Science.gov

Sample records for zinc zn nickel

  1. Dendrite-Free Nanocrystalline Zinc Electrodeposition from an Ionic Liquid Containing Nickel Triflate for Rechargeable Zn-Based Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Cui, Tong; Pulletikurthi, Giridhar; Lahiri, Abhishek; Carstens, Timo; Olschewski, Mark; Endres, Frank

    2016-02-18

    Metallic zinc is a promising anode material for rechargeable Zn-based batteries. However, the dendritic growth of zinc has prevented practical applications. Herein it is demonstrated that dendrite-free zinc deposits with a nanocrystalline structure can be obtained by using nickel triflate as an additive in a zinc triflate containing ionic liquid. The formation of a thin layer of Zn-Ni alloy (η- and γ-phases) on the surface and in the initial stages of deposition along with the formation of an interfacial layer on the electrode strongly affect the nucleation and growth of zinc. A well-defined and uniform nanocrystalline zinc deposit with particle sizes of about 25 nm was obtained in the presence of Ni(II) . Further, it is shown that the nanocrystalline Zn exhibits a high cycling stability even after 50 deposition/stripping cycles. This strategy of introducing an inorganic metal salt in ionic liquid electrolytes can be considered as an efficient way to obtain dendrite-free zinc. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Stabilized nickel-zinc battery

    SciT

    Himy, A.; Wagner, O.C.

    An alkaline nickel-zinc cell which has (1) a nickel-nickel hydroxide cathode; (2) a zinc-zinc oxide anode containing (A) a corrosion inhibitor such as PBO, SNO2, Tl2O3, in(OH)3 or mixtures thereof; (B) a slight corrosion accelerator such as cdo, bi2o3, ga2o3, or mixtures thereof; and (C) a zinc active material; (3) a mass-transport separator; (4) an alkaline electrolyte; and (5) means for charging the cell with an interrupted current having a frequency of from more than zero to 16 hertz with a rest period of not less than 60 milliseconds. Another desirable feature is the use of a pressure-cutoff switch tomore » terminate charging when the internal pressure of the cell reaches a selected value in the range of from 5 to 8 psig.« less

  3. Coprecipitation of nickel zinc malonate: A facile and reproducible synthesis route for Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}O nanoparticles and Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}O/ZnO nanocomposites via pyrolysis

    SciT

    Lontio Fomekong, Roussin, E-mail: lonforou@yahoo.fr; Institut de la Matière Condensée et des Nanosciences, Université Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 1, 1348 Louvain-La-Neuve; Kenfack Tsobnang, Patrice

    2015-10-15

    Nanoparticles of Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}O and Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}O/ZnO, which can be good candidates for selective gas sensors, were successfully obtained via a two-step synthetic route, in which the nickel zinc malonate precursor was first synthesized by co-precipitation from an aqueous solution, followed by pyrolysis in air at a relatively low temperature (~500 °C). The precursor was characterized by ICP-AES, FTIR and TG and the results indicate the molecular structure of the precursor to be compatible with Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}(OOCCH{sub 2}COO)·2H{sub 2}O. The decomposition product, characterized using various techniques (FTIR, XRD, ToF-SIMS, SEM, TEM and XPS), was established to bemore » a doped nickel oxide (Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}O for 0.01≤x≤0.1) and a composite material (Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}O/ZnO for 0.2≤x≤0.5). To elucidate the form in which the Zn is present in the NiO structure, three analytical techniques were employed: ToF-SIMS, XRD and XPS. While ToF SIMS provided a direct evidence of the presence of Zn in the NiO crystal structure, XRD showed that Zn actually substitutes Ni in the structure and XPS is a bit more specific by indicating that the Zn is present in the form of Zn{sup 2+} ions. - Highlights: • Coprecipitation synthesis of nickel zinc malonate single bath precursor was achieved. • The as synthesized precursors are an homogeneous mixture of nickel and zinc malonate. • XRD, ToF-SIMS, XPS, SEM and TEM was used to characterized decomposition products. • Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}O nanoparticles (0.01≤x≤0.1) formed after pyrolysis (~500 °C) of precursor. • Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}O/ZnO nanocomposite (0.2≤x≤0.5) formed after pyrolysis at 500 °C of precursor.« less

  4. Long life, rechargeable nickel-zinc battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.

    1974-01-01

    A production version of the inorganic separator was evaluated for improving the life of the nickel-zinc system. Nickel-zinc cells (7-10 Ah capacities) of different electrode separator configurations were constructed and tested. The nickel-zinc cells using the inorganic separator encasing the zinc electrode, the nickel electrode, or both electrodes had shorter lives than cells using Visking and cellophane separation. Cells with the inorganic separation all fell below 70% of their theoretical capacity within 30 cycles, but the cells constructed with organic separation required 80 cycles. Failure of the cells using the ceramic separator was irreversible capacity degradation due to zinc loss through cracks developed in the inorganic separator. Zinc loss through the separator was minimized with the use of combinations of the inorganic separator with Visking and cellophane. Cells using the combined separation operated 130 duty cycles before degrading to 70% of their theoretical capacity.

  5. In situ Zn/ZnO mapping elucidating for "shape change" of zinc electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Akiyoshi; Arai, Hajime; Murayama, Haruno; Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Yamane, Tomokazu; Hirai, Toshiro; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Yamaki, Jun-ichi; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2018-04-01

    For the use of the zinc anode in secondary batteries, it is necessary to solve the "shape change" deterioration issue in that zinc species agglomerate in the center of the electrode to fade the available capacity. The local chemical compositions of the zinc electrodes during "shape change" were precisely analyzed using the synchrotron X-ray diffraction mapping analysis of practical zinc-nickel cells in a non-destructive manner. The in situ Zn/ZnO mapping shows that metallic Zn deposition chiefly occurs in the periphery of ZnO while ZnO are left in the center of electrode like a hill on charging. On discharging, the ZnO hill grows to the perpendicular direction on the electrode while metallic zinc is oxidized and dissolved. These findings allow us to propose a mechanism for the shape change; thus dissolved zincate species are decomposed on the ZnO hill during discharging to be accumulated in the center of the electrode. It is suggested that suppressing zincate dissolution and non-uniform zinc deposition slow the growth rate of the ZnO hill to enhance the cyclability of zinc-based secondary batteries.

  6. Recovery of Nickel from Nickel-Based Superalloy Scraps by Utilizing Molten Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Ryohei; Okabe, Toru H.

    2017-02-01

    With the purpose of developing a new process for recycling nickel (Ni) directly from superalloy scraps, a fundamental study on the extraction and separation of Ni was carried out using molten zinc (Zn) as the extraction medium. In order to examine the reaction between molten Zn and the Ni-based superalloy, superalloy samples and Zn shots were heated at 1173 K (900 °C) for 6 hours. After heating, the superalloy samples fully reacted with Zn and dissolved in molten Zn. The Zn-alloyed sample obtained by slow cooling consisted of two separated upper and lower phases. In the upper part of the sample, only Zn and the Zn-Ni alloys were found; in the lower part, an intermetallic alloy consisting of refractory metals such as rhenium (Re) and tantalum (Ta) was found. This result shows that Ni and refractory metals contained in the scrap can be separated by utilizing the density differences between the Zn-Ni alloy and the refractory metals in molten Zn. Vacuum treatment of the upper part of the Zn-alloyed sample at 1173 K (900 °C) reduced the concentration of Zn in the sample from 97.0 to 0.4 mass pct. After Zn removal, a Ni alloy containing Ni with a purity of 85.3 to 86.1 mass pct and negligible quantities (<0.1 mass pct) of Re and Ta was obtained. Moreover, recovered Zn metal after distillation had a purity of more than 99.9 mass pct. Therefore, this process could be an environmentally sound recycling process that can recover Ni from superalloy scraps without the consumption of Zn or the generation of toxic wastes solutions.

  7. Nickel and zinc isotope fractionation in hyperaccumulating and nonaccumulating plants.

    PubMed

    Deng, Teng-Hao-Bo; Cloquet, Christophe; Tang, Ye-Tao; Sterckeman, Thibault; Echevarria, Guillaume; Estrade, Nicolas; Morel, Jean-Louis; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2014-10-21

    Until now, there has been little data on the isotope fractionation of nickel (Ni) in higher plants and how this can be affected by plant Ni and zinc (Zn) homeostasis. A hydroponic cultivation was conducted to investigate the isotope fractionation of Ni and Zn during plant uptake and translocation processes. The nonaccumulator Thlaspi arvense, the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale and the Ni and Zn hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens were grown in low (2 μM) and high (50 μM) Ni and Zn solutions. Results showed that plants were inclined to absorb light Ni isotopes, presumably due to the functioning of low-affinity transport systems across root cell membrane. The Ni isotope fractionation between plant and solution was greater in the hyperaccumulators grown in low Zn treatments (Δ(60)Ni(plant-solution) = -0.90 to -0.63‰) than that in the nonaccumulator T. arvense (Δ(60)Ni(plant-solution) = -0.21‰), thus indicating a greater permeability of the low-affinity transport system in hyperaccumulators. Light isotope enrichment of Zn was observed in most of the plants (Δ(66)Zn(plant-solution) = -0.23 to -0.10‰), but to a lesser extent than for Ni. The rapid uptake of Zn on the root surfaces caused concentration gradients, which induced ion diffusion in the rhizosphere and could result in light Zn isotope enrichment in the hyperaccumulator N. caerulescens. In high Zn treatment, Zn could compete with Ni during the uptake process, which reduced Ni concentration in plants and decreased the extent of Ni isotope fractionation (Δ(60)Ni(plant-solution) = -0.11 to -0.07‰), indicating that plants might take up Ni through a low-affinity transport system of Zn. We propose that isotope composition analysis for transition elements could become an empirical tool to study plant physiological processes.

  8. New separators for nickel-zinc batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Flexible separators consisting of a substrate coated with a mixture of a polymer and organic and inorganic additives were cycle tested in nickel-zinc cells. By substituting a rubber-based resin for polyphenylene oxide in the standard inorganic-organic separator, major improvements in both cell life and flexibility were made. Substituting newsprint for asbestos as the substrate shows promise for use on the zinc electrode and reduces separator cost. The importance of ample electrolyte in the cells was noted. Cycle lives and the characteristics of these flexible, low-cost separators were compared with those of a standard microporous polypropylene separator.

  9. Rechargeable nickel-3D zinc batteries: An energy-dense, safer alternative to lithium-ion.

    PubMed

    Parker, Joseph F; Chervin, Christopher N; Pala, Irina R; Machler, Meinrad; Burz, Michael F; Long, Jeffrey W; Rolison, Debra R

    2017-04-28

    The next generation of high-performance batteries should include alternative chemistries that are inherently safer to operate than nonaqueous lithium-based batteries. Aqueous zinc-based batteries can answer that challenge because monolithic zinc sponge anodes can be cycled in nickel-zinc alkaline cells hundreds to thousands of times without undergoing passivation or macroscale dendrite formation. We demonstrate that the three-dimensional (3D) zinc form-factor elevates the performance of nickel-zinc alkaline cells in three fields of use: (i) >90% theoretical depth of discharge (DOD Zn ) in primary (single-use) cells, (ii) >100 high-rate cycles at 40% DOD Zn at lithium-ion-commensurate specific energy, and (iii) the tens of thousands of power-demanding duty cycles required for start-stop microhybrid vehicles. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Sorption kinetics of zinc and nickel on modified chitosan.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Nimisha; Choppala, Girish; Singh, Raj S; Srivastava, Prashant; Seshadri, Balaji

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of equilibration time on adsorption of zinc [Zn(II)] and nickel [Ni(II)] on pure and modified chitosan beads. The initial adsorption of Zn(II) was high on molybdenum (Mo)-impregnated chitosan beads (MoCB) during the initial 60 min. However, after 240 min, Zn(II) adsorption occurred more on single super phosphate chitosan beads (SSPCB), followed by monocalcium phosphate chitosan beads (MCPCB), untreated pure chitosan beads (UCB), and MoCB. Similarly, Ni(II) adsorption was greatest on MoCB during the initial 60 min. At the conclusion of the experiment (at 240 min), the greatest adsorption was occurred on MCPCB, followed by MoCB, UCB, and SSPCB. Chemical sorption and intra-particle diffusion were probably the dominant processes responsible for Zn(II) and Ni(II) sorption onto chitosan beads. The results demonstrated that modified chitosan beads were effective in adsorbing Zn and Ni and hence, could be used for the removal of these toxic metals from soil.

  11. Acidic leaching of potentially toxic metals cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc from two Zn smelting slag materials incubated in an acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taoze; Li, Feili; Jin, Zhisheng; Yang, Yuangen

    2018-07-01

    A column leaching study, coupled with acid deposition simulation, was conducted to investigate the leaching of potentially toxic metals (PTM) from zinc smelting slag materials (SSM) after being incubated in an acid Alfisol for 120 days at room temperature. Two SSMs (SSM-A: acidic, 10 yrs exposure with moderate high PTM concentrations versus SSM-B: alkaline, 2 yrs exposure with extremely high PTM concentrations), were used for the incubation at 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 wt% amendment ratios in triplicate. Five leaching events were conducted at day 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28, and the leaching of PTMs mainly occurred in the first three leaching events, with the highest PTM concentrations in leachate measured from 5 wt% SSM amendments. After leaching, 2.5, 12, 5.5, 14, 11, and 9 wt% of M3 extractable Pb, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, and Ni could be released from 5 wt% SSM-A amended soils, being respectively 25, 12, 4, 2, 2, and 2 times more than those from 5 wt% SSM-B amended soils. In the leachates, the concentrations of PTMs were mostly affected by leachant pH and were closely correlated to the concentrations of Fe, Al, Ca, Mg and P with Cd, Pb, and Zn showing the most environmental concern. Visual MINTEQ 3.1 modeling suggested metallic ions and sulfate forms as the common chemical species of PTMs in the leachates; whereas, organic bound species showed importance for Cd, Pb, Cu, and Ni, and CdCl + was observed for Cd. Aluminum hydroxy, phosphate, and sulfate minerals prevailed as the saturated minerals, followed by chloropyromorphite (Pb 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl) and plumbogummite (PbAl 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (OH) 5 ·H 2 O) in the leachates. This study suggested that incubation of SSMs in acidic soil for a long term can enhance the release of PTMs as the forms of metallic ions and sulfate when subjected to acid deposition leaching. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Induction of Nickel Accumulation in Response to Zinc Deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Sho; Kato, Aki; Tsuzuki, Chisato; Yoshida, Junko; Mizuno, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of nickel (Ni) can be toxic to plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the Fe2+ transporter, iron (Fe)-regulated transporter1 (IRT1), mediates Fe uptake and also implicates in Ni2+ uptake at roots; however, the underlying mechanism of Ni2+ uptake and accumulation remains unelucidated. In the present study, we found that zinc (Zn) deficient conditions resulted in increased accumulation of Ni in plants, particularly in roots, in A. thaliana. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of Ni uptake correlating zinc condition, we traced 63Ni isotope in response to Zn and found that (i) Zn deficiency induces short-term Ni2+ absorption and (ii) Zn2+ inhibits Ni2+ uptake, suggesting competitive uptake between Ni and Zn. Furthermore, the Zrt/Irt-like protein 3 (ZIP3)-defective mutant with an elevated Zn-deficient response exhibited higher Ni accumulation than the wild type, further supporting that the response to Zn deficiency induces Ni accumulation. Previously, expression profile study demonstrated that IRT1 expression is not inducible by Zn deficiency. In the present study, we found increased Ni accumulation in IRT1-null mutant under Zn deficiency in agar culture. These suggest that Zn deficiency induces Ni accumulation in an IRT1-independen manner. The present study revealed that Ni accumulation is inducible in response to Zn deficiency, which may be attributable to a Zn uptake transporter induced by Zn deficiency. PMID:25923075

  13. Structural analysis of emerging ferrite: Doped nickel zinc ferrite

    SciT

    Kumar, Rajinder; Kumar, Hitanshu; Singh, Ragini Raj

    2015-08-28

    Ni{sub 0.6-x}Zn{sub 0.4}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.033, 0.264) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method and annealed at 900°C. Structural properties of all prepared samples were examined with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The partial formation of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) secondary phase with spinel phase cubic structure of undoped and cobalt doped nickel zinc ferrite was found by XRD peaks. The variation in crystallite size and other structural parameters with cobalt doping has been calculated for most prominent peak (113) of XRD and has been explained on the basis of cations ionic radii difference.

  14. Reduction by monovalent zinc, cadmium, and nickel cations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerstein, D.; Mulac, W. A.

    1969-01-01

    Understanding of chemical properties of monovalent transition metal cations in aqueous solutions was obtained by a study of kinetics of reduction of different inorganic substrates by zinc, cadmium, and nickel.

  15. Fabrication and testing of large size nickel-zinc cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M.

    1977-01-01

    The design and construction of nickel zinc cells, containing sintered nickel electrodes and asbestos coated inorganic separator materials, were outlined. Negative electrodes were prepared by a dry pressing process while various inter-separators were utilized on the positive electrodes, consisting of non-woven nylon, non-woven polypropylene, and asbestos.

  16. Effect of doping with nickel ions on the structural state of a zinc oxide crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, S. F.; Sokolov, V. I.; Parkhomenko, V. D.; Maksimov, V. I.; Gruzdev, N. B.

    2009-10-01

    The fine structure of a hexagonal zinc oxide crystal doped with nickel ions of the composition Zn1 - x Ni x O has been studied using neutron diffraction and magnetic measurements. It is established that even at very low doping levels ( x = 0.0004), the crystal undergoes local distortions in basal planes of the initial hexagonal lattice. The local distortions are assumed to be sources of the formation of ferromagnetism in compounds of this class.

  17. Charge-discharge characteristics of nickel/zinc battery with polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakura, Chiaki; Murakami, Hiroki; Nohara, Shinji; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    A new nickel/zinc (Ni/Zn) battery was assembled by using polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate) and KOH aqueous solution, and its charge-discharge characteristics were investigated. The experimental Ni/Zn cell with the polymer hydrogel electrolyte exhibited well-defined charge-discharge curves and remarkably improved charge-discharge cycle performance, compared to that with a KOH aqueous solution. Moreover, it was found that dendritic growth hardly occurred on the zinc electrode surface during charge-discharge cycles in the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. These results indicate that the polymer hydrogel electrolyte can successfully be used in Ni/Zn batteries as an electrolyte with excellent performance.

  18. Influence of farmyard manure on retention and availability of nickel, zinc and lead in metal-contaminated calcareous loam soils

    Continuous irrigation of crops with untreated municipal effluent can result in the accumulation of nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) in soils and translocation to the plants. Application of farm yard manure (FYM) to metal-contaminated soils may increase or decrease the availability and retention...

  19. Synthesis, characterisation and anion exchange properties of copper, magnesium, zinc and nickel hydroxy nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswick, Timothy; Jones, William; Pacuła, Aleksandra; Serwicka, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Anion exchange reactions of four structurally related hydroxy salts, Cu 2(OH) 3NO 3, Mg 2(OH) 3NO 3, Ni 2(OH) 3NO 3 and Zn 3(OH) 4(NO 3) 2 are compared and trends rationalised in terms of the strength of the covalent bond between the nitrate group and the matrix cation. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis are used to characterise the materials. Replacement of the nitrate anions in the zinc and copper salts with benzoate anions is possible although exchange of the zinc salt is accompanied by modification of the layer structure from one where zinc is exclusively six-fold coordinated to a structure where there is both six- and four-fold zinc coordination. Magnesium and nickel hydroxy nitrates, on the other hand, hydrolyse to their respective metal hydroxides.

  20. Development and fabrication of large vented nickel-zinc cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnel, C. P., III

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary cell design for a 300AH vented nickel-zinc cell was established based on volume requirements and cell component materials selected by NASA Lewis Research Center. A 100AH cell configuration was derived from the 300AH cell design utilizing the same size electrodes, separators, and cell terminal hardware. The first cells fabricated were four groups of three cells each in the 100AH size. These 100AH experimental nickel-zinc cells had as common components the nickel positive electrodes (GFM), flexible inorganic separator (GFM) bags on the negative electrodes, pressed powder zinc oxide electrodes, and cell containers with hardware. The variations introduced were four differing electrolyte absorber (interseparator) systems used to encase the nickel positive electrodes of each cell group. The four groups of 100AH experimental vented nickel-zinc cells were tested to determine, based on cell performance, the best two interseparator systems. Using the two interseparator systems, two groups of experimental 300AH cells were fabricated. Each group of three cells differed only in the interseparator material used. The six cells were filled, formed and tested to evaluate the interseparator materials and investigate the performance characteristics of the 300AH cell configuration and its components.

  1. Status of nickel/zinc and nickel/iron battery technology for electric vehicle applications

    SciT

    Yao, N.P.; Christianson, C.C.; Elliott, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Significant progress in nickel/zinc and nickel/iron technology has been made towards achieving the battery technical performance goals necessary for widespread use of these battery systems in electric vehicle applications. This progress is reviewed. Nickel/zinc module test data have shown a specific energy of nearly 70 Whr/kg and a specific power of 130 W/kg. However, cycle life improvements are still needed (presently demonstrated capability of 120 cycles) and are expected to be demonstrated during 1980. Nickel/iron modules have demonstrated a specific energy of nearly 50 Wh/kg and a specific power of 100 W/kg. Indications are that improved performance in these areasmore » can be shown during 1980. Nickel/iron modules cycle lives of 300 have been achieved during early 1980 and testing continues. Energy efficiency has been improved from less than 50% to over 65%. Cost reduction (both initial and operating) continues to receive major emphasis at developers of both nickel/zinc and nickel/iron batteries in order to achieve the lowest possible life cycle cost to the battery user.« less

  2. Thermodynamic Study of the Nickel Addition in Zinc Hot-Dip Galvanizing Baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.

    2010-01-01

    A usual practice during zinc hot-dip galvanizing is the addition of nickel in the liquid zinc which is used to inhibit the Sandelin effect. Its action is due to the fact that the ζ (zeta) phase of the Fe-Zn system is replaced by the Τ (tau) phase of the Fe-Zn-Ni system. In the present work an attempt is made to explain the formation of the Τ phase with thermodynamics. For this reason the Gibbs free energy changes for Τ and ζ phases were calculated. The excess free energy for the system was calculated with the Redlich-Kister polyonyme. From this calculation it was deduced that the Gibbs energy change for the tau phase is negative. As a result its formation is spontaneous.

  3. Synthesis, characterisation and anion exchange properties of copper, magnesium, zinc and nickel hydroxy nitrates

    SciT

    Biswick, Timothy; Jones, William; Pacula, Aleksandra

    2006-01-15

    Anion exchange reactions of four structurally related hydroxy salts, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3}, Mg{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3}, Ni{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3} and Zn{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} are compared and trends rationalised in terms of the strength of the covalent bond between the nitrate group and the matrix cation. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis are used to characterise the materials. Replacement of the nitrate anions in the zinc and copper salts with benzoate anions is possible although exchange of the zinc salt is accompanied by modification of the layer structure frommore » one where zinc is exclusively six-fold coordinated to a structure where there is both six- and four-fold zinc coordination. Magnesium and nickel hydroxy nitrates, on the other hand, hydrolyse to their respective metal hydroxides. -- Graphical abstract: PXRD patterns of exchange products of (a) Zn{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (b) Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O and (c) Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3} with benzoate anions.« less

  4. Effect of positive pulse charge waveforms on cycle life of nickel-zinc cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Five amp-hour nickel-zinc cells were life cycled to evaluate four different charge methods. Three of the four waveforms investigated were 120 Hz full wave rectified sinusoidal (FWRS), 120 Hz silicon controlled rectified (SCR), and 1 kHz square wave (SW). The fourth, a constant current method, was used as a baseline of comparison. Three sealed Ni-Zn cells connected in series were cycled. Each series string was charged at an average c/20 rate, and discharged at a c/2.5 rate to a 75% rated depth. Results indicate that the relatively inexpensive 120 Hz FWRS charger appears feasible for charging 5 amp-hour nickel-zinc cells with no significant loss in average cycle life when compared to constant current charging. The 1-kHz SW charger could also be used with no significant loss in average cycle life, and suggests the possibility of utilizing the existing electric vehicle chopper controller circuitry for an on-board charger. There was an apparent difference using the 120 Hz SCR charger compared to the others, however, this difference could be due to an inadvertent severe overcharge, which occurred prior to cell failure. The remaining two positive pulse charging waveforms, FWRS and 1 kHz, did not improve the cycle life of 5 amp-hour nickel-zinc cells over that of constant current charging.

  5. An evaluation of airborne nickel, zinc, and lead exposure at hot dip galvanizing plants.

    PubMed

    Verma, D K; Shaw, D S

    1991-12-01

    Industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at three hot dip galvanizing plants to determine occupational exposure to nickel, zinc, and lead. All three plants employed the "dry process" and used 2% nickel, by weight, in their zinc baths. A total of 32 personal and area air samples were taken. The air samples were analyzed for nickel, zinc, and lead. Some samples were also analyzed for various species of nickel (i.e., metallic, soluble, and oxidic). The airborne concentrations observed for nickel and its three species, zinc, and lead at the three plants were all well below the current and proposed threshold limit values recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

  6. Nanoparticles of nickel oxide: growth and organization on zinc-substituted anionic clay matrix by one-pot route at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carja, Gabriela; Nakajima, Akira; Dranca, Cristian; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2010-10-01

    A room temperature nanocarving strategy is developed for the fabrication of nanoparticles of nickel oxide on zinc-substituted anionic clay matrix (Ni/ZnLDH). It is based on the growth and organization of nanoparticles of nickel oxide which occur during the structural reconstruction of the layered structure of the anionic clay in NiSO4 aqueous solution. No organic compounds are used during the fabrication. The described material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results show that the nickel-clay nanoarchitecture consists of small nanoparticles of nickel oxide (average size 7 nm) deposited on the larger nanoparticles (average size 90 nm) of zinc-substituted clay. The optical properties of the new nickel-zinc formulation are studied by UV-Vis.

  7. Effect of positive pulse charge waveforms on cycle life of nickel-zinc cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    Five amp-hour nickel-zinc cells were life cycled to evaluate four different charge methods. Three of the four waveforms investigated were 120 Hz full wave rectified sinusoidal (FWRS), 120 Hz silicon controlled rectified (SCR), and 1 kHz square wave (SW). The fourth, a constant current method, was used as a baseline of comparison. Three sealed Ni-Zn cells connected in series were cycled. Each series string was charged at an average c/20 rate, and discharged at a c/2.5 rate to a 75% rated depth.

  8. Cytotoxicity of nickel zinc ferrite nanoparticles on cancer cells of epithelial origin.

    PubMed

    Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; Rasedee, Abdullah; Flaifel, Moayad Husein; Ahmad, Sahrim H J; Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Eid, Eltayeb E M; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Saeed, Mohd; Ilowefah, Muna; Fakurazi, Sharida; Mohd Isa, Norhaszalina; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat

    2013-01-01

    In this study, in vitro cytotoxicity of nickel zinc (NiZn) ferrite nanoparticles against human colon cancer HT29, breast cancer MCF7, and liver cancer HepG2 cells was examined. The morphology, homogeneity, and elemental composition of NiZn ferrite nanoparticles were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The exposure of cancer cells to NiZn ferrite nanoparticles (15.6-1,000 μg/mL; 72 hours) has resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The quantification of caspase-3 and -9 activities and DNA fragmentation to assess the cell death pathway of the treated cells showed that both were stimulated when exposed to NiZn ferrite nanoparticles. Light microscopy examination of the cells exposed to NiZn ferrite nanoparticles demonstrated significant changes in cellular morphology. The HepG2 cells were most prone to apoptosis among the three cells lines examined, as the result of treatment with NiZn nanoparticles. In conclusion, NiZn ferrite nanoparticles are suggested to have potential cytotoxicity against cancer cells.

  9. Cytotoxicity of nickel zinc ferrite nanoparticles on cancer cells of epithelial origin

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; Rasedee, Abdullah; Flaifel, Moayad Husein; Ahmad, Sahrim HJ; Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Eid, Eltayeb EM; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Saeed, Mohd; Ilowefah, Muna; Fakurazi, Sharida; Isa, Norhaszalina Mohd; Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat El

    2013-01-01

    In this study, in vitro cytotoxicity of nickel zinc (NiZn) ferrite nanoparticles against human colon cancer HT29, breast cancer MCF7, and liver cancer HepG2 cells was examined. The morphology, homogeneity, and elemental composition of NiZn ferrite nanoparticles were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The exposure of cancer cells to NiZn ferrite nanoparticles (15.6–1,000 μg/mL; 72 hours) has resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The quantification of caspase-3 and -9 activities and DNA fragmentation to assess the cell death pathway of the treated cells showed that both were stimulated when exposed to NiZn ferrite nanoparticles. Light microscopy examination of the cells exposed to NiZn ferrite nanoparticles demonstrated significant changes in cellular morphology. The HepG2 cells were most prone to apoptosis among the three cells lines examined, as the result of treatment with NiZn nanoparticles. In conclusion, NiZn ferrite nanoparticles are suggested to have potential cytotoxicity against cancer cells. PMID:23885175

  10. Nickel oxide decorated zinc oxide composite nanorods: Excellent catalyst for photoreduction of hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Singh, Simranjeet; Ahmed, Imtiaz; Haldar, Krishna Kanta

    2018-08-01

    In light of the growing interest and ability to search for new materials, we have synthesized Nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles decorated Zinc (ZnO) nanorods composite (NiO/ZnO) nanostructure. The NiO/ZnO heterostructure formation was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The fabricated environmental friendly NiO/ZnO composite nanostructure shows a well-defined photoreduction characteristic of hexavalent Chromium (Cr) (VI) to tri-valent Chromium (Cr) (III) under UV-light. Such an enhanced photoreduction property is attributed due to the decreased electron-hole recombination process which was proved by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, photocurrent study, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity rate of the NiO decorated ZnO nanorods was much higher than that of bare ZnO nanorods for the reduction of chromium (VI) and the rate is found to be 0.306 min -1 . These results have demonstrates that suitable surface engineering may open up new opportunities in the development of high-performance photocatalyst. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Contrasting effects of nicotianamine synthase knockdown on zinc and nickel tolerance and accumulation in the zinc/cadmium hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri.

    PubMed

    Cornu, Jean-Yves; Deinlein, Ulrich; Höreth, Stephan; Braun, Manuel; Schmidt, Holger; Weber, Michael; Persson, Daniel P; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan K; Clemens, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Elevated nicotianamine synthesis in roots of Arabidopsis halleri has been established as a zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation factor. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of nicotianamine-dependent root-to-shoot translocation of metals. Metal tolerance and accumulation in wild-type (WT) and AhNAS2-RNA interference (RNAi) plants were analysed. Xylem exudates were subjected to speciation analysis and metabolite profiling. Suppression of root nicotianamine synthesis had no effect on Zn and cadmium (Cd) tolerance but rendered plants nickel (Ni)-hypersensitive. It also led to a reduction of Zn root-to-shoot translocation, yet had the opposite effect on Ni mobility, even though both metals form coordination complexes of similar stability with nicotianamine. Xylem Zn concentrations were positively, yet nonstoichiometrically, correlated with nicotianamine concentrations. Two fractions containing Zn coordination complexes were detected in WT xylem. One of them was strongly reduced in AhNAS2-suppressed plants and coeluted with (67) Zn-labelled organic acid complexes. Organic acid concentrations were not responsive to nicotianamine concentrations and sufficiently high to account for complexing the coordinated Zn. We propose a key role for nicotianamine in controlling the efficiency of Zn xylem loading and thereby the formation of Zn coordination complexes with organic acids, which are the main Zn ligands in the xylem but are not rate-limiting for Zn translocation. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. ELECTRO-DEPOSITION OF NICKEL ALLOYS FROM THE PYROPHOSPHATE BATH: NICKEL- ZINC AND NICKEL-MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS

    SciT

    Panikkar, S.K.; Char, T.L.R.

    1958-02-01

    Results of studies on the electrodeposition of nickel-zinc and nickel-- molybdenum alloys in a pyrophosphate bath using platinium electrodes are presented. The fects of varying current density and metal contents of the electrolyte on alloy deposit composition, cathode efficiency, and cathode potential are presented in tabular form. (J.R.D.) l2432 A study was made of the effect of homogenization on the mechanical properties of solution-treated and aged aluminum and the quantitative effects of several variables on hardness. The effect of alloying elements on the increase in hardness of aluminum is shown. (J.E.D.)

  13. Factors that Affect the Content of Cadmium, Nickel, Copper and Zinc in Tissues of the Knee Joint.

    PubMed

    Roczniak, Wojciech; Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Cipora, Elżbieta; Jakóbik-Kolon, Agata; Kluczka, Joanna; Babuśka-Roczniak, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Osteoarthritis causes the degradation of the articular cartilage and periarticular bones. Trace elements influence the growth, development and condition of the bone tissue. Changes to the mineral composition of the bone tissue can cause degenerative changes and fractures. The aim of the research was to determine the content of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the tibia, the femur and the meniscus in men and women who underwent a knee replacement surgery. Samples were collected from 50 patients, including 36 women and 14 men. The determination of trace elements content were performed by ICP-AES method, using Varian 710-ES. Average concentration in the tissues of the knee joint teeth amounted for cadmium 0.015, nickel 0.60, copper 0.89 and zinc 80.81 mg/kg wet weight. There were statistically significant differences in the content of cadmium, copper and zinc in different parts of the knee joint. There were no statistically significant differences in the content of cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc in women and men in the examined parts of the knee joint. Among the elements tested, copper and nickel showed a high content in the connective tissue (the meniscus) compared to the bone tissue (the tibia and the femur).

  14. Spectrophotometric studies and applications for the determination of Ni2+ in zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xiaoping; Li, Helin; Zhao, Wenzhen; Li, Dejun

    The absorption properties of zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte were studied by visible spectrophotometer. The results show that the relationship between the absorbance of the zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte and Ni2+ concentration in the electrolyte obeys Beer's law at 660 nm. In addition, other components except Ni2+ in the zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte such as zinc chloride, ammonium chloride, potassium chloride and boric acid have no obvious effect on the absorbance of zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte. Based on these properties, a new method is developed to determine Ni2+ concentration in zinc-nickel alloy electrolyte. Comparing with other methods, this method is simple, direct and accurate. Moreover, the whole testing process does not consume any reagent and dilution, and after testing, the electrolyte samples can be reused without any pollution to the environment.

  15. The oceanic budgets of nickel and zinc isotopes: the importance of sulfidic environments as illustrated by the Black Sea

    PubMed Central

    Little, Susan H.; Archer, Corey; Cameron, Vyllinniskii; Andersen, Morten B.; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic data collected to date as part of the GEOTRACES and other programmes show that the oceanic dissolved pool is isotopically heavy relative to the inputs for zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni). All Zn sinks measured until recently, and the only output yet measured for Ni, are isotopically heavier than the dissolved pool. This would require either a non-steady-state ocean or other unidentified sinks. Recently, isotopically light Zn has been measured in organic carbon-rich sediments from productive upwelling margins, providing a potential resolution of this issue, at least for Zn. However, the origin of the isotopically light sedimentary Zn signal is uncertain. Cellular uptake of isotopically light Zn followed by transfer to sediment does not appear to be a quantitatively important process. Here, we present Zn and Ni isotope data for the water column and sediments of the Black Sea. These data demonstrate that isotopically light Zn and Ni are extracted from the water column, probably through an equilibrium fractionation between different dissolved species followed by sequestration of light Zn and Ni in sulfide species to particulates and the sediment. We suggest that a similar, non-quantitative, process, operating in porewaters, explains the Zn data from organic carbon-rich sediments. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry’. PMID:29035259

  16. Preparation and structural characterization of vulcanized natural rubber nanocomposites containing nickel-zinc ferrite nanopowders.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, F S; Salmazo, L O; Budemberg, E R; da Silva, M R; Rodríguez-Pérez, M A; Nobre, M A L; Job, A E

    2012-03-01

    Single-phase polycrystalline mixed nickel-zinc ferrites belonging to Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 were prepared on a nanometric scale (mean crystallite size equal to 14.7 nm) by chemical synthesis named the modified poliol method. Ferrite nanopowder was then incorporated into a natural rubber matrix producing nanocomposites. The samples were investigated by means of infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and magnetic measurements. The obtained results suggest that the base concentration of nickel-zinc ferrite nanoparticles inside the polymer matrix volume greatly influences the magnetic properties of nanocomposites. A small quantity of nanoparticles, less than 10 phr, in the nanocomposite is sufficient to produce a small alteration in the semi-crystallinity of nanocomposites observed by X-ray diffraction analysis and it produces a flexible magnetic composite material with a saturation magnetization, a coercivity field and an initial magnetic permeability equal to 3.08 emu/g, 99.22 Oe and 9.42 x 10(-5) respectively.

  17. A comparative study of conventionally sintered and microwave sintered nickel zinc ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Rekha; Juneja, J. K.; Raina, K. K.; Kotnala, R. K.; Prakash, Chandra

    2014-04-01

    For the present work, nickel zinc ferrite having compositional formula Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 was synthesized by conventional solid state method and sintered in conventional and microwave furnaces. Pellets were sintered with very short soaking time of 10 min at 1150 °C in microwave furnace whereas 4 hrs of soaking time was selected for conventional sintering at 1200 °C. Phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis technique. Scanning electron micrographs were taken for microstructural study. Dielectric properties were studied as a function of temperature. To study magnetic behavior, M-H hysteresis loops were recorded for both samples. It is observed that microwave sintered sample could obtain comparable properties to the conventionally sintered one in lesser soaking time at lower sintering temperature.

  18. Nickel foam-supported polyaniline cathode prepared with electrophoresis for improvement of rechargeable Zn battery performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yang; Zhu, Derong; Si, Shihui; Li, Degeng; Wu, Sen

    2015-06-01

    Porous nickel foam is used as a substrate for the development of rechargeable zinc//polyaniline battery, and the cathode electrophoresis of PANI microparticles in non-aqueous solution is applied to the fabrication of Ni foam supported PANI electrode, in which the corrosion of the nickel foam substrate is prohibited. The Ni foam supported PANI cathode with high loading is prepared by PANI electrophoretic deposition, and followed by PANI slurry casting under vacuum filtration. The electrochemical charge storage performance for PANI material is significantly improved by using nickel foam substrate via the electrophoretic interlayer. The specific capacity of the nickel foam-PANI electrode with the electrophoretic layer is higher than the composite electrode without the electrophoretic layer, and the specific capacity of PANI supported by Ni foam reaches up to 183.28 mAh g-1 at the working current of 2.5 mA cm-2. The present electrophoresis deposition method plays the facile procedure for the immobilization of PANI microparticles onto the surface of non-platinum metals, and it becomes feasible to the use of the Ni foam supported PANI composite cathode for the Zn/PANI battery in weak acidic electrolyte.

  19. Organic electrolyte-based rechargeable zinc-ion batteries using potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate as a cathode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Munseok S.; Heo, Jongwook W.; Kwak, Hunho H.; Lee, Hochun; Hong, Seung-Tae

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates an organic electrolyte-based rechargeable zinc-ion battery (ZIB) using Prussian blue (PB) analogue potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate K0.86Ni[Fe(CN)6]0.954(H2O)0.766 (KNF-086) as the cathode material. KNF-086 is prepared via electrochemical extraction of potassium ions from K1.51Ni[Fe(CN)6]0.954(H2O)0.766 (KNF-151). The cell is composed of a KNF-086 cathode, a zinc metal anode, and a 0.5 M Zn(ClO4)2 acetonitrile electrolyte. This cell shows a reversible discharge capacity of 55.6 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C rate with the discharge voltage at 1.19 V (vs. Zn2+/Zn). As evidenced by Fourier electron density analysis with powder XRD data, the zinc-inserted phase is confirmed as Zn0.32K0.86Ni[Fe(CN)6]0.954(H2O)0.766 (ZKNF-086), and the position of the zinc ion in ZKNF-086 is revealed as the center of the large interstitial cavities of the cubic PB. Compared to KNF-086, ZKNF-086 exhibits a decreased unit cell parameter (0.9%) and volume (2.8%) while the interatomic distance of d(Fe-C) increased (from 1.84 to 1.98 Å), and the oxidation state of iron decreases from 3 to 2.23. The organic electrolyte system provides higher zinc cycling efficiency (>99.9%) than the aqueous system (ca. 80%). This result demonstrates an organic electrolyte-based ZIB, and offers a crucial basis for understanding the electrochemical intercalation chemistry of zinc ions in organic electrolytes.

  20. Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Life Cycle Evaluation of Nickel-Zinc Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, D.; Ferreira, E.; Nyce, M.; Charkey, A.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusion of the Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) life cycle evaluation of nickel-zinc batteries are: that composite nickel electrode provide excellent performance at a reduced weight and lower cost; calcium / zinc electrode minimizes shape change; unioptimized cell designs yield 60 Wh/kg; nickel-zinc delivers 600 cycles at 80% DOD; long cycle life obtainable at low DOD; high rate capability power density; long-term failure mechanism is stack dry; and anomalous overcharge (1120%) greatly affected cell performance but did not induce failure and was recoverable.

  1. Expression of zinc transporter ZnT7 in mouse superior cervical ganglion

    The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons contain a considerable amount of zinc ions, but little is known about zinc homeostasis in the SCG. It is known that zinc transporter 7 (ZnT7, Slc30a7), a member of the Slc30 ZnT family, is involved in mobilizing zinc ions from the cytoplasm into the Golgi...

  2. Single crystalline wurtzite ZnO/zinc blende ZnS coaxial heterojunctions and hollow zinc blende ZnS nanotubes: synthesis, structural characterization and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xing; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Fan, Hua; Xie, Zai-lai; Wang, Lei; Klein-Hoffmann, Achim; Girgsdies, Frank; Lee, Chun-Sing; Meng, Xiang-Min

    2014-08-07

    Synthesis of ZnO/ZnS heterostructures under thermodynamic conditions generally results in the wurtzite (WZ) structure of the ZnS component because its WZ phase is thermodynamically more stable than its zinc blende (ZB) phase. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of ZnO/ZnS coaxial nanocables composed of single crystalline ZB structured ZnS epitaxially grown on WZ ZnO via a two-step thermal evaporation method. The deposition temperature is believed to play a crucial role in determining the crystalline phase of ZnS. Through a systematic structural analysis, the ZnO core and the ZnS shell are found to have an orientation relationship of (0002)ZnO(WZ)//(002)ZnS(ZB) and [01-10]ZnO(WZ)//[2-20]ZnS(ZB). Observation of the coaxial nanocables in cross-section reveals the formation of voids between the ZnO core and the ZnS shell during the coating process, which is probably associated with the nanoscale Kirkendall effect known to result in porosity. Furthermore, by immersing the ZnO/ZnS nanocable heterojunctions in an acetic acid solution to etch away the inner ZnO cores, single crystalline ZnS nanotubes orientated along the [001] direction of the ZB structure were also achieved for the first time. Finally, optical properties of the hollow ZnS tubes were investigated and discussed in detail. We believe that our study could provide some insights into the controlled fabrication of one dimensional (1D) semiconductors with desired morphology, structure and composition at the nanoscale, and the synthesized WZ ZnO/ZB ZnS nanocables as well as ZB ZnS nanotubes could be ideal candidates for the study of optoelectronics based on II-VI semiconductors.

  3. Wustite-based photoelectrodes with lithium, hydrogen, sodium, magnesium, manganese, zinc and nickel additives

    SciT

    Carter, Emily Ann; Toroker, Maytal Caspary

    A photoelectrode, photovoltaic device and photoelectrochemical cell and methods of making are disclosed. The photoelectrode includes an electrode at least partially formed of FeO combined with at least one of lithium, hydrogen, sodium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and nickel. The electrode may be doped with at least one of lithium, hydrogen, and sodium. The electrode may be alloyed with at least one of magnesium, manganese, zinc, and nickel.

  4. Material and Energy Flows Associated with Select Metals in GREET 2. Molybdenum, Platinum, Zinc, Nickel, Silicon

    SciT

    Benavides, Pahola T.; Dai, Qiang; Sullivan, John L.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyzed the material and energy consumption from mining to production of molybdenum, platinum, zinc, and nickel. We also analyzed the production of solar- and semiconductor-grade silicon. We described new additions to and expansions of the data in GREET 2. In some cases, we used operating permits and sustainability reports to estimate the material and energy flows for molybdenum, platinum, and nickel, while for zinc and silicon we relied on information provided in the literature.

  5. Role of nickel doping on structural, optical, magnetic properties and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles

    SciT

    Vijayaprasath, G.; Murugan, R.; Palanisamy, S.

    Highlights: • The XRD analyses revealed that the synthesizes nickel doped ZnO (Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O, x = 0.0, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09) nanostructures have hexagonal wurtzite structure. • The photoluminescence measurements revealed that the broad emission was composed of different bands due to zinc and oxygen vacancies. • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the Ni incorporation in ZnO lattice as Ni{sup 2+} ions. • Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed due to the oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials are the main reasons for ferromagnetism in Ni doped ZnO NPs. - Abstract: Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method. Themore » crystallite sizes of the synthesized samples found to decrease from 38 to 26 nm with increase in nickel concentration. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of Zn−O stretching bands at 577, 573, 569 and 565 cm{sup −1} in the respective ZnO NPs. Optical absorption spectra revealed the red shifted and estimated band gap is found to decrease with increase of Ni doping concentration. The PL spectra of all the samples exhibited a broad emission at 390 nm in the visible range. The carriers (donors) bounded on the Ni sites were observed from the micro Raman spectroscopic studies. Pure and Ni doped ZnO NPs showed significant changes in the M–H loop, especially the diamagnetic behavior changed into ferromagnetic nature for Ni doped samples. The antiferromagnetic super-exchange interactions between Ni{sup 2+} ions is increased in higher Ni doped ZnO NPs and also their antibacterial activity has been studied.« less

  6. In Situ Distribution and Speciation of Toxic Copper, Nickel, and Zinc in Hydrated Roots of Cowpea1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kopittke, Peter M.; Menzies, Neal W.; de Jonge, Martin D.; McKenna, Brigid A.; Donner, Erica; Webb, Richard I.; Paterson, David J.; Howard, Daryl L.; Ryan, Chris G.; Glover, Chris J.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo

    2011-01-01

    The phytotoxicity of trace metals is of global concern due to contamination of the landscape by human activities. Using synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy, the distribution and speciation of copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) was examined in situ using hydrated roots of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) exposed to 1.5 μm Cu, 5 μm Ni, or 40 μm Zn for 1 to 24 h. After 24 h of exposure, most Cu was bound to polygalacturonic acid of the rhizodermis and outer cortex, suggesting that binding of Cu to walls of cells in the rhizodermis possibly contributes to the toxic effects of Cu. When exposed to Zn, cortical concentrations remained comparatively low with much of the Zn accumulating in the meristematic region and moving into the stele; approximately 60% to 85% of the total Zn stored as Zn phytate within 3 h of exposure. While Ni concentrations were high in both the cortex and meristem, concentrations in the stele were comparatively low. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the in situ distribution and speciation of Cu, Ni, and Zn in hydrated (and fresh) plant tissues, providing valuable information on the potential mechanisms by which they are toxic. PMID:21525332

  7. Versatile chelating behavior of benzil bis(thiosemicarbazone) in zinc, cadmium, and nickel complexes.

    PubMed

    López-Torres, Elena; Mendiola, Ma Antonia; Pastor, César J; Pérez, Beatriz Souto

    2004-08-23

    Reactions of benzil bis(thiosemicarbazone), LH(6), with M(NO(3))(2).nH(2)O (M = Zn, Cd, and Ni), in the presence of LiOH.H(2)O, show the versatile behavior of this molecule. The structure of the ligand, with the thiosemicarbazone moieties on opposite sides of the carbon backbone, changes to form complexes by acting as a chelating molecule. Complexes of these metal ions with empirical formula [MLH(4)] were obtained, although they show different molecular structures depending on their coordinating preferences. The zinc complex is the first example of a crystalline coordination polymer in which a bis(thiosemicarbazone) acts as bridging ligand, through a nitrogen atom, giving a 1D polymeric structure. The coordination sphere is formed by the imine nitrogen and sulfur atoms, and the remaining position, in a square-based pyramid, is occupied by an amine group of another ligand. The cadmium derivative shows the same geometry around the metal ion but consists of a dinuclear structure with sulfur atoms acting as a bridge between the metal ions. However, in the nickel complex LH(6) acts as a N(2)S(2) ligand yielding a planar structure for the nickel atom. The ligand and its complexes have been characterized by X-ray crystallography, microanalysis, mass spectrometry, IR, (1)H, and (13)C NMR spectroscopies and for the cadmium complex by (113)Cd NMR in solution and in the solid state.

  8. Stress Corrosion-Cracking and Corrosion Fatigue Impact of IZ-C17+ Zinc Nickel on 4340 Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-17

    REPORT NO: NAWCADPAX/TIM-2016/189 STRESS CORROSION-CRACKING AND CORROSION FATIGUE IMPACT OF IZ-C17+ ZINC-NICKEL ON 4340 STEEL by...CORROSION-CRACKING AND CORROSION FATIGUE IMPACT OF IZ-C17+ ZINC-NICKEL ON 4340 STEEL by Craig Matzdorf Charles Lei Matt Stanley...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER STRESS CORROSION-CRACKING AND CORROSION FATIGUE IMPACT OF IZ-C17+ ZINC-NICKEL ON 4340 STEEL 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  9. Determination and evaluation of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in agricultural soils of western Macedonia, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, A; Prochaska, C; Papadopoulos, F; Gantidis, N; Metaxa, E

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of major phytotoxic metals--including cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn)--in agricultural soils of Western Macedonia, Greece. We also wanted to determine the possible relationships among elements and between soil properties and elemental concentrations. Surface soil samples, n = 570, were collected and analyzed. The results of the elemental analysis showed that the mean metal concentrations were consistent with reported typical concentrations found in Greek agricultural soils in the cases of Zn and Cu. Cd exhibited lower and Ni higher mean concentrations than the typical levels reported in the literature. Metal concentrations in the majority of the examined samples (>69%) were found to be higher than the respective critical plant-deficiency levels. However, only 0.4% and 0.2% of the analyzed soil samples, respectively, exhibited Cd and Ni concentrations higher than the levels that cause plant toxicity, as referenced by other investigators. These results suggest that the soils studied can be considered as unpolluted with respect to the examined food-chain metal contaminants. However, the levels of the metal concentrations in some of the soil samples, and the low correlation of the metals with soil properties, suggest an anthropogenic rather that lithogenic origin.

  10. Sulfur-Doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanostars: Synthesis and Simulation of Growth Mechanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Zinc Oxide ( ZnO ) Nanostars: Synthesis and Simulation of Growth Mechanism Jinhyun Cho1, Qiubao Lin2,3, Sungwoo...characterization, and ab initio simulations of star-shaped hexagonal zinc oxide ( ZnO ) nanowires. The ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a low...Introduction Zinc oxide ( ZnO ) is a wide bandgap (3.37 eV), Ⅱ–Ⅵ semiconductor of great interest for optoelectronic applications [1–3]. Its

  11. Experimental study on structural, optoelectronic and room temperature sensing performance of Nickel doped ZnO based ethanol sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudha, M.; Radha, S.; Kirubaveni, S.; Kiruthika, R.; Govindaraj, R.; Santhosh, N.

    2018-04-01

    Nano crystalline undoped (1Z) Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and 5, 10 and 15 Wt. % (1ZN, 2ZN and 3ZN) of Nickel doped ZnO based sensors were fabricated using the hydrothermal approach on Fluorine doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis proved the hexagonal Wurtzite structure of ZnO. Parametric variations in terms of dislocation density, bond length, lattice parameters and micro strain with respect to dopant concentration were analysed. The prominent variations in the crystallite size, optical band gap and Photoluminescence peak ratio of devices fabricated was observed. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images showed a change in diameter and density of the nanorods. The effect of the operating temperature, concentration of ethanol and the different doping levels of sensitivity, response and recovery time were investigated. It was inferred that 376% of sensitivity with a very quick response and recovery time of <5 s and 10 s respectively at 150 °C of 3ZN sensor has better performance compared to other three sensors. Also 3ZN sensor showed improved sensitivity of 114%, even at room temperature with response and recovery time of 35 s and 45 s respectively.

  12. Zinc

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  13. Nickel-based rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, A. K.; Venugopalan, S.; Hariprakash, B.

    Nickel-iron (Ni-Fe), nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd), nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H 2), nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) and nickel-zinc (Ni-Zn) batteries employ nickel oxide electrodes as the positive plates, and are hence, categorised as nickel-based batteries. This article highlights the operating principles and advances made in these battery systems during the recent years. In particular, significant improvements have been made in the Ni-MH batteries which are slowly capturing the market occupied by the ubiquitous Ni-Cd batteries.

  14. Zinc-oxide nanocoating for improvement of the antibacterial and frictional behavior of nickel-titanium alloy.

    PubMed

    Kachoei, Mojgan; Nourian, Azin; Divband, Baharak; Kachoei, Zahra; Shirazi, Sajjad

    2016-10-01

    To fabricate a friction-reducing and antibacterial coating with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on nickel-titanium (NiTi) wire. NiTi orthodontic wires were coated with ZnO nanoparticles using the chemical deposition method. Characteristics of the coating as well as the physical, mechanical and antibacterial properties of the wires were investigated. A stable and well-adhered ZnO coating on the NiTi wires was obtained. The hardness and elastic modulus of the ZnO nanocoating were 2.3 ± 0.2 and 61.0 ± 3.6 GPa, respectively. The coated wires presented up to 21% reduction in the frictional forces and antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans. ZnO nanocoating significantly improved the surface quality of NiTi wires. The modulus of elasticity, unloading forces and austenite finish temperature were not significantly different after coating. This unique coating could be implemented into practice for safer and faster treatment to the benefit of both patient and clinician.

  15. Modeling the thermal conductivities of the zinc antimonides ZnSb and Zn4Sb3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerg, Lasse; Iversen, Bo B.; Madsen, Georg K. H.

    2014-01-01

    ZnSb and Zn4Sb3 are interesting as thermoelectric materials because of their low cost and low thermal conductivity. We introduce a model of the lattice thermal conductivity which is independent of fitting parameters and takes the full phonon dispersions into account. The model is found to give thermal conductivities with the correct relative magnitudes and in reasonable quantitative agreement with experiment for a number of semiconductor structures. The thermal conductivities of the zinc antimonides are reviewed and the relatively large effect of nanostructuring on the zinc antimonides is rationalized in terms of the mean free paths of the heat carrying phonons. The very low thermal conductivity of Zn4Sb3 is found to be intrinsic to the structure. However, the low-lying optical modes are observed in both Zn-Sb structures and involve both Zn and Sb vibrations, thereby strongly questioning dumbbell rattling. A mechanism for the very low thermal conductivity observed in Zn4Sb3 is identified. The large Grüneisen parameter of this compound is traced to the Sb atoms which coordinate only Zn atoms.

  16. Development and fabrication of large vented nickel--zinc cells. Final report. [300 Ah

    SciT

    Donnel, C.P.I.

    1975-12-01

    A preliminary cell design for a 300-Ah vented nickel--zinc cell was established based on volume requirements and cell component materials selected by NASA Lewis Research Center. A 100-Ah cell configuration was derived from the 300-Ah cell design utilizing the same size electrodes, separators, and cell terminal hardware. The first cells fabricated were four groups of three cells each in the 100-Ah size. These 100-Ah experimental nickel--zinc cells had as common components the nickel positive electrodes (GFM), flexible inorganic separator (GFM) bags on the negative electrodes, pressed powder zinc oxide electrodes, and cell containers with hardware. The variations introduced were fourmore » differing electrolyte absorber (interseparator) systems used to encase the nickel positive electrodes of each cell group. The four groups of 100-Ah experimental vented nickel--zinc cells were tested to determine, based on cell performance, the best two interseparator systems. Using the two interseparator systems, two groups of experimental 300-AH cells were fabricated. Each group of three cells differed only in the interseparator material used. The six cells were filled, formed and tested to evaluate the interseparator materials and investigate the performance characteristics of the 300-Ah cell configuration and its components. (auth)« less

  17. Electrodeposited Zinc-Nickel as an Alternative to Cadmium Plating for Aerospace Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, V. C.

    1991-01-01

    Corrosion evaluation studies were conducted on 4130 alloy steel samples coated with electrodeposited zinc-nickel and samples coated with electrodeposited cadmium. The zinc nickel was deposited by the selection electrochemical metallizing process. These coated samples were exposed to a 5-percent salt fog environment at 35 plus or minus 2 C for a period ranging from 96 to 240 hours. An evaluation of the effect of dichromate coatings on the performance of each plating was conducted. The protection afforded by platings with a dichromate seal was compared to platings without the seal. During the later stages of testing, deposit adhesion and the potential for hydrogen entrapment were also evaluated.

  18. Study of samarium modified lead zirconate titanate and nickel zinc ferrite composite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Rekha; Juneja, J. K.; Singh, Sangeeta; Raina, K. K.; Prakash, Chandra

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, composites of samarium substituted lead zirconate titanate and nickel zinc ferrite with compositional formula 0.95Pb1-3x/2 SmxZr0.65Ti0.35O3-0.05Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 (x=0, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) were prepared by the conventional solid state route. X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out to confirm the coexistence of individual phases. Microstructural study was done by using scanning electron microscope. Dielectric constant and loss were studied as a function of temperature and frequency. To study ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the composite samples, corresponding P-E and M-H hysteresis loops were recorded. Change in magnetic properties of electrically poled composite sample (x=0.02) was studied to confirm the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling. ME coefficient (dE/dH) of the samples (x=0 and 0.02) was measured as a function of DC magnetic field.

  19. Redistribution of fractions of zinc, cadmium, nickel, copper, and lead in contaminated calcareous soils treated with EDTA.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mohsen; Khanlari, Zahra V

    2007-11-01

    Effect of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the fractionation of zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in contaminated calcareous soils was investigated. Soil samples containing variable levels of contamination, from 105.9 to 5803 mg/kg Zn, from 2.2 to 1361 mg/kg Cd, from 31 to 64.0 mg/kg Ni, from 24 to 84 mg/kg Cu, and from 109 to 24,850 mg/kg Pb, were subjected to EDTA treatment at different dosages of 0, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg. Metals in the incubated soils were fractionated after 5 months by a sequential extraction procedure, in which the metal fractions were experimentally defined as exchangeable (EXCH), carbonate (CARB), Mn oxide (MNO), Fe oxide (FEO), organic matter (OM), and residual (RES) fractions. In contaminated soils without EDTA addition, Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb were predominately present in the RES fraction, up to 60.0%, 32.3%, 41.1%, and 36.8%, respectively. In general, with the EDTA addition, the EXCH and CARB fractions of these metals increased dramatically while the OM fraction decreased. The Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb were distributed mostly in RES, OM, FEO, and CARB fractions in contaminated soils, but Cd was found predominately in the CARB, MNO, and RES fractions. The OM fraction decreased with increasing amounts of EDTA. In the contaminated soils, EDTA removed some Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni from MNO, FEO, and OM fractions and redistributed them into CARB and EXCH fractions. Based on the relative percent in the EXCH and CARB fractions, the order of solubility was Cd > Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn for contaminated soils, before adding of EDTA, and after adding of EDTA, the order of solubility was Pb > Cd > Zn > Ni > Cu. The risk of groundwater contamination will increase after applying EDTA and it needed to be used very carefully.

  20. The formation of unsaturated zones within cemented paste backfill mixtures-effects on the release of copper, nickel, and zinc.

    PubMed

    Hamberg, Roger; Maurice, Christian; Alakangas, Lena

    2018-05-13

    Flooding of cemented paste backfill (CPB) filled mine workings is, commonly, a slow process and could lead to the formation of unsaturated zones within the CPB fillings. This facilitates the oxidation of sulfide minerals and thereby increases the risk of trace metal leaching. Pyrrhotitic tailings from a gold mine (cyanidation tailing (CT)), containing elevated concentrations of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn), were mixed with cement and/or fly ash (1-3 wt%) to form CT-CPB mixtures. Pyrrhotite oxidation progressed more extensively during unsaturated conditions, where acidity resulted in dissolution of the Ni, Cu, and Zn associated with amorphous Fe precipitates and/or cementitious phases. The establishment of acidic, unsaturated conditions in CT-CBP:s with low fractions (1 wt%) of binders increased the Cu release (to be higher than that from CT), owing to the dissolution of Cu-associated amorphous Fe precipitates. In CT-CPB:s with relatively high proportions of binder, acidity from pyrrhotite oxidation was buffered to a greater extent. At this stage, Zn leaching increased due the occurrence of fly ash-specific Zn species soluble in alkaline conditions. Irrespective of binder proportion and water saturation level, the Ni and Zn release were lower, compared to that in CT. Fractions of Ni, Zn, and Cu associated with acid-soluble phases or amorphous Fe precipitates, susceptible to remobilization under acidic conditions, increased in tandem with binder fractions. Pyrrhotite oxidation occurred irrespective of the water saturation level in the CPB mixtures. That, in turn, poses an environmental risk, whereas a substantial proportion of Ni, Cu, and Zn was associated with acid-soluble phases.

  1. Cadmium Alternatives: Zinc-Nickel Electroplating & Repair of Aluminum Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-27

    Brighteners and Other Additives to Create Low Embrittling Plating Process • Based on Successful Test Results an LHE Alkaline Zn-Ni Formula was Selected for...Corrosion Testing (Salt Spray and Galvanic) – Fluid Immersion (ASTM F 483) Lubricity (Fasteners)– – Strippability • Ammonium Nitrate (pH 10...Considered – LDC 5030 Sn-Zn and SIFCO 4018 Zn-Ni • LDC 5030 Sn-Zn Selected Because of No-Bake Hydrogen Embrittlement Performance • Aluminum Surface

  2. Selectivity shifting behavior of Pd nanoparticles loaded zinc stannate/zinc oxide (Zn2SnO4/ZnO) nanowires sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arafat, M. M.; Ong, J. Y.; Haseeb, A. S. M. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, the gas sensing behavior of Pd nanoparticles loaded zinc stannate/zinc oxide (Zn2SnO4/ZnO) nanowires were investigated. The Zn2SnO4/ZnO nanowires were grown on Au interdigitated alumina substrate by carbon assisted thermal evaporation process. Pd nanoparticles were loaded on the Zn2SnO4/ZnO nanowires by wet reduction process. The nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, field emission scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope. The Zn2SnO4/ZnO and Pd nanoparticles loaded Zn2SnO4/ZnO nanowires were investigated for detecting H2, H2S and C2H5OH gases in N2 background. Results revealed that the average diameter and length of as-grown Zn2SnO4/ZnO nanowires were 74 nm and 30 μm, respectively. During wet reduction process,Pd particles having size of 20-60 nm were evenly distributed on the Zn2SnO4/ZnO nanowires. The Zn2SnO4/ZnO nanowires based sensors showed selective response towards C2H5OH whereas Pd nanoparticles loaded Zn2SnO4/ZnO nanowires showed selective response towards H2. The recovery time of the sensors reduced with Pd loading on Zn2SnO4/ZnO nanowires. A mechanism is proposed to elucidate the gas sensing mechanism of Pd nanoparticles loaded Zn2SnO4/ZnO nanowires.

  3. Hierarchical Mesoporous Zinc-Nickel-Cobalt Ternary Oxide Nanowire Arrays on Nickel Foam as High-Performance Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun; Cai, Junjie; Zhang, Qiaobao; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Ying; Shen, Pei Kang; Zhang, Kaili

    2015-12-09

    Nickel foam supported hierarchical mesoporous Zn-Ni-Co ternary oxide (ZNCO) nanowire arrays are synthesized by a simple two-step approach including a hydrothermal method and subsequent calcination process and directly utilized for supercapacitive investigation for the first time. The nickel foam supported hierarchical mesoporous ZNCO nanowire arrays possess an ultrahigh specific capacitance value of 2481.8 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) and excellent rate capability of about 91.9% capacitance retention at 5 A g(-1). More importantly, an asymmetric supercapacitor with a high energy density (35.6 Wh kg(-1)) and remarkable cycle stability performance (94% capacitance retention over 3000 cycles) is assembled successfully by employing the ZNCO electrode as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode. The remarkable electrochemical behaviors demonstrate that the nickel foam supported hierarchical mesoporous ZNCO nanowire array electrodes are highly desirable for application as advanced supercapacitor electrodes.

  4. Zinc, nickel and cadmium in carambolas marketed in Guangzhou and Hong Kong, China: implication for human health.

    PubMed

    Li, J T; Liao, B; Lan, C Y; Qiu, J W; Shu, W S

    2007-12-15

    Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) is a popular juicy fruit throughout the tropical and subtropical world. This study was designed to quantify the levels of zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) in carambolas marketed in southern China, and further to evaluate the potential health risk of human consumption of carambola. Zinc concentrations, ranging from 1.471 to 2.875 mg/kg (on fresh weight basis), were below the maximum permissible concentration for Zn in fruit of China (5 mg/kg). However, Ni concentrations (0.134-0.676 mg/kg) were considerably higher than the related recommendation values. Furthermore, Cd concentrations in 51% of the carambolas purchased from Guangzhou exceeded the maximum permissible concentration for Cd in fruit of China (0.03 mg/kg). Our results implicated that the consumption of 0.385 kg carambola contaminated by Cd per day would cause the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of Cd by the consumer to be exceeded. In addition, the remarkably high Ni concentrations in carambolas should also be of concern. The status of heavy metal contamination of carambola products marketed in the other regions and their implications for human health should be identified urgently by in-depth studies.

  5. Fabrication of nickel-foam-supported layered zinc-cobalt hydroxide nanoflakes for high electrochemical performance in supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Dan; Liu, Tao; Chen, Limiao; Liu, Xiaohe; Ma, Renzhi; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2014-10-04

    Nickel foam supported Zn-Co hydroxide nanoflakes were fabricated by a facile solvothermal method. Benefited from the unique structure of Zn-Co hydroxide nanoflakes on a nickel foam substrate, the as prepared materials exhibited an excellent specific capacitance of 901 F g(-1) at 5 A g(-1) and remarkable cycling stability as electrode materials in supercapacitors.

  6. [Determination of trace amounts of zinc in nickel electrolyte by flow injection on-line enrichment].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z; Wang, Y; Dong, Z; Tong, K; Guo, X; Guo, X

    1999-10-01

    A method for the determination of trace amount of zinc in nickel electrolyte utilizing the flow injection on-line enrichment technique is reported in this paper. Atomic absorption spectrometer was used as detector. Zinc was separated from large amounts of nickel andother components in the electrolyte by absorption its chlorocomplex on a mini-column packed with strongly basic anion exchangers. It was found that sodium chloride containing in the electrolyte offered a sufficient chloride concentration needed for the formation of the zinc chlorocomplex and thus no additional reagent was required for the determination. The throughput of the method is 30 determinations per hour. The detection limit of the method is 0.002 microg x mL(-1) and the precision is 1.9% (RSD). The proposed method is rapid and cost-effective. It has been used for almost three years in the quality control of the electrolyte in the factory with great success.

  7. Deriving Freshwater Quality Criteria for Iron, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc for Protection of Aquatic Life in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M.; Nadzifah, Y.; Nur-Amalina, R.; Umirah, N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater quality criteria for iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia which were Macrobrachium lanchesteri (prawn), two fish: Poecilia reticulata and Rasbora sumatrana, Melanoides tuberculata (snail), Stenocypris major (ostracod), Chironomus javanus (midge larvae), Nais elinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (tadpole) to determine 96 h LC50 values for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The final acute value (FAV) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were 74.5, 17.0, 165, and 304.9 μg L−1, respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a criterion maximum concentration (CMC) and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn that are 37.2, 8.5, 82.5, and 152.4 μg L−1 and 9.0, 2.0, 19.9, and 36.7 μg L−1, respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC50 values, this study indicated that N. elinguis, M. lanchesteri, N. elinguis, and R. sumatrana were the most sensitive to Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn, respectively. PMID:22919358

  8. ZnO on nickel RF micromechanical resonators for monolithic wireless communication applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Mian; Avila, Adrian; Rivera, Ivan; Baghelani, Masoud; Wang, Jing

    2017-05-01

    On-chip integrability of high-Q RF passives alongside CMOS transistors is crucial for the implementation of monolithic radio transceivers. One of the most significant bottlenecks in back-end-of-line (BEoL) integration of MEMS devices on CMOS processed wafers is their relatively low thermal budget, which is less than that required for typical MEMS material deposition processes. This paper investigates electroplated nickel as a structural material for piezoelectrically-transduced resonators to demonstrate ZnO-on-nickel resonators with a CMOS-compatible low temperature process for the first time. Aside from the obvious manufacturing cost benefit, electroplated nickel is a reasonable substitute for polycrystalline or single crystal silicon and thin-film microcrystalline diamond device layers, while realizing decent acoustic velocity and moderate Q. Electroplated nickel has been already adopted by MEMSCAP, a multi-user MEMS process foundry, in its MetalMUMPs process. Furthermore, it is observed that a localized annealing process through Joule heating can be exploited to significantly improve the effective mechanical quality factor for the ZnO-on-nickel resonators, which is still lower than the reported AlN resonators. This work demonstrates ZnO-on-nickel piezoelectrically-actuated MEMS resonators and resonator arrays by using an IC compatible low temperature process. There is room for performance improvement by lowering the acoustic energy losses in the ZnO and nickel layers.

  9. Electrodeposition of Zn-doped α-nickel hydroxide with flower-like nanostructure for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Zheng; Shen, Kui; Wu, Zhicheng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Kong, Xianghua

    2012-08-01

    Zn-doped α-nickel hydroxide materials with flower-like nanostructures are synthesized by electrochemical deposition method. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electrochemical measurements. XRD spectra indicate nickel hydroxide doped with Zn is α-Ni(OH)2 with excellent crystallization. The SEM observation shows that the formation of Zn-doped Ni(OH)2 includes two steps: a honeycomb-like film forms on the substrate first, then flower-like particles forms on the films. The nickel hydroxide doped with 5% Zn can maintain a maximum specific capacitance of 860 F g-1, suggesting its potential application in electrochemical capacitors.

  10. A supplemented soft agar chemotaxis assay demonstrates the Helicobacter pylori chemotactic response to zinc and nickel

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Lisa; Andermann, Tessa M.

    2013-01-01

    Directed motility, or chemotaxis, is required for Helicobacter pylori to establish infection in the stomach, although the full repertoire of this bacterium’s chemotactic responses is not yet known. Here we report that H. pylori responds to zinc as an attractant and nickel as a repellent. To reach this conclusion, we employed both a temporal chemotaxis assay based on bacterial reversals and a supplemented soft agar spatial assay. We refined the temporal assay using a previously described chemorepellent, acid, and found that H. pylori requires rich media with serum to maintain optimal swimming motility. Surprisingly, we found that some strains respond to acid as an attractant, and that the TlpC chemoreceptor correlated with whether acid was sensed as an attractant or repellent. Using this same assay, we detected weak repellent responses to nickel and copper, and a varied response to zinc. We thus developed an alternative spatial chemotactic assay called the supplemented soft agar assay, which utilizes soft agar medium supplemented with the test compound. With Escherichia coli, the attractant serine slowed overall bacterial migration, while the repellent nickel increased the speed of overall migration. In H. pylori we detected slowed migration with doubled tryptone media, as well as zinc, consistent with an attractant response. In contrast, nickel increased migration, consistent with repulsion. PMID:23139399

  11. Health risk assessment of zinc, chromium, and nickel from cow meat consumption in an urban Nigerian population

    PubMed Central

    Ihedioha, Janefrances N; Okoye, Chukwuma O B; Onyechi, Uchenna A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Meat consumption is increasingly becoming a larger part of diets worldwide. However, the bioaccumulation of toxic metals from anthropogenic pollution is a potential health risk to human health. Objective: To measure the daily intake of zinc, chromium, and nickel from cow meat consumption and assess the possible health risks in an urban population in Nigeria. Methods: Dried meat samples were digested with 3 : 2HNO3 : HClO4 v/v. Zinc, chromium, and nickel concentrations were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Daily intakes of meat were obtained using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Results: The estimated daily intakes (EDI) (μg/person/day) ranges were: zinc (10 496–13 459), chromium (310.90–393.73), and nickel (26.72–34.87). Estimated daily intake for zinc was 15–30% of provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) and for nickel it was 8–15% of tolerable daily intake (TDI). Conclusion: Chromium intakes were above recommended daily intake (RDI). Target hazard quotient (THQ) for nickel and zinc were within WHO/FAO limit. There was no evidence of possible health risk to consumers with regard to zinc and nickel. However, chromium intake should be of utmost concern, while disposal of tanning waste should be checked. PMID:25078345

  12. [Effects of applying tea seed meal and EDTA on the speciation transformation and phyto-availability of nickel and zinc in soil].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Xia, Hui-Long

    2013-06-01

    A pot experiment with sugarcane was conducted to study the effects of applying tea seed meal and EDTA on the speciation transformation and phyto-availability of nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in soil. With the increasing application rate of tea seed meal, the biomass of sugarcane root, stem, and leaf increased gradually, but no significant difference was observed in the stem and leaf biomass between EDTA treatments and the control. Applying tea seed meal and EDTA increased the acid-soluble Ni and Zn contents in soil, and promoted the bioconcentration and translocation of Ni and Zn in sugarcane. Meanwhile, the strengthening effect increased gradually with the increasing application rate of tea seed meal. As compared with EDTA, tea seed meal was more efficient in improving the accumulation of Ni and Zn in sugarcane, and thus, made the sugarcane remove more Ni and Zn from soil. The Ni and Zn contents in sugarcane stem and leaf had significant positive correlations with the application rate of tea seed meal, while the Ni and Zn contents in sugarcane root were significantly negatively correlated with the application rate of tea seed meal.

  13. High-cycle-life, high-energy-density nickel-zinc batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, O. C.

    1982-02-01

    The ERADCOM nickel-zinc program, resulted in the development of 5 ampere-hour nickel-zinc cells that maintained 79% to 86% of initial capacity after 650 cycles on the C/3 80% DOD cycling regime. One cell is still delivering 70% of initial capacity after 880 cycles. This achievement is primarily due to the employment of an interrupted current (IC) charging mode on every cycle, the optimum frequency being 5 to 8 Hertz at a rest-to-pulse-ratio of 3/1, with charge control being by means of a GRL pressure switch attached to each cell at a cutoff pressure of 8 psig, and venting means at 10 psig. Design and performance characteristics of the battery are reported.

  14. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-06-01

    The feasibility of the nickel zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion is discussed. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal manufacturing, and thermal management. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. Progress in the area of thermal management was significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation.

  15. Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L−1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the

  16. Accelerated Corrosion Results for Zinc/Nickel-Plated Automotive Parts Posttreated With Trivalent Chromate Rinse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    400 and 300 h in neutral salt spray. 5 Similarly plated samples post treated with trivalent chromium rinse lasted 450 and 200 h in neutral salt...Accelerated Corrosion Results for Zinc/Nickel-Plated Automotive Parts Posttreated With Trivalent Chromate Rinse by Chris E. Miller, Brian E...Posttreated With Trivalent Chromate Rinse Chris E. Miller and Brian E. Placzankis Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL I. Carl Handsy

  17. Rapid, efficient charging of lead-acid and nickel-zinc traction cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Lead-acid and nickel-zinc traction cells were rapidly and efficiently charged using a high rate tapered direct current (HRTDC) charge method which could possibly be used for on-the-road service recharge of electric vehicles. The HRTDC method takes advantage of initial high cell charge acceptance and uses cell gassing rate and temperature as an indicator of charging efficiency. On the average, in these preliminary tests, 300 amp-hour nickel-zinc traction cells were given a HRTDC (initial current 500 amps, final current 100 amps) to 78 percent of rated amp-hour capacity within 53 minutes at an amp-hour efficiency of 92 percent and an energy efficiency of 52 percent. Three hundred amp-hour lead-acid traction cells were charged to 69 percent of rated amp-hour capacity within 46 minutes at an amp-hour efficiency of 91 percent with an energy efficiency of 64 percent. In order to find ways to further decrease the recharge times, the effect of periodically (0 to 400 Hz) pulse discharging cells during a constant current charging process (94% duty cycle) was investigated. Preliminary data indicate no significant effect of this type of pulse discharging during charge on charge acceptance of lead-acid or nickel-zinc cells.

  18. Anti-cancer activity of ZnO chips by sustained zinc ion release.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-Hee; Choi, Won Jin; Choi, Sik-Won; Kim, Eun Hye; Kim, Jiyeon; Lee, Jeong-O; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    We report anti-cancer activity of ZnO thin-film-coated chips by sustained release of zinc ions. ZnO chips were fabricated by precisely tuning ZnO thickness using atomic layer deposition, and their potential to release zinc ions relative to the number of deposition cycles was evaluated. ZnO chips exhibited selective cytotoxicity in human B lymphocyte Raji cells while having no effect on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Of importance, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the ZnO chip on the viability of Raji cells was 121.5 cycles, which was comparable to 65.7 nM of daunorubicin, an anti-cancer drug for leukemia. Molecular analysis of cells treated with ZnO chips revealed that zinc ions released from the chips increased cellular levels of reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide, which led to the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic molecules (such as HIF-1α, survivin, cIAP-2, claspin, p-53, and XIAP) and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Because the anti-cancer activity of ZnO chips and the mode of action were comparable to those of daunorubicin, the development and optimization of ZnO chips that gradually release zinc ions might have clinical anti-cancer potential. A further understanding of the biological action of ZnO-related products is crucial for designing safe biomaterials with applications in disease treatment.

  19. Molecular and functional characterization of two drought-induced zinc finger proteins, ZmZnF1 and ZmZnF2 from maize kernels

    We have isolated two cDNA clones encoding Zinc Finger proteins, designated as ZmZnF1 and ZmZnF2, from water-stressed maize kernels. Sequence analyses indicates that ZmZnF1 is homologous to the A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein and contains the zinc finger motif of Cx2–Cx10–CxCx4Cx2Hx5HxC. Whereas ZmZ...

  20. Solubilization of insoluble zinc compounds by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and the detrimental action of zinc ion (Zn2+) and zinc chelates on root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, V S; Kalaiarasan, P; Madhaiyan, M; Thangaraju, M

    2007-03-01

    To examine the zinc (Zn) solubilization potential and nematicidal properties of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Differential Pulse Polarography and Gas Chromatography Coupled Mass Spectrometry were used to estimate the total Zn and Zn(2+) ions and identify the organic acids present in the culture supernatants. The effect of culture filtrate of Zn-amended G. diazotrophicus PAl5 on Meloidogyne incognita in tomato was examined under gnotobiotic conditions. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl5 effectively solubilized the Zn compounds tested and 5-ketogluconic acid was identified as the major organic acid aiding the solubilization of zinc oxide. The presence of Zn compounds in the culture filtrates of G. diazotrophicus enhanced the mortality and reduced the root penetration of M. incognita under in vitro conditions. 5-ketogluconic acid produced by G. diazotrophicus mediated the solubilization process and the available Zn(2+) ions enhanced the nematicidal activity of G. diazotrophicus against M. incognita. Zn solubilization and enhanced nematicidal activity of Zn-amended G. diazotrophicus provides the possibility of exploiting it as a plant growth promoting bacteria.

  1. Zinc Vacancy Formation and its Effect on the Conductivity of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Enamul; Weber, Marc; Langford, Steve; Dickinson, Tom

    2010-03-01

    Exposing single crystal ZnO to 193-nm ArF excimer laser radiation can produce metallic zinc nanoparticles along the surface. The particle production mechanism appears to involve interstitial-vacancy pair formation in the near-surface bulk. Conductivity measurements made with one probe inside the laser spot and the other outside show evidence for rectifying behavior. Positron annihilation spectroscopy confirms the presence of Zn vacancies. We suggest that Zn vacancies are a possible source of p-type behavior in irradiated ZnO. Quadrupole mass spectroscopy shows that both oxygen and zinc are emitted during irradiation. Electron-hole pair production has previously been invoked to account for particle desorption from ZnO during UV illumination. Our results suggest that preexisting and laser-generated defects play a critical role in particle desorption and Zn vacancy formation.

  2. The effect of binary mixtures of zinc, copper, cadmium, and nickel on the growth of the freshwater diatom Navicula pelliculosa and comparison with mixture toxicity model predictions.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takashi; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2016-11-01

    The authors investigated the effect of binary mixtures of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni) on the growth of a freshwater diatom, Navicula pelliculosa. A 7 × 7 full factorial experimental design (49 combinations in total) was used to test each binary metal mixture. A 3-d fluorescence microplate toxicity assay was used to test each combination. Mixture effects were predicted by concentration addition and independent action models based on a single-metal concentration-response relationship between the relative growth rate and the calculated free metal ion activity. Although the concentration addition model predicted the observed mixture toxicity significantly better than the independent action model for the Zn-Cu mixture, the independent action model predicted the observed mixture toxicity significantly better than the concentration addition model for the Cd-Zn, Cd-Ni, and Cd-Cu mixtures. For the Zn-Ni and Cu-Ni mixtures, it was unclear which of the 2 models was better. Statistical analysis concerning antagonistic/synergistic interactions showed that the concentration addition model is generally conservative (with the Zn-Ni mixture being the sole exception), indicating that the concentration addition model would be useful as a method for a conservative first-tier screening-level risk analysis of metal mixtures. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2765-2773. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  3. III-nitrides on oxygen- and zinc-face ZnO substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namkoong, Gon; Burnham, Shawn; Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Trybus, Elaissa; Doolittle, W. Alan; Losurdo, Maria; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni; Nemeth, Bill; Nause, Jeff

    2005-10-01

    The characteristics of III-nitrides grown on zinc- and oxygen-face ZnO by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern indicates formation of a cubic phase at the interface between III-nitride and both Zn- and O-face ZnO. The polarity indicates that Zn-face ZnO leads to a single polarity, while O-face ZnO forms mixed polarity of III-nitrides. Furthermore, by using a vicinal ZnO substrate, the terrace-step growth of GaN was realized with a reduction by two orders of magnitude in the dislocation-related etch pit density to ˜108cm-2, while a dislocation density of ˜1010cm-2 was obtained on the on-axis ZnO substrates.

  4. Response of nickel to zinc cells to electric vehicle chopper discharge waveforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary results of simulated electric vehicle chopper controlled discharge of a Nickel/Zinc battery shows delivered energy increases of 5 to 25 percent compared to constant current discharges of the same average current. The percentage increase was a function of chopper frequency, the ratio of peak to average current, and the magnitude of the discharge current. Because the chopper effects are of a complex nature, electric vehicle battery/speed controller interaction must be carefully considered in vehicle design to optimize battery performance.

  5. Relationship of /sup 65/Zn absorption kinetics to intestinal metallothionein in rats: effects of zinc depletion and fasting

    SciT

    Hoadley, J.E.; Leinart, A.S.; Cousins, R.J.

    1988-04-01

    Intestinal 65Zn transport and metallothionein levels were examined in rats fed zinc-adequate and zinc-deficient diets and in rats subjected to an overnight fast. 65Zn uptake by intestines perfused with 1.5 microM 65Zn was greater in both zinc-deficient and fasted groups than in the control group. Mucosal retention of 65Zn was also greater in the zinc-deficient group but not in the fasted group. The greater 65Zn uptake in the fasted group was associated with a compartment that readily released 65Zn back into the lumen. Kinetic analysis of the rate of 65Zn transfer to the vascular space (absorption) showed that 65Zn absorptionmore » involved approximately 3% of mucosal 65Zn in a 40-min perfusion period. The half-life (t1/2) of this mucosal 65Zn rapid transport pool corresponded directly to changes in intestinal metallothionein levels. Both metallothionein and t1/2 were higher in the fasted group and lower in the zinc-deficient group than in controls. While the rate of 65Zn transport from this rapid transport pool decreased with increasing metallothionein level, the predicted pool size increased when the metallothionein level was elevated by fasting. These results indicate that the rate of zinc absorption is inversely related to intestinal metallothionein levels, but the portion of mucosal 65Zn available for absorption is directly related to intestinal metallothionein.« less

  6. Evaluation of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate and zinc/nickel double hydroxide salts in the removal of chromate ions from solutions

    SciT

    Bortolaz de Oliveira, Henrique; Wypych, Fernando, E-mail: wypych@ufpr.br

    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZnHN) and Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts were synthesized and used to remove chromate ions from solutions at pH 8.0. The materials were characterized by many instrumental techniques before and after chromate ion removal. ZnHN decomposed after contact with the chromate solution, whereas the layered structure of Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate (Zn/NiHN) and Zn/Ni hydroxide acetate (Zn/NiHA) remained their layers intact after the topotactic anionic exchange reaction, only changing the basal distances. ZnHN, Zn/NiHN, and Zn/NiHA removed 210.1, 144.8, and 170.1 mg of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/g of material, respectively. Although the removal values obtained for Zn/NiHN andmore » Zn/NiHA were smaller than the values predicted for the ideal formulas of the solids (194.3 and 192.4 mg of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/g of material, respectively), the measured capacities were higher than the values achieved with many materials reported in the literature. Kinetic experiments showed the removal reaction was fast. To facilitate the solid/liquid separation process after chromium removal, Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts with magnetic supports were also synthesized, and their ability to remove chromate was evaluated. - Highlights: • Zinc hydroxide nitrate and Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate or acetate were synthesized. • The interlayer anions were replaced by chromate anions at pH=8.0. • Only Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate or acetate have the structure preserved after exchange. • Fast exchange reaction and high capacity of chromate removal were observed. • Magnetic materials were obtained to facilitate the solids removal the from solutions.« less

  7. The Influence of Different Metal Ions on the Absorption Properties of Nano-Nickel Zinc Ferrite

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhijun; Mang, Changye; Weng, Xingyuan; Si, Liwei; Zhao, Haitao

    2018-01-01

    The hydrothermal method was used to dope different amounts of Co2+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ in nano-nickel zinc ferrite powder. X-ray diffraction (XRD), a scanning electron microscopy (TEM), and a vector network analyzer (VNA) were used to explore the influence of doping on particle size, morphology, and electromagnetic wave absorption performance. Pure nanometer cobalt nickel zinc ferrite phase was prepared using the hydrothermal method with an increasing Co2+ content. Results showed that the grain type structure changed from a spherical structure to an irregular quadrilateral structure with the average particle size increasing from 35 nm to 60 nm. The lattice constant increased from 0.8352 to 0.8404 nm with Co2+ doping. The increasing Co2+ can change the position of the absorption peak, increase the bandwidth of the absorber, and improve the performance of the materials in GHz low frequency. The doping ratio of Mn2+ can affect the size of the lattice constant, but nanocrystals are easy to reunite without improving the electromagnetic loss. However, the absorbance performance decreases. For the doping of Cu2+, there is an agglomeration phenomenon. When the doping quantity is 0.15, the absorbing wave performance becomes better. PMID:29641477

  8. The Influence of Different Metal Ions on the Absorption Properties of Nano-Nickel Zinc Ferrite.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhijun; Mang, Changye; Weng, Xingyuan; Zhang, Qi; Si, Liwei; Zhao, Haitao

    2018-04-11

    The hydrothermal method was used to dope different amounts of Co 2+ , Mn 2+ , and Cu 2+ in nano-nickel zinc ferrite powder. X-ray diffraction (XRD), a scanning electron microscopy (TEM), and a vector network analyzer (VNA) were used to explore the influence of doping on particle size, morphology, and electromagnetic wave absorption performance. Pure nanometer cobalt nickel zinc ferrite phase was prepared using the hydrothermal method with an increasing Co 2+ content. Results showed that the grain type structure changed from a spherical structure to an irregular quadrilateral structure with the average particle size increasing from 35 nm to 60 nm. The lattice constant increased from 0.8352 to 0.8404 nm with Co 2+ doping. The increasing Co 2+ can change the position of the absorption peak, increase the bandwidth of the absorber, and improve the performance of the materials in GHz low frequency. The doping ratio of Mn 2+ can affect the size of the lattice constant, but nanocrystals are easy to reunite without improving the electromagnetic loss. However, the absorbance performance decreases. For the doping of Cu 2+ , there is an agglomeration phenomenon. When the doping quantity is 0.15, the absorbing wave performance becomes better.

  9. Characteristics of Zinc Phosphate Coating Activated by Different Concentrations of Nickel Acetate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Khalid; Zuhailawati, H.; Rahmat, Azmi; Azizan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Activation pretreatment with nickel acetate solution at various concentrations was performed prior to the phosphating step to enhance the corrosion resistance of carbon steel substrates. The activation solution was studied over various concentrations: 10, 50, and 100 g/L. The effects of these concentrations on surface characteristics and microstructural evolution of the coated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test in a 3.5 pct NaCl solution. Significant increases in the nucleation sites and surface coverage of zinc phosphate coating were observed as the concentration of activation solution reached 50 g/L. The electrochemical analysis revealed that the activation treatment with 50 g/L nickel acetate solution significantly improved the protection ability of the zinc phosphate coating. The corrosion current density of activated phosphate coating with 50 g/L was reduced by 64.64 and 13.22 pct, compared to the coatings obtained with activation solutions of 10 and 100 g/L, respectively.

  10. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Development, Zinc Metabolism and Biodistribution of Minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Lu, Jianjun; Zhou, Le; Li, Jun; Xu, Jiaman; Li, Weijian; Zhang, Lili; Zhong, Xiang; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) are widely used and possess great potentials in agriculture and biomedicine. It is inevitable for human exposure to these nanoparticles. However, no study had been conducted to investigate the long term effects of nano-ZnOs. This study aimed at investigating effects of nano-ZnOs on development, zinc metabolism and biodistribution of minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) in mice from week 3 to 35. After the characteristics of nano-ZnOs were determined, they were added into the basal diet at 0, 50, 500 and 5000 mg/kg. Results indicated that added 50 and 500 mg/kg nano-ZnOs showed minimal toxicity. However, 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnOs significantly decreased body weight (from week 4 to 16) and increased the relative weights of the pancreas, brain and lung. Added 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnOs significantly increased the serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activity and zinc content, and significantly enhanced mRNA expression of zinc metabolism-related genes, including metallothionein 1(32.66 folds), metallothionein 2 (31.42 folds), ZIP8 (2.21folds), ZIP14 (2.45 folds), ZnT1 (4.76 folds), ZnT2 (6.19 folds) and ZnT4 (1.82 folds). The biodistribution determination showed that there was a significant accumulation of zinc in the liver, pancreas, kidney, and bones (tibia and fibula) after receiving 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnO diet, while no significant effects on Cu, Fe, and Mn levels, except for liver Fe content and pancreas Mn level. Our results demonstrated that long term exposure to 50 and 500 mg/kg nano-ZnO diets showed minimal toxicity. However, high dose of nano-ZnOs (5000 mg/kg) caused toxicity on development, and altered the zinc metabolism and biodistribution in mice. PMID:27732669

  11. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Development, Zinc Metabolism and Biodistribution of Minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn) in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Lu, Jianjun; Zhou, Le; Li, Jun; Xu, Jiaman; Li, Weijian; Zhang, Lili; Zhong, Xiang; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) are widely used and possess great potentials in agriculture and biomedicine. It is inevitable for human exposure to these nanoparticles. However, no study had been conducted to investigate the long term effects of nano-ZnOs. This study aimed at investigating effects of nano-ZnOs on development, zinc metabolism and biodistribution of minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) in mice from week 3 to 35. After the characteristics of nano-ZnOs were determined, they were added into the basal diet at 0, 50, 500 and 5000 mg/kg. Results indicated that added 50 and 500 mg/kg nano-ZnOs showed minimal toxicity. However, 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnOs significantly decreased body weight (from week 4 to 16) and increased the relative weights of the pancreas, brain and lung. Added 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnOs significantly increased the serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activity and zinc content, and significantly enhanced mRNA expression of zinc metabolism-related genes, including metallothionein 1(32.66 folds), metallothionein 2 (31.42 folds), ZIP8 (2.21folds), ZIP14 (2.45 folds), ZnT1 (4.76 folds), ZnT2 (6.19 folds) and ZnT4 (1.82 folds). The biodistribution determination showed that there was a significant accumulation of zinc in the liver, pancreas, kidney, and bones (tibia and fibula) after receiving 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnO diet, while no significant effects on Cu, Fe, and Mn levels, except for liver Fe content and pancreas Mn level. Our results demonstrated that long term exposure to 50 and 500 mg/kg nano-ZnO diets showed minimal toxicity. However, high dose of nano-ZnOs (5000 mg/kg) caused toxicity on development, and altered the zinc metabolism and biodistribution in mice.

  12. Evaluation of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate and zinc/nickel double hydroxide salts in the removal of chromate ions from solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Henrique Bortolaz; Wypych, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZnHN) and Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts were synthesized and used to remove chromate ions from solutions at pH 8.0. The materials were characterized by many instrumental techniques before and after chromate ion removal. ZnHN decomposed after contact with the chromate solution, whereas the layered structure of Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate (Zn/NiHN) and Zn/Ni hydroxide acetate (Zn/NiHA) remained their layers intact after the topotactic anionic exchange reaction, only changing the basal distances. ZnHN, Zn/NiHN, and Zn/NiHA removed 210.1, 144.8, and 170.1 mg of CrO42-/g of material, respectively. Although the removal values obtained for Zn/NiHN and Zn/NiHA were smaller than the values predicted for the ideal formulas of the solids (194.3 and 192.4 mg of CrO42-/g of material, respectively), the measured capacities were higher than the values achieved with many materials reported in the literature. Kinetic experiments showed the removal reaction was fast. To facilitate the solid/liquid separation process after chromium removal, Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts with magnetic supports were also synthesized, and their ability to remove chromate was evaluated.

  13. Zinc bioaccumulation in a terrestrial invertebrate fed a diet treated with particulate ZnO or ZnCl2 solution.

    PubMed

    Pipan-Tkalec, Ziva; Drobne, Damjana; Jemec, Anita; Romih, Tea; Zidar, Primoz; Bele, Marjan

    2010-03-10

    A number of reports on potential toxicity of nanoparticles are available, but there is still a lack of knowledge concerning bioaccumulation. The aim of this work was to investigate how different sources of zinc, such as uncoated and unmodified ZnO nanoparticles, ZnCl(2) in solution, and macropowder ZnO influence the bioaccumulation of this metal in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. After exposure to different sources of Zn in the diet, the amount of assimilated Zn in whole body, the efficiency of zinc assimilation, and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were assessed. The bioaccumulation potential of Zn was found to be the same regardless of Zn source. The amount of assimilated Zn and BAF were dose-dependent, and Zn assimilation efficiency was independent of exposure concentrations. The Zn assimilation capacity was found to be up to 16% of ingested Zn. It is known that as much as approximately 20% of Zn can be accreted from ZnO particles by dissolution. We conclude that bioaccumulation of Zn in isopods exposed to particulate ZnO depends most probably on Zn dissolution from ZnO particles and not on bioaccumulation of particulate ZnO.

  14. Influence of Matrix Composition on the Bioaccessibility of Copper, Zinc and Nickel in Urban Residential Dust and Soil

    SciT

    Rasmussen,P.; Beauchemin, S.; Nugent, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting oral bioaccessibility of metals in household dust, in particular metal speciation, organic carbon content, and particle size, with the goal of addressing risk assessment information requirements. Investigation of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) speciation in two size fractions of dust (< 36 {mu} m and 80-150 {mu} m) using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) indicates that the two metals are bound to different components of the dust: Cu is predominately associated with the organic phase of the dust, while Zn is predominately associated with the mineral fraction. Total and bioaccessible Cu, nickel (Ni), and Znmore » were determined (on dry weight basis) in the < 150 {mu} m size fraction of a set of archived indoor dust samples (n = 63) and corresponding garden soil samples (n = 66) from the City of Ottawa, Canada. The median bioaccessible Cu content is 66 {mu} g g-1 in dust compared to 5 {mu} g g-1 in soil; the median bioaccessible Ni content is 16 {mu} g g-1 in dust compared to 2 {mu} g g-1 in soil; and the median bioaccessible Zn content is 410 {mu} g g-1 in dust compared to 18 {mu} g g-1 in soil. For the same data set, the median total Cu content is 152 {mu} g g-1 in dust compared to 17 {mu} g g-1 in soil; the median total Ni content is 41 {mu} g g-1 in dust compared to 13 {mu} g g-1 in soil; and the median total Zn content is 626 {mu} g g-1 in dust compared to 84 {mu} g g-1 in soil. Organic carbon is elevated in indoor dust (median 28%) compared to soil (median 5%), and is a key factor controlling metal partitioning and therefore bioaccessibility. The results show that house dust and soil have distinct geochemical signatures and should not be treated as identical media in exposure and risk assessments. Separate measurements of the indoor and outdoor environment are essential to improve the accuracy of residential risk assessments.« less

  15. Zinc transporter ZnT-3 regulates presynaptic Erk1/2 signaling and hippocampus-dependent memory.

    PubMed

    Sindreu, Carlos; Palmiter, Richard D; Storm, Daniel R

    2011-02-22

    The physiological role of vesicular zinc at central glutamatergic synapses remains poorly understood. Here we show that mice lacking the synapse-specific vesicular zinc transporter ZnT3 (ZnT3KO mice) have reduced activation of the Erk1/2 MAPK in hippocampal mossy fiber terminals, disinhibition of zinc-sensitive MAPK tyrosine phosphatase activity, and impaired MAPK signaling during hippocampus-dependent learning. Activity-dependent exocytosis is required for the effect of zinc on presynaptic MAPK and phosphatase activity. ZnT3KO mice have complete deficits in contextual discrimination and spatial working memory. Local blockade of zinc or MAPK in the mossy fiber pathway of wild-type mice impairs contextual discrimination. We conclude that ZnT3 is important for zinc homeostasis modulating presynaptic MAPK signaling and is required for hippocampus-dependent memory.

  16. Zinc transporter ZnT-3 regulates presynaptic Erk1/2 signaling and hippocampus-dependent memory

    PubMed Central

    Sindreu, Carlos; Palmiter, Richard D.; Storm, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological role of vesicular zinc at central glutamatergic synapses remains poorly understood. Here we show that mice lacking the synapse-specific vesicular zinc transporter ZnT3 (ZnT3KO mice) have reduced activation of the Erk1/2 MAPK in hippocampal mossy fiber terminals, disinhibition of zinc-sensitive MAPK tyrosine phosphatase activity, and impaired MAPK signaling during hippocampus-dependent learning. Activity-dependent exocytosis is required for the effect of zinc on presynaptic MAPK and phosphatase activity. ZnT3KO mice have complete deficits in contextual discrimination and spatial working memory. Local blockade of zinc or MAPK in the mossy fiber pathway of wild-type mice impairs contextual discrimination. We conclude that ZnT3 is important for zinc homeostasis modulating presynaptic MAPK signaling and is required for hippocampus-dependent memory. PMID:21245308

  17. Silicon (Si) alleviates cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) from zinc (Zn) toxicity stress by limiting Zn uptake and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Anwaar, Shad Ali; Ali, Shafaqat; Ali, Skhawat; Ishaque, Wajid; Farid, Mujahid; Farooq, Muhammad Ahsan; Najeeb, Ullah; Abbas, Farhat; Sharif, Muhammad

    2015-03-01

    Silicon (Si) is as an important fertilizer element, which has been found effective in enhancing plant tolerance to variety of biotic and a-biotic stresses. This study investigates the Si potential to alleviate zinc (Zn) toxicity stress in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Cotton plants were grown in hydroponics and exposed to different Zn concentration, 0, 25, and 50 μM, alone and/or in combination with 1 mM Si. Incremental Zn concentration in growth media instigated the cellular oxidative damage that was evident from elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), electrolyte leakage, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and consequently inhibited cotton growth, biomass, chlorophyll pigments, and photosynthetic process. Application of Si significantly suppressed Zn accumulation in various plant parts, i.e., roots, stems, and leaves and thus promoted biomass, photosynthetic, growth parameters, and antioxidant enzymes activity of Zn-stressed as well unstressed plants. In addition, Si reduced the MDA and H2O2 production and electrolyte leakage suggesting its role in protecting cotton plants from Zn toxicity-induced oxidative damage. Thus, the study indicated that exogenous Si application could improve growth and development of cotton crop experiencing Zn toxicity stress by limiting Zn bioavailability and oxidative damage.

  18. Zn or O? An Atomic Level Comparison on Antibacterial Activities of Zinc Oxides.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fen; Fang, Xuan; Jia, Huimin; Liu, Miaoxing; Shi, Xiaotong; Xue, Chaowen; Chen, Tingtao; Wei, Zhipeng; Fang, Fang; Zhu, Hui; Xin, Hongbo; Feng, Jing; Wang, Xiaolei

    2016-06-06

    For the first time, the influence of different types of atoms (Zn and O) on the antibacterial activities of nanosized ZnO was quantitatively evaluated with the aid of a 3D-printing-manufactured evaluation system. Two different outermost atomic layers were manufactured separately by using an ALD (atomic layer deposition) method. Interestingly, we found that each outermost atomic layer exhibited certain differences against gram-positive or gram-negative bacterial species. Zinc atoms as outermost layer (ZnO-Zn) showed a more pronounced antibacterial effect towards gram-negative E. coli (Escherichia coli), whereas oxygen atoms (ZnO-O) showed a stronger antibacterial activity against gram-positive S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus). A possible antibacterial mechanism has been comprehensively discussed from different perspectives, including Zn(2+) concentrations, oxygen vacancies, photocatalytic activities and the DNA structural characteristics of different bacterial species. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Single-layer ZnMN2 (M = Si, Ge, Sn) zinc nitrides as promising photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yujie; Luo, Gaixia; Meng, Lijuan; Zhang, Qinfang; Xu, Ning; Zhang, Haiyang; Wu, Xiuqiang; Kong, Fanjie; Wang, Baolin

    2018-05-30

    Searching for two-dimensional semiconductor materials that are suitable for visible-light photocatalytic water splitting provides a sustainable solution to deal with the future energy crisis and environmental problems. Herein, based on first-principles calculations, single-layer ZnMN2 (M = Si, Ge, Sn) zinc nitrides are proposed as efficient photocatalysts for water splitting. Stability analyses show that the single-layer ZnMN2 zinc nitrides exhibit energetic and dynamical stability. The electronic properties reveal that all of the single-layer ZnMN2 zinc nitrides are semiconductors. Interestingly, single-layer ZnSnN2 is a direct band gap semiconductor with a desirable band gap (1.74 eV), and the optical adsorption spectrum confirms its optical absorption in the visible light region. The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) calculations show that the catalytic activity for single-layer ZnMN2 (M = Ge, Sn) is better than that of single-layer ZnSiN2. Furthermore, the band gaps and band edge positions for the single-layer ZnMN2 zinc nitrides can be effectively tuned by biaxial strain. Especially, single-layer ZnGeN2 can be effectively tuned to match better with the redox potentials of water and enhance the light absorption in the visible light region at a tensile strain of 5%, which is confirmed by the corresponding optical absorption spectrum. Our results provide guidance for experimental synthesis efforts and future searches for single-layer materials suitable for photocatalytic water splitting.

  20. Interaction between zinc and freshwater and marine diatom species: Surface complexation and Zn isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gélabert, A.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Viers, J.; Schott, J.; Boudou, A.; Feurtet-Mazel, A.

    2006-02-01

    This work is devoted to characterization of zinc interaction in aqueous solution with two marine planktonic ( Thalassiosira weissflogii = TW, Skeletonema costatum = SC) and two freshwater periphytic species ( Achnanthidium minutissimum = AMIN, Navicula minima = NMIN) by combining adsorption and electrophoretic measurements with surface complexation modeling and by assessing Zn isotopes fractionation during both long term uptake and short term adsorption on diatom cells and their frustules. Reversible adsorption experiments were performed at 25 and 5 °C as a function of exposure time (5 min to 140 h), pH (2 to 10), zinc concentration in solution (10 nM to 1 mM), ionic strength ( I = 0.001 to 1.0 M) and the presence of light. While the shape of pH-dependent adsorption edge is almost the same for all four species, the constant-pH adsorption isotherm and maximal Zn binding capacities differ by an order of magnitude. The extent of adsorption increases with temperature from 5 to 25 °C and does not depend on light intensity. Zinc adsorption decreases with increase of ionic strength suggesting competition with sodium for surface sites. Cell number-normalized concentrations of sorbed zinc on whole cells and their silica frustules demonstrated only weak contribution of the latter (10-20%) to overall zinc binding by diatom cell wall. Measurements of electrophoretic mobilities ( μ) revealed negative diatoms surface potential in the full range of zinc concentrations investigated (0.15-760 μmol/L), however, the absolute value of μ decreases at [Zn] > 15 μmol/L suggesting a change in surface speciation. These observations allowed us to construct a surface complexation model for Zn binding by diatom surfaces that postulates the constant capacitance of the electric double layer and considers Zn complexation with carboxylate and silanol groups. Thermodynamic and structural parameters of this model are based on previous acid-base titration and spectroscopic results and allow

  1. Diffusion Limitations in Root Uptake of Cadmium and Zinc, But Not Nickel, and Resulting Bias in the Michaelis Constant1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Degryse, Fien; Shahbazi, Afsaneh; Verheyen, Liesbeth; Smolders, Erik

    2012-01-01

    It has long been recognized that diffusive boundary layers affect the determination of active transport parameters, but this has been largely overlooked in plant physiological research. We studied the short-term uptake of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) by spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) in solutions with or without metal complexes. At same free ion concentration, the presence of complexes, which enhance the diffusion flux, increased the uptake of Cd and Zn, whereas Ni uptake was unaffected. Competition effects of protons on Cd and Zn uptake were observed only at a very large degree of buffering, while competition of magnesium ions on Ni uptake was observed even in unbuffered solutions. These results strongly suggest that uptake of Cd and Zn is limited by diffusion of the free ion to the roots, except at very high degree of solution buffering, whereas Ni uptake is generally internalization limited. All results could be well described by a model that combined a diffusion equation with a competitive Michaelis-Menten equation. Direct uptake of the complex was estimated to be a major contribution only at millimolar concentrations of the complex or at very large ratios of complex to free ion concentration. The true Km for uptake of Cd2+ and Zn2+ was estimated at <5 nm, three orders of magnitude smaller than the Km measured in unbuffered solutions. Published Michaelis constants for plant uptake of Cd and Zn likely strongly overestimate physiological ones and should not be interpreted as an indicator of transporter affinity. PMID:22864584

  2. Effect of inhibitors on Zn-dendrite formation for zinc-polyaniline secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Jinqing; Xue, Huaiguo; Mu, Shaolin

    The effects of Pb 2+, sodium lauryl sulfate and Triton X-100 on inhibition of Zn-dendrite growth in Zn-polyaniline batteries were studied by scanning electron micrograph and cyclic voltammetry. The results show that Triton X-100 in the region of 0.02-500 ppm in the electrolyte containing 2.5 M ZnCl 2 and 2.0 M NH 4Cl with pH 4.40 can effectively inhibit zinc-dendrite growth during charge-discharge cycles of the battery and yield longer cycles.

  3. Characterization of the modified nickel-zinc ferrite nanoparticles coated with APTES by salinization reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainal, Israa G.; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed; Kachi, Wjeah

    2018-05-01

    Surface functionalization of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is a kind of functional materials, which have been widely used in the biotechnology and catalysis. In this study, Nickel-Zinc ferrite nanoparticles was functionalized with amino propyl triethoxy silane (APTES) by silanization reaction and both non coated and organosilane-coated magnetite characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy. Basic groups of amino anchored on the external surface of the coated magnetite were observed. Our study procedure nanoparticles which have surface with free - NH2 groups which can carry out ionic interaction with carboxylic groups and act as a carrier of biological molecules, drugs and metals.

  4. Water-vapor effects on friction of magnetic tape in contact with nickel-zinc ferrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of humidity of moist nitrogen on the friction and deformation behavior of magnetic tape in contact with a nickel-zinc ferrite spherical pin were studied. The results indicate that the coefficient of friction is markedly dependent on the ambient relative humidity. Although the coefficient of friction remains low below 40-percent relative humidity, it increases rapidly with increasing relative humidity above 40 percent. The general ambient environment of the tape does not have any effect on the friction behavior if the area where the tape is in sliding contact with the ferrite pin is flooded with controlled nitrogen. The response time for the friction of the tape to humidity changes is about 10 sec. The effect of friction as a function of relative humidity on dehumidifying is very similar to that on humidifying. A surface softening of the tape due to water vapor increases the friction of the tape.

  5. Atomic Layer Deposition of Nickel on ZnO Nanowire Arrays for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Wang, Yong-Ping; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ji, Xin-Ming; Devi, Anjana; Jiang, An-Quan; Zhang, David Wei

    2018-01-10

    A novel hybrid core-shell structure of ZnO nanowires (NWs)/Ni as a pseudocapacitor electrode was successfully fabricated by atomic layer deposition of a nickel shell, and its capacitive performance was systemically investigated. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the NiO was formed at the interface between ZnO and Ni where the Ni was oxidized by ZnO during the ALD of the Ni layer. Electrochemical measurement results revealed that the Ti/ZnO NWs/Ni (1500 cycles) electrode with a 30 nm thick Ni-NiO shell layer had the best supercapacitor properties including ultrahigh specific capacitance (∼2440 F g -1 ), good rate capability (80.5%) under high current charge-discharge conditions, and a relatively better cycling stability (86.7% of the initial value remained after 750 cycles at 10 A g -1 ). These attractive capacitive behaviors are mainly attributed to the unique core-shell structure and the combined effect of ZnO NW arrays as short charge transfer pathways for ion diffusion and electron transfer as well as conductive Ni serving as channel for the fast electron transport to Ti substrate. This high-performance Ti/ZnO NWs/Ni hybrid structure is expected to be one of a promising electrodes for high-performance supercapacitor applications.

  6. Facile synthesis and photocatalytic activity of ZnO/zinc titanate core-shell nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ding-Chao; Fu, Qiu-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Bin; Zhao, Hong-Yang; Tu, Ya-Fang; Tian, Yu; Zhou, Di; Zheng, Guang; Lu, Hong-Bing

    2018-02-01

    ZnO/zinc titanate core-shell nanorod arrays (CSNRs) were successfully prepared via a simple synthesis process by combining hydrothermal synthesis and liquid phase deposition (LPD). The surface morphologies, crystalline characteristics, optical properties and surface electronic states of the ZnO/zinc titanate CSNRs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffractometer, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, PL and ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectra. By controlling the reaction time of LPD, the shell thickness could vary with the reaction time. Furthermore, the impacts of the reaction time and post-annealing temperature on the crystalline structure and chemical composition of the CSNRs were also investigated. The studies of photocatalytic activity under UV light irradiation revealed that the ZnO/zinc titanate CSNRs annealed at 700 °C with 30 min deposition exhibited the best photocatalytic activity and good stability for degradation of methylene blue. It had been found that the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the CSNRs led to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. Moreover, the ZnO/zinc titanate CSNRs grown on quartz glass substrate could be easily recycled for reuse with almost unchanged photocatalytic activity.

  7. Evaluation of Non-Chromate Passivations on Electroplated gamma-Phase Zinc Nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volz, Steven Michael

    This research focused on the corrosion response and electrochemical behavior of electroplated low hydrogen embrittlement alkaline gamma-phase zinc nickel with passivation layers. The motivation was the need to replace hexavalent chromium conversion coatings in military grade electrical systems with a more environment friendly alternative. The passivation layers were employed for the purpose of mitigating corrosion attack while maintaining low contact resistance. Trivalent chromium-based passivations and cerium-based passivations were compared against the currently used hexavalent chromium conversion coating. The coating systems were compared using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic potentiodymanic scans, salt spray exposure testing, electrical resistance measurements, microstructure analysis, and compositional analysis. Coating systems with lower open circuit had a lower corrosion current and performed better during salt spray testing. All of the systems evaluated had corrosion products consistent with oxidized zinc compounds but the morphology of the passivation was dependent on the passivation. The electrical contact resistance ranged from 1 to 108 mO/cm 2, after salt spray testing. Two versions of Trivalent chromium-based passivations, were able to meet military performance specifications after corrosion testing.

  8. Sulfur and Zinc Availability from Co-granulated Zn-Enriched Elemental Sulfur Fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; da Silva, Rodrigo C; Degryse, Fien; Baird, Roslyn; Gupta, Vadakattu V S R; McLaughlin, Michael J

    2017-02-15

    Acidification by oxidation of elemental sulfur (ES) can solubilize ZnO, providing slow release of both sulfur (S) and zinc (Zn) in soil. For this study, a new granular fertilizer with ES and ZnO was produced and evaluated. The effect of incorporating microorganisms or a carbon source in the granule was also evaluated. Four granulated ES-Zn fertilizers with and without S-oxidizing microorganisms, a commercial ES pastille, ZnSO 4 , and ZnO were applied to the center of Petri dishes containing two contrasting pH soils. Soil pH, CaCl 2 -extractable S and Zn, and remaining ES were evaluated at 30 and 60 days in two soil sections (0-5 and 5-9 mm from the fertilizer application site). A visualization test was performed to evaluate Zn diffusion over time. A significant pH decrease was observed in the acidic soil for all ES-Zn fertilizer treatments and in the alkaline soil for the Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans-inoculated treatment only. In agreement with Zn visualization tests, extractable-Zn concentrations were higher from the point of application in the acidic (62.9 mg dm -3 ) compared to the alkaline soil (5.5 mg dm -3 ). Elemental S oxidation was greater in the acidic soil (20.9%) than slightly alkaline soil (12%). The ES-Zn granular fertilizers increased S and Zn concentrations in soil and can provide a strategically slow release of nutrients to the soil.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of nickel and zinc ferrite nanocatalysts for decomposition of CO2 greenhouse effect gas.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuen-Song; Adhikari, Abhijit Krishna; Wang, Chi-Yu; Hsu, Pei-Ju; Chan, Ho-Yang

    2013-04-01

    The decomposition of CO2 over oxygen deficient nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NFNs) and zinc ferrite nanoparticles (ZFNs) at 573 K was studied. The oxidation states with fine structure of Fe/Ni or Fe/Zn species were also measured in NFNs and ZFNs catalysts, respectively. Oxygen deficiency of catalysts was obtained by reduction in hydrogen. Decomposition of CO2 into carbon and oxygen has been carried out within few minutes when it comes into contact with oxygen deficient catalysts through incorporation of oxygen into ferrite nanoparticles. Oxygen and carbon rather than CO were produced in the decomposition process. The complete decomposition of CO2 was possible because of higher degree of oxygen deficiency andsurface-to-volume ratio of the catalysts. The pre-edge XANES spectra of Fe species in both catalysts exhibit an absorbance feature at 7114 eV for the 1s to 3d transition which is forbidden by the selection rule in case of perfect octahedral symmetry. The EXAFS data showed that the NFNs had two central Fe atoms coordinated by primarily Fe-O and Fe-Fe with bond distances of 1.871 and 3.051 angstroms, respectively. In case of ZFNs these values are 1.889 and 3.062 A, respectively. Methane gas was produced during the reactivation of NFNs by flowing hydrogen gas. Decomposition of CO2, moreover, recovery of valuable methane using heat energy of offgas produced from power generation plant or steel industry is an appealing alternative for energy recovery.

  10. Wire-in-tube structure fabricated by single capillary electrospinning via nanoscale Kirkendall effect: the case of nickel-zinc ferrite.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiecai; Zhang, Junli; Peng, Yong; Zhao, Changhui; He, Yongmin; Zhang, Zhenxing; Pan, Xiaojun; Mellors, Nigel J; Xie, Erqing

    2013-12-21

    Wire-in-tube structures have previously been prepared using an electrospinning method by means of tuning hydrolysis/alcoholysis of a precursor solution. Nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) nanowire-in-nanotubes have been prepared as a demonstration. The detailed nanoscale characterization, formation process and magnetic properties of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes has been studied comprehensively. The average diameters of the outer tubes and inner wires of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes are around 120 nm and 42 nm, respectively. Each fully calcined individual nanowire-in-nanotube, either the outer-tube or the inner-wire, is composed of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 monocrystallites stacked along the longitudinal direction with random orientation. The process of calcining electrospun polymer composite nanofibres can be viewed as a morphologically template nucleation and precursor diffusion process. This allows the nitrates precursor to diffuse toward the surface of the nanofibres while the oxides (decomposed from hydroxides and nitrates) products diffuse to the core region of the nanofibres; the amorphous nanofibres transforming thereby into crystalline nanowire-in-nanotubes. In addition, the magnetic properties of the Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanowire-in-nanotubes were also examined. It is believed that this nanowire-in-nanotube (sometimes called core-shell) structure, with its uniform size and well-controlled orientation of the long nanowire-in-nanotubes, is particularly attractive for use in the field of nano-fluidic devices and nano-energy harvesting devices.

  11. Effect of soil and foliar application of zinc on grain zinc and cadmium concentration of wheat genotypes differing in Zn-efficiency

    A two-year field experiment was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of soil and foliar applications of zinc sulfate and soil application of waste rubber ash to increase Zn and decrease cadmium (Cd) concentration in grain of 10 wheat genotypes with different Zn-efficiency. Foliar spray of zi...

  12. Characterization of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) piezoelectric properties for Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosydi Zakaria, Mohd; Johari, Shazlina; Hafiz Ismail, Mohd; Hashim, Uda

    2017-11-01

    In fabricating Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) biosensors device, the substrate is one of important factors that affected to performance device. there are many types of piezoelectric substrate in the markets and the cheapest is zinc Oxide substrate. Zinc Oxide (ZnO) with its unique properties can be used as piezoelectric substrate along with SAW devices for detection of DNA in this research. In this project, ZnO thin film is deposited onto silicon oxide substrate using electron beam evaporation (E-beam) and Sol-Gel technique. Different material structure is used to compare the roughness and best piezoelectric substrate of ZnO thin film. Two different structures of ZnO target which are pellet and granular are used for e-beam deposition and one sol-gel liquid were synthesize and compared. Parameter for thickness of ZnO e-beam deposition is fixed to a 0.1kÅ for both materials structure and sol-gel was coat using spin coat technique. After the process is done, samples are annealed at temperature of 500°C for 2 hours. The structural properties of effect of post annealing using different material structure of ZnO are studied using Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) for surface morphology and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) for phase structure.

  13. Nano/microstructure and optical properties of ZnO particles precipitated from zinc acetylacetonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Željka; Ristić, Mira; Musić, Svetozar; Fabián, Martin

    2015-06-01

    The influence of experimental conditions on the nano/microstructure and optical properties of ZnO particles produced by rapid hydrolysis of zinc acetylacetonate, followed by aging of the precipitation system at 160 °C, was investigated. Samples were characterized by XRD, FE scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), FT-IR, UV/Vis/NIR and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. XRD patterns of all samples were assigned to the hexagonal ZnO phase (wurtzite-type), as well as the corresponding FT-IR spectra. FE-SEM inspection showed a high dependence of the ZnO nano/microstructure on the chemical composition of the reaction mixture and autoclaving time after the rapid hydrolysis of zinc acetylacetonate. Microstructural differences were noticed between C2H5OH/H2O and H2O media, as well as under the influence of NH4OH addition. Measurements of nanocrystallite sizes showed no significant preferential orientation in the (1 0 0) and (0 0 2) directions relative to the (1 0 1) and (1 1 0) directions. Somewhat smaller crystallite sizes were noticed for ZnO samples synthesized by adding the NH4OH solution. Dissolution/recrystallization of ZnO particles played an important role in the formation of different ZnO nano/microstructures. The band gap values for prepared ZnO samples were calculated on the basis of recorded UV/Vis spectra. PL spectra were recorded for ZnO samples in powder form and their suspensions in pure ethanol. Noticed differences are discussed.

  14. TNFα Post-Translationally Targets ZnT2 to Accumulate Zinc in Lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Hennigar, Stephen R; Kelleher, Shannon L

    2015-10-01

    Mammary epithelial cells undergo widespread lysosomal-mediated cell death (LCD) during early mammary gland involution. Recently, we demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), a cytokine released during early involution, redistributes the zinc (Zn) transporter ZnT2 to accumulate Zn in lysosomes and activate LCD and involution. The objective of this study is to determine how TNFα retargets ZnT2 to lysosomes. We tested the hypothesis that TNFα signaling dephosphorylates ZnT2 to uncover a highly conserved dileucine motif (L294L) in the C-terminus of ZnT2, allowing adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) to bind and traffic ZnT2 to lysosomes. Confocal micrographs showed that TNFα redistributed wild-type (WT) ZnT2 from late endosomes (Pearson's coefficient = 0.202 ± 0.05 and 0.097 ± 0.03; P<0.05) to lysosomes (0.292 ± 0.03 and 0.649 ± 0.03; P<0.0001), which increased lysosomal Zn (P<0.0001) and activated LCD (P<0.0001) compared to untreated cells. Mutation of the dileucine motif (L294V) eliminated the ability of TNFα to redistribute ZnT2 from late endosomes to lysosomes, increase lysosomal Zn, or activate LCD. Moreover, TNFα increased (P<0.05) AP-3 binding to wt ZnT2 but not to L294V immunoprecipitates. Finally, using phospho- and dephospho-mimetics of predicted phosphorylation sites (T281, T288, and S296), we found that dephosphorylated S296 was required to target ZnT2 to accumulate Zn in lysosomes and activate LCD. Our findings suggest that women with variation in the C-terminus of ZnT2 may be at risk for inadequate involution and breast disease due the inability to traffic ZnT2 to lysosomes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. First PET Imaging Studies With 63Zn-Zinc Citrate in Healthy Human Participants and Patients With Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    DeGrado, Timothy R; Kemp, Bradley J; Pandey, Mukesh K; Jiang, Huailei; Gunderson, Tina M; Linscheid, Logan R; Woodwick, Allison R; McConnell, Daniel M; Fletcher, Joel G; Johnson, Geoffrey B; Petersen, Ronald C; Knopman, David S; Lowe, Val J

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in zinc homeostasis are indicated in many human diseases, including Alzheimer disease (AD). 63 Zn-zinc citrate was developed as a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging probe of zinc transport and used in a first-in-human study in 6 healthy elderly individuals and 6 patients with clinically confirmed AD. Dynamic PET imaging of the brain was performed for 30 minutes following intravenous administration of 63 Zn-zinc citrate (∼330 MBq). Subsequently, body PET images were acquired. Urine and venous blood were analyzed to give information on urinary excretion and pharmacokinetics. Regional cerebral 63 Zn clearances were compared with 11 C-Pittsburgh Compound B ( 11 C-PiB) and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) imaging data. 63 Zn-zinc citrate was well tolerated in human participants with no adverse events monitored. Tissues of highest uptake were liver, pancreas, and kidney, with moderate uptake being seen in intestines, prostate (in males), thyroid, spleen, stomach, pituitary, and salivary glands. Moderate brain uptake was observed, and regional dependencies were observed in 63 Zn clearance kinetics in relationship with regions of high amyloid-β plaque burden ( 11 C-PiB) and 18 F-FDG hypometabolism. In conclusion, zinc transport was successfully imaged in human participants using the PET probe 63 Zn-zinc citrate. Primary sites of uptake in the digestive system accent the role of zinc in gastrointestinal function. Preliminary information on zinc kinetics in patients with AD evidenced regional differences in clearance rates in correspondence with regional amyloid-β pathology, warranting further imaging studies of zinc homeostasis in patients with AD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. First PET Imaging Studies With 63 Zn-Zinc Citrate in Healthy Human Participants and Patients With Alzheimer Disease

    DOE PAGES

    DeGrado, Timothy R.; Kemp, Bradley J.; Pandey, Mukesh K.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in zinc homeostasis are indicated in many human diseases, including Alzheimer disease (AD). 63Zn-zinc citrate was developed as a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging probe of zinc transport and used in a first-in-human study in 6 healthy elderly individuals and 6 patients with clinically confirmed AD. A dynamic PET imaging of the brain was performed for 30 minutes following intravenous administration of 63Zn-zinc citrate (~330 MBq). Subsequently, body PET images were acquired. Urine and venous blood were analyzed to give information on urinary excretion and pharmacokinetics. Regional cerebral 63Zn clearances were compared with 11C-Pittsburgh Compound B ( 11C-PiB) andmore » 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18F-FDG) imaging data. 63Zn-zinc citrate was well tolerated in human participants with no adverse events monitored. Tissues of highest uptake were liver, pancreas, and kidney, with moderate uptake being seen in intestines, prostate (in males), thyroid, spleen, stomach, pituitary, and salivary glands. Moderate brain uptake was observed, and regional dependencies were observed in 63Zn clearance kinetics in relationship with regions of high amyloid-β plaque burden ( 11C-PiB) and 18F-FDG hypometabolism. In conclusion, zinc transport was successfully imaged in human participants using the PET probe 63Zn-zinc citrate. Primary sites of uptake in the digestive system accent the role of zinc in gastrointestinal function. Preliminary information on zinc kinetics in patients with AD evidenced regional differences in clearance rates in correspondence with regional amyloid-β pathology, warranting further imaging studies of zinc homeostasis in patients with AD.« less

  17. Inexpensive cross-linked polymeric separators made from water-soluble polymers. [for secondary alkaline nickel-zinc and silver-zinc cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L.-C.; Sheibley, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), cross-linked chemically with aldehyde reagents, produces membranes which demonstrate oxidation resistance, dimensional stability, low ionic resistivity (less than 0.8 Ohms sq cm), low zincate diffusivity (less than 1 x 10 to the -7th mols/sq cm per min), and low zinc dendrite penetration rate (greater than 350 min) which make them suitable for use as alkaline battery separators. They are intrinsically low in cost, and environmental health and safety problems associated with commercial production appear minimal. Preparation, property measurements, and cell test results in Ni/Zn and Ag/Zn cells are described and discussed.

  18. Nanophase cobalt, nickel and zinc ferrites: synchrotron XAS study on the crystallite size dependence of metal distribution.

    PubMed

    Nordhei, Camilla; Ramstad, Astrid Lund; Nicholson, David G

    2008-02-21

    Nanophase cobalt, nickel and zinc ferrites, in which the crystallites are in the size range 4-25 nm, were synthesised by coprecipitation and subsequent annealing. X-Ray absorption spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation (supported by X-ray powder diffraction) was used to study the effects of particle size on the distributions of the metal atoms over the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel structure. Deviations from the bulk structure were found which are attributed to the significant influence of the surface on very small particles. Like the bulk material, nickel ferrite is an inverse spinel in the nanoregime, although the population of metals on the octahedral sites increases with decreasing particle size. Cobalt ferrite and zinc ferrite take the inverse and normal forms of the spinel structure respectively, but within the nanoregime both systems show similar trends in being partially inverted. Further, in zinc ferrite, unlike the normal bulk structure, the nanophase system involves mixed coordinations of zinc(ii) and iron(iii) consistent with increasing partial inversion with size.

  19. Effects of chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc on survival and feeding of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa

    SciT

    Wong, C.K.

    1992-10-01

    Heavy metals are widely recognized as highly toxic and dangerous. Past research activities on heavy metal pollution in Hong Kong have emphasized coastal environmentals. Since the main sources of heavy metals are the discharge and spillage of wastewater from electroplating factories, concentrations of heavy metals in streams and pools near industrial areas may be higher than those in coastal waters. Electroplating wastewater in Hong Kong contains high levels of chromium, copper, nickel and zinc. The toxicity of these heavy metals to the aquatic organisms has been extensively reviewed. Toxicity information for invertebrates shows that crustaceans are among the most sensitivemore » organisms. Of the crustacean species tested, cladocerans appear to be the most susceptibile. Cladocerans are important components of many aquatic ecosystems. Despite their importance in many freshwater communities and their sensitivity to heavy metal toxicity, information on the toxicity of heavy metals to cladocerans is limited except for several Daphnia species. In Hong Kong the freshwater cladoceran Moina macrocopa occurs in small ponds and rice paddies and is mass cultured by some farmers as a high quality fish food. The objectives of this study are to determine the effects of various heavy metals on the survival and feeding of M. macrocopa. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  20. Synthesis, surface modifications, and size-sorting of mixed nickel-zinc ferrite colloidal magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Majewski, P; Krysiński, P

    2008-01-01

    We report on the spontaneous covalent growth of monomolecular adlayers on mixed nickel-zinc nanoferrite colloidal suspensions (ferrofluids). Synthesized nanoparticles were subjected to surface modification by means of acid chloride chemistry, leading to the formation of covalent bonds between the hydroxy groups at the nanoparticle surface and the acid chloride molecules. This procedure can be easily tailored to allow for the formation of adlayers containing both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions stacked at predetermined distances from the magnetic core, and also providing the nanoferrites with functional carboxy groups capable of further modifications with, for example, drug molecules. Here, fluorophore aminopyrene molecules were bound to such modified nanoferrites through amide bonds. We also used the same chemistry to modify the surface with covalently bound long-chain palmitoyl moieties, and for comparison we also modified the nanoferrite surface by simple adsorption of oleic acid. Both procedures made the surface highly hydrophobic. These hydrophobic colloids were subsequently spread on an aqueous surface to form Langmuir monolayers with different characteristics. Moreover, since uniformity of size is crucial in a number of applications, we propose an efficient way of sorting the magnetic nanoparticles by size in their colloidal suspension. The suspension is centrifuged at increasing rotational speed and the fractions are collected after each run. The mean size of nanoferrite in each fraction was measured by the powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) technique.

  1. Graphene-Encapsulated Nanosheet-Assembled Zinc-Nickel-Cobalt Oxide Microspheres for Enhanced Lithium Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaobao; Chen, Huixin; Han, Xiang; Cai, Junjie; Yang, Yong; Liu, Meilin; Zhang, Kaili

    2016-01-01

    The appropriate combination of hierarchical transition-metal oxide (TMO) micro-/nanostructures constructed from porous nanobuilding blocks with graphene sheets (GNS) in a core/shell geometry is highly desirable for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). A facile and scalable process for the fabrication of 3D hierarchical porous zinc-nickel-cobalt oxide (ZNCO) microspheres constructed from porous ultrathin nanosheets encapsulated by GNS to form a core/shell geometry is reported for improved electrochemical performance of the TMOs as an anode in LIBs. By virtue of their intriguing structural features, the produced ZNCO/GNS core/shell hybrids exhibit an outstanding reversible capacity of 1015 mA h g(-1) at 0.1 C after 50 cycles. Even at a high rate of 1 C, a stable capacity as high as 420 mA h g(-1) could be maintained after 900 cycles, which suggested their great potential as efficient electrodes for high-performance LIBs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Regional-scale fluxes of zinc, copper, and nickel into and out of the agricultural soils of the Kermanshah province in western Iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi Doabi, Shahab; Karami, Mahin; Afyuni, Majid

    2016-04-01

    It is important to study the status and trend of soil contamination with trace elements to make sustainable management strategies for agricultural soils. This study was conducted in order to model zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) accumulation rates in agricultural soils of Kermanshah province using input and output fluxes mass balance and to evaluate the associated uncertainties. The input and output fluxes of Zn, Cu, and Ni into (from) the agricultural soils of Kermanshah province via livestock manure, mineral fertilizers, municipal waste compost, pesticides, atmospheric deposition, and crop removal were assessed for the period 2000-2014. The data were collected to compute the fluxes at both township and regional scales from available databases such as regional agricultural statistics. The basic units of the balance were 9 townships of Kermanshah province. Averaged over the entire study region, the estimated net fluxes of Zn, Cu, and Ni into agricultural soils were 341, 84, and131 g ha year(-1), with a range of 211 to 1621, 61 to 463, and 114 to 679 among the townships. The livestock manure was responsible for 55, 56, and 67 % of the total Zn, Cu, and Ni inputs at regional scale, while municipal waste compost and mineral fertilizers accounted for approximately 19, 38, and 15 % and 24, 4, and 14 % of the total Zn, Cu, and Ni inputs, respectively. Atmospheric deposition was a considerable source only for Ni and at township scale (7-29 % of total Ni input). For Zn, Cu, and Ni, the input-to-output ratio of the fluxes ranged from 1.8 to 48.9, 2 to 48.2, and 4 to 303 among townships and averaged 2.8, 3, and 9 for the entire study area, respectively. Considering that outputs other than with crop harvests are minor, this means that Zn, Cu, and Ni (in particular Ni) stocks are rapidly building up in soils of some parts of the study region. Uncertainties in the livestock manure and crop removal data were the main sources of estimation uncertainty in this study

  3. Chemical-Biological Properties of Zinc Sensors TSQ and Zinquin: Formation of Sensor-Zn-Protein Adducts versus Zn(Sensor)2 Complexes.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Andrew B; Meeusen, Jeffrey W; Menden, Heather; Tomasiewicz, Henry; Petering, David H

    2015-12-21

    Fluorescent zinc sensors are the most commonly used tool to study the intracellular mobile zinc status within cellular systems. Previously, we have shown that the quinoline-based sensors Zinquin and 6-methoxy-8-p-toluenesulfonamido-quinoline (TSQ) predominantly form ternary adducts with members of the Zn-proteome. Here, the chemistries of these sensors are further characterized, including how Zn(sensor)2 complexes may react in an intracellular environment. We demonstrate that these sensors are typically used in higher concentrations than needed to obtain maximum signal. Exposing cells to either Zn(Zinquin)2 or Zn(TSQ)2 resulted in efficient cellular uptake and the formation of sensor-Zn-protein adducts as evidenced by both a fluorescence spectral shift toward that of ternary adducts and the localization of the fluorescence signal within the proteome after gel filtration of cellular lysates. Likewise, reacting Zn(sensor)2 with the Zn-proteome from LLC-PK1 cells resulted in the formation of sensor-Zn-protein ternary adducts that could be inhibited by first saturating the Zn- proteome with excess sensor. Further, a native SDS-PAGE analysis of the Zn-proteome reacted with either the sensor or the Zn(sensor)2 complex revealed that both reactions result in the formation of a similar set of sensor-Zn-protein fluorescent products. The results of this experiment also demonstrated that TSQ and Zinquin react with different members of the Zn-proteome. Reactions with the model apo-Zn-protein bovine serum albumin showed that both Zn(TSQ)2 and Zn(Zinquin)2 reacted to form ternary adducts with its apo-Zn-binding site. Moreover, incubating Zn(sensor)2 complexes with non-zinc binding proteins failed to elicit a spectral shift in the fluorescence spectrum, supporting the premise that blue-shifted emission spectra are due to sensor-Zn-protein ternary adducts. It was concluded that Zn(sensors)2 species do not play a significant role in the overall reaction between these sensors and

  4. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained <12% of the total variation. Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet

  5. Cross talk between increased intracellular zinc (Zn2+) and accumulation of reactive oxygen species in chemical ischemia.

    PubMed

    Slepchenko, Kira G; Lu, Qiping; Li, Yang V

    2017-10-01

    Both zinc (Zn 2+ ) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to accumulate during hypoxic-ischemic stress and play important roles in pathological processes. To understand the cross talk between the two of them, here we studied Zn 2+ and ROS accumulation by employing fluorescent probes in HeLa cells to further the understanding of the cause and effect relationship of these two important cellular signaling systems during chemical-ischemia, stimulated by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). We observed two Zn 2+ rises that were divided into four phases in the course of 30 min of OGD. The first Zn 2+ rise was a transient, which was followed by a latent phase during which Zn 2+ levels recovered; however, levels remained above a basal level in most cells. The final phase was the second Zn 2+ rise, which reached a sustained plateau called Zn 2+ overload. Zn 2+ rises were not observed when Zn 2+ was removed by TPEN (a Zn 2+ chelator) or thapsigargin (depleting Zn 2+ from intracellular stores) treatment, indicating that Zn 2+ was from intracellular storage. Damaging mitochondria with FCCP significantly reduced the second Zn 2+ rise, indicating that the mitochondrial Zn 2+ accumulation contributes to Zn 2+ overload. We also detected two OGD-induced ROS rises. Two Zn 2+ rises preceded two ROS rises. Removal of Zn 2+ reduced or delayed OGD- and FCCP-induced ROS generation, indicating that Zn 2+ contributes to mitochondrial ROS generation. There was a Zn 2+ -induced increase in the functional component of NADPH oxidase, p47 phox , thus suggesting that NADPH oxidase may mediate Zn 2+ -induced ROS accumulation. We suggest a new mechanism of cross talk between Zn 2+ and mitochondrial ROS through positive feedback processes that eventually causes excessive free Zn 2+ and ROS accumulations during the course of ischemic stress. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Regulation of biokinetics of (65)Zn by curcumin and zinc in experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kinnri; Dhawan, Devinder K

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of curcumin and zinc on the biokinetics and biodistribution of (65)Zn during colon carcinogenesis. Male wistar rats were divided into five groups, namely normal control, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treated, DMH + curcumin treated, DMH + zinc treated, and DMH + curcumin + zinc treated. Weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) for 16 weeks initiated colon carcinogenesis. Curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight orally) and ZnSO4 (227 mg/L in drinking water) were supplemented for 16 weeks. This study revealed a significant depression in the fast (Tb1) and slow component (Tb2) of biological half-life of (65)Zn in the whole body of DMH-treated rats, whereas liver showed a significant elevation in these components. Further, DMH treatment showed a significant increase in the uptake values of (65)Zn in colon, small intestine, and kidneys. Subcellular distribution depicted a significant increase in (65)Zn uptake values in mitochondrial, microsomal, and postmicrosomal fractions of colon. However, curcumin and zinc supplementation when given separately or in combination reversed the trends and restored the uptake values close to normal range. Our study concludes that curcumin and zinc supplementation during colon carcinogenesis shall prove to be efficacious in regulating the altered zinc metabolism.

  7. In vitro evaluation of cellular responses induced by ZnO nanoparticles, zinc ions and bulk ZnO in fish cells.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Dolores; García-Gómez, Concepción; Babín, Mar

    2013-05-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are inevitably released into the environment and are potentially dangerous for aquatic life. However, the potential mechanisms of cytotoxicity of zinc nanoparticles remain unclear. Studying the toxicity of ZnO-NPs with In vitro systems will help to determine their interactions with cellular biomolecules. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic potentials of ZnO-NPs in established fish cell lines (RTG-2, RTH-149 and RTL-W1) and compare them with those of bulk ZnO and Zn(2+) ions. Membrane function (CFDA-AM assay), mitochondrial function (MTT assay), cell growth (KBP assay), cellular stress (β-galactosidase assay), reductase enzyme activity (AB assay), reactive oxygen species (ROS), total glutathione cellular content (tGSH assay) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were assessed for all cell lines. ZnO-NPs cytotoxicity was greater than those of bulk ZnO and Zn(2+). ZnO-NPs induced oxidative stress is dependent on their dose. Low cost tests, such as CFDA-AM, ROS, GST activity and tGSH cell content test that use fish cell lines, may be used to detect oxidative stress and redox status changes. Particle dissolution of the ZnO-NPs did not appear to play an important role in the observed toxicity in this study. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Lithiation-induced zinc clustering of Zn 3, Zn 12, and Zn 18 units in Zintl-like Ca ~30Li 3+xZn 60-x (x=0.44-1.38)

    SciT

    Lin, Qisheng

    2014-11-14

    Zinc clusters are not common for binary intermetallics with relatively low zinc content, but this work shows that zinc clustering can be triggered by lithiation, as exemplified by Ca ~30Li 3+xZn 60-x, P6/mmm, Z = 1, which can be directly converted from CaZn 2. Two end members of the solid solution (x = 0.44 and 1.38) were established and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses: Ca 30Li 3.44(6)Zn59.56(6), a = 15.4651(9) Å, c = 9.3898(3) Å; Ca 30.45(2)Li 4.38(6)Zn 58.62(6), a = 15.524(3) Å, c = 9.413(2) Å. The structures of Ca ~30Li 3+xZn 60-x feature a condensed anionicmore » network of Zn3 triangles, lithium-centered Zn12 icosahedra, and arachno-(Zn,Li)18 tubular clusters that are surrounded respectively by Ca 14, Ca 20, and Ca 30 polyhedra. These polyhedra share faces and form a clathrate-like cationic framework. The specific occupation of lithium in the structure is consistent with theoretical “coloring” analyses. Analysis by the linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) method within the atomic sphere approximation reveals that Ca ~30Li 3+xZn 60-x is a metallic, Zintl-like phase with an open-shell electronic structure. The contribution of Ca–Zn polar covalent interactions is about 41%.« less

  9. Hexagonal ZnO porous plates prepared from microwave synthesized layered zinc hydroxide sulphate via thermal decomposition

    SciT

    Machovsky, Michal, E-mail: machovsky@ft.utb.cz; Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin; Kuritka, Ivo, E-mail: ivo@kuritka.net

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zinc hydroxy sulphate was synthesized in 3 min via microwave hydrothermal route. • Zinc hydroxy sulphate was converted into mesh like porous ZnO by calcining at 900°. • The process of transformation is topotactic. - Abstract: Layered zinc hydroxide sulphate (ZHS) was prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal precipitation of zinc sulphate monohydrate with hexamethylenetetramine. Under ambient conditions, the structure of ZHS determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) was found to be a mixture of zinc hydroxide sulphate pentahydrate Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}·5H{sub 2}O and tetrahydrate Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}·4H{sub 2}O. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was usedmore » for characterization of the prepared materials. Based on the interpretation of ZHS's thermal decomposition profile obtained by thermogravimetric analysis, ZnO of high purity was prepared by calcination at 900 °C for 2 h. The structure of the resulting ZnO was confirmed by the XRD. The morphology examination by scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous mesh-like ZnO structure developed from the ZHS precursor at the expense of mass removal due to the release of water and sulphate during the calcination.« less

  10. Formation of zinc sulfide species during roasting of ZnO with pyrite and its contribution on flotation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yong-Xing; Lv, Jin-Fang; Wang, Hua; Wen, Shu-Ming; Pang, Jie

    2018-05-18

    In this paper, formation of zinc sulfide species during roasting of ZnO with FeS 2 was investigated and its contribution on flotation was illustrated. The evolution process, phase and crystal growth were investigated by thermogravimetry (TG), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) along with thermodynamic calculation and scanning electron microscopy-Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), respectively, to interpret the formation mechanism of ZnS species. It was found that ZnS was initially generated at about 450 °C and then the reaction prevailed at about 600 °C. The generated Fe x S would dissolve into ZnS and then form (Zn, Fe)S compound in form of Fe 2 Zn 3 S 5 when temperature increased to about 750 °C. This obviously accelerated ZnS phase formation and growth. In addition, it was known that increasing of ZnO dosage had few effects on the decomposition behavior of FeS 2 . Then, flotation tests of different zinc oxide materials before and after treatment were performed to further confirm that the flotation performances of the treated materials could be obviously improved. Finally, a scheme diagram was proposed to regular its application to mineral processing. It was systematically illustrated that different types of ZnS species needed to be synthetized when sulfidization roasting-flotation process was carried out to treat zinc oxide materials.

  11. Retaining the 3D framework of zinc sponge anodes upon deep discharge in Zn-air cells.

    PubMed

    Parker, Joseph F; Nelson, Eric S; Wattendorf, Matthew D; Chervin, Christopher N; Long, Jeffrey W; Rolison, Debra R

    2014-11-26

    We fabricate three-dimensional zinc electrodes from emulsion-cast sponges of Zn powder that are thermally treated to produce rugged monoliths. This highly conductive, 3D-wired aperiodic scaffold achieves 740 mA h gZn(-1) when discharged in primary Zn-air cells (>90% of theoretical Zn capacity). We use scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction to monitor the microstructural evolution of a series of Zn sponges when oxidized in Zn-air cells to specific depths-of-discharge (20, 40, 60, 80% DOD) at a technologically relevant rate (C/40; 4-6 mA cm(-2)). The Zn sponges maintain their 3D-monolithic form factor at all DOD. The cell resistance remains low under all test conditions, indicating that an inner core of metallic Zn persists that 3D-electrically wires the electrode, even to deep DOD.

  12. Effect of ultrafine zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on induction of oral tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Misa; Takasu, Nobuo; Nagata, Masafumi; Nakamura, Kazuichi; Kawai, Motoyuki; Yoshino, Shin

    2010-01-01

    Ultrafine nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) recently became available as a substitute for larger-size fine ZnO particles. However, the biological activity of ultrafine ZnO currently remains undefined. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ultrafine ZnO on oral tolerance that plays an important role in the prevention of food allergy. Oral tolerance was induced in mice by a single oral administration (i.e., gavage) of 25 mg of ovalbumin (OVA) 5 days prior to a subcutaneous immunization with OVA (Day 0). Varying doses of ultrafine (diameter: approximately 21 nm) as well as fine (diameter: < 5 microm) ZnO particles were given orally at the same time during the OVA gavage. The results indicated that a single oral administration of OVA was followed by significant decreases in serum anti-OVA IgG, IgG(1), IgG(2a), and IgE antibodies and in the proliferative responses to the antigen by these hosts' spleen cells. The decreases in these immune responses to OVA were associated with a marked suppression of secretion of interferon (IFN)gamma, interleukin (IL)-5, and IL-17 by these lymphoid cells. Treatment with either ultrafine or fine ZnO failed to affect the oral OVA-induced suppression of antigen-specific IgG, IgG(1), IgG(2a), and IgE production or lymphoid cell proliferation. The suppression induced by the oral OVA upon secretion of IFN gamma, IL-5, and IL-17 was also unaffected by either size of ZnO. These results indicate that ultrafine particles of ZnO do not appear to modulate the induction of oral tolerance in mice.

  13. Zn/Cd ratios and cadmium isotope evidence for the classification of lead-zinc deposits

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hanjie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Zhang, Yuxu; Cloquet, Christophe; Fan, Haifeng; Fu, Shaohong

    2016-01-01

    Lead-zinc deposits are often difficult to classify because clear criteria are lacking. In recent years, new tools, such as Cd and Zn isotopes, have been used to better understand the ore-formation processes and to classify Pb-Zn deposits. Herein, we investigate Cd concentrations, Cd isotope systematics and Zn/Cd ratios in sphalerite from nine Pb-Zn deposits divided into high-temperature systems (e.g., porphyry), low-temperature systems (e.g., Mississippi Valley type [MVT]) and exhalative systems (e.g., sedimentary exhalative [SEDEX]). Our results showed little evidence of fractionation in the high-temperature systems. In the low-temperature systems, Cd concentrations were the highest, but were also highly variable, a result consistent with the higher fractionation of Cd at low temperatures. The δ114/110Cd values in low-temperature systems were enriched in heavier isotopes (mean of 0.32 ± 0.31‰). Exhalative systems had the lowest Cd concentrations, with a mean δ114/110Cd value of 0.12 ± 0.50‰. We thus conclude that different ore-formation systems result in different characteristic Cd concentrations and fraction levels and that low-temperature processes lead to the most significant fractionation of Cd. Therefore, Cd distribution and isotopic studies can support better understanding of the geochemistry of ore-formation processes and the classification of Pb-Zn deposits. PMID:27121538

  14. Synthesis of uniformly distributed single- and double-sided zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocombs

    SciT

    Altintas Yildirim, Ozlem; Liu, Yuzi; Petford-Long, Amanda K.

    Uniformly distributed single- and double-sided zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomb structures have been prepared by a vapor-liquid-solid technique from a mixture of ZnO nanoparticles and graphene nanoplatelets. The ZnO seed nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple precipitation method. The structure of the ZnO nanocombs could easily be controlled by tuning the carrier-gas flow rate during growth. Higher flow rate resulted in the formation of uniformly-distributed single-sided comb structures with nanonail-shaped teeth, as a result of the self-catalysis effect of the catalytically active Zn-terminated polar (0001) surface. Lower gas flow rate was favorable for production of double-sided comb structures with the twomore » sets of teeth at an angle of similar to 110 degrees to each other along the comb ribbon, which was attributed to the formation of a bicrystal nanocomb ribbon. Lastly, the formation of such a double-sided structure with nanonail-shaped teeth has not previously been reported.« less

  15. Synthesis of uniformly distributed single- and double-sided zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocombs

    DOE PAGES

    Altintas Yildirim, Ozlem; Liu, Yuzi; Petford-Long, Amanda K.

    2015-08-21

    Uniformly distributed single- and double-sided zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomb structures have been prepared by a vapor-liquid-solid technique from a mixture of ZnO nanoparticles and graphene nanoplatelets. The ZnO seed nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple precipitation method. The structure of the ZnO nanocombs could easily be controlled by tuning the carrier-gas flow rate during growth. Higher flow rate resulted in the formation of uniformly-distributed single-sided comb structures with nanonail-shaped teeth, as a result of the self-catalysis effect of the catalytically active Zn-terminated polar (0001) surface. Lower gas flow rate was favorable for production of double-sided comb structures with the twomore » sets of teeth at an angle of similar to 110 degrees to each other along the comb ribbon, which was attributed to the formation of a bicrystal nanocomb ribbon. Lastly, the formation of such a double-sided structure with nanonail-shaped teeth has not previously been reported.« less

  16. Nickel-quinolones interaction. Part 4. Structure and biological evaluation of nickel(II)-enrofloxacin complexes compared to zinc(II) analogues.

    PubMed

    Skyrianou, Kalliopi C; Psycharis, Vassilis; Raptopoulou, Catherine P; Kessissoglou, Dimitris P; Psomas, George

    2011-01-01

    The nickel(II) complexes with the second-generation quinolone antibacterial agent enrofloxacin in the presence or absence of the nitrogen-donor heterocyclic ligands 1,10-phenanthroline, 2,2'-bipyridine or pyridine have been synthesized and characterized. Enrofloxacin acts as bidentate ligand coordinated to Ni(II) ion through the ketone oxygen and a carboxylato oxygen. The crystal structure of (1,10-phenanthroline)bis(enrofloxacinato)nickel(II) has been determined by X-ray crystallography. UV study of the interaction of the complexes with calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) has shown that they bind to CT DNA and bis(pyridine)bis(enrofloxacinato)nickel(II) exhibits the highest binding constant to CT DNA. The cyclic voltammograms of the complexes have shown that in the presence of CT DNA the complexes can bind to CT DNA by the intercalative binding mode which has also been verified by DNA solution viscosity measurements. Competitive study with ethidium bromide (EB) has shown that the complexes can displace the DNA-bound EB indicating that they bind to DNA in strong competition with EB. The complexes exhibit good binding propensity to human or bovine serum albumin protein having relatively high binding constant values. The biological properties of the complexes have been evaluated in comparison to the corresponding Zn(II) enrofloxacinato complexes as well as Ni(II) complexes with the first-generation quinolone oxolinic acid. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Autism phenotypes in ZnT3 null mice: Involvement of zinc dyshomeostasis, MMP-9 activation and BDNF upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Min Heui; Kim, Tae-Youn; Yoon, Young Hee; Koh, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the role of synaptic zinc in the ASD pathogenesis, we examined zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) null mice. At 4–5 weeks of age, male but not female ZnT3 null mice exhibited autistic-like behaviors. Cortical volume and neurite density were significantly greater in male ZnT3 null mice than in WT mice. In male ZnT3 null mice, consistent with enhanced neurotrophic stimuli, the level of BDNF as well as activity of MMP-9 was increased. Consistent with known roles for MMPs in BDNF upregulation, 2.5-week treatment with minocycline, an MMP inhibitor, significantly attenuated BDNF levels as well as megalencephaly and autistic-like behaviors. Although the ZnT3 null state removed synaptic zinc, it rather increased free zinc in the cytosol of brain cells, which appeared to increase MMP-9 activity and BDNF levels. The present results suggest that zinc dyshomeostasis during the critical period of brain development may be a possible contributing mechanism for ASD. PMID:27352957

  18. Autism phenotypes in ZnT3 null mice: Involvement of zinc dyshomeostasis, MMP-9 activation and BDNF upregulation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Min Heui; Kim, Tae-Youn; Yoon, Young Hee; Koh, Jae-Young

    2016-06-29

    To investigate the role of synaptic zinc in the ASD pathogenesis, we examined zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) null mice. At 4-5 weeks of age, male but not female ZnT3 null mice exhibited autistic-like behaviors. Cortical volume and neurite density were significantly greater in male ZnT3 null mice than in WT mice. In male ZnT3 null mice, consistent with enhanced neurotrophic stimuli, the level of BDNF as well as activity of MMP-9 was increased. Consistent with known roles for MMPs in BDNF upregulation, 2.5-week treatment with minocycline, an MMP inhibitor, significantly attenuated BDNF levels as well as megalencephaly and autistic-like behaviors. Although the ZnT3 null state removed synaptic zinc, it rather increased free zinc in the cytosol of brain cells, which appeared to increase MMP-9 activity and BDNF levels. The present results suggest that zinc dyshomeostasis during the critical period of brain development may be a possible contributing mechanism for ASD.

  19. Annealing in tellurium-nitrogen co-doped ZnO films: The roles of intrinsic zinc defects

    SciT

    Tang, Kun, E-mail: ktang@nju.edu.cn; Gu, Ran; Gu, Shulin, E-mail: slgu@nju.edu.cn

    2015-04-07

    In this article, the authors have conducted an extensive investigation on the roles of intrinsic zinc defects by annealing of a batch of Te-N co-doped ZnO films. The formation and annihilation of Zn interstitial (Zn{sub i}) clusters have been found in samples with different annealing temperatures. Electrical and Raman measurements have shown that the Zn{sub i} clusters are a significant compensation source to holes, and the Te co-doping has a notable effect on suppressing the Zn{sub i} clusters. Meanwhile, shallow acceptors have been identified in photoluminescence spectra. The N{sub O}-Zn-Te complex, zinc vacancy (V{sub Zn})-N{sub O} complex, and V{sub Zn}more » clusters are thought to be the candidates as the shallow acceptors. The evolution of shallow acceptors upon annealing temperature have been also studied. The clustering of V{sub Zn} at high annealing temperature is proposed to be a possible candidate as a stable acceptor in ZnO.« less

  20. Zinc vacancy and oxygen interstitial in ZnO revealed by sequential annealing and electron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutsen, K. E.; Galeckas, A.; Zubiaga, A.; Tuomisto, F.; Farlow, G. C.; Svensson, B. G.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.

    2012-09-01

    By combining results from positron annihilation and photoluminescence spectroscopy with data from Hall effect measurements, the characteristic deep level emission centered at ˜1.75 eV and exhibiting an activation energy of thermal quenching of 11.5 meV is associated with the zinc vacancy. Further, a strong indication that oxygen interstitials act as a dominating acceptor is derived from the analysis of charge carrier losses induced by electron irradiation with variable energy below and above the threshold for Zn-atom displacement. We also demonstrate that the commonly observed green emission is related to an extrinsic acceptorlike impurity, which may be readily passivated by oxygen vacancies.

  1. Zn/gelled 6 M KOH/O 2 zinc-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, A. A.

    The gel electrolyte for the zinc-air cell was prepared by mixing hydroponics gel with a 6 M potassium hydroxide aqueous solution. The self-discharge of cells was characterized by measuring the open-circuit voltage. The effect of a discharge rate of 50 mA constant current on cell voltage and plateau hour, as well as the voltage-current and current density-power density were measured and analysed. The electrode degradation after discharge cycling was characterized by structural and surface methods. The oxidation of the electrode surface further blocked the utilization of the Zn anode and was identified as a cause for the failure of the cell.

  2. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Using toothpastes containing zinc, with or without an antibacterial agent, appears to prevent plaque and gingivitis. Some ... is some evidence that zinc has some antiviral activity against the herpes virus. Low zinc levels can ...

  3. Recovery of zinc and manganese, and other metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr, Na, K) from Zn-MnO2 and Zn-C waste batteries: Hydroxyl and carbonate co-precipitation from solution after reducing acidic leaching with use of oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobianowska-Turek, A.; Szczepaniak, W.; Maciejewski, P.; Gawlik-Kobylińska, M.

    2016-09-01

    The article discusses the current situation of the spent batteries and portable accumulators management. It reviews recycling technologies of the spent batteries and portable accumulators which are used in the manufacturing installations in the world. Also, it presents the authors' research results on the reductive acidic leaching of waste material of the zinc-carbon batteries (Zn-C) and zinc-manganese batteries (alkaline Zn-MnO2) delivered by a company dealing with mechanical treatment of this type of waste stream. The research data proved that the reductive acidic leaching (H2SO4 + C2H2O4) of the battery's black mass allows to recover 85.0% of zinc and 100% of manganese. Moreover, it was found that after the reductive acidic leaching it is possible to recover nearly 100% of manganese, iron, cadmium, and chromium, 98.0% of cobalt, 95.5% of zinc, and 85.0% of copper and nickel from the solution with carbonate method. On the basis of the results, it is possible to assume that the carbonate method can be used for the preparation of manganese-zinc ferrite.

  4. Nickel

    The agricultural significance of nickel (Ni) is becoming increasingly apparent; yet, relative few farmers, growers, specialists or researchers know much about its function in crops, nor symptoms of deficiency or toxicity. The body of knowledge is reviewed regarding Ni’s background, uptake, transloc...

  5. Dietary intake of nickel and zinc by young children--results from food duplicate portion measurements in comparison to data calculated from dietary records and available data on levels in food groups.

    PubMed

    Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Schnell, Kerstin; Hilbig, Annett; Schrey, Petra; Kersting, Mathilde; Wilhelm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The daily dietary intake of nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) by 42 young children, 21 boys and 21 girls, from 4 to 7 years of age, living in urban and rural areas of Germany and having different food consumption behaviour, was determined by the duplicate method with a 7-day sampling period. Dietary records were also kept by the children's parents for the 7-day sampling period. Individual reported food items were identified, assigned to food groups and, together with known Ni and Zn concentrations of foodstuffs, daily intake rates were calculated. The same method was used for calculations of the energy, fat, protein and carbohydrate intake rates. The levels in the food duplicates, determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, were in the range of 69-2000 microg Ni/kg(dry weight) (geometric mean (GM): 348) and 7.1-43 mg Zn/kg(dry weight) (GM: 17.5). Daily intake rates based on the 294 individual food duplicate analyses were 12-560 microgNi/d (GM: 92.3) and 1.5-11 mgZn/d (GM: 4.63). The results from the dietary records were 35-1050 microg Ni/d (GM: 123) and 1.7-15 mg Zn/d (GM: 5.35). The results of the daily intake rates from both methods showed a correlation with regard to Zn (r=0.56), but no correlation was found between either the Ni intake rates determined with both methods or between the Ni intake rates measured by the duplicate method and calculated intake rates from the dietary records of energy, fat, protein, carbohydrates or drinking water. In the case of nickel, the discrepancies between the methods lead one to suppose that the main factors influencing Ni intake by food are not directly caused by easily assessable food ingredients themselves. It is possible that other factors, such as contaminated drinking water or the transition of Ni from kettles or other household utensils made from stainless steel into the food, may be more relevant. In addition there are some foodstuffs with great variations in concentrations, often influenced by the growing area and

  6. Differential changes in photosynthetic capacity, 77 K chlorophyll fluorescence and chloroplast ultrastructure between Zn-efficient and Zn-inefficient rice genotypes (Oryza sativa) under low zinc stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenrong; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli; Feng, Ying; Hu, Fenghong

    2008-01-01

    The relationship of zinc (Zn) efficiency in rice to differential tolerance of photosynthetic capacity and chloroplast function to low Zn stress was studied using Zn-efficient (IR8192) and Zn-inefficient (Erjiufeng) rice genotypes (Oryza sativa L.). Zinc deficiency caused extensive declines in leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content, ratios of chl a:b, Pn, Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo, indicating that the intrinsic quantum efficiency of the photosystem II (PSII) units was damaged. A greater decline was observed in the inefficient genotype (Erjiufeng) than the efficient genotype (IR8192). The 77 K chl fluorescence emission spectrum revealed that Zn deficiency blocked energy spillover from PSII to PSI and more excitation energy was distributed to PSII in IR8192 than Erjiufeng. The spectrum of Zn-deficient Erjiufeng was completely disordered, implying that the photosynthetic centers were seriously damaged. Electron microscopy showed that Zn deficiency caused a severe damage to the fine structure of chloroplasts, but IR8192 had a better preserved chloroplast ultrastructure as compared with Erjiufeng. These differences may result from the higher levels of the antioxidant enzyme activities and lower oxidant stress level in IR8192. These results indicate that Zn deficiency decreases leaf photosynthetic capacity primarily by reducing the number of PSII units per unit leaf area, and also reducing the photochemical capacity of the remaining PSII units. Therefore, the maintenance of more efficient photochemical capacity under low Zn stress is a key factor for the high Zn efficiency in rice, which may result from less antioxidant damage caused by low Zn to the chloroplast ultrastructure.

  7. Prediction of toxicity of zinc and nickel mixtures to Artemia sp. at various salinities: From additivity to antagonism.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Évila Pinheiro; de Figuerêdo, Lívia Pitombeira; Pimentel, Marcionília Fernandes; Loureiro, Susana; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras

    2017-08-01

    Few studies have examined the toxicity of metal mixtures to marine organisms exposed to different salinities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute toxicity of zinc and nickel exposures singly and in combination to Artemia sp. under salinities of 10, 17, and 35 psu. The mixture concentrations were determined according to individual toxic units (TUs) to follow a fixed ratio design. Zinc was more toxic than nickel, and both their individual toxicities were higher at lower salinities. These changes in toxicity can be attributed to the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) rather than to metal speciation. To analyze the mixture effect, the observed data were compared with the expected mixture effects predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model and by deviations for synergistic/antagonistic interactions and dose-level and dose-ratio dependencies. For a salinity of 35 psu, the mixture had no deviations; therefore, the effects were additive. After decreasing the salinity to 17 psu, the toxicity pattern changed to antagonism at low concentrations and synergism at higher equivalent LC 50 levels. For the lowest salinity tested (10 psu), antagonism was observed. The speciations of both metals were similar when in a mixture and when isolated, and changes in toxicity patterns are more related to the organism's physiology than metal speciation. Therefore, besides considering chemical interactions in real-world scenarios, where several chemicals can be present, the influence of abiotic factors, such as salinity, should also be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Zinc interstitial threshold in Al-doped ZnO film: Effect on microstructure and optoelectronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Chetan C.; Panda, Emila

    2018-04-01

    In order to know the threshold quantity of the zinc interstitials that contributes to an increase in carrier concentration in the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films and their effect on the overall microstructure and optoelectronic properties of these films, in this work, Zn-rich-AZO and ZnO thin films are fabricated by adding excess zinc (from a zinc metallic target) during their deposition in RF magnetron sputtering and are then investigated using a wide range of experimental techniques. All these films are found to grow in a ZnO hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with strong (002) orientation of the crystallites, with no indication of Al2O3, metallic Zn, and Al. The excessively introduced zinc in these AZO and/or ZnO films is found to increase the shallow donor level defects (i.e., zinc interstitials and oxygen-related electronic defect states), which is found to significantly increase the carrier concentration in these films. Additionally, aluminum is seen to enhance the creation of these electronic defect states in these films, thereby contributing more to the overall carrier concentration of these films. However, carrier mobility is found to decrease when the carrier concentration values are higher than 4 × 1020 cm-3, because of the electron-electron scattering. Whereas the optical band gap of the ZnO films is found to increase with increasing carrier concentration because of the Burstein-Moss shift, these decrease for the AZO films due to the band gap narrowing effect caused by excess carrier concentration.

  9. Digital selective growth of a ZnO nanowire array by large scale laser decomposition of zinc acetate.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sukjoon; Yeo, Junyeob; Manorotkul, Wanit; Kang, Hyun Wook; Lee, Jinhwan; Han, Seungyong; Rho, Yoonsoo; Suh, Young Duk; Sung, Hyung Jin; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2013-05-07

    We develop a digital direct writing method for ZnO NW micro-patterned growth on a large scale by selective laser decomposition of zinc acetate. For ZnO NW growth, by replacing the bulk heating with the scanning focused laser as a fully digital local heat source, zinc acetate crystallites can be selectively activated as a ZnO seed pattern to grow ZnO nanowires locally on a larger area. Together with the selective laser sintering process of metal nanoparticles, more than 10,000 UV sensors have been demonstrated on a 4 cm × 4 cm glass substrate to develop all-solution processible, all-laser mask-less digital fabrication of electronic devices including active layer and metal electrodes without any conventional vacuum deposition, photolithographic process, premade mask, high temperature and vacuum environment.

  10. Nickel-Catalyzed Highly Regioselective Hydrocyanation of Terminal Alkynes with Zn(CN)2 Using Water as the Hydrogen Source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingjie; Xie, Xin; Liu, Yuanhong

    2018-06-08

    The first efficient and general nickel-catalyzed hydrocyanation of terminal alkynes with Zn(CN) 2 in the presence of water has been developed. The reaction provides a regioselective protocol for the synthesis of functionalized vinyl nitriles with a range of structural diversity under mild reaction conditions while obviating use of the volatile and hazardous reagent of HCN. Deuterium-labeling experiments confirmed the role of water as the hydrogen source in this hydrocyanation reaction.

  11. Free metal ion depletion by "Good's" buffers. III. N-(2-acetamido)iminodiacetic acid, 2:1 complexes with zinc(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), and copper(II); amide deprotonation by Zn(II), Co(II), and Cu(II).

    PubMed

    Lance, E A; Rhodes, C W; Nakon, R

    1983-09-01

    Potentiometric, visible, infrared, electron spin, and nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the complexation of N-(2-acetamido)iminodiacetic acid (H2ADA) by Ca(II), Mg(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) are reported. Ca(II) and Mg(II) were found not to form 2:1 ADA2- to M(II) complexes, while Mn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), and Co(II) did form 2:1 metal chelates at or below physiological pH values. Co(II) and Zn(II), but not Cu(II), were found to induce stepwise deprotonation of the amide groups to form [M(H-1ADA)4-(2)]. Formation (affinity) constants for the various metal complexes are reported, and the probable structures of the various metal chelates in solution are discussed on the basis of various spectral data.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of magnetically separable hexagonal Ni/ZnO nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senapati, Samarpita; Srivastava, Suneel K.; Singh, Shiv B.

    2012-09-01

    The hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel (Ni/ZnO) nanostructure photocatalyst has successfully been prepared by the reduction of nickel chloride hexahydrate using hydrazine hydrate through the solvothermal process at 140 °C followed by surface modification of the product by the reflux method at 110 °C for 1 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed that the `as prepared' sample consists of face centered cubic Ni and hexagonal wurtzite ZnO without any traces of impurity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed the formation of nickel nanoparticles under solvothermal conditions. These nickel nanoparticles, when subjected to reflux, formed the hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel nanostructure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, photoluminescence (PL) and Raman studies also confirmed the presence of zinc oxide in the hybrid nanostructure. The growth mechanism for the development of the hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel (Ni/ZnO) nanostructure has also been proposed. The appearance of the hysteresis loop, in the as-prepared Ni/ZnO hybrid nanostructure, demonstrated its ferromagnetic character at room temperature. The hexagonal Ni/ZnO nanostructure also acts as an efficient photocatalyst in the degradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet light irradiation. It is observed that the catalytic efficiency of the hybrid nanocatalyst is better compared to pure zinc oxide. Most importantly, the Ni/ZnO catalyst could also be easily separated, simply by applying an external magnetic field, and reused.The hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel (Ni/ZnO) nanostructure photocatalyst has successfully been prepared by the reduction of nickel chloride hexahydrate using hydrazine hydrate through the solvothermal process at 140 °C followed by surface modification of the product by the reflux method at 110 °C for 1 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed that the `as prepared' sample consists of face

  13. Radioactive zinc ( sup 65 Zn), zinc, cadmium, and mercury in the Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus (Ayres), off the West Coast of the United States

    SciT

    Naidu, J.R.

    1974-06-01

    The Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus (Ayers) was used to monitor the waters off Puget Sound and the West Coast of the US for zinc(Zn), cadmium(Cd), mercury(Hg) and {sup 65}Zn. The Columbia River is not the source of Zn, Cd or Hg contamination, but is the source of {sup 65}Zn, with the concentration in the Hake reflecting the position of the Columbia River plume. Zn and Cd accumulation in the Hake were fit to the equation Y=B{sub 1}+B{sub 2}e{sup B}{sub 3}X where Y is the concentration of the element and X is the length or weight of the fish. Biological attributesmore » were assigned to the other parameters as follows: B{sub 1} is the asymptotic value for Zn or Cd at chemical maturity; B{sub 2} is the location of the curve with respect to the length or weight of the fish; and B{sub 3} is a constant pertaining to the rate of change of Zn or Cd. Although Zn, Cd and Hg are all Group 2B elements, only the concentrations of Zn and Cd were correlated for all locations; Hg concentrations varied as a function of location. Zn and Cd concentrations increase with fish size and approach an asymptotic value at maturity, while Hg concentrations were linear and the slope is a function of sampling location. Zn and Cd levels are regulated in the adult, while Hg continues to increase with age. It may be significant that the age distribution of fish caught commercially coincides with the maximum concentration of Zn and Cd. 195 refs., 30 figs., 10 tabs. (MHB)« less

  14. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods: Effects of zinc salt concentration, various solvents and alkaline mineralizers

    SciT

    Edalati, Khatereh, E-mail: kh_ed834@stu.um.ac.ir; Shakiba, Atefeh; Vahdati-Khaki, Jalil

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized ZnO nanorods by a simple hydrothermal process at 60 °C. • Effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent and alkaline mineralizer was studied. • Increasing concentration of zinc salt changed ZnO nucleation system. • NaOH yielded better results in the production of nanorods in both solvents. • Methanol performed better in the formation of nanorods using the two mineralizers. - Abstract: ZnO has been produced using various methods in the solid, gaseous, and liquid states, and the hydrothermal synthesis at low temperatures has been shown to be an environmentally-friendly one. The current work utilizes a low reactionmore » temperature (60 °C) for the simple hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorod morphologies. Furthermore, the effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent type and alkaline mineralizer type on ZnO nanorods synthesis at a low reaction temperature by hydrothermal processing was studied. Obtained samples were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Increasing the concentration of the starting zinc salt from 0.02 to 0.2 M changed ZnO nucleation system from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous state. The XRD results confirmed the production hexagonal ZnO nanostructures of with a crystallite size of 40.4 nm. Varying the experimental parameters (mineralizer and solvent) yielded ZnO nanorods with diameters ranging from 90–250 nm and lengths of 1–2 μm.« less

  15. Intracellular uptake and behavior of two types zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) micelles, SMA-ZnPP and PEG-ZnPP as anticancer agents; unique intracellular disintegration of SMA micelles.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hideaki; Fang, Jun; Gahininath, Bharate; Tsukigawa, Kenji; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2011-11-07

    SMA-ZnPP and PEG-ZnPP are micellar drugs, encapsulating zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) with styrene maleic acid copolymer (SMA) and covalent conjugate of ZnPP with polyethylene glycol (PEG) respectively. Their intracellular uptake rate and subcellular localization were investigated. We found SMA-ZnPP showed higher and more efficient (about 2.5 times) intracellular uptake rate than PEG-ZnPP, although both SMA-ZnPP and PEG-ZnPP micelles were localized at endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and inhibited the target enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) similarly. Both micellar ZnPP were taken up into the tumor cells by endocytosis. Furthermore SMA-ZnPP and PEG-ZnPP were examined for their drug releasing mechanisms. Liberation of ZnPP from the SMA micelle appears to depend on cellular amphiphilic components such as lecithin, while that for PEG-ZnPP depends on hydrolytic cleavage. These results indicate that these micelle formulations make water insoluble ZnPP to water soluble practical anticancer agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrocontact material based on silver dispersion-strengthened by nickel, titanium, and zinc oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeer, G. M.; Zelenkova, E. G.; Belousov, O. V.; Beletskii, V. V.; Nikolaev, S. V.; Ledyaeva, O. N.

    2017-09-01

    Samples of a composite electrocontact material based on silver strengthened by the dispersed phases of zinc and titanium oxides have been investigated by the electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A uniform distribution of the oxide phases containing 2 wt % zinc oxide in the initial charge has been revealed. The increase in the amount of zinc oxide leads to an increase of the size of the oxide phases. It has been shown that at the zinc oxide content of 2 wt %, the minimum wear is observed in the process of electroerosion tests; at 3 wt %, an overheating and welding of the contacts are observed.

  17. Chitosan/zinc oxide-polyvinylpyrrolidone (CS/ZnO-PVP) nanocomposite for better thermal and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Karpuraranjith, M; Thambidurai, S

    2017-11-01

    A new biopolymer based ZnO-PVP nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by single step in situ precipitation method using chitosan as biosurfactant, zinc chloride as a source material, PVP as stabilizing agent and sodium hydroxide as precipitating agent. The chemical bonding and crystalline behaviors of chitosan, zinc oxide and PVP were confirmed by FT-IR and XRD analysis. The biopolymer connected ZnO particles intercalated PVP matrix was layer and rod like structure appeared in nanometer range confirmed by HR-SEM and TEM analysis. The surface topography image of CS/ZnO-PVP nanocomposite was obtained in the average thickness of 12nm was confirmed by AFM analysis. Thermal stability of cationic biopolymer based ZnO intercalated PVP has higher stability than CS-PVP and chitosan. Consequently, antimicrobial activity of chitosan/ZnO-PVP matrix acts as a better microbial inhibition activity than PVP-ZnO nanocomposite. The obtained above results demonstrate that CS and ZnO intercalated PVP matrix has better reinforced effect than other components. Therefore, Chitosan/ZnO-PVP nanocomposite may be a promising material for the biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sustainable synthesis of metals-doped ZnO nanoparticles from zinc-bearing dust for photodegradation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhao-Jin; Huang, Wei; Cui, Ke-Ke; Gao, Zhi-Fang; Wang, Ping

    2014-08-15

    A novel strategy of waste-cleaning-waste is proposed in the present work. A metals-doped ZnO (M-ZnO, M = Fe, Mg, Ca and Al) nanomaterial has been prepared from a metallurgical zinc-containing solid waste "fabric filter dust" by combining sulfolysis and co-precipitation processes, and is found to be a favorable photocatalyst for photodegradation of organic substances in wastewater under visible light irradiation. All the zinc and dopants (Fe, Mg, Ca and Al) for preparing M-ZnO are recovered from the fabric filter dust, without any addition of chemical as elemental source. The dust-derived M-ZnO samples deliver single phase indexed as the hexagonal ZnO crystal, with controllable dopants species. The photocatalytic activity of the dust-derived M-ZnO samples is characterized by photodegradation of phenol aqueous solution under visible light irradiation, giving more prominent photocatalytic behaviors than undoped ZnO. Such enhancements may be attributed to incorporation of the dust-derived metal elements (Fe, Mg, Ca and Al) into ZnO structure, which lead to the modification of band gap and refinement of grain size. The results show a feasibility to utilize the industrial waste as a resource of photodegradating organic substances in wastewater treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Uptake and Distribution of Soil Applied Zinc by Citrus Trees—Addressing Fertilizer Use Efficiency with 68Zn Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Hippler, Franz Walter Rieger; Boaretto, Rodrigo Marcelli; Quaggio, José Antônio; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Abreu-Junior, Cassio Hamilton; Mattos, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    The zinc (Zn) supply increases the fruit yield of Citrus trees that are grown, especially in the highly weathered soils of the tropics due to the inherently low nutrient availability in the soil solution. Leaf sprays containing micronutrients are commonly applied to orchards, even though the nutrient supply via soil could be of practical value. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zn fertilizers that are applied to the soil surface on absorption and partitioning of the nutrient by citrus trees. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with one-year-old sweet orange trees. The plants were grown in soils with different textures (18.1 or 64.4% clay) that received 1.8 g Zn per plant, in the form of either ZnO or ZnSO4 enriched with the stable isotope 68Zn. Zinc fertilization increased the availability of the nutrient in the soil and the content in the orange trees. Greater responses were obtained when ZnSO4 was applied to the sandy loam soil due to its lower specific metal adsorption compared to that of the clay soil. The trunk and branches accumulated the most fertilizer-derived Zn (Zndff) and thus represent the major reserve organ for this nutrient in the plant. The trees recovered up to 4% of the applied Zndff. Despite this relative low recovery, the Zn requirement of the trees was met with the selected treatment based on the total leaf nutrient content and increased Cu/Zn-SOD activity in the leaves. We conclude that the efficiency of Zn fertilizers depends on the fertilizer source and the soil texture, which must be taken into account by guidelines for fruit crop fertilization via soil, in substitution or complementation of traditional foliar sprays. PMID:25751056

  20. Uptake and distribution of soil applied zinc by citrus trees-addressing fertilizer use efficiency with 68Zn labeling.

    PubMed

    Hippler, Franz Walter Rieger; Boaretto, Rodrigo Marcelli; Quaggio, José Antônio; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Abreu-Junior, Cassio Hamilton; Mattos, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    The zinc (Zn) supply increases the fruit yield of Citrus trees that are grown, especially in the highly weathered soils of the tropics due to the inherently low nutrient availability in the soil solution. Leaf sprays containing micronutrients are commonly applied to orchards, even though the nutrient supply via soil could be of practical value. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zn fertilizers that are applied to the soil surface on absorption and partitioning of the nutrient by citrus trees. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with one-year-old sweet orange trees. The plants were grown in soils with different textures (18.1 or 64.4% clay) that received 1.8 g Zn per plant, in the form of either ZnO or ZnSO4 enriched with the stable isotope 68Zn. Zinc fertilization increased the availability of the nutrient in the soil and the content in the orange trees. Greater responses were obtained when ZnSO4 was applied to the sandy loam soil due to its lower specific metal adsorption compared to that of the clay soil. The trunk and branches accumulated the most fertilizer-derived Zn (Zndff) and thus represent the major reserve organ for this nutrient in the plant. The trees recovered up to 4% of the applied Zndff. Despite this relative low recovery, the Zn requirement of the trees was met with the selected treatment based on the total leaf nutrient content and increased Cu/Zn-SOD activity in the leaves. We conclude that the efficiency of Zn fertilizers depends on the fertilizer source and the soil texture, which must be taken into account by guidelines for fruit crop fertilization via soil, in substitution or complementation of traditional foliar sprays.

  1. Extraction and isolation of the salidroside-type metabolite from zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance*

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yan; Peng, Hong-yun; Li, Xia; Zhang, Meng-xi; Gao, Ling-ling; Yang, Xiao-e

    2012-01-01

    The active metabolite in the post-harvested biomass of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance from phytoextraction is of great interest in China. The current study demonstrates that a salidroside-type metabolite can be yielded from the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator S. alfredii biomass by means of sonication/ethanol extraction and macroporous resin column (AB-8 type) isolation. The concentrations of Zn and Cd in the salidroside-type metabolite were below the limitation of the national standards. PMID:23024051

  2. HOMEOSTATIC REGULATION OF KCC2 ACTIVITY BY THE ZINC RECEPTOR mZnR/GPR39 DURING SEIZURES

    PubMed Central

    Gilad, David; Shorer, Sharon; Ketzef, Maya; Friedman, Alon; Sekler, Israel; Aizenman, Elias; Hershfinkel, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the synaptic metabotropic zinc receptor mZnR/GPR39 in physiological adaptation to epileptic seizures. We previously demonstrated that synaptic activation of mZnR/GPR39 enhances inhibitory drive in the hippocampus by upregulating neuronal K+/Cl− co-transporter 2 (KCC2) activity. Here, we first show that mZnR/GPR39 knockout (KO) adult mice have dramatically enhanced susceptibility to seizures triggered by a single intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid, when compared to wild type (WT) littermates. Kainate also substantially enhances seizure-associated gamma oscillatory activity in juvenile mZnR/GPR39 KO hippocampal slices, a phenomenon that can be reproduced in WT tissue by extracellular Zn2+ chelation. Importantly, kainate-induced synaptic Zn2+ release enhances surface expression and transport activity of KCC2 in WT, but not mZnR/GPR39 KO hippocampal neurons. Kainate-dependent upregulation of KCC2 requires mZnR/GPR39 activation of the Gαq/phospholipase C/extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signaling cascade. We suggest that mZnR/GPR39-dependent upregulation of KCC2 activity provides homeostatic adaptation to an excitotoxic stimulus by increasing inhibition. As such, mZnR/GPR39 may provide a novel pharmacological target for dampening epileptic seizure activity. PMID:25562657

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle-Induced Genotoxicity Short Running Title: Genotoxicity of ZnO NPs

    PubMed Central

    Scherzad, Agmal; Meyer, Till; Kleinsasser, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are among the most frequently applied nanomaterials in consumer products. Evidence exists regarding the cytotoxic effects of ZnO NPs in mammalian cells; however, knowledge about the potential genotoxicity of ZnO NPs is rare, and results presented in the current literature are inconsistent. Objectives: The aim of this review is to summarize the existing data regarding the DNA damage that ZnO NPs induce, and focus on the possible molecular mechanisms underlying genotoxic events. Methods: Electronic literature databases were systematically searched for studies that report on the genotoxicity of ZnO NPs. Results: Several methods and different endpoints demonstrate the genotoxic potential of ZnO NPs. Most publications describe in vitro assessments of the oxidative DNA damage triggered by dissoluted Zn2+ ions. Most genotoxicological investigations of ZnO NPs address acute exposure situations. Conclusion: Existing evidence indicates that ZnO NPs possibly have the potential to damage DNA. However, there is a lack of long-term exposure experiments that clarify the intracellular bioaccumulation of ZnO NPs and the possible mechanisms of DNA repair and cell survival. PMID:29240707

  4. Synthesis and photocatalytic property of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) fine particle using flame spray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiyandari, Hendri; Ayu Ketut Umiati, Ngurah; Dwi Herdianti, Rizki

    2018-05-01

    Advance oxidation process (AOP) using photocatalysis constitute a promising technology for the treatment of wastewaters containing non-easily removable organic compound. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of efficient photocatalyst materials. This research reported synthesis of ZnO fine particle from zinc nitrate hexahydrate using Flame Spray Pyrolysis (FSP) method. In this method, oxygen (O2) gas were used as oxidizer and LPG (liquid petroleum gas) were used as fuel. The effect of O2 gas flow rate during ZnO particle fabrication to the microstructure, optical and photocatalytic properties were systematically discussed. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO was tested for the degradation of amaranth dye with initial concentration of 10 ppm under irradiation of solar simulator. The rate of decrease in amaranth concentration was measured using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The ZnO synthesized using FSP has a hexagonal crystalline structure. Scanning electron microscope images showed that ZnO has a spherical formed which was the mixture of solid and hollow particles. The optimum condition for amaranth degradation was shown by ZnO produced at a flow rate of 1.5 L/min which able to degrade amaranth dye up to 95,3 % at 75 minutes irradiation.

  5. The recovery of Zn and Pb and the manufacture of lightweight bricks from zinc smelting slag and clay.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiping; Deng, Qiufeng; Li, Chao; Xie, Yue; Dong, Zeqin; Zhang, Wei

    2014-04-30

    Novel lightweight bricks have been produced by sintering mixes of zinc smelting slag and clay. A two-stage sintered process has been proposed to recovery of Zn and Pb and reutilization of the zinc smelting slag. In the first stage of the process, called reduction and volatilization procedure, zinc and lead were reduced by the carbon contained in the zinc smelting slag and volatilized into the dust, and the dust can be used as a secondary zinc resource. In the second stage of the process, called oxidation sintering procedure, a lightweight brick was produced. Samples containing up to 60 wt.% zinc smelting slag and 40 wt.% kaolin clay were reduced at 1050°C for 6h, and then sintered at 1050°C for 4h. The recoveries of Zn and Pb from the brick are 94.5 ± 0.6% and 97.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. Low bulk density (1.42 g cm(-3)) and relatively high compressive strength (2 2MPa) sintered bricks were produced, and the leaching toxicity of the sintered bricks was below the regulatory thresholds of Chinese National Standards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Bipolar charge storage characteristics in copper and cobalt co-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Herng, Tun Seng; Zeng, Kaiyang; Ding, Jun

    2012-10-24

    The bipolar charge phenomenon in Cu and Co co-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) film samples has been studied using scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques. Those ZnO samples are made using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. It is found that the addition of Cu and Co dopants suppresses the electron density in ZnO and causes a significant change in the work function (Fermi level) value of the ZnO film; this results in the ohmic nature of the contact between the electrode (probe tip) and codoped sample, whereas this contact exhibits a Schottky nature in the undoped and single-element-doped samples. These results are verified by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) measurements. It is also found that the co-doping (Cu and Co) can stabilize the bipolar charge, whereas Cu doping only stabilizes the positive charge in ZnO thin films.

  7. Extracellular pH Regulates Zinc Signaling via an Asp Residue of the Zinc-sensing Receptor (ZnR/GPR39)*

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Limor; Asraf, Hila; Sekler, Israel; Hershfinkel, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Zinc activates a specific Zn2+-sensing receptor, ZnR/GPR39, and thereby triggers cellular signaling leading to epithelial cell proliferation and survival. Epithelial cells that express ZnR, particularly colonocytes, face frequent changes in extracellular pH that are of physiological and pathological implication. Here we show that the ZnR/GPR39-dependent Ca2+ responses in HT29 colonocytes were maximal at pH 7.4 but were reduced by about 50% at pH 7.7 and by about 62% at pH 7.1 and were completely abolished at pH 6.5. Intracellular acidification did not attenuate ZnR/GPR39 activity, indicating that the pH sensor of this protein is located on an extracellular domain. ZnR/GPR39-dependent activation of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 or AKT pathways was abolished at acidic extracellular pH of 6.5. A similar inhibitory effect was monitored for the ZnR/GPR39-dependent up-regulation of Na+/H+ exchange activity at pH 6.5. Focusing on residues putatively facing the extracellular domain, we sought to identify the pH sensor of ZnR/GPR39. Replacing the histidine residues forming the Zn2+ binding site, His17 or His19, or other extracellular-facing histidines to alanine residues did not abolish the pH dependence of ZnR/GPR39. In contrast, replacing Asp313 with alanine resulted in similar Ca2+ responses triggered by ZnR/GPR39 at pH 7.4 or 6.5. This mutant also showed similar activation of ERK1/2 and AKT pathways, and ZnR-dependent up-regulation of Na+/H+ exchange at pH 7.4 and pH 6.5. Substitution of Asp313 to His or Glu residues restored pH sensitivity of the receptor. This indicates that Asp313, which was shown to modulate Zn2+ binding, is an essential residue of the pH sensor of GPR39. In conclusion, ZnR/GPR39 is tuned to sense physiologically relevant changes in extracellular pH that thus regulate ZnR-dependent signaling and ion transport activity. PMID:22879599

  8. Extracellular pH regulates zinc signaling via an Asp residue of the zinc-sensing receptor (ZnR/GPR39).

    PubMed

    Cohen, Limor; Asraf, Hila; Sekler, Israel; Hershfinkel, Michal

    2012-09-28

    Zinc activates a specific Zn(2+)-sensing receptor, ZnR/GPR39, and thereby triggers cellular signaling leading to epithelial cell proliferation and survival. Epithelial cells that express ZnR, particularly colonocytes, face frequent changes in extracellular pH that are of physiological and pathological implication. Here we show that the ZnR/GPR39-dependent Ca(2+) responses in HT29 colonocytes were maximal at pH 7.4 but were reduced by about 50% at pH 7.7 and by about 62% at pH 7.1 and were completely abolished at pH 6.5. Intracellular acidification did not attenuate ZnR/GPR39 activity, indicating that the pH sensor of this protein is located on an extracellular domain. ZnR/GPR39-dependent activation of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 or AKT pathways was abolished at acidic extracellular pH of 6.5. A similar inhibitory effect was monitored for the ZnR/GPR39-dependent up-regulation of Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity at pH 6.5. Focusing on residues putatively facing the extracellular domain, we sought to identify the pH sensor of ZnR/GPR39. Replacing the histidine residues forming the Zn(2+) binding site, His(17) or His(19), or other extracellular-facing histidines to alanine residues did not abolish the pH dependence of ZnR/GPR39. In contrast, replacing Asp(313) with alanine resulted in similar Ca(2+) responses triggered by ZnR/GPR39 at pH 7.4 or 6.5. This mutant also showed similar activation of ERK1/2 and AKT pathways, and ZnR-dependent up-regulation of Na(+)/H(+) exchange at pH 7.4 and pH 6.5. Substitution of Asp(313) to His or Glu residues restored pH sensitivity of the receptor. This indicates that Asp(313), which was shown to modulate Zn(2+) binding, is an essential residue of the pH sensor of GPR39. In conclusion, ZnR/GPR39 is tuned to sense physiologically relevant changes in extracellular pH that thus regulate ZnR-dependent signaling and ion transport activity.

  9. Structure and Stability of Carboxylate Complexes. 20. Diaqua Bis(methoxyacetato) Complexes of Nickel(II), Copper(II), and Zinc(II): A Structural Study of the Dynamic Pseudo-Jahn-Teller Effect.

    PubMed

    Prout, Keith; Edwards, Alison; Mtetwa, Victor; Murray, Jon; Saunders, John F.; Rossotti, Francis J. C.

    1997-06-18

    The crystal structure of trans-diaquabis(methoxyacetato)copper(II), C(6)H(14)O(8)Cu, has been determined by neutron diffraction at 4.2 K (monoclinic, P2(1)/n, a = 6.88(1), b = 7.19(1), c = 9.77(2) Å, gamma = 95.7(1) degrees, (Z = 2)) and by X-ray diffraction at 125, 165, 205, 240, 265, 295, and 325 K. These measurements show that there is no phase change in the temperature range 4.2-325 K. The copper(II) coordination at 4.2 K is a tetragonally distorted elongated rhombic octahedron (Cu-OOC 1.955(1), Cu-OMe 2.209(1), and Cu-OH(2) 2.031(2) Å). As the temperature increases to 325 K, the Cu-OOC bonds shorten slightly to 1.934(5) Å, the Cu-OMe bonds shorten more markedly to 2.137(4) Å, and Cu-OH(2) lengthens to 2.155(6) Å to give a tetragonally distorted compressed rhombic octahedron. For comparison the structure of the isomorphous nickel(II) complex (monoclinic, P2(1)/n, a = 6.633(1), b = 7.192(1), c = 10.016(2) Å, gamma = 98.30(2) degrees, (Z = 2)) has been redetermined at 295 K and the structure of the analogous zinc(II) complex (orthorhombic, F2dd, a = 7.530(1), b = 13.212(1), c = 21.876(2) Å (Z = 8)) has also been determined. The nickel(II) complex has an almost regular trans (centrosymmetric) octahedral coordination (Ni-OOC 2.022(1), Ni-OMe 2.043(1), and Ni-OH(2) 2.077(2) Å). However, zinc(II) has a very distorted octahedral coordination with the zinc atom on a 2-fold axis with the water molecules and the methoxy ligators cis and the carboxylate ligators trans (Zn-OOC 1.985(1), Zn-OMe 2.304(2), and Zn-OH(2) 2.038(2) Å). The variation in the dimensions of the copper(II) coordination sphere is discussed in terms of static (low temperature) and planar dynamic (high temperature) pseudo-Jahn-Teller effects.

  10. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) alleviate heavy metal-induced toxicity in Leucaena leucocephala seedlings: A physiochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, P; Jayaraj, M; Manikandan, R; Geetha, N; Rene, Eldon R; Sharma, N C; Sahi, S V

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes the role of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) in reversing oxidative stress symptoms induced by heavy metal (Cd and Pb) exposure in Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Seedling growth was significantly enhanced with the augmentation of ZnONPs following Cd and Pb exposure. Heavy metal accumulations were recorded as 1253.1 mg Cd per kg DW and 1026.8 mg Pb per kg DW for the respective treatments. Results demonstrated that ZnONPs augmentation caused an increase in photosynthetic pigment and total soluble protein contents while a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA-lipid peroxidation) content in leaves. Antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) were, in turn, elevated in heavy metal-exposed leaves amended with ZnONPs. The ameliorating effect of ZnO nanoparticles on oxidative stress induced toxicity was also confirmed by the reduced MDA content and the elevated level of antioxidative enzyme activities in leaf tissues of L. leucocephala seedlings. Further, addition of ZnONPs in combination with Cd and Pb metals induced distinct genomic alterations such as presence of new DNA bands and/or absence of normal bands in the RAPD pattern of the exposed plants. This study uniquely suggests a potential role of zinc oxide nanoparticles in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Electroreduction using a Silver-Zinc Alloy [CO 2 Electroreduction on a Ag-Zn Alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Hatsukade, Toru; Kuhl, Kendra P.; Cave, Etosha R.; ...

    2017-02-20

    We report on CO 2 electroreduction activity and selectivity of a polycrystalline AgZn foil in aqueous bicarbonate electrolyte. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements show that the alloy foil was slightly enriched in zinc both at the surface and in the bulk, with a surface alloy composition of 61.3±5.4 at % zinc and with Ag 5Zn 8 as the most prominent bulk phase. AgZn is active for CO 2 reduction; CO is the main product, likely due to the weak CO binding energy of the surface, with methane and methanol emerging as minor products. Compared to puremore » silver and pure zinc foils, enhancements in activity and selectivity for methane and methanol are observed. A five-fold increase is observed in the combined partial current densities for methane and methanol at –1.43 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), representing a four- to six-fold increase in faradaic efficiency. Here, such enhancements indicate the existence of a synergistic effect between silver and zinc at the surface of the alloy that contributes to the enhanced formation of further reduced products.« less

  12. Zinc-induced embrittlement in nickel-base superalloys by simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Richard; Waje, Mahesh; Lindwall, Greta; Jefferson, Tiffany; Lange, Jeremy; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2017-09-01

    The high cost of Re has driven interest in processes for recovering Re from scrap superalloy parts. In this work thermodynamic modelling is used to study Zn-induced embrittlement of a superalloy and to direct experiments. Treating superalloy powder with Zn vapour reduces the average particle size after milling from approximately ?m to 0.5-10 ?m, vs. ?m for untreated powder. Simulations predict the required treatment time to increase with temperature. Agreement between predictions and experiments suggests that an embrittling liquid forms in less than an hour of Zn vapour treatment between 950-1000 ?C and partial pressures of Zn between 14-34 kPa (2-5 psi).

  13. Regulation of zinc homeostasis by inducible NO synthase-derived NO: nuclear metallothionein translocation and intranuclear Zn2+ release.

    PubMed

    Spahl, Daniela U; Berendji-Grün, Denise; Suschek, Christoph V; Kolb-Bachofen, Victoria; Kröncke, Klaus-D

    2003-11-25

    Zn2+ is critical for the functional and structural integrity of cells and contributes to a number of important processes including gene expression. It has been shown that NO exogenously applied via NO donors resulting in nitrosative stress leads to cytoplasmic Zn2+ release from the zinc storing protein metallothionein (MT) and probably other proteins that complex Zn2+ via cysteine thiols. We show here that, in cytokine-activated murine aortic endothelial cells, NO derived from the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) induces a transient nuclear release of Zn2+. This nuclear Zn2+ release depends on the presence of MT as shown by the lack of this effect in activated endothelial cells from MT-deficient mice and temporally correlates with nuclear MT translocation. Data also show that NO is an essential but not sufficient signal for MT-mediated Zn2+ trafficking from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. In addition, we found that, endogenously via iNOS, synthesized NO increases the constitutive mRNA expression of both MT-1 and MT-2 genes and that nitrosative stress exogenously applied via an NO donor increases constitutive MT mRNA expression via intracellular Zn2+ release. In conclusion, we here provide evidence for a signaling mechanism based on iNOS-derived NO through the regulation of intracellular Zn2+ trafficking and homeostasis.

  14. Regulation of zinc homeostasis by inducible NO synthase-derived NO: Nuclear metallothionein translocation and intranuclear Zn2+ release

    PubMed Central

    Spahl, Daniela U.; Berendji-Grün, Denise; Suschek, Christoph V.; Kolb-Bachofen, Victoria; Kröncke, Klaus-D.

    2003-01-01

    Zn2+ is critical for the functional and structural integrity of cells and contributes to a number of important processes including gene expression. It has been shown that NO exogenously applied via NO donors resulting in nitrosative stress leads to cytoplasmic Zn2+ release from the zinc storing protein metallothionein (MT) and probably other proteins that complex Zn2+ via cysteine thiols. We show here that, in cytokine-activated murine aortic endothelial cells, NO derived from the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) induces a transient nuclear release of Zn2+. This nuclear Zn2+ release depends on the presence of MT as shown by the lack of this effect in activated endothelial cells from MT-deficient mice and temporally correlates with nuclear MT translocation. Data also show that NO is an essential but not sufficient signal for MT-mediated Zn2+ trafficking from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. In addition, we found that, endogenously via iNOS, synthesized NO increases the constitutive mRNA expression of both MT-1 and MT-2 genes and that nitrosative stress exogenously applied via an NO donor increases constitutive MT mRNA expression via intracellular Zn2+ release. In conclusion, we here provide evidence for a signaling mechanism based on iNOS-derived NO through the regulation of intracellular Zn2+ trafficking and homeostasis. PMID:14617770

  15. Compound heterozygous mutations in SLC30A2/ZnT2 results in low milk zinc concentrations: a novel mechanism for zinc deficiency in a breast-fed infant.

    PubMed

    Itsumura, Naoya; Inamo, Yasuji; Okazaki, Fumiko; Teranishi, Fumie; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Kodama, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Zinc concentrations in breast milk are considerably higher than those of the maternal serum, to meet the infant's requirements for normal growth and development. Thus, effective mechanisms ensuring secretion of large amounts of zinc into the milk operate in mammary epithelial cells during lactation. ZnT2 was recently found to play an essential role in the secretion of zinc into milk. Heterozygous mutations of human ZnT2 (hZnT2), including H54R and G87R, in mothers result in low (>75% reduction) secretion of zinc into the breast milk, and infants fed on the milk develop transient neonatal zinc deficiency. We identified two novel missense mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene in a Japanese mother with low milk zinc concentrations (>90% reduction) whose infant developed severe zinc deficiency; a T to C transition (c.454T>C) at exon 4, which substitutes a tryptophan residue with an arginine residue (W152R), and a C to T transition (c.887C>T) at exon 7, which substitutes a serine residue with a leucine residue (S296L). Biochemical characterization using zinc-sensitive DT40 cells indicated that the W152R mutation abolished the abilities to transport zinc and to form a dimer complex, indicating a loss-of-function mutation. The S296L mutation retained both abilities but was extremely destabilized. The two mutations were found on different alleles, indicating that the genotype of the mother with low milk zinc was compound heterozygous. These results show novel compound heterozygous mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene causing zinc deficiency in a breast-fed infant.

  16. Compound Heterozygous Mutations in SLC30A2/ZnT2 Results in Low Milk Zinc Concentrations: A Novel Mechanism for Zinc Deficiency in a Breast-Fed Infant

    PubMed Central

    Itsumura, Naoya; Inamo, Yasuji; Okazaki, Fumiko; Teranishi, Fumie; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Kodama, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Zinc concentrations in breast milk are considerably higher than those of the maternal serum, to meet the infant's requirements for normal growth and development. Thus, effective mechanisms ensuring secretion of large amounts of zinc into the milk operate in mammary epithelial cells during lactation. ZnT2 was recently found to play an essential role in the secretion of zinc into milk. Heterozygous mutations of human ZnT2 (hZnT2), including H54R and G87R, in mothers result in low (>75% reduction) secretion of zinc into the breast milk, and infants fed on the milk develop transient neonatal zinc deficiency. We identified two novel missense mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene in a Japanese mother with low milk zinc concentrations (>90% reduction) whose infant developed severe zinc deficiency; a T to C transition (c.454T>C) at exon 4, which substitutes a tryptophan residue with an arginine residue (W152R), and a C to T transition (c.887C>T) at exon 7, which substitutes a serine residue with a leucine residue (S296L). Biochemical characterization using zinc-sensitive DT40 cells indicated that the W152R mutation abolished the abilities to transport zinc and to form a dimer complex, indicating a loss-of-function mutation. The S296L mutation retained both abilities but was extremely destabilized. The two mutations were found on different alleles, indicating that the genotype of the mother with low milk zinc was compound heterozygous. These results show novel compound heterozygous mutations in the SLC30A2/ZnT2 gene causing zinc deficiency in a breast-fed infant. PMID:23741301

  17. Efficiency of a zinc lignosulfonate as Zn source for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) under hydroponic culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustin

    2009-01-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a zinc lignosulfonate (ZnLS) as Zn source for wheat and corn plants under hydroponic conditions. The Zn-complexing capacity of three commercial lignosulfonates (byproducts of the paper and pulp industry) was tested, and a LS-NH4, from spruce wood, was selected. Its efficacy as Zn fertilizer for wheat and corn plants was assessed at different pH values (7.0 and 8.0) in comparison with a chelate (ZnEDTA) and an inorganic salt (ZnSO4). For wheat at pH 7.0, it was concluded that the efficacy of the Zn fertilizers followed the sequence Zn-EDTA > Zn-LS approximately ZnSO4 > zero-Zn; and for wheat and corn at pH 8.0, similar results were obtained: Zn-LS > ZnSO4 approximately 0 Zn. These data give evidence that ZnLS could be used as Zn source to the roots of wheat and corn and seems to be more efficient than ZnSO4 to correct Zn deficiency in both plants.

  18. Inert anode containing oxides of nickel, iron and zinc useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOEpatents

    Ray, Siba P.; Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A.; Liu, Xinghua

    2002-01-01

    An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO: 0.2 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.8 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.3 ZnO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

  19. Effect of copper and nickel doping on the optical and structural properties of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muǧlu, G. Merhan; Sarıtaş, S.; ćakıcı, T.; Şakar, B.; Yıldırım, M.

    2017-02-01

    The present study is focused on the Cu doped ZnO and Ni doped ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films. ZnO:Cu and ZnO:Ni thin films were grown by Chemically Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method on glass substrates. Optical analysis of the films was done spectral absorption and transmittance measurements by UV-Vis double beam spectrophotometer technique. The structure, morphology, topology and elemental analysis of ZnO:Cu and ZnO:Ni dilute magnetic thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, respectively. Also The magnetic properties of the ZnO:Ni thin film was investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) method. VSM measurements of ZnO:Ni thin film showed that the ferromagnetic behavior.

  20. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of zinc: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA’s) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for zinc ( ...

  1. In Situ Distribution And Speciation Of Toxic Copper, Nickel, And Zinc In Hydrated Roots Of Cowpea

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phytotoxicity of trace metals is of global concern due to contamination of the landscape by human activities. Using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, the distribution and speciation of Cu, Ni, and Zn was examined in situ

  2. The Novel Helicobacter pylori CznABC Metal Efflux Pump Is Required for Cadmium, Zinc, and Nickel Resistance, Urease Modulation, and Gastric Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Stähler, Frank Nils; Odenbreit, Stefan; Haas, Rainer; Wilrich, Julia; Vliet, Arnoud H. M. Van; Kusters, Johannes G.; Kist, Manfred; Bereswill, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Maintaining metal homeostasis is crucial for the adaptation of Helicobacter pylori to the gastric environment. Iron, copper, and nickel homeostasis has recently been demonstrated to be required for the establishment of H. pylori infection in animal models. Here we demonstrate that the HP0969-0971 gene cluster encoding the Czc-type metal export pump homologs HP0969, HP0970, and the H. pylori-specific protein HP0971 forms part of a novel H. pylori metal resistance determinant, which is required for gastric colonization and for the modulation of urease activity. Insertional mutagenesis of the HP0971, HP0970, or HP0969 genes in H. pylori reference strain 26695 resulted in increased sensitivity to cadmium, zinc, and nickel (czn), suggesting that the encoded proteins constitute a metal-specific export pump. Accordingly, the genes were designated cznC (HP0971), cznB (HP0970), and cznA (HP0969). The CznC and CznA proteins play a predominant role in nickel homeostasis, since only the cznC and cznA mutants but not the cznB mutant displayed an 8- to 10-fold increase in urease activity. Nickel-specific affinity chromatography demonstrated that recombinant versions of CznC and CznB can bind to nickel and that the purified CznB protein interacted with cadmium and zinc, since both metals competitively inhibited nickel binding. Finally, single cznA, cznB, and cznC mutants did not colonize the stomach in a Mongolian gerbil-based animal model. This demonstrates that the metal export functions of H. pylori cznABC are essential for gastric colonization and underlines the extraordinary importance of metal ion homeostasis for the survival of H. pylori in the gastric environment. PMID:16790756

  3. Charge transport study in bis{2-(2-hydroxyphenyl) benzoxazolate} zinc [Zn(hpb)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Virendra Kumar; Srivastava, Ritu; Chauhan, Gayatri; Kumar, Arunandan; Kamalasanan, M. N.

    2008-10-01

    The nature of the electrical transport mechanism for carrier transport in pure bis {2-(2-hydroxyphenyl) benzoxazolate} zinc [Zn(hpb)2] has been studied by current voltage measurements of samples at different thicknesses and at different temperatures. Hole-only devices show ohmic conduction at low voltages and space charge conduction at high voltages. The space charge conduction is clearly identifiable with a square law dependence of current on voltage as well as the scaling of current inversely with the cube of thickness. With a further increase in voltage, the current increases with a Vm dependence with m varying with temperature typical of trap limited conduction with an exponential distribution of trap states. From the square law region the effective charge carrier mobility of holes has been evaluated as 2.5 × 10-11 m2 V-1 s-1. Electron-only devices however show electrode limited conduction, which was found to obey the Scott Malliaras model of charge injection.

  4. Bismuth zinc vanadate, BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}: New crystal structure type and electronic structure

    SciT

    Eliziario Nunes, Sayonara; Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP; Wang, Chun-Hai

    2015-02-15

    We report a combined experimental and computational study of the crystal structure and electronic properties of bismuth zinc vanadate, BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}, known for its visible light photocatalytic activity. The crystal structure has been solved from laboratory powder X-ray diffraction data using the repeated minimisations from random starting values method. BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6} adopts a new structure type, based on the following building blocks: corner- and edge-sharing ZnO{sub 4} tetrahedra, ZnO{sub 6} octahedra and VO{sub 4} tetrahedra, and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 12} dimers. It is the only known member of the BiM{sub 2}AO{sub 6} (M=Pb, Ca, Cd, Mn, Zn, Mg, Cu;more » A=V, P, As) family which does not appear to be structurally closely related to others. The electronic structure of BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}, calculated by DFT methods, shows that it is an indirect gap semiconductor with a calculated band gap of 1.6 eV, which compares favourably to the experimentally measured value of 2.4 eV. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of BiZn{sub 2}VO{sub 6}, a new structure type in the BiM{sub 2}AO{sub 6} (M=Mg, Ca, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, Zn; A=V, P, As) family. - Highlights: • Structure solution from PXRD data by repeated minimisations from random starting values. • New structure type in the BiM{sub 2}AO{sub 6} (M=Pb, Ca, Cd, Mn, Zn, Mg, Cu; A=V, P, As) family. • Electronic structure calculation.« less

  5. Antibacterial and wound healing properties of chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/zinc oxide beads (CS/PVA/ZnO).

    PubMed

    Gutha, Yuvaraja; Pathak, Janak L; Zhang, Weijiang; Zhang, Yaping; Jiao, Xu

    2017-10-01

    Treatment against bacterial infection is crucial for wound healing. Development of cost-effective antibacterial agent with wound healing properties is still in high demand. In this study we aimed to design chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/zinc oxide (CS/PVA/ZnO) beads as novel antibacterial agent with wound healing properties. CS/PVA/ZnO beads were synthesized, and characterized by using XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM analysis. Pure chitosan exhibits two peaks at 2θ=10 and 20 and the CS/PVA polymer matrix exhibit the peaks at 2θ=19.7° and another of low intensity at 2θ=11.5°. Pure ZnO shows the characteristic peaks at (100), (002), (101), (102), (110), (103), (200), and (112) that were in good agreement with wurtzite ore having hexagonal lattice structure. The antibacterial activity of CS/PVA/ZnO against Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated with the zone of inhibition method. Antibacterial activity of CS/PVA/ZnO was higher than that of chitosan (CS) and poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA). Hemocompatibility and biocompatibility of CS/PVA/ZnO were tested in in vitro. Wound healing properties of CS/PVA/ZnO were tested in mice skin wound. CS/PVA/ZnO showed strong antimicrobial, wound healing effect, hemocompatibility and biocompatibility. Hence the results strongly support the possibility of using this novel CS/PVA/ZnO material for the anti bacterial and wound healing application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stabilization of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in contaminated rice paddy soil using starfish: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Hwang, Inseong; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Ok, Yong Sik; Ji, Won Hyun; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2018-05-01

    Lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) contaminated rice paddy soil was stabilized using natural (NSF) and calcined starfish (CSF). Contaminated soil was treated with NSF in the range of 0-10 wt% and CSF in the range of 0-5 wt% and cured for 28 days. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test was used to evaluate effectiveness of starfish treatment. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses were conducted to investigate the mechanism responsible for effective immobilization of Pb and Zn. Experimental results suggest that NSF and CSF treatments effectively immobilize Pb and Zn in treated rice paddy soil. TCLP levels for Pb and Zn were reduced with increasing NSF and CSF dosage. Comparison of the two treatment methods reveals that CSF treatment is more effective than NSF treatment. Leachability of the two metals is reduced approximately 58% for Pb and 51% for Zn, upon 10 wt% NSF treatment. More pronounced leachability reductions, 93% for Pb and 76% for Zn, are achieved upon treatment with 5 wt% CSF. Sequential extraction results reveal that NSF and CSF treatments of contaminated soil generated decrease in exchangeable/weak acid Pb and Zn soluble fractions, and increase of residual Pb and Zn fractions. Results for the SEM-EDX sample treated with 5 wt% CSF indicate that effective Pb and Zn immobilization is most probably associated with calcium silicate hydrates (CSHs) and calcium aluminum hydrates (CAHs). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Dipsol IZ-C17 LHE Zinc-Nickel Plating (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-24

    Results • Based on Successful Test Results an LHE Alkaline Zn-Ni Formula was Selected for Further Development – Identified as Dipsol IZ-C17 (13 to...Hydrogen Embrittlement Test Methods • Select Repair Procedures 16. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSURANCE 2006 Status • IZ-C17 Tech Bulletin (Draft) Prepared...Corrosion Testing (Salt Spray and Galvanic) – Fluid Immersion (ASTM F 483) – Lubricity (Fasteners) – Strippability (BCA – Ammonium Nitrate pH 10) – Throwing

  8. Thermodynamic Analysis of Nickel(II) and Zinc(II) Adsorption to Biochar.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Samrat; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Chen, Ning; Flynn, Shannon L; Ok, Yong Sik; Konhauser, Kurt O; Alessi, Daniel S

    2018-05-21

    While numerous studies have investigated metal uptake from solution by biochar, few of these have developed a mechanistic understanding of the adsorption reactions that occur at the biochar surface. In this study, we explore a combined modeling and spectroscopic approach for the first time to describe the molecular level adsorption of Ni(II) and Zn(II) to five types of biochar. Following thorough characterization, potentiometric titrations were carried out to measure the proton (H + ) reactivity of each biochar, and the data was used to develop protonation models. Surface complexation modeling (SCM) supported by synchrotron-based extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) was then used to gain insights into the molecular scale metal-biochar surface reactions. The SCM approach was combined with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data to determine the thermodynamic driving forces of metal adsorption. Our results show that the reactivity of biochar toward Ni(II) and Zn(II) directly relates to the site densities of biochar. EXAFS along with FT-IR analyses, suggest that Ni(II) and Zn(II) adsorption occurred primarily through proton-active carboxyl (-COOH) and hydroxyl (-OH) functional groups on the biochar surface. SCM-ITC analyses revealed that the enthalpies of protonation are exothermic and Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes with biochar surface are slightly exothermic to slightly endothermic. The results obtained from these combined approaches contribute to the better understanding of molecular scale metal adsorption onto the biochar surface, and will facilitate the further development of thermodynamics-based, predictive approaches to biochar removal of metals from contaminated water.

  9. Effect of controlled zinc release on bone mineral density from injectable Zn-containing beta-tricalcium phosphate suspension in zinc-deficient diseased rats.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Makoto; Ohshita, Yuko; Marunaka, Sunao; Matsuda, Yoshihia; Ito, Atsuo; Ichinose, Noboru; Otsuka, Kuniko; Higuchi, William I

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of zinc (Zn)-containing beta-tricalcium phosphate (Zn-TCP) in correcting the bone mineral deficiency noted in osteoporosis using ovariectomized rat model. Four rats were used for each of the four experimental groups: D0, D10, D20, and N10. The rats in D0, D10, and D20 groups were ovariectomized, and fed a vitamin D-, Ca-, and Zn-deficient diet, and induced Zn-deficient osteoporoses for 9 weeks. In contrast, the N10 group was the normal rats fed normal healthy diet for 9 weeks. D0 group was injected with pure beta-TCP suspension, D10 and D20 groups were injected with suspensions containing 10 mg of 10 mol % (6.17 wt % Zn) and 20 mol % (12.05 wt % Zn) Zn-TCP, respectively, and the healthy group, N10 were injected with 10 mol %. Zn-TCP suspensions. Injections were administered intramuscularly in the left thigh once a week in all rats, and fed a vitamin D- and Zn-deficient diet for 9 weeks. The plasma calcium (Ca) and Zn levels, plasma alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebra and femora were measured. The plasma Zn levels in all the rats were between 1.1 and 2.8 microg/mL. The areas under the curves for the Ca, Zn, and ALP (Ca-AUC, Zn-AUC, and ALP-AUC) levels between 0 and 63 days were calculated. Results for the AUCs were as follows: (1) the Zn-AUCs were in the order of N10 = D20 > D10 > D0; (2) the Ca-AUCs for D0, D10 groups were significantly lower than that for the N10 group; (3) the ALP-AUCs for the D10 and D20 groups were significantly higher than that for the N10 group, and that of the D0 group was in between those. The body weight of D10 and D20 groups significantly increased with time, that of the D0 group increased slightly, and that of the N10 group remained unchanged for the entire experimental period. The BMD of the lumbar vertebrae of the D10 and D20 groups (about 100 mg/cm(2)) was significantly higher than that of the D0 group but lower than that of

  10. Atomistic Interface Dynamics in Sn-Catalyzed Growth of Wurtzite and Zinc-Blende ZnO Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shuangfeng; Hu, Shuaishuai; Zheng, He; Wei, Yanjie; Meng, Shuang; Sheng, Huaping; Liu, Huihui; Zhou, Siyuan; Zhao, Dongshan; Wang, Jianbo

    2018-06-11

    Unraveling the phase selection mechanisms of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) is critical for the applications in future advanced nanodevices. In this study, the atomistic vapor-solid-liquid growth processes of Sn-catalyzed wurtzite (WZ) and zinc blende (ZB) ZnO are directly revealed based on the in situ transmission electron microscopy. The growth kinetics of WZ and ZB crystal phases in ZnO appear markedly different in terms of the NW-droplet interface, whereas the nucleation site as determined by the contact angle ϕ between the seed particle and the NW is found to be crucial for tuning the NW structure through combined experimental and theoretical investigations. These results offer an atomic-scale view into the dynamic growth process of ZnO NW, which has implications for the phase-controllable synthesis of II-VI compounds and heterostructures with tunable band structures.

  11. Zinc isotope fractionation during mantle melting and constraints on the Zn isotope composition of Earth's upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ze-Zhou; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Liu, Jingao; Huang, Jian; Xiao, Yan; Chu, Zhu-Yin; Zhao, Xin-Miao; Tang, Limei

    2017-02-01

    The zinc (Zn) stable isotope system has great potential for tracing planetary formation and differentiation processes due to its chalcophile, lithophile and moderately volatile character. As an initial approach, the terrestrial mantle, and by inference, the bulk silicate Earth (BSE), have previously been suggested to have an average δ66Zn value of ∼+0.28‰ (relative to JMC 3-0749L) primarily based on oceanic basalts. Nevertheless, data for mantle peridotites are relatively scarce and it remains unclear whether Zn isotopes are fractionated during mantle melting. To address this issue, we report high-precision (±0.04‰; 2SD) Zn isotope data for well-characterized peridotites (n = 47) from cratonic and orogenic settings, as well as their mineral separates. Basalts including mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and ocean island basalts (OIB) were also measured to avoid inter-laboratory bias. The MORB analyzed have homogeneous δ66Zn values of +0.28 ± 0.03‰ (here and throughout the text, errors are given as 2SD), similar to those of OIB obtained in this study and in the literature (+0.31 ± 0.09‰). Excluding the metasomatized peridotites that exhibit a wide δ66Zn range of -0.44‰ to +0.42‰, the non-metasomatized peridotites have relatively uniform δ66Zn value of +0.18 ± 0.06‰, which is lighter than both MORB and OIB. This difference suggests a small but detectable Zn isotope fractionation (∼0.1‰) during mantle partial melting. The magnitude of inter-mineral fractionation between olivine and pyroxene is, on average, close to zero, but spinels are always isotopically heavier than coexisting olivines (Δ66ZnSpl-Ol = +0.12 ± 0.07‰) due to the stiffer Zn-O bonds in spinel than silicate minerals (Ol, Opx and Cpx). Zinc concentrations in spinels are 11-88 times higher than those in silicate minerals, and our modelling suggests that spinel consumption during mantle melting plays a key role in generating high Zn concentrations and heavy Zn isotopic

  12. The effect of zinc (Zn) content to cell potential value and efficiency aluminium sacrificial anode in 0.2 M sulphuric acid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akranata, Ahmad Ridho; Sulistijono, Awali, Jatmoko

    2018-04-01

    Sacrificial anode is sacirifial component that used to protect steel from corrosion. Generally, the component are made of aluminium and zinc in water environment. Sacrificial anode change the protected metal structure become cathodic with giving current. The advantages of aluminium is corrosion resistance, non toxicity and easy forming. Zinc generally used for coating in steel to prevent steel from corrosion. This research was conducted to analyze the effect of zinc content to the value of cell potential and efficiency aluminium sacrificial anode with sand casting method in 0.2 M sulphuric acid environment. The sacrificial anode fabrication made with alloying aluminium and zinc metals with variation composition of alloy with pure Al, Al-3Zn, Al-6Zn, and Al-9Zn with open die sand casting process. The component installed with ASTM A36 steel. After the research has been done the result showed that addition of zinc content increase the cell potential, protection efficiency, and anode efficiency from steel plate. Cell potential value measurement and weight loss measurement showed that addition of zinc content increase the cell potential value into more positive that can protected the ASTM A36 steel more efficiently that showed in weight loss measurement where the protection efficiency and anodic efficiency of Al-9Zn sacrificial anode is better than protection efficiency and anodic efficiency of pure Al. The highest protection efficiency gotten by Al-9Zn alloy

  13. High performance symmetric supercapacitor based on zinc hydroxychloride nanosheets and 3D graphene-nickel foam composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamlich, S.; Abdullaeva, Z.; Kennedy, J. V.; Maaza, M.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, zinc hydroxychloride nanosheets (ZHCNs) were deposited on 3d graphene-nickel foam (NiF-G) by employing a simple hydrothermal synthesis method to form NiF-G/ZHCNs composite electrode materials. The fabricated NiF-G/ZHCNs electrode revealed a well-developed pore structures with high specific surface area of 119 m2 g-1, and used as electrode materials for symmetric supercapacitor with aqueous alkaline electrolyte. The specific areal capacitance and electron charge transfer resistance (Rct) were 222 mF cm-2 (at current density of 1.0 mA cm-2) and 1.63 Ω, respectively, in a symmetric two-electrode system. After 5000 cycles with galvanostatic charge/discharge, the device can maintain 96% of its initial capacitance under 1.0 mA cm-2 and showed low Rct of about 9.84 Ω. These results indicate that NiF-G/ZHCNs composite is an excellent electrode material for electrochemical energy storage devices.

  14. Effect of temperature on the performances and in situ polarization analysis of zinc-nickel single flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuanhui; Zhang, Huamin; Lai, Qinzhi; Li, Xianfeng; Zheng, Qiong; Xi, Xiaoli; Ding, Cong

    2014-03-01

    The recently proposed high power density zinc-nickel single flow batteries (ZNBs) exhibit great potential for larger scale energy storage. The urgent needs are in the research into temperature adaptability of ZNBs before practical utilization. Furthermore, making clear their polarization distribution is essential to direct the further improvement of battery performance. Here, we focus on the trends in the polarization distribution and effect of temperature on the performance of ZNBs. The result shows that ZNBs can operate in the temperature range from 0 °C to 40 °C with acceptable energy efficiency (53%-79.1%) at 80 mA cm-2. The temperature sensitivity of coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency are 0.65% °C-1 and 0.98% °C-1 at 0 °C-20 °C, respectively. The positive polarization is much larger than the negative polarization at all studied temperatures. The charge overpotential of the positive electrode is more sensitive to temperature. These results enable us to better evaluate the application prospect of ZNBs and point a clear struggling orientation to further improve the battery performance.

  15. The toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to Lemna minor (L.) is predominantly caused by dissolved Zn.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaolin; O'Halloran, John; Jansen, Marcel A K

    2016-05-01

    Nano-ZnO particles have been reported to be toxic to many aquatic organisms, although it is debated whether this is caused by nanoparticles per sé, or rather dissolved Zn. This study investigated the role of dissolved Zn in nano-ZnO toxicity to Lemna minor. The technical approach was based on modulating nano-ZnO dissolution by either modifying the pH of the growth medium and/or surface coating of nano-ZnO, and measuring resulting impacts on L. minor growth and physiology. Results show rapid and total dissolution of nano-ZnO in the medium (pH 4.5). Quantitatively similar toxic effects were found when L. minor was exposed to nano-ZnO or the "dissolved Zn equivalent of dissolved nano-ZnO". The conclusion that nano-ZnO toxicity is primarily caused by dissolved Zn was further supported by the observation that phytotoxicity was absent on medium with higher pH-values (>7), where dissolution of nano-ZnO almost ceased. Similarly, the reduced toxicity of coated nano-ZnO, which displays a slower Zn dissolution, is also consistent with a major role for dissolved Zn in nano-ZnO toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Three-dimensional hole transport in nickel oxide by alloying with MgO or ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alidoust, Nima; Carter, Emily A.

    2015-11-01

    It has been shown previously that the movement of a hole in nickel oxide is confined to two dimensions, along a single ferromagnetic plane. Such confinement may hamper hole transport when NiO is used as a p-type transparent conductor in various solar energy conversion technologies. Here, we use the small polaron model, along with unrestricted Hartree-Fock and complete active space self-consistent field calculations to show that forming substitutional MxNi1-xO alloys with M = Mg or Zn reduces the barrier for movement of a hole away from the ferromagnetic plane to which it is confined. Such reduction occurs for hole transfer alongside one or two M ions that have been substituted for Ni ions. Furthermore, the Mg and Zn ions do not trap holes on O sites in their vicinity, and NiO's transparency is preserved upon forming the alloys. Thus, forming MxNi1-xO alloys with M = Mg or Zn may enhance NiO's potential as a p-type transparent conducting oxide, by disrupting the two-dimensional confinement of holes in pure NiO.

  17. Effect of lanthanum substitution on structural and magnetic properties of nickel zinc ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šoka, Martin; Ušáková, Mariana; Dosoudil, Rastislav; Ušák, Elemír; Lokaj, Ján

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the presented research is to investigate the effect of La3+ ions substitution for Fe3+ ions in Ni0.42Zn0.58LaxFe2-xO4 (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10) ferrite compositions prepared by the innovated glycine-nitrate process based on auto-combustion method. Structural and magnetic properties of examined samples were estimated by the analysis of X-ray spectra, EDAX spectrum, SEM micrographs, thermomagnetic characteristics, magnetic hysteresis loops and complex permeability spectra.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD) gene.

    PubMed

    Sujiwattanarat, Penporn; Pongsanarakul, Parinya; Temsiripong, Yosapong; Temsiripong, Theeranan; Thawornkuno, Charin; Uno, Yoshinobu; Unajak, Sasimanas; Matsuda, Yoichi; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Srikulnath, Kornsorn

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) is an antioxidant enzyme found in all living cells. It regulates oxidative stress by breaking down superoxide radicals to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. A gene coding for Cu,Zn-SOD was cloned and characterized from Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis; CSI). The full-length expressed sequence tag (EST) of this Cu,Zn-SOD gene (designated as CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD) contained 462bp encoding a protein of 154 amino acids without signal peptides, indicated as intracellular CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD. This agreed with the results from the phylogenetic tree, which indicated that CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD belonged to the intracellular Cu,Zn-SOD. Chromosomal location determined that the CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD was localized to the proximal region of the Siamese crocodile chromosome 1p. Several highly conserved motifs, two conserved signature sequences (GFHVHEFGDNT and GNAGGRLACGVI), and conserved amino acid residues for binding copper and zinc (His(47), His(49), His(64), His(72), His(81), Asp(84), and His(120)) were also identified in CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD. Real-time PCR analysis showed that CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD mRNA was expressed in all the tissues examined (liver, pancreas, lung, kidney, heart, and whole blood), which suggests a constitutively expressed gene in these tissues. Expression of the gene in Escherichia coli cells followed by purification yielded a recombinant CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD, with Km and Vmax values of 6.075mM xanthine and 1.4×10(-3)mmolmin(-1)mg(-1), respectively. This Vmax value was 40 times lower than native Cu,Zn-SOD (56×10(-3)mmolmin(-1)mg(-1)), extracted from crocodile erythrocytes. This suggests that cofactors, protein folding properties, or post-translational modifications were lost during the protein purification process, leading to a reduction in the rate of enzyme activity in bacterial expression of CSI-Cu,Zn-SOD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Lathyrus sativus L. Root Bioassay System

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Kamal K.; Golari, Dambaru; Venugopal, A.; Achary, V. Mohan M.; Phaomei, Ganngam; Parinandi, Narasimham L.; Sahu, Hrushi K.; Panda, Brahma B.

    2017-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS) were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO)2) through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed (Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br) by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cationic Zn2+ from Zn(CH3COO)2 were tested in a dose range of 0–100 mg·L−1 for their potency (i) to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O2•−, H2O2 and •OH), cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii) to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX); and (iii) to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay system. Antioxidants such as Tiron and dimethylthiourea significantly attenuated the ZnONP-induced oxidative and DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of ROS therein. Our study demonstrated that both ZnONP-GS and ZnONP-S induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to a similar extent but were significantly less potent than Zn2+ alone. PMID:28524089

  20. Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Lathyrus sativus L. Root Bioassay System.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kamal K; Golari, Dambaru; Venugopal, A; Achary, V Mohan M; Phaomei, Ganngam; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Sahu, Hrushi K; Panda, Brahma B

    2017-05-18

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS) were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH₃COO)₂) through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed ( Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br) by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cationic Zn 2+ from Zn(CH₃COO)₂ were tested in a dose range of 0-100 mg·L -1 for their potency (i) to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O₂ •- , H₂O₂ and • OH), cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii) to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX); and (iii) to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay system. Antioxidants such as Tiron and dimethylthiourea significantly attenuated the ZnONP-induced oxidative and DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of ROS therein. Our study demonstrated that both ZnONP-GS and ZnONP-S induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to a similar extent but were significantly less potent than Zn 2+ alone.

  1. Serum Concentration of Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Manganese, and Cu/Zn Ratio in Children and Adolescents with Myopia.

    PubMed

    Fedor, Monika; Socha, Katarzyna; Urban, Beata; Soroczyńska, Jolanta; Matyskiela, Monika; Borawska, Maria H; Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was the assessment of the serum concentration of antioxidant microelements-zinc, copper, selenium, manganese, and Cu/Zn ratio in children and adolescents with myopia. Eighty-three children were examined (mean age 14.36 ± 2.49 years) with myopia. The control group was 38 persons (mean age 12.89 ± 3.84 years). Each patient had complete eye examination. The serum concentration of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cu/Zn ratio, which is the indicator of the oxidative stress, was also calculated. The average serum concentration of zinc in myopic patients was significantly lower (0.865 ± 0.221 mg L -1 ) in comparison to the control group (1.054 ± 0.174 mg L -1 ). There was significantly higher Cu/Zn ratio in myopic patients (1.196 ± 0.452) in comparison to that in the control group (0.992 ± 0.203). The average serum concentration of selenium in the study group was significantly lower (40.23 ± 12.07 μg L -1 ) compared with that in the control group (46.00 ± 12.25 μg L -1 ). There were no essential differences between serum concentration of copper and manganese in the study group and the control group. Low serum concentration of zinc and selenium in myopic children may imply an association between insufficiency of these antioxidant microelements and the development of the myopia and could be the indication for zinc and selenium supplementation in the prevention of myopia. Significantly, higher Cu/Zn ratio in the study group can suggest the relationship between myopia and oxidative stress.

  2. ZnCl 2- and NH 4Cl-hydroponics gel electrolytes for zinc-carbon batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, N. H.; Ismail, Y. M. Baba; Mohamad, A. A.

    Absorbency testing is used to determine the percentage of ZnCl 2 or NH 4Cl solution absorbed by a hydroponics gel (HPG). It is found that the absorbency of ZnCl 2 or NH 4Cl solution decreases with increasing solution concentration. The conductivity of ZnCl 2- and NH 4Cl-HPG electrolytes is dependent on the solution concentration. A mixture of salt solution with HPG yields excellent gel polymer electrolytes with conductivities of 0.026 and 0.104 S cm -1 at 3 M ZnCl 2 and 7 M NH 4Cl, respectively. These gel electrolytes are then used to produce zinc-carbon cells. The fabricated cells give capacities of 8.8 and 10.0 mAh, have an internal resistance of 25.4 and 19.8 Ω, a maximum power density of 12.7 and 12.2 mW cm -2, and a short-circuit current density of 29.1 and 33.9 mA cm -2 for ZnCl 2- and NH 4Cl-HPG electrolytes, respectively.

  3. Disordered Zinc in Zn4Sb3 with Phonon-Glass and Electron-Crystal Thermoelectric Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Christensen, Mogens; Nishibori, Eiji; Caillat, Thierry; Brummerstedt Iversen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    By converting waste heat into electricity, thermoelectric generators could be an important part of the solution to today's energy challenges. The compound Zn4Sb3 is one of the most efficient thermoelectric materials known. Its high efficiency results from an extraordinarily low thermal conductivity in conjunction with the electronic structure of a heavily doped semiconductor. Previous structural studies have been unable to explain this unusual combination of properties. Here, we show through a comprehensive structural analysis using single-crystal X-ray and powder-synchrotron-radiation diffraction methods, that both the electronic and thermal properties of Zn4Sb3 can be understood in terms of unique structural features that have been previously overlooked. The identification of Sb3- ions and Sb-2(4-) dimers reveals that Zn4Sb3 is a valence semiconductor with the ideal stoichiometry Zn13Sb10. In addition, the structure contains significant disorder, with zinc atoms distributed over multiple positions. The discovery of glass-like interstitial sites uncovers a highly effective mechanism for reducing thermal conductivity. Thus Zn4Sb3 is in many ways an ideal 'phonon glass, electron crystal' thermoelectric material.

  4. Structure and optical properties of ZnO produced from microwave hydrothermal hydrolysis of tris(ethylenediamine)zinc nitrate complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Heiba, Zein K.; Ibrahim, Mohamed M.

    2015-01-01

    ZnO powders were synthesized using a solution microwave hydrothermal hydrolysis process and tris(ethylenediamine)zinc nitrate {[Zn(en)3](NO3)2} (en = ethylenediamine) as a precursor. Hydrolysis of the precursor complex at different pH produced zinc oxide with a diversity of well-defined morphologies. The effect of hydrolysis pH values on the structural and optical properties has been explored using XRD, SEM, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). At pH = 7.0, randomly dispersed rods were formed. Whereas flower-like morphologies were obtained by treating the complex precursor in water at pH = 10.0 and 12.0. The ZnO4 tetrahedrons are greatly affected by the pH value. The band gap decreased sharply with increasing the pH value from 7.0 to 10.0, then slightly decreased with further increasing the pH to 12.0. The relationship between band gap and both structure and surface defects of the samples is also discussed.

  5. Hyperaccumulation of zinc by Corydalis davidii in Zn-polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wenjie; Xiao, Tangfu; Wu, Yunying; Ao, Ziqiang; Ning, Zengping

    2012-02-01

    A field survey was conducted to identify potential Zn accumulators from an artisanal Zn smelting area in southwest China's Guizhou Province. Hydroponic and soil culture experiments were performed to investigate the accumulation ability of Zn in Corydalis davidii. Zn concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of C. davidii in the smelting site were 1.1-3.5, 1.2-11.2, and 3.3-14 mg g(-)(1), respectively, whereas Zn concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of C. davidii in the contaminated site impacted by the Zn smelting were 1.0-2.4, 1.9-6.5, and 3.0-1.1 mg g(-1), respectively. Zn concentrations in leaves and stems of C. davidii were observed at above 10 mg g(-1) that refers to the threshold of Zn hyperaccumulator. The concentration distribution of Zn in C. davidii was leaf>stem>root, and the Zn bioaccumulation factors of C. davidii were above 1. It is concluded that C. davidii has high tolerance to concentrate Zn stress, and that C. davidii is a newly discovered Zn-hyperaccumulator with high biomass in the aboveground parts. Based on the cultivation experiments, C. davidii could reduce Zn concentration by 26.6, 21.2, and 10.2 mg kg(-1)yr(-1) by phytoextraction from the smelting slag, Zn-contaminated soil, and background soil, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Constructing Ultrahigh-Capacity Zinc-Nickel-Cobalt Oxide@Ni(OH)2 Core-Shell Nanowire Arrays for High-Performance Coaxial Fiber-Shaped Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qichong; Xu, Weiwei; Sun, Juan; Pan, Zhenghui; Zhao, Jingxin; Wang, Xiaona; Zhang, Jun; Man, Ping; Guo, Jiabin; Zhou, Zhenyu; He, Bing; Zhang, Zengxing; Li, Qingwen; Zhang, Yuegang; Xu, Lai; Yao, Yagang

    2017-12-13

    Increased efforts have recently been devoted to developing high-energy-density flexible supercapacitors for their practical applications in portable and wearable electronics. Although high operating voltages have been achieved in fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors (FASCs), low specific capacitance still restricts the further enhancement of their energy density. This article specifies a facile and cost-effective method to directly grow three-dimensionally well-aligned zinc-nickel-cobalt oxide (ZNCO)@Ni(OH) 2 nanowire arrays (NWAs) on a carbon nanotube fiber (CNTF) with an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 2847.5 F/cm 3 (10.678 F/cm 2 ) at a current density of 1 mA/cm 2 , These levels are approximately five times higher than those of ZNCO NWAs/CNTF electrodes (2.10 F/cm 2 ) and four times higher than Ni(OH) 2 /CNTF electrodes (2.55 F/cm 2 ). Benefiting from their unique features, we successfully fabricated a prototype coaxial FASC (CFASC) with a maximum operating voltage of 1.6 V, which was assembled by adopting ZNCO@Ni(OH) 2 NWAs/CNTF as the core electrode and a thin layer of carbon coated vanadium nitride (VN@C) NWAs on a carbon nanotube strip (CNTS) as the outer electrode with KOH poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the gel electrolyte. A high specific capacitance of 94.67 F/cm 3 (573.75 mF/cm 2 ) and an exceptional energy density of 33.66 mWh/cm 3 (204.02 μWh/cm 2 ) were achieved for our CFASC device, which represent the highest levels of fiber-shaped supercapacitors to date. More importantly, the fiber-shaped ZnO-based photodetector is powered by the integrated CFASC, and it demonstrates excellent sensitivity in detecting UV light. Thus, this work paves the way to the construction of ultrahigh-capacity electrode materials for next-generation wearable energy-storage devices.

  7. Polymorphic one-dimensional (N2H4)2ZnTe: soluble precursors for the formation of hexagonal or cubic zinc telluride.

    PubMed

    Mitzi, David B

    2005-10-03

    Two hydrazine zinc(II) telluride polymorphs, (N2H4)2ZnTe, have been isolated, using ambient-temperature solution-based techniques, and the crystal structures determined: alpha-(N2H4)2ZnTe (1) [P21, a = 7.2157(4) Angstroms, b = 11.5439(6) Angstroms, c = 7.3909(4) Angstroms, beta = 101.296(1) degrees, Z = 4] and beta-(N2H4)2ZnTe (2) [Pn, a = 8.1301(5) Angstroms, b = 6.9580(5) Angstroms, c = 10.7380(7) Angstroms, beta = 91.703(1) degrees, Z = 4]. The zinc atoms in 1 and 2 are tetrahedrally bonded to two terminal hydrazine molecules and two bridging tellurium atoms, leading to the formation of extended one-dimensional (1-D) zinc telluride chains, with different chain conformations and packings distinguishing the two polymorphs. Thermal decomposition of (N2H4)2ZnTe first yields crystalline wurtzite (hexagonal) ZnTe at temperatures as low as 200 degrees C, followed by the more stable zinc blende (cubic) form at temperatures above 350 degrees C. The 1-D polymorphs are soluble in hydrazine and can be used as convenient precursors for the low-temperature solution processing of p-type ZnTe semiconducting films.

  8. Friction and morphology of magnetic tapes in sliding contact with nickel-zinc ferrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Bhushan, B.

    1984-01-01

    Friction and morphological studies were conducted with magnetic tapes containing a Ni-Zn ferrite hemispherical pin in laboratory air at a relative humidity of 40 percent and at 23 C. The results indicate that the binder plays a significant role in the friction properties, morphology, and microstructure of the tape. Comparisons were made with four binders: nitrocellulose; poly (vinyledene) chloride; cellulose acetate; and hydroxyl-terminated, low molecular weight polyester added to the base polymer, polyester-polyurethane. The coefficient of friction was lowest for the tape with the nitrocellulose binder and increased in the order hydroxylterminated, low molecular weight polyester resin; poly (vinyledene) chloride; and cellulose acetate. The degree of enclosure of the oxide particles by the binder was highest for hydroxyl-terminated, low molecular weight polyester and decreased in the order cellulose acetate, poly (vinyledene) chloride, and nitrocellulose. The nature of deformation of the tape was a factor in controlling friction. The coefficient of friction under elastic contact conditions was considerably lower than under conditions that produced plastic contacts.

  9. Intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions in alveolar epithelial cells exposed to airborne ZnO nanoparticles at the air–liquid interface

    PubMed Central

    Mihai, Cosmin; Chrisler, William B.; Xie, Yumei; Hu, Dehong; Szymanski, Craig J.; Tolic, Ana; Klein, Jessica A.; Smith, Jordan N.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Orr, Galya

    2015-01-01

    Airborne nanoparticles (NPs) that enter the respiratory tract are likely to reach the alveolar region. Accumulating observations support a role for zinc oxide (ZnO) NP dissolution in toxicity, but the majority of in-vitro studies were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in growth media, where large doses of dissolved ions are shed into the exposure solution. To determine the precise intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions (Zn2+) shed by airborne NPs in the cellular environment, we exposed alveolar epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air–liquid interface (ALI). Using a fluorescent indicator for Zn2+, together with organelle-specific fluorescent proteins, we quantified Zn2+ in single cells and organelles over time. We found that at the ALI, intracellular Zn2+ values peaked 3 h post exposure and decayed to normal values by 12 h, while in submerged cultures, intracellular Zn2+ values continued to increase over time. The lowest toxic NP dose at the ALI generated peak intracellular Zn2+ values that were nearly three-folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of NPs in submerged cultures, and eight-folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of ZnSO4 or Zn2+. At the ALI, the majority of intracellular Zn2+ was found in endosomes and lysosomes as early as 1 h post exposure. In contrast, the majority of intracellular Zn2+ following exposures to ZnSO4 was found in other larger vesicles, with less than 10% in endosomes and lysosomes. Together, our observations indicate that low but critical levels of intracellular Zn2+ have to be reached, concentrated specifically in endosomes and lysosomes, for toxicity to occur, and point to the focal dissolution of the NPs in the cellular environment and the accumulation of the ions specifically in endosomes and lysosomes as the processes underlying the potent toxicity of airborne ZnO NPs. PMID:24289294

  10. Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Ni-Doped Zinc-Blende ZnO: A First-Principles Study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Suqin; Zhang, Fuchun; Zhang, Shuili; Wang, Xiaoyang; Shao, Tingting

    2018-04-26

    The electronic structure, band structure, density of state, and magnetic properties of Ni-doped zinc-blende (ZB) ZnO are studied by using the first-principles method based on the spin-polarized density-functional theory. The calculated results show that Ni atoms can induce a stable ferromagnetic (FM) ground state in Ni-doped ZB ZnO. The magnetic moments mainly originate from the unpaired Ni 3 d orbitals, and the O 2 p orbitals contribute a little to the magnetic moments. The magnetic moment of a supercell including a single Ni atom is 0.79 μ B . The electronic structure shows that Ni-doped ZB ZnO is a half-metallic FM material. The strong spin-orbit coupling appears near the Fermi level and shows obvious asymmetry for spin-up and spin-down density of state, which indicates a significant hybrid effects from the Ni 3 d and O 2 p states. However, the coupling of the anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) state show metallic characteristic, the spin-up and spin-down energy levels pass through the Fermi surface. The magnetic moment of a single Ni atom is 0.74 μ B . Moreover, the results show that the Ni 3 d and O 2 p states have a strong p - d hybridization effect near the Fermi level and obtain a high stability. The above theoretical results demonstrate that Ni-doped zinc blende ZnO can be considered as a potential half-metal FM material and dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  11. Diel cycling of zinc in a stream impacted by acid rock drainage: Initial results from a new in situ Zn analyzer

    Chapin, T.P.; Nimick, D.A.; Gammons, C.H.; Wanty, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that many trace metals undergo dramatic diel (24-h) cycles in near neutral pH streams with metal concentrations reproducibly changing up to 500% during the diel period (Nimick et al., 2003). To examine diel zinc cycles in streams affected by acid rock drainage, we have developed a novel instrument, the Zn-DigiScan, to continuously monitor in situ zinc concentrations in near real-time. Initial results from a 3-day deployment at Fisher Creek, Montana have demonstrated the ability of the Zn-DigiScan to record diel Zn cycling at levels below 100 ??g/l. Longer deployments of this instrument could be used to examine the effects of episodic events such as rainstorms and snowmelt pulses on zinc loading in streams affected by acid rock drainage. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

  12. The Blue-Shift of Photoluminescence Spectra of Zinc Complexes of 8-Hydroxyquinoline by Addition of ZnO Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshmiri, Laleh; Elahi, Seyed Mohammad; Jafari, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Fatemeh; Parhizgar, Sara Sadat

    2018-02-01

    In this research, an organo-metallic complex based on zinc ions (Znq2), which can be used in organic light-emitting diodes, was investigated. Nanoparticles of ZnO were produced and added to the Znq2 complex. By means of x-ray diffraction, the structure of Znq2 complex and ZnO nanoparticles and the energy levels of them were determined from cyclic-voltammetry analysis. From thermal gravimetric studies, it was found that the complexes have a high thermal stability in the air atmosphere. The purity of samples was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The maximum intensity of the photoluminescence spectrum of Znq2 occurred at 565 nm and showed a blue shift to 511 nm by adding ZnO nanoparticles to the Znq2 complex. The optical and electrical properties of the Znq2 and the mixture of Znq2 and ZnO nano powders were studied in order to find any possible applications in organic light emitting devices.

  13. Soil pH effects on the comparative toxicity of dissolved zinc, non-nano and nano ZnO to the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Heggelund, Laura R; Diez-Ortiz, Maria; Lofts, Stephen; Lahive, Elma; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Wojnarowicz, Jacek; Cedergreen, Nina; Spurgeon, David; Svendsen, Claus

    2014-08-01

    To determine how soil properties influence nanoparticle (NP) fate, bioavailability and toxicity, this study compared the toxicity of nano zinc oxide (ZnO NPs), non-nano ZnO and ionic ZnCl2 to the earthworm Eisenia fetida in a natural soil at three pH levels. NP characterisation indicated that reaction with the soil media greatly controls ZnO properties. Three main conclusions were drawn. First that Zn toxicity, especially for reproduction, was influenced by pH for all Zn forms. This can be linked to the influence of pH on Zn dissolution. Secondly, that ZnO fate, toxicity and bioaccumulation were similar (including relationships with pH) for both ZnO forms, indicating the absence of NP-specific effects. Finally, earthworm Zn concentrations were higher in worms exposed to ZnO compared to ZnCl2, despite the greater toxicity of the ionic form. This observation suggests the importance of considering the relationship between uptake and toxicity in nanotoxicology studies.

  14. Oxidation and Condensation of Zinc Fume From Zn-CO 2-CO-H 2O Streams Relevant to Steelmaking Off-Gas Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Bronson, Tyler Mark; Ma, Naiyang; Zhu, Liang Zhu; ...

    2017-01-23

    Here the objective of this research was to study the condensation of zinc vapor to metallic zinc and zinc oxide solid under varying environments to investigate the feasibility of in-process separation of zinc from steelmaking off-gas dusts. Water vapor content, temperature, degree of cooling, gas composition, and initial zinc partial pressure were varied to simulate the possible conditions that can occur within steelmaking off-gas systems, limited to Zn-CO 2-CO-H 2O gas compositions. The temperature of deposition and the effect of rapidly quenching the gas were specifically studied. A homogeneous nucleation model for applicable experiments was applied to the analysis of the experimental data. It was determined that under the experimental conditions, oxidation of zinc vapor by H 2O or CO 2 does not occur above 1108 K (835 °C) even for highly oxidizing streams (CO 2/CO = 40/7). Rate expressions that correlate CO 2 and H 2O oxidation rates to gas composition, partial pressure of water vapor, temperature, and zinc partial pressure were determined to be as follows: Ratemore » $$ \\left(\\frac{mol}{m^2s}\\right) $$ = 406 exp $$ \\left(\\frac{-50.2 kJ/mol}{RT}\\right) $$ (pZnpCO 2 $-$ PCO/K eqCO 2) $$\\frac{mol}{m^2 x s}$$ Rate $$ \\left(\\frac{mol}{m^2s}\\right) $$ = 32.9 exp $$ \\left(\\frac{-13.7 kJ/mol}{RT}\\right) $$ (pZnPH 2O $-$ PH 2/K eqH 2O) $$\\frac{mol}{m^2 x s}$$. It was proven that a rapid cooling rate (500 K/s) significantly increases the ratio of metallic zinc to zinc oxide as opposed to a slow cooling rate (250 K/s). SEM analysis found evidence of heterogeneous growth of ZnO as well as of homogeneous formation of metallic zinc. The homogeneous nucleation model fit well with experiments where only metallic zinc deposited. An expanded model with rates of oxidation by CO 2 and H 2O as shown was combined with the homogenous nucleation model and then compared with experimental data. The calculated results based on the model gave a reasonable fit to the

  15. Oxidation and Condensation of Zinc Fume From Zn-CO 2-CO-H 2O Streams Relevant to Steelmaking Off-Gas Systems

    SciT

    Bronson, Tyler Mark; Ma, Naiyang; Zhu, Liang Zhu

    Here the objective of this research was to study the condensation of zinc vapor to metallic zinc and zinc oxide solid under varying environments to investigate the feasibility of in-process separation of zinc from steelmaking off-gas dusts. Water vapor content, temperature, degree of cooling, gas composition, and initial zinc partial pressure were varied to simulate the possible conditions that can occur within steelmaking off-gas systems, limited to Zn-CO 2-CO-H 2O gas compositions. The temperature of deposition and the effect of rapidly quenching the gas were specifically studied. A homogeneous nucleation model for applicable experiments was applied to the analysis of the experimental data. It was determined that under the experimental conditions, oxidation of zinc vapor by H 2O or CO 2 does not occur above 1108 K (835 °C) even for highly oxidizing streams (CO 2/CO = 40/7). Rate expressions that correlate CO 2 and H 2O oxidation rates to gas composition, partial pressure of water vapor, temperature, and zinc partial pressure were determined to be as follows: Ratemore » $$ \\left(\\frac{mol}{m^2s}\\right) $$ = 406 exp $$ \\left(\\frac{-50.2 kJ/mol}{RT}\\right) $$ (pZnpCO 2 $-$ PCO/K eqCO 2) $$\\frac{mol}{m^2 x s}$$ Rate $$ \\left(\\frac{mol}{m^2s}\\right) $$ = 32.9 exp $$ \\left(\\frac{-13.7 kJ/mol}{RT}\\right) $$ (pZnPH 2O $-$ PH 2/K eqH 2O) $$\\frac{mol}{m^2 x s}$$. It was proven that a rapid cooling rate (500 K/s) significantly increases the ratio of metallic zinc to zinc oxide as opposed to a slow cooling rate (250 K/s). SEM analysis found evidence of heterogeneous growth of ZnO as well as of homogeneous formation of metallic zinc. The homogeneous nucleation model fit well with experiments where only metallic zinc deposited. An expanded model with rates of oxidation by CO 2 and H 2O as shown was combined with the homogenous nucleation model and then compared with experimental data. The calculated results based on the model gave a reasonable fit to the

  16. Changing vacancy balance in ZnO by tuning synthesis between zinc/oxygen lean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalapathy, Vishnukanthan; Galeckas, Augustinas; Zubiaga, Asier; Tuomisto, Filip; Kuznetsov, Andrej Yu.

    2010-08-01

    The nature of intrinsic defects in ZnO films grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy was studied by positron annihilation and photoluminescence spectroscopy techniques. The supply of Zn and O during the film synthesis was varied by applying different growth temperatures (325-485 °C), affecting decomposition of the metal organic precursors. The microscopic identification of vacancy complexes was derived from a systematic variation in the defect balance in accordance with Zn/O supply trends.

  17. A green and efficient procedure for the preconcentration and determination of cadmium, nickel and zinc from freshwater, hemodialysis solutions and tuna fish samples by cloud point extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Galbeiro, Rafaela; Garcia, Samara; Gaubeur, Ivanise

    2014-04-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) was used to simultaneously preconcentrate trace-level cadmium, nickel and zinc for determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). 1-(2-Pyridilazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) was used as a complexing agent, and the metal complexes were extracted from the aqueous phase by the surfactant Triton X-114 ((1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenyl-polyethylene glycol). Under optimized complexation and extraction conditions, the limits of detection were 0.37μgL(-1) (Cd), 2.6μgL(-1) (Ni) and 2.3μgL(-1) (Zn). This extraction was quantitative with a preconcentration factor of 30 and enrichment factor estimated to be 42, 40 and 43, respectively. The method was applied to different complex samples, and the accuracy was evaluated by analyzing a water standard reference material (NIST SRM 1643e), yielding results in agreement with the certified values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical and thermal stability of the characteristics of filtered vacuum arc deposited ZnO, SnO2 and zinc stannate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çetinörgü, E.; Goldsmith, S.

    2007-09-01

    ZnO, SnO2 and zinc stannate thin films were deposited on commercial microscope glass and UV fused silica substrates using filtered vacuum arc deposition system. During the deposition, the substrate temperature was at room temperature (RT) or at 400 °C. The film structure and composition were determined using x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The transmission of the films in the VIS was 85% to 90%. The thermal stability of the film electrical resistance was determined in air as a function of the temperature in the range 28 °C (RT) to 200 °C. The resistance of ZnO increased from ~ 5000 to 105 Ω when heated to 200 °C, that of SnO2 films increased from 500 to 3900 Ω, whereas that of zinc stannate thin films increased only from 370 to 470 Ω. During sample cooling to RT, the resistance of ZnO and SnO2 thin films continued to rise considerably; however, the increase in the zinc stannate thin film resistance was significantly lower. After cooling to RT, ZnO and SnO2 thin films became practically insulators, while the resistance of zinc stannate was 680 Ω. The chemical stability of the films was determined by immersing in acidic and basic solutions up to 27 h. The SnO2 thin films were more stable in the HCl solution than the ZnO and the zinc stannate thin films; however, SnO2 and zinc stannate thin films that were immersed in the NaOH solution did not dissolve after 27 h.

  19. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and friction studies of nickel-zinc and manganese-zinc ferrites in contact with metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and sliding friction experiments were conducted with hot-pressed, polycrystalline Ni-Zn and Mn-Zn ferrites in sliding contact with various transition metals at room temperature in a vacuum of 30 nPa. The results indicate that the coefficients of friction for Ni-Zn and Mn-Zn ferrites in contact with metals are related to the relative chemical activity in these metals: the more active the metal, the higher is the coefficient of friction. The coefficients of friction for the ferrites correlate with the free energy of formation of the lowest metal oxide. The interfacial bond can be regarded as a chemical bond between the metal atoms and the oxygen anions in the ferrite surfaces. The adsorption of oxygen on clean metal and ferrite surfaces increases the coefficients of friction for the Ni-Zn and Mn-Zn ferrite-metal interfaces.

  20. Application of nickel zinc ferrite/graphene nanocomposite as a modifier for fabrication of a sensitive electrochemical sensor for determination of omeprazole in real samples.

    PubMed

    Afkhami, Abbas; Bahiraei, Atousa; Madrakian, Tayyebeh

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, a simple and highly sensitive sensor for the determination of omeprazole based on nickel-zinc ferrite/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode is reported. The morphology and electro analytical performance of the fabricated sensor were characterized with X-ray diffraction spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and operation of the sensor. Results were compared with those achieved at the graphene modified glassy carbon electrode and bare glassy carbon electrode. Under the optimized experimental conditions, linear response was over the range of 0.03-100.0µmolL -1 . The lower detection limit was found to be 0.015µmolL -1 . The effect of different interferences on the anodic current response of OMZ was investigated. By measuring the concentrations of omeprazole in plasma and pharmaceutical samples, the practical application of the modified electrode was evaluated. This revealed that the nickel-zinc ferrite/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode shows excellent analytical performance for the determination of omeprazole with a very low detection limit, high sensitivity, and very good accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Insulin Storage and Glucose Homeostasis in Mice Null for the Granule Zinc Transporter ZnT8 and Studies of the Type 2 Diabetes–Associated Variants

    PubMed Central

    Nicolson, Tamara J.; Bellomo, Elisa A.; Wijesekara, Nadeeja; Loder, Merewyn K.; Baldwin, Jocelyn M.; Gyulkhandanyan, Armen V.; Koshkin, Vasilij; Tarasov, Andrei I.; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Kronenberger, Katrin; Taneja, Tarvinder K.; da Silva Xavier, Gabriela; Libert, Sarah; Froguel, Philippe; Scharfmann, Raphael; Stetsyuk, Volodymir; Ravassard, Philippe; Parker, Helen; Gribble, Fiona M.; Reimann, Frank; Sladek, Robert; Hughes, Stephen J.; Johnson, Paul R.V.; Masseboeuf, Myriam; Burcelin, Remy; Baldwin, Stephen A.; Liu, Ming; Lara-Lemus, Roberto; Arvan, Peter; Schuit, Frans C.; Wheeler, Michael B.; Chimienti, Fabrice; Rutter, Guy A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Zinc ions are essential for the formation of hexameric insulin and hormone crystallization. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism rs13266634 in the SLC30A8 gene, encoding the secretory granule zinc transporter ZnT8, is associated with type 2 diabetes. We describe the effects of deleting the ZnT8 gene in mice and explore the action of the at-risk allele. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Slc30a8 null mice were generated and backcrossed at least twice onto a C57BL/6J background. Glucose and insulin tolerance were measured by intraperitoneal injection or euglycemic clamp, respectively. Insulin secretion, electrophysiology, imaging, and the generation of adenoviruses encoding the low- (W325) or elevated- (R325) risk ZnT8 alleles were undertaken using standard protocols. RESULTS ZnT8−/− mice displayed age-, sex-, and diet-dependent abnormalities in glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and body weight. Islets isolated from null mice had reduced granule zinc content and showed age-dependent changes in granule morphology, with markedly fewer dense cores but more rod-like crystals. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, granule fusion, and insulin crystal dissolution, assessed by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, were unchanged or enhanced in ZnT8−/− islets. Insulin processing was normal. Molecular modeling revealed that residue-325 was located at the interface between ZnT8 monomers. Correspondingly, the R325 variant displayed lower apparent Zn2+ transport activity than W325 ZnT8 by fluorescence-based assay. CONCLUSIONS ZnT8 is required for normal insulin crystallization and insulin release in vivo but not, remarkably, in vitro. Defects in the former processes in carriers of the R allele may increase type 2 diabetes risks. PMID:19542200

  2. Nickel solvent extraction from cold purification filter cakes of Angouran mine concentrate using LIX984N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balesini, A. A.; Zakeri, A.; Razavizadeh, H.; Khani, A.

    2013-11-01

    Cold purification filter cakes generated in the hydrometallurgical processing of Angouran mine zinc concentrate commonly contain significant amounts of Zn, Cd, and Ni ions and thus are valuable resources for metal recovery. In this research, a nickel containing solution that was obtained from sulfuric acid leaching of the filter cake following cadmium and zinc removal was subjected to solvent extraction experiments using 10vol% LIX984N diluted in kerosene. Under optimum experimental conditions (pH 5.3, volume ratio of organic/aqueous (O:A) = 2:1, and contact time = 5 min), more than 97.1% of nickel was extracted. Nickel was stripped from the loaded organic by contacting with a 200 g/L sulfuric acid solution, from which 77.7% of nickel was recovered in a single contact at the optimum conditions (pH 1-1.5, O:A = 5:1, and contact time = 15 min).

  3. MATRIX METALLOPROTEINS (MMP)-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR) IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS (HAEC) EXPOSED TO ZINC (ZN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-Mediated Phosphorylation of The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) in Human Airway Epithelial Cells (HAEC) Exposed to Zinc (Zn)
    Weidong Wu, James M. Samet, Robert Silbajoris, Lisa A. Dailey, Lee M. Graves, and Philip A. Bromberg
    Center fo...

  4. Chemical and electrochemical recycling of the nickel, cobalt, zinc and manganese from the positives electrodes of spent Ni-MH batteries from mobile phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, V. E. O.; Celante, V. G.; Lelis, M. F. F.; Freitas, M. B. J. G.

    2012-11-01

    Chemical and electrochemical recycling methods for the Ni, Co, Zn and Mn from the positives electrodes of spent Ni-MH batteries were developed. The materials recycled by chemical precipitation have the composition β-Ni(OH)2, Co(OH)2, Zn(OH)2 and Mn3O4. The powder retains sulphate, nitrate and carbonate anions from the mother solution as well as adsorbed water. Studies using cyclic voltammetry show that the current density decreases for scan rates greater than 10 mV s-1 because of the formation of hydroxide films. The amounts of Ni2+, Co2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ were obtained by analysis of the solution using the inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectroscopy technique, which demonstrated that the electrodeposition method exhibits anomalous behaviour. The amount of deposited nickel ions is related to the composition of the sulfamate bath. The presence of manganese in the electrodeposits is due to the precipitation of Mn(OH)2, and Zn(OH)42- does not undergo reduction in the investigated potential range. The electrodeposited material contains Ni, Co, CoO, Co(OH)2, and Mn3O4. A charge efficiency of 83.7% was attained for the electrodeposits formed by the application of -1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl at a charge density of -90 C cm-2. The dissolution of the electrodeposits depends on the applied potential.

  5. Transcriptional up-regulation of genes involved in photosynthesis of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii in response to zinc and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lu; Yao, Aijun; Ming Yuan; Tang, Yetao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Xi; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) are two closely related chemical elements with very different biological roles in photosynthesis. Zinc plays unique biochemical functions in photosynthesis. Previous studies suggested that in some Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators, many steps in photosynthesis may be Cd tolerant or even Cd stimulated. Using RNA-seq data, we found not only that Cd and Zn both up-regulated the CA1 gene, which encodes a β class carbonic anhydrase (CA) in chloroplasts, but that a large number of other Zn up-regulated genes in the photosynthetic pathway were also significantly up-regulated by Cd in leaves of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. These genes also include chloroplast genes involved in transcription and translation (rps18 and rps14), electron transport and ATP synthesis (atpF and ccsA), Photosystem II (PSBI, PSBM, PSBK, PSBZ/YCF9, PSBO-1, PSBQ, LHCB1.1, LHCB1.4, LHCB2.1, LHCB4.3 and LHCB6) and Photosystem I (PSAE-1, PSAF, PSAH2, LHCA1 and LHCA4). Cadmium and Zn also up-regulated the VAR1 gene, which encodes the ATP-dependent zinc metalloprotease FTSH 5 (a member of the FtsH family), and the DAG gene, which influences chloroplast differentiation and plastid development, and the CP29 gene, which supports RNA processing in chloroplasts and has a potential role in signal-dependent co-regulation of chloroplast genes. Further morphological parameters (dry biomass, cross-sectional thickness, chloroplast size, chlorophyll content) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters confirmed that leaf photosynthesis of S. alfredii responded to Cd much as it did to Zn, which will contribute to our understanding of the positive effects of Zn and Cd on growth of this plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using fluorescence measurement of zinc ions liberated from ZnS nanoparticle labels in bioassay for Escherichia coli O157:H7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, Chad L.; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Pai, Chi-Yun

    2011-10-01

    In this study, an alternative approach using ZnS nanoparticle biolabels as fluorescence signal transducers is reported for the immunoassay of E. coli O157:H7 in tap water samples. Instead of measuring the fluorescence of ZnS nanoparticles in the assay, the fluorescence signal is generated through the binding of zinc ions released from nanoparticle labels with zinc-ion sensitive fluorescence indicator Fluozin-3. In the assay, ZnS nanoparticles around 50 nm in diameter were synthesized, bioconjugated, and applied for the detection of E. coli O157:H7. The assay shows a detection range over two orders of magnitude and a detection limit around 1000 colony-forming units (cfu) of E. coli O157:H7.

  7. Recovery of manganese and zinc from waste Zn-C cell powder: Characterization and leaching.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ranjit K; Karmakar, Aneek K; Kumar, Sree L; Hossain, Mohammad N

    2015-12-01

    A large number of waste Zn-C cells (Haquebrand) were broken down and collected as agglomerated powder. This powder was sun-dried, dry-ground and sieved down to 300 mesh size and stored. The sample was analysed and found to contain (35.4 ± 0.2)% Mn, (11.0 ± 0.1)% Zn and ∼ 2.5% Fe as major metallic constituents. The phases, ZnMn2O4 and Zn(ClO4)2 · 2H2O or MnO(OH) were identified in the hot water washed sample. The material was found to be leached effectively by a 2 mol/L sulfuric acid solution containing glucose (2g/L). However, the dissolution was dependent on (S/L) ratio; and the stage-wise leaching was not fruitful for Mn-dissolution. On leaching 5 g of powder (<53 μm) with a 250 mL of 0.5 g glucose containing 2 mol/L sulfuric acid solution (S/L=20 g/L), at 100°C and 300 rpm for 1h, a solution containing (7.08 ± 0.10)g/L Mn(2+), (2.20 ± 0.06) Zn(2+) and ∼ 0.40 g/L Fe(3+) was recovered corresponding to cent percent dissolutions of Zn and Mn and 80% dissolution of Fe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioleaching of zinc and manganese from spent Zn-Mn batteries and mechanism exploration.

    PubMed

    Xin, Baoping; Jiang, Wenfeng; Aslam, Hina; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Changhao; Wang, Renqing; Wang, Yutao

    2012-02-01

    In this work, bioleaching was used to extract valuable Zn and Mn from spent Zn-Mn batteries. The results showed that 96% of Zn extraction was achieved within 24h regardless of energy source types and bioleaching bacteria species. However, initial pH had a remarkable influence on Zn release, extraction dose sharply decreased from 2200 to 500mg/l when the initial pH value increased from 1.5 to 3.0 or higher. In contrast to Zn, all the tested factors evidently affected Mn extraction; the maximum released dose of 3020mg/l was obtained under the optimum conditions. The acidic dissolution by biogenic H(2)SO(4) by the non-contact mechanism was responsible for Zn extraction, while Mn extraction was owed to both contact/biological and non-contact mechanisms. The combined action of acidic dissolution of soluble Mn(2+) by biogenic H(2)SO(4) and reductive dissolution of insoluble Mn(4+) by Fe(2+) resulted in 60% of Mn extraction, while contact of microbial cells with the spent battery material and incubation for more than 7days was required to achieve the maximum extraction of Mn. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influences of Silver and Zinc Contents in the Stannite Ag2ZnSnS4 Photoelectrodes on Their Photoelectrochemical Performances in the Salt-Water Solution.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kong-Wei; Hong, Shu-Wei

    2018-06-13

    The multicomponent metal sulphide (stannite Ag2ZnSnS4) samples were grown onto the conductive metal oxide coated glass substrates by using the sulfurization of co-sputtering silver-zinc-tin precursors. Several [Ag]/[Zn+Sn] and [Zn]/[Sn] ratios were set in the metal precursors to investigate their influences on the crystal phases, microstructures and physical properties of the stannite Ag2ZnSnS4 samples. The results of the crystal phases and compositions of samples showed that the stannite Ag2ZnSnS4 phase can be obtained using the two-step sulfurization process, which maintained the silver-zinc-tin precursors at 160C for 1 hour and then kept them at 450oC for 30 minutes under sulfur/nitrogen atmosphere. N-type stannite Ag2ZnSnS4 samples with the carrier concentrations of 5.54x1012 - 9.11x1012 cm-3 can be obtained. High resistivities of Ag2ZnSnS4 samples were observed due to the low values of carrier concentration. Increasing the silver content in the sample can improve its PEC performance due to the decrease in the sample resistivity. The ratio of [Ag]/[Zn+Sn] kept at 0.8 and ratio of [Zn]/[Sn] set at 0.90 in the stannite Ag2ZnSnS4 sample had the highest photoelectrochemical performance of 0.31 mA.cm-2 with the potential set at 1.23 V vs. relative hydrogen electrode applied on the sample because of it having the lowest charge transfer resistance in electrolyte.

  10. Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of ZnO with diethyl zinc and oxygen plasma: Effect of precursor decomposition

    SciT

    Muneshwar, Triratna, E-mail: muneshwa@ualberta.ca; Cadien, Ken; Shoute, Gem

    2016-09-15

    Although atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO using diethyl zinc (DEZ) precursor has been extensively reported, variation in growth-per-cycle (GPC) values and the range of substrate temperature (T{sub sub}) for ALD growth between related studies remain unexplained. For identical processes, GPC for the characteristic self-limiting ALD growth is expected to be comparable. Hence, a significant variation in GPC among published ZnO ALD studies strongly suggests a concealed non-ALD growth component. To investigate this, the authors report plasma-enhanced ALD growth of ZnO using DEZ precursor and O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasma. The effect of T{sub sub} on ZnO GPC was studiedmore » with deposition cycles (1) 0.02 s–15 s–6 s–15 s, (2) 0.10 s–15 s–15 s–15 s, and (3) 0.20 s–15 s–30 s–15 s, where the cycle parameters t{sub 1}–t{sub 2}–t{sub 3}–t{sub 4} denote duration of DEZ pulse, post-DEZ purge, plasma exposure, and postplasma purge, respectively. The non-ALD growth characteristics observed at T{sub sub} ≥ 60 °C are discussed and attributed to DEZ precursor decomposition. The authors demonstrate ZnO growth at T{sub sub} = 50 °C to be self-limiting with respect to both t{sub 1} and t{sub 3} giving GPC of 0.101 ± 0.001 nm/cycle. The effect of precursor decomposition related (non-ALD) growth at T{sub sub} ≥ 60 °C is illustrated from comparison of optical dielectric function, electrical resistivity, and surface roughness of ZnO films deposited at T{sub sub} = 50, 125, and 200 °C.« less

  11. Ab initio calculations of the magnetic properties of TM (Ti, V)-doped zinc-blende ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goumrhar, F.; Bahmad, L.; Mounkachi, O.; Benyoussef, A.

    2018-01-01

    In order to promote suitable material to be used in spintronics devices, this study purposes to evaluate the magnetic properties of the titanium and vanadium-doped zinc-blende ZnO from first-principles. The calculations of these properties are based on the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method combined with the coherent potential approximation (CPA), using the local density approximation (LDA). We have calculated and discussed the density of states (DOSs) in the energy phase diagrams for different concentration values, of the dopants. We have also investigated the magnetic and half-metallic properties of this doped compound. Additionally, we showed the mechanism of the exchange coupling interaction. Finally, we estimated and studied the Curie temperature for different concentrations.

  12. Prolactin receptor attenuation induces zinc pool redistribution through ZnT2 and decreases invasion in MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells

    SciT

    Bostanci, Zeynep, E-mail: zbostanci@hmc.psu.edu; The Pennsylvania State University Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Surgery, 500 University Dr., Hershey, PA 17033; Alam, Samina, E-mail: sra116@psu.edu

    2014-02-15

    Prolactin receptor (PRL-R) activation regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, cell survival and motility of breast cells. Prolactin (PRL) and PRL-R over-expression are strongly implicated in breast cancer, particularly contributing to tumor growth and invasion in the more aggressive estrogen-receptor negative (ER−) disease. PRL-R antagonists have been suggested as potential therapeutic agents; however, mechanisms through which PRL-R antagonists exert their actions are not well-understood. Zinc (Zn) is a regulatory factor for over 10% of the proteome, regulating critical cell processes such as proliferation, cell signaling, transcription, apoptosis and autophagy. PRL-R signaling regulates Zn metabolism in breast cells. Herein we determined effects ofmore » PRL-R attenuation on cellular Zn metabolism and cell function in a model of ER-, PRL-R over-expressing breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-453). PRL-R attenuation post-transcriptionally increased ZnT2 abundance and redistributed intracellular Zn pools into lysosomes and mitochondria. ZnT2-mediated lysosomal Zn sequestration was associated with reduced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity and decreased invasion. ZnT2-mediated Zn accumulation in mitochondria was associated with increased mitochondrial oxidation. Our results suggest that PRL-R antagonism in PRL-R over-expressing breast cancer cells may reduce invasion through the redistribution of intracellular Zn pools critical for cellular function. - Highlights: • PRL-R attenuation increased ZnT2 expression. • PRL-R attenuation increased lysosomal and mitochondrial Zn accumulation. • PRL-R attenuation decreased MMP-2 and invasion. • PRL-R antagonists may modulate lysosomal and mitochondrial Zn pools.« less

  13. Mechanochemistry of Chitosan-Coated Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) Nanocrystals for Bio-imaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Bujňáková, Zdenka; Dutková, Erika; Kello, Martin; Mojžiš, Ján; Baláž, Matej; Baláž, Peter; Shpotyuk, Oleh

    2017-12-01

    The ZnS nanocrystals were prepared in chitosan solution (0.1 wt.%) using a wet ultra-fine milling. The obtained suspension was stable and reached high value of zeta potential (+57 mV). The changes in FTIR spectrum confirmed the successful surface coating of ZnS nanoparticles by chitosan. The prepared ZnS nanocrystals possessed interesting optical properties verified in vitro. Four cancer cells were selected (CaCo-2, HCT116, HeLa, and MCF-7), and after their treatment with the nanosuspension, the distribution of ZnS in the cells was studied using a fluorescence microscope. The particles were clearly seen; they passed through the cell membrane and accumulated in cytosol. The biological activity of the cells was not influenced by nanoparticles, they did not cause cell death, and only the granularity of cells was increased as a consequence of cellular uptake. These results confirm the potential of ZnS nanocrystals using in bio-imaging applications.

  14. Mechanochemistry of Chitosan-Coated Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) Nanocrystals for Bio-imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujňáková, Zdenka; Dutková, Erika; Kello, Martin; Mojžiš, Ján; Baláž, Matej; Baláž, Peter; Shpotyuk, Oleh

    2017-05-01

    The ZnS nanocrystals were prepared in chitosan solution (0.1 wt.%) using a wet ultra-fine milling. The obtained suspension was stable and reached high value of zeta potential (+57 mV). The changes in FTIR spectrum confirmed the successful surface coating of ZnS nanoparticles by chitosan. The prepared ZnS nanocrystals possessed interesting optical properties verified in vitro. Four cancer cells were selected (CaCo-2, HCT116, HeLa, and MCF-7), and after their treatment with the nanosuspension, the distribution of ZnS in the cells was studied using a fluorescence microscope. The particles were clearly seen; they passed through the cell membrane and accumulated in cytosol. The biological activity of the cells was not influenced by nanoparticles, they did not cause cell death, and only the granularity of cells was increased as a consequence of cellular uptake. These results confirm the potential of ZnS nanocrystals using in bio-imaging applications.

  15. Layered zinc hydroxide salts: delamination, preferred orientation of hydroxide lamellae, and formation of ZnO nanodiscs.

    PubMed

    Demel, Jan; Pleštil, Josef; Bezdička, Petr; Janda, Pavel; Klementová, Mariana; Lang, Kamil

    2011-08-15

    Delamination of layered zinc hydroxide salts (LZH) into hydroxide layers provides nanobuilding blocs of a two-dimensional anisotropy. The methodology, extent of delamination, the size and stability of hydroxide lamellae are described in detail. The ability of lamellae to restack to form oriented hydroxide films depends on the solvent, original LZH salt, and conditions used for delamination. The most interesting results were obtained using LZH intercalated with dodecyl sulfate anions and LZH nitrate delaminated in butanol at 60 °C and in formamide at room temperature, respectively. The former method produces hydroxide lamellae of a lateral size of ca. 10-20 nm. The inner structure of the hydroxide layers is conserved and separated lamellae restack to the original layered structure of LZH dodecyl sulfate. The latter method yields lamellae with a size decreasing from 73.3 nm to 10 nm after a 2-week aging, while their thickness is nearly constant (2.6-3.8 nm). However, the use of formamide is complicated by the formation of Zn(II) formate. The major part of LZH intercalated with dodecyl sulfate anions is transformed during the delamination procedure to anisotropic ZnO nanoparticles, either needle-like particles prolonged in the [0 0 1] direction or disc-like particles flattened along the (0 0 1) plane. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions in alveolar epithelial cells exposed to airborne ZnO nanoparticles at the air–liquid interface

    DOE PAGES

    Mihai, Cosmin; Chrisler, William B.; Xie, Yumei; ...

    2013-12-02

    Airborne nanoparticles (NPs) that enter the respiratory tract are likely to reach the alveolar region. Accumulating observations support a role for zinc oxide (ZnO) NP dissolution in toxicity, but the majority of in vitro studies were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in growth media, where large doses of dissolved ions are shed into the exposure solution. To determine the precise intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions (Zn 2+) shed by airborne NPs in the cellular environment, we exposed alveolar epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Using a fluorescent indicator for Zn 2+, togethermore » with organelle-specific fluorescent proteins, we quantified Zn 2+ in single cells and organelles over time. We found that at the ALI, intracellular Zn 2+ values peaked 3 h post exposure and decayed to normal values by 12 h, while in submersed cultures, intracellular Zn 2+ values continued to increase over time. The lowest toxic NP dose at the ALI generated peak intracellular Zn 2+ values that were nearly 3 folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of NPs in submersed cultures, and 8 folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of ZnSO4 or Zn 2+. At the ALI, the majority of intracellular Zn 2+ was found in endosomes and lysosomes as early as 1 h post exposure. In contrast, the majority of intracellular Zn 2+ following exposures to ZnSO 4 was found in other larger vesicles, with less than 10% in endosomes and lysosomes. In conclusion, together, our observations indicate that low but critical levels of intracellular Zn 2+ have to be reached, concentrated specifically in endosomes and lysosomes, for toxicity to occur, and point to the focal dissolution of the NPs in the cellular environment and the accumulation of the ions specifically in endosomes and lysosomes as the processes underlying the potent toxicity of airborne ZnO NPs.« less

  17. Intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions in alveolar epithelial cells exposed to airborne ZnO nanoparticles at the air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Mihai, Cosmin; Chrisler, William B; Xie, Yumei; Hu, Dehong; Szymanski, Craig J; Tolic, Ana; Klein, Jessica A; Smith, Jordan N; Tarasevich, Barbara J; Orr, Galya

    2015-02-01

    Airborne nanoparticles (NPs) that enter the respiratory tract are likely to reach the alveolar region. Accumulating observations support a role for zinc oxide (ZnO) NP dissolution in toxicity, but the majority of in-vitro studies were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in growth media, where large doses of dissolved ions are shed into the exposure solution. To determine the precise intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions (Zn(2+)) shed by airborne NPs in the cellular environment, we exposed alveolar epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Using a fluorescent indicator for Zn(2+), together with organelle-specific fluorescent proteins, we quantified Zn(2+) in single cells and organelles over time. We found that at the ALI, intracellular Zn(2+) values peaked 3 h post exposure and decayed to normal values by 12 h, while in submerged cultures, intracellular Zn(2+) values continued to increase over time. The lowest toxic NP dose at the ALI generated peak intracellular Zn(2+) values that were nearly three-folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of NPs in submerged cultures, and eight-folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of ZnSO4 or Zn(2+). At the ALI, the majority of intracellular Zn(2+) was found in endosomes and lysosomes as early as 1 h post exposure. In contrast, the majority of intracellular Zn(2+) following exposures to ZnSO4 was found in other larger vesicles, with less than 10% in endosomes and lysosomes. Together, our observations indicate that low but critical levels of intracellular Zn(2+) have to be reached, concentrated specifically in endosomes and lysosomes, for toxicity to occur, and point to the focal dissolution of the NPs in the cellular environment and the accumulation of the ions specifically in endosomes and lysosomes as the processes underlying the potent toxicity of airborne ZnO NPs.

  18. Intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions in alveolar epithelial cells exposed to airborne ZnO nanoparticles at the air–liquid interface

    SciT

    Mihai, Cosmin; Chrisler, William B.; Xie, Yumei

    Airborne nanoparticles (NPs) that enter the respiratory tract are likely to reach the alveolar region. Accumulating observations support a role for zinc oxide (ZnO) NP dissolution in toxicity, but the majority of in vitro studies were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in growth media, where large doses of dissolved ions are shed into the exposure solution. To determine the precise intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions (Zn 2+) shed by airborne NPs in the cellular environment, we exposed alveolar epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Using a fluorescent indicator for Zn 2+, togethermore » with organelle-specific fluorescent proteins, we quantified Zn 2+ in single cells and organelles over time. We found that at the ALI, intracellular Zn 2+ values peaked 3 h post exposure and decayed to normal values by 12 h, while in submersed cultures, intracellular Zn 2+ values continued to increase over time. The lowest toxic NP dose at the ALI generated peak intracellular Zn 2+ values that were nearly 3 folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of NPs in submersed cultures, and 8 folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of ZnSO4 or Zn 2+. At the ALI, the majority of intracellular Zn 2+ was found in endosomes and lysosomes as early as 1 h post exposure. In contrast, the majority of intracellular Zn 2+ following exposures to ZnSO 4 was found in other larger vesicles, with less than 10% in endosomes and lysosomes. In conclusion, together, our observations indicate that low but critical levels of intracellular Zn 2+ have to be reached, concentrated specifically in endosomes and lysosomes, for toxicity to occur, and point to the focal dissolution of the NPs in the cellular environment and the accumulation of the ions specifically in endosomes and lysosomes as the processes underlying the potent toxicity of airborne ZnO NPs.« less

  19. Cycle life test. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells. [performance tests on silver zinc batteries, silver cadmium batteries, and nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Considerable research is being done to find more efficient and reliable means of starting electrical energy for orbiting satellites. Rechargeable cells offer one such means. A test program is described which has been established in order to further the evaluation of certain types of cells and to obtain performance and failure data as an aid to their continued improvement. The purpose of the program is to determine the cycling performance capabilities of packs of cells under different load and temperature conditions. The various kinds of cells tested were nickel-cadmium, silver-cadmium, and silver-zinc sealed cells. A summary of the results of the life cycling program is given in this report.

  20. Relative SHG measurements of metal thin films: Gold, silver, aluminum, cobalt, chromium, germanium, nickel, antimony, titanium, titanium nitride, tungsten, zinc, silicon and indium tin oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Franklin; Grabtchak, Serge; Whelan, William M.; Ponomarenko, Sergey A.; Cada, Michael

    We have experimentally measured the surface second-harmonic generation (SHG) of sputtered gold, silver, aluminum, zinc, tungsten, copper, titanium, cobalt, nickel, chromium, germanium, antimony, titanium nitride, silicon and indium tin oxide thin films. The second-harmonic response was measured in reflection using a 150 fs p-polarized laser pulse at 1561 nm. We present a clear comparison of the SHG intensity of these films relative to each other. Our measured relative intensities compare favorably with the relative intensities of metals with published data. We also report for the first time to our knowledge the surface SHG intensity of tungsten and antimony relative to that of well known metallic thin films such as gold and silver.

  1. [The quantitative changes of bioelements (Ca, Zn, Mg, Cu, Mn) in crystalline lenses under the influence of hypodynamic stress and zinc].

    PubMed

    Kusleika, Saulius

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate and estimate quantitative changes of bioelements (Ca, Zn, Mg, Cu, Mn) in the lenses on the influence of hypodynamic stress and zinc (Zn). Hypodynamic stress of 48 days duration was provoked for Chinchilla rabbits (n = 20) by placing them in metal hutches. Every day (48 days) 10 rabbits, which had intervention received 0.3 mg/kg body wt. doses of Zn (in form of Zn acetate). The rabbits (n = 10) of the control group, which had no intervention were kept in vivarium conditions. Concentration of bioelements in the lenses of rabbits was detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry 503 "Perkin-Elmer" (USA). The investigation revealed that hypodynamic stress of 48 days duration caused the increase in amount of Ca, Zn, Mn in lenses as compared with that in control rabbits and in rabbits receiving Zn. The concentration of bioelements (Ca, Zn, Mg, Cu, Mn) in lenses of rabbits receiving Zn in case of hypodynamic stress did not change significantly.

  2. Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo toxic effects of three sizes of zinc oxide (ZnO) particles using flounder gill (FG) cells and zebrafish embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Li; Zhai, Yanan; Liu, Yang; Hao, Linhua; Guo, Huarong

    2017-02-01

    Nano-sized zinc oxide (nZnO) particles are one kind of the most commonly used metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs). This study compared the cytotoxic and embryotoxic effects of three increasing sized ZnO particles (ϕ 30 nm, 80-150 nm and 2 μm) in the flounder gill (FG) cells and zebrafish embryos, and analyzed the contribution of size, agglomeration and released Zn2+ to the toxic effects. All the tested ZnO particles were found to be highly toxic to both FG cells and zebrafish embryos. They induced growth inhibition, LDH release, morphological changes and apoptosis in FG cells in a concentration-, size- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, the release of LDH from the exposed FG cells into the medium occurred before the observable morphological changes happened. The ultrasonication treatment and addition of serum favored the dispersion of ZnO particles and alleviated the agglomeration, thus significantly increased the corresponding cytotoxicity. The released Zn2+ ions from ZnO particles into the extracellular medium only partially contributed to the cytotoxicity. All the three sizes of ZnO particles tested induced developmental malformations, decrease of hatching rates and lethality in zebrafish embryos, but size- and concentration- dependent toxic effects were not so obvious as in FG cells possibly due to the easy aggregation of ZnO particles in freshwater. In conclusion, both FG cells and zebrafish embryos are sensitive bioassay systems for safety assessment of ZnO particles and the environmental release of ZnO particles should be closely monitored as far as the safety of aquatic organisms is concerned.

  3. Structural properties of perovskite films on zinc oxide nanoparticles-reduced graphene oxide (ZnO-NPs/rGO) prepared by electrophoretic deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahtiar, Ayi; Nurazizah, Euis Siti; Latiffah, Efa; Risdiana, Furukawa, Yukio

    2018-02-01

    Perovskite solar cells highly believed as next generation solar cells to replace currently available inorganic silicon solar cells due to their high power conversion efficiency and easy processing to thin films using solution processing techniques. Performance and stability, however still need to be improved for mass production and widely used for public electricity generation. Perovskite solar cells are commonly deposited on Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) film as an effective electron transport layer (ETL). We used Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) as ETL in perovskite solar cells due to the low temperature required for crystallization and can be formed into different shapes of nanostructures. However, perovskite film can easily degrade into insulating lead iodide due to deprotonation of the methylammoniumcation at the surface of ZnO-NPs, in particular when it stored in ambient air with high relative humidity. The degradation of perovskite layer is therefore needed to be overcome. Here, we capped ZnO-NPs with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to overcome the degradation of perovskite film where ZnO-NPs is synthesized by sol-gel method. The average nanoparticle size of ZnO is 15 nm. ZnO-NPs and ZnO-NPs-rGO films are prepared using electrophoretic deposition technique, which can produce large area with good homogeneity and high reproducibility. The stability of perovskite layer can significantly be improved by capping ZnO with rGO, which is indicated by absence of color change of perovskite after storage for 5 (five) days in ambient air with relative humidity above 95%. Moreover, the X-Ray Diffaction peaks of perovskite film are more preserved when deposited on ZnO/rGO film than using only ZnO film. We strongly believe, by capping ZnO film with rGO, both the performance and stability of perovskite solar cells can be improved significantly.

  4. Graphene oxide-zinc oxide nanocomposite as channel layer for field effect transistors: effect of ZnO loading on field effect transport.

    PubMed

    Jilani, S Mahaboob; Banerji, Pallab

    2014-10-08

    The effects of ZnO on graphene oxide (GO)-ZnO nanocomposites are investigated to tune the conductivity in GO under field effect regime. Zinc oxides with different concentrations from 5 wt % to 25 wt % are used in a GO matrix to increase the conductivity in the composite. Six sets of field effect transistors with pristine GO and GO-ZnO as the channel layer at varying ZnO concentrations were fabricated. From the transfer characteristics, it is observed that GO exhibited an insulating behavior and the transistors with low ZnO (5 wt %) concentration initially showed p-type conductivity that changes to n-type with increases in ZnO loading. This n-type dominance in conductivity is a consequence of the transfer of electrons from ZnO to the GO matrix. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements, it is observed that the progressive reduction in the C-OH oxygen group took place with increases in ZnO loading. Thus, from insulating GO to p- and then n-type, conductivity in GO could be achieved with reduction in the C-OH oxygen group by photocatalytic reduction of GO with varying degrees of ZnO. The restoration of sp(2) electron network in the GO matrix with the anchoring of ZnO nanostructures was observed from Raman spectra. From UV-visible spectra, the band gap in pristine GO was found to be 3.98 eV and reduced to 2.8 eV with increase in ZnO attachment.

  5. Photo-Patternable ZnO Thin Films Based on Cross-Linked Zinc Acrylate for Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Complementary Inverters.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong Jin; An, Tae Kyu; Yun, Dong-Jin; Kim, Lae Ho; Park, Seonuk; Kim, Yebyeol; Nam, Sooji; Lee, Keun Hyung; Kim, Se Hyun; Jang, Jaeyoung; Park, Chan Eon

    2016-03-02

    Complementary inverters consisting of p-type organic and n-type metal oxide semiconductors have received considerable attention as key elements for realizing low-cost and large-area future electronics. Solution-processed ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) have great potential for use in hybrid complementary inverters as n-type load transistors because of the low cost of their fabrication process and natural abundance of active materials. The integration of a single ZnO TFT into an inverter requires the development of a simple patterning method as an alternative to conventional time-consuming and complicated photolithography techniques. In this study, we used a photocurable polymer precursor, zinc acrylate (or zinc diacrylate, ZDA), to conveniently fabricate photopatternable ZnO thin films for use as the active layers of n-type ZnO TFTs. UV-irradiated ZDA thin films became insoluble in developing solvent as the acrylate moiety photo-cross-linked; therefore, we were able to successfully photopattern solution-processed ZDA thin films using UV light. We studied the effects of addition of a tiny amount of indium dopant on the transistor characteristics of the photopatterned ZnO thin films and demonstrated low-voltage operation of the ZnO TFTs within ±3 V by utilizing Al2O3/TiO2 laminate thin films or ion-gels as gate dielectrics. By combining the ZnO TFTs with p-type pentacene TFTs, we successfully fabricated organic/inorganic hybrid complementary inverters using solution-processed and photopatterned ZnO TFTs.

  6. Effect of biomimetic zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (Zn-TCP) on the growth and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Joshua; Hao, Jia; Hatoyama, Hirokazu; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Milthorpe, Bruce; Otsuka, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have shown the effectiveness of zinc-tricalcium phosphate (Zn-TCP) for bone tissue engineering. In this study, marine calcareous foraminifera possessing uniform pore size distribution were hydrothermally converted to Zn-TCP. The ability of a scaffold to combine effectively with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a key tissue-engineering aim. In order to demonstrate the osteogenic ability of MSCs with Zn-TCP, the scaffolds were cultured in an osteogenic induction medium to elicit an osteoblastic response. The physicochemical properties of Zn-TCP were characterized by XRD, FT-IR and ICP-MS. MSCs were aspirated from rat femurs and cultured for 3 days before indirectly placing four samples into each respective well. After culture for 7, 10 and 14 days, osteoblastic differentiation was evaluated using alizarin red S stain, measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, cell numbers and cell viability. XRD and FT-IR patterns both showed the replacement of CO(3)(2-) with PO(4)(3-). Chemical analysis showed zinc incorporation of 5 mol%. Significant increases in cell numbers were observed at 10 and 14 days in the Zn-TCP group, while maintaining high levels of cell viability (> 90%). ALP activity in the Zn-TCP group was statistically higher at 10 days. Alizarin red S staining also showed significantly higher levels of calcium mineralization in Zn-TCP compared with the control groups. This study showed that MSCs in the presence of biomimetically derived Zn-TCP can accelerate their differentiation to osteoblasts and could potentially be useful as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Significant Enhancement of Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2 with H2O over ZnO by the Formation of Basic Zinc Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Xin, Chunyu; Hu, Maocong; Wang, Kang; Wang, Xitao

    2017-07-11

    Electron-hole pair separation efficiency and adsorption performance of photocatalysts to CO 2 are the two key factors affecting the performance of photocatalytic CO 2 reduction with H 2 O. Distinct from conventional promoter addition, this study proposed a novel approach to address these two issues by tuning the own surface features of semiconductor photocatalyst. Three ZnO samples with different morphologies, surface area, and defect content were fabricated by varying preparation methods, characterized by XRD, TEM, and room-temperature PL spectra, and tested in photoreduction of CO 2 with H 2 O. The results show that the as-prepared porous ZnO nanosheets exhibit a much higher activity for photoreduction of CO 2 with H 2 O when compared to ZnO nanoparticles and nanorods attributed to the existence of more defect sites, that is, zinc and oxygen vacancies. These defects would lower the combination rate of electron-hole pair as well as promote the formation of basic zinc carbonate by Lewis acid-base interaction, which is the active intermediate species for photoreduction of CO 2 . ZnO nanoparticles and ZnO nanorods with few defects show weak adsorption for CO 2 leading to the inferior photocatalytic activities. This work provides new insight on the CO 2 activation under light irradiation.

  8. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of nano-structured Zinc(II)-based metal-organic frameworks as precursors for the synthesis of ZnO nano-structures.

    PubMed

    Bigdeli, Fahime; Ghasempour, Hosein; Azhdari Tehrani, Alireza; Morsali, Ali; Hosseini-Monfared, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    A 3D, porous Zn(II)-based metal-organic framework {[Zn 2 (oba) 2 (4-bpmn)]·(DMF) 1.5 } n (TMU-21), (4-bpmn=N,N'-Bis-pyridin-4-ylmethylene-naphtalene-1,5-diamine, H 2 oba=4,4'-oxybis(benzoic acid)) with nano-rods morphology under ultrasonic irradiation at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure was prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Sonication time and concentration of initial reagents effects on the size and morphology of nano-structured MOFs were studied. Also {[Zn 2 (oba) 2 (4-bpmn)] (TMU-21) and {[Zn 2 (oba) 2 (4-bpmb)] (TMU-6), 4-bpmb=N,N'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(1-(pyridin-4-yl)methanimine) were easily prepared by mechanochemical synthesis. Nanostructures of Zinc(II) oxide were obtained by calcination of these compounds and their de-solvated analogue as activated MOFs, at 550°C under air atmosphere. As a result of that, different Nanostructures of Zinc(II) oxide were obtained. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FT-IR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Green synthesis of novel zinc iron oxide (ZnFe2O4) nanocomposite via Moringa Oleifera natural extract for electrochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matinise, N.; Kaviyarasu, K.; Mongwaketsi, N.; Khamlich, S.; Kotsedi, L.; Mayedwa, N.; Maaza, M.

    2018-07-01

    The main motivation of the research study involves development of reliable, accurate, inexpensive and environmental friendly method for the synthesis of zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) nanocomposites. It was thought of interest to synthesized zinc ferrite via green synthetic method using Moringa Oleifera extract. For the first time, we used green synthetic route via Moringa Oleifera extract acted as both chelating and reducing agents to synthesis spinel ZnFe2O4 nanocomposites. The physical and electrochemical properties were characterized using different techniques such as High Resolve Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The XRD pattern thus clearly illustrated that the ZnFe2O4 nanocmposites synthesized by the green method were good crystalline in nature. The time constant and exchange current of ZnFe2O4 nanocomposites from EIS analysis were calculated and found to be 5.2001 × 10-4 s/rad and 6.59432 × 10-4 A, respectively. Based on the electrochemical results, GCE/ZnFe2O4 electrode exhibited a good voltametric response, high electro-activity, and excellent electrochemical performance making it a highly suitable/promising electrode for electrochemical applications.

  10. New energy storage option: toward ZnCo2O4 nanorods/nickel foam architectures for high-performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Boyang; Wang, Qiufan; Wang, Xianfu; Xiang, Qingyi; Chen, Di; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-10-23

    Hierarchical ZnCo2O4/nickel foam architectures were first fabricated from a simple scalable solution approach, exhibiting outstanding electrochemical performance in supercapacitors with high specific capacitance (∼1400 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1)), excellent rate capability (72.5% capacity retention at 20 A g(-1)), and good cycling stability (only 3% loss after 1000 cycles at 6 A g(-1)). All-solid-state supercapacitors were also fabricated by assembling two pieces of the ZnCo2O4-based electrodes, showing superior performance in terms of high specific capacitance and long cycling stability. Our work confirms that the as-prepared architectures can not only be applied in high energy density fields, but also be used in high power density applications, such as electric vehicles, flexible electronics, and energy storage devices.

  11. Antimycobacterial, antimicrobial, and biocompatibility properties of para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide and Zn/Al layered double hydroxide nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Saifullah, Bullo; El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Webster, Thomas J; Geilich, Benjamin M; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of tuberculosis by chemotherapy is complicated due to multiple drug prescriptions, long treatment duration, and adverse side effects. We report here for the first time an in vitro therapeutic effect of nanocomposites based on para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide (PAS-ZLH) and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (PAS-Zn/Al LDH), against mycobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria. The nanocomposites demonstrated good antimycobacterial activity and were found to be effective in killing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A biocompatibility study revealed good biocompatibility of the PAS-ZLH nanocomposites against normal human MRC-5 lung cells. The para-aminosalicylic acid loading was quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. In summary, the present preliminary in vitro studies are highly encouraging for further in vivo studies of PAS-ZLH and PAS-Zn/Al LDH nanocomposites to treat tuberculosis. PMID:25114509

  12. A New Test of Copper and Zinc Abundances in Late-Type Stars Using Cu II and Zn II lines in the Near-Ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian

    2017-08-01

    The copper (Cu, Z = 29) and zinc (Zn, Z = 30) abundances found in late-type stars provide critical constraints on models that predict the yields of massive star supernovae, hypernovae, Type Ia supernovae, and AGB stars, which are essential ingredients in Galactic chemical evolution models. Furthermore, Zn is commonly used to compare the abundance of iron-group elements in the gas phase in high-redshift DLA systems with metallicities in Local Group stars. It is thus important that the observational Cu and Zn abundances in stars are correct. My proposed archive study will address this issue by using archive STIS spectra of 14 stars to provide the first systematic observational tests of non-LTE calculations of Cu and Zn line formation in late-type stars. The non-LTE calculations predict that all LTE [Cu/Fe] abundance ratios presently found in the literature are systematically lower than the true ratios found in stars. The non-LTE calculations for Zn predict that the LTE values in the literature may be systematically overestimated in low-metallicity stars. The LTE abundances of Cu and Zn are derived from Cu I and Zn I lines. The key advance enabled by the use of NUV spectra is the detection of several lines of Cu II and Zn II, which cannot be detected in the optical or infrared. Cu II and Zn II are largely immune to non-LTE effects in the atmospheres of late-type stars. The metallicities of the 14 stars with NUV spectra span -2.6 < [Fe/H] < -0.1, which covers the range of most Cu and Zn abundances reported in the literature. The proposed study will allow me to test the non-LTE calculations and calibrate the stellar abundances.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of the Zn(II)2Cys6 zinc cluster-encoding gene family in Aspergillus flavus

    Proteins with a Zn(II)2Cys6 domain, Cys-X2-Cys-X6-Cys-X5-12-Cys-X2-Cys-X6-9-Cys (hereafter, referred to as the C6 domain), form a subclass of zinc finger proteins found exclusively in fungi and yeast. Genome sequence databases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans have provided an overvie...

  14. The zinc sensing receptor, ZnR/GPR39, controls proliferation and differentiation of colonocytes and thereby tight junction formation in the colon

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, L; Sekler, I; Hershfinkel, M

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is a renewable tissue that requires precise balance between proliferation and differentiation, an essential process for the formation of a tightly sealed barrier. Zinc deficiency impairs the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier and is associated with ulcerative and diarrheal pathologies, but the mechanisms underlying the role of Zn2+ are not well understood. Here, we determined a role of the colonocytic Zn2+ sensing receptor, ZnR/GPR39, in mediating Zn2+-dependent signaling and regulating the proliferation and differentiation of colonocytes. Silencing of ZnR/GPR39 expression attenuated Zn2+-dependent activation of ERK1/2 and AKT as well as downstream activation of mTOR/p70S6K, pathways that are linked with proliferation. Consistently, ZnR/GPR39 silencing inhibited HT29 and Caco-2 colonocyte proliferation, while not inducing caspase-3 cleavage. Remarkably, in differentiating HT29 colonocytes, silencing of ZnR/GPR39 expression inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of differentiation. Furthermore, Caco-2 colonocytes showed elevated expression of ZnR/GPR39 during differentiation, whereas silencing of ZnR/GPR39 decreased monolayer transepithelial electrical resistance, suggesting compromised barrier formation. Indeed, silencing of ZnR/GPR39 or chelation of Zn2+ by the cell impermeable chelator CaEDTA was followed by impaired expression of the junctional proteins, that is, occludin, zonula-1 (ZO-1) and E-cadherin. Importantly, colon tissues of GPR39 knockout mice also showed a decrease in expression levels of ZO-1 and occludin compared with wildtype mice. Altogether, our results indicate that ZnR/GPR39 has a dual role in promoting proliferation of colonocytes and in controlling their differentiation. The latter is followed by ZnR/GPR39-dependent expression of tight junctional proteins, thereby leading to formation of a sealed intestinal epithelial barrier. Thus, ZnR/GPR39 may be a therapeutic target for promoting epithelial

  15. The zinc sensing receptor, ZnR/GPR39, controls proliferation and differentiation of colonocytes and thereby tight junction formation in the colon.

    PubMed

    Cohen, L; Sekler, I; Hershfinkel, M

    2014-06-26

    The intestinal epithelium is a renewable tissue that requires precise balance between proliferation and differentiation, an essential process for the formation of a tightly sealed barrier. Zinc deficiency impairs the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier and is associated with ulcerative and diarrheal pathologies, but the mechanisms underlying the role of Zn(2+) are not well understood. Here, we determined a role of the colonocytic Zn(2+) sensing receptor, ZnR/GPR39, in mediating Zn(2+)-dependent signaling and regulating the proliferation and differentiation of colonocytes. Silencing of ZnR/GPR39 expression attenuated Zn(2+)-dependent activation of ERK1/2 and AKT as well as downstream activation of mTOR/p70S6K, pathways that are linked with proliferation. Consistently, ZnR/GPR39 silencing inhibited HT29 and Caco-2 colonocyte proliferation, while not inducing caspase-3 cleavage. Remarkably, in differentiating HT29 colonocytes, silencing of ZnR/GPR39 expression inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of differentiation. Furthermore, Caco-2 colonocytes showed elevated expression of ZnR/GPR39 during differentiation, whereas silencing of ZnR/GPR39 decreased monolayer transepithelial electrical resistance, suggesting compromised barrier formation. Indeed, silencing of ZnR/GPR39 or chelation of Zn(2+) by the cell impermeable chelator CaEDTA was followed by impaired expression of the junctional proteins, that is, occludin, zonula-1 (ZO-1) and E-cadherin. Importantly, colon tissues of GPR39 knockout mice also showed a decrease in expression levels of ZO-1 and occludin compared with wildtype mice. Altogether, our results indicate that ZnR/GPR39 has a dual role in promoting proliferation of colonocytes and in controlling their differentiation. The latter is followed by ZnR/GPR39-dependent expression of tight junctional proteins, thereby leading to formation of a sealed intestinal epithelial barrier. Thus, ZnR/GPR39 may be a therapeutic target for promoting

  16. Expression Profile Analysis of Zinc Transporters (ZIP4, ZIP9, ZIP11, ZnT9) in Gliomas and their Correlation with IDH1 Mutation Status.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xing; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Jie; Li, Gang; Dai, Peng-Gao; Chen, Chao; Wang, Hui-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Zinc transporters have been considered as essential regulators in many cancers; however, their mechanisms remain unknown, especially in gliomas. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1(IDH1) mutation is crucial to glioma. This study aimed to investigate whether zinc transporters are correlated with glioma grade and IDH1 mutation status. IDH1 mutation status and mRNA expression of four zinc transporters (ZIP4, ZIP9, ZIP11, and ZnT9) were determined by subjecting a panel of 74 glioma tissue samples to quantitative real-time PCR and pyrosequencing. The correlations between the expression levels of these zinc transporter genes and the grade of glioma, as well as IDH1 mutation status, were investigated. Among the four zinc transporter genes, high ZIP4 expression and low ZIP11 expression were significantly associated with higher grade (grades III and IV) tumors compared with lower grade (grades I and II) counterparts (p<0.0001). However, only ZIP11 exhibited weak correlation with IDH1 mutation status (p=0.045). Samples with mutations in IDH1 displayed higher ZIP11 expression than those without IDH1 mutations. This finding indicated that zinc transporters may interact with IDH1 mutation by direct modulation or action in some shared pathways or genes to promote the development of glioma. Zinc transporters may play an important role in glioma. ZIP4 and ZIP11 are promising molecular diagnostic markers and novel therapeutic targets. Nevertheless, the detailed biological function of zinc transporters and the mechanism of the potential interaction between ZIP11 and IDH1 mutation in gliomagenesis should be further investigated.

  17. Soil pH effects on the interactions between dissolved zinc, non-nano- and nano-ZnO with soil bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Read, Daniel S; Matzke, Marianne; Gweon, Hyun S; Newbold, Lindsay K; Heggelund, Laura; Ortiz, Maria Diez; Lahive, Elma; Spurgeon, David; Svendsen, Claus

    2016-03-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are used in an array of products and processes, ranging from personal care products to antifouling paints, textiles, food additives, antibacterial agents and environmental remediation processes. Soils are an environment likely to be exposed to manmade nanoparticles due to the practice of applying sewage sludge as a fertiliser or as an organic soil improver. However, understanding on the interactions between soil properties, nanoparticles and the organisms that live within soil is lacking, especially with regards to soil bacterial communities. We studied the effects of nanoparticulate, non-nanoparticulate and ionic zinc (in the form of zinc chloride) on the composition of bacterial communities in soil with a modified pH range (from pH 4.5 to pH 7.2). We observed strong pH-dependent effects on the interaction between bacterial communities and all forms of zinc, with the largest changes in bacterial community composition occurring in soils with low and medium pH levels (pH 4.8 and 5.9). The high pH soil (pH 7.2) was less susceptible to the effects of zinc exposure. At the highest doses of zinc (2500 mg/kg dw soil), both nano and non-nano particulate zinc applications elicited a similar response in the soil bacterial community, and this differed significantly to the ionic zinc salt treatment. The results highlight the importance of considering soil pH in nanotoxicology studies, although further work is needed to determine the exact mechanisms controlling the toxicity and fate and interactions of nanoparticles with soil microbial communities.

  18. Cytotoxicity of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles is influenced by cell density and culture format.

    PubMed

    Heng, Boon Chin; Zhao, Xinxin; Xiong, Sijing; Ng, Kee Woei; Boey, Freddy Yin-Chiang; Loo, Joachim Say-Chye

    2011-06-01

    A parameter that has often been overlooked in cytotoxicity assays is the density and confluency of mammalian cell monolayers utilized for toxicology screening. Hence, this study investigated how different cell seeding densities influenced their response to cytotoxic challenge with ZnO nanoparticles. Utilizing the same volume (1 ml per well) and concentration range (5-40 μg/ml) of ZnO nanoparticles, contradictory results were observed with higher-density cell monolayers (BEAS-2B cells) obtained either by increasing the number of seeded cells per well (50,000 vs. 200,000 cells per well of 12-well plate) or by seeding the same numbers of cells (50,000) within a smaller surface area (12-well vs. 48-well plate, 4.8 vs. 1.2 cm(2), respectively). Further experiments demonstrated that the data may be skewed by inconsistency in the mass/number of nanoparticles per unit area of culture surface, as well as by inconsistent nanoparticle to cell ratio. To keep these parameters constant, the same number of cells (50,000 per well) were seeded on 12-well plates, but with the cells being seeded at the edge of the well for the experimental group (by tilting the plate) to form a dense confluent monolayer, as opposed to a sparse monolayer for the control group seeded in the conventional manner. Utilizing such an experimental set-up for the comparative evaluation of four different cell lines (BEAS-2B, L-929, CRL-2922 and C2C12), it was observed that the high cell density monolayer was consistently more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles compared to the sparse monolayer for all four different cell types, with the greatest differences being observed above a ZnO concentration of 10 μg/ml. Hence, the results of this study demonstrate the need for the standardization of cell culture protocols utilized for toxicology screening of nanoparticles, with respect to cell density and mass/number of nanoparticles per unit area of culture surface.

  19. Synthesis, crystal structure and DFT studies of a Zinc(II) complex of 1,3-diaminopropane (Dap), [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2][Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]n. The additional stabilizing role of S⋯π chalcogen bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alotaibi, Mshari A.; Alharthi, Abdulrahman I.; Zierkiewicz, Wiktor; Akhtar, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Mazhar, Muhammad; Isab, Anvarhusein A.; Ahmad, Saeed

    2017-04-01

    A zinc(II) complex of 1,3-diaminopropane (Dap), [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2][Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]n (1) has been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H &13C NMR spectroscopy, and its crystal structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of 1 consists of two types of molecules, a discrete monomer and a polymeric one. In the monomeric unit, the zinc atom is bound to one terminal Dap molecule and to two N-bound thiocyanate ions, while in the polymeric unit, Dap acts as a bridging ligand forming a linear chain. The Zn(II) ions in both assume a slightly distorted tetrahedral geometry. The structures of two systems: the [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2][Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]3 complex as a model of 1 and [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]4 as a simple polymeric structure were optimized with the B3LYP-D3 method. The DFT results support that the experimentally determined structure (1) is more stable in comparison to a simple polymeric structure, [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]n (2). The interaction energies (ΔE) for NCS anions obtained by B3LYP-D3 method are about -145 kcal mol-1, while the calculated ΔE values for neutral organic ligands are about twice smaller. The X-ray structure of 1 shows that the complex is stabilized mainly by hydrogen bonds. We also found that weak chalcogen bonds play an additional role in stabilization of compound 1. Some of the intermolecular S⋯N distances are smaller than the sum of the van der Waals radii of the corresponding atoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that shows the structure where the trivalent sulfur is involved in formation of a S⋯π chalcogen bond. The NBO and NCI analyses confirm the existence of this kind of interactions.

  20. Zinc Tantalum Oxynitride (ZnTaO2N) Photoanode Modified with Cobalt Phosphate Layers for the Photoelectrochemical Oxidation of Alkali Water

    PubMed Central

    T. Weller, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Photoanodes fabricated by the electrophoretic deposition of a thermally prepared zinc tantalum oxynitride (ZnTaO2N) catalyst onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates show photoactivation for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline solutions. The photoactivity of the OER is further boosted by the photodeposition of cobalt phosphate (CoPi) layers onto the surface of the ZnTaO2N photoanodes. Structural, morphological, and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the modified ZnTaO2N photoanodes are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet visible (UV−Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and electrochemical techniques. The presence of the CoPi layer significantly improved the PEC performance of water oxidation in an alkaline sulphate solution. The photocurrent-voltage behavior of the CoPi-modified ZnTaO2N anodes was improved, with the influence being more prominent at lower oxidation potentials. A stable photocurrent density of about 2.3 mA·cm−2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE was attained upon visible light illumination. Relative to the ZnTaO2N photoanodes, an almost three-fold photocurrent increase was achieved at the CoPi/ZnTaO2N photoelectrode. Perovskite-based oxynitrides are modified using an oxygen-evolution co-catalyst of CoPi, and provide a new dimension for enhancing the photoactivity of oxygen evolution in solar-assisted water-splitting reactions. PMID:29346306

  1. Selenium, zinc, copper, Cu/Zn ratio and total antioxidant status in the serum of vitiligo patients treated by narrow-band ultraviolet-B phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Wacewicz, Marta; Socha, Katarzyna; Soroczyńska, Jolanta; Niczyporuk, Marek; Aleksiejczuk, Piotr; Ostrowska, Jolanta; Borawska, Maria H

    2018-03-01

    Vitiligo is a chronic, depigmenting skin disorder, whose pathogenesis is still unknown. Narrow band ultraviolet-B (NB-UVB) is now one of the most widely used treatment of vitiligo. It was suggested that trace elements may play a role in pathogenesis of vitiligo. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentration of selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and Cu/Zn ratio as well as total antioxidant status (TAS) in the serum of patients with vitiligo. We assessed 50 patients with vitiligo and 58 healthy controls. Serum levels of Se, Zn and Cu were determined by the atomic absorption spectrometry method, and the Cu/Zn ratio was also calculated. TAS in serum was measured spectrophotometrically. Serum concentration of Se in patients with vitiligo before and after phototherapy was significantly lower as compared to the control group. Zn level in the serum of patients decreased significantly after phototherapy. We observed higher Cu/Zn ratio (p < .05) in examined patients than in the control group and after NB-UVB. We have found decrease in TAS in the serum of vitiligo patients after NB-UVB. The current study showed some disturbances in the serum levels of trace elements and total antioxidant status in vitiligo patients.

  2. Synthesis, structure and reactivity of [Tm(Bu(t))]ZnH, a monomeric terminal zinc hydride compound in a sulfur-rich coordination environment: access to a heterobimetallic compound.

    PubMed

    Kreider-Mueller, Ava; Quinlivan, Patrick J; Rauch, Michael; Owen, Jonathan S; Parkin, Gerard

    2016-02-07

    The first terminal zinc hydride complex that features a sulfur-rich coordination environment, namely the tris(2-mercapto-1-tert-butylimidazolyl)hydroborato compound, [Tm(Bu(t))]ZnH, has been synthesized via the reaction of [Tm(Bu(t))]ZnOPh with PhSiH3. The Zn-H bond of [Tm(Bu(t))]ZnH is subject to insertion of CO2 and facile protolytic cleavage, of which the latter provides access to heterobimetallic [Tm(Bu(t))]ZnMo(CO)3Cp.

  3. Heterobimetallic Metal–Organic Framework as a Precursor to Prepare a Nickel/Nanoporous Carbon Composite Catalyst for 4-Nitrophenol Reduction

    SciT

    Yang, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Sun, Cheng Jun

    2014-11-01

    Nickel/nanoporous carbon (Ni/NPC) composites are facilely prepared by direct pyrolysis of nonporous heterobimetallic zinc-nickel-terephthalate frameworks (Zn1-xNixMOF, x approximate to 0-1, MOF= metal-organic framework) at 1223 K in situ. Tailoring the Ni/Zn ratio creates densely populated and small Ni nanocrystals (Ni NCs) while maintaining sufficient porosity and surface area in the final product, which exhibits the largest activity factor (9.2 s(-1)g(-1)) and excellent stability toward 4-nitrophenol reduction.

  4. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  5. Production of zinc pellets

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1996-01-01

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

  6. Preparation of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Film as Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) from Zinc Complex Compound on Thin Film Solar Cells: A Study of O2 Effect on Annealing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslih, E. Y.; Kim, K. H.

    2017-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film as a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for thin film solar cell application was successfully prepared through two step preparations which consisted of deposition by spin coating at 2000 rpm for 10 second and followed by annealing at 500 °C for 2 hours under O2 and ambient atmosphere. Zinc acetate dehydrate was used as a precursor which dissolved in ethanol and acetone (1:1 mol) mixture in order to make a zinc complex compound. In this work, we reported the O2 effect, reaction mechanism, structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties. ZnO thin film in this work shows a single phase of wurtzite, with n-type semiconductor and has band gap, carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity as 3.18 eV, 1.21 × 10-19cm3, 11 cm2/Vs, 2.35 × 10-3 Ωcm respectively which is suitable for TCO at thin film solar cell.

  7. Kinetics of zinc release from ground tire rubber and rubber ash in a calcareous soil as alternatives to Zn fertilizers

    Ground rubber contains 15-20 g Zn/kg but very low levels of Cd and could serve as an inexpensive byproduct Zn fertilizer. The aim of this investigation was to test the kinetics of Zn release in a soil treated with ground tire rubber and rubber ash compared with commercial Zn fertilizer and a labora...

  8. Effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on physiology and steviol glycosides production in micropropagated shoots of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    PubMed

    Javed, Rabia; Usman, Muhammad; Yücesan, Buhara; Zia, Muhammad; Gürel, Ekrem

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to address the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 or 1000 mg L -1 ) of engineered zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (34 nm in size) on growth parameters, steviol glycosides (rebaudioside A and stevioside) production and antioxidant activities in the tissue culture grown shoots of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The highest percentage of shoot formation (89.6%) at 1 mg L -1 of ZnO nanoparticles concentration suggests a positive influence of ZnO nanoparticles on S. rebaudiana growth as compared to other treatments with or without ZnO nanoparticles. Additionally, HPLC results illustrate a significant enhancement of steviol glycosides (almost doubled as compared to the control) in micropropagated shoots grown under an oxidative stress of 1 mg L -1 of ZnO nanoparticles. This finding is further affirmed by an increased 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, total anti-oxidant capacity, total reducing power, total flavonoid content and total phenolic content, with an ascending oxidative pressure and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the antioxidant activities, formation of secondary metabolites and the physiological parameters showed a sudden decline after crossing a threshold of 1 mg L -1 concentration of ZnO nanoparticles and falls to a minimum at 1000 mg L -1 , elucidating maximum phytotoxic effect of ZnO nanoparticles at this concentration. This is the first study evaluating both the favorable and adverse effects of ZnO nanoparticles employed to a highly valuable medicinal plant, S. rebaudiana. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced photocatalytic performance and degradation pathway of Rhodamine B over hierarchical double-shelled zinc nickel oxide hollow sphere heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Jiabin; Cai, Weiquan; Zhou, Jun; Li, Zhen

    2018-02-01

    In this study, hierarchical double-shelled NiO/ZnO hollow spheres heterojunction were prepared by calcination of the metallic organic frameworks (MOFs) as a sacrificial template in air via a one-step solvothermal method. Additionally, the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under UV-vis light irradiation were also investigated. NiO/ZnO microsphere comprised a core and a shell with unique hierarchically porous structure. The photocatalytic results showed that NiO/ZnO hollow spheres exhibited excellent catalytic activity for RhB degradation, causing complete decomposition of RhB (200 mL of 10 g/L) under UV-vis light irradiation within 3 h. Furthermore, the degradation pathway was proposed on the basis of the intermediates during the photodegradation process using liquid chromatography analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). The improvement in photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the p-n heterojunction in the NiO/ZnO hollow spheres with hierarchically porous structure and the strong double-shell binding interaction, which enhances adsorption of the dye molecules on the catalyst surface and facilitates the electron/hole transfer within the framework. The degradation mechanism of pollutant is ascribed to the hydroxyl radicals (rad OH), which is the main oxidative species for the photocatalytic degradation of RhB. This work provides a facile and effective approach for the fabrication of porous metal oxides heterojunction with high photocatalytic activity and thus can be potentially used in the environmental purification.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, spectroscopic and theoretical studies of new zinc(II), copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes based on imine ligand containing 2-aminothiophenol moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafaatian, Bita; Mousavi, S. Sedighe; Afshari, Sadegh

    2016-11-01

    New dimer complexes of zinc(II), copper(II) and nickel(II) were synthesized using the Schiff base ligand which was formed by the condensation of 2-aminothiophenol and 2-hydroxy-5-methyl benzaldehyde. This tridentate Schiff base ligand was coordinated to the metal ions through the NSO donor atoms. In order to prevent the oxidation of the thiole group during the formation of Schiff base and its complexes, all of the reactions were carried out under an inert atmosphere of argon. The X-ray structure of the Schiff base ligand showed that in the crystalline form the SH groups were oxidized to produce a disulfide Schiff base as a new double Schiff base ligand. The molar conductivity values of the complexes in dichloromethane implied the presence of non-electrolyte species. The fluorescence properties of the Schiff base ligand and its complexes were also studied in dichloromethane. The products were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV/Vis spectroscopies, elemental analysis, and conductometry. The crystal structure of the double Schiff base was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory for the determination of the optimized structures of Schiff base complexes.

  11. Insights into the Effects of Zinc Doping on Structural Phase Transition of P2-Type Sodium Nickel Manganese Oxide Cathodes for High-Energy Sodium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuehang; Xu, Gui-Liang; Zhong, Guiming; Gong, Zhengliang; McDonald, Matthew J; Zheng, Shiyao; Fu, Riqiang; Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil; Yang, Yong

    2016-08-31

    P2-type sodium nickel manganese oxide-based cathode materials with higher energy densities are prime candidates for applications in rechargeable sodium ion batteries. A systematic study combining in situ high energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), ex situ X-ray absorption fine spectroscopy (XAFS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR) techniques was carried out to gain a deep insight into the structural evolution of P2-Na0.66Ni0.33-xZnxMn0.67O2 (x = 0, 0.07) during cycling. In situ HEXRD and ex situ TEM measurements indicate that an irreversible phase transition occurs upon sodium insertion-extraction of Na0.66Ni0.33Mn0.67O2. Zinc doping of this system results in a high structural reversibility. XAFS measurements indicate that both materials are almost completely dependent on the Ni(4+)/Ni(3+)/Ni(2+) redox couple to provide charge/discharge capacity. SS-NMR measurements indicate that both reversible and irreversible migration of transition metal ions into the sodium layer occurs in the material at the fully charged state. The irreversible migration of transition metal ions triggers a structural distortion, leading to the observed capacity and voltage fading. Our results allow a new understanding of the importance of improving the stability of transition metal layers.

  12. Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) of low molecular weight organic compounds and synthetic polymers using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takehiro; Kawasaki, Hideya; Yonezawa, Tetsu; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2008-08-01

    We have developed surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with anisotropic shapes (ZnO-SALDI-MS). The mass spectra showed low background noises in the low m/z, i.e. less than 500 u region. Thus, we succeeded in SALDI ionization on low molecular weight organic compounds, such as verapamil hydrochloride, testosterone, and polypropylene glycol (PPG) (average molecular weight 400) without using a liquid matrix or buffers such as citric acids. In addition, we found that ZnO-SALDI has advantages in post-source decay (PSD) analysis and produced a simple mass spectrum for phospholipids. The ZnO-SALDI spectra for synthetic polymers of polyethylene glycol (PEG), polystyrene (PS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) showed the sensitivity and molecular weight distribution to be comparable to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spectra with a 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) matrix. ZnO-SALDI shows good performance for synthetic polymers as well as low molecular weight organic compounds. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Low Hydrogen Embrittlement (LHE) Zinc-Nickel (Zn-Ni) Qualification Test Result and Process Parameters Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-09

    www.ES3inc.com ● 1669 E. 1400 S ● Clearfield, UT 84015 (801) 926-1150 ● fax (801) 926-1155 Tri- Chromium ...conversion coating (CC) (Hexavalent vs. Trivalent ) and parameters: ▪ Baking before and after conversion coating • Hexavalent CC: must be applied...after bake • Trivalent CC: can be applied before or after bake (process time savings) ▪ Paint adhesion performance per ASTM D3359 • Hex-CC

  14. Highly stable field emission from ZnO nanowire field emitters controlled by an amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaojie; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Zhipeng; Ou, Hai; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Lowering the driving voltage and improving the stability of nanowire field emitters are essential for them to be applied in devices. In this study the characteristics of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire field emitter arrays (FEAs) controlled by an amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide thin film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) were studied. A low driving voltage along with stabilization of the field emission current were achieved. Modulation of field emission currents up to three orders of magnitude was achieved at a gate voltage of 0–32 V for a constant anode voltage. Additionally, a-IGZO TFT control can dramatically reduce the emission current fluctuation (i.e., from 46.11 to 1.79% at an emission current of ∼3.7 µA). Both the a-IGZO TFT and ZnO nanowire FEAs were prepared on glass substrates in our research, demonstrating the feasibility of realizing large area a-IGZO TFT-controlled ZnO nanowire FEAs.

  15. Two new three-dimensional zinc phosphites templated by piperazine: [H2pip][Zn3(HPO3)4(H2O)2] and K[H2pip]0.5[Zn3(HPO3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Guo-Ming; Wang, Zong-Hua; Wang, Ying-Xia; Lin, Jian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Two three-dimensional open-framework zinc phosphites with the same organically templated, [H2pip][Zn3(HPO3)4(H2O)2] (1) and K[H2pip]0.5[Zn3(HPO3)4] (2) (pip = piperazine), have been solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by IR, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, powder and single-crystal X-ray diffractions. Compound 1 consists of ZnO4 tetrahedra, [HPO3] pseudopyramids and [ZnO4(H2O)2] octahedra, which are linked through their vertexes to generate three-dimensional architecture with intersecting 8-membered channels along the [1 0 0], [0 0 1] and [1 0 1] directions. Compound 2 is constructed from strictly alternating ZnO4 tetrahedra and [HPO3] pseudopyramids, and exhibits (3,4)-connected inorganic framework with 8-, and 12-membered channels, in which the K+ and diprotonated H2pip2+ extra-framework cations reside, respectively. The coexistence of inorganic K+ and organic piperazine mixed templates in the structure is unique and, to the best of our knowledge, firstly observed in metal-phosphite materials. In addition, the participation of left-handed and right-handed helical chains in construction of the puckered 4.82 sheet structure in 2 is also noteworthy.

  16. Recovery of zinc and cadmium from spent batteries using Cyphos IL 102 via solvent extraction route and synthesis of Zn and Cd oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rashmi; Mahandra, Harshit; Gupta, Bina

    2017-09-01

    The overall aim of this study is to separate and recover zinc and cadmium from spent batteries. For this purpose Cyphos IL 102 diluted in toluene was employed for the extraction and recovery of Zn and Cd from Zn-C and Ni-Cd batteries leach liquor. The influence of extractant concentration for the leach liquors of Zn-C (0.01-0.05mol/L) and Ni-Cd (0.04-0.20mol/L) batteries has been investigated. Composition of the leach liquor obtained from Zn-C/Ni-Cd spent batteries is Zn - 2.18g/L, Mn - 4.59g/L, Fe - 4.0×10 -3 g/L, Ni - 0.2×10 -3 g/L/Cd - 4.28g/L, Ni - 0.896×10 -1 g/L, Fe - 0.148g/L, Co - 3.77×10 -3 g/L, respectively. Two stage counter current extraction at A/O 1:1 and 3:2 with 0.04mol/L and 0.2mol/L Cyphos IL 102 for Zn and Cd, respectively provide more than 99.0% extraction of both the metal ions with almost negligible extraction of associated metal ions. A stripping efficiency of around 99.0% for Zn and Cd was obtained at O/A 1:1 using 1.0mol/L HNO 3 in two and three counter current stages, respectively. ZnO and CdO were also synthesized using the loaded organic phase and characterized using XRD, FE-SEM and EDX techniques. XRD peaks of ZnO and CdO correspond to zincite and monteponite, respectively. The average particle size was ∼27.0nm and ∼37.0nm for ZnO and CdO, respectively. The EDX analysis of ZnO and CdO shows almost 1:1 atomic percentage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Common and metal-specific proteomic responses to cadmium and zinc in the metal tolerant ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius Zn.

    PubMed

    Chiapello, M; Martino, E; Perotto, S

    2015-05-01

    Although adaptive metal tolerance may arise in fungal populations in polluted soils, the mechanisms underlying metal-specific tolerance are poorly understood. Comparative proteomics is a powerful tool to identify variation in protein profiles caused by changing environmental conditions, and was used to investigate protein accumulation in a metal tolerant isolate of the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius exposed to zinc and cadmium. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and shotgun proteomics followed by mass spectrometry lead to the identification of common and metal-specific proteins and pathways. Proteins selectively induced by cadmium exposure were molecular chaperons of the Hsp90 family, cytoskeletal proteins and components of the translation machinery. Zinc significantly up-regulated metabolic pathways related to energy production and carbohydrates metabolism, likely mirroring zinc adaptation of this fungal isolate. Common proteins induced by the two metal ions were the antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and ubiquitin. In mycelia exposed to zinc and cadmium, both proteomic techniques also identified agmatinase, an enzyme involved in polyamine biosynthesis. This novel finding suggests that, like plants, polyamines may have important functions in response to abiotic environmental stress in fungi. Genetic evidence also suggests that the biosynthesis of polyamines via an alternative metabolic pathway may be widespread in fungi.

  18. Assessing Lead, Nickel, and Zinc Pollution in Topsoil from a Historic Shooting Range Rehabilitated into a Public Urban Park.

    PubMed

    Urrutia-Goyes, Ricardo; Argyraki, Ariadne; Ornelas-Soto, Nancy

    2017-06-30

    Soil contamination is a persistent problem in the world. The redevelopment of a site with a historical deposition of metals might conceal the threat of remaining pollution, especially when the site has become a public place. In this study, human health risk assessment is performed after defining the concentrations of Pb, Ni, and Zn in the topsoil of a former shooting range rehabilitated into a public park in the Municipality of Kesariani (Athens, Greece). A methodology that uses inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, 13 samples), another that uses portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) following a dense sample design (91 samples), and a hybrid approach that combines both, were used to obtain the concentrations of the trace elements. The enrichment factor and geoacummulation index were calculated to define the degree of pollution of the site. The hazard quotient and cancer risk indicators were also computed to find the risk to which the population is exposed. The present study reveals high non-carcinogenic health risk due to Pb pollution with ingestion as the main exposure pathway. The carcinogenic risk for Pb is within tolerable limits, but the definition of land use might alter such a statement. Lastly, regarding Ni and Zn, the site is unpolluted and there is insignificant carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks.

  19. Refinement of atomic and magnetic structures using neutron diffraction for synthesized bulk and nano-nickel zinc gallate ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ata-Allah, S. S.; Balagurov, A. M.; Hashhash, A.; Bobrikov, I. A.; Hamdy, Sh.

    2016-01-01

    The parent NiFe2O4 and Zn/Ga substituted spinel ferrite powders have been prepared by solid state reaction technique. As a typical example, the Ni0.7Zn0.3Fe1.5Ga0.5O4 sample has been prepared by sol-gel auto combustion method with the nano-scale crystallites size. X-ray and Mössbauer studies were carried out for the prepared samples. Structure and microstructure properties were investigated using the time-of-flight HRFD instrument at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor, at a temperatures range 15-473 K. The Rietveld refinement of the neutron diffraction data revealed that all samples possess cubic symmetry corresponding to the space group Fd3m. Cations distribution show that Ni2+ is a complete inverse spinel ion, while Ga3+ equally distributed between the two A and B-sublattices. The level of microstrains in bulk samples was estimated as very small while the size of coherently scattered domains is quite large. For nano-structured sample the domain size is around 120 Å.

  20. Humidity effects on adhesion of nickel-zinc ferrite in elastic contact with magnetic tape and itself

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Kusaka, T.; Maeda, C.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of humidity on the adhesion of Ni-Zn ferrite and magnetic tape in elastic contact with a Ni-Zn ferrite hemispherical pin in moist nitrogen were studied. Adhesion was independent of normal load in dry, humid, and saturated nitrogen. Ferrites adhere to ferrites in a saturated atmosphere primarily from the surface tension effects of a thin film of water adsorbed on the ferrite surfaces. The surface tension of the water film calculated from the adhesion results was 48 times 0.00001 to 56 times 0.00001 N/cm; the accepted value for water is 72.7 x 0.00001 N/cm. The adhesion of ferrite-ferrite contacts increased gradually with increases in relative humidity to 80 percent, but rose rapidly above 80 percent. The adhesion at saturation was 30 times or more greater than that below 80 percent relative humidity. Although the adhesion of magnetic tape - ferrite contacts remained low below 40 percent relative humidity and the effect of humidity was small, the adhesion increased considerably with increasing relative humidity above 40 percent. The changes in adhesion of elastic contacts were reversible on humidifying and dehumidifying.

  1. Assessing Lead, Nickel, and Zinc Pollution in Topsoil from a Historic Shooting Range Rehabilitated into a Public Urban Park

    PubMed Central

    Argyraki, Ariadne; Ornelas-Soto, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Soil contamination is a persistent problem in the world. The redevelopment of a site with a historical deposition of metals might conceal the threat of remaining pollution, especially when the site has become a public place. In this study, human health risk assessment is performed after defining the concentrations of Pb, Ni, and Zn in the topsoil of a former shooting range rehabilitated into a public park in the Municipality of Kesariani (Athens, Greece). A methodology that uses inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, 13 samples), another that uses portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) following a dense sample design (91 samples), and a hybrid approach that combines both, were used to obtain the concentrations of the trace elements. The enrichment factor and geoacummulation index were calculated to define the degree of pollution of the site. The hazard quotient and cancer risk indicators were also computed to find the risk to which the population is exposed. The present study reveals high non-carcinogenic health risk due to Pb pollution with ingestion as the main exposure pathway. The carcinogenic risk for Pb is within tolerable limits, but the definition of land use might alter such a statement. Lastly, regarding Ni and Zn, the site is unpolluted and there is insignificant carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks. PMID:28665307

  2. Structural, morphological, optical and biological properties of pure ZnO and agar/zinc oxide nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Magesh, G; Bhoopathi, G; Nithya, N; Arun, A P; Ranjith Kumar, E

    2018-05-26

    In this work, ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by in situ chemical precipitation method in the presence of Agar biopolymer. The influence of Agar concentrations on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO have been investigated. The XRD pattern of Pure ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites indicates the hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO. The crystallite size of pure ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites was found to be in the range of 35.5 to 19.73 nm. Pure ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites showed nanospheroid and nanopaddy shaped morphology from FESEM studies. The interplanar distance observed from the HRTEM image confirms the plane of the prepared material. The elemental composition of the samples were characterized by EDX. The optical properties of Pure ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites were characterized by UV, FTIR and PL. The band gap of Agar/ZnO nanocomposites were varied with the Agar concentration. Oxygen vacancy induced photoluminescence of ZnO are observed and its intensity is found to be increased linearly with the Agar concentration. The antibacterial activity of ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites was evaluated by disc diffusion method against Gram-positive (B.subtilis) and Gram-negative (P. aeruginosa) bacteria. The cytotoxicity of Agar/ZnO nanocomposites was studied against Normal (L929) and Breast cancer cell line (MB231). The result of this investigation reveals that the Agar/ZnO nanocomposites deliver a dose dependent toxicity in normal and cancer cell line. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Insights into the Effects of Zinc Doping on Structural Phase Transition of P2-Type Sodium Nickel Manganese Oxide Cathodes for High-Energy Sodium Ion Batteries

    SciT

    Wu, Xuehang; Xu, Gui-Liang; Zhong, Guiming

    P2-type sodium nickel manganese oxide-based cathode materials with higher energy densities are prime candidates for applications in rechargeable sodium ion batteries. A systematic study combining in situ high energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), ex situ Xray absorption fine spectroscopy (XAFS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) techniques was carried out to gain a deep insight into the structural evolution of P2-Na 0.66Ni 0.33-xZn xMn 0.67O 2 (x = 0, 0.07) during cycling. In situ HEXRD and ex situ TEM measurements indicate that an irreversible phase transition occurs upon sodium insertion-extraction of Na 0.66Ni 0.33Mn 0.67O 2. Zincmore » doping of this system results in a high structural reversibility. XAFS measurements indicate that both materials are almost completely dependent on the Ni 4+/Ni 3+/ Ni 2+ redox couple to provide charge/discharge capacity. SS-NMR measurements indicate that both reversible and irreversible migration of transition metal ions into the sodium layer occurs in the material at the fully charged state. The irreversible migration of transition metal ions triggers a structural distortion, leading to the observed capacity and voltage fading. Our results allow a new understanding of the importance of improving the stability of transition metal layers.« less

  4. Synthesized zinc peroxide nanoparticles (ZnO2-NPs): a novel antimicrobial, anti-elastase, anti-keratinase, and anti-inflammatory approach toward polymicrobial burn wounds

    PubMed Central

    El-Zawawy, Nessma Ahmed; Fareed, Mervat F; Bedaiwy, Mohamed Yaser

    2017-01-01

    Increasing of multidrug resistance (MDR) remains an intractable challenge for burn patients. Innovative nanomaterials are also in high demand for the development of new antimicrobial biomaterials that inevitably have opened new therapeutic horizons in medical approaches and lead to many efforts for synthesizing new metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) for better control of the MDR associated with the polymicrobial burn wounds. Recently, it seems that metal oxides can truly be considered as highly efficient inorganic agents with antimicrobial properties. In this study, zinc peroxide NPs (ZnO2-NPs) were synthesized using the co-precipitation method. Synthesized ZnO2-NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The characterization techniques revealed synthesis of the pure phase of non-agglomerated ZnO2-NPs having sizes in the range of 15–25 nm with a transition temperature of 211°C. Antimicrobial activity of ZnO2-NPs was determined against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Aspergillus niger (AN) strains isolated from burn wound infections. Both strains, PA6 and AN4, were found to be more susceptible strains to ZnO2-NPs. In addition, a significant decrease in elastase and keratinase activities was recorded with increased concentrations of ZnO2-NPs until 200 µg/mL. ZnO2-NPs revealed a significant anti-inflammatory activity against PA6 and AN4 strains as demonstrated by membrane stabilization, albumin denaturation, and proteinase inhibition. Moreover, the results of in vivo histopathology assessment confirmed the potential role of ZnO2-NPs in the improvement of skin wound healing in the experimental animal models. Clearly, the synthesized ZnO2-NPs have demonstrated a competitive capability as antimicrobial, anti-elastase, anti-keratinase, and anti-inflammatory candidates, suggesting that the ZnO2-NPs are

  5. Synthesized zinc peroxide nanoparticles (ZnO2-NPs): a novel antimicrobial, anti-elastase, anti-keratinase, and anti-inflammatory approach toward polymicrobial burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sameh Samir; Morsy, Reda; El-Zawawy, Nessma Ahmed; Fareed, Mervat F; Bedaiwy, Mohamed Yaser

    2017-01-01

    Increasing of multidrug resistance (MDR) remains an intractable challenge for burn patients. Innovative nanomaterials are also in high demand for the development of new antimicrobial biomaterials that inevitably have opened new therapeutic horizons in medical approaches and lead to many efforts for synthesizing new metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) for better control of the MDR associated with the polymicrobial burn wounds. Recently, it seems that metal oxides can truly be considered as highly efficient inorganic agents with antimicrobial properties. In this study, zinc peroxide NPs (ZnO 2 -NPs) were synthesized using the co-precipitation method. Synthesized ZnO 2 -NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The characterization techniques revealed synthesis of the pure phase of non-agglomerated ZnO 2 -NPs having sizes in the range of 15-25 nm with a transition temperature of 211°C. Antimicrobial activity of ZnO 2 -NPs was determined against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Aspergillus niger (AN) strains isolated from burn wound infections. Both strains, PA6 and AN4, were found to be more susceptible strains to ZnO 2 -NPs. In addition, a significant decrease in elastase and keratinase activities was recorded with increased concentrations of ZnO 2 -NPs until 200 µg/mL. ZnO 2 -NPs revealed a significant anti-inflammatory activity against PA6 and AN4 strains as demonstrated by membrane stabilization, albumin denaturation, and proteinase inhibition. Moreover, the results of in vivo histopathology assessment confirmed the potential role of ZnO 2 -NPs in the improvement of skin wound healing in the experimental animal models. Clearly, the synthesized ZnO 2 -NPs have demonstrated a competitive capability as antimicrobial, anti-elastase, anti-keratinase, and anti-inflammatory candidates, suggesting that the

  6. Simulation of the effect of photoprotective titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on the thermal response and optical characteristics of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnikov, I. V.; Seteikin, A. Yu.; Popov, A. P.

    2015-04-01

    The thermal response of skin covered with a mixture of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles of optimal sizes and irradiated by sunlight has been calculated. The nanoparticles were rubbed into the skin for maximum protection against the incident radiation. The dependences of the temperature dynamics in different skin layers (corneal layer, epidermis, dermis) have been obtained and analyzed upon skin irradiation with light at a wavelength of 310-800 nm. It has been found that increasing light scattering and absorption due to the nanoparticles introduced into the corneal layer resulted in a decrease in the thermal load and penetration depth of the incident radiation.

  7. Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles by pyrolysis of alkaline and Zn-C battery waste.

    PubMed

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles from alkaline and zinc-carbon battery black mass was studied by a pyrolysis process at 850-950°C with various residence times under 1L/minN2(g) flow rate conditions without using any additive. The particular and chemical properties of the battery waste were characterized to investigate the possible reactions and effects on the properties of the reaction products. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process were studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. The carbothermic reduction reaction of battery black mass takes place and makes it possible to produce fine zinc particles by a rapid condensation, after the evaporation of zinc from a pyrolysis batch. The amount of zinc that can be separated from the black mass is increased by both pyrolysis temperature and residence time. Zinc recovery of 97% was achieved at 950°C and 1h residence time using the proposed alkaline battery recycling process. The pyrolysis residue is mainly MnO powder with a low amount of zinc, iron and potassium impurities and has an average particle size of 2.9μm. The obtained zinc particles have an average particle size of about 860nm and consist of hexagonal crystals around 110nm in size. The morphology of the zinc particles changes from a hexagonal shape to s spherical morphology by elevating the pyrolysis temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Formation of ZnO at zinc oxidation by near- and supercritical water under the constant electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkin, A. V.; Sokol, M. Ya.; Shatrova, A. V.; Fedyaeva, O. N.; Vostrikov, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The work has detected an influence of a constant electric field (up to E = 300 kV/m) on the structure of a nanocrystalline layer of zinc oxide, formed on the surface of a planar zinc anode in water under supercritical (673 K and 23 MPa) and near-critical (673 K and 17. 5 MPa) conditions. The effect of an increase of zinc oxidation rate with an increase in E is observed under supercritical conditions and is absent at near-critical ones. Increase in the field strength leads to the formation of a looser structure in the inner part of the zinc oxide layer.

  9. Accelerated effects of nano-ZnO on phosphorus removal by Chlorella vulgaris: Formation of zinc phosphate crystallites.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Huaixian; Liu, Na; Tian, Ke; Liu, Shixiang; Ge, Fei

    2018-09-01

    Nanoparticles have been reported to induce toxicity to aquatic organisms, however, their potential impacts on phosphorus removal from wastewater by algae are unclear. In this study, the effects of nanoparticle ZnO (nano-ZnO) on phosphate (PO 4 3- ) removal by a green alga Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. We found that PO 4 3- removal efficiency was accelerated with high concentrations of nano-ZnO (0.04-0.15mM) but reduced with low concentrations of nano-ZnO (0.005-0.04mM) compared to the control (without nano-ZnO), suggesting that PO 4 3- removal efficiency by C. vulgaris was related to nano-ZnO concentrations. Moreover, we observed changes of nano-ZnO morphology and detected element P on the surface of nano-ZnO by using transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), indicating that PO 4 3- was interacted with nano-ZnO or the dissolved Zn 2+ from nano-ZnO. Furthermore, we confirmed this interaction induced the formation of Zn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 crystallites sedimentation by employing X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which finally accelerates the removal of PO 4 3- . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic HypA zinc site is essential for acid viability and proper urease maturation in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ryan C; Hu, Heidi Q; Merrell, D Scott; Maroney, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori requires urease activity in order to survive in the acid environment of the human stomach. Urease is regulated in part by nickelation, a process that requires the HypA protein, which is a putative nickel metallochaperone that is generally associated with hydrogenase maturation. However, in H. pylori, HypA plays a dual role. In addition to an N-terminal nickel binding site, HypA proteins also contain a structural zinc site that is coordinated by two rigorously conserved CXXC sequences, which in H. pylori are flanked by His residues. These structural Zn sites are known to be dynamic, converting from Zn(Cys)4 centers at pH 7.2 to Zn(Cys)2(His)2 centers at pH 6.3 in the presence of Ni(ii) ions. In this study, mutant strains of H. pylori that express zinc site variants of the HypA protein are used to show that the structural changes in the zinc site are important for the acid viability of the bacterium, and that a reduction in acid viability in these variants can be traced in large measure to deficient urease activity. This in turn leads to a model that connects the Zn(Cys)4 coordination to urease maturation.

  11. Phenoxo bridged dinuclear Zn(II) Schiff base complex as new precursor for preparation zinc oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structures and photoluminescence studies

    SciT

    Saeednia, S., E-mail: sami_saeednia@yahoo.com; Iranmanesh, P.; Ardakani, M. Hatefi

    Highlights: • A novel nano-scale Zn(II) complex was synthesized by solvothermal method. • Chemical structure of the nanostructures was characterized as well as bulk complex. • The photoluminescence property of the complex was investigated at room temperature. • The thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were carried out. • Thermal decomposition of the nanostructures was prepared zinc oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Nanoparticles of a novel Zn(II) Schiff base complex, [Zn(HL)NO{sub 3}]{sub 2} (1), (H{sub 2}L = 2-[(2-hydroxy-propylimino) methyl] phenol), was synthesized by using solvothermal method. Shape, morphology and chemical structure of the synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),more » X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectoscopy (FT-IR) and UV–vis spectroscopy. Structural determination of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The results were revealed that the zinc complex is a centrosymmetric dimer in which deprotonated phenolates bridge the two five-coordinate metal atoms and link the two halves of the dimer. The thermal stability of compound 1 was analyzed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effect of the initial substrates concentration and reaction time on size and morphology of compound 1 nanostructure was investigated as well. Furthermore, the luminescent properties of the complex 1 were examined. ZnO nanoparticles with diameter between 15 and 20 nm were simply synthesized by solid-state transformation of compound 1 at 700 °C.« less

  12. Phototodynamic activity of zinc monocarboxyphenoxy phthalocyane (ZnMCPPc) conjugated to gold silver (AuAg) nanoparticles in melanoma cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoto, Sello L.; Oluwole, David O.; Malabi, Rudzani; Maphanga, Charles; Ombinda-Lemboumba, Saturnin; Nyokong, Tebello; Mthunzi-Kufa, Patience

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive therapeutic modality for the treatment of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. In PDT of cancer, irradiation with light of a specific wavelength leads to activation of a photosensitizer which results in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which induces cell death. Many phthalocyanine photosensitizers are hydrophobic and insoluble in water, which limits their therapeutic efficiency. Consequently, advanced delivery systems and strategies are needed to improve the effectiveness of these photosensitizers. Nanoparticles have shown promising results in increasing aqueous solubility, bioavailability, stability and delivery of photosensitizers to their target. This study investigated the photodynamic activity of zinc monocarboxyphenoxy phthalocyanine (ZnMCPPc) conjugated to gold silver (AuAg) nanoparticles in melanoma cancer cells. The photodynamic activity of ZnMCPPc conjugated to AuAg nanoparticles were evaluated using cellular morphology, viability, proliferation and cytotoxicity. Untreated cells showed no changes in cellular morphology, proliferation and cytotoxicity. However, photoactivated ZnMCPPc conjugated to AuAg nanoparticles showed changes in cell morphology and a dose dependent decrease in cellular viability, proliferation and an increase in cell membrane damage. The ZnMCPPc conjugated to AuAg nanoparticles used in this study was highly effective in inducing cell death of melanoma cancer cells.

  13. Study on the photoresponse of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O and zinc oxynitride semiconductor devices by the extraction of sub-gap-state distribution and device simulation.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jun Tae; Park, Jozeph; Ahn, Byung Du; Kim, Dong Myong; Choi, Sung-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Dae Hwan

    2015-07-22

    Persistent photoconduction (PPC) is a phenomenon that limits the application of oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) in optical sensor-embedded displays. In the present work, a study on zinc oxynitride (ZnON) semiconductor TFTs based on the combination of experimental results and device simulation is presented. Devices incorporating ZnON semiconductors exhibit negligible PPC effects compared with amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) TFTs, and the difference between the two types of materials are examined by monochromatic photonic C-V spectroscopy (MPCVS). The latter method allows the estimation of the density of subgap states in the semiconductor, which may account for the different behavior of ZnON and IGZO materials with respect to illumination and the associated PPC. In the case of a-IGZO TFTs, the oxygen flow rate during the sputter deposition of a-IGZO is found to influence the amount of PPC. Small oxygen flow rates result in pronounced PPC, and large densities of valence band tail (VBT) states are observed in the corresponding devices. This implies a dependence of PPC on the amount of oxygen vacancies (VO). On the other hand, ZnON has a smaller bandgap than a-IGZO and contains a smaller density of VBT states over the entire range of its bandgap energy. Here, the concept of activation energy window (AEW) is introduced to explain the occurrence of PPC effects by photoinduced electron doping, which is likely to be associated with the formation of peroxides in the semiconductor. The analytical methodology presented in this report accounts well for the reduction of PPC in ZnON TFTs, and provides a quantitative tool for the systematic development of phototransistors for optical sensor-embedded interactive displays.

  14. Anthelmintic Effect of Biocompatible Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on Gigantocotyle explanatum, a Neglected Parasite of Indian Water Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Yasir Akhtar; Singh, Braj Raj; Ullah, Rizwan; Shoeb, Mohd; Naqvi, Alim H.; Abidi, Syed M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Helminth parasites of veterinary importance cause huge revenue losses to agrarian economy worldwide. With the emergence of drug resistance against the current formulations, there is a need to focus on the alternative approaches in order to control this menace. In the present study, biocompatible zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were used to see their in vitro effect on the biliary amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum, infecting Bubalus bubalis because these nanoparticles are involved in generation of free radicals that induce oxidative stress, resulting in disruption of cellular machinery. The ZnO NPs were synthesized by using egg albumin as a biotemplate and subsequently characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction and Spectrophotometrical, which showed that ZnO NPs were highly purified wurtzite type polycrystals, with a mean size of 16.7 nm. When the parasites were treated with lower concentrations (0.004% and 0.008%) of the ZnO NPs, the worms mounted a protective response by stimulating the antioxidant system but the treatment of G. explanatum with 0.012% ZnO NPs produced significant inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p< 0.05) and glutathione S- transferase (GST) (p<0.01), while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, was significantly (p< 0.01) elevated. SEM and histopathology revealed pronounced tegumental damage showing the disruption of surface papillae and the annulations, particularly in the posterior region near acetabulum. The under expression of a number of polypeptides, loss of worm motility in a time dependent manner, further reflect strong anthelmintic potential of ZnO NPs. It can be concluded that the anthelmintic effect might be due to the production of reactive oxygen species that target a variety of macromolecules such as nucleic acid, protein and lipids which are involved in different cellular processes. PMID:26177503

  15. Anthelmintic Effect of Biocompatible Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on Gigantocotyle explanatum, a Neglected Parasite of Indian Water Buffalo.

    PubMed

    Khan, Yasir Akhtar; Singh, Braj Raj; Ullah, Rizwan; Shoeb, Mohd; Naqvi, Alim H; Abidi, Syed M A

    2015-01-01

    Helminth parasites of veterinary importance cause huge revenue losses to agrarian economy worldwide. With the emergence of drug resistance against the current formulations, there is a need to focus on the alternative approaches in order to control this menace. In the present study, biocompatible zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were used to see their in vitro effect on the biliary amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum, infecting Bubalus bubalis because these nanoparticles are involved in generation of free radicals that induce oxidative stress, resulting in disruption of cellular machinery. The ZnO NPs were synthesized by using egg albumin as a biotemplate and subsequently characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction and Spectrophotometrical, which showed that ZnO NPs were highly purified wurtzite type polycrystals, with a mean size of 16.7 nm. When the parasites were treated with lower concentrations (0.004% and 0.008%) of the ZnO NPs, the worms mounted a protective response by stimulating the antioxidant system but the treatment of G. explanatum with 0.012% ZnO NPs produced significant inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p< 0.05) and glutathione S- transferase (GST) (p<0.01), while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, was significantly (p< 0.01) elevated. SEM and histopathology revealed pronounced tegumental damage showing the disruption of surface papillae and the annulations, particularly in the posterior region near acetabulum. The under expression of a number of polypeptides, loss of worm motility in a time dependent manner, further reflect strong anthelmintic potential of ZnO NPs. It can be concluded that the anthelmintic effect might be due to the production of reactive oxygen species that target a variety of macromolecules such as nucleic acid, protein and lipids which are involved in different cellular processes.

  16. K2 ZnSn3 Se8 : A Non-Centrosymmetric Zinc Selenidostannate(IV) Featuring Interesting Covalently Bonded [ZnSn3 Se8 ]2- Layer and Exhibiting Intriguing Second Harmonic Generation Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Molin; Jiang, Xingxing; Yang, Yi; Guo, Yangwu; Lin, Zheshuai; Yao, JJiyong; Wu, Yicheng

    2017-06-19

    Non-centrosymmetric zinc selenidostannate(IV) K 2 ZnSn 3 Se 8 was synthesized. It features interesting covalently bonded [ZnSn 3 Se 8 ] 2- layers with K + cations filling in the interlayer voids. The phonon spectrum was calculated to clarify its structural stability. Based on the X-ray diffraction data along with the Raman spectrum, the major bonding features of the title compound were identified. According to the UV/vis-NIR spectroscopy, K 2 ZnSn 3 Se 8 possesses a typical direct band gap of 2.10 eV, which is in good agreement with the band structure calculations. Moreover, our experimental measurements and detailed theoretical calculations reveal that K 2 ZnSn 3 Se 8 is a new phase-matchable nonlinear optical material with a powder second harmonic generation (SHG) signal about 0.6 times of that of AgGaS 2 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Coherent diffractive imaging of solid state reactions in zinc oxide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leake, Steven J.; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the doping of zinc oxide (ZnO) microcrystals with iron and nickel via in situ coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI) in vacuum. Evaporated thin metal films were deposited onto the ZnO microcrystals. A single crystal was selected and tracked through annealing cycles. A solid state reaction was observed in both iron and nickel experiments using CXDI. A combination of the shrink wrap and guided hybrid-input-output phasing methods were applied to retrieve the electron density. The resolution was 33 nm (half order) determined via the phase retrieval transfer function. The resulting images are nevertheless sensitive to sub-angstrom displacements. The exterior of the microcrystal was found to degrade dramatically. The annealing of ZnO microcrystals coated with metal thin films proved an unsuitable doping method. In addition the observed defect structure of one crystal was attributed to the presence of an array of defects and was found to change upon annealing.

  18. Study of structural and optical properties of ZnAlQ5 (zinc aluminum quinolate) organic phosphor for OLED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpure, I. M.; Painuly, Deepshikha; Rabanal, Maria Eugenia

    2016-05-01

    The various composition of ZnAlQ5 such as Zn1.5A10.5Q5, Zn1Al1Q5, Zn0.5Al1.5Q5 organic phosphors were prepared via simple cost effective co-precipitation method. The FTIR, SEM, photoluminescence analysis of the prepared phosphors were reported. ZnQ2 and AlQ3 were also prepared by similar method and their properties were compared with different composition of ZnAlQ5. The structural elucidation in the form of stretching frequencies of chemical bonds of the prepared phosphor was carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The stretching frequency analysis confirms the formation of prepared phosphor materials. The SEM analysis shows the surface morphological behavior of prepared phosphor materials. Greenish photoluminescence were observed at 505 to 510 nm for the different composition of ZnAlQ5,in which Zn1.5Al0.5Q5 shows maximum luminescence intensity at 505 nm. PL emission of ZnQ2 was observed at 515 nm, while for AlQ3 at 520 nm. The blue shift of 10 nm was observed in Zn1.5A10.5Q5 due to modification of energy level due to presence of Zn2+ and Al3+. The enhancement in PL intensity was observed in Zn1.5A10.5Q5 compared to the other composition due to transfer of energy between Zn2+ and quinolate complex. Optical properties of the prepared materials were evaluated for possible applications in organic light emitting devices (OLED).

  19. Direct selective growth of ZnO nanowire arrays from inkjet-printed zinc acetate precursor on a heated substrate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Inkjet printing of functional materials has drawn tremendous interest as an alternative to the conventional photolithography-based microelectronics fabrication process development. We introduce direct selective nanowire array growth by inkjet printing of Zn acetate precursor ink patterning and subsequent hydrothermal ZnO local growth without nozzle clogging problem which frequently happens in nanoparticle inkjet printing. The proposed process can directly grow ZnO nanowires in any arbitrary patterned shape, and it is basically very fast, low cost, environmentally benign, and low temperature. Therefore, Zn acetate precursor inkjet printing-based direct nanowire local growth is expected to give extremely high flexibility in nanomaterial patterning for high-performance electronics fabrication especially at the development stage. As a proof of concept of the proposed method, ZnO nanowire network-based field effect transistors and ultraviolet photo-detectors were demonstrated by direct patterned grown ZnO nanowires as active layer. PMID:24252130

  20. Tissue distribution of zinc and subtle oxidative stress effects after dietary administration of ZnO nanoparticles to rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Mona; Fernández, Marta; Conde, Estefanía; Torrent, Fernando; Navas, José M; Fernández-Cruz, María L

    2016-05-01

    The increasing use of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in different fields has raised concerns about the possible environmental risks associated with these NPs entering aquatic systems. In this study, using a dietary exposure route, we have analysed the tissue distribution and depuration pattern of Zn as well as any associated redox balance disturbances in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following exposure to ZnO NPs (20-30nm). Fish were fed a diet spiked with ZnO NPs prepared from a dispersion in sunflower oil at doses of 300 or 1000mg ZnO NPs/kg feed for 10days. This uptake phase was followed by a 28days depuration phase in which fish from all groups received untreated feed. While no overt signs of toxicity were observed and no important effects in fish growth (weight and length) or in the hepatosomatic index among groups were recorded, we observed high levels of Zn bioaccumulation in the gills and intestine of exposed fish following exposure to both dose levels. Zn levels were not eliminated during the depuration phase and we have evidenced oxidative stress responses in gills associated with such long term ZnO NPs bioaccumulation and lack of elimination. Furthermore, exposures to higher doses of ZnO NPs (1000mg/kg feed) resulted in Zn distribution to the liver of fish following 10days of exposure. Fish from this exposure group experienced biochemical disturbances associated with oxidative stress in the liver and ethoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity which may point to the ability of ZnO NPs or its ions to interfere with cytochrome P450 metabolic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Zinc and its transporters, pancreatic beta cells, and insulin metabolism

    Zinc is an essential trace metal for life. Two families of zinc transporters, SLC30A (ZnT) and SLC39A (ZIP) are required for maintaining cellular zinc homeostasis. ZnTs function to decrease cytoplasmic zinc concentrations whereas ZIPs do the opposite. Expression of zinc transporters can be tissue/ce...

  2. Electrically conductive nanostructured silver doped zinc oxide (Ag:ZnO) prepared by solution-immersion technique

    SciT

    Afaah, A. N., E-mail: afaahabdullah@yahoo.com; Asib, N. A. M., E-mail: amierahasib@yahoo.com; Aadila, A., E-mail: aadilaazizali@gmail.com

    2016-07-06

    p-type ZnO films have been fabricated on ZnO-seeded glass substrate, using AgNO{sub 3} as a source of silver dopant by facile solution-immersion. Cleaned glass substrate were seeded with ZnO by mist-atomisation, and next the seeded substrates were immersed in Ag:ZnO solution. The effects of Ag doping concentration on the Ag-doped ZnO have been investigated. The substrates were immersed in different concentrations of Ag dopant with variation of 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 at. %. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). In order to investigate the electrical properties, the films weremore » characterized by Current-Voltage (I-V) measurement. FESEM micrographs showed uniform distribution of nanostructured ZnO and Ag:ZnO. Besides, the electrical properties of Ag-doped ZnO were also dependent on the doping concentration. The I-V measurement result indicated the electrical properties of 1 at. % Ag:ZnO thin film owned highest electrical conductivity.« less

  3. Nucleation effect and growth mechanism of ZnO nanostructures by electrodeposition from aqueous zinc nitrate baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Sujuan; Jiao, Shujie; Zhang, Kejun; Wang, Dongbo; Gao, Shiyong; Li, Hongtao; Wang, Jinzhong; Yu, Qingjiang; Guo, Fengyun; Zhao, Liancheng

    2012-11-01

    We presented a systematic study of the nucleation effect and growth mechanism of ZnO nanostructures from electrolyte mixed with different concentration of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O and KCl by cathodic electrochemical deposition. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal that the concentration of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O is important to control the dimension and nucleation rate, which 1D ZnO nanostructures with smaller diameters and rougher facets are formed at lower Zn(NO3)2 precursor concentration(1 mM) and dense and well-defined nanorods are achieved above 5 mM. We also found other major effects of KCl besides as a supporting electrolyte. A high [Cl-] not only makes the transition of morphology from 1D to 2D, but also has important influence on the nucleation in the initial stage in electrodeposition. Very sparse ZnO nanoclusters composed of two dimensional nanosheets evolve from dense ZnO nanotowers when the KCl supporting electrolyte concentration is added to 2 M. Thus, altering the content of Zn(NO3)2 precursor and KCl is a effective method to obtain ZnO nanostructures with different morphology for more applications.

  4. The new barium zinc mercurides Ba3ZnHg10 and BaZn0.6Hg3.4 - Synthesis, crystal and electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Michael; Wendorff, Marco; Röhr, Caroline

    2012-12-01

    The title compounds Ba3ZnHg10 and BaZn0.6Hg3.4 were synthesized from stoichiometric ratios of the elements in Ta crucibles. Their crystal structures, which both represent new structure types, have been determined using single crystal X-ray data. The structure of Ba3ZnHg10 (orthorhombic, oP28, space group Pmmn, a=701.2(3), b=1706.9(8), c=627.3(3)pm, Z=2, R1=0.0657) contains folded 44 Hg nets, where the meshes form the bases of flat rectangular pyramids resembling the structure of BaAl4. The flat pyramids are connected via Hg-Zn/Hg bonds, leaving large channels at the folds, in which Ba(1) and Hg(2) atoms alternate. Whereas the remaining Hg/Zn atoms form a covalent 3D network of three- to five-bonded atoms with short M-M distances (273-301 pm; CN 9-11), the Hg(2) atoms in the channels adopt a comparatively large coordination number of 12 and increased distances (317-348 pm) to their Zn/Hg neighbours. In the structure of BaZn0.6Hg3.4 (cubic, cI320, space group I4bar3d, a=2025.50(7) pm, Z=64, R1=0.0440), with a chemical composition not much different from that of Ba3ZnHg10, the Zn/Hg atoms of the mixed positions M(1/2) are arranged in an slightly distorted primitive cubic lattice with a 4×4×4 subcell relation to the unit cell. The 24 of the originating 64 cubes contain planar cis tetramers Hg(5,6)4 with Hg in a nearly trigonal planar or tetrahedral coordination. In another 24 of the small cubes, two opposing faces are decorated by Hg(3,4)2 dumbbells, two by Ba(2) atoms respectively. The third type of small cubes are centered by Ba(1) atoms only. The complex 3D polyanionic Hg/Zn network thus formed is compared with the Hg partial structure in Rb3Hg20 applying a group-subgroup relation. Despite their different overall structures, the connectivity of the negatively charged Hg atoms, the rather metallic Zn bonding characteristic (as obtained from FP-LAPW band structure calculations) and the coordination number of 16 for all Ba cations relate the two title compounds.

  5. Complexation-Based Detection of Nickel(II) at a Graphene-Chelate Probe in the Presence of Cobalt and Zinc by Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Pokpas, Keagan; Jahed, Nazeem; Baker, Priscilla G.

    2017-01-01

    The adsorptive stripping voltammetric detection of nickel and cobalt in water samples at metal film electrodes has been extensively studied. In this work, a novel, environmentally friendly, metal-free electrochemical probe was constructed for the ultra-trace determination of Ni2+ in water samples by Adsorptive Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (AdCSV). The electrochemical platform is based on the adsorptive accumulation of Ni2+ ions directly onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) as chelating agent and a Nafion-graphene (NGr) nanocomposite to enhance electrode sensitivity. The nafion-graphene dimethylglyoxime modified glassy carbon electrode (NGr-DMG-GCE) shows superior detection capabilities as a result of the improved surface-area-to-volume ratio and enhanced electron transfer kinetics following the incorporation of single layer graphene, while limiting the toxic effects of the sensor by removal of the more common mercury, bismuth and lead films. Furthermore, for the first time the NGr-DMG-GCE, in the presence of common interfering metal ions of Co2+ and Zn2+ demonstrates good selectivity and preferential binding towards the detection of Ni2+ in water samples. Structural and morphological characterisation of the synthesised single layer graphene sheets was conducted by Raman spectrometry, HRTEM and HRSEM analysis. The instrumental parameters associated with the electrochemical response, including accumulation potential and accumulation time were investigated and optimised in addition to the influence of DMG and graphene concentrations. The NGr-DMG-GCE demonstrated well resolved, reproducible peaks, with RSD (%) below 5% and a detection limit of 1.5 µg L−1 for Ni2+ reduction at an accumulation time of 120 s. The prepared electrochemical sensor exhibited good detection and quantitation towards Ni2+ detection in tap water samples, well below 0.1 mg L−1 set by the WHO and EPA standards. This is comparable to the South African

  6. Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) Fabricated with Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanpowders and Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Suman

    2018-03-01

    Due to their high efficiencies, along with lower production costs, many researchers are working on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) over last few decades as a substitute technology for nonconventional energy. Nanostructured ZnO has got many interesting properties such as wide band gap, large exciton binding energy, good exciton stability, and high breakdown strength, which are applicable as DSSC electrodes. This present work compares the device properties of DSSC fabricated using ZnO nanorods on a ZnO film and ZnO nanopowders. Different types of ZnO photoanode and dye combinations are used to study the stability and photovoltaic properties of the DSSC cell. The photovoltaic properties of the ZnO-based DSSC samples were systematically investigated. The photovoltaic properties of fabricated cell obtained are discussed in the light of band structure and density of states of different types of ZnO nanolayers. The ZnO nanorods fabricated through the sol-gel route have more uniform thickness resulting in enhanced photovoltaic properties of the fabricated device.

  7. Thermo-optical characterization of cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide (CdSe/ZnS) quantum dots embedded in biocompatible materials.

    PubMed

    Pilla, Viviane; Alves, Leandro P; Iwazaki, Adalberto N; Andrade, Acácio A; Antunes, Andrea; Munin, Egberto

    2013-09-01

    Cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide (CdSe/ZnS) core-shell quantum dots (QDs) embedded in biocompatible materials were thermally and optically characterized with a thermal lens (TL) technique. Transient TL measurements were performed with a mode-mismatched, dual-beam (excitation and probe) configuration. A thermo-optical study of the CdSe/ZnS QDs was performed for different core diameters (3.5, 4.0, 5.2, and 6.6 nm) in aqueous solution and synthetic saliva, and three different core diameters (2.4, 2.9, and 4.1 nm) embedded in restorative dental resin (0.025% by mass). The thermal diffusivity results are characteristic of the biocompatible matrices. The radiative quantum efficiencies for aqueous solution and biofluid materials are dependent on the core size of the CdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs. The results obtained from the fluorescence spectral measurements for the biocompatible materials support the TL results.

  8. Highly efficient inverted organic light emitting diodes by inserting a zinc oxide/polyethyleneimine (ZnO:PEI) nano-composite interfacial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaçar, Rifat; Pıravadılı Mucur, Selin; Yıldız, Fikret; Dabak, Salih; Tekin, Emine

    2017-06-01

    The electrode/organic interface is one of the key factors in attaining superior device performance in organic electronics, and inserting a tailor-made layer can dramatically modify its properties. The use of nano-composite (NC) materials leads to many advantages by combining materials with the objective of obtaining a desirable combination of properties. In this context, zinc oxide/polyethyleneimine (ZnO:PEI) NC film was incorporated as an interfacial layer into inverted bottom-emission organic light emitting diodes (IBOLEDs) and fully optimized. For orange-red emissive MEH-PPV based IBOLEDs, a high power efficiency of 6.1 lm W-1 at a luminance of 1000 cd m-2 has been achieved. Notably, the external quantum efficiency (EQE) increased from 0.1 to 4.8% and the current efficiency (CE) increased from 0.2 to 8.7 cd A-1 with rise in luminance (L) from 1000 to above 10 000 cd m-2 levels when compared to that of pristine ZnO-based devices. An identical device architecture containing a ZnO:PEI NC layer has also been used to successfully fabricate green and blue emissive IBOLEDs. The significant enhancement in the inverted device performance, in terms of luminance and efficiency, is attributed to a good energy-level alignment between the cathode/organic interface which leads to effective carrier balance, resulting in efficient radiative-recombination.

  9. Effect of different processes and Ti/Zn molar ratios on the structure, morphology, and enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performance of Ti3+ self-doped titanium-zinc hybrid oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Rongrong; Wang, Qingyao; Gao, Shanmin; Wang, Zeyan; Huang, Baibiao; Dai, Ying; Lu, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Ti3+ self-doped titanium-zinc hybrid oxides with different phase compositions and morphologies were successfully synthesized using Zn powder as the reductant and Zn source by a chemical-reduction precipitation method with subsequent thermal treatment. The fabricated Ti3+ self-doped TiO2(A)/TiO2(R), TiO2(A)/TiO2(R)/ZnTiO3, and TiO2(A)/ZnO heterojunctions were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The effects of various Ti/Zn molar ratios and preparation processes on the structural, morphological, optical, photocurrent and photocatalytic properties of the resultant samples were investigated systematically. Results reveal that Ti3+ self-doping enhances the photoabsorption capability of titanium-zinc hybrid oxides in the visible-light region. Moreover, different processes and Ti/Zn molar ratios play great influences on the structure, morphology, optical, photocurrent and photocatalytic properties of the final products. Ti3+ self-doped titanium-zinc hybrid oxides exhibit excellent photocurrent and photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 and ZnTiO3 under visible-light irradiation (λ ≥ 400 nm). The most active Ti3+ self-doped titanium-zinc hybrid oxides photoanode presents significantly improved water splitting performance. The synergistic effect between the Ti3+ self-doped and heterojunctions is responsible for the enhanced performance of these materials.

  10. Effect of different processes and Ti/Zn molar ratios on the structure, morphology, and enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performance of Ti3+ self-doped titanium–zinc hybrid oxides

    SciT

    Fu, Rongrong; Wang, Qingyao; Gao, shanmin

    2015-07-01

    Ti3+ self-doped titanium–zinc hybrid oxides with different phase compositions and morphologies were successfully synthesized using Zn powder as the reductant and Zn source by a chemical-reduction precipitation method with subsequent thermal treatment. The fabricated Ti3+ self-doped TiO2(A)/TiO2(R), TiO2(A)/TiO2(R)/ZnTiO3, and TiO2(A)/ZnO heterojunctions were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The effects of various Ti/Zn molar ratios and preparation processes on the structural, morphological, optical, photocurrent and photocatalytic properties of the resultant samples were investigated systematically. Results reveal that Ti3+ self-doping enhances the photoabsorption capability of titanium–zinc hybrid oxidesmore » in the visible-light region. Moreover, different processes and Ti/Zn molar ratios play great influences on the structure, morphology, optical, photocurrent and photocatalytic properties of the final products. Ti3+ self-doped titanium–zinc hybrid oxides exhibit excellent photocurrent and photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 and ZnTiO3 under visible-light irradiation (λ ≥ 400 nm). The most active Ti3+ self-doped titanium–zinc hybrid oxides photoanode presents significantly improved water splitting performance. The synergistic effect between the Ti3+ self-doped and heterojunctions is responsible for the enhanced performance of these materials.« less

  11. Salt Spray Test to Determine Galvanic Corrosion Levels of Electroless Nickel Connectors Mounted on an Aluminum Bracket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolin, T. D.; Hodge, R. E.; Torres, P. D.; Jones, D. D.; Laird, K. R.

    2014-01-01

    During preliminary vehicle design reviews, requests were made to change flight termination systems from an electroless nickel (EN) connector coating to a zinc-nickel (ZN) plating. The reason for these changes was due to a new NASA-STD-6012 corrosion requirement where connectors must meet the performance requirement of 168 hr of exposure to salt spray. The specification for class F connectors, MIL-DTL-38999, certifies the EN coating will meet a 48-hr salt spray test, whereas the ZN is certified to meet a 168-hr salt spray test. The ZN finish is a concern because Marshall Space Flight Center has no flight experience with ZN-finished connectors, and MSFC-STD-3012 indicates that zinc and zinc alloys should not be used. The purpose of this test was to run a 168-hr salt spray test to verify the electrical and mechanical integrity of the EN connectors and officially document the results. The salt spray test was conducted per ASTM B117 on several MIL-DTL-38999 flight-like connectors mounted to an aluminum 6061-T6 bracket that was alodined. The configuration, mounting techniques, electrical checks, and materials used were typical of flight and ground support equipment.

  12. Transfert de nickel, de cuivre et de zinc lors de la manipulation de pièces de monnaie : le cas du dirham marocain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Paul-Guy; Nourtier, Alain; Monkade, Mohammed; Berrada, Khalid; Boughaleb, Hichame; Outzourhit, Abdelkader; Pichon, Rémy; Haut, Christian; Govers, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    When the euro was introduced, the fact that some coins contain nickel, which is known to be an allergen, gave rise to controversy. More generally, this raises the question of metal transfer from coins to skin. Morocco has used for decades one-dirham coins made of pure or alloyed nickel. Studying their wear, the labile metal on their surface and the transfer to fingers in handling may therefore be especially instructive. Weighing statistics for a sample of 401 coins confirm that cupronickel coins wear out more quickly than pure nickel coins and reveal that the dirham suffers a much stronger wear than other currencies for which wear statistics are available. SEM studies supplemented by ICP quantitative analyses show that the labile metal is mainly made up of chips, even after many handlings. These chips are often cupronickel, even on pure nickel coins, which shows that they are produced by the friction of coins against one another. Secondly, the surface of coins presents sweat residue with an important proportion of copper and a little nickel, which confirms that sweat dissolves surface copper. Depending on the alloy and date, coins have between 20 and 140 μg of labile copper and nickel, with a content of one quarter of nickel on cupronickel coins and about one half on pure nickel coins. The most worn cupronickel coins are the coins that present the largest amount of labile metal, and even labile nickel. In our experiments, the metal transfer to fingers when a cupronickel coin is handled for the first time represents between 4 and 9% of the labile metal and 0.05% of the annual wear. A simple and reliable test of nickel contamination consists in measuring the labile nickel. To cite this article: P.-G. Fournier et al., C. R. Physique 7 (2006).

  13. Synthesis and Properties of Homonuclear, Dimetallic Nickel(II), Copper(II) and Zinc(II) Complexes of p-Xylenediyl and 2-Butynediyl-Bridged Dicyclens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    urease which contains two nickel ions in the active site. Catalytic hydrolysis studies are in progress. 20 DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21...for hydrolytic metalloenzymes. In contrast, the enzyme urease has becti show’n tU coftifl two nickel(II) ions in the active site," but as yet the

  14. Effect on the grain size of single-mode microwave sintered NiCuZn ferrite and zinc titanate dielectric resonator ceramics.

    PubMed

    Sirugudu, Roopas Kiran; Vemuri, Rama Krishna Murthy; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Gopalakrishnan, Anisha; Budaraju, Srinivasa Murty

    2011-01-01

    Microwave sintering of materials significantly depends on dielectric, magnetic and conductive Losses. Samples with high dielectric and magnetic loss such as ferrites could be sintered easily. But low dielectric loss material such as dielectric resonators (paraelectrics) finds difficulty in generation of heat during microwave interaction. Microwave sintering of materials of these two classes helps in understanding the variation in dielectric and magnetic characteristics with respect to the change in grain size. High-energy ball milled Ni0.6Cu0.2Zn0.2Fe1.98O4-delta and ZnTiO3 are sintered in conventional and microwave methods and characterized for respective dielectric and magnetic characteristics. The grain size variation with higher copper content is also observed with conventional and microwave sintering. The grain size in microwave sintered Ni0.6Cu0.2Zn0.2Fe1.98O4-delta is found to be much small and uniform in comparison with conventional sintered sample. However, the grain size of microwave sintered sample is almost equal to that of conventional sintered sample of Ni0.3Cu0.5Zn0.2Fe1.98O4-delta. In contrast to these high dielectric and magnetic loss ferrites, the paraelectric materials are observed to sinter in presence of microwaves. Although microwave sintered zinc titanate sample showed finer and uniform grains with respect to conventional samples, the dielectric characteristics of microwave sintered sample are found to be less than that of conventional sample. Low dielectric constant is attributed to the low density. Smaller grain size is found to be responsible for low quality factor and the presence of small percentage of TiO2 is observed to achieve the temperature stable resonant frequency.

  15. Evidence of zinc superoxide formation in the gas phase: comparisons in behaviour between ligated Zn(I/II) and Cu(I/II) with regard to the attachment of O2 or H2O.

    PubMed

    Cox, Hazel; Norris, Caroline; Wu, Guohua; Guan, Jingang; Hessey, Stephen; Stace, Anthony J

    2011-11-14

    Singly and doubly charged atomic ions of zinc and copper have been complexed with pyridine and held in an ion trap. Complexes involving Zn(II) and Cu(I) (3d(10)) display a strong tendency to bind with H(2)O, whilst the Zn(I) (3d(10)4s(1)) complexes exhibit a strong preference for the attachment of O(2). DFT calculations show that this latter result can be interpreted as internal oxidation leading to the formation of superoxide complexes, [Zn(II)O(2)(-)](pyridine)(n), in the gas phase. The calculations also show that the oxidation of Zn(I) to form Zn(II)O(2)(-) is promoted by a mixing of the occupied 4s and vacant 4p orbitals on the metal cation, and that this process is facilitated by the presence of the pyridine ligands.

  16. Reactions of salts of hexakis(pyridine N-oxide)M(II) complexes (M = Co, Ni, Zn) and alkali halides used in infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmos, J.; van Veen, A.

    A number of salts of hexakis(pyridine N-oxide)zinc(II) complexes decompose in alkali halide pellets. Initially ion exchange occurs, often followed by the formation of Zn(pyno) 3X 2 (pyno = pyridine N-oxide; X = Br, Cl). The analogous cobalt and nickel compounds are nearly always stable. A mull between alkali halide plates gives greater amounts of the same product Washing this product with toluene gives Zn(pyno) 2X 2. Examples of i.r. and far i.r. spectra are given. Energetical and structural effects are discussed. Far i.r. spectra of M(pyno) 3X 2(M = Co, Zn) confirm the structure [M(pyno) 6][MX 4] for these compounds. New compounds are [Zn(pyno) 2(NO 3) 2], [Zn(pyno- d5) 2[NO 3) 2], [Zn(pyno- d5) 6](NO 3) 2 and [Zn(pyno) 6]I 2.

  17. Development of a lightweight nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, D. L.; Reid, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel electrodes made using lightweight plastic plaque are about half the weight of electrodes made from state of the art sintered nickel plaque. This weight reduction would result in a significant improvement in the energy density of batteries using nickel electrodes (nickel hydrogen, nickel cadmium and nickel zinc). These lightweight electrodes are suitably conductive and yield comparable capacities (as high as 0.25 AH/gm (0.048 AH/sq cm)) after formation. These lightweight electrodes also show excellent discharge performance at high rates.

  18. Variability in Chemical Vapor Deposited Zinc Sulfide: Assessment of Legacy and International CVD ZnS Materials

    SciT

    McCloy, John S.; Korenstein, Ralph

    2009-10-06

    Samples of CVD ZnS from the United States, Germany, Israel, and China were evaluated using transmission spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and biaxial flexure testing. Visible and near-infrared scattering, 6 μm absorption, and ultraviolet cut-on edge varied substantially in tested materials. Crystallographic hexagonality and texture was determined and correlated with optical scattering. Transmission cut-on (ultraviolet edge) blue-shifts with annealing and corresponds to visible color but not the 6 μm absorption. Photoluminescence results suggest that CVD ZnS exhibits a complex suite of electronic bandgap defects. All CVD ZnS tested with biaxial flexure exhibit similar fracture strength values and Weibull moduli. This surveymore » suggests that technical understanding of the structure and optical properties CVD ZnS is still in its infancy.« less

  19. Nondegenerate n-type doping phenomenon on molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) by zinc oxide (ZnO)

    SciT

    Kang, Dong-Ho; Hong, Seong-Taek; Oh, Aely

    Highlights: • We have demonstrated nondegenerate n-type doping phenomenon of MoS{sub 2} by ZnO. • ZnO doping improved the electrical parameters of MoS{sub 2} transistor (I{sub on}↑, μ{sub FE}↑, n↑). • The reduction of ZnO doping effect (ΔV{sub TH}: ∼75% ↓) was observed in air. • The highest photoresponsivity of ZnO-doped MoS{sub 2} photodetector was 3.18 × 10{sup 3} A/W. • The highest detectivity of ZnO-doped MoS{sub 2} photodetector was 5.94 × 10{sup 12} Jones. - Abstract: In this paper, we have demonstrated nondegenerate n-type doping phenomenon of MoS{sub 2} by ZnO. The ZnO doping effects were systematically investigated bymore » Raman spectroscopy and electrical/optical measurements (I{sub D}–V{sub G} with/without exposure to 520, 655, 785, and 850 nm laser sources). The ZnO doping improved the performance parameters of MoS{sub 2}-based electronics (I{sub on}↑, μ{sub FE}↑, n↑) owing to reduction of the effective barrier height between the source and the MoS{sub 2} channel. We also monitored the effects of ZnO doping during exposure to air; reduction in ΔV{sub TH} of about 75% was observed after 156 h. In addition, the optoelectronic performance of the MoS{sub 2} photodetector was enhanced due to the reduction of the recombination rate of photogenerated carriers caused by ZnO doping. In our results, the highest photoresponsivity (about 3.18 × 10{sup 3} A/W) and detectivity (5.94 × 10{sup 12} Jones) of the ZnO-doped photodetector were observed for 520 nm laser exposure.« less

  20. Assessments of serum copper and zinc concentration, and the Cu/Zn ratio determination in patients with multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Gnogbo Alexis; Boyvin, Lydie; Méité, Souleymane; M'Boh, Gervais Melaine; Yeo, Kadjowely; N'Guessan, Kouassi Raymond; Bidié, Alain Dit Philippe; Djaman, Allico Joseph

    2017-04-11

    In Côte d'Ivoire, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a serious public health problem with a prevalence estimated at 2.5% in 2006. Zinc and copper are essential Trace element needed to strengthen the immune system and also useful in the fight against tuberculosis. The Cu / Zn ratio is a good indicator of oxidative stress. The principal aim of this study was to evaluate the serum concentration of some trace element and determine the Cu / Zn ratio in patients with multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR-TB) before and after second line treatment of TB. Blood samples were obtained from 100 MDR-TB patients after confirmation of their status through the microscopic and molecular diagnosis of resistance to Isoniazid and Rifampicin by GeneXpert. The concentration level of zinc and copper were determined using flame air / acetylene atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) Type Varian Spectr AA-20 Victoria, Australlia. A significant decrease in zinc levels (P < 0.05) and an increased Cu / Zn ratio (P < 0.05) was observed in MDR-TB patients compared to controls TB free. During treatment a significant reduction in Cu / Zn ratio (P < 0.05) was observed compared to the initial result. The decrease in serum zinc level and the high Cu / Zn ratio could explain the immune system dysfunction and the high level of oxidative stress in patients with MDR-TB. Therefore the evaluation of the zinc and copper status could represent essential parameters in monitoring of TB second line treatment for better treatment management.

  1. Fractionation and leachability of heavy metals from aged and recent Zn metallurgical leach residues from the Três Marias zinc plant (Minas Gerais, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Sethurajan, Manivannan; Huguenot, David; Lens, Piet N L; Horn, Heinrich A; Figueiredo, Luiz H A; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2016-04-01

    Various mineral processing operations to produce pure metals from mineral ores generate sludges, residues, and other unwanted by-products/wastes. As a general practice, these wastes are either stored in a reservoir or disposed in the surrounding of mining/smelting areas, which might cause adverse environmental impacts. Therefore, it is important to understand the various characteristics like heavy metal leaching features and potential toxicity of these metallurgical wastes. In this study, zinc plant leach residues (ZLRs) were collected from a currently operating Zn metallurgical industry located in Minas Gerais (Brazil) and investigated for their potential toxicity, fractionation, and leachability. Three different ZLR samples (ZLR1, ZLR2, and ZLR3) were collected, based on their age of production and deposition. They mainly consisted of Fe (6-11.5 %), Zn (2.5 to 5.0 %), and Pb (1.5 to 2.5 %) and minor concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, and Mn, depending on the sample age. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results revealed that these wastes are hazardous for the environment. Accelerated Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction clearly showed that potentially toxic heavy metals such as Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn can be released into the environment in high quantities under mild acidic conditions. The results of the liquid-solid partitioning as a function of pH showed that pH plays an important role in the leachability of metals from these residues. At low pH (pH 2.5), high concentrations of metals can be leached: 67, 25, and 7 % of Zn can be leached from leach residues ZLR1, ZLR2, and ZLR3, respectively. The release of metals decreased with increasing pH. Geochemical modeling of the pH-dependent leaching was also performed to determine which geochemical process controls the leachability/solubility of the heavy metals. This study showed that the studied ZLRs contain significant concentrations of non-residual extractable fractions of Zn and can

  2. Nickel removal by biosorption onto medlar male flowers coupled with photocatalysis on the spinel ZnMn2O4

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ni2+ is a highly toxic above 0.07 mg/L and its removal is of high significance. The biosorption of Ni2+ onto medlar male flowers (MMF) was studied in relation with the physical parameters like pH, contact time, biosorbent dosage, Ni2+ concentration and temperature. The interaction biosorbent-Ni2+ was examined by the FTIR technique. The equilibrium was achieved within 40 min and the data were well fitted by the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson (R-P) models. The maximum Ni2+ uptake capacity was 17.073 mg/g at 25°C and the Ni2+ removal follows a pseudo-second order kinetic with activation energy of 13.3 kJ/mol. The thermodynamic parameters: ΔS°, ΔH° and ΔG° showed that the biosorption was spontaneous and endothermic. MMF was used as a post treatment technique and the biosorption was coupled with the visible light driven Ni2+ reduction over the spinel ZnMn2O4. The effect of the pH, ZnMn2O4 loading and light intensity on the photoactivity was investigated. 77.5% of Ni2+ was reduced after ~140 min under optimal conditions. The Ni2+ removal reached a rate conversion of 96% of with the coupled system biosorption/photocatalysis is very promising for the water treatment. PMID:24401700

  3. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  4. Elaboration and characterization of solid materials of types zeolite NaA and faujasite NaY exchanged by zinc metallic ions Zn2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nibou, D.; Amokrane, S.; Mekatel, H.; Lebaili, N.

    2009-11-01

    The present work deals with the elaborated of NaA and faujasite NaY solid materials according to a hydrothermal crystallization of amorphous gels composed of solutions of silicon, aluminum and sodium. The process elaboration has been achieved in autoclaves made of steel lined in Teflon under different operating conditions of temperature of heating, time of contact and stirring. After crystallization, the samples were characterized by different techniques such as X ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and chemical analysis. Pure solid materials NaA and NaY zeolites were obtained and were impregnated by (Zn2+) ions by ion exchange process. The effects of various parameters such as initial metal concentration, pH, solid-liquid ratio (R) and temperature on the exchange percentage are studied. The equilibrium isotherms of zinc ions sorption are also evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich models. Thermodynamic parameters, i.e. enthalpy of adsorption ΔHads∘, entropy change ΔSads∘ and Gibbs free energy ΔGads∘ for the sorption of zinc ions on NaA and NaY zeolites were examined.

  5. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    SciT

    Kunj, Saurabh, E-mail: saurabhkunj22@gmail.com; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-23

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O{sub 2}/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  6. Influence of processing conditions on the optical properties of chemically deposited zinc sulphide (ZnS) thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igweoko, A. E.; Augustine, C.; Idenyi, N. E.; Okorie, B. A.; Anyaegbunam, F. N. C.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present the influence of post deposition annealing and varying concentration on the optical properties of ZnS thin films fabricated by chemical bath deposition (CBD) at 65 °C from chemical baths comprising NH3/SC(NH2)2/ZnSO4 solutions at pH of about 10. The film samples were annealed at temperatures ranging from 373 K–473 K and the concentration of the film samples vary from 0.1 M–0.7 M. Post deposition annealing and concentration played an important role on the optical parameters investigated which includes absorbance, transmittance, reflectance, absorption coefficient, band gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient. The optical parameters were found to vary with post deposition annealing in one direction and concentration of Zn2+ in the reverse direction. For instance, post deposition annealing increases the band gap from 3.65 eV for as-deposited to 3.70 eV, 3.75 eV and 3.85 eV for annealed at 373 K, 423 K and 473 K respectively whereas concentration of Zn2+ decreases the band gap from 3.95 eV at 0.1 M to 3.90 eV, 3.85 eV and 3.80 eV at 0.3 M, 0.5 M and 0.7 M respectively. The fundamental absorption edge of ZnS thin films shifted toward the highest photon energies (blue shift) after annealing and shifted toward the lowest photon energies (red shift) with increasing Zn ions concentration. A linear relation between band gap energy and Urbach energy was found. After annealing, the Urbach energy increases form 3.10 eV to 3.50 eV and decreases from 3.40 eV to 3.10 eV at varying Zn2+ concentration. The property of wide band gap makes ZnS suitable for buffer layer of film solar cells, permitting more light especially the short wavelength light into absorber layer.

  7. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O2/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  8. A secondary, coplanar design Ni/MCM-41/Zn microbattery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskon, S. R.; Othman, R.; Ani, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    A secondary Ni/Zn microbattery (∼200 µm thick) has been developed in a coplanar electrode configuration. The cell is essentially of a circular shape (∼30 mm in diameter) consisting of a fine circular ring (cathode) and a circle (anode) split apart (~800 µm). Unlike the stacking cell architecture, coplanar configuration offers simple design, ease of fabrication and eventually cost saving. The use of MCM-41 mesoporous silica as the membrane separator cum electrolyte reservoir enables the successful implementation of coplanar configuration. The fabrication of Ni/Zn microbattery first begins with electrodeposition of zinc (Zn) and nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH)2) thin films onto patterned FR4 printed circuit board, followed by deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) slurry onto the zinc active layer, and finally ends by multiple drop-coating procedures of MCM-41 from its precursor solution at ambient temperature. Once a potassium hydroxide (6 M KOH)/MCM-41 electrolyte-separator mixture is incorporated, the cell is sealed with an acrylic sheet and epoxy adhesive. The fabricated microbatteries were capable to sustain around 130 deep charge-discharge cycles. When rated at 0.1 mA, the energy density of the microbattery was around 3.82 Wh l-1 which is suitable for low rate applications and storage for micro energy harvesters such as piezoelectric generators.

  9. Nickel extraction from nickel matte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subagja, R.

    2018-01-01

    In present work, the results of research activities to make nickel metal from nickel matte are presented. The research activities were covering a) nickel matte characterization using Inductively Couple plasma (ICP), Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), b) nickel matte dissolution process to dissolve nickel from nickel matte into the spent electrolyte solutions that contains hydrochloric acid, c) purification of nickel chloride leach solution by copper cementation process to remove copper using nickel matte, selective precipitation process to remove iron, solvent extraction using Tri normal octyl amine to separate cobalt from nickel chloride solutions and d) Nickel electro winning process to precipitate nickel into the cathode surface from purified nickel chloride solution by using direct current. The research activities created 99, 72 % pure nickel metal as the final product of the process.

  10. Human eosinophils are direct targets to nanoparticles: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) delay apoptosis and increase the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-8.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luis Rafael; Girard, Denis

    2016-09-30

    Zinc oxide NPs (ZnO) have been recently proposed as novel candidates for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases. Paradoxically, recent data suggested that ZnO could cause eosinophilic airway inflammation in rodents. Despite the above observations, there are currently no studies reporting direct interaction between a given NP and human eosinophils themselves. In this study, freshly isolated human eosinophils were incubated with ZnO and several cellular functions were studied. We found that ZnO delay human eosinophil apoptosis, partially by inhibiting caspases and by preventing caspase-4 and Bcl-xL degradation. ZnO do not induce production of reactive oxygen species but increase de novo protein synthesis. In addition, ZnO were found to increase the production of the proinflammatory IL-1β and IL-8 cytokines. Using a pharmacological approach, we demonstrated that inhibition of caspase-1 reversed the ability of ZnO to induce IL-1β and IL-8 production, whereas inhibition of caspase-4 only reversed that of IL-8. Our results indicate the necessity of conducting studies to determine the potential of using NP as nanotherapies, particularly in diseases in which eosinophils may be involved. We conclude that, indeed, human eosinophils represent potential new direct targets to NPs, ZnO in the present case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute changes in cellular zinc alters zinc uptake rates prior to zinc transporter gene expression in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Holland, Tai C; Killilea, David W; Shenvi, Swapna V; King, Janet C

    2015-12-01

    A coordinated network of zinc transporters and binding proteins tightly regulate cellular zinc levels. Canonical responses to zinc availability are thought to be mediated by changes in gene expression of key zinc transporters. We investigated the temporal relationships of actual zinc uptake with patterns of gene expression in membrane-bound zinc transporters in the human immortalized T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line. Cellular zinc levels were elevated or reduced with exogenous zinc sulfate or N,N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), respectively. Excess zinc resulted in a rapid 44 % decrease in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of metallothionein (positive control) increased, as well as the zinc exporter, ZnT1; however, the expression of zinc importers did not change during this time period. Zinc chelation with TPEN resulted in a rapid twofold increase in the rate of zinc uptake within 10 min. After 120 min, the expression of ZnT1 decreased, while again the expression of zinc importers did not change. Overall, zinc transporter gene expression kinetics did not match actual changes in cellular zinc uptake with exogenous zinc or TPEN treatments. This suggests zinc transporter regulation may be the initial response to changes in zinc within Jurkat cells.

  12. Colloidal synthesis of monodispersed ZnS and CdS nanocrystals from novel zinc and cadmium complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Mohammed, Aliyu D.; Strydom, Christien A.; Young, Desmond A.; Jordaan, Anine

    2014-06-01

    Monodispersed spherical and hexagonal shaped ZnS and CdS nanocrystals respectively, have been synthesized using novel heteroleptic complexes of xanthate (S2CObu) and dithiocarbamate (S2CNMePh). The nanocrystals were prepared via colloidal route and stabilized in hexadecylamine (HDA). The morphology of the as-prepared nanocrystals was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and powdered X-ray diffraction (p-XRD) analysis. An average diameter of 7.2 nm and 8.6 nm were obtained for the ZnS and CdS respectively. The optical properties of the nanoparticles studied by UV-vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy showed a blue shift in the absorption spectra, and band edge emission respectively.

  13. Influence of Aluminum on the Formation Behavior of Zn-Al-Fe Intermetallic Particles in a Zinc Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Park, Geun-Ho; Paik, Doo-Jin; Huh, Yoon; Hong, Moon-Hi

    2012-01-01

    The shape, size, and composition of dross particles as a function of aluminum content at a fixed temperature were investigated for aluminum added to the premelted Zn-Fe melt simulating the hot-dip galvanizing bath by a sampling methodology. In the early stage, less than 30 minutes after Al addition, local supersaturation and depletion of the aluminum concentration occurred simultaneously in the bath, resulting in the nucleation and growth of both Fe2Al5Zn x and FeZn13. However, the aluminum was homogenized continuously as the reaction proceeded, and fine and stable FeZn10Al x formed after 30 minutes. An Al-depleted zone (ADZ) mechanism was newly proposed for the "η→η+ζ→δ" phase transformations. The ζ phase bottom dross partly survived for a relatively long period, i.e., 2 hours in this work, whereas the η phase disappeared after 30 minutes. In the early stage of dross formation, both Al-free large particles as well as high-Al tiny particles were formed. The dross particle size decreased slightly with increased reaction time before reaching a plateau. The opposite tendency was observed when the Al content was 0.130 mass pct; with a relatively high Al content, the nucleation of tiny η phase dross was significantly enhanced because of the high degree of supersaturation. This unstable η phase dissolved continuously and underwent simple transformation to the stable δ phase. The relationship between nucleation potential and supersaturation ratio of species is discussed based on the thermodynamics of classical nucleation theory.

  14. Numerical modeling and performance analysis of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film based gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punetha, Deepak; Ranjan, Rashmi; Pandey, Saurabh Kumar

    2018-05-01

    This manuscript describes the modeling and analysis of Zinc Oxide thin film based gas sensor. The conductance and sensitivity of the sensing layer has been described by change in temperature as well as change in gas concentration. The analysis has been done for reducing and oxidizing agents. Simulation results revealed the change in resistance and sensitivity of the sensor with respect to temperature and different gas concentration. To check the feasibility of the model, all the simulated results have been analyze by different experimental reported work. Wolkenstein theory has been used to model the proposed sensor and the simulation results have been shown by using device simulation software.

  15. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  16. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  17. Copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), an antioxidant gene from seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis); molecular cloning, sequence characterization, antioxidant activity and potential peroxidation function of its recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Perera, N C N; Godahewa, G I; Lee, Jehee

    2016-10-01

    Copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) from Hippocampus abdominalis (HaCuZnSOD) is a metalloenzyme which belongs to the ubiquitous family of SODs. Here, we determined the characteristic structural features of HaCuZnSOD, analyzed its evolutionary relationships, and identified its potential immune responses and biological functions in relation to antioxidant defense mechanisms in the seahorse. The gene had a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 67 bp, a coding sequence of 465 bp and a 3' UTR of 313 bp. The putative peptide consists of 154 amino acids. HaCuZnSOD had a predicted molecular mass of 15.94 kDa and a theoretical pI value of 5.73, which is favorable for copper binding activity. In silico analysis revealed that HaCuZnSOD had a prominent Cu-Zn_superoxide_dismutase domain, two Cu/Zn signature sequences, a putative N-glycosylation site, and several active sites including Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) binding sites. The three dimensional structure indicated a β-sheet barrel with 8 β-sheets and two short α-helical regions. Multiple alignment analyses revealed many conserved regions and active sites among its orthologs. The highest amino acid identity to HaCuZnSOD was found in Siniperca chuatsi (87.4%), while Maylandia zebra shared a close relationship in the phylogenetic analysis. Functional assays were performed to assess the antioxidant, biophysical and biochemical properties of overexpressed recombinant (r) HaCuZnSOD. A xanthine/XOD assay gave optimum results at pH 9 and 25 °C indicating these may be the best conditions for its antioxidant action in the seahorse. An MTT assay and flow cytometry confirmed that rHaCuZnSOD showed peroxidase activity in the presence of HCO3(-). In all the functional assays, the level of antioxidant activity of rHaCuZnSOD was concentration dependent; metal ion supplementation also increased its activity. The highest mRNA expressional level of HaCuZnSOD was found in blood. Temporal assessment under pathological stress showed a delay

  18. Advances in lightweight nickel electrode technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine; Paul, Gary; Daugherty, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Studies are currently underway to further the development of lightweight nickel electrode technology. Work is focused primarily on the space nickel-hydrogen system and nickel-iron system but is also applicable to the nickel-cadmium and nickel-zinc systems. The goal is to reduce electrode weight while maintaining or improving performance, thereby increasing electrode energy density. Two basic electrode structures are being investigated. The first is the traditional nickel sponge produced from sintered nickel-carbonyl powder. The second is a new material for this application which consists of a non-woven mat of nickel fiber. Electrodes are being manufactured, tested, and evaluated at the electrode and cell level.

  19. Advances in lightweight nickel electrode technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine; Paul, Gary; Wheeler, James R.; Daugherty, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Studies are currently underway to further the development of lightweight nickel electrode technology. Work is focused primarily on the space nickel-hydrogen system and nickel-iron system but is also applicable to the nickel-cadmium and nickel-zinc systems. The goal is to reduce electrode weight while maintaining or improving performance thereby increasing electrode energy density. Two basic electrode structures are being investigated. The first is the traditional nickel sponge produced from sintered nickel-carbonyl powder and the second is a new material for this application which consists of a non-woven mat of nickel fiber. Electrodes are being manufactured, tested and evaluated at the electrode and cell level.

  20. Structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of NiO/ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushmitha, V.; Maragatham, V.; Raj, P. Deepak; Sridharan, M.

    2018-02-01

    Nickel oxide/Zinc oxide (NiO/ZnO) thin films have been deposited onto thoroughly cleaned glass substrates by reactive direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering technique and subsequently annealed at 300 °C for 3 h in vacuum. The NiO/ZnO thin films were then studied for their structural, optical and electrical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of ZnO and NiO showed the diffraction planes corresponding to hexagonal and cubic phase respectively. The optical properties showed that with the increase in the deposition time of NiO the energy band gap varied between 3.1 to 3.24 eV. Hence, by changing the deposition time of NiO the tuning of band gap and conductivity were achieved. The magnetic studies revealed the diamagnetic nature of the NiO/ZnO thin films.

  1. Role of Ni doping on transport properties of ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Dar, Tanveer Ahmad, E-mail: tanveerphysics@gmail.com; Agrawal, Arpana; Sen, Pratima

    2015-06-24

    Nickel doped (Ni=0.05) and undoped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared by Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The structural analysis of the films was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies which reveal absence of any secondary phase in the prepared samples. UV transmission spectra show that Ni doping reduces the transparency of the films. X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) also shows the presence of metallic Ni along with +2 oxidation state in the sample. Low temperature magneto transport properties of the ZnO and NiZnO films are also discussed in view of Khosla fisher model. Ni doping in ZnO resultsmore » in decrease in magnitude of negative MR.« less

  2. Designing Hydrolytic Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element required for the function of more than 300 enzymes spanning all classes. Despite years of dedicated study, questions regarding the connections between primary and secondary metal ligands and protein structure and function remain unanswered, despite numerous mechanistic, structural, biochemical, and synthetic model studies. Protein design is a powerful strategy for reproducing native metal sites that may be applied to answering some of these questions and subsequently generating novel zinc enzymes. From examination of the earliest design studies introducing simple Zn(II)-binding sites into de novo and natural protein scaffolds to current studies involving the preparation of efficient hydrolytic zinc sites, it is increasingly likely that protein design will achieve reaction rates previously thought possible only for native enzymes. This Current Topic will review the design and redesign of Zn(II)-binding sites in de novo-designed proteins and native protein scaffolds toward the preparation of catalytic hydrolytic sites. After discussing the preparation of Zn(II)-binding sites in various scaffolds, we will describe relevant examples for reengineering existing zinc sites to generate new or altered catalytic activities. Then, we will describe our work on the preparation of a de novo-designed hydrolytic zinc site in detail and present comparisons to related designed zinc sites. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the significant progress being made toward building zinc metalloenzymes from the bottom up. PMID:24506795

  3. The effect of the solution flow rate on the properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attaf, A.; Benkhetta, Y.; Saidi, H.; Bouhdjar, A.; Bendjedidi, H.; Nouadji, M.; Lehraki, N.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we used a system based on ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. By witch, we have deposited thin films of zinc oxide (ZnO) with the variation of solution flow rate from 50 ml / h to 150 ml / h, and set other parameters such as the concentration of the solution, the deposition time, substrate temperature and the nozzel -substrate distance. In order to study the influence of the solution flow rate on the properties of the films produced, we have several characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction to determine the films structure, the scanning electron microscopy SEM for the morphology of the surfaces, EDS spectroscopy for the chemical composition, UV-Visible-Nir spectroscopy for determination the optical proprieties of thin films.The experimental results show that: the films have hexagonal structure at the type (wurtzite), the average size of grains varies from 20.11 to 32.45 nm, the transmittance of the films equals 80% in visible rang and the band gap is varied between 3.274 and 3.282 eV, when the solution flow rate increases from 50 to 150 ml/h.

  4. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-07-27

    Varistors and/or resistors are described that include doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  5. Zinc oxide varistors and/or resistors

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.; Bond, Walter D.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Varistors and/or resistors that includes doped zinc oxide gel microspheres. The doped zinc oxide gel microspheres preferably have from about 60 to about 95% by weight zinc oxide and from about 5 to about 40% by weight dopants based on the weight of the zinc oxide. The dopants are a plurality of dopants selected from silver salts, boron oxide, silicon oxide and hydrons oxides of aluminum, bismuth, cobalt, chromium, manganese, nickel, and antimony.

  6. Synthesis and interface structures of zinc sulfide sheathed zinc-cadmium nanowire heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guozhen; Bando, Yoshio; Gao, Yihua; Golberg, Dmitri

    2006-07-27

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) sheathed zinc (Zn)-cadmium (Cd) nanowire heterojunctions have been prepared by thermal evaporating of ZnS and CdS powders in a vertical induction furnace at 1200 degrees C. Studies found that both the Zn and Cd subnanowires, within a single nanoheterojunction, are single-crystallines with the growth directions perpendicular to the [210] plane, whereas the sheathed ZnS is polycrystalline with a thickness of ca. 5 nm. The Zn/Cd interface structure in the ZnS sheathed Zn-Cd nanowire heterojunctions was thoroughly experimentally studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and theoretically studied using a near-coincidence site lattice (NCSL) concept. The results show that the Cd and Zn have a crystalline orientation relationship as [0001]Zn//[0001]Cd, (10(-)10)Zn//(10(-)10)Cd, (01(-)10)Zn//(01(-)10)Cd, and ((-)1100)Zn//((-)1100)Cd.

  7. Interdependence of free zinc changes and protein complex assembly - insights into zinc signal regulation.

    PubMed

    Kocyła, Anna; Adamczyk, Justyna; Krężel, Artur

    2018-01-24

    Cellular zinc (Zn(ii)) is bound with proteins that are part of the proteomes of all domains of life. It is mostly utilized as a catalytic or structural protein cofactor, which results in a vast number of binding architectures. The Zn(ii) ion is also important for the formation of transient protein complexes with a Zn(ii)-dependent quaternary structure that is formed upon cellular zinc signals. The mechanisms by which proteins associate with and dissociate from Zn(ii) and the connection with cellular Zn(ii) changes remain incompletely understood. In this study, we aimed to examine how zinc protein domains with various Zn(ii)-binding architectures are formed under free Zn(ii) concentration changes and how formation of the Zn(ii)-dependent assemblies is related to the protein concentration and reactivity. To accomplish these goals we chose four zinc domains with different Zn(ii)-to-protein binding stoichiometries: classical zinc finger (ZnP), LIM domain (Zn 2 P), zinc hook (ZnP 2 ) and zinc clasp (ZnP 1 P 2 ) folds. Our research demonstrated a lack of changes in the saturation level of intraprotein zinc binding sites, despite various peptide concentrations, while homo- and heterodimers indicated a concentration-dependent tendency. In other words, at a certain free Zn(ii) concentration, the fraction of a formed dimeric complex increases or decreases with subunit concentration changes. Secondly, even small or local changes in free Zn(ii) may significantly affect protein saturation depending on its architecture, function and subcellular concentration. In our paper, we indicate the importance of interdependence of free Zn(ii) availability and protein subunit concentrations for cellular zinc signal regulation.

  8. Synthesis and property of spinel porous ZnMn2O4 microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, N.; Wei, X. Q.; Deng, X. L.; Xu, X. J.

    2015-11-01

    Mesoporous ternary zinc manganese oxides on the Ti sheet substrate are prepared by easy and fast hydrothermal method for the first time. The obtained ZnMn2O4 materials with homogenously distributed pores have been characterized by XRD, SEM and Raman spectra, which show the good crystal phase and particles for improving supercapacitive performance. XRD and SEM images show that the as-prepared samples have good crystallinity, and ZnMn2O4 microsphere has an average diameter of 10 μm. In addition, ZnMn2O4 are also characterized in 2 M KOH solution using three-electrode system. In the work, we study that different substrates (Ti, carbon and nickel foam) have an important effect on the electrochemical performance of the samples. The research of cyclic voltammogram (CV) indicates that the obtained specific capacitance (155 F g-1) values on nickel foam substrate for the ZnMn2O4 microspheres are higher than the values reported for some inexpensive oxides. However, the specific capacitance of all ZnMn2O4 samples has almost no change at two different scan rates which shows good long-term cycling stability. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with a small resistance reveals that the as-synthesized samples have good frequency response characteristics. These results indicate that the unique ZnMn2O4 electrode would be a promising electrode for high-performance supercapacitor applications.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Phase-pure Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4) Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Bradley Michael

    Semiconductor nanoparticles have been an important area of research in many different disciplines. A substantial amount of this work has been put toward advancing the field of photovoltaics. However, current p-type photovoltaic materials can not sustain the large scale production needed for future energy demands due to their low elemental abundance. Therefore, Earth abundant semiconductor materials have become of great interest to the photovoltaic community especially, the material copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS), also known by its mineral name kesterite. CZTS exhibits desirable properties for photovoltaics, such as elemental abundance, high absorption coefficient (~104 cm-1 ), high carrier concentration, and optimum direct band gap (1.5 eV). To date, solution based approaches for making CZTS have yielded the most promising conversion efficiencies in solar cells. To that end, the motivation of nanoparticle based inks that can be used in high throughput production are an attractive route for large scale deployment. This has driven the need to make high quality CZTS nanoparticles that possess the properties of the pure kesterite phase with high monodispersity that can be deposited into dense thin films. The inherent challenge of making a quaternary compound of a single phase has made this a difficult task; however, some of those fundamental problems are addressed in this thesis. This had resulted in the synthesis of phase-pure k-CZTS confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Furthermore, ultra-fast laser spectroscopy was done on CZTS thin films made from phase-pure kesterite nanoparticles synthesized in this work. This thesis provides new data that directly probes the lifetime of photogenerated free carriers in kesterite CZTS (k-CZTS) thin films.

  10. [Zinc and chronic enteropathies].

    PubMed

    Giorgi, P L; Catassi, C; Guerrieri, A

    1984-01-01

    In recent years the nutritional importance of zinc has been well established; its deficiency and its symptoms have also been recognized in humans. Furthermore, Acrodermatitis Enteropathica has been isolated, a rare but severe disease, of which skin lesions, chronic diarrhoea and recurring infections are the main symptoms. The disease is related to the malfunctioning of intestinal absorption of zinc and can be treated by administering pharmacological doses of zinc orally. Good dietary sources of zinc are meat, fish and, to a less extent, human milk. The amount of zinc absorbed in the small intestine is influenced by other nutrients: some compounds inhibit this process (dietary fiber, phytate) while others (picolinic acid, citric acid), referred to as Zn-binding ligands (ZnBL) facilitate it. Citric acid is thought to be the ligand which accounts for the high level of bioavailability of zinc in human milk. zinc absorption occurs throughout the small intestine, not only in the prossimal tract (duodenum and jejunum) but also in the distal tract (ileum). Diarrhoea is one of the clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, thus many illnesses distinguished by chronic diarrhoea entail a bad absorption of zinc. In fact, in some cases of chronic enteropathies in infants, like coeliac disease and seldom cystic fibrosis, a deficiency of zinc has been isolated. Some of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, like retarded growth and hypogonadism, have been related to hypozinchemia which is present in this illness. Finally, it is possible that some of the dietary treatments frequently used for persistent post-enteritis diarrhoea (i.e. cow's milk exclusion, abuse and misuse of dietary fiber like carrot and carub powder, use of soy formula) can constitute a scarce supply of zinc and therefore could promote the persistency of diarrhoea itself.

  11. Constitutively Elevated Salicylic Acid Signals Glutathione-Mediated Nickel Tolerance in Thlaspi Nickel Hyperaccumulators1

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, John L.; Garcia, Daniel; Kim, Donggiun; Hopf, Amber; Salt, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Progress is being made in understanding the biochemical and molecular basis of nickel (Ni)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi; however, the molecular signaling pathways that control these mechanisms are not understood. We observed that elevated concentrations of salicylic acid (SA), a molecule known to be involved in signaling induced pathogen defense responses in plants, is a strong predictor of Ni hyperaccumulation in the six diverse Thlaspi species investigated, including the hyperaccumulators Thlaspi goesingense, Thlaspi rosulare, Thlaspi oxyceras, and Thlaspi caerulescens and the nonaccumulators Thlaspi arvense and Thlaspi perfoliatum. Furthermore, the SA metabolites phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, salicyloyl-glucose, and catechol are also elevated in the hyperaccumulator T. goesingense when compared to the nonaccumulators Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and T. arvense. Elevation of free SA levels in Arabidopsis, both genetically and by exogenous feeding, enhances the specific activity of serine acetyltransferase, leading to elevated glutathione and increased Ni resistance. Such SA-mediated Ni resistance in Arabidopsis phenocopies the glutathione-based Ni tolerance previously observed in Thlaspi, suggesting a biochemical linkage between SA and Ni tolerance in this genus. Intriguingly, the hyperaccumulator T. goesingense also shows enhanced sensitivity to the pathogen powdery mildew (Erysiphe cruciferarum) and fails to induce SA biosynthesis after infection. Nickel hyperaccumulation reverses this pathogen hypersensitivity, suggesting that the interaction between pathogen resistance and Ni tolerance and hyperaccumulation may have played a critical role in the evolution of metal hyperaccumulation in the Thlaspi genus. PMID:15734913

  12. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery with molten salt electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuzhi; Han, Wei; Cui, Baochen; Liu, Xianjun; Zhao, Fulin; Stuart, Jessica; Licht, Stuart

    2017-02-01

    Zinc-air batteries have been proposed for EV applications and large-scale electricity storage such as wind and solar power. Although zinc-air batteries are very promising, there are numerous technological barriers to overcome. We demonstrate for the first time, a new rechargeable zinc-air battery that utilizes a molten Li0.87Na0.63K0.50CO3 eutectic electrolyte with added NaOH. Cyclic voltammetry reveals that a reversible deposition/dissolution of zinc occurs in the molten Li0.87Na0.63K0.50CO3 eutectic. At 550 °C, this zinc-air battery performs with a coulombic efficiency of 96.9% over 110 cycles, having an average charging potential of ∼1.43 V and discharge potential of ∼1.04 V. The zinc-air battery uses cost effective steel and nickel electrodes without the need for any precious metal catalysts. Moreover, the molten salt electrolyte offers advantages over aqueous electrolytes, avoiding the common aqueous alkaline electrolyte issues of hydrogen evolution, Zn dendrite formation, "drying out", and carbonate precipitation.

  13. Room-temperature ferromagnetic Zn1- x Ni x S nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunapalli, Chaitanya Kumar; Shaik, Kaleemulla

    2018-05-01

    Nickel-doped zinc sulfide nanoparticles (Zn1- x Ni x S) at x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.10 were synthesized by solid-state reaction. The (nickel sulfide) NiS and (zinc sulfide) ZnS nanoparticles in desired ratios were taken, mixed and ground for 6 h at a speed rate of 300 rpm using a planetary ball mill. The milled nanoparticles were sintered at 600 °C for 8 h using a high-temperature vacuum furnace. The structural, optical, luminescence and magnetic properties of the Zn1- x Ni x S nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). No change in crystal structure was observed from XRD by substitution of Ni into ZnS lattice. The mean crystallite size was found to be 37 nm. The band gap of Zn1- x Ni x S nanoparticles decreased from 3.57 to 3.37 eV on increasing the dopant concentration. The room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Zn1- x Ni x S nanoparticles showed two broad and intense emission peaks at 420 and 438 nm with excitation wavelength of 330 nm. The Zn1- x Ni x S nanoparticles showed ferromagnetism at 100 K and at room temperature (300 K) and also the strength of magnetization increased with Ni concentration. The maximum magnetization value of 0.18 emu/g was observed for x = 0.10 at 100 K. The strength of the magnetization observed at 100 K was higher than that of magnetization observed at 300 K.

  14. Route and Regulation of Zinc, Cadmium, and Iron Transport in Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.) during Vegetative Growth and Grain Filling: Metal Transporters, Metal Speciation, Grain Cd Reduction and Zn and Fe Biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Ishikawa, Satoru; Fujimaki, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) are essential but are sometimes deficient in humans, while cadmium (Cd) is toxic if it accumulates in the liver and kidneys at high levels. All three are contained in the grains of rice, a staple cereal. Zn and Fe concentrations in rice grains harvested under different levels of soil/hydroponic metals are known to change only within a small range, while Cd concentrations show greater changes. To clarify the mechanisms underlying such different metal contents, we synthesized information on the routes of metal transport and accumulation in rice plants by examining metal speciation, metal transporters, and the xylem-to-phloem transport system. At grain-filling, Zn and Cd ascending in xylem sap are transferred to the phloem by the xylem-to-phloem transport system operating at stem nodes. Grain Fe is largely derived from the leaves by remobilization. Zn and Fe concentrations in phloem-sap and grains are regulated within a small range, while Cd concentrations vary depending on xylem supply. Transgenic techniques to increase concentrations of the metal chelators (nicotianamine, 2′-deoxymugineic acid) are useful in increasing grain Zn and Fe concentrations. The elimination of OsNRAMP5 Cd-uptake transporter and the enhancement of root cell vacuolar Cd sequestration reduce uptake and root-to-shoot transport, respectively, resulting in a reduction of grain Cd accumulation. PMID:26287170

  15. Route and Regulation of Zinc, Cadmium, and Iron Transport in Rice Plants (Oryza sativa L.) during Vegetative Growth and Grain Filling: Metal Transporters, Metal Speciation, Grain Cd Reduction and Zn and Fe Biofortification.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Ishikawa, Satoru; Fujimaki, Shu

    2015-08-13

    Zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) are essential but are sometimes deficient in humans, while cadmium (Cd) is toxic if it accumulates in the liver and kidneys at high levels. All three are contained in the grains of rice, a staple cereal. Zn and Fe concentrations in rice grains harvested under different levels of soil/hydroponic metals are known to change only within a small range, while Cd concentrations show greater changes. To clarify the mechanisms underlying such different metal contents, we synthesized information on the routes of metal transport and accumulation in rice plants by examining metal speciation, metal transporters, and the xylem-to-phloem transport system. At grain-filling, Zn and Cd ascending in xylem sap are transferred to the phloem by the xylem-to-phloem transport system operating at stem nodes. Grain Fe is largely derived from the leaves by remobilization. Zn and Fe concentrations in phloem-sap and grains are regulated within a small range, while Cd concentrations vary depending on xylem supply. Transgenic techniques to increase concentrations of the metal chelators (nicotianamine, 2'-deoxymugineic acid) are useful in increasing grain Zn and Fe concentrations. The elimination of OsNRAMP5 Cd-uptake transporter and the enhancement of root cell vacuolar Cd sequestration reduce uptake and root-to-shoot transport, respectively, resulting in a reduction of grain Cd accumulation.

  16. Zinc transformations in neutral soil and zinc efficiency in maize fertilization.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Jose M; Gonzalez, Demetrio

    2006-12-13

    The effect of six Zn sources (Zn-phenolate, Zn-EDDHA, Zn-EDTA, Zn-lignosulfonate, Zn-polyflavonoid, and Zn-glucoheptonate) was studied by applying different Zn levels to a representative Calcic Haploxeralf neutral soil (the predominant clay is montmorillonite) in incubation and greenhouse experiments. Zinc soil behavior was evaluated by sequential DTPA and Mehlich-3 extraction procedures. In the incubation experiment, the highest percentage recovery values of Zn applied to soil occurred in the water-soluble plus exchangeable fraction (29%) in fertilization with 20 mg of Zn kg(-1) of Zn-EDTA fertilizer. In the greenhouse experiment with maize (Zea mays L.), a comparison of different Zn carriers showed that the application of six fertilizers did not significantly increase the plant dry matter yield among fertilizer treatments. The highest yield occurred when 20 mg of Zn kg(-1) was applied as Zn-EDDHA fertilizer (79.4 g per pot). The relative effectiveness of the Zn sources in increasing Zn concentration in plants was in the following order: Zn-EDTA (20 mg kg(-1)) > Zn-EDDHA (20 mg kg(-1)) approximately Zn-EDTA (10 mg kg(-1)) > Zn-EDDHA (10 mg kg(-1)) approximately Zn-phenolate (both rates) approximately Zn-polyflavonoid (both rates) approximately Zn-lignosulfonate (both rates) approximately Zn-glucoheptonate (both rates) > untreated Zn. The highest amounts of Zn taken up by the plants occurred when Zn was applied as Zn-EDTA fertilizer (20 mg kg(-1), 7.44 mg of Zn per pot; 10 mg kg(-1) Zn rate, 3.93 mg of Zn per pot) and when Zn was applied as Zn-EDDHA fertilizer (20 mg kg(-1) Zn rate, 4.66 mg Zn per pot). After the maize crop was harvested, sufficient quantities of available Zn remained in the soil (DTPA- or Mehlich-3-extractable Zn) for another harvest.

  17. Concentration of selenium, zinc, copper, Cu/Zn ratio, total antioxidant status and c-reactive protein in the serum of patients with psoriasis treated by narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wacewicz, Marta; Socha, Katarzyna; Soroczyńska, Jolanta; Niczyporuk, Marek; Aleksiejczuk, Piotr; Ostrowska, Jolanta; Borawska, Maria H

    2017-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common, an inflammatory skin disease. Trace elements may play an active role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentration of selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and Cu/Zn ratio as well as total antioxidant status (TAS) and c-reactive protein (CRP) in the serum of patients with psoriasis. In this case-control study sixty patients with psoriasis and fifty-eight healthy people were examined. Serum levels of Se, Zn and Cu were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cu/Zn ratio was calculated. TAS was measured spectrophotometrically. CRP was analyzed by immunoturbidimetric method. Clinical activity of psoriasis was evaluated using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Serum concentration of Se in patients with psoriasis (71.89±16.90μg/L) was lower as compared to the control group (79.42±18.97μg/L) and after NB-UVB. Cu level of patients was higher (1.151±0.320mg/L) as compared to controls (1.038±0.336mg/L), but Zn level did not differ. We observed higher Cu/Zn ratio (p<0.05) in examined patients than in the control group and after NB-UVB. We found decrease TAS before and after NB-UVB. CRP levels was found to be normal range. A significant correlation coefficient between CRP and Cu/Zn was observed. The study showed some disturbances in the serum levels of trace elements and TAS in psoriatic patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  18. Zinc supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients. Symptomatic zinc deficiency has been reported in CF but little is known about zinc homeostasis in children with CF. Zinc supplementation (Zn suppl) is increasingly common in children with CF but it is not without theoretcial r...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1991 - Zinc oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixtues... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1991 Zinc oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive zinc...). It is principally composed of Zn. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with zinc oxide may...

  20. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  1. Evaluation of solubility in simulated lung fluid of metals present in the slag from a metallurgical industry to produce metallic zinc.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rosilda M G; Carneiro, Luana G; Afonso, Júlio C; Cunha, Kenya M D

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the solubility parameters (rapid and slow dissolution rates, rapid and slow dissolution fractions) for nickel, cadmium, zinc and manganese compounds present in a pile of slag accumulated under exposure to weathering. This slag was generated by a metallurgical industry that produced zinc and zinc alloys from hemimorphite (Zn(4)(OH)(2)Si(2)O(7).H(2)O) and willemite (Zn(2)SiO(4)) minerals. A static dissolution test in vitro was used to determine the solubility parameters and Gamble's solution was used as the simulated lung fluid (SLF), on a time basis ranging from 10 min to 1 year. The metal concentrations in the slag samples and in the SLF were determined using Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE). There are significant differences in terms of solubility parameters among the metals. The results indicated that the zinc, nickel, cadmium and manganese compounds present in the slag were moderately soluble in the SLF. The rapid dissolution fractions of these metals are associated with their sulfates. In conclusion, this study confirms the harmful effects on the neighboring population of the airborne particles containing these metals that came from the slag.

  2. Modification of optical and electrical properties of zinc oxide-coated porous silicon nanostructures induced by swift heavy ion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Morphological and optical characteristics of radio frequency-sputtered zinc aluminum oxide over porous silicon (PS) substrates were studied before and after irradiating composite films with 130 MeV of nickel ions at different fluences varying from 1 × 1012 to 3 × 1013 ions/cm2. The effect of irradiation on the composite structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. Current–voltage characteristics of ZnO-PS heterojunctions were also measured. As compared to the granular crystallites of zinc oxide layer, Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) layer showed a flaky structure. The PL spectrum of the pristine composite structure consists of the emission from the ZnO layer as well as the near-infrared emission from the PS substrate. Due to an increase in the number of deep-level defects, possibly oxygen vacancies after swift ion irradiation, PS-Al-doped ZnO nanocomposites formed with high-porosity PS are shown to demonstrate a broadening in the PL emission band, leading to the white light emission. The broadening effect is found to increase with an increase in the ion fluence and porosity. XRD study revealed the relative resistance of the film against the irradiation, i.e., the irradiation of the structure failed to completely amorphize the structure, suggesting its possible application in optoelectronics and sensing applications under harsh radiation conditions. PMID:22748164

  3. Effect of supplementary zinc on orthodontic tooth movement in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Sadegh, Ahmad Akhoundi Mohammad; Rezvaneh, Ghazanfari; Shahroo, Etemad-Moghadam; Mojgan, Alaeddini; Azam, Khorshidian; Shahram, Rabbani; Reza, Shamshiri Ahmad; Nafiseh, Momeni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Osteoclasts and osteoblasts are responsible for regulating bone homeostasis during which the trace element zinc has been shown to exert a cumulative effect on bone mass by stimulating osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of zinc (Zn) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in a rat model. Material and Methods: A total of 44 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 11 animals each and received 0, 1.5, 20 and 50 ppm Zn in distilled water for 60 days. In the last 21 days of the study, nickel-titanium closed coil springs were ligated between maxillary right incisors and first molars of all rats, and tooth movement was measured at the end of this period. Histological analysis of hematoxylin/eosin slides was performed to assess root resorption lacunae, osteoclast number and periodontal ligament (PDL) width. Results: Mean OTM was calculated as 51.8, 49.1, 35.5 and 45 µm in the 0, 1.5, 20 and 50 ppm zinc-receiving groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in neither OTM nor histological parameters among the study groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: According to the results obtained in the current investigation, increase in supplementary zinc up to 50 ppm does not affect the rate of OTM neither bone and root resorption in rats. PMID:27275614

  4. Zinc bioavailability in pork loin

    SciT

    Hortin, A.E.; Bechtel, P.J. Baker, D.H.

    1991-03-15

    Pork loins were uniformly trimmed and divided into three groups: raw, roasted and braised. Following cooking, the loins were freeze dried and then ground to a fine granular consistency. Zinc levels of 51, 60 and 63 mg/kg dry matter (DM) were contained in the raw, roasted and braised products, respectively. The chick bioavailability (BV) assay employed a Zn-deficient soy isolate basal diet that was supplemented with 0, 5 or 10 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO{sub 4}{center dot}H{sub 2}O to produce a standard straight-line response in tibia Zn as a function of supplemental Zn intake. Experimental Zn sources were also added tomore » the basal diet to provide 10 mg Zn/kg. Standard curve methodology indicated that Zn BV was unaffected by cooking. Roasted pork lion had a Zn BV of 184% relative to ZnSO{sub 4}{center dot}H{sub 2}O. Addition of 0.40% L-cysteine to the diet containing 10 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO{sub 4}{center dot}H{sub 2}O increased Zn BV to 175%. Results with histidine as a Zn-enhancing factor were variable. It is apparent that pork loin is an excellent source of bioavailable Zn, and SH-containing compounds such as cysteine and glutathione that are present in meat may contribute to enhanced gut absorption of meat-source Zn.« less

  5. Effects of ZnSO4 and Zn-EDTA broadcast or banded to soil on Zn bioavailability in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Zn fractions in soil.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Aiqing; Yang, Shu; Wang, Bini; Tian, Xiaohong; Zhang, Youlin

    2018-08-01

    Human Zn deficiency is prevalent in developing countries, and staple grains are commonly bio-fortified to increase their Zn contents. We measured Zn content, distribution, and bioavailability in calcareous soil and in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) in Shaanxi Province, China, when either an organic Zn-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Zn-EDTA) or an inorganic zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O) Zn source was banded below the seedbed or broadcasted into soil. Compared with ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O, Zn-EDTA fertilization produced higher Zn concentration and uptake in wheat plants. However, Zn bioavailability in grain remained low, with [phytate]/[Zn] ratio >15 and the resulting estimated dietary total absorbed zinc (TAZ) < 3 mg Zn/d. ZnSO 4 banded into soil had little short-term effect on grain Zn concentration but had a high residual effect and promoted the maintenance of a high concentration of the Zn fraction bound to loose organic matter (LOM-Zn) in rhizosphere soil. Both ZnSO 4 and Zn-EDTA were more efficient if uniformly mixed through the soil than if banded to soil. Both ZnSO 4 and Zn-EDTA had limited effects on Zn bioavailability in wheat plants due to the high rate of Zn fixation in this calcareous soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pulse-Shape Analysis of Neutron-Induced Scintillation Light in Ni-doped 6LiF/ZnS

    SciT

    Cowles, Christian C.; Behling, Richard S.; Imel, G. R.

    Abstract–Alternatives to 3He are being investigated for gamma-ray insensitive neutron detection applications, including plutonium assay. One promising material is lithium-6 fluoride with silver activated zinc sulfide 6LiF/ZnS(Ag) in conjunction with a wavelength shifting plastic. Doping the 6LiF/ZnS(Ag) with nickel (Ni) has been proposed as a means of reducing the decay time of neutron signal pulses. This research performed a pulse shape comparison between Ni-doped and non-doped 6LiF/ZnS(Ag) neutron pulses. The Ni-doped 6LiF/ZnS(Ag) had a 32.7% ± 0.3 increase in neutron pulse height and a 32.4% ± 0.3 decrease in neutron pulse time compared to the non-doped 6LiF/ZnS(Ag). Doping 6LiF/ZnS(Ag) withmore » nickel may allow neutron detector operation with improved signal to noise ratios, and reduced pulse pileup affects, increasing the accuracy and range of source activities with which such a detector could operate.« less

  7. High-performance, room-temperature, and no-humidity-impact ammonia sensor based on heterogeneous nickel oxide and zinc oxide nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Yang, Pan; Wei, Xiaowei

    2015-02-18

    NiO nanocones decorated with ZnO nanothorns on NiO foil substrates are shown to be an ammonia sensor with excellent comprehensive performance, which could, in real-time, detect and monitor NH3 in the surrounding environment. Gas-sensing measurements indicate that assembling nanocones decorated with nanothorns on NiO foil substrate is an effective strategy for simultaneously promoting the stability, reproducibility, and sensitivity of the sensor, because the NiO foil substrate as a whole can quickly and stably transfer electrons between the gas molecules and the sensing materials and the large specific surface area of both nanocones and nanothorns provide good accessibility of the gas molecules to the sensing materials. Moreover, p-type NiO, with majority charge carriers of holes, has higher binding affinity for the electron-donating ammonia, resulting in a significant increase in selectivity toward NH3 over other organic gases. Compared with the NiO nanowires and pure NiO nanocones, the heterogeneous NiO nanocones/ZnO nanothorns exhibit less dependence on the temperature and humidity in response/recovery speed and sensitivity of sensing NH3. Our investigation indicates that two factors are responsible for reducing the dependence on the gas sensing characteristics under various environmental conditions. One is that the n-type ZnO nanothorns growing on the surface of nanocones, with majority charge carriers of electrons, speed up adsorption and desorption of gas molecules. The other is that the abundant cone-shaped and thornlike superstructures on the substrate are favorable for constructing a hydrophobic surface, which prevents the gas sensing material from being wetted.

  8. Simultaneous determination of iron, cadmium, zinc, copper, nickel, lead, and uranium in seawater by stable isotope dilution spark source mass spectrometry

    SciT

    Mykytiuk, A.P.; Russell, D.S.; Sturgeon, R.E.

    Trace concentrations (ng/mL) of Fe, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, U, and Co have been determined in seawater by stable isotope dilution spark source mass spectrometry. The seawater samples were preconcentrated on the ion exchanger Chelex-100 and the concentrate was evaporated on a graphite or silver electrode. The results are compared with those obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. The technique avoids the use of calibration standards and is capable of producing results in cases where the analyte is only partially recovered. 2 tables.

  9. Zinc Transporter 3 Is Involved in Learned Fear and Extinction, but Not in Innate Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Guillaume; Hevi, Charles; Friebely, Olivia; Baybutt, Trevor; Shumyatsky, Gleb P.

    2010-01-01

    Synaptically released Zn[superscript 2+] is a potential modulator of neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in fear-conditioning pathways. Zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) knock-out (KO) mice are well suited to test the role of zinc in learned fear, because ZnT3 is colocalized with synaptic zinc, responsible for its transport to synaptic vesicles,…

  10. Phase transitions in the (Ni,Zn)TiF 6 · 6H 2O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichti, R. L.; Jan, I.-Yuan; Casey, K. G.

    1989-02-01

    Measurements of the transformation rates and the characteristic temperatures of the trigonal ≡ monoclinic structural change in (Ni 1- xZn x)TiF 6 · 6H 2O show a double transition up to x = 0.5. The relationships between the phase changes generally observed in the ABF 6 · 6H 2O system and the internal motions of the octahedral ionic complexes are discussed, and a phase diagram for the mixed nickel/zinc fluorotitanate is established.

  11. Dependence of nonlinear optical properties of Ag2S@ZnS core-shells on Zinc precursor and capping agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghanipour, M.; Khanzadeh, M.; Karimipour, M.; Molaei, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, four different types of Ag2S@ZnS core-shells were synthesized and their nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were investigated using a Z-scan technique by a 532 nm laser diode. Here, Ag2S and ZnS nanoparticles were also synthesized and their NLO properties were compared with Ag2S@ZnS core-shells. It was observed that the NLO properties of Ag2S@ZnS quantum dots significantly increased by increasing the values of Zn(NO3)2 and thioglycolic acid (TGA). It was also observed that the NLO properties of Ag2S@ZnS core-shells for 0.1 g of Zn(NO3)2 and 7000 μl TGA is higher than sole Ag2S and ZnS nanoparticles. In open aperture Z-scan curve of ZnS sample, a saturable absorption peak was observed and this peak was seen also in type of Ag2S@ZnS nanoparticles which the value of Zn(NO3)2 much more.

  12. Synthesis, spectral, thermal and antimicrobial studies on cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and palladium(II) complexes containing thiosemicarbazone ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sawaf, Ayman K.; El-Essawy, Farag; Nassar, Amal A.; El-Samanody, El-Sayed A.

    2018-04-01

    The coordination characteristic of new N4-morpholinyl isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone (HL) towards Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pd(II) has been studies. The structures of the complexes were described by elemental analyses, molar conductivity, magnetic, thermal and spectral (IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR and ESR) studies. On the basis of analytical and spectral studies the ligand behaves as monobasic tridentate ONS donor forming two five membered rings towards cobalt, copper and palladium and afforded complexes of the kind [M(L)X], (Mdbnd Co, Cu or Pd; Xdbnd Cl, Br or OAc). Whereas the ligand bound to NiCl2 as neutral tridentate ONS donor and with ZnCl2 as neutral bidentate NS donor. The newly synthesized thiosemicarbazone ligand and some of its complexes were examined for antimicrobial activity against 2 gram negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli Pseudomonas and aeruginosa), 2 gram positive bacterial strains (Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus)} and two Pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans). All metal complexes possess higher antimicrobial activity comparing with the free thiosemicarbazone ligand. The high potent activities of the complexes may arise from the coordination and chelation, which tends to make metal complexes act as more controlling and potent antimicrobial agents, thus hindering the growing of the microorganisms. The antimicrobial results also show that copper bromide complex is better antimicrobial agent as compared to the Schiff base and its metal complexes.

  13. Speciation And Bioavailability Of Zinc In Amended Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The speciation and bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in smelter-contaminated sediments was investigated as a function of phosphate (apatite) and organic amendment loading rate. Zinc species identified in preamendment sediment were zinc hydroxide-like phases, sphalerite, and zinc sorbe...

  14. In situ spectroscopic characterization of Ni 1-xZn x/ZnO catalysts and their selectivity for acetylene semihydrogenation in excess ethylene

    SciT

    Spanjers, Charles S.; Sim, Richard S.; Sturgis, Nicholas P.

    2015-10-30

    The structures of ZnO-supported Ni catalysts were explored with in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, temperature-programmed reduction, X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Calcination of nickel nitrate on a nanoparticulate ZnO support at 450 °C results in the formation of Zn-doped NiO (ca. N₀̣̣₈₅ Zn₀̣̣₁₅O) nanoparticles with the rock salt crystal structure. Subsequent in situ reduction monitored by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) at the Ni K edge reveals a direct transformation of the Zn-doped NiO nanoparticles to a face-centered cubic alloy, Ni 1-xZn x, at ~400 °C with x increasingmore » with increasing temperature. Both in situ XANES and ex situ HRTEM provide evidence for intermetallic β₁-NiZn formation at ~550 °C. In comparison to a Ni/SiO₂ catalyst, Ni/ZnO necessitates a higher temperature for the reduction of Ni II to Ni⁰, which highlights the strong interaction between Ni and the ZnO support. The catalytic activity for acetylene removal from an ethylene feed stream is decreased by a factor of 20 on Ni/ZnO in comparison to Ni/SiO₂. The decrease in catalytic activity of Ni/ZnO is accompanied by a reduced absolute selectivity to ethylene. H–D exchange measurements demonstrate a reduced ability of Ni/ZnO to dissociate hydrogen in comparison to Ni/SiO₂.These results of the catalytic experiments suggest that the catalytic properties are controlled, in part, by the zinc oxide support and stress the importance of reporting absolute ethylene selectivity for the catalytic semihydrogenation of acetylene in excess ethylene.« less

  15. Bioavailability of Zinc in Wistar Rats Fed with Rice Fortified with Zinc Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Santos, Laura Luiza Menezes; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina da Cruz; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina da Cruz; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2014-01-01

    The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p < 0.05). However, no differences were observed (p > 0.05) for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification. PMID:24932657

  16. SNARE-dependent upregulation of KCC2 activity following metabotropic zinc receptor (mZnR/GPR39) activation in rat cortical neurons in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Saadi, Robert A.; He, Kai; Hartnett, Karen A.; Kandler, Karl; Hershfinkel, Michal; Aizenman, Elias

    2012-01-01

    The major outward chloride transporter in neurons is the potassium chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2), critical for maintaining an inhibitory reversal potential for GABAA receptor channels. In a recent study, we showed that Zn2+ regulates GABAA reversal potentials in the hippocampus by enhancing the activity of KCC2 via an increase in its surface expression. Zn2+ initiates this process by activating the Gq-coupled metabotropic Zn2+ receptor mZnR/GPR39. Here, we first demonstrated that mZnR/GPR39 is functional in cortical neurons in culture and then tested the hypothesis that the increase in KCC2 activity is mediated through a SNARE-dependent process. We established the presence of functional mZnR in rat cultured cortical neurons by loading cells with a Ca2+ indicator and exposing cells to Zn2+, which triggered consistent Ca2+ responses that were blocked by the Gq antagonist YM-254890, but not by the metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist MCPG. Importantly, Zn2+ treatment under these conditions did not increase the intracellular concentrations of Zn2+ itself. We then measured KCC2 activity by monitoring both the rate and relative amount of furosemide-sensitive NH4+ influx via the co-transporter using an intracellular pH sensitive fluorescent indicator. We observed that Zn2+ pretreatment induced a Ca2+-dependent increase in KCC2 activity. The effects of Zn2+ on KCC2 activity were also observed in wild-type mouse cortical neurons in culture, but not in neurons obtained from mZnR/GPR39−/− mice, suggesting that Zn2+ acts via mZnR/GPR39 activation to upregulate KCC2 activity. We next transfected rat cortical neurons with a plasmid encoding botulinum toxin C1 (Botox C1), which cleaves the SNARE proteins syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25. Basal KCC2 activity was similar in both transfected and non-transfected neurons. Non-transfected cells, or cells transfected with marker vector alone, showed a Zn2+-dependent increase in KCC2 activity. In contrast, KCC2 activity in neurons

  17. Selective Hydrogen Atom Abstraction through Induced Bond Polarization: Direct α-Arylation of Alcohols through Photoredox, HAT, and Nickel Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Twilton, Jack; Christensen, Melodie; DiRocco, Daniel A; Ruck, Rebecca T; Davies, Ian W; MacMillan, David W C

    2018-05-04

    The combination of nickel metallaphotoredox catalysis, hydrogen atom transfer catalysis, and a Lewis acid activation mode, has led to the development of an arylation method for the selective functionalization of alcohol α-hydroxy C-H bonds. This approach employs zinc-mediated alcohol deprotonation to activate α-hydroxy C-H bonds while simultaneously suppressing C-O bond formation by inhibiting the formation of nickel alkoxide species. The use of Zn-based Lewis acids also deactivates other hydridic bonds such as α-amino and α-oxy C-H bonds. This approach facilitates rapid access to benzylic alcohols, an important motif in drug discovery. A 3-step synthesis of the drug Prozac exemplifies the utility of this new method. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Trace metal mobilization by organic soil amendments: insights gained from analyses of solid and solution phase complexation of cadmium, nickel and zinc.

    PubMed

    Welikala, Dharshika; Hucker, Cameron; Hartland, Adam; Robinson, Brett H; Lehto, Niklas J

    2018-05-01

    The accumulation of Cd in soils worldwide has increased the demand for methods to reduce the metal's plant bioavailability. Organic matter rich soil amendments have been shown to be effective in achieving this. However, it is not known how long these amendments can retain the Cd, and whether dissolved organic matter (DOM) released from them can enhance the metal's mobility in the environment. In this study we sought to test the Cd binding capacity of various organic soil amendments, and evaluate differences in characteristics of the DOM released to see if they can explain the lability of the Cd-DOM complexes. We collected ten organic soil amendments from around New Zealand: five different composts, biosolids from two sources, two types of peat and spent coffee grounds. We characterised the amendments' elemental composition and their ability to bind the Cd. We then selected two composts and two peats for further tests, where we measured the sorption of Ni or Zn by the amendments. We analysed the quality of the extracted DOM from the four amendments using 3D Excitation Emission Matrix analysis, and tested the lability of the metal-DOM complexes using an adapted diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) method. We found that composts bound the most Cd and that the emergent Cd-DOM complexes were less labile than those from the peats. Ni-DOM complexes were the least labile. The aromaticity of the extracted DOM appears to be an important factor in determining the lability of Ni complexes, but less so for Zn and Cd. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Inga; Maywald, Martina; Rink, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery of zinc deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that zinc is essential for the function of the immune system. Zinc ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. Zinc homeostasis is largely controlled via the expression and action of zinc “importers” (ZIP 1–14), zinc “exporters” (ZnT 1–10), and zinc-binding proteins. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of zinc have long been documented, however, underlying mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Here, we report molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype during zinc deficiency. Furthermore, we describe links between altered zinc homeostasis and disease development. Consequently, the benefits of zinc supplementation for a malfunctioning immune system become clear. This article will focus on underlying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular signaling by alterations in zinc homeostasis. Effects of fast zinc flux, intermediate “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals will be discriminated. Description of zinc homeostasis-related effects on the activation of key signaling molecules, as well as on epigenetic modifications, are included to emphasize the role of zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function. PMID:29186856

  20. Effects of zinc complexes on the distribution of zinc in calcareous soil and zinc uptake by maize.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, José M; Rico, María I

    2003-09-10

    The movement and availability of Zn from six organic Zn sources in a Typic Xerorthent (calcareous) soil were compared by incubation, column assay, and in a greenhouse study with maize (Zea mays L.). Zinc soil behavior was studied by sequential, diethylenetriaminepentaacetate, and Mehlich-3 extractions. In the incubation experiment, the differences in Zn concentration observed in the water soluble plus exchangeable fraction strongly correlated with Zn uptake by plants in the greenhouse experiment. Zinc applied to the surface of soil columns scarcely moved into deeper layers except for Zn-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) that showed the greatest distribution of labile Zn throughout the soil and the highest proportion of leaching of the applied Zn. In the upper part of the column, changes in the chemical forms of all treatments occurred and an increase in organically complexed and amorphous Fe oxide-bound fractions was detected. However, the water soluble plus exchangeable fraction was not detected. The same results were obtained at the end of the greenhouse experiment. Significant increases were found in plant dry matter yield and Zn concentration as compared with the control treatment without Zn addition. Increasing Zn rate in the soil increased dry matter yield in all cases but Zn concentration in the plant increased only with Zn-EDTA and Zn-ethylenediaminedi-o-hydroxyphenyl-acetate (EDDHA) fertilizers. Higher Zn concentration in plants (50.9 mg kg(-)(1)) occurred when 20 mg Zn kg(-)(1) was added to the soil as Zn-EDTA. The relative effectiveness of the different Zn carriers in increasing Zn uptake was in the order: Zn-EDTA > Zn-EDDHA > Zn-heptagluconate >/= Zn-phenolate approximately Zn-polyflavonoid approximately Zn-lignosulfonate.

  1. Structural, optical, and electrical properties of Ni-doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared via sonicated sol-gel immersion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. S.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Saidi, S. A.; Yusoff, M. M.; Mohamed, R.; Sin, N. D. Md; Suriani, A. B.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Nickel (Ni)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod array films were synthesised using sonicated sol-gel immersion method. The FESEM images showed that the Ni-doped ZnO nanorod arrays possess hexagonal shape with average diameter about 120 nm and thickness about 1.10 µm. The Ni-doped ZnO nanorod arrays possess better transmittance properties with 3.27 eV of optical band gap energy and 40 meV of urbach energy. The current-voltage (I-V) measurement indicated that the conductivity of ZnO film slightly improved with Ni-doping. The doped film displayed good humidity sensing performance with sensitivity of 1.21.

  2. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Abbas Ali; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein

    2012-12-17

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  3. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area. PMID:23369182

  4. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  5. Gold, nickel and copper mining and processing.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, Nancy E; Pacey, Michael A; Darling, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Ore mining occurs in all Canadian provinces and territories except Prince Edward Island. Ores include bauxite, copper, gold, iron, lead and zinc. Workers in metal mining and processing are exposed, not only to the metal of interest, but also to various other substances prevalent in the industry, such as diesel emissions, oil mists, blasting agents, silica, radon, and arsenic. This chapter examines cancer risk related to the mining of gold, nickel and copper. The human carcinogenicity of nickel depends upon the species of nickel, its concentration and the route of exposure. Exposure to nickel or nickel compounds via routes other than inhalation has not been shown to increase cancer risk in humans. As such, cancer sites of concern include the lung, and the nasal sinus. Evidence comes from studies of nickel refinery and leaching, calcining, and sintering workers in the early half of the 20th century. There appears to be little or no detectable risk in most sectors of the nickel industry at current exposure levels. The general population risk from the extremely small concentrations detectable in ambient air are negligible. Nevertheless, animal carcinogenesis studies, studies of nickel carcinogenesis mechanisms, and epidemiological studies with quantitative exposure assessment of various nickel species would enhance our understanding of human health risks associated with nickel. Definitive conclusions linking cancer to exposures in gold and copper mining and processing are not possible at this time. The available results appear to demand additional study of a variety of potential occupational and non-occupational risk factors.

  6. A dynamic model for predicting growth in zinc-deficient stunted infants given supplemental zinc.

    PubMed

    Wastney, Meryl E; McDonald, Christine M; King, Janet C

    2018-05-01

    Zinc deficiency limits infant growth and increases susceptibility to infections, which further compromises growth. Zinc supplementation improves the growth of zinc-deficient stunted infants, but the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc supplementation required to restore growth in an individual child is unknown. A dynamic model of zinc metabolism that predicts changes in weight and length of zinc-deficient, stunted infants with dietary zinc would be useful to define effective zinc supplementation regimens. The aims of this study were to develop a dynamic model for zinc metabolism in stunted, zinc-deficient infants and to use that model to predict the growth response when those infants are given zinc supplements. A model of zinc metabolism was developed using data on zinc kinetics, tissue zinc, and growth requirements for healthy 9-mo-old infants. The kinetic model was converted to a dynamic model by replacing the rate constants for zinc absorption and excretion with functions for these processes that change with zinc intake. Predictions of the dynamic model, parameterized for zinc-deficient, stunted infants, were compared with the results of 5 published zinc intervention trials. The model was then used to predict the results for zinc supplementation regimes that varied in the amount, frequency, and duration of zinc dosing. Model predictions agreed with published changes in plasma zinc after zinc supplementation. Predictions of weight and length agreed with 2 studies, but overpredicted values from a third study in which other nutrient deficiencies may have been growth limiting; the model predicted that zinc absorption was impaired in that study. The model suggests that frequent, smaller doses (5-10 mg Zn/d) are more effective for increasing growth in stunted, zinc-deficient 9-mo-old infants than are larger, less-frequent doses. The dose amount affects the duration of dosing necessary to restore and maintain plasma zinc concentration and growth.

  7. Three dimensional-stacked complementary thin-film transistors using n-type Al:ZnO and p-type NiO thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Chen, Chia-Chi; Lee, Hsin-Ying

    2018-03-05

    The three dimensional inverters were fabricated using novel complementary structure of stacked bottom n-type aluminum-doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO) thin-film transistor and top p-type nickel oxide (NiO) thin-film transistor. When the inverter operated at the direct voltage (V DD ) of 10 V and the input voltage from 0 V to 10 V, the obtained high performances included the output swing of 9.9 V, the high noise margin of 2.7 V, and the low noise margin of 2.2 V. Furthermore, the high performances of unskenwed inverter were demonstrated by using the novel complementary structure of the stacked n-type Al:ZnO thin-film transistor and p-type nickel oxide (NiO) thin-film transistor.

  8. Electrochemical behavior of zinc particles with silica based coatings as anode material for zinc air batteries with improved discharge capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, M.; Willert-Porada, M.

    2017-05-01

    Silica coatings on zinc particles as anode material for alkaline zinc air batteries are expected to reduce early formation of irreversible ZnO passivation layers during discharge by controlling zinc dissolution and precipitation of supersaturated zincates, Zn(OH)42-. Zinc particles were coated with SiO2 (thickness: 15 nm) by chemical solution deposition and with Zn2SiO4 (thickness: 20 nm) by chemical vapor deposition. These coatings formed a Si(OH)4 gel in aqueous KOH and retarded hydrogen evolution by 40%. By treatment in aqueous KOH and drying afterwards, the silica coatings were changed into ZnO-K2O·SiO2 layers. In this work, the electrochemical performance of such coated zinc particles is investigated by different electrochemical methods in order to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of the coatings, which reduce zinc passivation. In particular, zinc utilization and changes in internal resistance are investigated. Moreover, methods for determination of diffusion coefficients, charge carrier numbers and activation energies for electrochemical oxidation are determined. SiO2-coated zinc particles show improved discharge capacity (CVD-coated zinc: 69% zinc utilization, CSD-coated zinc: 62% zinc utilization) as compared to as-received zinc (57% zinc utilization) at C/20 rate, by reducing supersaturation of zincates. Additionally, KOH-modified SiO2-coated zinc particles enhance rechargeability after 100% depth-of-discharge.

  9. Synthesis, structural, optical band gap and biological studies on iron (III), nickel (II), zinc (II) and mercury (II) complexes of benzyl α-monoxime pyridyl thiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedier, R. A.; Yousef, T. A.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; El-Gammal, O. A.

    2017-07-01

    New ligand, (E)-2-((E)-2-(hydroxyimino)-1,2-diphenylethylidene)-N-(pyridin-2 yl) hydrazinecarbothioamide (H2DPPT) and its complexes [Fe(DPPT)Cl(H2O)], [Ni(H2DPPT)2Cl2], [Zn(HDPPT)(OAc)] and [Hg(HDPPT)Cl](H2O)4 were isolated and characterized by various of physico-chemical techniques. IR spectra show that H2DPPT coordinates to the metal ions as neutral NN bidentate, mononegative NNS tridentate and binegative NNSN tetradentate, respectively. From the modeling studies, the bond length, bond angle, HOMO, LUMO and dipole moment had been calculated to confirm the geometry of the ligands and their investigated complexes. The thermal studies showed the type of water molecules involved in metal complexes Furthermore, the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different decomposition steps were calculated using the Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. Also, the optical band gap (Eg) has been calculated to elucidate the conductivity of the isolated complexes. The optical transition energy (Eg) is direct and equals 3.34 and 3.44 ev for Ni and Fe complexes, respectively. The ligand and their metal complexes were screened for antibacterial activity against the following bacterial species, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa and Escherichia coli. The results revealed that the metal complexes have more potent antibacterial compared with the ligand. Also, the degradation effect of the investigated compounds was tested showing that, Ni complex exhibited powerful and complete degradation effect on DNA.

  10. Root Uptake Of Lipophilic Zinc-Rhamnolipid Complexes

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated the formation and plant uptake of lipophilic metal-rhamnolipid complexes. Monorhamnosyl and dirhamnosyl rhamnolipids formed lipophilic complexes with copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). Rhamnolipids significantly increased Zn absorption by Bra...

  11. High-speed electrodeposition of copper-tin-zinc stacks from liquid metal salts for Cu2ZnSnSe4 solar cells.

    PubMed

    Steichen, Marc; Malaquias, João C; Arasimowicz, Monika; Djemour, Rabie; Brooks, Neil R; Van Meervelt, Luc; Fransaer, Jan; Binnemans, Koen; Dale, Phillip J

    2017-01-16

    Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 -based solar cells with 5.5% power conversion efficiency were fabricated from Cu/Sn/Zn stacks electrodeposited from liquid metal salts. These electrolytes allow metal deposition rates one order of magnitude higher than those of other deposition methods.

  12. Zinc-sensitive MRI contrast agent detects differential release of Zn(II) ions from the healthy vs. malignant mouse prostate.

    PubMed

    Clavijo Jordan, M Veronica; Lo, Su-Tang; Chen, Shiuhwei; Preihs, Christian; Chirayil, Sara; Zhang, Shanrong; Kapur, Payal; Li, Wen-Hong; De Leon-Rodriguez, Luis M; Lubag, Angelo J M; Rofsky, Neil M; Sherry, A Dean

    2016-09-13

    Many secretory tissues release Zn(II) ions along with other molecules in response to external stimuli. Here we demonstrate that secretion of Zn(II) ions from normal, healthy prostate tissue is stimulated by glucose in fasted mice and that release of Zn(II) can be monitored by MRI. An ∼50% increase in water proton signal enhancement is observed in T1-weighted images of the healthy mouse prostate after infusion of a Gd-based Zn(II) sensor and an i.p. bolus of glucose. Release of Zn(II) from intracellular stores was validated in human epithelial prostate cells in vitro and in surgically exposed prostate tissue in vivo using a Zn(II)-sensitive fluorescent probe known to bind to the extracellular surface of cells. Given the known differences in intracellular Zn(II) stores in healthy versus malignant prostate tissues, the Zn(II) sensor was then evaluated in a transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model in vivo. The agent proved successful in detecting small malignant lesions as early as 11 wk of age, making this noninvasive MR imaging method potentially useful for identifying prostate cancer in situations where it may be difficult to detect using current multiparametric MRI protocols.

  13. Ferritin: a zinc detoxicant and a zinc ion donor.

    PubMed Central

    Price, D; Joshi, J G

    1982-01-01

    Rats were injected with 1 mg of Zn2+ as zinc sulfate or 2 mg of Cd2+ as cadmium sulfate per kg of body weight on a daily basis. After seven injections, ferritin and metallothionein were isolated from the livers of the rats. Significant amounts of zinc were associated with ferritin. Incubation of such ferritin with apoenzymes of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase, yeast phosphoglucomutase, and yeast aldolase restored their enzymic activity. The amount of zinc injected was insufficient to stimulate significant synthesis of metallothionein, but similar experiments with injection of cadmium did stimulate the synthesis of metallothionein. The amount of Zn2+ in ferritin of Cd-injected rats was greater than that in ferritin in Zn-injected rats, which was greater than that in ferritin of normal rats. Thus at comparable protein concentration ferritin from Cd-injected rats was a better Zn2+ donor than was ferritin from Zn-injected or normal animals. Ferritin is a normal constituent of several tissues, whereas metallothionein is synthesized under metabolic stress. Thus ferritin may function as a "metal storage and transferring agent" for iron and for zinc. It is suggested that ferritin probably serves as the initial chelator for Zn2+ and perhaps other metal ions as well and that under very high toxic levels of metal ions the synthesis of metallothionein is initiated as the second line of defense. PMID:6212927

  14. PARADOXICAL ROLE OF ZINC IN CARDIAC INJURY: A POTENTIAL LINK TO ENVIRONMENTAL ZINC EXPOSURE AND CARDIOVASCULAR MORBIDITY

    EPA Science Inventory


    Zinc (Zn) is consistently detected in respirable air particulate matter (PM). We recently demonstrated that inhalation of environmental combustion PM containing Zn produces myocardial lesions in rats, supporting epidemiological associations of cardiac morbidity and mortality ...

  15. Zinc in Cellular Regulation: The Nature and Significance of "Zinc Signals".

    PubMed

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-10-31

    In the last decade, we witnessed discoveries that established Zn 2+ as a second major signalling metal ion in the transmission of information within cells and in communication between cells. Together with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ covers biological regulation with redox-inert metal ions over many orders of magnitude in concentrations. The regulatory functions of zinc ions, together with their functions as a cofactor in about three thousand zinc metalloproteins, impact virtually all aspects of cell biology. This article attempts to define the regulatory functions of zinc ions, and focuses on the nature of zinc signals and zinc signalling in pathways where zinc ions are either extracellular stimuli or intracellular messengers. These pathways interact with Ca 2+ , redox, and phosphorylation signalling. The regulatory functions of zinc require a complex system of precise homeostatic control for transients, subcellular distribution and traffic, organellar homeostasis, and vesicular storage and exocytosis of zinc ions.

  16. Biofouling of Cr-Nickel Spray Coated Films on Steel Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kento; Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ikigai, Hajime; Kogo, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2012-03-01

    , the former showed higher antifouling properties generally. Aluminium-zinc alloy spray coated films had higher antifouling property. And the anti-property decreased in this order: Al-Zn alloy spray coating > Zinc spray coating > Aluminium spray coating > Stacked chromium/nickel spray coating. Aluminium and zinc spray coating has been evaluated high conventionally for anti-biofouling in marine environment. However, the Cr/Ni spray coating showed pretty high anti-fouling property.

  17. Zinc Absorption by Young Adults from Supplemental Zinc Citrate Is Comparable with That from Zinc Gluconate and Higher than from Zinc Oxide123

    PubMed Central

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnić, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with 67Zn and 70Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6–71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6–71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9–57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

  18. Application of zinc oxide quantum dots in food safety

    Zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) are nanoparticles of purified powdered ZnO. The ZnO QDs were directly added into liquid foods or coated on the surface of glass jars using polylactic acid (PLA) as a carrier. The antimicrobial activities of ZnO QDs against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteriti...

  19. Hyperaccumulation of zinc by zinc-depleted Candida utilis grown in chemostat culture.

    PubMed

    Lawford, H G; Pik, J R; Lawford, G R; Williams, T; Kligerman, A

    1980-01-01

    The steady-state levels of zinc in Candida utilis yeast grown in continuous culture under conditions of zinc limitations are <1nmol Zn2+/mg dry weight of cells. Unlike carbon-limited cells, zinc-depleted cells from a zinc-limited chemostat possess the capacity to accumulate and store zinc at levels far in excess of the steady-state level of 4 nmol/mg dry biomass observed in carbon-limited chemostat cultures. Zinc uptake is energy-dependent and apparently undirectional since accumulated 65Zn neither exists from preloaded cells nor exchanges with cold Zn2+. The transport system exhibits a high affinity for Zn2+ (Km =.36micrM) with a Vmaxof 2.2 nmol per minute per milligram dry weight of cells. Growth during the period of the uptake assay is responsible for the apparent plateau level of 35 nmol Zn2+/mg dry weight of cells achieved after 20-30 min in the presence of 65Zn at pH 4.5 and 30 degrees C. Inhibition of growth during the uptake assay by cycloheximide results in a biphasic linear pattern of zinc accumulation where the cellular zinc is about 60 nmol/mg dry weight after 1 h. The enhanced level of accumulated zinc is not inhibtory to growth. Zinc-depleted C. utilis contains elevated amounts of polyphosphate and this anionic evidence does not allow discrimination between possible regulation of zinc homestasis either by inhibitions of zinc efflux through control of the membrane carrier or by control of the synthesis of a cytoplasmic zinc-sequestering macromolecule.

  20. Evidence for a zinc/proton antiporter in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Colvin, R A; Davis, N; Nipper, R W; Carter, P A

    2000-05-01

    The data presented in this paper are consistent with the existence of a plasma membrane zinc/proton antiport activity in rat brain. Experiments were performed using purified plasma membrane vesicles isolated from whole rat brain. Incubating vesicles in the presence of various concentrations of 65Zn2+ resulted in a rapid accumulation of 65Zn2+. Hill plot analysis demonstrated a lack of cooperativity in zinc activation of 65Zn2+ uptake. Zinc uptake was inhibited in the presence of 1 mM Ni2+, Cd2+, or CO2+. Calcium (1 mM) was less effective at inhibiting 65Zn2+ uptake and Mg2+ and Mn2+ had no effect. The initial rate of vesicular 65Zn2+ uptake was inhibited by increasing extravesicular H+ concentration. Vesicles preloaded with 65Zn2+ could be induced to release 65Zn2+ by increasing extravesicular H+ or addition of 1 mM nonradioactive Zn2+. Hill plot analysis showed a lack of cooperativity in H+ activation of 65Zn2+ release. Based on the Hill analyses, the stoichiometry of transport may include Zn2+/Zn2+ exchange and Zn2+/H+ antiport, the latter being potentially electrogenic. Zinc/proton antiport may be an important mode of zinc uptake into neurons and contribute to the reuptake of zinc to replenish presynaptic vesicle stores after stimulation.

  1. Nickel Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nickel allergy is a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis — an itchy rash that appears where your skin ... need to avoid contact. Symptoms An allergic reaction (contact dermatitis) usually begins within hours to days after exposure ...

  2. Effects of zinc addition to a copper-contaminated vineyard soil on sorption of Zn by soil and plant physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Tiecher, Tadeu L; Ceretta, Carlos A; Tiecher, Tales; Ferreira, Paulo A A; Nicoloso, Fernando T; Soriani, Hilda H; Rossato, Liana V; Mimmo, Tanja; Cesco, Stefano; Lourenzi, Cledimar R; Giachini, Admir J; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence of high levels of Cu in vineyard soils is often the result of intensive use of fungicides for the preventive control of foliar diseases and can cause toxicity to plants. Nowadays many grape growers in Southern Brazil have replaced Cu-based with Zn-based products. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the increase in Zn concentration in a soil with high Cu contents can interfere with the dynamics of these elements, and if this increase in Zn may cause toxicity to maize (Zea mays L.). Soil samples were collected in two areas, one in a vineyard with more than 30 years of cultivation and high concentration of Cu and the other on a natural grassland area adjacent to the vineyard. Different doses of Cu and Zn were added to the soil, and the adsorption isotherms were built following the Langmuir's model. In a second experiment, the vineyard soil was spiked with different Zn concentrations (0, 30, 60, 90, 180, and 270mg Zn kg(-1)) in 3kg pots where maize was grown in a greenhouse for 35 days. When Cu and Zn were added together, there was a reduction in the quantities adsorbed, especially for Zn. Zn addition decreased the total plant dry matter and specific leaf mass. Furthermore, with the increase in the activity of catalase, an activation of the antioxidant system was observed. However, the system was not sufficiently effective to reverse the stress levels imposed on soil, especially in plants grown in the highest doses of Zn. At doses higher than 90Znmgkg(-1) in the Cu-contaminated vineyard soil, maize plants were no longer able to activate the protection mechanism and suffered from metal stress, resulting in suppressed dry matter yields due to impaired functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus and changes in the enzymatic activity of plants. Replacement of Cu- by Zn-based fungicides to avoid Cu toxicity has resulted in soil vineyards contaminated with these metals and damaging of plant photosynthetic apparatus and enzyme activity. Copyright

  3. Zinc and copper behaviour at the soil-river interface: New insights by Zn and Cu isotopes in the organic-rich Rio Negro basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinoiseau, Damien; Gélabert, Alexandre; Allard, Thierry; Louvat, Pascale; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Benedetti, Marc F.

    2017-09-01

    The complex behaviour of Zn and Cu at the soil-river interface was investigated in soil and riverine water samples from the Rio Negro basin, a secondary tributary of the Rio Amazonas, using their stable isotope compositions. This acidic and organic river drains two types of intensely weathered terrains: podzols in its upstream part, and lateritic soils downstream. Bulk soil particles, suspended particulate matter (SPM) as well as colloidal fractions were sampled across the whole basin during low and high water stages. In the basin, Zn and Cu are mostly exported from lateritic soils and transported by organic colloids where significant losses are observed in the downstream part of the river. The use of δ66Zn and δ65Cu measurements reveals distinct stories for these two metals in suspended sediments and colloids. In the colloids, the constant δ66Zncoll across the basin is induced by the same weak association mode between Zn and organic ligands, regardless of the origin of the water. By contrast, in SPM, the speciation of Zn and thus δ66ZnSPM differ according to the type of drained soils. Zn is associated with organic complexes in particles exported with water draining podzol whereas Zn2+ is incorporated in the structure of the remaining kaolinite clays in lateritic output. The stronger reactivity of Cu than Zn with organic ligands induces its complete complexation. Copper is controlled by refractory particulate organic matter (POM) and by reactive colloidal organic matter; the latter being enriched in 65Cu due to stronger binding interactions than in POM. While the Cu content remains constant in the upstream part of the Rio Negro, downstream, the decrease of SPM and colloidal Cu fluxes is associated with a constant δ65CuSPM and with an increase of δ65Cucoll at the Rio Negro outlet. Geochemical mass balance modelling, based on SPM, Cu and Zn fluxes in SPM and their associated isotopic signatures, confirms distinct host phases for Zn and Cu, and identifies the

  4. Thermoluminescent properties of nanocrystalline ZnTe thin films: Structural and morphological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajpal, Shashikant; Kumar, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc Telluride (ZnTe) is a binary II-VI direct band gap semiconducting material with cubic structure and having potential applications in different opto-electronic devices. Here we investigated the effects of annealing on the thermoluminescence (TL) of ZnTe thin films. A nanocrystalline ZnTe thin film was successfully electrodeposited on nickel substrate and the effect of annealing on structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied. The TL emission spectrum of as deposited sample is weakly emissive in UV region at ∼328 nm. The variation in the annealing temperature results into sharp increase in emission intensity at ∼328 nm along with appearance of a new peak at ∼437 nm in visible region. Thus, the deposited nanocrystalline ZnTe thin films exhibited excellent thermoluminescent properties upon annealing. Furthermore, the influence of annealing (annealed at 400 °C) on the solid state of ZnTe were also studied by XRD, SEM, EDS, AFM. It is observed that ZnTe thin film annealed at 400 °C after deposition provide a smooth and flat texture suited for optoelectronic applications.

  5. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ross G.

    2008-01-01

    The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl2 inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

  6. Functional studies of Drosophila zinc transporters reveal the mechanism for dietary zinc absorption and regulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Zinc is key to the function of many proteins, but the process of dietary zinc absorption is not well clarified. Current knowledge about dietary zinc absorption is fragmented, and mostly derives from incomplete mammalian studies. To gain a comprehensive picture of this process, we systematically characterized all zinc transporters (that is, the Zip and ZnT family members) for their possible roles in dietary zinc absorption in a genetically amenable model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Results A set of plasma membrane-resident zinc transporters was identified to be responsible for absorbing zinc from the lumen into the enterocyte and the subsequent exit of zinc to the circulation. dZip1 and dZip2, two functionally overlapping zinc importers, are responsible for absorbing zinc from the lumen into the enterocyte. Exit of zinc to the circulation is mediated through another two functionally overlapping zinc exporters, dZnT1, and its homolog CG5130 (dZnT77C). Somewhat surprisingly, it appears that the array of intracellular ZnT proteins, including the Golgi-resident dZnT7, is not directly involved in dietary zinc absorption. By modulating zinc status in different parts of the body, we found that regulation of dietary zinc absorption, in contrast to that of iron, is unresponsive to bodily needs or zinc status outside the gut. The zinc transporters that are involved in dietary zinc absorption, including the importers dZip1 and dZip2, and the exporter dZnT1, are respectively regulated at the RNA and protein levels by zinc in the enterocyte. Conclusions Our study using the model organism Drosophila thus starts to reveal a comprehensive sketch of dietary zinc absorption and its regulatory control, a process that is still incompletely understood in mammalian organisms. The knowledge gained will act as a reference for future mammalian studies, and also enable an appreciation of this important process from an evolutionary perspective. PMID:24063361

  7. The Critical Roles of Zinc: Beyond Impact on Myocardial Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Ryul; Noh, Su Jin; Pronto, Julius Ryan; Jeong, Yu Jeong; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Song, In Sung; Xu, Zhelong; Kwon, Hyog Young; Kang, Se Chan; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Nari

    2015-01-01

    Zinc has been considered as a vital constituent of proteins, including enzymes. Mobile reactive zinc (Zn2+) is the key form of zinc involved in signal transductions, which are mainly driven by its binding to proteins or the release of zinc from proteins, possibly via a redox switch. There has been growing evidence of zinc's critical role in cell signaling, due to its flexible coordination geometry and rapid shifts in protein conformation to perform biological reactions. The importance and complexity of Zn2+ activity has been presumed to parallel the degree of calcium's participation in cellular processes. Whole body and cellular Zn2+ levels are largely regulated by metallothioneins (MTs), Zn2+ importers (ZIPs), and Zn2+ transporters (ZnTs). Numerous proteins involved in signaling pathways, mitochondrial metabolism, and ion channels that play a pivotal role in controlling cardiac contractility are common targets of Zn2+. However, these regulatory actions of Zn2+ are not limited to the function of the heart, but also extend to numerous other organ systems, such as the central nervous system, immune system, cardiovascular tissue, and secretory glands, such as the pancreas, prostate, and mammary glands. In this review, the regulation of cellular Zn2+ levels, Zn2+-mediated signal transduction, impacts of Zn2+ on ion channels and mitochondrial metabolism, and finally, the implications of Zn2+ in health and disease development were outlined to help widen the current understanding of the versatile and complex roles of Zn2+. PMID:26330751

  8. Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8A) could help differentiate latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) from phenotypic type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gan; Xiang, Yufei; Pan, Lingling; Li, Xia; Luo, Shuoming; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2013-07-01

    The ZnT8A is an independent marker for diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the distribution and clinical features of ZnT8A positive latent autoimmune diabetes in adult (LADA) patients to explore the potential diagnostic application. A total of 3062 phenotypic T2DM patients were randomly selected from a national multicenter study - the LADA China Study. Radioligand binding assays were applied to detect the presence of ZnT8A, GADA and IA-2A. HbA1c , fasting C-peptide and serum lipid levels were followed up with ZnT8A positive patients. The positive prevalence of ZnT8A, GADA and IA-2A in phenotypic T2DM patients was 1.99% (61/3062), 6.43% (197/3062) and 1.96% (60/3062), respectively. The ZnT8A positivity was lower than that of GADA(x²  = 74.8, p < 0.001) but was comparable with that of IA-2A (p > 0.05). The positivity of ZnT8A in IA-2A positive patients was higher than that in GADA positive patients (38.3% vs. 10.7%, x²  = 24.8, p < 0.001). On the basis of GADA and IA-2A positivity, the ZnT8A assay enhanced the diagnostic prevalence of LADA from 7.58 to 8.62%. The LADA patients who were positive for ZnT8A had higher systolic blood pressure when compared with GADA positive cases (p = 0.049) and higher total cholesterol levels when compared with antibody-negative T2DM patients (p = 0.035). The detection of ZnT8A at the basis of GADA and IA-2A can improve diagnostic sensitivity of Chinese LADA. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Zinc, copper, and lead in mid-ocean ridge basalts and the source rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits

    Doe, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    The contents of Zn, Cu, and Pb in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and the MORB source-rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits are examined. The values of Zn, Cu, and Pb for submarine mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are, respectively (in ppm): average MORB-75, 75, and 0.7; West Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR)-87, 64, and 0.5; southern JFR-120 and 0.5; and 21??N, East Pacific Rise (EPR)-73, 78, and 0.5. Values of Zn/Pb range from about 100-240 and Cu/ Pb from 100-156. In this study, Zn is found to correlate positively with TiO2 + FeO (mean square of weighted deviates, MSWD, of 1.6 for JFR basalt), and inversely with Mg number (MSWD of 3.5). Therefore, contrary to statements in the literature that Zn should be compatible in MORB, Zn is a mildly incompatible element and must be enriched in the glass phase relative to olivine as Zn does not fit into the other major phenocryst phase, plagioclase. In the source of MORB, Zn likely is most enriched in oxides: spinel, magnetite, and titanomagnetite. Copper generally does not correlate well with other elements in most MORB data examined. When differentiation is dominated by olivine, Cu has a tendency to behave incompatibly (e.g., at Mg numbers > 70), but, overall, Cu shows some tendency towards being a compatible element, particularly along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a behavior presumably due to separation of sulfides in which Cu (but not Zn) is markedly enriched. Copper thus may be in dispersed sulfides in the source of MORB. Ocean ridges provide important data on source-rock controls for sulfide deposits because, in sediment-starved ridges, much is known about the possible source rocks and mineralization is presently occurring. In contrast to Zn/Pb ~5 in continental hot Cl-rich brines, Zn/Pb in the hottest sediment-starved ridge black smoker hydrothermal fluids at 21 ??N, EPR is about 110, similar to local MORB (145), but Cu/Pb is closer to 30, possibly due to subsurface deposition of Cu. At the JFR, the best

  10. Selenization of Cu2ZnSnS4 Enhanced the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Improved Zinc-Site Catalytic Activity for I3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuwen; Xie, Ying; Bateer, Buhe; Pan, Kai; Jiao, Yanqing; Xiong, Ni; Wang, Song; Fu, Honggang

    2017-11-01

    Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) and Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 (CZTSSe) as promising photovoltaic materials have drawn much attention because they are environmentally benign and earth-abundant elements. In this work, the monodispersed, low-cost Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 nanocrystals with small size have been controllably synthesized via a wet chemical routine. And CZTSSe could be easily prepared after selenization of CZTS. When they are employed as counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been improved from 3.54% to 7.13% as CZTS is converted to CZTSSe, which is also compared to that of Pt (7.62%). The exact reason for the enhanced catalytic activity of I 3 - is discussed with the work function and density functional theory (DFT) when CZTSSe converted from CZTS. The results of a Kelvin probe suggest that the work function of CZTSSe (5.61 eV) is closer to that of Pt (5.65 eV) and higher than that of CZTS, which matched the redox shuttle potential better. According to the theory calculation, all the atomic and bond populations changed significantly when Se replaced partly the S on the CZTS system, especially in the Zn site. During the catalytic process as CEs, the adsorption energy obviously increased compared to those at other sites when I 3 - adsorbed on the Zn site in CZTSSe. So, Zn plays an important role for the reduction of I 3 - after CZTS is converted to CZTSSe. Based on above analysis, the reason for enhanced performance of DSSCs when CZTS converted to CZTSSe is mainly due to the enhancement of Zn-site activity. This work is beneficial for understanding the catalytic reaction mechanism of CZTS(Se) as CEs of DSSCs.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, and application of a Zn (II)-imprinted polymer grafted on graphene oxide/magnetic chitosan nanocomposite for selective extraction of zinc ions from different food samples.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Elahe; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Ranjbar, Mansoureh

    2017-12-15

    A novel Zn(II) imprinted polymer was synthesized via a co-precipitation method using graphene oxide/magnetic chitosan nanocomposite as supporting material. The synthesized imprinted polymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and applied as a sorbent for selective magnetic solid phase extraction of zinc followed by its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The kinetic and isothermal adsorption experiments were carried out and all parameters affecting the extraction process was optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the developed procedure exhibits a linear dynamic range of 0.5-5.0µgL -1 with a detection limit of 0.09µgL -1 and quantification limit of 0.3µgL -1 . The maximum sorption capacity of the sorbent was found to be 71.4mgg -1 . The developed procedure was successfully applied to the selective extraction and determination of zinc in various samples including well water, drinking water, black tea, rice, and milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A New Test of Copper and Zinc Abundances in Late-type Stars Using Ultraviolet Cu II and Zn II Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Barklem, Paul S.

    2018-04-01

    We present new abundances derived from Cu I, Cu II, Zn I, and Zn II lines in six warm (5766 ≤ {T}eff} ≤ 6427 K), metal-poor (‑2.50 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ ‑0.95) dwarf and subgiant (3.64 ≤ log g ≤ 4.44) stars. These abundances are derived from archival high-resolution ultraviolet spectra from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based optical spectra from several observatories. Ionized Cu and Zn are the majority species, and abundances derived from Cu II and Zn II lines should be largely insensitive to departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We find good agreement between the [Zn/H] ratios derived separately from Zn I and Zn II lines, suggesting that departures from LTE are, at most, minimal (≲0.1 dex). We find that the [Cu/H] ratios derived from Cu II lines are 0.36 ± 0.06 dex larger than those derived from Cu I lines in the most metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] < ‑1.8), suggesting that LTE underestimates the Cu abundance derived from Cu I lines. The deviations decrease in more metal-rich stars. Our results validate previous theoretical non-LTE calculations for both Cu and Zn, supporting earlier conclusions that the enhancement of [Zn/Fe] in metal-poor stars is legitimate, and the deficiency of [Cu/Fe] in metal-poor stars may not be as large as previously thought. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This work is supported by NASA through grant number AR-15051 and makes use of data from programs GO-7348, GO-8197, GO-9804, GO-14161, and GO-14672. This research has also made use of the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA), which is operated by the W.M. Keck Observatory and the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI), under contract with NASA. These data are associated

  13. Influence of DNA-methylation on zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells: Regulation of zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Jana Elena; Wessels, Inga; Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar; Uciechowski, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of intracellular zinc, predominantly regulated through zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins, is required to support an efficient immune response. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are involved in the expression of these genes. In demethylation experiments using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) increased intracellular (after 24 and 48h) and total cellular zinc levels (after 48h) were observed in the myeloid cell line HL-60. To uncover the mechanisms that cause the disturbed zinc homeostasis after DNA demethylation, the expression of human zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins were investigated. Real time PCR analyses of 14 ZIP (solute-linked carrier (SLC) SLC39A; Zrt/IRT-like protein), and 9 ZnT (SLC30A) zinc transporters revealed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the zinc importer ZIP1 after AZA treatment. Because ZIP1 protein was also enhanced after AZA treatment, ZIP1 up-regulation might be the mediator of enhanced intracellular zinc levels. The mRNA expression of ZIP14 was decreased, whereas zinc exporter ZnT3 mRNA was also significantly increased; which might be a cellular reaction to compensate elevated zinc levels. An enhanced but not significant chromatin accessibility of ZIP1 promoter region I was detected by chromatin accessibility by real-time PCR (CHART) assays after demethylation. Additionally, DNA demethylation resulted in increased mRNA accumulation of zinc binding proteins metallothionein (MT) and S100A8/S100A9 after 48h. MT mRNA was significantly enhanced after 24h of AZA treatment also suggesting a reaction of the cell to restore zinc homeostasis. These data indicate that DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism affecting zinc binding proteins and transporters, and, therefore, regulating zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Variable dimensionality and framework found in a series of quaternary zinc selenites, A{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}·xH{sub 2}O (A = Na, Rb, and Cs; 0≤x≤1) and Cs{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O

    SciT

    Lü, Minfeng; Jo, Hongil; Oh, Seung-Jin

    Five new alkali metal zinc selenites, A{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}·xH{sub 2}O (A = Na, Rb, and Cs; 0≤x≤1) and Cs{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O have been synthesized by heating a mixture of ZnO, SeO{sub 2} and A{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (A = Na, Rb, and Cs), and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic analyses techniques. All of the reported materials revealed a rich structural chemistry with different frameworks and connection modes of Zn{sup 2+}. While Rb{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4} and Cs{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}·H{sub 2}O revealed three-dimensional frameworks consisting of isolated ZnO{sub 4} tetrahedra and SeO{submore » 3} polyhedra, Na{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}, Cs{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}, and Cs{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O contained two-dimensional [Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}]{sup 2-} layers. Specifically, whereas isolated ZnO{sub 4} tetrahedra and SeO{sub 3} polyhedra are arranged into two-dimensional [Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}]{sup 2-} layers in two cesium compounds, circular [Zn{sub 3}O{sub 10}]{sup 14-} chains and SeO{sub 3} linkers are formed in two-dimensional [Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}]{sup 2-} layers in Na{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4}. Close structural examinations suggest that the size of alkali metal is significant in determining the framework geometry as well as connection modes of transition metal cations. - Graphical abstract: Variable dimensions and frameworks were found in a series of quaternary zinc selenites, A{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 4} (A = Na, Rb and Cs). - Highlights: • Five novel quaternary zinc selenites are synthesized. • All the selenites with different structures contain polarizable d{sup 10} and lone pair cations. • The size of alkali metal cations is significant in determining the framework geometry.« less

  15. The Zinc Transporter Zip5 (Slc39a5) Regulates Intestinal Zinc Excretion and Protects the Pancreas against Zinc Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Jim; De Lisle, Robert C.; Andrews, Glen K.

    2013-01-01

    Background ZIP5 localizes to the baso-lateral membranes of intestinal enterocytes and pancreatic acinar cells and is internalized and degraded coordinately in these cell-types during periods of dietary zinc deficiency. These cell-types are thought to control zinc excretion from the body. The baso-lateral localization and zinc-regulation of ZIP5 in these cells are unique among the 14 members of the Slc39a family and suggest that ZIP5 plays a role in zinc excretion. Methods/Principal Findings We created mice with floxed Zip5 genes and deleted this gene in the entire mouse or specifically in enterocytes or acinar cells and then examined the effects on zinc homeostasis. We found that ZIP5 is not essential for growth and viability but total knockout of ZIP5 led to increased zinc in the liver in mice fed a zinc-adequate (ZnA) diet but impaired accumulation of pancreatic zinc in mice fed a zinc-excess (ZnE) diet. Loss-of-function of enterocyte ZIP5, in contrast, led to increased pancreatic zinc in mice fed a ZnA diet and increased abundance of intestinal Zip4 mRNA. Finally, loss-of-function of acinar cell ZIP5 modestly reduced pancreatic zinc in mice fed a ZnA diet but did not impair zinc uptake as measured by the rapid accumulation of 67zinc. Retention of pancreatic 67zinc was impaired in these mice but the absence of pancreatic ZIP5 sensitized them to zinc-induced pancreatitis and exacerbated the formation of large cytoplasmic vacuoles containing secretory protein in acinar cells. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that ZIP5 participates in the control of zinc excretion in mice. Specifically, they reveal a paramount function of intestinal ZIP5 in zinc excretion but suggest a role for pancreatic ZIP5 in zinc accumulation/retention in acinar cells. ZIP5 functions in acinar cells to protect against zinc-induced acute pancreatitis and attenuate the process of zymophagy. This suggests that it may play a role in autophagy. PMID:24303081

  16. Agronomic Approach of Zinc Biofortification Can Increase Zinc Bioavailability in Wheat Flour and thereby Reduce Zinc Deficiency in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dunyi; Liu, Yumin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xinping; Zou, Chunqin

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a common disorder of humans in developing countries. The effect of Zn biofortification (via application of six rates of Zn fertilizer to soil) on Zn bioavailability in wheat grain and flour and its impacts on human health was evaluated. Zn bioavailability was estimated with a trivariate model that included Zn homeostasis in the human intestine. As the rate of Zn fertilization increased, the Zn concentration increased in all flour fractions, but the percentages of Zn in standard flour (25%) and bran (75%) relative to total grain Zn were constant. Phytic acid (PA) concentrations in grain and flours were unaffected by Zn biofortification. Zn bioavailability and the health impact, as indicated by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) saved, increased with the Zn application rate and were greater in standard and refined flour than in whole grain and coarse flour. The biofortified standard and refined flour obtained with application of 50 kg/ha ZnSO4·7H2O met the health requirement (3 mg of Zn obtained from 300 g of wheat flour) and reduced DALYs by >20%. Although Zn biofortification increased Zn bioavailability in standard and refined flour, it did not reduce the bioavailability of iron, manganese, or copper in wheat flour. PMID:28481273

  17. Agronomic Approach of Zinc Biofortification Can Increase Zinc Bioavailability in Wheat Flour and thereby Reduce Zinc Deficiency in Humans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dunyi; Liu, Yumin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xinping; Zou, Chunqin

    2017-05-06

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a common disorder of humans in developing countries. The effect of Zn biofortification (via application of six rates of Zn fertilizer to soil) on Zn bioavailability in wheat grain and flour and its impacts on human health was evaluated. Zn bioavailability was estimated with a trivariate model that included Zn homeostasis in the human intestine. As the rate of Zn fertilization increased, the Zn concentration increased in all flour fractions, but the percentages of Zn in standard flour (25%) and bran (75%) relative to total grain Zn were constant. Phytic acid (PA) concentrations in grain and flours were unaffected by Zn biofortification. Zn bioavailability and the health impact, as indicated by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) saved, increased with the Zn application rate and were greater in standard and refined flour than in whole grain and coarse flour. The biofortified standard and refined flour obtained with application of 50 kg/ha ZnSO₄·7H₂O met the health requirement (3 mg of Zn obtained from 300 g of wheat flour) and reduced DALYs by >20%. Although Zn biofortification increased Zn bioavailability in standard and refined flour, it did not reduce the bioavailability of iron, manganese, or copper in wheat flour.

  18. High energy density micro-fiber based nickel electrode for aerospace batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, Jennifer; Chiappetti, Dennis; Coates, Dwaine

    1996-01-01

    The nickel electrode is the specific energy limiting component in battery systems such as nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride and nickel-zinc. Lightweight, high energy density nickel electrodes have been developed which deliver in excess of 180 mAh/g at the one-hour discharge rate. These electrodes are based on a highly porous, nickel micro-fiber (less than 10 micron diameter) substrate, electrochemically impregnated with nickel-hydroxide active material. Electrodes are being tested both as a flooded half-cell and in full nickel-hydrogen and nickel-metal hydride cells. The electrode technology developed is applicable to commercial nickel-based batteries for applications such as electric vehicles, cellular telephones and laptop computers and for low-cost, high energy density military and aerospace applications.

  19. Zinc composite anode for batteries with solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedjar, F.; Melki, T.; Zerroual, L.

    A new negative composite anode for batteries with a solid electrolyte is studied. Using a complex of zinc ammonium chloride mixed with zinc metal powder, the advantage of the Zn/Zn 2+ electrode ( e = -760 mV) is kept while the energy density and the shelf-life of the battery are increased.

  20. Determination of zinc availability in foods by the extrinsic label technique.

    PubMed

    Evans, G W; Johnson, P E

    1977-06-01

    The absorption of intrinsic 65Zn and extrinsic 65Zn from corn and liver was measured in rats. No significant difference between the absorption of intrinsic- and extrinsic-label was observed. These results indicate that endogenous zinc and exogenous 65Zn enter a common pool prior to being absorbed from the intestine. Since extrinsic 65Zn enters a common pool with intrinsic zinc, whole-body absorption of extrinsic 65Zn can be used to obtain an accurate estimate of the availability of zinc in food. The availability of zinc in human breast milk, in cow's milk, in infant formulas, and in reconstituted dry milk was analyzed by use of the extrinsic label. The zinc in human breast milk was most available (59%) while the zinc in the infant formulas was the least available (26 to 37%). Zinc from both raw and cooked corn was more available than zinc from either cooked or uncooked rat liver.

  1. Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Iñigo-Figueroa, Gemma; Méndez-Estrada, Rosa O.; Quihui-Cota, Luis; Velásquez-Contreras, Carlos A.; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Canett-Romero, Rafael; Astiazarán-García, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA), low-zinc (ZnL), high-zinc (ZnH) and supplemented-zinc (ZnS) diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106 G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days). Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host’s humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS) than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection. PMID:24002196

  2. Development of Useful Biomaterial for Bone Tissue Engineering by Incorporating Nano-Copper-Zinc Alloy (nCuZn) in Chitosan/Gelatin/Nano-Hydroxyapatite (Ch/G/nHAp) Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Forero, Juan Carlos; Roa, Eduardo; Reyes, Juan G; Acevedo, Cristian; Osses, Nelson

    2017-10-17

    Ceramic and metallic nanoparticles can improve the mechanical and biological properties of polymeric scaffolds for bone tissue engineering (BTE). In this work, nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) and nano-copper-zinc alloy (nCuZn) were added to a chitosan/gelatin (Ch/G) scaffold in order to investigate the effects on morphological, physical, and biocompatibility properties. Scaffolds were fabricated by a freeze-drying technique using different pre-freezing temperatures. Microstructure and morphology were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), glass transition ( T g ) was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), cell growth was estimated by MTT assay, and biocompatibility was examined in vitro and in vivo by histochemistry analyses. Scaffolds and nanocomposite scaffolds presented interconnected pores, high porosity, and pore size appropriate for BTE. T g of Ch/G scaffolds was diminished by nanoparticle inclusion. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) cells loaded in the Ch/G/nHAp/nCuZn nanocomposite scaffold showed suitable behavior, based on cell adhesion, cell growth, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as a marker of osteogenic differentiation, and histological in vitro cross sections. In vivo subcutaneous implant showed granulation tissue formation and new tissue infiltration into the scaffold. The favorable microstructure, coupled with the ability to integrate nanoparticles into the scaffold by freeze-drying technique and the biocompatibility, indicates the potential of this new material for applications in BTE.

  3. The biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Krężel, Artur; Maret, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    The solution and complexation chemistry of zinc ions is the basis for zinc biology. In living organisms, zinc is redox-inert and has only one valence state: Zn(II). Its coordination environment in proteins is limited by oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur donors from the side chains of a few amino acids. In an estimated 10% of all human proteins, zinc has a catalytic or structural function and remains bound during the lifetime of the protein. However, in other proteins zinc ions bind reversibly with dissociation and association rates commensurate with the requirements in regulation, transport, transfer, sensing, signalling, and storage. In contrast to the extensive knowledge about zinc proteins, the coordination chemistry of the "mobile" zinc ions in these processes, i.e. when not bound to proteins, is virtually unexplored and the mechanisms of ligand exchange are poorly understood. Knowledge of the biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions is essential for understanding its cellular biology and for designing complexes that deliver zinc to proteins and chelating agents that remove zinc from proteins, for detecting zinc ion species by qualitative and quantitative analysis, and for proper planning and execution of experiments involving zinc ions and nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO). In most investigations, reference is made to zinc or Zn 2+ without full appreciation of how biological zinc ions are buffered and how the d-block cation Zn 2+ differs from s-block cations such as Ca 2+ with regard to significantly higher affinity for ligands, preference for the donor atoms of ligands, and coordination dynamics. Zinc needs to be tightly controlled. The interaction with low molecular weight ligands such as water and inorganic and organic anions is highly relevant to its biology but in contrast to its coordination in proteins has not been discussed in the biochemical literature. From the discussion in this article, it is becoming evident that zinc ion speciation is

  4. Characterisation of a Zn / Ni Plating Bath

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-03

    accelerated corrosion in the first stages which is then slowed down by its own product of corrosion, Zn(OH)212. Zinc hydroxide dehydrates in time to form ZnO ... Electrochemistry , 1991, 21, 642 [5] – Alfantasi, A.M., A study on the synthesis, characterization ans properties of pulse-plated ultrafine- grained Zn-Ni alloy

  5. Interaction of zinc with dental mineral.

    PubMed

    Ingram, G S; Horay, C P; Stead, W J

    1992-01-01

    As some currently available toothpastes contain zinc compounds, the reaction of zinc with dental mineral and its effect on crystal growth rates were studied using three synthetic calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites (HAP) as being representative of dental mineral. Zinc was readily acquired by all HAP samples in the absence of added calcium, the amount adsorbed being proportional to the HAP surface area; about 9 mumol Zn/m2 was adsorbed at high zinc concentrations. As zinc was acquired, calcium was released, consistent with 1:1 Ca:Zn exchange. Soluble calcium reduced zinc uptake and similarly, calcium post-treatment released zinc. Pretreatment of HAP with 0.5 mM zinc reduced its subsequent ability to undergo seeded crystal growth, as did extracts of a toothpaste containing 0.5% zinc citrate, even in the presence of saliva. The reverse reaction, i.e. displacement of adsorbed zinc by salivary levels of calcium, however, indicates the mechanism by which zinc can reduce calculus formation in vivo by inhibiting plaque mineralisation without adversely affecting the anti-caries effects of fluoride.

  6. Narrowing the gap: from semiconductor to semimetal in the homologous series of rare-earth zinc arsenides RE(2-y)Zn4As4·n(REAs) and Mn-substituted derivatives RE(2-y)Mn(x)Zn(4-x)As4·n(REAs) (RE = La-Nd, Sm, Gd).

    PubMed

    Lin, Xinsong; Tabassum, Danisa; Mar, Arthur

    2015-12-14

    A homologous series of ternary rare-earth zinc arsenides, prepared by reactions of the elements at 750 °C, has been identified with the formula RE(2-y)Zn4As4·n(REAs) (n = 2, 3, 4) for various RE members. They adopt trigonal structures: RE(4-y)Zn4As6 (RE = La-Nd), space group R3̄m1, Z = 3; RE(5-y)Zn4As7 (RE = Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd), space group P3̄m1, Z = 1; RE(6-y)Zn4As8 (RE = La-Nd, Sm, Gd), space group R3̄m1, Z = 3. The Zn atoms can be partially substituted by Mn atoms, resulting in quaternary derivatives RE(2-y)Mn(x)Zn(4-x)As4·n(REAs). Single-crystal structures were determined for nine ternary and quaternary arsenides RE(2-y)M4As4·n(REAs) (M = Mn, Zn) as representative examples of these series. The structures are built by stacking close-packed nets of As atoms, sometimes in very long sequences, with RE atoms occupying octahedral sites and M atoms occupying tetrahedral sites, resulting in an intergrowth of [REAs] and [M2As2] slabs. The recurring feature of all members of the homologous series is a sandwich of [M2As2]-[REAs]-[M2As2] slabs, while rocksalt-type blocks of [REAs] increase in thickness between these sandwiches with higher n. Similar to the previously known related homologous series REM(2-x)As2·n(REAs) which is deficient in M, this new series RE(2-y)M4As4·n(REAs) exhibits deficiencies in RE to reduce the electron excess that would be present in the fully stoichiometric formulas. Enthalpic and entropic factors are considered to account for the differences in site deficiencies in these two homologous series. Band structure calculations indicate that the semiconducting behaviour of the parent n = 0 member (with CaAl2Si2-type structure) gradually evolves, through a narrowing of the gap between valence and conduction bands, to semimetallic behaviour as the number of [REAs] blocks increases, to the limit of n = ∞ for rocksalt-type REAs.

  7. Physiological roles of zinc transporters: molecular and genetic importance in zinc homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hara, Takafumi; Takeda, Taka-Aki; Takagishi, Teruhisa; Fukue, Kazuhisa; Kambe, Taiho; Fukada, Toshiyuki

    2017-03-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace mineral that regulates the expression and activation of biological molecules such as transcription factors, enzymes, adapters, channels, and growth factors, along with their receptors. Zn deficiency or excessive Zn absorption disrupts Zn homeostasis and affects growth, morphogenesis, and immune response, as well as neurosensory and endocrine functions. Zn levels must be adjusted properly to maintain the cellular processes and biological responses necessary for life. Zn transporters regulate Zn levels by controlling Zn influx and efflux between extracellular and intracellular compartments, thus, modulating the Zn concentration and distribution. Although the physiological functions of the Zn transporters remain to be clarified, there is growing evidence that Zn transporters are related to human diseases, and that Zn transporter-mediated Zn ion acts as a signaling factor, called "Zinc signal". Here we describe critical roles of Zn transporters in the body and their contribution at the molecular, biochemical, and genetic levels, and review recently reported disease-related mutations in the Zn transporter genes.

  8. Do Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn biomagnify in aquatic ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Rick D; Deforest, David K; Brix, Kevin V; Adams, William J

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we sought to assess from a study of the literature whether five in organic metals (viz., cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc) bio magnify in aquatic food webs. We also examined whether accumulated metals were toxic to consumers/predators and whether the essential metals (Cu and Zn and possibly Ni) behaved differently from non-essential ones (Cd and Pb). Biomagnification potential was indexed by the magnitude of single and multiple trophic transfers in food chains. In this analysis, we used three lines of evidence-laboratory empirical, biokinetic modeling, and field studies-to make assessments. Trophic transfer factors, calculatedfrom lab studies, field studies, and biokinetic modeling, were generally congruent.Results indicated that Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn generally do not biomagnify in food chains consisting of primary producers, macro invertebrate consumers, and fish occupying TL 3 and higher. However, bio magnification of Zn (TTFs of 1-2) is possible for circumstances in which dietary Zn concentrations are below those required for metabolism. Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn may biomagnify in specific marine food chains consisting of bivalves, herbivorous gastropods, and barnacles at TL2 and carnivorous gastropods at TL3. There was an inverse relationship between TTF and exposure concentration for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, a finding that is consistent with previous reviews of bioconcentration factors and bioaccumulation factors for metals. Our analysis also failed to demonstrate a relationship between the magnitude of TTFsand dietary toxicity to consumer organisms. Consequently, we conclude that TTFs for the metals examined are not an inherently useful predictor of potential hazard(i.e., toxic potential) to aquatic organisms. This review identified several uncertainties or data gaps, such as the relatively limited data available for nickel, reliance upon highly structured food chains in laboratory studies compared to the unstructured food webs found in nature, and

  9. Effects of Zinc Glycinate on Productive and Reproductive Performance, Zinc Concentration and Antioxidant Status in Broiler Breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yong-Xia; Xiao, Xue; Wang, Jiang-Shui; Wang, Qian; Li, Kai-Xuan; Guo, Tian-Yu; Zhan, Xiu-An

    2017-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc glycinate (Zn-Gly) supplementation as an alternative for zinc sulphate (ZnSO 4 ) on productive and reproductive performance, zinc (Zn) concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders. Six hundred 39-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 6 groups consisting of 4 replicates with 25 birds each. Breeders were fed a basal diet (control group, 24 mg Zn/kg diet), basal diet supplemented with 80 mg Zn/kg diet from ZnSO 4 or basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg Zn/kg diet from Zn-Gly. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks after a 4-week pre-test with the basal diet, respectively. Results showed that Zn supplementation, regardless of sources, improved (P < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio (kilogram of feed/kilogram of egg) and decreased broken egg rate, and elevated (P < 0.05) the qualified chick rate. Compared with the ZnSO 4 group, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly increased (P < 0.05) average egg weight, fertility, hatchability and qualified chick rate, whereas it decreased (P < 0.05) broken egg rate. The Zn concentrations in liver and muscle were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group than that in ZnSO 4 group. Compared with ZnSO 4 group, 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group significantly elevated (P < 0.05) the mRNA abundances of metallothionein (MT) and copper-zinc superoxide (Cu-Zn SOD), as well as the Cu-Zn SOD activity and MT concentration in liver. Moreover, the 80 mg Zn/kg Zn-Gly group had higher (P < 0.05) serum T-SOD and Cu-Zn SOD activities than that in the ZnSO 4 group. This study indicated that supplementation of Zn in basal diet improved productive and reproductive performance, Zn concentration and antioxidant status in broiler breeders, and the 80 mg Zn/kg from Zn-Gly was the optimum choice for broiler breeders compared with other levels of Zn from Zn-Gly and 80 mg/kg Zn from ZnSO 4 .

  10. Cs promoted oxidation of Zn and CuZn surfaces: a combined experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Sanjay; Rodriguez, JoséA.; Hrbek, Jan

    1997-07-01

    The interaction of O 2 with Zn, {Cs}/{Zn} and {Cs}/{CuZn} surfaces was investigated using photoemission and ab initio self-consistent-field (SCF) calculations. On zinc films, the sticking probability of O 2 is extremely low (10 -3-10 -2), and O 2 exposures in the range of 10 3 to 10 4 langmuirs are necessary to produce a significant adsorption of oxygen and the transformation of metallic zinc into zinc oxide. The presence of sub monolayer coverages of cesium enhances the oxidation rate of zinc by 2-3 orders of magnitude. In the {Cs}/{Zn} system, the alkali atom donates electrons to zinc. This charge transfer facilitates the formation of Zn→O 2 dative bonds and breaking of the OO bond. For the coadsorption of Cs and O 2 on Zn(001), the larger the electron transfer from Zn into the O 2 (1 πg) orbitals, the bigger the adsorption energy of the molecule and the elongation of the OO bond. In general, cesium does not promote the oxidation of copper. In the {Cs}/{CuZn} system, copper withdraws electrons from zinc. The presence of copper in the {Cs}/{CuZn} system inhibits the oxidation of the Zn component compared with the {Cs}/{Zn} system by lowering the electron density on the Zn atoms. After exposing the {Cs}/{CuZn} system to O 2, zinc is oxidized at a rate that is larger than that found for clean CuZn surfaces and smaller than seen in {Cs}/{Zn} surfaces. Molecular hydrogen is found to have no effect on oxidized Cu, Zn and CuZn films. However, atomic hydrogen reduces ZnO to metallic zinc and CuO to Cu 2O. In the oxidized CuZn alloy, CuO is reduced first followed by the reduction of ZnO. A comparison of the behavior of O 2/Cs/Zn and H 2O/Cs/Zn systems shows that while O 2 causes severe oxidation of Cs promoted Zn surfaces, H 2O has little or no effect.

  11. An overview of zinc addition for BWR dose rate control

    SciT

    Marble, W.J.

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the BWRs employing feedwater zinc addition to reduce primary system dose rates. It identifies which BWRs are using zinc addition and reviews the mechanical injection and passive addition hardware currently being employed. The impact that zinc has on plant chemistry, including the factor of two to four reduction in reactor water Co-60 concentrations, is discussed. Dose rate results, showing the benefits of implementing zinc on either fresh piping surfaces or on pipes with existing films are reviewed. The advantages of using zinc that is isotopically enhanced by the depletion of the Zn-64 precursor tomore » Zn-65 are identified.« less

  12. Single and combined effects of aluminum (Al2O3) and zinc (ZnO) oxide nanoparticles in a freshwater fish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Benavides, María; Fernández-Lodeiro, Javier; Coelho, Pedro; Lodeiro, Carlos; Diniz, Mário S

    2016-12-01

    The increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) worldwide has raised some concerns about their impact on the environment. The aim of the study was to assess the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles, singly or combined, in a freshwater fish (Carassius auratus). The fish were exposed for 7, 14, and 21 days to different concentrations of NPs (10 μg Al 2 O 3 .L -1 , 10 μg ZnO.L -1 , 10 μg Al 2 O 3 .L -1 plus 10 μg ZnO.L -1 , 100 μg Al 2 O 3 .L -1 , 100 μg ZnO.L -1 , and 100 μg Al 2 O 3 .L -1 plus 100 μg ZnO.L -1 ). At the end of each exposure period, antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase), lipid peroxidation, and histopathology were assessed in the gills and livers of C. auratus. The results show an increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the gills and livers of fish, especially after 14 days of exposure to single and combined NPs, followed by a reduction at 21 days. An increase in glutathione S-transferase (GST) was observed in gills after 7 days for all tested NP concentrations (single and combined); while in livers, a significant increase was determined after 14 days of exposure to 100 μg.L -1 of both single ZnO and Al 2 O 3 NPs. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) significantly increased in gills after 7 days of exposure to 100 μg.L -1 Al 2 O 3 NPs (single or combined). In livers, LPO increased significantly after 7 days of exposure to all tested concentrations of both single ZnO and Al 2 O 3 (except for 10 μg Al 2 O 3 .L -1 ), and after 14 days of exposure to ZnO (10 and 100 μg.L -1 ) and Al 2 O 3 (100 μg.L -1 ) . The results from histological observations suggest that exposure to metal oxide NPs affected both livers and gills, presenting alterations such as gill hyperplasia and liver degeneration. However, the most pronounced effects were found in gills. In general, this study shows that the tested NPs, single or combined, are capable of causing sub-lethal effects

  13. Zinc Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Eye Conditions Clinical Digest: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Related Resources From Other Agencies Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) ( NEI ) Can Zinc Be Harmful? ( ODS ) Zinc ( ODS ) Follow NCCIH: Read our disclaimer ...

  14. Longitudinal changes in zinc transport kinetics, metallothionein, and zinc transporter expression in a blood-brain barrier model in response to a moderately excessive zinc environment$

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Nicole A.; Karki, Shakun; Olley, Bryony J.; Thomas, W. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    A blood-brain barrier (BBB) model composed of porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (BCEC) was exposed to a moderately excessive zinc environment (50 µmol Zn/L) in cell culture and longitudinal measurements were made of zinc transport kinetics, ZnT-1 (SLC30A1) expression, and changes in the protein concentration of metallothionein (MT), ZnT-1, ZnT-2 (SLC30A2), and Zip1 (SLC39A1). Zinc release by cells of the BBB model was significantly increased after 12–24 h of exposure, but decreased back to control levels after 48–96 h, as indicated by transport across the BBB from both the ablumenal (brain) and lumenal (blood) directions. Expression of ZnT-1, the zinc export protein, increased 169% within 12 h, but was no longer different from controls after 24 h. Likewise, ZnT-1 protein content increased transiently after 12 h of exposure but returned to control levels by 24 h. Capacity for zinc uptake and retention increased from both the lumenal and ablumenal directions within 12–24 h of exposure and remained elevated. MT and ZnT-2 were elevated within 12 h and remained elevated throughout the study. Zip1 was unchanged by the treatment. The BBB’s response to a moderately high zinc environment was dynamic and involved multiple mechanisms. The initial response was to increase the cell’s capacity to sequester zinc with additional MT and increase zinc export with the ZnT-1 protein. But, the longer term strategy involved increasing ZnT-2 transporters, presumably to sequester zinc into intracellular vesicles as a mechanism to protect the brain and maintain brain zinc homeostasis. PMID:18061429

  15. Distribution and mobility of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and antimony (Sb) from ammunition residues on shooting ranges for small arms located on mires.

    PubMed

    Mariussen, Espen; Johnsen, Ida Vaa; Strømseng, Arnljot Einride

    2017-04-01

    An environmental survey was performed on shooting ranges for small arms located on minerotrophic mires. The highest mean concentrations of Pb (13 g/kg), Cu (5.2 g/kg), Zn (1.1 g/kg), and Sb (0.83 g/kg) in the top soil were from a range located on a poor minerotrophic and acidic mire. This range had also the highest concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, and Sb in discharge water (0.18 mg/L Pb, 0.42 mg/L Cu, 0.63 mg/L Zn, and 65 μg/L Sb) and subsurface soil water (2.5 mg/L Pb, 0.9 mg/L Cu, 1.6 mg/L Zn, and 0.15 mg/L Sb). No clear differences in the discharge of ammunition residues between the mires were observed based on the characteristics of the mires. In surface water with high pH (pH ~7), there was a trend with high concentrations of Sb and lower relative concentrations of Cu and Pb. The relatively low concentrations of ammunition residues both in the soil and soil water, 20 cm below the top soil, indicates limited vertical migration in the soil. Channels in the mires, made by plant roots or soil layer of less decomposed materials, may increase the rate of transport of contaminated surface water into deeper soil layers and ground water. A large portion of both Cu and Sb were associated to the oxidizable components in the peat, which may imply that these elements form inner-sphere complexes with organic matter. The largest portion of Pb and Zn were associated with the exchangeable and pH-sensitive components in the peat, which may imply that these elements form outer-sphere complexes with the peat.

  16. Recovery of manganese and zinc from spent Zn-C cell powder: Experimental design of leaching by sulfuric acid solution containing glucose.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ranjit K; Karmakar, Aneek K; Kumar, Sree L

    2016-05-01

    The spent Zn-C cell powder, containing ZnMn2O4, ZnO, MnO(OH) and possibly Mn2O3 and Mn3O4, can be leached by a sulfuric acid solution mixed with some glucose. The leaching is found to be dependent on solid to liquid (S/L) ratio, amount of glucose, concentration of sulfuric acid solution, time and pulp agitation speed. For 5g powder (S), 1h leaching time and 300rpm pulp agitation speed, two-level four-factor (2(4)) experimental designs have been carried out to derive models for extraction of both Mn(II) and Zn(II). Amount of glucose (G, g), concentration of H2SO4 solution (C, mol/L), volume of H2SO4 solution as leachant (L, mL) and leaching temperature (T, °C) are considered as factors (variables). The model in both cases consists of mean, factor effects and interaction effects. The four-factor interaction effect is observed in neither of the cases. Some two-factor and three-factor effects are found to have produced positive or negative contributions to dissolution percentage in both cases. The models are examined for comparison with experimental results with good fits and also used for optimization of factors. At optimized condition (G=0.50g, C=2mol/L, L=250mL and T=100°C), an aliquot of 5g powder in 1h and at 300rpm produces a solution containing (7.08±0.10)g/L Mn(II) and (2.20±0.06)g/L Zn(II) corresponding to almost 100% extraction of both metal ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Low-temperature solution-processed zinc oxide field effect transistor by blending zinc hydroxide and zinc oxide nanoparticle in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyeonwoo; Kang, Chan-mo; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Kim, Jun Young; Do, Lee-Mi; Lee, Changhee

    2018-05-01

    We present a novel methods of fabricating low-temperature (180 °C), solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) transistors using a ZnO precursor that is blended with zinc hydroxide [Zn(OH)2] and zinc oxide hydrate (ZnO • H2O) in an ammonium solution. By using the proposed method, we successfully improved the electrical performance of the transistor in terms of the mobility (μ), on/off current ratio (I on/I off), sub-threshold swing (SS), and operational stability. Our new approach to forming a ZnO film was systematically compared with previously proposed methods. An atomic forced microscopic (AFM) image and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that our method increases the ZnO crystallite size with less OH‑ impurities. Thus, we attribute the improved electrical performance to the better ZnO film formation using the blending methods.

  18. High performance zinc anode for battery applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, John E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An improved zinc anode for use in a high density rechargeable alkaline battery is disclosed. A process for making the zinc electrode comprises electrolytic loading of the zinc active material from a slightly acidic zinc nitrate solution into a substrate of nickel, copper or silver. The substrate comprises a sintered plaque having very fine pores, a high surface area, and 80-85 percent total initial porosity. The residual porosity after zinc loading is approximately 25-30%. The electrode of the present invention exhibits reduced zinc mobility, shape change and distortion, and demonstrates reduced dendrite buildup cycling of the battery. The disclosed battery is useful for applications requiring high energy density and multiple charge capability.

  19. Effects of dietary supplementation with tribasic zinc sulfate or zinc sulfate on growth performance, zinc content and expression of zinc transporters in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bo; Zhou, Xihong; Wu, Jie; Long, Ciming; Yao, Yajun; Peng, Hongxing; Wan, Dan; Wu, Xin

    2017-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of zinc sulfate (ZS) and tribasic zinc sulfate (TBZ) as sources of supplemental zinc on growth performance, serum zinc (Zn) content and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Zn transporters (ZnT1/ZnT2/ZnT5/ZIP4/DMT1) of young growing pigs. A total of 96 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire pigs were randomly allotted to two treatments and were fed a basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg Zn from either ZS or TBZ for 28 days. Feed : gain ratio in pigs fed TBZ were lower (P < 0.05) than pigs fed ZS, and average daily weight gain tended to increase (0.05 ≤ P ≤ 0.10) in pigs fed TBZ. Compared with pigs fed ZS, pigs fed TBZ had a higher CuZn-superoxide dismutase and Zn content in serum (P < 0.05) while they had a lower Zn content in feces (P < 0.05). In addition, ZIP4 mRNA expression of zinc transporter in either duodenum or jejunum of pigs fed TBZ were higher (P < 0.05) than pigs fed ZS. These results indicate that TBZ is more effective in serum Zn accumulation and intestinal Zn absorption, and might be a potential substitute for ZS in young growing pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Nickel subsulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel subsulfide ; CASRN 12035 - 72 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  1. Nickel carbonyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel carbonyl ; CASRN 13463 - 39 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  2. Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Thomas C.; McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1994-01-01

    An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing KOH and a combination of KF and K.sub.2 CO.sub.3 salts which inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics.

  3. Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode

    DOEpatents

    Adler, T.C.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

    1994-04-12

    An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing KOH and a combination of KF and K[sub 2]CO[sub 3] salts which inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics. 8 figures.

  4. Layered zinc hydroxide monolayers by hydrolysis of organozincs† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: LZH-OAc and LZH-OHex characterisation data (powder XRD, IR, SEM, TGA, DTA), bulk LZH-Ole solid-state SAXS data, exfoliated LZH-Ole TEM data, AFM data with histogram and line profiles of samples (N ∼ 100) taken from image, UV-vis spectra of ZnO@Ole and ZnO thin films, 1H NMR of LZH-Ole, ZnO@Ole and pre-hydrolysis mixture of synthesis of LZH-Ole, photographs of thin films of LZH-Ole and ZnO on glass substrate, method used for determining the content of ZnO nanoparticles in synthesis mixture, calculation of yields of LZHs based on Zn. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc04256f

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Alice H. M.; Pike, Sebastian D.; Clancy, Adam J.; Yau, Hin Chun; Lee, Won Jun; Orchard, Katherine L.

    2018-01-01

    2D inorganic materials and their exfoliated counterparts are both of fundamental interest and relevant for applications including catalysis, electronics and sensing. Here, a new bottom-up synthesis route is used to prepare functionalised nanoplatelets, in apolar organic solvents, via the hydrolysis of organometallic reagents; the products can be prepared in high yield, at room temperature. In particular, a series of layered zinc hydroxides, coordinated by aliphatic carboxylate ligands, were produced by the hydrolysis of diethyl zinc and zinc carboxylate mixtures, optimally at a molar ratio of [COOR]/[Zn] = 0.6. Layered zinc hydroxides coordinated by oleate ligands form high concentration solutions of isolated monolayers (3 nm thick x ∼ 26 nm) in apolar organic solvents (up to 23 mg mL–1 in toluene), as confirmed by both atomic force and transmission electron microscopies of deposited species. The high solubility of the product allows the synthetic pathway to be monitored directly in situ through 1H NMR spectroscopy. The high solubility also provides a route to solution deposition of active functional materials, as illustrated by the formation of nanoporous films of optically transparent porous zinc oxide (1 μm thickness) after annealing at 500 °C. This new organometallic route to 2D materials obviates common complications of top-down exfoliation syntheses, including sonochemical-degradation and low yields of aggregated polydispersed layers, and may potentially be extended to a wide range of systems. PMID:29719687

  5. Studies on the bioavailability of zinc in humans: intestinal interaction of tin and zinc.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Marchini, J S; Duarte-Favaro, R M; Vannuchi, H; Dutra de Oliveira, J E

    1983-04-01

    Mineral/mineral interactions at the intestinal level are important in animal nutrition and toxicology, but only limited understanding of their extent or importance in humans has been developed. An inhibitory interaction of dietary tin on zinc retention has been recently described from human metabolic studies. We have explored the tin/zinc interaction using the change-in-plasma-zinc-concentration method with a standard dosage of 12.5 mg of zinc as zinc sulfate in 100 ml of Coca-Cola. Sn/Zn ratios of 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1, constituted by addition of 25, 50, and 100 mg of tin as stannous chloride, had no significant overall effect on zinc uptake. The 100-mg dose of tin produced noxious gastrointestinal symptoms. Addition of iron as ferrous sulfate to form ratios of Sn/Fe/Zn of 1:1:1 and 2:2:1 with the standard zinc solution and the appropriate doses of tin produced a reduction of zinc absorption not dissimilar from that seen previously with zinc and iron alone, and addition of picolinic acid did not influence the uptake of zinc from the solution with the 2:2:1 Sn/Fe/Zn ratio.

  6. Nucleation and growth of zinc oxide nanorods directly on metal wire by sonochemical method.

    PubMed

    Rayathulhan, Ruzaina; Sodipo, Bashiru Kayode; Aziz, Azlan Abdul

    2017-03-01

    ZnO nanorods were directly grown on four different wires (silver, nickel, copper, and tungsten) using sonochemical method. Zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) were used as precursors. Influence of growth parameters such as precursors' concentration and ultrasonic power on the grown nanorods were determined. The results demonstrated that the precursor concentration affected the growth structure and density of the nanorods. The morphology, distribution, and orientation of nanorods changed as the ultrasonic power changed. Nucleation of ZnO nanorods on the wire occurred at lower ultrasonic power and when the power increased, the formation and growth of ZnO nanorods on the wires were initiated. The best morphology, size, distribution, and orientation of the nanorods were observed on the Ag wire. The presence of single crystal nanorod with hexagonal shaped was obtained. This shape indicates that the ZnO nanorods corresponded to the hexagonal wurtzite structure with growth preferential towards the (002) direction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prenatal zinc supplementation of zinc-adequate rats adversely affects immunity in offspring.

    PubMed

    Sharkar, Mohammad T K; Jou, Ming-Yu; Hossain, Mohammad B; Lönnerdal, Bo; Stephensen, Charles B; Raqib, Rubhana

    2011-08-01

    We previously showed that zinc (Zn) supplementation of Zn-adequate dams induced immunosuppressive effects that persist in the offspring after weaning. We investigated whether the immunosuppressive effects were due to in utero exposure and/or mediated via milk using a cross-fostering design. Pregnant rats with adequate Zn nutriture were supplemented with either Zn (1.5 mg Zn in 10% sucrose) or placebo (10% sucrose) during pregnancy (3 times/wk). At postnatal d 3, 4 pups of Zn-supplemented dams (Zn-P) were exchanged with 4 of placebo-supplemented dams (P-Zn). The remaining pups continued with their biological mothers (Zn-Zn and P-P). Pups were orally immunized with dinitrophenol ovalbumin-BSA and/or cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), and serum Zn concentrations and cellular and humoral responses were assessed. Pups of Zn-supplemented dams had higher serum Zn when fostered either by placebo- or Zn-supplemented dams compared to pups of placebo-supplemented dams (P < 0.01). Postnatal Zn exposure reduced the number of Peyer's patches in both the Zn-Zn and P-Zn groups (P < 0.01). Prenatal Zn exposure suppressed CTB- (P = 0.05) and BSA-specific proliferation response of Peyer's Patch lymphocytes (P = 0.07). Prenatal Zn exposure effects on the splenocyte cytokine response were differently influenced by fostering mothers' Zn status. Antigen presenting cell (APC) activity of splenocytes was lower in the Zn-Zn group than in the P-P group (P < 0.08). In conclusion, prenatal Zn exposure increases serum Zn levels in pups and suppresses antigen-specific proliferation and antibody responses and APC function, whereas postnatal exposure may suppress the mucosal immune reservoir.

  8. Zinc transport and diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Ewan

    2014-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have previously identified variants in SLC30A8, encoding the zinc transporter ZnT8, associated with diabetes risk. A rare variant association study has now established the direction of effect, surprisingly showing that loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 are protective against diabetes.

  9. Hierarchical Carbon Fibers with ZnO Nanowires for Volatile Sensing in Composite Curing (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    needed to demonstrate the use of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanowire coated carbon fibers as a volatile sensor. ZnO nanowires are demonstrated to function as...processing. For this work, we report on the foundational study needed to demonstrate the use of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanowire coated carbon fibers as a...array of ZnO nanowires. Zinc oxide nanowires become more conductive in the presence of ethanol – as analyte sorbs to the surface, electron density

  10. Investigation of ZnO Nanowire Interfaces for Multi-Scale Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-06

    growth of zinc oxide ( ZnO ) nanowires on the surface of the...through the growth of zinc oxide ( ZnO ) nanowires on the surface of the reinforcing fibers. The nanowires functionally grade the interface, improve bonding...bulk composite. This has been accomplished through the growth of zinc oxide ( ZnO ) nanowires on the surface of the reinforcing fibers. ZnO

  11. Comparative studies on acid leaching of zinc waste materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnik, Ewa; Włoch, Grzegorz; Szatan, Leszek

    2017-11-01

    Three industrial waste materials were characterized in terms of their elemental and phase compositions, leaching behaviour in 10% sulfuric acid solution as well as leaching thermal effects. Slag from melting of mixed metallic scrap contained about 50% Zn and 10% Pb. It consisted mainly of various oxides and oxy-chlorides of metals. Zinc spray metallizing dust contained about 77% Zn in form of zinc and/or zinc-iron oxides, zinc metal and Zn-Fe intermetallic. Zinc ash from hot dip galvanizing was a mixture of zinc oxide, metallic zinc and zinc hydroxide chloride and contained about 80% Zn. Dissolution efficiency of zinc from the first material was 80% (independently on the solid to liquid ratio, 50-150 kg/m3), while decrease of the efficacy from 80% to 60% with increased solid to liquid ratio for the two remaining materials was observed. Both increase in the temperature (20 °C to 35 °C) and agitation rate (300 rpm to 900 rpm) did not improve seriously the leaching results. In all cases, transfer of zinc ions to the leachate was accompanied by different levels of solution contamination, depending on the type of the waste. Leaching of the materials was exothermic with the similar reaction heats for two high oxide-type products (slag, zinc ash) and higher values for the spray metallizing dust.

  12. Atmospheric Deposition-Carried Zn and Cd from a Zinc Smelter and Their Effects on Soil Microflora as Revealed by 16S rDNA

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Feng; Li, Yanxia; Zhang, Min; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Ali, Amjad; Li, Ronghua; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of heavy metals (HM) on total soil bacterial population and its diversity pattern from 10 km distance of a Zinc smelter in Feng County, Qinling Mountain, China. We characterized and identified the bacterial community in a HM polluted soil using 16S rDNA technology. Out results indicated that the maximum soil HM concentration and the minimum bacterial population were observed in S2 soil, whereas bacterial diversity raised with the sampling distance increased. The bacterial communities were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria in cornfield soils, except Fimicutes phylum which dominated in hilly area soil. The soil CEC, humic acid (HA)/fulvic acid (FA) and microbial OTUs increased with the sampling distance increased. Shewanella, Halomonas and Escherichia genera were highly tolerant to HM stress in both cultivated and non-cultivated soil. Finally, we found a consistent correlation of bacterial diversity with total HM and SOM along the sampling distance surrounding the zinc smelter, which could provide a new insight into the bacterial community-assisted and phytoremediation of HM contaminated soils. PMID:27958371

  13. Atmospheric Deposition-Carried Zn and Cd from a Zinc Smelter and Their Effects on Soil Microflora as Revealed by 16S rDNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Feng; Li, Yanxia; Zhang, Min; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Ali, Amjad; Li, Ronghua; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of heavy metals (HM) on total soil bacterial population and its diversity pattern from 10 km distance of a Zinc smelter in Feng County, Qinling Mountain, China. We characterized and identified the bacterial community in a HM polluted soil using 16S rDNA technology. Out results indicated that the maximum soil HM concentration and the minimum bacterial population were observed in S2 soil, whereas bacterial diversity raised with the sampling distance increased. The bacterial communities were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria in cornfield soils, except Fimicutes phylum which dominated in hilly area soil. The soil CEC, humic acid (HA)/fulvic acid (FA) and microbial OTUs increased with the sampling distance increased. Shewanella, Halomonas and Escherichia genera were highly tolerant to HM stress in both cultivated and non-cultivated soil. Finally, we found a consistent correlation of bacterial diversity with total HM and SOM along the sampling distance surrounding the zinc smelter, which could provide a new insight into the bacterial community-assisted and phytoremediation of HM contaminated soils.

  14. Particulate nanocomposite from oyster (Crassostrea rivularis) hydrolysates via zinc chelation improves zinc solubility and peptide activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziran; Zhou, Feibai; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Mouming

    2018-08-30

    An oyster protein hydrolysates-zinc complex (OPH-Zn) was prepared and investigated to improve zinc bioaccessibility. Zinc ions chelating with oyster protein hydrolysates (OPH) cause intramolecular and intermolecular folding and aggregation, homogeneously forming the OPH-Zn complex as nanoclusters with a Z-average at 89.28 nm (PDI: 0.16 ± 0.02). The primary sites of zinc-binding in OPH were carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups, and amino groups, and they were related to the high number of charged amino acid residues. Furthermore, formation of the OPH-Zn complex could significantly enhance zinc solubility both under specific pH conditions as well as during simulated gastrointestinal digestion, compared to the commonly used ZnSO 4 . Additionally, after digestion, either preserved or enhanced antioxidant activity of OPH was found when chelated with zinc. These results indicated that the OPH-Zn complex could be a potential functional ingredient with improved antioxidant bioactivity and zinc bioaccessibility. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Zinc pharmacokinetic parameters in the determination of body zinc status in children.

    PubMed

    Vale, S H L; Leite, L D; Alves, C X; Dantas, M M G; Costa, J B S; Marchini, J S; França, M C; Brandão-Neto, J

    2014-02-01

    Serum or tissue zinc concentrations are often used to assess body zinc status. However, all of these methods are relatively inaccurate. Thus, we investigated three different kinetic methods for the determination of zinc clearance to establish which of these could detect small changes in the body zinc status of children. Forty apparently healthy children were studied. Renal handling of zinc was investigated during intravenous zinc administration (0.06537 mg Zn/kg of body weight), both before and after oral zinc supplementation (5 mg Zn/day for 3 months). Three kinetic methods were used to determine zinc clearance: CZn-Formula A and CZn-Formula B were both used to calculate systemic clearance; the first is a general formula and the second is used for the specific analysis of a single-compartment model; CZn-Formula C is widely used in medical practices to analyze kinetic routine. Basal serum zinc values, which were within the reference range for healthy children, increased significantly after oral zinc supplementation. The three formulas used gave different results for zinc clearance both before and after oral zinc supplementation. CZn-Formula B showed a positive correlation with basal serum zinc concentration after oral supplementation (R2=0.1172, P=0.0306). In addition, CZn-Formula B (P=0.0002) was more effective than CZn-Formula A (P=0.6028) and CZn-Formula C (P=0.0732) in detecting small variations in body zinc status. All three of the formulas used are suitable for studying zinc kinetics; however, CZn-Formula B is particularly effective at detecting small changes in body zinc status in healthy children.

  16. Dietary Zinc Deficiency Affects Blood Linoleic Acid: Dihomo-γ-linolenic Acid (LA:DGLA) Ratio; a Sensitive Physiological Marker of Zinc Status in Vivo (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Spenser; Qin, Xia; Ran-Ressler, Rinat; Brenna, James Thomas; Glahn, Raymond P.; Tako, Elad

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is a vital micronutrient used for over 300 enzymatic reactions and multiple biochemical and structural processes in the body. To date, sensitive and specific biological markers of zinc status are still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate Gallus gallus as an in vivo model in the context of assessing the sensitivity of a previously unexplored potential zinc biomarker, the erythrocyte linoleic acid: dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio. Diets identical in composition were formulated and two groups of birds (n = 12) were randomly separated upon hatching into two diets, Zn(+) (zinc adequate control, 42.3 μg/g zinc), and Zn(−) (zinc deficient, 2.5 μg/g zinc). Dietary zinc intake, body weight, serum zinc, and the erythrocyte fatty acid profile were measured weekly. At the conclusion of the study, tissues were collected for gene expression analysis. Body weight, feed consumption, zinc intake, and serum zinc were higher in the Zn(+) control versus Zn(−) group (p < 0.05). Hepatic TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression were higher in the Zn(+) control group (p < 0.05), and hepatic Δ6 desaturase was significantly higher in the Zn(+) group (p < 0.001). The LA:DGLA ratio was significantly elevated in the Zn(−) group compared to the Zn(+) group (22.6 ± 0.5 and 18.5 ± 0.5, % w/w, respectively, p < 0.001). This study suggests erythrocyte LA:DGLA is able to differentiate zinc status between zinc adequate and zinc deficient birds, and may be a sensitive biomarker to assess dietary zinc manipulation. PMID:24658588

  17. Zinc in an ultraoligotrophic lake food web.

    PubMed

    Montañez, Juan Cruz; Arribére, María A; Rizzo, Andrea; Arcagni, Marina; Campbell, Linda; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2018-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) bioaccumulation and trophic transfer were analyzed in the food web of Lake Nahuel Huapi, a deep, unpolluted ultraoligotrophic system in North Patagonia. Benthic macroinvertebrates, plankton, and native and introduced fish were collected at three sites. The effect of pyroclastic inputs on Zn levels in lacustrine food webs was assessed by studying the impact of the eruption of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex (PCCVC) in 2011, by performing three sampling campaigns immediately before and after the PCCVC eruption, and after 2 years of recovery of the ecosystem. Zinc trophodynamics in L. Nahuel Huapi food web was assessed using nitrogen stable isotopes (δ 15 N). There was no significant increase of Zn concentrations ([Zn]) in L. Nahuel Huapi biota after the PCCVC eruption, despite the evidence of [Zn] increase in lake water that could be associated with volcanic ash leaching. The organisms studied exhibited [Zn] above the threshold level considered for dietary deficiency, regulating Zn adequately even under a catastrophic situations like PCCVC 2011 eruption. Zinc concentrations exhibited a biodilution pattern in the lake's food web. To the best of our knowledge, present research is the first report of Zn biodilution in lacustrine systems, and the first to study Zn transfer in a freshwater food web including both pelagic and benthic compartments.

  18. Core/shell structured Zn/ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by gaseous laser ablation with enhanced photocatalysis efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lu; Wang, Yafei; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Qinghua; Shen, Zhijian

    2018-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a competitive candidate in semiconductor photocatalysts, only if the efficiency could be fully optimized especially by tailored nanostructures. Here we report a kind of core/shell structured Zn/ZnO nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalysis efficiency, which were synthesized by a highly-productive gaseous laser ablation method. The nanodroplets generated by laser ablation would be reduced to zinc in the protective atmosphere, and further be oxidized at surface to form a specific core/shell structured Zn/ZnO nanoparticles within seconds. Thanks to the formation of this Zn-ZnO Schottky junction, the photocatalysis degradation efficiency of such core/shell Zn/ZnO nanostructure is significantly improved owing to the enhanced visible light absorption and inhibited carrier recombination by introducing the metallic zinc.

  19. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (class II) is the primary site of nickel toxicity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Macomber, Lee; Elsey, Scott P; Hausinger, Robert P

    2011-12-01

    Nickel is toxic to all forms of life, but the mechanisms of cell damage are unknown. Indeed, environmentally relevant nickel levels (8 µM) inhibit wild-type Escherichia coli growth on glucose minimal medium. The same concentration of nickel also inhibits growth on fructose, but not succinate, lactate or glycerol; these results suggest that fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FbaA) is a target of nickel toxicity. Cells stressed by 8 µM Ni(II) for 20 min lost 75% of their FbaA activity, demonstrating that FbaA is inactivated during nickel stress. Furthermore, overexpression of fbaA restored growth of an rcnA mutant in glucose minimal medium supplemented with 4 µM Ni(II), thus confirming that FbaA is a primary target of nickel toxicity. This class II aldolase has an active site zinc and a non-catalytic zinc nearby. Purified FbaA lost 80 % of its activity within 2 min when challenged with 8 µM Ni(II). Nickel-challenged FbaA lost 0.8 zinc and gained 0.8 nickel per inactivated monomer. FbaA mutants (D144A and E174A) affecting the non-catalytic zinc were resistant to nickel inhibition. These results define the primary site of nickel toxicity in E. coli as the class II aldolase FbaA through binding to the non-catalytic zinc site. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Chronic zinc deficiency alters chick gut microbiota composition and function

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a prevalent micronutrient insufficiency. Although the gut is a vital organ for Zn utilization, and Zn deficiency is associated with impaired intestinal permeability and a global decrease in gastrointestinal health, alterations in the gut microbial ecology of the host under co...

  1. NICKEL COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Nickel coatings on uranium and various methods of obtaining such coatings are described. Specifically disclosed are such nickel or nickel alloy layers as barriers between uranium and aluminum- silicon, chromium, or copper coatings.

  2. Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of zinc oxide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leake, S. J.

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) exhibits a plethora of physical properties potentially advantageous in many roles and is why it one of the most studied semiconductor compounds. When doped or in its intrinsic state ZnO demonstrates a multitude of electronic, optical and magnetic properties in a large variety of manufacturable morphologies. Thus it is inherently important to understand why these properties arise and the impact potentially invasive sample preparation methods have for both the function and durability of the material and its devices. Coherent X-ray Diffraction Imaging (CXDI) is a recently established non-destructive technique which can probe the whole three dimensional structure of small crystalline materials and has the potential for sub angstrom strain resolution. The iterative methods employed to overcome the `phase problem' are described fully. CXDI studies of wurtzite ZnO crystals in the rod morphology with high aspect ratio are presented. ZnO rods synthesised via Chemical Vapour Transport Deposition were studied in post growth state and during in-situ modification via metal evaporation processing and annealing. Small variations in post growth state were observed, the physical origin of which remains unidentified. The doping of a ZnO crystal with Iron, Nickel and Cobalt by thermal evaporation and subsequent annealing was studied. The evolution of diffusing ions into the crystal lattice from was not observed, decomposition was found to be the dominant process. Improvements in experimental technique allowed multiple Bragg reflections from a single ZnO crystal to be measured for the first time. Large aspect ratio ZnO rods were used to probe the coherence properties of the incident beam. The longitudinal coherence function of the illuminating radiation was mapped using the visibility of the interference pattern at each bragg reflection and an accurate estimate of the longitudinal coherence length obtained, xi(L) = 0.66pm 0.02 mu m. The consequences for data analysis

  3. Role of Additives in Minimizing Zinc Electrode Shape Change: The Effect of Lead on the Kinetics of Zn(II) Reduction in Concentrated Alkaline Media.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    adherent, and showed excellent physical stability. U -12- 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 CYCLIC VOLTAMETRY AT A SILVER DISK ELECTRODE Silver screens are...45% KOH containing 5.5% ZnO is shown in Figure 17A. Several sweeps are recorded at scan rates of 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 mV/s with the highest...voltammetry curves is difficult since the anodic peak depends on the amount of metal deposition in the previous cathodic sweep (16).) The peak currents versus

  4. Zinc transporters and dysregulated channels in cancers

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zui; Choi, Sangyong; Ouadid-Ahidouch, Halima; Yang, Jin-Ming; Beattie, John H.; Korichneva, Irina

    2016-01-01

    As a nutritionally essential metal ion, zinc (Zn) not only constitutes a structural element for more than 3000 proteins but also plays important regulatory functions in cellular signal transduction. Zn homeostasis is tightly controlled by regulating the flux of Zn across cell membranes through specific transporters, i.e. ZnT and ZIP family proteins. Zn deficiency and malfunction of Zn transporters have been associated with many chronic diseases including cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying Zn regulatory functions in cellular signaling and their impact on the pathogenesis and progression of cancers remain largely unknown. In addition to these acknowledged multifunctions, Zn modulates a wide range of ion channels that in turn may also play an important role in cancer biology. The goal of this review is to propose how zinc deficiency, through modified Zn homeostasis, transporter activity and the putative regulatory function of Zn can influence ion channel activity, and thereby contribute to carcinogenesis and tumorigenesis. This review intends to stimulate interest in, and support for research into the understanding of Zn-modulated channels in cancers, and to search for novel biomarkers facilitating effective clinical stratification of high risk cancer patients as well as improved prevention and therapy in this emerging field. PMID:27814637

  5. Comparative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and dissolved zinc on zebrafish embryos and eleuthero-embryos: importance of zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca; Lenz, Markus; Wehrli, Bernhard; Fent, Karl

    2014-04-01

    The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) and their associated environmental occurrence make it necessary to assess their potential effects on aquatic organisms. Upon water contact, nZnO dissolve partially to zinc (Zn(II)). To date it is not yet completely understood, whether effects of nZnO are solely or partly due to dissolved Zn(II). Here we compare potential effects of 0.2, 1 and 5mg/L nZnO and corresponding concentrations of released Zn(II) by water soluble ZnCl2 to two development stages of zebrafish, embryos and eleuthero-embryos, by analysing expressional changes by RT-qPCR. Another objective was to assess uptake and tissue distribution of Zn(II). Laser ablation-ICP-MS analysis demonstrated that uptake and tissue distribution of Zn(II) were identical for nZnO and ZnCl2 in eleuthero-embryos. Zn(II) was found particularly in the retina/pigment layer of eyes and brain. Both nZnO and dissolved Zn(II) derived from ZnCl2 had similar inhibiting effects on hatching, and they induced similar expressional changes of target genes. At 72hours post fertilization (hpf), both nZnO and Zn(II) delayed hatching at all doses, and inhibited hatching at 1 and 5 mg/L at 96 hpf. Both nZnO and Zn(II) lead to induction of metallothionein (mt2) in both embryos and eleuthero-embryos at all concentrations. Transcripts of oxidative stress related genes cat and Cu/Zn sod were also altered. Moreover, we show for the first time that nZnO exposure results in transcriptional changes of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα. Overall, transcriptional alterations were higher in embryos than eleuthero-embryos. The similarities of the effects lead to the conclusion that effects of nZnO are mainly related to the release of Zn(II). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. In-house zinc SAD phasing at Cu Kα edge.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Kyu; Lee, Sangmin; An, Young Jun; Jeong, Chang-Sook; Ji, Chang-Jun; Lee, Jin-Won; Cha, Sun-Shin

    2013-07-01

    De novo zinc single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (Zn-SAD) phasing has been demonstrated with the 1.9 Å resolution data of glucose isomerase and 2.6 Å resolution data of Staphylococcus aureus Fur (SaFur) collected using in-house Cu Kα X-ray source. The successful in-house Zn-SAD phasing of glucose isomerase, based on the anomalous signals of both zinc ions introduced to crystals by soaking and native sulfur atoms, drove us to determine the structure of SaFur, a zinc-containing transcription factor, by Zn-SAD phasing using in-house X-ray source. The abundance of zinc-containing proteins in nature, the easy zinc derivatization of the protein surface, no need of synchrotron access, and the successful experimental phasing with the modest 2.6 Å resolution SAD data indicate that inhouse Zn-SAD phasing can be widely applicable to structure determination.

  7. Zinc use efficiency is enhanced in wheat through nanofertilization.

    PubMed

    Dapkekar, Ashwin; Deshpande, Paresh; Oak, Manoj D; Paknikar, Kishore M; Rajwade, Jyutika M

    2018-05-01

    Ferti-fortification of wheat with zinc, an essential micronutrient is one of the strategies for combating 'hidden hunger' in a large proportion of people all over the world. During fertilization, application of large quantities of micronutrients often results in nutrient wastage and subsequent environmental pollution. Here, we report zinc complexed chitosan nanoparticles (Zn-CNP) for ferti-fortification of durum wheat in field-scale experiments. The efficacy of Zn-CNP was assessed vis-à-vis conventionally applied ZnSO 4 (0.2%; 400 mgL -1 zinc) in two durum wheat genotypes (MACS 3125, an indigenous high yielding genotype and UC 1114, a genotype containing the Gpc-B1gene). The observed grain zinc enrichment using Zn-CNP nanocarrier (~36%) and conventional ZnSO 4 (~50%) were comparable, despite 10 folds less zinc (40 mgL -1 ) used in the former. Nanofertilizer application increased grain zinc content without affecting grain yield, protein content, spikelets per spike, thousand kernel weight, etc. Grain zinc enrichment observed in the four-year field trials on plots with varying soil zinc content was consistent, proving the utility of Zn-CNP as a novel nanofertilizer which enhanced fertilizer use efficiency. Our work describes a new paradigm in micronutrient fortification, viz. 'use nanofertilizers at the right place, right time and in right doses'.

  8. Combined proteomic and molecular approaches for cloning and characterization of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD2) from garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Hadji Sfaxi, Imen; Ezzine, Aymen; Coquet, Laurent; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2012-09-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs; EC 1.15.1.1) are key enzymes in the cells protection against oxidant agents. Thus, SODs play a major role in the protection of aerobic organisms against oxygen-mediated damages. Three SOD isoforms were previously identified by zymogram staining from Allium sativum bulbs. The purified Cu, Zn-SOD2 shows an antagonist effect to an anticancer drug and alleviate cytotoxicity inside tumor cells lines B16F0 (mouse melanoma cells) and PAE (porcine aortic endothelial cells). To extend the characterization of Allium SODs and their corresponding genes, a proteomic approach was applied involving two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS analyses. From peptide sequence data obtained by mass spectrometry and sequences homologies, primers were defined and a cDNA fragment of 456 bp was amplified by RT-PCR. The cDNA nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame coding for 152 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high identity (82-87%) with sequences of Cu, Zn-SODs from other plant species. Molecular analysis was achieved by a protein 3D structural model.

  9. Formation of crystalline Zn-Al layered double hydroxide precipitates on γ-alumina: the role of mineral dissolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Livi, Kenneth J T; Xu, Wenqian; Siebecker, Matthew G; Wang, Yujun; Phillips, Brian L; Sparks, Donald L

    2012-11-06

    To better understand the sequestration of toxic metals such as nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and cobalt (Co) as layered double hydroxide (LDH) phases in soils, we systematically examined the presence of Al and the role of mineral dissolution during Zn sorption/pre