regulation and summarize recent studies on zinc finger proteins in cancer progression. In this review, we also emphasize the importance of further investigations in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression.

  1. Evaluation of zinc coating procedures : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-01-01

    This research project was conducted in order to compare the existing procedure of zinc coating by hot-dip galvanizing with the other zinc coating systems of painting and electroplating. : Hardware coated by these processes was exposed to varied labor...

  2. Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12

    PubMed Central

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ∼3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

  3. Low-Resistivity Zinc Selenide for Heterojunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetron reactive sputtering enables doping of this semiconductor. Proposed method of reactive sputtering combined with doping shows potential for yielding low-resistivity zinc selenide films. Zinc selenide attractive material for forming heterojunctions with other semiconductor compounds as zinc phosphide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide. Semiconductor junctions promising for future optoelectronic devices, including solar cells and electroluminescent displays. Resistivities of zinc selenide layers deposited by evaporation or chemical vapor deposition too high to form practical heterojunctions.

  4. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-07-27

    Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  5. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  6. Sulphation of Rhizobium sp. NGR234 Nod factors is dependent on noeE, a new host-specificity gene.

    PubMed

    Hanin, M; Jabbouri, S; Quesada-Vincens, D; Freiberg, C; Perret, X; Promé, J C; Broughton, W J; Fellay, R

    1997-06-01

    Rhizobia secrete specific lipo-chitooligosaccharide signals (LCOs) called Nod factors that are required for infection and nodulation of legumes. In Rhizobium sp. NGR234, the reducing N-acetyl-D-glucosamine of LCOs is substituted at C6 with 2-O-methyl-L-fucose which can be acetylated or sulphated. We identified a flavonoid-inducible locus on the symbiotic plasmid pNGR234a that contains a new nodulation gene, noeE, which is required for the sulphation of NGR234 Nod factors (NodNGR). noeE was identified by conjugation into the closely related Rhizobium fredii strain USDA257, which produces fucosylated but non-sulphated Nod factors (NodUSDA). R. fredii transconjugants producing sulphated LCOs acquire the capacity to nodulate Calopogonium caeruleum. Furthermore, mutation of noeE (NGRdelta noeE) abolishes the production of sulphated LCOs and prevents nodulation of Pachyrhizus tuberosus. The sulphotransferase activity linked to NoeE is specific for fucose. In contrast, the sulphotransferase NodH of Rhizobium meliloti seems to be less specific than NoeE, because its introduction into NGRdelta noeE leads to the production of a mixture of LCOs that are sulphated on C6 of the reducing terminus and sulphated on the 2-O-methylfucose residue. Together, these findings show that noeE is a host-specificity gene which probably encodes a fucose-specific sulphotransferase.

  7. Comparison of the effects of the K(+)-channel openers cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate on vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Wickenden, A. D.; Grimwood, S.; Grant, T. L.; Todd, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    1 The actions of the potassium channel openers, cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate, were compared in a range of isolated blood vessel preparations. 2 Cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate inhibited spontaneous mechanical activity of the guinea-pig portal vein and relaxed the noradrenaline precontracted rat aorta with similar potency. In contrast, minoxidil sulphate was less potent than cromakalim in inhibiting spontaneous activity in the rat portal vein and was essentially inactive in the noradrenaline precontracted rat mesenteric artery and rabbit aorta. 3 Minoxidil sulphate did not antagonize the effects of cromakalim in the rabbit aorta indicating it was not acting as a partial 'agonist'. 4 Charybdotoxin, noxiustoxin and rubidium failed to discriminate between cromakalim and minoxidil sulphate indicating that the apparently selective effects of minoxidil sulphate were not mediated by either Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels, delayed rectifiers or rubidium impermeable potassium channels. 5 Glibenclamide antagonized the effects of cromakalim in an apparently competitive manner whereas the effects of minoxidil sulphate were antagonized in a non-competitive manner. The involvement of subtypes of ATP-sensitive potassium channels is discussed. PMID:1878752

  8. [Improvement in zinc nutrition due to zinc transporter-targeting strategy].

    PubMed

    Kambe, Taiho

    2016-07-01

    Adequate intake of zinc from the daily diet is indispensable to maintain health. However, the dietary zinc content often fails to fulfill the recommended daily intake, leading to zinc deficiency and also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, particularly in elderly individuals. Therefore, increased attention is required to overcome zinc deficiency and it is important to improve zinc nutrition in daily life. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter, ZIP4, functions as a component that is essential for zinc absorption. In this manuscript, we present a brief overview regarding zinc deficiency. Moreover, we review a novel strategy, called "ZIP4-targeting", which has the potential to enable efficient zinc absorption from the diet. ZIP4-targeting strategy is possibly a major step in preventing zinc deficiency and improving human health.

  9. Zinc supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients. Symptomatic zinc deficiency has been reported in CF but little is known about zinc homeostasis in children with CF. Zinc supplementation (Zn suppl) is increasingly common in children with CF but it is not without theoretcial r...

  10. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc...). It is principally composed of Zn. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with zinc oxide may...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from...

  14. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  15. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use...

  18. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc...

  20. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chickedema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chickedema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  8. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50 grams per pound bacitracin. (b) Approvals. See No. 046573 in...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick...

  15. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.1991...

  16. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50 grams per pound bacitracin. (b) Approvals. See No. 046573 in...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  18. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  19. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  5. Ferritin: a zinc detoxicant and a zinc ion donor.

    PubMed Central

    Price, D; Joshi, J G

    1982-01-01

    Rats were injected with 1 mg of Zn2+ as zinc sulfate or 2 mg of Cd2+ as cadmium sulfate per kg of body weight on a daily basis. After seven injections, ferritin and metallothionein were isolated from the livers of the rats. Significant amounts of zinc were associated with ferritin. Incubation of such ferritin with apoenzymes of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase, yeast phosphoglucomutase, and yeast aldolase restored their enzymic activity. The amount of zinc injected was insufficient to stimulate significant synthesis of metallothionein, but similar experiments with injection of cadmium did stimulate the synthesis of metallothionein. The amount of Zn2+ in ferritin of Cd-injected rats was greater than that in ferritin in Zn-injected rats, which was greater than that in ferritin of normal rats. Thus at comparable protein concentration ferritin from Cd-injected rats was a better Zn2+ donor than was ferritin from Zn-injected or normal animals. Ferritin is a normal constituent of several tissues, whereas metallothionein is synthesized under metabolic stress. Thus ferritin may function as a "metal storage and transferring agent" for iron and for zinc. It is suggested that ferritin probably serves as the initial chelator for Zn2+ and perhaps other metal ions as well and that under very high toxic levels of metal ions the synthesis of metallothionein is initiated as the second line of defense. PMID:6212927

  6. Magnesium sulphate and other anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Duley, Lelia; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Henderson-Smart, David J; Chou, Doris

    2010-11-10

    Eclampsia, the occurrence of a seizure (fit) in association with pre-eclampsia, is rare but potentially life-threatening. Magnesium sulphate is the drug of choice for treating eclampsia. This review assesses its use for preventing eclampsia. To assess the effects of magnesium sulphate, and other anticonvulsants, for prevention of eclampsia. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (4 June 2010), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3). Randomised trials comparing anticonvulsants with placebo or no anticonvulsant, or comparisons of different drugs, for pre-eclampsia. Two authors assessed trial quality and extracted data independently. We included 15 trials. Six (11,444 women) compared magnesium sulphate with placebo or no anticonvulsant: magnesium sulphate more than a halved the risk of eclampsia (risk ratio (RR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29 to 0.58; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 100, 95% CI 50 to 100), with a non-significant reduction in maternal death (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.10) but no clear difference in serious maternal morbidity (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.32). It reduced the risk of placental abruption (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.83; NNTB 100, 95% CI 50 to 1000), and increased caesarean section (RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.10). There was no clear difference in stillbirth or neonatal death (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.15). Side effects, primarily flushing, were more common with magnesium sulphate (24% versus 5%; RR 5.26, 95% CI 4.59 to 6.03; number need to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) 6, 95% CI 5 to 6).Follow-up was reported by one trial comparing magnesium sulphate with placebo: for 3375 women there was no clear difference in death (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.71 to 4.53) or morbidity potentially related to pre-eclampsia (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.26) (median follow-up 26 months); for 3283 children exposed in utero

  7. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  8. Formulation procedure and spectral data for a coatings system optimally employing the high intrinsic reflectance of barium sulphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J. B.; Stromberg, E.; Shai, C. M.; Arens, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The use of polyvinyl alcohol as a binder for barium sulphate does not allow the intrinsically high reflectance of this material in the near vacuum ultraviolet to be optimally employed. In an effort to better utilize this property, completely inorganic coatings systems are described, where from the intrinsically high reflectance of barium sulphate in this spectral region can be gotten. Potassium sulphate turns out to be the preferred binder. Compositions, formulating procedures, and application techniques are included. For completeness, absolute and relative reflectance data are included for intra- and intersystem comparisons.

  9. Post-translational processing of progastrin: inhibition of cleavage, phosphorylation and sulphation by brefeldin A.

    PubMed Central

    Varro, A; Dockray, G J

    1993-01-01

    The precursor for the acid-stimulating hormone gastrin provides a useful model for studies of post-translational processing because defined sites of cleavage, amidation, sulphation and phosphorylation occur within a dodecapeptide sequence. The factors determining these post-translational processing events are still poorly understood. We have used brefeldin A, which disrupts transport from rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, to examine the mechanisms of cleavage, phosphorylation and sulphation of rat progastrin-derived peptides. Biosynthetic products were detected after immunoprecipitation using antibodies specific for the extreme C-terminus of progastrin, followed by reversed-phase and ion-exchange h.p.l.c. Gastrin cells incorporated [3H]tyrosine, [32P]phosphate and [35S]sulphate into both progastrin and its extreme C-terminal tryptic (nona-) peptide. Ion-exchange chromatography resolved four forms of the C-terminal tryptic fragment of progastrin which differed in whether they were phosphorylated at Ser96, sulphated at Tyr103, both or neither. The specific activity of [3H]tyrosine in the peak that was both phosphorylated and sulphated was higher than in the others. Brefeldin A inhibited the appearance of [3H]tyrosine-labelled C-terminal tryptic fragment but there was an accumulation of labelled progastrin and a peptide corresponding to the C-terminal 46 residues of progastrin. Brefeldin A also inhibited incorporation of 32P and 35S into both progastrin and its C-terminal fragment. Thus phosphorylation of Ser96, sulphation of Tyr103 and cleavage at Arg94-Arg95 depend on passage of newly synthesized progastrin along the secretory pathway; as brefeldin A is thought to act proximal to the trans-Golgi, these processing steps would appear to occur distal to this point. The data also indicate that the stores of unphosphorylated C-terminal tryptic fragment are not available for phosphorylation, implying that this modification occurs proximal to the secretory

  10. Zinc lozenges and the common cold: a meta-analysis comparing zinc acetate and zinc gluconate, and the role of zinc dosage.

    PubMed

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of zinc acetate lozenges with zinc gluconate lozenges in common cold treatment and to examine the dose-dependency of the effect. Meta-analysis. Placebo-controlled zinc lozenge trials, in which the zinc dose was > 75 mg/day. The pooled effect of zinc lozenges on common cold duration was calculated by using inverse-variance random-effects method. Seven randomised trials with 575 participants with naturally acquired common colds. Duration of the common cold. The mean common cold duration was 33% (95% CI 21% to 45%) shorter for the zinc groups of the seven included trials. Three trials that used lozenges composed of zinc acetate found that colds were shortened by 40% and four trials that used zinc gluconate by 28%. The difference between the two salts was not significant: 12 percentage points (95% CI: -12 to + 36). Five trials used zinc doses of 80-92 mg/day, common cold duration was reduced by 33%, and two trials used zinc doses of 192-207 mg/day and found an effect of 35%. The difference between the high-dose and low-dose zinc trials was not significant: 2 percentage points (95% CI: -29 to + 32). Properly composed zinc gluconate lozenges may be as effective as zinc acetate lozenges. There is no evidence that zinc doses over 100 mg/day might lead to greater efficacy in the treatment of the common cold. Common cold patients may be encouraged to try zinc lozenges for treating their colds. The optimal lozenge composition and dosage scheme need to be investigated further.

  11. Comparison of soil and foliar zinc application for enhancing grain zinc content of wheat when grown on potentially zinc-deficient calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ai-qing; Tian, Xiao-hong; Cao, Yu-xian; Lu, Xin-chun; Liu, Ting

    2014-08-01

    The concentration of Zn and phytic acid in wheat grain has important implications for human health. We conducted field and greenhouse experiments to compare the efficacy of soil and foliar Zn fertilisation in improving grain Zn concentration and bioavailability in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain grown on potentially Zn-deficient calcareous soil. Results from the 2-year field experiment indicated that soil Zn application increased soil DTPA-Zn by an average of 174%, but had no significant effect on grain Zn concentration. In contrast, foliar Zn application increased grain Zn concentration by an average of 61%, and Zn bioavailability by an average of 36%. Soil DTPA-Zn concentrations varied depending on wheat cultivars. There were also significant differences in grain phytic acid concentration among the cultivars. A laboratory experiment indicated that Zn (from ZnSO4 ) had a low diffusion coefficient in this calcareous soil. Compared to soil Zn application, foliar Zn application is more effective in improving grain Zn content of wheat grown in potentially Zn-deficient calcareous soils. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Zinc transport and diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Ewan

    2014-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have previously identified variants in SLC30A8, encoding the zinc transporter ZnT8, associated with diabetes risk. A rare variant association study has now established the direction of effect, surprisingly showing that loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 are protective against diabetes.

  13. Improved colorimetric determination of serum zinc.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D J; Djuh, Y Y; Bruton, J; Williams, H L

    1977-07-01

    We show how zinc may easily be quantified in serum by first using an optimum concentration of guanidine hydrochloride to cause release of zinc from proteins, followed by complexation of released metals with cyanide. The cyanide complex of zinc is preferentially demasked with chloral hydrate, followed by a colorimetric reaction between zinc and 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. This is a sensitive water-soluble ligand; its complex with zinc has an absorption maximum at 497 nm. Values found by this technique compare favorably with those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  14. The Zinc Transporter Zip5 (Slc39a5) Regulates Intestinal Zinc Excretion and Protects the Pancreas against Zinc Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Jim; De Lisle, Robert C.; Andrews, Glen K.

    2013-01-01

    Background ZIP5 localizes to the baso-lateral membranes of intestinal enterocytes and pancreatic acinar cells and is internalized and degraded coordinately in these cell-types during periods of dietary zinc deficiency. These cell-types are thought to control zinc excretion from the body. The baso-lateral localization and zinc-regulation of ZIP5 in these cells are unique among the 14 members of the Slc39a family and suggest that ZIP5 plays a role in zinc excretion. Methods/Principal Findings We created mice with floxed Zip5 genes and deleted this gene in the entire mouse or specifically in enterocytes or acinar cells and then examined the effects on zinc homeostasis. We found that ZIP5 is not essential for growth and viability but total knockout of ZIP5 led to increased zinc in the liver in mice fed a zinc-adequate (ZnA) diet but impaired accumulation of pancreatic zinc in mice fed a zinc-excess (ZnE) diet. Loss-of-function of enterocyte ZIP5, in contrast, led to increased pancreatic zinc in mice fed a ZnA diet and increased abundance of intestinal Zip4 mRNA. Finally, loss-of-function of acinar cell ZIP5 modestly reduced pancreatic zinc in mice fed a ZnA diet but did not impair zinc uptake as measured by the rapid accumulation of 67zinc. Retention of pancreatic 67zinc was impaired in these mice but the absence of pancreatic ZIP5 sensitized them to zinc-induced pancreatitis and exacerbated the formation of large cytoplasmic vacuoles containing secretory protein in acinar cells. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that ZIP5 participates in the control of zinc excretion in mice. Specifically, they reveal a paramount function of intestinal ZIP5 in zinc excretion but suggest a role for pancreatic ZIP5 in zinc accumulation/retention in acinar cells. ZIP5 functions in acinar cells to protect against zinc-induced acute pancreatitis and attenuate the process of zymophagy. This suggests that it may play a role in autophagy. PMID:24303081

  15. Interaction of zinc with dental mineral.

    PubMed

    Ingram, G S; Horay, C P; Stead, W J

    1992-01-01

    As some currently available toothpastes contain zinc compounds, the reaction of zinc with dental mineral and its effect on crystal growth rates were studied using three synthetic calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites (HAP) as being representative of dental mineral. Zinc was readily acquired by all HAP samples in the absence of added calcium, the amount adsorbed being proportional to the HAP surface area; about 9 mumol Zn/m2 was adsorbed at high zinc concentrations. As zinc was acquired, calcium was released, consistent with 1:1 Ca:Zn exchange. Soluble calcium reduced zinc uptake and similarly, calcium post-treatment released zinc. Pretreatment of HAP with 0.5 mM zinc reduced its subsequent ability to undergo seeded crystal growth, as did extracts of a toothpaste containing 0.5% zinc citrate, even in the presence of saliva. The reverse reaction, i.e. displacement of adsorbed zinc by salivary levels of calcium, however, indicates the mechanism by which zinc can reduce calculus formation in vivo by inhibiting plaque mineralisation without adversely affecting the anti-caries effects of fluoride.

  16. Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

  17. Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2011-01-01

    Centuries before it was identified as an element, zinc was used to make brass (an alloy of zinc and copper) and for medicinal purposes. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Refined zinc metal is bluish-white when freshly cast; it is hard and brittle at most temperatures and has relatively low melting and boiling points. Zinc alloys readily with other metals and is chemically active. On exposure to air, it develops a thin gray oxide film (patina), which inhibits deeper oxidation (corrosion) of the metal. The metal's resistance to corrosion is an important characteristic in its use.

  18. Two ultrastructurally distinct tubulin paracrystals induced in sea-urchin eggs by vinblastine sulphate.

    PubMed

    Starling, D

    1976-01-01

    Two types of ultrastructurally distinct tubulin paracrystals have been induced in sea-urchin eggs with vinblastine sulphate (VLB) under different sets of conditions. One type of paracrystal appears to consist of hexagonally-close packed microtubules and closely resembles paracrystals present in mammalian cells treated with vinblastine or vincristine sulphate, but not previously reported in sea-urchin eggs. The other type is also made up of tubulin subunits, but these do not seem to have polymerized into microtubules. Both types of paracrystal are induced in sea-urchin eggs in the presence of VLB at a time when tubulin subunits would not normally polymerize. Possible mechanisms for tubulin activation and the induction of paracrystal formation are discussed in respect to the available information on the binding sites of the tubulin subunits.

  19. Extraction of nickel from Ramu laterite by sulphation roasting-water leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiwei; Du, Shangchao; Liu, Guo; Tang, Jianwen; Lu, Yeda; Lv, Dong

    2017-08-01

    Recovery of nickel from a PNG nickel laterite with high content of iron by a sulphation roasting-water leaching has been studied. The influences of sulfuric acid/ore ratio, temperature of roasting and water on recovery efficiency were investigated. The effective separation of nickel over the co-existed elements including iron was achieved by the process with mixing, curing, roasting and leaching stages. Near 100% of nickel was leached from the roasted laterite by water at 80°C in an atmospheric air, while co-leaching of about 2% of iron, under the optimal pre-treatment conditions with the ratio of acid: ore around 0.45:1 and the roasting temperature about 650°C. The advantages and disadvantages of sulphation atmospheric leaching are compared with pressure acid leaching with engineering consideration.

  20. Removal of nickel and cadmium from battery waste by a chemical method using ferric sulphate.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Umesh U; Hocheng, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The removal of nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) from spent batteries was studied by the chemical method. A novel leaching system using ferric sulphate hydrate was introduced to dissolve heavy metals in batteries. Ni-Cd batteries are classified as hazardous waste because Ni and Cd are suspected carcinogens. More efficient technologies are required to recover metals from spent batteries to minimize capital outlay, environmental impact and to respond to increased demand. The results obtained demonstrate that optimal conditions, including pH, concentration of ferric sulphate, shaking speed and temperature for the metal removal, were 2.5, 60 g/L, 150 rpm and 30 degrees C, respectively. More than 88 (+/- 0.9) and 84 (+/- 2.8)% of nickel and cadmium were recovered, respectively. These results suggest that ferric ion oxidized Ni and Cd present in battery waste. This novel process provides a possibility for recycling waste Ni-Cd batteries in a large industrial scale.

  1. Sulphated Electric Arc Furnace Slag Asfenton-Like Catalyst for Degradation of Reactive Black 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubir, N. A.; Nasuha, N.; Alrozi, R.

    2018-06-01

    Sulphated electric arc furnace slag (S-EAFS) was obtained through a facile chemical and thermal treatment method. The S-EAFS was evaluated as a Fenton-like catalyst for the oxidative degradation of reactive black 5 (RB5). The S-EAFS was characterized by XRD, SEM-EDX and nitrogen adsorption analysis. The highest RB5 degradation efficiency obtained in this study was above 90% which was maintained across seven successive cycles with minimum iron leaching. This was achieved at a RB5 concentration of 0.15 gL-1 (50 ppm) with 8 mM of H2O2 and a pH of 4.5. Characterization revealed that the presence of sulphated groups (SO4 2-) within the EAFS improved the surface acidity of the material and corresponded to an increase in the catalytic activity for the degradation of RB5 at mild pH.

  2. Efficacy of sodium dodecyl sulphate and natural extracts against E. coli biofilm.

    PubMed

    Fink, Rok; Kulaš, Stefan; Oder, Martina

    2018-05-02

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the efficacy of a standard cleaning agent, sodium dodecyl sulphate, and natural extracts from pomegranate peel grape skin and bay laurel leaf against E. coli biofilm. The biofilm was exposed for 10 minutes to three different concentrations of each tested compound. The results show that bay laurel leaf extract is the most efficient with 43% biofilm biomass reduction, followed by pomegranate peel extract (35%); sodium dodecyl sulphate and grape skin extract each have 30% efficacy. Our study demonstrated that natural extracts from selected plants have the same or even better efficacy against E. coli biofilm removal from surfaces than the tested classical cleaning agent do. All this indicates that natural plant extracts, which are acceptable from the health and environment points of view, can be potential substitutes for classical cleaning agents.

  3. Drowning-out crystallisation of sodium sulphate using aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Taboada, M E; Graber, T A; Asenjo, J A; Andrews, B A

    2000-06-23

    A novel method to obtain crystals of pure, anhydrous salt, using aqueous two-phase systems was studied. A concentrated salt solution is mixed with polyethylene glycol (PEG), upon which three phases are formed: salt crystals, a PEG-rich liquid and a salt-rich liquid. After removal of the solid salt, a two-phase system is obtained. Both liquid phases are recycled, allowing the design of a continuous process, which could be exploited industrially. The phase diagram of the system water-Na2SO4-PEG 3350 at 28 degrees C was used. Several process alternatives are proposed and their economic potential is discussed. The process steps needed to produce sodium sulphate crystals include mixing, crystallisation, settling and, optionally, evaporation of water. The yield of sodium sulphate increases dramatically if an evaporation step is used.

  4. Association between Maternal Zinc Status, Dietary Zinc Intake and Pregnancy Complications: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Rebecca L.; Grieger, Jessica A.; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Roberts, Claire T.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate zinc stores in the body are extremely important during periods of accelerated growth. However, zinc deficiency is common in developing countries and low maternal circulating zinc concentrations have previously been associated with pregnancy complications. We reviewed current literature assessing circulating zinc and dietary zinc intake during pregnancy and the associations with preeclampsia (PE); spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB); low birthweight (LBW); and gestational diabetes (GDM). Searches of MEDLINE; CINAHL and Scopus databases identified 639 articles and 64 studies were reviewed. In 10 out of 16 studies a difference was reported with respect to circulating zinc between women who gave birth to a LBW infant (≤2500 g) and those who gave birth to an infant of adequate weight (>2500 g), particularly in populations where inadequate zinc intake is prevalent. In 16 of our 33 studies an association was found between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and circulating zinc; particularly in women with severe PE (blood pressure ≥160/110 mmHg). No association between maternal zinc status and sPTB or GDM was seen; however; direct comparisons between the studies was difficult. Furthermore; only a small number of studies were based on women from populations where there is a high risk of zinc deficiency. Therefore; the link between maternal zinc status and pregnancy success in these populations cannot be established. Future studies should focus on those vulnerable to zinc deficiency and include dietary zinc intake as a measure of zinc status. PMID:27754451

  5. Effects of serum zinc level on tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Berkiten, Güler; Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Yıldırım, Güven; Salturk, Ziya; Uyar, Yavuz; Atar, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess zinc levels in tinnitus patients, and to evaluate the effects of zinc deficiency on tinnitus and hearing loss. One-hundred patients, who presented to an outpatient clinic with tinnitus between June 2009 and 2014, were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups according to age: Group I (patients between 18 and 30years of age); Group II (patients between 31 and 60years of age); and Group III (patients between 61 and 78years of age). Following a complete ear, nose and throat examination, serum zinc levels were measured and the severity of tinnitus was quantified using the Tinnitus Severity Index Questionnaire (TSIQ). Patients were subsequently asked to provide a subjective judgment regarding the loudness of their tinnitus. The hearing status of patients was evaluated by audiometry and high-frequency audiometry. An average hearing sensitivity was calculated as the mean value of hearing thresholds between 250 and 20,000Hz. Serum zinc levels between 70 and 120μg/dl were considered normal. The severity and loudness of tinnitus, and the hearing thresholds of the normal zinc level and zinc-deficient groups, were compared. Twelve of 100 (12%) patients exhibited low zinc levels. The mean age of the zinc-deficient group was 65.41±12.77years. Serum zinc levels were significantly lower in group III (p<0.01). The severity and loudness of tinnitus were greater in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.011 and p=0.015, respectively). Moreover, the mean thresholds of air conduction were significantly higher in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.000). We observed that zinc levels decrease as age increases. In addition, there was a significant correlation between zinc level and the severity and loudness of tinnitus. Zinc deficiency was also associated with impairments in hearing thresholds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Oilfield scales: controls on precipitation and crystal morphology of barite (barium sulphate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, A. I. R.; Wogelius, R. A.; Vaughan, D. J.

    2003-04-01

    The precipitation and subsequent build up of barite (barium sulphate) inside extraction tubing presents a costly problem for off shore oil wells which use seawater to mobilize oil during hydrocarbon recovery. Mixing of reservoir formation water containing Ba2+ ions and seawater containing SO_42- ions results in barite precipitation within the reservoir well-bore region and piping. Great effort has been expended in designing strategies to minimize scale formation but details of the reaction mechanism and sensitivity to thermodynamic variables are poorly constrained. Furthermore, few detailed studies have been carried out under simulated field conditions. Hence an experimental programme was designed to study barite formation under environmentally relevant conditions with control of several system variables during the precipitation reaction. Synthetic sea-water and formation-water brines containing sodium sulphate and barium chloride, respectively, were mixed to induce BaSO_4 precipitation. Experiments were carried out at high temperature (100^oC) and high pressure (500 bars) in double rocking autoclave bombs. Barite formation as a function of the addition of calcium, magnesium, and a generic phosphonate based scale inhibitor was investigated whilst maintaining constant pH, temperature and ionic strength (0.5159). Additional experiments were performed at ambient conditions for comparison. Data concerning nucleation, growth rates, and crystal morphology were obtained. ICP-AES data from the supernatant product solutions showed considerable variation in quantity of barium sulphate precipitated as a function of the listed experimental variables. For example, ESEM analysis of barium sulphate crystals showed a dramatic shift in crystal habit from the typical tabular habit produced in control experiments; experiments performed in the presence of foreign cations produced more equant crystals, while those experiments completed in the presence of the phosphonate scale inhibitor

  7. A sulphated flavone glycoside from Livistona australis and its antioxidant and cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Mona E S; Shoela, Soha; Marzouk, Mona M; Sleem, Amany A

    2012-01-01

    A new flavone glycoside tricin 7-O-β-glucopyranoside-2″-sulphate sodium salt along with 14 known flavonoid compounds were isolated and identified from the aqueous methanol extract of Livistona australis leaves. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive NMR (¹H, ¹³C, HSQC and H-H COSY) and ESIMS data. Antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties of the methanol extract of the leaves as well as the new compound were investigated.

  8. Nanorelief of the natural cleavage surface of triglycine sulphate crystals with substitutional and interstitial impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Belugina, N. V.; Gainutdinov, R. V.; Tolstikhina, A. L., E-mail: alla@ns.crys.ras.ru

    2011-11-15

    Ferroelectric triglycine sulphate crystals (TGS) with substitutional (LADTGS+ADP, DTGS) and interstitial (Cr) impurities have been studied by atomic-force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray fluorescence. The nanorelief parameters of the mirror cleavage TGS(010) surface have been measured with a high accuracy. A correlation between the crystal defect density in the bulk and the cleavage surface nanorelief is revealed at the submicrometer level.

  9. Treatment of a high-strength sulphate-rich alkaline leachate using an anaerobic filter

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Banks, C.J.

    2007-07-01

    The research looks at the feasibility of treating an alkaline sulphate-rich leachate arising from the co-disposal of municipal solid waste with cement kiln dust by means of an anaerobic filter (AF). This type of leachate with a high sulphate concentration is commonly prohibited for discharge to sewer and requires an on-site treatment solution. The AF used had a working volume of 4 l and contained reticulated polyurethane foam as the biomass support material. The filters were operated over a 152 day experimental period during which the COD loading onto the filter was increased from 0.76 to 7.63 kg COD m{supmore » -3} d{sup -1}. In the early stages of operation at low loading, soluble sulphides accumulated that inhibited methanogenic activity. This was restored by dosing FeCl{sub 3} to the reactor. The continued dosing allowed efficient COD removal of between 75% and 90% until the nominal retention time in the reactor was 3 days, at which point reactor performance declined significantly. The main mechanism for COD removal was by sulphate-reducing bacteria, which also resulted in up to 88% sulphate removal from the leachate. The average methane generation rate was 0.10 l g{sup -1} COD removed. The results indicate the potential for using this approach as a pre-treatment that could significantly reduce the COD load to a second stage treatment process, but problems associated with the implementation of the technology at a larger scale have been identified.« less

  10. Biosedimentary and geochemical constraints on the precipitation of mineral crusts in shallow sulphate lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabestrero, Óscar; del Buey, Pablo; Sanz-Montero, M. Esther

    2018-04-01

    Seasonal desiccation of Mg2+-(Na+)-(Ca2+)-SO42--(Cl-) saline lakes in La Mancha (Central Spain) that host microbial mats led to the precipitation of hydrated Na-Mg sulphates and gypsum. Sulphates precipitated in the submerged conditions form extensive biolaminites, whilst in marginal areas they produce thin crusts. Sedimentological, mineralogical, petrographic and high resolution textural studies reveal that the crusts were formed within the benthic microbial mats that thrive at salinities ranging from 160 to 340 g·L-1. The minerals of the crusts are primary bloedite (Na2Mg(SO4)2·4H2O), epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O), as well as secondary hexahydrite (MgSO4·6H2O) and thenardite (Na2SO4). Primary bloedite crystals, which form the framework of surficial and submerged crusts are seen to nucleate subaqueously and grow incorporatively within the matgrounds. Displacive and incorporative epsomite grows on previous bloedite crystals and also on the ground. Mirabilite is precipitated rapidly at the brine-air interface over bloedite and epsomite. Hexahydrite and thenardite are formed due to dehydration of epsomite and mirabilite, respectively. Hydrochemical modeling with PHREEQC indicated that evaporitic biolaminites are forming from brines undersaturated with respect to bloedite, epsomite and mirabilite, which suggests that the microorganisms contribute to the heterogeneous nucleation of the sulphates in the microbial mats. Unlike carbonates, the influence of microbes on the growth and morphology of complicated double salts such as bloedite has not been documented previously and provides a new perspective on the formation of hydrated sulphate minerals that are common on Earth as well as other planets.

  11. Magnesium sulphate has beneficial effects as an adjuvant during general anaesthesia for Caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H; Kwon, I C

    2009-12-01

    The use of low concentrations of volatile anaesthetics with avoidance of opioids may induce intraoperative awareness and adverse haemodynamic responses during Caesarean section. Magnesium is well known to reduce anaesthetic requirements and to block noxious stimuli. We investigated whether i.v. magnesium sulphate modulates anaesthetic depth and analgesic efficacy during Caesarean section. Seventy-two patients undergoing Caesarean section were randomly assigned to receive i.v. saline (control group) or magnesium sulphate 30 mg kg(-1) bolus+10 mg kg(-1) h(-1) continuous infusion (Mg 30 group) or 45 mg kg(-1) bolus+15 mg kg(-1) h(-1) continuous infusion (Mg 45 group) after induction. Bispectral index (BIS) value, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and midazolam, fentanyl, and atracurium consumptions were recorded. BIS values [mean (sd)] at 7.5 and 10 min after surgery and before delivery in the control [64 (9), 66 (8), 67 (8), P<0.001] and the Mg 30 groups [62 (8), P<0.01; 64 (7), 63 (9), P<0.001] were higher than in the Mg 45 group [56 (8), 55 (8), 55 (7)]. MAP was greater in the control group (P<0.05) than in the Mg 30 and Mg 45 groups during the pre-delivery period. The magnesium groups required less midazolam (P<0.05), fentanyl (Mg 30, P<0.05; Mg 45, P<0.01), and atracurium (P<0.001) vs the control group. Preoperative i.v. magnesium sulphate attenuated BIS and arterial pressure increases during the pre-delivery period. Magnesium sulphate can be recommended as an adjuvant during general anaesthesia for Caesarean section to avoid perioperative awareness and pressor response resulting from inadequate anaesthesia, analgesia, or both.

  12. [Severe toxic liver failure after acute poisoning with paracetamol, ferrous sulphate and naproxen].

    PubMed

    Adamek, Robert; Wilczek, Lech; Krupiński, Bogusław

    2004-01-01

    We present the case of 20-year-old woman intoxicated with mixed drugs, composed of paracetamol (acetaminophen), ferrous sulphate, naproxen and benzodiazepines. Acute toxic liver damage with clinical symptoms of coma resolved at the patient. Lack of the past history doesn't let to specific therapy and systemic complications. In this data we confirm, that past history, clinical symptoms and laboratory results are needed in designing a treatment strategy.

  13. Magnesium sulphate: an adjuvant to tracheal intubation without muscle relaxation--a randomised study.

    PubMed

    Aissaoui, Younes; Qamous, Youssef; Serghini, Issam; Zoubir, Mohammed; Salim, Jaafar Lalaoui; Boughalem, Mohammed

    2012-08-01

    Tracheal intubation without administration of a neuromuscular blocking drug is used frequently in anaesthesia. Several techniques and adjuvants have been tried to improve intubating conditions. Magnesium sulphate is an agent with analgesic, anaesthetic and muscle relaxant effects. To assess the effect of magnesium sulphate on intubating conditions after induction of anaesthesia without a neuromuscular blocking drug. Double-blinded randomised study. Sixty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1/2 scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia were included. Avicenna Military Hospital between June 2010 and March 2011. Before induction of general anaesthesia, patients were assigned to receive either a 10-min infusion of magnesium sulphate 45 mg kg(-1) in 100 ml of isotonic saline (magnesium group, n = 30) or the same volume of saline (control group, n = 30). Anaesthesia was induced with fentanyl 3 μg kg(-1) followed 3 min later by propofol 2.5 mg kg(-1). Intubating conditions were evaluated by a blinded anaesthesiologist using the criteria of the Copenhagen consensus conference: ease of laryngoscopy, vocal cord position and/or movement and response to intubation or cuff inflation (cough or diaphragmatic movement). Intubating conditions were considered as acceptable (excellent or good) or unacceptable (poor). Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were also recorded during the study period. The two groups were comparable in their demographic profiles. Clinically acceptable intubating conditions were observed more frequently in the magnesium group than in the control group: 25 (83%) vs. 18 patients (60%) (P = 0.042). There was no failed intubation. There were no differences between the groups with regard to haemodynamic variables. Addition of magnesium sulphate to propofol and fentanyl at induction of anaesthesia significantly improved intubating conditions without administration of a neuromuscular blocking drug.

  14. Is white clover able to switch to atmospheric sulphur sources when sulphate availability decreases?

    PubMed

    Varin, Sébastien; Lemauviel-Lavenant, Servane; Cliquet, Jean-Bernard

    2013-05-01

    Sulphur (S) is one of the very few nutrients that plants can absorb either through roots as sulphate or via leaves in a gas form such as SO2 or H2S. This study was realized in a non-S-enriched atmosphere and its purpose was to test whether clover plants can increase their ability to use atmospheric S when sulphate availability decreases. A novel methodology measuring the dilution of (34)S provided from a nutrient solution by atmospheric (32)S was developed to measure S acquisition by Trifolium repens L. Clones of white clover were grown for 140 d in a hydroponic system with three levels of sulphate concentrations. S concentration in plants decreased with S deficiency and plant age. In the experimental conditions used here, S derived from atmospheric deposition (Sdad) constituted from 36% to 100% of the total S. The allocation of S coming from atmospheric and pedospheric sources depends on organs and compounds. Nodules appeared as major sinks for sulphate. A greater proportion of atmospheric S was observed in buffer-soluble proteins than in the insoluble S fraction. Decreasing the S concentration in the nutrient solution resulted in an increase in the Sdad:leaf area ratio and in an increase in the leaf:stolon and root:shoot mass ratios, suggesting that a plasticity in the partitioning of resources to organs may allow a higher gain of S by both roots and leaves. This study shows that clover can increase its ability to use atmospheric S even at low concentration when pedospheric S availability decreases.

  15. Laboratory Study of Methane Flux from Acid Sulphate Soil in South Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annisa, W.; Cahyana, D.; Syahbuddin, H.; Rachman, A.

    2017-06-01

    Addition of organic matter in waterlogged conditions will enhance methanogenesis process that produces greenhouse gases. Fresh organic material is considered reactive because it contains carbons that is subject to decompose, therefore, when it exposed to acid sulphate soil, both in natural condition (aeration required) and intensive (aeration not required) will lower the value of redox potential. This experiment aimed to determine the flux of methane (CH4) from various locally available organic materials applied to acid sulphate soil. The experiment was arranged in factorial design with two factors. The first factor was the source of organic matter, i.e. fresh rice straw, fresh purun, fresh cattle manure, composted rice straw, composted purun and composted cattle manure, and control. The second factor was the management of organic matter i.e. placed on the soil surface with no tillage and mixed with soil during tillage. The results showed that application of fresh organic matter into inundated acid sulphate soil increased CH4 fluxes up to 23.78 µg CH4 g1 d1 which was higher than from composted organic matter (4.327 µg CH4.g1.d1). Methane flux due to organic matter management was significantly negatively (p=0.001) correlated with soil redox potential (Eh) with R2 of - 0.76. Organic matter placed on the soil surface with no tillage produced methane flux ranged from 0.33 to 20.78 g CH4 g1 d1, which was lower than methane flux produced from organic matter mixed with soil during tillage (0.38 to 27.27 g CH4 g1 d1). Composting organic matter before application and mixing them with the soil through tillage are highly recommended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated acid sulphate soils.

  16. The biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Krężel, Artur; Maret, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    The solution and complexation chemistry of zinc ions is the basis for zinc biology. In living organisms, zinc is redox-inert and has only one valence state: Zn(II). Its coordination environment in proteins is limited by oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur donors from the side chains of a few amino acids. In an estimated 10% of all human proteins, zinc has a catalytic or structural function and remains bound during the lifetime of the protein. However, in other proteins zinc ions bind reversibly with dissociation and association rates commensurate with the requirements in regulation, transport, transfer, sensing, signalling, and storage. In contrast to the extensive knowledge about zinc proteins, the coordination chemistry of the "mobile" zinc ions in these processes, i.e. when not bound to proteins, is virtually unexplored and the mechanisms of ligand exchange are poorly understood. Knowledge of the biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions is essential for understanding its cellular biology and for designing complexes that deliver zinc to proteins and chelating agents that remove zinc from proteins, for detecting zinc ion species by qualitative and quantitative analysis, and for proper planning and execution of experiments involving zinc ions and nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO). In most investigations, reference is made to zinc or Zn 2+ without full appreciation of how biological zinc ions are buffered and how the d-block cation Zn 2+ differs from s-block cations such as Ca 2+ with regard to significantly higher affinity for ligands, preference for the donor atoms of ligands, and coordination dynamics. Zinc needs to be tightly controlled. The interaction with low molecular weight ligands such as water and inorganic and organic anions is highly relevant to its biology but in contrast to its coordination in proteins has not been discussed in the biochemical literature. From the discussion in this article, it is becoming evident that zinc ion speciation is

  17. Effects of magnesium sulphate on postoperative coagulation, measured by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM(®)).

    PubMed

    Na, H S; Chung, Y H; Hwang, J W; Do, S H

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the effects of magnesium sulphate on blood coagulation profiles using rotational thromboelastometry in gynaecological patients undergoing pelviscopic surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to the magnesium group (n = 20) or control group (n = 20). The magnesium group received magnesium sulphate (50 mg.kg(-1) followed by continuous infusion of 15 mg.kg(-1).h(-1)), whereas the control group received the same volume of isotonic saline according to the same methods. Mean (SD) postoperative serum magnesium levels were 1.58 (0.17) mmol.l(-1) in the magnesium group compared with 0.98 (0.06) mmol.l(-1) in the control group (p < 0.001). Postoperative clotting time, clot formation time, α-angle and maximum clot firmness of INTEM, and clot formation time, α-angle, and maximum clot firmness of EXTEM were significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.05). Intra-operative infusion of magnesium sulphate seems to attenuate postoperative hypercoagulability by maintaining magnesium levels at the upper limit of the normal range. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Effects of magnesium sulphate on coagulation after laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery, measured by rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM® ).

    PubMed

    Na, H S; Shin, H J; Kang, S B; Hwang, J W; Do, S H

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effects of magnesium sulphate on blood coagulation profiles using rotational thromboelastometry in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to the magnesium group (n = 22) or control group (n = 22). The magnesium group received intravenous magnesium sulphate (50 mg.kg(-1) followed by a continuous infusion of 15 mg.kg(-1) .h(-1) ), whereas the control group received the same volume of isotonic saline. Mean (SD) postoperative serum magnesium levels were 1.60 (0.13) mmol.l(-1) in the magnesium group compared with 0.98 (0.06) mmol.l(-1) in the control group (p < 0.001). All maximum clot firmness values of ROTEM analysis were significantly lower on the third postoperative day in the magnesium group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). We conclude that ROTEM analysis demonstrated that intra-operative administration of intravenous magnesium sulphate reduces blood hypercoagulability in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. Magnesium sulphate for prevention of eclampsia: are intramuscular and intravenous regimens equivalent? A population pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Salinger, D H; Mundle, S; Regi, A; Bracken, H; Winikoff, B; Vicini, P; Easterling, T

    2013-06-01

    To compare magnesium sulphate concentrations achieved by intramuscular and intravenous regimens used for the prevention of eclampsia. Low-resource obstetric hospitals in Nagpur and Vellore, India. Pregnant women at risk for eclampsia due to hypertensive disease. A pharmacokinetic study was performed as part of a randomised trial that enrolled 300 women comparing intramuscular and intravenous maintenance regimens of magnesium dosing. Data from 258 enrolled women were analysed in the pharmacokinetic study. A single sample was drawn per woman with the expectation of using samples in a pooled data analysis. Pharmacokinetic parameters of magnesium distribution and clearance. Magnesium clearance was estimated to be 48.1 dl/hour, volume of distribution to be 156 dl and intramuscular bioavailability to be 86.2%. The intramuscular regimen produced higher initial serum concentrations, consistent with a substantially larger loading dose. At steady state, magnesium concentrations in the intramuscular and intravenous groups were comparable. With either regimen, a substantial number of women would be expected to have serum concentrations lower than those generally held to be therapeutic. Clinical implications were that a larger loading dose for the intravenous regimen should be considered; where feasible, individualised dosing of magnesium sulphate would reduce the variability in serum concentrations and might result in more women with clinically effective magnesium concentrations; and lower dose magnesium sulphate regimens should be considered with caution. © 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.

  20. Investigating a Sulphate-Nitrate Chemical Indirect Effect over Europe from 1980-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, H.; Mann, G. W.; Arnold, S.; O'Connor, F.; Conibear, L.; Turnock, S.; Rumbold, S.; Benduhn, F.

    2017-12-01

    Sulphur dioxide emission reductions have been successful in reducing surface sulphate concentrations over Europe between 1980 and 2010, with positive implications for air quality and human health. However the response of nitrate aerosol concentrations to declining NOx emissions has been non-linear. Previous studies have indicated that decreasing ammonium sulphate formation, as a result of SO2 emission reduction, may be partly responsible for this non-linearity by increasing the availability of ammonia and, hence, indirectly increasing ammonium nitrate aerosol formation. We use the UM-UKCA composition-climate model, including the GLOMAP interactive aerosol microphysics module and a recently developed `hybrid' dissolution solver (HyDis), to investigate the size-resolved partitioning of ammonia and nitric acid to the particle phase over Europe in the period 1980 to 2010. Anthropogenic emissions of SO2, NOx and NH3 are included from the MACCity inventory and change by approximately -79%, -33% and +30% respectively over Europe in this time. We evaluate the UM-UKCA simulated 1980-2010 variability in nitrate, ammonium and sulphate aerosol mass concentrations and aerosol pH, with comparison to EMEP observations, and isolate the indirect influence of reduced SO2 emissions on nitrate formation. Preliminary sensitivity tests indicate that simulated nitrate aerosol concentrations over Europe were 8% higher in 2009 than they would have been if SO2 emissions had not been reduced. The implications of this change for air quality, aerosol acidity and regional climate will be presented.

  1. Immobilization of uranium and arsenic by injectible iron and hydrogen stimulated autotrophic sulphate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burghardt, D.; Simon, E.; Knöller, K.; Kassahun, A.

    2007-12-01

    The main object of the study was the development of a long-term efficient and inexpensive in-situ immobilization technology for uranium (U) and arsenic (As) in smaller and decentralized groundwater discharges from abandoned mining processing sites. Therefore, corrosion of grey cast iron (gcFe) and nano-scale iron particles (naFe) as well as hydrogen stimulated autotrophic sulphate reduction (aSR) were investigated. Two column experiments with sulphate reducing bacterias (SRB) (biotic gcFe , biotic naFe) and one abiotic gcFe-column experiment were performed. In the biotic naFe column, no particle translocation was observed and a temporary but intensive naFe corrosion indicated by a decrease in Eh, a pH increase and H 2 evolution. Decreasing sulphate concentrations and 34S enrichment in the column effluent indicated aSR. Fe(II) retention could be explained by siderite and consequently FeS precipitation by geochemical modeling (PhreeqC). U and As were completely immobilised within the biotic naFe column. In the biotic gcFe column, particle entrapment in open pore spaces resulted in a heterogeneous distribution of Fe-enriched zones and an increase in permeability due to preferential flow. However, Fe(II) concentrations in the effluent indicated a constant and lasting gcFe corrosion. An efficient immobilization was found for As, but not for U.

  2. The impact of sulphate and magnesium on chloride binding in Portland cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    De Weerdt, K., E-mail: klaartje.d.weerdt@ntnu.no; SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, Trondheim; Orsáková, D.

    2014-11-15

    The effect of magnesium and sulphate present in sea water on chloride binding in Portland cement paste was investigated. Ground well hydrated cement paste was exposed to MgCl{sub 2}, NaCl, NaCl + MgCl{sub 2}, MgSO{sub 4} + MgCl{sub 2} and artificial sea water solutions with a range of concentrations at 20 °C. Chloride binding isotherms are determined and pH of the solutions were measured. A selection of samples was examined by SEM-EDS to identify phase changes upon exposure. The experimental data were compared with calculations of a thermodynamic model. Chloride binding from sea water was similar to chloride binding formore » NaCl solutions. The magnesium content in the sea water lead to a slight decrease in pH, but this did not result in a notable increase in chloride binding. The sulphate present in sea water reduces both chloride binding in C–S–H and AFm phases, as the C–S–H incorporates more sulphates instead of chlorides, and part of the AFm phases converts to ettringite.« less

  3. Active Microbial Communities Inhabit Sulphate-Methane Interphase in Deep Bedrock Fracture Fluids in Olkiluoto, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Bomberg, Malin; Nyyssönen, Mari; Pitkänen, Petteri; Lehtinen, Anne; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    Active microbial communities of deep crystalline bedrock fracture water were investigated from seven different boreholes in Olkiluoto (Western Finland) using bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA, dsrB, and mcrA gene transcript targeted 454 pyrosequencing. Over a depth range of 296–798 m below ground surface the microbial communities changed according to depth, salinity gradient, and sulphate and methane concentrations. The highest bacterial diversity was observed in the sulphate-methane mixing zone (SMMZ) at 250–350 m depth, whereas archaeal diversity was highest in the lowest boundaries of the SMMZ. Sulphide-oxidizing ε-proteobacteria (Sulfurimonas sp.) dominated in the SMMZ and γ-proteobacteria (Pseudomonas spp.) below the SMMZ. The active archaeal communities consisted mostly of ANME-2D and Thermoplasmatales groups, although Methermicoccaceae, Methanobacteriaceae, and Thermoplasmatales (SAGMEG, TMG) were more common at 415–559 m depth. Typical indicator microorganisms for sulphate-methane transition zones in marine sediments, such as ANME-1 archaea, α-, β- and δ-proteobacteria, JS1, Actinomycetes, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, and MBGB Crenarchaeota were detected at specific depths. DsrB genes were most numerous and most actively transcribed in the SMMZ while the mcrA gene concentration was highest in the deep methane rich groundwater. Our results demonstrate that active and highly diverse but sparse and stratified microbial communities inhabit the Fennoscandian deep bedrock ecosystems. PMID:26425566

  4. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets of Salbutamol Sulphate for Respiratory Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in fast disintegrating tablets have brought convenience in dosing to pediatric and elderly patients who have trouble in swallowing tablets. The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of salbutamol sulphate for respiratory disorders for pediatrics. As precision of dosing and patient's compliance become important prerequisites for a long-term treatment, there is a need to develop a formulation for this drug which overcomes problems such as difficulty in swallowing, inconvenience in administration while travelling, and patient's acceptability. Hence, the present investigation were undertaken with a view to develop a fast disintegrating tablet of salbutamol sulphate which offers a new range of products having desired characteristics and intended benefits. Superdisintegrants such as sodium starch glycolate was optimized. Different binders were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time, and uniformity of content. Optimized formulation was evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug-excipient compatibility, and accelerated stability study. It was concluded that fast disintegrating tablets of salbutamol sulphate were formulated successfully with desired characteristics which disintegrated rapidly; provided rapid onset of action; and enhanced the patient convenience and compliance. PMID:23956881

  5. Bowel preparation for colonoscopy with magnesium sulphate and low-volume polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Tepeš, Bojan; Mlakar, Dominika N; Metličar, Tanja

    2014-06-01

    Patient compliance with bowel cleansing procedures represents one of the most objectionable aspects of colonoscopy. Adverse reactions to the purgative may result in failure to complete the preparation, inadequate visualization of the colon, polyp and even carcinoma miss rate and unwillingness to attend a follow-up colonoscopy. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of bowel cleansing with magnesium sulphate and low-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG) with electrolytes. The second objective was to evaluate whether bowel cleansing was better in participants scheduled for morning colonoscopies or afternoon colonoscopies. Magnesium sulphate mineral water (2 l) and 2 l of low-volume PEG and electrolytes solution were used as our bowel cleansing protocol. A total of 13 914 participants, who participated in the Slovenian colorectal cancer screening programme in the period between 2009 and 2011, were included. Excellent bowel preparation was achieved in 11 484 (82.61%) participants; 1894 (13.62%) participants had good bowel preparation, 439 (3.16%) participants had fair bowel preparation and 85 (0.61%) participants had poor bowel preparation. Better results were achieved in the afternoon colonoscopies and in younger participant groups (P<0.001). No serious side effects of bowel cleansing were reported. This is the first study to use magnesium sulphate mineral water and PEG plus electrolytes for bowel cleansing. We found excellent bowel cleansing in 82.61% participants and in more participants if colonoscopy was performed in the afternoon.

  6. Effect of fly ash content towards Sulphate resistance of oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthusamy, K.; Fadzil, M. Y.; Nazrin Akmal, A. Z. Muhammad; Ahmad, S. Wan; Nur Azzimah, Z.; Hanafi, H. Mohd; Mohamad Hafizuddin, R.

    2018-04-01

    Both oil palm shell (OPS) and fly ash are by-product generated from the industries. Disposal of these by-product as wastes cause negative impact to the environment. The use of both oil palm shell and fly ash in concrete is seen as an economical solution for making green and denser concrete. The primary aim of this research is to determine the effects of FA utilization as sand replacement in oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete (OPS LWAC) towards sulphate resistance. Five concrete mixes containing fly ash as sand replacement namely 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% were prepared in these experimental work. All mixes were cast in form of cubes before subjected to sulphate solution for the period of 5 months. It was found that addition of 10% fly ash as sand replacement content resulted in better sulphate resistance of OPS LWAC. The occurrence of pozzolanic reaction due to the presence of FA in concrete has consumed the vulnerable Calcium hydroxide to be secondary C-S-H gel making the concrete denser and more durable.

  7. Influence of sulphate on the composition and antibacterial and antiviral properties of the exopolysaccharide from Porphyridium cruentum.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Maria Filomena de Jesus; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2014-04-17

    The influence of two culture media and three different concentrations of sulphate in the medium on the growth of two strains of Porphyridium cruentum and on the production, composition and viscoelastic characteristics, and antimicrobial properties of the sulphated exopolysaccharide (EPS) were studied. A Bohlin C50 rheometer was used to evaluate the viscosity and elasticity of the EPS solutions. HSV virus, types 1 and 2, Vaccinia virus and Vesicular stomatitis virus were used along with two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and one Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria, for testing the antimicrobial activity of EPS. The growth of microalgae was higher in NTIP medium and the production of EPS was enhanced by sulphate 21mM. The protein content of the EPS was enhanced by the addition of sulphate 52mM and 104mM; this concentration also induced an increase in sulphate content of the EPS. However, neither the contents of EPS in carbohydrates and uronic acids were affected by the culture medium supplementation in sulphate. In general, the EPS from the Spanish strain presented a higher antiviral activity than the EPS from the Israeli strain. All EPS extracts revealed a strong activity against V. stomatitis virus, higher than the activity of all chemical compounds tested. The EPS from the Israeli strain also presented antibacterial activity against S. enteritidis. Enrichment of the culture medium with sulphate improved protein and sulphate content of EPS. EPS extracts presented a relevant activity against V. stomatitis virus and S. enteritidis bacterium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intravenous magnesium sulphate infusion in the management of very severe tetanus in a child: a descriptive case report.

    PubMed

    Puliyel, Mammen M; Pillai, Rajappan; Korula, Sophy

    2009-02-01

    We report a 7-year-old boy with very severe tetanus treated with continuous infusion of magnesium sulphate for the control of spasms and severe autonomic dysfunction which was refractory to deep sedation and mechanical ventilation. The infusion was not associated with any adverse effects and he made an uneventful recovery. We recommend the use of intravenous magnesium sulphate infusion as an inexpensive and highly effective modality in severe tetanus.

  9. Toxicology studies of primycin-sulphate using a three-dimensional (3D) in vitro human liver aggregate model.

    PubMed

    Pénzes, Ágota; Mahmud Abdelwahab, Elhusseiny Mohamed; Rapp, Judit; Péteri, Zsanett A; Bovári-Biri, Judit; Fekete, Csaba; Miskei, György; Kvell, Krisztián; Pongrácz, Judit E

    2017-11-05

    Primycin-sulphate is a highly effective compound against Gram (G) positive bacteria. It has a potentially synergistic effect with vancomycin and statins which makes primycin-sulphate a potentially very effective preparation. Primycin-sulphate is currently used exclusively in topical preparations. In vitro animal hepatocyte and neuromuscular junction studies (in mice, rats, snakes, frogs) as well as in in vitro human red blood cell experiments were used to test toxicity. During these studies, the use of primycin-sulphate resulted in reduced cellular membrane integrity and modified ion channel activity. Additionally, parenteral administration of primycin-sulphate to mice, dogs, cats, rabbits and guinea pigs indicated high level of acute toxicity. The objective of this study was to reveal the cytotoxic and gene expression modifying effects of primycin-sulphate in a human system using an in vitro, three dimensional (3D) human hepatic model system. Within the 3D model, primycin-sulphate presented no acute cytotoxicity at concentrations 1μg/ml and below. However, even at low concentrations, primycin-sulphate affected gene expressions by up-regulating inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL6), chemokines (e.g., CXCL5) and by down-regulating molecules of the lipid metabolism (e.g., peroxisome proliferator receptor (PPAR) alpha, gamma, etc). Down-regulation of PPAR alpha cannot just disrupt lipid production but can also affect cytochrome P450 metabolic enzyme (CYP) 3A4 expression, highlighting the need for extensive drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies before human oral or parenteral preparations can be developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced liquid-liquid anion exchange using macrocyclic anion receptors: effect of receptor structure on sulphate-nitrate exchange selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A; Sloop Jr, Frederick; Fowler, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    When certain macrocyclic anion receptors are added to a chloroform solution of the nitrate form of a lipophilic quaternary ammonium salt (methyltri-C8,10-ammonium nitrate, Aliquat 336N), the extraction of sulphate from an aqueous sodium nitrate solution via exchange with the organic-phase nitrate is significantly enhanced. Eight macrocycles were surveyed, including two derivatives of a tetraamide macrocycle, five derivatives of calix[4]pyrrole and -decafluorocalix[5]pyrrole. Under the hypothesis that the enhancement originates from sulphate binding by the anion receptors in the chloroform phase, it was possible to obtain reasonable fits to the sulphate distribution survey data based on the formation of 1:1 and 2:1more » receptor:sulphate complexes in the chloroform phase. Apparent 1:1 sulphate-binding constants obtained from the model in this system fell in the range . Comparison of the results for the various anion receptors included in this study reveals that sulphate binding is sensitive to the nature of the substituents on the parent macrocycle scaffolds in a way that does not follow straightforwardly from simple chemical expectations, such as electron-withdrawing effects on hydrogen-bond donor strength.« less

  11. Sulphate reduction and nitrogen fixation rates associated with roots, rhizomes and sediments from Zostera noltii and Spartina maritima meadows.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L B; Finster, K; Welsh, D T; Donelly, A; Herbert, R A; de Wit, R; Lomstein, B A

    2001-01-01

    Sulphate reduction rates (SRR) and nitrogen fixation rates (NFR) associated with isolated roots, rhizomes and sediment from the rhizosphere of the marine macrophytes Zostera noltii and Spartina maritima, and the presence and distribution of Bacteria on the roots and rhizomes, were investigated. Between 1% and 3% of the surface area of the roots and rhizomes of both macrophytes were colonized by Bacteria. Bacteria on the surfaces of S. maritima roots and rhizomes were evenly distributed, while the distribution of Bacteria on Z. noltii roots and rhizomes was patchy. Root- and rhizome-associated SRR and NFR were always higher than rates in the bulk sediment. In particular, nitrogen fixation associated with the roots and rhizomes was 41-650-fold higher than in the bulk sediment. Despite the fact that sulphate reduction was elevated on roots and rhizomes compared with bulk sediment, the contribution of plant-associated sulphate reduction to overall sulphate reduction was small (< or =11%). In contrast, nitrogen fixation associated with the roots and rhizomes accounted for 31% and 91% of the nitrogen fixed in the rhizosphere of Z. noltii and S. maritima respectively. In addition, plant-associated nitrogen fixation could supply 37-1,613% of the nitrogen needed by the sulphate-reducing community. Sucrose stimulated nitrogen fixation and sulphate reduction significantly in the root and rhizome compartments of both macrophytes, but not in the bulk sediment.

  12. Use of hydraulic binders for reducing sulphate leaching: application to gypsiferous soil sampled in Ile-de-France region (France).

    PubMed

    Trincal, Vincent; Thiéry, Vincent; Mamindy-Pajany, Yannick; Hillier, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    Polluted soils are a serious environmental risk worldwide and consist of millions of tons of mineral waste to be treated. In order to ensure their sustainable management, various remediation options must be considered. Hydraulic binder treatment is one option that may allow a stabilisation of pollution and thus offer a valorisation as secondary raw materials rather than considering them as waste. In this study, we focused on sulphate-polluted soil and tested the effectiveness of several experimental hydraulic binders. The aim was to transform gypsum into ettringite, a much less soluble sulphate, and therefore to restrict the potential for sulphate pollutant release. The environmental assessment of five formulations using hydraulic binders was compared to the gypsiferous soil before treatment (contaminated in sulphate). The approach was to combine leaching tests with mineralogical quantifications using among others thermogravimetric and XRD methods. In the original soil and in the five formulations, leaching tests indicate sulphate release above environmental standards. However, hydraulic binders promote ettringite formation, as well as a gypsum content reduction as observed by SEM. The stabilisation of sulphates is, however, insufficient, probably as a result of the very high content of gypsum in the unusual soil used. The mineralogical reactions highlighted during the hydration of hydraulic binders are promising; they could pave the way for the development of new industrial mixtures that would have a positive environmental impact by allowing reuse of soils that would otherwise be classified as waste.

  13. The mode of action of 4-methylumbelliferyl β-d-xyloside on the synthesis of chondroitin sulphate in embryonic-chicken sternum

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Kenneth D.; Segen, Barbara J.

    1977-01-01

    1. Embryonic-chicken sterna, incubated in medium containing 0.1mm-4-methylumbelliferyl β-d-xyloside (4-methylcoumarin 7-β-d-xyloside), synthesize proteochondroitin sulphate that is significantly undersulphated and shorter than usual [Gibson, Segen & Audhya (1977) Biochem. J. 162, 217–233]. 2. Neither the β-d-galactoside nor the β-d-glucuronide of 4-methylumbelliferone, nor 4-methylumbelliferone itself, produced the effects. The only metabolites of 4-methylumbelliferone that were detected in cartilages exposed to 4-methylumbelliferyl β-d-xyloside were unchanged xyloside and chondroitin sulphate covalently attached to 4-methylumbelliferone. 3. Gel filtration of salt extracts of sterna incubated in medium containing the xyloside showed that there were two pools of chondroitin sulphate in the tissue. One pool was identified, on the basis of its elution pattern and the linear kinetics of incorporation of sulphate into it, as proteochondroitin sulphate. Incorporation into the other pool, whose properties suggested that it was methylumbelliferyl-chondroitin sulphate, indicated that it underwent partial turnover. The molecular weight of this chondroitin sulphate was about 19000, and it appeared to be about 70% sulphated. 4. When sterna were incubated in medium containing the xyloside, there was a very large incorporation of sulphate and glucose into glycosaminoglycans that were released into the incubation medium. This contrasts with incubations of sterna in the absence of the xyloside, in which less than 5% of the sulphate incorporated could be recovered from the medium. The glycosaminoglycan released into the medium was 4-methylumbelliferyl-chondroitin sulphate, whose average molecular weight was 7000–8000 and degree of sulphation more than 95%. 5. Incorporation of sulphate into proteochondroitin sulphate was stimulated more than 3-fold by addition of 20% (v/v) human serum and 10nm-l-3,3′,5-tri-iodothyronine. Incorporation into methylumbelliferyl

  14. Zinc and the modulation of redox homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc, a redox inactive metal, has been long viewed as a component of the antioxidant network, and growing evidence points to its involvement in redox-regulated signaling. These actions are exerted through several mechanisms based on the unique chemical and functional properties of zinc. Overall, zinc contributes to maintain the cell redox balance through different mechanisms including: i) the regulation of oxidant production and metal-induced oxidative damage; ii) the dynamic association of zinc with sulfur in protein cysteine clusters, from which the metal can be released by nitric oxide, peroxides, oxidized glutathione and other thiol oxidant species; iii) zinc-mediated induction of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein, which releases the metal under oxidative conditions and act per se scavenging oxidants; iv) the involvement of zinc in the regulation of glutathione metabolism and of the overall protein thiol redox status; and v) a direct or indirect regulation of redox signaling. Findings of oxidative stress, altered redox signaling, and associated cell/tissue disfunction in cell and animal models of zinc deficiency, stress the relevant role of zinc in the preservation of cell redox homeostasis. However, while the participation of zinc in antioxidant protection, redox sensing, and redox-regulated signaling is accepted, the involved molecules, targets and mechanisms are still partially known and the subject of active research. PMID:22960578

  15. Zinc Regulation of Aminopeptidase B Involved in Neuropeptide Production

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Shin-Rong; Hook, Vivian

    2009-01-01

    Aminopeptidase B (AP-B) is a metallopeptidase that removes basic residues from the N-termini of neuropeptide substrates in secretory vesicles. This study assessed zinc regulation of AP-B activity, since secretory vesicles contain endogenous zinc. AP-B was inhibited by zinc at concentrations typically present in secretory vesicles. Zinc effects were dependent on concentration, incubation time, and the molar ratio of zinc to enzyme. AP-B activity was recovered upon removal of zinc. AP-B with zinc became susceptible to degradation by trypsin, suggesting that zinc alters enzyme conformation. Zinc regulation demonstrates the metallopeptidase property of AP-B. PMID:18571504

  16. Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Rosenhoover, William A.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

  17. Stable Isotope Composition of Dissolved Sulphate and Carbonate in Selected Natural Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniaszek, Piotr

    In this thesis, isotope and concentration data are used to discuss the origin of sulphate in different systems; lakes and groundwaters in the Crowsnest Pass and Kikomun Creek Park, hot and cold springs in the Rocky Mountains, and vegetation under the influence of anthropogenic SO _2 and/or biogenic H_2 S emissions. Since sulphur cycling is intertwined with carbon cycling, carbon isotope data were also obtained for dissolved carbonate in some systems. It was concluded that very little of the oxygen in sulphate in lakes and hot springs of western Canada was derived from the associated water. In lakes and groundwater in the Crowsnest Pass, two major sources of sulphur were identified: sulphate from evaporites (delta^{34} S = +26perthous, delta^{18}O positive) on the northern side of the pass, and sulphur from oxidation of sulphides on the southern side (delta ^{34}S and delta ^{18}O both negative). Although hundreds of kilometers apart, some springs were found to have isotopically similar SO_4 ^{2-}. This suggests a common source, e.g. anhydrite associated with Mississippian limestones and cherts. However, data for chemical parameters indicate that such a source is not homogeneous or other sources are involved for some ions. Each spring possesses individual composition traits. The delta^{13} C value of total dissolved carbon at spring orifices was found to vary linearly with temperature according to the relationship: delta^{13} C = 0.11 times t - 9.67perthous (r = 0.948). It is difficult to attribute such a relationship to biogenic processes which are expected to yield more variable delta^{13}C values. From a number of possible mechanisms, it would seem that a physical property such as the temperature dependent of CO _2 solubility might be the underlying cause. Sulphate in plant tissues is derived from the soil, atmospheric gaseous compounds, and perhaps mechanically trapped aerosols. Data for delta^ {18}O values of sulphate in plants have not been reported previously

  18. [Zinc and treatment of diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Fontaine, O

    2006-06-01

    Recently WHO and UNICEF issued a joint statement revising guidelines for clinical management of diarrhoea. These updated recommendations take into account new research findings showing the beneficial effects of oral rehydration salts (ORS) containing lower concentrations of glucose and salts and of zinc supplementation. In combination with prevention and treatment of dehydration with appropriate fluids, breastfeeding, continued feeding and selective use of antibiotics, these two advances can drastically diminish the number of child deaths by reducing the duration and severity of diarrhoeal episodes and lowering their incidence. The purpose of this report is to present the research findings that demonstrated the efficacy of zinc supplementation in the management of diarrhoea and led to revision of WHO/UNCEF guidelines.

  19. Zinc and its transporters, pancreatic beta cells, and insulin metabolism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc is an essential trace metal for life. Two families of zinc transporters, SLC30A (ZnT) and SLC39A (ZIP) are required for maintaining cellular zinc homeostasis. ZnTs function to decrease cytoplasmic zinc concentrations whereas ZIPs do the opposite. Expression of zinc transporters can be tissue/ce...

  20. Zinc in Cellular Regulation: The Nature and Significance of "Zinc Signals".

    PubMed

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-10-31

    In the last decade, we witnessed discoveries that established Zn 2+ as a second major signalling metal ion in the transmission of information within cells and in communication between cells. Together with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ covers biological regulation with redox-inert metal ions over many orders of magnitude in concentrations. The regulatory functions of zinc ions, together with their functions as a cofactor in about three thousand zinc metalloproteins, impact virtually all aspects of cell biology. This article attempts to define the regulatory functions of zinc ions, and focuses on the nature of zinc signals and zinc signalling in pathways where zinc ions are either extracellular stimuli or intracellular messengers. These pathways interact with Ca 2+ , redox, and phosphorylation signalling. The regulatory functions of zinc require a complex system of precise homeostatic control for transients, subcellular distribution and traffic, organellar homeostasis, and vesicular storage and exocytosis of zinc ions.

  1. Zinc and Wound Healing: A Review of Zinc Physiology and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Samuel; Sood, Aditya; Garnick, Mark S

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of the role of zinc in normal human physiology is constantly expanding, yet there are major gaps in our knowledge with regard to the function of zinc in wound healing. This review aims to provide the clinician with sufficient understanding of zinc biology and an up-to-date perspective on the role of zinc in wound healing. Zinc is an essential ion that is crucial for maintenance of normal physiology, and zinc deficiency has many manifestations ranging from delayed wound healing to immune dysfunction and impairment of multiple sensory systems. While consensus has been reached regarding the detrimental effects of zinc deficiency on wound healing, there is considerable discord in the literature on the optimal methods and true benefits of zinc supplementation.

  2. Long life, rechargeable nickel-zinc battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.

    1974-01-01

    A production version of the inorganic separator was evaluated for improving the life of the nickel-zinc system. Nickel-zinc cells (7-10 Ah capacities) of different electrode separator configurations were constructed and tested. The nickel-zinc cells using the inorganic separator encasing the zinc electrode, the nickel electrode, or both electrodes had shorter lives than cells using Visking and cellophane separation. Cells with the inorganic separation all fell below 70% of their theoretical capacity within 30 cycles, but the cells constructed with organic separation required 80 cycles. Failure of the cells using the ceramic separator was irreversible capacity degradation due to zinc loss through cracks developed in the inorganic separator. Zinc loss through the separator was minimized with the use of combinations of the inorganic separator with Visking and cellophane. Cells using the combined separation operated 130 duty cycles before degrading to 70% of their theoretical capacity.

  3. High performance zinc anode for battery applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, John E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An improved zinc anode for use in a high density rechargeable alkaline battery is disclosed. A process for making the zinc electrode comprises electrolytic loading of the zinc active material from a slightly acidic zinc nitrate solution into a substrate of nickel, copper or silver. The substrate comprises a sintered plaque having very fine pores, a high surface area, and 80-85 percent total initial porosity. The residual porosity after zinc loading is approximately 25-30%. The electrode of the present invention exhibits reduced zinc mobility, shape change and distortion, and demonstrates reduced dendrite buildup cycling of the battery. The disclosed battery is useful for applications requiring high energy density and multiple charge capability.

  4. Synthesis, growth, structural, spectroscopic and optical studies of a semiorganic NLO crystal: zinc guanidinium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Suvitha, A; Murugakoothan, P

    2012-02-01

    The semi-organic nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal, zinc guanidinium phosphate (ZGuP) has been grown through synthesis between zinc sulphate, guanidine carbonate and orthophosphoric acid from its aqueous solution by slow solvent evaporation technique. Solubility of the synthesized material has been determined for various temperatures using water as solvent. The grown crystal has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction to confirm the crystal structure. Investigation has been carried out to assign the vibrational frequencies of the grown crystals by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique. (1)H and (13)C FT-NMR have been recorded to elucidate the molecular structure. The optical absorption study confirms the suitability of the crystal for device applications. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of ZGuP is found to be 1.825 times that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). Thermal behavior of the grown crystals has been studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The mechanical properties of the grown crystals have been studied using Vickers microhardness tester. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficiency of a NPK fertilizer with adhered zinc lignosulfonate as a zinc source for maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustín

    2009-10-14

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a NPK fertilizer (8:15:15) with a Zn lignosulfonate (ZnLS) adhered as Zn source for maize plants. This product was compared in three experimental designs with the same NPK fertilizer with ZnSO(4) adhered and with no Zn adhered. The first and the second assays were carried out in a growth chamber by using perlite and a calcareous soil as substrate and the third experiment was raised in two calcareous fields. In general, growth chamber experiments showed that plants treated with NPK + ZnLS presented the highest dry weight and Zn concentrations in shoots. Also at field experiments, the Zn concentration in shoots was significantly high in plants treated with NPK + ZnLS. The grain harvested showed that this treatment gave the highest values in one location, but in the other no significant differences were observed. Although further research is required, we can conclude that NPK + ZnLS product could be a suitable source of Zn for maize crops.

  6. Zinc pharmacokinetic parameters in the determination of body zinc status in children.

    PubMed

    Vale, S H L; Leite, L D; Alves, C X; Dantas, M M G; Costa, J B S; Marchini, J S; França, M C; Brandão-Neto, J

    2014-02-01

    Serum or tissue zinc concentrations are often used to assess body zinc status. However, all of these methods are relatively inaccurate. Thus, we investigated three different kinetic methods for the determination of zinc clearance to establish which of these could detect small changes in the body zinc status of children. Forty apparently healthy children were studied. Renal handling of zinc was investigated during intravenous zinc administration (0.06537 mg Zn/kg of body weight), both before and after oral zinc supplementation (5 mg Zn/day for 3 months). Three kinetic methods were used to determine zinc clearance: CZn-Formula A and CZn-Formula B were both used to calculate systemic clearance; the first is a general formula and the second is used for the specific analysis of a single-compartment model; CZn-Formula C is widely used in medical practices to analyze kinetic routine. Basal serum zinc values, which were within the reference range for healthy children, increased significantly after oral zinc supplementation. The three formulas used gave different results for zinc clearance both before and after oral zinc supplementation. CZn-Formula B showed a positive correlation with basal serum zinc concentration after oral supplementation (R2=0.1172, P=0.0306). In addition, CZn-Formula B (P=0.0002) was more effective than CZn-Formula A (P=0.6028) and CZn-Formula C (P=0.0732) in detecting small variations in body zinc status. All three of the formulas used are suitable for studying zinc kinetics; however, CZn-Formula B is particularly effective at detecting small changes in body zinc status in healthy children.

  7. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous...

  9. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous...

  10. Zinc alloy enhances strength and creep resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Machler, M.

    1996-10-01

    A family of high-performance ternary zinc-copper-aluminum alloys has been developed that provides higher strength, hardness, and creep resistance than the traditional zinc-aluminum alloys Zamak 3, Zamak 5, and ZA-8. Designated ACuZinc, mechanical properties comparable to those of more expensive materials make it suitable for high-load applications and those at elevated temperatures. This article describes the alloy`s composition, properties, and historical development.

  11. Directed spatial organization of zinc oxide nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Julia [Albuquerque, NM; Liu, Jun [Richland, WA

    2009-02-17

    A method for controllably forming zinc oxide nanostructures on a surface via an organic template, which is formed using a stamp prepared from pre-defined relief structures, inking the stamp with a solution comprising self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecules, contacting the stamp to the surface, such as Ag sputtered on Si, and immersing the surface with the patterned SAM molecules with a zinc-containing solution with pH control to form zinc oxide nanostructures on the bare Ag surface.

  12. Bronze Alloy Development for Zinc Vapor Capture

    DOE PAGES

    Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-04-24

    After gamma-emitting 65Zinc was detected in a vacuum pumping system contained in a tritium glovebox, a series of experiments were undertaken to develop a method and material to trap zinc vapors in an area that is more suitable for preventing dose to workers. In this study, bronze alloys with 0–30% tin were prepared using a powder metallurgical process and exposed to three levels of zinc vapors. Furthermore, all of the alloys demonstrated acceptable zinc gettering capacity; however, low tin content bronzes are considered for further testing.

  13. Status of zinc injection in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, C.A.

    1995-03-01

    Based on laboratory and other studies, it was concluded that zinc addition in a PWR primary coolant should result in reduced Alloy 600 PWSCC and general corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Because of these positive results, a Westinghouse Owner`s Subgroup, EPRI, and Westinghouse provided funds to continue the development and application of zinc in an operating plant. As part of the program, Southern Operating Nuclear Company agreed to operate the Farley 2 plant with zinc addition as a demonstration test of the effectiveness of zinc. Since zinc is incorporated in the corrosion oxide film on the primary systemmore » surfaces and Farley 2 is a mature plant, it was estimated that about 10 kgs of zinc would be needed to condition the plant before an equilibrium value in the coolant would be reached. The engineered aspects of a Zinc Addition and Monitoring System (ZAMS) considered such items as the constitutents, location, sizing and water supply of the ZAMS. Baseline data such as the PWSCC history of the Alloy 600 steam generator tubing, fuel oxide thickness, fuel crud deposits, radiation levels, and RCP seal leak-off rates were obtained before zinc addition is initiated. This presentation summarizes some of the work performed under the program, and the status of zinc injection in the Farley 2 plant.« less

  14. New tools for evaluating protein tyrosine sulphation: Tyrosyl Protein Sulphotransferases (TPSTs) are novel targets for RAF protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Dominic P; Li, Yong; Ngamlert, Pawin; Ramakrishnan, Krithika; Eyers, Claire E; Wells, Carrow; Drewry, David H; Zuercher, William J; Berry, Neil G; Fernig, David G; Eyers, Patrick A

    2018-06-22

    Protein tyrosine sulphation is a post-translational modification best known for regulating extracellular protein-protein interactions. Tyrosine sulphation is catalysed by two Golgi-resident enzymes termed Tyrosyl Protein Sulpho Transferases (TPSTs) 1 and 2, which transfer sulphate from the co-factor PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulphate) to a context-dependent tyrosine in a protein substrate. A lack of quantitative tyrosine sulphation assays has hampered the development of chemical biology approaches for the identification of small molecule inhibitors of tyrosine sulphation. In this paper, we describe the development of a non-radioactive mobility-based enzymatic assay for TPST1 and TPST2, through which the tyrosine sulphation of synthetic fluorescent peptides can be rapidly quantified. We exploit ligand binding and inhibitor screens to uncover a susceptibility of TPST1 and TPST2 to different classes of small molecules, including the anti-angiogenic compound suramin and the kinase inhibitor rottlerin. By screening the Published Kinase Inhibitor Set (PKIS), we identified oxindole-based inhibitors of the Ser/Thr kinase RAF as low micromolar inhibitors of TPST1 and TPST2.  Interestingly, unrelated RAF inhibitors, exemplified by the dual BRAF/VEGFR2 inhibitor RAF265, were also TPST inhibitors in vitro We propose that target-validated protein kinase inhibitors could be repurposed, or redesigned, as more-specific TPST inhibitors to help evaluate the sulphotyrosyl proteome. Finally, we speculate that mechanistic inhibition of cellular tyrosine sulphation might be relevant to some of the phenotypes observed in cells exposed to anionic TPST ligands and RAF protein kinase inhibitors. ©2018 The Author(s).

  15. Batch and fixed-bed assessment of sulphate removal by the weak base ion exchange resin Amberlyst A21.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Damaris; Leão, Versiane A

    2014-09-15

    This paper investigated sulphate removal from aqueous solutions by Amberlyst A21, a polystyrene weak base ion exchange resin. Both the pH and initial sulphate concentration were observed to strongly affect sorption yields, which were largest in acidic environments. Working under optimum operational conditions, sulphate sorption by Amberlyst A21 was relatively fast and reached equilibrium after 45 min of contact between the solid and liquid phases. Sorption kinetics could be described by either the pseudo-first order (k1=3.05 × 10(-5)s(-1)) or pseudo-second order model (k2=1.67 × 10(-4)s(-1)), and both the Freundlich and Langmuir models successfully fitted the equilibrium data. Sulphate uptake by Amberlyst A21 was a physisorption process (ΔH=-25.06 kJ mol(-1)) that occurred with entropy reduction (ΔS=-0.042 kJ mol(-1)K(-1)). Elution experiments showed that sulphate is easily desorbed (∼ 100%) from the resin by sodium hydroxide solutions at pH 10 or pH 12. Fixed-bed experiments assessed the effects of the initial sulphate concentration, bed height and flow rate on the breakthrough curves and the efficiency of the Amberlyst A21 in the treatment of a real effluent. In all studied conditions, the maximum sulphate loading resin varied between 8 and 40 mg(SO4(2-))mL(resin)(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spore-forming, Desulfosporosinus-like sulphate-reducing bacteria from a shallow aquifer contaminated with gasoline.

    PubMed

    Robertson, W J; Franzmann, P D; Mee, B J

    2000-02-01

    Previous studies on the geochemistry of a shallow unconfined aquifer contaminated with hydrocarbons suggested that the degradation of some hydrocarbons was linked to bacterial sulphate reduction. There was attenuation of naphthalene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB), toluene, p-xylene and ethylbenzene in the groundwater with concomitant loss of sulphate. Here, the recovery of eight strains of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from the contaminated site is reported. All were straight or curved rod-shaped cells which formed endospores. Amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA indicated that the strains were all sulphate reducers of the Gram-positive line of descent, and were most closely related to Desulfosporosinus (previously Desulfotomaculum) orientis DSM 8344 (97-98.9% sequence similarity). The strains clustered in three phylogenetic groups based on 16S rRNA sequences. Whole cell fatty acid compositions were similar to those of D. orientis DSM 8344, and were consistent with previous studies of fatty acids in soil and groundwater from the site. Microcosms containing groundwater from this aquifer indicated a role for sulphate reduction in the degradation of [ring-UL-14C]toluene, but not for the degradation of [UL-14C]benzene which could also be degraded by the microcosms. Adding one of the strains that was isolated from the groundwater (strain T2) to sulphate-enriched microcosms increased the rate of toluene degradation four- to 10-fold but had no effect on the rate of benzene degradation. The addition of molybdate, an inhibitor of sulphate reduction, to the groundwater samples decreased the rate of toluene mineralization. There was no evidence to support the mineralization of [UL-14C]benzene, [ring-UL-14C]toluene or unlabelled m-xylene, p-xylene, ethylbenzene, TMB or naphthalene by any of the strains in pure culture. Growth of all the strains was completely inhibited by 100 micromol l-1 TMB.

  17. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating effects, systematic reviews and meta-analysis of the effect of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcomes have consistently shown a limited benefit. We hypothesize, therefore, that zinc homeostatic adjustments during pregnancy and lactation improve zinc utilization sufficiently to provide the increased zinc needs in these stages and, therefore, mitigate immediate detrimental effects due to a low zinc intake. The specific questions addressed are the following: How is zinc utilization altered during pregnancy and lactation? Are those homeostatic adjustments influenced by maternal zinc status, dietary zinc, or zinc supplementation? These questions are addressed by critically reviewing results from published human studies on zinc homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation carried out in different populations worldwide. PMID:22852063

  18. Morphology control of zinc regeneration for zinc-air fuel cell and battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xizhong

    2014-12-01

    Morphology control is crucial both for zinc-air batteries and for zinc-air fuel cells during zinc regeneration. Zinc dendrite should be avoided in zinc-air batteries and zinc pellets are yearned to be formed for zinc-air fuel cells. This paper is mainly to analyze the mechanism of shape change and to control the zinc morphology during charge. A numerical three-dimensional model for zinc regeneration is established with COMSOL software on the basis of ionic transport theory and electrode reaction electrochemistry, and some experiments of zinc regeneration are carried out. The deposition process is qualitatively analyzed by the kinetics Monte Carlo method to study the morphological change from the electrocrystallization point of view. Morphological evolution of deposited zinc under different conditions of direct currents and pulse currents is also investigated by simulation. The simulation shows that parametric variables of the flowing electrolyte, the surface roughness and the structure of the electrode, the charging current and mode affect morphological evolution. The uniform morphology of deposited zinc is attained at low current, pulsating current or hydrodynamic electrolyte, and granular morphology is obtained by means of an electrode of discrete columnar structure in combination with high current and flowing electrolyte.

  19. Sulphate respiration from hydrogen in Desulfovibrio bacteria: a structural biology overview.

    PubMed

    Matias, Pedro M; Pereira, Inês A C; Soares, Cláudio M; Carrondo, Maria Arménia

    2005-11-01

    Sulphate-reducing organisms are widespread in anaerobic enviroments, including the gastrointestinal tract of man and other animals. The study of these bacteria has attracted much attention over the years, due also to the fact that they can have important implications in industry (in biocorrosion and souring of oil and gas deposits), health (in inflamatory bowel diseases) and the environment (bioremediation). The characterization of the various components of the electron transport chain associated with the hydrogen metabolism in Desulfovibrio has generated a large and comprehensive list of studies. This review summarizes the more relevant aspects of the current information available on the structural data of various molecules associated with hydrogen metabolism, namely hydrogenases and cytochromes. The transmembrane redox complexes known to date are also described and discussed. Redox-Bohr and cooperativity effects, observed in a few cytochromes, and believed to be important for their functional role, are discussed. Kinetic studies performed with these redox proteins, showing clues to their functional inter-relationship, are also addressed. These provide the groundwork for the application of a variety of molecular modelling approaches to understanding electron transfer and protein interactions among redox partners, leading to the characterization of several transient periplasmic complexes. In contrast to the detailed understanding of the periplasmic hydrogen oxidation process, very little is known about the cytoplasmic side of the respiratory electron transfer chain, in terms of molecular components (with exception of the terminal reductases), their structure and the protein-protein interactions involved in sulphate reduction. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the sulphate respiratory chain in Desulfovibrio remains a challenging task.

  20. I.V. infusion of magnesium sulphate during spinal anaesthesia improves postoperative analgesia.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J-Y; Na, H-S; Jeon, Y-T; Ro, Y-J; Kim, C-S; Do, S-H

    2010-01-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, prospective study, we have evaluated the effect of i.v. infusion of magnesium sulphate during spinal anaesthesia on postoperative analgesia and postoperative analgesic requirements. Forty patients undergoing total hip replacement arthroplasty under spinal anaesthesia were included. After the induction of spinal anaesthesia, the magnesium group (Group M) received magnesium sulphate 50 mg kg(-1) for 15 min and then 15 mg kg(-1) h(-1) by continuous i.v. infusion until the end of surgery. The saline group (Group S) received the same volume of isotonic saline over the same period. After surgery, a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device containing morphine and ketorolac was provided for the patients. Postoperative pain scores, PCA consumption, and the incidences of shivering, postoperative nausea, and vomiting were evaluated immediately after surgery, and at 30 min, 4, 24, and 48 h after surgery. Serum magnesium concentrations were checked before the induction of anaesthesia, immediately after surgery, and at 1 and 24 h after surgery. Postoperative pain scores were significantly lower in Group M at 4, 24, and 48 h after surgery (P<0.05). Cumulative postoperative PCA consumptions were also significantly lower in Group M at 4, 24, and 48 h after surgery (P<0.05). Postoperative magnesium concentrations were higher in Group M (P<0.05 at 4, 24, and 48 h after surgery), but no side-effects associated with hypermagnesemia were observed. Haemodynamic variables and the incidences of shivering, nausea, and vomiting were similar in the two groups. I.V. magnesium sulphate administration during spinal anaesthesia improves postoperative analgesia.

  1. Tetanus toxoid purification: chromatographic procedures as an alternative to ammonium-sulphate precipitation.

    PubMed

    Stojićević, Ivana; Dimitrijević, Ljiljana; Dovezenski, Nebojša; Živković, Irena; Petrušić, Vladimir; Marinković, Emilija; Inić-Kanada, Aleksandra; Stojanović, Marijana

    2011-08-01

    Given an existing demand to establish a process of tetanus vaccine production in a way that allows its complete validation and standardization, this paper focuses on tetanus toxoid purification step. More precisely, we were looking at a possibility to replace the widely used ammonium-sulphate precipitation by a chromatographic method. Based on the tetanus toxin's biochemical characteristics, we have decided to examine the possibility of tetanus toxoid purification by hydrophobic chromatography, and by chromatographic techniques based on interaction with immobilized metal ions, i.e. chelating chromatography and immobilized metal affinity chromatography. We used samples obtained from differently fragmented crude tetanus toxins by formaldehyde treatment (assigned as TTd-A and TTd-B) as starting material for tetanus toxoid purification. Obtained results imply that purification of tetanus toxoid by hydrophobic chromatography represents a good alternative to ammonium-sulphate precipitation. Tetanus toxoid preparations obtained by hydrophobic chromatography were similar to those obtained by ammonium-sulphate precipitation in respect to yield, purity and immunogenicity. In addition, their immunogenicity was similar to standard tetanus toxoid preparation (NIBSC, Potters Bar, UK). Furthermore, the characteristics of crude tetanus toxin preparations had the lowest impact on the final purification product when hydrophobic chromatography was the applied method of tetanus toxoid purification. On the other hand, purifications of tetanus toxoid by chelating chromatography or immobilized metal affinity chromatography generally resulted in a very low yield due to not satisfactory tetanus toxoid binding to the column, and immunogenicity of the obtained tetanus toxoid-containing preparations was poor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dependency of black-carbon-induced atmospheric warming on the concentration of sulphate and organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; in-Jin, C.; Ramanathan, V.; Ramana, M.

    2010-12-01

    Previous modeling studies have showed that the net radiative effect of black carbon (BC) and organic aerosols generated by fossil-fuel combustion and biomass-fuel cooking contribute to a warming by absorbing solar radiation, and the warming effect of fossil-fuel BC is larger than that of biomass-fuel cooking [Ramana et al., Nature Geoscience, 2010]. However, the extent of BC warming is regulated by the ambient concentrations of sulphate and organic carbon (OC) aerosols, which reflect the solar radiation and cool the surface, thus enhancing the net warming caused by BC and GHGs. This is because the major sources of BC also emit CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) (that warm the climate), and sulfates, nitrates, organics and other particles (that cool the climate). In this study, we present the impact of BC-to-sulphate and BC-to-OC ratios on atmospheric warming on the basis of surface-based filter and in-situ measurements at Gosan climate observatory in Jeju, South Korea and radiative transfer calculations with AERONET Cimel sun/sky radiometer and micro-pulse lidar measurements as a model input. We investigate (1) BC-to-sulphate and BC-to-OC ratios, (2) aerosol solar-absorption efficiency (i.e., co-single scattering albedo) and (3) corresponding atmospheric direct radiative forcing and heating rate of aerosol plumes from N. China (Beijing), S. China (Shanghai) and clean marine sources during ACE-Asia (April-May 2001), ABC-EAREX2005 (March-April 2005) and CAMPEX (August-September 2008), and discuss their relationships.

  3. Sulphate incorporation in monazite lattice and dating the cycle of sulphur in metamorphic belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Antonin T.; Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-Magali; Duchene, Stéphanie; Bingen, Bernard; Bosse, Valérie; Datas, Lucien

    2016-11-01

    Microgeochemical data and transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging of S-rich monazite crystals demonstrate that S has been incorporated in the lattice of monazite as a clino-anhydrite component via the following exchange Ca2+ + S6+ = REE3+ + P5+, and that it is now partly exsolved in nanoclusters (5-10 nm) of CaSO4. The sample, an osumilite-bearing ultra-high-temperature granulite from Rogaland, Norway, is characterized by complexly patchy zoned monazite crystals. Three chemical domains are distinguished as (1) a sulphate-rich core (0.45-0.72 wt% SO2, Th incorporated as cheralite component), (2) secondary sulphate-bearing domains (SO2 >0.05 wt%, partly clouded with solid inclusions), and (3) late S-free, Y-rich domains (0.8-2.5 wt% Y2O3, Th accommodated as the huttonite component). These three domains yield distinct isotopic U-Pb ages of 1034 ± 6, 1005 ± 7, and 935 ± 7 Ma, respectively. Uranium-Th-Pb EPMA dating independently confirms these ages. This study illustrates that it is possible to discriminate different generations of monazite based on their S contents. From the petrological context, we propose that sulphate-rich monazite reflects high-temperature Fe-sulphide breakdown under oxidizing conditions, coeval with biotite dehydration melting. Monazite may therefore reveal the presence of S in anatectic melts from high-grade terrains at a specific point in time and date S mobilization from a reduced to an oxidized state. This property can be used to investigate the mineralization potential of a given geological event within a larger orogenic framework.

  4. Physiochemical properties and reproducibility of air-based sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam using the Tessari method.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Mike R; Oliver, Richard J

    2017-07-01

    Objectives The objectives were to examine the density, bubble size distribution and durability of sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam and the consistency of production of foam by a number of different operators using the Tessari method. Methods 1% and 3% sodium tetradecyl sulphate sclerosant foam was produced by an experienced operator and a group of inexperienced operators using either a 1:3 or 1:4 liquid:air ratio and the Tessari method. The foam density, bubble size distribution and foam durability were measured on freshly prepared foam from each operator. Results The foam density measurements were similar for each of the 1:3 preparations and for each of the 1:4 preparations but not affected by the sclerosant concentration. The bubble size for all preparations were very small immediately after preparation but progressively coalesced to become a micro-foam (<250 µm) after the first 30 s up until 2 min. Both the 1% and 3% solution foams developed liquid more rapidly when made in a 1:3 ratio (37 s) than in a 1:4 ratio (45 s) but all combinations took similar times to reach 0.4 ml liquid formation. For all the experiments, there was no statistical significant difference between operators. Conclusions The Tessari method of foam production for sodium tetradecyl sulphate sclerosant is consistent and reproducible even when made by inexperienced operators. The best quality foam with micro bubbles should be used within the first minute after production.

  5. Antioxidative sulphated polygalactans from marine macroalgae as angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Makkar, Fasina; Chakraborty, Kajal

    2017-08-17

    Antioxidant and antihypertensive potential of the sulphated polygalactans isolated from the marine macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria opuntia were assessed by utilising different in vitro systems. The galactans isolated from K. alvarezii possessed significantly greater antioxidative properties as determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH IC 90 0.97 mg/mL) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS .+ IC 90 0.72 mg/mL) scavenging activities than those isolated from G. opuntia (DPPH IC 90 1.2 mg/mL and ABTS 0.86 mg/mL). The sulphated polygalactan →4)-4-O-sulphonato-(2-O-methyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-methyl)-α-D-galactopyranan from K. alvarezii showed greater angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity (IC 50 0.02 μg/mL) than →3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-sulphonato)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-xylosyl-(1→3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-sulphonato)-α-D-galactopyranan motif extracted from G. opuntia (IC 50 0.70 μg/mL). Structure activity correlation studies displayed that the ACE inhibitory properties of titled polygalactans were directly proportional to their electronic properties and inversely with the steric and hydrophobic characteristics. Putative ACE inhibitory mechanism of action of sulphated galactans from marine macroalgae corroborated the structure bioactivity correlation analysis.

  6. Anticancer effects of morin-7-sulphate sodium, a flavonoid derivative, in mouse melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Wen; Zou, Tang-Bin; Jia, Qing; Xia, En-Qin; Cao, Wen-Jun; Liu, Wen; He, Tai-Ping; Wang, Qin

    2016-12-01

    Increasing evidence supports the anticancer effects of morin in vitro and in vivo. However, the role of morin-7-sulphate sodium (NaMoS), a water-soluble flavonoid derivative synthesized from morin remains unclear. The present study investigated the tumor suppression by NaMoS in mouse melanoma cells. We synthesized the flavonoid derivative morin-7-sulphate sodium according to the method described for quercetin-sulphate derivative, and further isolated, purified and identified the compound. Cell proliferation in vitro was assessed using a CCK-8 assay. The wound healing assay was performed to evaluate cell motility, and flow cytometry was used to detect cellular apoptosis. Protein levels of vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), phosphorylation of Akt1/2/3 (p-Akt1/2/3), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and Caspase3 in B16F10 cells were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The results suggest that cell proliferation was markedly decreased in NaMoS-treated groups (1, 10, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1000μM) in a dose-dependent manner compared with the Control group and the IC 50 was 221.67μM at 48h. NaMoS at 200μM concentration significantly inhibited the invasion and promoted apoptosis of B16F10 cells. Moreover, protein level of Caspase3 increased significantly in B16F10 cells treated by NaMoS. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot further confirmed that NaMoS decreased the expression of vimentin, MMP9, p-Akt1/2/3 and p-ERK1/2 in B16F10 cells. This study provides robust evidence that NaMoS, a water-soluble flavonoid, manifests anticancer properties and may act as a signal transduction inhibitor in melanoma cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Therapeutic effect of magnesium sulphate on carbon monoxide toxicity-mediated brain lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Y; Mollaoglu, H; Yürümez, Y; Ucok, K; Duran, L; Tünay, K; Akgün, L

    2013-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) toxicity primarily results from cellular hypoxia caused by impedance of oxygen delivery. Studies show that CO may cause brain lipid peroxidation and leukocyte-mediated inflammatory changes in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether magnesium sulphate could prevent or diminish brain lipid peroxidation caused by carbon monoxide toxicity in rats. Fourty rats were divided into five groups of 8 rats each. Group l was not received any agent during the experiment. Group 2 was inhaled CO gas followed by intraperitoneally normal saline 30 minutes (min) later. Group 3 was inhaled CO gas followed by 100 mg/kg magnesium sulphate intraperitoneally 30 min later. Group 2 and Group 3 rats was undergone laparotomy and craniotomy while still under anesthesia at 6 hour, and tissue sample was obtained from the cerebrum. Group 4 was inhaled CO gas followed by intraperitoneally normal saline 30 min later. Group 5 was inhaled CO gas followed by 100 mg/kg magnesium sulphate intraperitoneally 30 min later. Group 4 and Group 5 rats was undergone laparotomy and craniotomy while still under anesthesia at 24 hour, and tissue sample was obtained from the cerebrum. Nitric oxide levels were no significantly different between all groups. Malonyldialdehyde levels increased in intoxication group (group 2) and decreased in treatment group (group 3). Activities of superoxide dismutase decreased in intoxication group (group 2) and increased in treatment group (group 3). Activities of catalase increased in intoxication group (group 2) and decreased in treatment group (group 3). Activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) decreased in intoxication group (group 4) and increased in treatment group (group 5). CO poisoning caused significant damage, detected within the first 6 hours. Due to antioxidant enzymes, especially GSH-Px activity reaching the top level within 24th hours, significant oxidative damage was not observed. The protective effect against oxidative

  8. Optimizing protease production from an isolate of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans using response surface methodology and its larvicidal activity on horse cyathostomins.

    PubMed

    Braga, F R; Araújo, J V; Soares, F E F; Araujo, J M; Genier, H L A; Silva, A R; Carvalho, R O; Queiroz, J H; Ferreira, S R

    2011-06-01

    Protease production from Duddingtonia flagrans (isolate AC001) was optimized and the larvicidal activity of the enzymatic extract was evaluated on infective horse cyathostomin larvae (L3). Duddingtonia flagrans was grown in liquid medium with eight different variables: glucose, casein, bibasic potassium phosphate (K2HPO4), magnesium sulphate (MgSO4), zinc sulphate (ZnSO4), ferrous sulphate (FeSO4), copper sulphate (CuSO4) and temperature. The Plackett-Burman analysis showed a significant influence of MgSO4, CuSO4 and casein (P < 0.05) on protease production by D. flagrans in liquid medium. Central composite design indicated that the highest proteolytic activity was 39.56 U/ml as a function of the concentrations of casein (18.409 g/l), MgSO4 (0.10 g/l) and CuSO4 (0.50 mg/l). A significant difference (P < 0.01) was found for the larval number between the treated and control groups at the end of the experiment. A reduction of 95.46% in the number of free-living larvae was found in the treated group compared with the control. The results of this study suggest that protease production by D. flagrans (AC001) in liquid medium was optimized by MgSO4, CuSO4 and casein, showing that the optimized enzymatic extract exerted larvicidal activity on cyathostomins and therefore may contribute to large-scale industrial production.

  9. Sulphate partitioning into calcite: Experimental verification of pH control and application to seasonality in speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, Peter M.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Borsato, Andrea; Spötl, Christoph; Hartland, Adam; Baker, Andy; Frisia, Silvia; Baldini, James U. L.

    2018-04-01

    Carbonate-associated sulphate (CAS) is a useful carrier of palaeoenvironmental information throughout the geologic record, particularly through its stable isotope composition. However, a paucity of experimental data restricts quantitative understanding of sulphate incorporation into carbonates, and consequently CAS concentrations and their diagenetic modifications are rarely interpreted. However, in the case of calcite speleothems, the remarkably high-resolution CAS records which are obtainable via modern microanalytical techniques represent a potentially invaluable source of palaeoenvironmental information. Here, we describe the results of controlled experiments of sulphate co-precipitation with calcite in freshwater solutions where pH, saturation state, and sulphate concentration were varied independently of each other. Solution pH is confirmed as the principal control on sulphate incorporation into calcite. The relative efficiency of incorporation was calculated as a partition coefficient DSO4 = (mSO4/mCO3)solid/(mSO4/mCO3)solution. High crystal growth rates (driven by either pH or saturation state) encouraged higher values of DSO4 because of an increasing concentration of defect sites on crystal surfaces. At low growth rates, DSO4 was reduced due to an inferred competition between sulphate and bicarbonate at the calcite surface. These experimental results are applied to understand the incorporation of sulphate into speleothem calcite. The experimentally determined pH-dependence suggests that strong seasonal variations in cave air PCO2 could account for annual cycles in sulphate concentration observed in stalagmites. Our new experimentally determined values of DSO4 were compared with DSO4 values calculated from speleothem-drip water monitoring from two caves within the Austrian and Italian Alps. At Obir cave, Austria, DSO4 (×105) varies between 11.1 (winter) and 9.0 (summer) and the corresponding figures for Ernesto cave, Italy, are 15.4 (winter) and 14

  10. An extended X-Ray absorption fine structure (exafs) study of copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyner, Richard W.

    1980-05-01

    The EXAFS spectrum of copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate has been measured using synchrotron radiation. Comparison with the results of ab initio calculation gives a mean copper-oxygen distance of 1.95 Å, in reasonable agreement with the known value of 1.97 Å. The relation between the EXAFS Debye-Waller factor and thermal parameters measured by neutron diffraction is discussed. Absence in the EXAFS spectrum of evidence for the second-nearest neighbour oxygen atoms, at Cu-O ≈ 2.4 Å, is discussed.

  11. Renal excretion in channel catfish following injection of quinaldine sulphate or 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.L.; Hunn, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, injected intraperitoneally with 2-methyl-quinoline sulphate (QdSO4) or 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) eliminate most of the dose of these compounds by extra-renal routes. Patterns of renal excretion of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl- (pEq kg-1 h-1) appeared to be associated with the 'stress' of the urine collection technique rather than with the elimination of either compound. Concentrations of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl- (mEq/1) were determined in urine, plasma and gall bladder bile.

  12. Is the C-terminal flanking peptide of rat cholecystokinin double sulphated?

    PubMed

    Adrian, T E; Domin, J; Bacarese-Hamilton, A J; Bloom, S R

    1986-02-03

    A specific radioimmunoassay was developed to the predicted nine amino acid C-terminal flanking peptide of cholecystokinin (peptide serine serine, PSS). In aqueous extracts of rat brain, PSS was undetectable unless the extracts were first treated with arylsulphatase, which also resulted in desulphation of cholecystokinin. The reverse-phase HPLC analysis of partially desulphated extracts showed the presence of two peaks intermediate to the naturally occurring and the completely desulphated forms. It is therefore proposed that the CCK-flanking peptide PSS has both tyrosine residues sulphated.

  13. Growth and characterization of pure and glycine doped cadmium thiourea sulphate (GCTS) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, M.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

    2012-06-01

    The pure and glycine doped cadmium thiourea sulphate (GCTS) single crystals were grown successfully by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The concentration of dopant in the mother solution was 1 mol%. There is a change in unit cell. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study confirms the incorporation of glycine into CTS crystal. The doped crystals are optically better and more transparent than the pure ones. The dopant increases the hardness value of the material. The grown crystals were also subjected to thermal and NLO studies.

  14. Systematic review of zinc fortification trials.

    PubMed

    Das, Jai K; Kumar, Rohail; Salam, Rehana A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is one of the essential trace elements required by the human body as it is present in more than a hundred specific enzymes and serves as an important structural ion in transcription factors. Around one third of the world population lives in countries with a high prevalence of zinc deficiency. Food fortification with zinc seems to be an attractive public health strategy and a number of programs have been initiated, especially in developing countries. We conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy of zinc fortification. A total of 11 studies with 771 participants were included in our analysis. Zinc fortification was associated with significant improvements in plasma zinc concentrations [standard mean difference (SMD) 1.28, 95% CI 0.56, 2.01] which is a functional indicator of zinc status. Significant improvement was observed for height velocity (SMD 0.52, 95% CI 0.01, 1.04); however, this finding was weak and based on a restricted analysis. Further subgroup analysis showed significant improvement in height velocity among very-low-birth-weight infants (SMD 0.70, 95% CI 0.02, 1.37), while for healthy newborns, the impact was insignificant. Zinc fortification had insignificant impacts on serum alkaline levels, serum copper levels, hemoglobin and weight gain. Although the findings highlight that zinc fortification is associated with an increased serum concentration of the micronutrient, overall evidence of the effectiveness of this approach is limited. Data on pregnant and lactating women is scarce. Large-scale fortification programs with robust impact assessment should be initiated to cover larger populations in all age groups. Mass fortification of zinc may be a cost-effective strategy to overcome zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Functional studies of Drosophila zinc transporters reveal the mechanism for dietary zinc absorption and regulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Zinc is key to the function of many proteins, but the process of dietary zinc absorption is not well clarified. Current knowledge about dietary zinc absorption is fragmented, and mostly derives from incomplete mammalian studies. To gain a comprehensive picture of this process, we systematically characterized all zinc transporters (that is, the Zip and ZnT family members) for their possible roles in dietary zinc absorption in a genetically amenable model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Results A set of plasma membrane-resident zinc transporters was identified to be responsible for absorbing zinc from the lumen into the enterocyte and the subsequent exit of zinc to the circulation. dZip1 and dZip2, two functionally overlapping zinc importers, are responsible for absorbing zinc from the lumen into the enterocyte. Exit of zinc to the circulation is mediated through another two functionally overlapping zinc exporters, dZnT1, and its homolog CG5130 (dZnT77C). Somewhat surprisingly, it appears that the array of intracellular ZnT proteins, including the Golgi-resident dZnT7, is not directly involved in dietary zinc absorption. By modulating zinc status in different parts of the body, we found that regulation of dietary zinc absorption, in contrast to that of iron, is unresponsive to bodily needs or zinc status outside the gut. The zinc transporters that are involved in dietary zinc absorption, including the importers dZip1 and dZip2, and the exporter dZnT1, are respectively regulated at the RNA and protein levels by zinc in the enterocyte. Conclusions Our study using the model organism Drosophila thus starts to reveal a comprehensive sketch of dietary zinc absorption and its regulatory control, a process that is still incompletely understood in mammalian organisms. The knowledge gained will act as a reference for future mammalian studies, and also enable an appreciation of this important process from an evolutionary perspective. PMID:24063361

  16. Driving Along the Zinc Road.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Robert J

    2016-07-17

    After having written hundreds of research articles, reviews, and book chapters, I find it awkward to pen an autobiography. I still do use a pen. As stated by others in the nutrition field who have written of their own experiences in a perspective article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, my course through this field of science has been serendipitous. My interest in nutrition developed during my experiences with horses and then Angus cattle and entry into an animal science degree program. As the age of molecular biology was unfolding, I pursued a PhD in nutritional biochemistry with Hamilton Eaton at the University of Connecticut followed by postdoctoral work with Hector DeLuca at the University of Wisconsin, working on vitamins A and D, respectively. At Rutgers University, one of the two institutions where I have served on the faculty, I started my research program on trace elements with a focus on cadmium toxicity but soon thereafter began my research on zinc metabolism and function. I moved to the University of Florida in 1982 for an endowed position and have been a Florida Gator ever since. At the University of Florida, research expanded to include identification of zinc-responsive genes and physiological outcomes of zinc transport influencing health and disease, particularly as related to inflammation. I had the opportunity to contribute national science policy as president of both the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology and the American Society for Nutrition. As the time of this writing, I maintain an active laboratory.

  17. Measurements of zinc absorption: application and interpretation in research designed to improve human zinc nutriture.

    PubMed

    Hambidge, K Michael; Miller, Leland V; Tran, Cuong D; Krebs, Nancy F

    2005-11-01

    The focus of this paper is on the application of measurements of zinc absorption in human research, especially studies designed to assess the efficacy of intervention strategies to prevent and manage zinc deficiency in populations. Emphasis is given to the measurement of quantities of zinc absorbed rather than restricting investigations to measurements of fractional absorption of zinc. This is especially important when determining absorption of zinc from the diet, whether it be the habitual diet or an intervention diet under evaluation. Moreover, measurements should encompass all meals for a minimum of one day with the exception of some pilot studies. Zinc absorption is primarily via an active saturable transport process into the enterocytes of the proximal small intestine. The relationship between quantity of zinc absorbed and the quantity ingested is best characterized by saturable binding models. When applied to human studies that have sufficient data to examine dose-response relationships, efficiency of absorption is high until approximately 50-60% maximal absorption is achieved, even with moderate phytate intakes. This also coincides approximately with the quantity of absorbed zinc necessary to meet physiologic requirements. Efficiency of absorption with intakes that exceed this level is low or very low. These observations have important practical implications for the design and interpretation of intervention studies to prevent zinc deficiency. They also suggest the potential utility of measurements of the quantity of zinc absorbed when evaluating the zinc status of populations.

  18. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  19. New Insights into the Role of Zinc Acquisition and Zinc Tolerance in Group A Streptococcal Infection.

    PubMed

    Ong, Cheryl-Lynn Y; Berking, Olga; Walker, Mark J; McEwan, Alastair G

    2018-06-01

    Zinc plays an important role in host innate immune function. However, the innate immune system also utilizes zinc starvation ("nutritional immunity") to combat infections. Here, we investigate the role of zinc import and export in the protection of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus ; GAS), a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of human diseases, against challenge from host innate immune defense. In order to determine the role of GAS zinc import and export during infection, we utilized zinc import (Δ adcA Δ adcAII ) and export (Δ czcD ) deletion mutants in competition with the wild type in both in vitro and in vivo virulence models. We demonstrate that nutritional immunity is deployed extracellularly, while zinc toxicity is utilized upon phagocytosis of GAS by neutrophils. We also show that lysosomes and azurophilic granules in neutrophils contain zinc stores for use against intracellular pathogens. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring externally applied drugs. (b) Specifications. Zinc oxide shall conform to the following...

  1. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.1991...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product...

  4. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product...

  5. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product....

  13. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product....

  16. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product....

  17. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product....

  20. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  1. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The... (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Zinc oxide may be safely used in cosmetics, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice...

  2. Tracing of Zinc Nanocrystals in the Anterior Pituitary of Zinc-Deficient Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Kuldeep, Anjana; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to trace zinc nanocrystals in the anterior pituitary of zinc-deficient Wistar rats by using autometallographic technique. Male Wistar rats (30-40 days of age, pre-pubertal period) of 40-50 g body weight were divided into the following: the ZC (zinc control) group-fed with 100 ppm zinc in diet, the ZD (zinc-deficient) group-fed with zinc-deficient (1.00 ppm) diet and the PF (pair-fed) group-received 100 ppm zinc in diet. The experiments were set for 2 and 4 weeks. Pituitary was removed and processed for the autometallographic technique. The control and pair-fed groups retained their normal morphological features. However, male Wistar rats fed on zinc-deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks displayed a wide range of symptoms such as significant (P < 0.05) decrease in diet consumption, body weight and pituitary weight and decrease in gradation of intensity of zinc nanocrystals in the nuclei. The present findings suggest that the dietary zinc deficiency causes decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals localization and their distribution in the pituitary thereby contributing to the dysfunction of the pituitary of the male Wistar rats. The severity of zinc deficiency symptoms progressed after the second week of the experiment. Decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals attenuates the pituitary function which would exert its affect on other endocrine organs impairing their functions indicating that the metabolic regulation of pituitary is mediated to a certain extent by zinc and/or hypothalamus-hypophysial system which also reflects its essentiality during the period of growth.

  3. The Use of Stimulable Bioluminescence From Dinoflagellates as a Means of Detecting Toxicity in the Marine Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    tributyltin chloride (TFITCI), Copper (11) Sulfate (CuSO 4 I. zinc sulfate (ZnSO4 ), or storm drain effluent. Stimulable bioluminescence was measured at...to several metals and storm drain effluent. Dinoflagellate cells were exposed to various concentrations of tributyltin chloride (TBI1C), copper (II

  4. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-07

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.

  5. Exacerbation of alopecia areata: A possible complication of sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam sclerotherapy treatment for varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Mark S; Smith, Victoria C

    2017-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman with a history of alopecia areata related to stress or hormonal changes was treated for bilateral primary symptomatic varicose veins (CEAP clinical score C2S) of pelvic origin, using a staged procedure. Her first procedure entailed pelvic vein embolisation of three pelvic veins using 14 coils and including foam sclerotherapy of the tributaries, using 3% sodium tetradecyl sulphate. Following this procedure, she had an exacerbation of alopecia areata with some moderate shedding of hair. Subsequently, she underwent endovenous laser ablation under local anaesthetic without incident. Seven months after the pelvic vein embolisation, she underwent foam sclerotherapy of leg and labial varicose veins using sodium tetradecyl sulphate. Two days following this procedure, she had a severe exacerbation of alopecia areata with gross shedding of hair. These two episodes of exacerbation of alopecia areata appear to be associated with sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam sclerotherapy of veins.

  6. Chemical analysis of extracting transition metal oxides from polymetallic ore by sulphate process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkh-Uyanga, Otgon-Uul; Munkhtsetseg, Baatar; Urangoo, Urtnasan; Tserendulam, Enkhtur; Agiimaa, Davaadorj

    2017-06-01

    In this research work we attempt to improve the purity of polymetallic ores in Mongolia whilst developing practical applications of its refinement processes and this paper presents the results of chemical research of extracting transition metal titanium oxides, ferrous oxide and rare earth oxides from polymetallic ore. Thereby, chemical and mineral analysis of polymetallic ore is carried out basis of responses to the support process at various degrees of water whereas transition metal sulphates solubility differ. As a result of sulphate and resulphurization process we have extracted anatase with 62.5 percent titanium dioxide and brookite mineral with 89.6 percent of titanium dioxide as well as mineral with 83.8 percent of ferrous oxide hematite and rare earth oxides with 57.6 percent of cerium oxide. These oxides are identified under various conditions in the thermal processing. The morphology structure and chemical content compound of the mineral has been verified as a result of the XRF, XRD, SEM-EDX analysis.

  7. Incorporation of layered double nanomaterials in thin film nanocomposite nanofiltration membrane for magnesium sulphate removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanis Tajuddin, Muhammad; Yusof, Norhaniza; Salleh, Wan Norharyati Wan; Fauzi Ismail, Ahmad; Hanis Hayati Hairom, Nur; Misdan, Nurasyikin

    2018-03-01

    Thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane with copper-aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDH) incorporated into polyamide (PA) selective layer has been prepared for magnesium sulphate salt removal. 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 wt% of LDH were dispersed in the trimesoyl chloride (TMC) in n-hexane as organic solution and embedded into PA layer during interfacial polymerization with piperazine. The fabricated membranes were further characterized to evaluate its morphological structure and membrane surface hydrophilicity. The TFN membranes performance were evaluated with divalent salt magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) removal and compared with thin film composite (TFC). The morphological structures of TFN membranes were altered and the surface hydrophilicity were enhanced with addition of LDH. Incorporation of LDH has improved the permeate water flux by 82.5% compared to that of TFC membrane with satisfactory rejection of MgSO4. This study has experimentally validated the potential of LDH to improve the divalent salt separation performance for TFN membranes.

  8. Dietary protocatechuic acid ameliorates dextran sulphate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis and hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Farombi, Ebenezer O; Adedara, Isaac A; Awoyemi, Omolola V; Njoku, Chinonye R; Micah, Gabriel O; Esogwa, Cynthia U; Owumi, Solomon E; Olopade, James O

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of dietary protocatechuic acid (PCA), a simple hydrophilic phenolic compound commonly found in many edible vegetables, on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis and its associated hepatotoxicity in rats. PCA was administered orally at 10 mg kg(-1) to dextran sulphate sodium exposed rats for five days. The result revealed that administration of PCA significantly (p < 0.05) prevented the incidence of diarrhea and bleeding, the decrease in the body weight gain, shortening of colon length and the increase in colon mass index in DSS-treated rats. Furthermore, PCA prevented the increase in the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, markers of liver toxicity and markedly suppressed the DSS-mediated elevation in colonic nitric oxide concentration and myeloperoxidase activity in the treated rats. Administration of PCA significantly protected against colonic and hepatic oxidative damage by increasing the antioxidant status and concomitantly decreased hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels in the DSS-treated rats. Moreover, histological examinations confirmed PCA chemoprotection against colon and liver damage. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that PCA significantly inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression in the colon of DSS-treated rats. In conclusion, the effective chemoprotective role of PCA in colitis and the associated hepatotoxicity is related to its intrinsic anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties.

  9. Brain heparan sulphate proteoglycans are altered in developing foetus when exposed to in-utero hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Sandeep, M S; Nandini, C D

    2017-08-01

    In-utero exposure of foetus to hyperglycaemic condition affects the growth and development of the organism. The brain is one of the first organs that start to develop during embryonic period and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) are one of the key molecules involved in its development. But studies on the effect of hyperglycaemic conditions on brain GAGs/PGs are few and far between. We, therefore, looked into the changes in brain GAGs and PGs at various developmental stages of pre- and post-natal rats from non-diabetic and diabetic mothers as well as in adult rats induced with diabetes using a diabetogenic agent, Streptozotocin. Increased expression of GAGs especially that of heparan sulphate class in various developmental stages were observed in the brain as a result of in-utero hyperglycaemic condition but not in that of adult rats. Changes in disaccharides of heparan sulphate (HS) were observed in various developmental stages. Furthermore, various HSPGs namely, syndecans-1 and -3 and glypican-1 were overexpressed in offspring from diabetic mother. However, in adult diabetic rats, only glypican-1 was overexpressed. The offsprings from diabetic mothers became hyperphagic at the end of 8 weeks after birth which can have implications in the long run. Our results highlight the likely impact of the in-utero exposure of foetus to hyperglycaemic condition on brain GAGs/PGs compared to diabetic adult rats.

  10. Effects of sulphate addition and sulphide inhibition on microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ieropoulos, I; Gálvez, A; Greenman, J

    2013-01-10

    The effects of adding sulphate in: (i) standard activated sludge microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and (ii) larger-scale leachate-treating columns - both as individual units and as a system connected in cascade - are reported. S-replete power output was ∼2-fold higher than that of the S-deplete MFC. Furthermore, the effects of evolved sulphide (S(2-)) inhibition were investigated. The overall decrease in power output from the sulphide inhibitor (Na(2)MoO(4)) additions was 83% for the S-replete and 90% for the S-deplete. The second phase with the leachate treating units shows an improvement of 32-86% (depended on leachate strength) in current output as a result of adding sulphate. When leachate column MFCs were connected fluidically in series, the amount of Na(2)SO(4) made available downstream was decreasing (increase in power was 99%, 40% and 12% for columns in cascade). Results demonstrated the beneficial effects of added sulphur sources to both activated sludge and leachate-treating MFCs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing communities in Brazilian mangrove sediments.

    PubMed

    Varon-Lopez, Maryeimy; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Fasanella, Cristiane Cipolla; Durrer, Ademir; Melo, Itamar Soares; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2014-03-01

    Mangrove soils are anaerobic environments rich in sulphate and organic matter. Although the sulphur cycle is one of the major actors in this ecosystem, little is known regarding the sulphur bacteria communities in mangrove soils. We investigated the abundance, composition and diversity of sulphur-oxidizing (SOB) and sulphate-reducing (SRB) bacteria in sediments from three Brazilian mangrove communities: two contaminated, one with oil (OilMgv) and one with urban waste and sludge (AntMgv), and one pristine (PrsMgv). The community structures were assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and clone libraries, using genes for the enzymes adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate reductase (aprA) and sulphite reductase (Dsr) (dsrB). The abundance for qPCR showed the ratio dsrB/aprA to be variable among mangroves and higher according to the gradient observed for oil contamination in the OilMgv. The PCR-DGGE patterns analysed by Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling revealed differences among the structures of the three mangrove communities. The clone libraries showed that Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria were the most abundant groups associated with sulphur cycling in mangrove sediments. We conclude that the microbial SOB and SRB communities in mangrove soils are different in each mangrove forest and that such microbial communities could possibly be used as a proxy for contamination in mangrove forests. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of dextran sulphate stabilized silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakić, Milorad; Glišić, Slobodan; Nikolić, Goran; Nikolić, Goran M.; Cakić, Katarina; Cvetinov, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Dextran sulphate stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs - DS) were synthesized from aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and dextran sulphate sodium salt (DS). The characterization of AgNPs - DS was performed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and antimicrobial activity. The formation of AgNPs - DS was monitored by colour changes of the reaction mixture from yellowish to brown and by measuring the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak in UV-VIS spectra at 420 nm. The SEM analysis was used for size and shape determination of AgNPs - DS. The presence of elemental silver and its crystalline structure in AgNPs - DS were confirmed by EDX and XRD analyses. The possible functional groups of DS responsible for the reduction and stabilization of AgNPs were determinated by FTIR spectroscopy. The AgNPs - DS showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Bacillus luteus in haus strain, Bacillus subtilis ATTC 6633, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Escherichia coli ATTC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATTC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATTC 700603, Proteus vulgaris ATTC 8427, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATTC 2091.

  13. Uptake and metabolism of sulphated steroids by the blood-brain barrier in the adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Qaiser, M Zeeshan; Dolman, Diana E M; Begley, David J; Abbott, N Joan; Cazacu-Davidescu, Mihaela; Corol, Delia I; Fry, Jonathan P

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the origin of the neuroactive steroids dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and pregnenolone sulphate (PregS) in the brain or of their subsequent metabolism. Using rat brain perfusion in situ, we have found 3 H-PregS to enter more rapidly than 3 H-DHEAS and both to undergo extensive (> 50%) desulphation within 0.5 min of uptake. Enzyme activity for the steroid sulphatase catalysing this deconjugation was enriched in the capillary fraction of the blood-brain barrier and its mRNA expressed in cultures of rat brain endothelial cells and astrocytes. Although permeability measurements suggested a net efflux, addition of the efflux inhibitors GF120918 and/or MK571 to the perfusate reduced rather than enhanced the uptake of 3 H-DHEAS and 3 H-PregS; a further reduction was seen upon the addition of unlabelled steroid sulphate, suggesting a saturable uptake transporter. Analysis of brain fractions after 0.5 min perfusion with the 3 H-steroid sulphates showed no further metabolism of PregS beyond the liberation of free steroid pregnenolone. By contrast, DHEAS underwent 17-hydroxylation to form androstenediol in both the steroid sulphate and the free steroid fractions, with some additional formation of androstenedione in the latter. Our results indicate a gain of free steroid from circulating steroid sulphates as hormone precursors at the blood-brain barrier, with implications for ageing, neurogenesis, neuronal survival, learning and memory. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Integrating biomass, sulphate and sea-salt aerosol responses into a microphysical chemical parcel model: implications for climate studies.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Smith, M H; Rap, A

    2007-11-15

    Aerosols are known to influence significantly the radiative budget of the Earth. Although the direct effect (whereby aerosols scatter and absorb solar and thermal infrared radiation) has a large perturbing influence on the radiation budget, the indirect effect (whereby aerosols modify the microphysical and hence the radiative properties and amounts of clouds) poses a greater challenge to climate modellers. This is because aerosols undergo chemical and physical changes while in the atmosphere, notably within clouds, and are removed largely by precipitation. The way in which aerosols are processed by clouds depends on the type, abundance and the mixing state of the aerosols concerned. A parametrization with sulphate and sea-salt aerosol has been successfully integrated within the Hadley Centre general circulation model (GCM). The results of this combined parametrization indicate a significantly reduced role, compared with previous estimates, for sulphate aerosol in cloud droplet nucleation and, consequently, in indirect radiative forcing. However, in this bicomponent system, the cloud droplet number concentration, N(d) (a crucial parameter that is used in GCMs for radiative transfer calculations), is a smoothly varying function of the sulphate aerosol loading. Apart from sea-salt and sulphate aerosol particles, biomass aerosol particles are also present widely in the troposphere. We find that biomass smoke can significantly perturb the activation and growth of both sulphate and sea-salt particles. For a fixed salt loading, N(d) increases linearly with modest increases in sulphate and smoke masses, but significant nonlinearities are observed at higher non-sea-salt mass loadings. This non-intuitive N(d) variation poses a fresh challenge to climate modellers.

  15. Determination of Gentamicin Sulphate Composition and Related Substances in Pharmaceutical Preparations by LC with Charged Aerosol Detection

    PubMed Central

    Stypulkowska, Karolina; Fijalek, Zbigniew; Sarna, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    A new, simple and repeatable liquid chromatography method with charged aerosol detection (LC-CAD) for the determination of gentamicin sulphate composition and related substances has been developed. Gentamicin lacks of chromophores, therefore its determination is quite problematic. Using a universal CAD enables to achieve good separation without sample derivatization. Mass spectrometry was employed to confirm the LC-CAD peak profile. The proposed method was validated and applied for the determination of gentamicin sulphate composition and related substances in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:21212825

  16. Zinc Levels in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Teng, Tianming; Bian, Bo; Yao, Wei; Yu, Xuefang; Wang, Zhuoqun; Xu, Zhelong; Sun, Yuemin

    2017-03-01

    Zinc is one of the most important trace elements in the body and zinc homeostasis plays a critical role in maintaining cellular structure and function. Zinc dyshomeostasis can lead to many diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to investigate whether there is a relationship between zinc and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). A total of 519 patients was enrolled and their serum zinc levels were measured in this study. We performed analyses on the relationship between zinc levels and LVH and the four LV geometry pattern patients: normal LV geometry, concentric remodeling, eccentric LVH, and concentric LVH. We performed further linear and multiple regression analyses to confirm the relationship between zinc and left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and relative wall thickness (RWT). Our data showed that zinc levels were 710.2 ± 243.0 μg/L in the control group and were 641.9 ± 215.2 μg/L in LVH patients. We observed that zinc levels were 715 ± 243.5 μg/L, 694.2 ± 242.7 μg/L, 643.7 ± 225.0 μg/L, and 638.7 ± 197.0 μg/L in normal LV geometry, concentric remodeling, eccentric LVH, and concentric LVH patients, respectively. We further found that there was a significant inverse linear relationship between zinc and LVM (p = 0.001) and LVMI (p = 0.000) but did not show a significant relationship with RWT (p = 0.561). Multiple regression analyses confirmed that the linear relationship between zinc and LVM and LVMI remained inversely significant. The present study revealed that serum zinc levels were significantly decreased in the LVH patients, especially in the eccentric LVH and concentric LVH patients. Furthermore, zinc levels were significantly inversely correlated with LVM and LVMI.

  17. A role for the Drosophila zinc transporter Zip88E in protecting against dietary zinc toxicity.

    PubMed

    Richards, Christopher D; Warr, Coral G; Burke, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Zinc absorption in animals is thought to be regulated in a local, cell autonomous manner with intestinal cells responding to dietary zinc content. The Drosophila zinc transporter Zip88E shows strong sequence similarity to Zips 42C.1, 42C.2 and 89B as well as mammalian Zips 1, 2 and 3, suggesting that it may act in concert with the apically-localised Drosophila zinc uptake transporters to facilitate dietary zinc absorption by importing ions into the midgut enterocytes. However, the functional characterisation of Zip88E presented here indicates that Zip88E may instead play a role in detecting and responding to zinc toxicity. Larvae homozygous for a null Zip88E allele are viable yet display heightened sensitivity to elevated levels of dietary zinc. This decreased zinc tolerance is accompanied by an overall decrease in Metallothionein B transcription throughout the larval midgut. A Zip88E reporter gene is expressed only in the salivary glands, a handful of enteroendocrine cells at the boundary between the anterior and middle midgut regions, and in two parallel strips of sensory cell projections connecting to the larval ventral ganglion. Zip88E expression solely in this restricted subset of cells is sufficient to rescue the Zip88E mutant phenotype. Together, our data suggest that Zip88E may be functioning in a small subset of cells to detect excessive zinc levels and induce a systemic response to reduce dietary zinc absorption and hence protect against toxicity.

  18. Studies on the bioavailability of zinc in humans: intestinal interaction of tin and zinc.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Marchini, J S; Duarte-Favaro, R M; Vannuchi, H; Dutra de Oliveira, J E

    1983-04-01

    Mineral/mineral interactions at the intestinal level are important in animal nutrition and toxicology, but only limited understanding of their extent or importance in humans has been developed. An inhibitory interaction of dietary tin on zinc retention has been recently described from human metabolic studies. We have explored the tin/zinc interaction using the change-in-plasma-zinc-concentration method with a standard dosage of 12.5 mg of zinc as zinc sulfate in 100 ml of Coca-Cola. Sn/Zn ratios of 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1, constituted by addition of 25, 50, and 100 mg of tin as stannous chloride, had no significant overall effect on zinc uptake. The 100-mg dose of tin produced noxious gastrointestinal symptoms. Addition of iron as ferrous sulfate to form ratios of Sn/Fe/Zn of 1:1:1 and 2:2:1 with the standard zinc solution and the appropriate doses of tin produced a reduction of zinc absorption not dissimilar from that seen previously with zinc and iron alone, and addition of picolinic acid did not influence the uptake of zinc from the solution with the 2:2:1 Sn/Fe/Zn ratio.

  19. Effect of zinc gluconate, sage oil on inflammatory patterns and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Ali, Abdel-Moniem A; Elabidine, Nabila Zein; Mursey, Nada M

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between zinc homeostasis and pancreatic function had been established. In this study we aimed firstly to configure the inflammatory pattern and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats. Secondly to illustrate the effect of two selected agents namely Zinc gluconate and sage oil (Salvia Officinalis, family Lamiaceae). Rats were fed on Zinc deficient diet, deionized water for 28days along with Zinc level check up at intervals to achieve zinc deficient state then rats were rendered diabetic through receiving one dose of alloxan monohydrate (120mg/kg) body weight, classified later into 5 subgroups. Treatment with sage oil (0.042mg/kg IP) and Zinc gluconate orally (150mg/kg) body weight daily for 8 weeks significantly reduced serum glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α), interleukins-6 1 β, inflammatory8 (IFN ȣ), pancreatic 1L1-β along with an increase in serum Zinc and pancreatic Zinc transporter 8 (ZNT8). Histopathological results of pancreatic tissues showed a good correlation with the biochemical findings. Both sage oil and zinc gluconate induced an improvement in the glycemic and inflammatory states. This may be of value like the therapeutic agent for diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [Advances in the research of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation treatment in patients with severe burns].

    PubMed

    Wang, X X; Zhang, M J; Li, X B

    2018-01-20

    Zinc is one of the essential trace elements in human body, which plays an important role in regulating acute inflammatory response, glucose metabolism, anti-oxidation, immune and gastrointestinal function of patients with severe burns. Patients with severe burns may suffer from zinc deficiency because of insufficient amount of zinc intake from the diet and a large amount of zinc lose through wounds and urine. Zinc deficiency may affect their wound healing process and prognosis. This article reviews the characteristics of zinc metabolism in patients with severe burns through dynamic monitoring the plasma and urinary concentration of zinc. An adequate dosage of zinc supplemented to patients with severe burns by an appropriate method can increase the level of zinc in plasma and skin tissue and improve wound healing, as well as reduce the infection rates and mortality. At the same time, it is important to observe the symptoms and signs of nausea, dizziness, leukopenia and arrhythmia in patients with severe burns after supplementing excessive zinc.