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Sample records for zinc titanate desulfurization

  1. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1998-02-03

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  2. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Gangwal, Santosh K.; Jain, Suresh C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  3. Attrition resistant, zinc titanate-containing, reduced sulfur sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Vierheilig, Albert A.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.

    2004-11-02

    The disclosure is directed to sorbent compositions for removing reduced sulfur species (e.g., H.sub.2 S, COS and CS.sub.2) a feed stream. The sorbent is formed from a multi-phase composition including a zinc titanate phase and a zinc oxide-aluminate phase. The sorbent composition is substantially free of unreacted alumina.

  4. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Jha, Mahesh C.; Blandon, Antonio E.; Hepworth, Malcolm T.

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  5. Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1996-01-01

    Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

  6. Attrition resistant, zinc titanate-containing, reduced sulfur sorbents and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vierheilig, Albert A.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.

    2006-06-27

    Reduced sulfur gas species (e.g., H.sub.2S, COS and CS.sub.2) are removed from a gas stream by compositions wherein a zinc titanate ingredient is associated with a metal oxide-aluminate phase material in the same particle species. Nonlimiting examples of metal oxides comprising the compositions include magnesium oxide, zinc oxide, calcium oxide, nickel oxide, etc.

  7. Experimental and computational studies on stacking faults in zinc titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, W.; Ageh, V.; Mohseni, H.

    Zinc titanate (ZnTiO{sub 3}) thin films grown by atomic layer deposition with ilmenite structure have recently been identified as an excellent solid lubricant, where low interfacial shear and friction are achieved due to intrafilm shear velocity accommodation in sliding contacts. In this Letter, high resolution transmission electron microscopy with electron diffraction revealed that extensive stacking faults are present on ZnTiO{sub 3} textured (104) planes. These growth stacking faults serve as a pathway for dislocations to glide parallel to the sliding direction and hence achieve low interfacial shear/friction. Generalized stacking fault energy plots also known as γ-surfaces were computed for themore » (104) surface of ZnTiO{sub 3} using energy minimization method with classical effective partial charge potential and verified by using density functional theory first principles calculations for stacking fault energies along certain directions. These two are in qualitative agreement but classical simulations generally overestimate the energies. In addition, the lowest energy path was determined to be along the [451{sup ¯}] direction and the most favorable glide system is (104) 〈451{sup ¯}〉 that is responsible for the experimentally observed sliding-induced ductility.« less

  8. Facile synthesis and photocatalytic activity of ZnO/zinc titanate core-shell nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ding-Chao; Fu, Qiu-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Bin; Zhao, Hong-Yang; Tu, Ya-Fang; Tian, Yu; Zhou, Di; Zheng, Guang; Lu, Hong-Bing

    2018-02-01

    ZnO/zinc titanate core-shell nanorod arrays (CSNRs) were successfully prepared via a simple synthesis process by combining hydrothermal synthesis and liquid phase deposition (LPD). The surface morphologies, crystalline characteristics, optical properties and surface electronic states of the ZnO/zinc titanate CSNRs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffractometer, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, PL and ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectra. By controlling the reaction time of LPD, the shell thickness could vary with the reaction time. Furthermore, the impacts of the reaction time and post-annealing temperature on the crystalline structure and chemical composition of the CSNRs were also investigated. The studies of photocatalytic activity under UV light irradiation revealed that the ZnO/zinc titanate CSNRs annealed at 700 °C with 30 min deposition exhibited the best photocatalytic activity and good stability for degradation of methylene blue. It had been found that the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the CSNRs led to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. Moreover, the ZnO/zinc titanate CSNRs grown on quartz glass substrate could be easily recycled for reuse with almost unchanged photocatalytic activity.

  9. [Study on X-ray powder diffraction of various structured zinc titanate prepared by the method of direct precipitation].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian; Wang, Zhi-hua; Tao, Dong-liang; Guo, Guang-sheng

    2007-05-01

    Zinc titanate powders were prepared from Ti(SO4)2, Zn(NO3)2 x (6)H2O and (NH4)2CO3 by the method of direct precipitation. The effects of reaction conditions on the structure of zinc titanate were studied. The sample was analyzed by means of XRD and TG-DTA. The structure of zinc titanate was affected by the reaction subsequence of the formation of titanic acid and zinc carbonate. In the reaction system where titanic acid was generated earlier, collision reaction occurred between the generated zinc carbonate molecule and the surrounding titanic acid molecule. When titanic acid was generated earlier and precipitant (NH4)2CO3 was sufficient, Zn2Ti3O8 was obtained because of the sufficient collision reaction and superfluous titanic acid. In the reaction system where zinc carbonate was generated earlier, collision reaction occurred between the generated titanic acid molecule and the surrounding zinc carbonate molecule. When zinc carbonate was generated earlier and precipitant (NH4)2CO3 was sufficient, Zn2TiO4 was obtained because of the sufficient collision reaction and superfluous zinc carbonate. In addition, the kinds and structure of the production were affected by the dosage of precipitant and the reaction temperature. Zn2Ti3O8 or Zn2TiO4 could be obtained easier when using more precipitant or higher reaction temperature which could cause more sufficient collision reaction. ZnTiO3 could be obtained under the conditions of less precipitant and lower reaction temperature.

  10. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  11. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Slegeir, William A.; Healy, Francis E.; Sapienza, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  12. Fluidizable zinc titanate materials with high chemical reactivity and attrition resistance

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Gangwal, Santosh K.; Jain, Suresh C.

    1993-01-01

    Highly durable and chemically reactive zinc titanate materials are prepared in a particle size range of 50 to 400 .mu.m suitable for a fluidized-bed reactor for removing reduced sulfur species in a gaseous form by granulating a mixture of fine zinc oxide and titanium oxide with inorganic and organic binders and by optional additions of small amounts of activators such as CoO and MoO.sub.3 ; and then indurating it at 800.degree. to 900.degree. C. for a time sufficient to produce attrition-resistant granules.

  13. Fluidizable zinc titanate materials with high chemical reactivity and attrition resistance

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1993-10-19

    Highly durable and chemically reactive zinc titanate materials are prepared in a particle size range of 50 to 400 [mu]m suitable for a fluidized-bed reactor for removing reduced sulfur species in a gaseous form by granulating a mixture of fine zinc oxide and titanium oxide with inorganic and organic binders and by optional additions of small amounts of activators such as CoO and MoO[sub 3]; and then indurating it at 800 to 900 C for a time sufficient to produce attrition-resistant granules.

  14. Titan!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Dennis L.

    2010-05-01

    Cassini-Huygens achieved Saturnian orbit on July 1, 2004. The first order of business was the safe delivery of the Huygens atmospheric probe to Titan that took place on January 14, 2005. Huygens descended under parachute obtaining observations all the way down to a safe landing. It revealed Titan for the first time. Stunning are the similarities between Titan and the Earth. Viewing the lakes and seas, the fluvial terrain, the sand dunes and other features through the hazy, nitrogen atmosphere, brings to mind the geological processes that created analogous features on the Earth. On Titan frozen water plays the geological role of rock; liquid methane takes the role of terrestrial water. The atmospheres of both Earth and Titan are predominately nitrogen gas. Titan's atmosphere contains 1.5% methane and no oxygen. The surface pressure on Titan is 1.5 times the Earth's. There are aerosol layers and clouds that come and go. Now, as Saturn proceeds along its solar orbit, the seasons are changing. The effects upon the transport of methane are starting to be seen. A large lake in the South Polar Region seems to be filling more as winter onsets. Will the size and number of the lakes in the South grow during winter? Will the northern lakes and seas diminish or dry up as northern summer progresses? How will the atmospheric circulation change? Much work remains not only for Cassini but also for future missions. Titan has many different environments to explore. These require more capable instruments and in situ probes. This work was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. Process for the manufacture of an attrition resistant sorbent used for gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Venkataramani, Venkat S.; Ayala, Raul E.

    2003-09-16

    This process produces a sorbent for use in desulfurization of coal gas. A zinc titanate compound and a metal oxide are mixed by milling the compounds in an aqueous medium, the resulting mixture is dried and then calcined, crushed, sleved and formed into pellets for use in a moving-bed reactor. Metal oxides suitable for use as an additive in this process include: magnesium oxide, magnesium oxide plus molybdenum oxide, calcium oxide, yttrium oxide, hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, cupric oxide, and tin oxide. The resulting sorbent has a percentage of the original zinc or titanium ions substituted for the oxide metal of the chosen additive.

  16. Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.

    1999-01-01

    With a launch in December 2001, Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) can observe Titan in the interval after Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) but before the onset of observations by Cassini. By virtue of its broad spectral coverage in the thermal infrared, 10-180 micron, its moderately high spectral resolution, approaching lambda/delta lambda=600 over part of this wavelength range, and the very high sensitivity of its helium- cooled detectors, the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) and MIPS on SIRTF can address several issues raised through earlier observations by the Voyager IRIS experiment and by ISO. These include, for example, a better characterization of the vertical distribution of water in Titan's middle and upper atmospheres and the discovery of new compounds, such as allene or proprionitrile. This talk will address the temperature- and composition-sounding capabilities of SIRTF, particularly in the context of how they will complement Cassini observations and aid in their planning.

  17. The impact of sintering temperature on structural, morphological and thermoelectric properties of zinc titanate nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, P.; Murugu thiruvalluvan, T. M. V.; Arivanandhan, M.; Jayakumari, T.; Anandan, P.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of sintering temperature and Ti:Zn ratio of precursor solutions on the structural, morphological and thermoelectric properties of Zinc titanate (TZO) nanocrystals have been investigated. TZO nanocrystals were synthesized by changing the molar ratio of precursors of Zn and Ti sources by sol-gel method. The synthesized materials were sintered at different temperatures and the formation of multi phases of TZO were analysed by x-ray diffraction studies. The morphological properties and composition of TZO samples were studied by FESEM, TEM and XPS analysis. The thermoelectric properties of the TZO have been studied by measuring the Seebeck coefficient of the materials at various temperature. It was observed that the Seebeck coefficient of TZO sample increases with increasing Zn content in the sample especially at high temperature.

  18. Characterization of copper oxides, iron oxides, and zinc copper ferrite desulfurization sorbents by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Poston, James A.

    1993-05-01

    Characterization of copper oxides, iron oxides, and zinc copper ferrite desulfurization sorbents was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy at temperatures of 298 to 823 K. Analysis of copper oxides indicated that the satellite structure of the Cu22p region was absent in the Cu(I) state but was present in the Cu(II) state. Reduction of CuO at room temperature was observed when the ion gauge was placed close to the sample. The satellite structure was absent in all the copper oxides at 823 K in vacuum. Differentiation of the oxidation state of copper utilizing both Cu(L 3M 4,5M 4,5) X-ray-induced Auger lines and Cu2p satellite structure, indicated that the copper in zinc copper ferrite was in the + 1 oxidation state at 823 K. This + 1 state of copper was not significantly changed after exposure to H 2, CO, and H 2O. There was an increase in Cu/Zn ratio and a decrease in Fe/Zn ratio on the surface of zinc copper ferrite at 823 K compared to that at room temperature. These conditions of copper offered the best sulfidation equilibrium for the zinc copper ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Analysis of iron oxides indicated that there was some reduction of both Fe 2O 3 and FeO at 823K. The iron in zinc copper ferrite was similar to that of Fe 2O 3 at room temperature but there was some reduction of this Fe(III) state to Fe(II) at 823 K. This reduction was more enhanced in the presence of H 2 and CO. Reduction to Fe(II) may not be desirable for the lifetime of the sorbent.

  19. Study of samarium modified lead zirconate titanate and nickel zinc ferrite composite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Rekha; Juneja, J. K.; Singh, Sangeeta; Raina, K. K.; Prakash, Chandra

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, composites of samarium substituted lead zirconate titanate and nickel zinc ferrite with compositional formula 0.95Pb1-3x/2 SmxZr0.65Ti0.35O3-0.05Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 (x=0, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) were prepared by the conventional solid state route. X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out to confirm the coexistence of individual phases. Microstructural study was done by using scanning electron microscope. Dielectric constant and loss were studied as a function of temperature and frequency. To study ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the composite samples, corresponding P-E and M-H hysteresis loops were recorded. Change in magnetic properties of electrically poled composite sample (x=0.02) was studied to confirm the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling. ME coefficient (dE/dH) of the samples (x=0 and 0.02) was measured as a function of DC magnetic field.

  20. Bench-scale demonstration of hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, April 1 - June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The programs focus on hot-gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match or nearly match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. The goal of this project is to continue further development of the zinc titanate desulfurizationmore » and direct sulfur recovery process (DSRP) technologies by (1) scaling up the zinc titanate reactor system; (2) developing an integrated skid-mounted zinc titanate desulfurization-DSRP reactor system; (3) testing the integrated system over an extended period with real coal-as from an operating gasifier to quantify the degradative effect, if any, of the trace contaminants present in cola gas; (4) developing an engineering database suitable for system scaleup; and (5) designing, fabricating and commissioning a larger DSRP reactor system capable of operating on a six-fold greater volume of gas than the DSRP reactor used in the bench-scale field test. The work performed during the April 1 through June 30, 1996 period is described.« less

  1. Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide

    DOEpatents

    Poston, J.A.

    1997-12-02

    Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

  2. Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide

    DOEpatents

    Poston, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

  3. A MS, SEM-EDX and XRD study of Ti or Cu-doped zinc ferrites as regenerable sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. A.; García, E.; Alonso, L.; Palacios, J. M.

    2000-02-01

    Kinetic studies in thermobalance carried out by several authors previously have shown that small concentrations of TiO 2 or CuO can increase substantially the overall sulfidation rate of zinc ferrites, as regenerable sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. These oxides modify the textural properties of both the fresh or regenerated and the sulfided sorbent, modifying consequently the sulfidation rate because it is a partially diffusion-controlled process. However, by using grain models it is shown that most of the observed changes are due to changes in the intrinsic reactivity of the sorbent. Detailed studies of characterization in previous papers using different techniques have failed in revealing differential chemical changes that could be associated with a different behavior. In fact, the only significant changes observed in these studies were an apparent disappearance in fresh sorbents calcined at very high temperatures of the Raman effect, and a slight shift of the XPS binding energy of Fe levels, indicating a probable site migration and/or a change of the oxidation state. These characterization results, however, were not completely conclusive and additional efforts should be undertaken. In this paper more sensitive techniques such as Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), have been used for the characterization of fresh, regenerated and sulfided sorbents. The study shows that the addition of TiO 2 or CuO induce substantial structural changes in zinc ferrites that can explain their apparent enhancing effect on the overall sulfidation reactivity. Additionally, this effect is decreased as the number of sulfidation-regeneration cycles increases, probably explaining the performance decay exhibited by these sorbents in multicycle tests in a fixed bed reactor.

  4. Probing the Highly Efficient Electron Transfer Dynamics between Zinc Protoporphyrin IX and Sodium Titanate Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Debdyuti; De, Swati; Kathiravan, Arunkumar

    2016-09-15

    Sodium titanate nanosheets (NaTiO2 NS) have been prepared by a new method and completely characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD, EDX, and XPS techniques. The sensitization of nanosheets is carried out with Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX). The emission intensity of ZnPPIX is quenched by NaTiO2 NS, and the dominant process for this quenching has been attributed to the process of photoinduced electron injection from excited ZnPPIX to the nanosheets. Time resolved fluorescence measurement was used to elucidate the process of electron injection from the singlet state of ZnPPIX to the conduction band of NaTiO2 NS. Electron injection from the dye to the semiconductor is very fast (ket ≈ 10(11) s(-1)), much faster than previously reported rates. The large two-dimensional surface offered by the NaTiO2 NS for interaction with the dye and the favorable driving force for electron injection from ZnPPIX to NaTiO2 NS (ΔGinj = -0.66 V) are the two important factors responsible for such efficient electron injection. Thus, NaTiO2 NS can serve as an effective alternative to the use of TiO2 nanoparticles in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

  5. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  6. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Burgess, W.D.

    This patent describes a process for the microbial desulfurization of solid carbonaceous solids. The process comprising subjecting an aqueous slurry of carbonaceous solids to the desulfurizing action of microorganisms selected from the group consisting of Hansenula sydowiorum, Hansenula ciferii, Hansenula lynferdii, Cryptococcus albidus and mixtures thereof. Also described is the same process wherein the carbonaceous solids is coal.

  7. Crude oil desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

  8. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  9. Zinc

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  10. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  11. Titan Submarines!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleson, S. R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paul, M. V.; Hartwig, J. W.; Walsh, J. M.

    2017-02-01

    A NIAC Phase II submarine concept, dubbed 'Titan Turtle' for Saturn's moon Titan's northern sea, Ligea Mare. A design concept including science and operations is described for this -180°C liquid methane sea.

  12. Effect on the grain size of single-mode microwave sintered NiCuZn ferrite and zinc titanate dielectric resonator ceramics.

    PubMed

    Sirugudu, Roopas Kiran; Vemuri, Rama Krishna Murthy; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Gopalakrishnan, Anisha; Budaraju, Srinivasa Murty

    2011-01-01

    Microwave sintering of materials significantly depends on dielectric, magnetic and conductive Losses. Samples with high dielectric and magnetic loss such as ferrites could be sintered easily. But low dielectric loss material such as dielectric resonators (paraelectrics) finds difficulty in generation of heat during microwave interaction. Microwave sintering of materials of these two classes helps in understanding the variation in dielectric and magnetic characteristics with respect to the change in grain size. High-energy ball milled Ni0.6Cu0.2Zn0.2Fe1.98O4-delta and ZnTiO3 are sintered in conventional and microwave methods and characterized for respective dielectric and magnetic characteristics. The grain size variation with higher copper content is also observed with conventional and microwave sintering. The grain size in microwave sintered Ni0.6Cu0.2Zn0.2Fe1.98O4-delta is found to be much small and uniform in comparison with conventional sintered sample. However, the grain size of microwave sintered sample is almost equal to that of conventional sintered sample of Ni0.3Cu0.5Zn0.2Fe1.98O4-delta. In contrast to these high dielectric and magnetic loss ferrites, the paraelectric materials are observed to sinter in presence of microwaves. Although microwave sintered zinc titanate sample showed finer and uniform grains with respect to conventional samples, the dielectric characteristics of microwave sintered sample are found to be less than that of conventional sample. Low dielectric constant is attributed to the low density. Smaller grain size is found to be responsible for low quality factor and the presence of small percentage of TiO2 is observed to achieve the temperature stable resonant frequency.

  13. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  14. Fluidized bed desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.; Kallvinskas, J. J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    High sulfur content carbonaceous material, such as coal is desulfurized by continuous fluidized suspension in a reactor with chlorine gas, inert dechlorinating gas and hydrogen gas. A source of chlorine gas, a source of inert gas and a source of hydrogen gas are connected to the bottom inlet through a manifold and a heater. A flow controler operates servos in a manner to continuously and sequentially suspend coal in the three gases. The sulfur content is reduced at least 50% by the treatment.

  15. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments indicate that several sulfur-oxidizing bacteria strains have been very efficient in desulfurizing coal. Process occurs at room temperature and does not require large capital investments of high energy inputs. Process may expand use of abundant reserves of high-sulfur bituminous coal, which is currently restricted due to environmental pollution. On practical scale, process may be integrated with modern coal-slurry transportation lines.

  16. Irradiation pretreatment for coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Process using highly-penetrating nuclear radiation (Beta and Gamma radiation) from nuclear power plant radioactive waste to irradiate coal prior to conventional desulfurization procedures increases total extraction of sulfur.

  17. Halving Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-11

    Titan seasonal hemispheric dichotomy is chronicled in black and white, with the moon northern half appearing slightly lighter than the dark southern half in this image taken by NASA Cassini spacecraft.

  18. Two Titans

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-11

    These two views of Saturn's moon Titan exemplify how NASA's Cassini spacecraft has revealed the surface of this fascinating world. Cassini carried several instruments to pierce the veil of hydrocarbon haze that enshrouds Titan. The mission's imaging cameras also have several spectral filters sensitive to specific wavelengths of infrared light that are able to make it through the haze to the surface and back into space. These "spectral windows" have enable the imaging cameras to map nearly the entire surface of Titan. In addition to Titan's surface, images from both the imaging cameras and VIMS have provided windows into the moon's ever-changing atmosphere, chronicling the appearance and movement of hazes and clouds over the years. A large, bright and feathery band of summer clouds can be seen arcing across high northern latitudes in the view at right. These views were obtained with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on March 21, 2017. Images taken using red, green and blue spectral filters were combined to create the natural-color view at left. The false-color view at right was made by substituting an infrared image (centered at 938 nanometers) for the red color channel. The views were acquired at a distance of approximately 613,000 miles (986,000 kilometers) from Titan. Image scale is about 4 miles (6 kilometers) per pixel. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21624

  19. Desulfurization apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

    2013-06-18

    A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.

  20. Titan Touchdown

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-11

    On Jan. 14, 2005, ESA's Huygens probe made its descent to the surface of Saturn's hazy moon, Titan. Carried to Saturn by NASA's Cassini spacecraft, Huygens made the most distant landing ever on another world, and the only landing on a body in the outer solar system. This video uses actual images taken by the probe during its two-and-a-half hour fall under its parachutes. Also include mission animation.

  1. Titan Submarine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-15

    What would a submarine to explore the liquid methane seas of Saturn's Moon Titan look like? This video shows one submarine concept that would explore both the shoreline and the depths of this strange world that has methane rain, rivers and seas! The design was developed for the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Program, by NASA Glenn's COMPASS Team, and technologists and scientists from the Applied Physics Lab and submarine designers from the Applied Research Lab.

  2. Desulfurization from Bauxite Water Slurry (BWS) Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Ge, Lan; Wang, Zhi; Zhuang, Siyuan; Wang, Yuhua; Ren, Lihui; Wang, Mingyong

    2016-02-01

    Feasibility of high-sulfur bauxite electrolysis desulfurization was examined using the electrochemical characterization, XRD, DTA, and FTIR. The cyclic voltammetry curves indicated that bauxite water slurry (BWS) electrolysis in NaOH system was controlled by diffusion. Additionally, the desulfurization effect of NaCl as the electrolyte was significantly better than that of NaOH as an electrolyte. As the stirring rate increased, the desulfurization ratio in NaCl system was not increased obviously, while the desulfurization ratio in NaOH system increased significantly, indicating further that electrolysis desulfurization in NaOH solution was controlled by diffusion. According to XRD, DTA, and FTIR analysis, the characteristic peaks of sulfur-containing phase in bauxite after electrolysis weakened or disappeared, indicating that the pyrite in bauxite was removed from electrolysis. Finally, the electrolytic desulfurization technology of bauxite was proposed based on the characteristics of BWS electrolysis.

  3. Coal desulfurization by aqueous chlorination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method of desulfurizing coal is described in which chlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous slurry of coal at low temperature below 130 degrees C., and at ambient pressure. Chlorinolysis converts both inorganic and organic sulfur components of coal into water soluble compounds which enter the aqueous suspending media. The media is separated after chlorinolysis and the coal dechlorinated at a temperature of from 300 C to 500 C to form a non-caking, low-sulfur coal product.

  4. Metals in soil and runoff from a piedmont hayfield amended with broiler litter and flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) from coal-fired power plants is available for agricultural use in many US regions. Broiler litter (BL) provides plant available N, P, and K but may be a source of unwanted arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). FGDG provides Ca and S and can reduce runoff lo...

  5. Titan Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Titan’s methane clouds have received much attention since they were first discovered spectroscopically (Griffith et al. 1998). Titan's seasons evolve slowly, and there is growing evidence of a seasonal response in the regions of methane cloud formation (e.g. Rodriguez et al. 2009). A complete, three-dimensional view of Titan’s clouds is possible through the determination of cloud-top heights from Cassini images (e.g., Ádámkovics et al. 2010). Even though Titan’s surface is warmed by very little sunlight, we now know Titan’s methane clouds are convective, evolving through tens of kilometers of altitude on timescales of hours to days with dynamics similar to clouds that appear on Earth (Porco et al. 2005). Cassini ISS has also shown evidence of rain storms on Titan that produce surface accumulation of methane (Turtle et al. 2009). Most recently, Cassini has revealed a 1000-km-scale, arrow-shaped cloud at the equator followed by changes that appear to be evidence of surface precipitation (Turtle et al. 2011b). Individual convective towers simulated with high fidelity indicate that surface convergence of methane humidity and dynamic lifting are required to trigger deep, precipitating convection (e.g. Barth & Rafkin 2010). The global expanses of these cloud outbursts, the evidence for surface precipitation, and the requirement of dynamic convergence and lifting at the surface to trigger deep convection motivate an analysis of storm formation in the context of Titan’s global circulation. I will review our current understanding of Titan’s methane meteorology using Cassini and ground-based observations and, in particular, global circulation model simulations of Titan’s methane cycle. When compared with cloud observations, our simulations indicate an essential role for planetary-scale atmospheric waves in organizing convective storms on large scales (Mitchell et al. 2011). I will end with predictions of Titan’s weather during the upcoming northern

  6. Titanic: A Statistical Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takis, Sandra L.

    1999-01-01

    Uses the available data about the Titanic's passengers to interest students in exploring categorical data and the chi-square distribution. Describes activities incorporated into a statistics class and gives additional resources for collecting information about the Titanic. (ASK)

  7. Inside Titan Author Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-28

    This artist concept shows a possible scenario for the internal structure of Titan, as suggested by data from NASA Cassini spacecraft. Scientists have been trying to determine what is under Titan organic-rich atmosphere and icy crust.

  8. Lakes on Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-24

    The Cassini spacecraft, using its radar system, has discovered very strong evidence for hydrocarbon lakes on Titan. Dark patches, which resemble terrestrial lakes, seem to be sprinkled all over the high latitudes surrounding Titan north pole

  9. Titan Haze is Falling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-05

    The change in Titan haze layer is illustrated in this figure, derived from data obtained by NASA Cassini spacecraft. The picture of Titan in panel a was taken on May 3, 2006, panel b was taken on April 2, 2010.

  10. Dark and Light Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-08

    NASA Cassini spacecraft examines Titan dark and light seasonal hemispheric dichotomy as it images the moon with a filter sensitive to near-infrared light. This image also shows Titan north polar hood.

  11. Review of desulfurization process for biogas purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Cong; Ma, Yunqian; Ji, Dandan; Zang, Lihua

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic and odorous compound present in biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion of biosolids and other organic materials. Elimination of H2S is necessary as it is extremely hazardous to human health, poisonous to process catalysts and corrosive to equipment. The desulfurization technology is an important part for efficient utilization of biogas. In this paper, the traditional wet and dry desulfurization technology for biogas was reviewed, and the new research progress of biological desulfurization technologies are also introduced.

  12. Titan Haze

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie M.; West, Robert; Lavvas, Panayotis

    2011-01-01

    The Titan haze exerts a dominating influence on surface visibility and atmospheric radiative heating at optical and near-infrared wavelengths and our desire to understand surface composition and atmospheric dynamics provides a strong motivation to study the properties of the haze. Prior to the Cassini/Huygens missions the haze was known to be global in extent, with a hemispheric contrast asymmetry, with a complicated structure in the polar vortex region poleward of about 55 deg latitude, and with a distinct layer near 370 km altitude outside of the polar vortex at the time of the Voyager 2 flyby. The haze particles measured by the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft were both highly polarizing and strongly forward scattering, a combination that seems to require an aggregation of small (several tens of nm radius) primary particles. These same properties were seen in the Cassini orbiter and Huygens Probe data. The most extensive set of optical measurements were made inside the atmosphere by the Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer (DISR) instrument on the Huygens Probe. At the probe location as determined by the DISR measurements the average haze particle contained about 3000 primary particles whose radius is about 40 nm. Three distinct vertical regions were seen in the DISR data with differing particle properties. Refractive indices of the particles in the main haze layer resemble those reported by Khare et al. between O.3S and about 0.7 micron but are more absorbing than the Khare et al. results between 0.7 micron and the long-wavelength limit of the DISR spectra at 1.6 micron. These and other results are described by Tomasko et al., and a broader summary of results was given by Tomasko and West,. New data continue to stream in from the Cassini spacecraft. New data analyses and new laboratory and model results continue to move the field forward. Titan's 'detached' haze layer suffered a dramatic drop in altitude near equinox in 2009 with implications for the circulation

  13. Intensive Titan exploration begins.

    PubMed

    Mahaffy, Paul R

    2005-05-13

    The Cassini Orbiter spacecraft first skimmed through the tenuous upper atmosphere of Titan on 26 October 2004. This moon of Saturn is unique in our solar system, with a dense nitrogen atmosphere that is cold enough in places to rain methane, the feedstock for the atmospheric chemistry that produces hydrocarbons, nitrile compounds, and Titan's orange haze. The data returned from this flyby supply new information on the magnetic field and plasma environment around Titan, expose new facets of the dynamics and chemistry of Titan's atmosphere, and provide the first glimpses of what appears to be a complex, fluid-processed, geologically young Titan surface.

  14. Future Exploration of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Titan Decadal Panel Collaboration

    2001-11-01

    Titan promises to be the Mars of the Outer Solar System - the focus of not only the broadest range of investigations in planetary science but also the focus of public attention. The reasons for exploring Titan are threefold: 1. Titan and Astrobiology : Titan ranks with Mars and Europa as a prime body for astrobiological study due to its abundant organics. Like Europa, it may well have a liquid water interior. 2. Titan - A world in its own right. Titan deserves study even only to put other satellites (its remarkably smaller Saturnian siblings, and its same-sized but volatile-poor Jovian counterparts) in context. The added dimension of an atmosphere makes Titan's origin and evolution particularly interesting. 3. Titan - an environmental laboratory for Earth. Titan will be an unrivalled place to investigate meteorological, oceanographical and other processes. Many of these (e.g. wave generation by wind) are only empirically parameterized - the very different physical parameters of the Titan environment will bring new insights to these phenomena. While Cassini-Huygens will dramatically boost our knowledge of Titan, it will likely only whet our appetite for more. The potential for prebiotic materials at various locations (in particular where liquid water has interacted with photochemical deposits) and the need to monitor Titan's meteorology favor future missions that may exploit Titan's unique thick-atmosphere, low-gravity environment - a mobile platform like an airship or helicopter, able to explore on global scales, but access the surface for in-situ chemical analysis and probe the interior by electromagnetic and seismic means. Such missions have dramatic potential to capture the public's imagination, on both sides of the Atlantic.

  15. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Kelland, D.R.

    1987-07-07

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS[sub 2] to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe[sub 1[minus]x]S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H[sub 2]S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents. 2 figs.

  16. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Kelland, David R.

    1987-01-01

    A process and apparatus for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS.sub.2 to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe.sub.1-x S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H.sub.2 S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents.

  17. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization of bitumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Wan Mohamad Ikhwan bin Wan; Okawa, Hirokazu; Kato, Takahiro; Sugawara, Katsuyasu

    2017-07-01

    Bitumen contains a high percentage of sulfur (about 4.6 wt %). A hydrodesulfurization method is used to remove sulfur from bitumen. The drawback of this method is the requirement for a high temperature of >300 °C. Most of the sulfur in bitumen exists as thiophene. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS), involving oxidizing sulfur using H2O2, then removing it using NaOH, allows the removal of sulfur in thiophene at low temperatures. We removed sulfur from bitumen using ODS treatment under ultrasound irradiation, and 52% of sulfur was successfully removed. Additionally, the physical action of ultrasound assisted the desulfurization of bitumen, even at low H2O2 concentrations.

  18. Night Side of Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-02-23

    NASA Voyager 2 obtained this wide-angle image of the night side of Titan on Aug. 25, 1979. This is a view of Titan extended atmosphere. the bright orangish ring being caused by the atmosphere scattering of the incident sunlight.

  19. Conserving the Giant Titans

    Science.gov Websites

    Virtual Herbarium Conserving the Giant Titans The gigantic and pungent Titan Arum or Corpse Flower Milonic.com Copyright © 2007 Virtual Herbarium - All rights reserved 11935 Old Cutler Road, Coral Gables, FL

  20. Titan's Exotic Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.

    2006-09-01

    Images of Titan, taken during the joint NASA and European Space Agency Cassini-Huygens mission, invoke a feeling of familiarity: washes wind downhill to damp lakebeds; massive cumuli form and quickly dissipate, suggestive of rain; and dark oval regions resemble lakes. These features arise from Titan's unique similarity with Earth: both cycle liquid between their surfaces and atmospheres, but in Titan's cool atmosphere it is methane that exists as a gas, liquid, and ice. While Titan enticingly resembles Earth, its atmosphere is 10 times thicker, so that its radiative time constant near the surface exceeds a Titan year, and prohibits large thermal gradients and seasonal surface temperature variations exceeding 3K. Titan also lacks oceans - central to Earth's climate - and instead stores much of its condensible in its atmosphere. As a result, Titan's weather differs remarkably from Earth's. Evidence for this difference appears in the location of Titan's large clouds, which frequent a narrow band at 40S latitude and a region within 30 latitude of the S. Pole. Ground-based and Cassini observations, combined with thermodynamic considerations, indicate that we are seeing large convective cloud systems. Detailed cloud models and general circulation models further suggest that these are severe rain storms, which will migrate with the change in season. Outside these migrating "gypsy" cloud bands, the atmosphere appears to be calm, humid and thus frequented by thin stratiform clouds. An intriguingly alien environment is predicted. Yet, the combined effects of Titan's patchy wet surface, atmospheric tides, possible ice volcanoes, and detailed seasonal variations remain unclear as we have witnessed only one season so far. This talk will review observations of Titan's lower atmosphere and modeling efforts to explain the observations, and explore the questions that still elude us.

  1. Low-Cost Aqueous Coal Desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K.

    1982-01-01

    Water-based process for desulfurizing coal not only eliminates need for costly organic solvent but removes sulfur more effectively than an earlier solvent-based process. New process could provide low-cost commercial method for converting high-sulfur coal into environmentally acceptable fuel.

  2. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, John; Piddington, Chris S.; Kovacevich, Brian R.; Young, Kevin D.; Denome, Sylvia A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous.

  3. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, J.; Piddington, C.S.; Kovacevich, B.R.; Young, K.D.; Denome, S.A.

    1994-10-18

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. 13 figs.

  4. The astrobiology of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, F.; Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Hebrard, E.; Israel, G.; Nguyen, M.-J.; Szopa, C.; Gpcos Team

    Largest satellite of Saturn and the only satellite in the solar system having a dense atmosphere, Titan is one of the key planetary bodies for astrobiological studies, due to several aspects: Its analogies with planet Earth, in spite of much lower temperatures, The Cassini-Huygens data have largely confirmed the many analogies between Titan and our own planet. Both have similar vertical temperature profiles, (although much colder, of course, on Titan). Both have condensable and non condensable greenhouse gases in their atmosphere. Both are geologically very active. Furthermore, the data also suggest strongly the presence of a methane cycle on Titan analogous to the water cycle on Earth. The presence of an active organic chemistry, involving several of the key compounds of prebiotic chemistry. The recent data obtained from the Huygens instruments show that the organic matter in Titan low atmosphere (stratosphere and troposphere) is mainly concentrated in the aerosol particles. Because of the vertical temperature profile in this part of the atmosphere, most of the volatile organics are probably mainly condensed on the aerosol particles. The nucleus of these particles seems to be made of complex macromolecular organic matter, well mimicked in the laboratory by the "Titan's tholins". Now, laboratory tholins are known to release many organic compounds of biological interest, such as amino acids and purine and pyrimidine bases, when they are in contact with liquid water. Such hydrolysis may have occurred on the surface of Titan, in the bodies of liquid water which episodically may form on Titan's surface from meteoritic and cometary impacts. The formation of biologically interesting compounds may also occur in the deep water ocean, from the hydrolysis of complex organic material included in the chrondritic matter accreted during the formation of Titan. The possible emergence and persistence of Life on Titan 1 All ingredients which seems necessary for Life are present on

  5. Not So Titanic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-13

    Titan may be a "large" moon -- its name even implies it! -- but it is still dwarfed by its parent planet, Saturn. As it turns out, this is perfectly normal. Although Titan (3200 miles or 5150 kilometers across) is the second-largest moon in the solar system, Saturn is still much bigger, with a diameter almost 23 times larger than Titan's. This disparity between planet and moon is the norm in the solar system. Earth's diameter is "only" 3.7 times our moon's diameter, making our natural satellite something of an oddity. (Another exception to the rule: dwarf planet Pluto's diameter is just under two times that of its moon.) So the question isn't why is Titan so small (relatively speaking), but why is Earth's moon so big? This view looks toward the anti-Saturn hemisphere of Titan. North on Titan is up. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on April 18, 2015 using a near-infrared spectral filter with a passband centered at 752 nanometers. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 930,000 miles (1.5 million kilometers) from Titan. Image scale is 56 miles (90 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18326

  6. Titan Accent Mark

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-05

    A coincidence of viewing angle makes Pandora appear to be hovering over Titan, almost like an accent mark. Little Pandora is much closer to Cassini than hazy Titan in this view. (Titan is nearly three times farther away.) Even so, Titan (3,200 miles or 5,150 kilometers across) dwarfs Pandora (50 miles or 81 kilometers across). This gives us some sense of the diversity in sizes, and shapes, of Saturn's many moons. North on Titan is up and rotated 19 degrees to the right. The image was taken in visible green light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on July 4, 2015. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 1.2 million miles (1.9 million kilometers) from Titan. Image scale is 7 miles (12 kilometers) per pixel on Titan. Pandora is at a distance of 436,000 miles (698,000 kilometers) away from the spacecraft. The scale on Pandora is about 3 miles (4 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18338

  7. Titan's Variable Plasma Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledvina, S. A.; Brecht, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    Cassini observations have found that the plasma and magnetic field conditions upstream of Titan are far more complex than they were thought to be after the Voyager encounter. Rymer et al., (2009) used the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) electron observations to classify the plasma conditions along Titan's orbit into 5 types (Plasma Sheet, Lobe, Mixed, Magnetosheath and Misc.). Nemeth et al., (2011) found that the CAPS ion observations could also be separated into the same plasma regions as defined by Rymer et al. Additionally the T-96 encounter found Titan in the solar wind adding a sixth classification. Understanding the effects of the variable upstream plasma conditions on Titan's plasma interaction and the evolution of Titan's ionosphere/atmosphere is one of the main objectives of the Cassini mission. To compliment the mission we perform hybrid simulations of Titan's plasma interaction to examine the effects of the incident plasma distribution function and the flow velocity. We closely examine the results on Titan's induced magnetosphere and the resulting pickup ion properties.

  8. Titan's organic chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    Voyager discovered nine simple organic molecules in the atmosphere of Titan. Complex organic solids, called tholins, produced by irradiation of the simulated Titanian atmosphere, are consistent with measured properties of Titan from ultraviolet to microwave frequencies and are the likely main constituents of the observed red aerosols. The tholins contain many of the organic building blocks central to life on earth. At least 100-m, and possibly kms thicknesses of complex organics have been produced on Titan during the age of the solar system, and may exist today as submarine deposits beneath an extensive ocean of simple hydrocarbons.

  9. Raising the Titanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Romona

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which groups of students investigate engineering principles by writing a feasibility study to raise the luxury liner, Titanic. The problem statement and directions, and suggestions for problem solutions are included. (CW)

  10. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  11. Titan and Callisto

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-08

    These images compare surface features observed by NASA Cassini spacecraft at the Xanadu region on Saturn moon Titan left, and features observed by NASA Galileo spacecraft on Jupiter cratered moon Callisto right.

  12. Titan Two Halves

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-13

    Two different seasons on Titan in different hemispheres can be seen in this image. The moon northern half appears slightly darker than the southern half in this view taken in visible blue light by NASA Cassini spacecraft.

  13. Titan Kraken Mare

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-28

    NASA Cassini spacecraft looks toward Saturn largest moon, Titan, and spies the huge Kraken Mare in the moon north. Kraken Mare, a large sea of liquid hydrocarbons, is visible as a dark area near the top of the image.

  14. The greenhouse of Titan.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of non-gray radiative equilibrium and gray convective equilibrium on Titan suggests that a massive molecular-hydrogen greenhouse effect may be responsible for the disagreement between the observed IR temperatures and the equilibrium temperature of an atmosphereless Titan. Calculations of convection indicate a probable minimum optical depth of 14 which corresponds to a molecular hydrogen shell of substantial thickness with total pressures of about 0.1 bar. It is suggested that there is an equilibrium between outgassing and blow-off on the one hand and accretion from the protons trapped in a hypothetical Saturnian magnetic field on the other, in the present atmosphere of Titan. It is believed that an outgassing equivalent to the volatilization of a few kilometers of subsurface ice is required to maintain the present blow-off rate without compensation for all geological time. The presence of an extensive hydrogen corona around Titan is postulated, with surface temperatures up to 200 K.

  15. Mapping Titan Cloud Coverage

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-21

    This graphic, constructed from data obtained by NASA Cassini spacecraft, shows the percentage of cloud coverage across the surface of Saturn moon Titan. The color scale from black to yellow signifies no cloud coverage to complete cloud coverage.

  16. Equatorial Titan Clouds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-17

    NASA Cassini spacecraft chronicles the change of seasons as it captures clouds concentrated near the equator of Saturn largest moon, Titan. Methane clouds in the troposphere, the lowest part of the atmosphere, appear white here.

  17. Clash of the Titans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2010-01-01

    WebQuests and the 5E learning cycle are titans of the science classroom. These popular inquiry-based strategies are most often used as separate entities, but the author has discovered that using a combined WebQuest and 5E learning cycle format taps into the inherent power and potential of both strategies. In the lesson, "Clash of the Titans,"…

  18. Space Art "Titan"

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-13

    Artist Daniel Zeller used the breathtaking imagery from the Cassini spacecraft as a departure point to interpret the intricate surface of Saturn’s moon Titan in this peice titled "Titan". Cassini entered Saturn's orbit in July of 2004 after a seven-year voyage. It then began a four-year mission that includes more than 70 orbits around the ringed planet and its moons. Ink on Paper, 17x21. 2006. Copyrighted: For more information contact Curator, NASA Art Program.

  19. Titan's Ammonia Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, W.; Nelson, R.; Boryta, M.; Choukroun, M.

    2011-01-01

    NH3 has long been considered an important component in the formation and evolution of the outer planet satellites. NH3 is particularly important for Titan, since it may serve as the reservoir for atmospheric nitrogen. A brightening seen on Titan starting in 2004 may arise from a transient low-lying fog or surface coating of ammonia. The spectral shape suggests the ammonia is anhydrous, a molecule that hydrates quickly in the presence of water.

  20. Dunelands of Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-02

    Saturn's frigid moon Titan has some characteristics that are oddly similar to Earth, but still slightly alien. It has clouds, rain and lakes (made of methane and ethane), a solid surface (made of water ice), and vast dune fields (filled with hydrocarbon sands). The dark, H-shaped area seen here contains two of the dune-filled regions, Fensal (in the north) and Aztlan (to the south). Cassini's cameras have frequently monitored the surface of Titan (3200 miles or 5150 kilometers across) to look for changes in its features over the course of the mission. Any changes would help scientists better understand different phenomena like winds and dune formation on this strangely earth-like moon. For a closer view of Fensal-Aztlan, see PIA07732 . This view looks toward the leading side of Titan. North on Titan is up. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on July 25, 2015 using a spectral filter sensitive to wavelengths of near-infrared light centered at 938 nanometers. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 450,000 miles (730,000 kilometers) from Titan and at a Sun-Titan-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 32 degrees. Image scale is 3 miles (4 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18341

  1. Enhanced airglow at Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Emilie; Esposito, Larry; Wahlund, Jan-Erik

    2016-06-01

    The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) instrument made thousand of observations of Titan since its arrival in the Saturnian system in 2004, but only few of them have been analyzed yet. Using the imaging capability of UVIS combined to a big data analytics approach, we have been able to uncover an unexpected pattern in this observations: on several occasions the Titan airglow exhibits an enhanced brightness by approximately a factor of 2, generally combined with a lower altitude of the airglow emission peak. These events typically last from 10 to 30 minutes and are followed and preceded by an airglow of regular and expected level of brightness and altitude. Observations made by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instrument onboard Cassini allowed us to correlate the enhanced airglow observed on T-32 with an electron burst. The timing of the burst and the level of energetic electrons (1 keV) observed by CAPS correspond to a brighter and lower than typical airglow displayed on the UVIS data. Furthermore, during T-32 Titan was inside the Saturn's magnetosheath and thus more subject to bombardment by energetic particles. However, our analysis demonstrates that the presence of Titan inside the magnetosheath is not a necessary condition for the production of an enhanced airglow, as we detected other similar events while Titan was within Saturn's magnetosphere. The study presented here aims to a better understanding of the interactions of Titan's upper atmosphere with its direct environment.

  2. Desulfurizing Coal With an Alkali Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental coal-desulfurization process uses alkalies and steam in fluidized-bed reactor. With highly volatile, high-sulfur bituminous coal, process removed 98 percent of pyritic sulfur and 47 percent of organic sulfur. Used in coal liquefaction and in production of clean solid fuels and synthetic liquid fuels. Nitrogen or steam flows through bed of coal in reactor. Alkalies react with sulfur, removing it from coal. Nitrogen flow fluidizes bed while heating or cooling; steam is fluidizing medium during reaction.

  3. Peering Through Titan Haze

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-04

    This composite image shows an infrared view of Saturn's moon Titan from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, acquired during the mission's "T-114" flyby on Nov. 13, 2015. The spacecraft's visual and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) instrument made these observations, in which blue represents wavelengths centered at 1.3 microns, green represents 2.0 microns, and red represents 5.0 microns. A view at visible wavelengths (centered around 0.5 microns) would show only Titan's hazy atmosphere (as in PIA14909). The near-infrared wavelengths in this image allow Cassini's vision to penetrate the haze and reveal the moon's surface. During this Titan flyby, the spacecraft's closest-approach altitude was 6,200 miles (10,000 kilometers), which is considerably higher than those of typical flybys, which are around 750 miles (1,200 kilometers). The high flyby allowed VIMS to gather moderate-resolution views over wide areas (typically at a few kilometers per pixel). The view looks toward terrain that is mostly on the Saturn-facing hemisphere of Titan. The scene features the parallel, dark, dune-filled regions named Fensal (to the north) and Aztlan (to the south), which form the shape of a sideways letter "H." Several places on the image show the surface at higher resolution than elsewhere. These areas, called subframes, show more detail because they were acquired near closest approach. They have finer resolution, but cover smaller areas than data obtained when Cassini was farther away from Titan. Near the limb at left, above center, is the best VIMS view so far of Titan's largest confirmed impact crater, Menrva (first seen by the RADAR instrument in PIA07365). Similarly detailed subframes show eastern Xanadu, the basin Hotei Regio, and channels within bright terrains east of Xanadu. (For Titan maps with named features see http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/Page/TITAN/target.) Due to the changing Saturnian seasons, in this late northern spring view, the illumination is significantly

  4. Philippine refiner completes diesel desulfurization project

    SciTech Connect

    Candido, S.S.; Crisostomo, E.V.

    1997-01-27

    In anticipation of tightening sulfur specifications on diesel fuel, Petron Corp. built a new 18,000 b/sd gas oil desulfurization unit (GODU) at its refinery in Bataan, Philippines. The GODU gives Petron sufficient diesel oil desulfurization capacity to meet demand for lower-sulfur diesel in the country. The project places the refinery in a pacesetter position to comply with the Philippine government`s moves to reduce air pollution, especially in urban centers, by reducing the sulfur specification for diesel to 0.5 wt% in 1996 from 0.7 wt% at the start of the project. Performance tests and initial operations of the unit have revealedmore » a desulfurization efficiency of 91% vs. a guaranteed efficiency of 90%. A feed sulfur content of 1.33 wt% is reduced to 0.12 wt% at normal operating conditions. Operating difficulties during start-up were minimized through use of a detailed prestartup check conducted during the early stages of construction work.« less

  5. The environment of Titan, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Information regarding the physical characteristics of Titan and atmospheric models necessary to support design and mission planning of spacecraft that are to orbit Titan, enter its atmosphere or land on its surface is given.

  6. Mimas...and Titan Beyond

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-01-03

    Titan, Saturn largest moon and Mimas in the foreground are seen together in this view from Cassini. Titan gravity is weaker than Earth, so the moon atmosphere is quite extended -- a quality hinted at in this view

  7. Titan Saturn System Mission Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J.; Reh, K.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Erd, C.; Beauchamp, P.; Matson, D.

    2012-10-01

    The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM), another future mission proposed for Titan's exploration, includes an orbiter and two in situ elements: a hot-air balloon and a lake lander. The instrumentation of those two elements will be presented.

  8. Map of Titan - April 2011

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-26

    This global digital map of Saturn moon Titan was created using images taken by NASA Cassini spacecraft imaging science subsystem ISS. Because of the scattering of light by Titan dense atmosphere, no topographic shading is visible here.

  9. Titan Extraterrestrial Land of Lakes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-12

    A colorized flyover of Titan's hydrocarbon seas and lakes. Data was collected by the Cassini spacecraft radar instrument between 2004 and 2013 during several flybys of Titan. Heights of features are exaggerated 10 times.

  10. Titan's impact history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    2010-04-01

    Impacts play a major role in the growth and evolution of planets, satellites, and other nameless things. Titan is no exception. This talk will address a subset of the following topics: (i) The modern impact rate is constrained by the population of Centaurs and the impact rate at Jupiter. (ii) Titan's thick atmosphere and volatile surface cause it to respond to major impacts in an Earth-like manner. The impact that made Menrva - the 440 km diameter impact basin sited near the current apex of Titan's motion - was big enough to raise the average global surface temperature above 273 K, which suggests that water rain was possible. This would have been followed by methane drizzles lasting for thousands of years. More modest impacts will generate crater lakes and will saturate the atmosphere with methane, the latter leading to hundreds of years of intermittent drizzle. (iii) Impact ejecta from Menrva will strike Hyperion and should saturate the latter with sesquinary craters. (iv) In any modern story of how Titan got its atmosphere, solar nebular condensates (comets) deliver the volatiles. A consequence of a cometogenic atmosphere is that the atmosphere is heavily processed by strong shocks. The high temperatures produce a wide range of chemical species that would not otherwise be abundant. Some of these will survive to mix into the atmosphere (e.g., CO) or freeze out to fall to the surface (e.g. CO2). (v) That Titan even has an atmosphere, when Callisto and Ganymede do not, is an excellent question. The leading explanation is that Titan alone was made from ammonia - and methane - rich stuff. But the competition between impact delivery and impact expulsion of volatiles can strongly favor Titan over Callisto. Stable isotopes as well as total volatile inventories provide constraints.

  11. Titan's atmosphere and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörst, S. M.

    2017-03-01

    Titan is the only moon with a substantial atmosphere, the only other thick N2 atmosphere besides Earth's, the site of extraordinarily complex atmospheric chemistry that far surpasses any other solar system atmosphere, and the only other solar system body with stable liquid currently on its surface. The connection between Titan's surface and atmosphere is also unique in our solar system; atmospheric chemistry produces materials that are deposited on the surface and subsequently altered by surface-atmosphere interactions such as aeolian and fluvial processes resulting in the formation of extensive dune fields and expansive lakes and seas. Titan's atmosphere is favorable for organic haze formation, which combined with the presence of some oxygen-bearing molecules indicates that Titan's atmosphere may produce molecules of prebiotic interest. The combination of organics and liquid, in the form of water in a subsurface ocean and methane/ethane in the surface lakes and seas, means that Titan may be the ideal place in the solar system to test ideas about habitability, prebiotic chemistry, and the ubiquity and diversity of life in the universe. The Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturn system has provided a wealth of new information allowing for study of Titan as a complex system. Here I review our current understanding of Titan's atmosphere and climate forged from the powerful combination of Earth-based observations, remote sensing and in situ spacecraft measurements, laboratory experiments, and models. I conclude with some of our remaining unanswered questions as the incredible era of exploration with Cassini-Huygens comes to an end.

  12. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  13. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  14. Weather on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, C. A.; Hall, J. L.; Geballe, T. R.

    2000-10-01

    Titan's atmosphere potentially sports a cycle similar to the hydrologic one on Earth with clouds, rain and seas, but with methane playing the terrestrial role of water. Over the past ten years many independent efforts indicated no strong evidence for cloudiness until some unique spectra were analyzed in 1998 (Griffith et al.). These surprising observations displayed enhanced fluxes of 14-200% on two nights at precisely the wavelengths (windows) that sense Titan's lower altitude where clouds might reside. The morphology of these enhancements in all 4 windows observed indicate that clouds covered ~6-9% of Titan's surface and existed at ~15 km altitude. Here I discuss new observations recorded in 1999 aimed to further characterize Titan's clouds. While we find no evidence for a massive cloud system similar to the one observed previously, 1%-4% fluctuations in flux occur daily. These modulations, similar in wavelength and morphology to the more pronounced ones observed earlier, suggest the presence of clouds covering <=1% of Titan's disk. The variations are too small to have been detected by most prior measurements. Repeated observations, spaced 30 minutes apart, indicate a temporal variability observable in the time scale of a couple of hours. The cloud heights hint that convection governs their evolutions. Their short lives point to the presence of rain. C. A. Griffith and J. L. Hall are supported by the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program NAG5-6790.

  15. Hypsometry of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Stiles, Bryan; Le Gall, Alice; Hayes, Alexander; Aharonson, Oded; Wood, Charles A.; Stofan, Ellen; Kirk, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Cassini RADAR topography data are used to evaluate Titan's hypsometric profile, and to make comparisons with other planetary bodies. Titan's hypsogram is unimodal and strikingly narrow compared with the terrestrial planets. To investigate topographic extremes, a novel variant on the classic hypsogram is introduced, with a logarithmic abscissa to highlight mountainous terrain. In such a plot, the top of the terrestrial hypsogram is quite distinct from those of Mars and Venus due to the 'glacial buzz-saw' that clips terrestrial topography above the snowline. In contrast to the positive skew seen in other hypsograms, with a long tail of positive relief due to mountains, there is an indication (weak, given the limited data for Titan so far) that the Titan hypsogram appears slightly negatively skewed, suggesting a significant population of unfilled depressions. Limited data permit only a simplistic comparison of Titan topography with other icy satellites but we find that the standard deviation of terrain height (albeit at different scales) is similar to those of Ganymede and Europa.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of porous metal oxides and desulfurization studies of sulfur containing compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces Trujillo, Hector Fabian

    This thesis contains two parts: 1) synthesis and characterization of porous metal oxides that include zinc oxide and a porous mixed-valent manganese oxide with an amorphous structure (AMO) 2) the desulfurization studies for the removal of sulfur compounds. Zinc oxide with different nano-scale morphologies may result in various porosities with different adsorption capabilities. A tunable shape microwave synthesis of ZnO nano-spheres in a co-solvent mixture is presented. The ZnO nano-sphere material is investigated as a desulfurizing sorbent in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 200 to 400 °C and compared with ZnO nanorods and platelet-like morphologies. Fresh and sulfided materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET specific surface area, pore volume, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The tunable shape microwave synthesis of ZnO presents a high sulfur sorption capacity at temperatures as low as 200 °C which accounts for a three and four fold enhancement over the other preparations presented in this work, and reached 76 % of the theoretical sulfur capacity (TSC) at 300 °C. Another ZnO material with a bimodal micro- and mesopore size distribution investigated as a desulfurizing sorbent presents a sorption capacity that reaches 87% of the theoretical value for desulfurization at 400 °C at breakthrough time. A deactivation model that considers the activity of the solid reactant was used to fit the experimental data. Good agreement between the experimental breakthrough curves and the model predictions are obtained. Manganese oxides are a type of metal oxide materials commonly used in catalytic applications. Little is known about the adsorption capabilities for the removal of sulfur compounds. One of these manganese oxides; amorphous manganese oxide (AMO) is highly promising material for low temperature sorption processes. Amorphous

  17. Radiation methods for demercaptanization and desulfurization of oil products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaykina, R. F.; Zaykin, Yu. A.; Mamonova, T. B.; Nadirov, N. K.

    2002-03-01

    A two-stage method for the desulfurization of oil is presented. The first stage strongly oxidizes sulfuric material to do away with its chemical aggressiveness and promote its removal. Desulfurization of the overall product is reached at the second stage by means of conventional methods.

  18. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum agricultural network alabama (cotton)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is an excellent source of gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) that can be beneficially used in agriculture. Research was conducted as part of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in collaboration wi...

  19. The tides of Titan.

    PubMed

    Iess, Luciano; Jacobson, Robert A; Ducci, Marco; Stevenson, David J; Lunine, Jonathan I; Armstrong, John W; Asmar, Sami W; Racioppa, Paolo; Rappaport, Nicole J; Tortora, Paolo

    2012-07-27

    We have detected in Cassini spacecraft data the signature of the periodic tidal stresses within Titan, driven by the eccentricity (e = 0.028) of its 16-day orbit around Saturn. Precise measurements of the acceleration of Cassini during six close flybys between 2006 and 2011 have revealed that Titan responds to the variable tidal field exerted by Saturn with periodic changes of its quadrupole gravity, at about 4% of the static value. Two independent determinations of the corresponding degree-2 Love number yield k(2) = 0.589 ± 0.150 and k(2) = 0.637 ± 0.224 (2σ). Such a large response to the tidal field requires that Titan's interior be deformable over time scales of the orbital period, in a way that is consistent with a global ocean at depth.

  20. Titan Despeckled Montage

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-12

    This montage of Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of the surface of Titan shows four examples of how a newly developed technique for handling noise results in clearer, easier to interpret views. The top row of images was produced in the manner used since the mission arrived in the Saturn system a decade ago; the row at bottom was produced using the new technique. The three leftmost image pairs show bays and spits of land in Ligea Mare, one of Titan's large hydrocarbon seas. The rightmost pair shows a valley network along Jingpo Lacus, one of Titan's larger northern lakes. North is toward the left in these images. Each thumbnail represents an area 70 miles (112 kilometers) wide. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19053

  1. Impact craters on Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Charles A.; Lorenz, Ralph; Kirk, Randy; Lopes, Rosaly; Mitchell, Karl; Stofan, Ellen; ,

    2010-01-01

    Five certain impact craters and 44 additional nearly certain and probable ones have been identified on the 22% of Titan's surface imaged by Cassini's high-resolution radar through December 2007. The certain craters have morphologies similar to impact craters on rocky planets, as well as two with radar bright, jagged rims. The less certain craters often appear to be eroded versions of the certain ones. Titan's craters are modified by a variety of processes including fluvial erosion, mass wasting, burial by dunes and submergence in seas, but there is no compelling evidence of isostatic adjustments as on other icy moons, nor draping by thick atmospheric deposits. The paucity of craters implies that Titan's surface is quite young, but the modeled age depends on which published crater production rate is assumed. Using the model of Artemieva and Lunine (2005) suggests that craters with diameters smaller than about 35 km are younger than 200 million years old, and larger craters are older. Craters are not distributed uniformly; Xanadu has a crater density 2-9 times greater than the rest of Titan, and the density on equatorial dune areas is much lower than average. There is a small excess of craters on the leading hemisphere, and craters are deficient in the north polar region compared to the rest of the world. The youthful age of Titan overall, and the various erosional states of its likely impact craters, demonstrate that dynamic processes have destroyed most of the early history of the moon, and that multiple processes continue to strongly modify its surface. The existence of 24 possible impact craters with diameters less than 20 km appears consistent with the Ivanov, Basilevsky and Neukum (1997) model of the effectiveness of Titan's atmosphere in destroying most but not all small projectiles.

  2. Impact craters on Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, C.A.; Lorenz, R.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Mitchell, Ken; Stofan, E.

    2010-01-01

    Five certain impact craters and 44 additional nearly certain and probable ones have been identified on the 22% of Titan's surface imaged by Cassini's high-resolution radar through December 2007. The certain craters have morphologies similar to impact craters on rocky planets, as well as two with radar bright, jagged rims. The less certain craters often appear to be eroded versions of the certain ones. Titan's craters are modified by a variety of processes including fluvial erosion, mass wasting, burial by dunes and submergence in seas, but there is no compelling evidence of isostatic adjustments as on other icy moons, nor draping by thick atmospheric deposits. The paucity of craters implies that Titan's surface is quite young, but the modeled age depends on which published crater production rate is assumed. Using the model of Artemieva and Lunine (2005) suggests that craters with diameters smaller than about 35 km are younger than 200 million years old, and larger craters are older. Craters are not distributed uniformly; Xanadu has a crater density 2-9 times greater than the rest of Titan, and the density on equatorial dune areas is much lower than average. There is a small excess of craters on the leading hemisphere, and craters are deficient in the north polar region compared to the rest of the world. The youthful age of Titan overall, and the various erosional states of its likely impact craters, demonstrate that dynamic processes have destroyed most of the early history of the moon, and that multiple processes continue to strongly modify its surface. The existence of 24 possible impact craters with diameters less than 20 km appears consistent with the Ivanov, Basilevsky and Neukum (1997) model of the effectiveness of Titan's atmosphere in destroying most but not all small projectiles. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  3. Titanic Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    New Detailed VLT Images of Saturn's Largest Moon Optimizing space missions Titan, the largest moon of Saturn was discovered by Dutch astronomer Christian Huygens in 1655 and certainly deserves its name. With a diameter of no less than 5,150 km, it is larger than Mercury and twice as large as Pluto. It is unique in having a hazy atmosphere of nitrogen, methane and oily hydrocarbons. Although it was explored in some detail by the NASA Voyager missions, many aspects of the atmosphere and surface still remain unknown. Thus, the existence of seasonal or diurnal phenomena, the presence of clouds, the surface composition and topography are still under debate. There have even been speculations that some kind of primitive life (now possibly extinct) may be found on Titan. Titan is the main target of the NASA/ESA Cassini/Huygens mission, launched in 1997 and scheduled to arrive at Saturn on July 1, 2004. The ESA Huygens probe is designed to enter the atmosphere of Titan, and to descend by parachute to the surface. Ground-based observations are essential to optimize the return of this space mission, because they will complement the information gained from space and add confidence to the interpretation of the data. Hence, the advent of the adaptive optics system NAOS-CONICA (NACO) [1] in combination with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile now offers a unique opportunity to study the resolved disc of Titan with high sensitivity and increased spatial resolution. Adaptive Optics (AO) systems work by means of a computer-controlled deformable mirror that counteracts the image distortion induced by atmospheric turbulence. It is based on real-time optical corrections computed from image data obtained by a special camera at very high speed, many hundreds of times each second (see e.g. ESO Press Release 25/01 , ESO PR Photos 04a-c/02, ESO PR Photos 19a-c/02, ESO PR Photos 21a-c/02, ESO Press Release 17/02, and ESO Press Release 26/03 for earlier NACO

  4. Diurnal variations of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1,000 and 1,400 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from 8 close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Though there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ~700 cm-3 below ~1,300 km. Such a plateau is associated with the combination of distinct diurnal variations of light and heavy ions. Light ions (e.g. CH5+, HCNH+, C2H5+) show strong diurnal variation, with clear bite-outs in their nightside distributions. In contrast, heavy ions (e.g. c-C3H3+, C2H3CNH+, C6H7+) present modest diurnal variation, with significant densities observed on the nightside. We propose that the distinctions between light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through "fast" ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through "slow" electron dissociative recombination. The INMS data suggest day-to-night transport as an important source of ions on Titan's nightside, to be distinguished from the conventional scenario of auroral ionization by magnetospheric particles as the only ionizing source on the nightside. This is supported by the strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effects of day-to-night transport on the ionospheric structures of Titan. The predicted diurnal variation has similar general characteristics to those observed, with some apparent discrepancies which could be reconciled by imposing fast horizontal thermal winds in Titan's upper atmosphere.

  5. Titan's highly variable plasma environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, D. A.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1982-02-01

    It is noted that Titan's plasma environment is variable for two reasons. The variability of the solar wind is such that Titan may be located in the outer magnetosphere, the magnetosheath, or the interplanetary medium around noon Saturnian local time. What is more, there are local time variations in Saturn's magnetosphere. The location of the stagnation point of Saturn's magnetosphere is calculated, assuming a terrestrial type magnetosphere. Characteristic plasma parameters along the orbit of Titan are shown for high solar wind pressure. During crossings of the Saturnian magnetopause or bow shock by Titan, abrupt changes in the flow direction and stagnation pressure are expected, as are rapid associated changes in Titan's uppermost atmosphere.

  6. Northern Summer on Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    NASA's Cassini spacecraft sees bright methane clouds drifting in the summer skies of Saturn's moon Titan, along with dark hydrocarbon lakes and seas clustered around the north pole. Compared to earlier in Cassini's mission, most of the surface in the moon's northern high latitudes is now illuminated by the sun. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on June 9, 2017, using a spectral filter that preferentially admits wavelengths of near-infrared light centered at 938 nanometers. Cassini obtained the view at a distance of about 315,000 miles (507,000 kilometers) from Titan. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21615

  7. Expansion of Titan atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, S.; Moslem, W. M.; Radi, A.

    2017-05-01

    Self-similar plasma expansion approach is used to solve a plasma model based on the losing phenomenon of Titan atmospheric composition. To this purpose, a set of hydrodynamic fluid equations describing a plasma consisting of two positive ions with different masses and isothermal electrons is used. With the aid of self-similar transformation, numerical solution of the fluid equations has been performed to examine the density, velocity, and potential profiles. The effects of different plasma parameters, i.e., density and temperature ratios, are studied on the expanding plasma profiles. The present investigation could be useful to recognize the ionized particles escaping from Titan atmosphere.

  8. Titan's "Hot Cross Bun": A Titan Laccolith?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Stofan, E. R.; Wall, S. D.; Wood, C.; Kirk, R. L.; Lucas, A.; Mitchell, K. L.; Lunine, J. I.; Turtle, E. P.; Radebaugh, J.; Malaska, M.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2012-10-01

    Cassini’s RADAR instrument acquired Synthetic Aperture Radar data during the T83 flyby on May 22, 2012. The data showed a feature centered at 38.5N, 203W that resembles a “hot cross bun”. This type of feature has not been seen on Titan before, even though 52% of Titan’s surface has been imaged using SAR. The feature, approximately 100 km across, is mostly radar bright but the cross pattern, interpreted to be extensional fractures, located roughly at the center of the brighter area, appears darker at radar wavelengths (2.3 cm). Radar illumination of the image indicates that the fractures are lower in elevation than the surrounding bright region. The morphology of the region is markedly similar to that of a 30-km dome-shaped feature on Venus that lies at the summit of the Kunapipi volcano. The Venus feature is interpreted to be the result of intrusion of magma at the summit of the volcano [1]. A similar feature, interpreted as a laccolith, is seen on the Moon near the crater Ramsden [2]. The lunar feature, imaged by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, shows the cross-shaped depression over a 300 m high rise. No topographic data for the feature on Titan are available at this time, but the morphology seen by the SAR data suggests that the feature may have been formed by material pushing up from below. Laccoliths form when an igneous intrusion splits apart two strata, resulting in a domeline structure. This previously unknown type of structure on Titan may be yet another indication of cryovolcanism. [1] Stofan, E.R., et al, Icarus, 152, 75-95, 2001. [2] Wichman, R.W. and Schultz, P. H. (1996). Icarus, 122, Issue 1, July 1996, pages 193-199. doi:10.1006/icar.1996.0118

  9. Titan Mystery Clouds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-21

    This comparison of two views from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, taken fairly close together in time, illustrates a peculiar mystery: Why would clouds on Saturn's moon Titan be visible in some images, but not in others? In the top view, a near-infrared image from Cassini's imaging cameras, the skies above Saturn's moon Titan look relatively cloud free. But in the bottom view, at longer infrared wavelengths, Cassini sees a large field of bright clouds. Even though these views were taken at different wavelengths, researchers would expect at least a hint of the clouds to show up in the upper image. Thus they have been trying to understand what's behind the difference. As northern summer approaches on Titan, atmospheric models have predicted that clouds will become more common at high northern latitudes, similar to what was observed at high southern latitudes during Titan's late southern summer in 2004. Cassini's Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) teams have been observing Titan to document changes in weather patterns as the seasons change, and there is particular interest in following the onset of clouds in the north polar region where Titan's lakes and seas are concentrated. Cassini's "T120" and "T121" flybys of Titan, on June 7 and July 25, 2016, respectively, provided views of high northern latitudes over extended time periods -- more than 24 hours during both flybys. Intriguingly, the ISS and VIMS observations appear strikingly different from each other. In the ISS observations (monochrome image at top), surface features are easily identifiable and only a few small, isolated clouds were detected. In contrast, the VIMS observations (color image at bottom) suggest widespread cloud cover during both flybys. The observations were made over the same time period, so differences in illumination geometry or changes in the clouds themselves are unlikely to be the cause for the apparent discrepancy: VIMS shows persistent

  10. Sorbent for use in hot gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Gasper-Galvin, Lee D.; Atimtay, Aysel T.

    1993-01-01

    A multiple metal oxide sorbent supported on a zeolite of substantially silicon oxide is used for the desulfurization of process gas streams, such as from a coal gasifier, at temperatures in the range of about 1200.degree. to about 1600.degree. F. The sorbent is provided by a mixture of copper oxide and manganese oxide and preferably such a mixture with molybdenum oxide. The manganese oxide and the molybdenum are believed to function as promoters for the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with copper oxide. Also, the manganese oxide inhibits the volatilization of the molybdenum oxide at the higher temperatures.

  11. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal: Third quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Marquis, Judith K.; Kitchell, Judith P.

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of ''model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix. In this quarter we obtained important results both with the development of our understanding of the enzyme reaction systems and also with the microbial work at Woods Hole. 12 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Highlighting Titan's Hazes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-11

    NASA's Cassini spacecraft looks toward the night side of Saturn's moon Titan in a view that highlights the extended, hazy nature of the moon's atmosphere. During its long mission at Saturn, Cassini has frequently observed Titan at viewing angles like this, where the atmosphere is backlit by the Sun, in order to make visible the structure of the hazes. Titan's high-altitude haze layer appears blue here, whereas the main atmospheric haze is orange. The difference in color could be due to particle sizes in the haze. The blue haze likely consists of smaller particles than the orange haze. Images taken using red, green and blue spectral filters were combined to create this natural-color view. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on May 29, 2017. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 1.2 million miles (2 million kilometers) from Titan. Image scale is 5 miles (9 kilometers) per pixel. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21625

  13. The lakes of Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stofan, E.R.; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.D.; Stiles, B.; Mitchell, K.L.; Ostro, S.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Zebker, H.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Paillou, P.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

    2007-01-01

    The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70?? north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface 'liquid methane' table. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  14. Titan Lingering Clouds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-03

    Lots of clouds are visible in this infrared image of Saturn's moon Titan. These clouds form and move much like those on Earth, but in a much slower, more lingering fashion, new results from NASA's Cassini spacecraft show. Scientists have monitored Titan's atmosphere for three-and-a-half years, between July 2004 and December 2007, and observed more than 200 clouds. The way these clouds are distributed around Titan matches scientists' global circulation models. The only exception is timing—clouds are still noticeable in the southern hemisphere while fall is approaching. Three false-color images make up this mosaic and show the clouds at 40 to 50 degrees mid-latitude. The images were taken by Cassini's visual and infrared mapping spectrometer during a close flyby of Titan on Sept. 7, 2006, known as T17. For a similar view see PIA12005. Each image is a color composite, with red shown at the 2-micron wavelength, green at 1.6 microns, and blue at 2.8 microns. An infrared color mosaic is also used as a background (red at 5 microns, green at 2 microns and blue at 1.3 microns). The characteristic elongated mid-latitude clouds, which are easily visible in bright bluish tones are still active even late into 2006-2007. According to climate models, these clouds should have faded out since 2005. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA12004

  15. Above Titan South

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-17

    Titan south polar vortex seems to float above the moon south pole in this Cassini spacecraft view. The vortex, which is a mass of gas swirling around the south pole high in the moon atmosphere, can be seen in the lower right of this view.

  16. Titan's icy scar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, C. A.; Penteado, P. F.; Turner, J. D.; Neish, C. D.; Mitri, G.; Montiel, M. J.; Schoenfeld, A.; Lopes, R. M. C.

    2017-09-01

    We conduct a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of Cassini/VIMS [1] infrared spectral windows to identify and quantify weak surface features, with no assumptions on the haze and surface characteris- tics. This study maps the organic sediments, supplied by past atmospheres, as well as ice-rich regions that constitute Titan's bedrock.

  17. Titan Temperature Lag Maps

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-02-18

    This sequence of maps shows varying surface temperatures on Saturn moon Titan at two-year intervals, from 2004 to 2016. The measurements were made by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer CIRS instrument on NASA Cassini spacecraft. The maps show thermal infrared radiation (heat) coming from Titan's surface at a wavelength of 19 microns, a spectral window at which the moon's otherwise opaque atmosphere is mostly transparent. Temperatures have been averaged around the globe from east to west (longitudinally) to emphasize the seasonal variation across latitudes (from north to south). Black regions in the maps are areas for which there was no data. Titan's surface temperature changes slowly over the course of the Saturn system's long seasons, which each last seven and a half years. As on Earth, the amount of sunlight received at each latitude varies as the sun's illumination moves northward or southward over the course of the 30-year-long Saturnian year. When Cassini arrived at Saturn in 2004, Titan's southern hemisphere was in late summer and was therefore the warmest region. Shortly after the 2009 equinox, in 2010, temperatures were symmetrical across the northern and southern hemispheres, mimicking the distribution observed by Voyager 1 in 1980 (one Titan year earlier). Temperatures subsequently cooled in the south and rose in the north, as southern winter approached. While the overall trend in the temperature shift is clearly evident in these maps, there is narrow banding in several places that is an artifact of making the observations through Titan's atmosphere. The moon's dense, hazy envelope adds noise to the difficult measurement. Although it moves in latitude, the maximum measured temperature on Titan remains around -292 degrees Fahrenheit (-179.6 degrees Celsius, 93.6 Kelvin), with a minimum temperature at the winter pole only 6 degrees Fahrenheit (3.5 degrees Celsius or Kelvin) colder. This is a much smaller contrast than exists between Earth's warmest and

  18. Squeezing and Stretching Titan Author Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-28

    This artist concept shows tides on Titan raised by Saturn gravity, as detected by NASA Cassini spacecraft. Saturn gravitational pull on Titan, its largest moon, varies as Titan orbits along an elliptical path around the planet every 16 days.

  19. Dark Spots on Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-05-02

    This recent image of Titan reveals more complex patterns of bright and dark regions on the surface, including a small, dark, circular feature, completely surrounded by brighter material. During the two most recent flybys of Titan, on March 31 and April 16, 2005, Cassini captured a number of images of the hemisphere of Titan that faces Saturn. The image at the left is taken from a mosaic of images obtained in March 2005 (see PIA06222) and shows the location of the more recently acquired image at the right. The new image shows intriguing details in the bright and dark patterns near an 80-kilometer-wide (50-mile) crater seen first by Cassini's synthetic aperture radar experiment during a Titan flyby in February 2005 (see PIA07368) and subsequently seen by the imaging science subsystem cameras as a dark spot (center of the image at the left). Interestingly, a smaller, roughly 20-kilometer-wide (12-mile), dark and circular feature can be seen within an irregularly-shaped, brighter ring, and is similar to the larger dark spot associated with the radar crater. However, the imaging cameras see only brightness variations, and without topographic information, the identity of this feature as an impact crater cannot be conclusively determined from this image. The visual infrared mapping spectrometer, which is sensitive to longer wavelengths where Titan's atmospheric haze is less obscuring -- observed this area simultaneously with the imaging cameras, so those data, and perhaps future observations by Cassini's radar, may help to answer the question of this feature's origin. The new image at the right consists of five images that have been added together and enhanced to bring out surface detail and to reduce noise, although some camera artifacts remain. These images were taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera using a filter sensitive to wavelengths of infrared light centered at 938 nanometers -- considered to be the imaging science subsystem's best spectral filter

  20. Titan Polar Maps - 2015

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-09

    The northern and southern hemispheres of Titan are seen in these polar stereographic maps, assembled in 2015 using the best-available images of the giant Saturnian moon from NASA's Cassini mission. The images were taken by Cassini's imaging cameras using a spectral filter centered at 938 nanometers, allowing researchers to examine variations in albedo (or inherent brightness) across the surface of Titan. These maps utilize imaging data collected through Cassini's flyby on April 7, 2014, known as "T100." Titan's north pole was not well illuminated early in Cassini's mission, because it was winter in the northern hemisphere when the spacecraft arrived at Saturn. Cassini has been better able to observe northern latitudes in more recent years due to seasonal changes in solar illumination. Compared to the previous version of Cassini's north polar map (see PIA11146), this map provides much more detail and fills in a large area of missing data. The imaging data in these maps complement Cassini synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mapping of Titan's north pole (see PIA17655). The uniform gray area in the northern hemisphere indicates a gap in the imaging coverage of Titan's surface, to date. The missing data will be imaged by Cassini during flybys on December 15, 2016 and March 5, 2017. Lakes are also seen in the southern hemisphere map, but they are much less common than in the north polar region. Only a lakes have been confirmed in the south. The dark, footprint-shaped feature at 180 degrees west is Ontario Lacus; a smaller lake named Crveno Lacus can be seen as a very dark spot just above Ontario. The dark-albedo area seen at the top of the southern hemisphere map (at 0 degrees west) is an area called Mezzoramia. Each map is centered on one of the poles, and surface coverage extends southward to 60 degrees latitude. Grid lines indicate latitude in 10-degree increments and longitude in 30-degree increments. The scale in the full-size versions of these maps is 4,600 feet (1

  1. The Veils of Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-05-06

    The veils of Saturn's most mysterious moon have begun to lift in Cassini's eagerly awaited first glimpse of the surface of Titan, a world where scientists believe organic matter rains from hazy skies and seas of liquid hydrocarbons dot a frigid surface. Surface features previously observed only from Earth-based telescopes are now visible in images of Titan taken in mid-April by Cassini through one of the narrow angle camera's spectral filters specifically designed to penetrate the thick atmosphere. The image scale is 230 kilometers (143 miles) per pixel, and it rivals the best Earth-based images. The two images displayed here show Titan from a vantage point 17 degrees below its equator, yielding a view from 50 degrees north latitude all the way to its south pole. The image on the left was taken four days after the image on the right. Titan rotated 90 degrees in that time. The two images combined cover a region extending halfway around the moon. The observed brightness variations suggest a diverse surface, with variations in average reflectivity on scales of a couple hundred kilometers. The images were taken through a narrow filter centered at 938 nanometers, a spectral region in which the only obstacle to light is the carbon-based, organic haze. Despite the rather long 38-second exposure times, there is no noticeable smear due to spacecraft motion. The images have been magnified 10 times and enhanced in contrast to bring out details. No further processing to remove the effects of the overlying atmosphere has been performed. The superimposed grid over the images illustrates the orientation of Titan -- north is up and rotated 25 degrees to the left -- as well as the geographical regions of the satellite that are illuminated and visible. The yellow curve marks the position of the boundary between day and night on Titan. The enhanced image contrast makes the region within 20 degrees of this day and night division darker than usual. The Sun illuminates Titan from the

  2. Method for the desulfurization of hot product gases from coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Grindley, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    The gasification of sulfur-bearing coal produces a synthesis gas which contains a considerable concentration of sulfur compounds especially hydrogen sulfide that renders the synthesis gas environmentally unacceptable unless the concentration of the sulfur compounds is significantly reduced. To provide for such a reduction in the sulfur compounds a calcium compound is added to the gasifier with the coal to provide some sulfur absorption. The synthesis gas from the gasifier contains sulfur compounds and is passed through an external bed of a regenerable solid absorbent, preferably zinc ferrite, for essentially completed desulfurizing the hot synthesis gas. This absorbent is, in turn, periodically or continuously regenerated by passing a mixture of steam and air or oxygen through the bed for converting absorbed hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide. The resulting tail gas containing sulfur dioxide and steam is injected into the gasifier where the sulfur dioxide is converted by the calcium compound into a stable form of sulfur such as calcium sulfate.

  3. Titanic exploration with GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerski, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    To help teachers and students investigate one of the world's most famous historical events using the geographic perspective and GIS tools and methods, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) created a set of educational lessons based on the RMS Titanic's April 1912 sailing. With these lessons, student researchers can learn about latitude and longitude, map projections, ocean currents, databases, maps, and images through the analysis of the route, warnings, sinking, rescue, and eventual discovery of the submerged ocean liner in 1985. They can also consider the human and physical aspects of the maiden voyage in the North Atlantic Ocean at a variety of scales, from global to regional to local. Likewise, their investigations can reveal how the sinking of the Titanic affected future shipping routes.

  4. Ethane ocean on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, J. I.; Stevenson, D. J.; Yung, Y.L.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager I radio occultation data is employed to develop a qualitative model of an ethane ocean on Titan. It is suggested that the ocean contains 25 percent CH4 and that the ocean is in dynamic equilibrium with an N2 atmosphere. Previous models of a CH4 ocean are discounted due to photolysis rates of CH4 gas. Tidal damping of Titan's orbital eccentricity is taken as evidence for an ocean layer approximately 1 km deep, with the ocean floor being covered with a solid C2H2 layer 100 to 200 m thick. The photolytic process disrupting the CH4, if the estimates of the oceanic content of CH4 are correct, could continue for at least one billion years. Verification of the model is dependent on detecting CH4 clouds in the lower atmosphere, finding C2H6 saturation in the lower troposphere, or obtaining evidence of a global ocean.

  5. RADAR Reveals Titan Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to topography will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath

  6. Organic chemistry on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.

    1979-01-01

    Features taken from various models of Titan's atmosphere are combined in a working composite model that provides environmental constraints within which different pathways for organic chemical synthesis are determined. Experimental results and theoretical modeling suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite is dominated by two processes: photochemistry and energetic particle bombardment. Photochemical reactions of CH4 in the upper atmosphere can account for the presence of C2 hydrocarbons. Reactions initiated at various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic rays, Saturn 'wind', and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4-N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the UV-visible absorbing stratospheric haze, the reddish appearance of the satellite, and some of the C2 hydrocarbons. In the lower atmosphere photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. It is concluded that the surface of Titan may contain ancient or recent organic matter (or both) produced in the atmosphere.

  7. Plane flame furnace combustion tests on JPL desulfurized coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, J. J.; Kim, H. T.; Lima, J. G. H.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of three raw bituminous (PSOC-282 and 276) and subbituminous (PSOC-230) coals, the raw coals partially desulfurized (ca -60%) by JPL chlorinolysis, and the chlorinated coals more completely desulfurized (ca -75%) by JPL hydrodesulfurization were determined. The extent to which the combustion characteristics of the untreated coals were altered upon JPL sulfur removal was examined. Combustion conditions typical of utility boilers were simulated in the plane flame furnace. Upon decreasing the parent coal voltaile matter generically by 80% and the sulfur by 75% via the JPL desulfurization process, ignition time was delayed 70 fold, burning velocity was retarded 1.5 fold, and burnout time was prolonged 1.4 fold. Total flame residence time increased 2.3 fold. The JPL desulfurization process appears to show significant promise for producing technologically combustible and clean burning (low SO3) fuels.

  8. Desulfurization of Saudi Arabian crudes by oxidation-extraction method.

    PubMed

    Al Otaibi, Raja L; Liu, Dong; Hou, Xulian; Song, Linhua; Li, Qingyin; Li, Mengfei; Almigrin, Hamid O; Yan, Zifeng

    The oxidation-extraction desulfurization of Saudi Arabian crudes was conducted with hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid oxidation system. The selection of extractant, the optimization of oxidation-extraction conditions, and the exploration of desulfurization mechanism were studied. As DMF was used as the extractant, the optimal desulfurization rate of 35.11 % and oil recovery of 95 % were obtained at 70 °C with the molar ratio of peracetic acid to sulfur of 8:1, the molar ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide of 2:1 and the volume ratio of extractant to oil of 1:1. The desulfurization effect of different fractions in the treated Saudi Arabian crudes was found to obey the following order: gasoline-diesel fraction >VGO fraction >VR fraction, due to different types and structures of sulfur compounds. The oil quality was less affected and most sulfides were mainly extracted via DMF.

  9. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.

    1993-01-05

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  10. Hydrocarbon lakes on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, Giuseppe; Showman, Adam P.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2007-02-01

    The Huygens Probe detected dendritic drainage-like features, methane clouds and a high surface relative humidity (∼50% ) on Titan in the vicinity of its landing site [Tomasko, M.G., and 39 colleagues, 2005. Nature 438, 765-778; Niemann, H.B., and 17 colleagues, 2005. Nature 438, 779-784], suggesting sources of methane that replenish this gas against photo- and charged-particle chemical loss on short (10-100) million year timescales [Atreya, S.K., Adams, E.Y., Niemann, H.B., Demick-Montelara, J.E., Owen, T.C., Fulchignoni, M., Ferri, F., Wilson, E.H., 2006. Planet. Space Sci. In press]. On the other hand, Cassini Orbiter remote sensing shows dry and even desert-like landscapes with dunes [Lorenz, R.D., and 39 colleagues, 2006a. Science 312, 724-727], some areas worked by fluvial erosion, but no large-scale bodies of liquid [Elachi, C., and 34 colleagues, 2005. Science 308, 970-974]. Either the atmospheric methane relative humidity is declining in a steady fashion over time, or the sources that maintain the relative humidity are geographically restricted, small, or hidden within the crust itself. In this paper we explore the hypothesis that the present-day methane relative humidity is maintained entirely by lakes that cover a small part of the surface area of Titan. We calculate the required minimum surface area coverage of such lakes, assess the stabilizing influence of ethane, and the implications for moist convection in the atmosphere. We show that, under Titan's surface conditions, methane evaporates rapidly enough that shorelines of any existing lakes could potentially migrate by several hundred m to tens of km per year, rates that could be detected by the Cassini orbiter. We furthermore show that the high relative humidity of methane in Titan's lower atmosphere could be maintained by evaporation from lakes covering only 0.002-0.02 of the whole surface.

  11. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, Rayford G.; Dosch, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  12. A Titanic Labyrinth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-29

    This synthetic-aperture radar image was obtained by NASA's Cassini spacecraft during its T-120 pass over Titan's southern latitudes on June 7, 2016. The image is centered near 47 degrees south, 153 degrees west. It covers an area of 87 by 75 miles (140 by 120 kilometers) and has a resolution of about 1,300 feet (400 meters). Radar illuminates the scene from the left at a 35-degree incidence angle. The features seen here are an excellent example of "labyrinth terrain." Labyrinth terrains on Titan are thought to be higher areas that have been cut apart by rivers of methane, eroded or dissolved as they were either lifted up or left standing above as the region around them lowered. (Other examples of labyrinth terrain can be seen in PIA10219.) In this image, several obvious valley systems have developed, draining liquids from methane rainfall toward the southeast (at top). Several of these systems are near parallel (running from upper left to lower right), suggesting that either the geological structure of the surface or the local topographic gradient (the general slope across the area) may be influencing their direction. Also presented here is an annotated version of the image, along with an aerial photograph of a region in southern Java known as Gunung Kidul that resembles this Titan labyrinth. This region is limestone that has been dissolved and eroded by water, creating a system of canyons called polygonal karst. Like on Titan, the canyons show a trend from upper left to lower right, in this case controlled by faults or joints. (Java photo from Haryono and Day, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 66 (2004) 62-69, courtesy of Eko Haryono.) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20708

  13. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  14. Organic chemistry on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of nonequilibrium phenomena on the Saturn satellite Titan indicate the occurrence of organic chemical evolution. Greenhouse and thermal inversion models of Titan's atmosphere provide environmental constraints within which various pathways for organic chemical synthesis are assessed. Experimental results and theoretical modeling studies suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite may be dominated by two atmospheric processes: energetic-particle bombardment and photochemistry. Reactions initiated in various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic ray, Saturn wind, and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4 - N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the C2-hydrocarbons, the UV-visible-absorbing stratospheric haze, and the reddish color of the satellite. Photochemical reactions of CH4 can also account for the presence of C2-hydrocarbons. In the lower Titan atmosphere, photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. Hot H-atom reactions initiated by photo-dissociation of NH3 can couple the chemical reactions of NH3 and CH4 and produce organic matter.

  15. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Farthing, George A.

    1998-08-18

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  16. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-08-18

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  17. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Farthing, George A.

    1998-09-29

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  18. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-09-29

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  19. Developing clean fuels: Novel techniques for desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehlsen, James P.

    The removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum is crucial to producing clean burning fuels. Sulfur compounds poison emission control catalysts and are the source of acid rain. New federal regulations require the removal of sulfur in both gasoline and diesel to very low levels, forcing existing technologies to be pushed into inefficient operating regimes. New technology is required to efficiently produce low sulfur fuels. Two processes for the removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum have been developed: the removal of alkanethiols by heterogeneous reaction with metal oxides; and oxidative desulfurization of sulfides and thiophene by reaction with sulfuric acid. Alkanethiols, common in hydrotreated gasoline, can be selectively removed and recovered from a hydrocarbon stream by heterogeneous reaction with oxides of Pb, Hg(II), and Ba. The choice of reactive metal oxides may be predicted from simple thermodynamic considerations. The reaction is found to be autocatalytic, first order in water, and zero order in thiol in the presence of excess oxide. The thiols are recovered by reactive extraction with dilute oxidizing acid. The potential for using polymer membrane hydrogenation reactors (PEMHRs) to perform hydrogenation reactions such as hydrodesulfurization is explored by hydrogenating ketones and olefins over Pt and Au group metals. The dependence of reaction rate on current density suggests that the first hydrogen addition to the olefin is the rate limiting step, rather than the adsorption of hydrogen, for all of the metals tested. PEMHRs proved unsuccessful in hydrogenating sulfur compounds to perform HDS. For the removal of sulfides, a two-phase reactor is used in which concentrated sulfuric acid oxidizes aromatic and aliphatic sulfides present in a hydrocarbon solvent, generating sulfoxides and other sulfonated species. The polar oxidized species are extracted into the acid phase, effectively desulfurizing the hydrocarbon. A reaction scheme is proposed for this

  20. Titan's methane clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Romani, P. N.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2010-04-01

    Measurements of the 12C/13C and D/H isotopic ratios in Titan's methane show intriguing differences from the values recorded in the giant planets. This implies that either (1) the atmosphere was differently endowed with material at the time of formation, or (2) evolutionary processes are at work in the moon's atmosphere - or some combination of the two. The Huygens Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer Instrument (GCMS) found 12CH4/13CH4 = 82 +/- 1 (Niemann et al. 2005), some 7% lower than the giant planets' value of 88 +/- 7 (Sada et al. 1996), which closely matches the terrestrial inorganic standard of 89. The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has previously reported 12CH4/13CH4 of 77 +/-3 based on nadir sounding, which we now revise upwards to 80 +/- 4 based on more accurate limb sounding. The CIRS and GCMS results are therefore in agreement about an overall enrichment in 13CH4 of ~10%. The value of D/H in Titan's CH4 has long been controversial: historical measurements have ranged from about 8-15 x 10-5 (e.g. Coustenis et al. 1989, Coustenis et al. 2003). A recent measurement based on CIRS limb data by Bezard et al. (2007) puts the D/H in CH4 at (13 +/- 1) x 10-5, very much greater than in Jupiter and Saturn, ~2 x 10-5 (Mahaffy et al. 1998, Fletcher et al. 2009). To add complexity, the 12C/13C and D/H vary among molecules in Titan atmosphere, typically showing enhancement in D but depletion in 13C in the daughter species (H2, C2H2, C2H6), relative to the photochemical progenitor, methane. Jennings et al. (2009) have sought to interpret the variance in carbon isotopes as a Kinetic Isotope Effect (KIE), whilst an explanation for the D/H in all molecules remains elusive (Cordier et al. 2008). In this presentation we argue that evolution of isotopic ratios in Titan's methane over time forms a ticking 'clock', somewhat analogous to isotopic ratios in geochronology. Under plausible assumptions about the initial values and subsequent replenishment, various

  1. Geomorphic Units on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R. M. C.; Malaska, M. J.; Schoenfeld, A.; Birch, S. P.; Hayes, A. G., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission has revealed the surface of Titan in unprecedented detail. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode on the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is able to penetrate clouds and haze to provide high resolution (~350 m spatial resolution at best) views of the surface geology. The instrument's other modes (altimetry, scatterometry, radiometry) also provide valuable data for interpreting the geology, as do other instruments on Cassini, in particular, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Continuing the initial work described in Lopes et al. (2010, Icarus, 212, 744-750), we have established the major geomorphologic unit classes on Titan using data from flybys Ta through T92 (October 2004-July 2013). We will present the global distribution of the major classes of units and, where there are direct morphological contacts, describe how these classes of units relate to each other in terms of setting and emplacement history. The classes of units are mountainous/hummocky terrains, plains, dunes, labyrinthic terrains and lakes. The oldest classes of units are the mountainous/hummocky and the labyrinthic terrains. The mountainous/hummocky terrains consist of mountain chains and isolated radar-bright terrains. The labyrinthic terrains consist of highly incised dissected plateaux with medium radar backscatter. The plains are younger than both mountainous/hummocky and labyrinthic unit classes. Dunes and lakes are the youngest unit classes on Titan; no contact is observed between the dunes and lakes but it is likely that both processes are still active. We have identified individual features such as craters, channels, and candidate cryovolcanic features. Characterization and comparison of the properties of the unit classes and the individual features with data from radiometry, ISS, and VIMS provides information on their composition and possible provenance. We can use these correlations to also infer global

  2. Geomorphic Units on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly; Malaska, Michael; Schoenfeld, Ashley; Birch, Samuel; Hayes, Alexander; Solomonidou, Anezina; Radebaugh, Jani

    2015-04-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission has revealed the surface of Titan in unprecedented detail. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode on the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is able to penetrate clouds and haze to provide high resolution (~350 m spatial resolution at best) views of the surface geology. The instrument's other modes (altimetry, scatterometry, radiometry) also provide valuable data for interpreting the geology, as do other instruments on Cassini, in particular, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Continuing the initial work described in Lopes et al. (2010, Icarus, 212, 744-750), we have established the major geomorphologic unit classes on Titan using data from flybys Ta through T92 (October 2004-July 2013). We will present the global distribution of the major classes of units and, where there are direct morphological contacts, describe how these classes of units relate to each other in terms of setting and emplacement history. The classes of units are mountainous/hummocky terrains, plains, dunes, labyrinthic terrains and lakes. The oldest classes of units are the mountainous/hummocky and the labyrinthic terrains. The mountainous/hummocky terrains consist of mountain chains and isolated radar-bright terrains. The labyrinthic terrains consist of highly incised dissected plateaux with medium radar backscatter. The plains are younger than both mountainous/hummocky and labyrinthic unit classes. Dunes and lakes are the youngest unit classes on Titan; no contact is observed between the dunes and lakes but it is likely that both processes are still active. We have identified individual features such as craters, channels, and candidate cryovolcanic features. Characterization and comparison of the properties of the unit classes and the individual features with data from radiometry, ISS, and VIMS provides information on their composition and possible provenance. We can use these correlations to also infer global

  3. Titan after Cassini Huygens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, P. M.; Lunine, J.; Lebreton, J.; Coustenis, A.; Matson, D.; Reh, K.; Erd, C.

    2008-12-01

    In 2005, the Huygens Probe gave us a snapshot of a world tantalizingly like our own, yet frozen in its evolution on the threshold of life. The descent under parachute, like that of Huygens in 2005, is happening again, but this time in the Saturn-cast twilight of winter in Titan's northern reaches. With a pop, the parachute is released, and then a muffled splash signals the beginning of the first floating exploration of an extraterrestrial sea-this one not of water but of liquid hydrocarbons. Meanwhile, thousands of miles away, a hot air balloon, a "montgolfiere," cruises 6 miles above sunnier terrain, imaging vistas of dunes, river channels, mountains and valleys carved in water ice, and probing the subsurface for vast quantities of "missing" methane and ethane that might be hidden within a porous icy crust. Balloon and floater return their data to a Titan Orbiter equipped to strip away Titan's mysteries with imaging, radar profiling, and atmospheric sampling, much more powerful and more complete than Cassini was capable of. This spacecraft, preparing to enter a circular orbit around Saturn's cloud-shrouded giant moon, has just completed a series of flybys of Enceladus, a tiny but active world with plumes that blow water and organics from the interior into space. Specialized instruments on the orbiter were able to analyze these plumes directly during the flybys. Titan and Enceladus could hardly seem more different, and yet they are linked by their origin in the Saturn system, by a magnetosphere that sweeps up mass and delivers energy, and by the possibility that one or both worlds harbor life. It is the goal of the NASA/ESA Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) to explore and investigate these exotic and inviting worlds, to understand their natures and assess the possibilities of habitability in this system so distant from our home world. Orbiting, landing, and ballooning at Titan represent a new and exciting approach to planetary exploration. The TSSM mission

  4. Zinc Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Eye Conditions Clinical Digest: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Related Resources From Other Agencies Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc ( ODS ) Follow NCCIH: Read our disclaimer ...

  5. Flyover of Sotra Facula, Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-14

    This frame from a movie is based on data from NASA Cassini spacecraft and shows a flyover of an area of Saturn moon Titan known as Sotra Facula. Scientists believe Sotra is the best case for an ice volcano, or cryovolcano, region on Titan.

  6. Titan's Methane Cycle is Closed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofgartner, J. D.; Lunine, J. I.

    2013-12-01

    Doppler tracking of the Cassini spacecraft determined a polar moment of inertia for Titan of 0.34 (Iess et al., 2010, Science, 327, 1367). Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, one interpretation is that Titan's silicate core is partially hydrated (Castillo-Rogez and Lunine, 2010, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L20205). These authors point out that for the core to have avoided complete thermal dehydration to the present day, at least 30% of the potassium content of Titan must have leached into an overlying water ocean by the end of the core overturn. We calculate that for probable ammonia compositions of Titan's ocean (compositions with greater than 1% ammonia by weight), that this amount of potassium leaching is achievable via the substitution of ammonium for potassium during the hydration epoch. Formation of a hydrous core early in Titan's history by serpentinization results in the loss of one hydrogen molecule for every hydrating water molecule. We calculate that complete serpentinization of Titan's core corresponds to the release of more than enough hydrogen to reconstitute all of the methane atoms photolyzed throughout Titan's history. Insertion of molecular hydrogen by double occupancy into crustal clathrates provides a storage medium and an opportunity for ethane to be converted back to methane slowly over time--potentially completing a cycle that extends the lifetime of methane in Titan's surface atmosphere system by factors of several to an order of magnitude over the photochemically-calculated lifetime.

  7. Synthesis of nanosized sodium titanates

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, David T.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L.; Elvington, Mark C.

    2015-09-29

    Methods directed to the synthesis and peroxide-modification of nanosized monosodium titanate are described. Methods include combination of reactants at a low concentration to a solution including a nonionic surfactant. The nanosized monosodium titanate can exhibit high selectivity for sorbing various metallic ions.

  8. Titan's Lakes in a Beaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodyss, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of Titan presents a complex, varied surfaced, with mountains, plains, dunes, rivers, lakes and seas, composed of a layer of organics over a water ice bedrock. Over the past 10 years, our group at JPL has developed a variety of techniques to study the chemistry of Titan's organic surface under relevant temperature and pressure conditions (90-100 K, 1.5 bar). Dissolution, precipitation, and both covalent and non-covalent chemical processes are examined using Raman and infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, optical microscopy, and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. Despite the low temperatures, our experiments are revealing that a rich and active organic chemistry is possible on Titan's surface. Laboratory experiments like these can provide crucial insights into the geological processes occurring Titan's surface, and help explain the wealth of observational data returned by the Cassini/Huygens mission. This type of data is also critical for the development of future missions to Titan.

  9. Ore sintering flue gas desulfurization and its resoureilization by using pyrolusite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. E.; Long, Z. G.; Wu, F. Z.; Li, H. Y.; Cui, T. M.; Zhou, X. Z.

    2017-11-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) has been implemented for sulfur dioxide gas emission reduction by pyrolusite in iron ore sintering. However, the mechanism of SO2 reduction through FGD is still not fully clear. And in present work, the effects of operating conditions on desulfurization rate and Mn2+ leaching rate of pyrolusite were investigated. Six hours later, the desulfurization rate and Mn2+ leaching rate all can be higher than 70%. And a higher absorption temperature was good for desulfurization rate, while a middle temperature was good for Mn2+ leaching rate. A higher manganese ore granularity and SO2 concentration were good for desulfurization rate and Mn2+ leaching rate. However, a higher liquid-solid rate was only good for desulfurization rate, but Mn2+ leaching rate. The results demonstrate that the pyrolusite is a kind of very promising adsorbent in industrial flue gas desulfurization application due to its low cost and good desulfurization capacity.

  10. Cryovolcanism on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, G.; Showman, A. P.; Lunine, J. I.; Lopes, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Remote sensing observations yield evidence for cryovolcanism on Titan, and evolutionary models support (but do not require) the presence of an ammonia-water subsurface ocean. The impetus for invoking ammonia as a constituent in an internal ocean and cryovolcanic magma comes from two factors. First, ammonia-water liquid has a lower freezing temperature than pure liquid water, enabling cryovolcanism under the low- temperature conditions prevalent in the outer Solar System. Second, pure water is negatively buoyant with respect to pure water ice, which discourages eruption from the subsurface ocean to the surface. In contrast, the addition of ammonia to the water decreases its density, hence lessening this problem of negative buoyancy. A marginally positive buoyant ammonia-water mixture might allow effusive eruptions from a subsurface ocean. If the subsurface ocean were positively buoyant, all the ammonia would have been erupted very early in Titan's history. Contrary to this scenario, Cassini-Huygens has so far observed neither a global abundance nor a complete dearth of cryovolcanic features. Further, an ancient cryovolcanic epoch cannot explain the relative youth of Titan's surface. Crucial to invoking ammonia-water resurfacing as the source of the apparently recent geological activity is not how to make ammonia-water volcanism work (because the near neutral buoyancy of the ammonia-water mixture encourages an explanation), but rather how to prevent eruption from occurring so easily that cryovolcanic activity is over early on. Although cryovolcanism by ammonia-water has been proposed as a resurfacing process on Titan, few models have specifically dealt with the problem of how to transport ammonia-water liquid onto the surface. We proposed a model of cryovolcanism that involve cracking at the base of the ice shell and formation of ammonia-water pockets in the ice. While the ammonia-water pockets cannot easily become neutral buoyant and promote effusive eruptions

  11. Titan impacts and escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korycansky, D. G.; Zahnle, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on hydrodynamic calculations of impacts of large (multi-kilometer) objects on Saturn's moon Titan. We assess escape from Titan, and evaluate the hypothesis that escaping ejecta blackened the leading hemisphere of Iapetus and peppered the surface of Hyperion. We carried out two- and three-dimensional simulations of impactors ranging in size from 4 to 100 km diameter, impact velocities between 7 and 15 km s -1, and impact angles from 0° to 75° from the vertical. We used the ZEUSMP2 hydrocode for the calculations. Simulations were made using three different geometries: three-dimensional Cartesian, two-dimensional axisymmetric spherical polar, and two-dimensional plane polar. Three-dimensional Cartesian geometry calculations were carried out over a limited domain (e.g. 240 km on a side for an impactor of size di = 10 km), and the results compared to ones with the same parameters done by Artemieva and Lunine (2005); in general the comparison was good. Being computationally less demanding, two-dimensional calculations were possible for much larger domains, covering global regions of the satellite (from 800 km below Titan's surface to the exobase altitude 1700 km above the surface). Axisymmetric spherical polar calculations were carried out for vertical impacts. Two-dimensional plane-polar geometry calculations were made for both vertical and oblique impacts. In general, calculations among all three geometries gave consistent results. Our basic result is that the amount of escaping material is less than or approximately equal to the impactor mass even for the most favorable cases. Amounts of escaping material scaled most strongly as a function of velocity, with high-velocity impacts generating the largest amount, as expected. Dependence of the relative amount of escaping mass fesc = mesc/ Mi on impactor diameter di was weak. Oblique impacts (impact angle θi > 45°) were more effective than vertical or near-vertical impacts; ratios of mesc/ Mi ˜ 1-2 were

  12. INMS Titan Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, J. H., Jr.; Niemann, H.; Yelle, R. V.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Cravens, T. E.; Luhmann, J. G.; McNutt, R. L.; Ip, W.-H.; De La Haye, V.; Ledvina, S.; Mueller-Wordarg, I.; Borggren, N.

    2005-08-01

    The Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) aboard the Cassini Orbiter has obtained the first in situ composition measurements of the neutral densities of molecular nitrogen, methane, hydrogen, argon, and a host of stable carbon-nitrile ion and neutral compounds in the first and sixth flybys of Titan. The bulk composition and thermal structure of the moon's upper atmosphere appear to vary with latitude and local time. The new data set provides strong evidence for atmospheric waves in the upper atmosphere and for the existence of a warm, chemically complex corona. Furthermore, the data set provides direct measurements of isotopes of nitrogen, carbon, and argon, which reveal interesting clues about the evolution of the atmosphere. The atmosphere likely formed from outgassing as planetesimals composed of silicates, water ice, clathrates of methane, and ammonia hydrates coalesced. Subsequent photochemistry and/or shock-induced chemistry likely converted the atmospheric nitrogen into molecular nitrogen, which is inferred by the absence (<0.6 ppm) of 36Ar in the INMS data. (Ice clathrate delivery of N2 would have presumably also delivered 36Ar to the proto Titan.) The decrease of the 14N to 15N isotopic ratio with respect to the terrestrial value allows us to suggest an early atmosphere >1.5 to 100 times more substantial that was lost via escape over the intervening 4.5 billion years. Carbon in the form of methane has continued to outgas over time from the interior (as inferred from the elevated 12C to 13C ratio as compared to terrestrial values) with much of its subsequent photolysis products being deposited in the form of complex hydrocarbons on the surface ( 5 x 1027 s-1 as estimated from the H2 escape rate of 6.1 ± 0.2 x 109 cm-2 s-1 measured by INMS). This talk will highlight the composition, vertical structure, wave processes, and escape of Titan's atmosphere.

  13. Titan's Radioactive Haze : Production and Fate of Radiocarbon On Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Jull, A. J. T.; Swindle, T. D.; Lunine, J. I.

    Just as cosmic rays interact with nitrogen atoms in the atmosphere of Earth to gener- ate radiocarbon (14C), the same process should occur in Titan`s nitrogen-rich atmo- sphere. Titan`s atmosphere is thick enough that cosmic ray flux, rather than nitrogen column depth, limits the production of 14 C. Absence of a strong magnetic field and the increased distance from the sun suggest production rates of 9 atom/cm2/s, approx- imately 4 times higher than Earth. On Earth the carbon is rapidly oxidised into CO2. The fate and detectability of 14C on Titan depends on the chemical species into which it is incorporated in Titan's reducing atmosphere : as methane it would be hopelessly diluted even in only the atmosphere (ignoring the other, much more massive carbon reservoirs likely to be present on Titan, like hydrocarbon lakes.) However, in the more likely case that the 14C attaches to the haze that rains out onto the surface (as tholin, HCN or acetylene and their polymers - a much smaller carbon reservoir) , haze in the atmosphere or recently deposited on the surface would therefore be quite intrinsically radioactive. Such activity may modify the haze electrical charging and hence its coag- ulation. Measurements with compact instrumentation on future in-situ missions could place useful constraints on the mass deposition rates of photochemical material on the surface and identify locations where surface deposits of such material are `freshest`.

  14. Titan Science Return Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, Charles R.; Lincoln, William

    2014-01-01

    Each proposal for a NASA mission concept includes a Science Traceability Matrix (STM), intended to show that what is being proposed would contribute to satisfying one or more of the agency's top-level science goals. But the information traditionally provided cannot be used directly to quantitatively compare anticipated science return. We added numerical elements to NASA's STM and developed a software tool to process the data. We then applied this methodology to evaluate a group of competing concepts for a proposed mission to Saturn's moon, Titan.

  15. Titan Airship Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerzhanovich, V.; Yavrouian, A.; Cutts, J.; Colozza, A.; Fairbrother, D.

    2001-01-01

    Saturn's moon Titan is considered to be one of the prime candidates for studying prebiotic materials - the substances that precede the formation of life but have disappeared from the Earth as a result of the evolution of life. A unique combination of a dense, predominantly nitrogen, atmosphere (more than four times that of the Earth), low gravity (six times less than on the Earth) and small temperature variations makes Titan the almost ideal planet for studies with lighter-than-air aerial platforms (aerobots). Moreover, since methane clouds and photochemical haze obscure the surface, low-altitude aerial platforms are the only practical means that can provide global mapping of the Titan surface at visible and infrared wavelengths. One major challenge in Titan exploration is the extremely cold atmosphere (approx. 90 K). However, current material technology the capability to operate aerobots at these very low temperatures. A second challenge is the remoteness from the Sun (10 AU) that makes the nuclear (radioisotopic) energy the only practical source of power. A third challenge is remoteness from the Earth (approx. 10 AU, two-way light-time approx. 160 min) which imposes restrictions on data rates and makes impractical any meaningful real-time control. A small-size airship (approx. 25 cu m) can carry a payload approximately 100 kg. A Stirling engine coupled to a radioisotope heat source would be the prime choice for producing both mechanical and electrical power for sensing, control, and communications. The cold atmospheric temperature makes Stirling machines especially effective. With the radioisotope power source the airship may fly with speed approximately 5 m/s for a year or more providing an excellent platform for in situ atmosphere measurements and a high-resolution remote sensing with unlimited access on a global scale. In a station-keeping mode the airship can be used for in situ studies on the surface by winching down an instrument package. Floating above the

  16. Titan's Gravitational Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Titan's gravitational field is inferred from an analysis of archived radio Doppler data for six Cassini flybys. The analysis considers each flyby separately in contrast to the approach of lumping all the data together in a massive inversion. In this way it is possible to gain an improved understanding of the character of each flyby and its usefulness in constraining the gravitational coefficient C22 . Though our analysis is not yet complete and our final determination of C22 could differ from the result we report here by 1 or 2 sigma, we find a best-fit value of C22 equal to (13.21 × 0.17) × 10-6, significantly larger than the value of 10.0 × 10-6 obtained from an inversion of the lumped Cassini data. We also find no determination of the tidal Love number k2. The larger value of C22 implies a moment of inertia factor equal to 0.3819 × 0.0020 and a less differentiated Titan than is suggested by the smaller value. The larger value of C22 is consistent with an undifferentiated model of the satellite. While it is not possible to rule out either value of C22 , we prefer the larger value because its derivation results from a more hands on analysis of the data that extracts the weak hydrostatic signal while revealing the effects of gravity anomalies and unmodeled spacecraft accelerations on each of the six flybys.

  17. Touchdown on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Europe's Huygens probe is on target for a Dec. 25 separation from the Cassini Saturn orbiter that has carried it like a baby for more than seven years. The probe will spend three weeks coasting to a plunge into Titan's thick atmosphere on the morning of Jan. 14. If all goes as planned, the 349-kg. Huygens will spend more than 2 hr. descending by parachute to the mysterious surface of the planet-sized moon, and hopefully devote yet more time to broadcasting data after it lands. Before the day is over, Huygens is programmed to beam about 30 megabytes of data - including some 1,100 images-back to Earth through Cassini, a trip that will take some 75 min. to complete over the 1- billion-km. distance that separates the two planets. Within that data should be answers to questions that date back to 1655, when Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens found the moon with a homemade telescope and named it for the family of giants the ancient Greeks believed once ruled the earth. In the Solar System, there is no other world like Titan, with a nitrogen and methane atmospheric and a cold, hidden surface darker than Earth under the full Moon.

  18. Mapping products of Titan's surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephan, Katrin; Jaumann, Ralf; Karkoschka, Erich; Barnes, Jason W.; Tomasko, Martin G.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Le Corre, Lucille; Langhans, Mirjam; Le Mouelic, Stephane; Lorenz, Ralf D.; Perry, Jason; Brown, Robert H.; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing instruments aboard the Cassini spacecraft have been observed the surface of Titan globally in the infrared and radar wavelength ranges as well as locally by the Huygens instruments revealing a wealth of new morphological features indicating a geologically active surface. We present a summary of mapping products of Titan's surface derived from data of the remote sensing instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft (ISS, VIMS, RADAR) as well as the Huygens probe (DISR) that were achieved during the nominal Cassini mission including an overview of Titan's recent nomenclature.

  19. The Gonzaga desulfurization flue gas process

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, R.L.; O'Leary, T.J.; Shirk, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Gonzaga desulfurization flue gas process removes sulfur dioxide from a flue by cold water scrubbing. Sulfur dioxide is significantly more soluable in cold water (35/sup 0/F to 60/sup 0/F) than in warm water (100/sup 0/F). Sulfur dioxide reacts in water similarly as carbon dioxide reacts in water, in that both gasses are released from the water as the temperature of the water increases. The researchers at the Gonzaga University developed this process from the observations and techniques used in studying the acid and aldehyde concentrations in flue gasses with varying of fuel to air ratios. The apparatus was fixedmore » to a stationary engine and a gas/oil fired boiler. The flue gas was cooled to the dew point temperature of the air entering the combustion chamber on the pre-air heater. The system is described in two parts: the energies required for cooling in the scrubbing section and the energies required in the treatment section. The cold flue gas is utilized in cooling the scrubber section.« less

  20. Coal desulfurization by low temperature chlorinolysis, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Ernest, J.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory scale, bench scale batch reactor, and minipilot plant tests were conducted on 22 bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals. Chemical pretreatment and post treatment of coals relative to the chlorination were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization by the chlorinolysis process. Elevated temperature (500-700 C) hydrogen treatment of chlorinolysis-processed coal at atmospheric pressure was found to substantially increase coal desulfurization up to 90 percent. Sulfur forms, proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coal are included. Minipilot plant operation indicates that the continuous flow reactor provides coal desulfurization results comparable to those obtained in the batch reactor. Seven runs were conducted at coal feed rates of 1.5 to 8.8 kg per hour using water and methylchloroform solvents, gaseous chlorine feed of 3 to 31.4 SCFH at 21 to 70 C, and atmospheric pressure for retention times of 20 to 120 minutes.

  1. Desulfurization: Critical step towards enhanced selenium removal from industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Staicu, Lucian C; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Crini, Grégorio

    2017-04-01

    Selenium (Se) removal from synthetic solutions and from real Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) wastewater generated by a coal-fired power plant was studied for the first time using a commercial iron oxide impregnated strong base anion exchange resin, Purolite ® FerrIX A33E. In synthetic solutions, the resin showed high affinity for selenate and selenite, while sulfate exhibited a strong competition for both oxyanions. The FGD wastewater investigated is a complex system that contains Se (∼1200 μg L -1 ), SO 4 2- (∼1.1 g L -1 ), Cl - (∼9.5 g L -1 ), and Ca 2+ (∼5 g L -1 ), alongside a broad spectrum of toxic trace metals including Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, and Zn. The resin performed poorly against Se in the raw FGD wastewater and showed moderate to good removal of several trace elements such as Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn. In FGD effluent, sulfate was identified as a powerful competing anion for Se, having high affinity for the exchange active sites of the resin. The desulfurization of the FGD effluent using BaCl 2 led to the increase in Se removal from 3% (non-desulfurized effluent) to 80% (desulfurized effluent) by combined precipitation and ion exchange treatment. However, complete desulfurization using equimolar BaCl 2 could not be achieved due to the presence of bicarbonate that acts as a sulfate competitor for barium. In addition to selenium and sulfate removal, several toxic metals were efficiently removed (Cd: 91%; Cr: 100%; Zn: 99%) by the combined (desulfurization and ion exchange) treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Global Topographic Map of Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-15

    Using data from NASA Cassini spacecraft, scientists have created the first global topographic map of Saturn moon Titan, giving researchers a 3-D tool for learning more about one of the most Earthlike and interesting worlds in the solar system.

  3. Titan's greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1992-01-01

    Thermal mechanisms active in Titan's atmosphere are discussed in a brief review of data obtained during the Voyager I flyby in 1980. Particular attention is given to the greenhouse effect (GHE) produced by atmospheric H2, N2, and CH4; this GHE is stronger than that on earth, with CH4 and H2 playing roles similar to those of H2O and CO2 on earth. Also active on Titan is an antigreenhouse effect, in which dark-brown and orange organic aerosols block incoming solar light while allowing IR radiation from the Titan surface to escape. The combination of GHE and anti-GHE leads to a surface temperature about 12 C higher than it would be if Titan had no atmosphere.

  4. Simulating Titan-Like Smog

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-03

    In a laboratory experiment at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., scientists simulate the atmosphere of Saturn moon Titan. In this picture, molecules of dicyanoacetylene are seen on a special film on a sapphire window.

  5. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turtle, E. P.; DelGenio, A. D.; Barbara, J. M.; Perry, J. E.; Schaller, E. L.; McEwen, A. S.; West, R. A.; Ray, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem has observed Titan for 1/4 Titan year, and we report here the first evidence of seasonal shifts in preferred locations of tropospheric methane clouds. South \\polar convective cloud activity, common in late southern summer, has become rare. North \\polar and northern mid \\latitude clouds appeared during the approach to the northern spring equinox in August 2009. Recent observations have shown extensive cloud systems at low latitudes. In contrast, southern mid \\latitude and subtropical clouds have appeared sporadically throughout the mission, exhibiting little seasonality to date. These differences in behavior suggest that Titan s clouds, and thus its general circulation, are influenced by both the rapid temperature response of a low \\thermal \\inertia surface and the much longer radiative timescale of Titan s cold thick troposphere. North \\polar clouds are often seen near lakes and seas, suggesting that local increases in methane concentration and/or lifting generated by surface roughness gradients may promote cloud formation. Citation

  6. The Story Titan Dunes Tell

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-10

    An intricate, fingerprint-like pattern of dunes is seen in this dramatic radar image of Saturn moon Titan captured by NASA Cassini spacecraft on May 21, 2009 from an altitude of 965 kilometers about 600 miles.

  7. Chemistry in Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plessis, S.; Carrasco, N.; Pernot, P.

    2009-04-01

    Modelling the chemical composition of Titan's ionosphere is a very challenging issue. Latest works perform either inversion of CASSINI's INMS mass spectra (neutral[1] or ion[2]), or design coupled ion-neutral chemistry models[3]. Coupling ionic and neutral chemistry has been reported to be an essential feature of accurate modelling[3]. Electron Dissociative Recombination (EDR), where free electrons recombine with positive ions to produce neutral species, is a key component of ion-neutral coupling. There is a major difficulty in EDR modelling: for heavy ions, the distribution of neutral products is incompletely characterized by experiments. For instance, for some hydrocarbon ions only the carbon repartition is measured, leaving the hydrogen repartition and thus the exact neutral species identity unknown[4]. This precludes reliable deterministic modelling of this process and of ion-neutral coupling. We propose a novel stochastic description of the EDR chemical reactions which enables efficient representation and simulation of the partial experimental knowledge. The description of products distribution in multi-pathways reactions is based on branching ratios, which should sum to unity. The keystone of our approach is the design of a probability density function accounting for all available informations and physical constrains. This is done by Dirichlet modelling which enables one to sample random variables whose sum is constant[5]. The specifics of EDR partial uncertainty call for a hierarchiral Dirichlet representation, which generalizes our previous work[5]. We present results on the importance of ion-neutral coupling based on our stochastic model. C repartition H repartition (measured) (unknown ) → C4H2 + 3H2 + H .. -→ C4 . → C4H2 + 7H → C3H8. + CH C4H+9 + e- -→ C3 + C .. → C3H3 + CH2 + 2H2 → C2H6 + C2H2 + H .. -→ C2 + C2 . → 2C2H2 + 2H2 + H (1) References [1] J. Cui, R.V. Yelle, V. Vuitton, J.H. Waite Jr., W.T. Kasprzak

  8. Life on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potashko, Oleksandr

    Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through the life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life - most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic activity we have 100% probability to find a life. Therefore the most perspective “search for life” are Enceladus, Io and comets, further would be Venus, Jupiter’s satellites, Saturn’s satellites and first of all - Titan. Titan has atmosphere. It might be result of high volcanic activity - from one side, from other side atmosphere is a necessary condition development life from procaryota to eucaryota. Existence of a planet means that all its elements after hydrogen formed just there inside a planet. The forming of the elements leads to the formation of mineral and organic substances and further to the organic life. Development of the life depends upon many factors, e.g. the distance from star/s. The intensity of the processes of the element formation is inversely to the distance from the star. Therefore we may suppose that the intensity of the life in Mercury was very high. Hence we may detect tracks of life in Mercury, particularly near volcanoes. The distance from the star is only one parameter and now Titan looks very active - mainly due to interior reason. Its atmosphere compounds are analogous to comet tail compounds. Their collation may lead to interesting result as progress occurs at one of them. Volcanic activity is as a source of life origin as well a reason for a death of life. It depends upon the thickness of planet crust. In the case of small thickness of a crust the probability is high that volcanoes may destroy a life on a planet - like Noachian deluge. Destroying of the life under volcano influences doesn’t lead to full dead. As result we would have periodic Noachian deluge or

  9. Methane rain on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Courtin, Regis; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1988-01-01

    The atmosphere of Titan is characterized by means of model computations based on Voyager IRIS IR spectra and published data from laboratory determinations of absorption coefficients and cloud refractive indices. The results are presented in tables and graphs, and it is pointed out that the presence of Ar is not required in the model. Particular attention is given to the role of CH4, which is found to form patchy clouds (with particle radii of 50 microns or greater and visible/IR optical depths of 2-5) at altitudes up to about 30 km. The mechanisms by which such rain-sized particles could form are discussed, and it is suggested that the observed 500-600/cm spectrum is affected much less by the CH4 clouds than by H2 or variations in the temperature of the high-altitude haze.

  10. From Titan's chemistry and exobiology to Titan's astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, François

    2015-04-01

    When the IDS proposal « Titan's chemistry and exobiology » was submitted to ESA 25 years ago, in the frame of what will become the Cassini-Huygens mission, Titan was already seen as a quite interesting planetary object in the solar system for Exobiology. Several organic compounds of prebiotic interest were identified in its atmosphere, which was thus was expected to be chemically very active, especially in term of organic processes. Atmospheric aerosols seemed to play a key role in this chemistry. Moreover, the presence of an internal aqueous ocean, compatible with life was suspected. A few years later, when astrobiology was (re)invented, Titan became one of the most interesting planetary target for this new (but very similar to exobiology) field. With the Cassini-Huygens mission, the exo/astrobiological interest of Titan has become more and more important. However, the mission has been providing a vision of Titan quite different from what it was supposed. Its atmospheric organic chemistry is very complex and starts in much higher zones than it was believed before, involving high molecular weight species in the ionosphere. Titan's surface appears to be far from homogeneous: instead of been covered by a global methane-ethane ocean, it is very diversified, with dunes, lakes, bright and dark areas, impact and volcanic craters with potential cryovolcanic activity. These various geological areas are continuously feeded by atmospheric aerosols, which represent an important step in the complexity of Titan's organic chemistry, but probably not the final one. Indeed, after being deposited on the surface, in the potential cryovolvanic zones, these particles may react with water ice and form compounds of exo/astrobiological interest, such as amino acids, purine and pyrimidine bases. Moreover, The Cassini-Huygens data strongly support the potential presence of an internal water ocean, which becomes less and less hypothetical and of great interest for exobiology. These

  11. Desulfurization of coal by microbial column flotation.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, N; Saiki, H

    1994-06-05

    Twenty-three strains capable of oxidizing iron were isolated from coal and ore storage sites as well as coal and ore mines, volcanic areas, and hot spring. Four strains were found to have high iron-oxidizing activity. One strain (T-4) was selected for this experiment since the strain showed the fastest leaching rate of iron and sulfate from pyrite among the four strains. The T-4 strain was assigned for Thiobacillus ferrooxidans from its cultural and morphological characteristics.Bacterial treatment was applied to column flotation. An increase of cell density in the microbial column flotation resulted in the increase of pyrite removal from a coal-pyrite mixture (high sulfur imitated coal) with corresponding decrease of coal recovery. The addition of kerosene into the microbial column flotation increased the recovery of the imitated coal from 55% (without kerosene) to 81% (with 50 microL/L kerosene) with the reduction of pyrite sulfur content from 11% (feed coal) to 3.9% (product coal). The kerosene addition could reduce the pyritic sulfur content by collecting the coal in the recovery. However, the addition could not enhance separation of pyrite from the coal-pyrite mixture, since pyrite rejection was not affected by the increase of the kerosene addition. An excellent separation was obtained by the microbial flotation using a long column which had a length-diameter (L/D) ratio of 12.7. The long column flotation reduced the pyritic sulfur content from 11% (feed coal) to 1.8% (product coal) when 80% of the feed coal was recovered without the kerosene addition. The long column flotation not only attained an excellent separation but also reduced the amount of cells for desulfurization to as little as one-tenth of the reported amount.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of barium strontium titanate and bismuth titanate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huiwen

    Hydrothermal processing facilitates the synthesis of crystalline ceramic materials of varying composition or complex crystal structure. The present work can be divided into two parts. First is to study the low temperature hydrothermal synthesis of bismuth titanate. Second is to study both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the hydrothermally synthesized barium strontium titanate. A chelating agent was used to form a Bi-Ti gel precursor. By hydrothermally treating the Bi-Ti gel, crystalline bismuth titanate has been synthesized at 160°C for the first time. Microstructural evolution during the low temperature synthesis of bismuth titanate can be divided into two stages, including condensation of Bi-Ti gel particles and crystallization of bismuth titanate. Crystallization of bismuth titanate occurred by an in situ transformation mechanism at an early stage followed by a dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism. Phase separation was observed in hydrothermally synthesized barium strontium titanate (BST). By hydrothermally treating BST powders between 250°C--300°C, an asymmetrical miscibility gap was found in the BaTiO3-SrTiO 3 system at low temperatures (T ≤ 320°C). A subregular solid solution model was applied to calculate the equilibrium compositions and the Gibbs free energy of formation of BST solid solution at low temperatures (T ≤ 320°C). The Gibbs free energy of formation of Sr-rich BST phase is larger than that of Ba-rich BST phase. Kinetic studies of single phase BST solid solution at 80°C show that, compared to the BaTiO3 or Ba-rich BST, SrTiO3 and Sr-rich BST powders form at lower reaction rates.

  13. Magnetospheric particle precipitation at Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Emilie; Esposito, Larry; Crary, Frank; Wahlund, Jan-Erik

    2017-04-01

    Although solar XUV radiation is known to be the main source of ionization in Titan's upper atmosphere around 1100 km of altitude, magnetospheric particle precipitation can also account for about 10% of the ionization process. Magnetospheric particle precipitation is expected to be the most intense on the nightside of the satelllite and when Titan's orbital position around Saturn is the closest to Noon Saturn Local Time (SLT). In addition, on several occasion throughout the Cassini mission, Titan has been observed while in the magnetosheath. We are reporting here Ultraviolet (UV) observations of Titan airglow enhancements correlated to these magnetospheric changing conditions occurring while the spacecraft, and thus Titan, are known to have crossed Saturn's magnetopause and have been exposed to the magnetosheath environnment. Using Cassini-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observations of Titan around 12PM SLT as our primary set of data, we present evidence of Titan's upper atmosphere response to a fluctuating magnetospheric environment. Pattern recognition software based on 2D UVIS detector images has been used to retrieve observations of interest, looking for airglow enhancement of a factor of 2. A 2D UVIS detector image, created for each UVIS observation of Titan, displays the spatial dimension of the UVIS slit on the x-axis and the time on the y-axis. In addition, data from the T32 flyby and from April 17, 2005 from in-situ Cassini instruments are used. Correlations with data from simultaneous observations of in-situ Cassini instruments (CAPS, RPWS and MIMI) has been possible on few occasions and events such as electron burst and reconnections can be associated with unusual behaviors of the Titan airglow. CAPS in-situ measurements acquired during the T32 flyby are consistent with an electron burst observed at the spacecraft as the cause of the UV emission. Moreover, on April 17, 2005 the UVIS observation displays feature similar to what could be aTitan

  14. Mapping of Titan: Results from the first Titan radar passes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stofan, E.R.; Lunine, J.I.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Lorenz, R.D.; Wood, C.A.; Kirk, R.; Wall, S.; Elachi, C.; Soderblom, L.A.; Ostro, S.; Janssen, M.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

    2006-01-01

    The first two swaths collected by Cassini's Titan Radar Mapper were obtained in October of 2004 (Ta) and February of 2005 (T3). The Ta swath provides evidence for cryovolcanic processes, the possible occurrence of fluvial channels and lakes, and some tectonic activity. The T3 swath has extensive areas of dunes and two large impact craters. We interpret the brightness variations in much of the swaths to result from roughness variations caused by fracturing and erosion of Titan's icy surface, with additional contributions from a combination of volume scattering and compositional variations. Despite the small amount of Titan mapped to date, the significant differences between the terrains of the two swaths suggest that Titan is geologically complex. The overall scarcity of impact craters provides evidence that the surface imaged to date is relatively young, with resurfacing by cryovolcanism, fluvial erosion, aeolian erosion, and likely atmospheric deposition of materials. Future radar swaths will help to further define the nature of and extent to which internal and external processes have shaped Titan's surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Planetary science: Titan's lost seas found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotin, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    When the Cassini spacecraft found no methane ocean swathing Saturn's moon Titan, it was a blow to proponents of an Earth-like world. The discovery of northern lakes on Titan gives them reason for cheer.

  16. Outline of an Ancient Sea on Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-16

    This image from NASA Cassini spacecraft shows an ancient southern sea that used to sprawl out near the south pole of Saturn moon Titan. Within this basin is the largest present-day lake in Titan southern hemisphere, Ontario Lacus.

  17. Working Toward Seamless Infrared Maps of Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-24

    Each of these two montages shows four synthetic views of Titan created using data acquired by NASA Cassini spacecraft between 2004 and 2015. With each flyby, a brief opportunity to add small pieces to the overall mapping coverage of Titan.

  18. Novel polyoxometalate silica nano-sized spheres: efficient catalysts for olefin oxidation and the deep desulfurization process.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Lucie S; Ribeiro, Susana; Granadeiro, Carlos M; Pereira, Eulália; Feio, Gabriel; Cunha-Silva, Luís; Balula, Salete S

    2014-07-07

    A novel method to prepare silica nano-sized particles incorporating polyoxometalates was developed leading to a new efficient heterogeneous oxidative catalyst. Zinc-substituted polyoxotungstate [PW11Zn(H2O)O39](5-) (PW11Zn) was encapsulated into silica nanoparticles using a cross-linked organic-inorganic core, performed through successive spontaneous reactions in water. The potassium salt of PW11Zn and the composite formed, PW11Zn-APTES@SiO2, were characterized by a myriad of solid-state methods such as FT-IR, FT-Raman, (31)P and (13)C CP/MAS solid-state NMR, elemental analysis and SEM-EDS, confirming the integrity of the PW11Zn structure immobilized in the silica nanoparticles. The new composite has shown to be a versatile catalyst for the oxidation of olefins and also to catalyze the desulfurization of a model oil using H2O2 as the oxidant and acetonitrile as the solvent. The novel composite material was capable of being recycled without significant loss of activity and maintaining its structural stability for consecutive desulfurization and olefin oxidative cycles.

  19. SHAWNEE FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION COMPUTER MODEL USERS MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual describes a Shawnee flue gas desulfurization (FGD) computer model and gives detailed instructions for its use. The model, jointly developed by Bechtel National, Inc. and TVA (in conjunction with the EPA-sponsored Shawnee test program), is capable of projecting prelimin...

  20. STATUS OF COMMERCIAL UTILITY FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION) TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes the status of FGD technology as of March 1983 and highlights recent trends in process selection, design, and performance of FGD systems. The information collected in the program is stored in the Flue Gas Desulfurization Information System (FGDIS), a collectio...

  1. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION: THE STATE OF THE ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a review of commercially available flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies that have an established record of full-scale performance. (NOTE: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubbers may be used by coal-fired electrcity generating units to meet the requiremen...

  2. Effect of Flue Gas Desulfurization Waste on Corn Plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a by-product of conversion of sulfur dioxide into solid waste from coal combustion power generation plant. This by-product is rich in calcium, magnesium, and contains various other essential plant nutrients. The beneficial use of application of this waste as...

  3. CURRENT STATUS OF ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following report discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in preparation of ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) calcium silicate sorbentsfor flue gas desulfurization. It also discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in sorbent preparation. Fly ash was ground in a l...

  4. Desulfurization kinetics of molten copper by gas bubbling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunaka, Y.; Nishikawa, K.; Sohn, H. S.; Asaki, Z.

    1991-02-01

    Molten copper with 0.74 wt pct sulfur content was desulfurized at 1523 K by bubbling Ar-O2 gas through a submerged nozzle. The reaction rate was significantly influenced not only by the oxygen partial pressure but also by the gas flow rate. Little evolution of SO2 gas was observed in the initial 10 seconds of the oxidation; however, this was followed by a period of high evolution rate of SO2 gas. The partial pressure of SO2 gas decreased with further progress of the desulfurization. The effect of the immersion depth of the submerged nozzle was negligible. The overall reaction is decomposed to two elementary reactions: the desulfurization and the dissolution rate of oxygen. The assumptions were made that these reactions are at equilibrium and that the reaction rates are controlled by mass transfer rates within and around the gas bubble. The time variations of sulfur and oxygen contents in the melt and the SO2 partial pressure in the off-gas under various bubbling conditions were well explained by the mathematical model combined with the reported thermodynamic data of these reactions. Based on the present model, it was anticipated that the oxidation rate around a single gas bubble was mainly determined by the rate of gas-phase mass transfer, but all oxygen gas blown into the melt was virtually consumed to the desulfurization and dissolution reactions before it escaped from the melt surface.

  5. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION: THE STATE OF THE ART: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Srivastava*, R.K., and Jozewicz, W. Flue Gas Desulfurization: The State of the Art. Journal of Air and Waste Management Association (Air & Waste Management Asiciation) 51 (12):1676-88 (2001). EPA/600/J-01/391, Available: Journal of Air and Waste Management Association (journal)...

  6. MARKETING OF BYPRODUCT GYPSUM FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the 1985 marketing potential of byproduct gypsum from utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD), for the area east of the Rocky Mountains, using the calculated gypsum production rates of 14 selected power plants. The 114 cement plants and...

  7. Core-in-shell sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Akiti, Jr., Tetteh T.

    2004-02-10

    A core-in-shell sorbent is described herein. The core is reactive to the compounds of interest, and is preferably calcium-based, such as limestone for hot gas desulfurization. The shell is a porous protective layer, preferably inert, which allows the reactive core to remove the desired compounds while maintaining the desired physical characteristics to withstand the conditions of use.

  8. Ralstonia eutropha as a biocatalyst for desulfurization of dibenzothiophene.

    PubMed

    Dejaloud, Azita; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh; Habibi, Alireza

    2017-07-01

    The potential of Ralstonia eutropha as a biocatalyst for desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) was studied in growing and resting cell conditions. The results of both conditions showed that sulfur was removed from DBT which accompanied by the formation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP). In growing cell experiments, glucose was used as an energy supplying substrate in initial concentrations of 55 mM (energy-limited) and 111 mM (energy-sufficient). The growing cell behaviors were quantitatively described using the logistic equation and maintenance concept. The results indicated that 2-HBP production was higher for the energy-sufficient cultures, while the values of the specific growth rate and the maintenance coefficient for these media were lower than those of the energy-limited cultures. Additionally, the kinetic studies showed that the half-saturation constant for the energy-limited cultures was 2 times higher than the energy-sufficient ones where the inhibition constant (0.08 mM) and the maximum specific DBT desulfurization rate (0.002 mmol g cell -1  h -1 ) were almost constant. By defining desulfurizing capacity (D DBT ) including both the biomass concentration and time to reach a particular percentage of DBT conversion, the best condition for desulfurizing cell was determined at 23% g cell L -1  h -1 which corresponded with the resting cells that were harvested at the mid-exponential growth phase.

  9. The atmospheric temperature structure of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, J. B.; Courtin, Regis; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of various factors to the thermal structure of Titan's past and present atmosphere are discussed. A one dimensional model of Titan's thermal structure is summarized. The greenhouse effect of Titan's atmosphere, caused primarily by pressure induced opacity of N2, CH4, and H2, is discussed together with the antigreenhouse effect dominated by the haze which absorbs incident sunlight. The implications for the atmosphere of the presence of an ocean on Titan are also discussed.

  10. Titan Global Map - June 2015

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-09

    This global digital map of Saturn's moon Titan was created using images taken by NASA's Cassini spacecraft's imaging science subsystem (ISS). The map was produced in June 2015 using data collected through Cassini's flyby on April 7, 2014, known as "T100." The images were taken using a filter centered at 938 nanometers, allowing researchers to examine variations in albedo (or inherent brightness) across the surface of Titan. Because of the scattering of light by Titan's dense atmosphere, no topographic shading is visible in these images. The map is an equidistant projection and has a scale of 2.5 miles (4 kilometers) per pixel. Actual resolution varies greatly across the map, with the best coverage (close to the map scale) along the equator near the center of the map at 180 degrees west longitude. The lowest resolution coverage can be seen in the northern mid-latitudes on the sub-Saturn hemisphere. Mapping coverage in the northern polar region has greatly improved since the previous version of this map in 2011 (see PIA14908). Large dark areas, now known to be liquid-hydrocarbon-filled lakes and seas, have since been documented at high latitudes. Titan's north pole was not well illuminated early in Cassini's mission, because it was winter in the northern hemisphere when the spacecraft arrived at Saturn. Cassini has been better able to observe northern latitudes in more recent years due to seasonal changes in solar illumination. This map is an update to the previous versions released in April 2011 and February 2009 (see PIA11149). Data from the past four years (the most recent data in the map is from April 2014) has completely filled in missing data in the north polar region and replaces the earlier imagery of the Xanadu region with higher quality data. A data gap of about 3 to 5 percent of Titan's surface still remains, located in the northern mid-latitudes on the sub-Saturn hemisphere of Titan. The uniform gray area in the northern hemisphere indicates a gap in the

  11. Organic chemistry on Titan: Surface interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Sagan, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The interaction of Titan's organic sediments with the surface (solubility in nonpolar fluids) is discussed. How Titan's sediments can be exposed to an aqueous medium for short, but perhaps significant, periods of time is also discussed. Interactions with hydrocarbons and with volcanic magmas are considered. The alteration of Titan's organic sediments over geologic time by the impacts of meteorites and comets is discussed.

  12. Titan South Polar Cloud Burst

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-03

    This infrared image of Saturn's moon Titan shows a large burst of clouds in the moon's south polar region. These clouds form and move much like those on Earth, but in a much slower, more lingering fashion, new results from NASA's Cassini Spacecraft show. This image is a color composite, with red shown at a 5-micron wavelength, green at 2.7 microns, and blue at 2 microns. An infrared color mosaic is also used as a background image (red at 5 microns, green at 2 microns, blue at 1.3 microns). The images were taken by Cassini's visual and infrared mapping spectrometer during a flyby of Titan on March 26, 2007, known as T27. For a similar view see PIA12004. Titan's southern hemisphere still shows a very active meteorology (the cloud appears in white-reddish tones) even in 2007. According to climate models, these clouds should have faded out since 2005. Scientists have monitored Titan's atmosphere for three-and-a-half years, between July 2004 and December 2007, and observed more than 200 clouds. The way these clouds are distributed around Titan matches scientists' global circulation models. The only exception is timing—clouds are still noticeable in the southern hemisphere while fall is approaching. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA12005

  13. Structure of Titan's evaporites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordier, D.; Cornet, T.; Barnes, J. W.; MacKenzie, S. M.; Le Bahers, T.; Nna-Mvondo, D.; Rannou, P.; Ferreira, A. G.

    2016-05-01

    Numerous geological features that could be evaporitic in origin have been identified on the surface of Titan. Although they seem to be water-ice poor, their main properties - chemical composition, thickness, stratification - are essentially unknown. In this paper, which follows on a previous one focusing on the surface composition (Cordier, D., Barnes, J.W., Ferreira, A.G. [2013b]. Icarus 226(2),1431-1437), we provide some answers to these questions derived from a new model. This model, based on the up-to-date thermodynamic theory known as ;PC-SAFT;, has been validated with available laboratory measurements and specifically developed for our purpose. 1-D models confirm the possibility of an acetylene and/or butane enriched central layer of evaporitic deposit. The estimated thickness of this acetylene-butane layer could explain the strong RADAR brightness of the evaporites. The 2-D computations indicate an accumulation of poorly soluble species at the deposit's margin. Among these species, HCN or aerosols similar to tholins could play a dominant role. Our model predicts the existence of chemically trimodal ;bathtub rings; which is consistent with what it is observed at the south polar lake Ontario Lacus. This work also provides plausible explanations to the lack of evaporites in the south polar region and to the high radar reflectivity of dry lakebeds.

  14. Widespread morning drizzle on Titan.

    PubMed

    Adámkovics, Máté; Wong, Michael H; Laver, Conor; de Pater, Imke

    2007-11-09

    Precipitation is expected in Titan's atmosphere, yet it has not been directly observed, and the geographical regions where rain occurs are unknown. Here we present near-infrared spectra from the Very Large Telescope and W. M. Keck Observatories that reveal an enhancement of opacity in Titan's troposphere on the morning side of the leading hemisphere. Retrieved extinction profiles are consistent with condensed methane in clouds at an altitude near 30 kilometers and concomitant methane drizzle below. The moisture encompasses the equatorial region over Titan's brightest continent, Xanadu. Diurnal temperature gradients that cause variations in methane relative humidity, winds, and topography may each be a contributing factor to the condensation mechanism. The clouds and precipitation are optically thin at 2.0 micrometers, and models of "subvisible" clouds suggest that the droplets are 0.1 millimeter or larger.

  15. Diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Cravens, T. E.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-06-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1000 and 1300 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from eight close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Although there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ˜700 cm-3 below ˜1300 km. Such a plateau is a combined result of significant depletion of light ions and modest depletion of heavy ones on Titan's nightside. We propose that the distinctions between the diurnal variations of light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through “fast” ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through “slow” electron dissociative recombination. The strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes suggests a scenario in which the ions created on Titan's dayside may survive well to the nightside. The observed asymmetry between the dawn and dusk ion density profiles also supports such an interpretation. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effect of ion survival associated with solid body rotation alone as well as superrotating horizontal winds. For long-lived ions, the predicted diurnal variations have similar general characteristics to those observed. However, for short-lived ions, the model densities on the nightside are significantly lower than the observed values. This implies that electron precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere may be an additional and important contributor to the densities of the short-lived ions observed on Titan's nightside.

  16. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoliang Ma; Uday Turaga; Shingo Watanabe

    2004-05-01

    The overall objective of this project is to explore a new desulfurization system concept, which consists of efficient separation of the refractory sulfur compounds from diesel fuel by selective adsorption, and effective hydrodesulfurization of the concentrated fraction of the refractory sulfur compounds in diesel fuels. Our approaches focused on (1) selecting and developing new adsorbents for selective adsorption of sulfur or sulfur compounds in commercial diesel fuel; (2) conducting the adsorption desulfurization of model fuels and real diesel fuels by the selective-adsorption-for-removing-sulfur (PSUSARS) process over various developed adsorbents, and examining the adsorptive desulfurization performance of various adsorbents; (3) developing andmore » evaluating the regeneration methods for various spent adsorbent; (4) developing new catalysts for hydrodesulfurization of the refractory sulfur existing in the commercial diesel fuel; (5) on the basis of the fundamental understanding of the adsorptive performance and regeneration natures of the adsorbents, further confirming and improving the conceptual design of the novel PSU-SARS process for deep desulfurization of diesel fuel Three types of adsorbents, the metal-chloride-based adsorbents, the activated nickel-based adsorbents and the metal-sulfide-based adsorbents, have been developed for selective adsorption desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons. All of three types of the adsorbents exhibit the significant selectivity for sulfur compounds, including alkyl dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), in diesel fuel. Adsorption desulfurization of real diesel fuels (regular diesel fuel (DF), S: 325 ppmw; low sulfur diesel fuel (LSD-I), S: 47 ppmw) over the nickel-based adsorbents (A-2 and A-5) has been conducted at different conditions by using a flowing system. The adsorption capacity of DF over A-2 corresponding to an outlet sulfur level of 30 ppmw is 2.8 mg-S/g-A. The adsorption capacity of LSD-I over A-5 corresponding to the

  17. Oxidative desulfurization of fuel oil by pyridinium-based ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dishun; Wang, Yanan; Duan, Erhong

    2009-10-28

    In this work, an N-butyl-pyridinium-based ionic liquid [BPy]BF(4) was prepared. The effect of extraction desulfurization on model oil with thiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT) was investigated. Ionic liquids and hydrogen peroxide (30%) were tested in extraction-oxidation desulfurization of model oil. The results show that the ionic liquid [BPy]BF(4) has a better desulfurization effect. The best technological conditions are: V(IL)/V(Oil) /V(H(2)O(2)) = 1:1:0.4, temperature 55 degrees C, the time 30 min. The ratio of desulfurization to thiophene and DBT reached 78.5% and 84.3% respectively, which is much higher than extraction desulfurization with simple ionic liquids. Under these conditions, the effect of desulfurization on gasoline was also investigated. The used ionic liquids can be recycled up to four times after regeneration.

  18. Titan's chemical complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuitton, Veronique

    2012-04-01

    We review here our current knowledge of Titan's gas phase chemistry. We base our discussion on photochemical models as well as on laboratory experiments. We identify the lower mass positive [1,2] and negative [3] ions detected in the upper atmosphere and we show that their formation is a direct consequence of the presence of heavy neutrals. We demonstrate that the observed densities of CO, CO2 and H2O can be explained by a combination of exogenous O, and OH/H2O input [4]. We argue that benzene [5] and ammonia [6] are created in the upper atmosphere through complex chemical processes involving both neutral and ion chemistry. These species diffuse downward where they are at the origin of heavier aromatics and amines, respectively. Finally, we discuss the impact on hydrocarbon densities of recent theoretical calculations of the rate constants of association reactions [7]. [1] V. Vuitton, R. V. Yelle and V. G. Anicich, Astrophys. J., 647, L175 (2006). [2] V. Vuitton, R. V. Yelle and M. J. McEwan, Icarus, 191, 722 (2007). [3] V. Vuitton, P. Lavvas, R. V. Yelle, M. Galand, A. Wellbrock, G. R. Lewis, A. J. Coates and J.-E. Wahlund, Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1558 (2009). [4] S. M. Hörst, V. Vuitton, and R. V. Yelle, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E10006 (2008). [5] V. Vuitton, R. V. Yelle and J. Cui, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E05007 (2008). [6] R. V. Yelle, V. Vuitton, P. Lavvas, S. J. Klippenstein, M. A. Smith, S. M. Hörst and J. Cui, Faraday Discuss., 147, 31 (2010). [7] V. Vuitton, R. V. Yelle, S. J. Klippenstein and P. Lavvas, Astrophys. J., in press.

  19. Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Processes for Potential Use on Army Coal-Fired Boilers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT N-93 September 1980 ANALYSIS OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION (FGD) PROCESSES FOR POTENTIAL USE ON ARMY COAL-FIRED BOILERS TECHNICAL LIBRARY...REFERENCE: Technical Report N-93, Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Ppooesses for Potential Use on Army Coal-Fired Boilers Please take a few...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 1. REPORT NUMBER CERL-TR-N-93 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO «. TITLE (end Subtitle) ANALYSIS OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION (FGD

  20. Effect of Silicon on Desulfurization of Aluminum-killed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Debdutta

    Recent reports have suggested that silicon has a beneficial effect on the rate of desulfurization of Al-killed steel. This effect is difficult to understand looking at the overall desulfurization reaction which does not include silicon. However an explanation is proposed by taking into account the (SiO2)/[Si] equilibrium in which some Al reaching the slag-metal interface is used in reducing the SiO2 in the slag. This reaction can be suppressed to some extent if the silicon content of the metal is increased and in doing so, more Al will be available at the slag-metal interface for the desulfurization reaction and this would increase the rate of the desulfurization reaction. A model was developed, assuming the rates are controlled by mass transfer, taking into account the coupled reactions of the reduction of silica, and other unstable oxides, namely iron oxide and manganese oxide, in the slag and desulfurization reaction in the steel by aluminum. The model predicts that increasing silicon increases the rate and extent of desulfurization. Plant data was analyzed to obtain rough estimates of ladle desulfurization rates and also used to validate the model predictions. Experiments have been conducted on a kilogram scale of material in an induction furnace to test the hypothesis. The major conclusions of the study are as follows: The rate and extent of desulfurization improve with increasing initial silicon content in the steel; the effect diminishes at silicon contents higher than approximately 0.2% and with increasing slag basicity. This was confirmed with kilogram-scale laboratory experiments. The effects of the silicon content in the steel (and of initial FeO and MnO in the slag) largely arise from the dominant effects of these reactions on the equilibrium aluminum content of the steel: as far as aluminum consumption or pick-up is concerned, the Si/SiO2 reaction dominates, and desulfurization has only a minor effect on aluminum consumption. The rate is primarily

  1. Hubble Observes Surface of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Scientists for the first time have made images of the surface of Saturn's giant, haze-shrouded moon, Titan. They mapped light and dark features over the surface of the satellite during nearly a complete 16-day rotation. One prominent bright area they discovered is a surface feature 2,500 miles across, about the size of the continent of Australia.

    Titan, larger than Mercury and slightly smaller than Mars, is the only body in the solar system, other than Earth, that may have oceans and rainfall on its surface, albeit oceans and rain of ethane-methane rather than water. Scientists suspect that Titan's present environment -- although colder than minus 289 degrees Fahrenheit, so cold that water ice would be as hard as granite -- might be similar to that on Earth billions of years ago, before life began pumping oxygen into the atmosphere.

    Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory and his team took the images with the Hubble Space Telescope during 14 observing runs between Oct. 4 - 18. Smith announced the team's first results last week at the 26th annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society Division for Planetary Sciences in Bethesda, Md. Co-investigators on the team are Mark Lemmon, a doctoral candidate with the UA Lunar and Planetary Laboratory; John Caldwell of York University, Canada; Larry Sromovsky of the University of Wisconsin; and Michael Allison of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York City.

    Titan's atmosphere, about four times as dense as Earth's atmosphere, is primarily nitrogen laced with such poisonous substances as methane and ethane. This thick, orange, hydrocarbon haze was impenetrable to cameras aboard the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft that flew by the Saturn system in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The haze is formed as methane in the atmosphere is destroyed by sunlight. The hydrocarbons produced by this methane destruction form a smog similar to that found over large cities, but is much

  2. Titan's gas and plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eviatar, A.; Podolak, M.

    1983-01-01

    The implications of the Voyager observations for a steady state model of a torus of hydrogen and nitrogen neutral gas and plasma are assessed. Constraints are placed on the nitrogen neutral density, the neutral hydrogen and nitrogen escape fluxes (from Titan), and the diffusion rate in terms of observed or inferred quantities. The results obtained are consistent with the Voyager observations.

  3. Titan: Putting it all Together

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-01

    Three of Titan major surface features-dunes, craters and the enigmatic Xanadu-appear in this radar image from NASA Cassini spacecraft. The hazy bright area at the left that extends to the lower center of the image marks the northwest edge of Xanadu.

  4. GCM Simulations of Titan's Paleoclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora, Juan M.; Lunine, Jonathan; Russell, Joellen; Hayes, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    The hemispheric asymmetry observed in the distribution of Titan's lakes and seas has been suggested to be the result of asymmetric seasonal forcing, where a relative moistening of the north occurs in the current epoch due to its longer and less intense summers. General circulation models (GCMs) of present-day Titan have also shown that the atmosphere transports methane away from the equator. In this work, we use a Titan GCM to investigate the effects that changes in Titan's effective orbital parameters have had on its climate in recent geologic history. The simulations show that the climate is relatively insensitive to changes in orbital parameters, with persistently dry low latitudes and wet polar regions. The amount of surface methane that builds up over either pole depends on the insolation distribution, confirming the influence of orbital forcing on the distribution of surface liquids. The evolution of the orbital forcing implies that the surface reservoir must be transported on timescales of ~30 kyr, in which case the asymmetry reverses with a period of ~125 kyr. Otherwise, the orbital forcing is insufficient for generating the observed dichotomy.

  5. A Last Look at Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    As it glanced around the Saturn system one final time, NASA's Cassini spacecraft captured this view of the planet's giant moon Titan. Interest in mysterious Titan was a major motivating factor to return to Saturn with Cassini-Huygens following the Voyager mission flybys of the early 1980s. Cassini and its Huygens probe, supplied by European Space Agency, revealed the moon to be every bit as fascinating as scientists had hoped. These views were obtained by Cassini's narrow-angle camera on Sept. 13, 2017. They are among the last images Cassini sent back to Earth. This natural color view, made from images taken using red, green and blue spectral filters, shows Titan much as Voyager saw it -- a mostly featureless golden orb, swathed in a dense atmospheric haze. An enhanced-color view (Figure 1) adds to this color a separate view taken using a spectral filter (centered at 938 nanometers) that can partially see through the haze. The views were acquired at a distance of 481,000 miles (774,000 kilometers) from Titan. The image scale is about 3 miles (5 kilometers) per pixel. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21890

  6. Organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scattergood, T.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory photochemical simulations and other types of chemical simulations are discussed. The chemistry of methane, which is the major known constituent of Titan's atmosphere was examined with stress on what can be learned from photochemistry and particle irradiation. The composition of dust that comprises the haze layer was determined. Isotope fractionation in planetary atmospheres is also discussed.

  7. The organic aerosols of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Arakawa, E. T.; Suits, F.; Calcott, T. A.; Williams, M. W.; Shrader, S.; Ogino, H.; Willingham, T. O.

    1986-01-01

    A dark reddish organic solid, called tholin, is synthesized from simulated Titanian atmospheres by irradiation with high energy electrons in a plasma discharge. The visible reflection spectrum of this tholin is found to be similar to that of high altitude aerosols responsible for the albedo and reddish color of Titan. The real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the complex refractive index of thin films of Titan prepared by continuous dc discharge through a 0.9 N2/0.1 CH4 gas mixture at 0.2 mb is determined from X-ray to microwave frequencies. Values of n (approx. 1.65) and k (approx. 0.004 to 0.08) in the visible are consistent with deductions made by groundbased and spaceborne observations of Titan. Many infrared absorption features are present in k(lambda), including the 4.6 micrometer nitrile band. Molecular analysis of the volatile components of this tholin was performed by sequential and nonsequential pyrolytic gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. More than one hundred organic compounds are released; tentative identifications include saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, substituted polycylic aromatics, nitriles, amines, pyrroles, pyrazines, pyridines, pyrimidines, and the purine, adenine. In addition,acid hydrolysis produces a racemic mixture of biological and nonbiological amino acids. Many of these molecules are implicated in the origin of life on Earth, suggesting Titan as a contemporary laboratory environment for prebiological organic chemistry on a planetary scale.

  8. Titan Aeromony and Climate Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bézard, Bruno; Lavvas, Panayotis; Rannou, Pascal; Sotin, Christophe; Strobel, Darrell; West, Robert A.; Yelle, Roger

    2016-06-01

    The observations of the Cassini spacecraft since 2004 revealed that Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, has an active climate cycle with a cloud cover related to the large scale atmospheric circulation, lakes of methane and hyrdrocarbons with variable depth, a dried fluvial system witnessing a past wetter climate, dunes, and deep changes in the weather and atmospheric structure as Titan went through the North Spring equinox. Moreover, the upper atmosphere is now considered the cradle of complex chemistry leading to aerosol formation, as well as the manifestation place of atmospheric waves. However, as the Cassini mission comes to its end, many fundamental questions remain unresolved... The objective of the workshop is to bring together international experts from different fields of Titan's research in order to have an overview of the current understanding, and to determine the remaining salient scientific issues and the actions that could be implemented to address them. PhD students and post-doc researchers are welcomed to present their studies. This conference aims to be a brainstorming event leaving abundant time for discussion during oral and poster presentations. Main Topics: - Atmospheric seasonal cycles and coupling with dynamics. - Composition and photochemistry of the atmosphere. - Formation and evolution of aerosols and their role in the atmosphere. - Spectroscopy, optical properties, and radiative transfer modeling of the atmosphere. - Surface composition, liquid reservoirs and interaction with atmosphere. - Evolution of the atmosphere. - Titan after Cassini, open questions and the path forward.

  9. Desulfurization by MOFs as Sorbents for Thiophene Sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Chunling; Wang, Suqing

    2018-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks UMCM-150 [Cu3(BHTC)2] and its heterobimetallic analogue Co1Cu2(BHTC)2 based on an asymmetrical ligand, biphenyl-3,4’,5-tricarboxylate (H3BHTC), were studied for desulfurization of model oils. The adsorption experiments were conducted under room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The total sulfur concentration of model oils was 250 ppmw determined by WK-2D coulomb integrated micro-analyzer through adding benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) into liquid alkanes. Adsorptive desulfurization experiments were conducted in a consecutive fixed bed adsorption system. The results indicate that Cu3(BHTC)2 has a higher sulfur-capacity than Co1Cu2(BHTC)2. Taking DBT as an example, Cu3(BHTC)2 and Co1Cu2(BHTC)2 have breakthrough adsorption capacities of 10.6 and 5.8 g S/kg of sorbent for model oils.

  10. Unraveling heavy oil desulfurization chemistry: targeting clean fuels.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Tushar V; Parrott, Stephen; Johnson, Byron

    2008-03-15

    The sulfur removal chemistry of heavy oils has been unraveled by systematically investigating several heavy oils with an extremely wide range of properties. The heavy oil feed and product properties have been characterized by advanced analytical methods, and these properties have been related to the sulfur conversion data observed in pilot hydrotreating units. These studies coupled with kinetic treatment of the data have revealed that the desulfurization chemistry of heavy oils is essentially controlled by the strongly inhibiting three and larger ring aromatic hydrocarbon content and surprisingly not by the content of the "hard-to-remove" sulfur compounds. Such enhanced understanding of the heavy oil sulfur removal is expected to open new avenues for catalyst/process optimization for heavy oil desulfurization and thereby assist the efficent production of clean transporation fuels.

  11. 3D CFD Modeling of the LMF System: Desulfurization Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qing; Pitts, April; Zhang, Daojie; Nastac, Laurentiu; Williams, Robert

    A fully transient 3D CFD modeling approach capable of predicting the three phase (gas, slag and steel) fluid flow characteristics and behavior of the slag/steel interface in the argon gas bottom stirred ladle with two off-centered porous plugs (Ladle Metallurgical Furnace or LMF) has been recently developed. The model predicts reasonably well the fluid flow characteristics in the LMF system and the observed size of the slag eyes for both the high-stirring and low-stirring conditions. A desulfurization reaction kinetics model considering metal/slag interface characteristics is developed in conjunction with the CFD modeling approach. The model is applied in this study to determine the effects of processing time, and gas flow rate on the efficiency of desulfurization in the studied LMF system.

  12. a Numerical Model for Flue Gas Desulfurization System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Joon

    The purpose of this work is to develop a reliable numerical model for spray dryer desulfurization systems. The shape of the spray dryer requires that a body fitted orthogonal coordinate system be used for the numerical model. The governing equations are developed in the general orthogonal coordinates and discretized to yield a system of algebraic equations. A turbulence model is also included in the numerical program. A new second order numerical scheme is developed and included in the numerical model. The trajectory approach is used to simulate the flow of the dispersed phase. Two-way coupling phenomena is modeled by this scheme. The absorption of sulfur dioxide into lime slurry droplets is simulated by a model based on gas -phase mass transfer. The program is applied to a typical spray dryer desulfurization system. The results show the capability of the program to predict the sensitivity of system performance to changes in operational parameters.

  13. Natural desulfurization in coal-fired units using Greek lignite.

    PubMed

    Konidaris, Dimitrios N

    2010-10-01

    This paper analyzes the natural desulfurization process taking place in coal-fired units using Greek lignite. The dry scrubbing capability of Greek lignite appears to be extremely high under special conditions, which can make it possible for the units to operate within the legislative limits of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. According to this study on several lignite-fired power stations in northern Greece, it was found that sulfur oxide emissions depend on coal rank, sulfur content, and calorific value. On the other hand, SO2 emission is inversely proportional to the parameter gammaCO2(max), which is equal to the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) content by volume of dry flue gas under stoichiometric combustion. The desulfurization efficiency is positively correlated to the molar ratio of decomposed calcium carbonate to sulfur and negatively correlated to the free calcium oxide content of fly ash.

  14. Simple biogas desulfurization by microaeration - Full scale experience.

    PubMed

    Jeníček, P; Horejš, J; Pokorná-Krayzelová, L; Bindzar, J; Bartáček, J

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide in biogas is common problem during anaerobic treatment of wastewater with high sulfate concentration (breweries, distilleries, etc.) and needs to be removed before biogas utilization. Physico-chemical desulfurization methods are energetically demanding and expensive compare to biochemical methods. Microaeration, i.e. dosing of small amount of air, is suitable and cost effective biochemical method of sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur. It has been widely used in biogas plants, but its application in anaerobic reactors for wastewater treatment has been rarely studied or tested. The lack of full-scale experience with microaeration in wastewater treatment plants has been overcome by evaluating the results of seven microaerobic digesters in central Europe. The desulfurization efficiency has been more than 90% in most of the cases. Moreover, microaeration improved the degradability of COD and volatile suspended solids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring the Mechanism of Biocatalyst Inhibition in Microbial Desulfurization

    PubMed Central

    Abin-Fuentes, Andres; Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Wang, Daniel I. C.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial desulfurization, or biodesulfurization (BDS), of fuels is a promising technology because it can desulfurize compounds that are recalcitrant to the current standard technology in the oil industry. One of the obstacles to the commercialization of BDS is the reduction in biocatalyst activity concomitant with the accumulation of the end product, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (HBP), during the process. BDS experiments were performed by incubating Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 resting-cell suspensions with hexadecane at 0.50 (vol/vol) containing 10 mM dibenzothiophene. The resin Dowex Optipore SD-2 was added to the BDS experiments at resin concentrations of 0, 10, or 50 g resin/liter total volume. The HBP concentration within the cytoplasm was estimated to decrease from 1,100 to 260 μM with increasing resin concentration. Despite this finding, productivity did not increase with the resin concentration. This led us to focus on the susceptibility of the desulfurization enzymes toward HBP. Dose-response experiments were performed to identify major inhibitory interactions in the most common BDS pathway, the 4S pathway. HBP was responsible for three of the four major inhibitory interactions identified. The concentrations of HBP that led to a 50% reduction in the enzymes' activities (IC50s) for DszA, DszB, and DszC were measured to be 60 ± 5 μM, 110 ± 10 μM, and 50 ± 5 μM, respectively. The fact that the IC50s for HBP are all significantly lower than the cytoplasmic HBP concentration suggests that the inhibition of the desulfurization enzymes by HBP is responsible for the observed reduction in biocatalyst activity concomitant with HBP generation. PMID:24096431

  16. Numerical simulation of flow in the wet scrubber for desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novosád, Jan; Vít, Tomáš

    2015-05-01

    This article deals with numerical simulation of flow and chemical reactions in absorber for desulfurization of flue-gas. The objective of the work is the investigation of effect of different nozzles types and their placement in spray layers. These nozzles distribute lime suspension into flue gas stream. The research includes two types of nozzles and four different arrangements of nozzles and spray layers. Conclusion describes the effect of nozzle types and their arrangements on the suspension concentration in absorber.

  17. Temperate Lakes Discovered on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vixie, Graham; Barnes, Jason W.; Jackson, Brian; Wilson, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We have discovered two temperate lakes on Titan using Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Three key features help to identify these surface features as lakes: morphology, albedo, and specular reflection. The presence of lakes at the mid-latitudes mean liquid can accumulate and remain stable outside of the poles. We first identify a lake surface by looking for possible shorelines with a lacustrine morphology. Then, we apply a simple atmospheric correction that produces an approximate surface albedo. Next, we prepare cylindrical projection maps of the brightness of the sky as seen from any points on the surface to identify specular reflections. Our techniques can then be applied to other areas, such as Arrakis Planitia, to test for liquid. Currently, all the known lakes on Titan are concentrated at the poles. Lakes have been suggested in the tropic zone by Griffith et al. Our discovery of non-transient, temperate lakes has important implications for Titan's hydrologic cycle. Clouds have been recorded accumulating in the mid-latitudes and areas have been darkened by rainfall but later brightened after evaporation (Turtle et al. 2011). Stable temperate lakes would affect total rainfall, liquid accumulation, evaporation rates, and infiltration. Polaznik Macula (Figure 1) is a great candidate for lake filling, evaporation rates, and stability. References: Griffith, C., et al.: "Evidence for Lakes on Titan's Tropical Surface". AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #42, Vol. 42, pp. 1077, 2010. Turtle, E. P., et al.: "Rapid and Extensive Surface Changes Near Titan's Equator: Evidence of April Showers". Science, Vol. 331, pp. 1414-, 2011. Figure 1: Polaznik Macula is the large, dark area central to the figure. The encircled dark blue areas represent positively identified lake regions in the T66 flyby. The light blue areas represent lake candidates still under analysis. The green circle marks a non-lake surface feature enclosed by a

  18. Peroxide-mediated desulfurization of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Krotz, Achim H; Mehta, Rahul C; Hardee, Gregory E

    2005-02-01

    Desulfurization at the internucleotide phosphorothioate linkage of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) in dermatological formulations has been investigated using strong ion exchange chromatography and mass spectroscopy. The formation of phosphate diester linkages appeared to arise from a reaction between the phosphorothioate oligonucleotide and a potent oxidizing agent. Screening of excipients used in the formulation indicated that the cause of desulfurization was related to the presence of polyethylene glycol-derived nonionic surfactants MYRJ 52 or BRIJ 58. Autoxidation of the polyethylene glycol chain is suggested as the probable origin for the observed incompatibility. The ability of various antioxidants to prevent oxidative degradation of ASO-1 in simple test systems and in oil-in-water emulsions is described. It is found that in test systems both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants are effective. However, in cream formulation (oil-in-water emulsions) of ASO-1 the addition of hydrophilic antioxidants L-cysteine or DL-alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to be superior in protecting the oligonucleotide from desulfurization upon storage. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bissett, Larry A.; Strickland, Larry D.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of sulfur from the sulfur sorbent regeneration gas utilized in the fuel-gas desulfurization process by burning a second stream of fuel gas from the upper stage of the gasifier in a combustion device in the presence of calcium-containing material. The second stream of fuel gas is taken from above the fixed bed in the coal gasifier and is laden with ammonia, tar and sulfur values. This second stream of fuel gas is burned in the presence of excess air to provide heat energy sufficient to effect a calcium-sulfur compound forming reaction between the calcium-containing material and sulfur values carried by the regeneration gas and the second stream of fuel gas. Any ammonia values present in the fuel gas are decomposed during the combustion of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber. The substantially sulfur-free products of combustion may then be combined with the desulfurized fuel gas for providing a combustible fluid utilized for driving a prime mover.

  20. Nitrogen Chemistry in Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    In Titan's upper atmosphere N2 is dissociated to N by solar UV and high energy electrons. This flux of N provides for interesting organic chemistry in the lower atmosphere of Titan. Previously the main pathway for the loss of this N was thought to be the formation of HCN, followed by diffusion of this HCN to lower altitudes leading ultimately to condensation. However, recent laboratory simulations of organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere suggest that formation of the organic haze may be an important sink for atmospheric N. Because estimates of the eddy diffusion profile on Titan have been based on the HCN profile, inclusion of this additional sink for N will affect estimates for all transport processes in Titan's atmosphere. This and other implications of this sink for the N balance on Titan are considered.

  1. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  2. Zinc phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc phoshide ; CASRN 1314 - 84 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  3. Amino acidis derived from Titan tholins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, Bishun N.; Sagan, Carl; Ogino, Hiroshi; Nagy, Bartholomew; Er, Cevat

    1986-01-01

    The production of amino acids by acid treatment of Titan tholin is experimentally investigated. The synthesis of Titan tholin and the derivatization of amino acids to N-trifluoroacetyl isopropyl esters are described. The gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of the Titan tholins reveals the presence of glycine, alpha and beta alainine, and aspartic acid, and the total yield of amino acids is about 0.01.

  4. Deep catalytic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with oxalate-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs).

    PubMed

    Lü, Hongying; Li, Pengcheng; Deng, Changliang; Ren, Wanzhong; Wang, Shunan; Liu, Pan; Zhang, Han

    2015-07-07

    An oxalate-based DES with a tetrabutyl ammonium chloride and oxalate acid molar ratio of 1/2 (TBO1 : 2) exhibited high activity in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) under mild reaction conditions. It is potentially a promising and highly environmentally friendly approach for desulfurization of fuels.

  5. Use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum as a Heavy Metal Stabilizer in Contaminated Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a synthetic by-product generated from the flue gas desulfurization process in coal power plants. It has several beneficial applications such as an ingredient in cement production, wallboard production and in agricultural practice as a soil...

  6. The Global Energy Balance of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Liming; Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Smith, Mark A.; Gorius, Nicolas J. P.; Jiang, Xun; Conrath, Barney J.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Flasar, F. Michael; hide

    2011-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the global emitted power of Titan. Longterm (2004-2010) observations conducted by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) onboard Cassini reveal that the total emitted power by Titan is (2.84 plus or minus 0.01) x 10(exp 8) watts. Together with previous measurements of the global absorbed solar power of Titan, the CIRS measurements indicate that the global energy budget of Titan is in equilibrium within measurement error. The uncertainty in the absorbed solar energy places an upper limit on the energy imbalance of 5.3%.

  7. The bulk composition of Titan's atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, L.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of the physical constraints for Titan's atmosphere leads to a model which describes the bulk composition of the atmosphere in terms of observable parameters. Intermediate-resolution photometric scans of both Saturn and Titan, including scans of the Q branch of Titan's methane band, constrain these parameters in such a way that the model indicates the presence of another important atmospheric gas, namely, another bulk constituent or a significant thermal opacity. Further progress in determining the composition and state of Titan's atmosphere requires additional observations to eliminate present ambiguities. For this purpose, particular observational targets are suggested.

  8. Titan's geoid and hydrology: implications for Titan's geological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotin, Christophe; Seignovert, Benoit; Lawrence, Kenneth; MacKenzie, Shannon; Barnes, Jason; Brown, Robert

    2014-05-01

    A 1x1 degree altitude map of Titan is constructed from the degree 4 gravity potential [1] and Titan's shape [2] determined by the Radio Science measurements and RADAR observations of the Cassini mission. The amplitude of the latitudinal altitude variations is equal to 300 m compared to 600 m for the amplitude of the latitudinal shape variations. The two polar caps form marked depressions with an abrupt change in topography at exactly 60 degrees at both caps. Three models are envisaged to explain the low altitude of the polar caps: (i) thinner ice crust due to higher heat flux at the poles, (ii) fossil shape acquired if Titan had higher spin rate in the past, and (iii) subsidence of the crust following the formation of a denser layer of clathrates as ethane rain reacts with the H2O ice crust [3]. The later model is favored because of the strong correlation between the location of the cloud system during the winter season and the latitude of the abrupt change in altitude. Low altitude polar caps would be the place where liquids would run to and eventually form large seas. Indeed, the large seas of Titan are found at the deepest locations at the North Pole. However, the lakes and terrains considered to be evaporite candidates due to their spectral characteristics in the infrared [4,5] seem to be perched. Lakes may have been filled during Titan's winter and then slowly evaporated leaving material on the surface. Interestingly, the largest evaporite deposits are located at the equator in a deep depression 150 m below the altitude of the northern seas. This observation seems to rule out the presence of a global subsurface hydrocarbon reservoir unless the evaporation rate at the equator is faster than the transport of fluids from the North Pole to the equator. This work has been performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. [1] Iess L. et al. (2012) Science, doi 10.1126/science.1219631. [2] Lorenz R.D. (2013

  9. Experimental Study on Semi-Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization Ash Used in Steel Slag Composite Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lijun; Fang, Honghui

    This article carried out the experimental study on using desulfurization ash in steel slag composite material. This was done by investigating the desulfurization ash content in formula one and formula two samples on the influence of setting time and strength of mortar. Through this study the following conclusions were reached for formula one: (1) a setting time of more than 10 hours is required, (2) a dosage of desulfurization ash of 1 2% is optimal, where flexural strength is reduced by 10% 23% and compressive strength reduced by 5.7% 16.4%. The conclusions of formula two were: (1) when the dosage of desulfurization ash is within 5%, the setting time is within 10 hours; (2) when the dosage of desulfurization ash is 1 2%, the flexural strength is increased by 5 7% and the compressive strength is reduced by 1 2%. The results show that the formula two is better.

  10. Cassini Imaging Results at Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEwen, A.; Turtle, E.; Perry J.; Fussner, S.; Porco, C.; West, R.; Johnson, T.; Collins, G.; DelGenio, T.; Barbara, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) images show striking albedo markings on the surface of Titan. In equatorial regions the albedo patterns have high contrast and exhibit prominent lineaments and linear/angular boundaries suggestive of tectonic influences or fracturing of brittle surficial materials. There are intriguing dark curving lines near the south pole. Here we present several working hypotheses to explain these patterns. We also briefly summarize atmospheric science results.

  11. Cassini's Final Titan Radar Swath

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-11

    During its final targeted flyby of Titan on April 22, 2017, Cassini's radar mapper got the mission's last close look at the moon's surface. On this 127th targeted pass by Titan (unintuitively named "T-126"), the radar was used to take two images of the surface, shown at left and right. Both images are about 200 miles (300 kilometers) in width, from top to bottom. Objects appear bright when they are tilted toward the spacecraft or have rough surfaces; smooth areas appear dark. At left are the same bright, hilly terrains and darker plains that Cassini imaged during its first radar pass of Titan, in 2004. Scientists do not see obvious evidence of changes in this terrain over the 13 years since the original observation. At right, the radar looked once more for Titan's mysterious "magic island" (PIA20021) in a portion of one of the large hydrocarbon seas, Ligeia Mare. No "island" feature was observed during this pass. Scientists continue to work on what the transient feature might have been, with waves and bubbles being two possibilities. In between the two parts of its imaging observation, the radar instrument switched to altimetry mode, in order to make a first-ever (and last-ever) measurement of the depths of some of the lakes that dot the north polar region. For the measurements, the spacecraft pointed its antenna straight down at the surface and the radar measured the time delay between echoes from the lakes' surface and bottom. A graph is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21626

  12. The Xanadu Annex on Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    This synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) image was obtained by NASA's Cassini spacecraft on July 25, 2016, during its "T-121" pass over Titan's southern latitudes. The image shows an area nicknamed the "Xanadu annex" by members of the Cassini radar team, earlier in the mission. This area had not been imaged by until now, but measurements of its brightness temperature from Cassini's microwave radiometer were quite similar to that of the large region on Titan named Xanadu (see PIA20713), which lies just to the north. Cassini's radiometer is essentially a very sensitive thermometer, and brightness temperature is a measure of the intensity of microwave radiation received from a feature by the instrument. Radar team members predicted at the time that, if this area were ever imaged, it would be similar in appearance to Xanadu. That earlier hunch appears to have been borne out, as features in this scene bear a strong similarity to the mountainous terrains Cassini's radar has imaged in Xanadu. Xanadu -- and now perhaps its annex -- remains something of a mystery. First imaged in 1994 by the Hubble Space Telescope (just three years before Cassini's launch from Earth), Xanadu was the first surface feature to be recognized on Titan. Once thought to be a raised plateau, the region is now understood to be slightly tilted, but not higher than, the darker surrounding regions. It blocks the formation of sand dunes, which otherwise extend all the way around Titan at its equator. The area shown here is illuminated by the radar from the bottom at a 30-degree incidence angle. It measures about 155 by 310 miles (250 by 500 kilometers) and is centered at about 30 degrees south latitude, 60 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20712

  13. Dilatometric shrinkage study on magnesium titanate-based ceramic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermawati, F. U.; Suasmoro, S.

    2018-03-01

    The development of dielectric materials for applications in the microwave frequencies has been increasing with rapid progress in mobile and satellite communication systems. Magnesium titanate (MgTiO3)-based ceramics have been the favourite candidates for such applications due to their excellent dielectric characteristics, i.e. a moderate level of dielectric constant together with a high-quality factor and high-temperature stability. These outstanding performance, however, can only be achieved when the ceramics are highly dense. The work reported in this paper discussed the study on the dilatometric shrinkage behaviour of pure and zinc-doped magnesium titanate (Mg1–xZn x TiO3 for x = 0–0.5) ceramic systems after the systems following the heating passage up to 1300 °C. The results were discussed based on the phase formation data recorded from powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). An additional 2 wt. % V2O5 to the MZT0.2 system has increased the shrinkage of the system, and hence the relative density. The V2O5 addition also prevented the grain growth and did not alter the structure. From 100 Hz to 20 MHz, the dielectric permittivity is constant; which varies from (15.4 – 17.0) ± 0.1 % throughout the samples, these values are therefore frequency independent.

  14. Watching Summer Clouds on Titan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-04

    NASA's Cassini spacecraft watched clouds of methane moving across the far northern regions of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, on Oct. 29 and 30, 2016. Several sets of clouds develop, move over the surface and fade during the course of this movie sequence, which spans 11 hours, with one frame taken every 20 minutes. Most prominent are long cloud streaks that lie between 49 and 55 degrees north latitude. While the general region of cloud activity is persistent over the course of the observation, individual streaks appear to develop then fade. These clouds are measured to move at a speed of about 14 to 22 miles per hour (7 to 10 meters per second). There are also some small clouds over the region of small lakes farther north, including a bright cloud between Neagh Lacus and Punga Mare, which fade over the course of the movie. This small grouping of clouds is moving at a speed of about 0.7 to 1.4 miles per hour (1 to 2 meters per second). Time-lapse movies like this allow scientists to observe the dynamics of clouds as they develop, move over the surface and fade. A time-lapse movie can also help to distinguish between noise in images (for example from cosmic rays hitting the detector) and faint clouds or fog. In 2016, Cassini has intermittently observed clouds across the northern mid-latitudes of Titan, as well as within the north polar region -- an area known to contain numerous methane/ethane lakes and seas see PIA19657 and PIA17655. However, most of this year's observations designed for cloud monitoring have been short snapshots taken days, or weeks, apart. This observation provides Cassini's best opportunity in 2016 to study short-term cloud dynamics. Models of Titan's climate have predicted more cloud activity during early northern summer than what Cassini has observed so far, suggesting that the current understanding of the giant moon's changing seasons is incomplete. The mission will continue monitoring Titan's weather around the 2017 summer solstice in Titan

  15. Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOEpatents

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA; Liu, Jun [Richland, WA; Huo, Qisheng [Richland, WA

    2012-04-17

    A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

  16. Development of corrosion resistant heat exchangers for flue gas desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, E.; Lorentz, R.

    1984-12-01

    A glass lining as protection against corrosion in flue gas desulfurization plants was developed. Glasses were evaluated under corrosive attack of fluoride-containing acids. The corrosion properties of one-layer and two-layer glass enamels are optimized. Two-layer systems always show better resistance and longer life. The optimized glass linings were tested in a power plant. Manufacturing principles for glass-lined heat exchanger elements are derived. The optimized glasses may be used as protective lining design for heat exchangers or parts of them.

  17. Titania bound sodium titanate ion exchanger

    DOEpatents

    DeFilippi, Irene C. G.; Yates, Stephen Frederic; Shen, Jian-Kun; Gaita, Romulus; Sedath, Robert Henry; Seminara, Gary Joseph; Straszewski, Michael Peter; Anderson, David Joseph

    1999-03-23

    This invention is method for preparing a titania bound ion exchange composition comprising admixing crystalline sodium titanate and a hydrolyzable titanium compound and, thereafter drying the titania bound crystalline sodium titanate and subjecting the dried titania bound ion exchange composition to optional compaction and calcination steps to improve the physical strength of the titania bound composition.

  18. Seasonal Change in Titan's Cloud Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, E. L.; Brown, M. E.; Roe, H. G.

    2006-12-01

    We have acquired whole disk spectra of Titan on nineteen nights with IRTF/SpeX over a three-month period in the spring of 2006 and will acquire data on ~50 additional nights between September and December 2006. The data encompass the spectral range of 0.8 to 2.4 microns at a resolution of 375. These disk- integrated spectra allow us to determine Titan's total fractional cloud coverage and altitudes of clouds present. We find that Titan had less than 0.15% fractional cloud coverage on all but one of the nineteen nights. The near lack of cloud activity in these spectra is in sharp contrast to nearly every spectrum taken from 1995-1999 with UKIRT by Griffith et al. (1998 &2000) who found rapidly varying clouds covering ~0.5% of Titan's disk. The differences in these two similar datasets indicate a striking seasonal change in the behavior of Titan's clouds. Observations of the latitudes, magnitudes, altitudes, and frequencies of Titan's clouds as Titan moves toward southern autumnal equinox in 2009 will help elucidate when and how Titan's methane hydrological cycle changes with season.

  19. Screening of zinc-based sorbents for hot-gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Joong B. Lee; Chong K. Ryu; Chang K. Yi

    2008-03-15

    Highly reactive and attrition-resistant ZnO-based sorbents that are suitable for bubbling fluidized-bed reactors can be produced using the spray-drying method. Most of the ZnO-based sorbents prepared here (ZAC-X, X = 18N-25N) satisfy the physical and chemical criteria for bubbling fluidized-bed application (spherical shape, average particle size, 90-110 {mu}m; size distribution, 40-230 {mu}m; bulk density, 0.9-1.0 g/mL; attrition index (AI), 40-80%; sulfur sorption capacity, 14-17 wt %; sorbent use, 70-80%). The performance test of the ZAC-C sorbent at Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) with a bubbling fluidized-bed for 70 h also demonstrated that it had good sulfidation and regeneration performancemore » (11 wt % sorption capacity and 52% sorbent use) as well as reasonable attrition resistance (1.1% attrition loss for 70 h). 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.« less

  20. Size and shape of Saturn's moon Titan.

    PubMed

    Zebker, Howard A; Stiles, Bryan; Hensley, Scott; Lorenz, Ralph; Kirk, Randolph L; Lunine, Jonathan

    2009-05-15

    Cassini observations show that Saturn's moon Titan is slightly oblate. A fourth-order spherical harmonic expansion yields north polar, south polar, and mean equatorial radii of 2574.32 +/- 0.05 kilometers (km), 2574.36 +/- 0.03 km, and 2574.91 +/- 0.11 km, respectively; its mean radius is 2574.73 +/- 0.09 km. Titan's shape approximates a hydrostatic, synchronously rotating triaxial ellipsoid but is best fit by such a body orbiting closer to Saturn than Titan presently does. Titan's lack of high relief implies that most--but not all--of the surface features observed with the Cassini imaging subsystem and synthetic aperture radar are uncorrelated with topography and elevation. Titan's depressed polar radii suggest that a constant geopotential hydrocarbon table could explain the confinement of the hydrocarbon lakes to high latitudes.

  1. Interaction of Titan's ionosphere with Saturn's magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Coates, Andrew J

    2009-02-28

    Titan is the only Moon in the Solar System with a significant permanent atmosphere. Within this nitrogen-methane atmosphere, an ionosphere forms. Titan has no significant magnetic dipole moment, and is usually located inside Saturn's magnetosphere. Atmospheric particles are ionized both by sunlight and by particles from Saturn's magnetosphere, mainly electrons, which reach the top of the atmosphere. So far, the Cassini spacecraft has made over 45 close flybys of Titan, allowing measurements in the ionosphere and the surrounding magnetosphere under different conditions. Here we review how Titan's ionosphere and Saturn's magnetosphere interact, using measurements from Cassini low-energy particle detectors. In particular, we discuss ionization processes and ionospheric photoelectrons, including their effect on ion escape from the ionosphere. We also discuss one of the unexpected discoveries in Titan's ionosphere, the existence of extremely heavy negative ions up to 10000amu at 950km altitude.

  2. Size and shape of Saturn's moon Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zebker, Howard A.; Stiles, Bryan; Hensley, Scott; Lorenz, Ralph; Kirk, Randolph L.; Lunine, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Cassini observations show that Saturn's moon Titan is slightly oblate. A fourth-order spherical harmonic expansion yields north polar, south polar, and mean equatorial radii of 2574.32 ± 0.05 kilometers (km), 2574.36 ± 0.03 km, and 2574.91 ± 0.11 km, respectively; its mean radius is 2574.73 ± 0.09 km. Titan's shape approximates a hydrostatic, synchronously rotating triaxial ellipsoid but is best fit by such a body orbiting closer to Saturn than Titan presently does. Titan's lack of high relief implies that most—but not all—of the surface features observed with the Cassini imaging subsystem and synthetic aperture radar are uncorrelated with topography and elevation. Titan's depressed polar radii suggest that a constant geopotential hydrocarbon table could explain the confinement of the hydrocarbon lakes to high latitudes.

  3. The Lakes and Seas of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Alexander G.

    2016-06-01

    Analogous to Earth's water cycle, Titan's methane-based hydrologic cycle supports standing bodies of liquid and drives processes that result in common morphologic features including dunes, channels, lakes, and seas. Like lakes on Earth and early Mars, Titan's lakes and seas preserve a record of its climate and surface evolution. Unlike on Earth, the volume of liquid exposed on Titan's surface is only a small fraction of the atmospheric reservoir. The volume and bulk composition of the seas can constrain the age and nature of atmospheric methane, as well as its interaction with surface reservoirs. Similarly, the morphology of lacustrine basins chronicles the history of the polar landscape over multiple temporal and spatial scales. The distribution of trace species, such as noble gases and higher-order hydrocarbons and nitriles, can address Titan's origin and the potential for both prebiotic and biotic processes. Accordingly, Titan's lakes and seas represent a compelling target for exploration.

  4. Titan as the Abode of Life.

    PubMed

    McKay, Christopher P

    2016-02-03

    Titan is the only world we know, other than Earth, that has a liquid on its surface. It also has a thick atmosphere composed of nitrogen and methane with a thick organic haze. There are lakes, rain, and clouds of methane and ethane. Here, we address the question of carbon-based life living in Titan liquids. Photochemically produced organics, particularly acetylene, in Titan's atmosphere could be a source of biological energy when reacted with atmospheric hydrogen. Light levels on the surface of Titan are more than adequate for photosynthesis, but the biochemical limitations due to the few elements available in the environment may lead only to simple ecosystems that only consume atmospheric nutrients. Life on Titan may make use of the trace metals and other inorganic elements produced by meteorites as they ablate in its atmosphere. It is conceivable that H₂O molecules on Titan could be used in a biochemistry that is rooted in hydrogen bonds in a way that metals are used in enzymes by life on Earth. Previous theoretical work has shown possible membrane structures, azotosomes, in Titan liquids, azotosomes, composed of small organic nitrogen compounds, such as acrylonitrile. The search for a plausible information molecule for life in Titan liquids remains an open research topic-polyethers have been considered and shown to be insoluble at Titan temperatures. Possible search strategies for life on Titan include looking for unusual concentrations of certain molecules reflecting biological selection. Homochirality is a special and powerful example of such biology selection. Environmentally, a depletion of hydrogen in the lower atmosphere may be a sign of metabolism. A discovery of life in liquid methane and ethane would be our first compelling indication that the universe is full of diverse and wondrous life forms.

  5. Titan as the Abode of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Christopher P.

    2016-02-01

    Titan is the only world we know, other than Earth, that has a liquid on its surface. It also has a thick atmosphere composed of nitrogen and methane with a thick organic haze. There are lakes, rain, and clouds of methane and ethane. Here, we address the question of carbon-based life living in Titan liquids. Photochemically produced organics, particularly acetylene, in Titan's atmosphere could be a source of biological energy when reacted with atmospheric hydrogen. Light levels on the surface of Titan are more than adequate for photosynthesis, but the biochemical limitations due to the few elements available in the environment may lead only to simple ecosystems that only consume atmospheric nutrients. Life on Titan may make use of the trace metals and other inorganic elements produced by meteorites as they ablate in its atmosphere. It is conceivable that H2O molecules on Titan could be used in a biochemistry that is rooted in hydrogen bonds in a way that metals are used in enzymes by life on Earth. Previous theoretical work has shown possible membrane structures, azotosomes, in Titan liquids, azotosomes, composed of small organic nitrogen compounds, such as acrylonitrile. The search for a plausible information molecule for life in Titan liquids remains an open research topic - polyethers have been considered and shown to be insoluble at Titan temperatures. Possible search strategies for life on Titan include looking for unusual concentrations of certain molecules reflecting biological selection. Homochirality is a special and powerful example of such biology selection. Environmentally, a depletion of hydrogen in the lower atmosphere may be a sign of metabolism. A discovery of life in liquid methane and ethane would be our first compelling indication that the universe is full of diverse and wondrous life forms.

  6. Titan as the Abode of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Titan is the only world we know other than Earth that has a liquid on its surface. It has a thick atmosphere composed of nitrogen and methane with a thick organic haze. There are lakes, rain, and clouds of methane and ethane. Here, we address the question of carbon-based life living in Titan liquids. Photochemically produced organics, particularly acetylene, in Titan's atmosphere could be a source of biological energy when reacted with atmospheric hydrogen. Light levels on the surface of Titan are more than adequate for photosynthesis but the biochemical limitations due to the few elements available in the environment may lead only to simple ecosystems that only consume atmospheric nutrients. Life on Titan may make use of the trace metals and other inorganic elements produced by meteorites as they ablate in the atmosphere. It is conceivable that H2O molecules on Titan could be used in a biochemistry that is rooted in hydrogen bonds in a way that metals are used in enzymes by life on Earth. Previous theoretical work has shown possible membrane structures in Titan liquids, azotosomes, composed of small organic nitrogen compounds, such as acrylonitrile. The search for a plausible information molecule for life in Titan liquids remains an open research topic - polyethers have been considered and shown to be insoluble at Titan temperatures. Possible search strategies for life on Titan include looking for unusual concentrations of certain molecules reflecting biological selection. Homochirality is a special and powerful example of such biology selection. Environmentally, a depletion of hydrogen in the lower atmosphere may be a sign of metabolism. A discovery of life in liquid methane and ethane would be our first compelling indication that the Universe is full of diverse and wondrous life forms.

  7. Desulfurization Activated Phosphorothioate DNAzyme for the Detection of Thallium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Vazin, Mahsa; Liu, Juewen

    2015-10-20

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal situated between mercury and lead in the periodic table. While its neighbors have been thoroughly studied for DNA-based sensing, little is known about thallium detection. In this work, in vitro selection of RNA-cleaving DNAzymes is carried out using Tl(3+) as the target metal cofactor. Both normal DNA and phosphorothioate (PS)-modified DNA are tested for this purpose. While no Tl(3+)-dependent DNAzymes are obtained, a DNA oligonucleotide containing a single PS-modified RNA nucleotide is found to cleave by ∼7% by Tl(3+) at the RNA position. The remaining 93% are desulfurized. By hybridization of this PS-modified oligonucleotide with the Tm7 DNAzyme, the cleavage yield increases to ∼40% in the presence of Tl(3+) and Er(3+). Tm7 is an Er(3+)-dependent RNA-cleaving DNAzyme. It cleaves only the normal substrate but is completely inactive using the PS-modified substrate. Tl(3+) desulfurizes the PS substrate to the normal substrate to be cleaved by Tm7 and Er(3+). This system is engineered into a catalytic beacon for Tl(3+) with a detection limit of 1.5 nM, which is below its maximal contamination limit defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (10 nM).

  8. Gravity waves in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedson, A. James

    1994-01-01

    Scintillations (high frequency variations) observed in the radio signal during the occultation of Voyager 1 by Titan (Hinson and Tyler, 1983) provide information concerning neutral atmospheric density fluctuations on scales on hundreds of meters to a few kilometers. Those seen at altitudes higher than 25 km above the surface were interpreted by Hinson and Tyler as being caused by linear, freely propagating (energy-conserving) gravity waves, but this interpretation was found to be inconsistent with the scintillation data below the 25-km altitude level. Here an attempt is made to interpret the entire scintillation profile between the surface and the 90-km altitude level in terms of gravity waves generated at the surface. Numerical calculations of the density fluctuations caused by two-dimensional, nonhydrostatic, finite-amplitude gravity waves propagating vertically through Titan's atmosphere are performed to produce synthetic scintillation profiles for comparison with the observations. The numerical model accurately treats the effects of wave transience, nonlinearity, and breakdown due to convective instability in the overturned part of the wave. The high-altitude scintillation data were accurately recovered with a freely propagating wave solution, confirming the analytic model of Hinson and Tyler. It is found that the low-altitude scintillation data can be fit by a model where a component of the gravity waves becomes convectively unstable and breaks near the 15 km level. The large-scale structure of the observed scintillation profile in the entire altitude range between 5 and 85 km can be simulated by a model where the freely propagating and breaking waves are forced at the surface simultaneously. Further analysis of the Voyager 1 Titan low-altitude scintillation data, using inversion theory appropriate for strong scattering, could potentially remove some of the ambiguities remaining in this analysis and allow a better determination of the strength and source of

  9. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge.

    PubMed

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-10-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective 'titanic'. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the 'Seven C's'. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Spectral Characteristics of Titan's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Turner, Jake D.; Penteado, Paulo; Khamsi, Tymon B.; Soderblom, Jason M.

    2014-11-01

    Cassini/Huygens and ground-based measurements of Titan reveal an eroded surface, with lakes, dunes, and sinuous washes. These features, coupled with measurements of clouds and rain, indicate the transfer of methane between Titan’s surface and atmosphere. The presence of methane-damp lowlands suggests further that the atmospheric methane (which is continually depleted through photolysis) may be supplied by sub-surface reservoirs. The byproducts of methane photolysis condense onto the surface, leaving layers of organic sediments that record Titan’s past atmospheres.Thus knowledge of the source and history of Titan's atmosphere requires measurements of the large scale compositional makeup of Titan's surface, which is shrouded by a thick and hazy atmosphere. Towards this goal, we analyzed roughly 100,000 spectra recorded by Cassini’s Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Our study is confined to the latitude region (20S—20N) surrounding the landing site of the Huygens probe (at 10S, 192W), which supplied only measurement of the vertical profiles of the methane abundance and haze scattering characteristics. VIMS near-IR spectral images indicate subtle latitudinal and temporal variations in the haze characteristics in the tropics. We constrain these small changes with full radiative transfer analyses of each of the thousands of VIMS spectra, which were recorded of different terrains and at different lighting conditions. The resulting models of Titan’s atmosphere as a function of latitude and year indicate the seasonal migration of Titan’s tropical haze and enable the derivation of Titan’s surface albedo at 8 near-IR wavelength regions where Titan’s atmosphere is transparent enough to allow visibility to the surface. The resultant maps of Titan’s surface indicate a number of terrain types with distinct spectral characteristics that are suggestive of atmospheric and surficial processes, including the deposition of organic material, erosion of

  11. This is Commercial Titan Inc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Rensselaer, F. L.; Slovikoski, R. D.; Abels, T. C.

    Out of a quarter-century heritage of eminently successful expendable launch vehicle history with the U.S. government, a commercial launch services enterprise which challenges the corporation as well as the competition has been launched within the Martin Marietta Corporation. This paper is an inside look at the philosophy, structure, and success of the new subsidiary, Commercial Titan Inc., which is taking on its U.S. and foreign rocket-making competitors to win a share of the international communication satellite market as well as the U.S. government commercial launch services market.

  12. This is Commercial Titan, Inc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rensselaer, F. L.; Slovikoski, R. D.; Abels, T. C.

    1989-10-01

    Out of a quarter-century heritage of eminently successful expendable launch vehicle history with the U.S government, a commercial launch services enterprise which challenges the corporation as well as the competition has been launched within the Martin Marietta Corporation. This paper is an inside look at the philosophy, structure, and success of the new subsidiary, Commercial Titan, Inc., which is taking on its U.S. and foreign rocket-making competitors to win a share of the international communication satellite market as well as the U.S. government commercial launch services market.

  13. Aerosol growth in Titan's ionosphere.

    PubMed

    Lavvas, Panayotis; Yelle, Roger V; Koskinen, Tommi; Bazin, Axel; Vuitton, Véronique; Vigren, Erik; Galand, Marina; Wellbrock, Anne; Coates, Andrew J; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Crary, Frank J; Snowden, Darci

    2013-02-19

    Photochemically produced aerosols are common among the atmospheres of our solar system and beyond. Observations and models have shown that photochemical aerosols have direct consequences on atmospheric properties as well as important astrobiological ramifications, but the mechanisms involved in their formation remain unclear. Here we show that the formation of aerosols in Titan's upper atmosphere is directly related to ion processes, and we provide a complete interpretation of observed mass spectra by the Cassini instruments from small to large masses. Because all planetary atmospheres possess ionospheres, we anticipate that the mechanisms identified here will be efficient in other environments as well, modulated by the chemical complexity of each atmosphere.

  14. Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Grindley, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

  15. Flue Gas Desulfurization at Navy Bases, Navy Energy Guidance Study. Phase IV.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    WA08O9 146 BECHTEL NATIONAL INC SAN FRANCISCO CA FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AT NAVY BASES, NAVY ENERGY GUIDANCE ST-ETC(U) AUG 80 A I MCCONE N68305-77C... Flue gas desulfurization 10. ABSTRACT (C lno d. It -.4..,.d id-1, by 61-hb n-.1..) A study o e availability, costs, and operating perfor- nce of...industral-sized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems or coal-fired boilers 4...- mrfmmed for-the Civil Englneering- , - boratory at the Naval Construction

  16. Simultaneous recovery and desulfurization of bitumen from oil sand using ultrasound irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, Hirokazu; Kamal, Wan Mohamad Ikhwan bin Wan; Akazawa, Nobuyuki; Kato, Takahiro; Sugawara, Katsuyasu

    2018-07-01

    Oil sand contains bitumen, which includes a high percentage of sulfur. Before using bitumen as a fuel, it must be recovered from oil sand and desulfurized. Currently, bitumen is recovered from oil sand using hot water (<100 °C), and sulfur is removed via hydrodesulfurization (>300 °C). Both of these processes consume significant amounts of energy. In this study, we demonstrate the simultaneous recovery and desulfurization of bitumen from oil sand using oxidative desulfurization with ultrasonic irradiation and tetrahydrofuran at 20 °C. We successfully recovered 88% of the bitumen from oil sand and removed 42% of the sulfur from the bitumen.

  17. Titan - a New Laboratory for Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2001-12-01

    Saturn's giant moon Titan has a thick (1.5 bar) nitrogen atmosphere, and quite probably large expanses of liquid hydrocarbons on its surface. The physical processes in these lakes and seas will open new vistas on oceanography and limnology. Although the Voyager-era paradigm of a deep, global ocean is ruled out by radar and infrared data showing that at least part of Titan's surface is icy, the photochemical arguments that originally led to the proposal of hydrocarbon oceans still apply. Even if the methane in the atmosphere is being resupplied by delivery from the interior, the ethane produced by photolysis would still accumulate to form large deposits on the surface. The near-infrared maps of Titan's surface from the Hubble Space Telescope and groundbased adaptive optics consistently show a number of dark (in fact, pitch-black!) regions that are strong candidates for hydrocarbon seas. These could be up to some 500km in extent. Titan promises to be a new laboratory for oceanography. Like in meteorology, many ocean processes are better parameterized than they are understood, and thus the different physical circumstances on Titan may shed new light on them. Titan has a lower gravity and its ocean fluids are of lower density, perhaps of lower viscosity (depending on solutes and suspended material) and probably rather more likely to cavitate. The ratio of atmospheric density to ocean density is much larger on Titan than on Earth, suggesting that liquid motions will be well-coupled to surface winds (although the distance from the sun is such that the energy in such winds is likely to be low.) Titan is also subject to strong tidal forces (the equilibrium tide due to Saturn's gravity is some 400x larger than that of the moon on Earth.) Although the 100m tidal bulge stays almost fixed because Titan rotates synchronously, the eccentricity of Titan's orbit leads to significant libration and variation in the tidal strength. The 500km seas allowed by the IR data may yet have a

  18. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  19. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning.

  20. Chemistry and evolution of Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    The chemistry and evolution of Titan's atmosphere are reviewed, in light of the scientific findings from the Voyager mission. It is argued that the present N2 atmosphere may be Titan's initial atmosphere, rather than one photochemically derived from an original NH3 atmosphere. The escape rate of hydrogen from Titan is controlled by photochemical production from hydrocarbons. CH4 is irreversibly converted to less hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons, which over geologic time accumulate on the surface to a layer thickness of about 0.5 km. Magnetospheric electrons interacting with Titan's exosphere may dissociate enough N2 into hot, escaping N atoms to remove about 0.2 of Titan's present atmosphere over geologic time. The energy dissipation of magnetospheric electrons exceeds solar EUV energy deposition in Titan's atmosphere by an order of magnitude, and is the principal driver of nitrogen photochemistry. The environmental conditions in Titan's upper atmosphere are favorable to building up complex molecules, particularly in the north polar cap region.

  1. Chemical investigation of Titan and Triton tholins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Gene D.; Thompson, W. R.; Heinrich, Michael; Khare, Bishun N.; Sagan, Carl

    1994-01-01

    We report chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses of both Titan and Triton tholins, organic solids made from the plasma irradiation of 0.9:0.1 and 0.999:0.001 N2/CH4 gas mixtures, respectively. The lower CH4 mixing ratio leads to a nitrogen-richer tholin (N/C greater than 1), probably including nitrogen heterocyclic compounds. Unlike Titan tholin, bulk Triton tholin is poor in nitriles. From high-pressure liquid chromatography, ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy, and molecular weight estimation by gel filtration chromatography, we conclude that (1) several H2O-soluble fractions, each with distinct UV and IR spectral signatures, are present, (2) these fractions are not identical in the two tholins, (3) the H2O-soluble fractions of Titan tholins do not contain significant amounts of nitriles, despite the major role of nitriles in bulk Titan tholin, and (4) the H2O-soluble fractions of both tholins are mainly molcules containing about 10 to 50 (C + N) atoms. We report yields of amino acids upon hydrolysis of Titan and Triton tholins. Titan tholin is largely insoluble in the putative hydrocarbon lakes or oceans on Titan, but can yield the H2O-soluble species investigated here upon contact with transient (e.g., impact-generated) liquid water.

  2. Titan Atmospheric Entry Radiative Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandis, A. M; Cruden, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed spectrally and spatially resolved radiance has been measured in the Electric Arc Shock Tube for conditions relevant to Titan entry, varying atmospheric composition, free-stream density (equivalent to altitude) and shock velocity. Permutations in atmospheric composition include 1.1, 2, 5 and 8.6 CH4 by mole with a balance of N2 and 1.5 CH4 0.5 Ar 98 N2 by mole, which is consistent with the current understanding of Titan's atmosphere. The effect of gas impurities identified in previous shock tube studies were also examined by testing in pure N2 and deliberate addition of air to the CH4N2 mixtures. The test campaign measured radiation at velocities from 4.7 kms to 8 kms and free-stream pressures from 0.1 to 0.47 Torr. These conditions cover a range of potential trajectories for flight missions, including a direct ballistic trajectory, a fly by or an extremely high speed entry. Radiances measured in this work are substantially larger compared to that reported both in past EAST test campaigns and other shock tube facilities. Depending on the metric used for comparison, the discrepancy can be as high as an order of magnitude. Potential causes for the discrepancy, such as the effect of oxygen due to Air leakage, gas composition and purity are discussed. The present work provides a new benchmark set of data to replace those published in previous studies.

  3. Plausible surface models for Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    1992-01-01

    Current understanding of the nature of Titan's surface and some new ideas for explaining the curious radar returns from Saturn's largest satellite are reviewed. Pre-Voyager models of the surface, based largely on cosmochemistry and the discovery of atmospheric methane, allowed for a range of possibilities, including pure methane oceans. The Voyager 1 flyby ruled out this last possibility, replacing it with compelling observational arguments in favor of a mixed light hydrocarbon and nitrogen ocean. Ground based radar observations indicated a surprisingly reflective surface which is inconsistent with a hydrocarbon ocean and more reminiscent of the Galilean Satellites. Nonetheless, passive radiometric measurements of the surface do not support the notion that Titan's surface is like that of the Galilean satellites. One of the arguments against hydrocarbon oceans reflecting radar energy is that most solid, complex hydrocarbon and nitriles will be denser than the liquid and sink. Nonetheless, many of the aerosol species will coagulate in highly nonspherical patterns, and some species probably polymerize in long chains. Such chains will have very low sedimendation velocities in the ocean and may remain near the surface through ocean mixing process. The prospect of an oceanic 'soup' of polar polymers acting as volume reflectors at radio wevelengths suggests that the interpretation of radar observations needs evaluation.

  4. TEAM - Titan Exploration Atmospheric Microprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Conor; Esper, Jaime; Aslam, Shahid; Quilligan, Gerald

    2016-10-01

    The astrobiological potential of Titan's surface hydrocarbon liquids and probable interior water ocean has led to its inclusion as a destination in NASA's "Ocean Worlds" initiative, and near-term investigation of these regions is a high-level scientific goal. TEAM is a novel initiative to investigate the lake and sea environs using multiple dropsondes -scientific probes derived from an existing cubesat bus architecture (CAPE - the Cubesat Application for Planetary Exploration) developed at NASA GSFC. Each 3U probe will parachute to the surface, making atmospheric structure and composition measurements during the descent, and photographing the surface - land, shoreline and seas - in detail. TEAM probes offer a low-cost, high-return means to explore multiple areas on Titan, yielding crucial data about the condensing chemicals, haze and cloud layers, winds, and surface features of the lakes and seas. These microprobes may be included on a near-term New Frontiers class mission to the Saturn system as additional payload, bringing increased scientific return and conducting reconnaissance for future landing zones. In this presentation we describe the probe architecture, baseline payload, flight profile and the unique engineering and science data that can be returned.

  5. Titan as the Abode of Life

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Titan is the only world we know, other than Earth, that has a liquid on its surface. It also has a thick atmosphere composed of nitrogen and methane with a thick organic haze. There are lakes, rain, and clouds of methane and ethane. Here, we address the question of carbon-based life living in Titan liquids. Photochemically produced organics, particularly acetylene, in Titan’s atmosphere could be a source of biological energy when reacted with atmospheric hydrogen. Light levels on the surface of Titan are more than adequate for photosynthesis, but the biochemical limitations due to the few elements available in the environment may lead only to simple ecosystems that only consume atmospheric nutrients. Life on Titan may make use of the trace metals and other inorganic elements produced by meteorites as they ablate in its atmosphere. It is conceivable that H2O molecules on Titan could be used in a biochemistry that is rooted in hydrogen bonds in a way that metals are used in enzymes by life on Earth. Previous theoretical work has shown possible membrane structures, azotosomes, in Titan liquids, azotosomes, composed of small organic nitrogen compounds, such as acrylonitrile. The search for a plausible information molecule for life in Titan liquids remains an open research topic—polyethers have been considered and shown to be insoluble at Titan temperatures. Possible search strategies for life on Titan include looking for unusual concentrations of certain molecules reflecting biological selection. Homochirality is a special and powerful example of such biology selection. Environmentally, a depletion of hydrogen in the lower atmosphere may be a sign of metabolism. A discovery of life in liquid methane and ethane would be our first compelling indication that the universe is full of diverse and wondrous life forms. PMID:26848689

  6. Recent Origin of Titan's Orbital Eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuk, Matija

    2014-05-01

    Saturn's regular satellite system contains several dynamical mysteries, including the high tidal heating of Enceladus and undamped eccentricity of Titan. Lainey et al.(2012) proposed that the tidal evolution of the system is much faster than previously thought, which would explain heating of Enceladus and implies that some of the current satellites are less than 1 Gyr old. Cuk et al.(2014) pointed out that this fast tidal evolution could also explain the Titan-Hyperion resonance. If the inner, mid-sized Saturnian moons were re-accreted within the last Gyr, then the same event could have generated the observed eccentricity of Titan. Titan-Hyperion resonance puts strong constraints on this event, as many scenarios lead to the loss of Hyperion (usually through collision with Titan). Here I report on the ongoing study of the history of the Saturnian system, using symplectic integrators SIMPL (for stable configurations) and COMPLEX (for situations when the moons' orbits crossed). I find that the past system of icy satellites could have naturally evolved into instability, by having Dione and Rhea-like moons enter the mutual 4:3 resonance. This resonance is chaotic due to overlap with the solar evection resonance (i.e. the moons' precession rates in the mean-motion resonance overlap with Saturn's mean motion). The outcome of such resonance is a collision between the mid-sized moons, likely followed by re-accretion, with Titan being largely unaffected. I also find that close encounters between a mid-sized moon and Titan could with significant probability both excite Titan and preserve its resonance with Hyperion (cf. Hamilton 2013). I will present possible scenarios in which the previous system had an additional moon exterior to Rhea. This additional moon would have been destabilized by resonances with the inner moons and eventually absorbed by Titan, which acquired its eccentricity in the process. This research is supported by NASA's Outer Planet Research Program.

  7. Identification of Acetylene on Titan's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.; McCord, T. B.; Rodriguez, S.; Combe, J. P.; Cornet, T.; Le Mouelic, S.; Maltagliati, L.; Chevrier, V.; Clark, R. N.

    2015-12-01

    Titan's atmosphere is opaque in the near infrared due to gaseous absorptions, mainly by methane, and scattering by aerosols, except in a few "transparency windows" (e.g., Sotin et al., 2005). Thus, the composition of Titan surface remains difficult to access from space and is still poorly constrained, limited to ethane in the polar lakes (Brown et al., 2008) and a few possible organic molecules on the surface (Clark et al., 2010). Photochemical models suggest that most of the organic compounds formed in the atmosphere are heavy enough to condense and build up at the surface in liquid and solid states over geological timescale (Cordier et al., 2009, 2011). Acetylene (C2H2) is one of the most abundant organic molecules in the atmosphere and thus thought to present on the surface as well. Here we report direct evidence of solid C2H2 on Titan's surface using Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) data. By comparing VIMS observations and laboratory measurements of solid and liquid C2H2, we identify a specific absorption at 1.55 µm that is widespread over Titan but is particularly strong in the brightest terrains. This surface variability suggests that C2H2 is mobilized by surface processes, such as surface weathering, topography, and dissolution/evaporation. The detection of C2H2 on the surface of Titan opens new paths to understand and constrain Titan's surface activity. Since C2H2 is highly soluble in Titan liquids (Singh et al. 2015), it can easily dissolve in methane/ethane and may play an important role in carving of fluvial channels and existence of karstic lakes at higher latitudes on Titan. These processes imply the existence of a dynamic surface with a continued history of erosion and deposition of C2H2 on Titan.

  8. The greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1991-01-01

    The parallels between the atmospheric thermal structure of the Saturnian satellite Titan and the hypothesized terrestrial greenhouse effect can serve as bases for the evaluation of competing greenhouse theories. Attention is presently drawn to the similarity between the roles of H2 and CH4 on Titan and CO2 and H2O on earth. Titan also has an antigreenhouse effect due to a high-altitude haze layer which absorbs at solar wavelengths, while remaining transparent in the thermal IR; if this haze layer were removed, the antigreenhouse effect would be greatly reduced, exacerbating the greenhouse effect and raising surface temperature by over 20 K.

  9. Mapping products of Titan's surface: Chapter 19

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephan, Katrin; Jaumann, Ralf; Karkoschka, Erich; Kirk, Randolph L.; Barnes, Jason W.; Tomasko, Martin G.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Le Corre, Lucille; Langhans, Mirjam; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Perry, Jason; Brown, Robert; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Waite, J. Hunter

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing instruments aboard the Cassini spacecraft have been observed the surface of Titan globally in the infrared and radar wavelength ranges as well as locally by the Huygens instruments revealing a wealth of new morphological features indicating a geologically active surface. We present a summary of mapping products of Titan's surface derived from data of the remote sensing instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft (ISS, VIMS, RADAR) as well as the Huygens probe (DISR) that were achieved during the nominal Cassini mission including an overview of Titan's recent nomenclature.

  10. Saturn's Magnetospheric Plasma Flow Encountered by Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillanpää, I.

    2017-09-01

    Titan has been a major target of the ending Cassini mission to Saturn. 126 flybys have sampled, measured and observed a variety of Titan's features and processes from the surface features to atmospheric composition and upper atmospheric processes. Titan's interaction with the magnetospheric plasma flow it is mostly embedded in is highly dependent on the characteristics of the ambient plasma. The density, velocity and even the composition of the plasma flow can have great variance from flyby to flyby. Our purpose is the present the plasma flow conditions for all over 70 flybys of which we have Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) measurements.

  11. Titan's organic chemistry: Results of simulation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Khare, Bishun N.

    1992-01-01

    Recent low pressure continuous low plasma discharge simulations of the auroral electron driven organic chemistry in Titan's mesosphere are reviewed. These simulations yielded results in good accord with Voyager observations of gas phase organic species. Optical constants of the brownish solid tholins produced in similar experiments are in good accord with Voyager observations of the Titan haze. Titan tholins are rich in prebiotic organic constituents; the Huygens entry probe may shed light on some of the processes that led to the origin of life on Earth.

  12. The commercial evolution of the Titan program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakowitz, Steven

    1988-07-01

    The present status evaluation of proprietary efforts to turn the once exclusively government-requirements-oriented Titan launch vehicle into a successful commercial competitor is divided into three phases. The first phase notes recent changes in U.S. space transportation policy and the Titan configurations evaluated for commercial feasibility. The second phase is a development history for the current vehicle's marketing organization and the right-to-use agreement for a launch site. Phase three projects the prospective marketing climate for a commercial Titan vehicle and its planned improvements.

  13. TSSM: The in situ exploration of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Lebreton, J. P.; Matson, D.; Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Erd, C.

    2008-09-01

    The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) mission was born when NASA and ESA decided to collaborate on two missions independently selected by each agency: the Titan and Enceladus mission (TandEM), and Titan Explorer, a 2007 Flagship study. TandEM, the Titan and Enceladus mission, was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call. The mission concept is to perform remote and in situ investigations of Titan primarily, but also of Enceladus and Saturn's magentosphere. The two satellites are tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TSSM will study Titan as a system, including its upper atmosphere, the interactions with the magnetosphere, the neutral atmosphere, surface, interior, origin and evolution, as well as the astrobiological potential of Titan. It is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini- Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time for Titan, several close flybys of Enceladus). One overarching goal of the TSSM mission is to explore in situ the atmosphere and surface of Titan. In the current mission architecture, TSSM consists of an orbiter (under NASA's responsibility) with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus and Titan flybys before stabilizing in an orbit around Titan alone, therein delivering in situ elements (a Montgolfière, or hot air balloon, and a probe/lander). The latter are being studied by ESA. The balloon will circumnavigate Titan above the equator at an altitude of about 10 km for several months. The

  14. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION - NEW ORLEANS, MARCH 1976, VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document the presentation made during the symposium, which dealt with the status of flue gas desulfurization technology in the United States and abroad. Subjects considered included: regenerable, nonregenerable, and advanced processes; process costs; and by-produc...

  15. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION HELD AT HOLLYWOOD, FLORIDA, NOVEMBER 1977. VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations made during the symposium, which dealt with the status of flue gas desulfurization technology in the United States and abroad. Subjects considered included: regenerable, non-regenerable, and advanced processes; process costs; and by-product ...

  16. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION HELD AT HOLLYWOOD, FLORIDA, NOVEMBER 1977. VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations made during the symposium, which dealt with the status of flue gas desulfurization technology in the United States and abroad. Subjects considered included: regenerable, non-regenerable, and advanced processes; process costs; and by-product ...

  17. Numerical Investigation of Desulfurization Kinetics in Gas-Stirred Ladles by a Quick Modeling Analysis Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qing; Nastac, Laurentiu; Pitts-Baggett, April; Yu, Qiulin

    2018-03-01

    A quick modeling analysis approach for predicting the slag-steel reaction and desulfurization kinetics in argon gas-stirred ladles has been developed in this study. The model consists of two uncoupled components: (i) a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for predicting the fluid flow and the characteristics of slag-steel interface, and (ii) a multicomponent reaction kinetics model for calculating the desulfurization evolution. The steel-slag interfacial area and mass transfer coefficients predicted by the CFD simulation are used as the processing data for the reaction model. Since the desulfurization predictions are uncoupled from the CFD simulation, the computational time of this uncoupled predictive approach is decreased by at least 100 times for each case study when compared with the CFD-reaction kinetics fully coupled model. The uncoupled modeling approach was validated by comparing the evolution of steel and slag compositions with the experimentally measured data during ladle metallurgical furnace (LMF) processing at Nucor Steel Tuscaloosa, Inc. Then, the validated approach was applied to investigate the effects of the initial steel and slag compositions, as well as different types of additions during the refining process on the desulfurization efficiency. The results revealed that the sulfur distribution ratio and the desulfurization reaction can be promoted by making Al and CaO additions during the refining process. It was also shown that by increasing the initial Al content in liquid steel, both Al oxidation and desulfurization rates rapidly increase. In addition, it was found that the variation of the initial Si content in steel has no significant influence on the desulfurization rate. Lastly, if the initial CaO content in slag is increased or the initial Al2O3 content is decreased in the fluid-slag compositional range, the desulfurization rate can be improved significantly during the LMF process.

  18. Numerical Investigation of Desulfurization Kinetics in Gas-Stirred Ladles by a Quick Modeling Analysis Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qing; Nastac, Laurentiu; Pitts-Baggett, April; Yu, Qiulin

    2018-06-01

    A quick modeling analysis approach for predicting the slag-steel reaction and desulfurization kinetics in argon gas-stirred ladles has been developed in this study. The model consists of two uncoupled components: (i) a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for predicting the fluid flow and the characteristics of slag-steel interface, and (ii) a multicomponent reaction kinetics model for calculating the desulfurization evolution. The steel-slag interfacial area and mass transfer coefficients predicted by the CFD simulation are used as the processing data for the reaction model. Since the desulfurization predictions are uncoupled from the CFD simulation, the computational time of this uncoupled predictive approach is decreased by at least 100 times for each case study when compared with the CFD-reaction kinetics fully coupled model. The uncoupled modeling approach was validated by comparing the evolution of steel and slag compositions with the experimentally measured data during ladle metallurgical furnace (LMF) processing at Nucor Steel Tuscaloosa, Inc. Then, the validated approach was applied to investigate the effects of the initial steel and slag compositions, as well as different types of additions during the refining process on the desulfurization efficiency. The results revealed that the sulfur distribution ratio and the desulfurization reaction can be promoted by making Al and CaO additions during the refining process. It was also shown that by increasing the initial Al content in liquid steel, both Al oxidation and desulfurization rates rapidly increase. In addition, it was found that the variation of the initial Si content in steel has no significant influence on the desulfurization rate. Lastly, if the initial CaO content in slag is increased or the initial Al2O3 content is decreased in the fluid-slag compositional range, the desulfurization rate can be improved significantly during the LMF process.

  19. Synthesis and application of different phthalocyanine molecular sieve catalyst for oxidative desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Na; Li, Siwen; Wang, Jinyi

    2015-05-15

    M{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2} (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) anchored onto W-HZSM-5 (M{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5) or the M{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2} doping W-HZSM-5 (M{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5) were prepared and their catalytic performances were tested for oxidative desulfurization in the presence of oxygen. Thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were considered as sulfur compounds. Among zeolite-based catalysts, the Cu{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5 and Cu{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5 showed superior desulfurization performance and the activity of selectivity followed the order: T>BT>DBT. The effects of phthalocyanine concentration were studied by UV–Vis and calcination temperature was obtained by TG-DSC for Cu{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5. Catalysts weremore » characterized by EA, IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP, and N{sub 2} adsorption. Reaction time, temperature and the amount of catalyst were investigated as the important parameters for optimization of the reaction. Furthermore, a possible process of oxidative desulfurization and the reaction products were proposed. - Graphical abstract: The ODS reaction schematic shows the reaction mechanism of ultra-deep desulfurization. The sulfur compounds are oxidized to their corresponding sulfoxides or sulfones through the use of oxygen and catalysts. The reaction process of ultra-deep desulfurization. - Highlights: • A kind of novel catalyst for deep desulfurization was synthesized. • Cu{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5 exhibits excellent catalytic performance for desulfurization. • The reaction conditions that affect desulfurization efficiency are investigated. • The reaction process of model sulfur compounds is proposed.« less

  20. Update on zinc biology.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2013-01-01

    Zinc has become a prominent nutrient of clinical and public health interest in the new millennium. Functions and actions for zinc emerge as increasingly ubiquitous in mammalian anatomy, physiology and metabolism. There is undoubtedly an underpinning in fundamental biology for all of the aspects of zinc in human health (clinical and epidemiological) in pediatric and public health practice. Unfortunately, basic science research may not have achieved a full understanding as yet. As a complement to the applied themes in the companion articles, a selection of recent advances in the domains homeostatic regulation and transport of zinc is presented; they are integrated, in turn, with findings on genetic expression, intracellular signaling, immunity and host defense, and bone growth. The elements include ionic zinc, zinc transporters, metallothioneins, zinc metalloenzymes and zinc finger proteins. In emerging basic research, we find some plausible mechanistic explanations for delayed linear growth with zinc deficiency and increased infectious disease resistance with zinc supplementation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  2. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  3. Titan's Atmospheric Dynamics and Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Baines, K. H.; Bird, M. K.; Tokano, T.; West, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    Titan, after Venus, is the second example of an atmosphere with a global cyclostrophic circulation in the solar system, but a circulation that has a strong seasonal modulation in the middle atmosphere. Direct measurement of Titan's winds, particularly observations tracking the Huygens probe at 10degS, indicate that the zonal winds are generally in the sense of the satellites rotation. They become cyclostrophic approx. 35 km above the surface and generally increase with altitude, with the exception of a sharp minimum centered near 75 km, where the wind velocity decreases to nearly zero. Zonal winds derived from the temperature field retrieved from Cassini measurements, using the thermal wind equation, indicate a strong winter circumpolar vortex, with maximum winds at mid northern latitudes of 190 ms-' near 300 km. Above this level, the vortex decays. Curiously, the zonal winds and temperatures are symmetric about a pole that is offset from the surface pole by approx.4 degrees. The cause of this is not well understood, but it may reflect the response of a cyclostrophic circulation to the offset between the equator, where the distance to the rotation axis is greatest, and the solar equator. The mean meridional circulation can be inferred from the temperature field and the meridional distribution of organic molecules and condensates and hazes. Both the warm temperatures in the north polar region near 400 km and the enhanced concentration of several organic molecules suggests subsidence there during winter and early spring. Stratospheric condensates are localized at high northern latitudes, with a sharp cut-off near 50degN. Titan's winter polar vortex appears to share many of the same characteristics of winter vortices on Earth-the ozone holes. Global mapping of temperatures, winds, and composition in he troposphere, by contrast, is incomplete. The few suitable discrete clouds that have bee found for tracking indicate smaller velocities than aloft, consistent with the

  4. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene by Corynebacterium sp. strain SY1

    SciTech Connect

    Omori, Toshio; Monna, L.; Saiki, Yuko

    1992-03-01

    Strain SY1, identified as a Corynebacterium sp., was isolated on the basis of the ability to utilize dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sole source of sulfur. Strain SY1 could utilize a wide range of organic and inorganic sulfur compounds, such as DBT sulfone, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone, CS{sub 2}, FeS{sub 2}, and even elemental sulfur. Strain SY1 metabolized DBT to dibenzothiophene-5-oxide, DBT sulfone, and 2-hydroxybiphenyl, which was subsequently nitrated to produce at least two different hydroxynitrobiphenyls during cultivation. These metabolites were separated by silica gel column chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance, UV, and mass spectral techniques. Restingmore » cells of SY1 desulfurized toluenesulfonic acid and released sulfite anion. On the basis of these results, a new DBT degradation pathway is proposed.« less

  5. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene by Corynebacterium sp. strain SY1.

    PubMed Central

    Omori, T; Monna, L; Saiki, Y; Kodama, T

    1992-01-01

    Strain SY1, identified as a Corynebacterium sp., was isolated on the basis of the ability to utilize dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sole source of sulfur. Strain SY1 could utilize a wide range of organic and inorganic sulfur compounds, such as DBT sulfone, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone, CS2, FeS2, and even elemental sulfur. Strain SY1 metabolized DBT to dibenzothiophene-5-oxide, DBT sulfone, and 2-hydroxybiphenyl, which was subsequently nitrated to produce at least two different hydroxynitrobiphenyls during cultivation. These metabolites were separated by silica gel column chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance, UV, and mass spectral techniques. Resting cells of SY1 desulfurized toluenesulfonic acid and released sulfite anion. On the basis of these results, a new DBT degradation pathway is proposed. PMID:1575493

  6. Effect of calcium formate as an additive on desulfurization in power plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhua; Xie, Chunfang; Lv, Jing; Zhai, Ruiguo

    2018-05-01

    SO 2 in flue gas needs to be eliminated to alleviate air pollution. As the quality of coal decreases and environmental standard requirements become more stringent, the high-efficiency desulfurization of flue gas faces more and more challenges. As an economical and environmentally friendly solution, the effect of calcium formate as an additive on desulfurization efficiency in the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) process was studied for the first time. Improvement of the desulfurization efficiency was achieved with limited change in pH after calcium formate was added into the reactor, and it was found to work better than other additives tested. The positive effects were further verified in a power plant, which showed that adding calcium formate could promote the dissolution of calcium carbonate, accelerate the growth of gypsum crystals and improve the efficiency of desulfurization. Thus, calcium formate was proved to be an effective additive and can potentially be used to reduce the amount of limestone slurry required, as well as the energy consumption and operating costs in industrial desulfurization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Simultaneous destraction and desulfurization of Illinois coals with supercritical ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, B.C.

    1983-01-01

    Various Illinois coals (with Illinois number6 being the main one) are liquefied with various supercritical solvents (ethanol being the main solvent) at 543-598 K, system pressures of 6.99-24.23 MPa, flow rates of 3.0-7.5 ml/min, reaction time of 0-180 minutes, and coal particle sizes of 0.36-0.85 mm to 1.00-2.36 mm to systematically investigate the effects of flow rates, reaction time, coal particle size, temperature, pressure, coal characteristics (by using different Illinois coals), supercritical medium (by using different solvents), and the addition of potassium hydroxide. The % weight loss of coal and the % sulfur removal during destraction and desulfurization of coalmore » are functions of the flow rate, the reaction time, the coal particle size, temperature, pressure and the supercritical solvent. Temperature, pressure and the supercritical medium are the most important parameters in controlling the % weight loss of coal and the % sulfur removal. The % weight loss of coal can be related to a power law and fits quite nicely into a second order kinetic model. The % sulfur removal also follows a second order kinetic model. A secondary reaction is observed during the destraction process, which implies that destraction, and possibly desulfurization, of coal is a multistep reaction including a physical extraction step where the major portion of the coal and sulfur was removed and then followed by a chemical reaction. Supercritical ethanol definitely enhances the removal of sulfur compounds from coal. The enhanced selectivity by supercritical ethanol is greatest at a pressure just above the critical pressure of ethanol. Finally, addition of a base such as potassium hydroxide enhances both % weight loss of coal and the % sulfur removal.« less

  8. Applying ACF to Desulfurization Process from Flue Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Zhigang; Tang, Qiang; Cao, Zidong

    2004-08-01

    Inasmuch as the status of environmental pollution caused by SO2 is more and more serious and the policy of environmental protection is executed more and more strictly, desulfurization from flue gas (FGD) is introduced to a wide-spread field of national economy. By a comparison with lime-limestone method, the application of adsorption method in FGD is more effective in desulfurization and more adapted to the situation of our country in respect of its more valuable byproduct. However, the technique of adsorption method is limited by the large amount of adsorbent used. In this paper, activated carbon fiber (ACF) is proposed as a new type of adsorbent to apply in FGD. A series of experiments have been made in order to compare the performances between ACF and granular activated carbon (GAC) which has been mostly used. Experiments show that under the same working conditions ACF's adsorption capacity is 16.6 times as high as that of GAC, mass loss rate is 1/12 of GAC's, desorption efficiency of ACF can reach 99.9%. The theory of micropore adsorption dynamics is adopted to analyze the characteristics of both adsorbents. It is indicated that adsorbability and perfectibility of desorption are tightly related to the distribution of pores and the surface micromechanism of adsorbent surface. The accessibility of pores for specified adsorptive and the effects of capillary condensation are crucial factors to influence the process of FGD. According to the research of different adsorbents, conclusion can be drawn that ACF is a kind of good material with a strong selectivity for SO2. Compared with the traditional methods of FGD, the use of ACF can greatly economize the consumption of adsorbent and obviously reduce the introduction of new adsorbent, and at the same time keep down the equipment investment and operating cost.

  9. Polar Views of Titan Global Topography

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-15

    These polar maps show the first global, topographic mapping of Saturn moon Titan, using data from NASA Cassini mission. To create these maps, scientists employed a mathematical process called splining.

  10. Titan South Polar Vortex in Motion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-10

    This image from a movie captured by NASAS Cassini spacecraft shows a south polar vortex, or shows a south polar vortex, or a swirling mass of gas around the pole in the atmosphere, at Saturn moon Titan.

  11. Dragonfly: Investigating the Surface Composition of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Lawrence, D. J.; Barnes, J. W.; Lorenz, R. D.; Horst, S. M.; Zacny, K.; Freissinet, C.; Parsons, A. M.; Turtle, E. P.; Trainer, M. G.; hide

    2018-01-01

    Dragonfly is a rotorcraft lander mission, selected as a finalist in NASA's New Frontiers Program, that is designed to sample materials and determine the surface composition in different geologic settings on Titan. This revolutionary mission concept would explore diverse locations to characterize the habitability of Titan's environment, to investigate how far prebiotic chemistry has progressed, and to search for chemical signatures that could be indicative of water-based and/or hydrocarbon-based life. Here we describe Dragonfly's capabilities to determine the composition of a variety of surface units on Titan, from elemental components to complex organic molecules. The compositional investigation ncludes characterization of local surface environments and finely sampled materials. The Dragonfly flexible sampling approach can robustly accommodate materials from Titan's most intriguing surface environments.

  12. Probing Titan's atmosphere with a stellar occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.

    1991-01-01

    The 3 July, 1989 occultation of 28 Sgr by Titan is discussed. The star was readily detectable throughout the occultation, reaching a minimum normalized flux of about 0.05. The occultation probed Titan's atmosphere in a region not studied by the Voyager spacecraft. The region is important for the aerobraking of Titan entry probes, and direct information about its properties is important for the Cassini mission. Occultation data (normalized stellar flux vs universal time) is shown in chart form for NASA supported stations, along with data from a collaborating group at the Wise observatory in Israel. Strong scintillation data of the star is noticeable in the data records, and provides information on waves/turbulence in Titan's high atmosphere.

  13. Accelerated Application Development: The ORNL Titan Experience

    DOE PAGES

    Joubert, Wayne; Archibald, Richard K.; Berrill, Mark A.; ...

    2015-05-09

    The use of computational accelerators such as NVIDIA GPUs and Intel Xeon Phi processors is now widespread in the high performance computing community, with many applications delivering impressive performance gains. However, programming these systems for high performance, performance portability and software maintainability has been a challenge. In this paper we discuss experiences porting applications to the Titan system. Titan, which began planning in 2009 and was deployed for general use in 2013, was the first multi-petaflop system based on accelerator hardware. To ready applications for accelerated computing, a preparedness effort was undertaken prior to delivery of Titan. In this papermore » we report experiences and lessons learned from this process and describe how users are currently making use of computational accelerators on Titan.« less

  14. Accelerated application development: The ORNL Titan experience

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, Wayne; Archibald, Rick; Berrill, Mark

    2015-08-01

    The use of computational accelerators such as NVIDIA GPUs and Intel Xeon Phi processors is now widespread in the high performance computing community, with many applications delivering impressive performance gains. However, programming these systems for high performance, performance portability and software maintainability has been a challenge. In this paper we discuss experiences porting applications to the Titan system. Titan, which began planning in 2009 and was deployed for general use in 2013, was the first multi-petaflop system based on accelerator hardware. To ready applications for accelerated computing, a preparedness effort was undertaken prior to delivery of Titan. In this papermore » we report experiences and lessons learned from this process and describe how users are currently making use of computational accelerators on Titan.« less

  15. Geomorphologic Map of Titan's Polar Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, S. P. D.; Hayes, A. G.; Malaska, M. J.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Schoenfeld, A.; Williams, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    Titan's lakes and seas contain vast amounts of information regarding the history and evolution of Saturn's largest moon. To understand this landscape, we created a geomorphologic map, and then used our map to develop an evolutionary model.

  16. Superrotation on Venus, on Titan, and Elsewhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Peter L.; Lebonnois, Sebastien

    2018-05-01

    The superrotation of the atmospheres of Venus and Titan has puzzled dynamicists for many years and seems to put these planets in a very different dynamical regime from most other planets. In this review, we consider how to define superrotation objectively and explore the constraints that determine its occurrence. Atmospheric superrotation also occurs elsewhere in the Solar System and beyond, and we compare Venus and Titan with Earth and other planets for which wind estimates are available. The extreme superrotation on Venus and Titan poses some difficult challenges for numerical models of atmospheric circulation, much more difficult than for more rapidly rotating planets such as Earth or Mars. We consider mechanisms for generating and maintaining a superrotating state, all of which involve a global meridional overturning circulation. The role of nonaxisymmetric eddies is crucial, however, but the detailed mechanisms may differ between Venus, Titan, and other planets.

  17. Prebiotic-like chemistry on Titan.

    PubMed

    Raulin, François; Brassé, Coralie; Poch, Olivier; Coll, Patrice

    2012-08-21

    Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, is the only one in the solar system with a dense atmosphere. Mainly composed of dinitrogen with several % of methane, this atmosphere experiences complex organic processes, both in the gas and aerosol phases, which are of prebiotic interest and within an environment of astrobiological interest. This tutorial review presents the different approaches which can be followed to study such an exotic place and its chemistry: observation, theoretical modeling and experimental simulation. It describes the Cassini-Huygens mission, as an example of observational tools, and gives the new astrobiologically oriented vision of Titan which is now available by coupling the three approaches. This includes the many analogies between Titan and the Earth, in spite of the much lower temperature in the Saturn system, the complex organic chemistry in the atmosphere, from the gas to the aerosol phases, but also the potential organic chemistry on Titan's surface, and in its possible internal water ocean.

  18. Snapshots of Titan North Polar Cloud

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-23

    This series of false-color images obtained by NASA Cassini spacecraft shows the dissolving cloud cover over the north pole of Saturn moon Titan, allowing scientists to see the underlying northern lakes and seas, including Kraken Mare.

  19. Titan's Complex Chemistry: Insights from the Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, Sarah

    2018-06-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission revealed Titan to be a complex world with physical processes reminiscent of other terrestrial planets, but chemistry that is unlike anywhere else in the Solar System. Titan's complex atmospheric chemistry converts N2 and CH4 into numerous, abundant organic molecules ranging from relatively simple hydrocarbons to ions with mass to charge ratios up to 10,000 amu/q. The molecules eventually settle to the surface where they can participate in and be modified by geological processes such as aeolian and fluvial erosion or undergo subsequent chemistry in Titan's lakes and seas or impact craters and potential cryovolcanic flows. From the processes leading to massive ion formation in the atmosphere to the behavior of saltating organic sands on the surface, laboratory experiments are playing a pivotal role in understanding Titan and expanding our understanding of planetary processes into new, exciting phase space.

  20. Titan's ion exosphere observed from Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, R. E.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.; Atreya, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    The plasma wake surrounding Titan in Saturn's rotating magnetosphere is characterized by a plasma which is denser and cooler than the surrounding subsonic magnetospheric plasma, and which is produced by the deflection of magnetospheric plasma around Titan and the addition of exospheric ions picked up by the rotating magnetosphere. A resemblance to the interaction between the solar wind and Venus is shown for the case of ion pickup in the ion exosphere outside Titan's magnetic tail and ion flow within the boundaries of the tail as Saturn's rotating magnetosphere interacts with Titan. The boundary of the tail is indicated by a sharp reduction in the flux of high-energy electrons, which are removed by inelastic scattering with the atmosphere and centrifugal drift produced when the electrons traverse the magnetic field draped around Saturn.

  1. The vertical profile of winds on Titan.

    PubMed

    Bird, M K; Allison, M; Asmar, S W; Atkinson, D H; Avruch, I M; Dutta-Roy, R; Dzierma, Y; Edenhofer, P; Folkner, W M; Gurvits, L I; Johnston, D V; Plettemeier, D; Pogrebenko, S V; Preston, R A; Tyler, G L

    2005-12-08

    One of Titan's most intriguing attributes is its copious but featureless atmosphere. The Voyager 1 fly-by and occultation in 1980 provided the first radial survey of Titan's atmospheric pressure and temperature and evidence for the presence of strong zonal winds. It was realized that the motion of an atmospheric probe could be used to study the winds, which led to the inclusion of the Doppler Wind Experiment on the Huygens probe. Here we report a high resolution vertical profile of Titan's winds, with an estimated accuracy of better than 1 m s(-1). The zonal winds were prograde during most of the atmospheric descent, providing in situ confirmation of superrotation on Titan. A layer with surprisingly slow wind, where the velocity decreased to near zero, was detected at altitudes between 60 and 100 km. Generally weak winds (approximately 1 m s(-1)) were seen in the lowest 5 km of descent.

  2. Titan Moving Mid-Latitude Clouds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-17

    This image shows clouds in the mid-southern latitudes of Saturn largest moon, Titan, one of a series of images captured by NASA Cassini spacecraft a few months after fall began in the southern hemisphere.

  3. Cyanide Soap? Dissolved material in Titan's Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Neish, C. D.

    2011-10-01

    Although it is evident that Titan's lakes and seas are dominated by ethane, methane, nitrogen, and (in some models) propane, there is divergence on the predicted relative abundance of minor constituents such as nitriles and C-4 alkanes. Nitriles such as hydrogen cyanide and acetonitrile, which have a significant dipole moment, may have a disproportionate influence on the dielectric properties of Titan seas and may act to solvate polar molecules such as water ice. The hypothesis is offered that such salvation may act to enhance the otherwise negligible solubility of water ice bedrock in liquid hydrocarbons. Such enhanced solubility may permit solution erosion as a formation mechanism for the widespread pits and apparently karstic lakes on Titan. Prospects for testing this hypothesis in the laboratory, and with measurements on Titan, will be discussed.

  4. Energy Deposition Processes in Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Edward C., Jr.; Bertucci, Cesar; Coates, Andrew; Cravens, Tom; Dandouras, Iannis; Shemansky, Don

    2008-01-01

    Most of Titan's atmospheric organic and nitrogen chemistry, aerosol formation, and atmospheric loss are driven from external energy sources such as Solar UV, Saturn's magnetosphere, solar wind and galactic cosmic rays. The Solar UV tends to dominate the energy input at lower altitudes of approximately 1100 km but which can extend down to approximately 400 km, while the plasma interaction from Saturn's magnetosphere, Saturn's magnetosheath or solar wind are more important at higher altitudes of approximately 1400 km, but the heavy ion plasma [O(+)] of approximately 2 keV and energetic ions [H(+)] of approximately 30 keV or higher from Saturn's magnetosphere can penetrate below 950km. Cosmic rays with energies of greater than 1 GeV can penetrate much deeper into Titan's atmosphere with most of its energy deposited at approximately 100 km altitude. The haze layer tends to dominate between 100 km and 300 km. The induced magnetic field from Titan's interaction with the external plasma can be very complex and will tend to channel the flow of energy into Titan's upper atmosphere. Cassini observations combined with advanced hybrid simulations of the plasma interaction with Titan's upper atmosphere show significant changes in the character of the interaction with Saturn local time at Titan's orbit where the magnetosphere displays large and systematic changes with local time. The external solar wind can also drive sub-storms within the magnetosphere which can then modify the magnetospheric interaction with Titan. Another important parameter is solar zenith angle (SZA) with respect to the co-rotation direction of the magnetospheric flow. Titan's interaction can contribute to atmospheric loss via pickup ion loss, scavenging of Titan's ionospheric plasma, loss of ionospheric plasma down its induced magnetotail via an ionospheric wind, and non-thermal loss of the atmosphere via heating and sputtering induced by the bombardment of magnetospheric keV ions and electrons. This

  5. Future Exploration of Titan and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, D. L.; Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J.; Lebreton, J.; Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.

    2009-05-01

    The future exploration of Titan and Enceladus has become very important for the planetary community. The study conducted last year of the Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) led to an announcement in which ESA and NASA prioritized future OPF missions, stating that TSSM is planned after EJSM (for details see http://www.lpi.usra.edu/opag/). TSSM consists of a TSSM Orbiter that would carry two in situ elements: the Titan Montgolfiere hot air balloon and the Titan Lake Lander. The mission could launch in the 2023-2025 timeframe on a trajectory to arrive ~9 years later for a 4-year mission in the Saturn system. Soon after arrival at Saturn, the montgolfiere would be delivered to Titan to begin its mission of airborne, scientific observations of Titan from an altitude of about 10 km. The montgolfiere would have a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) power system and would be designed to last at least 6-12 months in Titan's atmosphere. With the predicted winds and weather, that would be sufficient to circumnavigate the globe! On a subsequent fly-by, the TSSM orbiter would release the Lake Lander on a trajectory toward Titan for a targeted entry. It would descend through the atmosphere making scientific measurements, much like Huygens did, and then land and float on one of Titan's seas. This would be its oceanographic phase, making a physical and chemical assessment of the sea. The Lake Lander would operate 8-10 hours until its batteries become depleted. Following the delivery of the in situ elements, the TSSM orbiter would explore the Saturn system via a 2-year tour that includes in situ sampling of Enceladus' plumes as well as Titan flybys. After the Saturn system tour, the TSSM orbiter would enter orbit around Titan for a global survey phase. Synergistic and coordinated observations would be carried out between the TSSM orbiter and the in situ elements. The scientific requirements were developed by the international TSSM Joint Science Definition

  6. A FUSE Search for Argon on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, G. R.; Link, R.; Stern, S. A.; Festou, M.; Waite, J. H.

    2002-09-01

    The origin of Titan's thick nitrogen and methane atmosphere is a compelling enigma. One key and still missing observable concerns the abundances of noble gases in general, and argon in particular. Detection of sufficient argon could indicate that the N2 and CO now found in the atmosphere came in with ice during Titan's accretion. Alternatively, if there is very little argon, then we have to turn to models starting with frozen ammonia, methane and water ice, indicating a more important role for the Saturn sub-nebula, and requiring subsequent modification by photochemistry. Current estimates on the fraction of argon in Titan's atmosphere are crude, and based only on indirect evidence, and range up to 25%. On Sept. 21, 2000, using the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite, we performed an observation of Titan to search for argon and to make a survey of Titan's dayglow in the 90--115 nm FUSE bandpass. No emissions were found in the 18 ks exposure, although only 7.4 ks were obtained when FUSE was in Earth's shadow where terrestrial airglow contamination is minimal. While no Ar, N, or N2 emissions were detected, 2-σ upper limits of 4 R (for Ar 104.8 nm) and 20 R (for N 113.4 nm) are found using the best of the FUSE data. There is a bump on the terrestrial geocorona H Lyβ emission at 102.5 nm which may be due to Titan and a Titan Torus. The signal in the bump is about 400 R. Model estimates suggest that the Lyβ brightness of Titan should be about 20 R and the Titan Torus in the 30--700 R range. For an assumed argon abundance of 5% the 104.8 nm emission is predicted to be 7 R, so the argon estimate is constraining already. The nitrogen estimate is very close to the model expectation of 15 R. An accurate determination of the abundance of argon on Titan would be useful in preparing for the arrival of the Cassini orbiter and Huygens probe at the Saturn system, so further FUSE observations of Titan are planned. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA

  7. Atomic hydrogen distribution. [in Titan atmospheric model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabarie, N.

    1974-01-01

    Several possible H2 vertical distributions in Titan's atmosphere are considered with the constraint of 5 km-A a total quantity. Approximative calculations show that hydrogen distribution is quite sensitive to two other parameters of Titan's atmosphere: the temperature and the presence of other constituents. The escape fluxes of H and H2 are also estimated as well as the consequent distributions trapped in the Saturnian system.

  8. The rotation of Titan and Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hoolst, Tim; Coyette, Alexis; Baland, Rose-Marie; Trinh, Antony

    2016-10-01

    The rotation rates of Titan and Ganymede, the largest satellites of Saturn and Jupiter, are on average equal to their orbital mean motion. Here we discuss small deviations from the average rotation for both satellites and evaluate the polar motion of Titan induced by its surface fluid layers. We examine different causes at various time scales and assess possible consequences and the potential of using librations and polar motion as probes of the interior structure of the satellites.The rotation rate of Titan and Ganymede cannot be constant on the orbital time scale as a result of the gravitational torque of the central planet acting on the satellites. Titan is moreover expected to show significant polar motion and additional variations in the rotation rate due to angular momentum exchange with the atmosphere, mainly at seasonal periods. Observational evidence for deviations from the synchronous state has been reported several times for Titan but is unfortunately inconclusive. The measurements of the rotation variations are based on determinations of the shift in position of Cassini radar images taken during different flybys. The ESA JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission will measure the rotation variations of Ganymede during its orbital phase around the satellite starting in 2032.We report on different theoretical aspects of the librations and polar motion. We consider the influence of the rheology of the ice shell and take into account Cassini measurements of the external gravitational field and of the topography of Titan and similar Galileo data about Ganymede. We also evaluate the librations and polar motion induced by Titan's hydrocarbon seas and use the most recent results of Titan's atmosphere dynamics. We finally evaluate the potential of rotation variations to constrain the satellite's interior structure, in particular its ice shell and ocean.

  9. Radar evidence for liquid surfaces on Titan.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Donald B; Black, Gregory J; Carter, Lynn M; Ostro, Steven J

    2003-10-17

    Arecibo radar observations of Titan at 13-centimeter wavelength indicate that most of the echo power is in a diffusely scattered component but that a small specular component is present for about 75% of the subearth locations observed. These specular echoes have properties consistent with those expected for areas of liquid hydrocarbons. Knowledge of the areal extent and depth of any deposits of liquid hydrocarbons could strongly constrain the history of Titan's atmosphere and surface.

  10. Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, Edward C.; Cooper, J. F.; Mahaffey, P.; Esper, J.; Fairbrother, D.; Farley, R.; Pitman, J.; Kojiro, D. R.; TOAM Team

    2006-12-01

    We propose to develop a new mission to Titan called Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM). This mission is motivated by the recent discoveries of Titan, its atmosphere and its surface by the Huygens Probe, and a combination of in situ, remote sensing and radar mapping measurements of Titan by the Cassini orbiter. Titan is a body for which Astrobiology (i.e., prebiotic chemistry) will be the primary science goal of any future missions to it. TOAM is planned to use an orbiter and balloon technology (i.e., aerorover). Aerobraking will be used to put payload into orbit around Titan. The Aerorover will probably use a hot air balloon concept using the waste heat from the MMRTG 500 watts. Orbiter support for the Aerorover is unique to our approach for Titan. Our strategy to use an orbiter is contrary to some studies using just a single probe with balloon. Autonomous operation and navigation of the Aerorover around Titan will be required, which will include descent near to the surface to collect surface samples for analysis (i.e., touch and go technique). The orbiter can provide both relay station and GPS roles for the Aerorover. The Aerorover will have all the instruments needed to sample Titan’s atmosphere, surface, possible methane lakes-rivers, use multi-spectral imagers for surface reconnaissance; to take close up surface images; take core samples and deploy seismometers during landing phase. Both active and passive broadband remote sensing techniques will be used for surface topography, winds and composition measurements.

  11. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective ‘titanic’. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the ‘Seven C's’. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. PMID:22738396

  12. Impact Craters on Titan? Cassini RADAR View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles A.; Lopes, Rosaly; Stofan, Ellen R.; Paganelli, Flora; Elachi, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Titan is a planet-size (diameter of 5,150 km) satellite of Saturn that is currently being investigated by the Cassini spacecraft. Thus far only one flyby (Oct. 26, 2004; Ta) has occurred when radar images were obtained. In February, 2005, and approximately 20 more times in the next four years, additional radar swaths will be acquired. Each full swath images about 1% of Titan s surface at 13.78 GHz (Ku-band) with a maximum resolution of 400 m. The Ta radar pass [1] demonstrated that Titan has a solid surface with multiple types of landforms. However, there is no compelling detection of impact craters in this first radar swath. Dione, Tethys and other satellites of Saturn are intensely cratered, there is no way that Titan could have escaped a similar impact cratering past; thus there must be ongoing dynamic surface processes that erase impact craters (and other landforms) on Titan. The surface of Titan must be very young and the resurfacing rate must be significantly higher than the impact cratering rate.

  13. Handling Late Changes to Titan Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitesky, Jo Eliza; Steadman, Kim; Ray, Trina; Burton, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini mission has been in orbit for eight years, returning a wealth of scientific data from Titan and the Saturnian system. The mission, a cooperative undertaking between NASA, ESA and ASI, is currently in its second extension of the prime mission. The Cassini Solstice Mission (CSM) extends the mission's lifetime until Saturn's northern summer solstice in 2017. The Titan Orbital Science Team (TOST) has the task of integrating the science observations for all 56 targeted Titan flybys in the CSM. In order to balance Titan science across the entire set of flybys during the CSM, to optimize and influence the Titan flyby altitudes, and to decrease the future workload, TOST went through a "jumpstart" process before the start of the CSM. The "jumpstart" produced Master Timelines for each flyby, identifying prime science observations and allocating control of the spacecraft attitude to specific instrument teams. Three years after completing this long-range plan, TOST now faces a new challenge: incorporating changes into the Titan Science Plan without undoing the balance achieved during the jumpstart.

  14. Strategies for Detecting Biological Molecules on Titan.

    PubMed

    Neish, Catherine D; Lorenz, Ralph D; Turtle, Elizabeth P; Barnes, Jason W; Trainer, Melissa G; Stiles, Bryan; Kirk, Randolph; Hibbitts, Charles A; Malaska, Michael J

    2018-05-02

    Saturn's moon Titan has all the ingredients needed to produce "life as we know it." When exposed to liquid water, organic molecules analogous to those found on Titan produce a range of biomolecules such as amino acids. Titan thus provides a natural laboratory for studying the products of prebiotic chemistry. In this work, we examine the ideal locales to search for evidence of, or progression toward, life on Titan. We determine that the best sites to identify biological molecules are deposits of impact melt on the floors of large, fresh impact craters, specifically Sinlap, Selk, and Menrva craters. We find that it is not possible to identify biomolecules on Titan through remote sensing, but rather through in situ measurements capable of identifying a wide range of biological molecules. Given the nonuniformity of impact melt exposures on the floor of a weathered impact crater, the ideal lander would be capable of precision targeting. This would allow it to identify the locations of fresh impact melt deposits, and/or sites where the melt deposits have been exposed through erosion or mass wasting. Determining the extent of prebiotic chemistry within these melt deposits would help us to understand how life could originate on a world very different from Earth. Key Words: Titan-Prebiotic chemistry-Solar system exploration-Impact processes-Volcanism. Astrobiology xx, xxx-xxx.

  15. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Fundamental studies of desulfurization processes: reaction of methanethiol on ZnO and Cs/ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Joseph; Jirsak, Tomas; Rodriguez, José A.

    2001-05-01

    The reaction of methanethiol on ZnO and Cs promoted ZnO surfaces has been studied with synchrotron based photoemission and thermal desorption spectroscopy. On ZnO, methanethiol undergoes selective reaction to produce carbon monoxide (37-58%), methane (23-38%), formaldehyde (12-15%), ethane (1-11%), and a mixture of ethylene and acetylene (3-13%). At low temperatures (<100 K), methanethiol reacts to yield thiolate intermediate bound to Zn 2+ cations. The thiolate is stable to 500 K. Above this temperature, C-S bond cleavage occurs to yield methyl intermediate and atomic S. Carbon is removed from the surface as gaseous products above 500 K, and atomic sulfur remains bound to the zinc sites of the surface. Submonolayer amounts of cesium do not have a significant promotional effect on C-S bond cleavage, whereas Cs multilayers are found to significantly lower the activation barrier for C-S bond cleavage. This study illustrates the chemistry associated with the desulfurization of thiols on a catalytically relevant oxide surface.

  17. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  18. From Titan to the primitive Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, F.; Gpcos Team

    Our knowledge of the conditions prevailing in the environment of the primitive Earth is still very limited, due to the lack of geological data. Fortunately, there are a few planetary objects in the solar system which present similarities with our planet, including during its early history. Titan is one of these. With a diameter of more than 5100 km, Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is also the only one to have a dense atmosphere. This atmosphere, clearly evidenced by the presence of haze layers, extends to approximately 1500 km. Like the Earth, Titan's atmosphere is mainly composed of dinitrogen, N2 . The other main constituents are methane, CH4 , about 1.6% to 2.0% in the stratosphere, as measured by CIRS on Cassini and GC-MS on Huygens and dihydrogen (H2 , approximate 0.1%). With surface temperatures of approximately 94 K, and an average surface pressure of 1.5 bar, Titan's atmosphere is nearly five times denser than the Earth's. Despite of these differences between Titan and the Earth there are several analogies that can be drawn between the two planetary bodies. The first resemblances concern the vertical atmospheric structure. Although Titan is much colder, with a troposphere (˜94-˜70 K), a tropopause (70.4 K) and a stratosphere (˜70-175 K) its atmosphere presents a similar complex structure to that of the Earth. These analogies are linked to the presence in both atmospheres of greenhouse gases: CH4 and H2 on Titan, equivalent respectively to terrestrial condensable H2 O and non-condensable CO2 . In addition the haze particles and clouds in Titan's atmosphere play an antigreenhouse effect similar to that of the terrestrial atmospheric aerosols and clouds. Indeed, methane on Titan seems to play the role of water on the Earth, with a complex cycle, which still has to be understood. The possibility that Titan is covered with hydrocarbon oceans is now ruled out, but it is still possible that Titan's surface include lakes of methane and ethane. Moreover, the

  19. Study of variation grain size in desulfurization process of calcined petroleum coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintowantoro, Sungging; Setiawan, Muhammad Arif; Abdul, Fakhreza

    2018-04-01

    Indonesia is a country with abundant natural resources, such as mineral mining and petroleum. In petroleum processing, crude oil can be processed into a source of fuel energy such as gasoline, diesel, oil, petroleum coke, and others. One of crude oil potentials in Indonesia is petroleum coke. Petroleum coke is a product from oil refining process. Sulfur reducing process in calcined petroleum cokes can be done by desulfurization process. The industries which have potential to become petroleum coke processing consumers are industries of aluminum smelting (anode, graphite block, carbon mortar), iron riser, calcined coke, foundry coke, etc. Sulfur reducing process in calcined petroleum coke can be done by thermal desulfurization process with alkaline substance NaOH. Desulfurization of petroleum coke process can be done in two ways, which are thermal desulfurization and hydrodesulphurization. This study aims to determine the effect of various grain size on sulfur, carbon, and chemical bond which contained by calcined petroleum coke. The raw material use calcined petroleum coke with 0.653% sulfur content. The grain size that used in this research is 50 mesh, then varied to 20 mesh and 100 mesh for each desulfurization process. Desulfurization are tested by ICP, UV-VIS, and FTIR to determine levels of sulfur, carbon, chemical bonding and sulfur dissolved water which contained in the residual washing of calcined petroleum coke. From various grain size that mentioned before, the optimal value is on 100 mesh grain size, where the sulfur content in petroleum coke is 0.24% and carbon content reaches the highest level of 97.8%. Meanwhile for grain size 100 mesh in the desulfurization process is enough to break the chemical bonds of organic sulfur in petroleum coke.

  20. Selections from 2017: Discoveries in Titan's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2017, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume in January.Carbon Chain Anions and the Growth of Complex Organic Molecules in Titans IonospherePublished July2017Main takeaway:Graphic depicting some of the chemical reactions taking place in Titans atmosphere, leading to the generation of organic haze particles. [ESA]In a recently published study led by Ravi Desai (University College London), scientists used data from the Cassini mission to identify negatively charged molecules known as carbon chain anions in the atmosphere of Saturns largest moon, Titan.Why its interesting:Carbon chain anions are the building blocks ofmore complex molecules, and Titans thick nitrogen and methane atmosphere mightmimic the atmosphere of earlyEarth. This first unambiguous detection of carbon chain anions in a planet-like atmosphere might therefore teach us about the conditions and chemical reactions that eventually led to the development of life on Earth. And ifwe can use Titan to learn about how complex molecules grow from these anion chains, we may be able to identify auniversal pathway towards the ingredients for life.What weve learned so far:Cassini measured fewer and fewer lower-mass anions the deeper in Titans ionosphere that it looked and at the same time,an increase in the number of precursors to larger aerosol molecules further down. This tradeoff strongly suggests that the anions are indeed involved in building up the more complex molecules, seeding their eventual growth into the complex organic haze of Titans lower atmosphere.CitationR. T. Desai et al 2017 ApJL 844 L18. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa7851

  1. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  2. Zinc oxide overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  3. Titan's lower troposphere: thermal structure and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnay, B.; Lebonnois, S.

    2011-12-01

    A new climate model for Titan's atmosphere has been developed, using the physics of the IPSL Titan 2-dimensional climate model with the current version of the LMDZ General Circulation Model's dynamical core. The GCM covers altitudes from the surface to 500 km with the diurnal cycle and the gravitational tides included. 1. Boundary layer and thermal structure The HASI profile of potential temperature shows a layer at 300 m, an other at 800 m and a slope change at 2 km ([5],[2]). Dune spacing on Titan is consistent with a 2-3 km boundary layer ([3]). We have reproduced this profile (see figure) and interpreted the layer at 300 m as a convective boundary layer, the layer at 800 m is a residual layer corresponding to the maximum diurnal vertical extension of the PBL. We interpret the slope change at 2 km as produced by the seasonal displacement of the ITCZ. This layer traps the circulation in the first two km and is responsible of the dune spacing. Finally we interpret the fog discovered in summer polar region ([1]) has clouds produced by the diurnal cycle of the PBL (as fair weather cumulus on Earth). 2. Surface winds 2.1 Effect of gravitational and thermal tides We analysed tropospheric winds and the influence of both the thermal and the gravitational tides. The impact of gravitational tides on the circulation is extremely small. Thermal tides have a visible effect, though quite tenuous. 2.2 Effect of topography We produced topography maps derived from spherical harmonic interpolation ([6]) on the reference ellipsoid ([4]). Surface temperatures at high altitude appear higher that the ambient air. Vertical air movements produce anabatic winds developing on smooth and long slopes. This could be one of the main causes controlling the direction of surface winds and the direction of dunes. References [1] Brown et al.: Discovery of fog at the south pole of Titan, Astrophys. J. 706 (2009), pp. L110-L113 [2] Griffith et al.: Titan's Tropical Storms in an Evolving Atmosphere

  4. Spacecraft Exploration of Titan and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, D.; Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Lebreton, J.; Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Erd, C.

    2009-12-01

    The future exploration of Titan and Enceladus is very important for planetary science. The study titled Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) led to an announcement in which ESA and NASA prioritized future OPF missions, stating that TSSM is planned after EJSM (for details see http://www.lpi.usra.edu/opag/). The TSSM concept consists of an Orbiter that would carry two in situ elements: the Titan Montgolfiere hot air balloon and the Titan Lake Lander. This mission could launch in the 2023-2025 timeframe on a trajectory to arrive ~9 years later and begin a 4-year mission in the Saturnian system. At an appropriate time after arrival at Saturn, the montgolfiere would be delivered to Titan to begin its mission of airborne, scientific observations of Titan from an altitude of about 10 km above the surface. The montgolfiere would have a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) power system whose waste heat would warm the gas in the balloon, providing buoyancy. It would be designed to survive at least 6-12 months in Titan’s atmosphere. With the predicted winds and weather, it should be possible to circumnavigate the globe! Later, on a subsequent fly-by, the TSSM orbiter would send the Lake Lander to Titan. It would descend through the atmosphere making scientific measurements, much like Huygens did, and then land and float on one of Titan’s seas. This would be its oceanographic phase of making a physical and chemical assessment of the sea. The Lake Lander would operate for 8-10 hours until its batteries become depleted. Following the delivery of the in situ elements, the TSSM orbiter would then explore the Saturn system for two years on a tour that includes in situ sampling of Enceladus’ plumes as well as flybys of Titan. After the Saturn tour, the TSSM orbiter would go into orbit around Titan and carry out a global survey phase. Synergistic observations would be carried out by the TSSM orbiter and the in situ elements. The scientific requirements for

  5. Laboratory simulation of photochemistry on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, J.; Tran, B.; Force, M.; Briggs, R.; Vuitton, V.

    Solar UV radiation is the principal energy source driving the chemistry in Titan's atmosphere ....(Sagan and Thompson, 1984). We have investigated the photochemical reactions in Titan's atmosphere in a flow reactor using the 185 and 254 nm UV emissions from a low-pressure mercury lamp ....(Clarke, et al., 2000) .....(Tran, et al., 2003). A solid product is formed using this apparatus and its optical properties have been measured since it is an analog of the haze layer on Titan. The complex refractive index of the solid material was determined and compared with the corresponding refractive index derived from the optical data obtained from Voyager 1 .......(Tran, et al., 2003). The current research focuses on the volatile reaction products. The principal gaseous compounds that absorb 185 nm light in Titan's atmosphere (acetylene, ethylene, and cyanoacetylene) were irradiated individually and in the presence of other atmospheric constituents at their mixing ratios in the Titan atmosphere. The objectives of this study are to determine the reaction pathways and to construct a model that reproduces the experimental results. Quantum yields for the loss of reactants and the formation of products were determined from the rates measured by gas chromatographic analysis. Irradiation of a mixture of acetylene, ethylene, cyanoacetylene, methane, hydrogen and nitrogen generated over 120 compounds. The structures of about 100 of these compounds were determined by GC/MS. The structures of many of these compounds were confirmed by use of authentic samples. The similarities and difference in the products obtained photochemically and by plasma discharges will be discussed. Clarke D. W., J. C. Joseph and J. P. Ferris, 2000, The design and use of a photochemical flow reactor: A laboratory study of the atmospheric chemistry of cyanoacetylene on Titan, Icarus, 282-291. Sagan C. and W. R. Thompson, 1984, Production and condensation of organic gases in the atmosphere of Titan, Icarus, 59

  6. Titan cells confer protection from phagocytosis in Cryptococcus neoformans infections.

    PubMed

    Okagaki, Laura H; Nielsen, Kirsten

    2012-06-01

    The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans produces an enlarged "titan" cell morphology when exposed to the host pulmonary environment. Titan cells exhibit traits that promote survival in the host. Previous studies showed that titan cells are not phagocytosed and that increased titan cell production in the lungs results in reduced phagocytosis of cryptococcal cells by host immune cells. Here, the effect of titan cell production on host-pathogen interactions during early stages of pulmonary cryptococcosis was explored. The relationship between titan cell production and phagocytosis was found to be nonlinear; moderate increases in titan cell production resulted in profound decreases in phagocytosis, with significant differences occurring within the first 24 h of the infection. Not only were titan cells themselves protected from phagocytosis, but titan cell formation also conferred protection from phagocytosis to normal-size cryptococcal cells. Large particles introduced into the lungs were not phagocytosed, suggesting the large size of titan cells protects against phagocytosis. The presence of large particles was unable to protect smaller particles from phagocytosis, revealing that titan cell size alone is not sufficient to provide the observed cross-protection of normal-size cryptococcal cells. These data suggest that titan cells play a critical role in establishment of the pulmonary infection by promoting the survival of the entire population of cryptococcal cells.

  7. ISO observations of Titan with SWS/grating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coustenis, A.; Encrenaz, T.; Salama, A.; Lellouch, E.; Gautier, D.; Kessler, M. F.; deGraauw, T.; Samuelson, R. E.; Bjoraker, G.; Orton, G.

    1997-01-01

    The observations of Titan performed by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) short wavelength spectrometer (SWS), in the 2 micrometer to 45 micrometer region using the grating mode, are reported on. Special attention is given to data from Titan concerning 7 micrometer to 45 micrometer spectral resolution. Future work for improving Titan's spectra investigation is suggested.

  8. Pluto's Implications for a Snowball Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M.; Yung, Y. L.; Gladstone, R.

    2013-12-01

    The recent Cassini-Huygens Mission to the Saturnian system provides compelling evidence that the present state of Titan's dense atmosphere is unsustainable over the age of the Solar System. Instead, for most of the time Titan's atmosphere must have existed in a collapsed snowball state, characterized by a cold surface and a thin atmosphere, much like those of present-day Pluto and Triton. We will briefly review how the present Titan atmosphere exists due to a sensitive coupling between photochemistry, radiation, and dynamics. This delicate 'house of cards' must have collapsed in the past when it ran out of CH4 or when the sun was dimmer. We will investigate how the rate of organic synthesis on Snowball Titan differs from that of contemporary Titan. The forthcoming New Horizons Mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt may allow us to gain insights into the fine balance and the evolutionary history of certain planetary atmospheres. In particular, the high SNR solar occultations planned for observation with the Alice UV spectrograph on New Horizons are expected to yield abundance profiles of important hydrocarbons and nitriles in Pluto's atmosphere, providing detailed constraints for photochemical models such as those considered here.

  9. Titan's atmosphere (clouds and composition): new results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, C. A.

    Titan's atmosphere potentially sports a cycle similar to the hydrologic one on Earth with clouds, rain and seas, but with methane playing the terrestrial role of water. Over the past ten years many independent efforts indicated no strong evidence for cloudiness until some unique spectra were analyzed in 1998 (Griffith et al.). These surprising observations displayed enhanced fluxes of 14-200 % on two nights at precisely the wavelengths (windows) that sense Titan's lower altitude where clouds might reside. The morphology of these enhancements in all 4 windows observed indicate that clouds covered ~6-9 % of Titan's surface and existed at ~15 km altitude. Here I discuss new observations recorded in 1999 aimed to further characterize Titan's clouds. While we find no evidence for a massive cloud system similar to the one observed previously, 1%-4% fluctuations in flux occur daily. These modulations, similar in wavelength and morphology to the more pronounced ones observed earlier, suggest the presence of clouds covering ≤1% of Titan's disk. The variations are too small to have been detected by most prior measurements. Repeated observations, spaced 30 minutes apart, indicate a temporal variability observable in the time scale of a couple of hours. The cloud heights hint that convection might govern their evolution. Their short lives point to the presence of rain.

  10. Titan. [Voyager IRIS observation of satellite atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    1990-01-01

    Saturn's satellite Titan is the second-largest in the solar system. Its dense atmosphere is mostly molecular nitrogen with an admixture of methane, a surface pressure of 1.5 bars and a surface temperature of 94K. The fundamental driving force in the long-term evolution of Titan's atmosphere is the photolysis of methane in the stratosphere to form higher hydrocarbons and aerosols. The current rate of photolysis and undersaturation of methane in the lower troposphere suggests the presence of a massive ethane-methane-nitrogen ocean. The ocean evolves to a more ethane-rich state over geologic time, driving changes in the atmospheric thermal structure. An outstanding issue concerning Titan's earliest history is the origin of atmospheric nitrogen: was it introduced into Titan as molecular nitrogen or ammonia? Measurement of the argon-to-nitrogen ratio in the present atmosphere provides a diagnostic test of these competing hypotheses. Many of the questions raised by the Voyager encounters about Titan and its atmosphere can be adequately addressed only by an entry probe, such as that planned for the Cassini mission.

  11. The magnetic geometry of Titan's induced magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertucci, C.; Achilleos, N.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2011-12-01

    As a result of the virtual absence of an intrinsic field at Titan, an induced magnetosphere is formed from the direct interaction between its atmosphere and the plasma environment. Observations at unmagnetized objects such as comets, or planets like Venus and Mars, have shown that the orientation of the magnetic field within an induced magnetosphere is, on average, symmetric with respect to the plane generated by the upstream magnetic field and plasma velocity vectors. Analyses of Voyager and early Cassini magnetometer data around Titan confirm this feature. In this work, we study the efficiency of the background magnetic field-based 'draping coordinate system' (DRAP) introduced in Neubauer et al., [2006] to organize Cassini magnetometer (MAG) measurements within the induced magnetosphere of Titan for all the close flybys of the Prime Mission where MAG data is available. We find that, in general, DRAP coordinates are efficient in organizing the orientation of the draped magnetic field according to the pattern expected for an induced magnetosphere, suggesting that the same system could be used to spatially organize plasma measurements. Departures from this picture are likely related to non stationarity in the upstream flow, fossil fields and, induced currents within Titan's ionosphere and, probably, its interior. REFERENCES: Neubauer, F. M., et al. (2006). Titan's near magnetotail from magnetic field and electron plasma observations and modeling: Cassini flybys TA, TB, and T3. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111(A10), 1-15. doi: 10.1029/2006JA011676.

  12. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    PubMed Central

    Skrovanek, Sonja; DiGuilio, Katherine; Bailey, Robert; Huntington, William; Urbas, Ryan; Mayilvaganan, Barani; Mercogliano, Giancarlo; Mullin, James M

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25400994

  13. Characteristics and reactivity of rapidly hydrated sorbent for semidry flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; You, Changfu; Zhao, Suwei; Chen, Changhe; Qi, Haiying

    2008-03-01

    Semidry flue gas desulfurization with a rapidly hydrated sorbent was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental facility. The desulfurization efficiency was measured for various operating parameters, including the sorbent recirculation rate and the water spray method. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiencies of the rapidly hydrated sorbent were 1.5-3.0 times higher than a commonly used industrial sorbent for calcium to sulfur molar ratios from 1.2 to 3.0, mainly due to the higher specific surface area and pore volume. The Ca(OH)2 content in the cyclone separator ash was about 2.9% for the rapidly hydrated sorbent and was about 0.1% for the commonly used industrial sorbent, due to the different adhesion between the fine Ca(OH)2 particles and the fly ash particles, and the low cyclone separation efficiency for the fine Ca(OH)2 particles that fell off the sorbent particles. Therefore the actual recirculation rates of the active sorbent with Ca(OH)2 particles were higher for the rapidly hydrated sorbent, which also contributed to the higher desulfurization efficiency. The high fly ash content in the rapidly hydrated sorbent resulted in good operating stability. The desulfurization efficiency with upstream water spray was 10-15% higher than that with downstream water spray.

  14. Multi-objective optimization of oxidative desulfurization in a sono-photochemical airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Behin, Jamshid; Farhadian, Negin

    2017-09-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize ultrasound/ultraviolet-assisted oxidative desulfurization in an airlift reactor. Ultrasonic waves were incorporated in a novel-geometry reactor to investigate the synergistic effects of sono-chemistry and enhanced gas-liquid mass transfer. Non-hydrotreated kerosene containing sulfur and aromatic compounds was chosen as a case study. Experimental runs were conducted based on a face-centered central composite design and analyzed using RSM. The effects of two categorical factors, i.e., ultrasound and ultraviolet irradiation and two numerical factors, i.e., superficial gas velocity and oxidation time were investigated on two responses, i.e., desulfurization and de-aromatization yields. Two-factor interaction (2FI) polynomial model was developed for the responses and the desirability function associate with overlay graphs was applied to find optimum conditions. The results showed enhancement in desulfurization ability corresponds to more reduction in aromatic content of kerosene in each combination. Based on desirability approach and certain criteria considered for desulfurization/de-aromatization, the optimal desulfurization and de-aromatization yields of 91.7% and 48% were obtained in US/UV/O 3 /H 2 O 2 combination, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential desulfurization of dibenzothiophene by newly identified MTCC strains: Influence of Operon Array

    PubMed Central

    Bhanjadeo, Madhabi M.; Rath, Kalyani; Gupta, Dhirendra; Pradhan, Nilotpala; Biswal, Surendra K.; Mishra, Barada K.

    2018-01-01

    Since the sulfur specific cleavage is vital for the organic sulfur removal from fossil fuel, we explored potential bacterial strains of MTCC (Microbial Type Culture Collection) to desulfurize the Dibenzothiophene (DBT) through C-S bond cleavage (4-S pathway). MTCC strains Rhodococcus rhodochrous (3552), Arthrobacter sulfureus (3332), Gordonia rubropertincta (289), and Rhodococcus erythropolis (3951) capable of growing in 0.5 mM DBT were examined for their desulfurization ability. The presence of dsz genes as well as the metabolites was screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and HPLC, respectively. All these strains showed > 99% DBT desulfurization with 10 days of incubation in minimal salt medium. From the HPLC analysis it was further revealed that these MTCC strains show differences in the end metabolites and desulfurize DBT differently following a variation in the regular 4-S pathway. These findings are also well corroborating with their respective organization of dszABC operons and their relative abundance. The above MTCC strains are capable of desulfurizing DBT efficiently and hence can be explored for biodesulfurization of petrochemicals and coal with an eco-friendly and energy economical process. PMID:29518089

  16. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  17. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Bryan P.; Brown, Shannon R.; Senko, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SOx gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal-fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems. PMID:23226147

  18. Apparatus and method for the desulfurization of petroleum by bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Lizama, H.M.; Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.

    1995-10-17

    A method is described for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the ``Sulfate Reducing Bacteria``. These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur. High-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide which is then removed from the bioreactor. The organic liquid, now free of the sulfur, is ready for immediate use or further processing. 5 figs.

  19. Apparatus and method for the desulfurization of petroleum by bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Lizama, Hector M.; Scott, Timothy C.; Scott, Charles D.

    1995-01-01

    A method for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the "Sulfate Reducing Bacteria." These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur. High-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide which is then removed from the bioreactor. The organic liquid, now free of the sulfur, is ready for immediate use or further processing.

  20. Major study reveals EEC gas oil desulfurization costs

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, G.J.; Conrad, M.C.; Cremer, G.

    1985-01-21

    The interest of the European Economic Community (EEC) Commission in the issue of acid rain has prompted a Concawe working group to make an independent study of the cost of achieving a reduction of average sulfur levels for gas oils consumed in the EEC. The need for desulfurization of gas oils should be seen in the context of their overall contribution to SO/sub 2/ emissions. The removal of sulfur from gas oil is apparently one of the most costly ways to reduce SO/sub 2/ emissions. The overall effect is apparently the smallest. A reduction of 0.1% sulfur for all gasmore » oil produced in the EEC would result in a reduction of only about 140,000 tons/year of sulfur, corresponding to less than 2% of the present total SO/sub 2/ emissions. The cost of the incremental ton of sulfur removed from the gas oil pool increases significantly for lower sulfur specifications. The overall conclusion is that sulfur reduction between 0.43% and 0.2% is comparable in cost to other methods of reducing SO/sub 2/ emissions. For a reduction below 0.2%, excessive costs can be expected and it would be more economical in most cases to consider another means.« less

  1. Application of the desulfurization of phenothiazines for a sensitive detection method by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shimada, K; Mino, T; Nakajima, M; Wakabayashi, H; Yamato, S

    1994-11-04

    A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of phenothiazine (PHE) is described. PHE is converted to diphenylamine (DIP) by desulfurization with Raney nickel catalyst. DIP is highly sensitive to electrochemical detection. The calibration graph for PHE quantification after desulfurization was linear between 0.1 and 2.0 ng per injection. The detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) of PHE after desulfurization was 10 pg, which is twenty times higher than that of the parent compound PHE. The proposed desulfurization technique was applied to other PHE-related compounds. The structural confirmation of the desulfurized product of PHE was carried out by LC-MS using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

  2. Titan: Kraken and Ligeia In Sharper Focus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-15

    As it sped away from a relatively distant encounter with Titan on Feb. 17, 2017, NASA's Cassini spacecraft captured this mosaic view of the moon's northern lakes and seas. Cassini's viewing angle over Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare was better during this flyby than previous encounters, providing increased contrast for viewing these seas. Because the spacecraft is peering through less of Titan's haze toward Kraken and Ligeia, more details on their shorelines are visible, compared to earlier maps. This was one of several "non-targeted" Cassini Titan flybys in 2017 that allow the mission to image the moon's north polar region and track clouds there. ("Non-targeted" means Cassini did not have to use any rocket-thruster firings to steer itself toward the flyby.) Several prominent cloud streaks are visible at mid-latitudes between 45 and 55 degrees north latitude, on the right side of the image. Smaller bright clouds are seen just above the sea called Punga Mare (roughly at center). Scientists are seeing increasing cloud activity in Titan's north polar region as the seasons continue to change from spring to summer there, though not as much as predicted by models of Titan's atmosphere. The images in this mosaic were taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera using a spectral filter sensitive to wavelengths of near-infrared light centered at 938 nanometers. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 150,700 miles (242,500 kilometers) from Titan. Image scale is about 1.6 miles (2.6 kilometers) per pixel. The view is an orthographic projection centered on 68 degrees north latitude, 225 degrees west longitude. An orthographic view is most like the view seen by a distant observer looking through a telescope. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21434

  3. Titan brighter at twilight than in daylight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Muñoz, A.; Lavvas, P.; West, R. A.

    2017-04-01

    Investigating the overall brightness of planets (and moons) provides insights into their envelopes and energy budgets 1-4 . Phase curves (a representation of the overall brightness versus the Sun-object-observer phase angle) for Titan have been published over a limited range of phase angles and spectral passbands 5,6 . Such information has been key to the study of the stratification, microphysics and aggregate nature of Titan's atmospheric haze 7,8 and has complemented the spatially resolved observations showing that the haze scatters efficiently in the forward direction 7,9 . Here, we present Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem whole-disk brightness measurements of Titan from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths. The observations show that Titan's twilight (loosely defined as the view at phase angles ≳150°) outshines its daylight at various wavelengths. From the match between measurements and models, we show that at even larger phase angles, the back-illuminated moon will appear much brighter than when fully illuminated. This behaviour is unique in our Solar System to Titan and is caused by its extended atmosphere and the efficient forward scattering of sunlight by its atmospheric haze. We infer a solar energy deposition rate (for a solar constant of 14.9 W m-2) of (2.84 ± 0.11) × 1014 W, consistent to within one to two standard deviations with Titan's time-varying thermal emission from 2007 to 2013 10,11 . We propose that a forward scattering signature may also occur at large phase angles in the brightness of exoplanets with extended hazy atmospheres and that this signature has a valuable diagnostic potential for atmospheric characterization.

  4. Chapman Solar Zenith Angle variations at Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Emilie M.; Ajello, Joseph; Holsclaw, Gregory; West, Robert; Esposito, Larry W.; Bradley, Eric Todd

    2016-10-01

    Solar XUV photons and magnetospheric particles are the two main sources contributing to the airglow in the Titan's upper atmosphere. We are focusing here on the solar XUV photons and how they influence the airglow intensity. The Cassini-UVIS observations analyzed in this study consist each in a partial scan of Titan, while the center of the detector stays approximately at the same location on Titan's disk. We used observations from 2008 to 2012, which allow for a wide range of Solar Zenith Angle (SZA). Spectra from 800 km to 1200 km of altitude have been corrected from the solar spectrum using TIMED/SEE data. We observe that the airglow intensity varies as a function of the SZA and follows a Chapman curve. Three SZA regions are identified: the sunlit region ranging from 0 to 50 degrees. In this region, the intensity of the airglow increases, while the SZA decreases. Between SZA 50 and 100 degrees, the airglow intensity decreases from it maximum to its minimum. In this transition region the upper atmosphere of Titan changes from being totally sunlit to being in the shadow of the moon. For SZA 100 to 180 degrees, we observe a constant airglow intensity close to zero. The behavior of the airglow is also similar to the behavior of the electron density as a function of the SZA as observed by Ågren at al (2009). Both variables exhibit a decrease intensity with increasing SZA. The goal of this study is to understand such correlation. We demonstrate the importance of the solar XUV photons contribution to the Titan airglow and prove that the strongest contribution to the Titan dayglow occurs by solar fluorescence rather than the particle impact that predominates at night.

  5. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  6. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization of bunker-C oil using tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiong; Lin, Song; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Sujun; Xiong, Jun-Ru

    2013-09-01

    This work investigated the ultrasonic assisted oxidative desulfurization of bunker-C oil with TBHP/MoO3 system. The operational parameters for the desulfurization procedure such as ultrasonic irradiation time, ultrasonic wave amplitude, catalyst initial concentration and oxidation agent initial concentration were studied. The experimental results show that the present oxidation system was very efficient for the desulfurization of bunker-C oil and ~35% sulfur was removed which was dependent on operational parameters. The application of ultrasonic irradiation allowed sulfur removal in a shorter time. The stronger the solvent polarity is, the higher the sulfur removal rate, but the recovery rate of oil is lower. The sulfur compounds in bunker-C oil reacted with TBHP to produce corresponding sulfoxide, and further oxidation produced the corresponding sulfone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancement of Oxidative Desulfurization Performance over UiO-66(Zr) by Titanium Ion Exchange.

    PubMed

    Ye, Gan; Qi, Hui; Li, Xiaolin; Leng, Kunyue; Sun, Yinyong; Xu, Wei

    2017-07-19

    Oxidative desulfurization is considered to be one of the most promising methods for producing ultra-low-sulfur fuels because it can effectively remove refractory sulfur-containing aromatic compounds under mild conditions. In this work, the oxidative desulfurization performance over UiO-66(Zr) is greatly enhanced by Ti ion exchange. This strategy is not only efficient for UiO-66(Zr) with crystal defects but also for UiO-66(Zr) with high crystallinity. In particular, the performance of UiO-66(Zr) with high crystallinity in the oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene can be improved more than 11-fold, which can be mainly attributed to the introduction of active Ti sites. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Sulfur-selective desulfurization of dibenzothiophene and diesel oil by newly isolated Rhodococcus sp. strains.

    PubMed

    Castorena, Gladys; Suárez, Claudia; Valdez, Idania; Amador, Guadalupe; Fernández, Luis; Le Borgne, Sylvie

    2002-09-24

    New desulfurizing bacteria able to convert dibenzothiophene into 2-hydroxybiphenyl and sulfate were isolated from contaminated soils collected in Mexican refineries. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis showed they were different from previously reported Rhodococcus erythropolis desulfurizing strains. According to 16S rRNA gene sequencing and fatty acid analyses, these new isolates belonged to the genus Rhodococcus. These strains could desulfurize 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene which is one of the most difficult dibenzothiophene derivatives to remove by hydrodesulfurization. A deeply hydrodesulfurized diesel oil containing significant amounts of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene was treated with Rhodococcus sp. IMP-S02 cells. Up to 60% of the total sulfur was removed and all the 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene disappeared as a result of this treatment.

  9. Reusing pretreated desulfurization slag to improve clinkerization and clinker grindability for energy conservation in cement manufacture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Liang; Chang, Juu-En; Shih, Pai-Haung; Ko, Ming-Sheng; Chang, Yi-Kuo; Chiang, Li-Choung

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to combine the physical pretreatments of grinding, sieving, and magnetic-separation processes to reclaim iron-rich materials from the desulfurization slag, and to use the remainder for cement clinker production. The iron-rich materials can be separated out efficiently by grinding for 30 min and sieving with a 0.3 mm mesh. The non-magnetic fraction of the particles smaller than 0.3 mm was in the majority, and proved to be suitable for use as a cement raw material. The raw mixes prepared with a pretreated desulfurization slag had a relatively high reactivity, and the temperature at which alite forms was significantly reduced during the clinkerization process. The clinkers produced with 10% desulfurization slag had a high level of alite and good grindability. Generally, the improvements in clinkerization and clinker grindability are beneficial to energy conservation in cement manufacture. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Constraints on Titan rotation from Cassini radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bills, B. G.; Stiles, B. W.; Kirk, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    We give an update on efforts to model the rotation of Titan, subject to constraints from Cassini radar observations. The data we are currently using includes 670 tie-points, each of which is a pair of inertial positions of a single surface point, relative to the center of mass of Titan, and the corresponding pair of observation times. The positional accuracy is of order 1 km, in each Cartesian component. A reasonably good fit to the observations is obtained with a simple model which has a fixed spin pole and a rotation rate which is a sum of a constant value and a single sinusoidal oscillation. A better fit is obtained if we insist that Titan should behave as a synchronous rotator, in the dynamical sense of keeping its axis of least inertia oriented toward Saturn. At the level of accuracy required to fit the Cassini radar data, synchronous rotation is notably different than having a uniform rate of rotation. In this case, we need to model time variations in the orbital mean longitude, which is the longitude of periapse, plus the mean anomaly. That angle varies on a wide range of times scales, including Titan's periapse precession period (703 years), Saturn's heliocentric orbital period (29.47 years), perturbations from relatively large satellites Iapetus (79.3 days), and a 4:3 mean motion resonant interaction with Hyperion (640 and 6850 days), and a linear increase at Titan's mean orbital period (15.9455 day). Our rotation model for Titan has 4 free parameters. Two of them specify the orientation of the fixed spin pole, and the other two are the effective free libration period and viscous damping time. Our dynamical model includes a damped forced longitudinal libration, in which gravitational torques attempt to align the axis of least inertia with the instantaneous direction to Saturn. For a rigid tri-axial body, with Titan's moments of inertia, the free oscillation period for longitudinal librations would be 850 days. For a decoupled elastic shell, the effective

  11. Titan gravity investigation with the Oceanus mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortora, Paolo; Zannoni, Marco; Nimmo, Francis; Mazarico, Erwan; Iess, Luciano; Sotin, Christophe; Hayes, Alexander; Malaska, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Oceanus is a proposed mission for NASA's New Frontiers 4 Announcement of Opportunity to study Saturn's largest moon Titan. One of the main goals of Oceanus is to examine crustal properties and determine the potential interaction of organics with the subsurface ocean, with implications for potential habitability of Titan. To this end, Oceanus could potentially characterize the thickness of the external icy shell and determine the extent of convection in the shell. The product (average ice rigidity) x (ice shell thickness) can be retrieved from the Love numbers k2 and h2, which describe Titan's gravity and shape response to Saturn's tidal field during its orbital motion around the planet, using a combined analysis of gravity and topography but also measuring Titan's physical librations from gravity data and the on-board camera surface landmarks. The gravity science experiment is crucial to accomplish the mission goals, because precise orbit determination of the spacecraft provides a direct measure of Titan's static gravitational field, the real and imaginary parts of the Love number k2, and its rotational state (obliquity and amplitude of physical librations in longitude). Moreover, a precise spacecraft orbit reconstruction throughout the entire mission is necessary to process radar altimetry data and accurately measure Titan's h2 through crossover analysis. We present the expected accuracy in the estimation of the scientific parameters of interest, obtained through numerical simulations of the orbit determination of the Oceanus spacecraft during its 2-year mission around Titan. The main observable quantities used in the analysis are two-way Doppler data obtained from the frequency shift of a highly stable microwave carrier between the spacecraft and the stations of NASA's Deep Space Network. White Gaussian noise was added to the simulated data, with a realistic standard deviation obtained from an accurate noise budget derived from the experience with Cassini Ka

  12. Cassini radar views the surface of Titan.

    PubMed

    Elachi, C; Wall, S; Allison, M; Anderson, Y; Boehmer, R; Callahan, P; Encrenaz, P; Flamini, E; Franceschetti, G; Gim, Y; Hamilton, G; Hensley, S; Janssen, M; Johnson, W; Kelleher, K; Kirk, R; Lopes, R; Lorenz, R; Lunine, J; Muhleman, D; Ostro, S; Paganelli, F; Picardi, G; Posa, F; Roth, L; Seu, R; Shaffer, S; Soderblom, L; Stiles, B; Stofan, E; Vetrella, S; West, R; Wood, C; Wye, L; Zebker, H

    2005-05-13

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper imaged about 1% of Titan's surface at a resolution of approximately 0.5 kilometer, and larger areas of the globe in lower resolution modes. The images reveal a complex surface, with areas of low relief and a variety of geologic features suggestive of dome-like volcanic constructs, flows, and sinuous channels. The surface appears to be young, with few impact craters. Scattering and dielectric properties are consistent with porous ice or organics. Dark patches in the radar images show high brightness temperatures and high emissivity and are consistent with frozen hydrocarbons.

  13. Composition of Titan's surface from Cassini VIMS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCord, T.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; Cruikshank, D.P.; D'Aversa, E.; Griffith, C.A.; Baines, E.K.H.; Brown, R.H.; Dalle, Ore C.M.; Filacchione, G.; Formisano, V.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Jaumann, R.; Lunine, J.I.; Nelson, R.M.; Sotin, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Titan's bulk density along with Solar System formation models indicates considerable water as well as silicates as its major constituents. This satellite's dense atmosphere of nitrogen with methane is unique. Deposits or even oceans of organic compounds have been suggested to exist on Titan's solid surface due to UV-induced photochemistry in the atmosphere. Thus, the composition of the surface is a major piece of evidence needed to determine Titan's history. However, studies of the surface are hindered by the thick, absorbing, hazy and in some places cloudy atmosphere. Ground-based telescope investigations of the integral disk of Titan attempted to observe the surface albedo in spectral windows between methane absorptions by calculating and removing the haze effects. Their results were reported to be consistent with water ice on the surface that is contaminated with a small amount of dark material, perhaps organic material like tholin. We analyze here the recent Cassini Mission's visual and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) observations that resolve regions on Titan. VIMS is able to see surface features and shows that there are spectral and therefore likely compositional units. By several methods, spectral albedo estimates within methane absorption windows between 0.75 and 5 ??m were obtained for different surface units using VIMS image cubes from the Cassini-Huygens Titan Ta encounter. Of the spots studied, there appears to be two compositional classes present that are associated with the lower albedo and the higher albedo materials, with some variety among the brighter regions. These were compared with spectra of several different candidate materials. Our results show that the spectrum of water ice contaminated with a darker material matches the reflectance of the lower albedo Titan regions if the spectral slope from 2.71 to 2.79 ??m in the poorly understood 2.8-??m methane window is ignored. The spectra for brighter regions are not matched by the spectrum of

  14. Cassini radar views the surface of Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elachi, C.; Wall, S.; Allison, M.; Anderson, Y.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Franceschetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Janssen, M.; Johnson, W.; Kelleher, K.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Muhleman, D.; Ostro, S.; Paganelli, F.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Soderblom, L.; Stiles, B.; Stofan, E.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.; Wood, C.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper imaged about 1% of Titan's surface at a resolution of ???0.5 kilometer, and larger areas of the globe in lower resolution modes. The images reveal a complex surface, with areas of low relief and a variety of geologic features suggestive of dome-like volcanic constructs, flows, and sinuous channels. The surface appears to be young, with few impact craters. Scattering and dielectric properties are consistent with porous ice or organics. Dark patches in the radar images show high brightness temperatures and high emissivity and are consistent with frozen hydrocarbons.

  15. Rotary Wing Deceleration Use on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Steiner, Ted J.

    2011-01-01

    Rotary wing decelerator (RWD) systems were compared against other methods of atmospheric deceleration and were determined to show significant potential for application to a system requiring controlled descent, low-velocity landing, and atmospheric research capability on Titan. Design space exploration and down-selection results in a system with a single rotor utilizing cyclic pitch control. Models were developed for selection of a RWD descent system for use on Titan and to determine the relationships between the key design parameters of such a system and the time of descent. The possibility of extracting power from the system during descent was also investigated.

  16. Zinc Signals and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc. PMID:29064429

  17. Titan Cells Confer Protection from Phagocytosis in Cryptococcus neoformans Infections

    PubMed Central

    Okagaki, Laura H.

    2012-01-01

    The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans produces an enlarged “titan” cell morphology when exposed to the host pulmonary environment. Titan cells exhibit traits that promote survival in the host. Previous studies showed that titan cells are not phagocytosed and that increased titan cell production in the lungs results in reduced phagocytosis of cryptococcal cells by host immune cells. Here, the effect of titan cell production on host-pathogen interactions during early stages of pulmonary cryptococcosis was explored. The relationship between titan cell production and phagocytosis was found to be nonlinear; moderate increases in titan cell production resulted in profound decreases in phagocytosis, with significant differences occurring within the first 24 h of the infection. Not only were titan cells themselves protected from phagocytosis, but titan cell formation also conferred protection from phagocytosis to normal-size cryptococcal cells. Large particles introduced into the lungs were not phagocytosed, suggesting the large size of titan cells protects against phagocytosis. The presence of large particles was unable to protect smaller particles from phagocytosis, revealing that titan cell size alone is not sufficient to provide the observed cross-protection of normal-size cryptococcal cells. These data suggest that titan cells play a critical role in establishment of the pulmonary infection by promoting the survival of the entire population of cryptococcal cells. PMID:22544904

  18. Huygens GCMS Results from Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, Hasso B.; Demick, Jaime; Kasprzak, Wayne; Atreya, Sushil; Owen, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    The Huygens Probe executed a successful entry, descent and impact on the Saturnian moon of Titan on January 14, 2005. The Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) instrument conducted isotopic and compositional measurements throughout the two and one half hour descent from 146 km altitude, and on the surface for 69 minutes until loss of signal from the orbiting Cassini spacecraft. The GCMS incorporated a quadrupole mass filter with a secondary electron multiplier detection system. The gas sampling system provided continuous direct atmospheric composition measurements and batch sampling through three gas chromatographic (GC) columns, a chemical scrubber and a hydrocarbon enrichment cell. The GCMS gas inlet was heated to prevent condensation, and to evaporate volatiles from the surface after impact. Data products from the GCMS included altitude profiles of the major atmospheric constituents dinitrogen (N2) and methane (CH4), isotope ratios of 14N/15N, 12C/13C, and D/H, mole fractions of radiogenic argon (40Ar) and primordial argon (36Ar), and upper limits on the mole fractions of neon, krypton and xenon, which were found to be absent. Surface measurements confirmed the presence of ethane (C2H6) and cyanogen (C2N2). Later data products expanded atmospheric profiles to include the surface response of C2N2. C2H6, acetylene (C2H2), and carbon dioxide (CO2). More recent results include the profiles of benzene (C6H6) and molecular hydrogen (H2). The GCMS data are being further analyzed to obtain higher precision results and to identify other trace species ion the atmosphere and evaporating from the surface.

  19. Heavy Ion Formation in Titan's Ionosphere: Magnetospheric Introduction of Free Oxygen and Source of Titan's Aerosols?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Johnson, R. E.; Coates, A.; dePater, imke; Strom, Daphne; Simoes, F.; Steele, A.; Robb, F.

    2007-01-01

    With the recent discovery of heavy ions, positive and negative, by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instrument in Titan's ionosphere, it reveals new possibilities for aerosol formation at Titan and the introduction of free oxygen to the aerosol chemistry from Saturn's magnetosphere with Enceladus as the primary oxygen source. One can estimate whether the heavy ions in the ionosphere are of sufficient number to account for all the aerosols, under what conditions are favorable for heavy ion formation and how they are introduced as seed particles deeper in Titan's atmosphere where the aerosols form and eventually find themselves on Titan's surface where unknown chemical processes can take place. Finally, what are the possibilities with regard to their chemistry on the surface with some free oxygen present in their seed particles?

  20. The Titan Sky Simulator ™ - Testing Prototype Balloons in Conditions Approximating those in Titan's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, Julian

    This paper will describe practical work flying prototype balloons in the "The Titan Sky Simulator TM " in conditions approximating those found in Titan's atmosphere. Saturn's moon, Titan, is attracting intense scientific interest. This has led to wide interest in exploring it with Aerobots, balloons or airships. Their function would be similar to the Rovers exploring Mars, but instead of moving laboriously across the rough terrain on wheels, they would float freely from location to location. To design any balloon or airship it is essential to know the temperature of the lifting gas as this influences the volume of the gas, which in turn influences the lift. To determine this temperature it is necessary to know how heat is transferred between the craft and its surroundings. Heat transfer for existing balloons is well understood. However, Titan conditions are utterly different from those in which balloons have ever been flown, so heat transfer rates cannot currently be calculated. In particular, thermal radiation accounts for most heat transfer for existing balloons but over Titan heat transfer will be dominated by convection. To be able to make these fundamental calculations, it is necessary to get fundamental experimental data. This is being obtained by flying balloons in a Simulator filled with nitrogen gas at very low temperature, about 95° K / minus 180° C, typical of Titan's temperatures. Because the gas in the Simulator is so cold, operating at atmospheric pressure the density is close to that of Titan's atmosphere. "The Titan Sky Simulator TM " has an open interior approximately 4.5 meter tall and 2.5 meters square. It has already been operated at 95° K/-180° C. By the time of the Conference it is fully expected to have data to present from actual balloons flying at this temperature. Perhaps the most important purpose of this testing is to validate numerical [computational fluid dynamics] models being developed by Tim Colonius of Caltech. These numerical

  1. Properties of Semi-dry Flue Gas Desulfurization Ash and Used for Phosphorus Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y. P.; Fang, Y.; Chai, S. Y.; Zhuang, Z. Z.

    2018-05-01

    The composition of Semi-dry Flue Gas Desulfurization ash was as follows: CaSO3 · 0.5H2O and Ca(OH)2. Most of the particle size was about 8 µm particles were irregular and small, while the other part was rough and globular. CaSO3 strongly oxidized at about 466°C and Ca(OH)2 decomposed at ∼ 662°C. The maximum amount of phosphorus removal in Semi-dry Flue Gas Desulfurization ash was 79.898 mg/g.

  2. Cryovolcanic features on Titan's surface as revealed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Mitchell, K.L.; Stofan, E.R.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.; Paganelli, F.; Kirk, R.L.; Wood, C.A.; Wall, S.D.; Robshaw, L.E.; Fortes, A.D.; Neish, Catherine D.; Radebaugh, J.; Reffet, E.; Ostro, S.J.; Elachi, C.; Allison, M.D.; Anderson, Y.; Boehmer, R.; Boubin, G.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Janssen, M.A.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.O.; Ori, G.; Orosei, R.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.E.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Soderblom, L.A.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.D.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper obtained Synthetic Aperture Radar images of Titan's surface during four fly-bys during the mission's first year. These images show that Titan's surface is very complex geologically, showing evidence of major planetary geologic processes, including cryovolcanism. This paper discusses the variety of cryovolcanic features identified from SAR images, their possible origin, and their geologic context. The features which we identify as cryovolcanic in origin include a large (180 km diameter) volcanic construct (dome or shield), several extensive flows, and three calderas which appear to be the source of flows. The composition of the cryomagma on Titan is still unknown, but constraints on rheological properties can be estimated using flow thickness. Rheological properties of one flow were estimated and appear inconsistent with ammonia-water slurries, and possibly more consistent with ammonia-water-methanol slurries. The extent of cryovolcanism on Titan is still not known, as only a small fraction of the surface has been imaged at sufficient resolution. Energetic considerations suggest that cryovolcanism may have been a dominant process in the resurfacing of Titan. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc.

  3. Catalytic oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbon fuels using air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararaman, Ramanathan

    Conventional approaches to oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons involve use of high-purity, expensive water soluble peroxide for oxidation of sulfur compounds followed by post-treatment for removal of oxidized sulfones by extraction. Both are associated with higher cost due to handling, storage of oxidants and yield loss with extraction and water separation, making the whole process more expensive. This thesis explores an oxidative desulfurization process using air as an oxidant followed by catalytic decomposition of sulfones thereby eliminating the aforementioned issues. Oxidation of sulfur compounds was realized by a two step process in which peroxides were first generated in-situ by catalytic air oxidation, followed by catalytic oxidation of S compounds using the peroxides generated in-situ completing the two step approach. By this technique it was feasible to oxidize over 90% of sulfur compounds present in real jet (520 ppmw S) and diesel (41 ppmw S) fuels. Screening of bulk and supported CuO based catalysts for peroxide generation using model aromatic compound representing diesel fuel showed that bulk CuO catalyst was more effective in producing peroxides with high yield and selectivity. Testing of three real diesel fuels obtained from different sources for air oxidation over bulk CuO catalyst showed different level of effectiveness for generating peroxides in-situ which was consistent with air oxidation of representative model aromatic compounds. Peroxides generated in-situ was then used as an oxidant to oxidize sulfur compounds present in the fuel over MoO3/SiO2 catalyst. 81% selectivity of peroxides for oxidation of sulfur compounds was observed on MoO3/SiO2 catalyst at 40 °C and under similar conditions MoO3/Al2O3 gave only 41% selectivity. This difference in selectivity might be related to the difference in the nature of active sites of MoO3 on SiO2 and Al2O 3 supports as suggested by H2-TPR and XRD analyses. Testing of supported and bulk Mg

  4. Chemical and physical properties of dry flue gas desulfurization products.

    PubMed

    Kost, David A; Bigham, Jerry M; Stehouwer, Richard C; Beeghly, Joel H; Fowler, Randy; Traina, Samuel J; Wolfe, William E; Dick, Warren A

    2005-01-01

    Beneficial and environmentally safe recycling of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products requires detailed knowledge of their chemical and physical properties. We analyzed 59 dry FGD samples collected from 13 locations representing four major FGD scrubbing technologies. The chemistry of all samples was dominated by Ca, S, Al, Fe, and Si and strong preferential partitioning into the acid insoluble residue (i.e., coal ash residue) was observed for Al, Ba, Be, Cr, Fe, Li, K, Pb, Si, and V. Sulfur, Ca, and Mg occurred primarily in water- or acid-soluble forms associated with the sorbents or scrubber reaction products. Deionized water leachates (American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] method) and dilute acetic acid leachates (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP] method) had mean pH values of >11.2 and high mean concentrations of S primarily as SO(2-)4 and Ca. Concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se (except for ASTM Se in two samples) were below drinking water standards in both ASTM and TCLP leachates. Total toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins, for two FGD products used for mine reclamation, were 0.48 and 0.53 ng kg(-1). This was similar to the background level of the mine spoil (0.57 ng kg(-1)). The FGD materials were mostly uniform in particle size. Specific surface area (m2 g(-1)) was related to particle size and varied from 1.3 for bed ash to 9.5 for spray dryer material. Many of the chemical and physical properties of these FGD samples were associated with the quality of the coal rather than the combustion and SO2 scrubbing processes used.

  5. Zinc and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Juan P.; Guo, Liang; Yoo, Changwon; Stewart, Tiffanie S

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative process through which cells overcome stressful conditions. Inasmuch as faulty autophagy has been associated with aging, neuronal degeneration disorders, diabetes, and fatty liver, autophagy is regarded as a potential therapeutic target. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning the role of zinc in the regulation of autophagy, the role of autophagy in zinc metabolism, and the potential role of autophagy as a mediator of the protective effects of zinc. Data from in vitro studies consistently support the notion that zinc is critical for early and late autophagy. Studies have shown inhibition of early and late autophagy in cells cultured in medium treated with zinc chelators. Conversely, excess zinc added to the medium has shown to potentiate the stimulation of autophagy by tamoxifen, H2O2, ethanol and dopamine. The potential role of autophagy in zinc homeostasis has just begun to be investigated.Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy dysregulation causes significant changes in cellular zinc homeostasis. Autophagy may mediate the protective effect of zinc against lipid accumulation, apoptosis and inflammation by promoting degradation of lipid droplets, inflammasomes, p62/SQSTM1 and damaged mitochondria.Studies with humans and animal models are necessary to determine whether autophagy is influenced by zinc intake. PMID:25012760

  6. Big Impacts and Transient Oceans on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, K. J.; Korycansky, D. G.; Nixon, C. A.

    2014-02-01

    We ask what happened to Titan after the impacts came. A nominal Menrva heats the surface to ~170 K; it takes heroic assumptions to reach 273 K. Bigger impacts (e.g., putative Hotei impact) produce meltwater oceans that last for decades or centuries.

  7. The seasonal cycle of Titan's detached haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Robert A.; Seignovert, Benoît.; Rannou, Pascal; Dumont, Philip; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Perry, Jason; Roy, Mou; Ovanessian, Aida

    2018-06-01

    Titan's `detached' haze, seen in Voyager images in 1980 and 1981 and monitored by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) during the period 2004-2017, provides a measure of seasonal activity in Titan's mesosphere with observations over almost half of Saturn's seasonal cycle. Here we report on retrieved haze extinction profiles that reveal a depleted layer (having a diminished aerosol content), visually manifested as a gap between the main haze and a thin, detached upper layer. Our measurements show the disappearance of the feature in 2012 and its reappearance in 2016, as well as details after the reappearance. These observations highlight the dynamical nature of the detached haze. The reappearance seems congruent with earlier descriptions by climate models but more complex than previously described. It occurs in two steps, first as haze reappearing at 450 ± 20 km and one year later at 510 ± 20 km. These observations provide additional tight and valuable constraints about the underlying mechanisms, especially for Titan's mesosphere, that control Titan's haze cycle.

  8. First Color View of Titan Surface

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-01-15

    This image was returned on Jan 14, 2005, by the European Space Agency Huygens probe during its successful descent to land on Titan. This colored view, following processing to add reflection spectra data, gives a better indication of the actual color.

  9. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, Christophe; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, Ji; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, Catherine D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa,

    2009-01-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015–2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini–Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini–Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfière) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere.

  10. Liftoff of Gemini-Titan 3 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-03-23

    S65-14150 (23 March 1965) --- Launch view of the Gemini-Titan 3 mission. The GT-3 liftoff was at 9:24 a.m. (EST) on March 23, 1965. The Gemini-3 spacecraft "Molly Brown" carried astronauts Virgil I. Grissom, command pilot, and John W. Young, pilot, on three orbits of Earth.

  11. Ion Escape from the Ionosphere of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, R.; Sittler, E.; Lipatov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ions have been observed to flow away from Titan along its induced magnetic tail by the Plasma Science Instrument (PLS) on Voyager 1 and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) on Cassini. In both cases, the ions have been inferred to be of ionospheric origin. Recent plasma measurements made at another unmagnetized body, Venus, have also observed similar flow in its magnetic tail. Much earlier, the possibility of such flow was inferred when ionospheric measurements made from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) were used to derive upward flow and acceleration of H(+), D(+) and O(+) within the nightside ionosphere of Venus. The measurements revealed that the polarization electric field in the ionosphere produced the principal upward force on these light ions. The resulting vertical flow of H(+) and D(+) was found to be the dominant escape mechanism of hydrogen and deuterium, corresponding to loss rates consistent with large oceans in early Venus. Other electrodynamic forces were unimportant because the plasma beta in the nightside ionosphere of Venus is much greater than one. Although the plasma beta is also greater than one on Titan, ion acceleration is expected to be more complex, especially because the subsolar point and the subflow points can be 180 degrees apart. Following what we learned at Venus, upward acceleration of light ions by the polarization electric field opposing gravity in the ionosphere of Titan will be described. Additional electrodynamic forces resulting from the interaction of Saturn's magnetosphere with Titan's ionosphere will be examined using a recent hybrid model.

  12. Titan's Interior Chemical Composition: A Thermochemical Assessment*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Michael; Zaug, J. M.; Khare, B. N.; McKay, C. P.

    2007-10-01

    We study the interior composition of Titan using thermal chemical equilibrium calculations that are valid to high pressures and temperatures. The equations of state are based on exponential-6 fluid theory and have been validated against experimental data up to a few Mbars in pressure and approximately 20000K in temperature. In addition to CHNO molecules, we account for multi-phases of carbon, water and a variety of metals such as Al and Fe, and their oxides. With these fluid equations of state, chemical equilibrium is calculated for a set of product species. As the temperature and pressure evolves for increasing depth in the interior, the chemical equilibrium shifts. We assume that Titan is initially composed of comet material, which we assume to be solar, except for hydrogen, which we take to be depleted by a factor 1/690. We find that a significant amount of nitrogen is in the form of n2, rather than nh3. Moreover, above 12 kbars, as is the interior pressure of Titan, a significant amount of the carbon is in the form of graphite, rather than co2 and ch4. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the atmospheric and surface composition of Titan. • This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  13. Dunes on Titan observed by Cassini Radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radebaugh, J.; Lorenz, R.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Wall, S.D.; Boubin, G.; Reffet, E.; Kirk, R.L.; Lopes, R.M.; Stofan, E.R.; Soderblom, L.; Allison, M.; Janssen, M.; Paillou, P.; Callahan, P.; Spencer, C.; ,

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of longitudinal dunes have recently been discovered by the Titan Radar Mapper on the surface of Titan. These are found mainly within ??30?? of the equator in optically-, near-infrared-, and radar-dark regions, indicating a strong proportion of organics, and cover well over 5% of Titan's surface. Their longitudinal duneform, interactions with topography, and correlation with other aeolian forms indicate a single, dominant wind direction aligned with the dune axis plus lesser, off-axis or seasonally alternating winds. Global compilations of dune orientations reveal the mean wind direction is dominantly eastwards, with regional and local variations where winds are diverted around topographically high features, such as mountain blocks or broad landforms. Global winds may carry sediments from high latitude regions to equatorial regions, where relatively drier conditions prevail, and the particles are reworked into dunes, perhaps on timescales of thousands to tens of thousands of years. On Titan, adequate sediment supply, sufficient wind, and the absence of sediment carriage and trapping by fluids are the dominant factors in the presence of dunes. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S. K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R. H.; Dougherty, M. K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R. A.; Griffith, C. A.; Gurvits, L. I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M. R.; Lunine, J. I.; McKay, C. P.; Moussas, X.; Müller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T. C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E. C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E. P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J. H.; Baines, K. H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A. J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R. D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C. C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J. C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D. H.; Bénilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bézard, B.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M. T.; Chassefière, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J. F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I. A.; de Angelis, E.; de Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F. M.; Fortes, A. D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Küppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T. A.; Lopes, R. M.; Lopez-Moreno, J.-J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Menor Salvan, C.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C. D.; Nixon, C. A.; Nna Mvondo, D.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F. T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Ruiz Bermejo, M.; Sarris, E. T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L. J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D. F.; Szego, K.; Szopa, C.; Thissen, R.; Tomasko, M. G.; Toublanc, D.; Vali, H.; Vardavas, I.; Vuitton, V.; West, R. A.; Yelle, R.; Young, E. F.

    2009-03-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfière) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere.

  15. Montgolfiere balloon missions from Mars and Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    Montgolfieres, which are balloons that are filled with heated ambient atmospheric gas, appear promising for the exploration of Mars as well as of Saturn's moon, Titan. On Earth, Montgolfieres are also known as 'hot air balloons'. Commercial versions are typically heated by burning propane, although a number of radiant and solar-heated Montgolfieres have been flown on earth by CNES.

  16. Titan's inventory of organic surface materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, R.D.; Mitchell, K.L.; Kirk, R.L.; Hayes, A.G.; Aharonson, O.; Zebker, H.A.; Paillou, P.; Radebaugh, J.; Lunine, J.I.; Janssen, M.A.; Wall, S.D.; Lopes, R.M.; Stiles, B.; Ostro, S.; Mitri, Giuseppe; Stofan, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Cassini RADAR observations now permit an initial assessment of the inventory of two classes, presumed to be organic, of Titan surface materials: polar lake liquids and equatorial dune sands. Several hundred lakes or seas have been observed, of which dozens are each estimated to contain more hydrocarbon liquid than the entire known oil and gas reserves on Earth. Dark dunes cover some 20% of Titan's surface, and comprise a volume of material several hundred times larger than Earth's coal reserves. Overall, however, the identified surface inventories (>3 ?? 104 km3 of liquid, and >2 ?? 105 km3 of dune sands) are small compared with estimated photochemical production on Titan over the age of the solar system. The sand volume is too large to be accounted for simply by erosion in observed river channels or ejecta from observed impact craters. The lakes are adequate in extent to buffer atmospheric methane against photolysis in the short term, but do not contain enough methane to sustain the atmosphere over geologic time. Unless frequent resupply from the interior buffers this greenhouse gas at exactly the right rate, dramatic climate change on Titan is likely in its past, present and future. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. The seasonal cycle of Titan's detached haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Robert A.; Seignovert, Benoît; Rannou, Pascal; Dumont, Philip; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Perry, Jason; Roy, Mou; Ovanessian, Aida

    2018-04-01

    Titan's `detached' haze, seen in Voyager images in 1980 and 1981 and monitored by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) during the period 2004-2017, provides a measure of seasonal activity in Titan's mesosphere with observations over almost half of Saturn's seasonal cycle. Here we report on retrieved haze extinction profiles that reveal a depleted layer (having a diminished aerosol content), visually manifested as a gap between the main haze and a thin, detached upper layer. Our measurements show the disappearance of the feature in 2012 and its reappearance in 2016, as well as details after the reappearance. These observations highlight the dynamical nature of the detached haze. The reappearance seems congruent with earlier descriptions by climate models but more complex than previously described. It occurs in two steps, first as haze reappearing at 450 ± 20 km and one year later at 510 ± 20 km. These observations provide additional tight and valuable constraints about the underlying mechanisms, especially for Titan's mesosphere, that control Titan's haze cycle.

  18. Mountains on Titan observed by Cassini Radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radebaugh, J.; Lorenz, R.D.; Kirk, R.L.; Lunine, J.I.; Stofan, E.R.; Lopes, R.M.C.; Wall, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar mapper has observed elevated blocks and ridge-forming block chains on Saturn's moon Titan demonstrating high topography we term "mountains." Summit flanks measured from the T3 (February 2005) and T8 (October 2005) flybys have a mean maximum slope of 37?? and total elevations up to 1930 m as derived from a shape-from-shading model corrected for the probable effects of image resolution. Mountain peak morphologies and surrounding, diffuse blankets give evidence that erosion has acted upon these features, perhaps in the form of fluvial runoff. Possible formation mechanisms for these mountains include crustal compressional tectonism and upthrusting of blocks, extensional tectonism and formation of horst-and-graben, deposition as blocks of impact ejecta, or dissection and erosion of a preexisting layer of material. All above processes may be at work, given the diversity of geology evident across Titan's surface. Comparisons of mountain and blanket volumes and erosion rate estimates for Titan provide a typical mountain age as young as 20-100 million years. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The occultation of 28 Sgr by Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Sicardy, Bruno; Miles, R.; Hollis, A. J.; Forrest, R. W.; Nicolson, I. K. M.; Appleby, G.; Beisker, W.; Bittner, C.; Bode, H.-J.

    1993-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of data obtained during the 1989 July 3 occultation of 28 Sgr by Titan. The data set includes 23 lightcurves from 15 separate stations, spanning wavelengths from 0.36 to 0.89 micron. A detailed model of the structure of Titan's atmosphere in the altitude range 250 to 450 km is developed, giving the distribution of temperature, pressure, haze optical depth, and zonal wind velocity as a function of altitude and latitude. Haze layers detected in Titan's stratosphere are about one scale height higher than inferred from Voyager data, and show a wavelength dependence indicative of particle sizes on the order of 0.1 micron. A marked north-south dichotomy in haze density is observed with a transition to lower density south of about -20 deg latitude. Zonal wind speeds are inferred from global distortions from spherical symmetry and are of the order of 100 m/s with significant increase toward higher latitudes. Titan's high atmosphere shows substantial axial symmetry; the position angle of the symmetry axis is equal to the position angle of Saturn's spin axis to within about 1 deg.

  20. Low-Latitude Ethane Rain on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalba, Paul A.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Brown, R. H.; Barnes, J. W.; Baines, K. H.; Sotin, C.; Clark, R. N.; Lawrence, K. J.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cassini ISS observed multiple widespread changes in surface brightness in Titan's equatorial regions over the past three years. These brightness variations are attributed to rainfall from cloud systems that appear to form seasonally. Determining the composition of this rainfall is an important step in understanding the "methanological" cycle on Titan. I use data from Cassini VIMS to complete a spectroscopic investigation of multiple rain-wetted areas. I compute "before-and-after" spectral ratios of any areas that show either deposition or evaporation of rain. By comparing these spectral ratios to a model of liquid ethane, I find that the rain is most likely composed of liquid ethane. The spectrum of liquid ethane contains multiple absorption features that fall within the 2-micron and 5-micron spectral windows in Titan's atmosphere. I show that these features are visible in the spectra taken of Titan's surface and that they are characteristically different than those in the spectrum of liquid methane. Furthermore, just as ISS saw the surface brightness reverting to its original state after a period of time, I show that VIMS observations of later flybys show the surface composition in different stages of returning to its initial form.

  1. Aerocapture Systems Analysis for a Titan Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Mary K.; Queen, Eric M.; Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Edquist, Karl; Starr, Brett W.; Hollis, Brian R.; Zoby, E. Vincent; Hrinda, Glenn A.; Bailey, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Performance projections for aerocapture show a vehicle mass savings of between 40 and 80%, dependent on destination, for an aerocapture vehicle compared to an all-propulsive chemical vehicle. In addition aerocapture is applicable to multiple planetary exploration destinations of interest to NASA. The 2001 NASA In-Space Propulsion Program (ISP) technology prioritization effort identified aerocapture as one of the top three propulsion technologies for solar system exploration missions. An additional finding was that aerocapture needed a better system definition and that supporting technology gaps needed to be identified. Consequently, the ISP program sponsored an aerocapture systems analysis effort that was completed in 2002. The focus of the effort was on aerocapture at Titan with a rigid aeroshell system. Titan was selected as the initial destination for the study due to potential interest in a follow-on mission to Cassini/Huygens. Aerocapture is feasible, and the performance is adequate, for the Titan mission and it can deliver 2.4 times more mass to Titan than an all-propulsive system for the same launch vehicle.

  2. Cassini/Huygens Investigations of Titan's Methane Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, C. A.; Penteado, P.

    2008-12-01

    In Titan's atmosphere, the second most abundant constituent, methane, exists as a gas, liquid and solid, and cycles between the atmosphere and surface. Similar to Earth's hydrological cycle, Titan sports clouds, rain, and lakes. Yet, Titan's cycle differs dramatically from its terrestrial counterpart, and reveals the workings of weather in an atmosphere that is ten times thicker than Earth's atmosphere, that is two orders of magnitude less illuminated, and that involves a different condensable. Measurements of Titan's troposphere, where the methane cycle plays out, are limited largely to spectral images of Titan's clouds, several temperature profiles by Voyager, Huygens and Cassini, recent Keck spectra of the surface methane humidity, and one vertical profile of Titan's methane abundance, measured on a summer afternoon in Titan's tropical atmosphere by the Huygens probe. The salient features of Titan's methane cycle are distinctly alien: clouds have predominated the northern and southern polar atmospheres; the one humidity profile precisely matches the profile (of cartoonish simplicity) used in pre-Cassini models, and surface features correlate with latitude. Data of Titan's troposphere are analyzed with thermodynamic and radiative transfer calculations, and synthesized with other studies of Titan's stratosphere and surface, to investigate the workings of Titan's methane cycle. At the end of Cassini's nominal mission, we find that Titan's weather, climate and surface-to-atmosphere exchange of volatiles vastly differs from the manifestation of these processes on Earth, largely as a result of different basic characteristics of these planetary bodies. The talk ends with a comparison between Titan and Earth's tropospheres, their fundamental properties, the energetics of their condensible cycles, their weather and climates. References: Griffith C.A. et al. Titan's Tropical Storms in an Evolving Atmosphere. Ap.J. In Press (2008). Griffith C.A. Storms, Polar Deposits, and

  3. Highly Attrition Resistant Zinc Oxide-Based Sorbents for H2S Removal by Spray Drying Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, C.K.; Lee, J.B.; Ahn, D.H.

    2002-09-19

    Primary issues for the fluidized-bed/transport reactor process are high attrition resistant sorbent, its high sorption capacity and regenerability, durability, and cost. The overall objective of this project is the development of a superior attrition resistant zinc oxide-based sorbent for hot gas cleanup in integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC). Sorbents applicable to a fluidized-bed hot gas desulfurization process must have a high attrition resistance to withstand the fast solid circulation between a desulfurizer and a regenerator, fast kinetic reactions, and high sulfur sorption capacity. The oxidative regeneration of zinc-based sorbent usually initiated at greater than 600 C with highly exothermicmore » nature causing deactivation of sorbent as well as complication of sulfidation process by side reaction. Focusing on solving the sorbent attrition and regenerability of zinc oxide-based sorbent, we have adapted multi-binder matrices and direct incorporation of regeneration promoter. The sorbent forming was done with a spray drying technique that is easily scalable to commercial quantity.« less

  4. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by a novel strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 isolated from diesel contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bahuguna, Ashutosh; Lily, Madhuri K; Munjal, Ashok; Singh, Ravindra N; Dangwal, Koushalya

    2011-01-01

    A new bacterial strain DMT-7 capable of selectively desulfurizing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was isolated from diesel contaminated soil. The DMT-7 was characterized and identified as Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. GQ496620) using 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The desulfurized product of DBT, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP), was identified and confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis respectively. The desulfurization kinetics revealed that DMT-7 started desulfurization of DBT into 2HBP after the lag phase of 24 hr, exponentially increasing the accumulation of 2HBP up to 15 days leading to approximately 60% desulfurization of the DBT. However, further growth resulted into DBT degradation. The induced culture of DMT-7 showed shorter lag phase of 6 hr and early onset of stationary phase within 10 days for desulfurization as compared to that of non-induced culture clearly indicating the inducibility of the desulfurization pathway of DMT-7. In addition, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 also possess the ability to utilize broad range of substrates as sole source of sulfur such as benzothiophene, 3,4-benzo DBT, 4,6-dimethyl DBT, and 4,6-dibutyl DBT. Therefore, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 could serve as model system for efficient biodesulfurization of diesel and petrol.

  5. Fluid dynamics of liquids on Titans surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ori, Gian Gabriele; Marinangeli, Lucia; Baliva, Antonio; Bressan, Mario; Strom, Robert G.

    1998-10-01

    On the surface of Titan liquids can be present in three types of environments : (i) oceans, (ii) seas and lakes, and (iii) fluvial channels. The liquid in these environments will be affected by several types of motion: progressive (tidal) waves, wind-generated waves and unidirectional currents. The physical parameters of the liquid on Titans surface can be reconstructed using the Peng-Robinson equation of state. The total energy of the waves, both tidal and wind, depends on the gravity and liquid density ; both values are lower on Titan than on Earth. Thus, the same total energy will produce larger waves on Titan. This is also valid also for the progressive waves, as it is confirmed by the physical relationship between horizontal velocity, wave amplitude, and depth of the liquid. Wind-driven waves also will tend to be larger, because the viscosity of the liquid (which is lower on Titan) controls the deformation of the liquid under shear stress. Wind-generated waves would be rather large, but the dimension of the liquid basin limits the size of the waves ; in small lakes or seas the wave power cannot reach large values. Unidirectional currents are also affected by the liquid properties. Both the relations from driving and resting forces and the Reynolds number suggests that the flows exhibit a large erosional capacity and that, theoretically, a true fluvial network could be formed. However, caution should be exercised, because the cohesion of the sedimentary interface can armour bottom and induce laterally extensive, unchanelled sheet flows with small erosional capacity.

  6. The Xanadu Annex on Titan Denoised

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-07

    This synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) image was obtained by NASA's Cassini spacecraft on July 25, 2016, during its 'T-121' pass over Titan's southern latitudes. The improved contrast provided by the denoising algorithm helps river channels (at bottom and upper left) stand out, as well as the crater-like feature at left. The image shows an area nicknamed the "Xanadu annex" by members of the Cassini radar team, earlier in the mission. This area had not been imaged by Cassini's radar until now, but measurements of its brightness temperature from Cassini's microwave radiometer were quite similar to that of the large region on Titan named Xanadu. Cassini's radiometer is essentially a very sensitive thermometer, and brightness temperature is a measure of the intensity of microwave radiation received from a feature by the instrument. Radar team members predicted at the time that, if this area were ever imaged, it would be similar in appearance to Xanadu, which lies just to the north. That earlier hunch appears to have been borne out, as features in this scene bear a strong similarity to the mountainous terrains Cassini's radar has imaged in Xanadu. Xanadu -- and now perhaps its annex -- remains something of a mystery. First imaged in 1994 by the Hubble Space Telescope (just three years before Cassini's launch from Earth), Xanadu was the first surface feature to be recognized on Titan. Once thought to be a raised plateau, the region is now understood to be slightly tilted, but not higher than, the darker surrounding regions. It blocks the formation of sand dunes, which otherwise extend all the way around Titan at its equator. The image was taken by the Cassini Synthetic Aperture radar (SAR) on July 25, 2016 during the mission's 122nd targeted Titan encounter. The image has been modified by the denoising method described in A. Lucas, JGR:Planets (2014). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20714

  7. Exploration of Titan and Enceladus: European plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, Athena

    TandEM, the Titan and Enceladus mission, was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and selected for further studies, with the goal of exploring both satellites. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi`re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through e the atmosphere. ESA will study this mission concept in collaboration with NASA and other partners, focusing mainly on the Titan in situ elements.

  8. Titan: a laboratory for prebiological organic chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

    1992-01-01

    When we examine the atmospheres of the Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune), the satellites in the outer solar system, comets, and even--through microwave and infrared spectroscopy--the cold dilute gas and grains between the stars, we find a rich organic chemistry, presumably abiological, not only in most of the solar system but throughout the Milky Way galaxy. In part because the composition and surface pressure of the Earth's atmosphere 4 x 10(9) years ago are unknown, laboratory experiments on prebiological organic chemistry are at best suggestive; but we can test our understanding by looking more closely at the observed extraterrestrial organic chemistry. The present Account is restricted to atmospheric organic chemistry, primarily on the large moon of Saturn. Titan is a test of our understanding of the organic chemistry of planetary atmospheres. Its atmospheric bulk composition (N2/CH4) is intermediate between the highly reducing (H2/He/CH4/NH3/H2O) atmospheres of the Jovian planets and the more oxidized (N2/CO2/H2O) atmospheres of the terrestrial planets Mars and Venus. It has long been recognized that Titan's organic chemistry may have some relevance to the events that led to the origin of life on Earth. But with Titan surface temperatures approximately equal to 94 K and pressures approximately equal to 1.6 bar, the oceans of the early Earth have no ready analogue on Titan. Nevertheless, tectonic events in the water ice-rich interior or impact melting and slow re-freezing may lead to an episodic availability of liquid water. Indeed, the latter process is the equivalent of a approximately 10(3)-year-duration shallow aqueous sea over the entire surface of Titan.

  9. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  10. Zinc in Entamoeba invadens.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. S.; Sattilaro, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and dithizone staining of trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba invadens demonstrate that these cells have a high concentration of zinc (approximately one picogram per cell or 1% of their dry weight). In the cysts of this organism, the zinc is confined to the chromatoid bodies, which previous work has shown to contain crystals of ribosomes. The chemical state and function of this zinc are unknown.

  11. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciTech Connect

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remainedmore » constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.« less

  12. DISPOSAL OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM NONREGENERABLE FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a 4-year study to determine environmentally sound methods for disposing of wastes from nonregenerable flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Data presented incorporates results obtained during the fourth year with material from report EPA-600/7-77-052...

  13. L-proline-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) for deep catalytic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of diesel.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lingwan; Wang, Meiri; Shan, Wenjuan; Deng, Changliang; Ren, Wanzhong; Shi, Zhouzhou; Lü, Hongying

    2017-10-05

    A series of L-proline-based DESs was prepared through an atom economic reaction between L-proline (L-Pro) and four different kinds of organic acids. The DESs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 HNMR), cyclic voltammogram (CV) and the Hammett method. The synthesized DESs were used for the oxidative desulfurization and the L-Pro/p-toluenesultonic acid (L-Pro/p-TsOH) system shows the highest catalytic activity that the removal of dibenzothiophene (DBT) reached 99% at 60°C in 2h, which may involve the dual activation of the L-Pro/p-TsOH. The acidity of four different L-proline-based DESs was measured and the results show that it could not simply conclude that the correlation between the acidity of DESs and desulfurization capability was positive or negative. The electrochemical measurements evidences and recycling experiment indicate a good stability performance of L-Pro/p-TsOH in desulfurization. This work will provide a novel and potential method for the deep oxidation desulfurization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation Of A Mercury Speciation Technique For Flue Gas Desulfurization Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to bene...

  15. Numerical Study on the Effect of Electrode Polarity on Desulfurization in Direct Current Electroslag Remelting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Yu; Wang, Fang; Li, Guangqiang; Li, Baokuan; Qiao, Wenwei

    2017-10-01

    In order to clarify the influence of electrode polarity on desulfurization in direct current (DC) electroslag remelting process, a transient three-dimensional coupled mathematical model has been established. The finite volume method was invoked to simultaneously solve the mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation equations. The Joule heating and Lorentz force were fully coupled through calculating Maxwell's equations with the assistance of the magnetic potential vector. The motion of the metal-slag interface was described by using the volume of fluid approach. An auxiliary metallurgical kinetics module was introduced to determine the thermochemical and the electrochemical reaction rates. A reasonable agreement between the measured data and the simulated results are observed. A longer time and a larger area for the desulfurization can be provided by the metal pool-slag interface when compared with the metal droplet-slag interface. The electrochemical transfer rate at the metal pool-slag interface is positive in the DC reverse polarity (DCRP) remelting, while in the DC straight polarity (DCSP) remelting, the electrochemical transfer rate is negative at this interface. The desulfurization progress in the DCSP remelting thus is fall behind that in the DCRP remelting. The desulfurization rate of the DCRP remelting is around 70 pct and the rate of the DCSP remelting is about 40 pct.

  16. Hydrologic transport of fecal bacteria attenuated by flu gas desulfurized (FGD) gypsum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background Flue gas desulfurized (FGD) gypsum is a byproduct of coal-fired power plants. As a soil amendment for crop production it has the potential of improving soil water infiltration, soil conservation, and decreasing nutrient losses from broiler litter applications. Because broiler litter is a ...

  17. Hydrologic transport of fecal bacteria attenuated by flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a byproduct of coal-fired power plants. As a soil amendment for crop and pasture production it may increase water infiltration, reduce soil erosion, and decrease nutrient losses from applications of animal manures. Broiler litter is used as a source of plan...

  18. Highly flexible sub-1 nm tungsten oxide nanobelts as efficient desulfurization catalysts.

    PubMed

    He, Jie; Liu, Huiling; Xu, Biao; Wang, Xun

    2015-03-01

    Ultrathin tungsten oxide nanobelts are successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method. Sub-1 nm thickness and hydrophobic surface property endow the nanobelts with flexibility, viscosity, gelation, and good catalytic performance in oxidative desulfurization. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Deep Desulfurization of Extensively Hydrodesulfurized Middle Distillate Oil by Rhodococcus sp. Strain ECRD-1

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, M. J.; Lee, M. K.; Prince, R. C.; Minak-Bernero, V.; George, G. N.; Pickering, I. J.

    2001-01-01

    Dibenzothiophene (DBT), and in particular substituted DBTs, are resistant to hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and can persist in fuels even after aggressive HDS treatment. Treatment by Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 of a middle distillate oil whose sulfur content was virtually all substituted DBTs produced extensive desulfurization and a sulfur level of 56 ppm. PMID:11282654

  20. Synthesis and application of different phthalocyanine molecular sieve catalyst for oxidative desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Na; Li, Siwen; Wang, Jinyi; Zhang, Ronglan; Gao, Ruimin; Zhao, Jianshe; Wang, Junlong

    2015-05-01

    M2(PcAN)2 (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) anchored onto W-HZSM-5 (M2(PcAN)2-W-HZSM-5) or the M2(PcTN)2 doping W-HZSM-5 (M2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5) were prepared and their catalytic performances were tested for oxidative desulfurization in the presence of oxygen. Thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were considered as sulfur compounds. Among zeolite-based catalysts, the Cu2(PcAN)2-W-HZSM-5 and Cu2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5 showed superior desulfurization performance and the activity of selectivity followed the order: T>BT>DBT. The effects of phthalocyanine concentration were studied by UV-Vis and calcination temperature was obtained by TG-DSC for Cu2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5. Catalysts were characterized by EA, IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP, and N2 adsorption. Reaction time, temperature and the amount of catalyst were investigated as the important parameters for optimization of the reaction. Furthermore, a possible process of oxidative desulfurization and the reaction products were proposed. The reaction process of ultra-deep desulfurization.

  1. Oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene from model oil using ionic liquids as extracting agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Mohd F.; Atikah, N.; Chong, F. K.; Shaharun, Maizatul S.

    2012-09-01

    The oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) from model oil (in n-dodecane) was carried out using ionic liquid as the extractant and catalyst, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in combination with acetic acid (CH3COOH) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) as the oxidant. The ionic liquids used were 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octyl sulphate ([Bmim][OcSO4]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Bmim][Ac]). The effect of the amounts of H2O2 on oxidative desulphurization of model oil was first investigated without the usage of ionic liquids at room temperature. The results indicate that greater amount of H2O2 give higher desulfurization and the maximum desulfurization in this study, i.e. 34 %, was occurred when the molar ratio of H2O2 to sulfur was 5:1. With the usage of ionic liquid and the molar ratio of 5:1 (H2O2:sulfur), the efficiency of DBT removal from model oil was increased significantly in terms of percent removal and removal time. Ionic liquid of [Bmim][OcSO4] performed better than [Bmim][Ac] with 72 % DBT removal. When molar ratio of H2O2 to sulphur was 5:1, volume ratio of ionic liquid to model oil was 1:1 and mixing time was 60 min at room temperature. The results indicate the potential of ionic liquids as the extractant and catalyst for oxidative desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels.

  2. Polymeric carbon nitride nanomesh as an efficient and durable metal-free catalyst for oxidative desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lijuan; Lei, Ganchang; Fang, Yuanxing; Cao, Yanning; Wang, Xinchen; Jiang, Lilong

    2018-03-06

    We report the first use of polymeric carbon nitride (CN) for the catalytic selective oxidation of H 2 S. The as-prepared CN with unique ultrathin "nanomeshes" structure exhibits excellent H 2 S conversion and high S selectivity. In particular, the CN nanomesh also displays better durability in the desulfurization reaction than traditional catalysts, such as carbon- and iron-based materials.

  3. Results using flue gas desulfurization gypsum in soilless substrates for greenhouse crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent availability of Flue Gas Desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) has led to interested in its possible use in horticulture greenhouse production. Three studies were conducted to determine the effects of increasing rates of FGDG on six greenhouse crops. In the first study, substrates (6:1 pine bark:san...

  4. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION HELD AT LAS VEGAS, NEVADA, MARCH 1979; VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The publication, in two volumes, contains the text of all papers presented at EPA's fifth flue gas desulfurization (FGD) symposium, March 5-8, 1979, at Las Vegas, Nevada. A partial listing of papers in Volume 2 includes the following: Basin Electric's involvement with dry flue ga...

  5. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: ST. CLAIR STATION, DETROIT EDISON CO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a survey of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system retrofitted on Unit 6 of Detroit Edison Co.'s St. Clair Station. The experimental FGD system, which operated through a 2-month (October 1976-January 1977) demonstration program, utilized a limestone...

  6. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: WILL COUNTY STATION, COMMONWEALTH EDISON CO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a second survey of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system on Unit 1 of Commonwealth Edison Co.'s Will County Station. The FGD system, started up in February 1972, uses a limestone slurry in two parallel scrubbing trains. Each train includes a ventur...

  7. Experimental research on bypass evaporation tower technology for zero liquid discharge of desulfurization wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuangchen; Chai, Jin; Wu, Kai; Xiang, Yajun; Jia, Shaoguang; Li, Qingsong

    2018-03-20

    Zero liquid discharge (ZLD) of wastewater has become the trend of environmental governance after the implementation of 'The Action Plan for Prevention and Treatment of Water Pollution' in China, desulfurization wastewater has gained more attention due to its complex composition and heavy metals. However, current technologies for ZLD have some shortcomings such as high cost and insufficient processing capacity, ZLD cannot be achieved actually. This paper proposes a new evaporation drying technology. An independent bypass evaporation tower was built, part of the hot flue gas before the air preheater was introduced into the evaporation tower for desulfurization wastewater evaporation, and the generated dust after evaporation was discharged back to the flue duct before electrostatic precipitator. This paper reports on the performance of desulfurization wastewater evaporation and the characteristics of evaporation products in depth and makes a comprehensive discussion of the impact on the existing equipment based on the self-designed evaporation tower. Research suggests that this technology has high system reliability and little effect on subsequent equipment and provides theoretical and practical data. Due to environmental policies and huge market demand for ZLD of desulfurization wastewater, bypass evaporation tower technology has a great application prospect in the future.

  8. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION-NEW ORLEANS, MARCH 1976. VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document the presentations made during the symposium, which dealt with the status of flue gas desulfurization technology in the United States and abroad. Subjects considered included: regenerable, non-regenerable, and advanced processes; process costs; and by-prod...

  9. Coal desulfurization by chlorinolysis production and combustion test evaluation of product coals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Daly, D.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory-scale screening tests were carried out on coal from Harrison County, Ohio to establish chlorination and hydrodesulfurization conditions for the batch reactor production of chlorinolysis and chlorinolysis-hydrodesulfurized coals. In addition, three bituminous coals, were treated on the lab scale by the chlorinolysis process to provide 39 to 62% desulfurization. Two bituminous coals and one subbituminous coal were then produced in 11 to 15 pound lots as chlorinolysis and hydrodesulfurized coals. The chlorinolysis coals had a desulfurization of 29-69%, reductions in voltatiles and hydrogen. Hydrodesulfurization provided a much greater desulfurization (56-86%), reductions in volatiles and hydrogen. The three coals were combustion tested in the Penn State ""plane flame furnace'' to determine ignition and burning characteristics. All three coals burned well to completion as: raw coals, chlorinolysis processed coals, and hydrodesulfurized coals. The hydrodesulfurized coals experienced greater ignition delays and reduced burning rates than the other coals because of the reduced volatile content. It is thought that the increased open pore volume in the desulfurized-devolatilized coals compensates in part for the decreased volatiles effect on ignition and burning.

  10. MODELING OF SO2 REMOVAL IN SPRAY-DRYER FLUE-GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a comprehensive mathematical model of the SO2 removal process in a spray-dryer flue-gas desulfurization system. Simultaneous evaporation of a sorbent droplet and absorption/reaction of SO2 in the droplet are described by the corresponding heat- and mass-transf...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF INFRARED METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF INORGANIC SULFUR SPECIES RELATED TO INJECTION DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current methods designed to control and reduce the amount of sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants and factories rely upon the reaction between SO2 and alkaline earth compounds and are called flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. Of these met...

  12. COMPARISON OF WEST GERMAN AND U.S. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents a comparison of the actual cost retrofitting flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on Federal Republic of German (FRG) boilers to cost estimating procedures used in the U.S. to estimate the retrofit of these controls on U.S. b...

  13. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum: Its effectiveness as an alternative bedding material for broiler production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) may be a viable low-cost alternative bedding material for broiler production. In order to evaluate FGD gypsum’s viability, three consecutive trials were conducted to determine its influence on live performance (body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency, an...

  14. Decreasing phosphorus loss in tile-drained landscapes using flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elevated phosphorus (P) loading from agricultural non-point source pollution continues to impair inland waterbodies throughout the world. The application of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to agricultural fields has been suggested to decrease P loading because of its high calcium content and P...

  15. Desulfurization of Hydrocarbon Fuels at Ambient Conditions Using Supported Silver Oxide-Titania Sorbents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-13

    required as a dopant in a two- component active metal matrix to generate surface defects. The use of high surface area supports has been demonstrated...B. S., Burton, J. F., Cullo, A. L. Supported cobalt sulfate desulfurization catalyst. US Patent No 74-483982 [110] Sivaraj, C., Contescu, C

  16. THE EFFECT OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AVAILABILITY ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES. VOLUME II. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analysis of the effect of the availability of a flue gas desulfurization system on the ability of an individual power plant to generate electricity at its rated capacity. (The availability of anything is the fraction of time it is capable of service...

  17. THE EFFECT OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AVAILABILITY ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analysis of the effect of the availability of a flue gas desulfurization system on the ability of an individual power plant to generate electricity at its rated capacity. (The availability of anything is the fraction of time it is capable of service...

  18. Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Grindley, T.

    1988-04-05

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

  19. A green synthesis of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate; lower temperature solid-state reaction and improved materials performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Makoto, E-mail: waseda.ogawa@gmail.com; Department of Earth Sciences, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050; Morita, Masashi, E-mail: m-masashi@y.akane.waseda.jp

    2013-10-15

    A layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, with the size range from 0.1 to 30 µm was prepared to show the effects of the particle size on the materials performance. The potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction as reported previously, where the reaction temperature was varied. The reported temperature for the titanate preparation was higher than 800 °C, though 600 °C is good enough to obtain single-phase potassium lithium titanate. The lower temperature synthesis is cost effective and the product exhibit better performance as photocatalysts due to surface reactivity. - Graphical abstract: Finite particle of a layered titanate, potassiummore » lithium titanate, was prepared by solid-state reaction at lower temperature to show modified materials performance. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction. • Lower temperature reaction resulted in smaller sized particles of titanate. • 600 °C was good enough to obtain single phased potassium lithium titanate. • The product exhibited better performance as photocatalyst.« less

  20. Spray-dry desulfurization of flue gas from heavy oil combustion.

    PubMed

    Scala, Fabrizio; Lancia, Amedeo; Nigro, Roberto; Volpicelli, Gennaro

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation on sulfur dioxide removal in a pilot-scale spray dryer from the flue gas generated by combustion of low-sulfur (S) heavy oil is reported. A limewater slurry was sprayed through an ultrasonic two-fluid atomizer in the spray-dry chamber, and the spent sorbent was collected downstream in a pulse-jet baghouse together with fly ash. Flue gas was sampled at different points to measure the desulfurization efficiency after both the spray-dry chamber and the baghouse. Parametric tests were performed to study the effect of the following variables: gas inlet temperature, difference between gas outlet temperature and adiabatic saturation temperature, lime-to-S ratio, and average size of lime particles in the slurry. Results indicated that spray drying is an effective technology for the desulfurization of low-S fuel oil flue gas, provided operating conditions are chosen carefully. In particular, the lowest gas inlet and outlet temperatures compatible with baghouse operation should be selected, as should a sufficiently high lime-to-S ratio. The attainment of a small lime particle size in the slurry is critical for obtaining a high desulfurization efficiency. A previously presented spray-dry flue gas desulfurization model was used to simulate the pilot-scale desulfurization tests, to check the ability of the model to predict the S capture data and its usefulness as a design tool, minimizing the need for pilot-scale experimentation. Comparison between model and experimental results was fairly good for the whole range of calcium/S ratios considered.

  1. Zinc triggers microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, Tiina M.; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the central nervous system. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, “amoeboid” morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other pro-inflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with an NF-kB reporter gene showed a several-fold increase in NF-kB activity in response to 30 μM zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15 – 30 μM zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-κB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-κB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders. PMID:18509044

  2. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  3. [Zinc and chronic enteropathies].

    PubMed

    Giorgi, P L; Catassi, C; Guerrieri, A

    1984-01-01

    In recent years the nutritional importance of zinc has been well established; its deficiency and its symptoms have also been recognized in humans. Furthermore, Acrodermatitis Enteropathica has been isolated, a rare but severe disease, of which skin lesions, chronic diarrhoea and recurring infections are the main symptoms. The disease is related to the malfunctioning of intestinal absorption of zinc and can be treated by administering pharmacological doses of zinc orally. Good dietary sources of zinc are meat, fish and, to a less extent, human milk. The amount of zinc absorbed in the small intestine is influenced by other nutrients: some compounds inhibit this process (dietary fiber, phytate) while others (picolinic acid, citric acid), referred to as Zn-binding ligands (ZnBL) facilitate it. Citric acid is thought to be the ligand which accounts for the high level of bioavailability of zinc in human milk. zinc absorption occurs throughout the small intestine, not only in the prossimal tract (duodenum and jejunum) but also in the distal tract (ileum). Diarrhoea is one of the clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, thus many illnesses distinguished by chronic diarrhoea entail a bad absorption of zinc. In fact, in some cases of chronic enteropathies in infants, like coeliac disease and seldom cystic fibrosis, a deficiency of zinc has been isolated. Some of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, like retarded growth and hypogonadism, have been related to hypozinchemia which is present in this illness. Finally, it is possible that some of the dietary treatments frequently used for persistent post-enteritis diarrhoea (i.e. cow's milk exclusion, abuse and misuse of dietary fiber like carrot and carub powder, use of soy formula) can constitute a scarce supply of zinc and therefore could promote the persistency of diarrhoea itself.

  4. Project Cassini: a Saturn Orbiter/titan Probe Mission Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, D.; Ip, W. H.

    1984-12-01

    Titan is the only moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. The organic chemistry of its N2-CH4 atmosphere may resemble that of the earth's primitive atmosphere before life arose. The investigation of the synthesis of prebiotic molecules in Titan's atmosphere and the atmospheric and surface environments of this planet-sized moon will be the focal point of the Cassini Project proposed to the European Space Agency for an international Saturn Orbiter/Titan Probe mission.

  5. Titan's rotation reveals an internal ocean and changing zonal winds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, R.D.; Stiles, B.W.; Kirk, R.L.; Allison, M.D.; Del Marmo, P.P.; Iess, L.; Lunine, J.I.; Ostro, S.J.; Hensley, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cassini radar observations of Saturn's moon Titan over several years show that its rotational period is changing and is different from its orbital period. The present-day rotation period difference from synchronous spin leads to a shift of ???0.36?? per year in apparent longitude and is consistent with seasonal exchange of angular momentum between the surface and Titan's dense superrotating atmosphere, but only if Titan's crust is decoupled from the core by an internal water ocean like that on Europa.

  6. Titanate-based adsorbents for radioactive ions entrapment from water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongjiang; Liu, Hongwei; Zheng, Zhanfeng; Sarina, Sarina; Zhu, Huaiyong

    2013-03-21

    This feature article reviews some titanate-based adsorbents for the removal of radioactive wastes (cations and anions) from water. At the beginning, we discuss the development of the conventional ion-exchangeable titanate powders for the entrapment of radioactive cations, such as crystalline silicotitanate (CST), monosodium titanate (MST), peroxotitanate (PT). Then, we specially emphasize the recent progress in the uptake of radioactive ions by one-dimensional (1D) sodium titanate nanofibers and nanotubes, which includes the synthesis and phase transformation of the 1D nanomaterials, adsorption ability (capacity, selectivity, kinetics, etc.) of radioactive cations and anions, and the structural evolution during the adsorption process.

  7. Experimental simulation of aerosols evolution in Titan's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatain, A.; Carrasco, N.; Guaitella, O.

    2017-09-01

    Many recent studies on Titan are concerned with aerosols. In particular, questions are asked on how these complex organic molecules are formed and evolve in Titan's atmosphere. Here for the first time we experimentally study how harsh plasma environment simulating Titan ionosphere can affect these aerosols. Titan tholins are placed in a N2-H2 plasma reactor and sample signatures are measured by infrared transmission spectroscopy. First results show an evolution of the absorption bands. Therefore, plasma conditions seem to change tholin chemical structure.

  8. The effects of upstream plasma properties on Titan's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledvina, S. A.; Brecht, S. H.

    2016-12-01

    Cassini observations have found that the plasma and magnetic field conditions upstream of Titan are far more complex than they were thought to be after the Voyager encounter. Rymer et al., (2009) used the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) electron observations to classify the plasma conditions along Titan's orbit into 5 types (Plasma Sheet, Lobe, Mixed, Magnetosheath and Misc.). Nemeth et al., (2011) found that the CAPS ion observations could also be separated into the same plasma regions as defined by Rymer et al. Additionally the T-96 encounter found Titan in the solar wind adding a sixth classification. Understanding the effects of the variable upstream plasma conditions on Titan's plasma interaction and the evolution of Titan's ionosphere/atmosphere is one of the main objectives of the Cassini mission. To compliment the mission we perform hybrid simulations of Titan's plasma interaction to examine how the properties of the incident plasma (composition, density, temperature etc…) affect Titan's ionosphere. We examine how much ionospheric plasma is lost from Titan as well as the amount of mass and energy deposited into Titan's atmosphere.

  9. The identification of liquid ethane in Titan's Ontario Lacus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Soderblom, L.A.; Soderblom, J.M.; Clark, R.N.; Jaumann, R.; Barnes, J.W.; Sotin, Christophe; Buratti, B.; Baines, K.H.; Nicholson, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    Titan was once thought to have global oceans of light hydrocarbons on its surface, but after 40 close flybys of Titan by the Cassini spacecraft, it has become clear that no such oceans exist. There are, however, features similar to terrestrial lakes and seas, and widespread evidence for fluvial erosion, presumably driven by precipitation of liquid methane from Titan's dense, nitrogen-dominated atmosphere. Here we report infrared spectroscopic data, obtained by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on board the Cassini spacecraft, that strongly indicate that ethane, probably in liquid solution with methane, nitrogen and other low-molecular-mass hydrocarbons, is contained within Titan's Ontario Lacus.

  10. Coupled atmosphere-ocean models of Titan's past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Courtin, Regis

    1993-01-01

    The behavior and possible past evolution of fully coupled atmosphere and ocean model of Titan are investigated. It is found that Titan's surface temperature was about 20 K cooler at 4 Gyr ago and will be about 5 K warmer 0.5 Gyr in the future. The change in solar luminosity and the conversion of oceanic CH4 to C2H6 drive the evolution of the ocean and atmosphere over time. Titan appears to have experienced a frozen epoch about 3 Gyr ago independent of whether an ocean is present or not. This finding may have important implications for understanding the inventory of Titan's volatile compounds.

  11. Saturn/Titan Rendezvous: A Solar-Sail Aerocapture Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matloff, Gregory L.; Taylor, Travis; Powell, Conley

    2004-01-01

    A low-mass Titan orbiter is proposed that uses conservative or optimistic solar sails for all post-Earth-escape propulsion. After accelerating the probe onto a trans-Saturn trajectory, the sail is used parachute style for Saturn capture during a pass through Saturn's outer atmosphere. If the apoapsis of the Saturn-capture orbit is appropriate, the aerocapture maneuver can later be repeated at Titan so that the spacecraft becomes a satellite of Titan. An isodensity-atmosphere model is applied to screen aerocapture trajectories. Huygens/Cassini should greatly reduce uncertainties regarding the upper atmospheres of Saturn and Titan.

  12. Titan Upper Atmosphere: A factory of hydrocarbons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-22

    During its closest flyby of Saturn's moon Titan on April 16, the Cassini spacecraft came within 1,025 kilometers (637 miles) of the moon's surface and found that the outer layer of the thick, hazy atmosphere is brimming with complex hydrocarbons. This figure shows a mass spectrum of Titan's ionosphere near 1,200 kilometers (746 miles) above its surface. The mass range covered goes from hydrogen at 1 atomic mass unit per elementary charge (Dalton) to 99 Daltons. This mass range includes compounds with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 carbons as the base structure (as indicated in the figure label). The identified compounds include multiple carbon molecules and carbon-nitrogen bearing species as well. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07865

  13. Titan's Xanadu region: Geomorphology and formation scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhans, Migrjam; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Mitri, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    Based on comprehensive mapping of the region, the recent theories of Xanadu's origin are examined and a chronology of geologic processes is proposed. The geologic history of Titan's Xanadu region is different from that of the other surface units on Saturn's moon. A previously proposed origin of western Xanadu from a giant impact in the early history of the moon is difficult to confirm given the scarcity of morphologic indications of an impact basin. The basic topographic structure of the landscape is controlled by tectonic processes that date back to the early history of Titan. More recently, the surface is intensely reworked and resurfaced by fluvial processes, which seem to have leveled out and compensated height differences. Although the surface age seems young at first view, the underlying processes that created this surface and the topographic structure appear to be ancient.

  14. Evidence for frozen hydrocarbons on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, Jason M.; Barnes, Jason W.; Brown, Robert H.; Chevrier, Vincent; Farnsworth, Kendra; Soderblom, Laurence A.

    2016-10-01

    Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) and Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) have twice, now, observed widespread darkening of Titan's surface that has been interpreted as evidence of rainfall (Turtle et al., 2009, GRL 36; Turtle et al., 2011, Science 331) followed by an increase in albedo, well beyond the pre-darkened albedo (Barnes et al., 2013, Planet. Sci. 2; Soderblom et al., 2014, DPS). Based on the timescale and magnitude of the albedo changes, and the correlations between the timescale and temperature (inferred from latitude), we favor a thermodynamically controlled process to explain the brightening. Herein, we present a detailed comparison of the IR spectra of the bright materials of these two events. We also discuss the implications on the interpretation of these data from recent laboratory work investigating the freezing of ethane at Titan-like conditions (Farnsworth et al., 2016, LPSC 47).

  15. Bright Feature Appears in Titan Kraken Mare

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-10

    Two Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from the radar experiment on NASA's Cassini spacecraft show that, between May 2013 and August 2014, a bright feature appeared in Kraken Mare, the largest hydrocarbon sea on Saturn's moon Titan. Researchers think the bright feature is likely representative of something on the hydrocarbon sea's surface, such as waves or floating debris. A similar feature appeared in Ligea Mare, another Titan sea, and was seen to evolve in appearance between 2013 and 2014 (see PIA18430). The image at left was taken on May 23, 2013 at an incidence angle of 56 degrees; the image at right was taken on August 21, 2014 at an incidence angle of 5 degrees. Incidence angle refers to the angle at which the radar beam strikes the surface. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19047

  16. The thermal structure of Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1989-01-01

    The present radiative-convective model of the Titan atmosphere thermal structure obtains the solar and IR radiation in a series of spectral intervals with vertical resolution. Haze properties have been determined with a microphysics model encompassing a minimum of free parameters. It is determined that gas and haze opacity alone, using temperatures established by Voyager observations, yields a model that is within a few percent of the radiative convective balance throughout the Titan atmosphere. Model calculations of the surface temperature are generally colder than the observed value by 5-10 K; better agreement is obtained through adjustment of the model parameters. Sunlight absorption by stratospheric haze and pressure-induced gas opacity in the IR are the most important thermal structure-controlling factors.

  17. Benzene formation in Titan's lower atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plane, J. M. C.; Douglas, K.; Blitz, M. A.; Heard, D. E.; Seakins, P. W.; Feng, W.; Willacy, K.

    2017-09-01

    The most distinctive feature of Saturn's moon Titan is that it is covered in a thick haze. The haze consists of organic particles called tholins, of which benzene is thought to be an important precursor. Here we examine two pathways to form benzene. The first involves reactions on cosmic dust particles, which mostly do not ablate when entering Titan's atmosphere and accumulate in the lower atmosphere. We have shown in the laboratory that acetylene molecules stick on synthetic cosmic dust at low temperatures, and react efficiently to make benzene. The second pathway is through gas phase reactions involving radical species formed through methane photochemistry. A new lab study shows that the rates of critical reactions involving these radicals vary unexpectedly at low temperatures, leading to significant changes in important benzene precursors.

  18. Greenhouse models of the atmosphere of Titan.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is calculated for a series of Titanian atmosphere models with different proportions of methane, hydrogen, helium, and ammonia. A computer program is used in temperature-structure calculations based on radiative-convective thermal transfer considerations. A brightness temperature spectrum is derived for Titan and is compared with available observational data. It is concluded that the greenhouse effect on Titan is generated by pressure-induced transitions of methane and hydrogen. The helium-to-hydrogen ratio is found to have a maximum of about 1.5. The surface pressure is estimated to be at least 0.4 atm, with a daytime temperature of about 155 K at the surface. The presence of methane clouds in the upper troposphere is indicated. The clouds have a significant optical depth in the visible, but not in the thermal, infrared.

  19. Aerothermodynamic environment of a Titan aerocapture vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Chow, H.

    1982-01-01

    The extent of convective and radiative heating for a Titan aerocapture vehicle is investigated. The flow in the shock layer is assumed to be axisymmetric, steady, viscous, and compressible. It is further assumed that the gas is in chemical and local thermodynamic equilibrium and tangent slab approximation is used for the radiative transport. The effect of the slip boundary conditions on the body surface and at the shock wave are included in the analysis of high-altitude entry conditions. The implicit finite difference techniques is used to solve the viscous shock-layer equations for a 45 degree sphere cone at zero angle of attack. Different compositions for the Titan atmosphere are assumed, and results are obtained for the entry conditions specified by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  20. Removal of Sulfur from CaF2 Containing Desulfurization Slag Exhausted from Secondary Steelmaking Process by Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraki, Takehito; Kobayashi, Junichi; Urushibata, Satomi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2012-08-01

    The oxidation behavior of sulfur in desulfurization slag generated from the secondary steelmaking process with air has been investigated in the temperature range of 973 K to 1373 K (700 °C to 1100 °C). Although a high removal rate of sulfur is not achieved at temperatures lower than 1273 K (1000 °C) because of the formation of CaSO4, most of the sulfur is rapidly removed from slag as SO2 gas in the 1273 K to 1373 K (700 °C to 1100 °C) range. This finding indicates that the desulfurization slag generated from the secondary steelmaking process can be reused as a desulfurized flux through air oxidation, making it possible to reduce significantly the amount of desulfurization slag for disposal.

  1. Superoxide radical and UV irradiation in ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD): A potential alternative for greener fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ngo Yeung

    This study is aimed at improving the current ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) process by utilizing superoxide radical as oxidant. Research was also conducted to investigate the feasibility of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-assisted desulfurization. These modifications can enhance the process with the following achievements: (1) Meet the upcoming sulfur standards on various fuels including diesel fuel oils and residual oils; (2) More efficient oxidant with significantly lower consumption in accordance with stoichiometry; (3) Energy saving by 90%; (4) Greater selectivity in petroleum composition. Currently, the UAOD process and subsequent modifications developed in University of Southern California by Professor Yen's research group have demonstrated high desulfurization efficiencies towards various fuels with the application of 30% wt. hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The UAOD process has demonstrated more than 50% desulfurization of refractory organic sulfur compounds with the use of Venturella type catalysts. Application of quaternary ammonium fluoride as phase transfer catalyst has significantly improved the desulfurization efficiency to 95%. Recent modifications incorporating ionic liquids have shown that the modified UAOD process can produce ultra-low sulfur, or near-zero sulfur diesels under mild conditions with 70°C and atmospheric pressure. Nevertheless, the UAOD process is considered not to be particularly efficient with respect to oxidant and energy consumption. Batch studies have demonstrated that the UAOD process requires 100 fold more oxidant than the stoichiometic requirement to achieve high desulfurization yield. The expected high costs of purchasing, shipping and storage of the oxidant would reduce the practicability of the process. The excess use of oxidant is not economically desirable, and it also causes environmental and safety issues. Post treatments would be necessary to stabilize the unspent oxidant residual to prevent the waste

  2. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite)more » for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.« less

  3. The Production of Titan's Ultraviolet Nitrogen Airglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Michael H.; Gustin, J.; Ajello, J. M.; Evans, J. S.; Meier, R. R.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Esposito, L. W.; McClintock, W. E.; Stephan, A. W.

    2010-10-01

    The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed Titan's dayside limb on 22 June, 2009, obtaining high quality extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and far ultraviolet (FUV) spectra from a distance of only 60,000 km (23 Titan radii). The observations reveal the same EUV and FUV emissions arising from photoelectron excitation and photofragmentation of molecular nitrogen (N2) on Earth but with the altitude of peak emission much higher on Titan near 1000 km altitude. In the EUV, emission bands from the photoelectron excited N2 Carroll-Yoshino c4'-X system and N I and N II multiplets arising from photofragmentation of N2 dominate, with no detectable c4'(0,0) emission near 958 Å, contrary to many interpretations of the lower resolution Voyager 1 Ultraviolet Spectrometer data. The FUV is dominated by emission bands from the N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield a-X system and additional N I multiplets. We also identify several N2 Vegard-Kaplan A-X bands between 1500-1900 Å, two of which are located near 1561 and 1657 Å where C I multiplets were previously identified from a separate UVIS disk observation. We compare these limb emissions to predictions from a terrestrial airglow model adapted to Titan that uses a solar spectrum appropriate for these June, 2009 observations. Volume production rates and limb radiances are calculated, including extinction by methane and allowance for multiple scattering within the readily excited c4'(0,v') system, and compared to UVIS observations. We find that for these airglow data only emissions arising from processes involving N2 are present.

  4. Big Impacts and Transient Oceans on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, K. J.; Korycansky, D. G.; Nixon, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the thermal consequences of very big impacts on Titan [1]. Titan's thick atmosphere and volatile-rich surface cause it to respond to big impacts in a somewhat Earth-like manner. Here we construct a simple globally-averaged model that tracks the flow of energy through the environment in the weeks, years, and millenia after a big comet strikes Titan. The model Titan is endowed with 1.4 bars of N2 and 0.07 bars of CH4, methane lakes, a water ice crust, and enough methane underground to saturate the regolith to the surface. We assume that half of the impact energy is immediately available to the atmosphere and surface while the other half is buried at the site of the crater and is unavailable on time scales of interest. The atmosphere and surface are treated as isothermal. We make the simplifying assumptions that the crust is everywhere as methane saturated as it was at the Huygens landing site, that the concentration of methane in the regolith is the same as it is at the surface, and that the crust is made of water ice. Heat flow into and out of the crust is approximated by step-functions. If the impact is great enough, ice melts. The meltwater oceans cool to the atmosphere conductively through an ice lid while at the base melting their way into the interior, driven down in part through Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities between the dense water and the warm ice. Topography, CO2, and hydrocarbons other than methane are ignored. Methane and ethane clathrate hydrates are discussed quantitatively but not fully incorporated into the model.

  5. Scalable descriptive and correlative statistics with Titan.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    This report summarizes the existing statistical engines in VTK/Titan and presents the parallel versions thereof which have already been implemented. The ease of use of these parallel engines is illustrated by the means of C++ code snippets. Furthermore, this report justifies the design of these engines with parallel scalability in mind; then, this theoretical property is verified with test runs that demonstrate optimal parallel speed-up with up to 200 processors.

  6. Wind-Induced Atmospheric Escape: Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, Richard; Johnson, Robert; Sittler, Edward, Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Simpson, David

    2012-01-01

    Rapid thermospheric flows can significantly enhance the estimates of the atmospheric loss rate and the structure of the atmospheric corona of a planetary body. In particular, rapid horizontal flow at the exobase can increase the corresponding constituent escape rate. Here we show that such corrections, for both thermal and non-thermal escape, cannot be ignored when calculating the escape of methane from Titan, for which drastically different rates have been proposed. Such enhancements are also relevant to Pluto and exoplanets.

  7. Dimming Titan Revealed by the Cassini Observations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the temporal variation of Titan's emitted energy with the Cassini/CIRS observations. In the northern hemisphere, the hemispheric-average emitted power decreased from 2007 to 2009 and increased from 2009 to 2012–13, which make the net change insignificant (0.1 ± 0.2%) during the period 2007–2013. The decrease from 2007 to 2009 is mainly due to the cooling around the stratospause, and the increase from 2009 to 2012–13 is probably related to temporal variation of atmospheric temperature around the tropopuase in the northern hemisphere. In the southern hemisphere, the emitted power continuously decreased by 5.0 ± 0.6% from 2.40 ± 0.01 W/m2 in 2007 to 2.28 ± 0.01 in 2012–13, which is mainly related to Titan's seasonal variation. The asymmetry in the temporal variation between the two hemispheres results in the global-average emitted power decreasing by 2.5 ± 0.6% from 2.41 ± 0.01 W/m2 in 2007 to 2.35 ± 0.01 W/m2 in 2012–13. The solar constant at Titan decreased by ~13.0% in the same period 2007–2013, which is much stronger than the temporal variation of emitted power. The measurements of Titan's absorbed solar power are needed to determine the temporal variation of the global energy budget. PMID:25649341

  8. The Surface of Titan: Arecibo Radar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. B.; Black, G. J.; Carter, L. M.; Hine, A. A.; Margot, J. L.; Nolan, M. C.; Ostro, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    The Arecibo 12.6 cm radar system was used to observe Titan in 1999, 2000 and 2001. The mean value of the radar albedo is 0.16 and the polarization ratio is 0.35. For some longitudes the echo has a specular component although most of the echo power is contained in a diffuse component. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Encouragement from Jupiter for Europe's Titan Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-04-01

    Huygens will transmit scientific information for 150 minutes, from the outer reaches of Titan's cold atmosphere and all the way down to its enigmatic surface. For comparison, the Jupiter Probe radioed scientific data for 58 minutes as it descended about 200 kilometres into the outer part of the atmosphere of the giant planet. The parachutes controlling various stages of Huygens' descent will rely upon a system for deployment designed and developed in Europe that is nevertheless similar to that used by the Jupiter Probe. The elaborate sequence of operations in Huygens worked perfectly during a dramatic drop test from a stratospheric balloon over Sweden in May 1995, which approximated as closely as possible to events on Titan. The performance of the American Probe at Jupiter renews the European engineers' confidence in their own descent control system, and also in the lithium sulphur-dioxide batteries which were chosen to power both Probes. "The systems work after long storage in space," comments Hamid Hassan, ESA's Project Manager for Huygens. "Huygens will spend seven years travelling to Saturn's vicinity aboard the Cassini Orbiter. The Jupiter Probe was a passenger in Galileo for six years before its release, so there is no reason to doubt that Huygens will work just as well." Huygens will enter the outer atmosphere of Titan at 20,000 kilometres per hour. A heat shield 2.7 metres in diameter will withstand the friction and slow the Probe to a speed at which parachutes can be deployed. The size of the parachute for the main phase of the descent is chosen to allow Huygens to reach the surface in about 2 hours. The batteries powering Huygens will last for about 21/2 hours. Prepared for surprises A different perspective on the Jupiter Probe comes from Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA's Project Scientist for Huygens. The results contradicted many preconceptions of the Galileo scientists, particularly about the abundance of water and the structure of cloud layers. Arguments

  10. Titan 4 TPS Replacement Implementation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Charles H.

    1996-01-01

    This final report documents the overall progress of the study. It is a general discussion of the documents reviewed, recommendations, trips taken, findings/observations, and proposed corrective actions. In addition, cost data for the contract is addressed. The normal abstract and executive summary provided with most final reports is also provided as a part of this report. A conclusion section is provided that addresses the relative completeness of the Titan 4 TPSR project and this contract.

  11. Observations of Titan IIIC Transtage Fragmentation Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowardin, Heather; Seitzer, P.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.; Buckalew, B.; Cardona, T.; Krisko, P.; Lederer, S.

    2013-01-01

    The fragmentation of a Titan IIIC Transtage (1968-081) on 21 February 1992 is one of only two known break-ups in or near geosynchronous orbit. The original rocket body and 24 pieces of debris are currently being tracked by the U. S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN). The rocket body (SSN# 3432) and several of the original fragments (SSN# 25000, 25001, 30000, and 33511) were observed in survey mode during 2004-2010 using the 0.6-m Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope (MODEST) in Chile using a broad R filter. This paper presents a size distribution for all calibrated magnitude data acquired on MODEST. Size distribution plots are also shown using historical models for small fragmentation debris (down to 10 cm) thought to be associated with the Titan Transtage break-up. In November 2010, visible broadband photometry (Johnson/Kron-Cousins BVRI) was acquired with the 0.9-m Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile on several Titan fragments (SSN 25001, 33509, and 33510) and the parent rocket body (SSN 3432). Color index data are used to determine the fragment brightness distribution and how the data compares to spacecraft materials measured in the laboratory using similar photometric measurement techniques. In order to better characterize the break-up fragments, spectral measurements were acquired on three Titan fragments (one fragment observed over two different time periods) using the 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. The telescopic spectra of SSN 25000 (May 2012 and January 2013), SSN 38690, and SSN 38699 are compared with laboratory acquired spectra of materials (e.g., aluminum and various paints) to determine the surface material.

  12. Observations of Titan IIIC Transtage Fragmentation Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowardin, H.; Buckalew, B.; Barker, E.; Abercromby, K.; Seitzer, P.; Cardona, T.; Krisko, P.; Lederer, S.

    2013-09-01

    The fragmentation of a Titan IIIC Transtage (1968-081) on 21 February 1992 is one of only two known break-ups in or near geosynchronous orbit. The original rocket body and 24 pieces of debris are currently being tracked by the U. S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN). The rocket body (SSN# 3432) and several of the original fragments (SSN# 25000, 25001, 30000, and 33511) were observed in survey mode during 2004-2010 using the 0.6 m Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope (MODEST) in Chile using a broad R filter. This paper presents a size distribution for all calibrated magnitude data acquired on MODEST. Size distribution plots are also shown using historical models for small fragmentation debris (down to 10 cm) thought to be associated with the Titan Transtage break-up. In November 2010, visible broadband photometry (Johnson/Kron-Cousins BVRI) was acquired with the 0.9 m Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile on several Titan fragments (SSN 25001, 33509, and 33510) and the parent rocket body (SSN 3432). Color index data are used to determine the fragment brightness distribution and how the data compares to spacecraft materials measured in the laboratory using similar photometric measurement techniques. In order to better characterize the break-up fragments, spectral measurements were acquired on three Titan fragments (one fragment observed over two different time periods) using the 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. The telescopic spectra of SSN 25000 (May 2012 and January 2013), SSN 38690, and SSN 38699 are compared with laboratory acquired spectra of materials (e.g., aluminum and various paints) to determine the surface material.

  13. Cassini / Huygens at Saturn and Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Robert T.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassin/Huygens Project is a joint undertaking between NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency to conduct an in-depth exploration of the Saturnian system. The spacecraft consists of an orbiter vehicle and an atmospheric probe which has completed its mission in the atmosphere and on the surface of Titan, the largest moon of Saturn. The spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997, has completed its nearly seven years of interplanetary flight, and by the time of the 56th IAC, it will have completed 17 of its planned 75 orbits during its four-year prime orbital mission. This paper gives an overview of the mission, and describes in detail the accomplishments and events over the past year, including the spectacularly successful descent of the .European Space Agency's Huygens probe to the surface of Titan. Initial scientific results from both the Huygens mission as well as from the first one-and-a-quarter years of orbiting Saturn are summarized. The plans for the remainder of the orbiter's tour of the Saturn system and the many flybys of Titan and the smaller icy satellites are described.

  14. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles for Biomarker Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, O.; Posada, O. M.; Hondow, N. S.; Wälti, C.; Saunders, M.; Murray, C. A.; Brydson, R. M. D.; Milne, S. J.; Brown, A. P.

    2015-10-01

    A tetragonal crystal structure is required for barium titanate nanoparticles to exhibit the nonlinear optical effect of second harmonic light generation (SHG) for use as a biomarker when illuminated by a near-infrared source. Here we use synchrotron XRD to elucidate the tetragonal phase of commercially purchased tetragonal, cubic and hydrothermally prepared barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles by peak fitting with reference patterns. The local phase of individual nanoparticles is determined by STEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), measuring the core-loss O K-edge and the Ti L3-edge energy separation of the t2g, eg peaks. The results show a change in energy separation between the t2g and eg peak from the surface and core of the particles, suggesting an intraparticle phase mixture of the barium titanate nanoparticles. HAADF-STEM and bright field TEM-EDX show cellular uptake of the hydrothermally prepared BaTiO3 nanoparticles, highlighting the potential for application as biomarkers.

  15. Low Temperature Reflectance Spectra of Titan Tholins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, T. L.; Dalton, J. B.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Compositional interpretation of remotely obtained reflectance spectra of outer solar system surfaces is achieved by a variety of methods. These include matching spectral curves, matching spectral features, quantitative spectral interpretation, and theoretical modeling of spectra. All of these approaches rely upon laboratory measurements of one kind or another. The bulk of these laboratory measurements are obtained with the sample of interest at ambient temperatures and pressures. However, surface temperatures of planets, satellites, and asteroids in the outer solar system are significantly cooler than ambient laboratory conditions on Earth. The infrared spectra of many materials change as a function of temperature. As has been recently demonstrated it is important to assess what effects colder temperatures have on spectral properties and hence, compositional interpretations. Titan tholin is a solid residue created by energetic processing of H-, C-, and N-bearing gases. Such residues can also be created by energetic processing if the gases are condensed into ices. Titan tholin has been suggested as a coloring agent for several surfaces in the outer solar system. Here we report laboratory measurements of Titan tholin at a temperature of 100 K and compare these to measurements of the same sample near room temperature. At low temperature the absorption features beyond 1 micrometer narrow slightly. At wavelengths greater than approx. 0.8 micrometer the overall reflectance of the sample decreases slightly making the sample less red at low temperatures. We will discuss the implications of the laboratory measurements for interpretation of cold outer solar system surfaces.

  16. Impact-Induced Climate Change on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Korycansky, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Titan's thick atmosphere and volatile surface cause it to respond to big impacts like the one that produced the prominent Menrva impact basin in a somewhat Earth-like manner. Menrva was big enough to raise the surface temperature by 100 K. If methane in the regolith is generally as abundant as it was at the Huygens landing site, Menrva would have been big enough to double the amount of methane in the atmosphere. The extra methane would have drizzled out of the atmosphere over hundreds of years. Conditions may have been favorable for clathrating volatiles such as ethane. Impacts can also create local crater lakes set in warm ice but these quickly sink below the warm ice; whether the cryptic waters quickly freeze by mixing with the ice crust or whether they long endure under the ice remains a open question. Bigger impacts can create shallow liquid water oceans at the surface. If Titan's crust is made of water ice, the putative Hotei impact (a possible 800-1200 km diameter basin, Soderblom et al 2009) would have raised the average surface temperature to 350-400 K. Water rain would have fallen and global meltwaters would have averaged 50 m to as much as 500 m deep. The meltwaters may not have lasted more than a few decades or centuries at most, but are interesting to consider given Titan's organic wealth.

  17. Aromatic, Alphatic, Enigmatic: The Chemistry of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, Sarah

    2017-10-01

    The extraordinary complexity of Titan’s atmospheric chemistry far surpasses that of any other solar system atmosphere. With its thick N2 atmosphere and stable bodies of liquid on its surface, Titan also possesses many physical processes that are similar to those that occur on Earth. The connection between Titan’s surface and atmosphere is unique in our solar system; atmospheric chemistry produces materials that are deposited on the surface and subsequently altered by surface-atmosphere interactions such as aeolian and fluvial processes resulting in the formation of extensive dune fields and expansive lakes and seas. Titan’s atmosphere is favorable for organic haze formation, which combined with the presence of some oxygen-bearing molecules indicates that Titan’s atmosphere may produce molecules of prebiotic interest. The combination of organics and liquid, in the form of water in a subsurface ocean and methane/ethane in the surface lakes and seas, means that Titan may be the ideal place in the solar system to test ideas about habitability, prebiotic chemistry, and the ubiquity and diversity of life in the universe. I will review our current understanding of chemistry on Titan forged from the powerful combination of Earth-based observations, remote sensing and in situ spacecraft measurements, laboratory experiments, and models. I will conclude with some of the questions that remain after Cassini-Huygens.

  18. High Performance Radiation Transport Simulations on TITAN

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Christopher G; Davidson, Gregory G; Evans, Thomas M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the Denovo code system. Denovo solves the six-dimensional, steady-state, linear Boltzmann transport equation, of central importance to nuclear technology applications such as reactor core analysis (neutronics), radiation shielding, nuclear forensics and radiation detection. The code features multiple spatial differencing schemes, state-of-the-art linear solvers, the Koch-Baker-Alcouffe (KBA) parallel-wavefront sweep algorithm for inverting the transport operator, a new multilevel energy decomposition method scaling to hundreds of thousands of processing cores, and a modern, novel code architecture that supports straightforward integration of new features. In this paper we discuss the performance of Denovo on the 10--20 petaflop ORNLmore » GPU-based system, Titan. We describe algorithms and techniques used to exploit the capabilities of Titan's heterogeneous compute node architecture and the challenges of obtaining good parallel performance for this sparse hyperbolic PDE solver containing inherently sequential computations. Numerical results demonstrating Denovo performance on early Titan hardware are presented.« less

  19. Plumbing Coastal Depths in Titan Kraken Mare

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-10

    Radar data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft reveal the depth of liquid methane/ethane seas on Saturn's moon Titan. Cassini's Titan flyby on August 21, 2014, included a segment designed to collect altimetry (or height) data, using the spacecraft's radar instrument, along a 120-mile (200-kilometer) shore-to-shore track on Kraken Mare, Titan's largest hydrocarbon sea. For a 25-mile (40-kilometer) stretch of this data, along the sea's eastern shoreline, Cassini's radar beam bounced off the sea bottom and back to the spacecraft, revealing the sea's depth in that area. Observations in this region, near the mouth of a large, flooded river valley, showed depths ranging from 66 to 115 feet (20 to 35 meters). Plots of three radar echoes are shown at left, indicating depths of 89 feet (27 meters), 108 feet (33 meters) and 98 feet (30 meters), respectively. The altimetry echoes show the characteristic double-peaked returns of a bottom-reflection. The tallest peak represents the sea surface; the shorter of the pair represents the sea bottom. The distance between the two peaks is a measure of the liquid's depth. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image at right shows successive altimetry observations as black circles. The three blue circles indicate the locations of the three altimetry echoes shown in the plots at left. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19046

  20. Characterization of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, C.A.; Penteado, P.; Rodriguez, S.; Le, Mouelic S.; Baines, K.H.; Buratti, B.; Clark, R.; Nicholson, P.; Jaumann, R.; Sotin, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Images of Titan's clouds, possible over the past 10 years, indicate primarily discrete convective methane clouds near the south and north poles and an immense stratiform cloud, likely composed of ethane, around the north pole. Here we present spectral images from Cassini's Visual Mapping Infrared Spectrometer that reveal the increasing presence of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere. Radiative transfer analyses indicate similarities between summer polar and tropical methane clouds. Like their southern counterparts, tropical clouds consist of particles exceeding 5 ??m. They display discrete structures suggestive of convective cumuli. They prevail at a specific latitude band between 8??-20?? S, indicative of a circulation origin and the beginning of a circulation turnover. Yet, unlike the high latitude clouds that often reach 45 km altitude, these discrete tropical clouds, so far, remain capped to altitudes below 26 km. Such low convective clouds are consistent with the highly stable atmospheric conditions measured at the Huygens landing site. Their characteristics suggest that Titan's tropical atmosphere has a dry climate unlike the south polar atmosphere, and despite the numerous washes that carve the tropical landscape. ?? 2009. The American Astronomical Society.

  1. Large catchment area recharges Titan's Ontario Lacus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhingra, Rajani D.; Barnes, Jason W.; Yanites, Brian J.; Kirk, Randolph L.

    2018-01-01

    We seek to address the question of what processes are at work to fill Ontario Lacus while other, deeper south polar basins remain empty. Our hydrological analysis indicates that Ontario Lacus has a catchment area spanning 5.5% of Titan's surface and a large catchment area to lake surface area ratio. This large catchment area translates into large volumes of liquid making their way to Ontario Lacus after rainfall. The areal extent of the catchment extends to at least southern mid-latitudes (40°S). Mass conservation calculations indicate that runoff alone might completely fill Ontario Lacus within less than half a Titan year (1 Titan year = 29.5 Earth years) assuming no infiltration. Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) observations of clouds over the southern mid and high-latitudes are consistent with precipitation feeding Ontario's large catchment area. This far-flung rain may be keeping Ontario Lacus filled, making it a liquid hydrocarbon oasis in the relatively dry south polar region.

  2. Amino acids derived from Titan tholins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Ogino, H.; Nagy, B.; Er, C.; Schram, K. H.; Arakawa, E. T.

    1986-01-01

    An organic heteropolymer (Titan tholin) was produced by continuous dc discharge through a 0.9 N2/0.1 CH4 gas mixture at 0.2 mbar pressure, roughly simulating the cloudtop atmosphere of Titan. Treatment of this tholin with 6N HCl yielded 16 amino acids by gas chromatography after derivatization of N-trifluroacetyl isopropyl esters on two different capillary columns. Identifications were confirmed by GC/MS. Glycine, aspartic acid, and alpha- and beta-alanine were produced in greatest abundance; the total yield of amino acids was approximately 10(-2), approximately equal to the yield of urea. The presence of "nonbiological" amino acids, the absence of serine, and the fact that the amino acids are racemic within experimental error together indicate that these molecules are not due to microbial or other contamination, but are derived from the tholin. In addition to the HCN, HC2CN, and (CN)2 found by Voyager, nitriles and aminonitriles should be sought in the Titanian atmosphere and, eventually, amino acids on the surface. These results suggest that episodes of liquid water in the past or future of Titan might lead to major further steps in prebiological organic chemistry on that body.

  3. Saturn's Titan: Searching for Surface Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Kamp, L.; Matson, D. L.; Boryta, M. D.; Leader, F.; Baines, K. H.; Lopes, R.; Smythe, W. D.; Jauman, R.; Sotin, C.; Clark, R. N.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Drosart, P.; Hapke, B. W.; Buratti, B. J.; Brown, R. H.; Sicardy, B.; Lunine, J. I.; Combes, M.; Belucci, G.; Biebring, J.; Capaccioni, M.; Cerroni, P.; Corodini, A.; Formisano, V.; Filacchione, G.; Langevin, Y.; McCord, T.; Mennella, V.; Nicholson, P.

    2007-12-01

    The VIMS instrument on the Cassini spacecraft observes the surface of Titan through spectral 'windows' in its atmosphere where methane, the principal absorbing gas is transmitting. We previously have used VIMS to document changes in spectral reflectance and that have occurred on Titan's surface during Cassini's orbital tour at (latitude 26S, longitude 78W), (AGU spring meeting 2007). Having removed the possibility that the observed changes are either an atmospheric phenomenon or are the result of viewing angle (phase) effects, we conclude that physical changes in the chemistry or structure of the surface must be occurring. The size of the region suggests it may exceed the size of the largest active volcanic areas in the solar system. We now have explored additional sections of Titan's surface and have developed new techniques for locating surface changes over time. While some additional candidate areas for surface activity are suggested, confirmation is possible with the support of additional instruments on the Cassini Orbiter, particularly the radar instrument. The principal difficulty in implementing a coordinated program of observations with both instruments is due to the radar instrument's higher spatial resolution but small footprint on the surface relative to VIMS. In addition, the two instruments can not be used simultaneously on the same pass. Overlapping coverage will only be available after repeated flybys during Cassini's extended mission. This work done at JPL/CALTECH under contract with NASA

  4. The dynamics behind Titan's methane clouds.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan L; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T; Frierson, Dargan M W; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2006-12-05

    We present results of an axisymmetric global circulation model of Titan with a simplified suite of atmospheric physics forced by seasonally varying insolation. The recent discovery of midlatitude tropospheric clouds on Titan has caused much excitement about the roles of surface sources of methane and the global circulation in forming clouds. Although localized surface sources, such as methane geysers or "cryovolcanoes," have been invoked to explain these clouds, we find in this work that clouds appear in regions of convergence by the mean meridional circulation and over the poles during solstices, where the solar forcing reaches its seasonal maximum. Other regions are inhibited from forming clouds because of dynamical transports of methane and strong subsidence. We find that for a variety of moist regimes, i.e., with the effect of methane thermodynamics included, the observed cloud features can be explained by the large-scale dynamics of the atmosphere. Clouds at the solsticial pole are found to be a robust feature of Titan's dynamics, whereas isolated midlatitude clouds are present exclusively in a variety of moist dynamical regimes. In all cases, even without including methane thermodynamics, our model ceases to produce polar clouds approximately 4-6 terrestrial years after solstices.

  5. Titan Topography: A Comparison Between Cassini Altimeter and SAR Imaging from Two Titan Flybys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gim, Y.; Stiles, B.; Callahan, P. S.; Johnson, W. T.; Hensley, S.; Hamilton, G.; West, R.; Alberti, G.; Flamini, E.; Lorenz, R. D.; Zebker, H. A.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2007-12-01

    The Cassini RADAR has collected twelve altimeter data sets of Titan since the beginning of the Saturn Tour in 2004. Most of the altimeter measurements were made at high altitudes, from 4,000 km to 15,000 km, resulting in low spatial resolutions due to beam footprint sizes larger than 20 km, as well as short ground tracks less than 600 km. One flyby (T30) was dedicated to altimeter data collection from 15,000 km to the closest approach altitude of 950 km. This produced a beam footprint size of 6 km at the lowest altitude and an altimeter ground track of about 3,500 km covering Titan's surface from near the equator to high latitude areas near Titan's north pole. More importantly, the ground track is located inside the SAR swath viewed from an earlier Titan flyby (T28). This provides a rare opportunity to investigate Titan topography with a relatively high spatial resolution and compare nadir-looking altimeter data with side-looking SAR imaging. From altimeter data, we have measured the mean Titan radius of 2575.1 km +/- 0.1 km and observed rather complex topographical variations over a short distance. By comparing altimeter data and SAR images at altitudes below 2,000 km, we have found that there is a strong correlation between SAR brightness and altimeter waveform; SAR dark areas correspond to strong and sharp altimeter waveforms while SAR bright areas correspond to weak and diffused altimeter waveforms. The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  6. Titan through Time: Evolution of Titan's Atmosphere and its Hydrocarbon Cycle on the Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliam, Ashley E.

    The Introduction and Appendix i-A outline briefly the history of Titan exploration since its discovery by Christiaan Huygens in 1675 through the recent International Mission of Cassini-Huygens.. Chapter 1: This chapter discusses two possible pathways of loss of the two main gases from Titan's post-accretional atmosphere, methane (CH 4) and ammonia (NH3), by the mechanisms of thermal escape and emission from the interior coupled with thermal escape. Chapter 2: In this chapter, a simple photolysis model is created, where the second most abundant component of the present-day Titan atmosphere, methane (CH4), can either escape the atmosphere or undergo photolytic conversion to ethane (C2H6). Chapter 3: This chapter examines different fluvial features on Titan, identified by the Cassini spacecraft, and evaluates the possibilities of channel formation by two mechanisms: dissolution of ice by a concentrated solution of ammonium sulfate, and by mechanical erosion by flow of liquid ammonia and liquid ethane. Chapter 4: This chapter presents: (1) new explicit mathematical solutions of mixed 1st and 2nd order chemical reactions, represented by ordinary differential first-degree and Riccati equations; (2) the computed present-day concentrations of the three gases in Titan's scale atmosphere, treated as at near-steady state; and (3) an analysis of the reported and computed atmospheric concentrations of CH4, CH 3, and C2H6 on Titan, based on the reaction rate parameters of the species, the rate parameters taken as constants representative of their mean values. Chapter 5: This chapter examines the possible reactions of methane formation in terms of the thermodynamic relationships of the reactions that include pure carbon as graphite, the gases H2, CO2, H2 O, and serpentinization and magnetite formation from olivine fayalite. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  7. Titan AVIATR - Aerial Vehicle for In Situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Barnes, J. W.; McKay, C. P.; Lemke, L.; Beyer, R. A.; Radebaugh, J.; Adamkovics, M.; Atkinson, D. H.; Burr, D. M.; Colaprete, T.; Foch, R.; Le Mouélic, S.; Merrison, J.; Mitchell, J.; Rodriguez, S.; Schaller, E.

    2010-10-01

    Titan AVIATR - Aerial Vehicle for In Situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance - is a small (120 kg), nuclear-powered Titan airplane in the Discovery/New Frontiers class based on the concept of Lemke (2008 IPPW). The scientific goals of the mission are designed around the unique flexibility offered by an airborne platform: to explore Titan's diversity of surface landforms, processes, and compositions, as well as to study and measure the atmospheric circulation, aerosols, and humidity. AVIATR would address and surpass many of the science goals of hot-air balloons in Titan flagship studies. The strawman instrument payload is narrowly focused on the stated scientific objectives. The optical remote sensing suite comprises three instruments - an off-nadir high-resolution 2-micron camera, a horizon-looking 5-micron imager, and a 1-6 micron pushbroom near-infrared spectrometer. The in situ instruments include atmospheric structure, a methane humidity sensor, and a raindrop detector. An airplane has operational advantages over a balloon. Its piloted nature allows a go-to capability to image locations of interest in real time, thereby allowing for directed exploration of many features of primary geologic interest: Titan's sand dunes, mountains, craters, channels, and lakes. Subsequent imaging can capture changes in these features during the primary mission. AVIATR can fly predesigned routes, building up large context mosaics of areas of interest before swooping down to low altitude to acquire high-resolution images at 30-cm spatial sampling, similar to that of HiRISE at Mars. The elevation flexibility of the airplane allows us to acquire atmospheric profiles as a function of altitude at any desired location. Although limited by the direct-to-Earth downlink bandwidth, the total scientific data return from AVIATR will be >40 times that returned from Huygens. To maximize the science per bit, novel data storage and downlink techniques will be employed, including lossy compression

  8. AVIATR - Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance A Titan Airplane Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lemke, Lawrence; Foch, Rick; McKay, Christopher P.; Beyer, Ross A.; Radebaugh, Jani; Atkinson, David H.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; LeMouelic, Stephane; Rodriguez, Sebastien; hide

    2011-01-01

    We describe a mission concept for a stand-alone Titan airplane mission: Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR). With independent delivery and direct-to-Earth communications, AVIATR could contribute to Titan science either alone or as part of a sustained Titan Exploration Program. As a focused mission, AVIATR as we have envisioned it would concentrate on the science that an airplane can do best: exploration of Titan's global diversity. We focus on surface geology/hydrology and lower-atmospheric structure and dynamics. With a carefully chosen set of seven instruments-2 near-IR cameras, 1 near-IR spectrometer, a RADAR altimeter, an atmospheric structure suite, a haze sensor, and a raindrop detector-AVIATR could accomplish a significant subset of the scientific objectives of the aerial element of flagship studies. The AVIATR spacecraft stack is composed of a Space Vehicle (SV) for cruise, an Entry Vehicle (EV) for entry and descent, and the Air Vehicle (AV) to fly in Titan's atmosphere. Using an Earth-Jupiter gravity assist trajectory delivers the spacecraft to Titan in 7.5 years, after which the AVIATR AV would operate for a 1-Earth-year nominal mission. We propose a novel 'gravity battery' climb-then-glide strategy to store energy for optimal use during telecommunications sessions. We would optimize our science by using the flexibility of the airplane platform, generating context data and stereo pairs by flying and banking the AV instead of using gimbaled cameras. AVIATR would climb up to 14 km altitude and descend down to 3.5 km altitude once per Earth day, allowing for repeated atmospheric structure and wind measurements all over the globe. An initial Team-X run at JPL priced the AVIATR mission at FY10 $715M based on the rules stipulated in the recent Discovery announcement of opportunity. Hence we find that a standalone Titan airplane mission can achieve important science building on Cassini's discoveries and can likely do so within

  9. Sequence and molecular characterization of a DNA region encoding the dibenzothiophene desulfurization operon of Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8.

    PubMed Central

    Piddington, C S; Kovacevich, B R; Rambosek, J

    1995-01-01

    Dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model compound for sulfur-containing organic molecules found in fossil fuels, can be desulfurized to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) by Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8. Complementation of a desulfurization (dsz) mutant provided the genes from Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8 responsible for desulfurization. A 6.7-kb TaqI fragment cloned in Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle vector pRR-6 was found to both complement this mutation and confer desulfurization to Rhodococcus fascians, which normally is not able to desulfurize DBT. Expression of this fragment in E. coli also conferred the ability to desulfurize DBT. A molecular analysis of the cloned fragment revealed a single operon containing three open reading frames involved in the conversion of DBT to 2-HBP. The three genes were designated dszA, dszB, and dszC. Neither the nucleotide sequences nor the deduced amino acid sequences of the enzymes exhibited significant similarity to sequences obtained from the GenBank, EMBL, and Swiss-Prot databases, indicating that these enzymes are novel enzymes. Subclone analyses revealed that the gene product of dszC converts DBT directly to DBT-sulfone and that the gene products of dszA and dszB act in concert to convert DBT-sulfone to 2-HBP. PMID:7574582

  10. Effect of Silicon on the Desulfurization of Al-Killed Steels: Part II. Experimental Results and Plant Trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Debdutta; Pistorius, Petrus Christiaan; Fruehan, Richard J.

    2013-10-01

    Recent observations suggest that increased silicon levels improve ladle desulfurization of aluminum-killed steel. A kinetic model was developed and presented in part I of this paper, demonstrating that increased silicon levels in steel suppress the consumption of aluminum by parasitic reactions like silica reduction and FeO/MnO reduction, thus making more aluminum available at the interface for desulfurization. The results are increases in the rate and the extent of desulfurization. Predictions were compared with laboratory induction furnace melts using 1 kg of steel and 0.1 kg slag. The experimental results demonstrate the beneficial effect of silicon on the desulfurization reaction and that alumina can be reduced out of the slag and aluminum picked up by the steel, if the silicon content in the steel is high enough. The experimental results are in close agreement with the model predictions. Plant trials also show that with increased silicon content, both the rate and extent of desulfurization increase; incorporating silicon early into the ladle desulfurization process leads to considerable savings in aluminum consumption.

  11. An integrated biodesulfurization process, including inoculum preparation, desulfurization and sulfate removal in a single step, for removing sulfur from oils.

    SciTech Connect

    Tangaromsuk, Jantana; Borole, Abhijeet P; Kruatrachue, Maleeya

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A single-stage reactor, in which the growth of bacterial culture, induction of desulfurizing enzymes, and desulfurization reaction are carried out in a single step, was adopted to investigate desulfurization of DBT at high cell densities. IGTS8 was used as the biocatalyst. Optimal condition for the bacterial growth and DBT desulfurization were also investigated. RESULTS: Optimization of fermentation conditions was necessary to obtain high cell densities including controlling accumulation of acetate. Under optimal operating conditions, the maximum OD600 was measured to be 26.6 at 118 h of cultivation. When biodesulfurization of DBT in model oil with a high cell densitymore » culture of IGTS8 was investigated, accumulation of sulfate was found to limit the extent of desulfurization. A sulfate removal step was added to obtain a single-stage integrated biodesulfurization process. Sulfate removal was achieved via an aqueous bleed stream and use of a separation unit to recycle the organic phase. CONCLUSION : A proof of principle of a complete system capable of biocatalyst growth, induction, desulfurization and by-product separation was demonstrated. This system enables simplification of the biodesulfurization process and has potential to lower the operating cost of the bioprocess.« less

  12. Aromatic Structure in Simulates Titan Aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trainer, Melissa G.; Loeffler, M. J.; Anderson, C. M.; Hudson, R. L.; Samuelson, R. E.; Moore, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of Titan by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) between 560 and 20 per centimeter (approximately 18 to 500 micrometers) have been used to infer the vertical variations of Titan's ice abundances, as well as those of the aerosol from the surface to an altitude of 300 km [1]. The aerosol has a broad emission feature centered approximately at 140 per centimeter (71 micrometers). As seen in Figure 1, this feature cannot be reproduced using currently available optical constants from laboratory-generated Titan aerosol analogs [2]. The far-IR is uniquely qualified for investigating low-energy vibrational motions within the lattice structures of COITIDlex aerosol. The feature observed by CIRS is broad, and does not likely arise from individual molecules, but rather is representative of the skeletal movements of macromolecules. Since Cassini's arrival at Titan, benzene (C6H6) has been detected in the atmosphere at ppm levels as well as ions that may be polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) [3]. We speculate that the feature may be a blended composite that can be identified with low-energy vibrations of two-dimensional lattice structures of large molecules, such as PAHs or nitrogenated aromatics. Such structures do not dominate the composition of analog materials generated from CH4 and N2 irradiation. We are performing studies forming aerosol analog via UV irradiation of aromatic precursors - specifically C6H6 - to understand how the unique chemical architecture of the products will influence the observable aerosol characteristics. The optical and chemical properties of the aromatic analog will be compared to those formed from CH4/N2 mixtures, with a focus on the as-yet unidentified far-IR absorbance feature. Preliminary results indicate that the photochemically-formed aromatic aerosol has distinct chemical composition, and may incorporate nitrogen either into the ring structure or adjoined chemical groups. These compositional differences are

  13. Designing Hydrolytic Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element required for the function of more than 300 enzymes spanning all classes. Despite years of dedicated study, questions regarding the connections between primary and secondary metal ligands and protein structure and function remain unanswered, despite numerous mechanistic, structural, biochemical, and synthetic model studies. Protein design is a powerful strategy for reproducing native metal sites that may be applied to answering some of these questions and subsequently generating novel zinc enzymes. From examination of the earliest design studies introducing simple Zn(II)-binding sites into de novo and natural protein scaffolds to current studies involving the preparation of efficient hydrolytic zinc sites, it is increasingly likely that protein design will achieve reaction rates previously thought possible only for native enzymes. This Current Topic will review the design and redesign of Zn(II)-binding sites in de novo-designed proteins and native protein scaffolds toward the preparation of catalytic hydrolytic sites. After discussing the preparation of Zn(II)-binding sites in various scaffolds, we will describe relevant examples for reengineering existing zinc sites to generate new or altered catalytic activities. Then, we will describe our work on the preparation of a de novo-designed hydrolytic zinc site in detail and present comparisons to related designed zinc sites. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the significant progress being made toward building zinc metalloenzymes from the bottom up. PMID:24506795

  14. Radiative transfer analyses of Titan's tropical atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Doose, Lyn; Tomasko, Martin G.; Penteado, Paulo F.; See, Charles

    2012-04-01

    Titan's optical and near-IR spectra result primarily from the scattering of sunlight by haze and its absorption by methane. With a column abundance of 92 km amagat (11 times that of Earth), Titan's atmosphere is optically thick and only ˜10% of the incident solar radiation reaches the surface, compared to 57% on Earth. Such a formidable atmosphere obstructs investigations of the moon's lower troposphere and surface, which are highly sensitive to the radiative transfer treatment of methane absorption and haze scattering. The absorption and scattering characteristics of Titan's atmosphere have been constrained by the Huygens Probe Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer (DISR) experiment for conditions at the probe landing site (Tomasko, M.G., Bézard, B., Doose, L., Engel, S., Karkoschka, E. [2008a]. Planet. Space Sci. 56, 624-247; Tomasko, M.G. et al. [2008b]. Planet. Space Sci. 56, 669-707). Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) data indicate that the rest of the atmosphere (except for the polar regions) can be understood with small perturbations in the high haze structure determined at the landing site (Penteado, P.F., Griffith, C.A., Tomasko, M.G., Engel, S., See, C., Doose, L., Baines, K.H., Brown, R.H., Buratti, B.J., Clark, R., Nicholson, P., Sotin, C. [2010]. Icarus 206, 352-365). However the in situ measurements were analyzed with a doubling and adding radiative transfer calculation that differs considerably from the discrete ordinates codes used to interpret remote data from Cassini and ground-based measurements. In addition, the calibration of the VIMS data with respect to the DISR data has not yet been tested. Here, VIMS data of the probe landing site are analyzed with the DISR radiative transfer method and the faster discrete ordinates radiative transfer calculation; both models are consistent (to within 0.3%) and reproduce the scattering and absorption characteristics derived from in situ measurements. Constraints on the atmospheric

  15. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  16. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  17. An improved automotive brake lining using fibrous potassium titanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansfield, J. A.; Halberstadt, M. L.; Riccitiello, S. R.; Rhee, S. K.

    1976-01-01

    Simultaneous fade reduction and wear improvement of a commercial automotive brake lining were achieved by adding fibrous potassium titanate. The dependence of friction and wear characteristics on quantitative variations in potassium titanate, asbestos, phenolic binder, and organic and inorganic modifiers was evaluated.

  18. Titan's Methane Hydrological Cycle: Detection of Seasonal Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, E. L.; Brown, M. E.; Roe, H. G.

    2007-08-01

    We have acquired whole disk spectra of Titan on over 100 nights with IRTF/SpeX during the 2006-2007 Titan season. The data encompass the spectral range of 0.8 to 2.4 microns at a resolution of 375. These disk- integrated spectra allow us to determine Titan's total fractional cloud coverage and altitudes of clouds present. The near lack of tropospheric cloud activity in these spectra is in sharp contrast to nearly every spectrum taken from 1995-1999 with UKIRT by Griffith et al. (1998 & 2000) who found rapidly varying clouds covering 0.5-9% of Titan's disk. The differences in these two similar datasets indicate a striking seasonal change in the behavior of Titan's clouds. Adaptive optics observations from Keck and Gemini also show markedly decreased cloud activity in the late southern summer era compared with the period surrounding southern summer solstice (October 2002). Observations of the latitudes, magnitudes, altitudes, and frequencies of Titan's clouds as Titan moves toward southern autumnal equinox in 2009 will help elucidate when and how Titan's methane hydrological cycle changes with season.

  19. Location and size of flux ropes in Titan's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, C.; Arridge, C. S.; Badman, S. V.; Dieval, C.

    2017-12-01

    Cassini magnetometer data was surveyed during Titan flybys to find 73 instances of flux rope signatures. A force free flux rope model was utilised to obtain the radii, maximum magnetic field and flux content of flux ropes that adhere to the force-free assumptions. We find that flux ropes at Titan are similar in size in km and flux content to the giant flux ropes identified at Venus, with a median radii of 280 km and an inter-quartile range of 270 km, a median maximum magnetic field of 8 nT with an inter-quartile range of 7 nT and a median flux content of 76 Wb with a large inter-quartile range of 250 Wb. We additionally investigate the occurrence of flux ropes with respect to the Sun-lit facing hemisphere (zenith angle) and the ram-side of Titan within Saturn's corotating magnetosphere (angle of attack of the incoming plasma flow). We find that flux ropes are more commonly detected in Sun-lit areas of Titan's ionosphere, as well as the ram-side of Titan. We see a statistically-significant absence of flux ropes in all SLT sectors in the night side of Titan and the anti-ram side of Titan. We also comment on the physical mechanisms associated with the production of these flux ropes, with particular attention on the variability of Titan's environment in Saturn's magnetosphere.

  20. The Atmosphere of Titan from Cassini Radio Occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinder, Paul J.; Flasar, F. M.; Marouf, E. A.; French, R. G.; McGhee, C. A.; Kliore, A. J.; Rappaport, N.; Nagy, A. F.; Anabtawi, A.; Asmar, S.; Barbinis, E.; Fleischman, D. U.; Goltz, G. L.

    2006-09-01

    The first two radio occultations of Cassini by Titan occurred on March 19 and May 20, 2006. On March 19, the ingress occultation occurred at a latitude of 31 S, and egress at 53 S. On May 20, ingress was at 33 S, and egress at 34 S. We present the temperature-pressure profiles for the atmosphere of Titan for these 4 locations.

  1. How primitive are the gases in Titan's atmosphere?

    PubMed

    Owen, T

    1987-01-01

    Titan's atmosphere contains a mixture of nitrogen, methane, argon, hydrogen, simple hydrocarbons and nitriles, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Sources of nitrogen may be as a product of the photodissociation of ammonia or trapped in the ices that formed the satellite. Reasons for the abundance of deuterium are examined and its association with nitrogen on Titan is explained.

  2. Gas-exfoliated porous monolayer boron nitride for enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingcheng; Wu, Peiwen; Chao, Yanhong; He, Jing; Li, Hongping; Lu, Linjie; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Huaming; Zhu, Wenshuai

    2018-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride has been regarded to be an efficient catalyst in aerobic oxidation fields, but limited by the less-exposed active sites. In this contribution, we proposed a simple green liquid nitrogen gas exfoliation strategy for preparation of porous monolayer nanosheets (BN-1). Owing to the reduced layer numbers, decreased lateral sizes and artificially-constructed pores, increased exposure of active sites was expected, further contributed to an enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) performance up to ˜98% of sulfur removal, achieving ultra-deep desulfurization. This work not only introduced an excellent catalyst for aerobic ODS, but also provided a strategy for construction of some other highly-efficient monolayer two-dimensional materials for enhanced catalytic performance.

  3. Gas-exfoliated porous monolayer boron nitride for enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization performance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingcheng; Wu, Peiwen; Chao, Yanhong; He, Jing; Li, Hongping; Lu, Linjie; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Huaming; Zhu, Wenshuai

    2018-01-12

    Hexagonal boron nitride has been regarded to be an efficient catalyst in aerobic oxidation fields, but limited by the less-exposed active sites. In this contribution, we proposed a simple green liquid nitrogen gas exfoliation strategy for preparation of porous monolayer nanosheets (BN-1). Owing to the reduced layer numbers, decreased lateral sizes and artificially-constructed pores, increased exposure of active sites was expected, further contributed to an enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) performance up to ∼98% of sulfur removal, achieving ultra-deep desulfurization. This work not only introduced an excellent catalyst for aerobic ODS, but also provided a strategy for construction of some other highly-efficient monolayer two-dimensional materials for enhanced catalytic performance.

  4. Photooxidative desulfurization for diesel using Fe / N - TiO2 photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Kait, Chong Fai; Mutalib, Mohd Ibrahim Abdul

    2014-10-01

    A series of N - TiO2 with different mol% N was synthesized via sol-gel method and characterized using thermal gravimetric analyzer and raman spectroscopy. 0.2 wt% Fe was incorporated onto the calcined (200°C) N - TiO2 followed by calcination at 200°C, 250°C and 300°C. Photooxidative desulfurization was conducted in the presence of 0.2wt% Fe / N - TiO2 with different mol% N with and without oxidant (H2O2). Oxidative desulfurization was only achieved when H2O2 was used while without H2O2 no major effect on the sulfur removal. 0.2Fe -30N - H2O2 photocatalysts showed best performance at all calcination temperatures as compared to other mol% N - H2O2 photocatalysts. 16.45% sulfur removal was achieved using photocatalysts calcined at 300 °C.

  5. Radiation-induced desulfurization of Arabian crude oil and straight-run diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basfar, A. A.; Mohamed, K. A.

    2011-11-01

    Radiation-induced desulfurization of four types of Arabian crude oils (heavy, medium, light and extra light) and straight-run diesel (SRD) was investigated over the range of 10-200 kGy. Results show that gamma radiation processing at absorbed doses up to 200 kGy without further treatment is not sufficient for desulfurization. However, the combination of gamma-irradiation with other physical/chemical processes (i.e. L/L extraction, adsorption and oxidation) may be capable of removing considerable levels of sulfur compounds in the investigated products. Currently, this approach of combined radiation/physical/chemical processes is under investigation. The findings of these attempts will be reported in the future.

  6. A New Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization Process-Underfeed Circulating Spouted Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, M.; Jin, B. S.; Yang, Y. P.

    Applying an underfeed system, the underfeed circulating spouted bed was designed as a desulfurization reactor. The main objective of the technology is to improve the mixing effect and distribution uniformity of solid particles, and therefore to advance the desulfurization efficiency and calcium utility. In this article, a series of experimental studies were conducted to investigate the fluidization behavior of the solid-gas two-phase flow in the riser. The results show that the technology can distinctly improve the distribution of gas velocity and particle flux on sections compared with the facefeed style. Analysis of pressure fluctuation signals indicates that the operation parameters have significant influence on the flow field in the reaction bed. The existence of injecting flow near the underfeed nozzle has an evident effect on strengthening the particle mixing.

  7. Photochemical processes on Titan: Irradiation of mixtures of gases that simulate Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Buu N.; Joseph, Jeffrey C.; Force, Michael; Briggs, Robert G.; Vuitton, Veronique; Ferris, James P.

    2005-09-01

    Photochemical reaction pathways in Titan's atmosphere were investigated by irradiation of the individual components and the mixture containing nitrogen, methane, hydrogen, acetylene, ethylene, and cyanoacetylene. The quantum yields for the loss of the reactants and the formation of products were determined. Photolysis of ethylene yields mainly saturated compounds (ethane, propane, and butane) while photolysis of acetylene yields the same saturated compounds as well as ethylene and diacetylene. Irradiation of cyanoacetylene yields mainly hydrogen cyanide and small amounts of acetonitrile. When an amount of methane corresponding to its mixing ratio on Titan was added to these mixtures the quantum yields for the loss of reactants decreased and the quantum yields for hydrocarbon formation increased indicative of a hydrogen atom abstraction from methane by the photochemically generated radicals. GC/MS analysis of the products formed by irradiation of mixtures of all these gases generated over 120 compounds which were mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons containing double and triple bonds along with much smaller amounts of aromatic compounds like benzene, toluene and phenylacetylene. The reaction pathways were investigated by the use of 13C acetylene in these gas mixtures. No polycyclic aromatic compounds were detected. Vapor pressures of these compounds under conditions present in Titan's atmosphere were calculated. The low molecular weight compounds likely to be present in the atmosphere and aerosols of Titan as a result of photochemical processes are proposed.

  8. Titan's atmosphere and surface in 2026: the AVIATR Titan Airplane Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Chris; Barnes, Jason W.; Lemke, Lawrence; Beyer, Ross A.; Radebaugh, Jani; Atkinson, David; Flasar, F. Michael

    2010-04-01

    This poster describes the scientific, engineering, and operations planning for a Discovery / New Frontiers class Titan airplane mission, AVIATR (Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance). The mission would focus on Titan's surface and atmospheric diversity, using high-resolution imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy, a haze spectrometer, and atmospheric structure measurements. Previous mission studies have elected to use hot-air balloons to achieve similar science goals. These hot-air balloon concepts require the waste heat from inefficient thermocouple-based Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for buoyancy. New Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRGs) are much more efficient than RTGs both in terms of power produced per gram of plutonium-238 and the total watts-per-kilogram of the power unit itself. However, they are so efficient that they are much less effective for use in heating a hot-air balloon. Similarly, old-style RTGs produce insufficient specific power for heavier-than-air flight, but the use of 2 ASRGs can support a 120 kg airplane for a long-duration mission at Titan. The AVIATR airplane concept has several advantages in its science capabilities relative to a balloon, including the ability to target any site of interest, remaining on the dayside, stereo and repeat coverage, and easy altitude changes. It also possesses engineering advantages over a balloon like low total mass, a more straightforward deployment sequence, direct-to-Earth communications capability, and a more robust airframe.

  9. Energetic neutral atom emissions from Titan interaction with Saturn's magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D G; Brandt, P C; Roelof, E C; Dandouras, J; Krimigis, S M; Mauk, B H

    2005-05-13

    The Cassini Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) observed the interaction of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, with Saturn's magnetosphere during two close flybys of Titan on 26 October and 13 December 2004. The MIMI Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) continuously imaged the energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) generated by charge exchange reactions between the energetic, singly ionized trapped magnetospheric ions and the outer atmosphere, or exosphere, of Titan. The images reveal a halo of variable ENA emission about Titan's nearly collisionless outer atmosphere that fades at larger distances as the exospheric density decays exponentially. The altitude of the emissions varies, and they are not symmetrical about the moon, reflecting the complexity of the interactions between Titan's upper atmosphere and Saturn's space environment.

  10. Titan's seasonal weather patterns, associated surface modification, and geological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, E. P.; Perry, J. E.; Barnes, J. W.; McEwen, A. S.; Barbara, J. M.; Del Genio, A. D.; Hayes, A. G.; West, R. A.; Lorenz, R. D.; Schaller, E. L.; Lunine, J. I.; Ray, T. L.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Stofan, E. R.

    2013-09-01

    Model predictions [e.g., 1-3] and observations [e.g., 4,5] illustrate changes in Titan's weather patterns related to the seasons (Fig. 1). In two cases, surface changes were documented following large cloud outbursts (Figs. 2, 3): the first in Arrakis Planitia at high southern latitudes in Fall 2004, during Titan's late southern summer [6]; and the second at lows southern latitudes in Concordia and Hetpet Regiones, Yalaing Terra (Fig. 3), and Adiri, in Fall 2010, just over a year after Titan's northern vernal equinox [4, 7, 8]. Not only do these storms demonstrate Titan's atmospheric conditions and processes, they also have important implications for Titan's surface process, its methane cycle, and its geologic history.

  11. Charged particle tracking at Titan, and further applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebesi, Zsofia; Erdos, Geza; Szego, Karoly

    2016-04-01

    We use the CAPS ion data of Cassini to investigate the dynamics and origin of Titan's atmospheric ions. We developed a 4th order Runge-Kutta method to calculate particle trajectories in a time reversed scenario. The test particle magnetic field environment imitates the curved magnetic environment in the vicinity of Titan. The minimum variance directions along the S/C trajectory have been calculated for all available Titan flybys, and we assumed a homogeneous field that is perpendicular to the minimum variance direction. Using this method the magnetic field lines have been calculated along the flyby orbits so we could select those observational intervals when Cassini and the upper atmosphere of Titan were magnetically connected. We have also taken the Kronian magnetodisc into consideration, and used different upstream magnetic field approximations depending on whether Titan was located inside of the magnetodisc current sheet, or in the lobe regions. We also discuss the code's applicability to comets.

  12. Specular reflection on Titan: Liquids in Kraken Mare

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephan, Katrin; Jaumann, Ralf; Brown, Robert H.; Soderblom, Jason M.; Soderblom, Laurence A.; Barnes, Jason W.; Sotin, Christophe; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Clark, Roger N.; Lytle, Dyer M.; Nelson, Robert M.; Nicholson, Phillip D.

    2010-01-01

    After more than 50 close flybys of Titan by the Cassini spacecraft, it has become evident that features similar in morphology to terrestrial lakes and seas exist in Titan's polar regions. As Titan progresses into northern spring, the much more numerous and larger lakes and seas in the north-polar region suggested by Cassini RADAR data, are becoming directly illuminated for the first time since the arrival of the Cassini spacecraft. This allows the Cassini optical instruments to search for specular reflections to provide further confirmation that liquids are present in these evident lakes. On July 8, 2009 Cassini VIMS detected a specular reflection in the north-polar region of Titan associated with Kraken Mare, one of Titan's large, presumed seas, indicating the lake's surface is smooth and free of scatterers with respect to the wavelength of 5 μm, where VIMS detected the specular signal, strongly suggesting it is liquid.

  13. The Properties and Effects of Titan's Organic Haze

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Titan's organic haze is the the dominant absorber of solar energy in Titan's atmosphere, creating an anti-greenhouse effect. Its variation over time may have had important implications for Titan's surface temperature. The haze is potentially an important sink of photochemically produced carbon and nitrogen compounds. Laboratory simulations and microphysical models suggest that the haze is a sink for C of 4 x 10(exp 8)/ sq cm s, and a sink for N of 1 x 10(exp 8)sq cm s. The C sink is small compared to condensation of hydrocarbons but the sink for N is comparable to the total production rate of HCN. Because estimates of the eddy diffusion profile on Titan have been based on the HCN profile, inclusion of this additional sink for N will affect estimates for all transport processes in Titan's atmosphere.

  14. Biocatalytic desulfurization of thiophenic compounds and crude oil by newly isolated bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Al-Yacoub, Zakariya H.; Vedakumar, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms possess enormous highly specific metabolic activities, which enable them to utilize and transform nearly every known chemical class present in crude oil. In this context, one of the most studied biocatalytic processes is the biodesulfurization (BDS) of thiophenic sulfur-containing compounds such as benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) in crude oils and refinery streams. Three newly isolated bacterial strains, which were affiliated as Rhodococcus sp. strain SA11, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain SA21, and Rhodococcus sp. strain SA31, were enriched from oil contaminated soil in the presence of DBT as the sole S source. GC-FID analysis of DBT-grown cultures showed consumption of DBT, transient formation of DBT sulfone (DBTO2) and accumulation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP). Molecular detection of the plasmid-borne dsz operon, which codes for the DBT desulfurization activity, revealed the presence of dszA, dszB, and dszC genes. These results point to the operation of the known 4S pathway in the BDS of DBT. The maximum consumption rate of DBT was 11 μmol/g dry cell weight (DCW)/h and the maximum formation rate of 2-HBP formation was 4 μmol/g DCW/h. Inhibition of both cell growth and DBT consumption by 2-HBP was observed for all isolates but SA11 isolate was the least affected. The isolated biocatalysts desulfurized other model DBT alkylated homologs. SA11 isolate was capable of desulfurizing BT as well. Resting cells of SA11 exhibited 10% reduction in total sulfur present in heavy crude oil and 18% reduction in total sulfur present in the hexane-soluble fraction of the heavy crude oil. The capabilities of the isolated bacteria to survive and desulfurize a wide range of S compounds present in crude oil are desirable traits for the development of a robust BDS biocatalyst to upgrade crude oils and refinery streams. PMID:25762990

  15. o-Iodoxybenzoic acid mediated oxidative desulfurization initiated domino reactions for synthesis of azoles.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Pramod S; Pathare, Sagar P; Akamanchi, Krishnacharaya G

    2012-04-20

    A systematic exploration of thiophilic ability of o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) for oxidative desulfurization to trigger domino reactions leading to new methodologies for synthesis of different azoles is described. A variety of highly substituted oxadiazoles, thiadiazoles, triazoles, and tetrazoles have been successfully synthesized in good to excellent yields, starting from readily accessible thiosemicarbazides, bis-diarylthiourea, 1,3-disubtituted thiourea, and thioamides. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  16. Low temperature oxidative desulfurization with hierarchically mesoporous titaniumsilicate Ti-SBA-2 single crystals.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chengxiang; Wang, Wenxuan; Liu, Ni; Xu, Xueyan; Wang, Danhong; Zhang, Minghui; Sun, Pingchuan; Chen, Tiehong

    2015-07-21

    Hierarchically porous Ti-SBA-2 with high framework Ti content (up to 5 wt%) was firstly synthesized by employing organic mesomorphous complexes of a cationic surfactant (CTAB) and an anionic polyelectrolyte (PAA) as templates. The material exhibited excellent performance in oxidative desulfurization of diesel fuel at low temperature (40 °C or 25 °C) due to the unique hierarchically porous structure and high framework Ti content.

  17. Study on optimum technological conditions of ore sintering flue gas desulfurization by using poor manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. Y.; Li, S. E.; Long, Z. G.; Wu, F. Z.; Cui, T. M.; Zhou, X. Z.

    2017-11-01

    Orthogonal experiments were conducted to study the effect of each single factor on the desulfurization rate and leaching rate of Mn2+ to obtain improved process parameters. The results showed that the use of pyrolusite flue gas and the process method of by-product MnSO4 can not only effectively remove the sulfur in the gas, thereby controlling environmental pollution, but can also recover sulfur.

  18. Tests on a pilot plant for reheating desulfurized flue gases with the help of heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schug, W.

    1982-02-01

    Desulfurized flue gases were reheated with a heat pipe heat exchanger. Finned heat pipes, with a coating or made of high quality steel were subjected to different operating conditions for 1000 hr. The coating proved to be unsuitable for heat transfer because it swells and detaches itself from the background material. The high quality steels showed pitting and surface corrosion. The possibilities of cleaning were also studied to prevent deposits forming on the heat pipes, but no solution was found.

  19. 77 FR 59690 - Titan Resources International, Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Titan Resources International, Corp.; Order of... a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Titan Resources International, Corp. (``Titan''). Titan is a Wyoming corporation purportedly based in Ontario, Canada. Questions...

  20. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.