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Sample records for zinc telluride solar

  1. Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells based on leadership. The United States is the leader in CdTe PV manufacturing, and NREL has been at the forefront of research and development (R&D) in this area. PV Research Other Materials & Devices pages: High

  2. Properties of Nitrogen-Doped Zinc Telluride Films for Back Contact to Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimpi, Tushar M.; Drayton, Jennifer; Swanson, Drew E.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2017-08-01

    Zinc telluride (ZnTe) films have been deposited onto uncoated glass superstrates by reactive radiofrequency (RF) sputtering with different amounts of nitrogen introduced into the process gas, and the structural and electronic transport properties of the resulting nitrogen-doped ZnTe (ZnTe:N) films characterized. Based on transmission and x-ray diffraction measurements, it was observed that the crystalline quality of the ZnTe:N films decreased with increasing nitrogen in the deposition process. The bulk carrier concentration of the ZnTe:N films determined from Hall-effect measurements showed a slight decrease at 4% nitrogen flow rate. The effect of ZnTe:N films as back contact to cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells was also investigated. ZnTe:N films were deposited before or after CdCl2 passivation on CdTe/CdS samples. Small-area devices were characterized for their electronic properties. Glancing-angle x-ray diffraction measurements and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis confirmed substantial loss of zinc from the samples where CdCl2 passivation was carried out after ZnTe:N film deposition.

  3. Ion beam sputter deposited zinc telluride films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Zinc telluride is of interest as a potential electronic device material, particularly as one component in an amorphous superlattice, which is a new class of interesting and potentially useful materials. Some structural and electronic properties of ZnTe films deposited by argon ion beam sputter deposition are described. Films (up to 3000 angstroms thick) were deposited from a ZnTe target. A beam energy of 1000 eV and a current density of 4 mA/sq cm resulted in deposition rates of approximately 70 angstroms/min. The optical band gap was found to be approximately 1.1 eV, indicating an amorphous structure, as compared to a literature value of 2.26 eV for crystalline material. Intrinsic stress measurements showed a thickness dependence, varying from tensile for thicknesses below 850 angstroms to compressive for larger thicknesses. Room temperature conductivity measurement also showed a thickness dependence, with values ranging from 1.86 x 10 to the -6th/ohm cm for 300 angstrom film to 2.56 x 10 to the -1/ohm cm for a 2600 angstrom film. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the conductivity for these films showed complicated behavior which was thickness dependent. Thinner films showed at least two distinct temperature dependent conductivity mechanisms, as described by a Mott-type model. Thicker films showed only one principal conductivity mechanism, similar to what might be expected for a material with more crystalline character.

  4. Ion beam sputter deposited zinc telluride films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Zinc telluride is of interest as a potential electronic device material, particularly as one component in an amorphous superlattice, which is a new class of interesting and potentially useful materials. Some structural and electronic properties of ZnTe films deposited by argon ion beam sputter depoairion are described. Films (up to 3000 angstroms thick) were deposited from a ZnTe target. A beam energy of 1000 eV and a current density of 4 mA/sq. cm. resulted in deposition rates of approximately 70 angstroms/min. The optical band gap was found to be approximately 1.1 eV, indicating an amorphous structure, as compared to a literature value of 2.26 eV for crystalline material. Intrinsic stress measurements showed a thickness dependence, varying from tensile for thicknesses below 850 angstroms to compressive for larger thicknesses. Room temperature conductivity measurement also showed a thickness dependence, with values ranging from 1.86 x to to the -6/ohm. cm. for 300 angstrom film to 2.56 x 10 to the -1/ohm. cm. for a 2600 angstrom film. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the conductivity for these films showed complicated behavior which was thickness dependent. Thinner films showed at least two distinct temperature dependent conductivity mechanisms, as described by a Mott-type model. Thicker films showed only one principal conductivity mechanism, similar to what might be expected for a material with more crystalline character.

  5. The Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager on AstroSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalerao, V.; Bhattacharya, D.; Vibhute, A.; Pawar, P.; Rao, A. R.; Hingar, M. K.; Khanna, Rakesh; Kutty, A. P. K.; Malkar, J. P.; Patil, M. H.; Arora, Y. K.; Sinha, S.; Priya, P.; Samuel, Essy; Sreekumar, S.; Vinod, P.; Mithun, N. P. S.; Vadawale, S. V.; Vagshette, N.; Navalgund, K. H.; Sarma, K. S.; Pandiyan, R.; Seetha, S.; Subbarao, K.

    2017-06-01

    The Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager (CZTI) is a high energy, wide-field imaging instrument on AstroSat. CZTI's namesake Cadmium Zinc Telluride detectors cover an energy range from 20 keV to >200 keV, with 11% energy resolution at 60 keV. The coded aperture mask attains an angular resolution of 17^' over a 4.6° × 4.6° (FWHM) field-of-view. CZTI functions as an open detector above 100 keV, continuously sensitive to GRBs and other transients in about 30% of the sky. The pixellated detectors are sensitive to polarization above ˜ 100 keV, with exciting possibilities for polarization studies of transients and bright persistent sources. In this paper, we provide details of the complete CZTI instrument, detectors, coded aperture mask, mechanical and electronic configuration, as well as data and products.

  6. Spectral analysis techniques for characterizing cadmium zinc telluride polarization modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGerald, William R.; Taherion, Saeid; Kumar, F. Joseph; Giles, David; Hore, Dennis K.

    2018-04-01

    The low frequency electro-optic characteristics of cadmium zinc telluride are demonstrated in the mid-infrared, in the spectral range 2.5-11 μm. Conventional methods for characterizing the dynamic response by monitoring the amplitude of the time-varying light intensity do not account for spatial variation in material properties. In such cases, a more revealing method involves monitoring two distinct frequency components in order to characterize the dynamic and static contributions to the optical retardation. We demonstrate that, while this method works well for a ZnSe photo-elastic modulator, it does not fully capture the response of a cadmium zinc telluride electro-optic modulator. Ultimately, we show that acquiring the full waveform of the optical response enables a model to be created that accounts for inhomogeneity in the material that results in an asymmetric response with respect to the polarity of the driving voltage. This technique is applicable to broadband and fixed-wavelength applications in a variety of spectral ranges.

  7. Cadmium zinc telluride as a mid-infrared variable retarder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGerald, William; Taherion, Saeid; Kumar, F. Joseph; Giles, David; Hore, Dennis

    2018-04-01

    The electro-optic behavior of cadmium zinc telluride is examined in the mid-infrared region between 3 and 11 μm, for applied DC field strengths of up to 106 V/m. The measurements performed here include full characterization of the polarization state of the transmitted light by means of the Stokes vector. We demonstrate the suitability of this material for DC variable retarder applications such as those achieved by quarter- or half-wave retardation. A comparison of two different metallic coatings for electrodes, gold and indium, reveals important differences in performance that are attributed to the homogeneity of the field through the bulk of the crystal. We illustrate that, in the case of both metals, the same electro-optic coefficients are measured, but regions of higher and lower retardation result in significant depolarization in the case of gold. Such depolarization may adversely affect the contrast ratio in a light valve, or increase the voltage necessary for the operation of an arbitrary polarization state generator.

  8. Ambient temperature cadmium zinc telluride radiation detector and amplifier circuit

    DOEpatents

    McQuaid, James H.; Lavietes, Anthony D.

    1998-05-29

    A low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature signal amplifier for a Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) radiation detector. The amplifier can be used within a larger system (e.g., including a multi-channel analyzer) to allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. In one embodiment, the circuit stages of the low power, low noise amplifier are constructed using integrated circuit (IC) amplifiers , rather than discrete components, and include a very low noise, high gain, high bandwidth dual part preamplification stage, an amplification stage, and an filter stage. The low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables the CZT detector to achieve both the efficiency required to determine the presence of radio nuclides and the resolution necessary to perform isotopic analysis to perform nuclear material identification. The present low noise, low power, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables a CZT detector to achieve resolution of less than 3% full width at half maximum at 122 keV for a Cobalt-57 isotope source. By using IC circuits and using only a single 12 volt supply and ground, the novel amplifier provides significant power savings and is well suited for prolonged portable in-field use and does not require heavy, bulky power supply components.

  9. Ambient temperature cadmium zinc telluride radiation detector and amplifier circuit

    DOEpatents

    McQuaid, J.H.; Lavietes, A.D.

    1998-05-26

    A low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature signal amplifier for a Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) radiation detector is disclosed. The amplifier can be used within a larger system (e.g., including a multi-channel analyzer) to allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. In one embodiment, the circuit stages of the low power, low noise amplifier are constructed using integrated circuit (IC) amplifiers , rather than discrete components, and include a very low noise, high gain, high bandwidth dual part preamplification stage, an amplification stage, and an filter stage. The low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables the CZT detector to achieve both the efficiency required to determine the presence of radionuclides and the resolution necessary to perform isotopic analysis to perform nuclear material identification. The present low noise, low power, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables a CZT detector to achieve resolution of less than 3% full width at half maximum at 122 keV for a Cobalt-57 isotope source. By using IC circuits and using only a single 12 volt supply and ground, the novel amplifier provides significant power savings and is well suited for prolonged portable in-field use and does not require heavy, bulky power supply components. 9 figs.

  10. Growth of Cadmium-Zinc Telluride Crystals by Controlled Seeding Contactless Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Grasza, K.; Gillies, D.; Jerman, G.

    1996-01-01

    Bulk crystals of cadmium-zinc telluride, 23 mm in diameter and up to 45 grams in weight were grown. Controlled seed formation procedure was used to limit the number of grains in the crystal. Most uniform distribution of ZnTe in the crystals was obtained using excess (Cd + Zn) pressure in the ampoule.

  11. Electronic characterization of defects in narrow gap semiconductors: Comparison of electronic energy levels and formation energies in mercury cadmium telluride, mercury zinc telluride, and mercury zinc selenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James D.; Li, Wei-Gang

    1995-01-01

    The project has evolved to that of using Green's functions to predict properties of deep defects in narrow gap materials. Deep defects are now defined as originating from short range potentials and are often located near the middle of the energy gap. They are important because they affect the lifetime of charge carriers and hence the switching time of transistors. We are now moving into the arena of predicting formation energies of deep defects. This will also allow us to make predictions about the relative concentrations of the defects that could be expected at a given temperature. The narrow gap materials mercury cadmium telluride (MCT), mercury zinc telluride (MZT), and mercury zinc selenide (MZS) are of interest to NASA because they have commercial value for infrared detecting materials, and because there is a good possibility that they can be grown better in a microgravity environment. The uniform growth of these crystals on earth is difficult because of convection (caused by solute depletion just ahead of the growing interface, and also due to thermal gradients). In general it is very difficult to grow crystals with both radial and axial homogeneity.

  12. Electronic Characterization of Defects in Narrow Gap Semiconductors-Comparison of Electronic Energy Levels and Formation Energies in Mercury Cadmium Telluride, Mercury Zinc Telluride, and Mercury Zinc Selenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James D.

    1996-01-01

    We have used a Green's function technique to calculate the energy levels and formation energy of deep defects in the narrow gap semiconductors mercury cadmium telluride (MCT), mercury zinc telluride (MZT) and mercury zinc selenide (MZS). The formation energy is calculated from the difference between the total energy with an impurity cluster and the total energy for the perfect crystal. Substitutional (including antisite), interstitial (self and foreign), and vacancy deep defects are considered. Relaxation effects are calculated (with molecular dynamics). By use of a pseudopotential, we generalize the ideal vacancy model so as to be able to consider relaxation for vacancies. Different charge states are considered and the charged state energy shift (as computed by a modified Haldane-Anderson model) can be twice that due to relaxation. Different charged states for vacancies were not calculated to have much effect on the formation energy. For all cases we find deep defects in the energy gap only for cation site s-like orbitals or anion site p-like orbitals, and for the substitutional case only the latter are appreciably effected by relaxation. For most cases for MCT, MZT, MZS, we consider x (the concentration of Cd or Zn) in the range appropriate for a band gap of 0.1 eV. For defect energy levels, the absolute accuracy of our results is limited, but the precision is good, and hence chemical trends are accurately predicted. For the same reason, defect formation energies are more accurately predicted than energy level position. We attempt, in Appendix B, to calculate vacancy formation energies using relatively simple chemical bonding ideas due to Harrison. However, these results are only marginally accurate for estimating vacancy binding energies. Appendix C lists all written reports and publications produced for the grant. We include abstracts and a complete paper that summarizes our work which is not yet available.

  13. Seeded Physical Vapor Transport of Cadmium-Zinc Telluride Crystals: Growth and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; George, M. A.; Collins, E. E.; Chen, K.-T.; Zhang, Y.; Burger, A.

    1997-01-01

    Crystals of Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te with x = 0.2 and 40 g in weight were grown on monocrystalline cadmium-zinc telluride seeds by closed-ampoule physical vapor transport with or without excess (Cd + Zn) in the vapor phase. Two post-growth cool-down rates were used. The crystals were characterized using low temperature photoluminescence, atomic force microscopy, chemical etching, X-ray diffraction and electrical measurements. No formation of a second, ZnTe-rich phase was observed.

  14. Processing and Characterization of Thin Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtowicz, Anna

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) has the highest theoretical limit to conversion efficiency of single-junction photovoltaic (PV) technologies today. However, despite a maximum theoretical open-circuit voltage of 1.20 V, record devices have historically had voltages pinned around only 900 mV. Voltage losses due to high recombination rates remains to be the most complex hurdle to CdTe technology today, and the subject of on-going research in the physics PV group at Colorado State University. In this work, an ultrathin CdTe device architecture is proposed in an effort to reduce bulk recombination and boost voltages. By thinning the CdTe layer, a device's internal electric field extends fully towards the back contact. This quickly separates electrons-hole pairs throughout the bulk of the device and reduces overall recombination. Despite this advantage, very thin CdTe layers also present a unique set of optical and electrical challenges which result in performance losses not as prevalent in thicker devices. When fabricating CdTe solar cells, post-deposition treatments applied to the absorber layer are a critical step for achieving high efficiency devices. Exposure of the polycrystalline CdTe film to a chlorine species encourages the passivation of dangling bonds and larger grain formation, while copper-doping improves device uniformity and voltages. This work focuses on experiments conducted via close-space sublimation to optimize CdCl2 and CuCl treatments for thin CdTe solar cells. Sweeps of both exposure and anneal time were performed for both post-deposition treatments on CdTe devices with 1.0 mum absorber layers. The results demonstrate that thin CdTe devices require substantially less post-deposition processing than standard thicker devices as expected. Additionally, the effects of CdTe growth temperature on thin devices is briefly investigated. The results suggest that higher growth temperatures lead to both electrical and stoichiometric changes in CdTe closely associated

  15. Charge trapping in detector grade thallium bromide and cadmium zinc telluride: Measurement and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshazly, Ezzat S.; Tepper, Gary; Burger, Arnold

    2010-08-01

    Carrier trapping times were measured in detector grade thallium bromide (TlBr) and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) from 300 to 110 K and the experimental data were analyzed using a trapping model. In CZT, because the majority carrier concentration is close to the intrinsic carrier concentration, the trapping time increases exponentially as the temperature decreases below about 160 K. In TlBr, the majority carrier concentration is many orders of magnitude greater than the intrinsic carrier concentration and the trapping time followed a (1/ T) 1/2 temperature dependence over the range of temperatures studied. The results of the model suggest that a moderately deep compensation center could be used to significantly increase the room temperature trapping time in TlBr.

  16. Characterization of a 2-mm thick, 16x16 Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride Pixel Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Richardson, Georgia; Mitchell, Shannon; Ramsey, Brian; Seller, Paul; Sharma, Dharma

    2003-01-01

    The detector under study is a 2-mm-thick, 16x16 Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride pixel array with a pixel pitch of 300 microns and inter-pixel gap of 50 microns. This detector is a precursor to that which will be used at the focal plane of the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) telescope currently being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. With a telescope focal length of 6 meters, the detector needs to have a spatial resolution of around 200 microns in order to take full advantage of the HERO angular resolution. We discuss to what degree charge sharing will degrade energy resolution but will improve our spatial resolution through position interpolation. In addition, we discuss electric field modeling for this specific detector geometry and the role this mapping will play in terms of charge sharing and charge loss in the detector.

  17. Towards Optimization of ACRT Schedules Applied to the Gradient Freeze Growth of Cadmium Zinc Telluride

    SciT

    Divecha, Mia S.; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    Historically, the melt growth of II-VI crystals has benefitted by the application of the accelerated crucible rotation technique (ACRT). Here, we employ a comprehensive numerical model to assess the impact of two ACRT schedules designed for a cadmium zinc telluride growth system per the classical recommendations of Capper and co-workers. The “flow maximizing” ACRT schedule, with higher rotation, effectively mixes the solutal field in the melt but does not reduce supercooling adjacent to the growth interface. The ACRT schedule derived for stable Ekman flow, with lower rotation, proves more effective in reducing supercooling and promoting stable growth. Furthermore, these counterintuitivemore » results highlight the need for more comprehensive studies on the optimization of ACRT schedules for specific growth systems and for desired growth outcomes.« less

  18. Charge Sharing and Charge Loss in a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride Fine-Pixel Detector Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, J. A.; Sharma, D. P.; Ramsey, B. D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Because of its high atomic number, room temperature operation, low noise, and high spatial resolution a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) multi-pixel detector is ideal for hard x-ray astrophysical observation. As part of on-going research at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) to develop multi-pixel CdZnTe detectors for this purpose, we have measured charge sharing and charge loss for a 4x4 (750micron pitch), lmm thick pixel array and modeled these results using a Monte-Carlo simulation. This model was then used to predict the amount of charge sharing for a much finer pixel array (with a 300micron pitch). Future work will enable us to compare the simulated results for the finer array to measured values.

  19. Towards optimization of ACRT schedules applied to the gradient freeze growth of cadmium zinc telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divecha, Mia S.; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2017-12-01

    Historically, the melt growth of II-VI crystals has benefitted from the application of the accelerated crucible rotation technique (ACRT). Here, we employ a comprehensive numerical model to assess the impact of two ACRT schedules designed for a cadmium zinc telluride growth system per the classical recommendations of Capper and co-workers. The ;flow maximizing; ACRT schedule, with higher rotation, effectively mixes the solutal field in the melt but does not reduce supercooling adjacent to the growth interface. The ACRT schedule derived for stable Ekman flow, with lower rotation, proves more effective in reducing supercooling and promoting stable growth. These counterintuitive results highlight the need for more comprehensive studies on the optimization of ACRT schedules for specific growth systems and for desired growth outcomes.

  20. Correlation Between Bulk Material Defects and Spectroscopic Response in Cadmium Zinc Telluride Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Bradford H.; Stahle, C. M.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Parsons, A. M.; Tueller, J.; VanSant, J. T.; Munoz, B. F.; Snodgrass, S. J.; Mullinix, R. E.

    1999-01-01

    One of the critical challenges for large area cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) detector arrays is obtaining material capable of uniform imaging and spectroscopic response. Two complementary nondestructive techniques for characterizing bulk CdZnTe have been developed to identify material with a uniform response. The first technique, infrared transmission imaging, allows for rapid visualization of bulk defects. The second technique, x-ray spectral mapping, provides a map of the material spectroscopic response when it is configured as a planar detector. The two techniques have been used to develop a correlation between bulk defect type and detector performance. The correlation allows for the use of infrared imaging to rapidly develop wafer mining maps. The mining of material free of detrimental defects has the potential to dramatically increase the yield and quality of large area CdZnTe detector arrays.

  1. Experiments and Monte Carlo modeling of a higher resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride detector for safeguards applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borella, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre is engaged in R&D activity in the field of Non Destructive Analysis on nuclear materials, with focus on spent fuel characterization. A 500 mm3 Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) with enhanced resolution was recently purchased. With a full width at half maximum of 1.3% at 662 keV, the detector is very promising in view of its use for applications such as determination of uranium enrichment and plutonium isotopic composition, as well as measurement on spent fuel. In this paper, I report about the work done with such a detector in terms of its characterization. The detector energy calibration, peak shape and efficiency were determined from experimental data. The data included measurements with calibrated sources, both in a bare and in a shielded environment. In addition, Monte Carlo calculations with the MCNPX code were carried out and benchmarked with experiments.

  2. Towards Optimization of ACRT Schedules Applied to the Gradient Freeze Growth of Cadmium Zinc Telluride

    DOE PAGES

    Divecha, Mia S.; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2017-10-03

    Historically, the melt growth of II-VI crystals has benefitted by the application of the accelerated crucible rotation technique (ACRT). Here, we employ a comprehensive numerical model to assess the impact of two ACRT schedules designed for a cadmium zinc telluride growth system per the classical recommendations of Capper and co-workers. The “flow maximizing” ACRT schedule, with higher rotation, effectively mixes the solutal field in the melt but does not reduce supercooling adjacent to the growth interface. The ACRT schedule derived for stable Ekman flow, with lower rotation, proves more effective in reducing supercooling and promoting stable growth. Furthermore, these counterintuitivemore » results highlight the need for more comprehensive studies on the optimization of ACRT schedules for specific growth systems and for desired growth outcomes.« less

  3. Effect of steady crucible rotation on segregation in high-pressure vertical Bridgman growth of cadmium zinc telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeckel, Andrew; Patrick Doty, F.; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    1999-05-01

    Three-dimensional axisymmetric, time-dependent simulations of the high-pressure vertical Bridgman growth of large-diameter cadmium zinc telluride are performed to study the effect of steady crucible rotation on axial and radial segregation in the grown crystal. The model includes details of heat transfer, melt convection, solid-liquid interface shape, and pseudo-binary zinc segregation. Imposing a moderate rotation rate of 10 rpm on the system slightly improves axial segregation but makes radial segregation much worse. Moreover, values of dimensionless thermal Rossby and Taylor numbers calculated for this system indicate that the baroclinic instability may occur at the rotation rates studied.

  4. Characterization of Pixelated Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride Detectors for Astrophysical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Sharma, Dharma; Ramsey, Brian; Seller, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Comparisons of charge sharing and charge loss measurements between two pixelated Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CdZnTe) detectors are discussed. These properties along with the detector geometry help to define the limiting energy resolution and spatial resolution of the detector in question. The first detector consists of a 1-mm-thick piece of CdZnTe sputtered with a 4x4 array of pixels with pixel pitch of 750 microns (inter-pixel gap is 100 microns). Signal readout is via discrete ultra-low-noise preamplifiers, one for each of the 16 pixels. The second detector consists of a 2-mm-thick piece of CdZnTe sputtered with a 16x16 array of pixels with a pixel pitch of 300 microns (inter-pixel gap is 50 microns). This crystal is bonded to a custom-built readout chip (ASIC) providing all front-end electronics to each of the 256 independent pixels. These detectors act as precursors to that which will be used at the focal plane of the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) telescope currently being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. With a telescope focal length of 6 meters, the detector needs to have a spatial resolution of around 200 microns in order to take full advantage of the HERO angular resolution. We discuss to what degree charge sharing will degrade energy resolution but will improve our spatial resolution through position interpolation.

  5. A novel approach of chemical mechanical polishing for cadmium zinc telluride wafers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Wang, Bo; Zhou, Ping; Kang, Renke; Zhang, Bi; Guo, Dongming

    2016-05-26

    A novel approach of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is developed for cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) wafers. The approach uses environment-friendly slurry that consists of mainly silica, hydrogen peroxide, and citric acid. This is different from the previously reported slurries that are usually composed of strong acid, alkali, and bromine methanol, and are detrimental to the environment and operators. Surface roughness 0.5 nm and 4.7 nm are achieved for Ra and peak-to-valley (PV) values respectively in a measurement area of 70 × 50 μm(2), using the developed novel approach. Fundamental polishing mechanisms are also investigated in terms of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical measurements. Hydrogen peroxide dominates the passivating process during the CMP of CZT wafers, indicating by the lowest passivation current density among silica, citric acid and hydrogen peroxide solution. Chemical reaction equations are proposed during CMP according to the XPS and electrochemical measurements.

  6. A novel approach of chemical mechanical polishing for cadmium zinc telluride wafers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Wang, Bo; Zhou, Ping; Kang, Renke; Zhang, Bi; Guo, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is developed for cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) wafers. The approach uses environment-friendly slurry that consists of mainly silica, hydrogen peroxide, and citric acid. This is different from the previously reported slurries that are usually composed of strong acid, alkali, and bromine methanol, and are detrimental to the environment and operators. Surface roughness 0.5 nm and 4.7 nm are achieved for Ra and peak-to-valley (PV) values respectively in a measurement area of 70 × 50 μm2, using the developed novel approach. Fundamental polishing mechanisms are also investigated in terms of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical measurements. Hydrogen peroxide dominates the passivating process during the CMP of CZT wafers, indicating by the lowest passivation current density among silica, citric acid and hydrogen peroxide solution. Chemical reaction equations are proposed during CMP according to the XPS and electrochemical measurements. PMID:27225310

  7. Study of a high-resolution, 3D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-03-21

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06 ± 0.39% at 511 keV throughout most of the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44 ± 0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78 ± 0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes-as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system.

  8. Study of a high-resolution, 3-D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3-D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06±0.39% at 511 keV throughout most the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44±0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78±0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes – as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system. PMID:21335649

  9. Method and making group IIB metal - telluride films and solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Basol, Bulent M.; Kapur, Vijay K.

    1990-08-21

    A technique is disclosed forming thin films (13) of group IIB metal-telluride, such as Cd.sub.x Zn.sub.1-x Te (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1), on a substrate (10) which comprises depositing Te (18) and at least one of the elements (19) of Cd, Zn, and Hg onto a substrate and then heating the elements to form the telluride. A technique is also provided for doping this material by chemically forming a thin layer of a dopant on the surface of the unreacted elements and then heating the elements along with the layer of dopant. A method is disclosed of fabricating a thin film photovoltaic cell which comprises depositing Te and at least one of the elements of Cd, Zn, and Hg onto a substrate which contains on its surface a semiconductor film (12) and then heating the elements in the presence of a halide of the Group IIB metals, causing the formation of solar cell grade Group IIB metal-telluride film and also causing the formation of a rectifying junction, in situ, between the semiconductor film on the substrate and the Group IIB metal-telluride layer which has been formed.

  10. Cadmium telluride solar cells: Record-breaking voltages

    DOE PAGES

    Poplawsky, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Here, the performance of CdTe solar cells — cheaper alternatives to silicon photovoltaics — is hampered by their low output voltages, which are normally well below the theoretical limit. Now, record voltages of over 1 V have been reported in single-crystal CdTe heterostructure solar cells, which are close to those of benchmark GaAs cells.

  11. Charge Loss and Charge Sharing Measurements for Two Different Pixelated Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Sharma, Dharma; Ramsey, Brian; Seller, Paul

    2003-01-01

    As part of ongoing research at Marshall Space Flight Center, Cadmium-Zinc- Telluride (CdZnTe) pixilated detectors are being developed for use at the focal plane of the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) telescope. HERO requires a 64x64 pixel array with a spatial resolution of around 200 microns (with a 6m focal length) and high energy resolution (< 2% at 60keV). We are currently testing smaller arrays as a necessary first step towards this goal. In this presentation, we compare charge sharing and charge loss measurements between two devices that differ both electronically and geometrically. The first device consists of a 1-mm-thick piece of CdZnTe that is sputtered with a 4x4 array of pixels with pixel pitch of 750 microns (inter-pixel gap is 100 microns). The signal is read out using discrete ultra-low-noise preamplifiers, one for each of the 16 pixels. The second detector consists of a 2-mm-thick piece of CdZnTe that is sputtered with a 16x16 array of pixels with a pixel pitch of 300 microns (inter-pixel gap is 50 microns). Instead of using discrete preamplifiers, the crystal is bonded to an ASIC that provides all of the front-end electronics to each of the 256 pixels. what degree the bias voltage (i.e. the electric field) and hence the drift and diffusion coefficients affect our measurements. Further, we compare the measured results with simulated results and discuss to

  12. Breast composition measurement with a cadmium-zinc-telluride based spectral computed tomography system

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Huanjun; Ducote, Justin L.; Molloi, Sabee

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of breast tissue composition in terms of water, lipid, and protein with a cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) based computed tomography (CT) system to help better characterize suspicious lesions. Methods: Simulations and experimental studies were performed using a spectral CT system equipped with a CZT-based photon-counting detector with energy resolution. Simulations of the figure-of-merit (FOM), the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the dual energy image with respect to the square root of mean glandular dose (MGD), were performed to find the optimal configuration of the experimental acquisition parameters. A calibration phantom 3.175 cm in diameter was constructed from polyoxymethylene plastic with cylindrical holes that were filled with water and oil. Similarly, sized samples of pure adipose and pure lean bovine tissues were used for the three-material decomposition. Tissue composition results computed from the images were compared to the chemical analysis data of the tissue samples. Results: The beam energy was selected to be 100 kVp with a splitting energy of 40 keV. The tissue samples were successfully decomposed into water, lipid, and protein contents. The RMS error of the volumetric percentage for the three-material decomposition, as compared to data from the chemical analysis, was estimated to be approximately 5.7%. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the CZT-based photon-counting detector may be employed in the CT system to quantify the water, lipid, and protein mass densities in tissue with a relatively good agreement. PMID:22380361

  13. One-Dimensional Fast Transient Simulator for Modeling Cadmium Sulfide/Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Da

    Solar energy, including solar heating, solar architecture, solar thermal electricity and solar photovoltaics, is one of the primary alternative energy sources to fossil fuel. Being one of the most important techniques, significant research has been conducted in solar cell efficiency improvement. Simulation of various structures and materials of solar cells provides a deeper understanding of device operation and ways to improve their efficiency. Over the last two decades, polycrystalline thin-film Cadmium-Sulfide and Cadmium-Telluride (CdS/CdTe) solar cells fabricated on glass substrates have been considered as one of the most promising candidate in the photovoltaic technologies, for their similar efficiency and low costs when compared to traditional silicon-based solar cells. In this work a fast one dimensional time-dependent/steady-state drift-diffusion simulator, accelerated by adaptive non-uniform mesh and automatic time-step control, for modeling solar cells has been developed and has been used to simulate a CdS/CdTe solar cell. These models are used to reproduce transients of carrier transport in response to step-function signals of different bias and varied light intensity. The time-step control models are also used to help convergence in steady-state simulations where constrained material constants, such as carrier lifetimes in the order of nanosecond and carrier mobility in the order of 100 cm2/Vs, must be applied.

  14. Effect of accelerated crucible rotation on melt composition in high-pressure vertical Bridgman growth of cadmium zinc telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeckel, Andrew; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2000-02-01

    Three-dimensional axisymmetric, time-dependent simulations of the high-pressure vertical Bridgman growth of large-diameter cadmium zinc telluride are performed to study the effect of accelerated crucible rotation (ACRT) on crystal growth dynamics. The model includes details of heat transfer, melt convection, solid-liquid interface shape, and dilute zinc segregation. Application of ACRT greatly improves mixing in the melt, but causes an overall increased deflection of the solid-liquid interface. The flow exhibits a Taylor-Görtler instability at the crucible sidewall, which further enhances melt mixing. The rate of mixing depends strongly on the length of the ACRT cycle, with an optimum half-cycle length between 2 and 4 Ekman time units. Significant melting of the crystal occurs during a portion of the rotation cycle, caused by periodic reversal of the secondary flow at the solid-liquid interface, indicating the possibility of compositional striations.

  15. Thermodynamics of post-growth annealing of cadmium zinc telluride nuclear radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Aaron Lee

    Nuclear Radiation Detectors are used for detecting, tracking, and identifying radioactive materials which emit high-energy gamma and X-rays. The use of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) detectors is particularly attractive because of the detector's ability to operate at room temperature and measure the energy spectra of gamma-ray sources with a high resolution, typically less than 1% at 662 keV. While CdZnTe detectors are acceptable imperfections in the crystals limit their full market potential. One of the major imperfections are Tellurium inclusions generated during the crystal growth process by the retrograde solubility of Tellurium and Tellurium-rich melt trapped at the growth interface. Tellurium inclusions trap charge carriers generated by gamma and X-ray photons and thus reduce the portion of generated charge carriers that reach the electrodes for collection and conversion into a readable signal which is representative of the ionizing radiation's energy and intensity. One approach in resolving this problem is post-growth annealing which has the potential of removing the Tellurium inclusions and associated impurities. The goal of this project is to use experimental techniques to study the thermodynamics of Tellurium inclusion migration in post-growth annealing of CdZnTe nuclear detectors with the temperature gradient zone migration (TGZM) technique. Systematic experiments will be carried out to provide adequate thermodynamic data that will inform the engineering community of the optimum annealing parameters. Additionally, multivariable correlations that involve the Tellurium diffusion coefficient, annealing parameters, and CdZnTe properties will be analyzed. The experimental approach will involve systematic annealing experiments (in Cd vapor overpressure) on different sizes of CdZnTe crystals at varying temperature gradients ranging from 0 to 60°C/mm (used to migrate the Tellurium inclusion to one side of the crystal), and at annealing temperatures ranging

  16. Crystal Growth, Characterization and Fabrication of Cadmium Zinc Telluride-based Nuclear Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Ramesh M.

    In today's world, nuclear radiation is seeing more and more use by humanity as time goes on. Nuclear power plants are being built to supply humanity's energy needs, nuclear medical imaging is becoming more popular for diagnosing cancer and other diseases, and control of weapons-grade nuclear materials is becoming more and more important for national security. All of these needs require high-performance nuclear radiation detectors which can accurately measure the type and amount of radiation being used. However, most current radiation detection materials available commercially require extensive cooling, or simply do not function adequately for high-energy gamma-ray emitting nuclear materials such as uranium and plutonium. One of the most promising semiconductor materials being considered to create a convenient, field-deployable nuclear detector is cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe, or CZT). CZT is a ternary semiconductor compound which can detect high-energy gamma-rays at room temperature. It offers high resistivity (≥ 1010 O-cm), a high band gap (1.55 eV), and good electron transport properties, all of which are required for a nuclear radiation detector. However, one significant issue with CZT is that there is considerable difficulty in growing large, homogeneous, defect-free single crystals of CZT. This significantly increases the cost of producing CZT detectors, making CZT less than ideal for mass-production. Furthermore, CZT suffers from poor hole transport properties, which creates significant problems when using it as a high-energy gamma-ray detector. In this dissertation, a comprehensive investigation is undertaken using a successful growth method for CZT developed at the University of South Carolina. This method, called the solvent-growth technique, reduces the complexity required to grow detector-grade CZT single crystals. It utilizes a lower growth temperature than traditional growth methods by using Te as a solvent, while maintaining the advantages of

  17. Analysis of the accelerated crucible rotation technique applied to the gradient freeze growth of cadmium zinc telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divecha, Mia S.; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2017-06-01

    We employ finite-element modeling to assess the effects of the accelerated crucible rotation technique (ACRT) on cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystals grown from a gradient freeze system. Via consideration of tellurium segregation and transport, we show, for the first time, that steady growth from a tellurium-rich melt produces persistent undercooling in front of the growth interface, likely leading to morphological instability. The application of ACRT rearranges melt flows and tellurium transport but, in contrast to conventional wisdom, does not altogether eliminate undercooling of the melt. Rather, a much more complicated picture arises, where spatio-temporal realignment of undercooled melt may act to locally suppress instability. A better understanding of these mechanisms and quantification of their overall effects will allow for future growth optimization.

  18. Understanding Growth Rate Limitations in Production of Single-Crystal Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) by the Traveling Heater Method (THM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Jeffrey H.

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) are important optoelectronic materials with applications ranging from medical imaging to nuclear materials monitoring. However, CZT and CdTe have long been plagued by second-phase particles, inhomogeneity, and other defects. The traveling heater method (THM) is a promising approach for growing CZT and other compound semiconductors that has been shown to grow detector-grade crystals. In contrast to traditional directional solidification, the THM consists of a moving melt zone that simultaneously dissolves a polycrystalline feed while producing a single-crystal of material. Additionally, the melt is highly enriched in tellurium, which allows for growth at lower temperatures, limiting the presence of precipitated tellurium second-phase particles in the final crystal. Unfortunately, the THM growth of CZT is limited to millimeters per day when other growth techniques can grow an order of magnitude faster. To understand these growth limits, we employ a mathematical model of the THM system that is formulated to realistically represent the interactions of heat and species transport, fluid flow, and interfacial dissolution and growth under conditions of local thermodynamic equilibrium and steady-state growth. We examine the complicated interactions among zone geometry, continuum transport, phase change, and fluid flow driven by buoyancy. Of particular interest and importance is the formation of flow structures in the liquid zone of the THM that arise from the same physical mechanism as lee waves in atmospheric flows and demonstrate the same characteristic Brunt-Vaisala scaling. We show that flow stagnation and reversal associated with lee-wave formation are responsible for the accumulation of tellurium and supercooled liquid near the growth interface, even when the lee-wave vortex is not readily apparent in the overall flow structure. The supercooled fluid is posited to result in morphological instability at growth

  19. Bulk growth and surface characterization of epitaxy ready cadmium zinc telluride substrates for use in IR imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, J. P.; Martinez, B.; Betz, T. E. M.; Mackenzie, J.; Kumar, F. J.; Burgess, L.

    2017-02-01

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride (Cd1-xZnxTe or CZT) is a compound semiconductor substrate material that has been used for infrared detector (IR) applications for many years. CZT is a perfect substrate for the epitaxial growth of Mercury Cadmium Telluride (Hg1-xCdxTe or MCT) epitaxial layers and remains the material of choice for many high performance IR detectors and focal plane arrays that are used to detect across wide IR spectral bands. Critical to the fabrication of high performance MCT IR detectors is a high quality starting CZT substrate, this being a key determinant of epitaxial layer crystallinity, defectivity and ultimately device electro-optical performance. In this work we report on a new source of substrates suitable for IR detector applications, grown using the Travelling Heater Method (THM). This proven method of crystal growth has been used to manufacture high quality IR specification CZT substrates where industry requirements for IR transmission, dislocations, tellurium precipitates and copper impurity levels have been met. Results will be presented for the chemo-mechanical (CMP) polishing of CZT substrates using production tool sets that are identical to those that are used to produce epitaxy-ready surface finishes on related IR compound semiconductor materials such as GaSb and InSb. We will also discuss the requirements to scale CZT substrate manufacture and how with a new III-V like approach to both CZT crystal growth and substrate polishing, we can move towards a more standardized product and one that can ultimately deliver a standard round CZT substrate, as is the case for competing IR materials such as GaSb, InSb and InP.

  20. Downstream resource utilization following hybrid cardiac imaging with an integrated cadmium-zinc-telluride/64-slice CT device.

    PubMed

    Fiechter, Michael; Ghadri, Jelena R; Wolfrum, Mathias; Kuest, Silke M; Pazhenkottil, Aju P; Nkoulou, Rene N; Herzog, Bernhard A; Gebhard, Cathérine; Fuchs, Tobias A; Gaemperli, Oliver; Kaufmann, Philipp A

    2012-03-01

    Low yield of invasive coronary angiography and unnecessary coronary interventions have been identified as key cost drivers in cardiology for evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). This has fuelled the search for noninvasive techniques providing comprehensive functional and anatomical information on coronary lesions. We have evaluated the impact of implementation of a novel hybrid cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT)/64-slice CT camera into the daily clinical routine on downstream resource utilization. Sixty-two patients with known or suspected CAD were referred for same-day single-session hybrid evaluation with CZT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and coronary CT angiography (CCTA). Hybrid MPI/CCTA images from the integrated CZT/CT camera served for decision-making towards conservative versus invasive management. Based on the hybrid images patients were classified into those with and those without matched findings. Matched findings were defined as the combination of MPI defect with a stenosis by CCTA in the coronary artery subtending the respective territory. All patients with normal MPI and CCTA as well as those with isolated MPI or CCTA finding or combined but unmatched findings were categorized as "no match". All 23 patients with a matched finding underwent invasive coronary angiography and 21 (91%) were revascularized. Of the 39 patients with no match, 5 (13%, p < 0.001 vs matched) underwent catheterization and 3 (8%, p < 0.001 vs matched) were revascularized. Cardiac hybrid imaging in CAD evaluation has a profound impact on patient management and may contribute to optimal downstream resource utilization.

  1. Polymorphic one-dimensional (N2H4)2ZnTe: soluble precursors for the formation of hexagonal or cubic zinc telluride.

    PubMed

    Mitzi, David B

    2005-10-03

    Two hydrazine zinc(II) telluride polymorphs, (N2H4)2ZnTe, have been isolated, using ambient-temperature solution-based techniques, and the crystal structures determined: alpha-(N2H4)2ZnTe (1) [P21, a = 7.2157(4) Angstroms, b = 11.5439(6) Angstroms, c = 7.3909(4) Angstroms, beta = 101.296(1) degrees, Z = 4] and beta-(N2H4)2ZnTe (2) [Pn, a = 8.1301(5) Angstroms, b = 6.9580(5) Angstroms, c = 10.7380(7) Angstroms, beta = 91.703(1) degrees, Z = 4]. The zinc atoms in 1 and 2 are tetrahedrally bonded to two terminal hydrazine molecules and two bridging tellurium atoms, leading to the formation of extended one-dimensional (1-D) zinc telluride chains, with different chain conformations and packings distinguishing the two polymorphs. Thermal decomposition of (N2H4)2ZnTe first yields crystalline wurtzite (hexagonal) ZnTe at temperatures as low as 200 degrees C, followed by the more stable zinc blende (cubic) form at temperatures above 350 degrees C. The 1-D polymorphs are soluble in hydrazine and can be used as convenient precursors for the low-temperature solution processing of p-type ZnTe semiconducting films.

  2. Modeling effects of solute concentration in Bridgman growth of cadmium zinc telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelian, Carmen; Duffar, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    Numerical modeling is used to investigate the effect of solute concentration on the melt convection and interface shape in Bridgman growth of Cd1-x Znx Te (CZT). The numerical analysis is compared to experimental growth in cylindrical ampoules having a conical tip performed by Komar et al. (2001) [15]. In these experiments, the solidification process occurs at slow growth rate (V = 2 ṡ10-7 m / s) in a thermal field characterized by a vertical gradient GT = 20 K / cm at the growth interface. The computations performed by accounting the solutal effect show a progressive damping of the melt convection due to the depleted Zn at the growth interface. The computed shape of the crystallization front is in agreement with the experimental measurement showing a convex-concave shape for the growth through the conical part of the ampoule and a concave shape of the interface in the cylindrical region. The distribution of Zn is nearly uniform over the crystal length except for the end part of the ingots. The anomalous zinc segregation observed in some experiments is explained by introducing the hypothesis of incomplete charge mixing during the homogenization time which precedes the growth process. When the crystallization is started in ampoules having a very sharp conical tip, the heavy CdTe is accumulated at the bottom part of the melt, giving rise to anomalous segregation patterns, featuring very low zinc concentration in the ingots during the first stage of the solidification.

  3. Deposition Time Dependent Properties of Copper Tin Telluride (Cu₂SnTe₃) Nanoparticles for Solar Absorber Applications.

    PubMed

    Rakspun, Jariya; Tubtimtae, Auttasit; Vailikhit, Veeramol; Teesetsopon, Pichanan; Choopun, Supab

    2018-06-01

    We report the growth of copper tin telluride nanoparticles as an absorber layer using a chemical bath deposition (CBD) process for solar selective applications. The XRD results showed the phase of Cu2SnTe3 with a cubical structure. The larger-sized nanoparticles resulted with increased absorption properties and the optical band gap ranging from 1.93, 1.90, 1.58 and 1.56 eV for deposition times of 20-120 min, respectively. Then, the electrical properties of Cu2SnTe3 nanoparticles were also provided a higher current (~6-8 mA) with bias potential of zero.

  4. Low-Resistivity Zinc Selenide for Heterojunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetron reactive sputtering enables doping of this semiconductor. Proposed method of reactive sputtering combined with doping shows potential for yielding low-resistivity zinc selenide films. Zinc selenide attractive material for forming heterojunctions with other semiconductor compounds as zinc phosphide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide. Semiconductor junctions promising for future optoelectronic devices, including solar cells and electroluminescent displays. Resistivities of zinc selenide layers deposited by evaporation or chemical vapor deposition too high to form practical heterojunctions.

  5. Influence of proton-pump inhibitors on stomach wall uptake of 99mTc-tetrofosmin in cadmium-zinc-telluride SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Mouden, Mohamed; Rijkee, Karlijn S; Schreuder, Nanno; Timmer, Jorik R; Jager, Pieter L

    2015-02-01

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) induce potentially interfering stomach wall activity in single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-sestamibi. However, no data are available for (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin. We assessed the influence of prolonged (>2 weeks) PPI use on the stomach wall uptake of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin in patients referred for stress MPI with a cadmium-zinc-telluride-based SPECT camera and its relation with dyspepsia symptoms. Consecutive patients (n=127) underwent a 1-day adenosine stress-first SPECT-MPI with (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin, of whom 54 (43%) patients had been on PPIs for more than 2 weeks. Stomach wall activity was identified on stress SPECT using computed tomographic attenuation maps and was scored using a four-point grading scale into clinically relevant (scores 2 or 3) or nonrelevant (scores 0 or 1).Patients on PPIs had stomach wall uptake more frequently as compared with patients not using PPIs (22 vs. 7%, P=0.017). Dyspepsia was similar in both groups. Prolonged use of PPIs is associated with stomach wall uptake of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin in stress cadmium-zinc-telluride-SPECT images. Gastric symptoms were not associated with stomach wall uptake.

  6. Design study of a high-resolution breast-dedicated PET system built from cadmium zinc telluride detectors

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Levin, Craig S

    2013-01-01

    We studied the performance of a dual-panel positron emission tomography (PET) camera dedicated to breast cancer imaging using Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed system consists of two 4 cm thick 12 × 15 cm2 area cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) panels with adjustable separation, which can be put in close proximity to the breast and/or axillary nodes. Unique characteristics distinguishing the proposed system from previous efforts in breast-dedicated PET instrumentation are the deployment of CZT detectors with superior spatial and energy resolution, using a cross-strip electrode readout scheme to enable 3D positioning of individual photon interaction coordinates in the CZT, which includes directly measured photon depth-of-interaction (DOI), and arranging the detector slabs edge-on with respect to incoming 511 keV photons for high photon sensitivity. The simulation results show that the proposed CZT dual-panel PET system is able to achieve superior performance in terms of photon sensitivity, noise equivalent count rate, spatial resolution and lesion visualization. The proposed system is expected to achieve ~32% photon sensitivity for a point source at the center and a 4 cm panel separation. For a simplified breast phantom adjacent to heart and torso compartments, the peak noise equivalent count (NEC) rate is predicted to be ~94.2 kcts s−1 (breast volume: 720 cm3 and activity concentration: 3.7 kBq cm−3) for a ~10% energy window around 511 keV and ~8 ns coincidence time window. The system achieves 1 mm intrinsic spatial resolution anywhere between the two panels with a 4 cm panel separation if the detectors have DOI resolution less than 2 mm. For a 3 mm DOI resolution, the system exhibits excellent sphere resolution uniformity (σrms/mean) ≤ 10%) across a 4 cm width FOV. Simulation results indicate that the system exhibits superior hot sphere visualization and is expected to visualize 2 mm diameter spheres with a 5:1 activity concentration ratio within roughly 7

  7. Comparison between stress myocardial perfusion SPECT recorded with cadmium-zinc-telluride and Anger cameras in various study protocols.

    PubMed

    Verger, Antoine; Djaballah, Wassila; Fourquet, Nicolas; Rouzet, François; Koehl, Grégoire; Imbert, Laetitia; Poussier, Sylvain; Fay, Renaud; Roch, Véronique; Le Guludec, Dominique; Karcher, Gilles; Marie, Pierre-Yves

    2013-02-01

    The results of stress myocardial perfusion SPECT could be enhanced by new cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) cameras, although differences compared to the results with conventional Anger cameras remain poorly known for most study protocols. This study was aimed at comparing the results of CZT and Anger SPECT according to various study protocols while taking into account the influence of obesity. The study population, which was from three different institutions equipped with identical CZT cameras, comprised 276 patients referred for study using protocols involving (201)Tl (n = 120) or (99m)Tc-sestamibi injected at low dose at stress ((99m)Tc-Low; stress/rest 1-day protocol; n = 110) or at high dose at stress ((99m)Tc-High; rest/stress 1-day or 2-day protocol; n = 46). Each Anger SPECT scan was followed by a high-speed CZT SPECT scan (2 to 4 min). Agreement rates between CZT and Anger SPECT were good irrespective of the study protocol (for abnormal SPECT, (201)Tl 92 %, (99m)Tc-Low 86 %, (99m)Tc-High 98 %), although quality scores were much higher for CZT SPECT with all study protocols. Overall correlations were high for the extent of myocardial infarction (r = 0.80) and a little lower for ischaemic areas (r = 0.72), the latter being larger on Anger SPECT (p < 0.001). This larger extent was mainly observed in 50 obese patients who were in the (201)Tl or (99m)Tc-Low group and in whom stress myocardial counts were particularly low with Anger SPECT (228 ± 101 kcounts) and dramatically enhanced with CZT SPECT (+279 ± 251 %). Concordance between the results of CZT and Anger SPECT is good regardless of study protocol and especially when excluding obese patients who have low-count Anger SPECT and for whom myocardial counts are dramatically enhanced on CZT SPECT.

  8. Investigating the effect of characteristic x-rays in cadmium zinc telluride detectors under breast computerized tomography operating conditions

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Stephen J.; Didier, Clay

    2013-01-01

    A number of research groups have been investigating the use of dedicated breast computerized tomography (CT). Preliminary results have been encouraging, suggesting an improved visualization of masses on breast CT as compared to conventional mammography. Nonetheless, there are many challenges to overcome before breast CT can become a routine clinical reality. One potential improvement over current breast CT prototypes would be the use of photon counting detectors with cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) (or CdTe) semiconductor material. These detectors can operate at room temperature and provide high detection efficiency and the capability of multi-energy imaging; however, one factor in particular that limits image quality is the emission of characteristic x-rays. In this study, the degradative effects of characteristic x-rays are examined when using a CZT detector under breast CT operating conditions. Monte Carlo simulation software was used to evaluate the effect of characteristic x-rays and the detector element size on spatial and spectral resolution for a CZT detector used under breast CT operating conditions. In particular, lower kVp spectra and thinner CZT thicknesses were studied than that typically used with CZT based conventional CT detectors. In addition, the effect of characteristic x-rays on the accuracy of material decomposition in spectral CT imaging was explored. It was observed that when imaging with 50-60 kVp spectra, the x-ray transmission through CZT was very low for all detector thicknesses studied (0.5–3.0 mm), thus retaining dose efficiency. As expected, characteristic x-ray escape from the detector element of x-ray interaction increased with decreasing detector element size, approaching a 50% escape fraction for a 100 μm size detector element. The detector point spread function was observed to have only minor degradation with detector element size greater than 200 μm and lower kV settings. Characteristic x-rays produced increasing

  9. Investigation of the Internal Electric Field in Cadmium Zinc Telluride Detectors Using the Pockels Effect and the Analysis of Charge Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groza, Michael; Krawczynski, Henic; Garson, Alfred, III; Martin, Jerrad W.; Lee, Kuen; Li, Qiang; Beilicke, Matthias; Cui, Yunlong; Buliga, Vladimir; Guo, Mingsheng; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Pockels electro-optic effect can be used to investigate the internal electric field in cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) single crystals that are used to fabricate room temperature x and gamma radiation detectors. An agreement is found between the electric field mapping obtained from Pockels effect images and the measurements of charge transients generated by alpha particles. The Pockels effect images of a CZT detector along two mutually perpendicular directions are used to optimize the detector response in a dual anode configuration, a device in which the symmetry of the internal electric field with respect to the anode strips is of critical importance. The Pockels effect is also used to map the electric field in a CZT detector with dual anodes and an attempt is made to find a correlation with the simulated electric potential in such detectors. Finally, the stress-induced birefringence effects seen in the Pockels images are presented and discussed.

  10. Investigation of the internal electric field in cadmium zinc telluride detectors using the Pockels effect and the analysis of charge transients

    SciT

    Groza, Michael; Cui Yunlong; Buliga, Vladimir

    2010-01-15

    The Pockels electro-optic effect can be used to investigate the internal electric field in cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) single crystals that are used to fabricate room temperature x and gamma radiation detectors. An agreement is found between the electric field mapping obtained from Pockels effect images and the measurements of charge transients generated by alpha particles. The Pockels effect images of a CZT detector along two mutually perpendicular directions are used to optimize the detector response in a dual anode configuration, a device in which the symmetry of the internal electric field with respect to the anode strips is ofmore » critical importance. The Pockels effect is also used to map the electric field in a CZT detector with dual anodes and an attempt is made to find a correlation with the simulated electric potential in such detectors. Finally, the stress-induced birefringence effects seen in the Pockels images are presented and discussed.« less

  11. Characterization of a sub-assembly of 3D position sensitive cadmium zinc telluride detectors and electronics from a sub-millimeter resolution PET system.

    PubMed

    Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Gu, Yi; Reynolds, Paul D; Levin, Craig S

    2016-09-21

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) offers key advantages for small animal positron emission tomography (PET), including high spatial and energy resolution and simple metal deposition for fabrication of very small pixel arrays. Previous studies have investigated the intrinsic spatial, energy, and timing resolution of an individual sub-millimeter resolution CZT detector. In this work we present the first characterization results of a system of these detectors. The 3D position sensitive dual-CZT detector module and readout electronics developed in our lab was scaled up to complete a significant portion of the final PET system. This sub-system was configured as two opposing detection panels containing a total of twelve [Formula: see text] mm monolithic CZT crystals for proof of concept. System-level characterization studies, including optimizing the trigger threshold of each channel's comparators, were performed. 68 Ge and 137 Cs radioactive isotopes were used to characterize the energy resolution of all 468 anode channels in the sub-system. The mean measured global 511 keV photopeak energy resolution over all anodes was found to be [Formula: see text]% FWHM after correction for photon interaction depth-dependent signal variation. The measured global time resolution was 37 ns FWHM, a parameter to be further optimized, and the intrinsic spatial resolution was 0.76 mm FWHM.

  12. Performance of cardiac cadmium-zinc-telluride gamma camera imaging in coronary artery disease: a review from the cardiovascular committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM).

    PubMed

    Agostini, Denis; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Ben-Haim, Simona; Rouzet, François; Songy, Bernard; Giordano, Alessandro; Gimelli, Alessia; Hyafil, Fabien; Sciagrà, Roberto; Bucerius, Jan; Verberne, Hein J; Slart, Riemer H J A; Lindner, Oliver; Übleis, Christopher; Hacker, Marcus

    2016-12-01

    The trade-off between resolution and count sensitivity dominates the performance of standard gamma cameras and dictates the need for relatively high doses of radioactivity of the used radiopharmaceuticals in order to limit image acquisition duration. The introduction of cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT)-based cameras may overcome some of the limitations against conventional gamma cameras. CZT cameras used for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion have been shown to have a higher count sensitivity compared to conventional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) techniques. CZT image quality is further improved by the development of a dedicated three-dimensional iterative reconstruction algorithm, based on maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM), which corrects for the loss in spatial resolution due to line response function of the collimator. All these innovations significantly reduce imaging time and result in a lower patient's radiation exposure compared with standard SPECT. To guide current and possible future users of the CZT technique for myocardial perfusion imaging, the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, starting from the experience of its members, has decided to examine the current literature regarding procedures and clinical data on CZT cameras. The committee hereby aims 1) to identify the main acquisitions protocols; 2) to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of CZT derived myocardial perfusion, and finally 3) to determine the impact of CZT on radiation exposure.

  13. Quantitative high-efficiency cadmium-zinc-telluride SPECT with dedicated parallel-hole collimation system in obese patients: results of a multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Ryo; Slomka, Piotr J; Fish, Mathews; Schwartz, Ronald G; Hayes, Sean W; Thomson, Louise E J; Friedman, John D; Lemley, Mark; Mackin, Maria L; Peterson, Benjamin; Schwartz, Arielle M; Doran, Jesse A; Germano, Guido; Berman, Daniel S

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a common source of artifact on conventional SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). We evaluated image quality and diagnostic performance of high-efficiency (HE) cadmium-zinc-telluride parallel-hole SPECT MPI for coronary artery disease (CAD) in obese patients. 118 consecutive obese patients at three centers (BMI 43.6 ± 8.9 kg·m(-2), range 35-79.7 kg·m(-2)) had upright/supine HE-SPECT and invasive coronary angiography > 6 months (n = 67) or low likelihood of CAD (n = 51). Stress quantitative total perfusion deficit (TPD) for upright (U-TPD), supine (S-TPD), and combined acquisitions (C-TPD) was assessed. Image quality (IQ; 5 = excellent; < 3 nondiagnostic) was compared among BMI 35-39.9 (n = 58), 40-44.9 (n = 24) and ≥45 (n = 36) groups. ROC curve area for CAD detection (≥50% stenosis) for U-TPD, S-TPD, and C-TPD were 0.80, 0.80, and 0.87, respectively. Sensitivity/specificity was 82%/57% for U-TPD, 74%/71% for S-TPD, and 80%/82% for C-TPD. C-TPD had highest specificity (P = .02). C-TPD normalcy rate was higher than U-TPD (88% vs 75%, P = .02). Mean IQ was similar among BMI 35-39.9, 40-44.9 and ≥45 groups [4.6 vs 4.4 vs 4.5, respectively (P = .6)]. No patient had a nondiagnostic stress scan. In obese patients, HE-SPECT MPI with dedicated parallel-hole collimation demonstrated high image quality, normalcy rate, and diagnostic accuracy for CAD by quantitative analysis of combined upright/supine acquisitions.

  14. Quantitative High-Efficiency Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride SPECT with Dedicated Parallel-Hole Collimation System in Obese Patients: Results of a Multi-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakazato, Ryo; Slomka, Piotr J.; Fish, Mathews; Schwartz, Ronald G.; Hayes, Sean W.; Thomson, Louise E.J.; Friedman, John D.; Lemley, Mark; Mackin, Maria L.; Peterson, Benjamin; Schwartz, Arielle M.; Doran, Jesse A.; Germano, Guido; Berman, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a common source of artifact on conventional SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). We evaluated image quality and diagnostic performance of high-efficiency (HE) cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) parallel-hole SPECT-MPI for coronary artery disease (CAD) in obese patients. Methods and Results 118 consecutive obese patients at 3 centers (BMI 43.6±8.9 kg/m2, range 35–79.7 kg/m2) had upright/supine HE-SPECT and ICA >6 months (n=67) or low-likelihood of CAD (n=51). Stress quantitative total perfusion deficit (TPD) for upright (U-TPD), supine (S-TPD) and combined acquisitions (C-TPD) was assessed. Image quality (IQ; 5=excellent; <3 nondiagnostic) was compared among BMI 35–39.9 (n=58), 40–44.9 (n=24) and ≥45 (n=36) groups. ROC-curve area for CAD detection (≥50% stenosis) for U-TPD, S-TPD, and C-TPD were 0.80, 0.80, and 0.87, respectively. Sensitivity/specificity was 82%/57% for U-TPD, 74%/71% for S-TPD, and 80%/82% for C-TPD. C-TPD had highest specificity (P=.02). C-TPD normalcy rate was higher than U-TPD (88% vs. 75%, P=.02). Mean IQ was similar among BMI 35–39.9, 40–44.9 and ≥45 groups [4.6 vs. 4.4 vs. 4.5, respectively (P=.6)]. No patient had a non-diagnostic stress scan. Conclusions In obese patients, HE-SPECT MPI with dedicated parallel-hole collimation demonstrated high image quality, normalcy rate, and diagnostic accuracy for CAD by quantitative analysis of combined upright/supine acquisitions. PMID:25388380

  15. (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy of the hand: comparing the use of novel cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) and routine NaI(Tl) detectors.

    PubMed

    Koulikov, Victoria; Lerman, Hedva; Kesler, Mikhail; Even-Sapir, Einat

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) solid-state detectors have been recently introduced in the field of nuclear medicine in cardiology and breast imaging. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the performance of the novel detectors (CZT) compared to that of the routine NaI(Tl) in bone scintigraphy. A dual-headed CZT-based camera dedicated originally to breast imaging has been used, and in view of the limited size of the detectors, the hands were chosen as the organ for assessment. This is a clinical study. Fifty-eight consecutive patients (total 116 hands) referred for bone scan for suspected hand pathology gave their informed consent to have two acquisitions, using the routine camera and the CZT-based camera. The latter was divided into full-dose full-acquisition time (FD CZT) and reduced-dose short-acquisition time (RD CZT) on CZT technology, so three image sets were available for analysis. Data analysis included comparing the detection of hot lesions and identification of the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints. A total of 69 hot lesions were detected on the CZT image sets; of these, 61 were identified as focal sites of uptake on NaI(Tl) data. On FD CZT data, 385 joints were identified compared to 168 on NaI(Tl) data (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in delineation of joints between FD and RD CZT data as the latter identified 383 joints. Bone scintigraphy using a CZT-based gamma camera is associated with improved lesion detection and anatomic definition. The superior physical characteristics of this technique raised a potential reduction in administered dose and/or acquisition time without compromising image quality.

  16. Validation of early image acquisitions following Tc-99 m sestamibi injection using a semiconductors camera of cadmium-zinc-telluride.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Celine; Weinmann, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) cameras allow to decrease significantly the acquisition time of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), but the duration of the examination is still long. Therefore, this study was performed to test the feasibility of early imaging following injection of Tc-99 m sestamibi using a CZT camera. Seventy patients underwent both an early and a delayed image acquisition after exercise stress test (n = 30), dipyridamole stress test (n = 20), and at rest (n = 20). After injection of Tc-99 m sestamibi, the early image acquisition started on average within 5 minutes for the exercise and rest groups, and 3 minutes 30 seconds for the dipyridamole group. Two independent observers evaluated image quality and extracardiac uptake on four-point scales. The difference between early and later images for each patient was scored on a five-point scale. The image quality and extracardiac uptake of early and delayed image acquisitions were not different for the three groups (P > .05). There was no significant difference between early and delayed image acquisitions in the exercise, dipyridamole, and rest groups, respectively, in 63%, 40%, and 80% of cases. In the exercise group and rest group, a defect was only present in early MPI, respectively, in 13% and 20% of cases. A defect was only present in delayed images in 10% of cases in the exercise group and in 45% of cases in the dipyridamole group. There was no difference between early and later image acquisitions in terms of quality. This protocol reduces the length of the procedure for the patient. Beginning with early image acquisitions may help to overcome the artifacts that are observed at the delayed time.

  17. Two-Dimensional Cadmium Chloride Nanosheets in Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells

    SciT

    Perkins, Craig L.; Beall, Carolyn; Reese, Matthew O.

    In this paper we make use of a liquid nitrogen-based thermomechanical cleavage technique and a surface analysis cluster tool to probe in detail the tin oxide/emitter interface at the front of completed CdTe solar cells. We show that this thermomechanical cleavage occurs within a few angstroms of the SnO 2/emitter interface. An unexpectedly high concentration of chlorine at this interface, ~20%, was determined from a calculation that assumed a uniform chlorine distribution. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to further probe the structure of the chlorine-containing layer, revealing that both sides of the cleave location are covered by one-third ofmore » a unit cell of pure CdCl 2, a thickness corresponding to about one Cl-Cd-Cl molecular layer. We interpret this result in the context of CdCl 2 being a true layered material similar to transition-metal dichalcogenides. Exposing cleaved surfaces to water shows that this Cl-Cd-Cl trilayer is soluble, raising questions pertinent to cell reliability. Our work provides new and unanticipated details about the structure and chemistry of front surface interfaces and should prove important to improving materials, processes, and reliability of next-generation CdTe-based solar cells.« less

  18. Lead Telluride Quantum Dot Solar Cells Displaying External Quantum Efficiencies Exceeding 120%

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in semiconducting quantum dots is a process that produces multiple charge-carrier pairs from a single excitation. MEG is a possible route to bypass the Shockley-Queisser limit in single-junction solar cells but it remains challenging to harvest charge-carrier pairs generated by MEG in working photovoltaic devices. Initial yields of additional carrier pairs may be reduced due to ultrafast intraband relaxation processes that compete with MEG at early times. Quantum dots of materials that display reduced carrier cooling rates (e.g., PbTe) are therefore promising candidates to increase the impact of MEG in photovoltaic devices. Here we demonstrate PbTe quantum dot-based solar cells, which produce extractable charge carrier pairs with an external quantum efficiency above 120%, and we estimate an internal quantum efficiency exceeding 150%. Resolving the charge carrier kinetics on the ultrafast time scale with pump–probe transient absorption and pump–push–photocurrent measurements, we identify a delayed cooling effect above the threshold energy for MEG. PMID:26488847

  19. Two-Dimensional Cadmium Chloride Nanosheets in Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Craig L; Beall, Carolyn; Reese, Matthew O; Barnes, Teresa M

    2017-06-21

    In this study we make use of a liquid nitrogen-based thermomechanical cleavage technique and a surface analysis cluster tool to probe in detail the tin oxide/emitter interface at the front of completed CdTe solar cells. We show that this thermomechanical cleavage occurs within a few angstroms of the SnO 2 /emitter interface. An unexpectedly high concentration of chlorine at this interface, ∼20%, was determined from a calculation that assumed a uniform chlorine distribution. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to further probe the structure of the chlorine-containing layer, revealing that both sides of the cleave location are covered by one-third of a unit cell of pure CdCl 2 , a thickness corresponding to about one Cl-Cd-Cl molecular layer. We interpret this result in the context of CdCl 2 being a true layered material similar to transition-metal dichalcogenides. Exposing cleaved surfaces to water shows that this Cl-Cd-Cl trilayer is soluble, raising questions pertinent to cell reliability. Our work provides new and unanticipated details about the structure and chemistry of front surface interfaces and should prove important to improving materials, processes, and reliability of next-generation CdTe-based solar cells.

  20. Two-Dimensional Cadmium Chloride Nanosheets in Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells

    DOE PAGES

    Perkins, Craig L.; Beall, Carolyn; Reese, Matthew O.; ...

    2017-05-12

    In this paper we make use of a liquid nitrogen-based thermomechanical cleavage technique and a surface analysis cluster tool to probe in detail the tin oxide/emitter interface at the front of completed CdTe solar cells. We show that this thermomechanical cleavage occurs within a few angstroms of the SnO 2/emitter interface. An unexpectedly high concentration of chlorine at this interface, ~20%, was determined from a calculation that assumed a uniform chlorine distribution. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to further probe the structure of the chlorine-containing layer, revealing that both sides of the cleave location are covered by one-third ofmore » a unit cell of pure CdCl 2, a thickness corresponding to about one Cl-Cd-Cl molecular layer. We interpret this result in the context of CdCl 2 being a true layered material similar to transition-metal dichalcogenides. Exposing cleaved surfaces to water shows that this Cl-Cd-Cl trilayer is soluble, raising questions pertinent to cell reliability. Our work provides new and unanticipated details about the structure and chemistry of front surface interfaces and should prove important to improving materials, processes, and reliability of next-generation CdTe-based solar cells.« less

  1. Study of copper-free back contacts to thin film cadmium telluride solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Vijay

    The goals of this project are to study Cu free back contact alternatives for CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells, and to research dry etching for CdTe surface preparation before contact application. In addition, an attempt has been made to evaluate the stability of some of the contacts researched. The contacts studied in this work include ZnTe/Cu2Te, Sb2Te 3, and Ni-P alloys. The ZnTe/Cu2Te contact system is studied as basically an extension of the earlier work done on Cu2Te at USF. RF sputtering from a compound target of ZnTe and Cu2Te respectively deposits these layers on etched CdTe surface. The effect of Cu2Te thickness and deposition temperature on contact and cell performance will be studied with the ZnTe depositions conditions kept constant. C-V measurements to study the effect of contact deposition conditions on CdTe doping will also be performed. These contacts will then be stressed to high temperatures (70--100°C) and their stability with stress time is analyzed. Sb2Te3 will be deposited on glass using RF sputtering, to study film properties with deposition temperature. The Sb2Te 3 contact performance will also be studied as a function of the Sb 2Te3 deposition temperature and thickness. The suitability of Ni-P alloys for back contacts to CdTe solar cells was studied by forming a colloidal mixture of Ni2P in graphite paste. The Ni-P contacts, painted on Br-methanol etched CdTe surface, will be studied as a function of Ni-P concentration (in the graphite paste), annealing temperature and time. Some of these cells will undergo temperature stress testing to determine contact behavior with time. Dry etching of CdTe will be studied as an alternative for wet etching processes currently used for CdTe solar cells. The CdTe surface is isotropically etched in a barrel reactor in N2, Ar or Ar:O 2 ambient. The effect of etching ambient, pressure, plasma power and etch time on contact performance will be studied.

  2. Effect of zinc impurity on silicon solar-cell efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sah, C.-T.; Chan, P. C. H.; Wang, C.-K.; Yamakawa, K. A.; Lutwack, R.; Sah, R. L.-Y.

    1981-01-01

    Zinc is a major residue impurity in the preparation of solar-grade silicon material by the zinc vapor reduction of silicon tetrachloride. This paper projects that in order to get a 17-percent AM1 cell efficiency for the Block IV module of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project, the concentration of the zinc recombination centers in the base region of silicon solar cells must be less than 4 x 10 to the 11th Zn/cu cm in the p-base n+/p/p+ cell and 7 x 10 to the 11th Zn/cu cm in the n-base p+/n/n+ cell for a base dopant impurity concentration of 5 x 10 to the 14 atoms/cu cm. If the base dopant impurity concentration is increased by a factor of 10 to 5 x 10 to the 15th atoms/cu cm, then the maximum allowable zinc concentration is increased by a factor of about two for a 17-percent AM1 efficiency. The thermal equilibrium electron and hole recombination and generation rates at the double-acceptor zinc centers are obtained from previous high-field measurements as well as new measurements at zero field described in this paper. These rates are used in the exact dc-circuit model to compute the projections.

  3. Role of the copper-oxygen defect in cadmium telluride solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwine, Caroline R.

    Thin-film CdTe is one of the leading materials used in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. One way to improve device performance and stability is through understanding how various device processing steps alter defect states in the CdTe layer. Photoluminescence (PL) studies can be used to examine radiative defects in materials. This study uses low-temperature PL to probe the defects present in thin-film CdTe deposited for solar cells. One key defect seen in the thin-film CdTe was reproduced in single-crystal (sX) CdTe by systematic incorporation of known impurities in the thin-film growth process, hence demonstrating that both copper and oxygen were necessary for its formation. Polycrystalline (pX) thin-film glass/SnO2:F/CdS/CdTe structures were examined. The CdTe layer was grown via close-spaced sublimation (CSS), vapor transport deposition (VTD), and physical vapor deposition (PVD). After CdTe deposition, followed by a standard CdC12 treatment and a ZnTe:Cu back contact, a PL peak was seen at ˜1.46 eV from the free back surface of all samples (1.456 eV for CSS and PVD, 1.460-1.463 eV for VTD). However, before the Cu-containing contact was added, this peak was not seen from the front of the CdTe (the CdS/CdTe junction region) in any device with CdTe thickness greater than 4 mum. The CdCl2 treatment commonly used to increase CdTe grain size did not enhance or reduce the peak at ˜1.46 eV relative to the rest of the PL spectrum. When the Cu-containing contact was applied, the PL spectra from both the front and back of the CdTe exhibited the peak at 1.456 eV. The PL peak at ˜1.46 eV was present in thin-film CdTe after deposition, when the dominant impurities are expected to be both Cu from the CdTe source material and O introduced in the chamber during growth to assist in CdTe film density. Since Cu and/or O appeared to be involved in this defect, PL studies were done with sX CdTe to distinguish between the separate effects of Cu or O and the combined effect of Cu and O

  4. Effective performance for undoped and boron-doped double-layered nanoparticles-copper telluride and manganese telluride on tungsten oxide photoelectrodes for solar cell devices.

    PubMed

    Srathongluan, Pornpimol; Vailikhit, Veeramol; Teesetsopon, Pichanan; Choopun, Supab; Tubtimtae, Auttasit

    2016-11-01

    This work demonstrates the synthesis of a novel double-layered Cu2-xTe/MnTe structure on a WO3 photoelectrode as a solar absorber for photovoltaic devices. Each material absorber is synthesized using a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The synthesized individual particle sizes are Cu2-xTe(17) ∼5-10nm and MnTe(3) ∼2nm, whereas, the aggregated particle sizes of undoped and boron-doped Cu2-xTe(17)/MnTe(11) are ∼50 and 150nm, respectively. The larger size after doping is due to the interconnecting of nanoparticles as a network-like structure. A new alignment of the energy band is constructed after boron/MnTe(11) is coated on boron/Cu2-xTe nanoparticles (NPs), leading to a narrower Eg equal to 0.58eV. Then, the valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum (CBM) with a trap state are also up-shifted to near the CBM of WO3, leading to the shift of a Fermi level for ease of electron injection. The best efficiency of 1.41% was yielded for the WO3/boron-doped [Cu2-xTe(17)/MnTe(11)] structure with a photocurrent density (Jsc)=16.43mA/cm(2), an open-circuit voltage (Voc)=0.305V and a fill factor (FF)=28.1%. This work demonstrates the feasibility of this double-layered structure with doping material as a solar absorber material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Positioning true coincidences that undergo inter-and intra-crystal scatter for a sub-mm resolution cadmium zinc telluride-based PET system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Chinn, Garry; Levin, Craig S.

    2018-01-01

    The kinematics of Compton scatter can be used to estimate the interaction sequence of inter-crystal scatter interactions in 3D position-sensitive cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. However, in the case of intra-crystal scatter in a ‘cross-strip’ CZT detector slab, multiple anode and cathode strips may be triggered, creating position ambiguity due to uncertainty in possible combinations of anode-cathode pairings. As a consequence, methods such as energy-weighted centroid are not applicable to position the interactions. In practice, since the event position is uncertain, these intra-crystal scatters events are discarded. In this work, we studied using Compton kinematics and a ‘direction difference angle’ to provide a method to correctly identify the anode-cathode pair corresponding to the first interaction position in an intra-crystal scatter event. GATE simulation studies of a NEMA NU4 image quality phantom in a small animal positron emission tomography under development composed of 192, 40~mm×40~mm×5 mm CZT crystals shows that 47% of total numbers of multiple-interaction photon events (MIPEs) are intra-crystal scatter with a 100 keV lower energy threshold per interaction. The sensitivity of the system increases from 0.6 to 4.10 (using 10 keV as system lower energy threshold) by including rather than discarding inter- and intra-crystal scatter. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) also increases from 5.81+/-0.3 to 12.53+/-0.37 . It was shown that a higher energy threshold limits the capability of the system to detect MIPEs and reduces CNR. Results indicate a sensitivity increase (4.1 to 5.88) when raising the lower energy threshold (10 keV to 100 keV) for the case of only two-interaction events. In order to detect MIPEs accurately, a low noise system capable of a low energy threshold (10 keV) per interaction is desired.

  6. Evaluation of ischaemia in obese patients: feasibility and accuracy of a low-dose protocol with a cadmium-zinc telluride camera.

    PubMed

    Gimelli, Alessia; Bottai, Matteo; Giorgetti, Assuero; Genovesi, Dario; Filidei, Elena; Marzullo, Paolo

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is a significant and independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and assessing ischaemia in obese patients is clinically important but sometimes difficult because of imaging artefacts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of stress/rest imaging with a cadmium-zinc telluride (CZT) camera using a low-dose protocol in a series of consecutive obese patients referred for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. We considered 148 consecutive obese patients (mean BMI 39 ± 7 kg/m(2)) with known or suspected coronary artery disease referred to our laboratory for stress/rest myocardial perfusion imaging. A subgroup of 103 of the 148 patients underwent invasive coronary angiography for clinical reasons. All patients underwent a single-day stress/rest low-dose ultrafast protocol. Patients were injected with (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin at a dose in the range 185-222 MBq during bicycle exercise or dipyridamole stress, and underwent the first scan with an acquisition time of 7 min starting 15 min after the end of the stress. The rest scan with an acquisition time of 6 min was started from 30 to 45 min after (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin injection at a dose in the range 370-444 MBq. Images were visually inspected, and the summed stress score (SSS) and summed rest score (SRS) were obtained. Image quality was graded very good or excellent in all patients. Of the 103 patients who underwent coronary angiography, 12 (12 %), 26 (25 %) and 56 (54 %) showed one-, two- and three-vessel disease, and 9 showed normal coronary vessels. In the 103 patients submitted to coronary angiography, the mean SSS and SRS were 7 ± 6 and 2 ± 3, respectively. Semiquantitative regional and global SSS was a good discriminant of coronary artery disease and the area under the overall ROC curve was 0.848 (95 % CI 0.723-0.975). In obese patients, a single-day stress/rest low-dose ultrafast protocol with a CZT camera is clinically feasible and provides high image quality.

  7. Zinc-oxide-based nanostructured materials for heterostructure solar cells

    SciT

    Bobkov, A. A.; Maximov, A. I.; Moshnikov, V. A., E-mail: vamoshnikov@mail.ru

    Results obtained in the deposition of nanostructured zinc-oxide layers by hydrothermal synthesis as the basic method are presented. The possibility of controlling the structure and morphology of the layers is demonstrated. The important role of the procedure employed to form the nucleating layer is noted. The faceted hexagonal nanoprisms obtained are promising for the fabrication of solar cells based on oxide heterostructures, and aluminum-doped zinc-oxide layers with petal morphology, for the deposition of an antireflection layer. The results are compatible and promising for application in flexible electronics.

  8. Comparison of conventional and cadmium-zinc-telluride single-photon emission computed tomography for analysis of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging: an exploratory study in normal databases for different ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Masaru; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Taniguchi, Yasuyo; Shibutani, Takayuki

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the differences in thallium-201-chloride (thallium-201) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) scans evaluated by conventional anger-type single-photon emission computed tomography (conventional SPECT) versus cadmium-zinc-telluride SPECT (CZT SPECT) imaging in normal databases for different ethnic groups. MPI scans from 81 consecutive Japanese patients were examined using conventional SPECT and CZT SPECT and analyzed with the pre-installed quantitative perfusion SPECT (QPS) software. We compared the summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS), and summed difference score (SDS) for the two SPECT devices. For a normal MPI reference, we usually use Japanese databases for MPI created by the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine, which can be used with conventional SPECT but not with CZT SPECT. In this study, we used new Japanese normal databases constructed in our institution to compare conventional and CZT SPECT. Compared with conventional SPECT, CZT SPECT showed lower SSS (p < 0.001), SRS (p = 0.001), and SDS (p = 0.189) using the pre-installed SPECT database. In contrast, CZT SPECT showed no significant difference from conventional SPECT in QPS analysis using the normal databases from our institution. Myocardial perfusion analyses by CZT SPECT should be evaluated using normal databases based on the ethnic group being evaluated.

  9. Characterization and modeling of cadmium chloride treated cadmium telluride/cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Graham Lane

    CdTe photovoltaic technology has the potential to become a leading energy producer in the coming decades. Its physical properties are well suited for photovoltaic energy conversion. A key processing step in the production of high efficiency CdTe/CdS solar cells is a post-CdTe deposition heat treatment with CdCl2, which can improve performance by promoting CdTe rectrystallization, QE response, defect passivation and others. Understanding the effects of the CdCl2 treatment is crucial in order to optimize processing conditions and improve performance. This study investigates the effects of variations of CdCl2 treatment duration on CdTe/CdS solar cells manufactured at Colorado State University. In order to investigate the optimal time of CdCl 2 treatment, sample solar cells were tested for microstructural and performance properties. Device microstructure was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Device performance was analyzed using current density-voltage (J-V) measurements, time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL), quantum efficiency (QE), and laser beam induced current (LBIC) measurements. Little change in microstructure was observed with extended CdCl 2 treatment and is attributed to the high CdTe deposition temperatures used by heat pocket deposition (HPD). This deposition technique allows for large initial grains to be formed with low lattice strain energy which prevents recrystallization and grain growth that is often seen with other deposition techniques. The CdCl2 treatment initially improves performance significantly, but it was shown to that extending the CdCl2 treatment can reduce performance. Overall performance was reduced despite an increase in minority carrier lifetime values. The mechanism of reduced performance is suggested to be the formation of a low bandgap CdTe layer resulting from sulfur diffusion from the CdS layer. Sulfur diffusion primarily occurs during the CdCl 2

  10. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  11. Effects of cadmium and zinc on solar-simulated light-irradiated cells: potential role of zinc-metallothionein in zinc-induced genoprotection.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, Eric; Emonet-Piccardi, Nathalie; Didier, Christine; Beani, Jean-Claude; Favier, Alain; Richard, Marie-Jeanne

    2002-09-15

    Zinc is an essential oligoelement for cell growth and cell survival and has been demonstrated to protect cells from oxidative stress induced by UVA or from genotoxic stress due to UVB. In a recent work we demonstrated that the antioxidant role of zinc could be related to its ability to induce metallothioneins (MTs). In this study we identified the mechanism of zinc protection against solar-simulated light (SSL) injury. Cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were used to examine MTs expression and localization in response to solar-simulated radiation. We found translocation to the nucleus, with overexpression of MTs in irradiated cells, a novel observation. The genoprotective effect of zinc was dependent on time and protein synthesis. DNA damage was significantly decreased after 48 h of ZnCl(2) (100 microM) treatment and is inhibited by actinomycin D. ZnCl(2) treatment (100 microM) led to an intense induction, redistribution, and accumulation of MT in the nucleus of irradiated cells. MT expression correlated with the time period of ZnCl(2) treatment. CdCl(2), a potent MT inducer, did not show any genoprotection, although the MTs were expressed in the nucleus. Overall our findings demonstrate that MTs could be a good candidate for explaining the genoprotection mediated by zinc on irradiated cells.

  12. Leaching of cadmium and tellurium from cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film solar panels under simulated landfill conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Ruiz, Adriana; Wilkening, Jean V.; Field, James A.; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2017-01-01

    A crushed non-encapsulated CdTe thin-film solar cell was subjected to two standardized batch leaching tests (i.e., Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and California Waste Extraction Test (WET)) and to a continuous-flow column test to assess cadmium (Cd) and tellurium (Te) dissolution under conditions simulating the acidic- and the methanogenic phases of municipal solid waste landfills. Low levels of Cd and Te were solubilized in both batch leaching tests (<8.2% and <3.6% of added Cd and Te, respectively). On the other hand, over the course of 30 days, 73% of the Cd and 21% of the Te were released to the synthetic leachate of a continuous-flow column simulating the acidic landfill phase. The dissolved Cd concentration was 3.24-fold higher than the TCLP limit (1 mg L-1), and 650-fold higher than the maximum contaminant level established by the US-EPA for this metal in drinking water (0.005 mg L-1). In contrast, the release of Cd and Te to the effluent of the continuous-flow column simulating the methanogenic phase of a landfill was negligible. The remarkable difference in the leaching behavior of CdTe in the columns is related to different aqueous pH and redox conditions promoted by the microbial communities in the columns, and is in agreement with thermodynamic predictions. PMID:28472709

  13. Leaching of cadmium and tellurium from cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film solar panels under simulated landfill conditions.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Ruiz, Adriana; Wilkening, Jean V; Field, James A; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2017-08-15

    A crushed non-encapsulated CdTe thin-film solar cell was subjected to two standardized batch leaching tests (i.e., Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and California Waste Extraction Test (WET)) and to a continuous-flow column test to assess cadmium (Cd) and tellurium (Te) dissolution under conditions simulating the acidic- and the methanogenic phases of municipal solid waste landfills. Low levels of Cd and Te were solubilized in both batch leaching tests (<8.2% and <3.6% of added Cd and Te, respectively). On the other hand, over the course of 30days, 73% of the Cd and 21% of the Te were released to the synthetic leachate of a continuous-flow column simulating the acidic landfill phase. The dissolved Cd concentration was 3.24-fold higher than the TCLP limit (1mgL -1 ), and 650-fold higher than the maximum contaminant level established by the US-EPA for this metal in drinking water (0.005mgL -1 ). In contrast, the release of Cd and Te to the effluent of the continuous-flow column simulating the methanogenic phase of a landfill was negligible. The remarkable difference in the leaching behavior of CdTe in the columns is related to different aqueous pH and redox conditions promoted by the microbial communities in the columns, and is in agreement with thermodynamic predictions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis of zinc chlorophyll materials for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erten-Ela, Sule; Vakuliuk, Olena; Tarnowska, Anna; Ocakoglu, Kasim; Gryko, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    To design sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a series of zinc chlorins with different substituents were synthesized. Novel zinc methyl 3-devinyl-3-hydroxymethyl-20-phenylacetylenylpyropheophorbide-a (ZnChl-1), zinc methyl 20-bromo-3-devinyl-3-hydroxymethylpyropheophorbide-a (ZnChl-2), zinc methyl 3-devinyl-3-hydroxymethyl-pyropheophorbide-a (ZnChl-3), zinc propyl 3-devinyl-3-hydroxymethyl-pyropheophorbide-a (ZnChl-4) were synthesized and their photovoltaic performances were evaluated in dye-sensitized solar cells. Photoelectrodes with a 7 μm thick nanoporous layer and a 5 μm thick light-scattering layer were used to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells. The best efficiency was obtained with ZnChl-2 sensitizer. ZnChl-2 gave a Jsc of 3.5 mA/cm2, Voc of 412 mV, FF of 0.56 and an overall conversion efficiency of 0.81 at full sun (1000 W m-2).

  15. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  16. Zinc

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  17. Efficient inverted polymer solar cells based on conjugated polyelectrolyte and zinc oxide modified ITO electrode

    SciT

    Yuan, Tao; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Tu, Guoli, E-mail: tgl@hust.edu.cn

    Efficient inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) were constructed by utilizing a conjugated polyelectrolyte PF{sub EO}SO{sub 3}Na and zinc oxide to modify the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The ITO electrode modified by PF{sub EO}SO{sub 3}Na and zinc oxide possesses high transparency, increased electron mobility, smoothened surface, and lower work function. PTB7:PC{sub 71}BM inverted PSCs containing the modified ITO electrode achieved a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.49%, exceeding that of the control device containing a ZnO modified ITO electrode (7.48%). Especially, PCE-10:PC{sub 71}BM inverted polymer solar cells achieved a high PCE up to 9.4%. These results demonstrate a usefulmore » approach to improve the performance of inverted polymer solar cells.« less

  18. Spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and converted zinc for use as a solar selective coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Curtis, H. B.; Gianelos, L.

    1975-01-01

    The spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and chemically converted zinc were measured for both chromate and chloride conversion coatings. The reflectance properties were measured for various times of conversion and for conversion at various chromate concentrations. The values of absorptance, integrated over the solar spectrum, and of infrared emittance, integrated over black body radiation at 250 F were then calculated from the measured reflectance values. The interdependent variations of absorptance and infrared emittance were plotted. The results indicate that the optimum combination of the highest absorptance in the solar spectrum and the lowest emittance in the infrared of the converted electroplated zinc is produced by chromate conversion at 1/2 concentration of the standard NEOSTAR chromate black solution for 0.50 minute or by chloride conversion for 0.50 minute.

  19. Spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and converted zinc for use as a solar selective coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Curtis, H. B.; Gianelos, L.

    1975-01-01

    The spectral reflectance properties of electroplated and chemically converted zinc were measured for both chromate and chloride conversion coatings. The reflectance properties were measured for various times of conversion and for conversion at various chromate concentrations. The values of absorptance, alpha, integrated over the solar spectrum, and of infrared emittance, epsilon, integrated over black body radiation at 250 F were then calculated from the measured reflectance values. The interdependent variations of alpha and epsilon were plotted. The results indicate that the optimum combination of the highest absorptance in the solar spectrum and the lowest emittance in the infrared of the converted electroplated zinc is produced by chromate conversion at 1/2 concentration of the standard NEOSTAR chromate black solution for 0.50 minute or by chloride conversion for 0.50 minute.

  20. Copper and Zinc Oxide Composite Nanostructures for Solar Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fei

    Solar energy is a clean and sustainable energy source to counter global environmental issues of rising atmospheric CO2 levels and depletion of natural resources. To extract useful work from solar energy, silicon-based photovoltaic devices are extensively used. The technological maturity and the high quality of silicon (Si) make it a material of choice. However limitations in Si exist, ranging from its indirect band gap to low light absorption coefficient and energy and capital intensive crystal growth schemes. Therefore, alternate materials that are earth-abundant, benign and simpler to process are needed for developing new platforms for solar energy harvesting applications. In this study, we explore oxides of copper (CuO and Cu2O) in a nanowire morphology as alternate energy harvesting materials. CuO has a bandgap of 1.2 eV whereas Cu2O has a bandgap of 2.1 eV making them ideally suited for absorbing solar radiation. First, we develop a method to synthesize vertical, single crystalline CuO and Cu2O nanowires of ~50 microm length and aspect ratios of ~200. CuO nanowire arrays are synthesized by thermal oxidation of Cu foils. Cu2O nanowire arrays are synthesized by thermal reduction of CuO nanowires. Next, surface engineering of these nanowires is achieved using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO. By depositing 1.4 nm of ZnO, a highly defective surface is produced on the CuO nanowires. These defects are capable of trapping charge as is evident through persistent photoconductivity measurements of ZnO coated CuO nanowires. The same nanowires serve as efficient photocatalysts reducing CO2 to CO with a yield of 1.98 mmol/g-cat/hr. Finally, to develop a robust platform for flexible solar cells, a protocol to transfer vertical CuO nanowires inside flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is demonstrated. Embedded CuO nanowires-ZnO pn junctions show a VOC of 0.4 V and a JSC of 10.4 microA/cm2 under white light illumination of 5.7 mW/cm2. Thus, this research provides broad

  1. Thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compaan, A. D.; Bohn, R. G.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes work to develop and optimize radio-frequency (RF) sputtering for the deposition of thin films of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and related semiconductors for thin-film solar cells. Pulsed laser physical vapor deposition was also used for exploratory work on these materials, especially where alloying or doping are involved, and for the deposition of cadmium chloride layers. The sputtering work utilized a 2-in diameter planar magnetron sputter gun. The film growth rate by RF sputtering was studied as a function of substrate temperature, gas pressure, and RF power. Complete solar cells were fabricated on tin-oxide-coated soda-lime glass substrates. Currently, work is being done to improve the open-circuit voltage by varying the CdTe-based absorber layer, and to improve the short-circuit current by modifying the CdS window layer.

  2. Asymmetric Zinc Phthalocyanines as Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunc, Gulenay; Yavuz, Yunus; Gurek, Aysegul; Canimkurbey, Betul; Kosemen, Arif; San, Sait Eren; Ahsen, Vefa

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have received increasing attention due to their high incident to photon efficiency, easy fabrication and low production cost . Tremendous research efforts have been devoted to the development of new and efficient sensitizers suitable for practical use. In TiO2-based DSSCs, efficiencies of up to 11.4% under simulated sunlight have been obtained with rutheniumepolypyridyl complexes. However, the main drawback of ruthenium complexes is the lack of absorption in the red region of the visible light and the high cost. For this reason, dyes with large and stable p-conjugated systems such as porphyrins and phthalocyanines are important classes of potential sensitizers for highly efficient DSSCs. Phthalocyanines (Pcs) have been widely used as sensitizers because of their improved light-harvesting properties in the far red- and near-IR spectral regions and their extraordinary robustness [1]. In this work, a series of asymmetric Zn(II) Pcs bearing a carboxylic acid group and six hexylthia groups either at the peripheral or non-peripheral positions have been designed and synthesized to investigate the influence of the COOH group and the positions of hexylthia groups on the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance.

  3. Co-solvent enhanced zinc oxysulfide buffer layers in Kesterite copper zinc tin selenide solar cells.

    PubMed

    Steirer, K Xerxes; Garris, Rebekah L; Li, Jian V; Dzara, Michael J; Ndione, Paul F; Ramanathan, Kannan; Repins, Ingrid; Teeter, Glenn; Perkins, Craig L

    2015-06-21

    A co-solvent, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), is added to the aqueous chemical "bath" deposition (CBD) process used to grow ZnOS buffer layers for thin film Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) solar cells. Device performance improves markedly as fill factors increase from 0.17 to 0.51 upon the co-solvent addition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses are presented for quasi-in situ CZTSe/CBD-ZnOS interfaces prepared under an inert atmosphere and yield valence band offsets equal to -1.0 eV for both ZnOS preparations. When combined with optical band gap data, conduction band offsets exceed 1 eV for the water and the water/DMSO solutions. XPS measurements show increased downward band bending in the CZTSe absorber layer when the ZnOS buffer layer is deposited from water only. Admittance spectroscopy data shows that the ZnOS deposited from water increases the built-in potential (Vbi) yet these solar cells perform poorly compared to those made with DMSO added. The band energy offsets imply an alternate form of transport through this junction. Possible mechanisms are discussed, which circumvent the otherwise large conduction band spike between CZTSe and ZnOS, and improve functionality with the low-band gap absorber, CZTSe (Eg = 0.96 eV).

  4. Zinc chlorophyll aggregates as hole transporters for biocompatible, natural-photosynthesis-inspired solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Sasaki, Shin-ichi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Liu, Cheng-Liang; Song, Jiaxing; Tian, Wenjing; Zheng, Enqiang; Wei, Yingjin; Chen, Gang; Fu, Xueqi; Wang, Xiao-Feng

    2015-11-01

    The intriguing properties of extremely efficient delocalization and migration of excitons in chlorophyll (Chl) J-type aggregates have inspired intense research activities toward their structural understanding, functional interpretation and mimicry synthesis. Herein, we demonstrated the J-aggregates of zinc methyl 3-devinyl-3-hydroxymethyl-pyropheophorbide a (ZnChl-1) generated by spin-coating method for the application as a hole transporter in titania-based solar cells using methyl trans-32-carboxypyropheophorbide a (H2Chl-2) or its zinc complex (ZnChl-2) as the sensitizer. The effective carrier mobility of the J-aggregates films was determined by the organic field-effect transistor to be 6.2 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1. Solar cells sharing the architecture of FTO/H2Chl-2 or ZnChl-2 on TiO2/(ZnChl-1)n/Ag were fabricated and the factors that presumably determine their photovoltaic performances were discussed. The photovoltaic devices studied herein employing inexpensive and pollution-free biomaterials provide a unique solution of utilizing solar energy with a care of the important environmental issue.

  5. Embedded vertically aligned cadmium telluride nanorod arrays grown by one-step electrodeposition for enhanced energy conversion efficiency in three-dimensional nanostructured solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Shurong; Mu, Yannan; Liu, Li; A, Runa; Yang, Jiandong; Zhu, Guijie; Meng, Xianwei; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin

    2017-11-01

    Vertically aligned CdTe nanorods (NRs) arrays are successfully grown by a simple one-step and template-free electrodeposition method, and then embedded in the CdS window layer to form a novel three-dimensional (3D) heterostructure on flexible substrates. The parameters of electrodeposition such as deposition potential and pH of the solution are varied to analyze their important role in the formation of high quality CdTe NRs arrays. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the solar cell based on the 3D heterojunction structure is studied in detail. In comparison with the standard planar heterojunction solar cell, the 3D heterojunction solar cell exhibits better photovoltaic performance, which can be attributed to its enhanced optical absorption ability, increased heterojunction area and improved charge carrier transport. The better photoelectric property of the 3D heterojunction solar cell suggests great application potential in thin film solar cells, and the simple electrodeposition process represents a promising technique for large-scale fabrication of other nanostructured solar energy conversion devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical Etching of Zinc Oxide for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hüpkes, Jürgen; Owen, Jorj I; Pust, Sascha E; Bunte, Eerke

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Chemical etching is widely applied to texture the surface of sputter-deposited zinc oxide for light scattering in thin-film silicon solar cells. Based on experimental findings from the literature and our own results we propose a model that explains the etching behavior of ZnO depending on the structural material properties and etching agent. All grain boundaries are prone to be etched to a certain threshold, that is defined by the deposition conditions and etching solution. Additionally, several approaches to modify the etching behavior through special preparation and etching steps are provided. PMID:22162035

  7. Low-cost zinc-plated photoanode for fabric-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingfeng; Bao, Yunna; Guo, Wanwan; Cheng, Li; Du, Jun; Liu, Renlong; Wang, Yundong; Fan, Xing; Tao, Changyuan

    2016-02-01

    Fabric-type flexible solar cells have been recently proposed as a very promising power source for wearable electronics. To increase the photocurrent of fabric-type flexible solar cells, low-cost zinc-plated wire and mesh photoanodes are assembled for the first time through a mild wet process. Given the protection of the compact protection layer, the DSSC device could benefit from the low work function of Zn and self-repairing behavior on the Zn/ZnO interface. An evident current increase by ∼6 mA/cm2 could be observed after coating a layer of metal Zn on various metal substrates, such as traditional stainless steel wire. Given the self-repairing behavior on Zn/ZnO interface, the Zn layer can help to improve the interfacial carrier transfer, leading to better photovoltaic performance, for both liquid-type and solid-type cells.

  8. Efficient inverted bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells with self-assembled monolayer modified zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wook Hyun; Lyu, Hong-Kun; Han, Yoon Soo; Woo, Sungho

    2013-10-01

    The performance of poly(3-hexylthiophen) (P3HT) and [6, 6]phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester ([60]PCBM)-based inverted bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) is enhanced by the modification of zinc oxide (ZnO)/BHJ interface with carboxylic-acid-functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Under simulated solar illumination of AM 1.5 (100 mW/cm2), the inverted devices fabricated with SAM-modified ZnO achieved an enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.34% due to the increased fill factor and photocurrent density as compared to unmodified cells with PCE of 2.60%. This result provides an efficient method for interface engineering in inverted BHJ PSCs.

  9. Indium Zinc Oxide Mediated Wafer Bonding for III-V/Si Tandem Solar Cells

    SciT

    Tamboli, Adele C.; Essig, Stephanie; Horowitz, Kelsey A. W.

    Silicon-based tandem solar cells are desirable as a high efficiency, economically viable approach to one sun or low concentration photovoltaics. We present an approach to wafer bonded III-V/Si solar cells using amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) as an interlayer. We investigate the impact of a heavily doped III-V contact layer on the electrical and optical properties of bonded test samples, including the predicted impact on tandem cell performance. We present economic modeling which indicates that the path to commercial viability for bonded cells includes developing low-cost III-V growth and reducing constraints on material smoothness. If these challenges can be surmounted,more » bonded tandems on Si can be cost-competitive with incumbent PV technologies, especially in low concentration, single axis tracking systems.« less

  10. Solar Light Responsive Photocatalytic Activity of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Zinc Selenide Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Ibrahim, Sk; Das, Poulomi; Ghosh, Surajit; Pal, Tanusri

    2017-10-01

    Solution processable reduced graphene oxide-zinc selenide (RGO-ZnSe) nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized by an easy one-pot single-step solvothermal reaction. The RGO-ZnSe composite was characterized structurally and morphologically by the study of XRD analysis, SEM and TEM imaging. Reduction in graphene oxide was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy analysis. Photocatalytic efficiency of RGO-ZnSe composite was investigated toward the degradation of Rhodamine B under solar light irradiation. Our study indicates that the RGO-ZnSe composite is catalytically more active compared to the controlled-ZnSe under the solar light illumination. Here, RGO plays an important role for photoinduced charge separation and subsequently hinders the electron-hole recombination probability that consequently enhances photocatalytic degradation efficiency. We expect that this type of RGO-based optoelectronics materials opens up a new avenue in the field of photocatalytic degradation of different organic water pollutants.

  11. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, D.C.; Fox, R.J.

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semi-conductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  12. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.; Fox, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semiconductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  13. Zinc Oxide Grown by CVD Process as Transparent Contact for Thin Film Solar Cell Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faÿ, S.; Shah, A.

    Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of ZnO films (MOCVD) [1] started to be comprehensively investigated in the 1980s, when thin film industries were looking for ZnO deposition processes especially useful for large-scale coatings at high growth rates. Later on, when TCO for thin film solar cells started to be developed, another advantage of growing TCO films by the CVD process has been highlighted: the surface roughness. Indeed, a large number of studies on CVD ZnO revealed that an as-grown rough surface cn be obtained with this deposition process [2-4]. A rough surface induces a light scattering effect, which can significantly improve light trapping (and therefore current photo-generation) within thin film silicon solar cells. The CVD process, indeed, directly leads to as-grown rough ZnO films without any post-etching step (the latter is often introduced to obtain a rough surface, when working with as-deposited flat sputtered ZnO). This fact could turn out to be a significant advantage when upscaling the manufacturing process for actual commercial production of thin film solar modules. The zinc and oxygen sources for CVD growth of ZnO films are given in Table 6.1.

  14. Hybrid zinc oxide/graphene electrodes for depleted heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Aashuri, Hossein; Simchi, Abdolreza; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-10-07

    Recently, hybrid nanocomposites consisting of graphene/nanomaterial heterostructures have emerged as promising candidates for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. In this work, we have employed a facile and in situ solution-based process to prepare zinc oxide/graphene quantum dots (ZnO/G QDs) in a hybrid structure. The prepared hybrid dots are composed of a ZnO core, with an average size of 5 nm, warped with graphene nanosheets. Spectroscopic studies show that the graphene shell quenches the photoluminescence intensity of the ZnO nanocrystals by about 72%, primarily due to charge transfer reactions and static quenching. A red shift in the absorption peak is also observed. Raman spectroscopy determines G-band splitting of the graphene shell into two separated sub-bands (G(+), G(-)) caused by the strain induced symmetry breaking. It is shown that the hybrid ZnO/G QDs can be used as a counter-electrode for heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells for efficient charge-carrier collection, as evidenced by the external quantum efficiency measurement. Under the solar simulated spectrum (AM 1.5G), we report enhanced power conversion efficiency (35%) with higher short current circuit (80%) for lead sulfide-based solar cells as compared to devices prepared by pristine ZnO nanocrystals.

  15. Enhancement of Energy Conversion Efficiency for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Using Zinc Oxide Photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamalullail, N.; Smohamad, I.; Nnorizan, M.; Mahmed, N.

    2018-06-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a third generation solar cell that is well known for its low cost, simple fabrication process and promised reasonable energy conversion efficiency. Basic structure of DSSC is composed of photoanode, dye sensitizer, electrolyte that is sandwiched together in between two transparent conductive oxide (TCO) glasses. Each of the components in the DSSC contributes important role that affect the energy conversion efficiency. In this research, the commonly used titanium dioxide (TiO2) photoanode has previously reported to have high recombination rate and low electron mobility which caused efficiency loss had been compared with the zinc oxide (ZnO) photoanode with high electron mobility (155 cm2V-1s-1). Both of these photoanodes had been deposited through doctor blade technique. The electrical performance of the laboratory based DSSCs were tested using solar cell simulator and demonstrated that ZnO is a better photoanode compared to TiO2 with the energy conversion efficiency of 0.34% and 0.29% respectively. Nanorods shape morphology was observed in ZnO photoanode with average particle size of 41.60 nm and average crystallite size of 19.13 nm. This research proved that the energy conversion efficiency of conventional TiO2 based photoanode can be improved using ZnO material.

  16. Processing of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Nanocrystal Dispersions for Thin Film Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Bryce Arthur

    A scalable and inexpensive renewable energy source is needed to meet the expected increase in electricity demand throughout the developed and developing world in the next 15 years without contributing further to global warming through CO2 emissions. Photovoltaics may meet this need but current technologies are less than ideal requiring complex manufacturing processes and/or use of toxic, rare-earth materials. Copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu 2ZnSnS4, CZTS) solar cells offer a true "green" alternative based upon non-toxic and abundant elements. Solution-based processes utilizing CZTS nanocrystal dispersions followed by high temperature annealing have received significant research attention due to their compatibility with traditional roll-to-roll coating processes. In this work, CZTS nanocrystal (5-35 nm diameters) dispersions were utilized as a production pathway to form solar absorber layers. Aerosol-based coating methods (aerosol jet printing and ultrasonic spray coating) were optimized for formation of dense, crack-free CZTS nanocrystal coatings. The primary variables underlying determination of coating morphology within the aerosol-coating parameter space were investigated. It was found that the liquid content of the aerosol droplets at the time of substrate impingement play a critical role. Evaporation of the liquid from the aerosol droplets during coating was altered through changes to coating parameters as well as to the CZTS nanocrystal dispersions. In addition, factors influencing conversion of CZTS nanocrystal coatings into dense, large-grained polycrystalline films suitable for solar cell development during thermal annealing were studied. The roles nanocrystal size, carbon content, sodium uptake, and sulfur pressure were found to have pivotal roles in film microstructure evolution. The effects of these parameters on film morphology, grain growth rates, and chemical makeup were analyzed from electron microscopy images as well as compositional analysis

  17. Process for producing large grain cadmium telluride

    DOEpatents

    Hasoon, Falah S.; Nelson, Art J.

    1996-01-01

    A process for producing a cadmium telluride polycrystalline film having grain sizes greater than about 20 .mu.m. The process comprises providing a substrate upon which cadmium telluride can be deposited and placing that substrate within a vacuum chamber containing a cadmium telluride effusion cell. A polycrystalline film is then deposited on the substrate through the steps of evacuating the vacuum chamber to a pressure of at least 10.sup.-6 torr.; heating the effusion cell to a temperature whereat the cell releases stoichiometric amounts of cadmium telluride usable as a molecular beam source for growth of grains on the substrate; heating the substrate to a temperature whereat a stoichiometric film of cadmium telluride can be deposited; and releasing cadmium telluride from the effusion cell for deposition as a film on the substrate. The substrate then is placed in a furnace having an inert gas atmosphere and heated for a sufficient period of time at an annealing temperature whereat cadmium telluride grains on the substrate grow to sizes greater than about 20 .mu.m.

  18. Process for producing large grain cadmium telluride

    DOEpatents

    Hasoon, F.S.; Nelson, A.J.

    1996-01-16

    A process is described for producing a cadmium telluride polycrystalline film having grain sizes greater than about 20 {micro}m. The process comprises providing a substrate upon which cadmium telluride can be deposited and placing that substrate within a vacuum chamber containing a cadmium telluride effusion cell. A polycrystalline film is then deposited on the substrate through the steps of evacuating the vacuum chamber to a pressure of at least 10{sup {minus}6} torr.; heating the effusion cell to a temperature whereat the cell releases stoichiometric amounts of cadmium telluride usable as a molecular beam source for growth of grains on the substrate; heating the substrate to a temperature whereat a stoichiometric film of cadmium telluride can be deposited; and releasing cadmium telluride from the effusion cell for deposition as a film on the substrate. The substrate then is placed in a furnace having an inert gas atmosphere and heated for a sufficient period of time at an annealing temperature whereat cadmium telluride grains on the substrate grow to sizes greater than about 20 {micro}m.

  19. Magnetron sputtered zinc oxide nanorods as thickness-insensitive cathode interlayer for perovskite planar-heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lusheng; Huang, Zhifeng; Cai, Longhua; Chen, Weizhong; Wang, Baozeng; Chen, Kaiwu; Bai, Hua; Tian, Qingyong; Fan, Bin

    2014-12-10

    Suitable electrode interfacial layers are essential to the high performance of perovskite planar heterojunction solar cells. In this letter, we report magnetron sputtered zinc oxide (ZnO) film as the cathode interlayer for methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite solar cell. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrate that the sputtered ZnO films consist of c-axis aligned nanorods. The solar cells based on this ZnO cathode interlayer showed high short circuit current and power conversion efficiency. Besides, the performance of the device is insensitive to the thickness of ZnO cathode interlayer. Considering the high reliability and maturity of sputtering technique both in lab and industry, we believe that the sputtered ZnO films are promising cathode interlayers for perovskite solar cells, especially in large-scale production.

  20. Influence of structural variations in push-pull zinc porphyrins on photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chenyi; Giordano, Fabrizio; Cevey-Ha, Ngoc-Le; Tsao, Hoi Nok; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-04-01

    We designed and synthesized two new zinc porphyrin dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Subtle molecular structural variation in the dyes significantly influenced the performance of the DSC devices. By utilizing these dyes in combination with a cobalt-based redox electrolyte using a photoanode made of mesoporous TiO2 , we achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of up to 12.0 % under AM 1.5 G (100 mW cm(-2)) simulated solar light. Moreover, we obtained a high PCE of 6.4 % for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by using 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene as a hole-transporting material. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Process for producing cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface

    DOEpatents

    Levi, Dean H.; Nelson, Art J.; Ahrenkiel, Richard K.

    1996-01-01

    A process for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium sulfide formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness.

  2. Mixed metal oxides for dye-sensitized solar cell using zinc titanium layered double hydroxide as precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianqiang; Qin, Yaowei; Zhang, Liangji; Xiao, Hongdi; Song, Jianye; Liu, Dehe; Leng, Mingzhe; Hou, Wanguo; Du, Na

    2013-12-01

    Mixed metal oxides (MMO) are always obtained from layered double hydroxide (LDH) by thermal decomposition. In the present work, a zinc titanium LDH with the zinc titanium molar ratio of 4.25 was prepared by urea method and ZnO-based mixed oxides were obtained by calcining at or over 500°C. The MMO was used as electrodes for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The cells constructed by films of prepared composite materials using a N719 as dye were prepared. The efficiency values of these cells are 0.691%, 0.572% and 0.302% with MMO prepared at 500, 600 and 700°C, respectively.

  3. Near Infrared Quantum Cutting Luminescence of Er3+/Tm3+ Ion Pairs in a Telluride Glass.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Song; Hu, Lili; Wang, Kezhi; Zhao, Guoying; He, Lizhu; Liu, Jinying; Yu, Chunlei; Tao, Jingfu; Lin, Wei; Yang, Guojian; Salamo, Gregory J

    2017-05-16

    The multiphoton near-infrared, quantum cutting luminescence in Er 3+ /Tm 3+ co-doped telluride glass was studied. We found that the near-infrared 1800-nm luminescence intensity of (A) Er 3+ (8%)Tm 3+ (0.5%):telluride glass was approximately 4.4 to 19.5 times larger than that of (B) Tm 3+ (0.5%):telluride glass, and approximately 5.0 times larger than that of (C) Er 3+ (0.5%):telluride glass. Additionally, the infrared excitation spectra of the 1800 nm luminescence, as well as the visible excitation spectra of the 522 nm and 652 nm luminescence, of (A) Er 3+ (8%)Tm 3+ (0.5%):telluride glass are very similar to those of Er 3+ ions in (C) Er 3+ (0.5%):telluride glass, with respect to the shapes of their excitation spectral waveforms and peak wavelengths. Moreover, we found that there is a strong spectral overlap and energy transfer between the infrared luminescence of Er 3+ donor ions and the infrared absorption of Tm 3+ acceptor ions. The efficiency of this energy transfer { 4 I 13/2 (Er 3+ ) →  4 I 15/2 (Er 3+ ), 3 H 6 (Tm 3+ ) →  3 F 4 (Tm 3+ )} between the Er 3+ and Tm 3+ ions is approximately 69.8%. Therefore, we can conclude that the observed behaviour is an interesting multiphoton, near-infrared, quantum cutting luminescence phenomenon that occurs in novel Er 3+ -Tm 3+ ion pairs. These findings are significant for the development of next-generation environmentally friendly germanium solar cells, and near-to-mid infrared (1.8-2.0 μm) lasers pumped by GaN light emitting diodes.

  4. Zinc Oxide/TiO2 Bilayer Heterojunction as a Working Electrode in Quasi Solid Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprilia, A.; Safriani, L.; Arsyad, Wa Ode S.; Syakir, N.; Susilawati, T.; Mulyana, C.; Fitrilawati; Hidayat, R.

    2017-07-01

    Bilayer heterojunction of aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) mesoporous has been successfully deposited on fluorine tin oxide (FTO) substrate as working electrode in dye sensitized solar cell. This layer was used as working electrode in quasi solid dye sensitized solar cell. The solar cell structure is FTO/ZnO/TiO2/PGE/Pt/FTO using polymer gel electrolyte (PGE). In polymer gel electrolyte system, hybrid copolymer based on poly-TMSPMA (3-methoxysilyl propyl methacrylate) was used as a matrix to trap ionic liquid. An addition of aluminum as atom dopant also studied to observe the physical properties changes of photoanode related to solar cell performance. AlCl3 was used as dopant material with the concentrations at 0.5 weight % and 1.0 weight% of zinc acetate dehydrate as raw material. Based on our previous result, the existence of Al dopant would decrease the surface roughness of ZnO layer, reduce the grain size of ZnO particles, transmittance at visible light increase and also change the charge carrier density. Nevertheless, the highest efficiency was achieved for undoped ZnO/TiO2 photoanode (η=0.67%). Based on current-voltage measurement data analysis (using diode model equation) the ideality factor (n) of device using undoped ZnO was smaller (n=2.96) than AZO 0.5 wt% and 1.0 wt% (n=∼4), indicate better quality of undoped ZnO/TiO2 interfaces rather than AZO/TiO2.

  5. Theoretical screening of novel alkyne bridged zinc porphyrins as sensitizer candidates for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianxi; Du, Yuchang; Chen, Qianqian; Sun, Huafei; Pan, Tingting; Hu, Guiqi; Ma, Ruimin; Sun, Yuanwei; Li, Dacheng; Dou, Jianmin; Pan, Xu

    2014-12-01

    Alkyne bridged porphyrin sensitizers have attracted great attention in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their excellent photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies, among which YD2 has reached 11% while YD2-o-C8 has reached 11.9% solely and 12.3% co-sensitized with other sensitizers. Design and screening of porphyrin sensitizer candidates with wider electronic absorption spectra to further improve the photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies of corresponding solar cells is still very important. Twenty novel alkyne bridged zinc porphyrin sensitizer candidates composed of the donors diarylamino-, tri-4-methylphenyl-, tri-hydroxyl- and tri-amino-substituted zinc porphyrins as well as the selected acceptors E, M, Q, R and S have been designed and calculated at the density functional B3LYP level. YD2 and YD2-o-C8 are also calculated at the same level for comparison. The result shows that the sensitizer candidates all have smaller HOMO-LUMO gaps as well as wider and red-shifted absorption bands than those of YD2 and YD2-o-C8. Most of the sensitizer candidates have appropriate HOMO and LUMO energy levels relative to the redox potential of the mediator and the TiO2 conduction band, showing that they are promising to provide comparable or even higher photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies than 11% of YD-2 or 11.9% of YD2-o-C8.

  6. Blocking contacts for N-type cadmium zinc telluride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, Carl M. (Inventor); Parker, Bradford H. (Inventor); Babu, Sachidananda R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A process for applying blocking contacts on an n-type CdZnTe specimen includes cleaning the CdZnTe specimen; etching the CdZnTe specimen; chemically surface treating the CdZnTe specimen; and depositing blocking metal on at least one of a cathode surface and an anode surface of the CdZnTe specimen.

  7. Method for surface treatment of a cadmium zinc telluride crystal

    DOEpatents

    James, R.; Burger, A.; Chen, K.T.; Chang, H.

    1999-08-03

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal is disclosed that reduces surface roughness (increases surface planarity) and provides an oxide coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve resolution. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of lactic acid and bromine in ethylene glycol, following the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, oxidizing the CZT crystal surface. 3 figs.

  8. Method for surface treatment of a cadmium zinc telluride crystal

    DOEpatents

    James, Ralph; Burger, Arnold; Chen, Kuo-Tong; Chang, Henry

    1999-01-01

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that reduces surface roughness (increases surface planarity) and provides an oxide coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve resolution. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of lactic acid and bromine in ethylene glycol, following the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, oxidizing the CZT crystal surface.

  9. Surface Treatment And Protection Method For Cadium Zinc Telluride Crystals

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Gomez W.; James, Ralph B.; Burger, Arnold; Chinn, Douglas A.

    2006-02-21

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that provides a native dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH4F and 10 w/o H2O2 in water.

  10. Surface treatment and protection method for cadmium zinc telluride crystals

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Gomez W.; James, Ralph B.; Burger, Arnold; Chinn, Douglas A.

    2003-01-01

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that provides a native dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH.sub.4 F and 10 w/o H.sub.2 O.sub.2 in water.

  11. Synthesis of zinc phthalocyanine with large steric hindrance and its photovoltaic performance for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Peng, Bosi; Shi, Wenye; Guo, Yingying; Li, Renjie

    2015-03-28

    A zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) derivative (Zn-tri-PcNc-8) containing tri-benzonaphtho-condensed porphyrazine with one carboxylic and six diphenylphenoxy peripheral substitutions was designed and synthesized as a sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For the purpose of extending the absorption spectra while minimizing the formation of ZnPc molecular aggregates, bulky 2,6-diphenylphenoxy groups were used as electron donor moieties, and the carboxylic group as an anchoring group to graft the sensitizer onto the semiconductor. It was found that a TiO2-based solar cell sensitized by Zn-tri-PcNc-8 shows a maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency in the red/near-IR light range (650-750 nm), and a solar cell sensitized at near room temperature (30 °C) for 48 h exhibits the best efficiency (3.01%). The efficiency was much higher than that (1.96%) for a solar cell sensitized by its analogue (Zn-tri-PcNc-2) having one carboxyl and three tert-butyl groups without chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), indicating that the introduction of six bulky diphenylphenoxy substitutions with large steric hindrance in the ZnPc macrocycle can effectively suppress the molecular aggregates, thus resulting in an improved conversion efficiency. The present results shed light on an effective solution to adjust the ZnPc property via chemical modification such as changing the "push-pull" effect and adding large steric hindrance substituents to further improve the efficiency of the phthalocyanine-sensitized solar cell.

  12. Seebeck and figure of merit enhancement in nanostructured antimony telluride by antisite defect suppression through sulfur doping.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rutvik J; Zhang, Yanliang; Zhu, Hong; Parker, David S; Belley, Matthew; Singh, David J; Ramprasad, Ramamurthy; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian; Ramanath, Ganpati

    2012-09-12

    Antimony telluride has a low thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT < ∼0.3) because of a low Seebeck coefficient α arising from high degenerate hole concentrations generated by antimony antisite defects. Here, we mitigate this key problem by suppressing antisite defect formation using subatomic percent sulfur doping. The resultant 10-25% higher α in bulk nanocrystalline antimony telluride leads to ZT ∼ 0.95 at 423 K, which is superior to the best non-nanostructured antimony telluride alloys. Density functional theory calculations indicate that sulfur increases the antisite formation activation energy and presage further improvements leading to ZT ∼ 2 through optimized doping. Our findings are promising for designing novel thermoelectric materials for refrigeration, waste heat recovery, and solar thermal applications.

  13. Self-assembly 2D zinc-phthalocyanine heterojunction: An ideal platform for high efficiency solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xue; Jiang, Zhou; Zhao, Jijun

    2017-12-01

    As an alternative to silicon-based solar cells, organic photovoltaic cells emerge for their easy manufacture, low cost, and light weight but are limited by their less stability, low power conversion efficiencies, and low charge carrier mobilities. Here, we design a series of two-dimensional (2D) organic materials incorporating zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) based building blocks which can inherit their excellent intrinsic properties but overcome those shortcomings. Our first-principles calculation shows that such 2D ZnPc-based materials exhibit excellent thermal stabilities, suitable bandgaps, small effective masses, and good absorption properties. The additional benzene rings and nitrogen atoms incorporated between ZnPc molecules are mainly responsible for the modifications of electronic and optical properties. Moreover, some heterojunction solar cells constructed using those 2D ZnPc monolayers as the donor and acceptor have an appropriate absorber gap and interface band alignment. Among them, a power conversion efficiency up to 14.04% is achieved, which is very promising for the next-generation organic solar cells.

  14. Formation of Semimetallic Cobalt Telluride Nanotube Film via Anion Exchange Tellurization Strategy in Aqueous Solution for Electrocatalytic Applications.

    PubMed

    Patil, Supriya A; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Shrestha, Nabeen K; Chang, Jinho; Lee, Joong Kee; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2015-11-25

    Metal telluride nanostructures have demonstrated several potential applications particularly in harvesting and storing green energy. Metal tellurides are synthesized by tellurization process performed basically at high temperature in reducing gas atmosphere, which makes the process expensive and complicated. The development of a facile and economical process for desirable metal telluride nanostructures without complicated manipulation is still a challenge. In an effort to develop an alternative strategy of tellurization, herein we report a thin film formation of self-standing cobalt telluride nanotubes on various conducting and nonconducting substrates using a simple binder-free synthetic strategy based on anion exchange transformation from a thin film of cobalt hydroxycarbonate nanostructures in aqueous solution at room temperature. The nanostructured films before and after ion exchange transformation reaction are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray analyzer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thin film X-ray diffraction technique, high resolution transmission electron microscope, and selected area electron diffraction analysis technique. After the ion exchange transformation of nanostructures, the film shows conversion from insulator to highly electrical conductive semimetallic characteristic. When used as a counter electrode in I3(-)/I(-) redox electrolyte based dye-sensitized solar cells, the telluride film exhibits an electrocatalytic reduction activity for I3(-) with a demonstration of solar-light to electrical power conversion efficiency of 8.10%, which is highly competitive to the efficiency of 8.20% exhibited by a benchmarked Pt-film counter electrode. On the other hand, the telluride film electrode also demonstrates electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction from oxidation of water.

  15. Theoretical screening of novel alkyne bridged zinc porphyrins as sensitizer candidates for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianxi; Du, Yuchang; Chen, Qianqian; Sun, Huafei; Pan, Tingting; Hu, Guiqi; Ma, Ruimin; Sun, Yuanwei; Li, Dacheng; Dou, Jianmin; Pan, Xu

    2014-12-10

    Alkyne bridged porphyrin sensitizers have attracted great attention in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their excellent photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies, among which YD2 has reached 11% while YD2-o-C8 has reached 11.9% solely and 12.3% co-sensitized with other sensitizers. Design and screening of porphyrin sensitizer candidates with wider electronic absorption spectra to further improve the photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies of corresponding solar cells is still very important. Twenty novel alkyne bridged zinc porphyrin sensitizer candidates composed of the donors diarylamino-, tri-4-methylphenyl-, tri-hydroxyl- and tri-amino-substituted zinc porphyrins as well as the selected acceptors E, M, Q, R and S have been designed and calculated at the density functional B3LYP level. YD2 and YD2-o-C8 are also calculated at the same level for comparison. The result shows that the sensitizer candidates all have smaller HOMO-LUMO gaps as well as wider and red-shifted absorption bands than those of YD2 and YD2-o-C8. Most of the sensitizer candidates have appropriate HOMO and LUMO energy levels relative to the redox potential of the mediator and the TiO2 conduction band, showing that they are promising to provide comparable or even higher photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies than 11% of YD-2 or 11.9% of YD2-o-C8. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel solar light driven photocatalyst, zinc indium vanadate for photodegradation of aqueous phenol

    SciT

    Mahapure, Sonali A.; Rane, Vilas H.; Ambekar, Jalindar D.

    2011-05-15

    Graphical abstract: Novel photocatalyst, zinc indium vanadate (ZnIn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 9}) demonstrated and showed an excellent photocatalytic activity for phenol degradation under visible light. Research highlights: {yields} Designing and identification of a photocatalyst having prospective potential application to be used in visible light (400-800 nm). {yields} Successful synthesis of novel ZnIn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 9} by solid state route. {yields} Confirmation of the designed product using characterization techniques. {yields} Application study comprising photodegradation of aqueous phenol at visible light despite of UV radiations. -- Abstract: In the present investigation, we have demonstrated the synthesis of novel photocatalyst, zinc indium vanadate (ZIV)more » by solid-solid state route using respective oxides of zinc, indium and vanadium. This novel photocatalyst was characterized using XRD, FESEM, UV-DRS and FTIR in order to investigate its structural, morphological and optical properties. XRD clearly shows the formation of phase pure ZIV of triclinic crystal structure with good crystallinity. FESEM micrographs showed the clustered morphology having particle size between 0.5 and 1 {mu}m. Since, optical study showed the band gap around 2.8 eV, i.e. in visible region, we have performed the photocatalytic activity of phenol degradation under visible light irradiation. The photodecomposition of phenol by ZIV is studied for the first time and an excellent photocatalytic activity was obtained using this novel photocatalyst. Considering the band gap of zinc indium vanadate in visible region, it will also be the potential candidate for water splitting.« less

  17. Process for producing cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface

    DOEpatents

    Levi, D.H.; Nelson, A.J.; Ahrenkiel, R.K.

    1996-07-30

    A process is described for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium sulfide formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness. 12 figs.

  18. Electron mobility in mercury cadmium telluride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James D.

    1988-01-01

    A previously developed program, which includes all electronic interactions thought to be important, does not correctly predict the value of electron mobility in mercury cadmium telluride particularly near room temperature. Part of the reason for this discrepancy is thought to be the way screening is handled. It seems likely that there are a number of contributors to errors in the calculation. The objective is to survey the calculation, locate reasons for differences between experiment and calculation, and suggest improvements.

  19. Growth of lead tin telluride crystals in gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Patrick G.

    1986-01-01

    Improved gels and several geometries were investigated for use in growing crystals. The use of lead sulfide test crystals proved workable, but it was impossible to obtain and maintain a sufficiently concentrated telluride ion solution to successfully grow lead telluride crystals. It appears that oxygen in the solution is capable of oxidizing the telluride ion up to tellurium metal. The method may still be successful, but only if precautions are taken to eliminate dissolved oxygen from the gels and aqueous solutions and to maintain a suitable concentration of telluride, Te(2)-(aq.).

  20. Nanostructuring on zinc phthalocyanine thin films for single-junction organic solar cells

    SciT

    Chaudhary, Dhirendra K.; Kumar, Lokendra, E-mail: lokendrakr@allduniv.ac.in

    2016-05-23

    Vertically aligned and random oriented crystalline molecular nanorods of organic semiconducting Zinc Phthalocyanine (ZnPc) have been grown on ITO coated glass substrate using solvent volatilization method. Interesting changes in surface morphology were observed under different solvent treatment. Vertically aligned nanorods of ZnPc thin film were observed in the films treated with acetone, where as the random oriented nanorods were observed in the films treated with chloroform. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used for characterization of nanostructures. The optical properties of the nanorods have been investigated by UV-Vis. absorption spectroscopy.

  1. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  2. Using atomistic simulations to model cadmium telluride thin film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Kenny, Steven D.

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is an excellent material for low-cost, high efficiency thin film solar cells. It is important to conduct research on how defects are formed during the growth process, since defects lower the efficiency of solar cells. In this work we use computer simulation to predict the growth of a sputter deposited CdTe thin film. On-the-fly kinetic Monte Carlo technique is used to simulate the CdTe thin film growth on the (1 1 1) surfaces. The results show that on the (1 1 1) surfaces the growth mechanisms on surfaces which are terminated by Cd or Te are quite different, regardless of the deposition energy (0.1∼ 10 eV). On the Te-terminated (1 1 1) surface the deposited clusters first form a single mixed species layer, then the Te atoms in the mixed layer moved up to form a new layer. Whilst on the Cd-terminated (1 1 1) surface the new Cd and Te layers are formed at the same time. Such differences are probably caused by stronger bonding between ad-atoms and surface atoms on the Te layer than on the Cd layer.

  3. Preparation of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Film as Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) from Zinc Complex Compound on Thin Film Solar Cells: A Study of O2 Effect on Annealing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslih, E. Y.; Kim, K. H.

    2017-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film as a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for thin film solar cell application was successfully prepared through two step preparations which consisted of deposition by spin coating at 2000 rpm for 10 second and followed by annealing at 500 °C for 2 hours under O2 and ambient atmosphere. Zinc acetate dehydrate was used as a precursor which dissolved in ethanol and acetone (1:1 mol) mixture in order to make a zinc complex compound. In this work, we reported the O2 effect, reaction mechanism, structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties. ZnO thin film in this work shows a single phase of wurtzite, with n-type semiconductor and has band gap, carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity as 3.18 eV, 1.21 × 10-19cm3, 11 cm2/Vs, 2.35 × 10-3 Ωcm respectively which is suitable for TCO at thin film solar cell.

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cell characteristics of nanocomposite zinc ferrite working electrode: effect of composite precursors and titania as a blocking layer on photovoltaic performance.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Habibi, Amir Hossein; Zendehdel, Mahmoud; Habibi, Mehdi

    2013-06-01

    This research investigates the performance of a zinc ferrite (ZF) as working electrodes in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). This ZF working electrode was prepared by sol-gel and thermal decomposition of four different precursors including: zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O), ferric nitrate nonahydrate (Fe(NO3)3·9H2O), iron(III) acetate; Fe(C2H3O2)3, and zinc nitrate hexahydrate, Zn(NO3)2·6H2O. The effects of annealing temperature and precursors on the structural, morphological, and optical properties were investigated. The field emission scanning electron microscope images (FESEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show that ZFe films are polycrystalline in nature and homogeneous with densely packed grains. Nanoporous zinc ferrite coatings were prepared by doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in DSSC. In all DSSCs, platinized FTO and [Co(bpy)3](2+/3+) in 3-methoxy proponitrile were used as counter electrode and redox mediator system respectively. Comparing the fill factors of four different zinc ferrite nanocomposites, the highest fill factor was for ZnFe2O4-TBL sample. Cell fabricated with ZnFeA working electrode shows relatively higher Jsc. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Seed mediated synthesis of nanosized zinc oxide and its electron transporting activity in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, C.; Arulraj, Arunachalam

    2018-01-01

    A zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle has been synthesized using seed mediated method at a low temperature of 90 °C. To understand its optical, structural and morphological properties of as-synthesized ZnO, it was characterized using various analytical techniques. The obtained result reveals that ZnO nanoparticles possess hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with an average crystallite size of ˜40 nm. The presence of hydroxyl, amine and alkyl groups was confirmed from Fourier transform infrared analysis. Furthermore, the synthesized ZnO powder has employed as photoanode for the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells using Doctor-blade technique. To evaluate its photo-conversion efficiency, the device has been assembled into a cell module and illuminated with the light intensity of 100 mW cm-2. The device exhibits the photo-conversion efficiency of 1.85% with the current density of 4.532 mA cm-2 and voltage of 0.61 V.

  6. Dye-sensitized solar cell employing zinc oxide aggregates grown in the presence of lithium

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Qifeng; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-10-15

    Provided are a novel ZnO dye-sensitized solar cell and method of fabricating the same. In one embodiment, deliberately added lithium ions are used to mediate the growth of ZnO aggregates. The use of lithium provides ZnO aggregates that have advantageous microstructure, morphology, crystallinity, and operational characteristics. Employing lithium during aggregate synthesis results in a polydisperse collection of ZnO aggregates favorable for porosity and light scattering. The resulting nanocrystallites forming the aggregates have improved crystallinity and more favorable facets for dye molecule absorption. The lithium synthesis improves the surface stability of ZnO in acidic dyes. The procedures developed and disclosed herein also help ensure the formation of an aggregate film that has a high homogeneity of thickness, a high packing density, a high specific surface area, and good electrical contact between the film and the fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode and among the aggregate particles.

  7. Theoretical study of bismuth-doped cadmium telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez-Proupin, E.; Rios-Gonzalez, J. A.; Pena, J. L.

    Cadmium telluride heavily doped with bismuth has been proposed as an absorber with an intermediate band for solar cells. Increase in the photocurrent has been shown recently, although the overall cell efficiency has not improved. In this work, we study the electronic structure and the formation energies of the defects associated to bismuth impurities. We have performed electronic structure calculations within generalized density functional theory, using the exchange-correlation functional HSE(w) , where the range-separation parameter w has been tuned to reproduce the CdTe bandgap. Improving upon previous reports, we have included the spin-orbit interaction, which modifies the structure of the valence band and the energy levels of bismuth. We have found that interstitial Bi (Bii) tends to occupy Cd vacancies, cadmium substitution (BiCd) creates single donor level, while tellurium substitution (BiTe) is a shallow single acceptor. We investigate the interaction between these point defects and how can they be combined to create a partially filled intermediate band. Supported by FONDECYT Grant 1130437, CONACYT-SENER SUSTENTABILIDAD ENERGETICA/project CeMIE-Sol PY-207450/25 and PY-207450/26. JARG acknowledges CONACYT fellowship for research visit. Powered@NLHPC (ECM-02).

  8. Dopant-Free Zinc Chlorophyll Aggregates as an Efficient Biocompatible Hole Transporter for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengzhen; Li, Yue; Sasaki, Shin-Ichi; Song, Jiaxing; Wang, Chen; Tamiaki, Hitoshi; Tian, Wenjing; Chen, Gang; Miyasaka, Tsutomu; Wang, Xiao-Feng

    2016-10-06

    Chlorophylls (Chls) are abundant, naturally occurring pigments that play key roles in light-harvesting and electron/energy transfer in natural photosynthetic apparatus. To demonstrate the idea that Chls are suitable hole transporters, we employed two Chl derivatives, Chl-1 and Chl-2, which self-assembled readily into π-stacking aggregates through a simple spincasting process, in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The Chl aggregate films exhibit an ultra-smooth film surface, high hole mobility, appropriate energy levels, and efficient hole injection efficiencies that are all key characteristics for efficient hole transporters in PSCs. CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3-x Cl x -based PSCs with these Chls as hole transporters were fabricated and compared with P3HT as a standard hole transporter. PSCs based on Chl-1 and Chl-2 without the use of typical additives, such as 4-tert-butylpyridine and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfinyl)imide, gave power conversion efficiencies of 11.44 and 8.06 %, respectively. This research provides a unique way to incorporate low-cost and environmentally friendly natural photosynthetic materials in the development of highly efficient photovoltaic devices. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Potassium-doped zinc oxide as photocathode material in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Xu, Xiaobao; Xu, Ling; Cui, Jin; Huang, Dekang; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Yibing; Shen, Yan; Wang, Mingkui

    2013-04-01

    ZnO nanoparticles are doped with K and applied in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The microstructure and dynamics of hole transportation and recombination are investigated. The morphology of the K-doped ZnO nanoparticles shows a homogeneous distribution with sizes in the range 30-40 nm. When applied in p-type DSCs in combination with C343 as sensitizer, the K-doped ZnO nanoparticles achieve a photovoltaic power conversion efficiency of 0.012 % at full-intensity sunlight. A further study on the device by transient photovoltage/photocurrent decay measurements shows that the K-doped ZnO nanoparticles have an appreciable hole diffusion coefficient (ca. 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) ). Compared to the widely used p-type NiO nanoparticles, this advantage is crucial for further improving the efficiency of p-type DSCs. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells from mesoporous zinc oxide nanostructures sensitized by N719 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumara, G. R. A.; Deshapriya, U.; Ranasinghe, C. S. K.; Jayaweera, E. N.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.

    2018-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have attracted a great deal of attention due to their low-cost and high power conversion efficiencies. They usually utilize an interconnected nanoparticle layer of TiO2 as the electron transport medium. From the fundamental point of view, faster mobility of electrons in ZnO is expected to contribute to better performance in DSCs than TiO2, though the actual practical situation is quite the opposite. In this research, we addressed this problem by first applying a dense layer of ZnO on FTO followed by a mesoporous layer of interconnected ZnO nanoparticle layer, both were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. The best cell shows a power conversion efficiency of 5.2% when the mesoporous layer thickness is 14 μm and the concentration of the N719 dye in dye coating solution is 0.3 mM, while a cell without a dense layer shows 4.2% under identical conditions. The surface concentration of dye adsorbed in the cell with a dense layer and that without a dense layer are 5.00 × 10‑7 and 3.34 × 10‑7 mol/cm2, respectively. The cell with the dense layer has an electron lifetime of 54.81 ms whereas that without the dense layer is 11.08 ms. As such, the presence of the dense layer improves DSC characteristics of ZnO-based DSCs.

  11. Use of Encapsulated Zinc Particles in a Eutectic Chloride Salt to Enhance Thermal Energy Storage Capacity for Concentrated Solar Power

    SciT

    Cingarapu, Sreeram; Singh, Dileep; Timofeeva, Elena V.

    2015-08-01

    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is considered as a viable large-scale renewable energy source to produce electricity. However, current costs to produce electricity from CSP are not cost competitive as compared to the traditional energy generation technologies based on fossil fuels and nuclear. It is envisioned that development of high efficiency and high heat capacity thermal storage fluids will increase system efficiency, reduce structural storage volume, and hence, contribute to reducing costs. Particularly, with respect to CSP, current high temperature energy storage fluids, such as molten salts, are relatively limited in terms of their thermal energy storage capacity and thermal conductivity.more » The current work explores possibility of boosting the thermal storage capacity of molten salts through latent heat of added phase change materials. We studied the advantage Of adding coated Zn micron-sized particles to alkali chloride salt eutectic for enhanced thermal energy storage. Zinc particles (0.6 mu m and 5 mu m) obtained from commercial source were coated with an organo-phosphorus shell to improve chemical stability and to prevent individual particles from coalescing with one another during melt/freeze cycles. Thermal cycling tests (200 melt/freeze cycles) showed that coated Zn particles have good thermal stability and are chemically inert to alkali chloride salt eutectic in both N-2 and in air atmospheres. Elemental mapping of the cross-sectional view of coated Zn particles from the composite after thermal cycles showed no signs of oxidation, agglomeration or other type of particle degradation. The measured enhancement in volumetric thermal storage capacity of the composite with just similar to 10 vol% of coated Zn particles over the base chloride salt eutectic varies from 15% to 34% depending on cycling temperature range (Delta T = 50 degrees C -100 degrees C. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.« less

  12. Nanostructured zinc oxide photoelectrodes by green routes M-SILAR and electrodeposition for dye sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaikwad, M. A.; Suryawanshi, M. P.; Maldar, P. S.; Dongale, T. D.; Moholkar, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    Surfactant-free, ultrasound assisted modified successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (M-SILAR) method and home-made microcontroller based low-cost potentiostat system are employed to prepare zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure based thin films. The comparison between physicochemical as well as photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the nanostructures prepared via two different template free, simplistic and cost-effective green routes have been discussed in detail. X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis confirm the formation of phase pure ZnO with the hexagonal crystal structure. Surface morphology significantly affects the physicochemical as well as PEC properties of ZnO thin films. Nanorods (NRs) and nanosheets (NSs) based ZnO thin films sensitized with N3 dye have been directly used as photoelectrodes in the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.59% is achieved with Jsc of 4.04 mA/cm2 and Voc of 0.44 V for the DSSC in which the M-SILAR deposited 1-D ZnO NRs based thin film is used as the photoanode. While relatively less PCE of 0.29% with Jsc of 2.53 mA/cm2 and Voc of 0.36 V is obtained for DSSC prepared using electrodeposited 2-D ZnO NSs. In the NSs like 2-D surface morphology, the presence of multiple grain boundaries are acted as traps for the diffusing electrons, which reduces the electron mobility through it.

  13. Electrocatalytic Zinc Composites as the Efficient Counter Electrodes of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Study on the Electrochemical Performances and Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Ting; Chang, Hung-Yu; Li, Yu-Yan; Huang, Yi-June; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Vittal, R; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2015-12-30

    Highly efficient zinc compounds (Zn3N2, ZnO, ZnS, and ZnSe) have been investigated as low-cost electrocatalysts for the counter electrodes (CE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Among them, Zn3N2 and ZnSe are introduced for the first time in DSSCs. The zinc compounds were separately mixed with a conducting binder, poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS), and thereby four composite films of Zn3N2/PEDOT:PSS, ZnO/PEDOT:PSS, ZnS/PEDOT:PSS, and ZnSe/ PSS were coated on the tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) substrates through a simple drop-coating process. In the composite film, nanoparticles of the zinc compound form active sites for the electrocatalytic reduction of triiodide ions, and PSS provides a continuous conductive matrix for fast electron transfer. By varying the weight percentage (5-20 wt %) of a zinc compound with respect to the weight of the PSS, the optimized concentration of a zinc compound was found to be 10 wt % in all four cases, based on the photovoltaic performances of the corresponding DSSCs. At this concentration (10 wt %), the composites films with Zn3N2 (Zn3N2-10), ZnO (ZnO-10), ZnS (ZnS-10), and ZnSe (ZnSe-10) rendered, for their DSSCs, power conversion efficiencies (η) of 8.73%, 7.54%, 7.40%, and 8.13%, respectively. The difference in the power conversion efficiency is explained based on the electrocatalytic abilities of those composite films as determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), Tafel polarization plots, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The energy band gaps of the zinc compounds, obtained by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, were used to explain the electrocatalytic behaviors of the compounds. Among all the zinc-based composites, the one with Zn3N2-10 showed the best electrocatalytic ability and thereby rendered for its DSSC the highest η of 8.73%, which is even higher than that of the cell with the traditional Pt CE (8.50%). Therefore, Zn3N2 can be considered as a promising

  14. Research support for cadmium telluride crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz

    1995-01-01

    The growth of single crystals of zinc selenide was carried out by both closed ampoule physical vapor transport and effusive ampoule physical vapor transport (EAPVT). The latter technique was shown to be a much more efficient method for the seeded growth of zinc selenide, resulting in higher transport rates. Furthermore, EAPVT work on CdTe has shown that growth onto (n 11) seeds is advantageous for obtaining reduced twinning and defect densities in II-VI sphalerite materials.

  15. Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer

    SciT

    Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu, E-mail: cfzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Wang, Zhizhe

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150 °C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100 °C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightlymore » improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.« less

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of lead telluride/bismuth antimony telluride nanocomposites for thermoelectric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Shreyashi; Zhou, Chen; Morelli, Donald; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Uher, Ctirad; Brock, Stephanie L.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneous nanocomposites of p-type bismuth antimony telluride (Bi 2- xSb xTe 3) with lead telluride (PbTe) nanoinclusions have been prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation approach. The Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and Hall coefficient were measured from 80 to 380 K in order to investigate the influence of PbTe nanoparticles on the thermoelectric performance of nanocomposites. The Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities of nanocomposites decrease with increasing PbTe nanoparticle concentration due to an increased hole concentration. The lattice thermal conductivity decreases with the addition of PbTe nanoparticles but the total thermal conductivity increases due to the increased electronic thermal conductivity. We conclude that the presence of nanosized PbTe in the bulk Bi 2- xSb xTe 3 matrix results in a collateral doping effect, which dominates transport properties. This study underscores the need for immiscible systems to achieve the decreased thermal transport properties possible from nanostructuring without compromising the electronic properties.

  17. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  18. Electrochemical Deposition of Lanthanum Telluride Thin Films and Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Su (Ike); Farias, Stephen; Cammarata, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Tellurium alloys are characterized by their high performance thermoelectric properties and recent research has shown nanostructured tellurium alloys display even greater performance than bulk equivalents. Increased thermoelectric efficiency of nanostructured materials have led to significant interests in developing thin film and nanowire structures. Here, we report on the first successful electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films and nanowires. The electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films is performed in ionic liquids at room temperature. The synthesis of nanowires involves electrodepositing lanthanum telluride arrays into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous membranes. These novel procedures can serve as an alternative means of simple, inexpensive and laboratory-environment friendly methods to synthesize nanostructured thermoelectric materials. The thermoelectric properties of thin films and nanowires will be presented to compare to current state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. The morphologies and chemical compositions of the deposited films and nanowires are characterized using SEM and EDAX analysis.

  19. Electrical Characterization of Thin Film Cadmium Telluride Electrodeposited from Tri-N Telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Windheim, Jesko A.

    The electrical transport properties of CdTe electrodeposited from tri-n-butylphosphine telluride have been studied by resistivity and Hall effect measurements. Methods have been developed to reproducibly remove large area samples from their conducting substrates, and these samples were prepared for temperature dependent Hall measurements and resistivity measurements. Apparatus was designed and built to routinely measure Hall voltages as low as 250 muV for source impedances up to 10 ^{12} Omega. The central aspect of the measurement system was a low cost, differential electrometer amplifier designed around the AD549L monolithic electrometer operational amplifier. Temperature control was achieved via a Eurotherm 808 temperature controller, and a cooled stream of nitrogen gas. With this system, temperature could be maintained within +/- 0.5^circC at set points between -40^circC and +40^circC. Data collection, temperature ramping, and power to the magnet were all computer controlled, and resistivity measurements were fully automated. As-annealed electrodeposited CdTe was found to be consistently p-type, with resistivity values typically 10^6- 10^{7 } Omega-cm. Various donor and acceptor dopants have been incorporated into polycrystalline CdTe films by three methods: electrochemical codeposition, electromigration and vapour techniques. The dopants were Cd, Te, Cu, Ag, In, and O_2. The activity of the dopant was dependent on the method that was used for incorporation. Oxygen was found to only have a significant effect when it was incorporated in situ, during deposition. For Cd and Te, on the other hand, little effect was seen when their concentration was varied in situ. However, hole concentration increased substantially when Te was incorporated by diffusion, and a p to n conversion was observed when Cd was incorporated by diffusion. The carrier concentration of p-type CdTe could be systematically increased by increasing the current density for the electromigration of

  20. Preparation and photovoltaic properties of CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cell based on zinc tin mixed metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiupeng; Zhao, Yifan; Zhu, Yatong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Shi, Peng; Xiao, Hongdi; Du, Na; Hou, Wanguo; Qi, Genggeng; Liu, Jianqiang

    2017-07-15

    The present study reports a new type of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) using the zinc tin mixed metal oxides (MMO) as the anode materials, which were obtained from the layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursor. The successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method is applied to deposit CdS quantum dots. The effects of sensitizing cycles on the performance of CdS QDSSC are studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are used to identify the surface profile and crystal structure of the mixed metal oxides anode. The photovoltaic performance of the QDSSC is studied by the electrochemical method. The new CdS QDSSC exhibits power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 0.48% when the anode was sensitized for eight cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 120. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS RETORT USED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS RETORT USED FOR FLASHING MERCURY OFF OF GOLD TO CREATE SOFT INGOTS CALLED "SPONGES." AT RIGHT ARE SAFES FOR STORING 22-POUND SPONGES WORTH OVER $60,000 EACH, CA. 1985. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  2. Region 8: Colorado Telluride Adequate Letter (8/17/2011)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This March 4, 2011 letter from EPA to Chistopher E. Urbina M.D., MPH, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment states that EPA has found that the Telluride, CO PM10 maintenance plan and the 2021 motor vehicle emisssions budget (MVEB) adequate

  3. Living with wildfire in Telluride Fire Protection District, Colorado

    James R. Meldrum; Lilia C. Falk; Jamie Gomez; Christopher M. Barth; Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Travis Warziniack; Patricia A. Champ

    2017-01-01

    Residents in the wildland-urban interface can play an important role in reducing wildfires’ negative effects by performing wildfire risk mitigation on their properties. This report offers insight into the wildfire risk mitigation activities and related considerations such as attitudes, experiences, and concern about wildfire, for residents of the Telluride Fire...

  4. Ultrasonication of Bismuth Telluride Nanocrystals Fabricated by Solvothermal Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Sang-Hyon; Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Jae-Woo; King, Glen C.; Elliott, James R.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of ultrasonication on bismuth telluride nanocrystals prepared by solvothermal method. In this study, a low dimensional nanocrystal of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) was synthesized by a solvothermal process in an autoclave at 180 C and 200 psi. During the solvothermal reaction, organic surfactants effectively prevented unwanted aggregation of nanocrystals in a selected solvent while controlling the shape of the nanocrystal. The atomic ratio of bismuth and tellurium was determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The cavitational energy created by the ultrasonic probe was varied by the ultrasonication process time, while power amplitude remained constant. The nanocrystal size and its size distribution were measured by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and a dynamic light scattering system. When the ultrasonication time increased, the average size of bismuth telluride nanocrystal gradually increased due to the direct collision of nanocrystals. The polydispersity of the nanocrystals showed a minimum when the ultrasonication was applied for 5 min. Keywords: bismuth telluride, nanocrystal, low-dimensional, ultrasonication, solvothermal

  5. Crystal growth, fabrication and evaluation of cadmium manganese telluride gamma ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Arnold; Chattopadhyay, Kaushik; Chen, Henry; Olivier Ndap, Jean; Ma, Xiaoyan; Trivedi, Sudhir; Kutcher, Susan W.; Chen, Rujin; Rosemeier, Robert D.

    1999-03-01

    Cadmium manganese telluride (Cd 1- xMn xTe) is a diluted magnetic semiconductor material which forms the basis for many important devices such as IR detectors, solar cells, magnetic field sensors, optical isolators, and visible and near IR lasers. High resistivity (>10 10 Ω cm) and high μ τ (>10 -6 cm 2/V) material, which are the two prerequisites in the fabrication of radiation detectors, has recently been demonstrated at Brimrose Corp. This paper presents the crystal growth of intentionally vanadium doped crystals, the surface preparation and contacting procedure, as well as the best detector performance obtained so far. Dark current characteristics, and low temperature photoluminescence results are also presented and discussed.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of P3HT:PCBM-based thin film organic solar cells with zinc phthalocyanine

    SciT

    Maruhashi, Haruto, E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp; Oku, Takeo, E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp; Suzuki, Atsushi, E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp

    2015-02-27

    [6,6]–phenyl C{sub 61}–butyric acid methyl ester and poly(3–hexylthiophene) bulk heterojunction solar cells added with zinc–tetra–tertiary–butyl–phthalocyanine (ZnPc) were fabricated and characterized. The photovoltaic properties of the solar cells with an inverted structure were improved by the ZnPc addition, which were investigated on the bases of current density–voltage characteristics, incident photon to current conversion efficiency.

  7. Improved performance of low cost CuInS2 superstrate-type solar cells using Zinc assisted spray pyrolysis processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheshme Khavar, Amir Hossein; Mahjoub, Ali Reza; Taghavinia, Nima

    2017-12-01

    Superstrate configuration CuInS2 (CIS) solar cells are fabricated using a spray pyrolysis method. We avoided selenization process, cyanide etching and CdS buffer layer, to keep the process ‘green’. CIS layers are formed by spray pyrolysis of an aqueous precursor ink containing metal chloride salts and thiourea at 350 °C. We investigated the effect of intentional Zn doping on structural, morphological and photovoltaic response of the fabricated CIS films by dissolving ZnCl2 in aqueous precursor solution. At a zinc doping level ranging between 0.25 and 1.00 mol%, Zn doping is found to improve the CIS crystal growth and surface morphology of CIS films. Compared with the performance of the non-doped CIS cell, the Zn-doped CIS solar cell displayed a remarkable efficiency enhancement of 58-97% and the maximum enhancement was obtained at a Zn content of 0.5 mol%. The device structure consists of    and show promising PCE of 4.29 % without any anti-reflection coating. Over the course of 300 d under ambient condition, the fabricated device showed only 1% loss in efficiency.

  8. Zinc Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Eye Conditions Clinical Digest: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Related Resources From Other Agencies Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc ( ODS ) Follow NCCIH: Read our disclaimer ...

  9. Thermoelctric Properties of Bi and Bismuth Telluride Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Tito E.; Calcao, Ricky

    1998-03-01

    It has been suggested that microengineering traditional thermoelectric materials into composites may leadto asignificant improvement in their thermoelectric performance. One approach for the fabrication of nanostructured materials is the utilization of nanochannel insulators as a matrix for the synthesis of dense composites using high pressure injection of the melt. We will discuss the synthesis and structural properties of oriented Bi and Bismuth Telluride wire arrays prepared with this technique. Funded by the Army Research Office.

  10. Thermoelectric Micro-Refrigerator Based on Bismuth/Antimony Telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Linh Tuan; Dang, Tung Huu; Nguyen, Thao Thi Thu; Nguyen, Thuat Tran; Nguyen, Hue Minh; Nguyen, Tuyen Viet; Nguyen, Hung Quoc

    2017-06-01

    Thermoelectric micro-coolers based on bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and antimony telluride (Sb2Te3) are important in many practical applications thanks to their compactness and fluid-free circulation. In this paper, we studied thermoelectric properties of bismuth/antimony telluride (Bi/SbTe) thin films prepared by the thermal co-evaporation method, which yielded among the best thermoelectric quality. Different co-evaporation conditions such as deposition flux ratio of materials and substrate temperature during deposition were investigated to optimize the thermoelectric figure␣of merit of these materials. Micron-size refrigerators were designed and fabricated using standard lithography and etching technique. A three-layer structure was introduced, including a p-type layer, an n-type layer and an aluminum layer. Next to the main cooler, a pair of smaller Bi/SbTe junctions was used as a thermocouple to directly measure electron temperature of the main device. Etching properties of the thermoelectric materials were investigated and optimized to support the fabrication process of the micro-refrigerator. We discuss our results and address possible applications.

  11. Chemical Bath Deposited Zinc Sulfide Buffer Layers for Copper Indium Gallium Sulfur-selenide Solar Cells and Device Analysis

    SciT

    Kundu, Sambhu N.; Olsen, Larry C.

    2005-01-03

    Cd free CIGSS thin film solar cell structures with a MgF2/TCO/CGD-ZnS/CIGSS/Mo/SLG structure have been fabricated using chemical bath deposited (CBD)-ZnS buffer layers and high quality CIGSS absorber layers supplied from Shell Solar Industries. The use of CBD-ZnS, which is a higher band gap materials than CdS, improved the quantum efficiency of fabricated cells at lower wavelengths, leading to an increase in short circuit current. The best cell to date yielded an active area (0.43 cm2) efficiency of 13.3%. This paper also presents a discussion of the issues relating to the use of the CBD-ZnS buffer materials for improving device performance.

  12. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; York, D.

    1981-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of interstellar zinc toward 10 stars are examined. It is found that zinc is at most only slightly depleted in the interstellar medium; its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. The local interstellar medium has abundances that apparently are homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc, and this result is important for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood. The intrinsic errors in detecting weak interstellar lines are analyzed and suggestions are made as to how this error limit may be lowered to 5 mA per target observation.

  13. Development of Annealing-Free, Solution-Processable Inverted Organic Solar Cells with N-Doped Graphene Electrodes using Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seungon; Lee, Junghyun; Seo, Jihyung; Kim, Ungsoo; Choi, Yunseong; Park, Hyesung

    2018-02-14

    An annealing-free process is considered as a technological advancement for the development of flexible (or wearable) organic electronic devices, which can prevent the distortion of substrates and damage to the active components of the device and simplify the overall fabrication process to increase the industrial applications. Owing to its outstanding electrical, optical, and mechanical properties, graphene is seen as a promising material that could act as a transparent conductive electrode for flexible optoelectronic devices. Owing to their high transparency and electron mobility, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) are attractive and promising for their application as charge transporting materials for low-temperature processes in organic solar cells (OSCs), particularly because most charge transporting materials require annealing treatments at elevated temperatures. In this study, graphene/annealing-free ZnO-NP hybrid materials were developed for inverted OSC by successfully integrating ZnO-NP on the hydrophobic surface of graphene, thus aiming to enhance the applicability of graphene as a transparent electrode in flexible OSC systems. Chemical, optical, electrical, and morphological analyses of ZnO-NPs showed that the annealing-free process generates similar results to those provided by the conventional annealing process. The approach was effectively applied to graphene-based inverted OSCs with notable power conversion efficiencies of 8.16% and 7.41% on the solid and flexible substrates, respectively, which promises the great feasibility of graphene for emerging optoelectronic device applications.

  14. Zinc-aluminum oxide solid solution nanosheets obtained by pyrolysis of layered double hydroxide as the photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiyuan; Shi, Jingjing; Haroone, Muhammad Sohail; Chen, Wenpeng; Zheng, Shufang; Lu, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Due to the superiority of metal-doped ZnO compared to TiO 2 , the Zn-M (M = Al 3+ , Ga 3+ , Cr 3+ , Ti 4+ , Ce 4+ ) mixed metal oxide solid solutions have been extensively studied for photocatalytic and photovoltaic applications. In this work, a systematic research has proceeded for the preparation of a zinc-aluminum oxide semiconductor as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by a simple pyrolysis route with the Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) as a precursor. The Zn-Al oxide solid solution has been applied for DSSCs as an electron acceptor, which is used to study the influence of different Al content and sintering temperature on the device efficiency. Finally, the Zn-Al oxide solid solution with calcination temperature 600 °C and Al 27 at.% content exhibits the best performance. The photoelectric efficiency improved 100 times when the Al 3+ content decreased from 44 to 27 at.%. The Zn x Al y O solid solution show a reasonable efficiency as photoanode materials in DSSCs, with the best preliminary performance reported so far, and shows its potential application for the photovoltaic devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid Deposition Technology Holds the Key for the World's Largest Manufacturer of Thin-Film Solar Modules (Fact Sheet)

    SciT

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    First Solar, Inc. has been collaborating with NREL since 1991, advancing its thin-film cadmium telluride solar technology to grow from a startup company to become one of the world's largest manufacturers of solar modules, and the world's largest manufacturer of thin-film solar modules.

  16. Method of Creating Micro-scale Silver Telluride Grains Covered with Bismuth Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Lee, Kunik (Inventor); Kim, Hyun-Jung (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Provided is a method of enhancing thermoelectric performance by surrounding crystalline semiconductors with nanoparticles by contacting a bismuth telluride material with a silver salt under a substantially inert atmosphere and a temperature approximately near the silver salt decomposition temperature; and recovering a metallic bismuth decorated material comprising silver telluride crystal grains.

  17. Observations of interstellar zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.; Jura, M.

    1982-01-01

    IUE observations toward 10 stars have shown that zinc is not depleted in the interstellar medium by more than a factor of two, suggesting that its abundance may serve as a tracer of the true metallicity in the gas. A result pertinent to the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood is that the local interstellar medium has abundances that appear to be homogeneous to within a factor of two, when integrated over paths of about 500 pc.

  18. Lead telluride as a thermoelectric material for thermoelectric power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dughaish, Z. H.

    2002-09-01

    The specialized applications of thermoelectric generators are very successful and have motivated a search for materials with an improved figure of merit Z, and also for materials which operate at elevated temperatures. Lead telluride, PbTe, is an intermediate thermoelectric power generator. Its maximum operating temperature is 900 K. PbTe has a high melting point, good chemical stability, low vapor pressure and good chemical strength in addition to high figure of merit Z. Recently, research in thermoelectricity aims to obtain new improved materials for autonomous sources of electrical power in specialized medical, terrestial and space applications and to obtain an unconventional energy source after the oil crises of 1974. Although the efficiency of thermoelectric generators is rather low, typically ∼5%, the other advantages, such as compactness, silent, reliability, long life, and long period of operation without attention, led to a wide range of applications. PbTe thermoelectric generators have been widely used by the US army, in space crafts to provide onboard power, and in pacemakers batteries. The general physical properties of lead telluride and factors affecting the figure of merit have been reviewed. Various possibilities of improving the figure of merit of the material have been given, including effect of grain size on reducing the lattice thermal conductivity λL. Comparison of some transport properties of lead telluride with other thermoelectric materials and procedures of preparing compacts with transport properties very close to the single crystal values from PbTe powder by cold and hot-pressing techniques are discussed.

  19. Photoreflectance Study of Boron Ion-Implanted (100) Cadmium Telluride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amirtharaj, P. M.; Odell, M. S.; Bowman, R. C., Jr.; Alt, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    Ion implanted (100) cadmium telluride was studied using the contactless technique of photoreflectance. The implantations were performed using 50- to 400-keV boron ions to a maximum dosage of 1.5 x 10(16)/sq cm, and the annealing was accomplished at 500 C under vacuum. The spectral measurements were made at 77 K near the E(0) and E(1) critical points; all the spectra were computer-fitted to Aspnes' theory. The spectral line shapes from the ion damaged, partially recovered and undamaged, or fully recovered regions could be identified, and the respective volume fraction of each phase was estimated.

  20. Transport properties of bismuth telluride compound prepared by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khade, Poonam; Bagwaiya, Toshi; Bhattacharya, Shovit; Rayaprol, Sudhindra; Sahu, Ashok K.; Shelke, Vilas

    2017-05-01

    We have synthesized bismuth telluride compound using mechanical alloying and hot press sintering method. The phase formation, crystal structure was evaluated by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The scanning electron microscopy images indicated sub-micron sized grains. We observed low value of thermal conductivity 0.39 W/mK at room temperature as a result of grain size reduction by increasing deformation. The performance of the samples can be improved by reducing the grain size, which increases the grain boundary scattering.

  1. Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) Fabricated with Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanpowders and Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Suman

    2018-03-01

    Due to their high efficiencies, along with lower production costs, many researchers are working on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) over last few decades as a substitute technology for nonconventional energy. Nanostructured ZnO has got many interesting properties such as wide band gap, large exciton binding energy, good exciton stability, and high breakdown strength, which are applicable as DSSC electrodes. This present work compares the device properties of DSSC fabricated using ZnO nanorods on a ZnO film and ZnO nanopowders. Different types of ZnO photoanode and dye combinations are used to study the stability and photovoltaic properties of the DSSC cell. The photovoltaic properties of the ZnO-based DSSC samples were systematically investigated. The photovoltaic properties of fabricated cell obtained are discussed in the light of band structure and density of states of different types of ZnO nanolayers. The ZnO nanorods fabricated through the sol-gel route have more uniform thickness resulting in enhanced photovoltaic properties of the fabricated device.

  2. Studies on graphene zinc-oxide nanocomposites photoanodes for high-efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Effendi, N. A. S.; Samsi, N. S.; Zawawi, S. A.; Hassan, O. H.; Zakaria, R.; Yahya, M. Z. A.; Ali, A. M. M.

    2017-09-01

    A dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using a nanocomposite (NC) semiconductor film, consisting of graphene layer and ZnO nanosheets (Gr-ZnO) is fabricated by electrodeposition process. The DSSCs based on Gr-ZnO NC were determined via electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), UV-Visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and photovoltaic performances J-V curves to substantiate the explanations. Impedance spectra shows that a smaller charge transport time constant occurs in DSSCs based on Gr-ZnO NC comparing to ZnO. This improved the electron collecting efficiency significantly, resulting in high open circuit voltage. Moreover, Gr-ZnO NC shows an efficient photoinduced charge separation and transportation can be achieved at the interface thus exhibit excellent potential for photocurrent generation compared with sole ZnO. Gr-ZnO NC obtained a maximum photocurrent response for an open-circuit voltage and a power conversion efficiency of 0.96 V and 7.01% respectively, which is doubled from sole ZnO. The fabricated Gr-ZnO NC cells show better performances compared to conventional ZnO structure reference cell.

  3. Magneto-photoconductivity of three dimensional topological insulator bismuth telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Bingchen; Eginligil, Mustafa; Yu, Ting

    2018-03-01

    Magnetic field dependence of the photocurrent in a 3D topological insulator is studied. Among the 3D topological insulators bismuth telluride has unique hexagonal warping and spin texture which has been studied by photoemission, scanning tunnelling microscopy and transport. Here, we report on low temperature magneto-photoconductivity, up to 7 T, of two metallic bismuth telluride topological insulator samples with 68 and 110 nm thicknesses excited by 2.33 eV photon energy along the magnetic field perpendicular to the sample plane. At 4 K, both samples exhibit negative magneto-photoconductance below 4 T, which is as a result of weak-antilocalization of Dirac fermions similar to the previous observations in electrical transport. However the thinner sample shows positive magneto-photoconductance above 4 T. This can be attributed to the coupling of surface states. On the other hand, the thicker sample shows no positive magneto-photoconductance up to 7 T since there is only one surface state at play. By fitting the magneto-photoconductivity data of the thicker sample to the localization formula, we obtain weak antilocalization behaviour at 4, 10, and 20 K, as expected; however, weak localization behaviour at 30 K, which is a sign of surface states masked by bulk states. Also, from the temperature dependence of phase coherence length bulk carrier-carrier interaction is identified separately from the surface states. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish surface states by magneto-photoconductivity at low temperature, even in metallic samples.

  4. Band structure engineering for solar energy applications: Zinc oxide(1-x) selenium(x) films and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Marie Annette

    New technologies motivate the development of new semiconducting materials, for which structural, electrical and chemical properties are not well understood. In addition to new materials systems, there are huge opportunities for new applications, especially in solar energy conversion. In this dissertation I explore the role of band structure engineering of semiconducting oxides for solar energy. Due to the abundance and electrochemical stability of oxides, the appropriate modification could make them appealing for applications in both photovoltaics and photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. This dissertation describes the design, synthesis and evaluation of the alloy ZnO1-xSe x for these purposes. I review several methods of band structure engineering including strain, quantum confinement and alloying. A detailed description of the band anticrossing (BAC) model for highly mismatched alloys is provided, including the derivation of the BAC model as well as recent work and potential applications. Thin film ZnOxSe1-x samples are grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). I describe in detail the effect of growth conditions (temperature, pressure and laser fluence) on the chemistry, structure and optoelectronic properties of ZnOxSe1-x. The films are grown using different combinations of PLD conditions and characterized with a variety of techniques. Phase pure films with low roughness and high crystallinity were obtained at temperatures below 450¢ªC, pressures less than 10-4 Torr and laser fluences on the order of 1.5 J/cm 2. Electrical conduction was still observed despite heavy concentrations of grain boundaries. The band structure of ZnO1-xSex is then examined in detail. The bulk electron affinity of a ZnO thin film was measured to be 4.5 eV by pinning the Fermi level with native defects. This is explained in the framework of the amphoteric defect model. A shift in the ZnO1-xSe x valence band edge with x is observed using synchrotron x-ray absorption and emission

  5. Cadmium Telluride-Titanium Dioxide Nanocomposite for Photodegradation of Organic Substance.

    PubMed

    Ontam, Areeporn; Khaorapapong, Nithima; Ogawa, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium telluride-titanium dioxide nanocomposite was prepared by hydrothermal reaction of sol-gel derived titanium dioxide and organically modified cadmium telluride. The crystallinity of titanium dioxide in the nanocomposite was higher than that of pure titanium dioxide obtained by the reaction under the same temperature and pressure conditions, showing that cadmium telluride induced the crystallization of titanium dioxide. Diffuse reflectance spectrum of the nanocomposite showed the higher absorption efficiency in the UV-visible region due to band-gap excitation of titanium dioxide. The nanocomposite significantly showed the improvement of photocatalytic activity for 4-chlorophenol with UV light.

  6. Characterization of Cadmium-Zinc Telluride Crystals Grown by 'Contactless' PVT Using Synchrotron White Beam Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Gillies, D.; Grasza, K.; Chung, H.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.

    1997-01-01

    Crystals of Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te grown by Physical Vapor Transport (PVT) using self-seeding 'contactless' techniques were characterized using synchrotron radiation (reflection, transmission, and Laue back-reflection X-ray topography). Crystals of low (x = 0.04) and high (up to x approx. = 0.4) ZnTe content were investigated. Twins and defects such as dislocations, precipitates, and slip bands were identified. Extensive inhomogeneous strains present in some samples were found to be generated by interaction (sticking) with the pedestal and by composition gradients in the crystals. Large (up to about 5 mm) oval strain fields were observed around some Te precipitates. Low angle grain boundaries were found only in higher ZnTe content (x greater than or equal to 0.2) samples.

  7. Investigation of Artificial Forced Cooling in the Bridgman Crystal Growth of Cadmium Zinc Telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juncheng; Li, Jiao; Zhang, Guodong; Li, Changxing; Lennon, Craig; Sivananthan, Siva

    2007-08-01

    The effects of artificial forced cooling on the solid liquid interface and on solute segregation were investigated by modeling the vertical Bridgman method for the single-crystal growth of CdZnTe, taking into consideration effects such as increasing the axial outward heat flux from the crucible bottom, the radial outward heat flux from the crucible wall, and the carbon film thickness on the crucible inner wall. Axial artificially forced cooling noticeably increases convection and the temperature gradient in the melt next to the solid liquid interface, and substantially reduces interface concavity at the initial solidification stage. Interface concavity increases a little when the solidification proceeds further, however. Axial artificially forced cooling reduces radial solute segregation of the initial segment of the grown crystal and slightly increases the solute iso-concentration segment. Radial artificially forced cooling enhances melt convection substantially, affects solid liquid interface concavity only slightly, and hardly affects solute segregation in the grown crystal. Doubling the carbon film thickness weakens convection of the melt in front of the interface, substantially increases interface concavity, and hardly affects solute segregation in the grown crystal.

  8. Investigation to optimize the energy resolution and efficiency of cadmium(zinc)telluride for photon measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hadong

    While the investigations of the Cd(Zn)Te characteristics were completed, a new method to make arbitrary anode shapes, without the troublesome shadow mask technique, was found. With this technique, the two-anode geometry Cd(Zn)Te detector was introduced and tested. The semiconductor performance of the two-anode geometry detectors for the incoming gamma rays of 241Am, 57Co, and 137Cs were compared to the responses of the planar device. The very promising photon energy resolutions of 9.3 and 5.4% FWHM were obtained with the two-anode geometry detector for the gamma rays energies of 122 keV and 662 keV, respectively, while no discernible full energy peaks were apparent with the planar detector. Several simulation programs that are very easy to handle were developed as useful tools for investigating the complicated gamma ray pulse height distributions, which were due to the energy deposition events inside the semiconductors. Comparisons to the known values and with the results from other application programs, validated the information obtained from the simulation programs, which were developed during this research effort. A graphical user interface (GUI) was designed for the user's convenience in order to enter the required input parameters for the specific requirements of each simulation programs. The idealized noise free spectra for the planar detector and for the small pixel geometry detector were successfully obtained by applying Monte Carlo techniques.

  9. Review of methods for preparatin of zinc and cadmium sulfide, selenide and telluride single cyrstals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucharczyk, M.; Zabludowska, K.

    1986-01-01

    The growth method of (Zn,Cd)S, (Zn,Cd)Se, (Zn,Cd)Te single crystals is reviewed. It is suggested that the method of sublimation-condensation is the most suitable to the conditions and facilities available, and should be employed in the Department of Physics of Bislystok Polytechnic.

  10. Experimental Studies on Mass Transport of Cadmium-Zinc Telluride by Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental studies on mass transport of ternary compound, Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te by physical vapor transport (PVT) for source compositions up to X = 0.21 are presented. The effect of thermochemical (temperatures, vapor composition) and other factors (preparation of the source, crystal growth rate, temperature gradient) on composition and composition profiles of the grown crystals were investigated. A steep decrease in the mass flux with an increase in X(crystal) for X less than 0.1, and a difference in composition between the source and the deposited material have been observed. The composition profiles of the crystals were found to depend on the density and pretreatment of the source, and on the temperature gradient in the source zone. The homogeneity of the crystals improves at low undercoolings and/or when an appropriate excess of metal constituents is present in the vapor phase. The experimental results are in good agreement with our thermochemical model of this system.

  11. Method for surface passivation and protection of cadmium zinc telluride crystals

    DOEpatents

    Mescher, Mark J.; James, Ralph B.; Schlesinger, Tuviah E.; Hermon, Haim

    2000-01-01

    A method for reducing the leakage current in CZT crystals, particularly Cd.sub.1-x Zn.sub.x Te crystals (where x is greater than equal to zero and less than or equal to 0.5), and preferably Cd.sub.0.9 Zn.sub.0.1 Te crystals, thereby enhancing the ability of these crystal to spectrally resolve radiological emissions from a wide variety of radionuclides. Two processes are disclosed. The first method provides for depositing, via reactive sputtering, a silicon nitride hard-coat overlayer which provides significant reduction in surface leakage currents. The second method enhances the passivation by oxidizing the CZT surface with an oxygen plasma prior to silicon nitride deposition without breaking the vacuum state.

  12. Prognostic evaluation in obese patients using a dedicated multipinhole cadmium-zinc telluride SPECT camera.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Andrea; Peclat, Thais; Amaral, Ana Carolina; Lima, Ronaldo S L

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of myocardial perfusion SPECT obtained in CZT cameras (CZT-SPECT) with multipinhole collimation in obese patients. CZT-SPECT may be technically challenging in the obese, and its prognostic value remains largely unknown. Patients underwent single-day, rest/stress (supine and prone) imaging. Images were visually inspected and graded as poor, fair or good/excellent. Summed stress and difference scores (SSS and SDS, respectively) were converted into percentages of total perfusion defect and of ischemic defect by division by the maximum possible score. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and classified as class I (BMI 30-34.9 kg/m(2)), II (BMI 35-39.9 kg/m(2)), or III (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2)). Patients were followed-up by telephone interview for the occurrence of all-cause death, myocardial infarction or revascularization. A Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the independent predictors of death. Among 1396 patients, 365 (26.1 %) were obese (mean BMI 33.9 ± 3.6; 17.5 % class I, 3.4 % class II, and 3.4 % class III). Image quality was good/excellent in 94.5 % of the obese patients. The annualized mortality rates were not significantly different among obese and non-obese patients, being <1 % with normal CZT-SPECT, and increased with the degree of scan abnormality in both obese and non-obese patients. Age, the use of pharmacologic stress and an abnormal CZT-SPECT, but not obesity, were independent predictors of death. In obese patients, single-day rest/stress CZT-SPECT with a multipinhole camera provides prognostic discrimination with high image quality.

  13. Solution-processed zinc oxide/polyethylenimine nanocomposites as tunable electron transport layers for highly efficient bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Cheng; Lin, Shu-Wei; Jiang, Jian-Ming; Su, Yu-Wei; Wei, Kung-Hwa

    2015-03-25

    In this study, we employed polyethylenimine-doped sol-gel-processed zinc oxide composites (ZnO:PEI) as efficient electron transport layers (ETL) for facilitating electron extraction in inverted polymer solar cells. Using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, synchrotron grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy, we observed that ZnO:PEI composite films' energy bands could be tuned considerably by varying the content of PEI up to 7 wt %-the conduction band ranged from 4.32 to 4.0 eV-and the structural order of ZnO in the ZnO:PEI thin films would be enhanced to align perpendicular to the ITO electrode, particularly at 7 wt % PEI, facilitating electron transport vertically. We then prepared two types of bulk heterojunction systems-based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butryric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) and benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b́]dithiophene-thiophene-2,1,3-benzooxadiazole (PBDTTBO):phenyl-C71-butryric acid methyl ester (PC71BM)-that incorporated the ZnO:PEI composite layers. When using a composite of ZnO:PEI (93:7, w/w) as the ETL, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the P3HT:PC61BM (1:1, w/w) device improved to 4.6% from a value of 3.7% for the corresponding device that incorporated pristine ZnO as the ETL-a relative increase of 24%. For the PBDTTBO:PC71BM (1:2, w/w) device featuring the same amount of PEI blended in the ETL, the PCE improved to 8.7% from a value of 7.3% for the corresponding device that featured pure ZnO as its ETL-a relative increase of 20%. Accordingly, ZnO:PEI composites can be effective ETLs within organic photovoltaics.

  14. Region 8: Colorado Denver, Pagosa Springs and Telluride Adequate Letter (8/18/2000)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This letter from EPA to Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment determined Denvers' Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance plan, Pagosa Springs and Tellurides' Particulate Matter (PM10) maintenance plans for Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets adequate

  15. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  16. Zinc phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc phoshide ; CASRN 1314 - 84 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  17. Structural variations in indium tin tellurides and their thermoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neudert, Lukas; Schwarzmüller, Stefan; Schmitzer, Silvia; Schnick, Wolfgang; Oeckler, Oliver

    2018-02-01

    Indium-doped tin tellurides are promising and thoroughly investigated thermoelectric materials. Due to the low solubility of In2Te3 in SnTe and vice versa, samples with the nominal composition (SnTe)3-3x(In2Te3)x with 0.136 ≤ x ≤ 0.75 consist of a defect-rocksalt-type Sn-rich and a defect-sphalerite-type In-rich phase which are endotaxially intergrown and form nanoscale heterostructures. Such nanostructures are kinetically inert and become more pronounced with increasing overall In content. The vacancies often show short-range ordering. These phenomena are investigated by temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction and HRTEM as well as STEM with element mapping by X-ray spectroscopy. The combination of real-structure effects leads to very low lattice thermal conductivity from room temperature up to 500 °C. Thermoelectric figures of merit ZT of heterostructured materials with x = 0.136 reach ZT values up to 0.55 at 400 °C.

  18. In-plane optical anisotropy of layered gallium telluride

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Shengxi; Tatsumi, Yuki; Ling, Xi; ...

    2016-08-16

    Layered gallium telluride (GaTe) has attracted much attention recently, due to its extremely high photoresponsivity, short response time, and promising thermoelectric performance. Different from most commonly studied two-dimensional (2D) materials, GaTe has in-plane anisotropy and a low symmetry with the C 2h 3 space group. Investigating the in-plane optical anisotropy, including the electron–photon and electron–phonon interactions of GaTe is essential in realizing its applications in optoelectronics and thermoelectrics. In this work, the anisotropic light-matter interactions in the low-symmetry material GaTe are studied using anisotropic optical extinction and Raman spectroscopies as probes. Our polarized optical extinction spectroscopy reveals the weak anisotropymore » in optical extinction spectra for visible light of multilayer GaTe. Polarized Raman spectroscopy proves to be sensitive to the crystalline orientation of GaTe, and shows the intricate dependences of Raman anisotropy on flake thickness, photon and phonon energies. Such intricate dependences can be explained by theoretical analyses employing first-principles calculations and group theory. Furthermore, these studies are a crucial step toward the applications of GaTe especially in optoelectronics and thermoelectrics, and provide a general methodology for the study of the anisotropy of light-matter interactions in 2D layered materials with in-plane anisotropy.« less

  19. Chemical synthesis and supercapacitive properties of lanthanum telluride thin film.

    PubMed

    Patil, S J; Lokhande, A C; Lee, D-W; Kim, J H; Lokhande, C D

    2017-03-15

    Lanthanum telluride (La 2 Te 3 ) thin films are synthesized via a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The crystal structure, surface morphology and surface wettability properties are investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and contact angle goniometer techniques, respectively. The La 2 Te 3 material exhibits a specific surface area of 51m 2 g -1 determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. La 2 Te 3 thin film electrode has a hydrophilic surface which consists of interconnected pine leaf-like flaky arrays that affect the performance of the supercapacitor. The supercapacitive performance of La 2 Te 3 film electrode is evaluated in 1M LiClO 4 /PC electrolyte using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. La 2 Te 3 film electrode exhibits a specific capacitance of 194Fg -1 at a scan rate of 5mVs -1 and stored energy density of 60Whkg -1 with delivering power density of 7.22kWkg -1 . La 2 Te 3 film electrode showed capacitive retention of 82% over 1000cycles at a scan rate of 100mVs -1 . Further, flexible La 2 Te 3 |LiClO 4 -PVA|La 2 Te 3 supercapacitor cell is fabricated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Precision timing detectors with cadmium-telluride sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornheim, A.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Precision timing detectors for high energy physics experiments with temporal resolutions of a few 10 ps are of pivotal importance to master the challenges posed by the highest energy particle accelerators such as the LHC. Calorimetric timing measurements have been a focus of recent research, enabled by exploiting the temporal coherence of electromagnetic showers. Scintillating crystals with high light yield as well as silicon sensors are viable sensitive materials for sampling calorimeters. Silicon sensors have very high efficiency for charged particles. However, their sensitivity to photons, which comprise a large fraction of the electromagnetic shower, is limited. To enhance the efficiency of detecting photons, materials with higher atomic numbers than silicon are preferable. In this paper we present test beam measurements with a Cadmium-Telluride (CdTe) sensor as the active element of a secondary emission calorimeter with focus on the timing performance of the detector. A Schottky type CdTe sensor with an active area of 1cm2 and a thickness of 1 mm is used in an arrangement with tungsten and lead absorbers. Measurements are performed with electron beams in the energy range from 2 GeV to 200 GeV. A timing resolution of 20 ps is achieved under the best conditions.

  1. Inverting polar domains via electrical pulsing in metallic germanium telluride

    PubMed Central

    Nukala, Pavan; Ren, Mingliang; Agarwal, Rahul; Berger, Jacob; Liu, Gerui; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2017-01-01

    Germanium telluride (GeTe) is both polar and metallic, an unusual combination of properties in any material system. The large concentration of free-carriers in GeTe precludes the coupling of external electric field with internal polarization, rendering it ineffective for conventional ferroelectric applications and polarization switching. Here we investigate alternate ways of coupling the polar domains in GeTe to external electrical stimuli through optical second harmonic generation polarimetry and in situ TEM electrical testing on single-crystalline GeTe nanowires. We show that anti-phase boundaries, created from current pulses (heat shocks), invert the polarization of selective domains resulting in reorganization of certain 71o domain boundaries into 109o boundaries. These boundaries subsequently interact and evolve with the partial dislocations, which migrate from domain to domain with the carrier-wind force (electrical current). This work suggests that current pulses and carrier-wind force could be external stimuli for domain engineering in ferroelectrics with significant current leakage. PMID:28401949

  2. Process dependent thermoelectric properties of EDTA assisted bismuth telluride

    SciT

    Kulsi, Chiranjit; Banerjee, Dipali, E-mail: dipalibanerjeebesu@gmail.com; Kargupta, Kajari

    2016-04-13

    Comparison between the structure and thermoelectric properties of EDTA (Ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid) assisted bismuth telluride prepared by electrochemical deposition and hydrothermal route is reported in the present work. The prepared samples have been structurally characterized by high resolution X-ray diffraction spectra (HRXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopic images (HRTEM). Crystallite size and strain have been determined from Williamson-Hall plot of XRD which is in conformity with TEM images. Measurement of transport properties show sample in the pellet form (S{sub 1}) prepared via hydrothermal route has higher value of thermoelectric power (S) than the electrodepositedmore » film (S{sub 2}). But due to a substantial increase in the electrical conductivity (σ) of the film (S{sub 2}) over the pellet (S{sub 1}), the power factor and the figure of merit is higher for sample S{sub 2} than the sample S{sub 1} at room temperature.« less

  3. Vapor crystal growth technology development: Application to cadmium telluride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Banish, Michael; Duval, Walter M. B.

    1991-01-01

    Growth of bulk crystals by physical vapor transport was developed and applied to cadmium telluride. The technology makes use of effusive ampoules, in which part of the vapor contents escapes to a vacuum shroud through defined leaks during the growth process. This approach has the advantage over traditional sealed ampoule techniques that impurity vapors and excess vapor constituents are continuously removed from the vicinity of the growing crystal. Thus, growth rates are obtained routinely at magnitudes that are rather difficult to achieve in closed ampoules. Other advantages of this effusive ampoule physical vapor transport (EAPVT) technique include the predetermination of transport rates based on simple fluid dynamics and engineering considerations, and the growth of the crystal from close to congruent vapors, which largely alleviates the compositional nonuniformities resulting from buoyancy driven convective transport. After concisely reviewing earlier work on improving transport rates, nucleation control, and minimization of crystal wall interactions in vapor crystal growth, a detail account is given of the largely computer controlled EAPVT experimentation.

  4. Radiation resistance of thin-film solar cells for space photovoltaic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodyard, James R.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and amorphous silicon alloy solar cells have achieved noteworthy performance and are currently being studied for space power applications. Cadmium sulfide cells had been the subject of much effort but are no longer considered for space applications. A review is presented of what is known about the radiation degradation of thin film solar cells in space. Experimental cadmium telluride and amorphous silicon alloy cells are reviewed. Damage mechanisms and radiation induced defect generation and passivation in the amorphous silicon alloy cell are discussed in detail due to the greater amount of experimental data available.

  5. Current transport mechanisms in mercury cadmium telluride diode

    SciT

    Gopal, Vishnu, E-mail: vishnu-46@yahoo.com, E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Li, Qing; He, Jiale

    This paper reports the results of modelling of the current-voltage characteristics (I-V) of a planar mid-wave Mercury Cadmium Telluride photodiode in a gate controlled diode experiment. It is reported that the diode exhibits nearly ideal I-V characteristics under the optimum surface potential leading to the minimal surface leakage current. Deviations from the optimum surface potential lead to non ideal I–V characteristics, indicating a strong relationship between the ideality factor of the diode with its surface leakage current. Diode's I–V characteristics have been modelled over a range of gate voltages from −9 V to −2 V. This range of gate voltages includes accumulation,more » flat band, and depletion and inversion conditions below the gate structure of the diode. It is shown that the I–V characteristics of the diode can be very well described by (i) thermal diffusion current, (ii) ohmic shunt current, (iii) photo-current due to background illumination, and (iv) excess current that grows by the process of avalanche multiplication in the gate voltage range from −3 V to −5 V that corresponds to the optimum surface potential. Outside the optimum gate voltage range, the origin of the excess current of the diode is associated with its high surface leakage currents. It is reported that the ohmic shunt current model applies to small surface leakage currents. The higher surface leakage currents exhibit a nonlinear shunt behaviour. It is also shown that the observed zero-bias dynamic resistance of the diode over the entire gate voltage range is the sum of ohmic shunt resistance and estimated zero-bias dynamic resistance of the diode from its thermal saturation current.« less

  6. Fabrication of Nanovoid-Imbedded Bismuth Telluride with Low Dimensional System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new fabrication method for nanovoids-imbedded bismuth telluride (Bi--Te) material with low dimensional (quantum-dots, quantum-wires, or quantum-wells) structure was conceived during the development of advanced thermoelectric (TE) materials. Bismuth telluride is currently the best-known candidate material for solid-state TE cooling devices because it possesses the highest TE figure of merit at room temperature. The innovative process described here allows nanometer-scale voids to be incorporated in Bi--Te material. The final nanovoid structure such as void size, size distribution, void location, etc. can be also controlled under various process conditions.

  7. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  8. 121. FRONT ELEVATION OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS 2.5 BY 4FOOT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. FRONT ELEVATION OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS 2.5 BY 4-FOOT RETORT, USED TO FLASH MERCURY FROM GOLD. MERCURY VAPOR THEN CONDENSED ON INSIDE OF HOOD AND WAS COLLECTED FOR REUSE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  9. Terrestrial growth of lead-tin-telluride by techniques related to low G growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jesser, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    A modified Bridgman-Stockbarger furnace was constructed for a study of the solidification of silver, germanium and lead-tin-telluride. The melt-solid interface position with respect to the furnace and its temperature profile was determined by measuring the discontinuity in the slope of temperature as a function of position in the melt and in the solid. The results show that the interface position of the semiconductors germanium and lead-tin-telluride was essentially constant with respect to the furnace and hence the growth rate was constant and equal to the sample translation rate of 0.046 cm/min and 0.178 cm/min in each case. The metal, silver, on the other hand showed a continuous interface migration toward the hot zone of the furnace and always exhibited a growth rate which was higher than the ampoule translation rate. The K sub L/K sub S ratio of lead-tin-telluride was determined to be 2.33 + or - 0.06 where K sub L,S denotes the thermal conductivity of the liquid, solid respectively. The value of K sub L was calculated to be about 0.054 Watt 0.1 cm 0.1 K. The diffusion boundary layer thickness was calculated for lead-tin-telluride to be about 0.05 cm using a liquid diffusivity of .00007 sq cm/sec.

  10. Cadmium telluride in tellurium—cadmium films consisting of ultradispersed particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuleushev, Yu. Zh.; Volodin, V. N.; Migunova, A. A.; Lisitsyn, V. N.

    2015-08-01

    Solid solutions of tellurium in cadmium, cadmium in tellurium, and cadmium in cadmium telluride synthesized during sputtering are formed for the first time by ion-plasma sputtering and the codeposition of ultradispersed Te and Cd particle fluxes onto substrates moving with respect to the fluxes. This fact supports thermofluctuation melting and coalescence of small particles. The lattice parameter of cadmium telluride, which coexists with an amorphous solid solution of tellurium in cadmium in a coating, is smaller than the tabulated value and reaches it when the cadmium concentration in a coating increases to 70 at %. The lattice parameter of the fcc lattice of cadmium telluride increases with the cadmium concentration in a coating according to the linear relation a = 0.0002CCd + 0.6346 nm (where CCd is the cadmium concentration in the coating, at %), which is likely to indicate a certain broadening of the homogeneity area. The estimation of the particle size shows that the cadmium telluride grain size is 10-15 nm, which implies that the coatings are nanocrystalline. The absorption and transmission spectra of the tellurium—cadmium films at the fundamental absorption edge demonstrate that their energy gaps are larger than that of stoichiometric CdTe, which can be explained by the experimental conditions of crystal structure formation.

  11. High-speed electrodeposition of copper-tin-zinc stacks from liquid metal salts for Cu2ZnSnSe4 solar cells.

    PubMed

    Steichen, Marc; Malaquias, João C; Arasimowicz, Monika; Djemour, Rabie; Brooks, Neil R; Van Meervelt, Luc; Fransaer, Jan; Binnemans, Koen; Dale, Phillip J

    2017-01-16

    Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 -based solar cells with 5.5% power conversion efficiency were fabricated from Cu/Sn/Zn stacks electrodeposited from liquid metal salts. These electrolytes allow metal deposition rates one order of magnitude higher than those of other deposition methods.

  12. California Solar Farms

    2015-04-02

    On February 15, 2015 the Desert Sunlight solar project in California’s Mojave Desert became operational. This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows the 550-megawatt plant generates enough electricity to power 160,000 average homes. Covering an area of 16 km2, the 8.8 million cadmium telluride photovoltaic modules take advantage of the more than 300 days of sunshine. Desert Sunlight joins the similar-sized Topaz Solar Farm in San Luis Obispo County, CA, that became operational in June, 2014. The Desert Sunlight image (left) was acquired March 12, 2015 and is located at 33.8 degrees north, 115.4 degrees west; the Topaz image (right) was acquired September 11, 2014 and is located at 35.4 degrees north, 120.1 degrees west. Each image covers an area of 10.5 x 12 km. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19268

  13. Update on zinc biology.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2013-01-01

    Zinc has become a prominent nutrient of clinical and public health interest in the new millennium. Functions and actions for zinc emerge as increasingly ubiquitous in mammalian anatomy, physiology and metabolism. There is undoubtedly an underpinning in fundamental biology for all of the aspects of zinc in human health (clinical and epidemiological) in pediatric and public health practice. Unfortunately, basic science research may not have achieved a full understanding as yet. As a complement to the applied themes in the companion articles, a selection of recent advances in the domains homeostatic regulation and transport of zinc is presented; they are integrated, in turn, with findings on genetic expression, intracellular signaling, immunity and host defense, and bone growth. The elements include ionic zinc, zinc transporters, metallothioneins, zinc metalloenzymes and zinc finger proteins. In emerging basic research, we find some plausible mechanistic explanations for delayed linear growth with zinc deficiency and increased infectious disease resistance with zinc supplementation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  15. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  16. Survey of coatings for solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    Optimum solar selective properties of black chrome require some tailoring of current and time for plating solution being used. Black zinc is produced from high zinc electroplate by subsequent conversion with chromate dip. Measurements have also been made of reflectance of previously known solar selective coatings of black copper and electroplated black nickel.

  17. Dislocation Density Reduction in Cadmium Telluride and Mercury Cadmium Telluride Grown on Silicon Using Thermal Cycle Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Stuart Bennett

    Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe) is a material of great importance for infrared focal plane array applications. In order to produce large format detector arrays this material needs to be grown on a large area substrate, with silicon being the most mature substrate, it is the optimal choice for large format arrays. To help mitigate the effect of the lattice mismatch between the two materials, cadmium telluride (CdTe) is used as a buffer layer. The CdTe itself has nearly the same lattice mismatch (19.3%) to silicon, but due to the technological advantages it offers and compatibility with HgCdTe, it is the best buffer layer choice. The lattice mismatch between HgCdTe/CdTe and the silicon substrate leads to the formation of dislocations at densities in the mid 106 to low 107 cm-2 range in the epilayers. Such a high dislocation density greatly effects detector device performance quantities such as operability and sensitivity. Hence, the dislocation density should be brought down by at least an order of magnitude by adopting novel in situ and ex situ material processing techniques. In this work, in situ and ex situ thermal cycle annealing (TCA) methods have been used to decrease dislocation density in CdTe and HgCdTe. During the molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of the CdTe buffer layer, the growth was interrupted and the layer was subjected to an annealing cycle within the growth chamber under tellurium overpressure. During the annealing cycle the temperature is raised to beyond the growth temperature (290 → 550 °C) and then allowed to cool before resuming growth again. This process was repeated several times during the growth. After growth, a portion of the material was subjected to a dislocation decoration etch in order to count the etch pit density (EPD) which has a direct correspondence with the dislocation density in the crystal. The crystalline quality was also characterized by x-ray diffraction rocking curves and photoluminescence. The in situ TCA

  18. Carrier Transport, Recombination, and the Effects of Grain Boundaries in Polycrystalline Cadmium Telluride Thin Films for Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuteja, Mohit

    Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), a chalcogenide semiconductor, is currently used as the absorber layer in one of the highest efficiency thin film solar cell technologies. Current efficiency records are over 22%. In 2011, CdTe solar cells accounted for 8% of all solar cells installed. This is because, in part, CdTe has a low degradation rate, high optical absorption coefficient, and high tolerance to intrinsic defects. Solar cells based on polycrystalline CdTe exhibit a higher short-circuit current, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency than their single crystal counterparts. This is despite the fact that polycrystalline CdTe devices exhibit lower open-circuit voltages. This is contrary to the observation for silicon and III-V semiconductors, where material defects cause a dramatic drop in device performance. For example, grain boundaries in covalently-bonded semiconductors (a) act as carrier recombination centers, and (b) lead to localized energy states, causing carrier trapping. Despite significant research to date, the mechanism responsible for the superior current collection properties of polycrystalline CdTe solar cells has not been conclusively answered. This dissertation focuses on the macro-scale electronic band structure, and micro scale electronic properties of grains and grain boundaries in device-grade CdTe thin films to answer this open question. My research utilized a variety of experimental techniques. Samples were obtained from leading groups fabricating the material and devices. A CdCl 2 anneal is commonly performed as part of this fabrication and its effects were also investigated. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was employed to study the band structure and defect states in CdTe polycrystals. Cadmium vacancy- and chlorine-related states lead to carrier recombination, as in CdTe films grown by other methods. Comparing polycrystalline and single crystal CdTe, showed that the key to explaining the improved performance of polycrystalline CdTe does

  19. Indium telluride nanotubes: Solvothermal synthesis, growth mechanism, and properties

    SciT

    Zhou, Liyan; Yan, Shancheng, E-mail: yansc@njupt.edu.cn; School of Geography and Biological Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046

    2014-03-15

    and hydrogen storage, compared with the nanowires. The nanotube device also has a broad light detection range from 300 nm to 1100 nm, covering the UV–visible–NIR region. This good performance of In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotubes may enable significant advancements of new photodetection and photosensing applications. Highlights: • The In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotube device also has a broad light detection range from 300 nm to 1100 nm. • The nanotube is 137.85 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which makes it suitable for gas sensing and hydrogen storage. • A possible growth mechanism of the indium telluride nanotubes was proposed. • In addition, no In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotubes have been reported until now.« less

  20. On the origin of the changes in the opto-electrical properties of boron-doped zinc oxide films after plasma surface treatment for thin-film silicon solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Kim, Youngkuk; Lee, Youn-Jung; Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Nguyen, Cam Phu Thi; Lee, Jaehyung; Yi, Junsin

    2018-03-01

    The modification of the steep and sharp valleys on the surface of the boron-doped zinc oxide (BZO) front electrodes by plasma surface treatment is a critical process for avoiding a significant reduction in the electrical performance of thin-film silicon solar cells. In this work, we report the origin of the changes in the electrical and optical properties of the BZO films that occur after this process. On the basis of an analysis of the chemical states, we found an improvement of the carrier concentration along with the treatment time that was mainly due to an increase of the oxygen vacancy. This indicated a deficiency of the oxygen in the BZO films under argon-ion bombardment. The red-shift of the A1 longitudinal optical mode frequency in the Raman spectra that was attributed to the existence of vacancy point defects within the films also strengthened this argument. The significant reduction of the haze ratio as well as the appearance of interference peaks on the transmittance spectra as the treatment time was increased were mainly due to the smoothing of the film surface, which indicated a degradation of the light-scattering capability of the BZO films. We also observed a gain of the visible-region transmittance that was attributed to the decrease of the thickness of the BZO films after the plasma surface treatment, instead of the crystallinity improvement. On the basis of our findings, we have proposed a further design rule of the BZO front electrodes for thin-film silicon solar cell applications.

  1. Controlling the directionality of charge transfer in phthalocyaninato zinc sensitizer for a dye-sensitized solar cell: density functional theory studies.

    PubMed

    Wan, Liang; Qi, Dongdong; Zhang, Yuexing; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2011-01-28

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculation on the molecular structures, charge distribution, molecular orbitals, electronic absorption spectra of a series of eight unsymmetrical phthalocyaninato zinc complexes with one peripheral (E)-2-cyano-3-(5-vinylthiophen-2-yl) acrylic acid substituent at 2 or 3 position as an electron-withdrawing group and a different number of electron-donating amino groups at the remaining peripheral positions (9, 10, 16, 17, 23, 24) of the phthalocyanine ring, namely ZnPc-β-A, ZnPc-β-A-I-NH(2), ZnPc-β-A-II-NH(2), ZnPc-β-A-III-NH(2), ZnPc-β-A-I,II-NH(2), ZnPc-β-A-I,III-NH(2), ZnPc-β-A-II,III-NH(2), and ZnPc-β-A-I,II,III-NH(2), reveals the effects of amino groups on the charge transfer properties of these phthalocyanine derivatives with a typical D-π-A electronic structure. The introduction of amino groups was revealed altering of the atomic charge distribution, lifting the frontier molecular orbital level, red-shift of the near-IR bands in the electronic absorption spectra, and finally resulting in enhanced charge transfer directionality for the phthalocyanine compounds. Along with the increase of the peripheral amino groups at the phthalocyanine ring from 0, 2, 4, to 6, the dihedral angle between the phthalocyanine ring and the average plane of the (E)-2-cyano-3-(5-vinylthiophen-2-yl) acrylic acid substituent increases from 0 to 3.3° in an irregular manner. This is in good contrast to the regular and significant change in the charge distribution, destabilization of frontier orbital energies, and red shift of near-IR bands of phthalocyanine compounds along the same order. In addition, comparative studies indicate the smaller effect of incorporating two amino groups onto the 16 and 17 than on 9 and 10 or 23 and 24 peripheral positions of the phthalocyanine ring onto the aforementioned electronic properties, suggesting the least effect on tuning the charge transfer property of the phthalocyanine compound via introducing two

  2. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Fullerene derivative-doped zinc oxide nanofilm as the cathode of inverted polymer solar cells with low-bandgap polymer (PTB7-Th) for high performance.

    PubMed

    Liao, Sih-Hao; Jhuo, Hong-Jyun; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Chen, Show-An

    2013-09-14

    Modification of a ZnO cathode by doping it with a hydroxyl-containing derivative - giving a ZnO-C60 cathode - provides a fullerene-derivative-rich surface and enhanced electron conduction. Inverted polymer solar cells with the ZnO-C60 cathode display markedly improved power conversion efficiency compared to those with a pristine ZnO cathode, especially when the active layer includes the low-bandgap polymer PTB7-Th. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    SciT

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  5. Theoretical investigation of the charge-transfer properties in different meso-linked zinc porphyrins for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Namuangruk, Supawadee; Sirithip, Kanokkorn; Rattanatwan, Rattanawelee; Keawin, Tinnagon; Kungwan, Nawee; Sudyodsuk, Taweesak; Promarak, Vinich; Surakhot, Yaowarat; Jungsuttiwong, Siriporn

    2014-06-28

    The charge transfer effect of different meso-substituted linkages on porphyrin analogue 1 (A1, B1 and C1) was theoretically investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations. The calculated geometry parameters and natural bond orbital analysis reveal that the twisted conformation between porphyrin macrocycle and meso-substituted linkages leads to blocking of the conjugation of the conjugated backbone, and the frontier molecular orbital plot shows that the intramolecular charge transfer of A1, B1 and C1 hardly takes place. In an attempt to improve the photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer ability of the meso-linked zinc porphyrin sensitizer, a strong electron-withdrawing group (CN) was introduced into the anchoring group of analogue 1 forming analogue 2 (A2, B2 and C2). The density difference plot of A2, B2 and C2 shows that the charge transfer properties dramatically improved. The electron injection process has been performed using TDDFT; the direct charge-transfer transition in the A2-(TiO2)38 interacting system takes place; our results strongly indicated that introducing electron-withdrawing groups into the acceptor part of porphyrin dyes can fine-tune the effective conjugation length of the π-spacer and improve intramolecular charge transfer properties, consequently inducing the electron injection process from the anchoring group of the porphyrin dye to the (TiO2)38 surface which may improve the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs. Our calculated results can provide valuable information and a promising outlook for computation-aided sensitizer design with anticipated good properties in further experimental synthesis.

  6. Fabrication of large-scale single-crystal bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) nanosheet arrays by a single-step electrolysis process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hung-Wei; Wang, Tsang-Hsiu; Chan, Tsung-Cheng; Chen, Pei-Ju; Chung, Chih-Chun; Yaghoubi, Alireza; Liao, Chien-Neng; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2014-06-01

    Nanolizing of thermoelectric materials is one approach to reduce the thermal conductivity and hence enhance the figure of merit. Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3)-based materials have excellent figure of merit at room temperature. For device applications, precise control and rapid fabrication for the nanostructure of thermoelectric materials are essential issues. In the present study, we demonstrate a one-step electrolysis process to directly form Bi2Te3 nanosheet arrays (NSAs) on the surface of bulk Bi2Te3 with controllable spacing distance and depth by tuning the applied bias and duration. The single sheet of NSAs reveals that the average thickness and electrical resistivity of single crystalline Bi2Te3 in composition are 399.8 nm and 137.34 μΩ m, respectively. The formation mechanism of NSAs has been proposed. A 1.12% efficiency of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with Bi2Te3 NSAs for counter electrode has been demonstrated, indicating that Bi2Te3 NSAs from top-down processing with a high ratio of surface area to volume are a promising candidate for possible applications such as thermoelectrics, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and lithium-ion batteries.Nanolizing of thermoelectric materials is one approach to reduce the thermal conductivity and hence enhance the figure of merit. Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3)-based materials have excellent figure of merit at room temperature. For device applications, precise control and rapid fabrication for the nanostructure of thermoelectric materials are essential issues. In the present study, we demonstrate a one-step electrolysis process to directly form Bi2Te3 nanosheet arrays (NSAs) on the surface of bulk Bi2Te3 with controllable spacing distance and depth by tuning the applied bias and duration. The single sheet of NSAs reveals that the average thickness and electrical resistivity of single crystalline Bi2Te3 in composition are 399.8 nm and 137.34 μΩ m, respectively. The formation mechanism of NSAs has been proposed. A 1

  7. Chemically Tunable Full Spectrum Optical Properties of 2D Silicon Telluride Nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjing; Lahti, Gabriella; Williams, David; Koski, Kristie J

    2018-06-07

    Silicon telluride (Si 2 Te 3 ) is a two-dimensional, layered, p-type semiconductor that shows broad near-infrared photoluminescence. We show how, through various means of chemical modification, Si 2 Te 3 can have its optoelectronic properties modified in several independent ways without fundamentally altering the host crystalline lattice. Substitutional doping with Ge strongly redshifts the photoluminescence while substantially lowering the direct and indirect band gaps and altering the optical phonon modes. Intercalation with Ge introduces a sharp 4.3 eV ultraviolet resonance and shifts the bulk plasmon even while leaving the infrared response and band gaps virtually unchanged. Intercalation with copper strengthens the photoluminescence without altering its spectral shape. Thus silicon telluride is shown to be a chemically tunable platform of full spectrum optical properties promising for opto-electronic applications.

  8. Promising ferroelectricity in 2D group IV tellurides: a first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Wenhui; Liu, Chang; Xiao, Wende; Yao, Yugui

    2017-09-01

    Based on the first-principles calculations, we investigated the ferroelectric properties of two-dimensional (2D) Group-IV tellurides XTe (X = Si, Ge, and Sn), with a focus on GeTe. 2D Group-IV tellurides energetically prefer an orthorhombic phase with a hinge-like structure and an in-plane spontaneous polarization. The intrinsic Curie temperature Tc of monolayer GeTe is as high as 570 K and can be raised quickly by applying a tensile strain. An out-of-plane electric field can effectively decrease the coercive field for the reversal of polarization, extending its potential for regulating the polarization switching kinetics. Moreover, for bilayer GeTe, the ferroelectric phase is still the ground state. Combined with these advantages, 2D GeTe is a promising candidate material for practical integrated ferroelectric applications.

  9. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  10. Synthesis of optimized indium phosphide/zinc sulfide core/shell nanocrystals and titanium dioxide nanotubes for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungyong

    Synthesis of InP/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals and TiO 2 nanotubes and the optimization study to couple them together were explored for quantum dot sensitized solar cells. Its intrinsic nontoxicity makes the direct band gap InP/ZnS core/shell be one of the most promising semiconductor nanocrystals for optoelectric applications, with the advantage of tuning the optical absorption range in the desired solar spectrum region. Highly luminescent and monodisperse InP/ZnS nanocrystals were synthesized in a non-coordinating solvent. By varying the synthesis scheme, different size InP/ZnS nanocrystals with emission peaks ranging from 520 nm to 620 nm were grown. For the purpose of ensuring air stability, a ZnS shell was grown. The ZnS shell improves the chemical stability in terms of oxidation prevention. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image shows that the nanocrystals are highly crystalline and monodisperse. Free-standing TiO2 nanotubes were produced by an anodization method using ammonium fluoride. The free-standing nanotubes were formed under the condition that the chemical dissolution speed associated with fluoride concentration was faster than the speed of Ti oxidation. Highly ordered free-standing anatase form TiO2 nanotubes, which are transformed by annealing at the optimized temperature, are expected to be ideal for coupling with the prepared InP/ZnS nanocrystals. Electrophoretic deposition was carried out to couple the InP/ZnS nanocrystals with the TiO2 nanotubes. Under the adjusted applied voltage condition, the current during the electrophoretic deposition decreased continuously with time. The amount of the deposited nanocrystals was estimated by calculation and the evenly deposited nanocrystals on the TiO2 nanotubes were observed by TEM.

  11. Zinc oxide overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  12. Use of a Soluble Anode in Electrodeposition of Thick Bismuth Telluride Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, M.; Diliberto, S.; de Vaulx, C.; Azzouz, K.; Boulanger, C.

    2014-10-01

    Integration of thermoelectric devices within an automotive heat exchanger could enable conversion of lost heat into electrical energy, contributing to improved total output from the engine. For this purpose, synthesis of thick bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) films is required. Bismuth telluride has been produced by an electrochemical method in nitric acid with a sacrificial bismuth telluride anode as the source of cations. The binary layer grows on the working electrode while the counter-electrode, a Bi2Te3 disk obtained by high frequency melting, is oxidized to BiIII and TeIV. This process leads to auto-regeneration of the solution without modification of its composition. The thickness of films deposited by use of the Bi2Te3 anode was approximately 10 times that without. To demonstrate the utility of a soluble anode in electrochemical deposition, we report characterization of the composition and morphology of the films obtained under different experimental conditions. Perfectly dense and regular Bi2Te3 films (˜400 μm) with low internal stress and uniform composition across the cross-section were prepared. Their thermoelectric properties were assessed.

  13. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  14. High-efficiency, thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compaan, A. D.; Bohn, R. G.; Rajakarunanayake, Y.

    1995-08-01

    This report describes work performed to develop and optimize the process of radio frequency (RF) sputtering for the fabrication of thin-film solar cells on glass. The emphasis is on CdTe-related materials including CdTe, CdS, ZnTe, and ternary alloy semiconductors. Pulsed laser physical vapor deposition (LPVD) was used for exploratory work on these materials, especially where alloying or doping are involved, and for the deposition of cadmium chloride layers. For the sputtering work, a two-gun sputtering chamber was implemented, with optical access for monitoring temperature and growth rate. We studied the optical and electrical properties of the plasmas produced by two different kinds of planar magnetron sputter guns with different magnetic field configurations and strengths. Using LPVD, we studied alloy semiconductors such as CdZnTe and heavily doped semiconductors such as ZnTe:Cu for possible incorporation into graded band gap CdTe-based photovoltaic devices.

  15. Selenization of Cu2ZnSnS4 Enhanced the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Improved Zinc-Site Catalytic Activity for I3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuwen; Xie, Ying; Bateer, Buhe; Pan, Kai; Jiao, Yanqing; Xiong, Ni; Wang, Song; Fu, Honggang

    2017-11-01

    Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) and Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 (CZTSSe) as promising photovoltaic materials have drawn much attention because they are environmentally benign and earth-abundant elements. In this work, the monodispersed, low-cost Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 nanocrystals with small size have been controllably synthesized via a wet chemical routine. And CZTSSe could be easily prepared after selenization of CZTS. When they are employed as counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been improved from 3.54% to 7.13% as CZTS is converted to CZTSSe, which is also compared to that of Pt (7.62%). The exact reason for the enhanced catalytic activity of I 3 - is discussed with the work function and density functional theory (DFT) when CZTSSe converted from CZTS. The results of a Kelvin probe suggest that the work function of CZTSSe (5.61 eV) is closer to that of Pt (5.65 eV) and higher than that of CZTS, which matched the redox shuttle potential better. According to the theory calculation, all the atomic and bond populations changed significantly when Se replaced partly the S on the CZTS system, especially in the Zn site. During the catalytic process as CEs, the adsorption energy obviously increased compared to those at other sites when I 3 - adsorbed on the Zn site in CZTSSe. So, Zn plays an important role for the reduction of I 3 - after CZTS is converted to CZTSSe. Based on above analysis, the reason for enhanced performance of DSSCs when CZTS converted to CZTSSe is mainly due to the enhancement of Zn-site activity. This work is beneficial for understanding the catalytic reaction mechanism of CZTS(Se) as CEs of DSSCs.

  16. The electron injection rate in CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cells: from a bifunctional linker and zinc oxide morphology.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wei-Lu; Peng, Xing-Liang; Sun, Zhu-Zhu; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2017-11-09

    Herein, we have investigated the effect of both the bifunctional linker (L1, L2, L3, and L4) and ZnO morphology (porous nanoparticles (NPs), nanowires (NWs), and nanotubes (NTs-A and NTs-Z)) on the electron injection in CdSe QD sensitized solar cells by first-principles simulation. Via calculating the partitioned interfaces formed by different components (linker/QDs and ZnO/linker), we found that the electronic states of QDs and every ZnO substrate are insensitive to any linker, while the frontier orbitals of L1-L4 (with increased delocalization) manifest a systematical negative-shift. Because of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of L1 compared to its counterparts aligned in the region of the virtual states of QDs or the substrate with a high density of states, it always yields a stronger electronic coupling with QDs and varied substrates. After characterization of the complete ZnO/linker/QD system, we found that the electron injection time (τ) vastly depends on both the linker and substrate. On the one hand, L1 bridged QDs and every substrate always achieve the shortest τ compared to their counterpart associated cases. On the other hand, NW supported systems always yield the shortest τ no matter what the linker is. Overall, the NW/L1/QD system achieves the fastest injection by ∼160 fs. This essentially stems from the shortest molecular length of L1 decreasing the distance between QDs and the substrate, subsequently improving the interfacial coupling. Meanwhile, the NW supported cases generate the less sensitive virtual states for both the QDs and NWs, ensuring a less variable interfacial coupling. These facts combined can provide understanding of the effects contributed from the linker and the oxide semiconductor morphology on charge transfer with the aim of choosing an appropriate component with fast directional electron injection.

  17. Zinc Signals and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc. PMID:29064429

  18. Low dose in nuclear cardiology: state of the art in the era of new cadmium-zinc-telluride cameras.

    PubMed

    Acampa, Wanda; Buechel, Ronny R; Gimelli, Alessia

    2016-06-01

    The use of myocardial perfusion imaging has seen a tremendous growth during the last decade and has become the most commonly used non-invasive imaging tool for risk stratification in patients with suspected and known coronary artery disease. Adherence to radiation safety best practices varied significantly between laboratories but the possibility to use the new cameras in nuclear cardiology can reduce dramatically the radiation dose without losing accuracy. Moreover, the physical characteristics of ultrafast technology could be able to open new doors for the evaluation of old parameters, changing the impact of nuclear cardiology in the diagnostic strategies. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Spatial Mapping of the Mobility-Lifetime (microtau) Production in Cadmium Zinc Telluride Nuclear Radiation Detectors Using Transport Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Under the influence of an electrical field, these electrons and holes migrate to their respective electrodes, where they are collected and...an electrical response which translates to an intensity reading on the detector’s readout meter. Since high-resolution detector materials are the...magnitude of three factors: inherent statistical variation of the electric signal measured at the detector’s contacts (Fano noise ∆EF), random electron

  20. Zinc and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Juan P.; Guo, Liang; Yoo, Changwon; Stewart, Tiffanie S

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative process through which cells overcome stressful conditions. Inasmuch as faulty autophagy has been associated with aging, neuronal degeneration disorders, diabetes, and fatty liver, autophagy is regarded as a potential therapeutic target. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning the role of zinc in the regulation of autophagy, the role of autophagy in zinc metabolism, and the potential role of autophagy as a mediator of the protective effects of zinc. Data from in vitro studies consistently support the notion that zinc is critical for early and late autophagy. Studies have shown inhibition of early and late autophagy in cells cultured in medium treated with zinc chelators. Conversely, excess zinc added to the medium has shown to potentiate the stimulation of autophagy by tamoxifen, H2O2, ethanol and dopamine. The potential role of autophagy in zinc homeostasis has just begun to be investigated.Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy dysregulation causes significant changes in cellular zinc homeostasis. Autophagy may mediate the protective effect of zinc against lipid accumulation, apoptosis and inflammation by promoting degradation of lipid droplets, inflammasomes, p62/SQSTM1 and damaged mitochondria.Studies with humans and animal models are necessary to determine whether autophagy is influenced by zinc intake. PMID:25012760

  1. Properties of RF sputtered cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films: Influence of deposition pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, R. R.; Pawbake, A. S.; Waykar, R. G.; Rondiya, S. R.; Jadhavar, A. A.; Pandharkar, S. M.; Karpe, S. D.; Diwate, K. D.; Jadkar, S. R.

    2016-04-01

    Influence of deposition pressure on structural, morphology, electrical and optical properties of CdTe thin films deposited at low substrate temperature (100°C) by RF magnetron sputtering was investigated. The formation of CdTe was confirmed by low angle XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The low angle XRD analysis revealed that the CdTe films have zinc blende (cubic) structure with crystallites having preferred orientation in (111) direction. Raman spectra show the longitudinal optical (LO) phonon mode peak ˜ 165.4 cm-1 suggesting high quality CdTe film were obtained over the entire range of deposition pressure studied. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that films are smooth, homogenous, and crack-free with no evidence of voids. The EDAX data revealed that CdTe films deposited at low deposition pressure are high-quality stoichiometric. However, for all deposition pressures, films are rich in Cd relative to Te. The UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis show the blue shift in absorption edge with increasing the deposition pressure while the band gap show decreasing trend. The highest electrical conductivity was obtained for the film deposited at deposition pressure 1 Pa which indicates that the optimized deposition pressure for our sputtering unit is 1 Pa. Based on the experimental results, these CdTe films can be useful for the application in the flexible solar cells and other opto-electronic devices.

  2. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  3. Cadmium Telluride Semiconductor Detector for Improved Spatial and Energy Resolution Radioisotopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Abbaspour, Samira; Mahmoudian, Babak; Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh

    2017-01-01

    The detector in single-photon emission computed tomography has played a key role in the quality of the images. Over the past few decades, developments in semiconductor detector technology provided an appropriate substitution for scintillation detectors in terms of high sensitivity, better energy resolution, and also high spatial resolution. One of the considered detectors is cadmium telluride (CdTe). The purpose of this paper is to review the CdTe semiconductor detector used in preclinical studies, small organ and small animal imaging, also research in nuclear medicine and other medical imaging modalities by a complete inspect on the material characteristics, irradiation principles, applications, and epitaxial growth method. PMID:28553175

  4. High resolution X-ray diffraction imaging of lead tin telluride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiner, Bruce; Dobbyn, Ronald C.; Black, David; Burdette, Harold; Kuriyama, Masao; Spal, Richard; Simchick, Richard; Fripp, Archibald

    1991-01-01

    High resolution X-ray diffraction images of two directly comparable crystals of lead tin telluride, one Bridgman-grown on Space Shuttle STS 61A and the other terrestrially Bridgman-grown under similar conditions from identical material, present different subgrain structure. In the terrestrial, sample 1 the appearance of an elaborate array of subgrains is closely associated with the intrusion of regions that are out of diffraction in all of the various images. The formation of this elaborate subgrain structure is inhibited by growth in microgravity.

  5. Advanced methods for preparation and characterization of infrared detector materials. [mercury cadmium telluride alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1981-01-01

    Differential thermal analysis data were obtained on mercury cadmium telluride alloys in order to establish the liquidus temperatures for the various alloy compositions. Preliminary theoretical analyses was performed to establish the ternary phase equilibrium parameters for the metal rich region of the phase diagram. Liquid-solid equilibrium parameters were determined for the pseudobinary alloy system. Phase equilibrium was calculated and Hg(l-x) Cd(x) Te alloys were directionally solidified from pseudobinary melts. Electrical resistivity and Hall coefficient measurements were obtained.

  6. Telluride Misfit Layer Compounds: [(PbTe) 1.17 ] m (TiTe 2 ) n

    SciT

    Moore, Daniel B.; Beekman, Matt; Disch, Sabrina

    Telluride misfit layer compounds are reported for the first time. These compounds were synthesized using a novel approach of structurally designing a precursor that would form the desired product upon low-temperature annealing, which allows the synthesis of kinetically stable products that do not appear on the equilibrium phase diagram. Four new compounds of the [(PbTe)1.17]m(TiTe2)n family are reported, and their structures were examined by a variety of X-ray diffraction techniques.

  7. Fabrication of Lanthanum Telluride 14-1-11 Zintl High-Temperature Thermoelectric Couple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravi, Vilupanur A.; Li, Billy Chun-Yip; Fleurial, Pierre; Star, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The development of more efficient thermoelectric couple technology capable of operating with high-grade heat sources up to 1,275 K is key to improving the performance of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Lanthanum telluride La3-xTe4 and 14-1-11 Zintls (Yb14MnSb11) have been identified as very promising materials. The fabrication of advanced high-temperature thermoelectric couples requires the joining of several dissimilar materials, typically including a number of diffusion bonding and brazing steps, to achieve a device capable of operating at elevated temperatures across a large temperature differential (up to 900 K). A thermoelectric couple typically comprises a heat collector/ exchanger, metallic interconnects on both hot and cold sides, n-type and ptype conductivity thermoelectric elements, and cold-side hardware to connect to the cold-side heat rejection and provide electrical connections. Differences in the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of the materials that make up the thermoelectric couple, especially differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), result in undesirable interfacial stresses that can lead to mechanical failure of the device. The problem is further complicated by the fact that the thermoelectric materials under consideration have large CTE values, are brittle, and cracks can propagate through them with minimal resistance. The inherent challenge of bonding brittle, high-thermal-expansion thermoelectric materials to a hot shoe material that is thick enough to carry the requisite electrical current was overcome. A critical advantage over prior art is that this device was constructed using all diffusion bonds and a minimum number of assembly steps. The fabrication process and the materials used are described in the following steps: (1) Applying a thin refractory metal foil to both sides of lanthanum telluride. To fabricate the n-type leg of the advanced thermoelectric couple, the pre-synthesized lanthanum

  8. Telluride Misfit Layer Compounds: [(PbTe) 1.17 ] m (TiTe 2 ) n

    SciT

    Moore, Daniel B.; Beekman, Matt; Disch, Sabrina

    2014-04-09

    Telluride misfit layer compounds are reported for the first time. These compounds were synthesized using a novel approach of structurally designing a precursor that would form the desired product upon low-temperature annealing, which allows the synthesis of kinetically stable products that do not appear on the equilibrium phase diagram. Four new compounds of the [(PbTe)1.17]m(TiTe2)n family are reported, and their structures were examined by a variety of X-ray diffraction techniques.

  9. Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

  10. Defects in mercury-cadmium telluride heteroepitaxial structures grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on silicon substrates

    SciT

    Mynbaev, K. D., E-mail: mynkad@mail.ioffe.ru; Zablotsky, S. V.; Shilyaev, A. V.

    Defects in mercury-cadmium-telluride heteroepitaxial structures (with 0.3 to 0.4 molar fraction of cadmium telluride) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on silicon substrates are studied. The low-temperature photoluminescence method reveals that there are comparatively deep levels with energies of 50 to 60 meV and shallower levels with energies of 20 to 30 meV in the band gap. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the minority carrier lifetime demonstrates that this lifetime is controlled by energy levels with an energy of ∼30 meV. The possible relationship between energy states and crystal-structure defects is discussed.

  11. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciT

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remainedmore » constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.« less

  12. Zinc triggers microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, Tiina M.; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, “amoeboid” morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other pro-inflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with an NF-kB reporter gene showed a several-fold increase in NF-kB activity in response to 30 μM zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15 – 30 μM zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-κB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-κB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders. PMID:18509044

  13. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  14. [Zinc and chronic enteropathies].

    PubMed

    Giorgi, P L; Catassi, C; Guerrieri, A

    1984-01-01

    In recent years the nutritional importance of zinc has been well established; its deficiency and its symptoms have also been recognized in humans. Furthermore, Acrodermatitis Enteropathica has been isolated, a rare but severe disease, of which skin lesions, chronic diarrhoea and recurring infections are the main symptoms. The disease is related to the malfunctioning of intestinal absorption of zinc and can be treated by administering pharmacological doses of zinc orally. Good dietary sources of zinc are meat, fish and, to a less extent, human milk. The amount of zinc absorbed in the small intestine is influenced by other nutrients: some compounds inhibit this process (dietary fiber, phytate) while others (picolinic acid, citric acid), referred to as Zn-binding ligands (ZnBL) facilitate it. Citric acid is thought to be the ligand which accounts for the high level of bioavailability of zinc in human milk. zinc absorption occurs throughout the small intestine, not only in the prossimal tract (duodenum and jejunum) but also in the distal tract (ileum). Diarrhoea is one of the clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, thus many illnesses distinguished by chronic diarrhoea entail a bad absorption of zinc. In fact, in some cases of chronic enteropathies in infants, like coeliac disease and seldom cystic fibrosis, a deficiency of zinc has been isolated. Some of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, like retarded growth and hypogonadism, have been related to hypozinchemia which is present in this illness. Finally, it is possible that some of the dietary treatments frequently used for persistent post-enteritis diarrhoea (i.e. cow's milk exclusion, abuse and misuse of dietary fiber like carrot and carub powder, use of soy formula) can constitute a scarce supply of zinc and therefore could promote the persistency of diarrhoea itself.

  15. The Effect of Microgravity on the Growth of Lead Tin Telluride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, R.

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to present a model for the prediction of the effect of the microgravity environment on the growth of Lead Tin Telluride. The attitude change and its relation to the experimental objectives: The main objective for the AADSF experiment on USMP 3 involving LTT growth was to estimate the effect of ampoule orientation on the axial and radial segregation of tin telluride. As the furnace was not situated on a gimbal there was no possibility to reorient the ampoule during the flight. Instead the only way to change the growth orientation was to change the attitude of the orbiter. This was accomplished by vernier rocket firings. In what follows it must be noted that the orbiter body coordinates are such that the positive z axis points outward from the 'belly', the positive 'x' axis points outwards from the nose and the positive 'y' axis points outwards from the starboard side. The furnace which was in the pay load had its axis aligned with the orbiter's 'z' axis with the hot end closest to the shuttle body. There were basically three orientations that were desired. These corresponded to the ampoule being seen as a heated from above (thermally stable-solutally unstable) configuration, the heated from below (where the instabilities were reversed from the first orientation) configuration and an 'in between' case where the ampoule axis was misaligned with respect to the orbiters 'g(sub z)' axis.

  16. Atomic layer-by-layer thermoelectric conversion in topological insulator bismuth/antimony tellurides.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ji Ho; Heo, Hoseok; Hwang, Inchan; Lim, Myungsoo; Lee, Donghun; Kang, Kibum; Choi, Hee Cheul; Park, Jae-Hoon; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Jo, Moon-Ho

    2014-07-09

    Material design for direct heat-to-electricity conversion with substantial efficiency essentially requires cooperative control of electrical and thermal transport. Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and antimony telluride (Sb2Te3), displaying the highest thermoelectric power at room temperature, are also known as topological insulators (TIs) whose electronic structures are modified by electronic confinements and strong spin-orbit interaction in a-few-monolayers thickness regime, thus possibly providing another degree of freedom for electron and phonon transport at surfaces. Here, we explore novel thermoelectric conversion in the atomic monolayer steps of a-few-layer topological insulating Bi2Te3 (n-type) and Sb2Te3 (p-type). Specifically, by scanning photoinduced thermoelectric current imaging at the monolayer steps, we show that efficient thermoelectric conversion is accomplished by optothermal motion of hot electrons (Bi2Te3) and holes (Sb2Te3) through 2D subbands and topologically protected surface states in a geometrically deterministic manner. Our discovery suggests that the thermoelectric conversion can be interiorly achieved at the atomic steps of a homogeneous medium by direct exploiting of quantum nature of TIs, thus providing a new design rule for the compact thermoelectric circuitry at the ultimate size limit.

  17. Strain effect on the heat transport properties of bismuth telluride nanofilms with a hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Te-Hua; Chang, Win-Jin; Wang, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Chao-Chun

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the mechanical behavior of bismuth telluride nanofilms with holes by using an equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) approach. The holes had diameters of 20, 30, 40, and 50 Å. The thermal conductivity values of the nanofilms were calculated under different strains at different temperatures using a nonequilibrium MD simulation. The simulation revealed that the thermal conductivity of a bismuth telluride nanofilm with a hole decreases with an increase in hole diameter at different strains. For a film with a perfect structure at 300 K, a 48% reduction (from 0.33 to 0.17 W/m K) in the thermal conductivity was observed at a 7% tensile strain. In addition, the thermal conductivity increased by approximately 39% (from 0.33 to 0.46 W/m K) at a 7% compressive strain. A very low value (0.11 W/m K) of thermal conductivity is obtained for the nanofilm with a hole diameter of 50 Å at a 7% tensile strain at 300 K.

  18. Possible bicollinear nematic state with monoclinic lattice distortions in iron telluride compounds

    SciT

    Bishop, Christopher B.; Herbrych, Jacek W.; Dagotto, Elbio R.

    2017-07-15

    Here, iron telluride (FeTe) is known to display bicollinear magnetic order at low temperatures together with a monoclinic lattice distortion. Because the bicollinear order can involve two different wave vectors (π/2,π/2) and (π/2,–π/2), symmetry considerations allow for the possible stabilization of a nematic state with short-range bicollinear order coupled to monoclinic lattice distortions at a T S higher than the temperature T N where long-range bicollinear order fully develops. As a concrete example, the three-orbital spin-fermion model for iron telluride is studied with an additional coupling ˜λ 12 between the monoclinic lattice strain and an orbital-nematic order parameter with Bmore » 2g symmetry. Monte Carlo simulations show that with increasing ˜λ 12 the first-order transition characteristic of FeTe splits and bicollinear nematicity is stabilized in a (narrow) temperature range. In this new regime, the lattice is monoclinically distorted and short-range spin and orbital order breaks rotational invariance. A discussion of possible realizations of this exotic state is provided.« less

  19. A density-functional study on the electronic and vibrational properties of layered antimony telluride.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, Ralf P; Deringer, Volker L; Simon, Ronnie E; Hermann, Raphaël P; Dronskowski, Richard

    2015-03-04

    We present a comprehensive survey of electronic and lattice-dynamical properties of crystalline antimony telluride (Sb2Te3). In a first step, the electronic structure and chemical bonding have been investigated, followed by calculations of the atomic force constants, phonon dispersion relationships and densities of states. Then, (macroscopic) physical properties of Sb2Te3 have been computed, namely, the atomic thermal displacement parameters, the Grüneisen parameter γ, the volume expansion of the lattice, and finally the bulk modulus B. We compare theoretical results from three popular and economic density-functional theory (DFT) approaches: the local density approximation (LDA), the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and a posteriori dispersion corrections to the latter. Despite its simplicity, the LDA shows excellent performance for all properties investigated-including the Grüneisen parameter, which only the LDA is able to recover with confidence. In the absence of computationally more demanding hybrid DFT methods, the LDA seems to be a good choice for further lattice dynamical studies of Sb2Te3 and related layered telluride materials.

  20. Process for fabricating polycrystalline semiconductor thin-film solar cells, and cells produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Xuanzhi; Sheldon, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A novel, simplified method for fabricating a thin-film semiconductor heterojunction photovoltaic device includes initial steps of depositing a layer of cadmium stannate and a layer of zinc stannate on a transparent substrate, both by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, followed by the depositing of dissimilar layers of semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide and cadmium telluride, and heat treatment to convert the cadmium stannate to a substantially single-phase material of a spinel crystal structure. Preferably, the cadmium sulfide layer is also deposited by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, and the cadmium telluride layer is deposited by close space sublimation at an elevated temperature effective to convert the amorphous cadmium stannate to the polycrystalline cadmium stannate with single-phase spinel structure.

  1. 76 FR 46288 - Adequacy Determination for Colorado Springs, Cañon City, Greeley, Pagosa Springs, and Telluride...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Springs, Ca[ntilde]on City, Greeley, Pagosa Springs, and Telluride; Carbon Monoxide and PM 10 Maintenance... transportation conformity purposes: ``Revised Carbon Monoxide Attainment/Maintenance Plan Colorado Springs Attainment/ Maintenance Area'' and ``Revised Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan Greeley Attainment/Maintenance...

  2. Chelating ionic liquids for reversible zinc electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Kar, Mega; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2013-05-21

    Advanced, high energy-density, metal-air rechargeable batteries, such as zinc-air, are of intense international interest due to their important role in energy storage applications such as electric and hybrid vehicles, and to their ability to deal with the intermittency of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. Ionic liquids offer a number of ideal thermal and physical properties as potential electrolytes in such large-scale energy storage applications. We describe here the synthesis and characterisation of a family of novel "chelating" ILs designed to chelate and solubilize the zinc ions to create electrolytes for this type of battery. These are based on quaternary alkoxy alkyl ammonium cations of varying oligo-ether side chains and anions such as p-toluene sulfonate, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and dicyanoamides. This work shows that increasing the ether chain length in the cation from two to four oxygens can increase the ionic conductivity and reduce the melting point from 67 °C to 15 °C for the tosylate system. Changing the anion also plays a significant role in the nature of the zinc deposition electrochemistry. We show that zinc can be reversibly deposited from [N(222(20201))][NTf2] and [N(222(202020201))][NTf2] beginning at -1.4 V and -1.7 V vs. SHE, respectively, but not in the case of tosylate based ILs. This indicates that the [NTf2] is a weaker coordinating anion with the zinc cation, compared to the tosylate anion, allowing the coordination of the ether chain to dominate the behavior of the deposition and stripping of zinc ions.

  3. Designing Hydrolytic Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element required for the function of more than 300 enzymes spanning all classes. Despite years of dedicated study, questions regarding the connections between primary and secondary metal ligands and protein structure and function remain unanswered, despite numerous mechanistic, structural, biochemical, and synthetic model studies. Protein design is a powerful strategy for reproducing native metal sites that may be applied to answering some of these questions and subsequently generating novel zinc enzymes. From examination of the earliest design studies introducing simple Zn(II)-binding sites into de novo and natural protein scaffolds to current studies involving the preparation of efficient hydrolytic zinc sites, it is increasingly likely that protein design will achieve reaction rates previously thought possible only for native enzymes. This Current Topic will review the design and redesign of Zn(II)-binding sites in de novo-designed proteins and native protein scaffolds toward the preparation of catalytic hydrolytic sites. After discussing the preparation of Zn(II)-binding sites in various scaffolds, we will describe relevant examples for reengineering existing zinc sites to generate new or altered catalytic activities. Then, we will describe our work on the preparation of a de novo-designed hydrolytic zinc site in detail and present comparisons to related designed zinc sites. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the significant progress being made toward building zinc metalloenzymes from the bottom up. PMID:24506795

  4. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  5. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  6. Automatically activated, 300 ampere-hour silver-zinc cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    A prototype silver zinc cell is reported for which the electrolyte is being stored in a separate tank; the cell is being activated when additional power is required by collapsing the neoprene bellows container and thus forcing the electrolyte into cell through a plastic connection. A solar array is proposed as main power source for the flow actuator.

  7. Investigation on Structural and Optical Properties of Copper Telluride Thin Films with Different Annealing Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishanthini, R.; Muthu Menaka, M.; Pandi, P.; Bahavan Palani, P.; Neyvasagam, K.

    The copper telluride (Cu2Te) thin film of thickness 240nm was coated on a microscopic glass substrate by thermal evaporation technique. The prepared films were annealed at 150∘C and 250∘C for 1h. The annealing effect on Cu2Te thin films was examined with different characterization methods like X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Ultra Violet-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-VIS) and Photoluminescence (PL) Spectroscopy. The peak intensities of XRD spectra were increased while increasing annealing temperature from 150∘C to 250∘C. The improved crystallinity of the thin films was revealed. However, the prepared films are exposed complex structure with better compatibility. Moreover, the shift in band gap energy towards higher energies (blue shift) with increasing annealing temperature is observed from the optical studies.

  8. Transport properties of lithium- lead-vanadium-telluride glass and glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathish, M.; Eraiah, B.

    2014-04-01

    Glasses with the chemical composition 35Li2O-(45-x)V2O5-20PbO-xTeO2 (where x = 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 mol %) have prepared by conventional melt quenching method. The electrical conductivity of Li+ ion conducting lead vanadium telluride glass samples has been carried out both as a function of temperature and frequency in the temperature range 503K-563K and over frequencies 40 Hz to 10 MHz. The electronic conduction has been observed in the present systems. When these samples annealed around 400°C for 2hour become the glass ceramic, which also shows increase tendency of conductivity. SEM confines glass and glass ceramic nature of the prepared samples.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Niobium Doped Lead-Telluride Glass Ceramics

    SciT

    Sathish, M.; Eraiah, B.; Anavekar, R. V.

    2011-07-15

    Niobium-lead-telluride glass ceramics of composition xNb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-(20-x) pbO-80TeO{sub 2}(where x = 0.1 mol% to 0.5 mol%) were prepared by using conventional melt quenching method. The prepared glass samples were initially amorphous in nature after annealed at 400 deg. c all samples were crystallized. This was confined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The particle size of these glass ceramics have been calculated by using Debye-Scherer formula and the particle size is in the order of 15 nm to 60 nm. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photograph shows the presence of needle-like crystals in these samples.

  10. Influence of gamma ray irradiation on stoichiometry of hydrothermally synthesized bismuth telluride nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abishek, N. S.; Naik, K. Gopalakrishna

    2018-05-01

    Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) nanoparticles were synthesized by the hydrothermal method at 200 °C for 24 h. The synthesized Bi2Te3 nanoparticles were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 50 kGy and 100 kGy. The structural characterization of the pre-irradiated and post-irradiated samples was carried out by X-ray diffraction technique and was found to have rhombohedral phase having R3 ¯m (166) space group. The X-ray diffraction peaks were found to shift towards lower diffraction angle with gamma ray irradiation. The morphologies and compositions of the grown Bi2Te3 nanoparticles were studied using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope and X-ray energy dispersive analysis, respectively. The possible cause for the shift in the X-ray diffraction peaks with gamma ray irradiation has been discussed in the present work.

  11. Nanoscale arrays of antimony telluride single crystals by selective chemical vapor deposition

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruomeng; Benjamin, Sophie L.; Gurnani, Chitra; Wang, Yudong; Hector, Andrew L.; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian; De Groot, C. H. (Kees)

    2016-01-01

    Arrays of individual single nanocrystals of Sb2Te3 have been formed using selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a single source precursor. Crystals are self-assembled reproducibly in confined spaces of 100 nm diameter with pitch down to 500 nm. The distribution of crystallite sizes across the arrays is very narrow (standard deviation of 15%) and is affected by both the hole diameter and the array pitch. The preferred growth of the crystals in the <1 1 0> orientation along the diagonal of the square holes strongly indicates that the diffusion of adatoms results in a near thermodynamic equilibrium growth mechanism of the nuclei. A clear relationship between electrical resistivity and selectivity is established across a range of metal selenides and tellurides, showing that conductive materials result in more selective growth and suggesting that electron donation is of critical importance for selective deposition. PMID:27283116

  12. Heavily doped GaAs:Te layers grown by MOVPE using diisopropyl telluride as a source

    SciT

    Daniltsev, V. M.; Demidov, E. V.; Drozdov, M. N.

    2016-11-15

    The capabilities of GaAs epitaxial layers extremely heavily doped with tellurium by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy using diisopropyl telluride as a source are studied. It is shown that tellurium incorporation into GaAs occurs to an atomic concentration of 10{sup 21} cm{sup –3} without appreciable diffusion and segregation effects. Good carrier concentrations (2 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup –3}) and specific contact resistances of non-alloyed ohmic contacts (1.7 × 10{sup –6} Ω cm{sup 2}) give grounds to use such layers to create non-alloyed ohmic contacts in electronic devices. A sharp decrease in the electrical activity of Te atoms, a decrease in the electronmore » mobility, and an increase in the contact resistance at atomic concentrations above 2 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –3} are detected.« less

  13. Effect of ball milling time on thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khade, Poonam; Bagwaiya, Toshi; Bhattacharaya, Shovit; Singh, Ajay; Jha, Purushottam; Shelke, Vilas

    2018-04-01

    The effect of different milling time on thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) was investigated. The nanomaterial was prepared by varying the ball milling time and followed by hot press sintering. The crystal structure and phase formation were verified by X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy. The experimental results show that electrical conductivity increases whereas thermal conductivity decreases with increasing milling time. The negative sign of seebeck coefficient indicate the n-type nature with majority charge carriers of electrons. A maximum figure of merit about 0.55 is achieved for l5hr ball milled Bi2Te3 sample. The present study demonstrates the simple and cost-effective method for synthesis of Bi2Te3 thermoelectric material at large scale thermoelectric applications.

  14. Time resolved photo-luminescent decay characterization of mercury cadmium telluride focal plane arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Soehnel, Grant

    2015-01-20

    The minority carrier lifetime is a measurable material property that is an indication of infrared detector device performance. To study the utility of measuring the carrier lifetime, an experiment has been constructed that can time resolve the photo-luminescent decay of a detector or wafer sample housed inside a liquid nitrogen cooled Dewar. Motorized stages allow the measurement to be scanned over the sample surface, and spatial resolutions as low as 50µm have been demonstrated. A carrier recombination simulation was developed to analyze the experimental data. Results from measurements performed on 4 mercury cadmium telluride focal plane arrays show strong correlationmore » between spatial maps of the lifetime, dark current, and relative response.« less

  15. A passively mode locked thulium doped fiber laser using bismuth telluride deposited multimode interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, M.; Lee, J.; Song, W.; Lee, Y. L.; Lee, J. H.; Shin, W.

    2016-05-01

    We proposed a multimode interference (MMI) fiber based saturable absorber using bismuth telluride at  ∼2 μm region. Our MMI based saturable absorber was fabricated by fusion splicing with single mode fiber and null core fiber. The MMI functioned as both wavelength fixed filter and saturable absorber. The 3 dB bandwidth and insertion loss of MMI were 42 nm and 3.4 dB at wavelength of 1958 nm, respectively. We have also reported a passively mode locked thulium doped fiber laser operating at a wavelength of 1958 nm using a multimode interference. A temporal bandwidth of  ∼46 ps was experimentally obtained at a repetition rate of 8.58 MHz.

  16. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  17. Novel aspects of application of cadmium telluride quantum dots nanostructures in radiation oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazaeli, Yousef; Zare, Hakimeh; Karimi, Shokufeh; Rahighi, Reza; Feizi, Shahzad

    2017-08-01

    In the last two decades, quantum dots nanomaterials have garnered a great deal of scientific interest because of their unique properties. Quantum dots (QDs) are inorganic fluorescent nanocrystals in the size range between 1 and 20 nm. Due to their structural properties, they possess distinctive properties and behave in different way from crystals in macro scale, in many branches of human life. Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) were labeled with 68Ga radio nuclide for fast in vivo targeting and coincidence imaging of tumors. Using instant paper chromatography, the physicochemical properties of the Cadmium telluride quantum dots labeled with 68Ga NPs (68Ga@ CdTe QDs) were found high enough stable in organic phases, e.g., a human serum, to be reliably used in bioapplications. In vivo biodistribution of the 68Ga@ CdTe QDs nanoconposite was investigated in rats bearing fibro sarcoma tumor after various post-injection periods of time. The 68Ga NPs exhibited a rapid as well as high tumor uptake in a very short period of time (less than 10 min), resulting in an efficient tumor targeting/imaging agent. Meantime, the low lipophilicity of the 68Ga NPs caused to their fast excretion throughout the body by kidneys (as also confirmed by the urinary tract). Because of the short half-life of 68Ga radionuclide, the 68Ga@ CdTe QDs with an excellent tumor targeting/imaging and fast washing out from the body can be suggested as one of the most effective and promising nanomaterials in nanotechnology-based cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  18. 1T' transition metal telluride atomic layers for plasmon-free SERS at femtomolar levels.

    PubMed

    Tao, Li; Chen, Kun; Chen, Zefeng; Cong, Chunxiao; Qiu, Caiyu; Chen, Jiajie; Wang, Ximiao; Chen, Huanjun; Yu, Ting; Xie, Weiguang; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Jianbin

    2018-06-21

    Plasmon-free surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based on the chemical mechanism (CM) is drawing great attention due to its capability for controllable molecular detection. However, in comparison to the conventional noble-metal-based SERS technique driven by plasmonic electromagnetic mechanism (EM), the low sensitivity in the CM-based SERS is the dominant barrier towards its practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate the 1T' transition metal telluride atomic layers (WTe2 and MoTe2) as ultrasensitive platforms for CM-based SERS. The SERS sensitivities of analyte dyes on 1T'-W(Mo)Te2 reach EM-comparable ones and become even greater when it is integrated with a Bragg reflector. In addition, the dye fluorescence signals are efficiently quenched, making the SERS spectra more distinguishable. As a proof of concept, the SERS signals of analyte Rhodamine 6G (R6G) are detectable even with an ultralow concentration of 40 (400) fM on pristine 1T'-W(Mo)Te2, and the corresponding Raman enhancement factor (EF) reaches 1.8×109 (1.6×108). The limit concentration of detection and the EF of R6G can be further enhanced into 4 (40) fM and 4.4×1010 (6.2×109), respectively, when 1T'-W(Mo)Te2 is integrated on the Bragg reflector. The strong interaction between the analyte and 1T'-W(Mo)Te2 and the abundant density of states near the Fermi level of the semimetal 1T'-W(Mo)Te2 in combination gives rise to the promising SERS effects by promoting the charge transfer resonance in the analyte-telluride complex. Our findings reveal that the 1T'-W(Mo)Te2 as a plasmon-free SERS mediator can deliver an ultrahigh Raman enhancement for analytes, whose EF is even comparable to that by plasmon-driven noble metal SERS materials.

  19. Two dimensional self-assembly zinc porphyrin and zinc phthalocyanine heterojunctions with record high power conversion efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Junting; Jiang, Zhou; Hao, Yifan; Zhu, Qianhong; Zhao, Mingliang; Jiang, Xue; Zhao, Jijun

    2018-06-01

    Compared to inorganic solar cells, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of organic solar cells are much lower, but they are compensated by many merits such as lower cost, less weight, and tunable structures, making them prospective for further applications. Porphyrin and phthalocyanine are the two most significant materials for organic solar cells due to their strong light-absorbing properties and semiconductor characteristics. However, there is little research on the 2D heterojunction solar cells based on these two materials, meanwhile the PCEs of them are still low. Here we have self-assembled several 2D zinc porphyrins (ZnPors) and performed first-principles simulation to demonstrate their good stability, suitable light harvesting, and high charge carrier mobility. By perfectly matching lattice constants and molecular energy levels between those 2D ZnPors and our previous proposed zinc phthalocyanines (ZnPcs), 11 type-II organic heterojunctions are constructed to further improve their charge separation capability. Those advantages endow 2D ZnPors and ZnPcs appreciable PCEs for solar cells. Among them, the theoretical PCE of 2D ZnPors/ZnPcs heterojunctions achieves as high as 19.84%, which exceeds all reported organic solar cells, and even approaches the PCEs of inorganic solar cells. These results indicate that our 2D ZnPors and 2D ZnPcs are good candidate materials for future organic solar cells.

  20. Endogenous Zinc in Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The use of zinc in medicinal skin cream was mentioned in Egyptian papyri from 2000 BC (for example, the Smith Papyrus), and zinc has apparently been used fairly steadily throughout Roman and modern times (for example, as the American lotion named for its zinc ore, 'Calamine'). It is, therefore, somewhat ironic that zinc is a relatively late addition to the pantheon of signal ions in biology and medicine. However, the number of biological functions, health implications and pharmacological targets that are emerging for zinc indicate that it might turn out to be 'the calcium of the twenty-first century'. Here neurobiological roles of endogenous zinc is summarized. PMID:20396459

  1. 99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  2. Suppression of zinc dendrites in zinc electrode power cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damjanovic, A.; Diggle, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Addition of various tetraalkyl quarternary ammonium salts, to alkaline zincate electrolyte of cell, prevents formation of zinc dendrites during charging of zinc electrode. Electrode capacity is not impaired and elimination of dendrites prolongs cell life.

  3. Processing of semiconductors and thin film solar cells using electroplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madugu, Mohammad Lamido

    The global need for a clean, sustainable and affordable source of energy has triggered extensive research especially in renewable energy sources. In this sector, photovoltaic has been identified as a cheapest, clean and reliable source of energy. It would be of interest to obtain photovoltaic material in thin film form by using simple and inexpensive semiconductor growth technique such as electroplating. Using this growth technique, four semiconductor materials were electroplated on glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate from aqueous electrolytes. These semiconductors are indium selenide (In[x]Sey), zinc sulphide (ZnS), cadmium sulphide (CdS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe). In[x]Se[y] and ZnS were incorporated as buffer layers while CdS and CdTe layers were utilised as window and absorber layers respectively. All materials were grown using two-electrode (2E) system except for CdTe which was grown using 3E and 2E systems for comparison. To fully optimise the growth conditions, the as-deposited and annealed layers from all the materials were characterised for their structural, morphological, optical, electrical and defects structures using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical absorption (UV-Vis spectroscopy), photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell measurements, current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V), DC electrical measurements, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. Results show that InxSey and ZnS layers were amorphous in nature and exhibit both n-type and p-type in electrical conduction. CdS layers are n-type in electrical conduction and show hexagonal and cubic phases in both the as-deposited and after annealing process. CdTe layers show cubic phase structure with both n-type and p-type in electrical conduction. CdTe-based solar cell structures with a n-n heterojunction plus large Schottky barrier, as well as multi-layer graded

  4. GEODE 2: Manufacturing large area format cadmium-mercury-telluride crystals in a microgravity environment. Pressure sensor proof of concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, M. R.; Beattie, D. A.

    In the GEODE 1 experiment, a semiconductor Cd-Hg telluride crystal was grown in the MASER1 sounding rocket. It was shown that bulk-quench Cd-Hg telluride crystallization in a microgravity environment results in a more homogeneous crystal structure than can be achieved terrestrially. In the GEODE 2 program, the wall thickness of the quartz ampoule containing the crystal will be reduced to improve the heat transfer characteristics during crystallization. Ampoule explosion must be prevented by active control of the pressure surrounding the weaker, thin-walled ampoule to match that inside the furnace. A prototype pressure sensor that uses the absorption of ultraviolet light by Hg vapor has been built and tested. Pressures from 4 to 40 atmospheres have been measured with a resolution better than 0.35 atmospheres over the entire range. The feasibility of the pressure measurement technique has been demonstrated, although some design improvements are required in order to make measurements more repeatable.

  5. Preparation and characterization of copper telluride thin films by modified chemical bath deposition (M-CBD) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathan, H. M.; Lokhande, C. D.; Amalnerkar, D. P.; Seth, T.

    2003-09-01

    Copper telluride thin films were deposited using modified chemical method using copper(II) sulphate; pentahydrate [CuSO 4·5H 2O] and sodium tellurite [Na 2TeO 3] as cationic and anionic sources, respectively. Modified chemical method is based on the immersion of the substrate into separately placed cationic and anionic precursors. The preparative conditions such as concentration, pH, immersion time, immersion cycles, etc. were optimized to get good quality copper telluride thin films at room temperature. The films have been characterized for structural, compositional, optical and electrical transport properties by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Rutherford back scattering (RBS), optical absorption/transmission, electrical resistivity and thermoemf measurement techniques.

  6. Solar heated rotary kiln

    DOEpatents

    Shell, Pamela K.

    1984-01-01

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  7. Bulk Dissolution Rates of Cadmium and Bismuth Tellurides As a Function of pH, Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen.

    PubMed

    Biver, Marc; Filella, Montserrat

    2016-05-03

    The toxicity of Cd being well established and that of Te suspected, the bulk, surface-normalized steady-state dissolution rates of two industrially important binary tellurides-polycrystalline cadmium and bismuth tellurides- were studied over the pH range 3-11, at various temperatures (25-70 °C) and dissolved oxygen concentrations (0-100% O2 in the gas phase). The behavior of both tellurides is strikingly different. The dissolution rates of CdTe monotonically decreased with increasing pH, the trend becoming more pronounced with increasing temperature. Activation energies were of the order of magnitude associated with surface controlled processes; they decreased with decreasing acidity. At pH 7, the CdTe dissolution rate increased linearly with dissolved oxygen. In anoxic solution, CdTe dissolved at a finite rate. In contrast, the dissolution rate of Bi2Te3 passed through a minimum at pH 5.3. The activation energy had a maximum in the rate minimum at pH 5.3 and fell below the threshold for diffusion control at pH 11. No oxygen dependence was detected. Bi2Te3 dissolves much more slowly than CdTe; from one to more than 3.5 orders of magnitude in the Bi2Te3 rate minimum. Both will readily dissolve under long-term landfill deposition conditions but comparatively slowly.

  8. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of phase-separating bismuth selenium telluride thin films via a two-step method

    SciT

    Takashiri, Masayuki, E-mail: takashiri@tokai-u.jp; Kurita, Kensuke; Hagino, Harutoshi

    2015-08-14

    A two-step method that combines homogeneous electron beam (EB) irradiation and thermal annealing has been developed to enhance the thermoelectric properties of nanocrystalline bismuth selenium telluride thin films. The thin films, prepared using a flash evaporation method, were treated with EB irradiation in a N{sub 2} atmosphere at room temperature and an acceleration voltage of 0.17 MeV. Thermal annealing was performed under Ar/H{sub 2} (5%) at 300 °C for 60 min. X-ray diffraction was used to determine that compositional phase separation between bismuth telluride and bismuth selenium telluride developed in the thin films exposed to higher EB doses and thermal annealing. We proposemore » that the phase separation was induced by fluctuations in the distribution of selenium atoms after EB irradiation, followed by the migration of selenium atoms to more stable sites during thermal annealing. As a result, thin film crystallinity improved and mobility was significantly enhanced. This indicates that the phase separation resulting from the two-step method enhanced, rather than disturbed, the electron transport. Both the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient were improved following the two-step method. Consequently, the power factor of thin films that underwent the two-step method was enhanced to 20 times (from 0.96 to 21.0 μW/(cm K{sup 2}) that of the thin films treated with EB irradiation alone.« less

  9. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1998-02-03

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  10. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Gangwal, Santosh K.; Jain, Suresh C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  11. Graphitic nanofilms of zinc-blende materials: ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, San-Lue; Zhao, Li; Li, Yan-Li

    2017-12-01

    Ab initio calculations on ultra-thin nanofilms of 25 kinds of zinc-blende semiconductors demonstrate their stable geometry structures growth along (1 1 1) surface. Our results show that the (1 1 1) surfaces of 9 kinds of zinc-blende semiconductors can transform into a stable graphitelike structure within a certain thickness. The tensile strain effect on the thickness of graphitic films is not obvious. The band gaps of stable graphitic films can be tuned over a wide range by epitaxial tensile strain, which is important for applications in microelectronic devices, solar cells and light-emitting diodes.

  12. History of zinc in agriculture

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, over 20 years would past before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure a parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it wa...

  13. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  14. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  15. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  16. Zinc and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 66 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  17. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  18. Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1984-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

  19. Fluorescence Stability of Mercaptopropionic Acid Capped Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots in Various Biochemical Buffers.

    PubMed

    Borse, Vivek; Kashikar, Adisha; Srivastava, Rohit

    2018-04-01

    Quantum dots are the semiconductor nanocrystals having unique optical and electronic properties. Quantum dots are category of fluorescent labels utilized for biological tagging, biosensing, bioassays, bioimaging and in vivo imaging as they exhibit very small size, signal brightness, photostability, tuning of light emission range, longer photoluminescence decay time as compared to organic dyes. In this work, we have synthesized and characterized mercaptopropionic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (MPA-CdTe QDs) using hydrothermal method. The study further reports fluorescence intensity stability of quantum dots suspended in different buffers of varying concentration (1-100 mM), stored at various photophysical conditions. Fluorescence intensity values were reduced with increase in buffer concentration. When the samples were stored at room temperature in ambient light condition the quantum dots suspended in different buffers lost the fluorescence intensity after day 15 (except TRIS II). Fluorescence intensity values were found stable for more than 30 days when the samples were stored in dark condition. Samples stored in refrigerator displayed modest fluorescence intensity even after 300 days of storage. Thus, storage of MPA-CdTe QDs in refrigerator may be the suitable choice to maintain its fluorescence stability for longer time for further application.

  20. Optical and structural properties of cadmium telluride films grown by glancing angle deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsani, M. H.; Rezagholipour Dizaji, H.; Azizi, S.; Ghavami Mirmahalle, S. F.; Siyanaki, F. Hosseini

    2013-08-01

    Cadmium telluride films were grown by the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique. The samples were prepared under different incident deposition flux angles (α = 0°, 20° and 70° measured from the normal to the substrate surface). During deposition, the substrate temperature was maintained at room temperature. The structural study was performed using an x-ray diffraction diffractometer. The samples were found to be poly-crystalline with cubic structure for those deposited at α = 0° and 20° and hexagonal structure for the one deposited at 70°. The images of samples obtained by the field emission scanning electron microscopy technique showed that the GLAD method could produce a columnar layer tilted toward the incident deposition flux. The optical properties study by the UV-Vis spectroscopy technique showed that the use of this growth technique affected the optical properties of the films. A higher absorption coefficient in the visible and near-IR spectral range was observed for the sample deposited at α = 70°. This is an important result from the photovoltaic applications point of view where absorber materials with large absorption coefficients are needed. Also, it seems that the sample with a high incident deposition flux angle has the capability of making an n-CdTe/p-CdTe homo-junction.

  1. Advanced methods for preparation and characterization of infrared detector materials. [mercury cadmium tellurides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.; Martin, B. G.

    1980-01-01

    Mercury cadmium telluride crystals were prepared by the Bridgman method with a wide range of crystal growth rates and temperature gradients adequate to prevent constitutional supercooling under diffusion-limited, steady state, growth conditions. The longitudinal compositional gradients for different growth conditions and alloy compositions were calculated and compared with experimental data to develop a quantitative model of the crystal growth kinetics for the Hg(i-x)CdxTe alloys, and measurements were performed to ascertain the effect of growth conditions on radial compositional gradients. The pseudobinary HgTe-CdTe constitutional phase diagram was determined by precision differential thermal analysis measurements and used to calculate the segregation coefficient of Cd as a function of x and interface temperature. Computer algorithms specific to Hg(1-x)CdxTe were developed for calculations of the charge carrier concentrations, charge carrier mobilities, Hall coefficient, optical absorptance, and Fermi energy as functions of x, temperature, ionized donor and acceptor concentrations, and neutral defect concentrations.

  2. Effect of reducing agent strength on the growth and thermoelectric performance of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nour, Asmaa; Hassan, Nazly; Refaat, Heba M.; Soliman, Hesham M. A.; El-Dissouky, A.

    2018-03-01

    A novel combination of Trizma, as an environmentally friendly chelating agent, with either weak or strong reducing agent was used to produce n-type bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) nanocrystals via water-based chemical route. The synthesized powders were consolidated into pellets utilizing spark plasma sintering (SPS). The sintered n-type pellets exhibited potentially high electrical conductivities (5.29 × 105 and 5.23 × 105 S.m‑1) and low lattice thermal conductivities (0.12 and 0.25 Wm‑1K‑1) respectively. These thermoelectric (TE) properties suggested that the partially coherent boundaries permitted significant phonons scattering and electrons transfer. These led to an enhanced figure-of-merit (ZT) values (0.52 and 0.97), which are considered to be significant among the reported ZT values at room-temperature for the undoped synthesized n-type Bi2Te3 nanoparticles. Therefore, the current investigation displayed an efficient method to improve ZT of TE materials via nanostructure orchestrating, resulting in a worthy candidate n-type nanostructured Bi2Te3 for room-temperature TE applications.

  3. Measurement and Modeling of Blocking Contacts for Cadmium Telluride Gamma Ray Detectors

    SciT

    Beck, Patrick R.

    2010-01-07

    Gamma ray detectors are important in national security applications, medicine, and astronomy. Semiconductor materials with high density and atomic number, such as Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), offer a small device footprint, but their performance is limited by noise at room temperature; however, improved device design can decrease detector noise by reducing leakage current. This thesis characterizes and models two unique Schottky devices: one with an argon ion sputter etch before Schottky contact deposition and one without. Analysis of current versus voltage characteristics shows that thermionic emission alone does not describe these devices. This analysis points to reverse bias generation current ormore » leakage through an inhomogeneous barrier. Modeling the devices in reverse bias with thermionic field emission and a leaky Schottky barrier yields good agreement with measurements. Also numerical modeling with a finite-element physics-based simulator suggests that reverse bias current is a combination of thermionic emission and generation. This thesis proposes further experiments to determine the correct model for reverse bias conduction. Understanding conduction mechanisms in these devices will help develop more reproducible contacts, reduce leakage current, and ultimately improve detector performance.« less

  4. Cadmium telluride nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon as adsorbent for removal of sunset yellow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Hekmati Jah, A.; Khodadoust, S.; Sahraei, R.; Daneshfar, A.; Mihandoost, A.; Purkait, M. K.

    2012-05-01

    Adsorption is a promising technique for decolorization of effluents of textile dyeing industries but its application is limited due to requirement of high amounts of adsorbent required. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of cadmium telluride nanoparticles loaded onto activated carbon (CdTN-AC) for the removal of sunset yellow (SY) dye from aqueous solution. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch mode varying solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, CdTN-AC dose, and temperature. In order to investigate the efficiency of SY adsorption on CdTN-AC, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were studied. It was observed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better than other kinetic models with good correlation coefficient. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy, activation energy, and sticking probability were also calculated. It was found that the sorption of SY onto CdTN-AC was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The proposed adsorbent is applicable for SY removal from waste of real effluents including pea-shooter, orange drink and jelly banana with efficiency more than 97%.

  5. Inhibition of autophagy contributes to the toxicity of cadmium telluride quantum dots in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fan, Junpeng; Shao, Ming; Lai, Lu; Liu, Yi; Xie, Zhixiong

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) are used as near-infrared probes in biologic and medical applications, but their cytological effects and mechanism of potential toxicity are still unclear. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of CdTe QDs of different sizes and investigated their mechanism of toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A growth inhibition assay revealed that orange-emitting CdTe (O-CdTe) QDs (half inhibitory concentration [IC50] =59.44±12.02 nmol/L) were more toxic than green-emitting CdTe QDs (IC50 =186.61±19.74 nmol/L) to S. cerevisiae. Further studies on toxicity mechanisms using a transmission electron microscope and green fluorescent protein tagged Atg8 processing assay revealed that O-CdTe QDs could partially inhibit autophagy at a late stage, which differs from the results reported in mammalian cells. Moreover, autophagy inhibited at a late stage by O-CdTe QDs could be partially recovered by enhancing autophagy with rapamycin (an autophagy activator), combined with an increased number of living cells. These results indicate that inhibition of autophagy acts as a toxicity mechanism of CdTe QDs in S. cerevisiae. This work reports a novel toxicity mechanism of CdTe QDs in yeast and provides valuable information on the effect of CdTe QDs on the processes of living cells.

  6. Adsorption and desorption of hexavalent chromium in an alluvial aquifer near Telluride, Colorado

    Stollenwerk, K.G.; Grove, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    A laboratory investigation of reactions between hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and alluvium was conducted to evaluate reactions of Cr(VI) contaminating an alluvial aquifer near Telluride, CO and to determine the mechanisms responsible for these reactions. Uncontaminated alluvium and groundwater (spiked with CrO42-) from the study site were used in batch and column experiments. Results of these experiments show that Cr(VI) was adsorbed by the alluvium. Distribution coefficients from batch experiments ranged from 52 L/kg at an equilibrium CrO42- concentration of 0.4 ??mol/L to 1.7 L/kg at an equilibrium concentration of 1400 ??mol/L. The zero point of charge for the alluvium was approximately 8.3, and the alluvium had a positive net charge at the groundwater pH of 6.8. Visual and chemical evidence indicated that Fe oxide and hydroxide coatings on the alluvial particles principally were responsible for the absorption of Cr(VI). During column experiments, Cr(VI) initially was desorbed easily from the alluvium by Cr-free groundwater; however, the rate of desorption decreased rapidly, and > 60 pore volumes of groundwater were required to decrease the effluent concentration of Cr(VI) to 3 ??mol/L [drinking water standard for Cr(VI) = 1 ??mol/L]. The quantity of Cr(VI) adsorbed varied with the type and concentration of other anions in solution.

  7. Thermal transport in bismuth telluride quintuple layer: mode-resolved phonon properties and substrate effects

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Cheng; Bao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The successful exfoliation of atomically-thin bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) quintuple layer (QL) attracts tremendous research interest in this strongly anharmonic quasi-two-dimensional material. The thermal transport properties of this material are not well understood, especially the mode-wise properties and when it is coupled with a substrate. In this work, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations and normal mode analysis to study the mode-resolved thermal transport in freestanding and supported Bi2Te3 QL. The detailed mode-wise phonon properties are calculated and the accumulated thermal conductivities with respect to phonon mean free path (MFP) are constructed. It is shown that 60% of the thermal transport is contributed by phonons with MFP longer than 20 nm. Coupling with a-SiO2 substrate leads to about 60% reduction of thermal conductivity. Through varying the interfacial coupling strength and the atomic mass of substrate, we also find that phonon in Bi2Te3 QL is more strongly scattered by interfacial potential and its transport process is less affected by the dynamics of substrate. Our study provides an in-depth understanding of heat transport in Bi2Te3 QL and is helpful in further tailoring its thermal property through nanostructuring. PMID:27263656

  8. Transition-metal doped sulfide, selenide, and telluride laser crystal and lasers

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, William F.; Page, Ralph H.; DeLoach, Laura D.; Payne, Stephen A.

    1996-01-01

    A new class of solid state laser crystals and lasers are formed of transition metal doped sulfide, selenide, and telluride host crystals which have four fold coordinated substitutional sites. The host crystals include II-VI compounds. The host crystal is doped with a transition metal laser ion, e.g., chromium, cobalt or iron. In particular, Cr.sup.2+ -doped ZnS and ZnSe generate laser action near 2.3 .mu.m. Oxide, chloride, fluoride, bromide and iodide crystals with similar structures can also be used. Important aspects of these laser materials are the tetrahedral site symmetry of the host crystal, low excited state absorption losses and high luminescence efficiency, and the d.sup.4 and d.sup.6 electronic configurations of the transition metal ions. The same materials are also useful as saturable absorbers for passive Q-switching applications. The laser materials can be used as gain media in amplifiers and oscillators; these gain media can be incorporated into waveguides and semiconductor lasers.

  9. Transition-metal doped sulfide, selenide, and telluride laser crystal and lasers

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.; Page, R.H.; DeLoach, L.D.; Payne, S.A.

    1996-07-30

    A new class of solid state laser crystals and lasers are formed of transition metal doped sulfide, selenide, and telluride host crystals which have four fold coordinated substitutional sites. The host crystals include II-VI compounds. The host crystal is doped with a transition metal laser ion, e.g., chromium, cobalt or iron. In particular, Cr{sup 2+}-doped ZnS and ZnSe generate laser action near 2.3 {micro}m. Oxide, chloride, fluoride, bromide and iodide crystals with similar structures can also be used. Important aspects of these laser materials are the tetrahedral site symmetry of the host crystal, low excited state absorption losses and high luminescence efficiency, and the d{sup 4} and d{sup 6} electronic configurations of the transition metal ions. The same materials are also useful as saturable absorbers for passive Q-switching applications. The laser materials can be used as gain media in amplifiers and oscillators; these gain media can be incorporated into waveguides and semiconductor lasers. 18 figs.

  10. Effect of the interface on the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of bismuth telluride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Tang-Yu; Wang, Kuan-Yu; Fang, Te-Hua; Huang, Chao-Chun

    2018-02-01

    Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) is a type of thermoelectric material used for energy generation that does not cause pollution. Increasing the thermoelectric conversion efficiency (ZT) is one of the most important steps in the development of thermoelectric components. In this study, we use molecular dynamics to investigate the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of quintuple layers of Bi2Te3 nanofilms with different atomic arrangements at the interface and study the effects of varying layers, angles, and grain boundaries. The results indicate that the Bi2Te3 nanofilm perfect substrate has the ideal Young’s modulus and thermal conductivity, and the maximum yield stress is observed for a thickness of ∼90 Å. As the interface changed, the structural disorder of atomic arrangement affected the mechanical properties; moreover, the phonons encounter lattice disordered atomic region will produce scattering reduce heat conduction. The results of this investigation are helpful for the application of Bi2Te3 nanofilms as thermoelectric materials.

  11. Two-color detector: Mercury-cadmium-telluride as a terahertz and infrared detector

    SciT

    Sizov, F.; Zabudsky, V.; Petryakov, V.

    2015-02-23

    In this paper, issues associated with the development of infrared (IR) and terahertz (THz) radiation detectors based on HgCdTe are discussed. Two-color un-cooled and cooled to 78 K narrow-gap mercury-cadmium-telluride semiconductor thin layers with antennas were considered both as sub-THz (sub-THz) direct detection bolometers and 3–10 μm IR photoconductors. The noise equivalent power (NEP) for one of the detectors studied at ν ≈ 140 GHz reaches NEP{sub 300 K} ≈ 4.5 × 10{sup −10} W/Hz{sup 1/2} and NEP{sub 78 K} ≈ 5 × 10{sup −9} W/Hz{sup 1/2}. The same detector used as an IR photoconductor showed the responsivity at temperatures T = 78 K and 300 K with signal-to-noisemore » ratio S/N ≈ 750 and 50, respectively, under illumination by using IR monochromator and globar as a thermal source.« less

  12. Reproductive toxicity and gender differences induced by cadmium telluride quantum dots in an invertebrate model organism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Si-Qi; Xing, Rui; Zhou, Yan-Feng; Li, Kai-Le; Su, Yuan-Yuan; Qiu, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hu; Zhang, Ke-Qin; He, Yao; Lu, Xiao-Ping; Xu, Shi-Qing

    2016-09-01

    Sexual glands are key sites affected by nanotoxicity, but there is no sensitive assay for measuring reproductive toxicity in animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe-QDs) on gonads in a model organism, Bombyx mori. After dorsal vein injection of 0.32 nmol of CdTe-QDs per individual, the QDs passed through the outer membranes of gonads via the generation of ROS in the membranes of spermatocysts and ovarioles, as well as internal germ cells, thereby inducing early germ cell death or malformations via complex mechanisms related to apoptosis and autophagy through mitochondrial and lysosomal pathways. Histological observations of the gonads and quantitative analyses of germ cell development showed that the reproductive toxicity was characterized by obvious male sensitivity. Exposure to QDs in the early stage of males had severe adverse effects on the quantity and quality of sperm, which was the main reason for the occurrence of unfertilized eggs. Ala- or Gly-conjugated QDs could reduce the nanotoxicity of CdTe-QDs during germ cell development and fertilization of their offspring. The results demonstrate that males are preferable models for evaluating the reproductive toxicity of QDs in combined in vivo/in vitro investigations.

  13. Extraordinary Off-Stoichiometric Bismuth Telluride for Enhanced n-Type Thermoelectric Power Factor.

    PubMed

    Park, Kunsu; Ahn, Kyunghan; Cha, Joonil; Lee, Sanghwa; Chae, Sue In; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Ryee, Siheon; Im, Jino; Lee, Jaeki; Park, Su-Dong; Han, Myung Joon; Chung, In; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2016-11-02

    Thermoelectrics directly converts waste heat into electricity and is considered a promising means of sustainable energy generation. While most of the recent advances in the enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) resulted from a decrease in lattice thermal conductivity by nanostructuring, there have been very few attempts to enhance electrical transport properties, i.e., the power factor. Here we use nanochemistry to stabilize bulk bismuth telluride (Bi 2 Te 3 ) that violates phase equilibrium, namely, phase-pure n-type K 0.06 Bi 2 Te 3.18 . Incorporated potassium and tellurium in Bi 2 Te 3 far exceed their solubility limit, inducing simultaneous increase in the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient along with decrease in the thermal conductivity. Consequently, a high power factor of ∼43 μW cm -1 K -2 and a high ZT > 1.1 at 323 K are achieved. Our current synthetic method can be used to produce a new family of materials with novel physical and chemical characteristics for various applications.

  14. A fumonisins immunosensor based on polyanilino-carbon nanotubes doped with palladium telluride quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Masikini, Milua; Mailu, Stephen N; Tsegaye, Abebaw; Njomo, Njagi; Molapo, Kerileng M; Ikpo, Chinwe O; Sunday, Christopher Edozie; Rassie, Candice; Wilson, Lindsay; Baker, Priscilla G L; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I

    2014-12-30

    An impedimetric immunosensor for fumonisins was developed based on poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline)-multi-wall carbon nanotubes doped with palladium telluride quantum dots onto a glassy carbon surface. The composite was assembled by a layer-by-layer method to form a multilayer film of quantum dots (QDs) and poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline)-multi-wall carbon nanotubes (PDMA-MWCNT). Preparation of the electrochemical immunosensor for fumonisins involved drop-coating of fumonisins antibody onto the composite modified glassy carbon electrode. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy response of the FB1 immunosensor (GCE/PT-PDMA-MWCNT/anti-Fms-BSA) gave a linear range of 7 to 49 ng L-1 and the corresponding sensitivity and detection limits were 0.0162 kΩ L ng-1 and 0.46 pg L-1, respectively, hence the limit of detection of the GCE/PT-PDMA-MWCNT immunosensor for fumonisins in corn certified material was calculated to be 0.014 and 0.011 ppm for FB1, and FB2 and FB3, respectively. These results are lower than those obtained by ELISA, a provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for fumonisins (the sum of FB1, FB2, and FB3) established by the Joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives and contaminants of 2 μg kg-1 and the maximum level recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for protection of human consumption (2-4 mg L-1).

  15. Cancer diagnosis using a conventional x-ray fluorescence camera with a cadmium-telluride detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Sato, Koetsu; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2011-10-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is useful for mapping various atoms in objects. Bremsstrahlung X-rays are selected using a 3.0 mm-thick aluminum filter, and these rays are absorbed by indium, cerium and gadolinium atoms in objects. Then XRF is produced from the objects, and photons are detected by a cadmium-telluride detector. The Kα photons are discriminated using a multichannel analyzer, and the number of photons is counted by a counter card. The objects are moved and scanned by an x-y stage in conjunction with a two-stage controller, and X-ray images obtained by atomic mapping are shown on a personal computer monitor. The scan steps of the x and y axes were both 2.5 mm, and the photon-counting time per mapping point was 0.5 s. We carried out atomic mapping using the X-ray camera, and Kα photons from cerium and gadolinium atoms were produced from cancerous regions in nude mice.

  16. Energy-discrimination x-ray computed tomography system utilizing a scanning cadmium-telluride detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Abduraxit, Ablajan; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Hitomi, Keitaro; Takahashi, Kiyomi; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2010-04-01

    An energy-discrimination K-edge x-ray computed tomography (CT) system is useful for controlling the image contrast of a target region by selecting both the photon energy and the energy width. The CT system has an oscillation-type linear cadmium telluride (CdTe) detectror. CT is performed by repeated linear scans and rotations of an object. Penetrating x-ray photons from the object are detected by a CdTe detector, and event signals of x-ray photons are produced using charge-sensitive and shaping amplifiers. Both photon energy and energy width are selected out using a multichannel analyzer, and the number of photons is counted by a counter card. In energy-discrimination CT, the tube voltage and tube current were 80 kV and 20 μA, respectively, and the x-ray intensity was 1.92 μGy/s at a distance of 1.0 m from the source and a tube voltage of 80 kV. The energy-discrimination CT was carried out by selecting x-ray photon energies.

  17. Energy discriminating x-ray camera utilizing a cadmium telluride detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Purkhet, Abderyim; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Wantanabe, Manabu; Nagao, Jiro; Nomiya, Seiichiro; Hitomi, Keitaro; Tanaka, Etsuro; Kawai, Toshiaki; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2009-07-01

    An energy-discriminating x-ray camera is useful for performing monochromatic radiography using polychromatic x rays. This x-ray camera was developed to carry out K-edge radiography using iodine-based contrast media. In this camera, objects are exposed by a cone beam from a cerium x-ray generator, and penetrating x-ray photons are detected by a cadmium telluride detector with an amplifier unit. The optimal x-ray photon energy and the energy width are selected out using a multichannel analyzer, and the photon number is counted by a counter card. Radiography was performed by the detector scanning using an x-y stage driven by a two-stage controller, and radiograms obtained by energy discriminating are shown on a personal computer monitor. In radiography, the tube voltage and current were 60 kV and 36 μA, respectively, and the x-ray intensity was 4.7 μGy/s. Cerium K-series characteristic x rays are absorbed effectively by iodine-based contrast media, and iodine K-edge radiography was performed using x rays with energies just beyond iodine K-edge energy 33.2 keV.

  18. Energy-discriminating X-ray computed tomography system utilizing a cadmium telluride detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Abderyim, Purkhet; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Hitomi, Keitaro; Takahasi, Kiyomi; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawae, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2010-07-01

    An energy-discriminating K-edge X-ray computed tomography (CT) system is useful for increasing contrast resolution of a target region utilizing contrast media and for reducing the absorbed dose for patients. The CT system is of the first-generation type with a cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector, and a projection curve is obtained by translation scanning using the CdTe detector in conjunction with an x-stage. An object is rotated by the rotation step angle using a turntable between the translation scans. Thus, CT is carried out by repeating the translation scanning and the rotation of an object. Penetrating X-ray photons from the object are detected by the CdTe detector, and event signals of X-ray photons are produced using charge-sensitive and shaping amplifiers. Both the photon energy and the energy width are selected by use of a multi-channel analyzer, and the number of photons is counted by a counter card. Demonstration of enhanced iodine K-edge X-ray CT was carried out by selecting photons with energies just beyond the iodine K-edge energy of 33.2 keV.

  19. Phase diagram of germanium telluride encapsulated in carbon nanotubes from first-principles searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, Jamie M.; Medeiros, Paulo V. C.; Vasylenko, Andrij; Sloan, Jeremy; Quigley, David; Morris, Andrew J.

    2017-12-01

    Germanium telluride has attracted great research interest, primarily because of its phase-change properties. We have developed a general scheme, based on the ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) method, for predicting the structures of encapsulated nanowires, and using this we predict a number of thermodynamically stable structures of GeTe nanowires encapsulated inside carbon nanotubes of radii under 9 Å . We construct the phase diagram of encapsulated GeTe, which provides quantitative predictions about the energetic favorability of different filling structures as a function of the nanotube radius, such as the formation of a quasi-one-dimensional rock-salt-like phase inside nanotubes of radii between 5.4 and 7.9 Å . Simulated TEM images of our structures show excellent agreement between our results and experimental TEM imagery. We show that, for some nanotubes, the nanowires undergo temperature-induced phase transitions from one crystalline structure to another due to vibrational contributions to the free energy, which is a first step toward nano-phase-change memory devices.

  20. Directional Solidification of Mercury Cadmium Telluride During the Second United States Microgravity Payload Mission (USMP-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, D. C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.; Watring, D. A.; Alexander, H. A.; Jerman, G. A.

    1996-01-01

    As a solid solution semiconductor having, a large separation between liquidus and solidus, mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) presents a formidable challenge to crystal growers desiring an alloy of high compositional uniformity. To avoid constitutional supercooling during Bridgman crystal growth it is necessary to solidify slowly in a high temperature gradient region. The necessary translation rate of less than 1 mm/hr results in a situation where fluid flow induced by gravity on earth is a significant factor in material transport. The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) is equipped to provide the stable thermal environment with a high gradient, and the required slow translation rate needed. Ground based experiments in AADSF show clearly the dominance of flow driven transport. The first flight of AADSF in low gravity on USMP-2 provided an opportunity to test theories of fluid flow in MCT and showed several solidification regimes which are very different from those observed on earth. Residual acceleration vectors in the orbiter during the mission were measured by the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and correlated well with observed compositional differences in the samples.

  1. Zinc supplementation in public health.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary Edith

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is necessary for physiological processes including defense against infections. Zinc deficiency is responsible for 4% of global child morbidity and mortality. Zinc supplements given for 10-14 days together with low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (Lo-ORS) are recommended for the treatment of childhood diarrhea. In children aged ≥ 6 months, daily zinc supplements reduce the duration of acute diarrhea episodes by 12 h and persistent diarrhea by 17 h. Zinc supplements could reduce diarrhea mortality in children aged 12-59 months by an estimated 23%; they are very safe but are associated with an increase in vomiting especially with the first dose. Heterogeneity between the results of trials is not understood but may be related to dose and the etiology of the diarrhea infection. Integration of zinc and Lo-ORS into national programs is underway but slowly, procurement problems are being overcome and the greatest challenge is changing health provider and caregiver attitudes to diarrhea management. Fewer trials have been conducted of zinc adjunct therapy in severe respiratory tract infections and there is as yet insufficient evidence to recommend addition of zinc to antibiotic therapy. Daily zinc supplements for all children >12 months of age in zinc deficient populations are estimated to reduce diarrhea incidence by 11-23%. The greatest impact is in reducing multiple episodes of diarrhea. The effect on duration of diarrheal episodes is less clear, but there may be up to 9% reduction. Zinc is also efficacious in reducing dysentery and persistent diarrhea. Zinc supplements may also prevent pneumonia by about 19%, but heterogeneity across studies has not yet been explained. When analyses are restricted to better quality studies using CHERG (Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group) methodology, zinc supplements are estimated to reduce diarrheal deaths by 13% and pneumonia deaths by 20%. National-level programs to combat childhood zinc deficiency should be

  2. The performance of a combined solar photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørk, R.; Nielsen, K. K.

    2015-10-01

    The performance of a combined solar photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) system is examined using an analytical model for four different types of commercial PVs and a commercial bismuth telluride TEG. The TEG is applied directly on the back of the PV, so that the two devices have the same temperature. The PVs considered are crystalline Si (c-Si), amorphous Si (a-Si), copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) cells. The degradation of PV performance with temperature is shown to dominate the increase in power produced by the TEG, due to the low efficiency of the TEG. For c-Si, CIGS and CdTe PV cells the combined system produces a lower power and has a lower efficiency than the PV alone, whereas for an a-Si cell the total system performance may be slightly increased by the TEG.

  3. Charge transport in CdTe solar cells revealed by conductive tomographic atomic force microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Luria, Justin; Kutes, Yasemin; Moore, Andrew; ...

    2016-09-26

    Polycrystalline photovoltaics comprising cadmium telluride (CdTe) represent a growing portion of the solar cell market, yet the physical picture of charge transport through the meso-scale grain morphology remains a topic of debate. It is unknown how thin film morphology affects the transport of electron-hole pairs. Accordingly this study is the first to generate three dimensional images of photocurrent throughout a thin-film solar cell, revealing the profound influence of grain boundaries and stacking faults on device efficiency.

  4. Solar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

  5. Acute changes in cellular zinc alters zinc uptake rates prior to zinc transporter gene expression in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Holland, Tai C; Killilea, David W; Shenvi, Swapna V; King, Janet C

    2015-12-01

    A coordinated network of zinc transporters and binding proteins tightly regulate cellular zinc levels. Canonical responses to zinc availability are thought to be mediated by changes in gene expression of key zinc transporters. We investigated the temporal relationships of actual zinc uptake with patterns of gene expression in membrane-bound zinc transporters in the human immortalized T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line. Cellular zinc levels were elevated or reduced with exogenous zinc sulfate or N,N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), respectively. Excess zinc resulted in a rapid 44 % decrease in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of metallothionein (positive control) increased, as well as the zinc exporter, ZnT1; however, the expression of zinc importers did not change during this time period. Zinc chelation with TPEN resulted in a rapid twofold increase in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of ZnT1 decreased, while again the expression of zinc importers did not change. Overall, zinc transporter gene expression kinetics did not match actual changes in cellular zinc uptake with exogenous zinc or TPEN treatments. This suggests zinc transporter regulation may be the initial response to changes in zinc within Jurkat cells.

  6. Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ananda S

    2008-01-01

    Although the essentiality of zinc for plants and animals has been known for many decades, the essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized only 40 years ago in the Middle East. The zinc-deficient patients had severe immune dysfunctions, inasmuch as they died of intercurrent infections by the time they were 25 years of age. In our studies in an experimental human model of zinc deficiency, we documented decreased serum testosterone level, oligospermia, severe immune dysfunctions mainly affecting T helper cells, hyperammonemia, neurosensory disorders, and decreased lean body mass. It appears that zinc deficiency is prevalent in the developing world and as many as two billion subjects may be growth retarded due to zinc deficiency. Besides growth retardation and immune dysfunctions, cognitive impairment due to zinc deficiency also has been reported recently. Our studies in the cell culture models showed that the activation of many zinc-dependent enzymes and transcription factors were adversely affected due to zinc deficiency. In HUT-78 (T helper 0 [Th(0)] cell line), we showed that a decrease in gene expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-2 receptor alpha(IL-2Ralpha) were due to decreased activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in zinc deficient cells. Decreased NF-kappaB activation in HUT-78 due to zinc deficiency was due to decreased binding of NF-kappaB to DNA, decreased level of NF-kappaB p105 (the precursor of NF-kappaB p50) mRNA, decreased kappaB inhibitory protein (IkappaB) phosphorylation, and decreased Ikappa kappa. These effects of zinc were cell specific. Zinc also is an antioxidant and has anti-inflammatory actions. The therapeutic roles of zinc in acute infantile diarrhea, acrodermatitis enteropathica, prevention of blindness in patients with age-related macular degeneration, and treatment of common cold with zinc have been reported. In HL-60 cells (promyelocytic leukemia cell line), zinc enhances the up-regulation of A20 mRNA, which, via TRAF

  7. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  8. Zinc and Zinc Transporters: Novel Regulators of Ventricular Myocardial Development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen; Li, Deqiang

    2018-06-01

    Ventricular myocardial development is a well-orchestrated process involving different cardiac structures, multiple signal pathways, and myriad proteins. Dysregulation of this important developmental event can result in cardiomyopathies, such as left ventricle non-compaction, which affect the pediatric population and the adults. Human and mouse studies have shed light upon the etiology of some cardiomyopathy cases and highlighted the contribution of both genetic and environmental factors. However, the regulation of ventricular myocardial development remains incompletely understood. Zinc is an essential trace metal with structural, enzymatic, and signaling function. Perturbation of zinc homeostasis has resulted in developmental and physiological defects including cardiomyopathy. In this review, we summarize several mechanisms by which zinc and zinc transporters can impact the regulation of ventricular myocardial development. Based on our review, we propose that zinc deficiency and mutations of zinc transporters may underlie some cardiomyopathy cases especially those involving ventricular myocardial development defects.

  9. Material and Energy Flows Associated with Select Metals in GREET 2. Molybdenum, Platinum, Zinc, Nickel, Silicon

    SciT

    Benavides, Pahola T.; Dai, Qiang; Sullivan, John L.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyzed the material and energy consumption from mining to production of molybdenum, platinum, zinc, and nickel. We also analyzed the production of solar- and semiconductor-grade silicon. We described new additions to and expansions of the data in GREET 2. In some cases, we used operating permits and sustainability reports to estimate the material and energy flows for molybdenum, platinum, and nickel, while for zinc and silicon we relied on information provided in the literature.

  10. A totally phosphine-free synthesis of metal telluride nanocrystals by employing alkylamides to replace alkylphosphines for preparing highly reactive tellurium precursors.

    PubMed

    Yao, Dong; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Wujun; Wei, Haotong; Luo, Xintao; Wu, Zhennan; Dong, Chunwei; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2013-10-21

    Despite the developments in the wet chemical synthesis of high-quality semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with diverse elemental compositions, telluride NCs are still irreplaceable materials owing to their excellent photovoltaic and thermoelectric performances. Herein we demonstrate the dissolution of elemental tellurium (Te) in a series of alkylamides by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) reduction at relatively low temperature to produce highly reactive precursors for hot-injection synthesis of telluride NCs. The capability to tune the reactivity of Te precursors by selecting injection temperature permits control of NC size over a broad range. The current preparation of Te precursors is simple, economical, and totally phosphine-free, which will promote the commercial synthesis and applications of telluride NCs.

  11. A Fumonisins Immunosensor Based on Polyanilino-Carbon Nanotubes Doped with Palladium Telluride Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Masikini, Milua; Mailu, Stephen N.; Tsegaye, Abebaw; Njomo, Njagi; Molapo, Kerileng M.; Ikpo, Chinwe O.; Sunday, Christopher Edozie; Rassie, Candice; Wilson, Lindsay; Baker, Priscilla G. L.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    2015-01-01

    An impedimetric immunosensor for fumonisins was developed based on poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline)-multi-wall carbon nanotubes doped with palladium telluride quantum dots onto a glassy carbon surface. The composite was assembled by a layer-by-layer method to form a multilayer film of quantum dots (QDs) and poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline)-multi-wall carbon nanotubes (PDMA-MWCNT). Preparation of the electrochemical immunosensor for fumonisins involved drop-coating of fumonisins antibody onto the composite modified glassy carbon electrode. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy response of the FB1 immunosensor (GCE/PT-PDMA-MWCNT/anti-Fms-BSA) gave a linear range of 7 to 49 ng L−1 and the corresponding sensitivity and detection limits were 0.0162 kΩ L ng−1 and 0.46 pg L−1, respectively, hence the limit of detection of the GCE/PT-PDMA-MWCNT immunosensor for fumonisins in corn certified material was calculated to be 0.014 and 0.011 ppm for FB1, and FB2 and FB3, respectively. These results are lower than those obtained by ELISA, a provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for fumonisins (the sum of FB1, FB2, and FB3) established by the Joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives and contaminants of 2 μg kg−1 and the maximum level recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for protection of human consumption (2–4 mg L−1). PMID:25558993

  12. A Possible Neuroprotective Action of a Vinylic Telluride against Mn-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ávila, Daiana S.; Colle, Dirleise; Gubert, Priscila; Palma, Aline S.; Puntel, Gustavo; Manarin, Flávia; Noremberg, Simone; Nascimento, Paulo C.; Aschner, Michael; Rocha, João B. T.; Soares, Félix A. A.

    2010-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a metal required by biological systems. However, environmental or occupational exposure to high levels of Mn can produce a neurological disorder called manganism, which has similarities to Parkinson's disease. Diethyl-2-phenyl-2-tellurophenyl vinylphosphonate (DPTVP) is an organotellurium compound with a high antioxidant activity, especially in the brain. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term low-dose exposure to Mn in drinking water on behavioral and biochemical parameters in rats and to determine the effectiveness of vinylic telluride in attenuating the effects of Mn. After 4 months of treatment with MnCl2 (13.7 mg/kg), rats exhibited clear signs of neurobehavioral toxicity, including a decrease in the number of rearings in the open field and altered motor performance in rotarod. The administration of DPTVP (0.150 μmol/kg, ip, 2 weeks) improved the motor performance of Mn-treated rats, indicating that the compound could be reverting Mn neurotoxicity. Ex vivo, we observed that Mn concentrations in the Mn-treated group were highest in the striatum, consistent with a statistically significant decrease in mitochondrial viability and [3H]glutamate uptake, and increased lipid peroxidation. Mn levels in the hippocampus and cortex were indistinguishable from controls, and no significant differences were noted in the ex vivo assays in these areas. Treatment with DPTVP fully reversed the biochemical parameters altered by Mn. Furthermore, DPTVP treatment was also associated with a reduction in striatal Mn levels. Our results demonstrate that DPTVP has neuroprotective activity against Mn-induced neurotoxicity, which may be attributed to its antioxidant activity and/or its effect on striatal Mn transport. PMID:20133376

  13. Development and evaluation of polycrystalline cadmium telluride dosimeters for accurate quality assurance in radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, K.; Han, M.; Kim, K.; Heo, Y.; Moon, C.; Park, S.; Nam, S.

    2016-02-01

    For quality assurance in radiation therapy, several types of dosimeters are used such as ionization chambers, radiographic films, thermo-luminescent dosimeter (TLD), and semiconductor dosimeters. Among them, semiconductor dosimeters are particularly useful for in vivo dosimeters or high dose gradient area such as the penumbra region because they are more sensitive and smaller in size compared to typical dosimeters. In this study, we developed and evaluated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) dosimeters, one of the most promising semiconductor dosimeters due to their high quantum efficiency and charge collection efficiency. Such CdTe dosimeters include single crystal form and polycrystalline form depending upon the fabrication process. Both types of CdTe dosimeters are commercially available, but only the polycrystalline form is suitable for radiation dosimeters, since it is less affected by volumetric effect and energy dependence. To develop and evaluate polycrystalline CdTe dosimeters, polycrystalline CdTe films were prepared by thermal evaporation. After that, CdTeO3 layer, thin oxide layer, was deposited on top of the CdTe film by RF sputtering to improve charge carrier transport properties and to reduce leakage current. Also, the CdTeO3 layer which acts as a passivation layer help the dosimeter to reduce their sensitivity changes with repeated use due to radiation damage. Finally, the top and bottom electrodes, In/Ti and Pt, were used to have Schottky contact. Subsequently, the electrical properties under high energy photon beams from linear accelerator (LINAC), such as response coincidence, dose linearity, dose rate dependence, reproducibility, and percentage depth dose, were measured to evaluate polycrystalline CdTe dosimeters. In addition, we compared the experimental data of the dosimeter fabricated in this study with those of the silicon diode dosimeter and Thimble ionization chamber which widely used in routine dosimetry system and dose measurements for radiation

  14. Mitochondrial Toxicity of Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dot Nanoparticles in Mammalian Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kathy C.; Rippstein, Peter; Tayabali, Azam F.; Willmore, William G.

    2015-01-01

    There are an increasing number of studies indicating that mitochondria are relevant targets in nanomaterial-induced toxicity. However, the underlying mechanisms by which nanoparticles (NPs) interact with these organelles and affect their functions are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium telluride quantum dot (CdTe-QD) NPs on mitochondria in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. CdTe-QD treatment resulted in the enlargement of mitochondria as examined with transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. CdTe-QDs appeared to associate with the isolated mitochondria as detected by their inherent fluorescence. Further analyses revealed that CdTe-QD caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased intracellular calcium levels, impaired cellular respiration, and decreased adenosine triphosphate synthesis. The effects of CdTe-QDs on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation were evidenced by changes in levels and activities of the enzymes of the electron transport chain. Elevation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator levels after CdTe-QD treatment suggested the effects of CdTe-QDs on mitochondrial biogenesis. Our results also showed that the effects of CdTe-QDs were similar or greater to those of cadmium chloride at equivalent concentrations of cadmium, suggesting that the toxic effects of CdTe-QDs were not solely due to cadmium released from the NPs. Overall, the study demonstrated that CdTe-QDs induced multifarious toxicity by causing changes in mitochondrial morphology and structure, as well as impairing their function and stimulating their biogenesis. PMID:25809595

  15. Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride Focal Plane Array Performance Under Non-Standard Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Bruce, Carl F.; Green, Robert O.; Coles, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights a new technique that allows the Teledyne Scientific & Imaging LLC TCM6604A Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) Focal Plane Array (FPA) to operate at room temperature. The Teledyne MCT FPA has been a standard in Imaging Spectroscopy since its creation in the 1980's. This FPA has been used in applications ranging from space instruments such as CRISM, M3 and ARTEMIS to airborne instruments such as MaRS and the Next Generation AVIRIS Instruments1. Precise focal plane alignment is always a challenge for such instruments. The current FPA alignment process results in multiple cold cycles requiring week-long durations, thereby increasing the risk and cost of a project. These alignment cycles are necessary because optimal alignment is approached incrementally and can only be measured with the FPA and Optics at standard operating conditions, requiring a cold instrument. Instruments using this FPA are normally cooled to temperatures below 150K for the MCT FPA to properly function. When the FPA is run at higher temperatures the dark current increases saturating the output. This paper covers the prospect of warm MCT FPA operation from a theoretical and experimental perspective. We discuss the empirical models and physical laws that govern MCT material properties and predict the optimal settings that will result in the best MCT PA performance at 300K. Theoretical results are then calculated for the proposed settings. We finally present the images and data obtained using the actual system with the warm MCT FPA settings. The paper concludes by emphasizing the strong positive correlation between the measured values and the theoretical results.

  16. Zinc Signal in Brain Diseases.

    PubMed

    Portbury, Stuart D; Adlard, Paul A

    2017-11-23

    The divalent cation zinc is an integral requirement for optimal cellular processes, whereby it contributes to the function of over 300 enzymes, regulates intracellular signal transduction, and contributes to efficient synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Given the critical role of zinc in a breadth of cellular processes, its cellular distribution and local tissue level concentrations remain tightly regulated via a series of proteins, primarily including zinc transporter and zinc import proteins. A loss of function of these regulatory pathways, or dietary alterations that result in a change in zinc homeostasis in the brain, can all lead to a myriad of pathological conditions with both acute and chronic effects on function. This review aims to highlight the role of zinc signaling in the central nervous system, where it may precipitate or potentiate diverse issues such as age-related cognitive decline, depression, Alzheimer's disease or negative outcomes following brain injury.

  17. Chemiluminescence studies between aqueous phase synthesized mercaptosuccinic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots and luminol-H2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviyarasan, Kulandaivelu; Anandan, Sambandam; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Wu, Jerry J.

    2016-08-01

    Mercaptosuccinic acid capped Cadmium telluride quantum dots have been successfully synthesized via aqueous phase method. The products were well characterized by a number of analytical techniques, including FT-IR, XRD, HRTEM, and a corrected particle size analysis by the statistical treatment of several AFM measurements. Chemiluminescence experiments were performed to explore the resonance energy transfer between chemiluminescence donor (luminol-H2O2 system) and acceptor CdTe QDs. The combination of such donor and acceptor dramatically reduce the fluorescence while compared to pristine CdTe QDs without any exciting light source, which is due to the occurrence of chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) processes.

  18. Aluminium or copper substrate panel for selective absorption of solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, M. L.; Sharpe, M. H.; Krupnick, A. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method for making panels which selectively absorb solar energy is disclosed. The panels are comprised of an aluminum substrate, a layer of zinc thereon, a layer of nickel over the zinc layer and an outer layer of solar energy absorbing nickel oxide or a copper substrate with a layer of nickel thereon and a layer of solar energy absorbing nickel oxide distal from the copper substrate.

  19. Zinc supplementation for tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Person, Osmar C; Puga, Maria Es; da Silva, Edina Mk; Torloni, Maria R

    2016-11-23

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound without external acoustic stimuli. Patients with severe tinnitus may have physical and psychological complaints and their tinnitus can cause deterioration in their quality of life. At present no specific therapy for tinnitus has been found to be satisfactory in all patients. In recent decades, a number of reports have suggested that oral zinc supplementation may be effective in the management of tinnitus. Since zinc has a role in cochlear physiology and in the synapses of the auditory system, there is a plausible mechanism of action for this treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral zinc supplementation in the management of patients with tinnitus. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the ENT Trials Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 6); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 14 July 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing zinc supplementation versus placebo in adults (18 years and over) with tinnitus. We used the standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Our primary outcome measures were improvement in tinnitus severity and disability, measured by a validated tinnitus-specific questionnaire, and adverse effects. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, change in socioeconomic impact associated with work, change in anxiety and depression disorders, change in psychoacoustic parameters, change in tinnitus loudness, change in overall severity of tinnitus and change in thresholds on pure tone audiometry. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included three trials involving a total of 209 participants. The studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. All included studies had differences in participant selection criteria, length of follow-up and outcome measurement

  20. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  1. Galacti chemical evolution: Hygrogen through zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmes, F. X.; Woosley, S. E.; Weaver, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    Using the output from a grid of 60 Type II supernova models (Woosley & Weaver 1995) of varying mass (11 approx. less than (M/solar mass) approx. less than 40) and metallicity (0, 10(exp -4), 0.01, and 1 solar metallicity), the chemical evolution of 76 stable isotopes, from hydrogen to zinc, is calculated. The chemical evolution calculation employs a simple dynamical model for the Galaxy (infall with a 4 Gyr e-folding timescale onto a exponential dsk and 1/r(exp 2) bulge), and standard evolution parameters, such as a Salpeter initial mass function and a quadratic Schmidt star formation rate. The theoretical results are compared in detail with observed stellar abundances in stars with metallicities in the range -3.0 approx. less than (Fe/H) approx. less than 0.0 dex. While our discussion focuses on the solar neighborhood where there are the most observations, the supernova rates, an intrinsically Galactic quality, are also discussed.

  2. Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.

    PubMed

    Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

    2011-11-01

    Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility.

  3. Zinc starvation induces autophagy in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Horie, Tetsuro; Matsunami, Miou; Sasaki, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2017-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most zinc is bound to protein. Because zinc serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain zinc homeostasis under severely zinc-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of zinc, but to date the fate of existing zinc-binding proteins under zinc starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome. In this study, we investigated how autophagy functions under zinc starvation. Zinc depletion induced non-selective autophagy, which is important for zinc-limited growth. Induction of autophagy by zinc starvation was not directly related to transcriptional activation of Zap1. Instead, TORC1 inactivation directed zinc starvation-induced autophagy. Abundant zinc proteins, such as Adh1, Fba1, and ribosomal protein Rpl37, were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. But the targets of autophagy were not restricted to zinc-binding proteins. When cellular zinc is severely depleted, this non-selective autophagy plays a role in releasing zinc from the degraded proteins and recycling zinc for other essential purposes. PMID:28264932

  4. Zinc starvation induces autophagy in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Horie, Tetsuro; Matsunami, Miou; Sasaki, Michiko; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2017-05-19

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for all forms of life. Within cells, most zinc is bound to protein. Because zinc serves as a catalytic or structural cofactor for many proteins, cells must maintain zinc homeostasis under severely zinc-deficient conditions. In yeast, the transcription factor Zap1 controls the expression of genes required for uptake and mobilization of zinc, but to date the fate of existing zinc-binding proteins under zinc starvation remains poorly understood. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation/recycling process in which cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are sequestered for degradation in the vacuole/lysosome. In this study, we investigated how autophagy functions under zinc starvation. Zinc depletion induced non-selective autophagy, which is important for zinc-limited growth. Induction of autophagy by zinc starvation was not directly related to transcriptional activation of Zap1. Instead, TORC1 inactivation directed zinc starvation-induced autophagy. Abundant zinc proteins, such as Adh1, Fba1, and ribosomal protein Rpl37, were degraded in an autophagy-dependent manner. But the targets of autophagy were not restricted to zinc-binding proteins. When cellular zinc is severely depleted, this non-selective autophagy plays a role in releasing zinc from the degraded proteins and recycling zinc for other essential purposes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Two dimensional self-assembly zinc porphyrins and zinc phthalocyanines heterojunctions with record high power conversion efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junting; Jiang, Zhou; Hao, Yifan; Zhu, Qianhong; Zhao, Mingliang; Jiang, Xue; Zhao, Jijun

    2018-05-15

    Compared to inorganic solar cells, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of organic solar cells are much lower, but they are compensated by many merits such as lower cost, less weight, and tunable structures, making them prospective for further applications. Porphyrin and phthalocyanine are the two most significant materials for organic solar cells due to their strong light-absorbing properties and semiconductor characteristics. However, there is little research on the 2D heterojunction solar cells based on these two materials, meanwhile the PCEs of them are still low. Here we have self-assembled several 2D Zinc-porphyrins (ZnPors) and performed first-principles simulation to demonstrate their good stability, suitable light harvesting, and high charge carrier mobility. By perfectly matching lattice constants and band levels between those 2D ZnPors and our previous proposed ZnPcs, eleven type-II organic heterojunctions are constructed to further improve their charge separation capability. Those advantages endow 2D ZnPors and ZnPcs appreciable PCEs for solar cell. Among them, the theoretical PCE of 2D ZnPors/ZnPcs heterojunctions achieves as high as 19.84%, which prevails all reported organic solar cells, and even approaches the PCEs of inorganic solar cells. These results indicate that our 2D ZnPors and 2D ZnPcs are good candidate materials for future organic solar cells. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Structural, optical, and transport properties of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride thin films treated with homogeneous electron beam irradiation and thermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Takashiri, Masayuki; Asai, Yuki; Yamauchi, Kazuki

    2016-08-19

    We investigated the effects of homogeneous electron beam (EB) irradiation and thermal annealing treatments on the structural, optical, and transport properties of bismuth telluride thin films. Bismuth telluride thin films were prepared by an RF magnetron sputtering method at room temperature. After deposition, the films were treated with homogeneous EB irradiation, thermal annealing, or a combination of both the treatments (two-step treatment). We employed Williamson-Hall analysis for separating the strain contribution from the crystallite domain contribution in the x-ray diffraction data of the films. We found that strain was induced in the thin films by EB irradiation and was relieved by thermal annealing. The crystal orientation along c-axis was significantly enhanced by the two-step treatment. Scanning electron microscopy indicated the melting and aggregation of nano-sized grains on the film surface by the two-step treatment. Optical analysis indicated that the interband transition of all the thin films was possibly of the indirect type, and that thermal annealing and two-step treatment methods increased the band gap of the films due to relaxation of the strain. Thermoelectric performance was significantly improved by the two-step treatment. The power factor reached a value of 17.2 μW (cm(-1) K(-2)), approximately 10 times higher than that of the as-deposited thin films. We conclude that improving the crystal orientation and relaxing the strain resulted in enhanced thermoelectric performance.

  7. Improving the efficiency of copper indium gallium (Di-)selenide (CIGS) solar cells through integration of a moth-eye textured resist with a refractive index similar to aluminum doped zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burghoorn, M.; Kniknie, B.; van Deelen, J.; Xu, M.; Vroon, Z.; van Ee, R.; van de Belt, R.; Buskens, P.

    2014-12-01

    Textured transparent conductors are widely used in thin-film silicon solar cells. They lower the reflectivity at interfaces between different layers in the cell and/or cause an increase in the path length of photons in the Si absorber layer, which both result in an increase in the number of absorbed photons and, consequently, an increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc) and cell efficiency. Through optical simulations, we recently obtained strong indications that texturing of the transparent conductor in copper indium gallium (di-)selenide (CIGS) solar cells is also optically advantageous. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the Jsc and efficiency of CIGS solar cells with an absorber layer thickness (dCIGS) of 0.85 μm, 1.00 μm and 2.00 μm increase through application of a moth-eye textured resist with a refractive index that is sufficiently similar to AZO (nresist = 1.792 vs. nAZO = 1.913 at 633 nm) to avoid large optical losses at the resist-AZO interface. On average, Jsc increases by 7.2%, which matches the average reduction in reflection of 7.0%. The average relative increase in efficiency is slightly lower (6.0%). No trend towards a larger relative increase in Jsc with decreasing dCIGS was observed. Ergo, the increase in Jsc can be fully explained by the reduction in reflection, and we did not observe any increase in Jsc based on an increased photon path length.

  8. Improving the efficiency of copper indium gallium (Di-)selenide (CIGS) solar cells through integration of a moth-eye textured resist with a refractive index similar to aluminum doped zinc oxide

    SciT

    Burghoorn, M.; Kniknie, B.; Deelen, J. van

    2014-12-15

    Textured transparent conductors are widely used in thin-film silicon solar cells. They lower the reflectivity at interfaces between different layers in the cell and/or cause an increase in the path length of photons in the Si absorber layer, which both result in an increase in the number of absorbed photons and, consequently, an increase in short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) and cell efficiency. Through optical simulations, we recently obtained strong indications that texturing of the transparent conductor in copper indium gallium (di-)selenide (CIGS) solar cells is also optically advantageous. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the J{sub sc} and efficiency ofmore » CIGS solar cells with an absorber layer thickness (d{sub CIGS}) of 0.85 μm, 1.00 μm and 2.00 μm increase through application of a moth-eye textured resist with a refractive index that is sufficiently similar to AZO (n{sub resist} = 1.792 vs. n{sub AZO} = 1.913 at 633 nm) to avoid large optical losses at the resist-AZO interface. On average, J{sub sc} increases by 7.2%, which matches the average reduction in reflection of 7.0%. The average relative increase in efficiency is slightly lower (6.0%). No trend towards a larger relative increase in J{sub sc} with decreasing d{sub CIGS} was observed. Ergo, the increase in J{sub sc} can be fully explained by the reduction in reflection, and we did not observe any increase in J{sub sc} based on an increased photon path length.« less

  9. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli. PMID:28629136

  10. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-06-17

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  11. Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Inga; Maywald, Martina; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery of zinc deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that zinc is essential for the function of the immune system. Zinc ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. Zinc homeostasis is largely controlled via the expression and action of zinc “importers” (ZIP 1–14), zinc “exporters” (ZnT 1–10), and zinc-binding proteins. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of zinc have long been documented, however, underlying mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Here, we report molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype during zinc deficiency. Furthermore, we describe links between altered zinc homeostasis and disease development. Consequently, the benefits of zinc supplementation for a malfunctioning immune system become clear. This article will focus on underlying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular signaling by alterations in zinc homeostasis. Effects of fast zinc flux, intermediate “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals will be discriminated. Description of zinc homeostasis-related effects on the activation of key signaling molecules, as well as on epigenetic modifications, are included to emphasize the role of zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function. PMID:29186856

  12. Survey of coatings for solar collectors. [ceramic enamels and chromium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    Ceramic enamel is found to be more solar selective, (i.e., has high solar absorptance in combination with low infrared emittance) than organic enamel, but neither is as solar selective as black chrome, black copper, black zinc, or black nickel. Ceramic enamel is matched only by black chrome in durability and wide availability. Ceramic enamel and organic enamel have approximately the same cost, and both are currently slightly lower in cost than black chrome, black copper, or black zinc. Black nickel is relatively unavailable and, because of that, realistic cost comparisons are not possible.

  13. The zinc paradigm for metalloneurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Barr, Chelsea A; Burdette, Shawn C

    2017-05-09

    Neurotransmission and sensory perception are shaped through metal ion-protein interactions in various brain regions. The term "metalloneurochemistry" defines the unique field of bioinorganic chemistry focusing on these processes, and zinc has been the leading target of metalloneurochemists in the almost 15 years since the definition was introduced. Zinc in the hippocampus interacts with receptors that dictate ion flow and neurotransmitter release. Understanding the intricacies of these interactions is crucial to uncovering the role that zinc plays in learning and memory. Based on receptor similarities and zinc-enriched neurons (ZENs) in areas of the brain responsible for sensory perception, such as the olfactory bulb (OB), and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), zinc participates in odor and sound perception. Development and improvement of methods which allow for precise detection and immediate manipulation of zinc ions in neuronal cells and in brain slices will be critical in uncovering the synaptic action of zinc and, more broadly, the bioinorganic chemistry of cognition. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  15. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate...

  16. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 13.1 milligrams zinc as zinc gluconate...

  17. Solar-heated rotary kiln

    DOEpatents

    Shell, P.K.

    1982-04-14

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate is disclosed. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  18. Method for making an aluminum or copper substrate panel for selective absorption of solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, M. L.; Sharpe, M. H.; Krupnick, A. C. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A panel is described for selectively absorbing solar energy comprising an aluminum substrate. A zinc layer was covered by a layer of nickel and an outer layer of solar energy absorbing nickel oxide or a copper substrate with a nickel layer. A layer of solar energy absorbing nickel oxide distal from the copper substrate was included. A method for making these panels is disclosed.

  19. Mineral resource of the month: zinc

    Tolcin, Amy C.

    2009-01-01

    The article provides information on zinc, the fourth most-widely consumed metal. It traces the first use of zinc with the Romans' production of brass. It describes the presence of zinc in Earth's crust and the importance of sphalerite as a source of zinc and other some minor metal production. The production and consumption of zinc as well as the commercial and industrial uses of this metal are also discussed.

  20. Zinc: an essential but elusive nutrient123

    PubMed Central

    King, Janet C

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is essential for multiple aspects of metabolism. Physiologic signs of zinc depletion are linked with diverse biochemical functions rather than with a specific function, which makes it difficult to identify biomarkers of zinc nutrition. Nutrients, such as zinc, that are required for general metabolism are called type 2 nutrients. Protein and magnesium are examples of other type 2 nutrients. Type 1 nutrients are required for one or more specific functions: examples include iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate, and copper. When dietary zinc is insufficient, a marked reduction in endogenous zinc loss occurs immediately to conserve the nutrient. If zinc balance is not reestablished, other metabolic adjustments occur to mobilize zinc from small body pools. The location of those pools is not known, but all cells probably have a small zinc reserve that includes zinc bound to metallothionein or zinc stored in the Golgi or in other organelles. Plasma zinc is also part of this small zinc pool that is vulnerable to insufficient intakes. Plasma zinc concentrations decline rapidly with severe deficiencies and more moderately with marginal depletion. Unfortunately, plasma zinc concentrations also decrease with a number of conditions (eg, infection, trauma, stress, steroid use, after a meal) due to a metabolic redistribution of zinc from the plasma to the tissues. This redistribution confounds the interpretation of low plasma zinc concentrations. Biomarkers of metabolic zinc redistribution are needed to determine whether this redistribution is the cause of a low plasma zinc rather than poor nutrition. Measures of metallothionein or cellular zinc transporters may fulfill that role. PMID:21715515

  1. A dynamic model for predicting growth in zinc-deficient stunted infants given supplemental zinc.

    PubMed

    Wastney, Meryl E; McDonald, Christine M; King, Janet C

    2018-05-01

    Zinc deficiency limits infant growth and increases susceptibility to infections, which further compromises growth. Zinc supplementation improves the growth of zinc-deficient stunted infants, but the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc supplementation required to restore growth in an individual child is unknown. A dynamic model of zinc metabolism that predicts changes in weight and length of zinc-deficient, stunted infants with dietary zinc would be useful to define effective zinc supplementation regimens. The aims of this study were to develop a dynamic model for zinc metabolism in stunted, zinc-deficient infants and to use that model to predict the growth response when those infants are given zinc supplements. A model of zinc metabolism was developed using data on zinc kinetics, tissue zinc, and growth requirements for healthy 9-mo-old infants. The kinetic model was converted to a dynamic model by replacing the rate constants for zinc absorption and excretion with functions for these processes that change with zinc intake. Predictions of the dynamic model, parameterized for zinc-deficient, stunted infants, were compared with the results of 5 published zinc intervention trials. The model was then used to predict the results for zinc supplementation regimes that varied in the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc dosing. Model predictions agreed with published changes in plasma zinc after zinc supplementation. Predictions of weight and length agreed with 2 studies, but overpredicted values from a third study in which other nutrient deficiencies may have been growth limiting; the model predicted that zinc absorption was impaired in that study. The model suggests that frequent, smaller doses (5-10 mg Zn/d) are more effective for increasing growth in stunted, zinc-deficient 9-mo-old infants than are larger, less-frequent doses. The dose amount affects the duration of dosing necessary to restore and maintain plasma zinc concentration and growth.

  2. Effect of cadmium telluride quantum dots on the dielectric and electro-optical properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Biradar, A M

    2011-04-01

    We present here the dielectric and electro-optical studies of cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) doped ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs). It has been observed that the doping of CdTe QDs not only induced a pronounced memory effect but also affected the physical parameters of FLC material (LAHS19). The modifications in the physical parameters and memory effect of LAHS19 are found to depend on the concentration ratio of CdTe QDs. The lower concentration of CdTe QDs (1-3 wt%) enhanced the values of spontaneous polarization and rotational viscosity of LAHS19 material but did not favor the memory effect, whereas a higher concentration of CdTe QDs (>5 wt%) degraded the alignment of LAHS19 material. The doping of ∼5 wt% of CdTe QDs is found to be the most suitable for achieving good memory effect without significantly affecting the material parameters. ©2011 American Physical Society

  3. A rapid and sensitive assay for determination of doxycycline using thioglycolic acid-capped cadmium telluride quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Tashkhourian, Javad; Absalan, Ghodratollah; Jafari, Marzieh; Zare, Saber

    2016-01-05

    A rapid, simple and inexpensive spectrofluorimetric sensor for determination of doxycycline based on its interaction with thioglycolic acid-capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (TGA/CdTe QDs) has been developed. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the sensor exhibited a fast response time of <10s. The results revealed that doxycycline could quench the fluorescence of TGA/CdTe QDs via electron transfer from the QDs to doxycycline through a dynamic quenching mechanism. The sensor permitted determination of doxycycline in a concentration range of 1.9×10(-6)-6.1×10(-5)molL(-1) with a detection limit of 1.1×10(-7)molL(-1). The sensor was applied for determination of doxycycline in honey and human serum samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A rapid and sensitive assay for determination of doxycycline using thioglycolic acid-capped cadmium telluride quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashkhourian, Javad; Absalan, Ghodratollah; Jafari, Marzieh; Zare, Saber

    2016-01-01

    A rapid, simple and inexpensive spectrofluorimetric sensor for determination of doxycycline based on its interaction with thioglycolic acid-capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (TGA/CdTe QDs) has been developed. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the sensor exhibited a fast response time of <10 s. The results revealed that doxycycline could quench the fluorescence of TGA/CdTe QDs via electron transfer from the QDs to doxycycline through a dynamic quenching mechanism. The sensor permitted determination of doxycycline in a concentration range of 1.9 × 10-6-6.1 × 10-5 mol L-1 with a detection limit of 1.1 × 10-7 mol L-1. The sensor was applied for determination of doxycycline in honey and human serum samples.

  5. Serum thymulin in human zinc deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, A S; Meftah, S; Abdallah, J; Kaplan, J; Brewer, G J; Bach, J F; Dardenne, M

    1988-01-01

    The activity of thymulin (a thymic hormone) is dependent on the presence of zinc in the molecule. We assayed serum thymulin activity in three models of mildly zinc-deficient (ZD) human subjects before and after zinc supplementation: (a) two human volunteers in whom a specific and mild zinc deficiency was induced by dietary means; (b) six mildly ZD adult sickle cell anemia (SCA) subjects; and (c) six mildly ZD adult non-SCA subjects. Their plasma zinc levels were normal and they showed no overt clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency. The diagnosis of mild zinc deficiency was based on the assay of zinc in lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets. Serum thymulin activity was decreased as a result of mild zinc deficiency and was corrected by in vivo and in vitro zinc supplementation, suggesting that this parameter was a sensitive indicator of zinc deficiency in humans. An increase in T101-, sIg-cells, decrease in T4+/T8+ ratio, and decreased IL 2 activity were observed in the experimental human model during the zinc depletion phase, all of which were corrected after repletion with zinc. Similar changes in lymphocyte subpopulation, correctable with zinc supplementation, were also observed in mildly ZD SCA subjects. Inasmuch as thymulin is known to induce intra- and extrathymic T cell differentiation, our studies provide a possible mechanism for the role of zinc on T cell functions. Images PMID:3262625

  6. Stabilized nickel-zinc battery

    SciT

    Himy, A.; Wagner, O.C.

    An alkaline nickel-zinc cell which has (1) a nickel-nickel hydroxide cathode; (2) a zinc-zinc oxide anode containing (A) a corrosion inhibitor such as PBO, SNO2, Tl2O3, in(OH)3 or mixtures thereof; (B) a slight corrosion accelerator such as cdo, bi2o3, ga2o3, or mixtures thereof; and (C) a zinc active material; (3) a mass-transport separator; (4) an alkaline electrolyte; and (5) means for charging the cell with an interrupted current having a frequency of from more than zero to 16 hertz with a rest period of not less than 60 milliseconds. Another desirable feature is the use of a pressure-cutoff switch tomore » terminate charging when the internal pressure of the cell reaches a selected value in the range of from 5 to 8 psig.« less

  7. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ross G.

    2008-01-01

    The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl2 inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

  8. Charge carrier effective mass and concentration derived from combination of Seebeck coefficient and Te 125 NMR measurements in complex tellurides

    SciT

    Levin, E. M.

    Thermoelectric materials utilize the Seebeck effect to convert heat to electrical energy. The Seebeck coefficient (thermopower), S, depends on the free (mobile) carrier concentration, n, and effective mass, m*, as S ~ m*/n 2/3. The carrier concentration in tellurides can be derived from 125Te nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-lattice relaxation measurements. The NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T 1, depends on both n and m* as 1/T 1~(m*) 3/2n (within classical Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics) or as 1/T1~(m*) 2n 2/3 (within quantum Fermi-Dirac statistics), which challenges the correct determination of the carrier concentration in some materials by NMR. Here it is shown thatmore » the combination of the Seebeck coefficient and 125Te NMR spin-lattice relaxation measurements in complex tellurides provides a unique opportunity to derive the carrier effective mass and then to calculate the carrier concentration. This approach was used to study Ag xSb xGe 50–2xTe 50, well-known GeTe-based high-efficiency tellurium-antimony-germanium-silver thermoelectric materials, where the replacement of Ge by [Ag+Sb] results in significant enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient. Thus, values of both m* and n derived using this combination show that the enhancement of thermopower can be attributed primarily to an increase of the carrier effective mass and partially to a decrease of the carrier concentration when the [Ag+Sb] content increases.« less

  9. Charge carrier effective mass and concentration derived from combination of Seebeck coefficient and Te 125 NMR measurements in complex tellurides

    DOE PAGES

    Levin, E. M.

    2016-06-27

    Thermoelectric materials utilize the Seebeck effect to convert heat to electrical energy. The Seebeck coefficient (thermopower), S, depends on the free (mobile) carrier concentration, n, and effective mass, m*, as S ~ m*/n 2/3. The carrier concentration in tellurides can be derived from 125Te nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-lattice relaxation measurements. The NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T 1, depends on both n and m* as 1/T 1~(m*) 3/2n (within classical Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics) or as 1/T1~(m*) 2n 2/3 (within quantum Fermi-Dirac statistics), which challenges the correct determination of the carrier concentration in some materials by NMR. Here it is shown thatmore » the combination of the Seebeck coefficient and 125Te NMR spin-lattice relaxation measurements in complex tellurides provides a unique opportunity to derive the carrier effective mass and then to calculate the carrier concentration. This approach was used to study Ag xSb xGe 50–2xTe 50, well-known GeTe-based high-efficiency tellurium-antimony-germanium-silver thermoelectric materials, where the replacement of Ge by [Ag+Sb] results in significant enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient. Thus, values of both m* and n derived using this combination show that the enhancement of thermopower can be attributed primarily to an increase of the carrier effective mass and partially to a decrease of the carrier concentration when the [Ag+Sb] content increases.« less

  10. Solar Cookers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard C.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the use of solar cookers in the science classroom. Includes instructions for construction of a solar cooker, an explanation of how solar cookers work, and a number of suggested activities. (DS)

  11. Economic viability of thin-film tandem solar modules in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, Sarah E.; Mailoa, Jonathan P.; Weiss, Dirk N.; Stanbery, Billy J.; Buonassisi, Tonio; Peters, I. Marius

    2018-05-01

    Tandem solar cells are more efficient but more expensive per unit area than established single-junction (SJ) solar cells. To understand when specific tandem architectures should be utilized, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different II-VI-based thin-film tandem solar cells and compare them to the SJ subcells. Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and energy yield are calculated for four technologies: industrial cadmium telluride and copper indium gallium selenide, and their hypothetical two-terminal (series-connected subcells) and four-terminal (electrically independent subcells) tandems, assuming record SJ quality subcells. Different climatic conditions and scales (residential and utility scale) are considered. We show that, for US residential systems with current balance-of-system costs, the four-terminal tandem has the lowest LCOE because of its superior energy yield, even though it has the highest US per watt (US W-1) module cost. For utility-scale systems, the lowest LCOE architecture is the cadmium telluride single junction, the lowest US W-1 module. The two-terminal tandem requires decreased subcell absorber costs to reach competitiveness over the four-terminal one.

  12. Zinc in innate and adaptive tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Zinc is important. It is the second most abundant trace metal with 2-4 grams in humans. It is an essential trace element, critical for cell growth, development and differentiation, DNA synthesis, RNA transcription, cell division, and cell activation. Zinc deficiency has adverse consequences during embryogenesis and early childhood development, particularly on immune functioning. It is essential in members of all enzyme classes, including over 300 signaling molecules and transcription factors. Free zinc in immune and tumor cells is regulated by 14 distinct zinc importers (ZIP) and transporters (ZNT1-8). Zinc depletion induces cell death via apoptosis (or necrosis if apoptotic pathways are blocked) while sufficient zinc levels allows maintenance of autophagy. Cancer cells have upregulated zinc importers, and frequently increased zinc levels, which allow them to survive. Based on this novel synthesis, approaches which locally regulate zinc levels to promote survival of immune cells and/or induce tumor apoptosis are in order. PMID:21087493

  13. EDITORIAL Solar harvest Solar harvest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-12-01

    into the charge transport mechanism and trap distribution in these composites [3]. An advantage of investigating solar cell technology based on organic materials rather than silicon is that silicon photovoltaics requires high-purity silicon, whereas the material demands of organic technology are not nearly so strict. Work by researchers in Denmark and Germany highlights the simplicity and tolerance to ambient conditions of organic photovoltaic fabrication in the demonstration of a nanostructured polymer solar cell made from a thermocleavable polymer material and zinc oxide nanoparticles. All the manipulations during device preparation could be carried out in air at around 20 °C and 35% humidity [4]. A possible route to enhancing cell performance is through the improvment of the transport efficiency. Researchers in Taiwan demonstrate how effectively this can be implemented in a hybrid device comprising TiO2 nanorods and poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) [5]. In addition, inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals that have tunable optical bandgaps can be combined with organic semiconductors for the fabrication of hybrid photovoltaic devices with broad spectral sensitivity. A collaboration of researchers in the UK and the US has now developed a near-infrared sensitive hybrid photovoltaic system with PbS nanocrystals and C60. The reported improvement in device performance is attributed to increased carrier mobility of the PbS nanocrystal film [6]. In this issue, Patrick G Nicholson and Fernando A Castro from the National Physical Laboratory in the UK present a topical review on the principles and techniques for the characterization of organic photovoltaics [7]. The review presents a comprehensive picture of the current state-of-the-art understanding of the working mechanisms behind organic solar cells, and also describes electronic morphological considerations relevant to optimizing the devices, as well as different nanoscale techniques for

  14. Zinc for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Das, Rashmi R

    2011-02-16

    The common cold is one of the most widespread illnesses and is a leading cause of visits to the doctor and absenteeism from school and work. Trials conducted since 1984 investigating the role of zinc for the common cold symptoms have had mixed results. Inadequate treatment masking and reduced bioavailability of zinc from some formulations have been cited as influencing results. To assess the effect of zinc on common cold symptoms. We searched CENTRAL (2010, Issue 2) which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to May week 3, 2010) and EMBASE (1974 to June 2010). Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials using zinc for at least five consecutive days to treat, or for at least five months to prevent the common cold. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We included 13 therapeutic trials (966 participants) and two preventive trials (394 participants). Intake of zinc is associated with a significant reduction in the duration (standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.56 to -0.38) (P = 0.001), and severity of common cold symptoms (SMD -0.39; 95% CI -0.77 to -0.02) (P = 0.04). There was a significant difference between the zinc and control group for the proportion of participants symptomatic after seven days of treatment (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.00) (P = 0.05). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of developing a cold (IRR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.88) (P = 0.006), school absence (P = 0.0003) and prescription of antibiotics (P < 0.00001) was lower in the zinc group. Overall adverse events (OR 1.59; 95% CI 0.97 to 2.58) (P = 0.06), bad taste (OR 2.64; 95% CI 1.91 to 3.64) (P < 0.00001) and nausea (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 to 3.23) (P = 0.002) were higher in the zinc group. Zinc administered within 24 hours of onset of symptoms reduces the duration and severity of the common cold in healthy people. When supplemented for at least five months, it reduces cold

  15. Zinc Absorption by Young Adults from Supplemental Zinc Citrate Is Comparable with That from Zinc Gluconate and Higher than from Zinc Oxide123

    PubMed Central

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnić, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with 67Zn and 70Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6–71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6–71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9–57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

  16. Effect of Immersion Time on Corrosion Behavior of Single-Phase Alloy and Nanocomposite Bismuth Telluride-Based Thermoelectrics in NaCl Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz, Mohsen K.; Fattah-Alhosseini, Arash

    2018-05-01

    The corrosiveness of bismuth telluride-based thermoelectric materials (n-type single-phase alloy and a nanocomposite with MoS2 nanoinclusions), in 0.1 molar solution of sodium chloride (NaCl), was investigated. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy curves obtained after 1, 24, 48 and 72 h immersion time revealed the enhancement of the corrosion resistance of the nanocomposite specimen in a 0.1 molar NaCl solution in comparison with the single-phase bismuth telluride-based alloys, and the passivity increased by immersion time up to 72 h. The nanocomposite sample with submicron grains provided suitable nucleation sites for passive film nucleation that led to higher protective behavior.

  17. Vapor transport deposition of antimony selenide thin film solar cells with 7.6% efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xixing; Chen, Chao; Lu, Shuaicheng; Li, Kanghua; Kondrotas, Rokas; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Wenhao; Gao, Liang; Wang, Chong; Zhang, Jun; Niu, Guangda; Tang, Jiang

    2018-06-05

    Antimony selenide is an emerging promising thin film photovoltaic material thanks to its binary composition, suitable bandgap, high absorption coefficient, inert grain boundaries and earth-abundant constituents. However, current devices produced from rapid thermal evaporation strategy suffer from low-quality film and unsatisfactory performance. Herein, we develop a vapor transport deposition technique to fabricate antimony selenide films, a technique that enables continuous and low-cost manufacturing of cadmium telluride solar cells. We improve the crystallinity of antimony selenide films and then successfully produce superstrate cadmium sulfide/antimony selenide solar cells with a certified power conversion efficiency of 7.6%, a net 2% improvement over previous 5.6% record of the same device configuration. We analyze the deep defects in antimony selenide solar cells, and find that the density of the dominant deep defects is reduced by one order of magnitude using vapor transport deposition process.

  18. Zinc for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenu; Das, Rashmi R

    2013-06-18

    The common cold is one of the most widespread illnesses and is a leading cause of visits to the doctor and absenteeism from school and work. Trials conducted in high-income countries since 1984 investigating the role of zinc for the common cold symptoms have had mixed results. Inadequate treatment masking and reduced bioavailability of zinc from some formulations have been cited as influencing results. To assess whether zinc (irrespective of the zinc salt or formulation used) is efficacious in reducing the incidence, severity and duration of common cold symptoms. In addition, we aimed to identify potential sources of heterogeneity in results obtained and to assess their clinical significance. In this updated review, we searched CENTRAL (2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1966 to January week 2, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to January 2013), CINAHL (1981 to January 2013), Web of Science (1985 to January 2013), LILACS (1982 to January 2013), WHO ICTRP and clinicaltrials.gov. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials using zinc for at least five consecutive days to treat, or for at least five months to prevent the common cold. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Five trials were identified in the updated searches in January 2013 and two of them did not meet our inclusion criteria. We included 16 therapeutic trials (1387 participants) and two preventive trials (394 participants). Intake of zinc was associated with a significant reduction in the duration (days) (mean difference (MD) -1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.72 to -0.34) (P = 0.003) (I(2) statistic = 89%) but not the severity of common cold symptoms (MD -1.06, 95% CI -2.36 to 0.23) (P = 0.11) (I(2) statistic = 84%). The proportion of participants who were symptomatic after seven days of treatment was significantly smaller (odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.00) (P = 0.05) than those in the control, (I(2 )statistic = 75%). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of developing a

  19. History of Zinc in Agriculture12

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Forrest H.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc was established as essential for green plants in 1926 and for mammals in 1934. However, >20 y would pass before the first descriptions of zinc deficiencies in farm animals appeared. In 1955, it was reported that zinc supplementation would cure parakeratosis in swine. In 1958, it was reported that zinc deficiency induced poor growth, leg abnormalities, poor feathering, and parakeratosis in chicks. In the 1960s, zinc supplementation was found to alleviate parakeratosis in grazing cattle and sheep. Within 35 y, it was established that nearly one half of the soils in the world may be zinc deficient, causing decreased plant zinc content and production that can be prevented by zinc fertilization. In many of these areas, zinc deficiency is prevented in grazing livestock by zinc fertilization of pastures or by providing salt licks. For livestock under more defined conditions, such as poultry, swine, and dairy and finishing cattle, feeds are easily supplemented with zinc salts to prevent deficiency. Today, the causes and consequences of zinc deficiency and methods and effects of overcoming the deficiency are well established for agriculture. The history of zinc in agriculture is an outstanding demonstration of the translation of research into practical application. PMID:23153732

  20. Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  1. Influence of DNA-methylation on zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells: Regulation of zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Jana Elena; Wessels, Inga; Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar; Uciechowski, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of intracellular zinc, predominantly regulated through zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins, is required to support an efficient immune response. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are involved in the expression of these genes. In demethylation experiments using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) increased intracellular (after 24 and 48h) and total cellular zinc levels (after 48h) were observed in the myeloid cell line HL-60. To uncover the mechanisms that cause the disturbed zinc homeostasis after DNA demethylation, the expression of human zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins were investigated. Real time PCR analyses of 14 ZIP (solute-linked carrier (SLC) SLC39A; Zrt/IRT-like protein), and 9 ZnT (SLC30A) zinc transporters revealed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the zinc importer ZIP1 after AZA treatment. Because ZIP1 protein was also enhanced after AZA treatment, ZIP1 up-regulation might be the mediator of enhanced intracellular zinc levels. The mRNA expression of ZIP14 was decreased, whereas zinc exporter ZnT3 mRNA was also significantly increased; which might be a cellular reaction to compensate elevated zinc levels. An enhanced but not significant chromatin accessibility of ZIP1 promoter region I was detected by chromatin accessibility by real-time PCR (CHART) assays after demethylation. Additionally, DNA demethylation resulted in increased mRNA accumulation of zinc binding proteins metallothionein (MT) and S100A8/S100A9 after 48h. MT mRNA was significantly enhanced after 24h of AZA treatment also suggesting a reaction of the cell to restore zinc homeostasis. These data indicate that DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism affecting zinc binding proteins and transporters, and, therefore, regulating zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Control of p-type and n-type thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride thin films by combinatorial sputter coating technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Masahiro; Sasaki, Michiko; Xu, Yibin; Zhan, Tianzhuo; Isoda, Yukihiro; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

    2017-06-01

    p- and n-type bismuth telluride thin films have been synthesized by using a combinatorial sputter coating system (COSCOS). The crystal structure and crystal preferred orientation of the thin films were changed by controlling the coating condition of the radio frequency (RF) power during the sputter coating. As a result, the p- and n-type films and their dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) were optimized by the technique. The properties of the thin films such as the crystal structure, crystal preferred orientation, material composition and surface morphology were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Also, the thermoelectric properties of the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity were measured. ZT for n- and p-type bismuth telluride thin films was found to be 0.27 and 0.40 at RF powers of 90 and 120 W, respectively. The proposed technology can be used to fabricate thermoelectric p-n modules of bismuth telluride without any doping process.

  3. Solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  4. Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  5. Zinc finger proteins in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Jen, Jayu; Wang, Yi-Ching

    2016-07-13

    Zinc finger proteins are the largest transcription factor family in human genome. The diverse combinations and functions of zinc finger motifs make zinc finger proteins versatile in biological processes, including development, differentiation, metabolism and autophagy. Over the last few decades, increasing evidence reveals the potential roles of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression. However, the underlying mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression vary in different cancer types and even in the same cancer type under different types of stress. Here, we discuss general mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in transcription regulation and summarize recent studies on zinc finger proteins in cancer progression. In this review, we also emphasize the importance of further investigations in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression.

  6. Evaluation of zinc coating procedures : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-01-01

    This research project was conducted in order to compare the existing procedure of zinc coating by hot-dip galvanizing with the other zinc coating systems of painting and electroplating. : Hardware coated by these processes was exposed to varied labor...

  7. Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12

    PubMed Central

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ∼3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

  8. Analysis of Zinc Oxide Thin Films Synthesized by Sol-Gel via Spin Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolgamott, Jon Carl

    Transparent conductive oxides are gaining an increasingly important role in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. Doped zinc oxide is a candidate as a low cost and nontoxic alternative to tin doped indium oxide. Lab results have shown that both n-type and p-type zinc oxide can be created on a small scale. This can allow zinc oxide to be used as either an electrode as well as a buffer layer to increase efficiency and protect the active layer in solar cells. Sol-gel synthesis is emerging as a low temperature, low cost, and resource efficient alternative to producing transparent conducting oxides such as zinc oxide. For sol-gel derived zinc oxide thin films to reach their potential, research in this topic must continue to optimize the known processing parameters and expand to new parameters to tighten control and create novel processing techniques that improve performance. The processing parameters of drying and annealing temperatures as well as cooling rate were analyzed to see their effect on the structure of the prepared zinc oxide thin films. There were also preliminary tests done to modify the sol-gel process to include silver as a dopant to produce a p-type thin film. The results from this work show that the pre- and post- heating temperatures as well as the cooling rate all play their own unique role in the crystallization of the film. Results from silver doping show that more work needs to be done to create a sol-gel derived p-type zinc oxide thin film.

  9. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-07-27

    Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  10. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  11. [Improvement in zinc nutrition due to zinc transporter-targeting strategy].

    PubMed

    Kambe, Taiho

    2016-07-01

    Adequate intake of zinc from the daily diet is indispensable to maintain health. However, the dietary zinc content often fails to fulfill the recommended daily intake, leading to zinc deficiency and also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, particularly in elderly individuals. Therefore, increased attention is required to overcome zinc deficiency and it is important to improve zinc nutrition in daily life. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter, ZIP4, functions as a component that is essential for zinc absorption. In this manuscript, we present a brief overview regarding zinc deficiency. Moreover, we review a novel strategy, called "ZIP4-targeting", which has the potential to enable efficient zinc absorption from the diet. ZIP4-targeting strategy is possibly a major step in preventing zinc deficiency and improving human health.

  12. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery with molten salt electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuzhi; Han, Wei; Cui, Baochen; Liu, Xianjun; Zhao, Fulin; Stuart, Jessica; Licht, Stuart

    2017-02-01

    Zinc-air batteries have been proposed for EV applications and large-scale electricity storage such as wind and solar power. Although zinc-air batteries are very promising, there are numerous technological barriers to overcome. We demonstrate for the first time, a new rechargeable zinc-air battery that utilizes a molten Li0.87Na0.63K0.50CO3 eutectic electrolyte with added NaOH. Cyclic voltammetry reveals that a reversible deposition/dissolution of zinc occurs in the molten Li0.87Na0.63K0.50CO3 eutectic. At 550 °C, this zinc-air battery performs with a coulombic efficiency of 96.9% over 110 cycles, having an average charging potential of ∼1.43 V and discharge potential of ∼1.04 V. The zinc-air battery uses cost effective steel and nickel electrodes without the need for any precious metal catalysts. Moreover, the molten salt electrolyte offers advantages over aqueous electrolytes, avoiding the common aqueous alkaline electrolyte issues of hydrogen evolution, Zn dendrite formation, "drying out", and carbonate precipitation.

  13. Zinc supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients. Symptomatic zinc deficiency has been reported in CF but little is known about zinc homeostasis in children with CF. Zinc supplementation (Zn suppl) is increasingly common in children with CF but it is not without theoretcial r...

  14. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc...). It is principally composed of Zn. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with zinc oxide may...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from...

  18. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  19. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b...

  1. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc...

  4. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chickedema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chickedema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  12. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50 grams per pound bacitracin. (b) Approvals. See No. 046573 in...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick...

  19. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.1991...

  20. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50 grams per pound bacitracin. (b) Approvals. See No. 046573 in...

  1. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product. Zinc gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 582.5991 Section 582.5991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product. Zinc oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  9. Ferritin: a zinc detoxicant and a zinc ion donor.

    PubMed Central

    Price, D; Joshi, J G

    1982-01-01

    Rats were injected with 1 mg of Zn2+ as zinc sulfate or 2 mg of Cd2+ as cadmium sulfate per kg of body weight on a daily basis. After seven injections, ferritin and metallothionein were isolated from the livers of the rats. Significant amounts of zinc were associated with ferritin. Incubation of such ferritin with apoenzymes of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase, yeast phosphoglucomutase, and yeast aldolase restored their enzymic activity. The amount of zinc injected was insufficient to stimulate significant synthesis of metallothionein, but similar experiments with injection of cadmium did stimulate the synthesis of metallothionein. The amount of Zn2+ in ferritin of Cd-injected rats was greater than that in ferritin in Zn-injected rats, which was greater than that in ferritin of normal rats. Thus at comparable protein concentration ferritin from Cd-injected rats was a better Zn2+ donor than was ferritin from Zn-injected or normal animals. Ferritin is a normal constituent of several tissues, whereas metallothionein is synthesized under metabolic stress. Thus ferritin may function as a "metal storage and transferring agent" for iron and for zinc. It is suggested that ferritin probably serves as the initial chelator for Zn2+ and perhaps other metal ions as well and that under very high toxic levels of metal ions the synthesis of metallothionein is initiated as the second line of defense. PMID:6212927

  10. Rational Design of Zinc Phosphide Heterojunction Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Jeffrey Paul

    The prospect of terawatt-scale electricity generation using a photovoltaic (PV) device places strict requirements on the active semiconductor optoelectronic properties and elemental abundance. After reviewing the constraints placed on an ``earth-abundant'' solar absorber, we find zinc phosphide (α-Zn 3P2) to be an ideal candidate. In addition to its near-optimal direct band gap of 1.5 eV, high visible-light absorption coefficient (>10. 4cm-1), and long minority-carrier diffusion length (>5 μm), Zn3P 2 is composed of abundant Zn and P elements and has excellent physical properties for scalable thin-film deposition. However, to date, a Zn 3P2 device of sufficient efficiency for commercial applications has not been demonstrated. Record efficiencies of 6.0% for multicrystalline and 4.3% for thin-film cells have been reported, respectively. Performance has been limited by the intrinsic p-type conductivity of Zn3P 2 which restricts us to Schottky and heterojunction device designs. Due to our poor understanding of Zn3P2 interfaces, an ideal heterojunction partner has not yet been found. The goal of this thesis is to explore the upper limit of solar conversion efficiency achievable with a Zn3P2 absorber through the design of an optimal heterojunction PV device. To do so, we investigate three key aspects of material growth, interface energetics, and device design. First, the growth of Zn3P2 on GaAs(001) is studied using compound-source molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). We successfully demonstrate the pseudomorphic growth of Zn3P2 epilayers of controlled orientation and optoelectronic properties. Next, the energy-band alignments of epitaxial Zn3P2 and II-VI and III-V semiconductor interfaces are measured via high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to determine the most appropriate heterojunction partner. From this work, we identify ZnSe as a nearly ideal n-type emitter for a Zn3P 2 PV device. Finally, various II-VI/Zn3P2 heterojunction solar cells designs are

  11. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  12. Helios: Understanding Solar Evolution Through Text Analytics

    SciT

    Randazzese, Lucien

    This proof-of-concept project focused on developing, testing, and validating a range of bibliometric, text analytic, and machine-learning based methods to explore the evolution of three photovoltaic (PV) technologies: Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), Dye-Sensitized solar cells (DSSC), and Multi-junction solar cells. The analytical approach to the work was inspired by previous work by the same team to measure and predict the scientific prominence of terms and entities within specific research domains. The goal was to create tools that could assist domain-knowledgeable analysts in investigating the history and path of technological developments in general, with a focus on analyzing step-function changes in performance,more » or “breakthroughs,” in particular. The text-analytics platform developed during this project was dubbed Helios. The project relied on computational methods for analyzing large corpora of technical documents. For this project we ingested technical documents from the following sources into Helios: Thomson Scientific Web of Science (papers), the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office (patents), the U.S. Department of Energy (technical documents), the U.S. National Science Foundation (project funding summaries), and a hand curated set of full-text documents from Thomson Scientific and other sources.« less

  13. Zinc lozenges and the common cold: a meta-analysis comparing zinc acetate and zinc gluconate, and the role of zinc dosage.

    PubMed

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of zinc acetate lozenges with zinc gluconate lozenges in common cold treatment and to examine the dose-dependency of the effect. Meta-analysis. Placebo-controlled zinc lozenge trials, in which the zinc dose was > 75 mg/day. The pooled effect of zinc lozenges on common cold duration was calculated by using inverse-variance random-effects method. Seven randomised trials with 575 participants with naturally acquired common colds. Duration of the common cold. The mean common cold duration was 33% (95% CI 21% to 45%) shorter for the zinc groups of the seven included trials. Three trials that used lozenges composed of zinc acetate found that colds were shortened by 40% and four trials that used zinc gluconate by 28%. The difference between the two salts was not significant: 12 percentage points (95% CI: -12 to + 36). Five trials used zinc doses of 80-92 mg/day, common cold duration was reduced by 33%, and two trials used zinc doses of 192-207 mg/day and found an effect of 35%. The difference between the high-dose and low-dose zinc trials was not significant: 2 percentage points (95% CI: -29 to + 32). Properly composed zinc gluconate lozenges may be as effective as zinc acetate lozenges. There is no evidence that zinc doses over 100 mg/day might lead to greater efficacy in the treatment of the common cold. Common cold patients may be encouraged to try zinc lozenges for treating their colds. The optimal lozenge composition and dosage scheme need to be investigated further.

  14. Solar Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Solar Energy's solar panels are collectors for a solar energy system which provides heating for a drive-in bank in Akron, OH. Collectors were designed and manufactured by Solar Energy Products, a firm established by three former NASA employees. Company President, Frank Rom, an example of a personnel-type technology transfer, was a Research Director at Lewis Research Center, which conducts extensive solar heating and cooling research, including development and testing of high-efficiency flat-plate collectors. Rom acquired solar energy expertise which helped the company develop two types of collectors, one for use in domestic/commercial heating systems and the other for drying grain.

  15. Zinc transport and diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Ewan

    2014-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have previously identified variants in SLC30A8, encoding the zinc transporter ZnT8, associated with diabetes risk. A rare variant association study has now established the direction of effect, surprisingly showing that loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 are protective against diabetes.

  16. Reduction of arsenite-enhanced ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage by supplemental zinc

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Karen L.; King, Brenee S.; Sandoval, Monica M.; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen and there is evidence that arsenic augments the carcinogenicity of DNA damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR) thereby acting as a co-carcinogen. Inhibition of DNA repair is one proposed mechanism to account for the co-carcinogenic actions of arsenic. We and others find that arsenite interferes with the function of certain zinc finger DNA repair proteins. Furthermore, we reported that zinc reverses the effects of arsenite in cultured cells and a DNA repair target protein, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. In order to determine whether zinc ameliorates the effects of arsenite on UVR-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes and in an in vivo model, normal human epidermal keratinocytes and SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed to arsenite, zinc or both before solar-simulated (ss) UVR exposure. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, DNA damage and mutation frequencies at the hprt locus were measured in each treatment group in normal human keratinocytes. DNA damage was assessed in vivo by immunohistochemical staining of skin sections isolated from SKH-1 hairless mice. Cell-based findings demonstrate that ssUVR-induced DNA damage and mutagenesis are enhanced by arsenite, and supplemental zinc partially reverses the arsenite effect. In vivo studies confirm that zinc supplementation decreases arsenite-enhanced DNA damage in response to ssUVR exposure. From these data we can conclude that zinc offsets the impact of arsenic on ssUVR-stimulated DNA damage in cells and in vivo suggesting that zinc supplementation may provide a strategy to improve DNA repair capacity in arsenic exposed human populations. PMID:23523584

  17. Conventional X-ray fluorescence camera with a cadmium-telluride detector and its application to cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Sato, Eiichi; Abderyim, Purkhet; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Osawa, Akihiro; Watanabe, Manabu; Nagao, Jiro; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2011-04-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is useful for mapping various molecules in objects. Bremsstrahlung X-rays are selected using a 3.0-mm-thick aluminum filter, and these rays are absorbed by iodine, cerium, and gadolinium molecules in objects. Next, XRF is produced from the objects, and photons are detected by a cadmium-telluride detector. The Kα photons are discriminated using a multichannel analyzer, and the number of photons is counted by a counter card. The objects are moved and scanned by an x- y stage in conjunction with a two-stage controller, and X-ray images obtained by molecular mapping are shown on a personal computer monitor. The scan steps of x and y axes were both 2.5 mm, and the photon-counting time per mapping point was 0.5 s. We carried out molecular mapping using the X-ray camera, and Kα photons from cerium and gadolinium molecules were produced from cancerous regions in nude mice.

  18. Application of an oscillation-type linear cadmium telluride detector to enhanced gadolinium K-edge computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Sato, Eiichi; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Nagao, Jiro; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2011-03-01

    A linear cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector is useful for carrying out energy-discrimination X-ray imaging, including computed tomography (CT). To perform enhanced gadolinium K-edge CT, we used an oscillation-type linear CdTe detector with an energy resolution of 1.2 keV. CT is performed by repeating the linear scan and the rotation of an object. Penetrating X-ray photons from the object are detected by the CdTe detector, and event signals of X-ray photons are produced using charge-sensitive and shaping amplifiers. Both the photon energy and the energy width are selected using a multichannel analyzer, and the number of photons is counted by a counter card. In energy-discrimination CT, tube voltage and current were 80 kV and 20 μA, respectively, and X-ray intensity was 1.55 μGy/s at 1.0 m from the source at a tube voltage of 80 kV. Demonstration of enhanced gadolinium K-edge X-ray CT was carried out by selecting photons with energies just beyond gadolinium K-edge energy of 50.3 keV.

  19. A novel approach of chemical mechanical polishing using environment-friendly slurry for mercury cadmium telluride semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Wang, Bo; Zhou, Ping; Guo, Dongming; Kang, Renke; Zhang, Bi

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is developed for mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe or MCT) semiconductors. Firstly, fixed-abrasive lapping is used to machine the MCT wafers, and the lapping solution is deionized water. Secondly, the MCT wafers are polished using the developed CMP slurry. The CMP slurry consists of mainly SiO2 nanospheres, H2O2, and malic and citric acids, which are different from previous CMP slurries, in which corrosive and toxic chemical reagents are usually employed. Finally, the polished MCT wafers are cleaned and dried by deionized water and compressed air, respectively. The novel approach of CMP is environment-friendly. Surface roughness Ra, and peak-to-valley (PV) values of 0.45, and 4.74 nm are achieved, respectively on MCT wafers after CMP. The first and second passivating processes are observed in electrochemical measurements on MCT wafers. The fundamental mechanisms of CMP are proposed according to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical measurements. Malic and citric acids dominate the first passivating process, and the CMP slurry governs the second process. Te4+3d peaks are absent after CMP induced by the developed CMP slurry, indicating the removing of oxidized films on MCT wafers, which is difficult to achieve using single H2O2 and malic and citric acids solutions. PMID:26926622

  20. Modelling of illuminated current-voltage characteristics to evaluate leakage currents in long wavelength infrared mercury cadmium telluride photovoltaic detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Vishnu; Qiu, WeiCheng; Hu, Weida

    2014-11-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of long wavelength mercury cadmium telluride infrared detectors have been studied using a recently suggested method for modelling of illuminated photovoltaic detectors. Diodes fabricated on in-house grown arsenic and vacancy doped epitaxial layers were evaluated for their leakage currents. The thermal diffusion, generation-recombination (g-r), and ohmic currents were found as principal components of diode current besides a component of photocurrent due to illumination. In addition, both types of diodes exhibited an excess current component whose growth with the applied bias voltage did not match the expected growth of trap-assisted-tunnelling current. Instead, it was found to be the best described by an exponential function of the type, Iexcess = Ir0 + K1 exp (K2 V), where Ir0, K1, and K2 are fitting parameters and V is the applied bias voltage. A study of the temperature dependence of the diode current components and the excess current provided the useful clues about the source of origin of excess current. It was found that the excess current in diodes fabricated on arsenic doped epitaxial layers has its origin in the source of ohmic shunt currents. Whereas, the source of excess current in diodes fabricated on vacancy doped epitaxial layers appeared to be the avalanche multiplication of photocurrent. The difference in the behaviour of two types of diodes has been attributed to the difference in the quality of epitaxial layers.

  1. Thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride nanoplate thin films determined using combined infrared spectroscopy and first-principles calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Kodai; Tomita, Koji; Takashiri, Masayuki

    2018-06-01

    The thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) nanoplate thin films were estimated using combined infrared spectroscopy and first-principles calculation, followed by comparing the estimated properties with those obtained using the standard electrical probing method. Hexagonal single-crystalline Bi2Te3 nanoplates were first prepared using solvothermal synthesis, followed by preparing Bi2Te3 nanoplate thin films using the drop-casting technique. The nanoplates were joined by thermally annealing them at 250 °C in Ar (95%)–H2 (5%) gas (atmospheric pressure). The electronic transport properties were estimated by infrared spectroscopy using the Drude model, with the effective mass being determined from the band structure using first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient obtained using the combined analysis were higher than those obtained using the standard electrical probing method, probably because the contact resistance between the nanoplates was excluded from the estimation procedure of the combined analysis method.

  2. Improved colorimetric determination of serum zinc.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D J; Djuh, Y Y; Bruton, J; Williams, H L

    1977-07-01

    We show how zinc may easily be quantified in serum by first using an optimum concentration of guanidine hydrochloride to cause release of zinc from proteins, followed by complexation of released metals with cyanide. The cyanide complex of zinc is preferentially demasked with chloral hydrate, followed by a colorimetric reaction between zinc and 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. This is a sensitive water-soluble ligand; its complex with zinc has an absorption maximum at 497 nm. Values found by this technique compare favorably with those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  3. The Zinc Transporter Zip5 (Slc39a5) Regulates Intestinal Zinc Excretion and Protects the Pancreas against Zinc Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Jim; De Lisle, Robert C.; Andrews, Glen K.

    2013-01-01

    Background ZIP5 localizes to the baso-lateral membranes of intestinal enterocytes and pancreatic acinar cells and is internalized and degraded coordinately in these cell-types during periods of dietary zinc deficiency. These cell-types are thought to control zinc excretion from the body. The baso-lateral localization and zinc-regulation of ZIP5 in these cells are unique among the 14 members of the Slc39a family and suggest that ZIP5 plays a role in zinc excretion. Methods/Principal Findings We created mice with floxed Zip5 genes and deleted this gene in the entire mouse or specifically in enterocytes or acinar cells and then examined the effects on zinc homeostasis. We found that ZIP5 is not essential for growth and viability but total knockout of ZIP5 led to increased zinc in the liver in mice fed a zinc-adequate (ZnA) diet but impaired accumulation of pancreatic zinc in mice fed a zinc-excess (ZnE) diet. Loss-of-function of enterocyte ZIP5, in contrast, led to increased pancreatic zinc in mice fed a ZnA diet and increased abundance of intestinal Zip4 mRNA. Finally, loss-of-function of acinar cell ZIP5 modestly reduced pancreatic zinc in mice fed a ZnA diet but did not impair zinc uptake as measured by the rapid accumulation of 67zinc. Retention of pancreatic 67zinc was impaired in these mice but the absence of pancreatic ZIP5 sensitized them to zinc-induced pancreatitis and exacerbated the formation of large cytoplasmic vacuoles containing secretory protein in acinar cells. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that ZIP5 participates in the control of zinc excretion in mice. Specifically, they reveal a paramount function of intestinal ZIP5 in zinc excretion but suggest a role for pancreatic ZIP5 in zinc accumulation/retention in acinar cells. ZIP5 functions in acinar cells to protect against zinc-induced acute pancreatitis and attenuate the process of zymophagy. This suggests that it may play a role in autophagy. PMID:24303081

  4. Interaction of zinc with dental mineral.

    PubMed

    Ingram, G S; Horay, C P; Stead, W J

    1992-01-01

    As some currently available toothpastes contain zinc compounds, the reaction of zinc with dental mineral and its effect on crystal growth rates were studied using three synthetic calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites (HAP) as being representative of dental mineral. Zinc was readily acquired by all HAP samples in the absence of added calcium, the amount adsorbed being proportional to the HAP surface area; about 9 mumol Zn/m2 was adsorbed at high zinc concentrations. As zinc was acquired, calcium was released, consistent with 1:1 Ca:Zn exchange. Soluble calcium reduced zinc uptake and similarly, calcium post-treatment released zinc. Pretreatment of HAP with 0.5 mM zinc reduced its subsequent ability to undergo seeded crystal growth, as did extracts of a toothpaste containing 0.5% zinc citrate, even in the presence of saliva. The reverse reaction, i.e. displacement of adsorbed zinc by salivary levels of calcium, however, indicates the mechanism by which zinc can reduce calculus formation in vivo by inhibiting plaque mineralisation without adversely affecting the anti-caries effects of fluoride.

  5. Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. PMID:25120566

  6. Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2011-01-01

    Centuries before it was identified as an element, zinc was used to make brass (an alloy of zinc and copper) and for medicinal purposes. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Refined zinc metal is bluish-white when freshly cast; it is hard and brittle at most temperatures and has relatively low melting and boiling points. Zinc alloys readily with other metals and is chemically active. On exposure to air, it develops a thin gray oxide film (patina), which inhibits deeper oxidation (corrosion) of the metal. The metal's resistance to corrosion is an important characteristic in its use.

  7. Solar Geometry

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    Solar Noon (GMT time) The time when the sun is due south in the northern hemisphere or due north in the southern ... The average cosine of the angle between the sun and directly overhead during daylight hours.   Cosine solar ...

  8. Association between Maternal Zinc Status, Dietary Zinc Intake and Pregnancy Complications: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Rebecca L.; Grieger, Jessica A.; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Roberts, Claire T.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate zinc stores in the body are extremely important during periods of accelerated growth. However, zinc deficiency is common in developing countries and low maternal circulating zinc concentrations have previously been associated with pregnancy complications. We reviewed current literature assessing circulating zinc and dietary zinc intake during pregnancy and the associations with preeclampsia (PE); spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB); low birthweight (LBW); and gestational diabetes (GDM). Searches of MEDLINE; CINAHL and Scopus databases identified 639 articles and 64 studies were reviewed. In 10 out of 16 studies a difference was reported with respect to circulating zinc between women who gave birth to a LBW infant (≤2500 g) and those who gave birth to an infant of adequate weight (>2500 g), particularly in populations where inadequate zinc intake is prevalent. In 16 of our 33 studies an association was found between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and circulating zinc; particularly in women with severe PE (blood pressure ≥160/110 mmHg). No association between maternal zinc status and sPTB or GDM was seen; however; direct comparisons between the studies was difficult. Furthermore; only a small number of studies were based on women from populations where there is a high risk of zinc deficiency. Therefore; the link between maternal zinc status and pregnancy success in these populations cannot be established. Future studies should focus on those vulnerable to zinc deficiency and include dietary zinc intake as a measure of zinc status. PMID:27754451

  9. Effects of serum zinc level on tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Berkiten, Güler; Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Yıldırım, Güven; Salturk, Ziya; Uyar, Yavuz; Atar, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess zinc levels in tinnitus patients, and to evaluate the effects of zinc deficiency on tinnitus and hearing loss. One-hundred patients, who presented to an outpatient clinic with tinnitus between June 2009 and 2014, were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups according to age: Group I (patients between 18 and 30years of age); Group II (patients between 31 and 60years of age); and Group III (patients between 61 and 78years of age). Following a complete ear, nose and throat examination, serum zinc levels were measured and the severity of tinnitus was quantified using the Tinnitus Severity Index Questionnaire (TSIQ). Patients were subsequently asked to provide a subjective judgment regarding the loudness of their tinnitus. The hearing status of patients was evaluated by audiometry and high-frequency audiometry. An average hearing sensitivity was calculated as the mean value of hearing thresholds between 250 and 20,000Hz. Serum zinc levels between 70 and 120μg/dl were considered normal. The severity and loudness of tinnitus, and the hearing thresholds of the normal zinc level and zinc-deficient groups, were compared. Twelve of 100 (12%) patients exhibited low zinc levels. The mean age of the zinc-deficient group was 65.41±12.77years. Serum zinc levels were significantly lower in group III (p<0.01). The severity and loudness of tinnitus were greater in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.011 and p=0.015, respectively). Moreover, the mean thresholds of air conduction were significantly higher in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.000). We observed that zinc levels decrease as age increases. In addition, there was a significant correlation between zinc level and the severity and loudness of tinnitus. Zinc deficiency was also associated with impairments in hearing thresholds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Imaging as characterization techniques for thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaunbrecher, Katherine

    The goal of increasing the efficiency of solar cell devices is a universal one. Increased photovoltaic (PV) performance means an increase in competition with other energy technologies. One way to improve PV technologies is to develop rapid, accurate characterization tools for quality control. Imaging techniques developed over the past decade are beginning to fill that role. Electroluminescence (EL), photoluminescence (PL), and lock-in thermography are three types of imaging implemented in this study to provide a multifaceted approach to studying imaging as applied to thin-film CdTe solar cells. Images provide spatial information about cell operation, which in turn can be used to identify defects that limit performance. This study began with developing EL, PL, and dark lock-in thermography (DLIT) for CdTe. Once imaging data were acquired, luminescence and thermography signatures of non-uniformities that disrupt the generation and collection of carriers were identified and cataloged. Additional data acquisition and analysis were used to determine luminescence response to varying operating conditions. This includes acquiring spectral data, varying excitation conditions, and correlating luminescence to device performance. EL measurements show variations in a cell's local voltage, which include inhomogeneities in the transparent-conductive oxide (TCO) front contact, CdS window layer, and CdTe absorber layer. EL signatures include large gradients, local reduction of luminescence, and local increases in luminescence on the interior of the device as well as bright spots located on the cell edges. The voltage bias and spectral response were analyzed to determine the response of these non-uniformities and surrounding areas. PL images of CdTe have not shown the same level of detail and features compared to their EL counterparts. Many of the signatures arise from reflections and severe inhomogeneities, but the technique is limited by the external illumination source used to

  11. The biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Krężel, Artur; Maret, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    The solution and complexation chemistry of zinc ions is the basis for zinc biology. In living organisms, zinc is redox-inert and has only one valence state: Zn(II). Its coordination environment in proteins is limited by oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur donors from the side chains of a few amino acids. In an estimated 10% of all human proteins, zinc has a catalytic or structural function and remains bound during the lifetime of the protein. However, in other proteins zinc ions bind reversibly with dissociation and association rates commensurate with the requirements in regulation, transport, transfer, sensing, signalling, and storage. In contrast to the extensive knowledge about zinc proteins, the coordination chemistry of the "mobile" zinc ions in these processes, i.e. when not bound to proteins, is virtually unexplored and the mechanisms of ligand exchange are poorly understood. Knowledge of the biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions is essential for understanding its cellular biology and for designing complexes that deliver zinc to proteins and chelating agents that remove zinc from proteins, for detecting zinc ion species by qualitative and quantitative analysis, and for proper planning and execution of experiments involving zinc ions and nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO). In most investigations, reference is made to zinc or Zn 2+ without full appreciation of how biological zinc ions are buffered and how the d-block cation Zn 2+ differs from s-block cations such as Ca 2+ with regard to significantly higher affinity for ligands, preference for the donor atoms of ligands, and coordination dynamics. Zinc needs to be tightly controlled. The interaction with low molecular weight ligands such as water and inorganic and organic anions is highly relevant to its biology but in contrast to its coordination in proteins has not been discussed in the biochemical literature. From the discussion in this article, it is becoming evident that zinc ion speciation is

  12. Solar Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  13. Solar Eclipse

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... June 10, 2002 the Moon obscured the central portion of the solar disk in a phenomenon known as an annular solar eclipse. Partial phases of ... to obscure about 75 percent of the solar disk. The two scenes are geolocated to adjacent paths within World Reference System-2. ...

  14. Solar flair.

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, John S

    2003-01-01

    Design innovations and government-sponsored financial incentives are making solar energy increasingly attractive to homeowners and institutional customers such as school districts. In particular, the passive solar design concept of daylighting is gaining favor among educators due to evidence of improved performance by students working in daylit classrooms. Electricity-generating photovoltaic systems are also becoming more popular, especially in states such as California that have high electric rates and frequent power shortages. To help spread the word about solar power, the U.S. Department of Energy staged its first-ever Solar Decathlon in October 2002. This event featured solar-savvy homes designed by 14 college teams. PMID:12573926

  15. Zinc and the modulation of redox homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc, a redox inactive metal, has been long viewed as a component of the antioxidant network, and growing evidence points to its involvement in redox-regulated signaling. These actions are exerted through several mechanisms based on the unique chemical and functional properties of zinc. Overall, zinc contributes to maintain the cell redox balance through different mechanisms including: i) the regulation of oxidant production and metal-induced oxidative damage; ii) the dynamic association of zinc with sulfur in protein cysteine clusters, from which the metal can be released by nitric oxide, peroxides, oxidized glutathione and other thiol oxidant species; iii) zinc-mediated induction of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein, which releases the metal under oxidative conditions and act per se scavenging oxidants; iv) the involvement of zinc in the regulation of glutathione metabolism and of the overall protein thiol redox status; and v) a direct or indirect regulation of redox signaling. Findings of oxidative stress, altered redox signaling, and associated cell/tissue disfunction in cell and animal models of zinc deficiency, stress the relevant role of zinc in the preservation of cell redox homeostasis. However, while the participation of zinc in antioxidant protection, redox sensing, and redox-regulated signaling is accepted, the involved molecules, targets and mechanisms are still partially known and the subject of active research. PMID:22960578

  16. Solar Newsletter | Solar Research | NREL

    , General Electric Optimize Voltage Control for Utility-Scale PV As utilities increasingly add solar power components that may be used to integrate distributed solar PV onto distribution systems. More than 335 data Innovation Award for Grid Reliability PV Demonstration First Solar, the California Independent System

  17. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  18. Solar Sailing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les

    2009-01-01

    Solar sailing is a topic of growing technical and popular interest. Solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to destinations within (and beyond) the solar system that are currently beyond our technical reach. The lecture will describe solar sails, how they work, and what they will be used for in the exploration of space. It will include a discussion of current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world s space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. The first part of the lecture will summarize state-of-the-art space propulsion systems and technologies. Though these other technologies are the key to any deep space exploration by humans, robots, or both, solar-sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to distant and difficult destinations. The second part of the lecture will describe the fundamentals of space solar sail propulsion and will describe the near-, mid- and far-term missions that might use solar sails as a propulsion system. The third part of the lecture will describe solar sail technology and the construction of current and future sailcraft, including the work of both government and private space organizations.

  19. Zinc Regulation of Aminopeptidase B Involved in Neuropeptide Production

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Shin-Rong; Hook, Vivian

    2009-01-01

    Aminopeptidase B (AP-B) is a metallopeptidase that removes basic residues from the N-termini of neuropeptide substrates in secretory vesicles. This study assessed zinc regulation of AP-B activity, since secretory vesicles contain endogenous zinc. AP-B was inhibited by zinc at concentrations typically present in secretory vesicles. Zinc effects were dependent on concentration, incubation time, and the molar ratio of zinc to enzyme. AP-B activity was recovered upon removal of zinc. AP-B with zinc became susceptible to degradation by trypsin, suggesting that zinc alters enzyme conformation. Zinc regulation demonstrates the metallopeptidase property of AP-B. PMID:18571504

  20. Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Rosenhoover, William A.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

  1. [Zinc and treatment of diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Fontaine, O

    2006-06-01

    Recently WHO and UNICEF issued a joint statement revising guidelines for clinical management of diarrhoea. These updated recommendations take into account new research findings showing the beneficial effects of oral rehydration salts (ORS) containing lower concentrations of glucose and salts and of zinc supplementation. In combination with prevention and treatment of dehydration with appropriate fluids, breastfeeding, continued feeding and selective use of antibiotics, these two advances can drastically diminish the number of child deaths by reducing the duration and severity of diarrhoeal episodes and lowering their incidence. The purpose of this report is to present the research findings that demonstrated the efficacy of zinc supplementation in the management of diarrhoea and led to revision of WHO/UNCEF guidelines.

  2. Zinc and its transporters, pancreatic beta cells, and insulin metabolism

    Zinc is an essential trace metal for life. Two families of zinc transporters, SLC30A (ZnT) and SLC39A (ZIP) are required for maintaining cellular zinc homeostasis. ZnTs function to decrease cytoplasmic zinc concentrations whereas ZIPs do the opposite. Expression of zinc transporters can be tissue/ce...

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Rare-Earth Tellurides and Their Composites For High-Temperature Thermoelectric Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheikh, Dean

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are solid-state energy conversion devices and have been a vital power generation technology for deep space missions conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). At the heart of these generators are thermoelectric materials that convert heat given off by a radioisotope decay into electricity through the Seebeck effect. While these systems have demonstrated long-term reliability, the current state-of-practice materials have thermoelectric figures of merit, ZT, near 1, leading to low system level efficiencies of 6.5%. The figure of merit is defined as ZT = sigmaS 2/kappa T where sigma, S, kappa, and T are electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and temperature, respectively. Development of higher ZT materials would enable future NASA missions to perform a greater number of scientific experiments and extend mission lifetimes. Lanthanum telluride (La3-xTe4) is a state-of-the-art n-type high-temperature thermoelectric material, with a ZT of 1.1 at 1275 K. It has been demonstrated that the electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of this material can be decoupled when nickel inclusions are added to form a composite. This new phenomenon, known as composite assisted funneling of electrons (CAFE), allows for the resistivity of the composite to decrease while leaving the Seebeck coefficient unaffected when 12-15 vol% nickel was incorporated. The initial work presented in this dissertation focused on microstructural modifications to La3-xTe4-Ni composites to attain a better understanding of the CAFE mechanism. This investigation was conducted by varying the size of the nickel particles compared to what were used in the previous composite study. A 60% increase in ZT to a value of 1.9 at 1200 K for the composites with the smallest Ni particle size was obtained due to an increased Seebeck coefficient and decreased thermal conductivity. The next study focused on the extension

  4. Recent developments in low cost silicon solar cells for terrestrial applications. [sheet production methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leipold, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    A variety of techniques may be used for photovoltaic energy systems. Concentrated or not concentrated sunlight may be employed, and a number of materials can be used, including silicon, gallium arsenide, cadmium sulfide, and cadmium telluride. Most of the experience, however, has been obtained with silicon cells employed without sunlight concentration. An industrial base exists at present for producing solar cells at a price in the range from $15 to $30 per peak watt. A major federal program has the objective to reduce the price of power provided by silicon solar systems to approximately $1 per peak watt in the early 1980's and $0.50 per watt by 1986. The approaches considered for achieving this objective are discussed.

  5. Optimization of material/device parameters of CdTe photovoltaic for solar cells applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S.

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) has been recognized as a promising photovoltaic material for thin-film solar cell applications due to its near optimum bandgap of ~1.5 eV and high absorption coefficient. The energy gap is near optimum for a single-junction solar cell. The high absorption coefficient allows films as thin as 2.5 μm to absorb more than 98% of the above-bandgap radiation. Cells with efficiencies near 20% have been produced with poly-CdTe materials. This paper examines n/p heterostructure device architecture. The performance limitations related to doping concentrations, minority carrier lifetimes, absorber layer thickness, and surface recombination velocities at the back and front interfaces is assessed. Ultimately, the paper explores device architectures of poly- CdTe and crystalline CdTe to achieve performance comparable to gallium arsenide (GaAs).

  6. Epitaxial Growth of Cadmium Telluride Films on Silicon and Indium Antimonide Substrates Using a Closed Hot Wall Epitaxy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Tien-Chuan

    For many applications, such as infrared detector and high speed devices, we need high quality cadmium telluride (CdTe) films. To fabricate CdTe films we are using a home -built Closed Hot Wall Epitaxy system (CHWE). This system consists of two growth chambers, preheat chamber, substrate exchange load lock and ultra-high vacuum system. It can exchange the substrates without disturbing the vacuum environment and prevents the source materials from contamination. Two different substrate materials, Si and InSb, are used in this work. Deposition parameters were varied in order to determine the growth condition for obtaining good quality CdTe films. The characteristics of the films were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscope, X-ray diffractormeter and Auger Electron Spectroscope. The electrical properties of Al/CdTe/InSb MIS diodes are also examined. Experimental results show that the quality of the CdTe films on these two substrates are functions of the source and substrate temperatures. The surface of CdTe films grown on Si substrate are rougher than CdTe films grown on InSb substrate. X -ray patterns show that the crystal orientations of the CdTe films are, (100) and (111), similar to those of the substrates under optimum growth conditions. The CdTe film are stoichiometric based on the results of Auger survey. Electrical measurement also indicates that CdTe films grown on InSb substrates have very high purity and are insulator. The induced stresses due to the differences of lattice constant and thermal expansion coefficient between CdTe films and substrates were observed in CdTe films. The critical thickness of CdTe films on InSb substrates are measured by X-ray diffraction to be 2.63 um.

  7. Modelling of illuminated current–voltage characteristics to evaluate leakage currents in long wavelength infrared mercury cadmium telluride photovoltaic detectors

    SciT

    Gopal, Vishnu, E-mail: vishnu-46@yahoo.com, E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Qiu, WeiCheng; Hu, Weida, E-mail: vishnu-46@yahoo.com, E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn

    2014-11-14

    The current–voltage characteristics of long wavelength mercury cadmium telluride infrared detectors have been studied using a recently suggested method for modelling of illuminated photovoltaic detectors. Diodes fabricated on in-house grown arsenic and vacancy doped epitaxial layers were evaluated for their leakage currents. The thermal diffusion, generation–recombination (g-r), and ohmic currents were found as principal components of diode current besides a component of photocurrent due to illumination. In addition, both types of diodes exhibited an excess current component whose growth with the applied bias voltage did not match the expected growth of trap-assisted-tunnelling current. Instead, it was found to be themore » best described by an exponential function of the type, I{sub excess} = I{sub r0} + K{sub 1} exp (K{sub 2} V), where I{sub r0}, K{sub 1}, and K{sub 2} are fitting parameters and V is the applied bias voltage. A study of the temperature dependence of the diode current components and the excess current provided the useful clues about the source of origin of excess current. It was found that the excess current in diodes fabricated on arsenic doped epitaxial layers has its origin in the source of ohmic shunt currents. Whereas, the source of excess current in diodes fabricated on vacancy doped epitaxial layers appeared to be the avalanche multiplication of photocurrent. The difference in the behaviour of two types of diodes has been attributed to the difference in the quality of epitaxial layers.« less

  8. Formation and acceleration of uniformly filled ellipsoidal electron bunches obtained via space-charge-driven expansion from a cesium-telluride photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piot, P.; Sun, Y.-E.; Maxwell, T. J.; Ruan, J.; Secchi, E.; Thangaraj, J. C. T.

    2013-01-01

    We report the experimental generation, acceleration, and characterization of a uniformly filled electron bunch obtained via space-charge-driven expansion (often referred to as “blow-out regime”) in an L-band (1.3-GHz) radiofrequency photoinjector. The beam is photoemitted from a cesium-telluride semiconductor photocathode using a short (<200fs) ultraviolet laser pulse. The produced electron bunches are characterized with conventional diagnostics and the signatures of their ellipsoidal character are observed. We especially demonstrate the production of ellipsoidal bunches with charges up to ˜0.5nC corresponding to a ˜20-fold increase compared to previous experiments with metallic photocathodes.

  9. The 3-5 semiconductor solid solution single crystal growth. [low gravity float zone growth experiments using gallium indium antimonides and cadmium tellurides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertner, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques used for liquid and vapor phase epitaxy of gallium indium arsenide are described and the difficulties encountered are examined. Results show that the growth of bulk III-V solid solution single crystals in a low gravity environment will not have a major technological impact. The float zone technique in a low gravity environment is demonstrated using cadmium telluride. It is shown that this approach can result in the synthesis of a class of semiconductors that can not be grown in normal gravity because of growth problems rooted in the nature of their phase diagrams.

  10. Zinc in Cellular Regulation: The Nature and Significance of "Zinc Signals".

    PubMed

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-10-31

    In the last decade, we witnessed discoveries that established Zn 2+ as a second major signalling metal ion in the transmission of information within cells and in communication between cells. Together with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ covers biological regulation with redox-inert metal ions over many orders of magnitude in concentrations. The regulatory functions of zinc ions, together with their functions as a cofactor in about three thousand zinc metalloproteins, impact virtually all aspects of cell biology. This article attempts to define the regulatory functions of zinc ions, and focuses on the nature of zinc signals and zinc signalling in pathways where zinc ions are either extracellular stimuli or intracellular messengers. These pathways interact with Ca 2+ , redox, and phosphorylation signalling. The regulatory functions of zinc require a complex system of precise homeostatic control for transients, subcellular distribution and traffic, organellar homeostasis, and vesicular storage and exocytosis of zinc ions.

  11. Zinc and Wound Healing: A Review of Zinc Physiology and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Samuel; Sood, Aditya; Garnick, Mark S

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of the role of zinc in normal human physiology is constantly expanding, yet there are major gaps in our knowledge with regard to the function of zinc in wound healing. This review aims to provide the clinician with sufficient understanding of zinc biology and an up-to-date perspective on the role of zinc in wound healing. Zinc is an essential ion that is crucial for maintenance of normal physiology, and zinc deficiency has many manifestations ranging from delayed wound healing to immune dysfunction and impairment of multiple sensory systems. While consensus has been reached regarding the detrimental effects of zinc deficiency on wound healing, there is considerable discord in the literature on the optimal methods and true benefits of zinc supplementation.

  12. Long life, rechargeable nickel-zinc battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.

    1974-01-01

    A production version of the inorganic separator was evaluated for improving the life of the nickel-zinc system. Nickel-zinc cells (7-10 Ah capacities) of different electrode separator configurations were constructed and tested. The nickel-zinc cells using the inorganic separator encasing the zinc electrode, the nickel electrode, or both electrodes had shorter lives than cells using Visking and cellophane separation. Cells with the inorganic separation all fell below 70% of their theoretical capacity within 30 cycles, but the cells constructed with organic separation required 80 cycles. Failure of the cells using the ceramic separator was irreversible capacity degradation due to zinc loss through cracks developed in the inorganic separator. Zinc loss through the separator was minimized with the use of combinations of the inorganic separator with Visking and cellophane. Cells using the combined separation operated 130 duty cycles before degrading to 70% of their theoretical capacity.

  13. High performance zinc anode for battery applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, John E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An improved zinc anode for use in a high density rechargeable alkaline battery is disclosed. A process for making the zinc electrode comprises electrolytic loading of the zinc active material from a slightly acidic zinc nitrate solution into a substrate of nickel, copper or silver. The substrate comprises a sintered plaque having very fine pores, a high surface area, and 80-85 percent total initial porosity. The residual porosity after zinc loading is approximately 25-30%. The electrode of the present invention exhibits reduced zinc mobility, shape change and distortion, and demonstrates reduced dendrite buildup cycling of the battery. The disclosed battery is useful for applications requiring high energy density and multiple charge capability.

  14. Zinc pharmacokinetic parameters in the determination of body zinc status in children.

    PubMed

    Vale, S H L; Leite, L D; Alves, C X; Dantas, M M G; Costa, J B S; Marchini, J S; França, M C; Brandão-Neto, J

    2014-02-01

    Serum or tissue zinc concentrations are often used to assess body zinc status. However, all of these methods are relatively inaccurate. Thus, we investigated three different kinetic methods for the determination of zinc clearance to establish which of these could detect small changes in the body zinc status of children. Forty apparently healthy children were studied. Renal handling of zinc was investigated during intravenous zinc administration (0.06537 mg Zn/kg of body weight), both before and after oral zinc supplementation (5 mg Zn/day for 3 months). Three kinetic methods were used to determine zinc clearance: CZn-Formula A and CZn-Formula B were both used to calculate systemic clearance; the first is a general formula and the second is used for the specific analysis of a single-compartment model; CZn-Formula C is widely used in medical practices to analyze kinetic routine. Basal serum zinc values, which were within the reference range for healthy children, increased significantly after oral zinc supplementation. The three formulas used gave different results for zinc clearance both before and after oral zinc supplementation. CZn-Formula B showed a positive correlation with basal serum zinc concentration after oral supplementation (R2=0.1172, P=0.0306). In addition, CZn-Formula B (P=0.0002) was more effective than CZn-Formula A (P=0.6028) and CZn-Formula C (P=0.0732) in detecting small variations in body zinc status. All three of the formulas used are suitable for studying zinc kinetics; however, CZn-Formula B is particularly effective at detecting small changes in body zinc status in healthy children.

  15. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous...

  16. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous...

  17. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc oxide is a white or yellow-white amorphous...

  18. Zinc alloy enhances strength and creep resistance

    SciT

    Machler, M.

    1996-10-01

    A family of high-performance ternary zinc-copper-aluminum alloys has been developed that provides higher strength, hardness, and creep resistance than the traditional zinc-aluminum alloys Zamak 3, Zamak 5, and ZA-8. Designated ACuZinc, mechanical properties comparable to those of more expensive materials make it suitable for high-load applications and those at elevated temperatures. This article describes the alloy`s composition, properties, and historical development.

  19. Directed spatial organization of zinc oxide nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Julia [Albuquerque, NM; Liu, Jun [Richland, WA

    2009-02-17

    A method for controllably forming zinc oxide nanostructures on a surface via an organic template, which is formed using a stamp prepared from pre-defined relief structures, inking the stamp with a solution comprising self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecules, contacting the stamp to the surface, such as Ag sputtered on Si, and immersing the surface with the patterned SAM molecules with a zinc-containing solution with pH control to form zinc oxide nanostructures on the bare Ag surface.

  20. Bronze Alloy Development for Zinc Vapor Capture

    DOE PAGES

    Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-04-24

    After gamma-emitting 65Zinc was detected in a vacuum pumping system contained in a tritium glovebox, a series of experiments were undertaken to develop a method and material to trap zinc vapors in an area that is more suitable for preventing dose to workers. In this study, bronze alloys with 0–30% tin were prepared using a powder metallurgical process and exposed to three levels of zinc vapors. Furthermore, all of the alloys demonstrated acceptable zinc gettering capacity; however, low tin content bronzes are considered for further testing.

  1. Status of zinc injection in PWRs

    SciT

    Bergmann, C.A.

    1995-03-01

    Based on laboratory and other studies, it was concluded that zinc addition in a PWR primary coolant should result in reduced Alloy 600 PWSCC and general corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Because of these positive results, a Westinghouse Owner`s Subgroup, EPRI, and Westinghouse provided funds to continue the development and application of zinc in an operating plant. As part of the program, Southern Operating Nuclear Company agreed to operate the Farley 2 plant with zinc addition as a demonstration test of the effectiveness of zinc. Since zinc is incorporated in the corrosion oxide film on the primary systemmore » surfaces and Farley 2 is a mature plant, it was estimated that about 10 kgs of zinc would be needed to condition the plant before an equilibrium value in the coolant would be reached. The engineered aspects of a Zinc Addition and Monitoring System (ZAMS) considered such items as the constitutents, location, sizing and water supply of the ZAMS. Baseline data such as the PWSCC history of the Alloy 600 steam generator tubing, fuel oxide thickness, fuel crud deposits, radiation levels, and RCP seal leak-off rates were obtained before zinc addition is initiated. This presentation summarizes some of the work performed under the program, and the status of zinc injection in the Farley 2 plant.« less

  2. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating effects, systematic reviews and meta-analysis of the effect of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcomes have consistently shown a limited benefit. We hypothesize, therefore, that zinc homeostatic adjustments during pregnancy and lactation improve zinc utilization sufficiently to provide the increased zinc needs in these stages and, therefore, mitigate immediate detrimental effects due to a low zinc intake. The specific questions addressed are the following: How is zinc utilization altered during pregnancy and lactation? Are those homeostatic adjustments influenced by maternal zinc status, dietary zinc, or zinc supplementation? These questions are addressed by critically reviewing results from published human studies on zinc homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation carried out in different populations worldwide. PMID:22852063

  3. Morphology control of zinc regeneration for zinc-air fuel cell and battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xizhong

    2014-12-01

    Morphology control is crucial both for zinc-air batteries and for zinc-air fuel cells during zinc regeneration. Zinc dendrite should be avoided in zinc-air batteries and zinc pellets are yearned to be formed for zinc-air fuel cells. This paper is mainly to analyze the mechanism of shape change and to control the zinc morphology during charge. A numerical three-dimensional model for zinc regeneration is established with COMSOL software on the basis of ionic transport theory and electrode reaction electrochemistry, and some experiments of zinc regeneration are carried out. The deposition process is qualitatively analyzed by the kinetics Monte Carlo method to study the morphological change from the electrocrystallization point of view. Morphological evolution of deposited zinc under different conditions of direct currents and pulse currents is also investigated by simulation. The simulation shows that parametric variables of the flowing electrolyte, the surface roughness and the structure of the electrode, the charging current and mode affect morphological evolution. The uniform morphology of deposited zinc is attained at low current, pulsating current or hydrodynamic electrolyte, and granular morphology is obtained by means of an electrode of discrete columnar structure in combination with high current and flowing electrolyte.

  4. Development of zinc oxide nanoparticle by sonochemical method and study of their physical and optical properties

    SciT

    Khan, Samreen Heena, E-mail: samreen.heena.khan@gmail.com; Suriyaprabha, R.; Pathak, Bhawana, E-mail: bhawana.pathak@cug.ac.in

    With the miniaturization of crystal size, the fraction of under-coordinated surface atoms becomes dominant, and hence, materials in the nano-regime behave very differently from the similar material in a bulk. Zinc oxide (ZnO), particularly, exhibits extraordinary properties such as a wide direct band gap (3.37 eV), large excitation binding energy (60 meV), low refractive index (1.9), stability to intense ultraviolet (UV) illumination, resistance to high-energy irradiation, and lower toxicity as compared to other semiconductors. This very property makes Zinc Oxide a potential candidate in many application fields, particularly as a prominent semiconductor. Zinc Oxide plays a significant role in manymore » technological advances with its application in semiconductor mediated photocatalytic processes and sensor, solar cells and others. In present study, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) has been synthesized using three different precursors by sonochemical method. Zinc Acetate Dihydrate, Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate and Zinc Sulphate Heptahydrate used as a precursor for the synthesis process. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticle has been found under the range of ∼50 nm. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterized using different characterizing tools. The as-synthesized ZnO was characterized by Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) for the determination of functional group; Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for Morphology and elemental detection respectively, Transmission Electron Microscopy for Particle size distribution and morphology and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for the confirmation of crystal structure of the nanomaterial. The optical properties of the ZnO were examined by UV-VIS spectroscopy equipped with Diffuse Reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) confirmed the optical band gap of ZnO-3 around 3.23 eV resembles with the band gap of bulk ZnO (3.37eV). The TEM micrograph of the as-synthesized material showed perfectly spherical

  5. Solar concentrator

    SciT

    Melchior, B.

    1984-04-03

    A solar concentrator comprises a solid block of a transparent material having a planar incident surface positioned to receive solar rays and, opposite this surface, a curved reflective surface so that the material of the block completely fills the space between these surfaces. At the incident surface an absorber is provided and the curvature of the reflective surface is such that it is at least partly parabolical and adapted to reflect solar rays traversing the body through the body again to the absorber.

  6. Solar Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    Oriel Corporation's simulators have a high pressure xenon lamp whose reflected light is processed by an optical system to produce a uniform solar beam. Because of many different types of applications, the simulators must be adjustable to replicate many different areas of the solar radiation spectrum. Simulators are laboratory tools for such purposes as testing and calibrating solar cells, or other solar energy systems, testing dyes, paints and pigments, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic preparations, plant and animal studies, food and agriculture studies and oceanographic research.

  7. Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The areas of emphasis are: (1) develop theoretical models of the transient release of magnetic energy in the solar atmosphere, e.g., in solar flares, eruptive prominences, coronal mass ejections, etc.; (2) investigate the role of the Sun's magnetic field in the structuring of solar corona by the development of three-dimensional numerical models that describe the field configuration at various heights in the solar atmosphere by extrapolating the field at the photospheric level; (3) develop numerical models to investigate the physical parameters obtained by the ULYSSES mission; (4) develop numerical and theoretical models to investigate solar activity effects on the solar wind characteristics for the establishment of the solar-interplanetary transmission line; and (5) develop new instruments to measure solar magnetic fields and other features in the photosphere, chromosphere transition region and corona. We focused our investigation on the fundamental physical processes in solar atmosphere which directly effect our Planet Earth. The overall goal is to establish the physical process for the Sun-Earth connections.

  8. Systematic review of zinc fortification trials.

    PubMed

    Das, Jai K; Kumar, Rohail; Salam, Rehana A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is one of the essential trace elements required by the human body as it is present in more than a hundred specific enzymes and serves as an important structural ion in transcription factors. Around one third of the world population lives in countries with a high prevalence of zinc deficiency. Food fortification with zinc seems to be an attractive public health strategy and a number of programs have been initiated, especially in developing countries. We conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy of zinc fortification. A total of 11 studies with 771 participants were included in our analysis. Zinc fortification was associated with significant improvements in plasma zinc concentrations [standard mean difference (SMD) 1.28, 95% CI 0.56, 2.01] which is a functional indicator of zinc status. Significant improvement was observed for height velocity (SMD 0.52, 95% CI 0.01, 1.04); however, this finding was weak and based on a restricted analysis. Further subgroup analysis showed significant improvement in height velocity among very-low-birth-weight infants (SMD 0.70, 95% CI 0.02, 1.37), while for healthy newborns, the impact was insignificant. Zinc fortification had insignificant impacts on serum alkaline levels, serum copper levels, hemoglobin and weight gain. Although the findings highlight that zinc fortification is associated with an increased serum concentration of the micronutrient, overall evidence of the effectiveness of this approach is limited. Data on pregnant and lactating women is scarce. Large-scale fortification programs with robust impact assessment should be initiated to cover larger populations in all age groups. Mass fortification of zinc may be a cost-effective strategy to overcome zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Growth rates and interface shapes in germanium and lead tin telluride observed in-situ, real-time in vertical Bridgman furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, P. G.; Berry, R. F.; Debnam, W. J.; Fripp, A. L.; Woodell, G.; Simchick, R. T.

    1995-01-01

    Using the advanced technology developed to visualize the melt-solid interface in low Prandtl number materials, crystal growth rates and interface shapes have been measured in germanium and lead tin telluride semiconductors grown in vertical Bridgman furnaces. The experimental importance of using in-situ, real time observations to determine interface shapes, to measure crystal growth rates, and to improve furnace and ampoule designs is demonstrated. The interface shapes observed in-situ, in real-time were verified by quenching and mechanically induced interface demarcation, and they were also confirmed using machined models to ascertain the absence of geometric distortions. Interface shapes depended upon the interface position in the furnace insulation zone, varied with the nature of the crystal being grown, and were dependent on the extent of transition zones at the ends of the ampoule. Actual growth rates varied significantly from the constant translation rate in response to the thermophysical properties of the crystal and its melt and the thermal conditions existing in the furnace at the interface. In the elemental semiconductor germanium the observed rates of crystal growth exceeded the imposed translation rate, but in the compound semiconductor lead tin telluride the observed rates of growth were less than the translation rate. Finally, the extent of ampoule thermal loading influenced the interface positions, the shapes, and the growth rates.

  10. Large-scale synthesis of lead telluride (PbTe) nanotube-based nanocomposites with tunable morphology, crystallinity and thermoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kee-Ryung; Cho, Hong-Baek; Song, Yoseb; Kim, Seil; Kwon, Young-Tae; Ryu, Seung Han; Lim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Woo-Jin; Choa, Yong-Ho

    2018-04-01

    A few millimeter-long lead telluride (PbTe) hollow nanofibers with thermoelectric properties was synthesized for the first time with high through manner via three-step sequential process of electrospinning, electrodeposition and cationic exchange reaction. As-synthesized electrospun Ag nanofibers with ultra-long aspect ratio of 10,000 were Te electrodeposited to obtain silver telluride nanotubes and underwent cationic exchange reaction in Pb(NO3)2 solution to obtain polycrystalline PbTe nanotubes with average diameter of 100 nm with 20 nm of wall thickness. Variation of the Ag-to-Pb ratio in the AgxTey-PbTe nanocomposites during the cationic exchange reaction enabled to control the thermoelectric properties of resulting 1D hollow nanofibers. The diameter of Ag nanofiber is the key factor to determine the final dimension of the PbTe nanotubes in the topotactic transformation and the content of Ag ion leads to the enhancement of thermoelectric properties in the AgxTey-PbTe nanocomposites. The synthesized 1D nanocomposite mats showed the highest value of Seebeck coefficient of 433 μV/K (at 300 K) when the remained Ag content was 30%, while the power factor reached highest to 0.567 μW/mK2 for the pure PbTe nanotubes. The enhancement of thermoelectric properties and the composite crystallinity are elucidated with relation to Ag contents in the resulting 1D nanocomposites.

  11. Functional studies of Drosophila zinc transporters reveal the mechanism for dietary zinc absorption and regulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Zinc is key to the function of many proteins, but the process of dietary zinc absorption is not well clarified. Current knowledge about dietary zinc absorption is fragmented, and mostly derives from incomplete mammalian studies. To gain a comprehensive picture of this process, we systematically characterized all zinc transporters (that is, the Zip and ZnT family members) for their possible roles in dietary zinc absorption in a genetically amenable model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Results A set of plasma membrane-resident zinc transporters was identified to be responsible for absorbing zinc from the lumen into the enterocyte and the subsequent exit of zinc to the circulation. dZip1 and dZip2, two functionally overlapping zinc importers, are responsible for absorbing zinc from the lumen into the enterocyte. Exit of zinc to the circulation is mediated through another two functionally overlapping zinc exporters, dZnT1, and its homolog CG5130 (dZnT77C). Somewhat surprisingly, it appears that the array of intracellular ZnT proteins, including the Golgi-resident dZnT7, is not directly involved in dietary zinc absorption. By modulating zinc status in different parts of the body, we found that regulation of dietary zinc absorption, in contrast to that of iron, is unresponsive to bodily needs or zinc status outside the gut. The zinc transporters that are involved in dietary zinc absorption, including the importers dZip1 and dZip2, and the exporter dZnT1, are respectively regulated at the RNA and protein levels by zinc in the enterocyte. Conclusions Our study using the model organism Drosophila thus starts to reveal a comprehensive sketch of dietary zinc absorption and its regulatory control, a process that is still incompletely understood in mammalian organisms. The knowledge gained will act as a reference for future mammalian studies, and also enable an appreciation of this important process from an evolutionary perspective. PMID:24063361

  12. Driving Along the Zinc Road.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Robert J

    2016-07-17

    After having written hundreds of research articles, reviews, and book chapters, I find it awkward to pen an autobiography. I still do use a pen. As stated by others in the nutrition field who have written of their own experiences in a perspective article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, my course through this field of science has been serendipitous. My interest in nutrition developed during my experiences with horses and then Angus cattle and entry into an animal science degree program. As the age of molecular biology was unfolding, I pursued a PhD in nutritional biochemistry with Hamilton Eaton at the University of Connecticut followed by postdoctoral work with Hector DeLuca at the University of Wisconsin, working on vitamins A and D, respectively. At Rutgers University, one of the two institutions where I have served on the faculty, I started my research program on trace elements with a focus on cadmium toxicity but soon thereafter began my research on zinc metabolism and function. I moved to the University of Florida in 1982 for an endowed position and have been a Florida Gator ever since. At the University of Florida, research expanded to include identification of zinc-responsive genes and physiological outcomes of zinc transport influencing health and disease, particularly as related to inflammation. I had the opportunity to contribute national science policy as president of both the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology and the American Society for Nutrition. As the time of this writing, I maintain an active laboratory.

  13. Measurements of zinc absorption: application and interpretation in research designed to improve human zinc nutriture.

    PubMed

    Hambidge, K Michael; Miller, Leland V; Tran, Cuong D; Krebs, Nancy F

    2005-11-01

    The focus of this paper is on the application of measurements of zinc absorption in human research, especially studies designed to assess the efficacy of intervention strategies to prevent and manage zinc deficiency in populations. Emphasis is given to the measurement of quantities of zinc absorbed rather than restricting investigations to measurements of fractional absorption of zinc. This is especially important when determining absorption of zinc from the diet, whether it be the habitual diet or an intervention diet under evaluation. Moreover, measurements should encompass all meals for a minimum of one day with the exception of some pilot studies. Zinc absorption is primarily via an active saturable transport process into the enterocytes of the proximal small intestine. The relationship between quantity of zinc absorbed and the quantity ingested is best characterized by saturable binding models. When applied to human studies that have sufficient data to examine dose-response relationships, efficiency of absorption is high until approximately 50-60% maximal absorption is achieved, even with moderate phytate intakes. This also coincides approximately with the quantity of absorbed zinc necessary to meet physiologic requirements. Efficiency of absorption with intakes that exceed this level is low or very low. These observations have important practical implications for the design and interpretation of intervention studies to prevent zinc deficiency. They also suggest the potential utility of measurements of the quantity of zinc absorbed when evaluating the zinc status of populations.

  14. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  15. New Insights into the Role of Zinc Acquisition and Zinc Tolerance in Group A Streptococcal Infection.

    PubMed

    Ong, Cheryl-Lynn Y; Berking, Olga; Walker, Mark J; McEwan, Alastair G

    2018-06-01

    Zinc plays an important role in host innate immune function. However, the innate immune system also utilizes zinc starvation ("nutritional immunity") to combat infections. Here, we investigate the role of zinc import and export in the protection of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus ; GAS), a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of human diseases, against challenge from host innate immune defense. In order to determine the role of GAS zinc import and export during infection, we utilized zinc import (Δ adcA Δ adcAII ) and export (Δ czcD ) deletion mutants in competition with the wild type in both in vitro and in vivo virulence models. We demonstrate that nutritional immunity is deployed extracellularly, while zinc toxicity is utilized upon phagocytosis of GAS by neutrophils. We also show that lysosomes and azurophilic granules in neutrophils contain zinc stores for use against intracellular pathogens. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.1991 Section 73.1991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... coloring externally applied drugs. (b) Specifications. Zinc oxide shall conform to the following...

  17. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 73.2991 Section 73.2991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... color additive zinc oxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73.1991...

  18. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product...

  19. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product...

  1. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 182.8994 Section 182.8994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8994 Zinc stearate. (a...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a...

  4. 21 CFR 182.8991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc oxide. 182.8991 Section 182.8991 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8991 Zinc oxide. (a) Product...

  5. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 182.8988 Section 182.8988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8988 Zinc gluconate. (a...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product....

  9. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product....

  12. 21 CFR 582.5988 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 582.5988 Section 582.5988 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5988 Zinc gluconate. (a) Product....

  13. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc stearate. 582.5994 Section 582.5994 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product....

  16. 21 CFR 522.2690 - Zinc gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc gluconate. 522.2690 Section 522.2690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2690 Zinc gluconate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter...

  17. 21 CFR 73.2991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The... (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Zinc oxide may be safely used in cosmetics, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice...

  18. Solar Sprint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor, Richard; Anderson, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In the "Solar Sprint" activity, students design, test, and race a solar-powered car built with Legos. The use of ratios is incorporated to simulate the actual work of scientists and engineers. This method encourages fourth-grade students to think about multiple variables and stimulates their curiosity when an activity doesn't come out as…

  19. Solar cooking

    Over two billion people face fuel wood shortages, causing tremendous personal and environmental stress. Over 4 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution. Solar cooking can reduce fuel wood consumption and indoor air pollution. Solar cooking has been practiced and published since th...

  20. Solar Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hippel, Frank; Williams, Robert H.

    1975-01-01

    As fossil fuels decrease in availability and environmental concerns increase, soalr energy is becoming a potential major energy source. Already solar energy is used for space heating in homes. Proposals for solar-electric generating systems include land-based or ocean-based collectors and harnessing wind and wave power. Photosynthesis can also…