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Sample records for zinc-binding affinities independent

  1. Two zinc-binding domains in the transporter AdcA from Streptococcus pyogenes facilitate high-affinity binding and fast transport of zinc.

    PubMed

    Cao, Kun; Li, Nan; Wang, Hongcui; Cao, Xin; He, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Bing; He, Qing-Yu; Zhang, Gong; Sun, Xuesong

    2018-04-20

    Zinc is an essential metal in bacteria. One important bacterial zinc transporter is AdcA, and most bacteria possess AdcA homologs that are single-domain small proteins due to better efficiency of protein biogenesis. However, a double-domain AdcA with two zinc-binding sites is significantly overrepresented in Streptococcus species, many of which are major human pathogens. Using molecular simulation and experimental validations of AdcA from Streptococcus pyogenes , we found here that the two AdcA domains sequentially stabilize the structure upon zinc binding, indicating an organization required for both increased zinc affinity and transfer speed. This structural organization appears to endow Streptococcus species with distinct advantages in zinc-depleted environments, which would not be achieved by each single AdcA domain alone. This enhanced zinc transport mechanism sheds light on the significance of the evolution of the AdcA domain fusion, provides new insights into double-domain transporter proteins with two binding sites for the same ion, and indicates a potential target of antimicrobial drugs against pathogenic Streptococcus species. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Zinc binding groups for histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Li; Song, Weiguo

    2018-12-01

    Zinc binding groups (ZBGs) play a crucial role in targeting histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) to the active site of histone deacetylases (HDACs), thus determining the potency of HDACIs. Due to the high affinity to the zinc ion, hydroxamic acid is the most commonly used ZBG in the structure of HDACs. An alternative ZBG is benzamide group, which features excellent inhibitory selectivity for class I HDACs. Various ZBGs have been designed and tested to improve the activity and selectivity of HDACIs, and to overcome the pharmacokinetic limitations of current HDACIs. Herein, different kinds of ZBGs are reviewed and their features have been discussed for further design of HDACIs.

  3. Occupancy of the Zinc-binding Site by Transition Metals Decreases the Substrate Affinity of the Human Dopamine Transporter by an Allosteric Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Mayer, Felix P.; Hasenhuetl, Peter S.; Burtscher, Verena; Schicker, Klaus; Sitte, Harald H.; Freissmuth, Michael; Sandtner, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The human dopamine transporter (DAT) has a tetrahedral Zn2+-binding site. Zn2+-binding sites are also recognized by other first-row transition metals. Excessive accumulation of manganese or of copper can lead to parkinsonism because of dopamine deficiency. Accordingly, we examined the effect of Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+ on transport-associated currents through DAT and DAT-H193K, a mutant with a disrupted Zn2+-binding site. All transition metals except Mn2+ modulated the transport cycle of wild-type DAT with affinities in the low micromolar range. In this concentration range, they were devoid of any action on DAT-H193K. The active transition metals reduced the affinity of DAT for dopamine. The affinity shift was most pronounced for Cu2+, followed by Ni2+ and Zn2+ (= Co2+). The extent of the affinity shift and the reciprocal effect of substrate on metal affinity accounted for the different modes of action: Ni2+ and Cu2+ uniformly stimulated and inhibited, respectively, the substrate-induced steady-state currents through DAT. In contrast, Zn2+ elicited biphasic effects on transport, i.e. stimulation at 1 μm and inhibition at 10 μm. A kinetic model that posited preferential binding of transition metal ions to the outward-facing apo state of DAT and a reciprocal interaction of dopamine and transition metals recapitulated all experimental findings. Allosteric activation of DAT via the Zn2+-binding site may be of interest to restore transport in loss-of-function mutants. PMID:28096460

  4. Identification of a New Zinc Binding Chemotype by Fragment Screening.

    PubMed

    Chrysanthopoulos, Panagiotis K; Mujumdar, Prashant; Woods, Lucy A; Dolezal, Olan; Ren, Bin; Peat, Thomas S; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2017-09-14

    The discovery of a new zinc binding chemotype from screening a nonbiased fragment library is reported. Using the orthogonal fragment screening methods of native state mass spectrometry and surface plasmon resonance a 3-unsubstituted 2,4-oxazolidinedione fragment was found to have low micromolar binding affinity to the zinc metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase II (CA II). This affinity approached that of fragment sized primary benzenesulfonamides, the classical zinc binding group found in most CA II inhibitors. Protein X-ray crystallography established that 3-unsubstituted 2,4-oxazolidinediones bound to CA II via an interaction of the acidic ring nitrogen with the CA II active site zinc, as well as two hydrogen bonds between the oxazolidinedione ring oxygen and the CA II protein backbone. Furthermore, 3-unsubstituted 2,4-oxazolidinediones appear to be a viable starting point for the development of an alternative class of CA inhibitor, wherein the medicinal chemistry pedigree of primary sulfonamides has dominated for several decades.

  5. Zinc binding in HDAC inhibitors: a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Difei; Helquist, Paul; Wiest, Olaf

    2007-07-06

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are attractive targets for the treatment of cancers and a variety of other diseases. Most currently studied HDAC inhibitors contain hydroxamic acids, which are potentially problematic in the development of practical drugs. DFT calculations of the binding modes and free energies of binding for a variety of other functionalities in a model active site of HDAC are described. The protonation state of hydroxamic acids in the active site and the origin of the high affinity are discussed. These results emphasize the importance of a carefully chosen pKa for zinc binding and provide guidance for the design of novel, non-hydroxamic acid HDAC inhibitors.

  6. Mutations in a CCHC zinc-binding motif of the reovirus sigma 3 protein decrease its intracellular stability.

    PubMed Central

    Mabrouk, T; Lemay, G

    1994-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the sigma 3 protein of reovirus harbors a zinc-binding domain in its amino-terminal portion. A putative zinc finger in the CCHH form is located in this domain and was considered to be a good candidate for the zinc-binding motif. We performed site-directed mutagenesis to substitute amino acids in this region and demonstrated that many of these mutants, although expressed in COS cells, were unstable compared with the wild-type protein. Further analysis revealed that zinc-binding capability, as measured by retention on a zinc chelate affinity adsorbent, correlates with stability. These studies also allowed us to identify a CCHC box as the most probable zinc-binding motif. Images PMID:8035527

  7. DFT-based ranking of zinc-binding groups in histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vanommeslaeghe, K; Loverix, S; Geerlings, P; Tourwé, D

    2005-11-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have recently attracted considerable interest as targets in the treatment of cell proliferative diseases such as cancer. In the present work, a general framework is proposed for chemical groups that bind into the HDAC catalytic core. Based on this framework, a series of groups was selected for further investigation. A method was developed to rank the HDAC inhibitory potential of these moieties at the B3LYP/6-31G* level, making use of extra diffuse functions and of the PCM solvation model where appropriate. The resulting binding geometries indicate that very stringent constraints should be satisfied in order to have bidental zinc chelation, and even more so to have a strong binding affinity, which makes it difficult to predict the binding mode and affinity of such zinc-binding groups. The chemical hardness and the pK(a) were identified as important criteria for the binding affinity. Also, the hydrophilicity may have a direct influence on the binding affinity. The calculated binding energies were qualitatively validated with experimental results from the literature, and were shown to be meaningful for the purpose of ranking. Additionally, the insights gained from the present work may be useful for increasing the accuracy of QSAR models by providing a rational basis for selecting descriptors.

  8. Analysis of zinc binding sites in protein crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Alberts, I L; Nadassy, K; Wodak, S J

    1998-08-01

    The geometrical properties of zinc binding sites in a dataset of high quality protein crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been examined to identify important differences between zinc sites that are directly involved in catalysis and those that play a structural role. Coordination angles in the zinc primary coordination sphere are compared with ideal values for each coordination geometry, and zinc coordination distances are compared with those in small zinc complexes from the Cambridge Structural Database as a guide of expected trends. We find that distances and angles in the primary coordination sphere are in general close to the expected (or ideal) values. Deviations occur primarily for oxygen coordinating atoms and are found to be mainly due to H-bonding of the oxygen coordinating ligand to protein residues, bidentate binding arrangements, and multi-zinc sites. We find that H-bonding of oxygen containing residues (or water) to zinc bound histidines is almost universal in our dataset and defines the elec-His-Zn motif. Analysis of the stereochemistry shows that carboxyl elec-His-Zn motifs are geometrically rigid, while water elec-His-Zn motifs show the most geometrical variation. As catalytic motifs have a higher proportion of carboxyl elec atoms than structural motifs, they provide a more rigid framework for zinc binding. This is understood biologically, as a small distortion in the zinc position in an enzyme can have serious consequences on the enzymatic reaction. We also analyze the sequence pattern of the zinc ligands and residues that provide elecs, and identify conserved hydrophobic residues in the endopeptidases that also appear to contribute to stabilizing the catalytic zinc site. A zinc binding template in protein crystal structures is derived from these observations.

  9. Computational exploration of zinc binding groups for HDAC inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Xu, Liping; Wiest, Olaf

    2013-05-17

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as important drug targets in epigenetics. The most common HDAC inhibitors use hydroxamic acids as zinc binding groups despite unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties. A two-stage protocol of M05-2X calculations of a library of 48 fragments in a small model active site, followed by QM/MM hybrid calculations of the full enzyme with selected binders, is used to prospectively select potential bidentate zinc binders. The energetics and interaction patterns of several zinc binders not previously used for the inhibition of HDACs are discussed.

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of largazole zinc-binding group analogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bumki; Ratnayake, Ranjala; Lee, Hyunji; Shi, Guqin; Zeller, Sabrina L; Li, Chenglong; Luesch, Hendrik; Hong, Jiyong

    2017-06-15

    Histone acetylation is an extensively investigated post-translational modification that plays an important role as an epigenetic regulator. It is controlled by histone acetyl transferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). The overexpression of HDACs and consequent hypoacetylation of histones have been observed in a variety of different diseases, leading to a recent focus of HDACs as attractive drug targets. The natural product largazole is one of the most potent natural HDAC inhibitors discovered so far and a number of largazole analogs have been prepared to define structural requirements for its HDAC inhibitory activity. However, previous structure-activity relationship studies have heavily investigated the macrocycle region of largazole, while there have been only limited efforts to probe the effect of various zinc-binding groups (ZBGs) on HDAC inhibition. Herein, we prepared a series of largazole analogs with various ZBGs and evaluated their HDAC inhibition and cytotoxicity. While none of the analogs tested were as potent or selective as largazole, the Zn 2+ -binding affinity of each ZBG correlated with HDAC inhibition and cytotoxicity. We expect that our findings will aid in building a deeper understanding of the role of ZBGs in HDAC inhibition as well as provide an important basis for the future development of new largazole analogs with non-thiol ZBGs as novel therapeutics for cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanisms of zinc binding to the solute-binding protein AztC and transfer from the metallochaperone AztD.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Durga P; Avalos, Dante; Fullam, Stephanie; Roychowdhury, Hridindu; Yukl, Erik T

    2017-10-20

    Bacteria can acquire the essential metal zinc from extremely zinc-limited environments by using ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. These transporters are critical virulence factors, relying on specific and high-affinity binding of zinc by a periplasmic solute-binding protein (SBP). As such, the mechanisms of zinc binding and release among bacterial SBPs are of considerable interest as antibacterial drug targets. Zinc SBPs are characterized by a flexible loop near the high-affinity zinc-binding site. The function of this structure is not always clear, and its flexibility has thus far prevented structural characterization by X-ray crystallography. Here, we present intact structures for the zinc-specific SBP AztC from the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans in the zinc-bound and apo-states. A comparison of these structures revealed that zinc loss prompts significant structural rearrangements, mediated by the formation of a sodium-binding site in the apo-structure. We further show that the AztC flexible loop has no impact on zinc-binding affinity, stoichiometry, or protein structure, yet is essential for zinc transfer from the metallochaperone AztD. We also found that 3 His residues in the loop appear to temporarily coordinate zinc and then convey it to the high-affinity binding site. Thus, mutation of any of these residues to Ala abrogated zinc transfer from AztD. Our structural and mechanistic findings conclusively identify a role for the AztC flexible loop in zinc acquisition from the metallochaperone AztD, yielding critical insights into metal binding by AztC from both solution and AztD. These proteins are highly conserved in human pathogens, making this work potentially useful for the development of novel antibiotics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Bicyclic tetrapeptide histone deacetylase inhibitors with methoxymethyl ketone and boronic acid zinc-binding groups.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nurul; Islam, Md Shahidul; Hoque, Md Ashraful; Kato, Tamaki; Nishino, Norikazu; Ito, Akihiro; Yoshida, Minoru

    2014-12-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a class of potential therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Bicyclic tetrapeptides equipped with methoxymethyl ketone and boronic acid as zinc-binding group were designed and synthesized. The inhibitory activities of these compounds were evaluated against HDAC enzymes. The cell-free and cell-based assay data showed that both potency and selectivity changed with the change in zinc-binding group. Boronic acid-based compound showed poor activity whereas methoxymethyl ketone-based compound displayed impressive activity in both cell-free and cell-based conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mapping differential interactomes by affinity purification coupled with data-independent mass spectrometry acquisition.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Ivosev, Gordana; Couzens, Amber L; Larsen, Brett; Taipale, Mikko; Lin, Zhen-Yuan; Zhong, Quan; Lindquist, Susan; Vidal, Marc; Aebersold, Ruedi; Pawson, Tony; Bonner, Ron; Tate, Stephen; Gingras, Anne-Claude

    2013-12-01

    Characterizing changes in protein-protein interactions associated with sequence variants (e.g., disease-associated mutations or splice forms) or following exposure to drugs, growth factors or hormones is critical to understanding how protein complexes are built, localized and regulated. Affinity purification (AP) coupled with mass spectrometry permits the analysis of protein interactions under near-physiological conditions, yet monitoring interaction changes requires the development of a robust and sensitive quantitative approach, especially for large-scale studies in which cost and time are major considerations. We have coupled AP to data-independent mass spectrometric acquisition (sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra, SWATH) and implemented an automated data extraction and statistical analysis pipeline to score modulated interactions. We used AP-SWATH to characterize changes in protein-protein interactions imparted by the HSP90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 or melanoma-associated mutations in the human kinase CDK4. We show that AP-SWATH is a robust label-free approach to characterize such changes and propose a scalable pipeline for systems biology studies.

  14. The effect of various zinc binding groups on inhibition of histone deacetylases 1-11.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Andreas S; Kristensen, Helle M E; Lanz, Gyrithe; Olsen, Christian A

    2014-03-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have the ability to cleave the acetyl groups of ε-N-acetylated lysine residues in a variety of proteins. Given that human cells contain thousands of different acetylated lysine residues, HDACS may regulate a wide variety of processes including some implicated in conditions such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Herein we report the synthesis and in vitro biochemical profiling of a series of compounds, including known inhibitors as well as novel chemotypes, that incorporate putative new zinc binding domains. By evaluating the compound collection against all 11 recombinant human HDACs, we found that the trifluoromethyl ketone functionality provides potent inhibition of all four subclasses of the Zn(2+) -dependent HDACs. Potent inhibition was observed with two different scaffolds, demonstrating the efficiency of the trifluoromethyl ketone moiety as a zinc binding motif. Interestingly, we also identified silanediol as a zinc binding group with potential for future development of non-hydroxamate class I and class IIb HDAC inhibitors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The kangaroo cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor binds insulin-like growth factor II with low affinity.

    PubMed

    Yandell, C A; Dunbar, A J; Wheldrake, J F; Upton, Z

    1999-09-17

    The mammalian cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) binds mannose 6-phosphate-bearing glycoproteins and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II. However, the CI-MPR from the opossum has been reported to bind bovine IGF-II with low affinity (Dahms, N. M., Brzycki-Wessell, M. A., Ramanujam, K. S., and Seetharam, B. (1993) Endocrinology 133, 440-446). This may reflect the use of a heterologous ligand, or it may represent the intrinsic binding affinity of this receptor. To examine the binding of IGF-II to a marsupial CI-MPR in a homologous system, we have previously purified kangaroo IGF-II (Yandell, C. A., Francis, G. L., Wheldrake, J. F., and Upton, Z. (1998) J. Endocrinol. 156, 195-204), and we now report the purification and characterization of the CI-MPR from kangaroo liver. The interaction of the kangaroo CI-MPR with IGF-II has been examined by ligand blotting, radioreceptor assay, and real-time biomolecular interaction analysis. Using both a heterologous and homologous approach, we have demonstrated that the kangaroo CI-MPR has a lower binding affinity for IGF-II than its eutherian (placental mammal) counterparts. Furthermore, real-time biomolecular interaction analysis revealed that the kangaroo CI-MPR has a higher affinity for kangaroo IGF-II than for human IGF-II. The cDNA sequence of the kangaroo CI-MPR indicates that there is considerable divergence in the area corresponding to the IGF-II binding site of the eutherian receptor. Thus, the acquisition of a high-affinity binding site for regulating IGF-II appears to be a recent event specific to the eutherian lineage.

  16. Tripartite ATP-independent Periplasmic (TRAP) Transporters Use an Arginine-mediated Selectivity Filter for High Affinity Substrate Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Marcus; Hopkins, Adam P.; Severi, Emmanuele; Hawkhead, Judith; Bawdon, Daniel; Watts, Andrew G.; Hubbard, Roderick E.; Thomas, Gavin H.

    2015-01-01

    Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) transporters are secondary transporters that have evolved an obligate dependence on a substrate-binding protein (SBP) to confer unidirectional transport. Different members of the DctP family of TRAP SBPs have binding sites that recognize a diverse range of organic acid ligands but appear to only share a common electrostatic interaction between a conserved arginine and a carboxylate group in the ligand. We investigated the significance of this interaction using the sialic acid-specific SBP, SiaP, from the Haemophilus influenzae virulence-related SiaPQM TRAP transporter. Using in vitro, in vivo, and structural methods applied to SiaP, we demonstrate that the coordination of the acidic ligand moiety of sialic acid by the conserved arginine (Arg-147) is essential for the function of the transporter as a high affinity scavenging system. However, at high substrate concentrations, the transporter can function in the absence of Arg-147 suggesting that this bi-molecular interaction is not involved in further stages of the transport cycle. As well as being required for high affinity binding, we also demonstrate that the Arg-147 is a strong selectivity filter for carboxylate-containing substrates in TRAP transporters by engineering the SBP to recognize a non-carboxylate-containing substrate, sialylamide, through water-mediated interactions. Together, these data provide biochemical and structural support that TRAP transporters function predominantly as high affinity transporters for carboxylate-containing substrates. PMID:26342690

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibitors with a primary amide zinc binding group display antitumor activity in xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Attenni, Barbara; Ontoria, Jesus M; Cruz, Jonathan C; Rowley, Michael; Schultz-Fademrecht, Carsten; Steinkühler, Christian; Jones, Philip

    2009-06-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition causes hyperacetylation of histones leading to differentiation, growth arrest and apoptosis of malignant cells, representing a new strategy in cancer therapy. Many of the known HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) that are in clinical trials possess a hydroxamic acid, that is a strong Zn(2+) binding group, thereby inhibiting some of the class I and class II isoforms. Herein we describe the identification of a selective class I HDAC inhibitor bearing a primary carboxamide moiety as zinc binding group. This HDACi displays good antiproliferative activity against multiple cancer cell lines, and demonstrates efficacy in a xenograft model comparable to vorinostat.

  18. Stereoselective HDAC inhibition from cysteine-derived zinc-binding groups.

    PubMed

    Butler, Kyle V; He, Rong; McLaughlin, Kathryn; Vistoli, Giulio; Langley, Brett; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2009-08-01

    A series of small-molecule histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which feature zinc binding groups derived from cysteine, were synthesized. These inhibitors were tested against multiple HDAC isoforms, and the most potent, compound 10, was determined to have IC(50) values below 1 microM. The compounds were also tested in a cellular assay of oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration. Many of the inhibitors gave near-complete protection against cell death at 10 microM without the neurotoxicity seen with hydroxamic acid-based inhibitors, and were far more neuroprotective than HDAC inhibitors currently in clinical trials. Both enantiomers of cysteine were used in the synthesis of a variety of novel zinc-binding groups (ZBGs). Derivatives of L-cysteine were active in the HDAC inhibition assays, while the derivatives of D-cysteine were inactive. Notably, the finding that both the D- and L-cysteine derivatives were active in the neuroprotection assays suggests that multiple mechanisms are working to protect the neurons from cell death. Molecular modeling was employed to investigate the differences in inhibitory activity between the HDAC inhibitors generated from the two enantiomeric forms of cysteine.

  19. Prostatic origin of a zinc binding high molecular weight protein complex in human seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, L; De Stefano, C; Petroni, M F; Vivacqua, A; Rago, V; Carpino, A

    2000-03-01

    The profile of the zinc ligand high molecular weight proteins was investigated in the seminal plasma of 55 normozoospermic subjects by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The proteins were recovered from Sephadex G-75 gel filtration of seminal plasma in three zinc-containing fractions which were then submitted to HPLC analysis. The results were, that in all the samples, the protein profiles showed two peaks with apparent molecular weight of approximately 660 and approximately 250 kDa. Dialysis experiments revealed that both approximately 660 and approximately 250 kDa proteins were able to uptake zinc against gradient indicating their zinc binding capacity. The HPLC analysis of the whole seminal plasma evidenced only the approximately 660 kDa protein complex as a single well quantifying peak, furthermore a positive correlation between its peak area and the seminal zinc values (P < 0.001) was observed. This suggested a prostatic origin of the approximately 660 kDa protein complex which was then confirmed by the seminal plasma HPLC analysis of a subject with agenesis of the Wolffian ducts. Finally the study demonstrated the presence of two zinc binding proteins, approximately 660 and approximately 250 kDa respectively, in human seminal plasma and the prostatic origin of the approximately 660 kDa.

  20. Discovery of a new class of histone deacetylase inhibitors with a novel zinc binding group.

    PubMed

    Li, Youxuan; Woster, Patrick M

    2015-04-01

    Small molecules featuring a hydroxamic acid or a benzamide zinc binding group (ZBG) are the most thoroughly studied histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. However, concerns about the pharmacokinetic liabilities of the hydroxamic acid moiety and potential metabolic toxicity of the aniline portion of benzamide HDAC inhibitors have stimulated research efforts aimed at discovering alternative ZBGs. Here we report the 2-(oxazol-2-yl)phenol moiety as a novel ZBG that can be used to produce compounds that are potent HDAC inhibitors. A series of analogues with this novel ZBG have been synthesized, and these analogues exhibit selective inhibition against HDAC1 as well as the class IIb HDACs (HDAC6 and HDAC10). Compound 10 possesses an IC 50 value of 7.5 μM in the MV-4-11 leukemia cell line, and induces a comparable amount of acetylated histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and p21Waf1/CIP1 as 0.5 μM of SAHA. Modeling of compound 10 in the active site of HDAC2 demonstrates that the 2-(oxazol-2-yl)phenol moiety has a zinc-binding pattern similar to benzamide HDAC inhibitors.

  1. 3-Hydroxypyridin-2-thione as Novel Zinc Binding Group for Selective Histone Deacetylase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vishal; Sodji, Quaovi H.; Kornacki, James R.; Mrksich, Milan; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

    2013-01-01

    Small molecules bearing hydroxamic acid as the zinc binding group (ZBG) have been the most effective histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) to date. However, concerns about the pharmacokinetic liabilities of the hydroxamic acid moiety have stimulated research efforts aimed at finding alternative non-hydroxamate ZBGs. We have identified 3-hydroxypyridin-2-thione (3-HPT) as a novel ZBG that is compatible with HDAC inhibition. 3-HPT inhibits HDAC 6 and HDAC 8 with an IC50 of 681 nM and 3675 nM respectively. Remarkably, 3-HPT gives no inhibition of HDAC 1. Subsequent optimization led to several novel 3HPT-based HDACi that are selective for HDAC 6 and HDAC 8. Furthermore, a subset of these inhibitors induces apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. PMID:23547652

  2. 3-Hydroxypyridin-2-thione as novel zinc binding group for selective histone deacetylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vishal; Sodji, Quaovi H; Kornacki, James R; Mrksich, Milan; Oyelere, Adegboyega K

    2013-05-09

    Small molecules bearing hydroxamic acid as the zinc binding group (ZBG) have been the most effective histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) to date. However, concerns about the pharmacokinetic liabilities of the hydroxamic acid moiety have stimulated research efforts aimed at finding alternative nonhydroxamate ZBGs. We have identified 3-hydroxypyridin-2-thione (3-HPT) as a novel ZBG that is compatible with HDAC inhibition. 3-HPT inhibits HDAC 6 and HDAC 8 with an IC50 of 681 and 3675 nM, respectively. Remarkably, 3-HPT gives no inhibition of HDAC 1. Subsequent optimization led to several novel 3HPT-based HDACi that are selective for HDAC 6 and HDAC 8. Furthermore, a subset of these inhibitors induces apoptosis in various cancer cell lines.

  3. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) binds independently to both sites of the IgG homodimer with identical affinity.

    PubMed

    Abdiche, Yasmina Noubia; Yeung, Yik Andy; Chaparro-Riggers, Javier; Barman, Ishita; Strop, Pavel; Chin, Sherman Michael; Pham, Amber; Bolton, Gary; McDonough, Dan; Lindquist, Kevin; Pons, Jaume; Rajpal, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is expressed by cells of epithelial, endothelial and myeloid lineages and performs multiple roles in adaptive immunity. Characterizing the FcRn/IgG interaction is fundamental to designing therapeutic antibodies because IgGs with moderately increased binding affinities for FcRn exhibit superior serum half-lives and efficacy. It has been hypothesized that 2 FcRn molecules bind an IgG homodimer with disparate affinities, yet their affinity constants are inconsistent across the literature. Using surface plasmon resonance biosensor assays that eliminated confounding experimental artifacts, we present data supporting an alternate hypothesis: 2 FcRn molecules saturate an IgG homodimer with identical affinities at independent sites, consistent with the symmetrical arrangement of the FcRn/Fc complex observed in the crystal structure published by Burmeister et al. in 1994. We find that human FcRn binds human IgG1 with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 760 ± 60 nM (N = 14) at 25°C and pH 5.8, and shows less than 25% variation across the other human subtypes. Human IgG1 binds cynomolgus monkey FcRn with a 2-fold higher affinity than human FcRn, and binds both mouse and rat FcRn with a 10-fold higher affinity than human FcRn. FcRn/IgG interactions from multiple species show less than a 2-fold weaker affinity at 37°C than at 25°C and appear independent of an IgG's variable region. Our in vivo data in mouse and rat models demonstrate that both affinity and avidity influence an IgG's serum half-life, which should be considered when choosing animals, especially transgenic systems, as surrogates.

  4. Development of Thioaryl-Based Matrix Metalloproteinase-12 Inhibitors with Alternative Zinc-Binding Groups: Synthesis, Potentiometric, NMR, and Crystallographic Studies.

    PubMed

    Nuti, Elisa; Cuffaro, Doretta; Bernardini, Elisa; Camodeca, Caterina; Panelli, Laura; Chaves, Sílvia; Ciccone, Lidia; Tepshi, Livia; Vera, Laura; Orlandini, Elisabetta; Nencetti, Susanna; Stura, Enrico A; Santos, M Amélia; Dive, Vincent; Rossello, Armando

    2018-05-24

    Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12) selective inhibitors could play a role in the treatment of lung inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the previously reported 4-methoxybiphenylsulfonyl hydroxamate and carboxylate based inhibitors (1b and 2b) were modified to enhance their selectivity for MMP-12. In the newly synthesized thioaryl derivatives, the nature of the zinc binding group (ZBG) and the sulfur oxidation state were changed. Biological assays carried out in vitro on human MMPs with the resulting compounds led to identification of a sulfide, 4a, bearing an N-1-hydroxypiperidine-2,6-dione (HPD) group as new ZBG. Compound 4a is a promising hit compound since it displayed a nanomolar affinity for MMP-12 with a marked selectivity over MMP-9, MMP-1, and MMP-14. Solution complexation studies with Zn 2+ were performed to characterize the chelating abilities of the new compounds and confirmed the bidentate binding mode of HPD derivatives. X-ray crystallography studies using MMP-12 and MMP-9 catalytic domains were carried out to rationalize the biological results.

  5. Carbon- versus sulphur-based zinc binding groups for carbonic anhydrase inhibitors?

    PubMed

    Supuran, Claudiu T

    2018-12-01

    A set of compounds incorporating carbon-based zinc-binding groups (ZBGs), of the type PhX (X = COOH, CONH 2 , CONHNH 2 , CONHOH, CONHOMe), and the corresponding derivatives with sulphur(VI)-based ZBGs (X = SO 3 H, SO 2 NH 2 , SO 2 NHNH 2 , SO 2 NHOH, SO 2 NHOMe) were tested as inhibitors of all mammalian isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1), CA I-XV. Three factors connected with the ZBG influenced the efficacy as CA inhibitor (CAI) of the investigated compounds: (i) the pKa of the ZBG; (ii) its geometry (tetrahedral, i.e. sulphur-based, versus trigonal, i.e. carbon-based ZBGs), and (iii) orientation of the organic scaffold induced by the nature of the ZBG. Benzenesulphonamide was the best inhibitor of all isoforms, but other ZBGs led to interesting inhibition profiles, although with an efficacy generally reduced when compared to the sulphonamide. The nature of the ZBG also influenced the CA inhibition mechanism. Most of these derivatives were zinc binders, but some of them (sulfonates, carboxylates) may interact with the enzyme by anchoring to the zinc-coordinated water molecule or by other inhibition mechanisms (occlusion of the active site entrance, out of the active site binding, etc.). Exploring structurally diverse ZBGs may lead to interesting new developments in the field of CAIs.

  6. Influence of DNA-methylation on zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells: Regulation of zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Jana Elena; Wessels, Inga; Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar; Uciechowski, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of intracellular zinc, predominantly regulated through zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins, is required to support an efficient immune response. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are involved in the expression of these genes. In demethylation experiments using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) increased intracellular (after 24 and 48h) and total cellular zinc levels (after 48h) were observed in the myeloid cell line HL-60. To uncover the mechanisms that cause the disturbed zinc homeostasis after DNA demethylation, the expression of human zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins were investigated. Real time PCR analyses of 14 ZIP (solute-linked carrier (SLC) SLC39A; Zrt/IRT-like protein), and 9 ZnT (SLC30A) zinc transporters revealed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the zinc importer ZIP1 after AZA treatment. Because ZIP1 protein was also enhanced after AZA treatment, ZIP1 up-regulation might be the mediator of enhanced intracellular zinc levels. The mRNA expression of ZIP14 was decreased, whereas zinc exporter ZnT3 mRNA was also significantly increased; which might be a cellular reaction to compensate elevated zinc levels. An enhanced but not significant chromatin accessibility of ZIP1 promoter region I was detected by chromatin accessibility by real-time PCR (CHART) assays after demethylation. Additionally, DNA demethylation resulted in increased mRNA accumulation of zinc binding proteins metallothionein (MT) and S100A8/S100A9 after 48h. MT mRNA was significantly enhanced after 24h of AZA treatment also suggesting a reaction of the cell to restore zinc homeostasis. These data indicate that DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism affecting zinc binding proteins and transporters, and, therefore, regulating zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Zinc-binding Domain of the Bacteriophage T7 DNA Primase Modulates Binding to the DNA Template*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Joo; Zhu, Bin; Akabayov, Barak; Richardson, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    The zinc-binding domain (ZBD) of prokaryotic DNA primases has been postulated to be crucial for recognition of specific sequences in the single-stranded DNA template. To determine the molecular basis for this role in recognition, we carried out homolog-scanning mutagenesis of the zinc-binding domain of DNA primase of bacteriophage T7 using a bacterial homolog from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. The ability of T7 DNA primase to catalyze template-directed oligoribonucleotide synthesis is eliminated by substitution of any five-amino acid residue-long segment within the ZBD. The most significant defect occurs upon substitution of a region (Pro-16 to Cys-20) spanning two cysteines that coordinate the zinc ion. The role of this region in primase function was further investigated by generating a protein library composed of multiple amino acid substitutions for Pro-16, Asp-18, and Asn-19 followed by genetic screening for functional proteins. Examination of proteins selected from the screening reveals no change in sequence-specific recognition. However, the more positively charged residues in the region facilitate DNA binding, leading to more efficient oligoribonucleotide synthesis on short templates. The results suggest that the zinc-binding mode alone is not responsible for sequence recognition, but rather its interaction with the RNA polymerase domain is critical for DNA binding and for sequence recognition. Consequently, any alteration in the ZBD that disturbs its conformation leads to loss of DNA-dependent oligoribonucleotide synthesis. PMID:23024359

  8. The Charcot Marie Tooth disease protein LITAF is a zinc-binding monotopic membrane protein

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wenxia; Wunderley, Lydia; Barrett, Anne L.; High, Stephen; Woodman, Philip G.

    2016-01-01

    LITAF (LPS-induced TNF-activating factor) is an endosome-associated integral membrane protein important for multivesicular body sorting. Several mutations in LITAF cause autosomal-dominant Charcot Marie Tooth disease type 1C. These mutations map to a highly conserved C-terminal region, termed the LITAF domain, which includes a 22 residue hydrophobic sequence and flanking cysteine-rich regions that contain peptide motifs found in zinc fingers. Although the LITAF domain is thought to be responsible for membrane integration, the membrane topology of LITAF has not been established. Here, we have investigated whether LITAF is a tail-anchored (TA) membrane-spanning protein or monotopic membrane protein. When translated in vitro, LITAF integrates poorly into ER-derived microsomes compared with Sec61β, a bona fide TA protein. Furthermore, introduction of N-linked glycosylation reporters shows that neither the N-terminal nor C-terminal domains of LITAF translocate into the ER lumen. Expression in cells of an LITAF construct containing C-terminal glycosylation sites confirms that LITAF is not a TA protein in cells. Finally, an immunofluorescence-based latency assay showed that both the N- and C-termini of LITAF are exposed to the cytoplasm. Recombinant LITAF contains 1 mol/mol zinc, while mutation of predicted zinc-binding residues disrupts LITAF membrane association. Hence, we conclude that LITAF is a monotopic membrane protein whose membrane integration is stabilised by a zinc finger. The related human protein, CDIP1 (cell death involved p53 target 1), displays identical membrane topology, suggesting that this mode of membrane integration is conserved in LITAF family proteins. PMID:27582497

  9. Calorimetric studies of the interactions of metalloenzyme active site mimetics with zinc-binding inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sophia G; Burns, Philip T; Miceli, Amanda M; Grice, Kyle A; Karver, Caitlin E; Jin, Lihua

    2016-07-19

    The binding of drugs to metalloenzymes is an intricate process that involves several interactions, including binding of the drug to the enzyme active site metal, as well as multiple interactions between the drug and the enzyme residues. In order to determine the free energy contribution of Zn(2+) binding by known metalloenzyme inhibitors without the other interactions, valid active site zinc structural mimetics must be formed and binding studies need to be performed in biologically relevant conditions. The potential of each of five ligands to form a structural mimetic with Zn(2+) was investigated in buffer using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). All five ligands formed strong 1 : 1 (ligand : Zn(2+)) binary complexes. The complexes were used in further ITC experiments to study their interaction with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) and/or acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), two bidentate anionic zinc-chelating enzyme inhibitors. It was found that tetradentate ligands were not suitable for creating zinc structural mimetics for inhibitor binding in solution due to insufficient coordination sites remaining on Zn(2+). A stable binary complex, [Zn(BPA)](2+), which was formed by a tridentate ligand, bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (BPA), was found to bind one AHA in buffer or a methanol : buffer mixture (60 : 40 by volume) at pH 7.25 or one 8-HQ in the methanol : buffer mixture at pH 6.80, making it an effective structural mimetic for the active site of zinc metalloenzymes. These results are consistent with the observation that metalloenzyme active site zinc ions have three residues coordinated to them, leaving one or two sites open for inhibitors to bind. Our findings indicate that Zn(BPA)X2 can be used as an active site structural mimetic for zinc metalloenzymes for estimating the free energy contribution of zinc binding to the overall inhibitor active site interactions. Such use will help aid in the rational design of inhibitors to a variety of zinc metalloenzymes.

  10. Motif discovery with data mining in 3D protein structure databases: discovery, validation and prediction of the U-shape zinc binding ("Huf-Zinc") motif.

    PubMed

    Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Gao, He; Han, Hao; Baeten, Lies; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic; Zhang, Louxin; Eisenhaber, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Data mining in protein databases, derivatives from more fundamental protein 3D structure and sequence databases, has considerable unearthed potential for the discovery of sequence motif--structural motif--function relationships as the finding of the U-shape (Huf-Zinc) motif, originally a small student's project, exemplifies. The metal ion zinc is critically involved in universal biological processes, ranging from protein-DNA complexes and transcription regulation to enzymatic catalysis and metabolic pathways. Proteins have evolved a series of motifs to specifically recognize and bind zinc ions. Many of these, so called zinc fingers, are structurally independent globular domains with discontinuous binding motifs made up of residues mostly far apart in sequence. Through a systematic approach starting from the BRIX structure fragment database, we discovered that there exists another predictable subset of zinc-binding motifs that not only have a conserved continuous sequence pattern but also share a characteristic local conformation, despite being included in totally different overall folds. While this does not allow general prediction of all Zn binding motifs, a HMM-based web server, Huf-Zinc, is available for prediction of these novel, as well as conventional, zinc finger motifs in protein sequences. The Huf-Zinc webserver can be freely accessed through this URL (http://mendel.bii.a-star.edu.sg/METHODS/hufzinc/).

  11. Comparison of the receptor FGFRL1 from sea urchins and humans illustrates evolution of a zinc binding motif in the intracellular domain

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background FGFRL1, the gene for the fifth member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family, is found in all vertebrates from fish to man and in the cephalochordate amphioxus. Since it does not occur in more distantly related invertebrates such as insects and nematodes, we have speculated that FGFRL1 might have evolved just before branching of the vertebrate lineage from the other invertebrates (Beyeler and Trueb, 2006). Results We identified the gene for FGFRL1 also in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and cloned its mRNA. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 62% sequence similarity with the human protein and shows conservation of all disulfides and N-linked carbohydrate attachment sites. Similar to the human protein, the S. purpuratus protein contains a histidine-rich motif at the C-terminus, but this motif is much shorter than the human counterpart. To analyze the function of the novel motif, recombinant fusion proteins were prepared in a bacterial expression system. The human fusion protein bound to nickel and zinc affinity columns, whereas the sea urchin protein barely interacted with such columns. Direct determination of metal ions by atomic absorption revealed 2.6 mole zinc/mole protein for human FGFRL1 and 1.7 mole zinc/mole protein for sea urchin FGFRL1. Conclusion The FGFRL1 gene has evolved much earlier than previously assumed. A comparison of the intracellular domain between sea urchin and human FGFRL1 provides interesting insights into the shaping of a novel zinc binding domain. PMID:20021659

  12. A viral, transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-independent, high affinity ligand with alternative interactions endogenously presented by the nonclassical human leukocyte antigen E class I molecule.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Elena; Infantes, Susana; Abia, David; Barnea, Eilon; Beer, Ilan; García, Ruth; Lasala, Fátima; Jiménez, Mercedes; Mir, Carmen; Morreale, Antonio; Admon, Arie; López, Daniel

    2012-10-12

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) enables the flow of viral peptides generated in the cytosol by the proteasome and other proteases to the endoplasmic reticulum, where they complex with nascent human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Later, these peptide-HLA class I complexes can be recognized by CD8(+) lymphocytes. Cancerous cells and infected cells in which TAP is blocked, as well as individuals with unusable TAP complexes, are able to present peptides on HLA class I by generating them through TAP-independent processing pathways. Here, we identify a physiologically processed HLA-E ligand derived from the D8L protein in TAP-deficient vaccinia virus-infected cells. This natural high affinity HLA-E class I ligand uses alternative interactions to the anchor motifs previously described to be presented on nonclassical HLA class I molecules. This octameric peptide was also presented on HLA-Cw1 with similar binding affinity on both classical and nonclassical class I molecules. In addition, this viral peptide inhibits HLA-E-mediated cytolysis by natural killer cells. Comparison between the amino acid sequences of the presenting HLA-E and HLA-Cw1 alleles revealed a shared structural motif in both HLA class molecules, which could be related to their observed similar cross-reactivity affinities. This motif consists of several residues located on the floor of the peptide-binding site. These data expand the role of HLA-E as an antigen-presenting molecule.

  13. The DNLZ/HEP zinc-binding subdomain is critical for regulation of the mitochondrial chaperone HSPA9

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Michael T; Zhai, Peng; Lee, Juhye; Guerra, Cecilia; Liu, Shirley; Gustin, Michael C; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2012-01-01

    Human mitochondrial DNLZ/HEP regulates the catalytic activity and solubility of the mitochondrial hsp70 chaperone HSPA9. Here, we investigate the role that the DNLZ zinc-binding and C-terminal subdomains play in regulating HSPA9. We show that truncations lacking portions of the zinc-binding subdomain (ZBS) do not affect the solubility of HSPA9 or its ATPase domain, whereas those containing the ZBS and at least 10 residues following this subdomain enhance chaperone solubility. Binding measurements further show that DNLZ requires its ZBS to form a stable complex with the HSPA9 ATPase domain, and ATP hydrolysis measurements reveal that the ZBS is critical for full stimulation of HSPA9 catalytic activity. We also examined if DNLZ is active in vivo. We found that DNLZ partially complements the growth of Δzim17Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and we discovered that a Zim17 truncation lacking a majority of the C-terminal subdomain strongly complements growth like full-length Zim17. These findings provide direct evidence that human DNLZ is a functional ortholog of Zim17. In addition, they implicate the pair of antiparallel β-strands that coordinate zinc in Zim17/DNLZ-type proteins as critical for binding and regulating hsp70 chaperones. PMID:22162012

  14. The DNLZ/HEP zinc-binding subdomain is critical for regulation of the mitochondrial chaperone HSPA9.

    PubMed

    Vu, Michael T; Zhai, Peng; Lee, Juhye; Guerra, Cecilia; Liu, Shirley; Gustin, Michael C; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2012-02-01

    Human mitochondrial DNLZ/HEP regulates the catalytic activity and solubility of the mitochondrial hsp70 chaperone HSPA9. Here, we investigate the role that the DNLZ zinc-binding and C-terminal subdomains play in regulating HSPA9. We show that truncations lacking portions of the zinc-binding subdomain (ZBS) do not affect the solubility of HSPA9 or its ATPase domain, whereas those containing the ZBS and at least 10 residues following this subdomain enhance chaperone solubility. Binding measurements further show that DNLZ requires its ZBS to form a stable complex with the HSPA9 ATPase domain, and ATP hydrolysis measurements reveal that the ZBS is critical for full stimulation of HSPA9 catalytic activity. We also examined if DNLZ is active in vivo. We found that DNLZ partially complements the growth of Δzim17 Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and we discovered that a Zim17 truncation lacking a majority of the C-terminal subdomain strongly complements growth like full-length Zim17. These findings provide direct evidence that human DNLZ is a functional ortholog of Zim17. In addition, they implicate the pair of antiparallel β-strands that coordinate zinc in Zim17/DNLZ-type proteins as critical for binding and regulating hsp70 chaperones. Copyright © 2011 The Protein Society.

  15. DNA Recognition by the DNA Primase of Bacteriophage T7: A Structure Function Study of the Zinc-Binding Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Akabayov, B.; Lee, S; Akabayov, S

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis of oligoribonucleotide primers for lagging-strand DNA synthesis in the DNA replication system of bacteriophage T7 is catalyzed by the primase domain of the gene 4 helicase-primase. The primase consists of a zinc-binding domain (ZBD) and an RNA polymerase (RPD) domain. The ZBD is responsible for recognition of a specific sequence in the ssDNA template whereas catalytic activity resides in the RPD. The ZBD contains a zinc ion coordinated with four cysteine residues. We have examined the ligation state of the zinc ion by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and biochemical analysis of genetically altered primases. The ZBD of primase engaged inmore » catalysis exhibits considerable asymmetry in coordination to zinc, as evidenced by a gradual increase in electron density of the zinc together with elongation of the zinc-sulfur bonds. Both wild-type primase and primase reconstituted from purified ZBD and RPD have a similar electronic change in the level of the zinc ion as well as the configuration of the ZBD. Single amino acid replacements in the ZBD (H33A and C36S) result in the loss of both zinc binding and its structural integrity. Thus the zinc in the ZBD may act as a charge modulation indicator for the surrounding sulfur atoms necessary for recognition of specific DNA sequences.« less

  16. Structural and functional analysis of the human HDAC4 catalytic domain reveals a regulatory structural zinc-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, Matthew J; Lo Surdo, Paola; Di Giovine, Paolo; Cirillo, Agostino; Scarpelli, Rita; Ferrigno, Federica; Jones, Philip; Neddermann, Petra; De Francesco, Raffaele; Steinkühler, Christian; Gallinari, Paola; Carfí, Andrea

    2008-09-26

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate chromatin status and gene expression, and their inhibition is of significant therapeutic interest. To date, no biological substrate for class IIa HDACs has been identified, and only low activity on acetylated lysines has been demonstrated. Here, we describe inhibitor-bound and inhibitor-free structures of the histone deacetylase-4 catalytic domain (HDAC4cd) and of an HDAC4cd active site mutant with enhanced enzymatic activity toward acetylated lysines. The structures presented, coupled with activity data, provide the molecular basis for the intrinsically low enzymatic activity of class IIa HDACs toward acetylated lysines and reveal active site features that may guide the design of class-specific inhibitors. In addition, these structures reveal a conformationally flexible structural zinc-binding domain conserved in all class IIa enzymes. Importantly, either the mutation of residues coordinating the structural zinc ion or the binding of a class IIa selective inhibitor prevented the association of HDAC4 with the N-CoR.HDAC3 repressor complex. Together, these data suggest a key role of the structural zinc-binding domain in the regulation of class IIa HDAC functions.

  17. Screening of matrix metalloproteinases available from the protein data bank: insights into biological functions, domain organization, and zinc binding groups.

    PubMed

    Nicolotti, Orazio; Miscioscia, Teresa Fabiola; Leonetti, Francesco; Muncipinto, Giovanni; Carotti, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    A total of 142 matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) X-ray crystallographic structures were retrieved from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and analyzed by an automated and efficient routine, developed in-house, with a series of bioinformatic tools. Highly informative heat maps and hierarchical clusterograms provided a reliable and comprehensive representation of the relationships existing among MMPs, enlarging and complementing the current knowledge in the field. Multiple sequence and structural alignments permitted better location and display of key MMP motifs and quantification of the residue consensus at each amino acid position in the most critical binding subsites of MMPs. The MMP active site consensus sequences, the C-alpha root-mean-square deviation (RMSd) analysis of diverse enzymatic subsites, and the examination of the chemical nature, binding topologies, and zinc binding groups (ZBGs) of ligands extracted from crystallographic complexes provided useful insights on the structural arrangements of the most potent MMP inhibitors.

  18. The intervening domain from MeCP2 enhances the DNA affinity of the methyl binding domain and provides an independent DNA interaction site.

    PubMed

    Claveria-Gimeno, Rafael; Lanuza, Pilar M; Morales-Chueca, Ignacio; Jorge-Torres, Olga C; Vega, Sonia; Abian, Olga; Esteller, Manel; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian

    2017-01-31

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) preferentially interacts with methylated DNA and it is involved in epigenetic regulation and chromatin remodelling. Mutations in MeCP2 are linked to Rett syndrome, the leading cause of intellectual retardation in girls and causing mental, motor and growth impairment. Unstructured regions in MeCP2 provide the plasticity for establishing interactions with multiple binding partners. We present a biophysical characterization of the methyl binding domain (MBD) from MeCP2 reporting the contribution of flanking domains to its structural stability and dsDNA interaction. The flanking disordered intervening domain (ID) increased the structural stability of MBD, modified its dsDNA binding profile from an entropically-driven moderate-affinity binding to an overwhelmingly enthalpically-driven high-affinity binding. Additionally, ID provided an additional site for simultaneously and autonomously binding an independent dsDNA molecule, which is a key feature linked to the chromatin remodelling and looping activity of MeCP2, as well as its ability to interact with nucleosomes replacing histone H1. The dsDNA interaction is characterized by an unusually large heat capacity linked to a cluster of water molecules trapped within the binding interface. The dynamics of disordered regions together with extrinsic factors are key determinants of MeCP2 global structural properties and functional capabilities.

  19. The intervening domain from MeCP2 enhances the DNA affinity of the methyl binding domain and provides an independent DNA interaction site

    PubMed Central

    Claveria-Gimeno, Rafael; Lanuza, Pilar M.; Morales-Chueca, Ignacio; Jorge-Torres, Olga C.; Vega, Sonia; Abian, Olga; Esteller, Manel; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) preferentially interacts with methylated DNA and it is involved in epigenetic regulation and chromatin remodelling. Mutations in MeCP2 are linked to Rett syndrome, the leading cause of intellectual retardation in girls and causing mental, motor and growth impairment. Unstructured regions in MeCP2 provide the plasticity for establishing interactions with multiple binding partners. We present a biophysical characterization of the methyl binding domain (MBD) from MeCP2 reporting the contribution of flanking domains to its structural stability and dsDNA interaction. The flanking disordered intervening domain (ID) increased the structural stability of MBD, modified its dsDNA binding profile from an entropically-driven moderate-affinity binding to an overwhelmingly enthalpically-driven high-affinity binding. Additionally, ID provided an additional site for simultaneously and autonomously binding an independent dsDNA molecule, which is a key feature linked to the chromatin remodelling and looping activity of MeCP2, as well as its ability to interact with nucleosomes replacing histone H1. The dsDNA interaction is characterized by an unusually large heat capacity linked to a cluster of water molecules trapped within the binding interface. The dynamics of disordered regions together with extrinsic factors are key determinants of MeCP2 global structural properties and functional capabilities. PMID:28139759

  20. Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Margaret E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the four planes of development and the periods of creation and crystallization within each plane. Identifies the type of independence that should be achieved by the end of the first two planes of development. Maintains that it is through individual work on the environment that one achieves independence. (KB)

  1. Human HDAC7 Harbors a Class IIa Histone Deacetylase-specific Zinc Binding Motif and Cryptic Deacetylase Activity*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Schuetz, Anja; Min, Jinrong; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Schapira, Matthieu; Shuen, Michael; Loppnau, Peter; Mazitschek, Ralph; Kwiatkowski, Nick P.; Lewis, Timothy A.; Maglathin, Rebecca L.; McLean, Thomas H.; Bochkarev, Alexey; Plotnikov, Alexander N.; Vedadi, Masoud; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.

    2008-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are protein deacetylases that play a role in repression of gene transcription and are emerging targets in cancer therapy. Here, we characterize the structure and enzymatic activity of the catalytic domain of human HDAC7 (cdHDAC7). Although HDAC7 normally exists as part of a multiprotein complex, we show that cdHDAC7 has a low level of deacetylase activity which can be inhibited by known HDAC inhibitors. The crystal structures of human cdHDAC7 and its complexes with two hydroxamate inhibitors are the first structures of the catalytic domain of class IIa HDACs and demonstrate significant differences with previously reported class I and class IIb-like HDAC structures. We show that cdHDAC7 has an additional class IIa HDAC-specific zinc binding motif adjacent to the active site which is likely to participate in substrate recognition and protein-protein interaction and may provide a site for modulation of activity. Furthermore, a different active site topology results in modified catalytic properties and in an enlarged active site pocket. Our studies provide mechanistic insights into class IIa HDACs and facilitate the design of specific modulators. PMID:18285338

  2. Crystal structure of E. coli ZinT with one zinc-binding mode and complexed with citrate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinli; Wang, Lulu; Shang, Fei; Dong, Yuesheng; Ha, Nam-Chul; Nam, Ki Hyun; Quan, Chunshan; Xu, Yongbin

    2018-06-02

    The ZnuABC ATP-binding cassette transporter found in gram-negative bacteria has been implicated in ensuring adequate zinc import into Zn(II)-poor environments. ZinT is an essential component of ZnuABC and contributes to metal transport by transferring metals to ZnuA, which delivers them to ZnuB in periplasmic zinc recruitment. Although several structures of E. coli ZinT have been reported, its zinc-binding sites and oligomeric state have not been clearly identified. Here, we report the crystal structure of E. coli ZinT at 1.76 Å resolution. This structure contains one zinc ion in its calycin-like domain, and this ion is coordinated by three highly conserved histidine residues (His167, His176 and His178). Moreover, three oxygen atoms (O 1 , O 6 and O 7 ) from the citrate molecule interact with zinc, giving the zinc ion stable octahedral coordination. Our EcZinT structure shows the fewest zinc ions bound of all reported EcZinT structures. Crystallographic packing and size exclusion chromatography suggest that EcZinT prefers to form monomers in solution. Our results provide insights into the molecular function of ZinT. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Human HDAC7 harbors a class IIa histone deacetylase-specific zinc binding motif and cryptic deacetylase activity.

    PubMed

    Schuetz, Anja; Min, Jinrong; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Schapira, Matthieu; Shuen, Michael; Loppnau, Peter; Mazitschek, Ralph; Kwiatkowski, Nick P; Lewis, Timothy A; Maglathin, Rebecca L; McLean, Thomas H; Bochkarev, Alexey; Plotnikov, Alexander N; Vedadi, Masoud; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H

    2008-04-25

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are protein deacetylases that play a role in repression of gene transcription and are emerging targets in cancer therapy. Here, we characterize the structure and enzymatic activity of the catalytic domain of human HDAC7 (cdHDAC7). Although HDAC7 normally exists as part of a multiprotein complex, we show that cdHDAC7 has a low level of deacetylase activity which can be inhibited by known HDAC inhibitors. The crystal structures of human cdHDAC7 and its complexes with two hydroxamate inhibitors are the first structures of the catalytic domain of class IIa HDACs and demonstrate significant differences with previously reported class I and class IIb-like HDAC structures. We show that cdHDAC7 has an additional class IIa HDAC-specific zinc binding motif adjacent to the active site which is likely to participate in substrate recognition and protein-protein interaction and may provide a site for modulation of activity. Furthermore, a different active site topology results in modified catalytic properties and in an enlarged active site pocket. Our studies provide mechanistic insights into class IIa HDACs and facilitate the design of specific modulators.

  4. Thiol versus hydroxamate as zinc binding group in HDAC inhibition: An ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wenjing; Wu, Ruibo; Zhang, Yingkai

    2015-11-15

    Zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a critical role in transcriptional repression and gene silencing, and are among the most attractive targets for the development of new therapeutics against cancer and various other diseases. Two HDAC inhibitors have been approved by FDA as anti-cancer drugs: one is SAHA whose hydroxamate is directly bound to zinc, the other is FK228 whose active form may use thiol as the zinc binding group. In spite of extensive studies, it remains to be ambiguous regarding how thiol and hydroxamate are bound to the zinc active site of HDACs. In this work, our computational approaches center on Born-Oppenheimer ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics with umbrella sampling, which allow for modeling of the zinc active site with reasonable accuracy while properly including dynamics and effects of protein environment. Meanwhile, an improved short-long effective function (SLEF2) to describe non-bonded interactions between zinc and other atoms has been employed in initial MM equilibrations. Our ab initio QM/MM MD simulations have confirmed that hydroxamate is neutral when it is bound to HDAC8, and found that thiol is deprotonated when directly bound to zinc in the HDAC active site. By comparing thiol and hydroxamate, our results elucidated the differences in their binding environment in the HDAC active sites, and emphasized the importance of the linker design to achieve more specific binding toward class IIa HDACs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Thiol Versus Hydroxamate as Zinc Binding Group In HDAC Inhibition: An Ab Initio QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wenjing; Wu, Ruibo; Zhang, Yingkai

    2015-01-01

    Zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a critical role in transcriptional repression and gene silencing, and are among the most attractive targets for the development of new therapeutics against cancer and various other diseases. Two HDAC inhibitors have been approved by FDA as anti-cancer drugs: one is SAHA whose hydroxamate is directly bound to zinc, the other is FK228 whose active form may use thiol as the zinc binding group. In spite of extensive studies, it remains to be ambiguous regarding how thiol and hydroxamate are bound to the zinc active site of HDACs. In this work, our computational approaches center on Born-Oppenheimer ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics with umbrella sampling, which allow for modeling of the zinc active site with reasonable accuracy while properly including dynamics and effects of protein environment. Meanwhile, an improved short-long effective function (SLEF2) to describe non-bonded interactions between zinc and other atoms has been employed in initial MM equilibrations. Our ab initio QM/MM MD simulations have confirmed that hydroxamate is neutral when it is bound to HDAC8, and found that thiol is deprotonated when directly bound to zinc in the HDAC active site. By comparing thiol and hydroxamate, our results elucidated the differences in their binding environment in the HDAC active sites, and emphasized the importance of the linker design to achieve more specific binding towards class IIa HDACs. PMID:26452222

  6. The haloarchaeal MCM proteins: bioinformatic analysis and targeted mutagenesis of the β7-β8 and β9-β10 hairpin loops and conserved zinc binding domain cysteines.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Tatjana P; Maria Cherian, Reeja; Gray, Fiona C; MacNeill, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    The hexameric MCM complex is the catalytic core of the replicative helicase in eukaryotic and archaeal cells. Here we describe the first in vivo analysis of archaeal MCM protein structure and function relationships using the genetically tractable haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii as a model system. Hfx. volcanii encodes a single MCM protein that is part of the previously identified core group of haloarchaeal MCM proteins. Three structural features of the N-terminal domain of the Hfx. volcanii MCM protein were targeted for mutagenesis: the β7-β8 and β9-β10 β-hairpin loops and putative zinc binding domain. Five strains carrying single point mutations in the β7-β8 β-hairpin loop were constructed, none of which displayed impaired cell growth under normal conditions or when treated with the DNA damaging agent mitomycin C. However, short sequence deletions within the β7-β8 β-hairpin were not tolerated and neither was replacement of the highly conserved residue glutamate 187 with alanine. Six strains carrying paired alanine substitutions within the β9-β10 β-hairpin loop were constructed, leading to the conclusion that no individual amino acid within that hairpin loop is absolutely required for MCM function, although one of the mutant strains displays greatly enhanced sensitivity to mitomycin C. Deletions of two or four amino acids from the β9-β10 β-hairpin were tolerated but mutants carrying larger deletions were inviable. Similarly, it was not possible to construct mutants in which any of the conserved zinc binding cysteines was replaced with alanine, underlining the likely importance of zinc binding for MCM function. The results of these studies demonstrate the feasibility of using Hfx. volcanii as a model system for reverse genetic analysis of archaeal MCM protein function and provide important confirmation of the in vivo importance of conserved structural features identified by previous bioinformatic, biochemical and structural studies.

  7. The haloarchaeal MCM proteins: bioinformatic analysis and targeted mutagenesis of the β7-β8 and β9-β10 hairpin loops and conserved zinc binding domain cysteines

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Tatjana P.; Maria Cherian, Reeja; Gray, Fiona C.; MacNeill, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    The hexameric MCM complex is the catalytic core of the replicative helicase in eukaryotic and archaeal cells. Here we describe the first in vivo analysis of archaeal MCM protein structure and function relationships using the genetically tractable haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii as a model system. Hfx. volcanii encodes a single MCM protein that is part of the previously identified core group of haloarchaeal MCM proteins. Three structural features of the N-terminal domain of the Hfx. volcanii MCM protein were targeted for mutagenesis: the β7-β8 and β9-β10 β-hairpin loops and putative zinc binding domain. Five strains carrying single point mutations in the β7-β8 β-hairpin loop were constructed, none of which displayed impaired cell growth under normal conditions or when treated with the DNA damaging agent mitomycin C. However, short sequence deletions within the β7-β8 β-hairpin were not tolerated and neither was replacement of the highly conserved residue glutamate 187 with alanine. Six strains carrying paired alanine substitutions within the β9-β10 β-hairpin loop were constructed, leading to the conclusion that no individual amino acid within that hairpin loop is absolutely required for MCM function, although one of the mutant strains displays greatly enhanced sensitivity to mitomycin C. Deletions of two or four amino acids from the β9-β10 β-hairpin were tolerated but mutants carrying larger deletions were inviable. Similarly, it was not possible to construct mutants in which any of the conserved zinc binding cysteines was replaced with alanine, underlining the likely importance of zinc binding for MCM function. The results of these studies demonstrate the feasibility of using Hfx. volcanii as a model system for reverse genetic analysis of archaeal MCM protein function and provide important confirmation of the in vivo importance of conserved structural features identified by previous bioinformatic, biochemical and structural studies. PMID:24723920

  8. Structural and Functional Analysis of the Human HDAC4 Catalytic Domain Reveals a Regulatory Structural Zinc-binding Domain*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Bottomley, Matthew J.; Lo Surdo, Paola; Di Giovine, Paolo; Cirillo, Agostino; Scarpelli, Rita; Ferrigno, Federica; Jones, Philip; Neddermann, Petra; De Francesco, Raffaele; Steinkühler, Christian; Gallinari, Paola; Carfí, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate chromatin status and gene expression, and their inhibition is of significant therapeutic interest. To date, no biological substrate for class IIa HDACs has been identified, and only low activity on acetylated lysines has been demonstrated. Here, we describe inhibitor-bound and inhibitor-free structures of the histone deacetylase-4 catalytic domain (HDAC4cd) and of an HDAC4cd active site mutant with enhanced enzymatic activity toward acetylated lysines. The structures presented, coupled with activity data, provide the molecular basis for the intrinsically low enzymatic activity of class IIa HDACs toward acetylated lysines and reveal active site features that may guide the design of class-specific inhibitors. In addition, these structures reveal a conformationally flexible structural zinc-binding domain conserved in all class IIa enzymes. Importantly, either the mutation of residues coordinating the structural zinc ion or the binding of a class IIa selective inhibitor prevented the association of HDAC4 with the N-CoR·HDAC3 repressor complex. Together, these data suggest a key role of the structural zinc-binding domain in the regulation of class IIa HDAC functions. PMID:18614528

  9. Generation of the first structure-based pharmacophore model containing a selective "zinc binding group" feature to identify potential glyoxalase-1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Al-Balas, Qosay; Hassan, Mohammad; Al-Oudat, Buthina; Alzoubi, Hassan; Mhaidat, Nizar; Almaaytah, Ammar

    2012-11-22

    Within this study, a unique 3D structure-based pharmacophore model of the enzyme glyoxalase-1 (Glo-1) has been revealed. Glo-1 is considered a zinc metalloenzyme in which the inhibitor binding with zinc atom at the active site is crucial. To our knowledge, this is the first pharmacophore model that has a selective feature for a "zinc binding group" which has been customized within the structure-based pharmacophore model of Glo-1 to extract ligands that possess functional groups able to bind zinc atom solely from database screening. In addition, an extensive 2D similarity search using three diverse similarity techniques (Tanimoto, Dice, Cosine) has been performed over the commercially available "Zinc Clean Drug-Like Database" that contains around 10 million compounds to help find suitable inhibitors for this enzyme based on known inhibitors from the literature. The resultant hits were mapped over the structure based pharmacophore and the successful hits were further docked using three docking programs with different pose fitting and scoring techniques (GOLD, LibDock, CDOCKER). Nine candidates were suggested to be novel Glo-1 inhibitors containing the "zinc binding group" with the highest consensus scoring from docking.

  10. Solution structure of the His12 --> Cys mutant of the N-terminal zinc binding domain of HIV-1 integrase complexed to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, M.; Huang, Y.; Caffrey, M.; Zheng, R.; Craigie, R.; Clore, G. M.; Gronenborn, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    The solution structure of His12 --> Cys mutant of the N-terminal zinc binding domain (residues 1-55; IN(1-55)) of HIV-1 integrase complexed to cadmium has been solved by multidimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. The overall structure is very similar to that of the wild-type N-terminal domain complexed to zinc. In contrast to the wild-type domain, however, which exists in two interconverting conformational states arising from different modes of coordination of the two histidine side chains to the metal, the cadmium complex of the His12 --> Cys mutant exists in only a single form at low pH. The conformation of the polypeptide chain encompassing residues 10-18 is intermediate between the two forms of the wild-type complex. PMID:9865962

  11. Characterisation of zinc-binding domains of peroxisomal RING finger proteins using size exclusion chromatography/inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Koellensperger, Gunda; Daubert, Simon; Erdmann, Ralf; Hann, Stephan; Rottensteiner, Hanspeter

    2007-11-01

    We determined the zinc binding stoichiometry of peroxisomal RING finger proteins by measuring sulfur/metal ratios using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry coupled to size exclusion chromatography, a strategy that provides a fast and quantitative overview on the binding of metals in proteins. As a quality control, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry was used to measure the molar masses of the intact proteins. The RING fingers of Pex2p, Pex10p, and Pex12p showed a stoichiometry of 2.0, 2.1, and 1.2 mol zinc/mol protein, respectively. Thus, Pex2p and Pex10p possess a typical RING domain with two coordinated zinc atoms, whereas that of Pex12p coordinates only a single zinc atom.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation reveals insights into the mechanism of unfolding by the A130T/V mutations within the MID1 zinc-binding Bbox1 domain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunjie; Zeng, Chen; Massiah, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    The zinc-binding Bbox1 domain in protein MID1, a member of the TRIM family of proteins, facilitates the ubiquitination of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A and alpha4, a protein regulator of PP2A. The natural mutation of residue A130 to a valine or threonine disrupts substrate recognition and catalysis. While NMR data revealed the A130T mutant Bbox1 domain failed to coordinate both structurally essential zinc ions and resulted in an unfolded structure, the unfolding mechanism is unknown. Principle component analysis revealed that residue A130 served as a hinge point between the structured β-strand-turn-β-strand (β-turn-β) and the lasso-like loop sub-structures that constitute loop1 of the ββα-RING fold that the Bbox1 domain adopts. Backbone RMSD data indicate significant flexibility and departure from the native structure within the first 5 ns of the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for the A130V mutant (>6 Å) and after 30 ns for A130T mutant (>6 Å). Overall RMSF values were higher for the mutant structures and showed increased flexibility around residues 125 and 155, regions with zinc-coordinating residues. Simulated pKa values of the sulfhydryl group of C142 located near A130 suggested an increased in value to ~9.0, paralleling the increase in the apparent dielectric constants for the small cavity near residue A130. Protonation of the sulfhydryl group would disrupt zinc-coordination, directly contributing to unfolding of the Bbox1. Together, the increased motion of residues of loop 1, which contains four of the six zinc-binding cysteine residues, and the increased pKa of C142 could destabilize the structure of the zinc-coordinating residues and contribute to the unfolding.

  13. Inhibitors incorporating zinc-binding groups target the GlcNAc-PI de-N-acetylase in Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Nuha Z; Crossman, Arthur T; Sullivan, Lauren; Ferguson, Michael A J; Urbaniak, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    Disruption of glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is genetically and chemically validated as a drug target against the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. The N-acetylglucosamine-phosphatidylinositol de-N-acetylase (deNAc) is a zinc metalloenzyme responsible for the second step of glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis. We recently reported the synthesis of eight deoxy-2-C-branched monosaccharides containing carboxylic acid, hydroxamic acid, or N-hydroxyurea substituents at the C2 position that may act as zinc-binding groups. Here, we describe the synthesis of a glucocyclitol-phospholipid incorporating a hydroxamic acid moiety and report the biochemical evaluation of the monosaccharides and the glucocyclitol-phospholipid as inhibitors of the trypanosome deNAc in the cell-free system and against recombinant enzyme. Monosaccharides with carboxylic acid or hydroxamic acid substituents were found to be the inhibitors of the trypanosome deNAc with IC(50) values 0.1-1.5mM and the glucocyclitol-phospholipid was found to be a dual inhibitor of the deNAc and the α1-4-mannose transferase with an apparent IC(50)= 19±0.5μm. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Identification of two pentatricopeptide repeat genes required for RNA editing and zinc binding by C-terminal cytidine deaminase-like domains.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Michael L; Giang, Karolyn; Berhane, Beniam; Mulligan, R Michael

    2013-12-20

    Many transcripts expressed from plant organelle genomes are modified by C-to-U RNA editing. Nuclear encoded pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are required as RNA binding specificity determinants in the RNA editing mechanism. Bioinformatic analysis has shown that most of the Arabidopsis PPR proteins necessary for RNA editing events include a C-terminal portion that shares structural characteristics with a superfamily of deaminases. The DYW deaminase domain includes a highly conserved zinc binding motif that shares characteristics with cytidine deaminases. The Arabidopsis PPR genes, ELI1 and DOT4, both have DYW deaminase domains and are required for single RNA editing events in chloroplasts. The ELI1 DYW deaminase domain was expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and was shown to bind two zinc atoms per polypeptide. Thus, the DYW deaminase domain binds a zinc metal ion, as expected for a cytidine deaminase, and is potentially the catalytic component of an editing complex. Genetic complementation experiments demonstrate that large portions of the DYW deaminase domain of ELI1 may be eliminated, but the truncated genes retain the ability to restore editing site conversion in a mutant plant. These results suggest that the catalytic activity can be supplied in trans by uncharacterized protein(s) of the editosome.

  15. Design, synthesis and anti-tumor activity study of novel histone deacetylase inhibitors containing isatin-based caps and o-phenylenediamine-based zinc binding groups.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuai; Zang, Jie; Gao, Qianwen; Liang, Xuewu; Ding, Qinge; Li, Xiaoyang; Xu, Wenfang; Chou, C James; Zhang, Yingjie

    2017-06-15

    As a hot topic of epigenetic studies, histone deacetylases (HDACs) are related to lots of diseases, especially cancer. Further researches indicated that different HDAC isoforms played various roles in a wide range of tumor types. Herein a novel series of HDAC inhibitors with isatin-based caps and o-phenylenediamine-based zinc binding groups have been designed and synthesized through scaffold hopping strategy. Among these compounds, the most potent compound 9n exhibited similar if not better HDAC inhibition and antiproliferative activities against multiple tumor cell lines compared with the positive control entinostat (MS-275). Additionally, compared with MS-275 (IC 50 values for HDAC1, 2 and 3 were 0.163, 0.396 and 0.605µM, respectively), compound 9n with IC 50 values of 0.032, 0.256 and 0.311µM for HDAC1, 2 and 3 respectively, showed a moderate HDAC1 selectivity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Crystal structure of the UBR-box from UBR6/FBXO11 reveals domain swapping mediated by zinc binding.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Escobar, Juliana; Kozlov, Guennadi; Gehring, Kalle

    2017-10-01

    The UBR-box is a 70-residue zinc finger domain present in the UBR family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that directly binds N-terminal degradation signals in substrate proteins. UBR6, also called FBXO11, is an UBR-box containing E3 ubiquitin ligase that does not bind N-terminal signals. Here, we present the crystal structure of the UBR-box domain from human UBR6. The dimeric crystal structure reveals a unique form of domain swapping mediated by zinc coordination, where three independent protein chains come together to regenerate the topology of the monomeric UBR-box fold. Analysis of the structure suggests that the absence of N-terminal residue binding arises from the lack of an amino acid binding pocket. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  17. Conformational heterogeneity in the C-terminal zinc fingers of human MTF-1: an NMR and zinc-binding study.

    PubMed

    Giedroc, D P; Chen, X; Pennella, M A; LiWang, A C

    2001-11-09

    The human metalloregulatory transcription factor, metal-response element (MRE)-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1), contains six TFIIIA-type Cys(2)-His(2) motifs, each of which was projected to form well-structured betabetaalpha domains upon Zn(II) binding. In this report, the structure and backbone dynamics of a fragment containing the unusual C-terminal fingers F4-F6 has been investigated. (15)N heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectra of uniformly (15)N-labeled hMTF-zf46 show that Zn(II) induces the folding of hMTF-zf46. Analysis of the secondary structure of Zn(3) hMTF-zf46 determined by (13)Calpha chemical shift indexing and the magnitude of (3)J(Halpha-HN) clearly reveal that zinc fingers F4 and F6 adopt typical betabetaalpha structures. An analysis of the heteronuclear backbone (15)N relaxation dynamics behavior is consistent with this picture and further reveals independent tumbling of the finger domains in solution. Titration of apo-MTF-zf46 with Zn(II) reveals that the F4 domain binds Zn(II) significantly more tightly than do the other two finger domains. In contrast to fingers F4 and F6, the betabetaalpha fold of finger F5 is unstable and only partially populated at substoichiometric Zn(II); a slight molar excess of zinc results in severe conformational exchange broadening of all F5 NH cross-peaks. Finally, although Cd(II) binds to apo-hMTF-zf46 as revealed by intense S(-)-->Cd(II) absorption, a non-native structure results; addition of stoichiometric Zn(II) to the Cd(II) complex results in quantitative refolding of the betabetaalpha structure in F4 and F6. The functional implications of these results are discussed.

  18. The crystal structure of mammalian inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase reveals a new zinc-binding site and key features for protein function

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Echevarría, Elsa; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Brearley, Charles A.; González-Rubio, Juana M.; González, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinases (IP5 2-Ks) are part of a family of enzymes in charge of synthesizing inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) in eukaryotic cells. This protein and its product IP6 present many roles in cells, participating in mRNA export, embryonic development, and apoptosis. We reported previously that the full-length IP5 2-K from Arabidopsis thaliana is a zinc metallo-enzyme, including two separated lobes (the N- and C-lobes). We have also shown conformational changes in IP5 2-K and have identified the residues involved in substrate recognition and catalysis. However, the specific features of mammalian IP5 2-Ks remain unknown. To this end, we report here the first structure for a murine IP5 2-K in complex with ATP/IP5 or IP6. Our structural findings indicated that the general folding in N- and C-lobes is conserved with A. thaliana IP5 2-K. A helical scaffold in the C-lobe constitutes the inositol phosphate-binding site, which, along with the participation of the N-lobe, endows high specificity to this protein. However, we also noted large structural differences between the orthologues from these two eukaryotic kingdoms. These differences include a novel zinc-binding site and regions unique to the mammalian IP5 2-K, as an unexpected basic patch on the protein surface. In conclusion, our findings have uncovered distinct features of a mammalian IP5 2-K and set the stage for investigations into protein-protein or protein-RNA interactions important for IP5 2-K function and activity. PMID:28450399

  19. Mutation of a Zinc-Binding Residue in the Glycine Receptor α1 Subunit Changes Ethanol Sensitivity In Vitro and Alcohol Consumption In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Lindsay M.; Blednov, Yuri A.; Trudell, James R.; Benavidez, Jillian M.; Betz, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely used drug, yet an understanding of its sites and mechanisms of action remains incomplete. Among the protein targets of ethanol are glycine receptors (GlyRs), which are potentiated by millimolar concentrations of ethanol. In addition, zinc ions also modulate GlyR function, and recent evidence suggests that physiologic concentrations of zinc enhance ethanol potentiation of GlyRs. Here, we first built a homology model of a zinc-bound GlyR using the D80 position as a coordination site for a zinc ion. Next, we investigated in vitro the effects of zinc on ethanol action at recombinant wild-type (WT) and mutant α1 GlyRs containing the D80A substitution, which eliminates zinc potentiation. At D80A GlyRs, the effects of 50 and 200 mM ethanol were reduced as compared with WT receptors. Also, in contrast to what was seen with WT GlyRs, neither adding nor chelating zinc changed the magnitude of ethanol enhancement of mutant D80A receptors. Next, we evaluated the in vivo effects of the D80A substitution by using heterozygous Glra1(D80A) knock-in (KI) mice. The KI mice showed decreased ethanol consumption and preference, and they displayed increased startle responses compared with their WT littermates. Other behavioral tests, including ethanol-induced motor incoordination and strychnine-induced convulsions, revealed no differences between the KI and WT mice. Together, our findings indicate that zinc is critical in determining the effects of ethanol at GlyRs and suggest that zinc binding at the D80 position may be important for mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol action at GlyRs. PMID:23230213

  20. Human GIP(3-30)NH2 inhibits G protein-dependent as well as G protein-independent signaling and is selective for the GIP receptor with high-affinity binding to primate but not rodent GIP receptors.

    PubMed

    Gabe, Maria Buur Nordskov; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander Hovard; Pedersen, Mie Fabricius; Gasbjerg, Lærke Smidt; Inoue, Asuka; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Hartmann, Bolette; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2018-04-01

    GIP(3-30)NH 2 is a high affinity antagonist of the GIP receptor (GIPR) in humans inhibiting insulin secretion via G protein-dependent pathways. However, its ability to inhibit G protein-independent signaling is unknown. Here we determine its action on arrestin-recruitment and receptor internalization in recombinant cells. As GIP is adipogenic, we evaluate the inhibitory actions of GIP(3-30)NH 2 in human adipocytes. Finally, we determine the receptor selectivity of GIP(3-30)NH 2 among other human and animal GPCRs. cAMP accumulation and β-arrestin 1 and 2 recruitment were studied in transiently transfected HEK293 cells and real-time internalization in transiently transfected HEK293A and in HEK293A β-arrestin 1 and 2 knockout cells. Furthermore, human subcutaneous adipocytes were assessed for cAMP accumulation following ligand stimulation. Competition binding was examined in transiently transfected COS-7 cells using human 125 I-GIP(3-30)NH 2 . The selectivity of human GIP(3-30)NH 2 was examined by testing for agonistic and antagonistic properties on 62 human GPCRs. Human GIP(3-30)NH 2 inhibited GIP(1-42)-induced cAMP and β-arrestin 1 and 2 recruitment on the human GIPR and Schild plot analysis showed competitive antagonism with a pA 2 and Hill slope of 16.8 nM and 1.11 ± 0.02 in cAMP, 10.6 nM and 1.15 ± 0.05 in β-arrestin 1 recruitment, and 10.2 nM and 1.06 ± 0.05 in β-arrestin 2 recruitment. Efficient internalization of the GIPR was dependent on the presence of either β-arrestin 1 or 2. Moreover, GIP(3-30)NH 2 inhibited GIP(1-42)-induced internalization in a concentration-dependent manner and notably also inhibited GIP-mediated signaling in human subcutaneous adipocytes. Finally, the antagonist was established as GIPR selective among 62 human GPCRs being species-specific with high affinity binding to the human and non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) GIPRs, and low affinity binding to the rat and mouse GIPRs (K d values of 2.0, 2.5, 31

  1. Prostate Cancer Stem Cell-Targeted Efficacy of a New-Generation Taxoid, SBT-1214 and Novel Polyenolic Zinc-Binding Curcuminoid, CMC2.24

    PubMed Central

    Botchkina, Galina I.; Zuniga, Edison S.; Rowehl, Rebecca H.; Park, Rosa; Bhalla, Rahuldev; Bialkowska, Agnieszka B.; Johnson, Francis; Golub, Lorne M.; Zhang, Yu; Ojima, Iwao; Shroyer, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among men. Multiple evidence suggests that a population of tumor-initiating, or cancer stem cells (CSCs) is responsible for cancer development and exceptional drug resistance, representing a highly important therapeutic target. The present study evaluated CSC-specific alterations induced by new-generation taxoid SBT-1214 and a novel polyenolic zinc-binding curcuminoid, CMC2.24, in prostate CSCs. Principal Findings The CD133high/CD44high phenotype was isolated from spontaneously immortalized patient-derived PPT2 cells and highly metastatic PC3MM2 cells. Weekly treatment of the NOD/SCID mice bearing PPT2- and PC3MM3-induced tumors with the SBT-1214 led to dramatic suppression of tumor growth. Four of six PPT2 and 3 of 6 PC3MM2 tumors have shown the absence of viable cells in residual tumors. In vitro, SBT-1214 (100nM-1µM; for 72 hr) induced about 60% cell death in CD133high/CD44+/high cells cultured on collagen I in stem cell medium (in contrast, the same doses of paclitaxel increased proliferation of these cells). The cytotoxic effects were increased when SBT-1214 was combined with the CMC2.24. A stem cell-specific PCR array assay revealed that this drug combination mediated massive inhibition of multiple constitutively up-regulated stem cell-related genes, including key pluripotency transcription factors. Importantly, this drug combination induced expression of p21 and p53, which were absent in CD133high/CD44high cells. Viable cells that survived this treatment regimen were no longer able to induce secondary spheroids, exhibited significant morphological abnormalities and died in 2-5 days. Conclusions We report here that the SBT-1214 alone, or in combination with CMC2.24, possesses significant activity against prostate CD133high/CD44+/high tumor-initiating cells. This drug combination efficiently inhibits expression of the majority of stem cell-related genes and pluripotency transcription

  2. Antisymmetric tensor generalizations of affine vector fields.

    PubMed

    Houri, Tsuyoshi; Morisawa, Yoshiyuki; Tomoda, Kentaro

    2016-02-01

    Tensor generalizations of affine vector fields called symmetric and antisymmetric affine tensor fields are discussed as symmetry of spacetimes. We review the properties of the symmetric ones, which have been studied in earlier works, and investigate the properties of the antisymmetric ones, which are the main theme in this paper. It is shown that antisymmetric affine tensor fields are closely related to one-lower-rank antisymmetric tensor fields which are parallelly transported along geodesics. It is also shown that the number of linear independent rank- p antisymmetric affine tensor fields in n -dimensions is bounded by ( n + 1)!/ p !( n - p )!. We also derive the integrability conditions for antisymmetric affine tensor fields. Using the integrability conditions, we discuss the existence of antisymmetric affine tensor fields on various spacetimes.

  3. Affine invariants of convex polygons.

    PubMed

    Flusser, Jan

    2002-01-01

    In this correspondence, we prove that the affine invariants, for image registration and object recognition, proposed recently by Yang and Cohen (see ibid., vol.8, no.7, p.934-46, July 1999) are algebraically dependent. We show how to select an independent and complete set of the invariants. The use of this new set leads to a significant reduction of the computing complexity without decreasing the discrimination power.

  4. Phosphate (Pi)-regulated heterodimerization of the high-affinity sodium-dependent Pi transporters PiT1/Slc20a1 and PiT2/Slc20a2 underlies extracellular Pi sensing independently of Pi uptake.

    PubMed

    Bon, Nina; Couasnay, Greig; Bourgine, Annabelle; Sourice, Sophie; Beck-Cormier, Sarah; Guicheux, Jérôme; Beck, Laurent

    2018-02-09

    Extracellular phosphate (P i ) can act as a signaling molecule that directly alters gene expression and cellular physiology. The ability of cells or organisms to detect changes in extracellular P i levels implies the existence of a P i -sensing mechanism that signals to the body or individual cell. However, unlike in prokaryotes, yeasts, and plants, the molecular players involved in P i sensing in mammals remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the high-affinity, sodium-dependent P i transporters PiT1 and PiT2 in mediating P i signaling in skeletal cells. We found that deletion of PiT1 or PiT2 blunted the P i -dependent ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation and subsequent gene up-regulation of the mineralization inhibitors matrix Gla protein and osteopontin. This result suggested that both PiTs are necessary for P i signaling. Moreover, the ERK1/2 phosphorylation could be rescued by overexpressing P i transport-deficient PiT mutants. Using cross-linking and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer approaches, we found that PiT1 and PiT2 form high-abundance homodimers and P i -regulated low-abundance heterodimers. Interestingly, in the absence of sodium-dependent P i transport activity, the PiT1-PiT2 heterodimerization was still regulated by extracellular P i levels. Of note, when two putative P i -binding residues, Ser-128 (in PiT1) and Ser-113 (in PiT2), were substituted with alanine, the PiT1-PiT2 heterodimerization was no longer regulated by extracellular P i These observations suggested that P i binding rather than P i uptake may be the key factor in mediating P i signaling through the PiT proteins. Taken together, these results demonstrate that P i -regulated PiT1-PiT2 heterodimerization mediates P i sensing independently of P i uptake. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Affinity in electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Heegaard, Niels H H

    2009-06-01

    The journal Electrophoresis has greatly influenced my approaches to biomolecular affinity studies. The methods that I have chosen as my main tools to study interacting biomolecules--native gel and later capillary zone electrophoresis--have been the topic of numerous articles in Electrophoresis. Below, the role of the journal in the development and dissemination of these techniques and applications reviewed. Many exhaustive reviews on affinity electrophoresis and affinity CE have been published in the last few years and are not in any way replaced by the present deliberations that are focused on papers published by the journal.

  6. Discovery of Novel, Highly Potent, and Selective Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 Inhibitors with a 1,2,4-Triazol-3-yl Moiety as a Zinc Binding Group Using a Structure-Based Design Approach.

    PubMed

    Nara, Hiroshi; Kaieda, Akira; Sato, Kenjiro; Naito, Takako; Mototani, Hideyuki; Oki, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Kuno, Haruhiko; Santou, Takashi; Kanzaki, Naoyuki; Terauchi, Jun; Uchikawa, Osamu; Kori, Masakuni

    2017-01-26

    On the basis of a superposition study of X-ray crystal structures of complexes of quinazoline derivative 1 and triazole derivative 2 with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 catalytic domain, a novel series of fused pyrimidine compounds which possess a 1,2,4-triazol-3-yl group as a zinc binding group (ZBG) was designed. Among the herein described and evaluated compounds, 31f exhibited excellent potency for MMP-13 (IC 50 = 0.036 nM) and selectivities (greater than 1,500-fold) over other MMPs (MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -9, -10, and -14) and tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE). Furthermore, the inhibitor was shown to protect bovine nasal cartilage explants against degradation induced by interleukin-1 and oncostatin M. In this article, we report the discovery of extremely potent, highly selective, and orally bioavailable fused pyrimidine derivatives that possess a 1,2,4-triazol-3-yl group as a novel ZBG for selective MMP-13 inhibition.

  7. Affine theory of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popławski, Nikodem

    2014-01-01

    We propose a theory of gravitation, in which the affine connection is the only dynamical variable describing the gravitational field. We construct a simple dynamical Lagrangian density that is entirely composed from the connection, via its curvature and torsion, and is a polynomial function of its derivatives. It is given by the contraction of the Ricci tensor with a tensor which is inverse to the symmetric, contracted square of the torsion tensor, . We vary the total action for the gravitational field and matter with respect to the affine connection, assuming that the matter fields couple to the connection only through . We derive the resulting field equations and show that they are identical with the Einstein equations of general relativity with a nonzero cosmological constant if the tensor is regarded as proportional to the metric tensor. The cosmological constant is simply a constant of proportionality between the two tensors, which together with and provides a natural system of units in gravitational physics. This theory therefore provides a physical construction of the metric as a polynomial function of the connection, and explains dark energy as an intrinsic property of spacetime.

  8. High oxygen affinity hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Mangin, O

    2017-02-01

    High oxygen affinity hemoglobins are responsible for rare and heterogeneous autosomic dominant genetic diseases. They cause pure erythrocytosis, sometimes accountable for hyperviscosity and thrombosis, or hemolysis. Differential diagnoses must be first ruled out. The diagnosis is based on the identification of a decreased P50, and their possible characterization by cation exchange-high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Finally, genetic studies of the responsible globin chain gene will confirm the mutation. The prognosis mainly relies on the P50 decrease rate and on the hemoglobin cooperativity impairment. Disease management should be personalized, and it should primarily depend on smoking cessation and physical activity. Phlebotomy and platelet aggregation inhibitors' prescriptions can be discussed. There is no contraindication to flights, high-altitude conditions, or pregnancy. Nevertheless, blood donation must be prohibited. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    SciTech Connect

    Urichuk, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.urichuk@uleth.ca; Walton, Mark A., E-mail: walton@uleth.ca; International School for Advanced Studies

    2016-06-15

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are writtenmore » for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.« less

  10. Fundamentals of affinity cell separations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Lyons, Veronica; Pappas, Dimitri

    2018-03-01

    Cell separations using affinity methods continue to be an enabling science for a wide variety of applications. In this review, we discuss the fundamental aspects of affinity separation, including the competing forces for cell capture and elution, cell-surface interactions, and models for cell adhesion. Factors affecting separation performance such as bond affinity, contact area, and temperature are presented. We also discuss and demonstrate the effects of nonspecific binding on separation performance. Metrics for evaluating cell separations are presented, along with methods of comparing separation techniques for cell isolation using affinity capture. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The zinc-binding region (ZBR) fragment of Emi2 can inhibit APC/C by targeting its association with the coactivator Cdc20 and UBE2C-mediated ubiquitylation

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Shisako; Muto, Yutaka; Ikeda, Mariko; He, Fahu; Tsuda, Kengo; Ohsawa, Noboru; Akasaka, Ryogo; Terada, Takaho; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) is a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase E3 that targets cell-cycle regulators. Cdc20 is required for full activation of APC/C in M phase, and mediates substrate recognition. In vertebrates, Emi2/Erp1/FBXO43 inhibits APC/C-Cdc20, and functions as a cytostatic factor that causes long-term M phase arrest of mature oocytes. In this study, we found that a fragment corresponding to the zinc-binding region (ZBR) domain of Emi2 inhibits cell-cycle progression, and impairs the association of Cdc20 with the APC/C core complex in HEK293T cells. Furthermore, we revealed that the ZBR fragment of Emi2 inhibits in vitro ubiquitin chain elongation catalyzed by the APC/C cullin-RING ligase module, the ANAPC2–ANAPC11 subcomplex, in combination with the ubiquitin chain-initiating E2, E2C/UBE2C/UbcH10. Structural analyses revealed that the Emi2 ZBR domain uses different faces for the two mechanisms. Thus, the double-faced ZBR domain of Emi2 antagonizes the APC/C function by inhibiting both the binding with the coactivator Cdc20 and ubiquitylation mediated by the cullin-RING ligase module and E2C. In addition, the tail region between the ZBR domain and the C-terminal RL residues [the post-ZBR (PZ) region] interacts with the cullin subunit, ANAPC2. In the case of the ZBR fragment of the somatic paralogue of Emi2, Emi1/FBXO5, these inhibitory activities against cell division and ubiquitylation were not observed. Finally, we identified two sets of key residues in the Emi2 ZBR domain that selectively exert each of the dual Emi2-specific modes of APC/C inhibition, by their mutation in the Emi2 ZBR domain and their transplantation into the Emi1 ZBR domain. PMID:25161877

  12. Lp-dual affine surface area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wang; Binwu, He

    2008-12-01

    According to the notion of Lp-affine surface area by Lutwak, in this paper, we introduce the concept of Lp-dual affine surface area. Further, we establish the affine isoperimetric inequality and the Blaschke-Santaló inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area. Besides, the dual Brunn-Minkowski inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area is presented.

  13. 2017 Guralp Affinity Digitizer Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Bion J.

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated two Guralp Affinity digitizers. The Affinity digitizers are intended to record sensor output for seismic and infrasound monitoring applications. The purpose of this digitizer evaluation is to measure the performance characteristics in such areas as power consumption, input impedance, sensitivity, full scale, self- noise, dynamic range, system noise, response, passband, and timing. The Affinity digitizers are being evaluated for potential use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO).

  14. Vaccine Efficacy and Affinity Maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hayoun; Deem, Michael W.

    2002-03-01

    We propose macroscopic equations to describe variable vaccine efficacy between repeated vaccinee and first time vaccinee. The main ingredients are antigenic distance between epidemic strain and vaccne strain, and affinity maturation dynamics which differs in primary and second response. Increase of affinity by repeated vaccine leads to localization in immune space. This localization decreases the ability of the immune system to response to distant, but related epidemic strains.

  15. Dye-ligand affinity systems.

    PubMed

    Denizli, A; Pişkin, E

    2001-10-30

    Dye-ligands have been considered as one of the important alternatives to natural counterparts for specific affinity chromatography. Dye-ligands are able to bind most types of proteins, in some cases in a remarkably specific manner. They are commercially available, inexpensive, and can easily be immobilized, especially on matrices bearing hydroxyl groups. Although dyes are all synthetic in nature, they are still classified as affinity ligands because they interact with the active sites of many proteins mimicking the structure of the substrates, cofactors, or binding agents for those proteins. A number of textile dyes, known as reactive dyes, have been used for protein purification. Most of these reactive dyes consist of a chromophore (either azo dyes, anthraquinone, or phathalocyanine), linked to a reactive group (often a mono- or dichlorotriazine ring). The interaction between the dye ligand and proteins can be by complex combination of electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding. Selection of the supporting matrix is the first important consideration in dye-affinity systems. There are several methods for immobilization of dye molecules onto the support matrix, in which usually several intermediate steps are followed. Both the adsorption and elution steps should carefully be optimized/designed for a successful separation. Dye-affinity systems in the form of spherical sorbents or as affinity membranes have been used in protein separation.

  16. Molecular basis for subtype-specificity and high-affinity zinc inhibition in the GluN1-GluN2A NMDA receptor amino terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Hernandez, Annabel; Simorowski, Noriko; Karakas, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Zinc is vastly present in the mammalian brain and controls functions of various cell surface receptors to regulate neurotransmission. A distinctive characteristic of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors containing a GluN2A subunit is that their ion channel activity is allosterically inhibited by a nano-molar concentration of zinc that binds to an extracellular domain called an amino terminal domain (ATD). Despite physiological importance, the molecular mechanism underlying the high-affinity zinc inhibition has been incomplete due to lack of a GluN2A ATD structure. Here we show the first crystal structures of the heterodimeric GluN1-GluN2A ATD, which provide the complete map of the high-affinity zinc binding site and reveals distinctive features from the ATD of the GluN1-GluN2B subtype. Perturbation of hydrogen bond networks at the hinge of the GluN2A bi-lobe structure affects both zinc inhibition and open probability supporting the general model where the bi-lobe motion in ATD regulates the channel activity in NMDA receptors. PMID:27916457

  17. Alternative Affinity Ligands for Immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Kruljec, Nika; Bratkovič, Tomaž

    2017-08-16

    The demand for recombinant therapeutic antibodies and Fc-fusion proteins is expected to increase in the years to come. Hence, extensive efforts are concentrated on improving the downstream processing. In particular, the development of better-affinity chromatography matrices, supporting robust time- and cost-effective antibody purification, is warranted. With the advances in molecular design and high-throughput screening approaches from chemical and biological combinatorial libraries, novel affinity ligands representing alternatives to bacterial immunoglobulin (Ig)-binding proteins have entered the scene. Here, we review the design, development, and properties of diverse classes of alternative antibody-binding ligands, ranging from engineered versions of Ig-binding proteins, to artificial binding proteins, peptides, aptamers, and synthetic small-molecular-weight compounds. We also provide examples of applications for the novel affinity matrices in chromatography and beyond.

  18. Affinity-aware checkpoint restart

    DOE PAGES

    Saini, Ajay; Rezaei, Arash; Mueller, Frank; ...

    2014-12-08

    Current checkpointing techniques employed to overcome faults for HPC applications result in inferior application performance after restart from a checkpoint for a number of applications. This is due to a lack of page and core affinity awareness of the checkpoint/restart (C/R) mechanism, i.e., application tasks originally pinned to cores may be restarted on different cores, and in case of non-uniform memory architectures (NUMA), quite common today, memory pages associated with tasks on a NUMA node may be associated with a different NUMA node after restart. Here, this work contributes a novel design technique for C/R mechanisms to preserve task-to-core mapsmore » and NUMA node specific page affinities across restarts. Experimental results with BLCR, a C/R mechanism, enhanced with affinity awareness demonstrate significant performance benefits of 37%-73% for the NAS Parallel Benchmark codes and 6-12% for NAMD with negligible overheads instead of up to nearly four times longer an execution times without affinity-aware restarts on 16 cores.« less

  19. Affine Contractions on the Plane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…

  20. Affinity-aware checkpoint restart

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, Ajay; Rezaei, Arash; Mueller, Frank

    Current checkpointing techniques employed to overcome faults for HPC applications result in inferior application performance after restart from a checkpoint for a number of applications. This is due to a lack of page and core affinity awareness of the checkpoint/restart (C/R) mechanism, i.e., application tasks originally pinned to cores may be restarted on different cores, and in case of non-uniform memory architectures (NUMA), quite common today, memory pages associated with tasks on a NUMA node may be associated with a different NUMA node after restart. Here, this work contributes a novel design technique for C/R mechanisms to preserve task-to-core mapsmore » and NUMA node specific page affinities across restarts. Experimental results with BLCR, a C/R mechanism, enhanced with affinity awareness demonstrate significant performance benefits of 37%-73% for the NAS Parallel Benchmark codes and 6-12% for NAMD with negligible overheads instead of up to nearly four times longer an execution times without affinity-aware restarts on 16 cores.« less

  1. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  2. Electron affinity of liquid water

    DOE PAGES

    Gaiduk, Alex P.; Pham, Tuan Anh; Govoni, Marco; ...

    2018-01-16

    Understanding redox and photochemical reactions in aqueous environments requires a precise knowledge of the ionization potential and electron affinity of liquid water. The former has been measured, but not the latter. We predict the electron affinity of liquid water and of its surface from first principles, coupling path-integral molecular dynamics with ab initio potentials, and many-body perturbation theory. Our results for the surface (0.8 eV) agree well with recent pump-probe spectroscopy measurements on amorphous ice. Those for the bulk (0.1-0.3 eV) differ from several estimates adopted in the literature, which we critically revisit. We show that the ionization potential ofmore » the bulk and surface are almost identical; instead their electron affinities differ substantially, with the conduction band edge of the surface much deeper in energy than that of the bulk. We also discuss the significant impact of nuclear quantum effects on the fundamental gap and band edges of the liquid.« less

  3. Electron affinity of liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Gaiduk, Alex P.; Pham, Tuan Anh; Govoni, Marco

    Understanding redox and photochemical reactions in aqueous environments requires a precise knowledge of the ionization potential and electron affinity of liquid water. The former has been measured, but not the latter. We predict the electron affinity of liquid water and of its surface from first principles, coupling path-integral molecular dynamics with ab initio potentials, and many-body perturbation theory. Our results for the surface (0.8 eV) agree well with recent pump-probe spectroscopy measurements on amorphous ice. Those for the bulk (0.1-0.3 eV) differ from several estimates adopted in the literature, which we critically revisit. We show that the ionization potential ofmore » the bulk and surface are almost identical; instead their electron affinities differ substantially, with the conduction band edge of the surface much deeper in energy than that of the bulk. We also discuss the significant impact of nuclear quantum effects on the fundamental gap and band edges of the liquid.« less

  4. Lp-mixed affine surface area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weidong; Leng, Gangsong

    2007-11-01

    According to the three notions of mixed affine surface area, Lp-affine surface area and Lp-mixed affine surface area proposed by Lutwak, in this article, we give the concept of ith Lp-mixed affine surface area such that the first and second notions of Lutwak are its special cases. Further, some Lutwak's results are extended associated with this concept. Besides, applying this concept, we establish an inequality for the volumes and dual quermassintegrals of a class of star bodies.

  5. Affinity Spaces and 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, James Paul

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses video games as "attractors" to "affinity spaces." It argues that affinity spaces are key sites today where people teach and learn 21st Century skills. While affinity spaces are proliferating on the Internet as interest-and-passion-driven sites devoted to a common set of endeavors, they are not new, just…

  6. Relationships between chemical structure and affinity for acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, F. B.; Barlow, R. B.; Mustafa, M. G.; Stephenson, R. P.

    1969-01-01

    1. Series of analogues of acetylcholine have been prepared in which the acetyl group was replaced by phenylacetyl, cyclohexylacetyl, diphenylacetyl, dicyclohexylacetyl, (±)-phenylcyclohexylacetyl, benziloyl and (±)-phenylcyclohexylhydroxyacetyl groups and the trimethylammonium group was replaced by Me2EtN+, MeEt2N+, Et3N+, [Formula: see text] Further series were prepared in which the acetoxyethyl group was replaced by ethoxyethyl, phenylethoxyethyl, cyclohexylethoxyethyl, diphenylethoxyethyl, and dicyclohexylethoxyethyl groups, and by n-pentyl, 5-phenylpentyl, 5-cyclohexylpentyl and 5:5-diphenylpentyl groups. 2. The ethoxyethyl and n-pentyl series contain some compounds which are agonists or partial agonists when tested on the isolated guinea-pig ileum, but all the other compounds are antagonists. 3. The affinity of the compounds for the postganglionic (“muscarinesensitive”) acetylcholine receptors has been measured in conditions in which the antagonists have been shown to be acting competitively. There were considerable differences between their affinities, the most active (log K, 9·8) having one million times the affinity of the least active (log K, 3·7). 4. The changes in affinity as the onium group was modified were not entirely independent of changes in the rest of the molecule. Increasing the size of the onium group, as judged from conductivity measurements on simpler onium salts, increased affinity in the series containing one large group (phenyl or cyclohexyl) but, in the series with two large groups, affinity declined when the size was increased beyond -+NMeEt2. 5. In general, the effects of changes in the rest of the molecule on affinity were bigger than the effects of changes in the onium group and there were bigger interactions. Affinity was increased to a greater extent by introducing one phenyl and one cyclohexyl group together than by introducing either two phenyl or two cyclohexyl groups; the increment was greater than the separate

  7. Affine connection form of Regge calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatsymovsky, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    Regge action is represented analogously to how the Palatini action for general relativity (GR) as some functional of the metric and a general connection as independent variables represents the Einstein-Hilbert action. The piecewise flat (or simplicial) spacetime of Regge calculus is equipped with some world coordinates and some piecewise affine metric which is completely defined by the set of edge lengths and the world coordinates of the vertices. The conjugate variables are the general nondegenerate matrices on the three-simplices which play the role of a general discrete connection. Our previous result on some representation of the Regge calculus action in terms of the local Euclidean (Minkowsky) frame vectors and orthogonal connection matrices as independent variables is somewhat modified for the considered case of the general linear group GL(4, R) of the connection matrices. As a result, we have some action invariant w.r.t. arbitrary change of coordinates of the vertices (and related GL(4, R) transformations in the four-simplices). Excluding GL(4, R) connection from this action via the equations of motion we have exactly the Regge action for the considered spacetime.

  8. Multi-exemplar affinity propagation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Dong; Lai, Jian-Huang; Suen, Ching Y; Zhu, Jun-Yong

    2013-09-01

    The affinity propagation (AP) clustering algorithm has received much attention in the past few years. AP is appealing because it is efficient, insensitive to initialization, and it produces clusters at a lower error rate than other exemplar-based methods. However, its single-exemplar model becomes inadequate when applied to model multisubclasses in some situations such as scene analysis and character recognition. To remedy this deficiency, we have extended the single-exemplar model to a multi-exemplar one to create a new multi-exemplar affinity propagation (MEAP) algorithm. This new model automatically determines the number of exemplars in each cluster associated with a super exemplar to approximate the subclasses in the category. Solving the model is NP-hard and we tackle it with the max-sum belief propagation to produce neighborhood maximum clusters, with no need to specify beforehand the number of clusters, multi-exemplars, and superexemplars. Also, utilizing the sparsity in the data, we are able to reduce substantially the computational time and storage. Experimental studies have shown MEAP's significant improvements over other algorithms on unsupervised image categorization and the clustering of handwritten digits.

  9. Indian Craniometric Variability and Affinities

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Pathmanathan; Bulbeck, David; Pathmanathan, Gayathiri; Rathee, Suresh Kanta

    2013-01-01

    Recently published craniometric and genetic studies indicate a predominantly indigenous ancestry of Indian populations. We address this issue with a fuller coverage of Indian craniometrics than any done before. We analyse metrical variability within Indian series, Indians' sexual dimorphism, differences between northern and southern Indians, index-based differences of Indian males from other series, and Indians' multivariate affinities. The relationship between a variable's magnitude and its variability is log-linear. This relationship is strengthened by excluding cranial fractions and series with a sample size less than 30. Male crania are typically larger than female crania, but there are also shape differences. Northern Indians differ from southern Indians in various features including narrower orbits and less pronounced medial protrusion of the orbits. Indians resemble Veddas in having small crania and similar cranial shape. Indians' wider geographic affinities lie with “Caucasoid” populations to the northwest, particularly affecting northern Indians. The latter finding is confirmed from shape-based Mahalanobis-D distances calculated for the best sampled male and female series. Demonstration of a distinctive South Asian craniometric profile and the intermediate status of northern Indians between southern Indians and populations northwest of India confirm the predominantly indigenous ancestry of northern and especially southern Indians. PMID:24455409

  10. Maintaining Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upah-Bant, Marilyn

    1978-01-01

    Describes the over-all business and production operation of the "Daily Illini" at the University of Illinois to show how this college publication has assumed the burdens and responsibilities of true independence. (GW)

  11. [Affinity between CrIII and purified DNA, studied by competition with an intercalating agent: ethidium bromide].

    PubMed

    Vecchio, D; Balbi, C; Russo, P; Parodi, S; Santi, L

    1981-05-30

    The affinity between CrIII and purified calf- thymus DNA was studied at neutral pH by competition with ethidium bromide. Competition results indicated an affinity between CrIII and DNA of the order of 10(5) 1/mole. These results are in good agreement with previous results CrIII - DNA affinity was studied by the independent method of equilibrium dialysis and chromium dosage by atomic spectrometry.

  12. Direct optimization, affine gap costs, and node stability.

    PubMed

    Aagesen, Lone

    2005-09-01

    The outcome of a phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequence data is highly dependent on the homology-assignment step and may vary with alignment parameter costs. Robustness to changes in parameter costs is therefore a desired quality of a data set because the final conclusions will be less dependent on selecting a precise optimal cost set. Here, node stability is explored in relationship to separate versus combined analysis in three different data sets, all including several data partitions. Robustness to changes in cost sets is measured as number of successive changes that can be made in a given cost set before a specific clade is lost. The changes are in all cases base change cost, gap penalties, and adding/removing/changing affine gap costs. When combining data partitions, the number of clades that appear in the entire parameter space is not remarkably increased, in some cases this number even decreased. However, when combining data partitions the trees from cost sets including affine gap costs were always more similar than the trees were from cost sets without affine gap costs. This was not the case when the data partitions were analyzed independently. When data sets were combined approximately 80% of the clades found under cost sets including affine gap costs resisted at least one change to the cost set.

  13. Proton affinities of hydrated molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valadbeigi, Younes

    2016-09-01

    Proton affinities (PA) of non-hydrated, M, and hydrated forms, M(H2O)1,2,3, of 20 organic molecules including alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones and amines were calculated by the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. For homogeneous families, linear correlations were observed between PAs of the M(H2O)1,2,3 and the PAs of the non-hydrated molecules. Also, the absolute values of the hydration enthalpies of the protonated molecules decreased linearly with the PAs. The correlation functions predicted that for an amine with PA < 1100 kJ/mol the PA(M(H2O)) is larger than the corresponding PA, while for an amine with PA > 1100 kJ/mol the PA(M(H2O)) is smaller than the PA.

  14. Personality Types and Affinity for Computers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    differences on personality dimensions between the respondents, and to explore the relationship between these differences and computer affinity. The results...between the respondents, and to explore the relationship between these differences and computer affinity. The results revealed no significant differences...type to this measure of computer affinity. 2 II. LITERATURZ REVIEW The interest of this study was the relationship between a person’s psychological

  15. Selection of imprinted nanoparticles by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, António R; Chianella, Iva; Piletska, Elena; Whitcombe, Michael J; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2009-04-15

    Soluble molecularly imprinted nanoparticles were synthesised via iniferter initiated polymerisation and separated by size via gel permeation chromatography. Subsequent fractionation of these particles by affinity chromatography allowed the separation of high affinity fractions from the mixture of nanoparticles. Fractions selected this way possess affinity similar to that of natural antibodies (K(d) 6.6x10(-8)) M and were also able to discriminate between related functional analogues of the template.

  16. Independent Adoptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meezan, William; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This summary report of a 2-year study of independent adoptions (without agencies) conducted by the Child Welfare League of America Research Center briefly describes the findings on the risks involved for the children and the adoptive and biological parents, relevant state laws, and agency policies that tend to turn away adoptive applications. (CM)

  17. Non-affine deformations in polymer hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qi; Basu, Anindita; Janmey, Paul A.; Yodh, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Most theories of soft matter elasticity assume that the local strain in a sample after deformation is identical everywhere and equal to the macroscopic strain, or equivalently that the deformation is affine. We discuss the elasticity of hydrogels of crosslinked polymers with special attention to affine and non-affine theories of elasticity. Experimental procedures to measure non-affine deformations are also described. Entropic theories, which account for gel elasticity based on stretching out individual polymer chains, predict affine deformations. In contrast, simulations of network deformation that result in bending of the stiff constituent filaments generally predict non-affine behavior. Results from experiments show significant non-affine deformation in hydrogels even when they are formed by flexible polymers for which bending would appear to be negligible compared to stretching. However, this finding is not necessarily an experimental proof of the non-affine model for elasticity. We emphasize the insights gained from experiments using confocal rheoscope and show that, in addition to filament bending, sample micro-inhomogeneity can be a significant alternative source of non-affine deformation. PMID:23002395

  18. Smart Hydrogel Particles: Biomarker Harvesting: One-step affinity purification, size exclusion, and protection against degradation

    PubMed Central

    Luchini, Alessandra; Geho, David H.; Bishop, Barney; Tran, Duy; Xia, Cassandra; Dufour, Robert; Jones, Clint; Espina, Virginia; Patanarut, Alexis; Zhu, Weidong; Ross, Mark; Tessitore, Alessandra; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance A.

    2010-01-01

    Disease-associated blood biomarkers exist in exceedingly low concentrations within complex mixtures of high-abundance proteins such as albumin. We have introduced an affinity bait molecule into N-isopropylacrylamide to produce a particle that will perform three independent functions within minutes, in one step, in solution: a) molecular size sieving b) affinity capture of all solution phase target molecules, and c) complete protection of harvested proteins from enzymatic degradation. The captured analytes can be readily electroeluted for analysis. PMID:18076201

  19. Understanding independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annan, James; Hargreaves, Julia

    2016-04-01

    In order to perform any Bayesian processing of a model ensemble, we need a prior over the ensemble members. In the case of multimodel ensembles such as CMIP, the historical approach of ``model democracy'' (i.e. equal weight for all models in the sample) is no longer credible (if it ever was) due to model duplication and inbreeding. The question of ``model independence'' is central to the question of prior weights. However, although this question has been repeatedly raised, it has not yet been satisfactorily addressed. Here I will discuss the issue of independence and present a theoretical foundation for understanding and analysing the ensemble in this context. I will also present some simple examples showing how these ideas may be applied and developed.

  20. Are independent probes truly independent?

    PubMed

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G; Zeelenberg, René

    2009-07-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval process. Participants first studied a subset of cues (e.g., rope) that were subsequently studied together with a target in a 2nd study phase (e.g., rope-sailing, sunflower-yellow). In the test phase, an extralist category cue (e.g., sports, color) was presented, and participants were instructed to recall an item from the study list that was a member of the category (e.g., sailing, yellow). The experiments showed that previous study of the paired-associate word (e.g., rope) enhanced category cued recall even though this word was not presented at test. This experimental demonstration of covert cuing has important implications for the effectiveness of the independent cue technique.

  1. Evaluation of affinity and pseudo-affinity adsorption processes for penicillin acylase purification.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, L P; Cabral, J M

    1996-01-01

    Affinity ligand (6-Aminopenicillanic acid, Amoxycillin, Ampicillin, Benzylpenicillin and 4-Phenylbutylanzine) of penicillin acylase (EC 3.5.1.11) were attached to hydrophilic gels like Sepharose 4B-CNBr and Minileak 'medium'. Ampicillin and 4-Phenylbutylamine were the affinity ligands that presented the higher concentrations attached to both gels. Penicillin acylase adsorption on these affinity gels was mainly dependent on the activated group of the gel, the affinity ligand attached and the experimental conditions of enzyme adsorption. Under affinity conditions only the ligands Amoxycillin, Ampicillin and 4-Phenylbutylamine, immobilized on Minileak, adsorbed the enzyme from osmotic shock extracts at different pH values. These affinity ligand systems were characterized by low adsorption capacities of penicillin acylase activity (1.2-2.1 IU mL-1 gel) and specific activity (1.5-2.9 IU mg-1 prot). Under pseudo-affinity conditions all the ligands attached both activated to gels (Sepharose 4B-CNBr and Minileak) adsorbed the enzyme. The affinity gels were characterized by higher values of adsorption capacity (3.7 and 55.6 IU mL-1 gel) and adsorbed specific activity (2.0 and 6.1 IU mg-1 prot) than those observed under affinity conditions. The space arm of Minileak gel, shown to be fundamental to enzyme adsorption under affinity conditions, preferentially adsorbed proteins in relation to the enzyme under pseudo-affinity conditions. However, this effect was partially minimized when the gel was derivatized by the affinity ligands at concentrations higher than 6 mumol mL-1 gel. Ampicillin was the affinity ligand that presented the best results for specific adsorption of penicillin acylase under affinity and pseudo-affinity adsorption processes. The Sepharose 4B-CNBr derivatized gel also presented a good adsorption capacity of enzyme activity (26.8 IU mL-1 gel) under pseudo-affinity adsorption processes.

  2. Red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and oxygen affinity.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, R

    1977-06-01

    The ease with which haemoglobin releases oxygen to the tissues is controlled by erythrocytic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) such that an increase in the concentration of 2,3-DPG decreases oxygen affinity and vice versa. This review article describes the synthesis and breakdown of 2,3-DPG in the Embden-Meyerof pathway in red cells and briefly explains the molecular basis for its effect on oxygen affinity. Interaction of the effects of pH, Pco2, temperature and 2,3-DPG on the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve are discussed. The role of 2,3-DPG in the intraerythrocytic adaptation to various types of hypoxaemia is described. The increased oxygen affinity of blood stored in acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) solution has been shown to be due to the decrease in the concentration of 2,3-DPG which occurs during storage. Methods of maintaining the concentration of 2,3-DPG in stored blood are described. The clinical implication of transfusion of elderly people, anaemic or pregnant patients with ACD stored blood to anaesthetically and surgically acceptable haemoglobin concentrations are discussed. Hypophosphataemia in association with parenteral feeding reduces 2,3-DPG concentration and so increases oxygen affinity. Since post-operative use of intravenous fluids such as dextrose or dextrose/saline also lead to hypophosphataemia, the addition of inorganic phosphorus to routine post-operative intravenous fluid may be advisable. Disorders of acid-base balance effect oxygen affinity not only by the direct effect of pH on the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve but by its control of 2,3-DPG metabolism. Management of acid-base disorders and pre-operative aklalinization of patients with sickle cell disease whould take account of this. It is known that anaesthesia alters the position of the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve, but it is thought that this is independent of any effects which anaesthetic agents may have on 2,3-DPG concentration. In vitro manipulation of 2,3-DPG concentration

  3. Purification of phage display-modified bacteriophage T4 by affinity chromatography

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Affinity chromatography is one of the most efficient protein purification strategies. This technique comprises a one-step procedure with a purification level in the order of several thousand-fold, adaptable for various proteins, differentiated in their size, shape, charge, and other properties. The aim of this work was to verify the possibility of applying affinity chromatography in bacteriophage purification, with the perspective of therapeutic purposes. T4 is a large, icosahedral phage that may serve as an efficient display platform for foreign peptides or proteins. Here we propose a new method of T4 phage purification by affinity chromatography after its modification with affinity tags (GST and Histag) by in vivo phage display. As any permanent introduction of extraneous DNA into a phage genome is strongly unfavourable for medical purposes, integration of foreign motifs with the phage genome was not applied. The phage was propagated in bacteria expressing fusions of the phage protein Hoc with affinity tags from bacterial plasmids, independently from the phage expression system. Results Elution profiles of phages modified with the specific affinity motifs (compared to non-specific phages) document their binding to the affinity resins and effective elution with standard competitive agents. Non-specific binding was also observed, but was 102-105 times weaker than the specific one. GST-modified bacteriophages were also effectively released from glutathione Sepharose by proteolytic cleavage. The possibility of proteolytic release was designed at the stage of expression vector construction. Decrease in LPS content in phage preparations was dependent on the washing intensity; intensive washing resulted in preparations of 11-40 EU/ml. Conclusions Affinity tags can be successfully incorporated into the T4 phage capsid by the in vivo phage display technique and they strongly elevate bacteriophage affinity to a specific resin. Affinity chromatography can be

  4. The Cutting Edge of Affinity Electrophoresis Technology

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Eiji; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Koike, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Affinity electrophoresis is an important technique that is widely used to separate and analyze biomolecules in the fields of biology and medicine. Both quantitative and qualitative information can be gained through affinity electrophoresis. Affinity electrophoresis can be applied through a variety of strategies, such as mobility shift electrophoresis, charge shift electrophoresis or capillary affinity electrophoresis. These strategies are based on changes in the electrophoretic patterns of biological macromolecules that result from interactions or complex-formation processes that induce changes in the size or total charge of the molecules. Nucleic acid fragments can be characterized through their affinity to other molecules, for example transcriptional factor proteins. Hydrophobic membrane proteins can be identified by means of a shift in the mobility induced by a charged detergent. The various strategies have also been used in the estimation of association/disassociation constants. Some of these strategies have similarities to affinity chromatography, in that they use a probe or ligand immobilized on a supported matrix for electrophoresis. Such methods have recently contributed to profiling of major posttranslational modifications of proteins, such as glycosylation or phosphorylation. Here, we describe advances in analytical techniques involving affinity electrophoresis that have appeared during the last five years. PMID:28248262

  5. Mobile Technology Affinity in Renal Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Reber, S; Scheel, J; Stoessel, L; Schieber, K; Jank, S; Lüker, C; Vitinius, F; Grundmann, F; Eckardt, K-U; Prokosch, H-U; Erim, Y

    Medication nonadherence is a common problem in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Mobile health approaches to improve medication adherence are a current trend, and several medication adherence apps are available. However, it is unknown whether RTRs use these technologies and to what extent. In the present study, the mobile technology affinity of RTRs was analyzed. We hypothesized significant age differences in mobile technology affinity and that mobile technology affinity is associated with better cognitive functioning as well as higher educational level. A total of 109 RTRs (63% male) participated in the cross-sectional study, with an overall mean age of 51.8 ± 14.2 years. The study included the Technology Experience Questionnaire (TEQ) for the assessment of mobile technology affinity, a cognitive test battery, and sociodemographic data. Overall, 57.4% of the patients used a smartphone or tablet and almost 45% used apps. The TEQ sum score was 20.9 in a possible range from 6 (no affinity to technology) to 30 (very high affinity). Younger patients had significantly higher scores in mobile technology affinity. The only significant gender difference was found in having fun with using electronic devices: Men enjoyed technology more than women did. Mobile technology affinity was positively associated with cognitive functioning and educational level. Young adult patients might profit most from mobile health approaches. Furthermore, high educational level and normal cognitive functioning promote mobile technology affinity. This should be kept in mind when designing mobile technology health (mHealth) interventions for RTRs. For beneficial mHealth interventions, further research on potential barriers and desired technologic features is necessary to adapt apps to patients' needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity.

    PubMed

    Di Caprio, Giuseppe; Stokes, Chris; Higgins, John M; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-08-11

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin (Hb) in red blood cells (RBCs). Although the oxygen affinity of blood is well-understood and routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of RBC volume and Hb concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers, and they are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system. To better understand the variability and determinants of oxygen affinity on a cellular level, we have developed a system that quantifies the oxygen saturation, cell volume, and Hb concentration for individual RBCs in high throughput. We find that the variability in single-cell saturation peaks at an oxygen partial pressure of 2.9%, which corresponds to the maximum slope of the oxygen-Hb dissociation curve. In addition, single-cell oxygen affinity is positively correlated with Hb concentration but independent of osmolarity, which suggests variation in the Hb to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2-3 DPG) ratio on a cellular level. By quantifying the functional behavior of a cellular population, our system adds a dimension to blood cell analysis and other measurements of single-cell variability.

  7. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity

    PubMed Central

    Di Caprio, Giuseppe; Stokes, Chris; Higgins, John M.; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin (Hb) in red blood cells (RBCs). Although the oxygen affinity of blood is well-understood and routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of RBC volume and Hb concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers, and they are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system. To better understand the variability and determinants of oxygen affinity on a cellular level, we have developed a system that quantifies the oxygen saturation, cell volume, and Hb concentration for individual RBCs in high throughput. We find that the variability in single-cell saturation peaks at an oxygen partial pressure of 2.9%, which corresponds to the maximum slope of the oxygen–Hb dissociation curve. In addition, single-cell oxygen affinity is positively correlated with Hb concentration but independent of osmolarity, which suggests variation in the Hb to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2–3 DPG) ratio on a cellular level. By quantifying the functional behavior of a cellular population, our system adds a dimension to blood cell analysis and other measurements of single-cell variability. PMID:26216973

  8. PRINCIPLES OF AFFINITY-BASED BIOSENSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite the amount of resources that have been invested by national and international academic, government, and commercial sectors to develop affinity-based biosensor products, little obvious success has been realized through commercialization of these devices for specific applic...

  9. Motion planning in velocity affine mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubiak, Janusz; Tchoń, Krzysztof; Magiera, Władysław

    2010-09-01

    We address the motion planning problem in specific mechanical systems whose linear and angular velocities depend affinely on control. The configuration space of these systems encompasses the rotation group, and the motion planning involves the system orientation. Derivation of the motion planning algorithm for velocity affine systems has been inspired by the continuation method. Performance of this algorithm is illustrated with examples of the kinematics of a serial nonholonomic manipulator, the plate-ball kinematics and the attitude control of a rigid body.

  10. Affinity Electrophoresis Using Ligands Attached To Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Alstine, James M.; Snyder, Robert S.; Harris, J. M.; Brooks, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    In new technique, reduction of electrophoretic mobilities by addition of polyethylene glycol to ligands increases electrophoretic separabilities. In immuno-affinity electrophoresis, modification of ligands extends specificity of electrophoretic separation to particles having surface electric-charge structures otherwise making them electrophoretically inseparable. Modification of antibodies by polyethylene glycol greatly reduces ability to aggregate while enhancing ability to affect electrophoretic mobilities of cells. In hydrophobic-affinity electrophoresis, addition of polyethylene glycol reduces tendency toward aggregation of cells or macromolecules.

  11. Classification of neocortical interneurons using affinity propagation.

    PubMed

    Santana, Roberto; McGarry, Laura M; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Yuste, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. In fact, neuronal classification is a difficult problem because it is unclear how to designate a neuronal cell class and what are the best characteristics to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological, or molecular characteristics, have provided quantitative and unbiased identification of distinct neuronal subtypes, when applied to selected datasets. However, better and more robust classification methods are needed for increasingly complex and larger datasets. Here, we explored the use of affinity propagation, a recently developed unsupervised classification algorithm imported from machine learning, which gives a representative example or exemplar for each cluster. As a case study, we applied affinity propagation to a test dataset of 337 interneurons belonging to four subtypes, previously identified based on morphological and physiological characteristics. We found that affinity propagation correctly classified most of the neurons in a blind, non-supervised manner. Affinity propagation outperformed Ward's method, a current standard clustering approach, in classifying the neurons into 4 subtypes. Affinity propagation could therefore be used in future studies to validly classify neurons, as a first step to help reverse engineer neural circuits.

  12. Identity, Affinity, Reality: Making the Case for Affinity Groups in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Julie; Ridley, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Affinity groups are places where students build connections and process "ouch" moments from their classes. Children talk about the isolation they sometimes feel. The relationships students gain through race-based affinity groups enable them to feel less alone with their emotions and help them build a stronger sense of self. At the same…

  13. Affinity Maturation of a Cyclic Peptide Handle for Therapeutic Antibodies Using Deep Mutational Scanning*

    PubMed Central

    van Rosmalen, Martijn; Janssen, Brian M. G.; Hendrikse, Natalie M.; van der Linden, Ardjan J.; Pieters, Pascal A.; Wanders, Dave; de Greef, Tom F. A.; Merkx, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    Meditopes are cyclic peptides that bind in a specific pocket in the antigen-binding fragment of a therapeutic antibody such as cetuximab. Provided their moderate affinity can be enhanced, meditope peptides could be used as specific non-covalent and paratope-independent handles in targeted drug delivery, molecular imaging, and therapeutic drug monitoring. Here we show that the affinity of a recently reported meditope for cetuximab can be substantially enhanced using a combination of yeast display and deep mutational scanning. Deep sequencing was used to construct a fitness landscape of this protein-peptide interaction, and four mutations were identified that together improved the affinity for cetuximab 10-fold to 15 nm. Importantly, the increased affinity translated into enhanced cetuximab-mediated recruitment to EGF receptor-overexpressing cancer cells. Although in silico Rosetta simulations correctly identified positions that were tolerant to mutation, modeling did not accurately predict the affinity-enhancing mutations. The experimental approach reported here should be generally applicable and could be used to develop meditope peptides with low nanomolar affinity for other therapeutic antibodies. PMID:27974464

  14. Notch and affinity boundaries in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Herranz, Héctor; Milán, Marco

    2006-02-01

    Cells in multicellular organisms often do not intermingle freely with each other. Differential cell affinities can contribute to organizing cells into different tissues. Drosophila limbs and the vertebrate central nervous system are subdivided into compartments. Cells in adjacent compartments do not mix. Cell interactions mediated by Notch-family receptors have been implicated in the specification of these compartment boundaries. Two recent reports analyze the role of the Notch signaling pathway in the generation of an affinity boundary in the Drosophila wing. The first report analyzes the connection between Notch and the actin cytoskeleton. The second report analyzes the differential requirements of Notch and the transcription factor Suppressor of Hairless in generating the affinity boundary.

  15. Affinity Proteomics in the mountains: Alpbach 2015.

    PubMed

    Taussig, Michael J

    2016-09-25

    The 2015 Alpbach Workshop on Affinity Proteomics, organised by the EU AFFINOMICS consortium, was the 7th workshop in this series. As in previous years, the focus of the event was the current state of affinity methods for proteome analysis, including complementarity with mass spectrometry, progress in recombinant binder production methods, alternatives to classical antibodies as affinity reagents, analysis of proteome targets, industry focus on biomarkers, and diagnostic and clinical applications. The combination of excellent science with Austrian mountain scenery and winter sports engender an atmosphere that makes this series of workshops exceptional. The articles in this Special Issue represent a cross-section of the presentations at the 2015 meeting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Engineering glycoside hydrolase stability by the introduction of zinc binding

    DOE PAGES

    Ellinghaus, Thomas L.; Pereira, Jose H.; McAndrew, Ryan P.; ...

    2018-06-27

    The development of robust enzymes, in particular cellulases, is a key step in the success of biological routes to `second-generation' biofuels. The typical sources of the enzymes used to degrade biomass include mesophilic and thermophilic organisms. The endoglucanase J30 from glycoside hydrolase family 9 was originally identified through metagenomic analyses of compost-derived bacterial consortia. These studies, which were tailored to favor growth on targeted feedstocks, have already been shown to identify cellulases with considerable thermal tolerance. The amino-acid sequence of J30 shows comparably low identity to those of previously analyzed enzymes. As an enzyme that combines a well measurable activitymore » with a relatively low optimal temperature (50°C) and a modest thermal tolerance, it offers the potential for structural optimization aimed at increased stability. Here, the crystal structure of wild-type J30 is presented along with that of a designed triple-mutant variant with improved characteristics for industrial applications. Through the introduction of a structural Zn 2+ site, the thermal tolerance was increased by more than 10°C and was paralleled by an increase in the catalytic optimum temperature by more than 5°C.« less

  17. Engineering glycoside hydrolase stability by the introduction of zinc binding

    SciTech Connect

    Ellinghaus, Thomas L.; Pereira, Jose H.; McAndrew, Ryan P.

    The development of robust enzymes, in particular cellulases, is a key step in the success of biological routes to `second-generation' biofuels. The typical sources of the enzymes used to degrade biomass include mesophilic and thermophilic organisms. The endoglucanase J30 from glycoside hydrolase family 9 was originally identified through metagenomic analyses of compost-derived bacterial consortia. These studies, which were tailored to favor growth on targeted feedstocks, have already been shown to identify cellulases with considerable thermal tolerance. The amino-acid sequence of J30 shows comparably low identity to those of previously analyzed enzymes. As an enzyme that combines a well measurable activitymore » with a relatively low optimal temperature (50°C) and a modest thermal tolerance, it offers the potential for structural optimization aimed at increased stability. Here, the crystal structure of wild-type J30 is presented along with that of a designed triple-mutant variant with improved characteristics for industrial applications. Through the introduction of a structural Zn 2+ site, the thermal tolerance was increased by more than 10°C and was paralleled by an increase in the catalytic optimum temperature by more than 5°C.« less

  18. Asymptotic Representations of Quantum Affine Superalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huafeng

    2017-08-01

    We study representations of the quantum affine superalgebra associated with a general linear Lie superalgebra. In the spirit of Hernandez-Jimbo, we construct inductive systems of Kirillov-Reshetikhin modules based on a cyclicity result that we established previously on tensor products of these modules, and realize their inductive limits as modules over its Borel subalgebra, the so-called q-Yangian. A new generic asymptotic limit of the same inductive systems is proposed, resulting in modules over the full quantum affine superalgebra. We derive generalized Baxter's relations in the sense of Frenkel-Hernandez for representations of the full quantum group.

  19. Vygotsky's and Buber's Pedagogical Perspectives: Some Affinities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholo, Roberto; Tunes, Elizabeth; Tacca, Maria Carmen Villela Rosa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the dialogical and creative character of pedagogic work by analyzing the affinities between Martin Buber's "I-Thou relation" and Lev Semenovich Vygotsky's "Zone of Proximal Development". Backed up by empirical studies on the teacher-student relation, we understand that education can only result in students'…

  20. Modern affinity reagents: Recombinant antibodies and aptamers.

    PubMed

    Groff, Katherine; Brown, Jeffrey; Clippinger, Amy J

    2015-12-01

    Affinity reagents are essential tools in both basic and applied research; however, there is a growing concern about the reproducibility of animal-derived monoclonal antibodies. The need for higher quality affinity reagents has prompted the development of methods that provide scientific, economic, and time-saving advantages and do not require the use of animals. This review describes two types of affinity reagents, recombinant antibodies and aptamers, which are non-animal technologies that can replace the use of animal-derived monoclonal antibodies. Recombinant antibodies are protein-based reagents, while aptamers are nucleic-acid-based. In light of the scientific advantages of these technologies, this review also discusses ways to gain momentum in the use of modern affinity reagents, including an update to the 1999 National Academy of Sciences monoclonal antibody production report and federal incentives for recombinant antibody and aptamer efforts. In the long-term, these efforts have the potential to improve the overall quality and decrease the cost of scientific research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Compound immobilization and drug-affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rix, Uwe; Gridling, Manuela; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive small molecules act through modulating a yet unpredictable number of targets. It is therefore of critical importance to define the cellular target proteins of a compound as an entry point to understanding its mechanism of action. Often, this can be achieved in a direct fashion by chemical proteomics. As with any affinity chromatography, immobilization of the bait to a solid support is one of the earliest and most crucial steps in the process. Interfering with structural features that are important for identification of a target protein will be detrimental to binding affinity. Also, many molecules are sensitive to heat or to certain chemicals, such as acid or base, and might be destroyed during the process of immobilization, which therefore needs to be not only efficient, but also mild. The subsequent affinity chromatography step needs to preserve molecular and conformational integrity of both bait compound and proteins in order to result in the desired specific enrichment while ensuring a high level of compatibility with downstream analysis by mass spectrometry. Thus, the right choice of detergent, buffer, and protease inhibitors is also essential. This chapter describes a widely applicable procedure for the immobilization of small molecule drugs and for drug-affinity chromatography with subsequent protein identification by mass spectrometry.

  2. Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…

  3. Quantum properties of affine-metric gravity with the cosmological term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baurov, A. Yu; Pronin, P. I.; Stepanyantz, K. V.

    2018-04-01

    The paper contains analysis of the one-loop effective action for affine-metric gravity of the Hilbert–Einstein type with the cosmological term. We discuss different approaches to the calculation of the effective action, which depends on two independent variables, namely, the metric tensor and the affine connection. In the one-loop approximation we explain how the effective action can be obtained, if, at the first step of the calculation, the metric tensor is integrated out. It is demonstrated that the result is the same as in the case when one starts by integrating out the connection.

  4. A global benchmark study using affinity-based biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Rebecca L.; Papalia, Giuseppe A.; Flynn, Peter J.; Furneisen, Jamie; Quinn, John; Klein, Joshua S.; Katsamba, Phini S.; Waddell, M. Brent; Scott, Michael; Thompson, Joshua; Berlier, Judie; Corry, Schuyler; Baltzinger, Mireille; Zeder-Lutz, Gabrielle; Schoenemann, Andreas; Clabbers, Anca; Wieckowski, Sebastien; Murphy, Mary M.; Page, Phillip; Ryan, Thomas E.; Duffner, Jay; Ganguly, Tanmoy; Corbin, John; Gautam, Satyen; Anderluh, Gregor; Bavdek, Andrej; Reichmann, Dana; Yadav, Satya P.; Hommema, Eric; Pol, Ewa; Drake, Andrew; Klakamp, Scott; Chapman, Trevor; Kernaghan, Dawn; Miller, Ken; Schuman, Jason; Lindquist, Kevin; Herlihy, Kara; Murphy, Michael B.; Bohnsack, Richard; Andrien, Bruce; Brandani, Pietro; Terwey, Danny; Millican, Rohn; Darling, Ryan J.; Wang, Liann; Carter, Quincy; Dotzlaf, Joe; Lopez-Sagaseta, Jacinto; Campbell, Islay; Torreri, Paola; Hoos, Sylviane; England, Patrick; Liu, Yang; Abdiche, Yasmina; Malashock, Daniel; Pinkerton, Alanna; Wong, Melanie; Lafer, Eileen; Hinck, Cynthia; Thompson, Kevin; Primo, Carmelo Di; Joyce, Alison; Brooks, Jonathan; Torta, Federico; Bagge Hagel, Anne Birgitte; Krarup, Janus; Pass, Jesper; Ferreira, Monica; Shikov, Sergei; Mikolajczyk, Malgorzata; Abe, Yuki; Barbato, Gaetano; Giannetti, Anthony M.; Krishnamoorthy, Ganeshram; Beusink, Bianca; Satpaev, Daulet; Tsang, Tiffany; Fang, Eric; Partridge, James; Brohawn, Stephen; Horn, James; Pritsch, Otto; Obal, Gonzalo; Nilapwar, Sanjay; Busby, Ben; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gupta, Ruchira Das; Canepa, Sylvie; Witte, Krista; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta; Cho, Yun Hee; D’Agata, Roberta; Schlick, Kristian; Calvert, Rosy; Munoz, Eva M.; Hernaiz, Maria Jose; Bravman, Tsafir; Dines, Monica; Yang, Min-Hsiang; Puskas, Agnes; Boni, Erica; Li, Jiejin; Wear, Martin; Grinberg, Asya; Baardsnes, Jason; Dolezal, Olan; Gainey, Melicia; Anderson, Henrik; Peng, Jinlin; Lewis, Mark; Spies, Peter; Trinh, Quyhn; Bibikov, Sergei; Raymond, Jill; Yousef, Mohammed; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Feng, Yuguo; Emerick, Anne; Mundodo, Suparna; Guimaraes, Rejane; McGirr, Katy; Li, Yue-Ji; Hughes, Heather; Mantz, Hubert; Skrabana, Rostislav; Witmer, Mark; Ballard, Joshua; Martin, Loic; Skladal, Petr; Korza, George; Laird-Offringa, Ite; Lee, Charlene S.; Khadir, Abdelkrim; Podlaski, Frank; Neuner, Phillippe; Rothacker, Julie; Rafique, Ashique; Dankbar, Nico; Kainz, Peter; Gedig, Erk; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Boozer, Christina; Ly, Nguyen; Toews, Mark; Uren, Aykut; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Lewis, Kenneth; Chomey, Eugene; Pak, Brian J.; Myszka, David G.

    2013-01-01

    To explore the variability in biosensor studies, 150 participants from 20 countries were given the same protein samples and asked to determine kinetic rate constants for the interaction. We chose a protein system that was amenable to analysis using different biosensor platforms as well as by users of different expertise levels. The two proteins (a 50-kDa Fab and a 60-kDa glutathione S-transferase [GST] antigen) form a relatively high-affinity complex, so participants needed to optimize several experimental parameters, including ligand immobilization and regeneration conditions as well as analyte concentrations and injection/dissociation times. Although most participants collected binding responses that could be fit to yield kinetic parameters, the quality of a few data sets could have been improved by optimizing the assay design. Once these outliers were removed, the average reported affinity across the remaining panel of participants was 620 pM with a standard deviation of 980 pM. These results demonstrate that when this biosensor assay was designed and executed appropriately, the reported rate constants were consistent, and independent of which protein was immobilized and which biosensor was used. PMID:19133223

  5. Robust activation method for negative electron affinity photocathodes

    DOEpatents

    Mulhollan, Gregory A [Dripping Springs, TX; Bierman, John C [Austin, TX

    2011-09-13

    A method by which photocathodes(201), single crystal, amorphous, or otherwise ordered, can be surface modified to a robust state of lowered and in best cases negative, electron affinity has been discovered. Conventional methods employ the use of Cs(203) and an oxidizing agent(207), typically carried by diatomic oxygen or by more complex molecules, for example nitrogen trifluoride, to achieve a lowered electron affinity(404). In the improved activation method, a second alkali, other than Cs(205), is introduced onto the surface during the activation process, either by co-deposition, yo-yo, or sporadic or intermittent application. Best effect for GaAs photocathodes has been found through the use of Li(402) as the second alkali, though nearly the same effect can be found by employing Na(406). Suitable photocathodes are those which are grown, cut from boules, implanted, rolled, deposited or otherwise fabricated in a fashion and shape desired for test or manufacture independently supported or atop a support structure or within a framework or otherwise affixed or suspended in the place and position required for use.

  6. Affinity Chromatography in Nonionic Detergent Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Jack B.; Strottmann, James M.; Wick, Donald G.; Stellwagen, Earle

    1980-10-01

    Anionic dye affinity chromatography is commonly unproductive in the presence of nonionic detergents used to extract particulate proteins. Using lactate dehydrogenase as a model protein, Cibacron blue F3GA as a model dye, and Triton X-100 as a model detergent, we find that the dye is encapsulated in nonionic detergent micelles, rendering the dye incapable of ligation with the enzyme. However, the dye can be liberated from the micelles without altering the nonionic detergent concentration by addition of an anionic detergent, such as deoxycholate or sodium dodecyl sulfate, forming mixed anionic/nonionic micelles that displace the anionic dye. Encapsulation of the anionic detergents prevents their activity as protein denaturants. These observations have been successfully translated to the dye affinity chromatography of a detergent extract of brain particulate cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase.

  7. Artificial Affinity Proteins as Ligands of Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Mouratou, Barbara; Béhar, Ghislaine; Pecorari, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    A number of natural proteins are known to have affinity and specificity for immunoglobulins. Some of them are widely used as reagents for detection or capture applications, such as Protein G and Protein A. However, these natural proteins have a defined spectrum of recognition that may not fit specific needs. With the development of combinatorial protein engineering and selection techniques, it has become possible to design artificial affinity proteins with the desired properties. These proteins, termed alternative scaffold proteins, are most often chosen for their stability, ease of engineering and cost-efficient recombinant production in bacteria. In this review, we focus on alternative scaffold proteins for which immunoglobulin binders have been identified and characterized. PMID:25647098

  8. Purification of swine haptoglobin by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Eurell, T E; Hall, W F; Bane, D P

    1990-01-01

    A globin-agarose affinity chromatography technique was used to purify swine haptoglobin. This technique provides a highly specific, single-step purification method without the contamination of extraneous serum proteins reported by previous studies. Complex formation between the haptoglobin isolate and swine hemoglobin confirmed that biological activity was maintained during the purification process. Immunoelectrophoretic and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion methods revealed that the swine haptoglobin isolate cross-reacted with polyvalent antisera against human haptoglobin. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2123414

  9. Affinity maturation of a portable Fab–RNA module for chaperone-assisted RNA crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Koirala, Deepak; Shelke, Sandip A; Dupont, Marcel; Ruiz, Stormy; DasGupta, Saurja; Bailey, Lucas J; Benner, Steven A; Piccirilli, Joseph A

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Antibody fragments such as Fabs possess properties that can enhance protein and RNA crystallization and therefore can facilitate macromolecular structure determination. In particular, Fab BL3–6 binds to an AAACA RNA pentaloop closed by a GC pair with ∼100 nM affinity. The Fab and hairpin have served as a portable module for RNA crystallization. The potential for general application make it desirable to adjust the properties of this crystallization module in a manner that facilitates its use for RNA structure determination, such as ease of purification, surface entropy or binding affinity. In this work, we used both in vitro RNA selection and phage display selection to alter the epitope and paratope sides of the binding interface, respectively, for improved binding affinity. We identified a 5′-GNGACCC-3′ consensus motif in the RNA and S97N mutation in complimentarity determining region L3 of the Fab that independently impart about an order of magnitude improvement in affinity, resulting from new hydrogen bonding interactions. Using a model RNA, these modifications facilitated crystallization under a wider range of conditions and improved diffraction. The improved features of the Fab–RNA module may facilitate its use as an affinity tag for RNA purification and imaging and as a chaperone for RNA crystallography. PMID:29309709

  10. Structure-Guided Combinatorial Engineering Facilitates Affinity and Specificity Optimization of Anti-CD81 Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Bryce; Adams, Jarrett; Kuglstatter, Andreas; Li, Zhijian; Harris, Seth F; Liu, Yang; Bohini, Sandya; Ma, Han; Klumpp, Klaus; Gao, Junjun; Sidhu, Sachdev S

    2018-07-06

    Hepatitis C viral infection is the major cause of chronic hepatitis that affects as many as 71 million people worldwide. Rather than target the rapidly shifting viruses and their numerous serotypes, four independent antibodies were made to target the host antigen CD81 and were shown to block hepatitis C viral entry. The single-chain variable fragment of each antibody was crystallized in complex with the CD81 large extracellular loop in order to guide affinity maturation of two distinct antibodies by phage display. Affinity maturation of antibodies using phage display has proven to be critical to therapeutic antibody development and typically involves modification of the paratope for increased affinity, improved specificity, enhanced stability or a combination of these traits. One antibody was engineered for increased affinity for human CD81 large extracellular loop that equated to increased efficacy, while the second antibody was engineered for cross-reactivity with cynomolgus CD81 to facilitate animal model testing. The use of structures to guide affinity maturation library design demonstrates the utility of combining structural analysis with phage display technologies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lesion-induced plasticity of high affinity choline uptake in the developing rat fascia dentata.

    PubMed

    Nadler, J V; Shelton, D L; Cotman, C W

    1979-03-23

    After removal of the perforant path input to the rat fascia dentata at the age of 11 days, cholinergic septohippocampal fibers invade the denervated area. We have examined the effect of this lesion on hemicholinium-sensitive, high affinity choline uptake and its coupling to acetylcholine synthesis, specific properties of the septohippocampal input. Removal of the ipsilateral perforant path fibers increased the velocity of high affinity choline uptake by dentate particulate preparations, usually within 1 day. Studies conducted 5--104 days after operation showed a consistent 50--65% elevation in the molecular (denervated) layer. In contrast, the choline uptake rate in the granular layer eventually decreased slightly. Calculation of choline uptake rates independently of protein (per whole region) revealed that fasciae dentatae from operated and control sides accumulated choline at approximately equal rates, but on the operated side a greater percentage was transported by structures from the molecular layer and a lesser percentage by those from the granular layer. The rate of acetylcholine synthesis from exogenous choline increased to the same extent as high affinity choline uptake from 3 days after operation onwards. The changes in high affinity choline uptake and acetylcholine synthesis coincided spatially and temporally with the reactive growth of septohippocampal fibers. Our results support the view that a perforant path lesion during development permanently alters the distribution of functional septohippocampal boutons in the fascia dentata. Acetylcholine synthesis is regulated to the same extent by high affinity choline uptake in the anomalous boutons as in normally located boutons.

  12. Excited state electron affinity calculations for aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Adnan Yousif

    2017-08-01

    Excited states of negative aluminum ion are reviewed, and calculations of electron affinities of the states (3s^23p^2)^1D and (3s3p^3){^5}{S}° relative to the (3s^23p)^2P° and (3s3p^2)^4P respectively of the neutral aluminum atom are reported in the framework of nonrelativistic configuration interaction (CI) method. A priori selected CI (SCI) with truncation energy error (Bunge in J Chem Phys 125:014107, 2006) and CI by parts (Bunge and Carbó-Dorca in J Chem Phys 125:014108, 2006) are used to approximate the valence nonrelativistic energy. Systematic studies of convergence of electron affinity with respect to the CI excitation level are reported. The calculated value of the electron affinity for ^1D state is 78.675(3) meV. Detailed Calculations on the ^5S°c state reveals that is 1216.8166(3) meV below the ^4P state.

  13. 2D Affine and Projective Shape Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bryner, Darshan; Klassen, Eric; Huiling Le; Srivastava, Anuj

    2014-05-01

    Current techniques for shape analysis tend to seek invariance to similarity transformations (rotation, translation, and scale), but certain imaging situations require invariance to larger groups, such as affine or projective groups. Here we present a general Riemannian framework for shape analysis of planar objects where metrics and related quantities are invariant to affine and projective groups. Highlighting two possibilities for representing object boundaries-ordered points (or landmarks) and parameterized curves-we study different combinations of these representations (points and curves) and transformations (affine and projective). Specifically, we provide solutions to three out of four situations and develop algorithms for computing geodesics and intrinsic sample statistics, leading up to Gaussian-type statistical models, and classifying test shapes using such models learned from training data. In the case of parameterized curves, we also achieve the desired goal of invariance to re-parameterizations. The geodesics are constructed by particularizing the path-straightening algorithm to geometries of current manifolds and are used, in turn, to compute shape statistics and Gaussian-type shape models. We demonstrate these ideas using a number of examples from shape and activity recognition.

  14. Calculation of protein-ligand binding affinities.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Michael K; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2007-01-01

    Accurate methods of computing the affinity of a small molecule with a protein are needed to speed the discovery of new medications and biological probes. This paper reviews physics-based models of binding, beginning with a summary of the changes in potential energy, solvation energy, and configurational entropy that influence affinity, and a theoretical overview to frame the discussion of specific computational approaches. Important advances are reported in modeling protein-ligand energetics, such as the incorporation of electronic polarization and the use of quantum mechanical methods. Recent calculations suggest that changes in configurational entropy strongly oppose binding and must be included if accurate affinities are to be obtained. The linear interaction energy (LIE) and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) methods are analyzed, as are free energy pathway methods, which show promise and may be ready for more extensive testing. Ultimately, major improvements in modeling accuracy will likely require advances on multiple fronts, as well as continued validation against experiment.

  15. Engineering of Bispecific Affinity Proteins with High Affinity for ERBB2 and Adaptable Binding to Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Nilvebrant, Johan; Åstrand, Mikael; Georgieva-Kotseva, Maria; Björnmalm, Mattias; Löfblom, John; Hober, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor 2, ERBB2, is a well-validated target for cancer diagnostics and therapy. Recent studies suggest that the over-expression of this receptor in various cancers might also be exploited for antibody-based payload delivery, e.g. antibody drug conjugates. In such strategies, the full-length antibody format is probably not required for therapeutic effect and smaller tumor-specific affinity proteins might be an alternative. However, small proteins and peptides generally suffer from fast excretion through the kidneys, and thereby require frequent administration in order to maintain a therapeutic concentration. In an attempt aimed at combining ERBB2-targeting with antibody-like pharmacokinetic properties in a small protein format, we have engineered bispecific ERBB2-binding proteins that are based on a small albumin-binding domain. Phage display selection against ERBB2 was used for identification of a lead candidate, followed by affinity maturation using second-generation libraries. Cell surface display and flow-cytometric sorting allowed stringent selection of top candidates from pools pre-enriched by phage display. Several affinity-matured molecules were shown to bind human ERBB2 with sub-nanomolar affinity while retaining the interaction with human serum albumin. Moreover, parallel selections against ERBB2 in the presence of human serum albumin identified several amino acid substitutions that dramatically modulate the albumin affinity, which could provide a convenient means to control the pharmacokinetics. The new affinity proteins competed for ERBB2-binding with the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab and recognized the native receptor on a human cancer cell line. Hence, high affinity tumor targeting and tunable albumin binding were combined in one small adaptable protein. PMID:25089830

  16. Single-step affinity purification for fungal proteomics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-Lin; Osmani, Aysha H; Ukil, Leena; Son, Sunghun; Markossian, Sarine; Shen, Kuo-Fang; Govindaraghavan, Meera; Varadaraj, Archana; Hashmi, Shahr B; De Souza, Colin P; Osmani, Stephen A

    2010-05-01

    A single-step protein affinity purification protocol using Aspergillus nidulans is described. Detailed protocols for cell breakage, affinity purification, and depending on the application, methods for protein release from affinity beads are provided. Examples defining the utility of the approaches, which should be widely applicable, are included.

  17. On the structure of self-affine convex bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Voynov, A S

    2013-08-31

    We study the structure of convex bodies in R{sup d} that can be represented as a union of their affine images with no common interior points. Such bodies are called self-affine. Vallet's conjecture on the structure of self-affine bodies was proved for d = 2 by Richter in 2011. In the present paper we disprove the conjecture for all d≥3 and derive a detailed description of self-affine bodies in R{sup 3}. Also we consider the relation between properties of self-affine bodies and functional equations with a contraction of an argument. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  18. Predicting oligonucleotide affinity to nucleic acid targets.

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, D H; Burkard, M E; Freier, S M; Wyatt, J R; Turner, D H

    1999-01-01

    A computer program, OligoWalk, is reported that predicts the equilibrium affinity of complementary DNA or RNA oligonucleotides to an RNA target. This program considers the predicted stability of the oligonucleotide-target helix and the competition with predicted secondary structure of both the target and the oligonucleotide. Both unimolecular and bimolecular oligonucleotide self structure are considered with a user-defined concentration. The application of OligoWalk is illustrated with three comparisons to experimental results drawn from the literature. PMID:10580474

  19. Improvement of Aptamer Affinity by Dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Hijiri; Taira, Ken-ichi; Sode, Koji; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2008-01-01

    To increase the affinities of aptamers for their targets, we designed an aptamer dimer for thrombin and VEGF. This design is based on the avidity of the antibody, which enables the aptamer to connect easily since it is a single-strand nucleic acid. In this study, we connected a 15-mer thrombin-binding aptamer with a 29-mer thrombin-binding aptamer. Each aptamer recognizes a different part of the thrombin molecule, and the aptamer dimer has a Kd value which is 1/10 of that of the monomers from which it is composed. Also, the designed aptamer dimer has higher inhibitory activity than the reported (15-mer) thrombin-inhibiting aptamer. Additionally, we connected together two identical aptamers against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165), which is a homodimeric protein. As in the case of the anti-thrombin aptamer, the dimeric anti-VEGF aptamer had a much lower Kd value than that of the monomer. This study demonstrated that the dimerization of aptamers effectively improves the affinities of those aptamers for their targets. PMID:27879754

  20. Fatigue damage prognosis using affine arithmetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbaguidi, Audrey; Kim, Daewon

    2014-02-01

    Among the essential steps to be taken in structural health monitoring systems, damage prognosis would be the field that is least investigated due to the complexity of the uncertainties. This paper presents the possibility of using Affine Arithmetic for uncertainty propagation of crack damage in damage prognosis. The structures examined are thin rectangular plates made of titanium alloys with central mode I cracks and a composite plate with an internal delamination caused by mixed mode I and II fracture modes, under a harmonic uniaxial loading condition. The model-based method for crack growth rates are considered using the Paris Erdogan law model for the isotropic plates and the delamination growth law model proposed by Kardomateas for the composite plate. The parameters for both models are randomly taken and their uncertainties are considered as defined by an interval instead of a probability distribution. A Monte Carlo method is also applied to check whether Affine Arithmetic (AA) leads to tight bounds on the lifetime of the structure.

  1. Quantification of hydrophobic interaction affinity of colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, G.; Nasholm, N.; Wood, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    Colloids play an important role in a wide variety of disciplines, including water and wastewater treatment, subsurface transport of metals and organic contaminants, migration of fines in oil reservoirs, biocolloid (virus and bacteria) transport in subsurface, and are integral to laboratory transport studies. Although the role of hydrophobicity in adhesion and transport of colloids, particularly bacteria, is well known; there is scarcity of literature regarding hydrophobicity measurement of non-bacterial colloids and other micron-sized particles. Here we detail an experimental approach based on differential partitioning of colloids between two liquid phases (hydrocarbon and buffer) as a measure of the hydrophobic interaction affinity of colloids. This assay, known as Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons or MATH, is frequently used in microbiology and bacteriology for quantifying the hydrophobicity of microbes. Monodispersed colloids and particles, with sizes ranging from 1 micron to 33 micron, were used for the experiments. A range of hydrophobicity values were observed for different particles. The hydrophobicity results are also verified against water contact angle measurements of these particles. This liquid-liquid partitioning assay is quick, easy-to-perform and requires minimal instrumentation. Estimation of the hydrophobic interaction affinity of colloids would lead to a better understanding of their adhesion to different surfaces and subsequent transport in porous media.

  2. High affinity hemoglobin and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jeffrey; Hobson, Douglas; Ponnampalam, Arjuna

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the midbrain. Oxidative damage in this region has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Human neurons have been discovered to contain hemoglobin, with an increased concentration seen in the neurons of the SN. High affinity hemoglobin is a clinical entity resulting from mutations that create a functional increase in the binding of hemoglobin to oxygen and an inability to efficiently unload it to tissues. This can result in a number of metabolic compensatory changes, including an elevation in circulating hemoglobin and an increase in the molecule 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). Population based studies have revealed that patients with PD have elevated hemoglobin as well as 2,3-DPG levels. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that the oxidative damage seen in PD is related to an underlying high affinity hemoglobin subtype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heparin affinity purification of extracellular vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Balaj, Leonora; Atai, Nadia A.; Chen, Weilin; Mu, Dakai; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Skog, Johan; Maguire, Casey A.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid membrane vesicles released by cells. They carry active biomolecules including DNA, RNA, and protein which can be transferred to recipient cells. Isolation and purification of EVs from culture cell media and biofluids is still a major challenge. The most widely used isolation method is ultracentrifugation (UC) which requires expensive equipment and only partially purifies EVs. Previously we have shown that heparin blocks EV uptake in cells, supporting a direct EV-heparin interaction. Here we show that EVs can be purified from cell culture media and human plasma using ultrafiltration (UF) followed by heparin-affinity beads. UF/heparin-purified EVs from cell culture displayed the EV marker Alix, contained a diverse RNA profile, had lower levels of protein contamination, and were functional at binding to and uptake into cells. RNA yield was similar for EVs isolated by UC. We were able to detect mRNAs in plasma samples with comparable levels to UC samples. In conclusion, we have discovered a simple, scalable, and effective method to purify EVs taking advantage of their heparin affinity. PMID:25988257

  4. Lattice Independent Component Analysis for Mobile Robot Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaverde, Ivan; Fernandez-Gauna, Borja; Zulueta, Ekaitz

    This paper introduces an approach to appearance based mobile robot localization using Lattice Independent Component Analysis (LICA). The Endmember Induction Heuristic Algorithm (EIHA) is used to select a set of Strong Lattice Independent (SLI) vectors, which can be assumed to be Affine Independent, and therefore candidates to be the endmembers of the data. Selected endmembers are used to compute the linear unmixing of the robot's acquired images. The resulting mixing coefficients are used as feature vectors for view recognition through classification. We show on a sample path experiment that our approach can recognise the localization of the robot and we compare the results with the Independent Component Analysis (ICA).

  5. Affinity Crystallography: A New Approach to Extracting High-Affinity Enzyme Inhibitors from Natural Extracts.

    PubMed

    Aguda, Adeleke H; Lavallee, Vincent; Cheng, Ping; Bott, Tina M; Meimetis, Labros G; Law, Simon; Nguyen, Nham T; Williams, David E; Kaleta, Jadwiga; Villanueva, Ivan; Davies, Julian; Andersen, Raymond J; Brayer, Gary D; Brömme, Dieter

    2016-08-26

    Natural products are an important source of novel drug scaffolds. The highly variable and unpredictable timelines associated with isolating novel compounds and elucidating their structures have led to the demise of exploring natural product extract libraries in drug discovery programs. Here we introduce affinity crystallography as a new methodology that significantly shortens the time of the hit to active structure cycle in bioactive natural product discovery research. This affinity crystallography approach is illustrated by using semipure fractions of an actinomycetes culture extract to isolate and identify a cathepsin K inhibitor and to compare the outcome with the traditional assay-guided purification/structural analysis approach. The traditional approach resulted in the identification of the known inhibitor antipain (1) and its new but lower potency dehydration product 2, while the affinity crystallography approach led to the identification of a new high-affinity inhibitor named lichostatinal (3). The structure and potency of lichostatinal (3) was verified by total synthesis and kinetic characterization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of isolating and characterizing a potent enzyme inhibitor from a partially purified crude natural product extract using a protein crystallographic approach.

  6. Characterizing low affinity epibatidine binding to α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Along with high affinity binding of epibatidine (Kd1≈10 pM) to α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), low affinity binding of epibatidine (Kd2≈1-10 nM) to an independent binding site has been reported. Studying this low affinity binding is important because it might contribute understanding about the structure and synthesis of α4β2 nAChR. The binding behavior of epibatidine and α4β2 AChR raises a question about interpreting binding data from two independent sites with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding, both of which can affect equilibrium binding of [3H]epibatidine and α4β2 nAChR. If modeled incorrectly, ligand depletion and nonspecific binding lead to inaccurate estimates of binding constants. Fitting total equilibrium binding as a function of total ligand accurately characterizes a single site with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding. The goal of this study was to determine whether this approach is sufficient with two independent high and low affinity sites. Results Computer simulations of binding revealed complexities beyond fitting total binding for characterizing the second, low affinity site of α4β2 nAChR. First, distinguishing low-affinity specific binding from nonspecific binding was a potential problem with saturation data. Varying the maximum concentration of [3H]epibatidine, simultaneously fitting independently measured nonspecific binding, and varying α4β2 nAChR concentration were effective remedies. Second, ligand depletion helped identify the low affinity site when nonspecific binding was significant in saturation or competition data, contrary to a common belief that ligand depletion always is detrimental. Third, measuring nonspecific binding without α4β2 nAChR distinguished better between nonspecific binding and low-affinity specific binding under some circumstances of competitive binding than did presuming nonspecific binding to be residual [3H]epibatidine binding after adding a large concentration of

  7. Structure of a High-Affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Saphire, E.O.; Montero, M.; Menendez, A.

    2007-07-13

    The human antibody b12 recognizes a discontinuous epitope on gp120 and is one of the rare monoclonal antibodies that neutralize a broad range of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates. We previously reported the isolation of B2.1, a dimeric peptide that binds with high specificity to b12 and competes with gp120 for b12 antibody binding. Here, we show that the affinity of B2.1 was improved 60-fold over its synthetic-peptide counterpart by fusing it to the N terminus of a soluble protein. This affinity, which is within an order of magnitude of that of gp120, probably more closely reflectsmore » the affinity of the phage-borne peptide. The crystal structure of a complex between Fab of b12 and B2.1 was determined at 1.8 Angstrom resolution. The structural data allowed the differentiation of residues that form critical contacts with b12 from those required for maintenance of the antigenic structure of the peptide, and revealed that three contiguous residues mediate B2.1's critical contacts with b12. This single region of critical contact between the B2.1 peptide and the b12 paratope is unlikely to mimic the discontinuous key binding residues involved in the full b12 epitope for gp120, as previously identified by alanine scanning substitutions on the gp120 surface. These structural observations are supported by experiments that demonstrate that B2.1 is an ineffective immunogenic mimic of the b12 epitope on gp120. Indeed, an extensive series of immunizations with B2.1 in various forms failed to produce gp120 cross-reactive sera. The functional and structural data presented here, however, suggest that the mechanism by which b12 recognizes the two antigens is very different. Here, we present the first crystal structure of peptide bound to an antibody that was originally raised against a discontinuous protein epitope. Our results highlight the challenge of producing immunogens that mimic discontinuous protein epitopes, and the necessity of combining

  8. A study of the uptake of chloroquine in malaria-infected erythrocytes. High and low affinity uptake and the influence of glucose and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Diribe, C O; Warhurst, D C

    1985-09-01

    A study of concentration- and substrate-dependence of chloroquine uptake has been carried out on mouse erythrocytes infected with the chloroquine-sensitive NK65 and the chloroquine-resistant RC strains of Plasmodium berghei. The presence of drug binding sites of high and low affinity in such strains of P. berghei was confirmed. High affinity uptake sites in cells parasitized with chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant parasites have similar characteristics, but in the sensitive strain the major component of chloroquine-uptake is at high affinity and dependent on the availability of ATP whilst in the resistant strain the major component of uptake is at low affinity and independent of energy. An absolute increase in the quantity of the low affinity site in erythrocytes parasitized with chloroquine-resistant P. berghei was noted, which may be related to an increase in quantity of parasite membrane.

  9. The affine cohomology spaces and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraj, Nizar Ben; Laraiedh, Ismail

    2016-12-01

    We compute the nth cohomology space of the affine Lie superalgebra 𝔞𝔣𝔣(1) on the (1,1)-dimensional real superspace with coefficient in a large class of 𝔞𝔣𝔣(1)-modules M. We apply our results to the module of weight densities and the module of linear differential operators acting on a superspace of weighted densities. This work is the generalization of a result by Basdouri et al. [The linear 𝔞𝔣𝔣(n|1)-invariant differential operators on weighted densities on the superspace ℝ1|n and 𝔞𝔣𝔣(n|1)-relative cohomology, Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys. 10 (2013), Article ID: 1320004, 9 pp.

  10. Membrane Modulates Affinity for Calcium Ion to Create an Apparent Cooperative Binding Response by Annexin a5

    PubMed Central

    Gauer, Jacob W.; Knutson, Kristofer J.; Jaworski, Samantha R.; Rice, Anne M.; Rannikko, Anika M.; Lentz, Barry R.; Hinderliter, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to characterize the binding of calcium ion (Ca2+) and phospholipid to the peripheral membrane-binding protein annexin a5. The phospholipid was a binary mixture of a neutral and an acidic phospholipid, specifically phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine in the form of large unilamellar vesicles. To stringently define the mode of binding, a global fit of data collected in the presence and absence of membrane concentrations exceeding protein saturation was performed. A partition function defined the contribution of all heat-evolving or heat-absorbing binding states. We find that annexin a5 binds Ca2+ in solution according to a simple independent-site model (solution-state affinity). In the presence of phosphatidylserine-containing liposomes, binding of Ca2+ differentiates into two classes of sites, both of which have higher affinity compared with the solution-state affinity. As in the solution-state scenario, the sites within each class were described with an independent-site model. Transitioning from a solution state with lower Ca2+ affinity to a membrane-associated, higher Ca2+ affinity state, results in cooperative binding. We discuss how weak membrane association of annexin a5 prior to Ca2+ influx is the basis for the cooperative response of annexin a5 toward Ca2+, and the role of membrane organization in this response. PMID:23746516

  11. Classical affine W-algebras associated to Lie superalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Uhi Rinn

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we prove classical affine W-algebras associated to Lie superalgebras (W-superalgebras), which can be constructed in two different ways: via affine classical Hamiltonian reductions and via taking quasi-classical limits of quantum affine W-superalgebras. Also, we show that a classical finite W-superalgebra can be obtained by a Zhu algebra of a classical affine W-superalgebra. Using the definition by Hamiltonian reductions, we find free generators of a classical W-superalgebra associated to a minimal nilpotent. Moreover, we compute generators of the classical W-algebra associated to spo(2|3) and its principal nilpotent. In the last part of this paper, we introduce a generalization of classical affine W-superalgebras called classical affine fractional W-superalgebras. We show these have Poisson vertex algebra structures and find generators of a fractional W-superalgebra associated to a minimal nilpotent.

  12. Classical affine W-algebras associated to Lie superalgebras

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Uhi Rinn, E-mail: uhrisu1@math.snu.ac.kr

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we prove classical affine W-algebras associated to Lie superalgebras (W-superalgebras), which can be constructed in two different ways: via affine classical Hamiltonian reductions and via taking quasi-classical limits of quantum affine W-superalgebras. Also, we show that a classical finite W-superalgebra can be obtained by a Zhu algebra of a classical affine W-superalgebra. Using the definition by Hamiltonian reductions, we find free generators of a classical W-superalgebra associated to a minimal nilpotent. Moreover, we compute generators of the classical W-algebra associated to spo(2|3) and its principal nilpotent. In the last part of this paper, we introduce a generalizationmore » of classical affine W-superalgebras called classical affine fractional W-superalgebras. We show these have Poisson vertex algebra structures and find generators of a fractional W-superalgebra associated to a minimal nilpotent.« less

  13. Smooth affine shear tight frames: digitization and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Xiaosheng

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we mainly discuss one of the recent developed directional multiscale representation systems: smooth affine shear tight frames. A directional wavelet tight frame is generated by isotropic dilations and translations of directional wavelet generators, while an affine shear tight frame is generated by anisotropic dilations, shears, and translations of shearlet generators. These two tight frames are actually connected in the sense that the affine shear tight frame can be obtained from a directional wavelet tight frame through subsampling. Consequently, an affine shear tight frame indeed has an underlying filter bank from the MRA structure of its associated directional wavelet tight frame. We call such filter banks affine shear filter banks, which can be designed completely in the frequency domain. We discuss the digitization of affine shear filter banks and their implementations: the forward and backward digital affine shear transforms. Redundancy rate and computational complexity of digital affine shear transforms are also investigated in this paper. Numerical experiments and comparisons in image/video processing show the advantages of digital affine shear transforms over many other state-of-art directional multiscale representation systems.

  14. Importance of ligand reorganization free energy in protein-ligand binding-affinity prediction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Yie; Sun, Haiying; Chen, Jianyong; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta; Wang, Shaomeng

    2009-09-30

    Accurate prediction of the binding affinities of small-molecule ligands to their biological targets is fundamental for structure-based drug design but remains a very challenging task. In this paper, we have performed computational studies to predict the binding models of 31 small-molecule Smac (the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase) mimetics to their target, the XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis) protein, and their binding affinities. Our results showed that computational docking was able to reliably predict the binding models, as confirmed by experimentally determined crystal structures of some Smac mimetics complexed with XIAP. However, all the computational methods we have tested, including an empirical scoring function, two knowledge-based scoring functions, and MM-GBSA (molecular mechanics and generalized Born surface area), yield poor to modest prediction for binding affinities. The linear correlation coefficient (r(2)) value between the predicted affinities and the experimentally determined affinities was found to be between 0.21 and 0.36. Inclusion of ensemble protein-ligand conformations obtained from molecular dynamic simulations did not significantly improve the prediction. However, major improvement was achieved when the free-energy change for ligands between their free- and bound-states, or "ligand-reorganization free energy", was included in the MM-GBSA calculation, and the r(2) value increased from 0.36 to 0.66. The prediction was validated using 10 additional Smac mimetics designed and evaluated by an independent group. This study demonstrates that ligand reorganization free energy plays an important role in the overall binding free energy between Smac mimetics and XIAP. This term should be evaluated for other ligand-protein systems and included in the development of new scoring functions. To our best knowledge, this is the first computational study to demonstrate the importance of ligand reorganization free energy for the

  15. Monolith-based immobilized metal affinity chromatography increases production efficiency for plasmid DNA purification.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min Jae; Tan, Lihan; Jeong, Min Ho; Kim, Ji-Heung; Choe, Woo-Seok

    2011-08-05

    Immobilized metal affinity monolith column as a new class of chromatographic support is shown to be superior to conventional particle-based column as plasmid DNA (pDNA) purification platform. By harnessing the affinity of endotoxin to copper ions in the solution, a majority of endotoxin (90%) was removed from the alkaline cell lysate using CuCl(2)-induced precipitation. RNA and remaining endotoxin were subsequently removed to below detection limit with minimal loss of pDNA using either monolith or particle-based column. Monolith column has the additional advantage of feed concentration and flowrate-independent dynamic binding capacity for RNA molecules, enabling purification process to be conducted at high feed RNA concentration and flowrate. The use of monolith column gives three fold increased productivity of pDNA as compared to particle-based column, providing a more rapid and economical platform for pDNA purification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Prostate Cancer and Bone: The Elective Affinities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The onset of metastases dramatically changes the prognosis of prostate cancer patients, determining increased morbidity and a drastic fall in survival expectancy. Bone is a common site of metastases in few types of cancer, and it represents the most frequent metastatic site in prostate cancer. Of note, the prevalence of tumor relapse to the bone appears to be increasing over the years, likely due to a longer overall survival of prostate cancer patients. Bone tropism represents an intriguing challenge for researchers also because the preference of prostate cancer cells for the bone is the result of a sequential series of targetable molecular events. Many factors have been associated with the peculiar ability of prostate cancer cells to migrate in bone marrow and to determine mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic lesions. As anticipated by the success of current targeted therapy aimed to block bone resorption, a better understanding of molecular affinity between prostate cancer and bone microenvironment will permit us to cure bone metastasis and to improve prognosis of prostate cancer patients. PMID:24971315

  17. Affinity of guanosine derivatives for polycytidylate revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Hurley, T. B.; Baird, E. E.

    1995-01-01

    Evidence is presented for complexation of guanosine 5'-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) with polycytidylate (poly(C)) at pH 8.0 and 23 degrees C in the presence of 1.0 M NaCl2 and 0.2 M MgCl2 in water. The association of 2-MeImpG with poly(C) was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy as well as by monitoring the kinetics of the nucleophilic substitution reaction of the imidazole moiety by amines. The results of both methods are consistent with moderately strong poly(C) 2-MeImpG complexation and the spectrophotometric measurements allowed the construction of a binding isotherm with a concentration of 2-MeImpG equal to 5.55 +/- 0.15 mM at half occupancy. UV spectroscopy was employed to establish the binding of other guanosine derivatives on poly(C). These derivatives are guanosine 5'-monophosphate (5'GMP), guanosine 5'-monophosphate imidazolide (ImpG), and guanosine 5'-monophosphate morpholidate (morpG). Within experimental error these guanosine derivatives exhibit the same affinity for poly(C) as 2-MeImpG.

  18. [Separation of osteoclasts by lectin affinity chromatography].

    PubMed

    Itokazu, M; Tan, A; Tanaka, S

    1991-09-01

    Newborn rat calvaria bone cells obtained by digestion were fractionated on columns of wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) sepharose 6MB for osteoclast isolation. The initial nonspecific binding cells which were passed through the WGA sepharose column by a buffer acquired a high enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, but not that of acid phosphatase. However, elution of cells using a buffer with the addition of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine resulted in a high acid phosphatase activity but no alkaline phosphatase activity. The former WGA binding negative fraction enriched osteoblasts averaging 30 microns in size. The latter WGA binding positive fraction enriched osteoclasts ranging from 20 microns to 60 microns in size. The electron-microscope clearly demonstrated the cellular details of osteoclasts. Isolated cell counts showed a ratio of six to four. These results indicate that our method of osteoclast isolation is simple and useful in lectin affinity chromatography because all cells have sugar moieties on their surface and the binding of osteoclasts can be reversed by the addition of specific lectin-binding sugars to the eluting buffer.

  19. Synthesis and binding affinity of neuropeptide Y at opiate receptors.

    PubMed

    Kiddle, James J; McCreery, Heather J; Soles, Sonia

    2003-03-24

    Neuropeptide Y and several metabolic fragments were synthesized and evaluated for binding affinity at non-selective opiate receptors. Neuropeptide Y and several C-terminal fragments were shown to bind to non-selective opiate receptors with an affinity similar to that of Leu-enkephalin.

  20. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Affine constellations without mutually unbiased counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigert, Stefan; Durt, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    It has been conjectured that a complete set of mutually unbiased bases in a space of dimension d exists if and only if there is an affine plane of order d. We introduce affine constellations and compare their existence properties with those of mutually unbiased constellations. The observed discrepancies make a deeper relation between the two existence problems unlikely.

  1. Affine group formulation of the Standard Model coupled to gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Ching-Yi, E-mail: l2897107@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Ita, Eyo, E-mail: ita@usna.edu; Soo, Chopin, E-mail: cpsoo@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    In this work we apply the affine group formalism for four dimensional gravity of Lorentzian signature, which is based on Klauder’s affine algebraic program, to the formulation of the Hamiltonian constraint of the interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ, as an affine Lie algebra. We use the hermitian action of fermions coupled to gravitation and Yang–Mills theory to find the density weight one fermionic super-Hamiltonian constraint. This term, combined with the Yang–Mills and Higgs energy densities, are composed with York’s integrated time functional. The result, when combined with the imaginary part of themore » Chern–Simons functional Q, forms the affine commutation relation with the volume element V(x). Affine algebraic quantization of gravitation and matter on equal footing implies a fundamental uncertainty relation which is predicated upon a non-vanishing cosmological constant. -- Highlights: •Wheeler–DeWitt equation (WDW) quantized as affine algebra, realizing Klauder’s program. •WDW formulated for interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity, as affine algebra. •WDW features Hermitian generators in spite of fermionic content: Standard Model addressed. •Constructed a family of physical states for the full, coupled theory via affine coherent states. •Fundamental uncertainty relation, predicated on non-vanishing cosmological constant.« less

  2. Tending to Change: Toward a Situated Model of Affinity Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bommarito, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The concept of affinity spaces, a theoretical construct used to analyze literate activity from a spatial perspective, has gained popularity among scholars of literacy studies and, particularly, video-game studies. This article seeks to expand current notions of affinity spaces by identifying key assumptions that have limited researchers'…

  3. Employees' Perceptions of Female Affinity Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Female affinity groups offered by corporations are formalized corporate initiatives focused on networking and professional development opportunities for women (Welbourne & McLaughlin, 2013). The scholarly literature focused on female affinity groups was limited. The purpose of this grounded theory Dissertation in Practice study was to…

  4. Neuroprotective Effects of Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated by BDNF-Independent Activation of TrkB

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yang Zhong; McNamara, James O.

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have diverse biological consequences in the mammalian CNS, but the molecular targets mediating these pleiotropic effects are incompletely understood. Like ROS, the neurotrophin receptor, TrkB receptor tyrosine kinase, has diverse effects in the developing and mature mammalian brain. Our discovery that zinc can transactivate TrkB, together with the finding that ROS can trigger zinc release from cytosolic zinc binding proteins, led us to hypothesize that ROS can transactivate TrkB in CNS neurons by a zinc-dependent mechanism. We found that both exogenous H2O2 and endogenous ROS activate TrkB signaling by a Src family kinase-dependent but brain-derived neurotrophic factor-independent mechanism in cultured rat cortical neurons. Exogenous H2O2 enhances cytosolic zinc content in a metallothionein-3 (MT-3)-requiring manner. Both exogenous H2O2 and endogenous ROS mediated transactivation of TrkB requires intracellular zinc and MT-3. The ROS-triggered transactivation of TrkB exerts neuroprotective effects, because inhibition of TrkB kinase activity or uncoupling Shc signaling from TrkB exacerbates neuronal cell death induced by H2O2. Thus, we propose a molecular signaling event whereby ROS induce release of zinc from cytosolic MT-3, the increased cytosolic zinc transactivates TrkB, and the enhanced Shc signaling downstream from TrkB promotes prosurvival effects. We suggest that such neuroprotective effects mediated by ROS are operative in diverse acute and chronic neurological disorders. PMID:23115189

  5. Camelid VHH affinity ligands enable separation of closely related biopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Pabst, Timothy M.; Wendeler, Michaela; Wang, Xiangyang; Bezemer, Sandra; Hermans, Pim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Interest in new and diverse classes of molecules such as recombinant toxins, enzymes, and blood factors continues to grow for use a biotherapeutics. Compared to monoclonal antibodies, these novel drugs typically lack a commercially available affinity chromatography option, which leads to greater process complexity, longer development timelines, and poor platformability. To date, for both monoclonal antibodies and novel molecules, affinity chromatography has been mostly reserved for separation of process‐related impurities such as host cell proteins and DNA. Reports of affinity purification of closely related product variants and modified forms are much rarer. In this work we describe custom affinity chromatography development using camelid VHH antibody fragments as "tunable" immunoaffinity ligands for separation of product‐related impurities. One example demonstrates high selectivity for a recombinant immunotoxin where no binding was observed for an undesired deamidated species. Also discussed is affinity purification of a coagulation factor through specific recognition of the gamma‐carboxylglutamic acid domain. PMID:27677057

  6. Exploring Girls' Science Affinities Through an Informal Science Education Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Brandy; Zvoch, Keith

    2017-10-01

    This study examines science interests, efficacy, attitudes, and identity—referred to as affinities, in the context of an informal science outreach program for girls. A mixed methods design was used to explore girls' science affinities before, during, and after participation in a cohort-based summer science camp. Multivariate analysis of survey data revealed that girls' science affinities varied as a function of the joint relationship between family background and number of years in the program, with girls from more affluent families predicted to increase affinities over time and girls from lower income families to experience initial gains in affinities that diminish over time. Qualitative examination of girls' perspectives on gender and science efficacy, attitudes toward science, and elements of science identities revealed a complex interplay of gendered stereotypes of science and girls' personal desires to prove themselves knowledgeable and competent scientists. Implications for the best practice in fostering science engagement and identities in middle school-aged girls are discussed.

  7. Electron affinity and excited states of methylglyoxal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauletyarov, Yerbolat; Dixon, Andrew R.; Wallace, Adam A.; Sanov, Andrei

    2017-07-01

    Using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we characterized the anion of methylglyoxal (X2A″ electronic state) and three lowest electronic states of the neutral methylglyoxal molecule: the closed-shell singlet ground state (X1A'), the lowest triplet state (a3A″), and the open-shell singlet state (A1A″). The adiabatic electron affinity (EA) of the ground state, EA(X1A') = 0.87(1) eV, spectroscopically determined for the first time, compares to 1.10(2) eV for unsubstituted glyoxal. The EAs (adiabatic attachment energies) of two excited states of methylglyoxal were also determined: EA(a3A″) = 3.27(2) eV and EA(A1A″) = 3.614(9) eV. The photodetachment of the anion to each of these two states produces the neutral species near the respective structural equilibria; hence, the a3A″ ← X2A″ and A1A″ ← X2A″ photodetachment transitions are dominated by intense peaks at their respective origins. The lowest-energy photodetachment transition, on the other hand, involves significant geometry relaxation in the X1A' state, which corresponds to a 60° internal rotation of the methyl group, compared to the anion structure. Accordingly, the X1A' ← X2A″ transition is characterized as a broad, congested band, whose vertical detachment energy, VDE = 1.20(4) eV, significantly exceeds the adiabatic EA. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the ab initio predictions using several equation-of-motion methodologies, combined with coupled-cluster theory.

  8. NK1 receptor fused to beta-arrestin displays a single-component, high-affinity molecular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Martini, Lene; Hastrup, Hanne; Holst, Birgitte; Fraile-Ramos, Alberto; Marsh, Mark; Schwartz, Thue W

    2002-07-01

    Arrestins are cytosolic proteins that, upon stimulation of seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors, terminate signaling by binding to the receptor, displacing the G protein and targeting the receptor to clathrin-coated pits. Fusion of beta-arrestin1 to the C-terminal end of the neurokinin NK1 receptor resulted in a chimeric protein that was expressed to some extent on the cell surface but also accumulated in transferrin-labeled recycling endosomes independently of agonist stimulation. As expected, the fusion protein was almost totally silenced with respect to agonist-induced signaling through the normal Gq/G11 and Gs pathways. The NK1-beta-arrestin1 fusion construct bound nonpeptide antagonists with increased affinity but surprisingly also bound two types of agonists, substance P and neurokinin A, with high, normal affinity. In the wild-type NK1 receptor, neurokinin A (NKA) competes for binding against substance P and especially against antagonists with up to 1000-fold lower apparent affinity than determined in functional assays and in homologous binding assays. When the NK1 receptor was closely fused to G proteins, this phenomenon was eliminated among agonists, but the agonists still competed with low affinity against antagonists. In contrast, in the NK1-beta-arrestin1 fusion protein, all ligands bound with similar affinity independent of the choice of radioligand and with Hill coefficients near unity. We conclude that the NK1 receptor in complex with arrestin is in a high-affinity, stable, agonist-binding form probably best suited to structural analysis and that the receptor can display binding properties that are nearly theoretically ideal when it is forced to complex with only a single intracellular protein partner.

  9. Methodological study of affine transformations of gene expression data with proposed robust non-parametric multi-dimensional normalization method.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Henrik; Hössjer, Ola

    2006-03-01

    Low-level processing and normalization of microarray data are most important steps in microarray analysis, which have profound impact on downstream analysis. Multiple methods have been suggested to date, but it is not clear which is the best. It is therefore important to further study the different normalization methods in detail and the nature of microarray data in general. A methodological study of affine models for gene expression data is carried out. Focus is on two-channel comparative studies, but the findings generalize also to single- and multi-channel data. The discussion applies to spotted as well as in-situ synthesized microarray data. Existing normalization methods such as curve-fit ("lowess") normalization, parallel and perpendicular translation normalization, and quantile normalization, but also dye-swap normalization are revisited in the light of the affine model and their strengths and weaknesses are investigated in this context. As a direct result from this study, we propose a robust non-parametric multi-dimensional affine normalization method, which can be applied to any number of microarrays with any number of channels either individually or all at once. A high-quality cDNA microarray data set with spike-in controls is used to demonstrate the power of the affine model and the proposed normalization method. We find that an affine model can explain non-linear intensity-dependent systematic effects in observed log-ratios. Affine normalization removes such artifacts for non-differentially expressed genes and assures that symmetry between negative and positive log-ratios is obtained, which is fundamental when identifying differentially expressed genes. In addition, affine normalization makes the empirical distributions in different channels more equal, which is the purpose of quantile normalization, and may also explain why dye-swap normalization works or fails. All methods are made available in the aroma package, which is a platform-independent

  10. How Structure Defines Affinity in Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Erijman, Ariel; Rosenthal, Eran; Shifman, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPI) in nature are conveyed by a multitude of binding modes involving various surfaces, secondary structure elements and intermolecular interactions. This diversity results in PPI binding affinities that span more than nine orders of magnitude. Several early studies attempted to correlate PPI binding affinities to various structure-derived features with limited success. The growing number of high-resolution structures, the appearance of more precise methods for measuring binding affinities and the development of new computational algorithms enable more thorough investigations in this direction. Here, we use a large dataset of PPI structures with the documented binding affinities to calculate a number of structure-based features that could potentially define binding energetics. We explore how well each calculated biophysical feature alone correlates with binding affinity and determine the features that could be used to distinguish between high-, medium- and low- affinity PPIs. Furthermore, we test how various combinations of features could be applied to predict binding affinity and observe a slow improvement in correlation as more features are incorporated into the equation. In addition, we observe a considerable improvement in predictions if we exclude from our analysis low-resolution and NMR structures, revealing the importance of capturing exact intermolecular interactions in our calculations. Our analysis should facilitate prediction of new interactions on the genome scale, better characterization of signaling networks and design of novel binding partners for various target proteins. PMID:25329579

  11. Measurements of the talus in the assessment of population affinity.

    PubMed

    Bidmos, Mubarak A; Dayal, Manisha R; Adegboye, Oyelola A

    2018-06-01

    As part of their routine work, forensic anthropologists are expected to report population affinity as part of the biological profile of an individual. The skull is the most widely used bone for the estimation of population affinity but it is not always present in a forensic case. Thus, other bones that preserve well have been shown to give a good indication of either the sex or population affinity of an individual. In this study, the potential of measurements of the talus was investigated for the purpose of estimating population affinity in South Africans. Nine measurements from two hundred and twenty tali of South African Africans (SAA) and South African Whites (SAW) from the Raymond A. Dart Collection of Human Skeletons were used. Direct and step-wise discriminant function and logistic regression analyses were carried out using SPSS and SAS. Talar length was the best single variable for discriminating between these two groups for males while in females the head height was the best single predictor. Average accuracies for correct population affinity classification using logistic regression analysis were higher than those obtained from discriminant function analysis. This study was the first of its type to employ discriminant function analyses and logistic regression analyses to estimate the population affinity of an individual from the talus. Thus these equations can now be used by South African anthropologists when estimating the population affinity of dismembered or damaged or incomplete skeletal remains of SAA and SAW. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Independence May Feel Strange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Joerg M.

    2017-01-01

    Stochastic independence is not an easy notion. Because it is part of the probability structure, it can have some surprising non-properties, which is beneficial for teachers and students to see illustrated. Neither is the relationship to causal independence an easy one.

  13. Accounting for Independent Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonenstein, Burton

    The diversity of independent schools in size, function, and mode of operation has resulted in a considerable variety of accounting principles and practices. This lack of uniformity has tended to make understanding, evaluation, and comparison of independent schools' financial statements a difficult and sometimes impossible task. This manual has…

  14. Affinity+: Semi-Structured Brainstorming on Large Displays

    SciTech Connect

    Burtner, Edwin R.; May, Richard A.; Scarberry, Randall E.

    2013-04-27

    Affinity diagraming is a powerful method for encouraging and capturing lateral thinking in a group environment. The Affinity+ Concept was designed to improve the collaborative brainstorm process through the use of large display surfaces in conjunction with mobile devices like smart phones and tablets. The system works by capturing the ideas digitally and allowing users to sort and group them on a large touch screen manually. Additionally, Affinity+ incorporates theme detection, topic clustering, and other processing algorithms that help bring structured analytic techniques to the process without requiring explicit leadership roles and other overhead typically involved in these activities.

  15. Multi-Affinity for Growing Rough Interfaces of Bacterial Colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, N.; Ozawa, T.; Saito, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Matsuyama, T.; Matsushita, M.

    We have examined whether rough interfaces of bacterial colonies are multi-affine. We have used the bacterial species called textit{Bacillus subtilis}, which has been found to exhibit a variety of colony patterns when varying both the concentration of nutrient and solidity of agar medium. Consequently, we have found that the colony interface on a nutrient-rich, solid agar medium is multi-affine. On the other hand, the colony interface on a nutrient-rich, semi-solid agar medium is self-affine.

  16. An improved affine projection algorithm for active noise cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Congyan; Wang, Mingjiang; Han, Yufei; Sun, Yunzhuo

    2017-08-01

    Affine projection algorithm is a signal reuse algorithm, and it has a good convergence rate compared to other traditional adaptive filtering algorithm. There are two factors that affect the performance of the algorithm, which are step factor and the projection length. In the paper, we propose a new variable step size affine projection algorithm (VSS-APA). It dynamically changes the step size according to certain rules, so that it can get smaller steady-state error and faster convergence speed. Simulation results can prove that its performance is superior to the traditional affine projection algorithm and in the active noise control (ANC) applications, the new algorithm can get very good results.

  17. A model of high-affinity antibody binding to type III group B Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Wessels, M R; Muñoz, A; Kasper, D L

    1987-12-01

    We recently reported that the single repeating-unit pentasaccharide of type III group B Streptococcus (GBS) capsular polysaccharide is only weakly reactive with type III GBS antiserum. To further elucidate the relationship between antigen-chain length and antigenicity, tritiated oligosaccharides derived from type III capsular polysaccharide were used to generate detailed saturation binding curves with a fixed concentration of rabbit antiserum in a radioactive antigen-binding assay. A graded increase in affinity of antigen-antibody binding was seen as oligosaccharide size increased from 2.6 repeating units to 92 repeating units. These differences in affinity of antibody binding to oligosaccharides of different molecular size were confirmed by immunoprecipitation and competitive ELISA, two independent assays of antigen-antibody binding. Analysis of the saturation binding experiment indicated a difference of 300-fold in antibody-binding affinity for the largest versus the smallest tested oligosaccharides. Unexpectedly, the saturation binding values approached by the individual curves were inversely related to oligosaccharide chain length on a molar basis but equivalent on a weight basis. This observation is compatible with a model in which binding of an immunoglobulin molecule to an antigenic site on the polysaccharide facilitates subsequent binding of antibody to that antigen.

  18. Metric-affine f (R ,T ) theories of gravity and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos, E.; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mendoza, S.; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D.

    2018-05-01

    We study f (R ,T ) theories of gravity, where T is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor Tμ ν, with independent metric and affine connection (metric-affine theories). We find that the resulting field equations share a close resemblance with their metric-affine f (R ) relatives once an effective energy-momentum tensor is introduced. As a result, the metric field equations are second-order and no new propagating degrees of freedom arise as compared to GR, which contrasts with the metric formulation of these theories, where a dynamical scalar degree of freedom is present. Analogously to its metric counterpart, the field equations impose the nonconservation of the energy-momentum tensor, which implies nongeodesic motion and consequently leads to the appearance of an extra force. The weak field limit leads to a modified Poisson equation formally identical to that found in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity. Furthermore, the coupling of these gravity theories to perfect fluids, electromagnetic, and scalar fields, and their potential applications are discussed.

  19. Electron affinities, molecular structures, and thermochemistry of the fluorine, chlorine and bromine substituted methyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian-Shu; Zhao, Jun-Fang; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F., III

    Four independent density functional theory (DFT) methods have been employed to study the structures and electron affinities of the methyl and F-, Cl- and Br-substituted methyl radicals and their anions. The methods used have been carefully calibrated against a comprehensive tabulation of experimental electron affinities (Chemical Reviews, 2002, 102, 231). The first dissociation energies together with the vibrational frequencies of these species are also reported. The basis sets used in this work are of double- ζ plus polarization quality with additional s- and p-type diffuse functions, labelled as DZP++. Previously observed trends in the prediction of bond lengths by the DFT methods are also demonstrated for the F-, Cl- and Br-substituted methyl radicals and their anions. Generally, the Hartree-Fock/DFT hybrid methods predict shorter and more reliable bond lengths than the pure DFT methods. Neutral-anion energy differences reported in this work are the adiabatic electron affinity (EAad), the vertical electron affinity (EAvert), and the vertical detachment energy (VDE). Compared with the available experimental electron affinities, the BHLYP method predicts much lower values, while the other methods predict values (EAad, EAvert, VDE) close to each other and almost within the experimental range. For those systems without reliable experimental measurements, our best adiabatic EAs predicted by BLYP are 0.78 (CHF2), 1.23 (CHFCl), 1.44 (CHFBr), 1.61 (CHClBr), 2.24 (CF2Cl), 2.42 (CF2Br), 2.56 (CFBr2), 2.36 (CCl2Br), 2.46 (CClBr2), and 2.44 eV (CFClBr). The most striking feature of these predictions is that they display an inverse relationship between halogen electronegativity and EA. The DZP++ B3LYP method determines the vibrational frequencies in best agreement with available experimental results for this series, with an average relative error of ~2%. The value of using a variety of DFT methods is observed in that BHLYP does best for geometries, BLYP for electron

  20. Determinants of the Differential Antizyme-Binding Affinity of Ornithine Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yen-Chin; Hsu, Den-Hua; Huang, Chi-Liang; Liu, Yi-Liang; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2011-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a ubiquitous enzyme that is conserved in all species from bacteria to humans. Mammalian ODC is degraded by the proteasome in a ubiquitin-independent manner by direct binding to the antizyme (AZ). In contrast, Trypanosoma brucei ODC has a low binding affinity toward AZ. In this study, we identified key amino acid residues that govern the differential AZ binding affinity of human and Trypanosoma brucei ODC. Multiple sequence alignments of the ODC putative AZ-binding site highlights several key amino acid residues that are different between the human and Trypanosoma brucei ODC protein sequences, including residue 119, 124,125, 129, 136, 137 and 140 (the numbers is for human ODC). We generated a septuple human ODC mutant protein where these seven bases were mutated to match the Trypanosoma brucei ODC protein sequence. The septuple mutant protein was much less sensitive to AZ inhibition compared to the WT protein, suggesting that these amino acid residues play a role in human ODC-AZ binding. Additional experiments with sextuple mutants suggest that residue 137 plays a direct role in AZ binding, and residues 119 and 140 play secondary roles in AZ binding. The dissociation constants were also calculated to quantify the affinity of the ODC-AZ binding interaction. The K d value for the wild type ODC protein-AZ heterodimer ([ODC_WT]-AZ) is approximately 0.22 μM, while the K d value for the septuple mutant-AZ heterodimer ([ODC_7M]-AZ) is approximately 12.4 μM. The greater than 50-fold increase in [ODC_7M]-AZ binding affinity shows that the ODC-7M enzyme has a much lower binding affinity toward AZ. For the mutant proteins ODC_7M(-Q119H) and ODC_7M(-V137D), the K d was 1.4 and 1.2 μM, respectively. These affinities are 6-fold higher than the WT_ODC K d, which suggests that residues 119 and 137 play a role in AZ binding. PMID:22073206

  1. Self-affine fractal growth front of Aspergillus oryzae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Shu; Miyazima, Sasuke

    1992-12-01

    Aspergillus oryzae have been grown in various environmental conditions and analyzed from the viewpoint of self-affinity. The growth behavior can be described by the Eden model in favorable conditions, and by DLA in unfavorable conditions.

  2. Methods for quantifying T cell receptor binding affinities and thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Piepenbrink, Kurt H.; Gloor, Brian E.; Armstrong, Kathryn M.; Baker, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    αβ T cell receptors (TCRs) recognize peptide antigens bound and presented by class I or class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. Recognition of a peptide/MHC complex is required for initiation and propagation of a cellular immune response, as well as the development and maintenance of the T cell repertoire. Here we discuss methods to quantify the affinities and thermodynamics of interactions between soluble ectodomains of TCRs and their peptide/MHC ligands, focusing on titration calorimetry, surface plasmon resonance, and fluorescence anisotropy. As TCRs typically bind ligand with weak-to-moderate affinities, we focus the discussion on means to enhance the accuracy and precision of low affinity measurements. In addition to further elucidating the biology of the T cell mediated immune response, more reliable low affinity measurements will aid with more probing studies with mutants or altered peptides that can help illuminate the physical underpinnings of how TCRs achieve their remarkable recognition properties. PMID:21609868

  3. Bidirectional Elastic Image Registration Using B-Spline Affine Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Suicheng; Meng, Xin; Sciurba, Frank C.; Wang, Chen; Kaminski, Naftali; Pu, Jiantao

    2014-01-01

    A registration scheme termed as B-spline affine transformation (BSAT) is presented in this study to elastically align two images. We define an affine transformation instead of the traditional translation at each control point. Mathematically, BSAT is a generalized form of the affine transformation and the traditional B-Spline transformation (BST). In order to improve the performance of the iterative closest point (ICP) method in registering two homologous shapes but with large deformation, a bi-directional instead of the traditional unidirectional objective / cost function is proposed. In implementation, the objective function is formulated as a sparse linear equation problem, and a sub-division strategy is used to achieve a reasonable efficiency in registration. The performance of the developed scheme was assessed using both two-dimensional (2D) synthesized dataset and three-dimensional (3D) volumetric computed tomography (CT) data. Our experiments showed that the proposed B-spline affine model could obtain reasonable registration accuracy. PMID:24530210

  4. On the Presence of Affine Fibril and Fiber Kinematics in the Mitral Valve Anterior Leaflet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chung-Hao; Zhang, Will; Liao, Jun; Carruthers, Christopher A.; Sacks, Jacob I.; Sacks, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that the constituent fibers follow an affine deformation kinematic model for planar collagenous tissues. Results from two experimental datasets were utilized, taken at two scales (nanometer and micrometer), using mitral valve anterior leaflet (MVAL) tissues as the representative tissue. We simulated MVAL collagen fiber network as an ensemble of undulated fibers under a generalized two-dimensional deformation state, by representing the collagen fibrils based on a planar sinusoidally shaped geometric model. The proposed approach accounted for collagen fibril amplitude, crimp period, and rotation with applied macroscopic tissue-level deformation. When compared to the small angle x-ray scattering measurements, the model fit the data well, with an r2 = 0.976. This important finding suggests that, at the homogenized tissue-level scale of ∼1 mm, the collagen fiber network in the MVAL deforms according to an affine kinematics model. Moreover, with respect to understanding its function, affine kinematics suggests that the constituent fibers are largely noninteracting and deform in accordance with the bulk tissue. It also suggests that the collagen fibrils are tightly bounded and deform as a single fiber-level unit. This greatly simplifies the modeling efforts at the tissue and organ levels, because affine kinematics allows a straightforward connection between the macroscopic and local fiber strains. It also suggests that the collagen and elastin fiber networks act independently of each other, with the collagen and elastin forming long fiber networks that allow for free rotations. Such freedom of rotation can greatly facilitate the observed high degree of mechanical anisotropy in the MVAL and other heart valves, which is essential to heart valve function. These apparently novel findings support modeling efforts directed toward improving our fundamental understanding of tissue biomechanics in healthy and diseased conditions

  5. Interfacial Partitioning of a Loop Hinge Residue Contributes to Diacylglycerol Affinity of Conserved Region 1 Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Mikaela D.; Cole, Taylor R.; Igumenova, Tatyana I.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional and novel isoenzymes of PKC are activated by the membrane-embedded second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) through its interactions with the C1 regulatory domain. The affinity of C1 domains to DAG varies considerably among PKCs. To gain insight into the origin of differential DAG affinities, we conducted high-resolution NMR studies of C1B domain from PKCδ (C1Bδ) and its W252Y variant. The W252Y mutation was previously shown to render C1Bδ less responsive to DAG (Dries, D. R., Gallegos, L. L., and Newton, A. C. (2007) A single residue in the C1 domain sensitizes novel protein kinase C isoforms to cellular diacylglycerol production. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 826–830) and thereby emulate the behavior of C1B domains from conventional PKCs that have a conserved Tyr at the equivalent position. Our data revealed that W252Y mutation did not perturb the conformation of C1Bδ in solution but significantly reduced its propensity to partition into a membrane-mimicking environment in the absence of DAG. Using detergent micelles doped with a paramagnetic lipid, we determined that both the residue identity at position 252 and complexation with diacylglycerol influence the geometry of C1Bδ-micelle interactions. In addition, we identified the C-terminal helix α1 of C1Bδ as an interaction site with the head groups of phosphatidylserine, a known activator of PKCδ. Taken together, our studies (i) reveal the identities of C1Bδ residues involved in interactions with membrane-mimicking environment, DAG, and phosphatidylserine, as well as the affinities associated with each event and (ii) suggest that the initial ligand-independent membrane recruitment of C1B domains, which is greatly facilitated by the interfacial partitioning of Trp-252, is responsible, at least in part, for the differential DAG affinities. PMID:25124034

  6. The serotonin transporter: Examination of the changes in transporter affinity induced by ligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    The plasmalemmal serotonin transporter uses transmembrane gradients of Na{sup +}, Cl{sup {minus}} and K{sup +} to accumulate serotonin within blood platelets. Transport is competitively inhibited by the antidepressant imipramine. Like serotonin transport, imipramine binding requires Na{sup +}. Unlike serotonin, however, imipramine does not appear to be transported. To gain insight into the mechanism of serotonin transport the author have analyzed the influences of Na{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}}, the two ions cotransported with serotonin, on both serotonin transport and the interaction of imipramine and other antidepressant drugs with the plasmalemmal serotonin transporter of human platelets. Additionally, the author have synthesized,more » purified and characterized the binding of 2-iodoimipramine to the serotonin transporter. Finally, the author have conducted a preliminary study of the inhibition of serotonin transport and imipramine binding produced by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. My results reveal many instances of positive heterotropic cooperativity in ligand binding to the serotonin transporter. Na{sup +} binding enhances the transporters affinity for imipramine and several other antidepressant drugs, and also increases the affinity for Cl{sup {minus}}. Cl{sup {minus}} enhances the transporters affinity for imipramine, as well as for Na{sup +}. At concentrations in the range of its K{sub M} for transport serotonin is a competitive inhibitor of imipramine binding. At much higher concentrations, however, serotonin also inhibits imipramines dissociation rate constant. This latter effect which is Na{sup +}-independent and species specific, is apparently produced by serotonin binding at a second, low affinity site on, or near, the transporter complex. Iodoimipramine competitively inhibit both ({sup 3}H)imipramine binding and ({sup 3}H)serotonin transport.« less

  7. Hydride affinities of cumulated, isolated, and conjugated dienes in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Hao; Zhu, Yan; Cheng, Jin-Pei

    2008-11-07

    The hydride affinities (defined as the enthalpy changes in this work) of 15 polarized dienes [five phenyl sulfone substituted allenes (1a), the corresponding five isolated dienes (1b), and the corresponding five conjugated dienes (1c)] in acetonitrile solution were determined by titration calorimetry for the first time. The results display that the hydride affinity scales of the 15 dienes in acetonitrile range from -71.6 to -73.9 kcal/mol for 1a, from -46.2 to -49.7 kcal/mol for 1b, and from -45.0 to -46.5 kcal/mol for 1c, which indicates that the hydride-obtaining abilities of the cumulated dienes (1a) are not only much larger than those of the corresponding conjugated dienes (1c) but also much larger than those of the corresponding isolated dienes (1b). The hydrogen affinities of the 15 dienes as well as the hydrogen affinities and the proton affinities of the radical anions of the dienes (1(-*)) in acetonitrile were also evaluated by using relative thermodynamic cycles according to Hess's law. The results show that (i) the hydrogen affinities of the neutral dienes 1 cover a range from -44.5 to -45.6 kcal/mol for 1a, from -20.4 to -21.4 kcal/mol for 1b, and from -17.3 to -18.5 kcal/mol for 1c; (ii) the hydrogen affinities of the radical anions of the dienes (1(-*)) in acetonitrile cover a range from -40.6 to -47.2 kcal/mol for 1a(-*), from -21.6 to -29.6 kcal/mol for 1b(-*), and from -10.0 to -15.4 kcal/mol for 1c(-*); (iii) the proton affinities of the 15 1a(-*) in acetonitrile cover a range from -97.0 to -100.6 kcal/mol for 1a(-*), from -77.8 to -83.4 kcal/mol for 1b(-*), and from -66.2 to -68.9 kcal/mol for 1c(-*). The main reasons for the great difference between the cumulated dienes and the corresponding isolated and conjugated dienes in the hydride affinity, hydrogen affinity, and proton affinity have been examined. It is evident that these experimental results should be quite valuable to facilitate the elucidation of the origins of the especially high

  8. Local uncontrollability for affine control systems with jumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treanţă, Savin

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates affine control systems with jumps for which the ideal If(g1, …, gm) generated by the drift vector field f in the Lie algebra L(f, g1, …, gm) can be imbedded as a kernel of a linear first-order partial differential equation. It will lead us to uncontrollable affine control systems with jumps for which the corresponding reachable sets are included in explicitly described differentiable manifolds.

  9. Let's get specific: the relationship between specificity and affinity.

    PubMed

    Eaton, B E; Gold, L; Zichi, D A

    1995-10-01

    The factors that lead to high-affinity binding are a good fit between the surfaces of the two molecules in their ground state and charge complementarity. Exactly the same factors give high specificity for a target. We argue that selection for high-affinity binding automatically leads to highly specific binding. This principle can be used to simplify screening approaches aimed at generating useful drugs.

  10. Media independent interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The work done on the Media Independent Interface (MII) Interface Control Document (ICD) program is described and recommendations based on it were made. Explanations and rationale for the content of the ICD itself are presented.

  11. Proton affinity of methyl nitrate - Less than proton affinity of nitric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Rice, Julia E.

    1992-01-01

    Several state-of-the-art ab initio quantum mechanical methods were used to investigate the equilibrium structure, dipole moments, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and IR intensities of methyl nitrate, methanol, and several structures of protonated methyl nitrate, using the same theoretical methods as in an earlier study (Lee and Rice, 1992) of nitric acid. The ab initio results for methyl nitrate and methanol were found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. The proton affinity (PA) of methyl nitrate was calculated to be 176.9 +/-5 kcal/mol, in excellent agreement with the experimental value 176 kcal/mol obtained by Attina et al. (1987) and less than the PA value of nitric acid. An explanation of the discrepancy of the present results with those of an earlier study on protonated nitric acid is proposed.

  12. Direct Measurement of Equilibrium Constants for High-Affinity Hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Suman; Premer, Scott A.; Hoy, Julie A.; Trent, James T.; Hargrove, Mark S.

    2003-01-01

    The biological functions of heme proteins are linked to their rate and affinity constants for ligand binding. Kinetic experiments are commonly used to measure equilibrium constants for traditional hemoglobins comprised of pentacoordinate ligand binding sites and simple bimolecular reaction schemes. However, kinetic methods do not always yield reliable equilibrium constants with more complex hemoglobins for which reaction mechanisms are not clearly understood. Furthermore, even where reaction mechanisms are clearly understood, it is very difficult to directly measure equilibrium constants for oxygen and carbon monoxide binding to high-affinity (KD ≪ 1 μM) hemoglobins. This work presents a method for direct measurement of equilibrium constants for high-affinity hemoglobins that utilizes a competition for ligands between the "target" protein and an array of "scavenger" hemoglobins with known affinities. This method is described for oxygen and carbon monoxide binding to two hexacoordinate hemoglobins: rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin and Synechocystis hemoglobin. Our results demonstrate that although these proteins have different mechanisms for ligand binding, their affinities for oxygen and carbon monoxide are similar. Their large affinity constants for oxygen, 285 and ∼100 μM−1 respectively, indicate that they are not capable of facilitating oxygen transport. PMID:12770899

  13. Surfactant-free Colloidal Particles with Specific Binding Affinity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Colloidal particles with specific binding affinity are essential for in vivo and in vitro biosensing, targeted drug delivery, and micrometer-scale self-assembly. Key to these techniques are surface functionalizations that provide high affinities to specific target molecules. For stabilization in physiological environments, current particle coating methods rely on adsorbed surfactants. However, spontaneous desorption of these surfactants typically has an undesirable influence on lipid membranes. To address this issue and create particles for targeting molecules in lipid membranes, we present here a surfactant-free coating method that combines high binding affinity with stability at physiological conditions. After activating charge-stabilized polystyrene microparticles with EDC/Sulfo-NHS, we first coat the particles with a specific protein and subsequently covalently attach a dense layer of poly(ethyelene) glycol. This polymer layer provides colloidal stability at physiological conditions as well as antiadhesive properties, while the protein coating provides the specific affinity to the targeted molecule. We show that NeutrAvidin-functionalized particles bind specifically to biotinylated membranes and that Concanavalin A-functionalized particles bind specifically to the glycocortex of Dictyostelium discoideum cells. The affinity of the particles changes with protein density, which can be tuned during the coating procedure. The generic and surfactant-free coating method reported here transfers the high affinity and specificity of a protein onto colloidal polystyrene microparticles. PMID:28847149

  14. Regulatory mechanisms of hemoglobin oxygen affinity in acidosis and alkalosis

    PubMed Central

    Bellingham, A. J.; Detter, J. C.; Lenfant, C.

    1971-01-01

    The recent reports of the effect of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) on hemoglobin affinity for oxygen suggested that this substance may play a role in man's adaptation to acidosis and alkalosis. A study of the effect of induced acidosis and alkalosis on the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve of normal man was therefore carried out, and the mechanisms involved in the physiological regulation of hemoglobin oxygen affinity examined. In acute changes of plasma pH there was no alteration in red cell 2,3-DPG content. However, there were changes in hemoglobin oxygen affinity and these correlated with changes in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). With maintained acidosis and alkalosis, red cell 2,3-DPG content was altered and correlated with the changes in hemoglobin oxygen affinity. Both of these mechanisms shift the hemoglobin oxygen dissociation curve opposite to the direct pH (Bohr) effect, and providing the rate of pH change is neither too rapid nor too large, they counteract the direct pH effect and the in vivo hemoglobin oxygen affinity remains unchanged. It is also shown that approximately 35% of the change in hemoglobin oxygen affinity resulting from an alteration in red cell 2,3-DPG, is explained by effect of 2,3-DPG on the red cell pH. PMID:5545127

  15. [Role of hemoglobin affinity to oxygen in adaptation to hypoxemia].

    PubMed

    Kwasiborski, Przemysław Jerzy; Kowalczyk, Paweł; Zieliński, Jakub; Przybylski, Jacek; Cwetsch, Andrzej

    2010-04-01

    One of the basic mechanisms of adapting to hypoxemia is a decrease in the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. This process occurs mainly due to the increased synthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in the erythrocytes, as well as through the Bohr effect. Hemoglobin with decreased affinity for oxygen increases the oxygenation of tissues, because it gives up oxygen more easily during microcirculation. In foetal circulation, however, at a partial oxygen pressure (pO2) of 25 mmHg in the umbilical vein, the oxygen carrier is type F hemoglobin which has a high oxygen affinity. The commonly accepted role for hemoglobin F is limited to facilitating diffusion through the placenta. Is fetal life the only moment when haemoglobin F is useful? THE AIM OF STUDY was to create a mathematical model, which would answer the question at what conditions an increase, rather than a decrease, in haemoglobin oxygen affinity is of benefit to the body. Using the kinetics of dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin described by the Hill equation as the basis for further discussion, we created a mathematical model describing the pO2 value in the microcirculatory system and its dependence on arterial blood pO2. The calculations were performed for hemoglobin with low oxygen affinity (adult type) and high-affinity hemoglobin (fetal type). The modelling took into account both physiological and pathological ranges of acid-base equilibrium and tissue oxygen extraction parameters. It was shown that for the physiological range of acid-base equilibrium and the resting level of tissue oxygen extraction parameters, with an arterial blood pO2 of 26.8 mmHg, the higher-affinity hemoglobin becomes the more effective oxygen carrier. It was also demonstrated that the arterial blood pO2, below which the high-affinity hemoglobin becomes the more effective carrier, is dependent on blood pH and the difference between the arterial and venous oxygen saturation levels. Simulations performed for the pathological

  16. Immunotherapy expands and maintains the function of high affinity tumor infiltrating CD8 T cells in situ

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Amy E.; Polesso, Fanny; Weinberg, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells harbor high affinity tumor-associated antigens capable of eliciting potent anti-tumor T cell responses yet detecting these polyclonal T cells is challenging. Therefore, surrogate markers of T cell activation such as CD69, CD44, and PD-1 have been used. We report here that in mice, expression of activation markers including PD-1 is insufficient in the tumor microenvironment to identify tumor-antigen specific T cells. Using the Nur77GFP T cell affinity reporter mouse, we highlight that PD-1 expression can be induced independent of TCR ligation within the tumor. Given this, we characterized the utility of the Nur77GFP model system in elucidating mechanisms of action of immunotherapies independent of PD-1 expression. Co-expression of Nur77GFP and OX40 identifies a polyclonal population of high affinity tumor-associated antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, which produce more IFNγ in situ than OX40 negative and doubles in quantity with anti-OX40 and anti-CTLA4 mAb therapy but not with anti-PD-1 or PD-L1. Moreover, expansion of these high affinity CD8 T cells prolongs survival of tumor bearing animals. Upon chronic stimulation in tumors and after adoptive cell therapy, CD8 TCR signaling and Nur77GFP induction is impaired and tumors progress. However, this can be reversed and overall survival significantly enhanced after adoptive cell therapy with agonist OX40 immunotherapy. Therefore, we propose that OX40 agonist immunotherapy can maintain functional TCR signaling of chronically stimulated tumor resident CD8 T cells thereby increasing the frequency of cytolytic, high affinity, tumor-associated antigen-specific cells. PMID:27503208

  17. Increased hemoglobin O2 affinity protects during acute hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Yalcin, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Acclimatization to hypoxia requires time to complete the adaptation mechanisms that influence oxygen (O2) transport and O2 utilization. Although decreasing hemoglobin (Hb) O2 affinity would favor the release of O2 to the tissues, increasing Hb O2 affinity would augment arterial O2 saturation during hypoxia. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that pharmacologically increasing the Hb O2 affinity will augment O2 transport during severe hypoxia (10 and 5% inspired O2) compared with normal Hb O2 affinity. RBC Hb O2 affinity was increased by infusion of 20 mg/kg of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5HMF). Control animals received only the vehicle. The effects of increasing Hb O2 affinity were studied in the hamster window chamber model, in terms of systemic and microvascular hemodynamics and partial pressures of O2 (Po2). Pimonidazole binding to hypoxic areas of mice heart and brain was also studied. 5HMF decreased the Po2 at which the Hb is 50% saturated with O2 by 12.6 mmHg. During 10 and 5% O2 hypoxia, 5HMF increased arterial blood O2 saturation by 35 and 48% from the vehicle group, respectively. During 5% O2 hypoxia, blood pressure and heart rate were 58 and 30% higher for 5HMF compared with the vehicle. In addition, 5HMF preserved microvascular blood flow, whereas blood flow decreased to 40% of baseline in the vehicle group. Consequently, perivascular Po2 was three times higher in the 5HMF group compared with the control group at 5% O2 hypoxia. 5HMF also reduced heart and brain hypoxic areas in mice. Therefore, increased Hb O2 affinity resulted in hemodynamics and oxygenation benefits during severe hypoxia. This acute acclimatization process may have implications in survival during severe environmental hypoxia when logistic constraints prevent chronic acclimatization. PMID:22636677

  18. Independent NOAA considered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    A proposal to pull the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) out of the Department of Commerce and make it an independent agency was the subject of a recent congressional hearing. Supporters within the science community and in Congress said that an independent NOAA will benefit by being more visible and by not being tied to a cabinet-level department whose main concerns lie elsewhere. The proposal's critics, however, cautioned that making NOAA independent could make it even more vulnerable to the budget axe and would sever the agency's direct access to the President.The separation of NOAA from Commerce was contained in a June 1 proposal by President Ronald Reagan that also called for all federal trade functions under the Department of Commerce to be reorganized into a new Department of International Trade and Industry (DITI).

  19. Independent technical review, handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction,more » and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.« less

  20. Independent-particle models for light negative atomic ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganas, P. S.; Talman, J. D.; Green, A. E. S.

    1980-01-01

    For the purposes of astrophysical, aeronomical, and laboratory application, a precise independent-particle model for electrons in negative atomic ions of the second and third period is discussed. The optimum-potential model (OPM) of Talman et al. (1979) is first used to generate numerical potentials for eight of these ions. Results for total energies and electron affinities are found to be very close to Hartree-Fock solutions. However, the OPM and HF electron affinities both depart significantly from experimental affinities. For this reason, two analytic potentials are developed whose inner energy levels are very close to the OPM and HF levels but whose last electron eigenvalues are adjusted precisely with the magnitudes of experimental affinities. These models are: (1) a four-parameter analytic characterization of the OPM potential and (2) a two-parameter potential model of the Green, Sellin, Zachor type. The system O(-) or e-O, which is important in upper atmospheric physics is examined in some detail.

  1. Development of a nonlinear model for the prediction of response times of glucose affinity sensors using concanavalin A and dextran and the development of a differential osmotic glucose affinity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Louis G.

    With the increasing prevalence of diabetes in the United States and worldwide, blood glucose monitoring must be accurate and reliable. Current enzymatic sensors have numerous disadvantages that make them unreliable and unfavorable among patients. Recent research in glucose affinity sensors correct some of the problems that enzymatic sensors experience. Dextran and concanavalin A are two of the more common components used in glucose affinity sensors. When these sensors were first explored, a model was derived to predict the response time of a glucose affinity sensor using concanavalin A and dextran. However, the model assumed the system was linear and fell short of calculating times representative of the response times determined through experimental tests with the sensors. In this work, a new model that uses the Stokes-Einstein Equation to demonstrate the nonlinear behavior of the glucose affinity assay was developed to predict the response times of similar glucose affinity sensors. In addition to the device tested by the original linear model, additional devices were identified and tested with the proposed model. The nonlinear model was designed to accommodate the many different variations between systems. The proposed model was able to accurately calculate response times for sensors using the concanavalin A-dextran affinity assay with respect to the experimentally reported times by the independent research groups. Parameter studies using the nonlinear model were able to identify possible setbacks that could compromise the response of thesystem. Specifically, the model showed that the improper use of asymmetrical membranes could increase the response time by as little as 20% or more as the device is miniaturized. The model also demonstrated that systems using the concanavalin Adextran assay would experience higher response times in the hypoglycemic range. This work attempted to replicate and improve an osmotic glucose affinity sensor. The system was designed to

  2. Hydride affinity scale of various substituted arylcarbeniums in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Chun-Hua

    2010-12-23

    Combined with the integral equation formalism polarized continuum model (IEFPCM), the hydride affinities of 96 various acylcarbenium ions in the gas phase and CH(3)CN were estimated by using the B3LYP/6-31+G(d)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d), B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d), and BLYP/6-311++G(2df,2p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d) methods for the first time. The results show that the combination of the BLYP/6-311++G(2df,2p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d) method and IEFPCM could successfully predict the hydride affinities of arylcarbeniums in MeCN with a precision of about 3 kcal/mol. On the basis of the calculated results from the BLYP method, it can be found that the hydride affinity scale of the 96 arylcarbeniums in MeCN ranges from -130.76 kcal/mol for NO(2)-PhCH(+)-CN to -63.02 kcal/mol for p-(Me)(2)N-PhCH(+)-N(Me)(2), suggesting most of the arylcarbeniums are good hydride acceptors. Examination of the effect of the number of phenyl rings attached to the carbeniums on the hydride affinities shows that the increase of the hydride affinities takes place linearly with increasing number of benzene rings in the arylcarbeniums. Analyzing the effect of the substituents on the hydride affinities of arylcarbeniums indicates that electron-donating groups decrease the hydride affinities and electron-withdrawing groups show the opposite effect. The hydride affinities of arylcarbeniums are linearly dependent on the sum of the Hammett substituent parameters σ(p)(+). Inspection of the correlation of the solution-phase hydride affinities with gas-phase hydride affinities and aqueous-phase pK(R)(+) values reveals a remarkably good correspondence of ΔG(H(-)A)(R(+)) with both the gas-phase relative hydride affinities only if the α substituents X have no large electron-donating or -withdrawing properties and the pK(R)(+) values even though the media are dramatically different. The solution-phase hydride affinities also have a linear relationship with the electrophilicity parameter E, and this dependence can

  3. Characterization of self-affinity in the global regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neimark, Alexander V.

    1994-11-01

    Methods for characterization of self-affine surfaces and measurements of their roughness exponents H are developed. It is shown that for smoothed surfaces, which underwent particular coarse graining or averaging of the small-scale fluctuations, the excess surface area Sex and the mean square root radius of curvature ac are related by two distinct asymptotic power laws if ac is well below or well above a certain crossover scale acr. In the local regime of self-affinity, when ac<affinity, when ac>>acr, Sex~(ac/acr)-2(1-H)/(2-H). The former scaling relationship is consistent with the well known definition of local fractal dimensions dloc=dtop+1-H. The latter scaling relationship offers alternatives for characterization of self-affinity over large scales by means of excess dimensions defined as dex=dtop+2(1-H)/(2-H) and can be used for determination of roughness exponents from the measurements provided in the global regime. The thermodynamic method of fractal analysis, proposed earlier for self-similar surfaces (A.V. Neimark, Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 51, 535 (1990) [JETP Lett. 51, 607 (1990)]; Physica A 191, 258 (1992)), is extended for self-affine surfaces for determination of fractal dimensions and roughness exponents from adsorption and capillary experimental data.

  4. High-affinity K+ uptake in pepper plants.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cordero, M Angeles; Martínez, Vicente; Rubio, Francisco

    2005-06-01

    High-affinity K+ uptake is an essential process for plant nutrition under K+-limiting conditions. The results presented here demonstrate that pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants grown in the absence of NH4+ and starved of K+ show an NH4+-sensitive high-affinity K+ uptake that allows plant roots to deplete external K+ to values below 1 microM. When plants are grown in the presence of NH4+, high-affinity K+ uptake is not inhibited by NH4+. Although NH4+-grown plants deplete external K+ below 1 microM in the absence of NH4+, when 1 mM NH4+ is present they do not deplete external K+ below 10 microM. A K+ transporter of the HAK family, CaHAK1, is very likely mediating the NH4+-sensitive component of the high-affinity K+ uptake in pepper roots. CaHAK1 is strongly induced in the roots that show the NH4+-sensitive high-affinity K+ uptake and its induction is reduced in K+-starved plants grown in the presence of NH4+. The NH4+-insensitive K+ uptake may be mediated by an AKT1-like K+ channel.

  5. Fluorogen-Activating-Proteins as Universal Affinity Biosensors for Immunodetection

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Eugenio; Vasilev, Kalin V.; Jarvik, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Fluorogen-activating-proteins (FAPs) are a novel platform of fluorescence biosensors utilized for protein discovery. The technology currently demands molecular manipulation methods that limit its application and adaptability. Here, we highlight an alternative approach based on universal affinity reagents for protein detection. The affinity reagents were engineered as bi-partite fusion proteins, where the specificity moiety is derived from IgG-binding proteins –Protein-A or Protein-G – and the signaling element is a FAP. In this manner, primary antibodies provide the antigenic selectivity against a desired protein in biological samples, while FAP affinity reagents target the constant region (Fc) of antibodies and provide the biosensor component of detection. Fluorescence results using various techniques indicate minimal background and high target specificity for exogenous and endogenous proteins in mammalian cells. Additionally, FAP-based affinity reagents provide enhanced properties of detection previously absent using conventional affinity systems. Distinct features explored in this report include: (1) unfixed signal wavelengths (excitation and emission) determined by the particular fluorogen chosen, (2) real-time user controlled fluorescence on-set and off-set, (3) signal wavelength substitution while performing live analysis, and (4) enhanced resistance to photobleaching. PMID:24122476

  6. INDEPENDENT AND GROUP LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DICKINSON, MARIE B.

    IN CONTRAST TO THE TRADITIONAL EMPHASES ON ROTE LEARNING AND FACT ACCUMULATION, RECENT TRENDS EMERGING FROM EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH STRESS THE DEVELOPMENT OF THINKING PROCESSES SUCH AS THE ABILITY TO REASON ABSTRACTLY AND TO SYNTHESIZE. CHILDREN WORKING INDEPENDENTLY OR IN GROUPS MOVE THROUGH A DISCOVERY LEARNING CURRICULUM IN WHICH THE TEACHER…

  7. Caring about Independent Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Karen

    2010-01-01

    With the rhetoric of independence, new cash for care systems were introduced in many developed welfare states at the end of the 20th century. These systems allow local authorities to pay people who are eligible for community care services directly, to enable them to employ their own careworkers. Despite the obvious importance of the careworker's…

  8. Independence, Disengagement, and Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Ron

    2012-01-01

    School disengagement is linked to a lack of opportunities for students to fulfill their needs for independence and self-determination. Young people have little say about what, when, where, and how they will learn, the criteria used to assess their success, and the content of school and classroom rules. Traditional behavior management discourages…

  9. Independent Video in Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David

    Maintaining the status quo as well as the attitude toward cultural funding and development that it imposes on video are detrimental to the formation of a thriving video network, and also out of key with the present social and political situation in Britain. Independent video has some quite specific advantages as a medium for cultural production…

  10. Independent School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, E. Laurence

    This book deals with the management of privately supported schools and offers guidelines on how these schools might be operated more effectively and economically. The discussions and conclusions are based on observations and data from case studies of independent school operations. The subjects discussed include the role and organization of…

  11. Affinity and specificity of interactions between Nedd4 isoforms and the epithelial Na+ channel.

    PubMed

    Henry, Pauline C; Kanelis, Voula; O'Brien, M Christine; Kim, Brian; Gautschi, Ivan; Forman-Kay, Julie; Schild, Laurent; Rotin, Daniela

    2003-05-30

    The epithelial Na+ channel (alphabetagammaENaC) regulates salt and fluid homeostasis and blood pressure. Each ENaC subunit contains a PY motif (PPXY) that binds to the WW domains of Nedd4, a Hect family ubiquitin ligase containing 3-4 WW domains and usually a C2 domain. It has been proposed that Nedd4-2, but not Nedd4-1, isoforms can bind to and suppress ENaC activity. Here we challenge this notion and show that, instead, the presence of a unique WW domain (WW3*) in either Nedd4-2 or Nedd4-1 determines high affinity interactions and the ability to suppress ENaC. WW3* from either Nedd4-2 or Nedd4-1 binds ENaC-PY motifs equally well (e.g. Kd approximately 10 microm for alpha- or betaENaC, 3-6-fold higher affinity than WW4), as determined by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Moreover, dNedd4-1, which naturally contains a WW3* instead of WW2, is able to suppress ENaC function equally well as Nedd4-2. Homology models of the WW3*.betaENaC-PY complex revealed that a Pro and Ala conserved in all WW3*, but not other Nedd4-WW domains, help form the binding pocket for PY motif prolines. Extensive contacts are formed between the betaENaC-PY motif and the Pro in WW3*, and the small Ala creates a large pocket to accommodate the peptide. Indeed, mutating the conserved Pro and Ala in WW3* reduces binding affinity 2-3-fold. Additionally, we demonstrate that mutations in PY motif residues that form contacts with the WW domain based on our previously solved structure either abolish or severely reduce binding affinity to the WW domain and that the extent of binding correlates with the level of ENaC suppression. Independently, we show that a peptide encompassing the PY motif of sgk1, previously proposed to bind to Nedd4-2 and alter its ability to regulate ENaC, does not bind (or binds poorly) the WW domains of Nedd4-2. Collectively, these results suggest that high affinity of WW domain-PY-motif interactions rather than affiliation with Nedd4-1/Nedd-2 is critical for ENaC suppression

  12. PSSMHCpan: a novel PSSM-based software for predicting class I peptide-HLA binding affinity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Geng; Li, Dongli; Li, Zhang; Qiu, Si; Li, Wenhui; Chao, Cheng-chi; Yang, Naibo; Li, Handong; Cheng, Zhen; Song, Xin; Cheng, Le; Zhang, Xiuqing; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Predicting peptide binding affinity with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a crucial step in developing powerful antitumor vaccine for cancer immunotherapy. Currently available methods work quite well in predicting peptide binding affinity with HLA alleles such as HLA-A*0201, HLA-A*0101, and HLA-B*0702 in terms of sensitivity and specificity. However, quite a few types of HLA alleles that are present in the majority of human populations including HLA-A*0202, HLA-A*0203, HLA-A*6802, HLA-B*5101, HLA-B*5301, HLA-B*5401, and HLA-B*5701 still cannot be predicted with satisfactory accuracy using currently available methods. Furthermore, currently the most popularly used methods for predicting peptide binding affinity are inefficient in identifying neoantigens from a large quantity of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing data. Here we present a Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM)-based software called PSSMHCpan to accurately and efficiently predict peptide binding affinity with a broad coverage of HLA class I alleles. We evaluated the performance of PSSMHCpan by analyzing 10-fold cross-validation on a training database containing 87 HLA alleles and obtained an average area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.94 and accuracy (ACC) of 0.85. In an independent dataset (Peptide Database of Cancer Immunity) evaluation, PSSMHCpan is substantially better than the popularly used NetMHC-4.0, NetMHCpan-3.0, PickPocket, Nebula, and SMM with a sensitivity of 0.90, as compared to 0.74, 0.81, 0.77, 0.24, and 0.79. In addition, PSSMHCpan is more than 197 times faster than NetMHC-4.0, NetMHCpan-3.0, PickPocket, sNebula, and SMM when predicting neoantigens from 661 263 peptides from a breast tumor sample. Finally, we built a neoantigen prediction pipeline and identified 117 017 neoantigens from 467 cancer samples of various cancers from TCGA. PSSMHCpan is superior to the currently available methods in predicting peptide binding affinity with a

  13. Using Lidocaine and Benzocaine to Link Sodium Channel Molecular Conformations to State-Dependent Antiarrhythmic Drug Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Hanck, Dorothy A.; Nikitina, Elena; McNulty, Megan M.; Fozzard, Harry A.; Lipkind, Gregory M.; Sheets, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Lidocaine and other antiarrhythmic drugs bind in the inner pore of voltage-gated Na channels and affect gating use-dependently. A phenylalanine in domain IV, S6 (Phe1759 in NaV1.5), modeled to face the inner pore just below the selectivity filter, is critical in use-dependent drug block. Objective Measurement of gating currents and concentration-dependent availability curves to determine the role of Phe1759 in coupling of drug binding to the gating changes. Methods & Results The measurements showed that replacement of Phe1759 with a non-aromatic residue permits clear separation of action of lidocaine and benzocaine into two components that can be related to channel conformations. One component represents the drug acting as a voltage-independent, low-affinity blocker of closed channels (designated as lipophilic block), and the second represents high-affinity, voltage-dependent block of open/inactivated channels linked to stabilization of the S4's in domains III and IV (designated as voltage-sensor inhibition) by Phe1759. A homology model for how lidocaine and benzocaine bind in the closed and open/inactivated channel conformation is proposed. Conclusions These two components, lipophilic block and voltage-sensor inhibition, can explain the differences in estimates between tonic and open-state/inactivated-state affinities, and they identify how differences in affinity for the two binding conformations can control use-dependence, the hallmark of successful antiarrhythmic drugs. PMID:19661462

  14. Using lidocaine and benzocaine to link sodium channel molecular conformations to state-dependent antiarrhythmic drug affinity.

    PubMed

    Hanck, Dorothy A; Nikitina, Elena; McNulty, Megan M; Fozzard, Harry A; Lipkind, Gregory M; Sheets, Michael F

    2009-08-28

    Lidocaine and other antiarrhythmic drugs bind in the inner pore of voltage-gated Na channels and affect gating use-dependently. A phenylalanine in domain IV, S6 (Phe1759 in Na(V)1.5), modeled to face the inner pore just below the selectivity filter, is critical in use-dependent drug block. Measurement of gating currents and concentration-dependent availability curves to determine the role of Phe1759 in coupling of drug binding to the gating changes. The measurements showed that replacement of Phe1759 with a nonaromatic residue permits clear separation of action of lidocaine and benzocaine into 2 components that can be related to channel conformations. One component represents the drug acting as a voltage-independent, low-affinity blocker of closed channels (designated as lipophilic block), and the second represents high-affinity, voltage-dependent block of open/inactivated channels linked to stabilization of the S4s in domains III and IV (designated as voltage-sensor inhibition) by Phe1759. A homology model for how lidocaine and benzocaine bind in the closed and open/inactivated channel conformation is proposed. These 2 components, lipophilic block and voltage-sensor inhibition, can explain the differences in estimates between tonic and open-state/inactivated-state affinities, and they identify how differences in affinity for the 2 binding conformations can control use-dependence, the hallmark of successful antiarrhythmic drugs.

  15. Feature selection and classification of protein-protein complexes based on their binding affinities using machine learning approaches.

    PubMed

    Yugandhar, K; Gromiha, M Michael

    2014-09-01

    Protein-protein interactions are intrinsic to virtually every cellular process. Predicting the binding affinity of protein-protein complexes is one of the challenging problems in computational and molecular biology. In this work, we related sequence features of protein-protein complexes with their binding affinities using machine learning approaches. We set up a database of 185 protein-protein complexes for which the interacting pairs are heterodimers and their experimental binding affinities are available. On the other hand, we have developed a set of 610 features from the sequences of protein complexes and utilized Ranker search method, which is the combination of Attribute evaluator and Ranker method for selecting specific features. We have analyzed several machine learning algorithms to discriminate protein-protein complexes into high and low affinity groups based on their Kd values. Our results showed a 10-fold cross-validation accuracy of 76.1% with the combination of nine features using support vector machines. Further, we observed accuracy of 83.3% on an independent test set of 30 complexes. We suggest that our method would serve as an effective tool for identifying the interacting partners in protein-protein interaction networks and human-pathogen interactions based on the strength of interactions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. High affinity ligands from in vitro selection: Complex targets

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Kevin N.; Jensen, Kirk B.; Julin, Carol M.; Weil, Michael; Gold, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Human red blood cell membranes were used as a model system to determine if the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) methodology, an in vitro protocol for isolating high-affinity oligonucleotides that bind specifically to virtually any single protein, could be used with a complex mixture of potential targets. Ligands to multiple targets were generated simultaneously during the selection process, and the binding affinities of these ligands for their targets are comparable to those found in similar experiments against pure targets. A secondary selection scheme, deconvolution-SELEX, facilitates rapid isolation of the ligands to targets of special interest within the mixture. SELEX provides high-affinity compounds for multiple targets in a mixture and might allow a means for dissecting complex biological systems. PMID:9501188

  17. Superlinear variant of the dual affine scaling algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Luz, C.; Cardosa, D.

    1994-12-31

    The affine scaling methods introduced by Dikin are generally considered the most efficient interior point algorithms from a computational point of view. However, it is actually an open question to know whether there is a polynomial affine scaling algorithm. This fact has motivated many investigations efforts and led to several convergence results. This is the case of the recently obtained results by Tsuchiya, Tseng and Luo and Tsuchiya and Muramatsu which, unlike the pioneering Dikin`s convergence result, do not require any non degeneracy assumption. This paper presents a new variant of the dual affine scaling algorithm for Linear Programming that,more » in a finite number of iterations, determines a primal-dual pair of optimal solutions. It is also shown the superlinear convergence of that variant without requiring any non degeneracy assumption.« less

  18. Enhancing Community Detection By Affinity-based Edge Weighting Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Andy; Sanders, Geoffrey; Henson, Van

    Community detection refers to an important graph analytics problem of finding a set of densely-connected subgraphs in a graph and has gained a great deal of interest recently. The performance of current community detection algorithms is limited by an inherent constraint of unweighted graphs that offer very little information on their internal community structures. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to address this issue that weights the edges in a given graph based on recently proposed vertex affinity. The vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength, and therefore, it is idealmore » for graph analytics applications such as community detection. We also demonstrate that the affinity-based edge weighting scheme can improve the performance of community detection algorithms significantly.« less

  19. On the vanishing couplings in ADE affine Toda field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Y.; Shimada, T.

    In this paper, the authors show that certain vanishing couplins in the ADE affine Toda field theories remain vanishing even after higher-order corrections are included. This is a requisite property for the Lagrangian formulation of the theory. The authors develop a new perturbative formulation and treat affine Toda field theories as a massless theory with exponential interaction terms. The authors shown that the nonrenormalization comes from the Dynkin automorphism of the Lie algebra associated with these theories. A charge balance conditions plays an important role in our scheme. The all-order nonrenormalization of vanishing couplings in [bar A][sub n] affine Todamore » field theory is also proved in a standard massive scheme.« less

  20. Cobalamin-Independent Methionine Synthase (MetE): A Face-to-Face Double Barrel that Evolved by Gene Duplication

    SciTech Connect

    Pejcha, Robert; Ludwig, Martha L.

    2010-03-08

    Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to L-homocysteine (Hcy) without using an intermediate methyl carrier. Although MetE displays no detectable sequence homology with cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH), both enzymes require zinc for activation and binding of Hcy. Crystallographic analyses of MetE from T. maritima reveal an unusual dual-barrel structure in which the active site lies between the tops of the two ({beta}{alpha}){sub 8} barrels. The fold of the N-terminal barrel confirms that it has evolved from the C-terminal polypeptide by gene duplication; comparisons of the barrels provide an intriguing example of homologous domainmore » evolution in which binding sites are obliterated. The C-terminal barrel incorporates the zinc ion that binds and activates Hcy. The zinc-binding site in MetE is distinguished from the (Cys){sub 3}Zn site in the related enzymes, MetH and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, by its position in the barrel and by the metal ligands, which are histidine, cysteine, glutamate, and cysteine in the resting form of MetE. Hcy associates at the face of the metal opposite glutamate, which moves away from the zinc in the binary E {center_dot} Hcy complex. The folate substrate is not intimately associated with the N-terminal barrel; instead, elements from both barrels contribute binding determinants in a binary complex in which the folate substrate is incorrectly oriented for methyl transfer. Atypical locations of the Hcy and folate sites in the C-terminal barrel presumably permit direct interaction of the substrates in a ternary complex. Structures of the binary substrate complexes imply that rearrangement of folate, perhaps accompanied by domain rearrangement, must occur before formation of a ternary complex that is competent for methyl transfer.« less

  1. Affine generalization of the Komar complex of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, Eckehard W.

    2001-02-01

    On the basis of the ``on shell'' Noether identities of the metric-affine gauge approach of gravity, an affine superpotential is derived which comprises the energy- and angular-momentum content of exact solutions. In the special case of general relativity (GR) or its teleparallel equivalent, the Komar or Freud complex, respectively, are recovered. Applying this to the spontaneously broken anti-de Sitter gauge model of McDowell and Mansouri with an induced Euler term automatically yields the correct mass and spin of the Kerr-AdS solution of GR with a (induced) cosmological constant without the factor two discrepancy of the Komar formula.

  2. Revision of the experimental electron affinity of BO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rienstra, Jonathan C.; Schaefer, Henry F., III

    1997-05-01

    The experimental electron affinity of BO has proven questionable. We obtained the electron affinity of BO using the large aug-cc-pVQZ basis with SCF, CISD, CISD+Q, CCSD, and CCSD(T) methods and predict a value of 2.57 eV, or 0.55 eV smaller than the latest experimental value. The 2∑+ to 2Π excitation energy of BO has also been obtained with the CCSD(T) method and found to be 2.82 eV.

  3. Statistical theory of chromatography: new outlooks for affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Denizot, F C; Delaage, M A

    1975-01-01

    We have developed further the statistical approach to chromatography initiated by Giddings and Eyring, and applied it to affinity chromatography. By means of a convenient expression of moments the convergence towards the Laplace-Gauss distribution has been established. The Gaussian character is not preserved if other causes of dispersion are taken into account, but expressions of moments can be obtained in a generalized form. A simple procedure is deduced for expressing the fundamental constants of the model in terms of purely experimental quantities. Thus, affinity chromatography can be used to determine rate constants of association and dissociation in a range considered as the domain of the stopped-flow methods. PMID:1061072

  4. Agent independent task planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  5. Identification and partial characterization of a low affinity metal-binding site in the light chain of tetanus toxin.

    PubMed

    Wright, J F; Pernollet, M; Reboul, A; Aude, C; Colomb, M G

    1992-05-05

    Tetanus toxin was shown to contain a metal-binding site for zinc and copper. Equilibrium dialysis binding experiments using 65Zn indicated an association constant of 9-15 microM, with one zinc-binding site/toxin molecule. The zinc-binding site was localized to the toxin light chain as determined by binding of 65Zn to the light chain but not to the heavy chain after separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transfer to Immobilon membranes. Copper was an efficient inhibitor of 65Zn binding to tetanus toxin and caused two peptide bond cleavages in the toxin light chain in the presence of ascorbate. These metal-catalyzed oxidative cleavages were inhibited by the presence of zinc. Partial characterization of metal-catalyzed oxidative modifications of a peptide based on a putative metal-binding site (HELIH) in the toxin light chain was used to map the metal-binding site in the protein.

  6. Affinity interactions between natural pigments and human whole saliva.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jiang-Wu; Lin, Feng; Tao, Tao; Lin, Chang-Jian

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the null hypothesis that there are no differences of affinity between pigments and human whole saliva (WS), and the affinity is not influenced by the functional groups of pigments, temperatures, pH values, and salt concentrations. The affinity constants of interactions between WS and theaflavin (TF)/curcumin (Cur)/cyanidin (Cy) were determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and fluorescence quenching. Mass-uptake at various temperatures, pH values, and salt concentrations was also carried out. The order of affinity of the pigments binding to WS is TF>Cur>Cy. A large number of complexes and precipitations of pigments/proteins were formed through a quick, strong, and almost irreversible binding process. The mass-uptake of pigments was affected not only by the functional groups, but also by molecular weight of pigments, temperatures, pH values, and salt concentrations. The complex of pigments may easily and rapidly deposit onto the WS film, and are difficult to remove from the WS surface. However, the complex of pigments can be reduced by properly regulating the physicochemical conditions, such as temperatures, pH values, and salt concentrations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Toward an Affinity Space Methodology: Considerations for Literacy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammers, Jayne C.; Curwood, Jen Scott; Magnifico, Alecia Marie

    2012-01-01

    As researchers seek to make sense of young people's online literacy practices and participation, questions of methodology are important to consider. In our work to understand the culture of physical, virtual and blended spheres that adolescents inhabit, we find it necessary to expand Gee's (2004) notion of affinity spaces. In this article, we draw…

  8. Aberrant antibody affinity selection in SHIP-deficient B cells.

    PubMed

    Leung, Wai-Hang; Tarasenko, Tatiana; Biesova, Zuzana; Kole, Hemanta; Walsh, Elizabeth R; Bolland, Silvia

    2013-02-01

    The strength of the Ag receptor signal influences development and negative selection of B cells, and it might also affect B-cell survival and selection in the GC. Here, we have used mice with B-cell-specific deletion of the 5'-inositol phosphatase SHIP as a model to study affinity selection in cells that are hyperresponsive to Ag and cytokine receptor stimulation. In the absence of SHIP, B cells have lower thresholds for Ag- and interferon (IFN)-induced activation, resulting in augmented negative selection in the BM and enhanced B-cell maturation in the periphery. Despite a tendency to spontaneously downregulate surface IgM expression, SHIP deficiency does not alter anergy induction in response to soluble hen-egg lysozyme Ag in the MDA4 transgenic model. SHIP-deficient B cells spontaneously produce isotype-switched antibodies; however, they are poor responders in immunization and infection models. While SHIP-deficient B cells form GCs and undergo mutation, they are not properly selected for high-affinity antibodies. These results illustrate the importance of negative regulation of B-cell responses, as lower thresholds for B-cell activation promote survival of low affinity and deleterious receptors to the detriment of optimal Ab affinity maturation. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. "The Hunger Games": Literature, Literacy, and Online Affinity Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article examines adolescent literacy practices related to "The Hunger Games," a young adult novel and the first of a trilogy. By focusing on the interaction of social identities, discourses, and media paratexts within an online affinity space, this ethnographic study offers insight into how young adults engage with contemporary…

  10. Affinity through Mathematical Activity: Cultivating Democratic Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengupta-Irving, Tesha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author demonstrates how a broader view of what shapes affinity is ideologically and practically linked to creating democratic learning communities. Specifically, the author explores how a teacher employed complex instruction (an equity pedagogy) with her ethnically and racially diverse students in the "lowest track"…

  11. Student Engagement and Neoliberalism: Mapping an Elective Affinity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepke, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to argue that student engagement, an important area for research about learning and teaching in formal higher education, has an elective affinity with neoliberalism, a hegemonic ideology in many countries of the developed world. The paper first surveys an extensive research literature examining student engagement and…

  12. Toda theories as contractions of affine Toda theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghamohammadi, A.; Khorrami, M.; Shariati, A.

    1996-02-01

    Using a contraction procedure, we obtain Toda theories and their structures, from affine Toda theories and their corresponding structures. By structures, we mean the equation of motion, the classical Lax pair, the boundary term for half line theories, and the quantum transfer matrix. The Lax pair and the transfer matrix so obtained, depend nontrivially on the spectral parameter.

  13. Affinities and beyond! Developing Ways of Seeing in Online Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an insider view of an online community of adults involved in sharing digital photography through a host website, Flickr. It describes how reciprocal teaching and learning partnerships in a dynamic multimodal environment are achieved through the creation of a "Third Space" or "Affinity Space", where "Funds of Knowledge" are…

  14. A molecular determinant of phosphoinositide affinity in mammalian TRPV channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velisetty, Phanindra; Borbiro, Istvan; Kasimova, Marina A.; Liu, Luyu; Badheka, Doreen; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Rohacs, Tibor

    2016-06-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] is an important cofactor for ion channels. Affinity for this lipid is a major determinant of channel inhibition by depletion of PI(4,5)P2 upon phospholipase C (PLC) activation. Little is known about what determines PI(4,5)P2 affinity in mammalian ion channels. Here we report that two members of the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) ion channel family, TRPV5 and TRPV6 lack a positively charged residue in the TM4-TM5 loop that was shown to interact with PI(4,5)P2 in TRPV1, which shows high affinity for this lipid. When this positively charged residue was introduced to either TRPV6 or TRPV5, they displayed markedly higher affinities for PI(4,5)P2, and were largely resistant to inhibition by PI(4,5)P2 depletion. Furthermore, Ca2+-induced inactivation of TRPV6 was essentially eliminated in the G488R mutant, showing the importance of PLC-mediated PI(4,5)P2 depletion in this process. Computational modeling shows that the introduced positive charge interacts with PI(4,5)P2 in TRPV6.

  15. Accurate Evaluation Method of Molecular Binding Affinity from Fluctuation Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tyuji; Iwamoto, Koji; Ode, Hirotaka; Ohdomari, Iwao

    2008-05-01

    Exact estimation of the molecular binding affinity is significantly important for drug discovery. The energy calculation is a direct method to compute the strength of the interaction between two molecules. This energetic approach is, however, not accurate enough to evaluate a slight difference in binding affinity when distinguishing a prospective substance from dozens of candidates for medicine. Hence more accurate estimation of drug efficacy in a computer is currently demanded. Previously we proposed a concept of estimating molecular binding affinity, focusing on the fluctuation at an interface between two molecules. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the compatibility between the proposed computational technique and experimental measurements, through several examples for computer simulations of an association of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) protease and its inhibitor (an example for a drug-enzyme binding), a complexation of an antigen and its antibody (an example for a protein-protein binding), and a combination of estrogen receptor and its ligand chemicals (an example for a ligand-receptor binding). The proposed affinity estimation has proven to be a promising technique in the advanced stage of the discovery and the design of drugs.

  16. RELATIVE BINDING AFFINITY OF ALKYLPHENOLS TO RAINBOW TROUT ESTROGEN RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    RELATIVE BINDING AFFINITY OF ALKYLPHENOLS TO RAINBOW TROUT ESTROGEN RECEPTOR. T R Henry1, J S Denny2 and P K Schmieder2. USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, 1Experimental Toxicology Division and 2Mid-Continent Ecology Division, Duluth, MN, USA.
    The USEPA has been mandated to screen industria...

  17. Electrochemical affinity biosensors for detection of mycotoxins: A review.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Juan C; Bonel, Laura; Ezquerra, Alba; Hernández, Susana; Bertolín, Juan R; Cubel, Carlota; Castillo, Juan R

    2013-11-15

    This review discusses the current state of electrochemical biosensors in the determination of mycotoxins in foods. Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by molds. The acute toxicity of these results in serious human and animal health problems, although it has been only since early 1960s when the first studied aflatoxins were found to be carcinogenic. Mycotoxins affect a broad range of agricultural products, most important cereals and cereal-based foods. A majority of countries, mentioning especially the European Union, have established preventive programs to control contamination and strict laws of the permitted levels in foods. Official methods of analysis of mycotoxins normally requires sophisticated instrumentation, e.g. liquid chromatography with fluorescence or mass detectors, combined with extraction procedures for sample preparation. For about sixteen years, the use of simpler and faster analytical procedures based on affinity biosensors has emerged in scientific literature as a very promising alternative, particularly electrochemical (i.e., amperometric, impedance, potentiometric or conductimetric) affinity biosensors due to their simplicity and sensitivity. Typically, electrochemical biosensors for mycotoxins use specific antibodies or aptamers as affinity ligands, although recombinant antibodies, artificial receptors and molecular imprinted polymers show potential utility. This article deals with recent advances in electrochemical affinity biosensors for mycotoxins and covers complete literature from the first reports about sixteen years ago. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Discovery of high affinity anti-ricin antibodies by B cell receptor sequencing and by yeast display of combinatorial VH:VL libraries from immunized animals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Lee, Chang-Han; Johnson, Erik L; Kluwe, Christien A; Cunningham, Josephine C; Tanno, Hidetaka; Crooks, Richard M; Georgiou, George; Ellington, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Ricin is a toxin that could potentially be used as a bioweapon. We identified anti-ricin A chain antibodies by sequencing the antibody repertoire from immunized mice and by selecting high affinity antibodies using yeast surface display. These methods led to the isolation of multiple antibodies with high (sub-nanomolar) affinity. Interestingly, the antibodies identified by the 2 independent approaches are from the same clonal lineages, indicating for the first time that yeast surface display can identify native antibodies. The new antibodies represent well-characterized reagents for biodefense diagnostics and therapeutics development.

  19. An independent view?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, David L.

    The current dispute over the oxygen abundance in metal-poor stars has been viewed from a distance by this observer who would claim a measure of independence despite an intermittent interest in oxygen abundance determinations over 3 decades. This summary attempts to persuade all participants whether they advocate a "high" or "low" oxygen abundance or are simply bemused by the dispute that in resolving the present disagreements we shall learn not only about the oxygen abundance of these oldest Galactic stars but shall achieve a deeper understanding of the atmospheres of the stars.

  20. Employee vs independent contractor.

    PubMed

    Kolender, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Finding qualified personnel for the cancer registry department has become increasingly difficult, as experienced abstractors retire and cancer diagnoses increase. Faced with hiring challenges, managers turn to teleworkers to fill positions and accomplish work in a timely manner. Suddenly, the hospital hires new legal staff and all telework agreements are disrupted. The question arises: Are teleworkers employees or independent contractors? Creating telework positions requires approval from the legal department and human resources. Caught off-guard in the last quarter of the year, I found myself again faced with hiring challenges.

  1. Protein purification by aminosquarylium cyanine dye-affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Silva, M S; Graça, V C; Reis, L V; Santos, P F; Almeida, P; Queiroz, J A; Sousa, F

    2013-12-01

    The most selective purification method for proteins and other biomolecules is affinity chromatography. This method is based on the unique biological-based specificity of the biomolecule-ligand interaction and commonly uses biological ligands. However, these ligands may present some drawbacks, mainly because of their cost and lability. Dye-affinity chromatography overcomes the limitations of biological ligands and is widely used owing to the low cost of synthetic dyes and to their resistance to biological and chemical degradation. In this work, immobilized aminosquarylium cyanine dyes are used in order to exploit affinity interactions with standard proteins such as lysozyme, α-chymotrypsin and trypsin. These studies evaluate the affinity interactions occurring between the immobilized ligand and the different proteins, as a reflection of the sum of several molecular interactions, namely ionic, hydrophobic and van der Waals, spread throughout the structure, in a defined spatial manner. The results show the possibility of using an aminosquarylium cyanine dye bearing a N-hexyl pendant chain, with a ligand density of 1.8 × 10(-2) mmol of dye/g of chromatographic support, to isolate lysozyme, α-chymotrypsin and trypsin from a mixture. The application of a decreasing ammonium sulfate gradient resulted in the recovery of lysozyme in the flowthrough. On the other hand, α-chymotrypsin and trypsin were retained, involving different interactions with the ligand. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potential applicability of ligands such as aminosquarylium cyanine dyes for the separation and purification of proteins by affinity chromatography. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Semiempirical Theories of the Affinities of Negative Atomic Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, John W.

    1961-01-01

    The determination of the electron affinities of negative atomic ions by means of direct experimental investigation is limited. To supplement the meager experimental results, several semiempirical theories have been advanced. One commonly used technique involves extrapolating the electron affinities along the isoelectronic sequences, The most recent of these extrapolations Is studied by extending the method to Include one more member of the isoelectronic sequence, When the results show that this extension does not increase the accuracy of the calculations, several possible explanations for this situation are explored. A different approach to the problem is suggested by the regularities appearing in the electron affinities. Noting that the regular linear pattern that exists for the ionization potentials of the p electrons as a function of Z, repeats itself for different degrees of ionization q, the slopes and intercepts of these curves are extrapolated to the case of the negative Ion. The method is placed on a theoretical basis by calculating the Slater parameters as functions of q and n, the number of equivalent p-electrons. These functions are no more than quadratic in q and n. The electron affinities are calculated by extending the linear relations that exist for the neutral atoms and positive ions to the negative ions. The extrapolated. slopes are apparently correct, but the intercepts must be slightly altered to agree with experiment. For this purpose one or two experimental affinities (depending on the extrapolation method) are used in each of the two short periods. The two extrapolation methods used are: (A) an isoelectronic sequence extrapolation of the linear pattern as such; (B) the same extrapolation of a linearization of this pattern (configuration centers) combined with an extrapolation of the other terms of the ground configurations. The latter method Is preferable, since it requires only experimental point for each period. The results agree within

  3. Myoglobin oxygen affinity in aquatic and terrestrial birds and mammals.

    PubMed

    Wright, Traver J; Davis, Randall W

    2015-07-01

    Myoglobin (Mb) is an oxygen binding protein found in vertebrate skeletal muscle, where it facilitates intracellular transport and storage of oxygen. This protein has evolved to suit unique physiological needs in the muscle of diving vertebrates that express Mb at much greater concentrations than their terrestrial counterparts. In this study, we characterized Mb oxygen affinity (P50) from 25 species of aquatic and terrestrial birds and mammals. Among diving species, we tested for correlations between Mb P50 and routine dive duration. Across all species examined, Mb P50 ranged from 2.40 to 4.85 mmHg. The mean P50 of Mb from terrestrial ungulates was 3.72±0.15 mmHg (range 3.70-3.74 mmHg). The P50 of cetaceans was similar to terrestrial ungulates ranging from 3.54 to 3.82 mmHg, with the exception of the melon-headed whale, which had a significantly higher P50 of 4.85 mmHg. Among pinnipeds, the P50 ranged from 3.23 to 3.81 mmHg and showed a trend for higher oxygen affinity in species with longer dive durations. Among diving birds, the P50 ranged from 2.40 to 3.36 mmHg and also showed a trend of higher affinities in species with longer dive durations. In pinnipeds and birds, low Mb P50 was associated with species whose muscles are metabolically active under hypoxic conditions associated with aerobic dives. Given the broad range of potential globin oxygen affinities, Mb P50 from diverse vertebrate species appears constrained within a relatively narrow range. High Mb oxygen affinity within this range may be adaptive for some vertebrates that make prolonged dives. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Influence of ownership type on role orientation, role affinity, and role conflict among community pharmacy managers and owners in Canada.

    PubMed

    Perepelkin, Jason; Dobson, Roy Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Ownership of community pharmacies is increasingly being controlled by a relatively small number of corporate entities. The influence of this ownership type should not be ignored, because ownership has the ability to impact pharmacy practice. To examine the relationship between ownership type and community pharmacy managers with regard to role orientation, role affinity, and role conflict. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of community pharmacy managers in Canada by means of a self-administered postal questionnaire sent to a stratified sample of community pharmacies. Statistical analysis consisted of exploratory factor analysis with reliability testing on identified constructs. Frequencies, 1-way analyses of variance, and Scheffe post hoc tests were used to determine significant differences among groups, including ownership structure, on each of the constructs. A total of 646 completed questionnaires were received (32.9% response rate). Most of the respondents were males (60.8%), with slightly less than half of the respondents identifying their practice type as an independent pharmacy (44.6%). There were 5 multi-item scale constructs (professional orientation, business orientation, professional affinity, business affinity, and role conflict) arising from the data, which were analyzed against the pharmacy ownership structure (independent, franchise, corporate) independent variable. Analysis revealed significant differences for 3 of the 5 constructs; however, no differences were seen regarding the 2 professionally focused constructs. Community pharmacy managers/owners are generally oriented to their professional role; however, those working in a corporate pharmacy environment are less oriented to their business role when compared with those working in an independent or franchise pharmacy environment. Further research is needed to identify different practice cultures that may exist in various practice settings and the extent to which these cultures

  5. Nonlinear force propagation, anisotropic stiffening and non-affine relaxation in a model cytoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Daisuke; Head, David; Ikebe, Emi; Nakamasu, Akiko; Kinoshita, Suguru; Peijuan, Zhang; Ando, Shoji

    2013-03-01

    Forces are generated heterogeneously in living cells and transmitted through cytoskeletal networks that respond highly non-linearly. Here, we carry out high-bandwidth passive microrheology on vimentin networks reconstituted in vitro, and observe the nonlinear mechanical response due to forces propagating from a local source applied by an optical tweezer. Since the applied force is constant, the gel becomes equilibrated and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem can be employed to deduce the viscoelasticity of the local environment from the thermal fluctuations of colloidal probes. Our experiments unequivocally demonstrate the anisotropic stiffening of the cytoskeletal network behind the applied force, with greater stiffening in the parallel direction. Quantitative agreement with an affine continuum model is obtained, but only for the response at certain frequency ~ 10-1000 Hz which separates the high-frequency power law and low-frequency elastic behavior of the network. We argue that the failure of the model at lower frequencies is due to the presence of non-affinity, and observe that zero-frequency changes in particle separation can be fitted when an independently-measured, empirical nonaffinity factor is applied.

  6. Coupled Cluster Studies of Ionization Potentials and Electron Affinities of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Bo; Govind, Niranjan; Aprà, Edoardo

    In this paper we apply equation-of-motion coupled cluster (EOMCC) methods in studies of vertical ionization potentials (IP) and electron affinities (EA) for sin- gled walled carbon nanotubes. EOMCC formulations for ionization potentials and electron affinities employing excitation manifolds spanned by single and double ex- citations (IP/EA-EOMCCSD) are used to study IPs and EAs of nanotubes as a function of nanotube length. Several armchair nanotubes corresponding to C20nH20 models with n = 2 - 6 have been used in benchmark calculations. In agreement with previous studies, we demonstrate that the electronegativity of C20nH20 systems remains, to a large extent, independent ofmore » nanotube length. We also compare IP/EA- EOMCCSD results with those obtained with the coupled cluster models with single and double excitations corrected by perturbative triples, CCSD(T), and density func- tional theory (DFT) using global and range-separated hybrid exchange-correlation functionals.« less

  7. Oldest known euarchontan tarsals and affinities of Paleocene Purgatorius to Primates.

    PubMed

    Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Boyer, Doug M; Clemens, William A

    2015-02-03

    Earliest Paleocene Purgatorius often is regarded as the geologically oldest primate, but it has been known only from fossilized dentitions since it was first described half a century ago. The dentition of Purgatorius is more primitive than those of all known living and fossil primates, leading some researchers to suggest that it lies near the ancestry of all other primates; however, others have questioned its affinities to primates or even to placental mammals. Here we report the first (to our knowledge) nondental remains (tarsal bones) attributed to Purgatorius from the same earliest Paleocene deposits that have yielded numerous fossil dentitions of this poorly known mammal. Three independent phylogenetic analyses that incorporate new data from these fossils support primate affinities of Purgatorius among euarchontan mammals (primates, treeshrews, and colugos). Astragali and calcanei attributed to Purgatorius indicate a mobile ankle typical of arboreal euarchontan mammals generally and of Paleocene and Eocene plesiadapiforms specifically and provide the earliest fossil evidence of arboreality in primates and other euarchontan mammals. Postcranial specializations for arboreality in the earliest primates likely played a key role in the evolutionary success of this mammalian radiation in the Paleocene.

  8. Parallel affinity-based isolation of leukocyte subsets using microfluidics: application for stroke diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pullagurla, Swathi R; Witek, Małgorzata A; Jackson, Joshua M; Lindell, Maria A M; Hupert, Mateusz L; Nesterova, Irina V; Baird, Alison E; Soper, Steven A

    2014-04-15

    We report the design and performance of a polymer microfluidic device that can affinity select multiple types of biological cells simultaneously with sufficient recovery and purity to allow for the expression profiling of mRNA isolated from these cells. The microfluidic device consisted of four independent selection beds with curvilinear channels that were 25 μm wide and 80 μm deep and were modified with antibodies targeting antigens specifically expressed by two different cell types. Bifurcated and Z-configured device geometries were evaluated for cell selection. As an example of the performance of these devices, CD4+ T-cells and neutrophils were selected from whole blood as these cells are known to express genes found in stroke-related expression profiles that can be used for the diagnosis of this disease. CD4+ T-cells and neutrophils were simultaneously isolated with purities >90% using affinity-based capture in cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) devices with a processing time of ∼3 min. In addition, sufficient quantities of the cells could be recovered from a 50 μL whole blood input to allow for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) following cell lysis. The expression of genes from isolated T-cells and neutrophils, such as S100A9, TCRB, and FPR1, was evaluated using RT-PCR. The modification and isolation procedures demonstrated here can also be used to analyze other cell types as well where multiple subsets must be interrogated.

  9. Myth or Truth: Independence Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    Most Americans think of the Fourth of July as Independence Day, but is it really the day the U.S. declared and celebrated independence? By exploring myths and truths surrounding Independence Day, this lesson asks students to think critically about commonly believed stories regarding the beginning of the Revolutionary War and the Independence Day…

  10. Cary Potter on Independent Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Cary

    1978-01-01

    Cary Potter was President of the National Association of Independent Schools from 1964-1978. As he leaves NAIS he gives his views on education, on independence, on the independent school, on public responsibility, on choice in a free society, on educational change, and on the need for collective action by independent schools. (Author/RK)

  11. Emissivity independent optical pyrometer

    DOEpatents

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; Kisner, Roger A.

    2017-04-04

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for determining the temperature of an object using an optical pyrometer. Certain embodiments of the disclosed technology allow for making optical temperature measurements that are independent of the surface emissivity of the object being sensed. In one of the exemplary embodiments disclosed herein, a plurality of spectral radiance measurements at a plurality of wavelengths is received from a surface of an object being measured. The plurality of the spectral radiance measurements is fit to a scaled version of a black body curve, the fitting comprising determining a temperature of the scaled version of the black body curve. The temperature is then output. The present disclosure is not to be construed as limiting and is instead directed toward all novel and nonobvious features and aspects of the various disclosed embodiments, alone or in various combinations and subcombinations with one another.

  12. PDZ affinity chromatography: a general method for affinity purification of proteins based on PDZ domains and their ligands.

    PubMed

    Walkup, Ward G; Kennedy, Mary B

    2014-06-01

    PDZ (PSD-95, DiscsLarge, ZO1) domains function in nature as protein binding domains within scaffold and membrane-associated proteins. They comprise ∼90 residues and make specific, high affinity interactions with complementary C-terminal peptide sequences, with other PDZ domains, and with phospholipids. We hypothesized that the specific, strong interactions of PDZ domains with their ligands would make them well suited for use in affinity chromatography. Here we describe a novel affinity chromatography method applicable for the purification of proteins that contain PDZ domain-binding ligands, either naturally or introduced by genetic engineering. We created a series of affinity resins comprised of PDZ domains from the scaffold protein PSD-95, or from neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), coupled to solid supports. We used them to purify heterologously expressed neuronal proteins or protein domains containing endogenous PDZ domain ligands, eluting the proteins with free PDZ domain peptide ligands. We show that Proteins of Interest (POIs) lacking endogenous PDZ domain ligands can be engineered as fusion products containing C-terminal PDZ domain ligand peptides or internal, N- or C-terminal PDZ domains and then can be purified by the same method. Using this method, we recovered recombinant GFP fused to a PDZ domain ligand in active form as verified by fluorescence yield. Similarly, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) and β-Galactosidase (LacZ) fused to a C-terminal PDZ domain ligand or an N-terminal PDZ domain were purified in active form as assessed by enzymatic assay. In general, PDZ domains and ligands derived from PSD-95 were superior to those from nNOS for this method. PDZ Domain Affinity Chromatography promises to be a versatile and effective method for purification of a wide variety of natural and recombinant proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Classical Affine W-Superalgebras via Generalized Drinfeld-Sokolov Reductions and Related Integrable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Uhi Rinn

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate relations between W-superalgebras and integrable super-Hamiltonian systems. To this end, we introduce the generalized Drinfel'd-Sokolov (D-S) reduction associated to a Lie superalgebra g and its even nilpotent element f, and we find a new definition of the classical affine W-superalgebra W(g,f,k) via the D-S reduction. This new construction allows us to find free generators of W(g,f,k), as a differential superalgebra, and two independent Lie brackets on W(g,f,k)/partial W(g,f,k). Moreover, we describe super-Hamiltonian systems with the Poisson vertex algebras theory. A W-superalgebra with certain properties can be understood as an underlying differential superalgebra of a series of integrable super-Hamiltonian systems.

  14. Cell surface control of the multiubiquitination and deubiquitination of high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Paolini, R; Kinet, J P

    1993-01-01

    Multiubiquitination of proteins is a critical step leading to selective degradation for many polypeptides. Therefore, activation-induced multiubiquitination of cell surface receptors, such as the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor and the T cell antigen (TCR) receptor, may correspond to a degradation pathway for ligand-receptor complexes. Here we show that the antigen-induced engagement of high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptors (Fc epsilon RI) results in the immediate multiubiquitination of Fc epsilon RI beta and gamma chains. This ubiquitination is independent of receptor phosphorylation and is restricted to activated receptors. Surprisingly, receptor multiubiquitination is immediately reversible when receptors are disengaged. Therefore, multiubiquitination and deubiquitination of Fc epsilon RI receptors is controlled at the cell surface by receptor engagement and disengagement. The rapidity, specificity and, most importantly, the reversibility of the activation-induced receptor multiubiquitination suggest that this process may turn on/off a cell surface receptor signaling function thus far unsuspected. Images PMID:8382611

  15. Cutting edge: double-stranded DNA breaks in the IgV region gene were detected at lower frequency in affinity-maturation impeded GANP-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Kawatani, Yousuke; Igarashi, Hideya; Matsui, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Kazuhiko; Fujimura, Satoru; Okamoto, Nobukazu; Takagi, Katsumasa; Sakaguchi, Nobuo

    2005-11-01

    Double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at the IgV region (IgV) genes might be involved in somatic hypermutation and affinity-maturation of the B cell receptor in response to T cell-dependent Ag. By ligation-mediated PCR, we studied IgV DSBs that occurred in mature germinal center B cells in response to nitrophenyl-chicken gamma-globulin in a RAG1-independent, Ag-dependent, and IgV-selective manner. We quantified their levels in GANP-deficient B cells that have impaired generation of high-affinity Ab. GANP-/- B cells showed a decreased level of DSBs with blunt ends than control B cells and, on the contrary, the ganp gene transgenic (GANPTg) B cells showed an increased level. These results suggested that the level of IgV DSBs in germinal center B cells is associated with GANP expression, which is presumably required for B cell receptor affinity maturation.

  16. Affinity learning with diffusion on tensor product graph.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingwei; Prasad, Lakshman; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2013-01-01

    In many applications, we are given a finite set of data points sampled from a data manifold and represented as a graph with edge weights determined by pairwise similarities of the samples. Often the pairwise similarities (which are also called affinities) are unreliable due to noise or due to intrinsic difficulties in estimating similarity values of the samples. As observed in several recent approaches, more reliable similarities can be obtained if the original similarities are diffused in the context of other data points, where the context of each point is a set of points most similar to it. Compared to the existing methods, our approach differs in two main aspects. First, instead of diffusing the similarity information on the original graph, we propose to utilize the tensor product graph (TPG) obtained by the tensor product of the original graph with itself. Since TPG takes into account higher order information, it is not a surprise that we obtain more reliable similarities. However, it comes at the price of higher order computational complexity and storage requirement. The key contribution of the proposed approach is that the information propagation on TPG can be computed with the same computational complexity and the same amount of storage as the propagation on the original graph. We prove that a graph diffusion process on TPG is equivalent to a novel iterative algorithm on the original graph, which is guaranteed to converge. After its convergence we obtain new edge weights that can be interpreted as new, learned affinities. We stress that the affinities are learned in an unsupervised setting. We illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach for data manifolds composed of shapes, images, and image patches on two very different tasks of image retrieval and image segmentation. With learned affinities, we achieve the bull's eye retrieval score of 99.99 percent on the MPEG-7 shape dataset, which is much higher than the state-of-the-art algorithms. When the data

  17. Independent Colimitation for Carbon Dioxide and Inorganic Phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Spijkerman, Elly; de Castro, Francisco; Gaedke, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous limitation of plant growth by two or more nutrients is increasingly acknowledged as a common phenomenon in nature, but its cellular mechanisms are far from understood. We investigated the uptake kinetics of CO2 and phosphorus of the algae Chlamydomonas acidophila in response to growth at limiting conditions of CO2 and phosphorus. In addition, we fitted the data to four different Monod-type models: one assuming Liebigs Law of the minimum, one assuming that the affinity for the uptake of one nutrient is not influenced by the supply of the other (independent colimitation) and two where the uptake affinity for one nutrient depends on the supply of the other (dependent colimitation). In addition we asked whether the physiological response under colimitation differs from that under single nutrient limitation. We found no negative correlation between the affinities for uptake of the two nutrients, thereby rejecting a dependent colimitation. Kinetic data were supported by a better model fit assuming independent uptake of colimiting nutrients than when assuming Liebigs Law of the minimum or a dependent colimitation. Results show that cell nutrient homeostasis regulated nutrient acquisition which resulted in a trade-off in the maximum uptake rates of CO2 and phosphorus, possibly driven by space limitation on the cell membrane for porters for the different nutrients. Hence, the response to colimitation deviated from that to a single nutrient limitation. In conclusion, responses to single nutrient limitation cannot be extrapolated to situations where multiple nutrients are limiting, which calls for colimitation experiments and models to properly predict growth responses to a changing natural environment. These deviations from single nutrient limitation response under colimiting conditions and independent colimitation may also hold for other nutrients in algae and in higher plants. PMID:22145031

  18. Einstein’s gravity from a polynomial affine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Felisola, Oscar; Skirzewski, Aureliano

    2018-03-01

    We show that the effective field equations for a recently formulated polynomial affine model of gravity, in the sector of a torsion-free connection, accept general Einstein manifolds—with or without cosmological constant—as solutions. Moreover, the effective field equations are partially those obtained from a gravitational Yang–Mills theory known as Stephenson–Kilmister–Yang theory. Additionally, we find a generalization of a minimally coupled massless scalar field in General Relativity within a ‘minimally’ coupled scalar field in this affine model. Finally, we present a brief (perturbative) analysis of the propagators of the gravitational theory, and count the degrees of freedom. For completeness, we prove that a Birkhoff-like theorem is valid for the analyzed sector.

  19. Extreme disorder in an ultrahigh-affinity protein complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgia, Alessandro; Borgia, Madeleine B.; Bugge, Katrine; Kissling, Vera M.; Heidarsson, Pétur O.; Fernandes, Catarina B.; Sottini, Andrea; Soranno, Andrea; Buholzer, Karin J.; Nettels, Daniel; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Best, Robert B.; Schuler, Benjamin

    2018-03-01

    Molecular communication in biology is mediated by protein interactions. According to the current paradigm, the specificity and affinity required for these interactions are encoded in the precise complementarity of binding interfaces. Even proteins that are disordered under physiological conditions or that contain large unstructured regions commonly interact with well-structured binding sites on other biomolecules. Here we demonstrate the existence of an unexpected interaction mechanism: the two intrinsically disordered human proteins histone H1 and its nuclear chaperone prothymosin-α associate in a complex with picomolar affinity, but fully retain their structural disorder, long-range flexibility and highly dynamic character. On the basis of closely integrated experiments and molecular simulations, we show that the interaction can be explained by the large opposite net charge of the two proteins, without requiring defined binding sites or interactions between specific individual residues. Proteome-wide sequence analysis suggests that this interaction mechanism may be abundant in eukaryotes.

  20. An affinity/avidity model of peripheral T cell regulation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Wu, Yilun; Liang, Bitao; Zheng, Zongyu; Tang, Guomei; Kanellopoulos, Jean; Soloski, Mark; Winchester, Robert; Goldstein, Itamar; Chess, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    We show in these studies that Qa-1–dependent CD8+ T cells are involved in the establishment and maintenance of peripheral self tolerance as well as facilitating affinity maturation of CD4+ T cells responding to foreign antigen. We provide experimental evidence that the strategy used by the Qa-1–dependent CD8+ T cells to accomplish both these tasks in vivo is to selectively downregulate T cell clones that respond to both self and foreign antigens with intermediate, not high or low, affinity/avidity. Thus, the immune system evolved to regulate peripheral immunity using a unified mechanism that efficiently and effectively permits the system to safeguard peripheral self tolerance yet promote the capacity to deal with foreign invaders. PMID:15668735

  1. Prediction of kinase-inhibitor binding affinity using energetic parameters

    PubMed Central

    Usha, Singaravelu; Selvaraj, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    The combination of physicochemical properties and energetic parameters derived from protein-ligand complexes play a vital role in determining the biological activity of a molecule. In the present work, protein-ligand interaction energy along with logP values was used to predict the experimental log (IC50) values of 25 different kinase-inhibitors using multiple regressions which gave a correlation coefficient of 0.93. The regression equation obtained was tested on 93 kinase-inhibitor complexes and an average deviation of 0.92 from the experimental log IC50 values was shown. The same set of descriptors was used to predict binding affinities for a test set of five individual kinase families, with correlation values > 0.9. We show that the protein-ligand interaction energies and partition coefficient values form the major deterministic factors for binding affinity of the ligand for its receptor. PMID:28149052

  2. Complex high affinity interactions occur between MHCI and superantigens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapes, S. K.; Herpich, A. R.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins A and C1 (SEA or SEC1) bound to major histocompatibility-I (MHCI) molecules with high affinity (binding constants ranging from 1.1 microM to 79 nM). SEA and SEC1 directly bound MHCI molecules that had been captured by monoclonal antibodies specific for H-2Kk, H-2Dk, or both. In addition, MHCI-specific antibodies inhibited the binding of SEC1 to LM929 cells and SEA competitively inhibited SEC1 binding; indicating that the superantigens bound to MHCI on the cell surface. The affinity and number of superantigen binding sites differed depending on whether MHCI was expressed in the membrane of LM929 cells or whether it was captured. These data support the hypothesis that MHCI molecules can serve as superantigen receptors.

  3. Reflection symmetry detection using locally affine invariant edge correspondence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaozhong; Tang, Zesheng; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-04-01

    Reflection symmetry detection receives increasing attentions in recent years. The state-of-the-art algorithms mainly use the matching of intensity-based features (such as the SIFT) within a single image to find symmetry axes. This paper proposes a novel approach by establishing the correspondence of locally affine invariant edge-based features, which are superior to the intensity based in the aspects that it is insensitive to illumination variations, and applicable to textureless objects. The locally affine invariance is achieved by simple linear algebra for efficient and robust computations, making the algorithm suitable for detections under object distortions like perspective projection. Commonly used edge detectors and a voting process are, respectively, used before and after the edge description and matching steps to form a complete reflection detection pipeline. Experiments are performed using synthetic and real-world images with both multiple and single reflection symmetry axis. The test results are compared with existing algorithms to validate the proposed method.

  4. Some parameters relevant to affinity chromatography on immobilized nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, C. R.; Harvey, M. J.; Craven, D. B.; Dean, P. D. G.

    1973-01-01

    1. The suitability of cellulose and Sepharose as supports for affinity chromatography of two groups of cofactor-linked enzymes, dehydrogenases and kinases, was examined. Sepharose was found to be superior. 2. The selective capacities of the columns were measured by frontal analysis and are discussed in relation to the nucleotide contents. 3. The effect of various concentrations of enzyme and of non-specific protein on the performance of the affinity columns, and the effects of equilibration time, flow rate, sample volume and dilution of the nucleotide were examined. 4. The effect of interposing polymethylene and polyglycine extension arms between the matrix backbone and the nucleotide was investigated for several cofactor-dependent enzymes. Maximum binding was observed with an extension arm 0.8–1nm long. PMID:4354739

  5. Momentum conserving defects in affine Toda field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, Rebecca; Bowcock, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Type II integrable defects with more than one degree of freedom at the defect are investigated. A condition on the form of the Lagrangian for such defects is found which ensures the existence of a conserved momentum in the presence of the defect. In addition it is shown that for any Lagrangian satisfying this condition, the defect equations of motion, when taken to hold everywhere, can be extended to give a Bäcklund transformation between the bulk theories on either side of the defect. This strongly suggests that such systems are integrable. Momentum conserving defects and Bäcklund transformations for affine Toda field theories based on the A n , B n , C n and D n series of Lie algebras are found. The defect associated with the D 4 affine Toda field theory is examined in more detail. In particular classical time delays for solitons passing through the defect are calculated.

  6. Independent Research (IR) and Independent Exploratory Development (IED)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    in the Workplace . Independent research/independent exploratory development, IR/IED...Exclusion Rate differences Over a Cut Score Domain, An Examination of Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Employee Interventions, and Cultural Diversity

  7. An Affine Invariant Bivariate Version of the Sign Test.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    words: affine invariance, bivariate quantile, bivariate symmetry, model,. generalized median, influence function , permutation test, normal efficiency...calculate a bivariate version of the influence function , and the resulting form is bounded, as is the case for the univartate sign test, and shows the...terms of a blvariate analogue of IHmpel’s (1974) influence function . The latter, though usually defined as a von-Mises derivative of certain

  8. Tectonic affinities of the accreted basalts in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Yang, Huai-Jen; Liu, Yung-Hsin; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Takazawa, Eiichi

    2018-06-01

    Tectonic affinities of accreted basalts provide constraints on mass transport in convergent boundaries, improving our understandings on the evolution of regional geology. In this study, nineteen accreted basalts from the southernmost tip of Taiwan Island, which is on the convergent boundary between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates, were analyzed for element concentrations as well as Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb isotope ratios to investigate their tectonic affinities. All the samples contain > 3% LOI, reflecting post-magmatic alteration. LOI and Nb variation diagrams together with comparisons to oceanic basalt compositions indicated that the concentrations of most major elements and Rb, Sr, and Ba were modified by post-magmatic processes to varying extents, while P2O5, REE and HFSE remained immobile. Although some samples show Pb loss, most samples have Pb concentrations not affected by post-magmatic processes. Isotope ratios of Pb, Nd and Hf, generally reflect the mantle source characteristics. The εNd-εHf relationship and trace element abundance ratios indicated that the LREE-depleted samples were mostly scraped off the subducting South China Sea floor, reflecting the volumetric dominance of N-MORB on ocean floors. The overriding Philippine Sea Plate contributed both N-MORB and E-MORB to the accretionary prism. The tectonic affinities of the LREE-enriched samples, however, could not be unambiguously determined for the large geochemical variability of OIB from both subducting and overlying slabs. Based on our results, it is proposed that the tectonic affinity of the basalts in an accretionary prism can indicate the subduction polarity of the associated convergent boundary, providing a constraint for regional geology evolution.

  9. Wavelets and Affine Distributions: A Time-Frequency Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-07

    Ville Distribution ( WVD ) • Prominent member of the AC: the WVD • Properties of the WVD : – Covariant to TF scaling and time shift (of course) – Covariant...QTFRs • Wigner - Ville distribution and affine smoothing • Doppler tolerance and hyperbolic impulses • Hyperbolic TF localization and Bertrand P0...satisfy hyperbolic TF localization property: • Not satisfied by WVD ! 25 – 49 –WAMA-04 Cargèse, France The Bertrand P0 distribution • The hyperbolic

  10. Paradoxical affinities: otherness and ambivalence as creative pathways.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Jan

    2018-06-01

    Referring to her own background as the child of Jewish refugees forced to leave their countries of origin before the second World War, the author describes how her attitude towards Jung and his ideas has evolved. The role of paradoxical affinities that have affected the author's life and identity as a Jungian analyst are considered, alongside the impact of experiences of otherness whilst supervising and teaching abroad, particularly in Eastern Europe. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  11. Selective high affinity polydentate ligands and methods of making such

    DOEpatents

    DeNardo, Sally; DeNardo, Gerald; Balhorn, Rodney

    2010-02-16

    This invention provides novel polydentate selective high affinity ligands (SHALs) that can be used in a variety of applications in a manner analogous to the use of antibodies. SHALs typically comprise a multiplicity of ligands that each bind different region son the target molecule. The ligands are joined directly or through a linker thereby forming a polydentate moiety that typically binds the target molecule with high selectivity and avidity.

  12. Affine.m—Mathematica package for computations in representation theory of finite-dimensional and affine Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, Anton

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we present Affine.m-a program for computations in representation theory of finite-dimensional and affine Lie algebras and describe implemented algorithms. The algorithms are based on the properties of weights and Weyl symmetry. Computation of weight multiplicities in irreducible and Verma modules, branching of representations and tensor product decomposition are the most important problems for us. These problems have numerous applications in physics and we provide some examples of these applications. The program is implemented in the popular computer algebra system Mathematica and works with finite-dimensional and affine Lie algebras. Catalogue identifier: AENA_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, UK Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 24 844 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 045 908 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: i386-i686, x86_64. Operating system: Linux, Windows, Mac OS, Solaris. RAM: 5-500 Mb Classification: 4.2, 5. Nature of problem: Representation theory of finite-dimensional Lie algebras has many applications in different branches of physics, including elementary particle physics, molecular physics, nuclear physics. Representations of affine Lie algebras appear in string theories and two-dimensional conformal field theory used for the description of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems. Also Lie symmetries play a major role in a study of quantum integrable systems. Solution method: We work with weights and roots of finite-dimensional and affine Lie algebras and use Weyl symmetry extensively. Central problems which are the computations of weight multiplicities, branching and fusion coefficients are solved using one general recurrent

  13. Supramolecular Affinity Chromatography for Methylation-Targeted Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Graham A E; Starke, Melissa J; Shaurya, Alok; Li, Janessa; Hof, Fraser

    2016-04-05

    Proteome-wide studies of post-translationally methylated species using mass spectrometry are complicated by high sample diversity, competition for ionization among peptides, and mass redundancies. Antibody-based enrichment has powered methylation proteomics until now, but the reliability, pan-specificity, polyclonal nature, and stability of the available pan-specific antibodies are problematic and do not provide a standard, reliable platform for investigators. We have invented an anionic supramolecular host that can form host-guest complexes selectively with methyllysine-containing peptides and used it to create a methylysine-affinity column. The column resolves peptides on the basis of methylation-a feat impossible with a comparable commercial cation-exchange column. A proteolyzed nuclear extract was separated on the methyl-affinity column prior to standard proteomics analysis. This experiment demonstrates that such chemical methyl-affinity columns are capable of enriching and improving the analysis of methyllysine residues from complex protein mixtures. We discuss the importance of this advance in the context of biomolecule-driven enrichment methods.

  14. An affine model of the dynamics of astrophysical discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2018-06-01

    Thin astrophysical discs are very often modelled using the equations of 2D hydrodynamics. We derive an extension of this model that describes more accurately the behaviour of a thin disc in the absence of self-gravity, magnetic fields, and complex internal motions. The ideal fluid theory is derived directly from Hamilton's Principle for a 3D fluid after making a specific approximation to the deformation gradient tensor. We express the equations in Eulerian form after projection on to a reference plane. The disc is thought of as a set of fluid columns, each of which is capable of a time-dependent affine transformation, consisting of a translation together with a linear transformation in three dimensions. Therefore, in addition to the usual 2D hydrodynamics in the reference plane, the theory allows for a deformation of the mid-plane (as occurs in warped discs) and for the internal shearing motions that accompany such deformations. It also allows for the vertical expansions driven in non-circular discs by a variation of the vertical gravitational field around the horizontal streamlines, or by a divergence of the horizontal velocity. The equations of the affine model embody conservation laws for energy and potential vorticity, even for non-planar discs. We verify that they reproduce exactly the linear theories of 3D warped and eccentric discs in a secular approximation. However, the affine model does not rely on any secular or small-amplitude assumptions and should be useful in more general circumstances.

  15. Affinity approaches in RNAi-based therapeutics purification.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia; Queiroz, João A; Figueiras, Ana; Sousa, Fani

    2016-05-15

    The recent investigation on RNA interference (RNAi) related mechanisms and applications led to an increased awareness of the importance of RNA in biology. Nowadays, RNAi-based technology has emerged as a potentially powerful tool for silencing gene expression, being exploited to develop new therapeutics for treating a vast number of human disease conditions, as it is expected that this technology can be translated onto clinical applications in a near future. This approach makes use of a large number of small (namely short interfering RNAs, microRNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which are likely to have a crucial role as the next generation therapeutics. The commercial and biomedical interest in these RNAi-based therapy applications have fostered the need to develop innovative procedures to easily and efficiently purify RNA, aiming to obtain the final product with high purity degree, good quality and biological activity. Recently, affinity chromatography has been applied to ncRNAs purification, in view of the high specificity. Therefore, this article intends to review the biogenesis pathways of regulatory ncRNAs and also to discuss the most significant and recent developments as well as applications of affinity chromatography in the challenging task of purifying ncRNAs. In addition, the importance of affinity chromatography in ncRNAs purification is addressed and prospects for what is forthcoming are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Accurate and sensitive quantification of protein-DNA binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Chaitanya; Rube, H Tomas; Kribelbauer, Judith F; Crocker, Justin; Loker, Ryan E; Martini, Gabriella D; Laptenko, Oleg; Freed-Pastor, William A; Prives, Carol; Stern, David L; Mann, Richard S; Bussemaker, Harmen J

    2018-04-17

    Transcription factors (TFs) control gene expression by binding to genomic DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Mutations in TF binding sites are increasingly found to be associated with human disease, yet we currently lack robust methods to predict these sites. Here, we developed a versatile maximum likelihood framework named No Read Left Behind (NRLB) that infers a biophysical model of protein-DNA recognition across the full affinity range from a library of in vitro selected DNA binding sites. NRLB predicts human Max homodimer binding in near-perfect agreement with existing low-throughput measurements. It can capture the specificity of the p53 tetramer and distinguish multiple binding modes within a single sample. Additionally, we confirm that newly identified low-affinity enhancer binding sites are functional in vivo, and that their contribution to gene expression matches their predicted affinity. Our results establish a powerful paradigm for identifying protein binding sites and interpreting gene regulatory sequences in eukaryotic genomes. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  17. Accurate and sensitive quantification of protein-DNA binding affinity

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Chaitanya; Rube, H. Tomas; Kribelbauer, Judith F.; Crocker, Justin; Loker, Ryan E.; Martini, Gabriella D.; Laptenko, Oleg; Freed-Pastor, William A.; Prives, Carol; Stern, David L.; Mann, Richard S.; Bussemaker, Harmen J.

    2018-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) control gene expression by binding to genomic DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Mutations in TF binding sites are increasingly found to be associated with human disease, yet we currently lack robust methods to predict these sites. Here, we developed a versatile maximum likelihood framework named No Read Left Behind (NRLB) that infers a biophysical model of protein-DNA recognition across the full affinity range from a library of in vitro selected DNA binding sites. NRLB predicts human Max homodimer binding in near-perfect agreement with existing low-throughput measurements. It can capture the specificity of the p53 tetramer and distinguish multiple binding modes within a single sample. Additionally, we confirm that newly identified low-affinity enhancer binding sites are functional in vivo, and that their contribution to gene expression matches their predicted affinity. Our results establish a powerful paradigm for identifying protein binding sites and interpreting gene regulatory sequences in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:29610332

  18. [Serological affinity of some species of nonpathogenic corynebacteria].

    PubMed

    Furtat, I M; Nohina, T M; Mikhal's'kyĭ, L O; Vedenieieva, O A

    2002-01-01

    Serological peculiarities of the species strains Corynebacterium glutamicum, C. ammoniagenes, C. vitaeruminis, C. variabilis and strain of Corynebacterium sp. (Brevibacterium stationis) UCM Ac-719 have been investigated with the help of immunoenzyme analysis ELISA with the use of mice immune serum, specific to C. ammoniagenes UCM Ac-732T, C. vitaeruminis UCM Ac-718T, C. variabilis UCM Ac-717T, C. glutamicum UCM Ac-733 and Corynebacterium sp. UCM Ac-719. It has been established that the species of nonpathogenic corynebacteria differ between themselves as to the degree of serological affinity. C. variabilis, C. ammoniagenes and C. glutamicum are the least similar as to this indication. Weak antigenic relations have been revealed in C. vitaeruminis and C. ammoniagenes. The latter displayed the higher, as compared with other strains, affinity for Corynebacterium sp. UCM Ac-719. The highest degree of serological affinity within the species was registered in strains C. glutamicum and C. variabilis. Data obtained evidence that the ELISA method permits conducting the high-reliability species diagnosis of nonpathogenic corynebacteria on the basis of their antigenic characteristics.

  19. Recombinant spider silk genetically functionalized with affinity domains.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Ronnie; Thatikonda, Naresh; Lindberg, Diana; Rising, Anna; Johansson, Jan; Nygren, Per-Åke; Hedhammar, My

    2014-05-12

    Functionalization of biocompatible materials for presentation of active protein domains is an area of growing interest. Herein, we describe a strategy for functionalization of recombinant spider silk via gene fusion to affinity domains of broad biotechnological use. Four affinity domains of different origin and structure; the IgG-binding domains Z and C2, the albumin-binding domain ABD, and the biotin-binding domain M4, were all successfully produced as soluble silk fusion proteins under nondenaturing purification conditions. Silk films and fibers produced from the fusion proteins were demonstrated to be chemically and thermally stable. Still, the bioactive domains are concluded to be folded and accessible, since their respective targets could be selectively captured from complex samples, including rabbit serum and human plasma. Interestingly, materials produced from mixtures of two different silk fusion proteins displayed combined binding properties, suggesting that tailor-made materials with desired stoichiometry and surface distributions of several binding domains can be produced. Further, use of the IgG binding ability as a general mean for presentation of desired biomolecules could be demonstrated for a human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF) model system, via a first capture of anti-VEGF IgG to silk containing the Z-domain, followed by incubation with hVEGF. Taken together, this study demonstrates the potential of recombinant silk, genetically functionalized with affinity domains, for construction of biomaterials capable of presentation of almost any desired biomolecule.

  20. Affinity monolith chromatography: A review of general principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao; Rodriguez, Elliott; Azaria, Shiden; Pekarek, Allegra; Hage, David S

    2017-11-01

    Affinity monolith chromatography, or AMC, is a liquid chromatographic method in which the support is a monolith and the stationary phase is a biological-binding agent or related mimic. AMC has become popular for the isolation of biochemicals, for the measurement of various analytes, and for studying biological interactions. This review will examine the principles and applications of AMC. The materials that have been used to prepare AMC columns will be discussed, which have included various organic polymers, silica, agarose, and cryogels. Immobilization schemes that have been used in AMC will also be considered. Various binding agents and applications that have been reported for AMC will then be described. These applications will include the use of AMC for bioaffinity chromatography, immunoaffinity chromatography, dye-ligand affinity chromatography, and immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography. The use of AMC with chiral stationary phases and as a tool to characterize biological interactions will also be examined. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Affinity chromatography: A versatile technique for antibody purification.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sushrut; Saxena, Vikas; Ayyar, B Vijayalakshmi

    2017-03-01

    Antibodies continue to be extremely utilized entities in myriad applications including basic research, imaging, targeted delivery, chromatography, diagnostics, and therapeutics. At production stage, antibodies are generally present in complex matrices and most of their intended applications necessitate purification. Antibody purification has always been a major bottleneck in downstream processing of antibodies, due to the need of high quality products and associated high costs. Over the years, extensive research has focused on finding better purification methodologies to overcome this holdup. Among a plethora of different techniques, affinity chromatography is one of the most selective, rapid and easy method for antibody purification. This review aims to provide a detailed overview on affinity chromatography and the components involved in purification. An array of support matrices along with various classes of affinity ligands detailing their underlying working principles, together with the advantages and limitations of each system in purifying different types of antibodies, accompanying recent developments and important practical methodological considerations to optimize purification procedure are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gelatin Nanoparticles with Enhanced Affinity for Calcium Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Farbod, Kambiz; Diba, Mani; Zinkevich, Tatiana; Schmidt, Stephan; Harrington, Matthew J; Kentgens, Arno P M; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

    2016-05-01

    Gelatin nanoparticles can be tuned with respect to their drug loading efficiency, degradation rate, and release kinetics, which renders these drug carriers highly suitable for a wide variety of biomedical applications. The ease of functionalization has rendered gelatin an interesting candidate material to introduce specific motifs for selective targeting to specific organs, but gelatin nanoparticles have not yet been modified to increase their affinity to mineralized tissue. By means of conjugating bone-targeting alendronate to biocompatible gelatin nanoparticles, a simple method is developed for the preparation of gelatin nanoparticles which exhibit strong affinity to mineralized surfaces. It has been shown that the degree of alendronate functionalization can be tuned by controlling the glutaraldehyde crosslinking density, the molar ratio between alendronate and glutaraldehyde, as well as the pH of the conjugation reaction. Moreover, it has been shown that the affinity of gelatin nanoparticles to calcium phosphate increases considerably upon functionalization with alendronate. In summary, gelatin nanoparticles have been developed, which exhibit great potential for use in bone-specific drug delivery and regenerative medicine. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Expanding RNA binding specificity and affinity of engineered PUF domains

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Wang, Jue; Li, Hai-Tao; Yang, Yi; Wang, Zefeng; Wu, Jia-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Specific manipulation of RNA is necessary for the research in biotechnology and medicine. The RNA-binding domains of Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA binding factors (PUF domains) are programmable RNA binding scaffolds used to engineer artificial proteins that specifically modulate RNAs. However, the native PUF domains generally recognize 8-nt RNAs, limiting their applications. Here, we modify the PUF domain of human Pumilio1 to engineer PUFs that recognize RNA targets of different length. The engineered PUFs bind to their RNA targets specifically and PUFs with more repeats have higher binding affinity than the canonical eight-repeat domains; however, the binding affinity reaches the peak at those with 9 and 10 repeats. Structural analysis on PUF with nine repeats reveals a higher degree of curvature, and the RNA binding unexpectedly and dramatically opens the curved structure. Investigation of the residues positioned in between two RNA bases demonstrates that tyrosine and arginine have favored stacking interactions. Further tests on the availability of the engineered PUFs in vitro and in splicing function assays indicate that our engineered PUFs bind RNA targets with high affinity in a programmable way. PMID:29490074

  4. Affinity-tuning leukocyte integrin for development of safe therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Spencer

    Much attention has been given to the molecular and cellular pathways linking inflammation with cancer and the local tumor environment to identify new target molecules that could lead to improved diagnosis and treatment. Among the many molecular players involved in the complex response, central to the induction of inflammation is intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, which is of particular interest for its highly sensitive and localized expression in response to inflammatory signals. ICAM-1, which has been implicated to play a critical role in tumor progression in various types of cancer, has also been linked to cancer metastases, where ICAM-1 facilitates the spread of metastatic cancer cells to secondary sites. This unique expression profile of ICAM-1 throughout solid tumor microenvironment makes ICAM-1 an intriguing molecular target, which holds great potential as an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool. Herein, we have engineered the ligand binding domain, or the inserted (I) domain of a leukocyte integrin, to exhibit a wide range of monovalent affinities to the natural ligand, ICAM-1. Using the resulting I domain variants, we have created drug and gene delivery nanoparticles, as well as targeted immunotherapeutics that have the ability to bind and migrate to inflammatory sites prevalent in tumors and the associated microenvironment. Through the delivery of diagnostic agents, chemotherapeutics, and immunotherapeutics, the following chapters demonstrate that the affinity enhancements achieved by directed evolution bring the affinity of I domains into the range optimal for numerous applications.

  5. Expanding RNA binding specificity and affinity of engineered PUF domains.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang-Yang; Mao, Miao-Wei; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Wang, Jue; Li, Hai-Tao; Yang, Yi; Wang, Zefeng; Wu, Jia-Wei

    2018-05-18

    Specific manipulation of RNA is necessary for the research in biotechnology and medicine. The RNA-binding domains of Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA binding factors (PUF domains) are programmable RNA binding scaffolds used to engineer artificial proteins that specifically modulate RNAs. However, the native PUF domains generally recognize 8-nt RNAs, limiting their applications. Here, we modify the PUF domain of human Pumilio1 to engineer PUFs that recognize RNA targets of different length. The engineered PUFs bind to their RNA targets specifically and PUFs with more repeats have higher binding affinity than the canonical eight-repeat domains; however, the binding affinity reaches the peak at those with 9 and 10 repeats. Structural analysis on PUF with nine repeats reveals a higher degree of curvature, and the RNA binding unexpectedly and dramatically opens the curved structure. Investigation of the residues positioned in between two RNA bases demonstrates that tyrosine and arginine have favored stacking interactions. Further tests on the availability of the engineered PUFs in vitro and in splicing function assays indicate that our engineered PUFs bind RNA targets with high affinity in a programmable way.

  6. Structure of Greyhound hemoglobin: origin of high oxygen affinity.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Veer S; Zaldívar-López, Sara; Harris, David R; Couto, C Guillermo; Wang, Peng G; Palmer, Andre F

    2011-05-01

    This study presents the crystal structure of Greyhound hemoglobin (GrHb) determined to 1.9 Å resolution. GrHb was found to crystallize with an α₁β₁ dimer in the asymmetric unit and belongs to the R2 state. Oxygen-affinity measurements combined with the fact that GrHb crystallizes in the R2 state despite the high-salt conditions used for crystallization strongly indicate that GrHb can serve as a model high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobin (Hb) for higher mammals, especially humans. Structural analysis of GrHb and its comparison with the R2-state of human Hb revealed several regions that can potentially contribute to the high oxygen affinity of GrHb and serve to rationalize the additional stability of the R2-state of GrHb. A previously well studied hydrophobic cluster of bar-headed goose Hb near α119 was also incorporated in the comparison between GrHb and human Hb. Finally, a structural comparison with generic dog Hb and maned wolf Hb was conducted, revealing that in contrast to GrHb these structures belong to the R state of Hb and raising the intriguing possibility of an additional allosteric factor co-purifying with GrHb that can modulate its quaternary structure.

  7. Predicting MHC-II binding affinity using multiple instance regression

    PubMed Central

    EL-Manzalawy, Yasser; Dobbs, Drena; Honavar, Vasant

    2011-01-01

    Reliably predicting the ability of antigen peptides to bind to major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules is an essential step in developing new vaccines. Uncovering the amino acid sequence correlates of the binding affinity of MHC-II binding peptides is important for understanding pathogenesis and immune response. The task of predicting MHC-II binding peptides is complicated by the significant variability in their length. Most existing computational methods for predicting MHC-II binding peptides focus on identifying a nine amino acids core region in each binding peptide. We formulate the problems of qualitatively and quantitatively predicting flexible length MHC-II peptides as multiple instance learning and multiple instance regression problems, respectively. Based on this formulation, we introduce MHCMIR, a novel method for predicting MHC-II binding affinity using multiple instance regression. We present results of experiments using several benchmark datasets that show that MHCMIR is competitive with the state-of-the-art methods for predicting MHC-II binding peptides. An online web server that implements the MHCMIR method for MHC-II binding affinity prediction is freely accessible at http://ailab.cs.iastate.edu/mhcmir. PMID:20855923

  8. Relative binding affinities of monolignols to horseradish peroxidase

    DOE PAGES

    Sangha, Amandeep K.; Petridis, Loukas; Cheng, Xiaolin; ...

    2016-07-22

    Monolignol binding to the peroxidase active site is the first step in lignin polymerization in plant cell walls. Using molecular dynamics, docking, and free energy perturbation calculations, we investigate the binding of monolignols to horseradish peroxidase C. Our results suggest that p-coumaryl alcohol has the strongest binding affinity followed by sinapyl and coniferyl alcohol. Stacking interactions between the monolignol aromatic rings and nearby phenylalanine residues play an important role in determining the calculated relative binding affinities. p-Coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols bind in a pose productive for reaction in which a direct H-bond is formed between the phenolic –OH group andmore » a water molecule (W2) that may facilitate proton transfer during oxidation. In contrast, in the case of sinapyl alcohol there is no such direct interaction, the phenolic –OH group instead interacting with Pro139. Furthermore, since proton and electron transfer is the rate-limiting step in monolignol oxidation by peroxidase, the binding pose (and thus the formation of near attack conformation) appears to play a more important role than the overall binding affinity in determining the oxidation rate.« less

  9. Development and Testing of Enhanced Affinity Reagents for Use in Environmental Detection Assays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Current affinity reagent development methodologies generally rely on costly and slow antibody production that is based on animal inoculations with...attenuated, inactivated, or surrogate biothreat agents. Recent literature has demonstrated that the de novo computer design of recombinant affinity

  10. Affine cellularity of finite type KLR algebras, and homomorphisms between Specht modules for KLR algebras in affine type A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loubert, Joseph William

    This thesis consists of two parts. In the first we prove that the Khovanov-Lauda-Rouquier algebras Ralpha of finite type are (graded) affine cellular in the sense of Koenig and Xi. In fact, we establish a stronger property, namely that the affine cell ideals in Ralpha are generated by idempotents. This in particular implies the (known) result that the global dimension of Ralpha is finite. In the second part we use the presentation of the Specht modules given by Kleshchev-Mathas-Ram to derive results about Specht modules. In particular, we determine all homomorphisms from an arbitrary Specht module to a fixed Specht module corresponding to any hook partition. Along the way, we give a complete description of the action of the standard KLR generators on the hook Specht module. This work generalizes a result of James. This dissertation includes previously published coauthored material.

  11. Shark Attack: high affinity binding proteins derived from shark vNAR domains by stepwise in vitro affinity maturation.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Stefan; Weber, Niklas; Becker, Stefan; Doerner, Achim; Christmann, Andreas; Christmann, Christine; Uth, Christina; Fritz, Janine; Schäfer, Elena; Steinmann, Björn; Empting, Martin; Ockelmann, Pia; Lierz, Michael; Kolmar, Harald

    2014-12-10

    A novel method for stepwise in vitro affinity maturation of antigen-specific shark vNAR domains is described that exclusively relies on semi-synthetic repertoires derived from non-immunized sharks. Target-specific molecules were selected from a CDR3-randomized bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) vNAR library using yeast surface display as platform technology. Various antigen-binding vNAR domains were easily isolated by screening against several therapeutically relevant antigens, including the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), the Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2), and the human serine protease HTRA1. Affinity maturation was demonstrated for EpCAM and HTRA1 by diversifying CDR1 of target-enriched populations which allowed for the rapid selection of nanomolar binders. EpCAM-specific vNAR molecules were produced as soluble proteins and more extensively characterized via thermal shift assays and biolayer interferometry. Essentially, we demonstrate that high-affinity binders can be generated in vitro without largely compromising the desirable high thermostability of the vNAR scaffold. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY: RECENT TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Hage, David S.; Anguizola, Jeanethe A.; Bi, Cong; Li, Rong; Matsuda, Ryan; Papastavros, Efthimia; Pfaunmiller, Erika; Vargas, John; Zheng, Xiwei

    2012-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is a separation technique that has become increasingly important in work with biological samples and pharmaceutical agents. This method is based on the use of a biologically-related agent as a stationary phase to selectively retain analytes or to study biological interactions. This review discusses the basic principles behind affinity chromatography and examines recent developments that have occurred in the use of this method for biomedical and pharmaceutical analysis. Techniques based on traditional affinity supports are discussed, but an emphasis is placed on methods in which affinity columns are used as part of HPLC systems or in combination with other analytical methods. General formats for affinity chromatography that are considered include step elution schemes, weak affinity chromatography, affinity extraction and affinity depletion. Specific separation techniques that are examined include lectin affinity chromatography, boronate affinity chromatography, immunoaffinity chromatography, and immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Approaches for the study of biological interactions by affinity chromatography are also presented, such as the measurement of equilibrium constants, rate constants, or competition and displacement effects. In addition, related developments in the use of immobilized enzyme reactors, molecularly imprinted polymers, dye ligands and aptamers are briefly considered. PMID:22305083

  13. The position of an arginine residue influences substrate affinity and K+ coupling in the human glutamate transporter, EAAT1.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Renae M; Kortt, Nicholas C; Sirivanta, Tan; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2010-07-01

    Glutamate is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system and extracellular glutamate levels are controlled by a family of transporters known as excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). The EAATs transport glutamate and aspartate with similar micromolar affinities and this transport is coupled to the movement of Na(+), K(+), and H(+). The crystal structure of a prokaryotic homologue of the EAATs, aspartate transporter from Pyrococcus horokoshii (Glt(Ph)), has yielded important insights into the architecture of this transporter family. Glt(Ph) is a Na(+)-dependent transporter that has significantly higher affinity for aspartate over glutamate and is not coupled to H(+) or K(+). The highly conserved carboxy-terminal domains of the EAATs and Glt(Ph) contain the substrate and ion binding sites, however, there are a couple of striking differences in this region that we have investigated to better understand the transport mechanism. An arginine residue is in close proximity to the substrate binding site of both Glt(Ph) and the EAATs, but is located in transmembrane domain (TM) 8 in the EAATs and hairpin loop 1 (HP1) of Glt(Ph). Here we report that the position of this arginine residue can explain some of the functional differences observed between the EAATs and Glt(Ph). Moving the arginine residue from TM8 to HP1 in EAAT1 results in a transporter that has significantly increased affinity for both glutamate and aspartate and is K(+) independent. Conversely, moving the arginine residue from HP1 to TM8 in Glt(Ph) results in a transporter that has reduced affinity for aspartate.

  14. 3D QSAR studies on binding affinities of coumarin natural products for glycosomal GAPDH of Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Lopes, Julio C. D.; Montanari, Carlos A.; Oliva, Glaucius; Pavão, Fernando; Castilho, Marcelo S.; Vieira, Paulo C.; Pupo, M.^onica T.

    2003-05-01

    Drug design strategies based on Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) have been used to predict the activity of new compounds. The major advantage of this approach is that it permits the analysis of a large number of quantitative descriptors and uses chemometric methods such as partial least squares (PLS) to correlate changes in bioactivity with changes in chemical structure. Because it is often difficult to rationalize all variables affecting the binding affinity of compounds using CoMFA solely, the program GRID was used to describe ligands in terms of their molecular interaction fields, MIFs. The program VolSurf that is able to compress the relevant information present in 3D maps into a few descriptors can treat these GRID fields. The binding affinities of a new set of compounds consisting of 13 coumarins, for one of which the three-dimensional ligand-enzyme bound structure is known, were studied. A final model based on the mentioned programs was independently validated by synthesizing and testing new coumarin derivatives. By relying on our knowledge of the real physical data (i.e., combining crystallographic and binding affinity results), it is also shown that ligand-based design agrees with structure-based design. The compound with the highest binding affinity was the coumarin chalepin, isolated from Rutaceae species, with an IC50 value of 55.5 μM towards the enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) from glycosomes of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease. The proposed models from GRID MIFs have revealed the importance of lipophilic interactions in modulating the inhibition, but without excluding the dependence on stereo-electronic properties as found from CoMFA fields.

  15. Thermal affinity as the dominant factor changing Mediterranean fish abundances.

    PubMed

    Givan, Or; Edelist, Dor; Sonin, Oren; Belmaker, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Recent decades have seen profound changes in species abundance and community composition. In the marine environment, the major anthropogenic drivers of change comprise exploitation, invasion by nonindigenous species, and climate change. However, the magnitude of these stressors has been widely debated and we lack empirical estimates of their relative importance. In this study, we focused on Eastern Mediterranean, a region exposed to an invasion of species of Red Sea origin, extreme climate change, and high fishing pressure. We estimated changes in fish abundance using two fish trawl surveys spanning a 20-year period, and correlated these changes with estimated sensitivity of species to the different stressors. We estimated sensitivity to invasion using the trait similarity between indigenous and nonindigenous species; sensitivity to fishing using a published composite index based on the species' life-history; and sensitivity to climate change using species climatic affinity based on occurrence data. Using both a meta-analytical method and random forest analysis, we found that for shallow-water species the most important driver of population size changes is sensitivity to climate change. Species with an affinity to warm climates increased in relative abundance and species with an affinity to cold climates decreased suggesting a strong response to warming local sea temperatures over recent decades. This decrease in the abundance of cold-water-associated species at the trailing "warm" end of their distribution has been rarely documented. Despite the immense biomass of nonindigenous species and the presumed high fishing pressure, these two latter factors seem to have only a minor role in explaining abundance changes. The decline in abundance of indigenous species of cold-water origin indicates a future major restructuring of fish communities in the Mediterranean in response to the ongoing warming, with unknown impacts on ecosystem function. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons

  16. The high affinity of small-molecule antioxidants for hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Puscas, Cristina; Radu, Luana; Carrascoza, Francisco; Mot, Augustin C; Amariei, Diana; Lungu, Oana; Scurtu, Florina; Podea, Paula; Septelean, Raluca; Matei, Alina; Mic, Mihaela; Attia, Amr A; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

    2018-06-18

    Hemoglobin has previously been shown to display ascorbate peroxidase and urate peroxidase activity, with measurable Michaelis-Menten parameters that reveal a particularly low Km for ascorbate as well as for urate - lower than the respective in vivo concentrations of these antioxidants in blood. Also, direct detection of a hemoglobin-ascorbate interaction was possible by monitoring the 1H-NMR spectrum of ascorbate in the presence of hemoglobin. The relative difference in structures between ascorbate and urate may raise the question as to exactly what the defining structural features would be, for a substrate that binds to hemoglobin with high affinity. Reported here are Michaelis-Menten parameters for hemoglobin acting as peroxidase against a number of other substrates of varying structures - gallate, caffeate, rutin, 3-hydroxyflavone, 3,6-dihydroxyflavone, quercetin, epicatechin, luteolin - all with high affinities (some higher than those of physiologically-relevant redox partners of Hb - ascorbate and urate). Moreover, this high affinity appears general to animal hemoglobins. 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR spectra reveal a general pattern wherein small hydrophilic antioxidants appear to all have their signals affected, presumably due to binding to hemoglobin. Fluorescence and calorimetry measurements confirm these conclusions. Docking calculations confirm the existence of binding sites on hemoglobin and on myoglobin for ascorbate as well as for other antioxidants. Support is found for involvement of Tyr42 in binding of three out of the four substrates investigated in the case of hemoglobin (including ascorbate and urate, as blood-contained relevant substrates), but also for Tyr145 (with urate and caffeate) and Tyr35 (with gallate). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Weak affinity chromatography for evaluation of stereoisomers in early drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Duong-Thi, Minh-Dao; Bergström, Maria; Fex, Tomas; Svensson, Susanne; Ohlson, Sten; Isaksson, Roland

    2013-07-01

    In early drug discovery (e.g., in fragment screening), recognition of stereoisomeric structures is valuable and guides medicinal chemists to focus only on useful configurations. In this work, we concurrently screened mixtures of stereoisomers and estimated their affinities to a protein target (thrombin) using weak affinity chromatography-mass spectrometry (WAC-MS). Affinity determinations by WAC showed that minor changes in stereoisomeric configuration could have a major impact on affinity. The ability of WAC-MS to provide instant information about stereoselectivity and binding affinities directly from analyte mixtures is a great advantage in fragment library screening and drug lead development.

  18. [Progresses in screening active compounds from herbal medicine by affinity chromatography].

    PubMed

    Feng, Ying-shu; Tong, Shan-shan; Xu, Xi-ming; Yu, Jiang-nan

    2015-03-01

    Affinity chromatography is a chromatographic method for separating molecules using the binding characteristics of the stationary phase with potential drug molecules. This method can be performed as a high throughput screening method and a chromatographic separation method to screen a variety of active drugs. This paper summarizes the history of affinity chromatography, screening technology of affinity chromatography, and application of affinity chromatography in screening bio-active compounds in herbal medicines, and then discusses its application prospects, in order to broaden applications of the affinity chromatography in drug screening.

  19. Statistical geometric affinity in human brain electric activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chornet-Lurbe, A.; Oteo, J. A.; Ros, J.

    2007-05-01

    The representation of the human electroencephalogram (EEG) records by neurophysiologists demands standardized time-amplitude scales for their correct conventional interpretation. In a suite of graphical experiments involving scaling affine transformations we have been able to convert electroencephalogram samples corresponding to any particular sleep phase and relaxed wakefulness into each other. We propound a statistical explanation for that finding in terms of data collapse. As a sequel, we determine characteristic time and amplitude scales and outline a possible physical interpretation. An analysis for characteristic times based on lacunarity is also carried out as well as a study of the synchrony between left and right EEG channels.

  20. Electron affinity of perhalogenated benzenes: A theoretical DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volatron, François; Roche, Cécile

    2007-10-01

    The potential energy surfaces (PES) of unsubstituted and perhalogenated benzene anions ( CX6-, X = F, Cl, Br, and I) were explored by means of DFT-B3LYP calculations. In the F and Cl cases seven extrema were located and characterized. In the Br and I cases only one minimum and two extrema were found. In each case the minimum was recomputed at the CCSD(T) level. The electron affinities of C 6X 6 were calculated (ZPE included). The results obtained agree well with the experimental determinations when available. The values obtained in the X = Br and the X = I cases are expected to be valuable predictions.

  1. An affine projection algorithm using grouping selection of input vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, JaeWook; Kong, NamWoong; Park, PooGyeon

    2011-10-01

    This paper present an affine projection algorithm (APA) using grouping selection of input vectors. To improve the performance of conventional APA, the proposed algorithm adjusts the number of the input vectors using two procedures: grouping procedure and selection procedure. In grouping procedure, the some input vectors that have overlapping information for update is grouped using normalized inner product. Then, few input vectors that have enough information for for coefficient update is selected using steady-state mean square error (MSE) in selection procedure. Finally, the filter coefficients update using selected input vectors. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has small steady-state estimation errors comparing with the existing algorithms.

  2. Pointwise regularity of parameterized affine zipper fractal curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárány, Balázs; Kiss, Gergely; Kolossváry, István

    2018-05-01

    We study the pointwise regularity of zipper fractal curves generated by affine mappings. Under the assumption of dominated splitting of index-1, we calculate the Hausdorff dimension of the level sets of the pointwise Hölder exponent for a subinterval of the spectrum. We give an equivalent characterization for the existence of regular pointwise Hölder exponent for Lebesgue almost every point. In this case, we extend the multifractal analysis to the full spectrum. In particular, we apply our results for de Rham’s curve.

  3. Boundary reflection matrices for nonsimply laced affine Toda field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.D.

    The boundary reflection matrices for nonsimply laced affine Toda field theories defined on a half line with the Neumann boundary condition are investigated. The boundary reflection matrices for some pairs of the models are evaluated up to one loop order by perturbation theory. Then the exact boundary reflection matrices which are consistent with the one loop result are found under the assumption of {open_quote}{open_quote}duality{close_quote}{close_quote} and tested against algebraic consistency such as the boundary bootstrap equation and boundary crossing-unitarity relation. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. On the affinities of lambda 5778 and other broad diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Alan; Webster, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    The authors examined the broad band 5778 A because of the quantity and quality of data that exists in literature. To investigate the affinity of that band with the bands of Family 1, the ratio W(sub lambda)(4430)/W(sub lambda)(5797) was formed. If the two band belong to the same family then the ratio should be a constant from star to star and it should not be possible to find an independent variable with which the ratio is correlated. If, however, a variable is found which does produce a statistically significant correlation with the ratio of equivalent widths then the bands cannot be in the same family. To test the affinity of the band at 5778 A with the other families the procedure was repeated using the bands at 5780 and 5787 A as being representative of Families 2 and 3 respectively. The measurement results of this test are shown using 21 stars taken from Herbig. Statistically significant correlations resulted when the band at 5778 A was tested against the bands of Families 1 and 2 but there was no correlation with Family 3. It is concluded that lambda 5778 is unlikely a member of Family 1 and so all the broad bands do not have their origin in a single carrier. Also, lambda 5778 does not appear to be a member of Family 2 either, but may be a member of Family 3. It appears that either a single carrier can be the origin of both broad and narrow bands or that the bands are produced by different carriers which exist in similar interstellar habitats. This latter possibility would require the introduction of a fourth family of bands.

  5. Convergence of Domain Architecture, Structure, and Ligand Affinity in Animal and Plant RNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Dias, Raquel; Manny, Austin; Kolaczkowski, Oralia; Kolaczkowski, Bryan

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction of ancestral protein sequences using phylogenetic methods is a powerful technique for directly examining the evolution of molecular function. Although ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR) is itself very efficient, downstream functional, and structural studies necessary to characterize when and how changes in molecular function occurred are often costly and time-consuming, currently limiting ASR studies to examining a relatively small number of discrete functional shifts. As a result, we have very little direct information about how molecular function evolves across large protein families. Here we develop an approach combining ASR with structure and function prediction to efficiently examine the evolution of ligand affinity across a large family of double-stranded RNA binding proteins (DRBs) spanning animals and plants. We find that the characteristic domain architecture of DRBs-consisting of 2-3 tandem double-stranded RNA binding motifs (dsrms)-arose independently in early animal and plant lineages. The affinity with which individual dsrms bind double-stranded RNA appears to have increased and decreased often across both animal and plant phylogenies, primarily through convergent structural mechanisms involving RNA-contact residues within the β1-β2 loop and a small region of α2. These studies provide some of the first direct information about how protein function evolves across large gene families and suggest that changes in molecular function may occur often and unassociated with major phylogenetic events, such as gene or domain duplications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Identification of proteins associated with the yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase by tandem affinity purification

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Dmitriy A; Savkina, Maria; Anikin, Michael; Del Campo, Mark; Ecker, Karen; Lambowitz, Alan M; De Gnore, Jon P; McAllister, William T

    2009-01-01

    The abundance of mitochondrial (mt) transcripts varies under different conditions, and is thought to depend upon rates of transcription initiation, transcription termination/attenuation and RNA processing/degradation. The requirement to maintain the balance between RNA synthesis and processing may involve coordination between these processes; however, little is known about factors that regulate the activity of mtRNA polymerase (mtRNAP). Recent attempts to identify mtRNAP–protein interactions in yeast by means of a generalized tandem affinity purification (TAP) protocol were not successful, most likely because they involved a C-terminal mtRNAP–TAP fusion (which is incompatible with mtRNAP function) and because of the use of whole-cell solubilization protocols that did not preserve the integrity of mt protein complexes. Based upon the structure of T7 RNAP (to which mtRNAPs show high sequence similarity), we identified positions in yeast mtRNAP that allow insertion of a small affinity tag, confirmed the mature N-terminus, constructed a functional N-terminal TAP–mtRNAP fusion, pulled down associated proteins, and identified them by LC–MS–MS. Among the proteins found in the pull-down were a DEAD-box protein (Mss116p) and an RNA-binding protein (Pet127p). Previous genetic experiments suggested a role for these proteins in linking transcription and RNA degradation, in that a defect in the mt degradadosome could be suppressed by overexpression of either of these proteins or, independently, by mutations in either mtRNAP or its initiation factor Mtf1p. Further, we found that Mss116p inhibits transcription by mtRNAP in vitro in a steady-state reaction. Our results support the hypothesis that Mss116p and Pet127p are involved in modulation of mtRNAP activity. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:19536766

  7. Effect of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate on oxygen affinity of blood in sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Charache, Samuel; Grisolia, Santiago; Fiedler, Adam J.; Hellegers, Andre E.

    1970-01-01

    Blood of patients with sickle cell anemia (SS) exhibits decreased affinity for oxygen, although the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin S is the same as that of hemoglobin A. SS red cells contain more 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) than normal erythrocytes. The oxygen affinity of hemolyzed red cells is decreased by added DPG, and hemolysates prepared from SS red cells do not differ from normal hemolysates in this regard. Reduction of oxygen affinity to the levels found in intact SS red cells required DPG concentrations in excess of those found in most SS patients. The same was true of oxygen affinity of patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency. Other organic phosphates, as well as inorganic ions, are known to alter the oxygen affinity of dilute solutions of hemoglobin. These substances, the state of aggregation of hemoglobin molecules, and cytoarchitectural factors probably play roles in determining oxygen affinity of both normal and SS red cells. PMID:5443181

  8. Thermodynamic Bounds on the Ultra- and Infra-affinity of Hsp70 for Its Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Basile; Hartich, David; Seifert, Udo; Rios, Paolo De Los

    2017-07-01

    The 70 kDa Heat Shock Proteins Hsp70 have several essential functions in living systems, such as protecting cells against protein aggregation, assisting protein folding, remodeling protein complexes and driving the translocation into organelles. These functions require high affinity for non-specific amino-acid sequences that are ubiquitous in proteins. It has been recently shown that this high affinity, called ultra-affinity, depends on a process driven out of equilibrium by ATP hydrolysis. Here we establish the thermodynamic bounds for ultra-affinity, and further show that the same reaction scheme can in principle be used both to strengthen and to weaken affinities (leading in this case to infra-affinity). We show that cofactors are essential to achieve affinity beyond the equilibrium range. Finally, biological implications are discussed.

  9. A strategy to identify linker-based modules for the allosteric regulation of antibody-antigen binding affinities of different scFvs

    PubMed Central

    Thie, Holger

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibody single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) are used in a variety of applications, such as for research, diagnosis and therapy. Essential for these applications is the extraordinary specificity, selectivity and affinity of antibody paratopes, which can also be used for efficient protein purification. However, this use is hampered by the high affinity for the protein to be purified because harsh elution conditions, which may impair folding, integrity or viability of the eluted biomaterials, are typically required. In this study, we developed a strategy to obtain structural elements that provide allosteric modulation of the affinities of different antibody scFvs for their antigen. To identify suitable allosteric modules, a complete set of cyclic permutations of calmodulin variants was generated and tested for modulation of the affinity when substituting the linker between VH and VL. Modulation of affinity induced by addition of different calmodulin-binding peptides at physiologic conditions was demonstrated for 5 of 6 tested scFvs of different specificities and antigens ranging from cell surface proteins to haptens. In addition, a variety of different modulator peptides were tested. Different structural solutions were found in respect of the optimal calmodulin permutation, the optimal peptide and the allosteric effect for scFvs binding to different antigen structures. Significantly, effective linker modules were identified for scFvs with both VH-VL and VL-VH architecture. The results suggest that this approach may offer a rapid, paratope-independent strategy to provide allosteric regulation of affinity for many other antibody scFvs. PMID:28055297

  10. Flexible Molybdenum Electrodes towards Designing Affinity Based Protein Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Radha Shanmugam, Nandhinee; Muthukumar, Sriram; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum electrode based flexible biosensor on porous polyamide substrates has been fabricated and tested for its functionality as a protein affinity based biosensor. The biosensor performance was evaluated using a key cardiac biomarker; cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI). Molybdenum is a transition metal and demonstrates electrochemical behavior upon interaction with an electrolyte. We have leveraged this property of molybdenum for designing an affinity based biosensor using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We have evaluated the feasibility of detection of cTnI in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum (HS) by measuring impedance changes over a frequency window from 100 mHz to 1 MHz. Increasing changes to the measured impedance was correlated to the increased dose of cTnI molecules binding to the cTnI antibody functionalized molybdenum surface. We achieved cTnI detection limit of 10 pg/mL in PBS and 1 ng/mL in HS medium. The use of flexible substrates for designing the biosensor demonstrates promise for integration with a large-scale batch manufacturing process. PMID:27438863

  11. Expression and affinity purification of recombinant proteins from plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Urvee A.; Sur, Gargi; Daunert, Sylvia; Babbitt, Ruth; Li, Qingshun

    2002-01-01

    With recent advances in plant biotechnology, transgenic plants have been targeted as an inexpensive means for the mass production of proteins for biopharmaceutical and industrial uses. However, the current plant purification techniques lack a generally applicable, economic, large-scale strategy. In this study, we demonstrate the purification of a model protein, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), by employing the protein calmodulin (CaM) as an affinity tag. In the proposed system, CaM is fused to GUS. In the presence of calcium, the calmodulin fusion protein binds specifically to a phenothiazine-modified surface of an affinity column. When calcium is removed with a complexing agent, e.g., EDTA, calmodulin undergoes a conformational change allowing the dissociation of the calmodulin-phenothiazine complex and, therefore, permitting the elution of the GUS-CaM fusion protein. The advantages of this approach are the fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the target protein under mild elution conditions, thus preserving the activity of the target protein. Two types of transformation methods were used in this study, namely, the Agrobacterium-mediated system and the viral-vector-mediated transformation system. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  12. Growth and mortality of larval Myctophum affine (Myctophidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Namiki, C; Katsuragawa, M; Zani-Teixeira, M L

    2015-04-01

    The growth and mortality rates of Myctophum affine larvae were analysed based on samples collected during the austral summer and winter of 2002 from south-eastern Brazilian waters. The larvae ranged in size from 2·75 to 14·00 mm standard length (L(S)). Daily increment counts from 82 sagittal otoliths showed that the age of M. affine ranged from 2 to 28 days. Three models were applied to estimate the growth rate: linear regression, exponential model and Laird-Gompertz model. The exponential model best fitted the data, and L(0) values from exponential and Laird-Gompertz models were close to the smallest larva reported in the literature (c. 2·5 mm L(S)). The average growth rate (0·33 mm day(-1)) was intermediate among lanternfishes. The mortality rate (12%) during the larval period was below average compared with other marine fish species but similar to some epipelagic fishes that occur in the area. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Electron affinity of cubic boron nitride terminated with vanadium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Sun, Tianyin; Shammas, Joseph; Kaur, Manpuneet; Hao, Mei; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2015-10-01

    A thermally stable negative electron affinity (NEA) for a cubic boron nitride (c-BN) surface with vanadium-oxide-termination is achieved, and its electronic structure was analyzed with in-situ photoelectron spectroscopy. The c-BN films were prepared by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition employing BF3 and N2 as precursors. Vanadium layers of ˜0.1 and 0.5 nm thickness were deposited on the c-BN surface in an electron beam deposition system. Oxidation of the metal layer was achieved by an oxygen plasma treatment. After 650 °C thermal annealing, the vanadium oxide on the c-BN surface was determined to be VO2, and the surfaces were found to be thermally stable, exhibiting an NEA. In comparison, the oxygen-terminated c-BN surface, where B2O3 was detected, showed a positive electron affinity of ˜1.2 eV. The B2O3 evidently acts as a negatively charged layer introducing a surface dipole directed into the c-BN. Through the interaction of VO2 with the B2O3 layer, a B-O-V layer structure would contribute a dipole between the O and V layers with the positive side facing vacuum. The lower enthalpy of formation for B2O3 is favorable for the formation of the B-O-V layer structure, which provides a thermally stable surface dipole and an NEA surface.

  14. Piezoelectric affinity sensors for cocaine and cholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Halámek, Jan; Makower, Alexander; Knösche, Kristina; Skládal, Petr; Scheller, Frieder W

    2005-01-30

    We report here the development of piezoelectric affinity sensors for cocaine and cholinesterase inhibitors based on the formation of affinity complexes between an immobilized cocaine derivative and an anti-cocaine antibody or cholinesterase. For both binding reactions benzoylecgonine-1,8-diamino-3,4-dioxaoctane (BZE-DADOO) was immobilized on the surface of the sensor. For immobilization, pre-conjugated BZE-DADOO with 11-mercaptomonoundecanoic acid (MUA) via 2-(5-norbornen-2,3-dicarboximide)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyluronium-tetrafluoroborate (TNTU) allowed the formation of a chemisorbed monolayer on the piezosensor surface. The detection of cocaine was based on a competitive assay. The change of frequency measured after 300s of the binding reaction was used as the signal. The maximum binding of the antibody resulted in a frequency decrease of 35Hz (with an imprecision 3%, n = 3) while the presence of 100pmoll(-1) cocaine decreased the binding by 11%. The limit of detection was consequently below 100pmoll(-1) for cocaine. The total time of one analysis was 15min. This BZE-DADOO-modified sensor was adapted for the detection of organophosphates. BZE-DADOO - a competitive inhibitor - served as binding element for cholinesterase in a competitive assay.

  15. Affimer proteins are versatile and renewable affinity reagents

    PubMed Central

    Tiede, Christian; Bedford, Robert; Heseltine, Sophie J; Smith, Gina; Wijetunga, Imeshi; Ross, Rebecca; AlQallaf, Danah; Roberts, Ashley PE; Balls, Alexander; Curd, Alistair; Hughes, Ruth E; Martin, Heather; Needham, Sarah R; Zanetti-Domingues, Laura C; Sadigh, Yashar; Peacock, Thomas P; Tang, Anna A; Gibson, Naomi; Kyle, Hannah; Platt, Geoffrey W; Ingram, Nicola; Taylor, Thomas; Coletta, Louise P; Manfield, Iain; Knowles, Margaret; Bell, Sandra; Esteves, Filomena; Maqbool, Azhar; Prasad, Raj K; Drinkhill, Mark; Bon, Robin S; Patel, Vikesh; Goodchild, Sarah A; Martin-Fernandez, Marisa; Owens, Ray J; Nettleship, Joanne E; Webb, Michael E; Harrison, Michael; Lippiat, Jonathan D; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Peckham, Michelle; Smith, Alastair; Ferrigno, Paul Ko; Johnson, Matt; McPherson, Michael J; Tomlinson, Darren Charles

    2017-01-01

    Molecular recognition reagents are key tools for understanding biological processes and are used universally by scientists to study protein expression, localisation and interactions. Antibodies remain the most widely used of such reagents and many show excellent performance, although some are poorly characterised or have stability or batch variability issues, supporting the use of alternative binding proteins as complementary reagents for many applications. Here we report on the use of Affimer proteins as research reagents. We selected 12 diverse molecular targets for Affimer selection to exemplify their use in common molecular and cellular applications including the (a) selection against various target molecules; (b) modulation of protein function in vitro and in vivo; (c) labelling of tumour antigens in mouse models; and (d) use in affinity fluorescence and super-resolution microscopy. This work shows that Affimer proteins, as is the case for other alternative binding scaffolds, represent complementary affinity reagents to antibodies for various molecular and cell biology applications. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24903.001 PMID:28654419

  16. 01-ERD-111 - The Development of Synthetic High Affinity Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, J; Balhorn, R; Cosman, M

    2004-02-05

    The aim of this project was to develop Synthetic High-Affinity Ligands (SHALs), which bind with high affinity and specificity to proteins of interest for national security and cancer therapy applications. The aim of producing synthetic ligands for sensory devices as an alternative to antibody-based detection assays and therapeutic agents is to overcome the drawbacks associated with antibody-based in next-generation sensors and systems. The focus area of the project was the chemical synthesis of the SHALs. The project concentrated on two different protein targets. (a) The C fragment of tetanus and botulinum toxin, potential biowarfare agents. A SHAL for tetanus ormore » botulinum toxin would be incorporated into a sensory device for the toxins. (b) HLA-DR10, a protein found in high abundance on the surface of Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma. A SHAL specific to a tumor marker, labeled with a radionuclide, would enable the targeted delivery of radiation therapy to metastatic disease. The technical approach used to develop a SHAL for each protein target will be described in more detail below. However, in general, the development of a SHAL requires a combination of computational modeling techniques, modern nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and synthetic chemistry.« less

  17. Influence of affinity on antibody determination in microtiter ELISA systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, J.H.; Voss, E.W. Jr.; Butler, J.E.

    1986-03-01

    Theoretically, all immunoassays are affinity (Ka) dependent when the product of the antibody (Ab) Ka and the free epitope concentration is less than 10. Thus, the degree of dependence on Ka depends on the concentration of available antigen in the system. The authors examined the binding of /sup 125/I-anti-fluorescein (a-FLU) monoclonal antibodies of different affinities to FLU-gelatin adsorbed on Immunlon 2 microtiter plates. Data obtained were in general agreement with our theoretical predictions; the percent of /sup 125/I-a-FLU which bound correlated with Ka, as did the shape of the titration curves. Measurement of 5 a-FLU monoclonals by the ELISA showedmore » that the determination of Ab concentrations depends on the FLU-gelatin concentration, epitope density, and on the relationship between the Kas of test samples and the reference standard Ab preparation. Thus the ELISA is Ka dependent and should not be used routinely to estimate the absolute amount to Ab in unknown samples. However, the Ka dependency of the ELISA might provide a convenient assay for the estimation of the relative functional Ka (rfKa) of antibody preparations.« less

  18. Quantum gravity in the Eddington purely affine picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellini, M.

    1984-06-01

    It was shown by Kijowski and Tulczjew that pure gravity with a cosmological constant can be obtained by a covariant Legendre transformation of a purely affine Lagrangian "in the manner of Eddington" constructed from a symmetric linear connection. In this paper I prove by explicit calculations that the Eddington Lagrangian is equivalent, in the sense which gives the same field equations, to a polynomial effective Lagrangian which turns out to be power-counting renormalizable. Then a formal proof of the unitarity of this theory is stated in the Kugo-Ojima formalism on the basis of the existence of two local Becchi-Rouet-Stora symmetries. These supertransformations are related to the algebra of the diffeomorphisms of the space-time, as well as to that of the volume-preserving space-time transformations which are not fixed by the gauge fixing used for the diffeomorphism group itself. Furthermore, I find that in the purely affine picture quantum gravity exhibits an infrared freedom. Since now the self-coupling constant is given by the cosmological constant, such a property could explain the observed almost zero value of the cosmological term at very large distances, i.e., to very low energies.

  19. Self-affinity in the dengue fever time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, S. M.; Saba, H.; Miranda, J. G. V.; Filho, A. S. Nascimento; Moret, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Dengue is a complex public health problem that is common in tropical and subtropical regions. This disease has risen substantially in the last three decades, and the physical symptoms depict the self-affine behavior of the occurrences of reported dengue cases in Bahia, Brazil. This study uses detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to verify the scale behavior in a time series of dengue cases and to evaluate the long-range correlations that are characterized by the power law α exponent for different cities in Bahia, Brazil. The scaling exponent (α) presents different long-range correlations, i.e. uncorrelated, anti-persistent, persistent and diffusive behaviors. The long-range correlations highlight the complex behavior of the time series of this disease. The findings show that there are two distinct types of scale behavior. In the first behavior, the time series presents a persistent α exponent for a one-month period. For large periods, the time series signal approaches subdiffusive behavior. The hypothesis of the long-range correlations in the time series of the occurrences of reported dengue cases was validated. The observed self-affinity is useful as a forecasting tool for future periods through extrapolation of the α exponent behavior. This complex system has a higher predictability in a relatively short time (approximately one month), and it suggests a new tool in epidemiological control strategies. However, predictions for large periods using DFA are hidden by the subdiffusive behavior.

  20. Binding Affinity of Glycoconjugates to BACILLUS Spores and Toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasol, Aveen; Eassa, Souzan; Tarasenko, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Early recognition of Bacillus cereus group species is important since they can cause food-borne illnesses and deadly diseases in humans. Glycoconjugates (GCs) are carbohydrates covalently linked to non-sugar moieties including lipids, proteins or other entities. GCs are involved in recognition and signaling processes intrinsic to biochemical functions in cells. They also stimulate cell-cell adhesion and subsequent recognition and activation of receptors. We have demonstrated that GCs are involved in Bacillus cereus spore recognition. In the present study, we have investigated whether GCs possess the ability to bind and recognize B. cereus spores and Bacillus anthracis recombinant single toxins (sTX) and complex toxins (cTX). The affinity of GCs to spores + sTX and spores + cTX toxins was studied in the binding essay. Our results demonstrated that GC9 and GC10 were able to selectively bind to B. cereus spores and B. anthracis toxins. Different binding affinities for GCs were found toward Bacillus cereus spores + sTX and spores + cTX. Dilution of GCs does not impede the recognition and binding. Developed method provides a tool for simultaneous recognition and targeting of spores, bacteria toxins, and/or other entities.

  1. Affinity sensor using 3-aminophenylboronic acid for bacteria detection.

    PubMed

    Wannapob, Rodtichoti; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Limbut, Warakorn; Numnuam, Apon; Asawatreratanakul, Punnee; Thammakhet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote

    2010-10-15

    Boronic acid that can reversibly bind to diols was used to detect bacteria through its affinity binding reaction with diol-groups on bacterial cell walls. 3-aminophenylboronic acid (3-APBA) was immobilized on a gold electrode via a self-assembled monolayer. The change in capacitance of the sensing surface caused by the binding between 3-APBA and bacteria in a flow system was detected by a potentiostatic step method. Under optimal conditions the linear range of 1.5×10(2)-1.5×10(6) CFU ml(-1) and the detection limit of 1.0×10(2) CFU ml(-1) was obtained. The sensing surface can be regenerated and reused up to 58 times. The method was used for the analysis of bacteria in several types of water, i.e., bottled, well, tap, reservoir and wastewater. Compared with the standard plate count method, the results were within one standard deviation of each other. The proposed method can save both time and cost of analysis. The electrode modified with 3-APBA would also be applicable to the detection of other cis-diol-containing analytes. The concept could be extended to other chemoselective ligands, offering less expensive and more robust affinity sensors for a wide range of compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Mobile Phone Affinity Scale: Enhancement and Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Rochelle K

    2016-01-01

    Background Existing instruments that assess individuals’ relationships with mobile phones tend to focus on negative constructs such as addiction or dependence, and appear to assume that high mobile phone use reflects pathology. Mobile phones can be beneficial for health behavior change, disease management, work productivity, and social connections, so there is a need for an instrument that provides a more balanced assessment of the various aspects of individuals’ relationships with mobile phones. Objective The purpose of this research was to develop, revise, and validate the Mobile Phone Affinity Scale, a multi-scale instrument designed to assess key factors associated with mobile phone use. Methods Participants (N=1058, mean age 33) were recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk between March and April of 2016 to complete a survey that assessed participants’ mobile phone attitudes and use, anxious and depressive symptoms, and resilience. Results Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 6-factor model. The final measure consisted of 24 items, with 4 items on each of 6 factors: Connectedness, Productivity, Empowerment, Anxious Attachment, Addiction, and Continuous Use. The subscales demonstrated strong internal consistency (Cronbach alpha range=0.76-0.88, mean 0.83), and high item factor loadings (range=0.57-0.87, mean 0.75). Tests for validity further demonstrated support for the individual subscales. Conclusions Mobile phone affinity may have an important impact in the development and effectiveness of mobile health interventions, and continued research is needed to assess its predictive ability in health behavior change interventions delivered via mobile phones. PMID:27979792

  3. Transient times in linear metabolic pathways under constant affinity constraints.

    PubMed

    Lloréns, M; Nuño, J C; Montero, F

    1997-10-15

    In the early seventies, Easterby began the analytical study of transition times for linear reaction schemes [Easterby (1973) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 293, 552-558]. In this pioneer work and in subsequent papers, a state function (the transient time) was used to measure the period before the stationary state, for systems constrained to work under both constant and variable input flux, was reached. Despite the undoubted usefulness of this quantity to describe the time-dependent features of these kinds of systems, its application to the study of chemical reactions under other constraints is questionable. In the present work, a generalization of these magnitudes to linear metabolic pathways functioning under a constant-affinity constraint is carried out. It is proved that classical definitions of transient times do not reflect the actual properties of the transition to the steady state in systems evolving under this restriction. Alternatively, a more adequate framework for interpretation of the transient times for systems with both constant and variable input flux is suggested. Within this context, new definitions that reflect more accurately the transient characteristics of constant affinity systems are stated. Finally, the meaning of these transient times is discussed.

  4. PANDA: Protein function prediction using domain architecture and affinity propagation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Chenguang; Wang, Yiheng; Sun, Zheng; Wang, Nan

    2018-02-22

    We developed PANDA (Propagation of Affinity and Domain Architecture) to predict protein functions in the format of Gene Ontology (GO) terms. PANDA at first executes profile-profile alignment algorithm to search against PfamA, KOG, COG, and SwissProt databases, and then launches PSI-BLAST against UniProt for homologue search. PANDA integrates a domain architecture inference algorithm based on the Bayesian statistics that calculates the probability of having a GO term. All the candidate GO terms are pooled and filtered based on Z-score. After that, the remaining GO terms are clustered using an affinity propagation algorithm based on the GO directed acyclic graph, followed by a second round of filtering on the clusters of GO terms. We benchmarked the performance of all the baseline predictors PANDA integrates and also for every pooling and filtering step of PANDA. It can be found that PANDA achieves better performances in terms of area under the curve for precision and recall compared to the baseline predictors. PANDA can be accessed from http://dna.cs.miami.edu/PANDA/ .

  5. Structure-based Understanding of Binding Affinity and Mode ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The flexible hydrophobic ligand binding pocket (LBP) of estrogen receptor α (ERα) allows the binding of a wide variety of endocrine disruptors. Upon ligand binding, the LBP reshapes around the contours of the ligand and stabilizes the complex by complementary hydrophobic interactions and specific hydrogen bonds with the ligand. Here we present a framework for quantitative analysis of the steric and electronic features of the human ERα-ligand complex using three dimensional (3D) protein-ligand interaction description combined with 3D-QSAR approach. An empirical hydrophobicity density field is applied to account for hydrophobic contacts of ligand within the LBP. The obtained 3D-QSAR model revealed that hydrophobic contacts primarily determine binding affinity and govern binding mode with hydrogen bonds. Several residues of the LBP appear to be quite flexible and adopt a spectrum of conformations in various ERα-ligand complexes, in particular His524. The 3D-QSAR was combined with molecular docking based on three receptor conformations to accommodate receptor flexibility. The model indicates that the dynamic character of the LBP allows accommodation and stable binding of structurally diverse ligands, and proper representation of the protein flexibility is critical for reasonable description of binding of the ligands. Our results provide a quantitative and mechanistic understanding of binding affinity and mode of ERα agonists and antagonists that may be applicab

  6. Affinity capillary electrophoresis for studying interactions in life sciences.

    PubMed

    Olabi, Mais; Stein, Matthias; Wätzig, Hermann

    2018-05-10

    Affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) analyzes noncovalent interactions between ligands and analytes based on changes in their electrophoretic mobility. This technique has been widely used to investigate various biomolecules, mainly proteins, polysaccharides and hormones. ACE is becoming a technique of choice to validate high throughput screening results, since it is very predictively working in realistic and relevant media, e.g. in body fluids. It is highly recommended to incorporate ACE as a powerful analytical tool to properly prepare animal testing and preclinical studies. The interacting molecules can be found free in solution or can be immobilized to a solid support. Thus, ACE is classified in two modes, free solution ACE and immobilized ACE. Every ACE mode has advantages and disadvantages. Each can be used for a variety of applications. This review covers literature of scopus and SciFinder data base in the period from 2016 until beginning 2018, including the keywords "affinity capillary electrophoresis", "immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis", "immunoassay capillary electrophoresis" and "immunosorbent capillary electrophoresis". More than 200 articles have been found and 112 have been selected and thoroughly discussed. During this period, the data processing and the underlying calculations in mobility shift ACE (ms ACE), frontal analysis ACE (FA ACE) and plug-plug kinetic capillary electrophoresis (ppKCE) as mostly applied free solution techniques have substantially improved. The range of applications in diverse free solution and immobilized ACE techniques has been considerably broadened. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Binding Affinity prediction with Property Encoded Shape Distribution signatures

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sourav; Krein, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    We report the use of the molecular signatures known as “Property-Encoded Shape Distributions” (PESD) together with standard Support Vector Machine (SVM) techniques to produce validated models that can predict the binding affinity of a large number of protein ligand complexes. This “PESD-SVM” method uses PESD signatures that encode molecular shapes and property distributions on protein and ligand surfaces as features to build SVM models that require no subjective feature selection. A simple protocol was employed for tuning the SVM models during their development, and the results were compared to SFCscore – a regression-based method that was previously shown to perform better than 14 other scoring functions. Although the PESD-SVM method is based on only two surface property maps, the overall results were comparable. For most complexes with a dominant enthalpic contribution to binding (ΔH/-TΔS > 3), a good correlation between true and predicted affinities was observed. Entropy and solvent were not considered in the present approach and further improvement in accuracy would require accounting for these components rigorously. PMID:20095526

  8. The eyes of Tullimonstrum reveal a vertebrate affinity.

    PubMed

    Clements, Thomas; Dolocan, Andrei; Martin, Peter; Purnell, Mark A; Vinther, Jakob; Gabbott, Sarah E

    2016-04-28

    Tullimonstrum gregarium is an iconic soft-bodied fossil from the Carboniferous Mazon Creek Lagerstätte (Illinois, USA). Despite a large number of specimens and distinct anatomy, various analyses over the past five decades have failed to determine the phylogenetic affinities of the 'Tully monster', and although it has been allied to such disparate phyla as the Mollusca, Annelida or Chordata, it remains enigmatic. The nature and phylogenetic affinities of Tullimonstrum have defied confident systematic placement because none of its preserved anatomy provides unequivocal evidence of homology, without which comparative analysis fails. Here we show that the eyes of Tullimonstrum possess ultrastructural details indicating homology with vertebrate eyes. Anatomical analysis using scanning electron microscopy reveals that the eyes of Tullimonstrum preserve a retina defined by a thick sheet comprising distinct layers of spheroidal and cylindrical melanosomes. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics provide further evidence that these microbodies are melanosomes. A range of animals have melanin in their eyes, but the possession of melanosomes of two distinct morphologies arranged in layers, forming retinal pigment epithelium, is a synapomorphy of vertebrates. Our analysis indicates that in addition to evidence of colour patterning, ecology and thermoregulation, fossil melanosomes can also carry a phylogenetic signal. Identification in Tullimonstrum of spheroidal and cylindrical melanosomes forming the remains of retinal pigment epithelium indicates that it is a vertebrate; considering its body parts in this new light suggests it was an anatomically unusual member of total group Vertebrata.

  9. Flexible Molybdenum Electrodes towards Designing Affinity Based Protein Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Radha Shanmugam, Nandhinee; Muthukumar, Sriram; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-07-18

    Molybdenum electrode based flexible biosensor on porous polyamide substrates has been fabricated and tested for its functionality as a protein affinity based biosensor. The biosensor performance was evaluated using a key cardiac biomarker; cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI). Molybdenum is a transition metal and demonstrates electrochemical behavior upon interaction with an electrolyte. We have leveraged this property of molybdenum for designing an affinity based biosensor using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We have evaluated the feasibility of detection of cTnI in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum (HS) by measuring impedance changes over a frequency window from 100 mHz to 1 MHz. Increasing changes to the measured impedance was correlated to the increased dose of cTnI molecules binding to the cTnI antibody functionalized molybdenum surface. We achieved cTnI detection limit of 10 pg/mL in PBS and 1 ng/mL in HS medium. The use of flexible substrates for designing the biosensor demonstrates promise for integration with a large-scale batch manufacturing process.

  10. Detection of Waterborne Viruses Using High Affinity Molecularly Imprinted Polymers.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Zeynep; Gittens, Micah; Guerreiro, Antonio; Thompson, Katy-Anne; Walker, Jimmy; Piletsky, Sergey; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2015-07-07

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are artificial receptor ligands which can recognize and specifically bind to a target molecule. They are more resistant to chemical and biological damage and inactivation than antibodies. Therefore, target specific-MIP nanoparticles are aimed to develop and implemented to biosensors for the detection of biological toxic agents such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi toxins that cause many diseases and death due to the environmental contamination. For the first time, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) targeting the bacteriophage MS2 as the template was investigated using a novel solid-phase synthesis method to obtain the artificial affinity ligand for the detection and removal of waterborne viruses through optical-based sensors. A high affinity between the artificial ligand and the target was found, and a regenerative MIP-based virus detection assay was successfully developed using a new surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-biosensor which provides an alternative technology for the specific detection and removal of waterborne viruses that lead to high disease and death rates all over the world.

  11. Probing SH2-domains using Inhibitor Affinity Purification (IAP).

    PubMed

    Höfener, Michael; Heinzlmeir, Stephanie; Kuster, Bernhard; Sewald, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Many human diseases are correlated with the dysregulation of signal transduction processes. One of the most important protein interaction domains in the context of signal transduction is the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain that binds phosphotyrosine residues. Hence, appropriate methods for the investigation of SH2 proteins are indispensable in diagnostics and medicinal chemistry. Therefore, an affinity resin for the enrichment of all SH2 proteins in one experiment would be desirable. However, current methods are unable to address all SH2 proteins simultaneously with a single compound or a small array of compounds. In order to overcome these limitations for the investigation of this particular protein family in future experiments, a dipeptide-derived probe has been designed, synthesized and evaluated. This probe successfully enriched 22 SH2 proteins from mixed cell lysates which contained 50 SH2 proteins. Further characterization of the SH2 binding properties of the probe using depletion and competition experiments indicated its ability to enrich complexes consisting of SH2 domain bearing regulatory PI3K subunits and catalytic phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) subunits that have no SH2 domain. The results make this probe a promising starting point for the development of a mixed affinity resin with complete SH2 protein coverage. Moreover, the additional findings render it a valuable tool for the evaluation of PI3K complex interrupting inhibitors.

  12. Evidence for zinc binding by two structural proteins of Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, C. J.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Workers in our laboratory previously reported the possibility of cation involvement in the in vitro dissociation of the Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus nucleocapsids (K. A. Tweeten, L. A. Bulla, Jr., and R. A. Consigli, J. Virol. 33:866-876, 1980; M. E. Wilson and R. A. Consigli, Virology 143:516-525, 1985). The current study found zinc associated with both granulosis virus nucleocapsids and granulin by atomic absorption analysis. A blotting assay with 65Zn2+ specifically identified the radioactive cation as binding to two viral structural proteins, granulin and VP12. These findings indicate that zinc may have a critical role in maintaining virus stability.

  13. Isolation and characterization of a new zinc-binding protein from albacore tuna plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dyke, B.; Hegenauer, J.; Saltman, P.

    1987-06-02

    The protein responsible for sequestering high levels of zinc in the plasma of the albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) has been isolated by sequential chromatography. The glycoprotein has a molecular weight of 66,000. Approximately 8.2% of its amino acid residues are histidines. Equilibrium dialysis experiments show it to bind 3 mol of zinc/mol of protein. The stoichiometric constant for the association of zinc with a binding site containing three histidines was determined to be 10/sup 9.4/. This protein is different from albumin and represents a previously uncharacterized zinc transport protein.

  14. Azetidinones as zinc-binding groups to design selective HDAC8 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Galletti, Paola; Quintavalla, Arianna; Ventrici, Caterina; Giannini, Giuseppe; Cabri, Walter; Penco, Sergio; Gallo, Grazia; Vincenti, Silvia; Giacomini, Daria

    2009-12-01

    2-Azetidinones, commonly known as beta-lactams, are well-known heterocyclic compounds. Herein we described the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of novel beta-lactams. In vitro inhibition assays against HDAC isoforms showed an interesting isoform-selectivity of these compounds towards HDAC6 and HDAC8. The isoform selectivity changed in response to modification of the azetidinone-ring nitrogen atom substituent. The presence of an N-thiomethyl group is a prerequisite for the activity of these compounds in the micromolar range towards HDAC8.

  15. Selective class IIa histone deacetylase inhibition via a nonchelating zinc-binding group.

    PubMed

    Lobera, Mercedes; Madauss, Kevin P; Pohlhaus, Denise T; Wright, Quentin G; Trocha, Mark; Schmidt, Darby R; Baloglu, Erkan; Trump, Ryan P; Head, Martha S; Hofmann, Glenn A; Murray-Thompson, Monique; Schwartz, Benjamin; Chakravorty, Subhas; Wu, Zining; Mander, Palwinder K; Kruidenier, Laurens; Reid, Robert A; Burkhart, William; Turunen, Brandon J; Rong, James X; Wagner, Craig; Moyer, Mary B; Wells, Carrow; Hong, Xuan; Moore, John T; Williams, Jon D; Soler, Dulce; Ghosh, Shomir; Nolan, Michael A

    2013-05-01

    In contrast to studies on class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential of class IIa HDACs (HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC7 and HDAC9) is impaired by the lack of potent and selective chemical probes. Here we report the discovery of inhibitors that fill this void with an unprecedented metal-binding group, trifluoromethyloxadiazole (TFMO), which circumvents the selectivity and pharmacologic liabilities of hydroxamates. We confirm direct metal binding of the TFMO through crystallographic approaches and use chemoproteomics to demonstrate the superior selectivity of the TFMO series relative to a hydroxamate-substituted analog. We further apply these tool compounds to reveal gene regulation dependent on the catalytic active site of class IIa HDACs. The discovery of these inhibitors challenges the design process for targeting metalloenzymes through a chelating metal-binding group and suggests therapeutic potential for class IIa HDAC enzyme blockers distinct in mechanism and application compared to current HDAC inhibitors.

  16. Zinc-binding structure of a catalytic amyloid from solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myungwoon; Wang, Tuo; Makhlynets, Olga V; Wu, Yibing; Polizzi, Nicholas F; Wu, Haifan; Gosavi, Pallavi M; Stöhr, Jan; Korendovych, Ivan V; DeGrado, William F; Hong, Mei

    2017-06-13

    Throughout biology, amyloids are key structures in both functional proteins and the end product of pathologic protein misfolding. Amyloids might also represent an early precursor in the evolution of life because of their small molecular size and their ability to self-purify and catalyze chemical reactions. They also provide attractive backbones for advanced materials. When β-strands of an amyloid are arranged parallel and in register, side chains from the same position of each chain align, facilitating metal chelation when the residues are good ligands such as histidine. High-resolution structures of metalloamyloids are needed to understand the molecular bases of metal-amyloid interactions. Here we combine solid-state NMR and structural bioinformatics to determine the structure of a zinc-bound metalloamyloid that catalyzes ester hydrolysis. The peptide forms amphiphilic parallel β-sheets that assemble into stacked bilayers with alternating hydrophobic and polar interfaces. The hydrophobic interface is stabilized by apolar side chains from adjacent sheets, whereas the hydrated polar interface houses the Zn 2+ -binding histidines with binding geometries unusual in proteins. Each Zn 2+ has two bis-coordinated histidine ligands, which bridge adjacent strands to form an infinite metal-ligand chain along the fibril axis. A third histidine completes the protein ligand environment, leaving a free site on the Zn 2+ for water activation. This structure defines a class of materials, which we call metal-peptide frameworks. The structure reveals a delicate interplay through which metal ions stabilize the amyloid structure, which in turn shapes the ligand geometry and catalytic reactivity of Zn 2 .

  17. Conflict in Independent Catholic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guernsey, Dan; Barott, James

    2008-01-01

    Independent Catholic schools are a growing phenomenon in the Catholic Church in America. This article provides a contextualized account of the phenomenon by examining via a field observation the experience of two independent Catholic schools in two different dioceses. These schools were founded in conflict and beset by continued conflict to the…

  18. Marketing Handbook for Independent Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boarding Schools, Boston, MA.

    This publication is a resource to help independent schools attract more familites to their institutions and to increase the voluntary support by the larger community surrounding the school. The first chapter attempts to dispel misconceptions, define pertinent marketing terms, and relate their importance to independent schools. The rest of the book…

  19. AN INQUIRY INTO INDEPENDENT STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMITH, JANET

    INDEPENDENT STUDY PROGRAMS DEVELOPED FROM THE CONCEPTION THAT THE STUDENT SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED TO INITIATE INQUIRY AND TO ASSUME GREATER SELF-RELIANCE IN THE LEARNING PROCESS. THE TEAM TEACHING SETUP WAS USED. SEVERAL FACULTY MEMBERS WORKED WITH INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS IN TUTORIAL PROGRAMS. INDEPENDENT STUDY AREAS, FURNISHED WITH CARRELS AND TABLES,…

  20. PHOENIX: a scoring function for affinity prediction derived using high-resolution crystal structures and calorimetry measurements.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yat T; Marshall, Garland R

    2011-02-28

    Binding affinity prediction is one of the most critical components to computer-aided structure-based drug design. Despite advances in first-principle methods for predicting binding affinity, empirical scoring functions that are fast and only relatively accurate are still widely used in structure-based drug design. With the increasing availability of X-ray crystallographic structures in the Protein Data Bank and continuing application of biophysical methods such as isothermal titration calorimetry to measure thermodynamic parameters contributing to binding free energy, sufficient experimental data exists that scoring functions can now be derived by separating enthalpic (ΔH) and entropic (TΔS) contributions to binding free energy (ΔG). PHOENIX, a scoring function to predict binding affinities of protein-ligand complexes, utilizes the increasing availability of experimental data to improve binding affinity predictions by the following: model training and testing using high-resolution crystallographic data to minimize structural noise, independent models of enthalpic and entropic contributions fitted to thermodynamic parameters assumed to be thermodynamically biased to calculate binding free energy, use of shape and volume descriptors to better capture entropic contributions. A set of 42 descriptors and 112 protein-ligand complexes were used to derive functions using partial least-squares for change of enthalpy (ΔH) and change of entropy (TΔS) to calculate change of binding free energy (ΔG), resulting in a predictive r2 (r(pred)2) of 0.55 and a standard error (SE) of 1.34 kcal/mol. External validation using the 2009 version of the PDBbind "refined set" (n = 1612) resulted in a Pearson correlation coefficient (R(p)) of 0.575 and a mean error (ME) of 1.41 pK(d). Enthalpy and entropy predictions were of limited accuracy individually. However, their difference resulted in a relatively accurate binding free energy. While the development of an accurate and applicable

  1. Proton affinity and enthalpy of formation of formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czakó, Gábor; Nagy, Balázs; Tasi, Gyula; Somogyi, Árpád; Šimunek, Ján; Noga, Jozef; Braams, Bastiaan J.; Bowman, Joel M.; Császár; , Attila G.

    The proton affinity and the enthalpy of formation of the prototypical carbonyl, formaldehyde, have been determined by the first-principles composite focal-point analysis (FPA) approach. The electronic structure computations employed the all-electron coupled-cluster method with up to single, double, triple, quadruple, and even pentuple excitations. In these computations the aug-cc-p(C)VXZ [X = 2(D), 3(T), 4(Q), 5, and 6] correlation-consistent Gaussian basis sets for C and O were used in conjunction with the corresponding aug-cc-pVXZ (X = 2-6) sets for H. The basis set limit values have been confirmed via explicitly correlated computations. Our FPA study supersedes previous computational work for the proton affinity and to some extent the enthalpy of formation of formaldehyde by accounting for (a) electron correlation beyond the "gold standard" CCSD(T) level; (b) the non-additivity of core electron correlation effects; (c) scalar relativity; (d) diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections computed at a correlated level; (e) anharmonicity of zero-point vibrational energies, based on global potential energy surfaces and variational vibrational computations; and (f) thermal corrections to enthalpies by direct summation over rovibrational energy levels. Our final proton affinities at 298.15 (0.0) K are ΔpaHo (H2CO) = 711.02 (704.98) ± 0.39 kJ mol-1. Our final enthalpies of formation at 298.15 (0.0) K are ΔfHo (H2CO) = -109.23 (-105.42) ± 0.33 kJ mol-1. The latter values are based on the enthalpy of the H2 + CO → H2CO reaction but supported by two further reaction schemes, H2O + C → H2CO and 2H + C + O → H2CO. These values, especially ΔpaHo (H2CO), have better accuracy and considerably lower uncertainty than the best previous recommendations and thus should be employed in future studies.

  2. Directed evolution of human T cell receptor CDR2 residues by phage display dramatically enhances affinity for cognate peptide-MHC without increasing apparent cross-reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Steven M.; Rizkallah, Pierre J.; Baston, Emma; Mahon, Tara; Cameron, Brian; Moysey, Ruth; Gao, Feng; Sami, Malkit; Boulter, Jonathan; Li, Yi; Jakobsen, Bent K.

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian α/β T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire plays a pivotal role in adaptive immunity by recognizing short, processed, peptide antigens bound in the context of a highly diverse family of cell-surface major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs). Despite the extensive TCR–MHC interaction surface, peptide-independent cross-reactivity of native TCRs is generally avoided through cell-mediated selection of molecules with low inherent affinity for MHC. Here we show that, contrary to expectations, the germ line-encoded complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of human TCRs, namely the CDR2s, which appear to contact only the MHC surface and not the bound peptide, can be engineered to yield soluble low nanomolar affinity ligands that retain a surprisingly high degree of specificity for the cognate pMHC target. Structural investigation of one such CDR2 mutant implicates shape complementarity of the mutant CDR2 contact interfaces as being a key determinant of the increased affinity. Our results suggest that manipulation of germ line CDR2 loops may provide a useful route to the production of high-affinity TCRs with therapeutic and diagnostic potential. PMID:16600963

  3. Transformations Based on Continuous Piecewise-Affine Velocity Fields

    PubMed Central

    Freifeld, Oren; Hauberg, Søren; Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Fisher, Jonn W.

    2018-01-01

    We propose novel finite-dimensional spaces of well-behaved ℝn → ℝn transformations. The latter are obtained by (fast and highly-accurate) integration of continuous piecewise-affine velocity fields. The proposed method is simple yet highly expressive, effortlessly handles optional constraints (e.g., volume preservation and/or boundary conditions), and supports convenient modeling choices such as smoothing priors and coarse-to-fine analysis. Importantly, the proposed approach, partly due to its rapid likelihood evaluations and partly due to its other properties, facilitates tractable inference over rich transformation spaces, including using Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo methods. Its applications include, but are not limited to: monotonic regression (more generally, optimization over monotonic functions); modeling cumulative distribution functions or histograms; time-warping; image warping; image registration; real-time diffeomorphic image editing; data augmentation for image classifiers. Our GPU-based code is publicly available. PMID:28092517

  4. Transformations based on continuous piecewise-affine velocity fields

    DOE PAGES

    Freifeld, Oren; Hauberg, Soren; Batmanghelich, Kayhan; ...

    2017-01-11

    Here, we propose novel finite-dimensional spaces of well-behaved Rn → Rn transformations. The latter are obtained by (fast and highly-accurate) integration of continuous piecewise-affine velocity fields. The proposed method is simple yet highly expressive, effortlessly handles optional constraints (e.g., volume preservation and/or boundary conditions), and supports convenient modeling choices such as smoothing priors and coarse-to-fine analysis. Importantly, the proposed approach, partly due to its rapid likelihood evaluations and partly due to its other properties, facilitates tractable inference over rich transformation spaces, including using Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo methods. Its applications include, but are not limited to: monotonic regression (more generally, optimization overmore » monotonic functions); modeling cumulative distribution functions or histograms; time-warping; image warping; image registration; real-time diffeomorphic image editing; data augmentation for image classifiers. Our GPU-based code is publicly available.« less

  5. Political ideology: its structure, functions, and elective affinities.

    PubMed

    Jost, John T; Federico, Christopher M; Napier, Jaime L

    2009-01-01

    Ideology has re-emerged as an important topic of inquiry among social, personality, and political psychologists. In this review, we examine recent theory and research concerning the structure, contents, and functions of ideological belief systems. We begin by defining the construct and placing it in historical and philosophical context. We then examine different perspectives on how many (and what types of) dimensions individuals use to organize their political opinions. We investigate (a) how and to what extent individuals acquire the discursive contents associated with various ideologies, and (b) the social-psychological functions that these ideologies serve for those who adopt them. Our review highlights "elective affinities" between situational and dispositional needs of individuals and groups and the structure and contents of specific ideologies. Finally, we consider the consequences of ideology, especially with respect to attitudes, evaluations, and processes of system justification.

  6. Universal vertex-IRF transformation for quantum affine algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Buffenoir, E.; Roche, Ph.; Terras, V.

    2012-10-15

    We construct a universal solution of the generalized coboundary equation in the case of quantum affine algebras, which is an extension of our previous work to U{sub q}(A{sub r}{sup (1)}). This universal solution has a simple Gauss decomposition which is constructed using Sevostyanov's characters of twisted quantum Borel algebras. We show that in the evaluation representations it gives a vertex-face transformation between a vertex type solution and a face type solution of the quantum dynamical Yang-Baxter equation. In particular, in the evaluation representation of U{sub q}(A{sub 1}{sup (1)}), it gives Baxter's well-known transformation between the 8-vertex model and the interaction-round-facesmore » (IRF) height model.« less

  7. Chelators whose affinity for calcium is decreased by illumination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsien, Roger Y. (Inventor); Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz (Inventor); Minta, Akwasi (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The present invention discloses a group of calcium chelating compounds which have a descreased affinity for calcium following illumination. These new compounds contain a photolabile nitrobenzyl derivative coupled to a tetracarboxylate Ca.sup.2+ chelating parent compound having the octacoordinate chelating groups characteristic of EGTA or BAPTA. In a first form, the new compounds are comprised of a BAPTA-like chelator coupled to a single 2-nitrobenzyl derivative, which in turn is a photochemical precursor of a 2-nitrosobenzophenone. In a second form, the new compounds are comprised of a BAPTA-like chelator coupled to two 2-nitrobenzyl derivatives, themselves photochemical prcursors of the related 2-nitrosobenzophenones. The present invention also discloses a novel method for preparing 1-hydroxy- or 1-alkoxy-1-(2-nitroaryl)-1-aryl methanes. Methanes of this type are critical to the preparation of, or actually constitute, the photolabile Ca.sup.2+ chelating compounds disclosed and claimed herein.

  8. Dissection of affinity captured LINE-1 macromolecular complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mita, Paolo; Jiang, Hua; Adney, Emily M; Wudzinska, Aleksandra; Badri, Sana; Ischenko, Dmitry; Eng, George; Burns, Kathleen H; Fenyö, David; Chait, Brian T; Alexeev, Dmitry; Rout, Michael P; Boeke, Jef D

    2018-01-01

    Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1, L1) is a mobile genetic element active in human genomes. L1-encoded ORF1 and ORF2 proteins bind L1 RNAs, forming ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). These RNPs interact with diverse host proteins, some repressive and others required for the L1 lifecycle. Using differential affinity purifications, quantitative mass spectrometry, and next generation RNA sequencing, we have characterized the proteins and nucleic acids associated with distinctive, enzymatically active L1 macromolecular complexes. Among them, we describe a cytoplasmic intermediate that we hypothesize to be the canonical ORF1p/ORF2p/L1-RNA-containing RNP, and we describe a nuclear population containing ORF2p, but lacking ORF1p, which likely contains host factors participating in target-primed reverse transcription. PMID:29309035

  9. The anatomy, affinity, and phylogenetic significance of Markuelia.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xi-Ping; Donoghue, Philip C J; Cunningham, John A; Liu, Jian-Bo; Cheng, Hong

    2005-01-01

    The fossil record provides a paucity of data on the development of extinct organisms, particularly for their embryology. The recovery of fossilized embryos heralds new insight into the evolution of development but advances are limited by an almost complete absence of phylogenetic constraint. Markuelia is an exception to this, known from cleavage and pre-hatchling stages as a vermiform and profusely annulated direct-developing bilaterian with terminal circumoral and posterior radial arrays of spines. Phylogenetic analyses have hitherto suggested assignment to stem-Scalidophora (phyla Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida). We test this assumption with additional data and through the inclusion of additional taxa. The available evidence supports stem-Scalidophora affinity, leading to the conclusion that scalidophorans, cyclonerualians, and ecdysozoans are primitive direct developers, and the likelihood that scalidophorans are primitively metameric.

  10. Approximated affine projection algorithm for feedback cancellation in hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmin; Kim, In-Young; Park, Young-Cheol

    2007-09-01

    We propose an approximated affine projection (AP) algorithm for feedback cancellation in hearing aids. It is based on the conventional approach using the Gauss-Seidel (GS) iteration, but provides more stable convergence behaviour even with small step sizes. In the proposed algorithm, a residue of the weighted error vector, instead of the current error sample, is used to provide stable convergence. A new learning rate control scheme is also applied to the proposed algorithm to prevent signal cancellation and system instability. The new scheme determines step size in proportion to the prediction factor of the input, so that adaptation is inhibited whenever tone-like signals are present in the input. Simulation results verified the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Electron-trapping polycrystalline materials with negative electron affinity.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Keith P; Shluger, Alexander L

    2008-11-01

    The trapping of electrons by grain boundaries in semiconducting and insulating materials is important for a wide range of physical problems, for example, relating to: electroceramic materials with applications as sensors, varistors and fuel cells, reliability issues for solar cell and semiconductor technologies and electromagnetic seismic phenomena in the Earth's crust. Surprisingly, considering their relevance for applications and abundance in the environment, there have been few experimental or theoretical studies of the electron trapping properties of grain boundaries in highly ionic materials such as the alkaline earth metal oxides and alkali halides. Here we demonstrate, by first-principles calculations on MgO, LiF and NaCl, a qualitatively new type of electron trapping at grain boundaries. This trapping is associated with the negative electron affinity of these materials and is unusual as the electron is confined in the empty space inside the dislocation cores.

  12. Isothermal titration calorimetry for measuring macromolecule-ligand affinity.

    PubMed

    Duff, Michael R; Grubbs, Jordan; Howell, Elizabeth E

    2011-09-07

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a useful tool for understanding the complete thermodynamic picture of a binding reaction. In biological sciences, macromolecular interactions are essential in understanding the machinery of the cell. Experimental conditions, such as buffer and temperature, can be tailored to the particular binding system being studied. However, careful planning is needed since certain ligand and macromolecule concentration ranges are necessary to obtain useful data. Concentrations of the macromolecule and ligand need to be accurately determined for reliable results. Care also needs to be taken when preparing the samples as impurities can significantly affect the experiment. When ITC experiments, along with controls, are performed properly, useful binding information, such as the stoichiometry, affinity and enthalpy, are obtained. By running additional experiments under different buffer or temperature conditions, more detailed information can be obtained about the system. A protocol for the basic setup of an ITC experiment is given.

  13. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry for Measuring Macromolecule-Ligand Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Duff,, Michael R.; Grubbs, Jordan; Howell, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a useful tool for understanding the complete thermodynamic picture of a binding reaction. In biological sciences, macromolecular interactions are essential in understanding the machinery of the cell. Experimental conditions, such as buffer and temperature, can be tailored to the particular binding system being studied. However, careful planning is needed since certain ligand and macromolecule concentration ranges are necessary to obtain useful data. Concentrations of the macromolecule and ligand need to be accurately determined for reliable results. Care also needs to be taken when preparing the samples as impurities can significantly affect the experiment. When ITC experiments, along with controls, are performed properly, useful binding information, such as the stoichiometry, affinity and enthalpy, are obtained. By running additional experiments under different buffer or temperature conditions, more detailed information can be obtained about the system. A protocol for the basic setup of an ITC experiment is given. PMID:21931288

  14. DNA Shape Dominates Sequence Affinity in Nucleosome Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Gordon S.; Lequieu, Joshua P.; Hinckley, Daniel M.; Whitmer, Jonathan K.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2014-10-01

    Nucleosomes provide the basic unit of compaction in eukaryotic genomes, and the mechanisms that dictate their position at specific locations along a DNA sequence are of central importance to genetics. In this Letter, we employ molecular models of DNA and proteins to elucidate various aspects of nucleosome positioning. In particular, we show how DNA's histone affinity is encoded in its sequence-dependent shape, including subtle deviations from the ideal straight B-DNA form and local variations of minor groove width. By relying on high-precision simulations of the free energy of nucleosome complexes, we also demonstrate that, depending on DNA's intrinsic curvature, histone binding can be dominated by bending interactions or electrostatic interactions. More generally, the results presented here explain how sequence, manifested as the shape of the DNA molecule, dominates molecular recognition in the problem of nucleosome positioning.

  15. Deformation of supersymmetric and conformal quantum mechanics through affine transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiridonov, Vyacheslav

    1993-01-01

    Affine transformations (dilatations and translations) are used to define a deformation of one-dimensional N = 2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Resulting physical systems do not have conserved charges and degeneracies in the spectra. Instead, superpartner Hamiltonians are q-isospectral, i.e. the spectrum of one can be obtained from another (with possible exception of the lowest level) by q(sup 2)-factor scaling. This construction allows easily to rederive a special self-similar potential found by Shabat and to show that for the latter a q-deformed harmonic oscillator algebra of Biedenharn and Macfarlane serves as the spectrum generating algebra. A general class of potentials related to the quantum conformal algebra su(sub q)(1,1) is described. Further possibilities for q-deformation of known solvable potentials are outlined.

  16. A designed repeat protein as an affinity capture reagent

    PubMed Central

    Speltz, Elizabeth B.; Brown, Rebecca S.H.; Hajare, Holly S.; Schlieker, Christian; Regan, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    Repeat proteins are an attractive target for protein engineering and design. We have focused our attention on the design and engineering of one particular class - tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) proteins. In previous work we have shown that the structure and stability of TPR proteins can be manipulated in a rational fashion [Cortajarena 2011; Main 2003]. Building on those studies, we have designed and characterized a number of different peptide-binding TPR modules and we have also assembled these modules into supramolecular arrays [Cortajarena 2009; Cortajarena 2008; Jackrel 2009; Kajander 2007]. Here we focus on the development of one such TPR-peptide interaction for a practical application – affinity purification. We illustrate the general utility of our designed protein interaction. Furthermore, this example highlights how basic research on protein-peptide interactions can lead to the development of novel reagents with important practical applications. PMID:26517897

  17. Evaluation of galectin binding by frontal affinity chromatography (FAC).

    PubMed

    Iwaki, Jun; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) is a simple and versatile procedure enabling quantitative determination of diverse biological interactions in terms of dissociation constants (K d), even though these interactions are relatively weak. The method is best applied to glycans and their binding proteins, with the analytical system operating on the basis of highly reproducible isocratic elution by liquid chromatography. Its application to galectins has been successfully developed to characterize their binding specificities in detail. As a result, their minimal requirements for recognition of disaccharides, i.e., β-galactosides, as well as characteristic features of individual galectins, have been elucidated. In this chapter, we describe standard procedures to determine the K d's for interactions between a series of standard glycans and various galectins.

  18. Loading direction regulates the affinity of ADP for kinesin.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Sotaro; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi

    2003-04-01

    Kinesin is an ATP-driven molecular motor that moves processively along a microtubule. Processivity has been explained as a mechanism that involves alternating single- and double-headed binding of kinesin to microtubules coupled to the ATPase cycle of the motor. The internal load imposed between the two bound heads has been proposed to be a key factor regulating the ATPase cycle in each head. Here we show that external load imposed along the direction of motility on a single kinesin molecule enhances the binding affinity of ADP for kinesin, whereas an external load imposed against the direction of motility decreases it. This coupling between loading direction and enzymatic activity is in accord with the idea that the internal load plays a key role in the unidirectional and cooperative movement of processive motors.

  19. Tailoring in vitro evolution for protein affinity or stability

    PubMed Central

    Jermutus, Lutz; Honegger, Annemarie; Schwesinger, Falk; Hanes, Jozef; Plückthun, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    We describe a rapid and general technology working entirely in vitro to evolve either the affinity or the stability of ligand-binding proteins, depending on the chosen selection pressure. Tailored in vitro selection strategies based on ribosome display were combined with in vitro diversification by DNA shuffling to evolve either the off-rate or thermodynamic stability of single-chain Fv antibody fragments (scFvs). To demonstrate the potential of this method, we chose to optimize two proteins already possessing favorable properties. A scFv with an initial affinity of 1.1 nM (koff at 4°C of 10−4 s−1) was improved 30-fold by the use of off-rate selections over a period of several days. As a second example, a generic selection strategy for improved stability exploited the property of ribosome display that the conditions can be altered under which the folding of the displayed protein occurs. We used decreasing redox potentials in the selection step to select for molecules stable in the absence of disulfide bonds. They could be functionally expressed in the reducing cytoplasm, and, when allowed to form disulfides again, their stability had increased to 54 kJ/mol from an initial value of 24 kJ/mol. Sequencing revealed that the evolved mutant proteins had used different strategies of residue changes to adapt to the selection pressure. Therefore, by a combination of randomization and appropriate selection strategies, an in vitro evolution of protein properties in a predictable direction is possible. PMID:11134506

  20. A High-Affinity Adenosine Kinase from Anopheles Gambiae

    SciTech Connect

    M Cassera; M Ho; E Merino

    2011-12-31

    Genome analysis revealed a mosquito orthologue of adenosine kinase in Anopheles gambiae (AgAK; the most important vector for the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa). P. falciparum are purine auxotrophs and do not express an adenosine kinase but rely on their hosts for purines. AgAK was kinetically characterized and found to have the highest affinity for adenosine (K{sub m} = 8.1 nM) of any known adenosine kinase. AgAK is specific for adenosine at the nucleoside site, but several nucleotide triphosphate phosphoryl donors are tolerated. The AgAK crystal structure with a bound bisubstrate analogue Ap{sub 4}A (2.0 {angstrom} resolution) reveals interactionsmore » for adenosine and ATP and the geometry for phosphoryl transfer. The polyphosphate charge is partly neutralized by a bound Mg{sup 2+} ion and an ion pair to a catalytic site Arg. The AgAK structure consists of a large catalytic core in a three-layer {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} sandwich, and a small cap domain in contact with adenosine. The specificity and tight binding for adenosine arise from hydrogen bond interactions of Asn14, Leu16, Leu40, Leu133, Leu168, Phe168, and Thr171 and the backbone of Ile39 and Phe168 with the adenine ring as well as through hydrogen bond interactions between Asp18, Gly64, and Asn68 and the ribosyl 2'- and 3'-hydroxyl groups. The structure is more similar to that of human adenosine kinase (48% identical) than to that of AK from Toxoplasma gondii (31% identical). With this extraordinary affinity for AgAK, adenosine is efficiently captured and converted to AMP at near the diffusion limit, suggesting an important role for this enzyme in the maintenance of the adenine nucleotide pool. mRNA analysis verifies that AgAK transcripts are produced in the adult insects.« less

  1. High Affinity Binding of Epibatidine to Serotonin Type 3 Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Drisdel, Renaldo C.; Sharp, Douglas; Henderson, Tricia; Hales, Tim G.; Green, William N.

    2008-01-01

    Epibatidine and mecamylamine are ligands used widely in the study of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the present study, we find that nicotine blocks only 75% of 125I-epibatidine binding to rat brain membranes, whereas ligands specific for serotonin type 3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) block the remaining 25%. 125I-Epibatidine binds with a high affinity to native 5-HT3Rs of N1E-115 cells and to receptors composed of only 5-HT3A subunits expressed in HEK cells. In these cells, serotonin, the 5-HT3R-specific antagonist MDL72222, and the 5-HT3R agonist chlorophenylbiguanide readily competed with 125I-epibatidine binding to 5-HT3Rs. Nicotine was a poor competitor for 125I-epibatidine binding to 5-HT3Rs. However, the noncompetitive nAChR antagonist mecamylamine acted as a potent competitive inhibitor of 125I-epibatidine binding to 5-HT3Rs. Epibatidine inhibited serotonin-induced currents mediated by endogenous 5-HT3Rs in neuroblastoma cell lines and 5-HT3ARs expressed in HEK cells in a competitive manner. Our results demonstrate that 5-HT3Rs are previously uncharacterized high affinity epibatidine binding sites in the brain and indicate that epibatidine and mecamylamine act as 5-HT3R antagonists. Previous studies that depended on epibatidine and mecamylamine as nAChR-specific ligands, in particular studies of analgesic properties of epibatidine, may need to be reinterpreted with respect to the potential role of 5-HT3Rs. PMID:17702741

  2. A High Affinity Adenosine Kinase from Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Cassera, María B.; Ho, Meng-Chiao; Merino, Emilio F.; Burgos, Emmanuel S.; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes; Almo, Steven C.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2011-01-01

    Genome analysis revealed a mosquito orthologue of adenosine kinase in Anopheles gambiae (AgAK; the most important vector for the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa). P. falciparum are purine auxotrophs and do not express an adenosine kinase but rely on their hosts for purines. AgAK was kinetically characterized and found to have the highest affinity for adenosine (Km 8.1 nM) of any known adenosine kinase. AgAK is specific for adenosine at the nucleoside site but several nucleotide triphosphate phosphoryl donors are tolerated. The AgAK crystal structure with a bound bisubstrate analogue Ap4A (2.0 Å resolution) reveals interactions for adenosine, ATP and the geometry for phosphoryl transfer. The polyphosphate charge is partly neutralized by a bound Mg2+ ion and an ion pair to a catalytic site Arg. The AgAK structure consists of a large catalytic core in a three-layered α/β/α sandwich, and a small cap domain in contact with adenosine. The specificity and tight-binding for adenosine arises from hydrogen bond interactions of Asn14, Leu16, Leu40, Leu133, Leu168, Phe168 and Thr171 and the backbone of Ile39 and Phe168 with the adenine ring as well as through hydrogen bond interactions between Asp18, Gly64 and Asn68 and the ribosyl 2′- and 3′-hydroxyl groups. The structure is more similar to human adenosine kinase (48% identity) than to AK from Toxoplasma gondii (31% identity). With this extraordinary affinity for AgAK, adenosine is efficiently captured and converted to AMP at near the diffusion limit, suggesting an important role of this enzyme to maintain the adenine nucleotide pool. mRNA analysis verifies that AgAK transcripts are produced in the adult insects. PMID:21247194

  3. The Mobile Phone Affinity Scale: Enhancement and Refinement.

    PubMed

    Bock, Beth C; Lantini, Ryan; Thind, Herpreet; Walaska, Kristen; Rosen, Rochelle K; Fava, Joseph L; Barnett, Nancy P; Scott-Sheldon, Lori Aj

    2016-12-15

    Existing instruments that assess individuals' relationships with mobile phones tend to focus on negative constructs such as addiction or dependence, and appear to assume that high mobile phone use reflects pathology. Mobile phones can be beneficial for health behavior change, disease management, work productivity, and social connections, so there is a need for an instrument that provides a more balanced assessment of the various aspects of individuals' relationships with mobile phones. The purpose of this research was to develop, revise, and validate the Mobile Phone Affinity Scale, a multi-scale instrument designed to assess key factors associated with mobile phone use. Participants (N=1058, mean age 33) were recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk between March and April of 2016 to complete a survey that assessed participants' mobile phone attitudes and use, anxious and depressive symptoms, and resilience. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 6-factor model. The final measure consisted of 24 items, with 4 items on each of 6 factors: Connectedness, Productivity, Empowerment, Anxious Attachment, Addiction, and Continuous Use. The subscales demonstrated strong internal consistency (Cronbach alpha range=0.76-0.88, mean 0.83), and high item factor loadings (range=0.57-0.87, mean 0.75). Tests for validity further demonstrated support for the individual subscales. Mobile phone affinity may have an important impact in the development and effectiveness of mobile health interventions, and continued research is needed to assess its predictive ability in health behavior change interventions delivered via mobile phones. ©Beth C Bock, Ryan Lantini, Herpreet Thind, Kristen Walaska, Rochelle K Rosen, Joseph L Fava, Nancy P Barnett, Lori AJ Scott-Sheldon. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 15.12.2016.

  4. Cloning and functional characterization of the high-affinity K+ transporter HAK1 of pepper.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cordero, M Angeles; Martínez, Vicente; Rubio, Francisco

    2004-10-01

    High-affinity K+ uptake in plants plays a crucial role in K+ nutrition and different systems have been postulated to contribute to the high-affinity K+ uptake. The results presented here with pepper (Capsicum annum) demonstrate that a HAK1-type transporter greatly contributes to the high-affinity K+ uptake observed in roots. Pepper plants starved of K+ for 3 d showed high-affinity K+ uptake (Km of 6 microM K+) that was very sensitive to NH and their roots expressed a high-affinity K+ transporter, CaHAK1, which clusters in group I of the KT/HAK/KUP family of transporters. When expressed in yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ), CaHAK1 mediated high-affinity K+ and Rb+ uptake with Km values of 3.3 and 1.9 microM, respectively. Rb+ uptake was competitively inhibited by micromolar concentrations of NH and Cs+, and by millimolar concentrations of Na+.

  5. Sequence independent amplification of DNA

    DOEpatents

    Bohlander, S.K.

    1998-03-24

    The present invention is a rapid sequence-independent amplification procedure (SIA). Even minute amounts of DNA from various sources can be amplified independent of any sequence requirements of the DNA or any a priori knowledge of any sequence characteristics of the DNA to be amplified. This method allows, for example, the sequence independent amplification of microdissected chromosomal material and the reliable construction of high quality fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes from YACs or from other sources. These probes can be used to localize YACs on metaphase chromosomes but also--with high efficiency--in interphase nuclei. 25 figs.

  6. Sequence independent amplification of DNA

    DOEpatents

    Bohlander, Stefan K.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a rapid sequence-independent amplification procedure (SIA). Even minute amounts of DNA from various sources can be amplified independent of any sequence requirements of the DNA or any a priori knowledge of any sequence characteristics of the DNA to be amplified. This method allows, for example the sequence independent amplification of microdissected chromosomal material and the reliable construction of high quality fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes from YACs or from other sources. These probes can be used to localize YACs on metaphase chromosomes but also--with high efficiency--in interphase nuclei.

  7. An O({radical}nL) primal-dual affine scaling algorithm for linear programming

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Siming

    1994-12-31

    We present a new primal-dual affine scaling algorithm for linear programming. The search direction of the algorithm is a combination of classical affine scaling direction of Dikin and a recent new affine scaling direction of Jansen, Roos and Terlaky. The algorithm has an iteration complexity of O({radical}nL), comparing to O(nL) complexity of Jansen, Roos and Terlaky.

  8. Technology for Independent Living: Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Alexandra, Ed.

    This sourcebook provides information for the practical implementation of independent living technology in the everyday rehabilitation process. "Information Services and Resources" lists databases, clearinghouses, networks, research and development programs, toll-free telephone numbers, consumer protection caveats, selected publications, and…

  9. Exploring high-affinity binding properties of octamer peptides by principal component analysis of tetramer peptides.

    PubMed

    Kume, Akiko; Kawai, Shun; Kato, Ryuji; Iwata, Shinmei; Shimizu, Kazunori; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the binding properties of a peptide sequence, we conducted principal component analysis (PCA) of the physicochemical features of a tetramer peptide library comprised of 512 peptides, and the variables were reduced to two principal components. We selected IL-2 and IgG as model proteins and the binding affinity to these proteins was assayed using the 512 peptides mentioned above. PCA of binding affinity data showed that 16 and 18 variables were suitable for localizing IL-2 and IgG high-affinity binding peptides, respectively, into a restricted region of the PCA plot. We then investigated whether the binding affinity of octamer peptide libraries could be predicted using the identified region in the tetramer PCA. The results show that octamer high-affinity binding peptides were also concentrated in the tetramer high-affinity binding region of both IL-2 and IgG. The average fluorescence intensity of high-affinity binding peptides was 3.3- and 2.1-fold higher than that of low-affinity binding peptides for IL-2 and IgG, respectively. We conclude that PCA may be used to identify octamer peptides with high- or low-affinity binding properties from data from a tetramer peptide library. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Affinity proteomics to study endogenous protein complexes: Pointers, pitfalls, preferences and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    LaCava, John; Molloy, Kelly R.; Taylor, Martin S.; Domanski, Michal; Chait, Brian T.; Rout, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Dissecting and studying cellular systems requires the ability to specifically isolate distinct proteins along with the co-assembled constituents of their associated complexes. Affinity capture techniques leverage high affinity, high specificity reagents to target and capture proteins of interest along with specifically associated proteins from cell extracts. Affinity capture coupled to mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analyses has enabled the isolation and characterization of a wide range of endogenous protein complexes. Here, we outline effective procedures for the affinity capture of protein complexes, highlighting best practices and common pitfalls. PMID:25757543

  11. Complete affine connection in the causal boundary: static, spherically symmetric spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Steven (Stacey) G.

    2017-02-01

    The boundary at I^+, future null infinity, for a standard static, spherically symmetric spactime is examined for possible linear connections. Two independent methods are employed, one for treating I^+ as the future causal boundary, and one for treating it as a conformal boundary (the latter is subsumed in the former, which is of greater generality). Both methods provide the same result: a constellation of various possible connections, depending on an arbitrary choice of a certain function, a sort of gauge freedom in obtaining a natural connection on I^+; choosing that function to be constant (for instance) results in a complete connection. Treating I^+ as part of the future causal boundary, the method is to impute affine connections on null hypersurfaces going out to I^+, in terms of a transverse vector field on each null hypersurface (there is much gauge freedom on choice of the transverse vector fields). Treating I^+ as part of a conformal boundary, the method is to make a choice of conformal factor that makes the boundary totally geodesic in the enveloping manifold (there is much gauge freedom in choice of that conformal factor). Similar examination is made of other boundaries, such as timelike infinity and timelike and spacelike singularities. These are much simpler, as they admit a unique connection from a similar limiting process (i.e., no gauge freedom); and that connection is complete.

  12. Carbonate-sensitive phytotransferrin controls high-affinity iron uptake in diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuaid, Jeffrey B.; Kustka, Adam B.; Oborník, Miroslav; Horák, Aleš; McCrow, John P.; Karas, Bogumil J.; Zheng, Hong; Kindeberg, Theodor; Andersson, Andreas J.; Barbeau, Katherine A.; Allen, Andrew E.

    2018-03-01

    In vast areas of the ocean, the scarcity of iron controls the growth and productivity of phytoplankton. Although most dissolved iron in the marine environment is complexed with organic molecules, picomolar amounts of labile inorganic iron species (labile iron) are maintained within the euphotic zone and serve as an important source of iron for eukaryotic phytoplankton and particularly for diatoms. Genome-enabled studies of labile iron utilization by diatoms have previously revealed novel iron-responsive transcripts, including the ferric iron-concentrating protein ISIP2A, but the mechanism behind the acquisition of picomolar labile iron remains unknown. Here we show that ISIP2A is a phytotransferrin that independently and convergently evolved carbonate ion-coordinated ferric iron binding. Deletion of ISIP2A disrupts high-affinity iron uptake in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and uptake is restored by complementation with human transferrin. ISIP2A is internalized by endocytosis, and manipulation of the seawater carbonic acid system reveals a second-order dependence on the concentrations of labile iron and carbonate ions. In P. tricornutum, the synergistic interaction of labile iron and carbonate ions occurs at environmentally relevant concentrations, revealing that carbonate availability co-limits iron uptake. Phytotransferrin sequences have a broad taxonomic distribution and are abundant in marine environmental genomic datasets, suggesting that acidification-driven declines in the concentration of seawater carbonate ions will have a negative effect on this globally important eukaryotic iron acquisition mechanism.

  13. Affinity purification of the Arabidopsis 26 S proteasome reveals a diverse array of plant proteolytic complexes.

    PubMed

    Book, Adam J; Gladman, Nicholas P; Lee, Sang-Sook; Scalf, Mark; Smith, Lloyd M; Vierstra, Richard D

    2010-08-13

    Selective proteolysis in plants is largely mediated by the ubiquitin (Ub)/proteasome system in which substrates, marked by the covalent attachment of Ub, are degraded by the 26 S proteasome. The 26 S proteasome is composed of two subparticles, the 20 S core protease (CP) that compartmentalizes the protease active sites and the 19 S regulatory particle that recognizes and translocates appropriate substrates into the CP lumen for breakdown. Here, we describe an affinity method to rapidly purify epitope-tagged 26 S proteasomes intact from Arabidopsis thaliana. In-depth mass spectrometric analyses of preparations generated from young seedlings confirmed that the 2.5-MDa CP-regulatory particle complex is actually a heterogeneous set of particles assembled with paralogous pairs for most subunits. A number of these subunits are modified post-translationally by proteolytic processing, acetylation, and/or ubiquitylation. Several proteasome-associated proteins were also identified that likely assist in complex assembly and regulation. In addition, we detected a particle consisting of the CP capped by the single subunit PA200 activator that may be involved in Ub-independent protein breakdown. Taken together, it appears that a diverse and highly dynamic population of proteasomes is assembled in plants, which may expand the target specificity and functions of intracellular proteolysis.

  14. Affinity Purification of the Arabidopsis 26 S Proteasome Reveals a Diverse Array of Plant Proteolytic Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Book, Adam J.; Gladman, Nicholas P.; Lee, Sang-Sook; Scalf, Mark; Smith, Lloyd M.; Vierstra, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Selective proteolysis in plants is largely mediated by the ubiquitin (Ub)/proteasome system in which substrates, marked by the covalent attachment of Ub, are degraded by the 26 S proteasome. The 26 S proteasome is composed of two subparticles, the 20 S core protease (CP) that compartmentalizes the protease active sites and the 19 S regulatory particle that recognizes and translocates appropriate substrates into the CP lumen for breakdown. Here, we describe an affinity method to rapidly purify epitope-tagged 26 S proteasomes intact from Arabidopsis thaliana. In-depth mass spectrometric analyses of preparations generated from young seedlings confirmed that the 2.5-MDa CP-regulatory particle complex is actually a heterogeneous set of particles assembled with paralogous pairs for most subunits. A number of these subunits are modified post-translationally by proteolytic processing, acetylation, and/or ubiquitylation. Several proteasome-associated proteins were also identified that likely assist in complex assembly and regulation. In addition, we detected a particle consisting of the CP capped by the single subunit PA200 activator that may be involved in Ub-independent protein breakdown. Taken together, it appears that a diverse and highly dynamic population of proteasomes is assembled in plants, which may expand the target specificity and functions of intracellular proteolysis. PMID:20516081

  15. CaFE: a tool for binding affinity prediction using end-point free energy methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Hou, Tingjun

    2016-07-15

    Accurate prediction of binding free energy is of particular importance to computational biology and structure-based drug design. Among those methods for binding affinity predictions, the end-point approaches, such as MM/PBSA and LIE, have been widely used because they can achieve a good balance between prediction accuracy and computational cost. Here we present an easy-to-use pipeline tool named Calculation of Free Energy (CaFE) to conduct MM/PBSA and LIE calculations. Powered by the VMD and NAMD programs, CaFE is able to handle numerous static coordinate and molecular dynamics trajectory file formats generated by different molecular simulation packages and supports various force field parameters. CaFE source code and documentation are freely available under the GNU General Public License via GitHub at https://github.com/huiliucode/cafe_plugin It is a VMD plugin written in Tcl and the usage is platform-independent. tingjunhou@zju.edu.cn. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Decrease in the red cell cofactor 2,3-diphosphoglycerate increases hemoglobin oxygen affinity in the hibernating brown bear Ursus arctos.

    PubMed

    Revsbech, Inge G; Malte, Hans; Fröbert, Ole; Evans, Alina; Blanc, Stéphane; Josefsson, Johan; Fago, Angela

    2013-01-01

    During winter hibernation, brown bears (Ursus arctos) reduce basal O(2) consumption rate to ∼25% compared with the active state, while body temperature decreases moderately (to ∼30°C), suggesting a temperature-independent component in their metabolic depression. To establish whether changes in O(2) consumption during hibernation correlate with changes in blood O(2) affinity, we took blood samples from the same six individuals of hibernating and nonhibernating free-ranging brown bears during winter and summer, respectively. A single hemoglobin (Hb) component was detected in all samples, indicating no switch in Hb synthesis. O(2) binding curves measured on red blood cell lysates at 30°C and 37°C showed a less temperature-sensitive O(2) affinity than in other vertebrates. Furthermore, hemolysates from hibernating bears consistently showed lower cooperativity and higher O(2) affinity than their summer counterparts, regardless of the temperature. We found that this increase in O(2) affinity was associated with a significant decrease in the red cell Hb-cofactor 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) during hibernation to approximately half of the summer value. Experiments performed on purified Hb, to which DPG had been added to match summer and winter levels, confirmed that the low DPG content was the cause of the left shift in the Hb-O(2) equilibrium curve during hibernation. Levels of plasma lactate indicated that glycolysis is not upregulated during hibernation and that metabolism is essentially aerobic. Calculations show that the increase in Hb-O(2) affinity and decrease in cooperativity resulting from decreased red cell DPG may be crucial in maintaining a fairly constant tissue oxygen tension during hibernation in vivo.

  17. Genetic affinities between endogamous and inbreeding populations of Uttar Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal; Pandey, Atul Kumar; Tripathi, Manorma; Talwar, Sudha; Bisen, Prakash S; Borkar, Minal; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2007-04-07

    India has experienced several waves of migration since the Middle Paleolithic. It is believed that the initial demic movement into India was from Africa along the southern coastal route, approximately 60,000-85,000 years before present (ybp). It has also been reported that there were two other major colonization which included eastward diffusion of Neolithic farmers (Elamo Dravidians) from Middle East sometime between 10,000 and 7,000 ybp and a southern dispersal of Indo Europeans from Central Asia 3,000 ybp. Mongol entry during the thirteenth century A.D. as well as some possible minor incursions from South China 50,000 to 60,000 ybp may have also contributed to cultural, linguistic and genetic diversity in India. Therefore, the genetic affinity and relationship of Indians with other world populations and also within India are often contested. In the present study, we have attempted to offer a fresh and immaculate interpretation on the genetic relationships of different North Indian populations with other Indian and world populations. We have first genotyped 20 tetra-nucleotide STR markers among 1800 north Indian samples of nine endogamous populations belonging to three different socio-cultural strata. Genetic distances (Nei's DA and Reynold's Fst) were calculated among the nine studied populations, Caucasians and East Asians. This analysis was based upon the allelic profile of 20 STR markers to assess the genetic similarity and differences of the north Indian populations. North Indians showed a stronger genetic relationship with the Europeans (DA 0.0341 and Fst 0.0119) as compared to the Asians (DA 0.1694 and Fst - 0.0718). The upper caste Brahmins and Muslims were closest to Caucasians while middle caste populations were closer to Asians. Finally, three phylogenetic assessments based on two different NJ and ML phylogenetic methods and PC plot analysis were carried out using the same panel of 20 STR markers and 20 geo-ethnic populations. The three phylogenetic

  18. High Affinity Binding of Indium and Ruthenium Ions by Gastrins

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Graham S.; George, Graham N.; Pushie, M. Jake

    2015-01-01

    The peptide hormone gastrin binds two ferric ions with high affinity, and iron binding is essential for the biological activity of non-amidated forms of the hormone. Since gastrins act as growth factors in gastrointestinal cancers, and as peptides labelled with Ga and In isotopes are increasingly used for cancer diagnosis, the ability of gastrins to bind other metal ions was investigated systematically by absorption spectroscopy. The coordination structures of the complexes were characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Changes in the absorption of gastrin in the presence of increasing concentrations of Ga3+ were fitted by a 2 site model with dissociation constants (Kd) of 3.3 x 10−7 and 1.1 x 10−6 M. Although the absorption of gastrin did not change upon the addition of In3+ ions, the changes in absorbance on Fe3+ ion binding in the presence of indium ions were fitted by a 2 site model with Kd values for In3+ of 6.5 x 10−15 and 1.7 x 10−7 M. Similar results were obtained with Ru3+ ions, although the Kd values for Ru3+ of 2.6 x 10−13 and 1.2 x 10−5 M were slightly larger than observed for In3+. The structures determined by EXAFS all had metal:gastrin stoichiometries of 2:1 but, while the metal ions in the Fe, Ga and In complexes were bridged by a carboxylate and an oxygen with a metal-metal separation of 3.0–3.3 Å, the Ru complex clearly demonstrated a short range Ru—Ru separation, which was significantly shorter, at 2.4 Å, indicative of a metal-metal bond. We conclude that gastrin selectively binds two In3+ or Ru3+ ions, and that the affinity of the first site for In3+ or Ru3+ ions is higher than for ferric ions. Some of the metal ion-gastrin complexes may be useful for cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26457677

  19. Higher Nucleoporin-Importinβ Affinity at the Nuclear Basket Increases Nucleocytoplasmic Import

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Mohammad; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    2013-01-01

    Several in vitro studies have shown the presence of an affinity gradient in nuclear pore complex proteins for the import receptor Importinβ, at least partially contributing to nucleocytoplasmic transport, while others have historically argued against the presence of such a gradient. Nonetheless, the existence of an affinity gradient has remained an uncharacterized contributing factor. To shed light on the affinity gradient theory and better characterize how the existence of such an affinity gradient between the nuclear pore and the import receptor may influence the nucleocytoplasmic traffic, we have developed a general-purpose agent based modeling (ABM) framework that features a new method for relating rate constants to molecular binding and unbinding probabilities, and used our ABM approach to quantify the effects of a wide range of forward and reverse nucleoporin-Importinβ affinity gradients. Our results indicate that transport through the nuclear pore complex is maximized with an effective macroscopic affinity gradient of 2000 µM, 200 µM and 10 µM in the cytoplasmic, central channel and nuclear basket respectively. The transport rate at this gradient is approximately 10% higher than the transport rate for a comparable pore lacking any affinity gradient, which has a peak transport rate when all nucleoporins have an affinity of 200 µM for Importinβ. Furthermore, this optimal ratio of affinity gradients is representative of the ratio of affinities reported for the yeast nuclear pore complex – suggesting that the affinity gradient seen in vitro is highly optimized. PMID:24282617

  20. Mathematical analysis of frontal affinity chromatography in particle and membrane configurations.

    PubMed

    Tejeda-Mansir, A; Montesinos, R M; Guzmán, R

    2001-10-30

    The scaleup and optimization of large-scale affinity-chromatographic operations in the recovery, separation and purification of biochemical components is of major industrial importance. The development of mathematical models to describe affinity-chromatographic processes, and the use of these models in computer programs to predict column performance is an engineering approach that can help to attain these bioprocess engineering tasks successfully. Most affinity-chromatographic separations are operated in the frontal mode, using fixed-bed columns. Purely diffusive and perfusion particles and membrane-based affinity chromatography are among the main commercially available technologies for these separations. For a particular application, a basic understanding of the main similarities and differences between particle and membrane frontal affinity chromatography and how these characteristics are reflected in the transport models is of fundamental relevance. This review presents the basic theoretical considerations used in the development of particle and membrane affinity chromatography models that can be applied in the design and operation of large-scale affinity separations in fixed-bed columns. A transport model for column affinity chromatography that considers column dispersion, particle internal convection, external film resistance, finite kinetic rate, plus macropore and micropore resistances is analyzed as a framework for exploring further the mathematical analysis. Such models provide a general realistic description of almost all practical systems. Specific mathematical models that take into account geometric considerations and transport effects have been developed for both particle and membrane affinity chromatography systems. Some of the most common simplified models, based on linear driving-force (LDF) and equilibrium assumptions, are emphasized. Analytical solutions of the corresponding simplified dimensionless affinity models are presented. Particular

  1. Differential affinities of MinD and MinE to anionic phospholipid influence Min Patterning dynamics in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Li, Min; Mizuuchi, Michiyo; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The E. coli Min system forms a cell-pole-to-cell-pole oscillator that positions the divisome at mid-cell. The MinD ATPase binds the membrane and recruits the cell division inhibitor MinC. MinE interacts with and releases MinD (and MinC) from the membrane. The chase of MinD by MinE creates the in vivo oscillator that maintains a low level of the division inhibitor at mid-cell. In vitro reconstitution and visualization of Min proteins on a supported lipid bilayer has provided significant advances in understanding Min patterns in vivo. Here we studied the effects of flow, lipid composition, and salt concentration on Min patterning. Flow and no-flow conditions both supported Min protein patterns with somewhat different characteristics. Without flow, MinD and MinE formed spiraling waves. MinD and, to a greater extent MinE, have stronger affinities for anionic phospholipid. MinD-independent binding of MinE to anionic lipid resulted in slower and narrower waves. MinE binding to the bilayer was also more susceptible to changes in ionic strength than MinD. We find that modulating protein diffusion with flow, or membrane binding affinities with changes in lipid composition or salt concentration, can differentially affect the retention time of MinD and MinE, leading to spatiotemporal changes in Min patterning. PMID:24930948

  2. Robust estimation-free prescribed performance back-stepping control of air-breathing hypersonic vehicles without affine models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Xiangwei; Wu, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jiaqi; Wei, Daozhi

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the design of a novel estimation-free prescribed performance non-affine control strategy for the longitudinal dynamics of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV) via back-stepping. The proposed control scheme is capable of guaranteeing tracking errors of velocity, altitude, flight-path angle, pitch angle and pitch rate with prescribed performance. By prescribed performance, we mean that the tracking error is limited to a predefined arbitrarily small residual set, with convergence rate no less than a certain constant, exhibiting maximum overshoot less than a given value. Unlike traditional back-stepping designs, there is no need of an affine model in this paper. Moreover, both the tedious analytic and numerical computations of time derivatives of virtual control laws are completely avoided. In contrast to estimation-based strategies, the presented estimation-free controller possesses much lower computational costs, while successfully eliminating the potential problem of parameter drifting. Owing to its independence on an accurate AHV model, the studied methodology exhibits excellent robustness against system uncertainties. Finally, simulation results from a fully nonlinear model clarify and verify the design.

  3. Towards the chemometric dissection of peptide - HLA-A*0201 binding affinity: comparison of local and global QSAR models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doytchinova, Irini A.; Walshe, Valerie; Borrow, Persephone; Flower, Darren R.

    2005-03-01

    The affinities of 177 nonameric peptides binding to the HLA-A*0201 molecule were measured using a FACS-based MHC stabilisation assay and analysed using chemometrics. Their structures were described by global and local descriptors, QSAR models were derived by genetic algorithm, stepwise regression and PLS. The global molecular descriptors included molecular connectivity χ indices, κ shape indices, E-state indices, molecular properties like molecular weight and log P, and three-dimensional descriptors like polarizability, surface area and volume. The local descriptors were of two types. The first used a binary string to indicate the presence of each amino acid type at each position of the peptide. The second was also position-dependent but used five z-scales to describe the main physicochemical properties of the amino acids forming the peptides. The models were developed using a representative training set of 131 peptides and validated using an independent test set of 46 peptides. It was found that the global descriptors could not explain the variance in the training set nor predict the affinities of the test set accurately. Both types of local descriptors gave QSAR models with better explained variance and predictive ability. The results suggest that, in their interactions with the MHC molecule, the peptide acts as a complicated ensemble of multiple amino acids mutually potentiating each other.

  4. BiodMHC: an online server for the prediction of MHC class II-peptide binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian; Pan, Danling; Hu, Xihao; Xiao, Jinyu; Gao, Yangyang; Zhang, Huifang; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Juan; Zhu, Shanfeng

    2009-05-01

    Effective identification of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules restricted peptides is a critical step in discovering immune epitopes. Although many online servers have been built to predict class II MHC-peptide binding affinity, they have been trained on different datasets, and thus fail in providing a unified comparison of various methods. In this paper, we present our implementation of seven popular predictive methods, namely SMM-align, ARB, SVR-pairwise, Gibbs sampler, ProPred, LP-top2, and MHCPred, on a single web server named BiodMHC (http://biod.whu.edu.cn/BiodMHC/index.html, the software is available upon request). Using a standard measure of AUC (Area Under the receiver operating characteristic Curves), we compare these methods by means of not only cross validation but also prediction on independent test datasets. We find that SMM-align, ProPred, SVR-pairwise, ARB, and Gibbs sampler are the five best-performing methods. For the binding affinity prediction of class II MHC-peptide, BiodMHC provides a convenient online platform for researchers to obtain binding information simultaneously using various methods.

  5. Rapid contrast evaluation method based on affinity beads and backscattered electron imaging for the screening of electron stains.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Hiroki; Inoue, Kanako; Muranaka, Yoshinori; Park, Pyoyun; Ikeda, Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    Uranyl salts are toxic and radioactive; therefore, several studies have been conducted to screen for substitutes of electron stains. In this regard, the contrast evaluation process is time consuming and the results obtained are inconsistent. In this study, we developed a novel contrast evaluation method using affinity beads and a backscattered electron image (BSEI), obtained using scanning electron microscopy. The contrast ratios of BSEI in each electron stain treatment were correlated with those of transmission electron microscopic images. The affinity beads bound to cell components independently. Protein and DNA samples were enhanced by image contrast treated with electron stains; however, this was not observed for sugars. Protein-conjugated beads showed an additive effect of image contrast when double-stained with lead. However, additive effect of double staining was not observed in DNA-conjugated beads. The varying chemical properties of oligopeptides showed differences in image contrast when treated with each electron stain. This BSEI-based evaluation method not only enables screening for alternate electron stains, but also helps analyze the underlying mechanisms of electron staining of cellular structures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Ethanol increases affinity of protein kinase C for phosphatidylserine

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, J.H.

    1986-03-01

    Protein kinase C is a calcium-dependent enzyme that requires phospholipid for its activation. It is present in relatively high concentration in the brain and may be involved in neuronal function. The present experiments test whether the membrane disorder induced by ethanol affects the activity of kinase C by changing its interaction with membrane lipid. Fractions rich in kinase C were purified from rat brain cytosol by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. Enzyme activity was assayed by measuring the phosphorylation of histone H1. As expected, phosphatidylserine activated the enzyme, and the stimulation was further increased by the addition ofmore » calcium and/or diacylglycerol. At low concentration of free calcium (0.5-1..mu..M), ethanol (800 mM0 enhanced kinase C activity if the presence of phospholipid. similar results were observed in the absence of calcium. Double reciprocal plots of the data showed that ethanol increased the affinity of the enzyme for phosphatidylserine without affecting the V/sub max. The stimulation of kinase C activity by ethanol was not observed at high calcium concentrations. These experiments suggest that ethanol may activated protein kinase C at physiological levels of calcium by facilitating its transfer into the hydrophobic membrane environment.« less

  7. Deconstructing Free Energies in the Law of Matching Water Affinities.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Beck, Thomas

    2017-03-09

    The law of matching water affinities (LMWA) is explored in classical molecular dynamics simulations of several alkali halide ion pairs, spanning the size range from small kosmotropes to large chaotropes. The ion-ion potentials of mean force (PMFs) are computed using three methods: the local molecular field theory (LMFT), the weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM), and integration of the average force. All three methods produce the same total PMF for a given ion pair. In addition, LMFT-based partitioning into van der Waals and local and far-field electrostatic free energies and assessment of the enthalpic, entropic, and ion-water components yield insights into the origins of the observed free energy profiles in water. The results highlight the importance of local electrostatic interactions in determining the shape of the PMFs, while longer-ranged interactions enhance the overall ion-ion attraction, as expected in a dielectric continuum model. The association equilibrium constants are estimated from the smooth WHAM curves and compared to available experimental conductance data. By examining the variations in the average hydration numbers of ions with ion-ion distance, a correlation of the water structure in the hydration shells with the free energy features is found.

  8. Tandem Affinity Purification of Protein Complexes from Eukaryotic Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zheng; Fung, Victor; D'Orso, Iván

    2017-01-26

    The purification of active protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid complexes is crucial for the characterization of enzymatic activities and de novo identification of novel subunits and post-translational modifications. Bacterial systems allow for the expression and purification of a wide variety of single polypeptides and protein complexes. However, this system does not enable the purification of protein subunits that contain post-translational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation and acetylation), and the identification of novel regulatory subunits that are only present/expressed in the eukaryotic system. Here, we provide a detailed description of a novel, robust, and efficient tandem affinity purification (TAP) method using STREP- and FLAG-tagged proteins that facilitates the purification of protein complexes with transiently or stably expressed epitope-tagged proteins from eukaryotic cells. This protocol can be applied to characterize protein complex functionality, to discover post-translational modifications on complex subunits, and to identify novel regulatory complex components by mass spectrometry. Notably, this TAP method can be applied to study protein complexes formed by eukaryotic or pathogenic (viral and bacterial) components, thus yielding a wide array of downstream experimental opportunities. We propose that researchers working with protein complexes could utilize this approach in many different ways.

  9. Affinity entrapment of oligosaccharides and glycopeptides using free lectin solution.

    PubMed

    Yodoshi, Masahiro; Oyama, Takehiro; Masaki, Ken; Kakehi, Kazuaki; Hayakawa, Takao; Suzuki, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    Two procedures were proposed for the specific recovery of fluorescent derivatives of glycoprotein-derived oligosaccharides and tryptic glycopeptides using certain plant lectins. The first was based on the salting out of oligosaccharide-lectin conjugates with ammonium sulfate. Oligosaccharides specifically bound to lectins were recovered free from lectins using ethanol precipitation after dissolution in water. This method enabled group separation of 2-aminopyridine-labeled oligosaccharides derived from ovalbumin to galacto-oligosaccharides and agalacto-oligosaccharides by Ricinus communis agglutinin, and to high mannose- and hybrid-type oligosaccharides by wheat-germ agglutinin. Fractional precipitation based on differences in affinity for concanavalin A was accomplished by adding an appropriate concentration of methyl α-mannoside as an inhibitor. In the second method, tryptic digests of glycoproteins were mixed with a lectin solution, and the glycopeptide-lectin conjugates were specifically trapped on a centrifugal ultrafiltration membrane with cut-off of 10 kD. Trapped glycopeptides, as retentates, were passed through membranes by resuspension in diluted acid. This method is particularly useful for the enrichment of glycopeptides in protease digestion mixtures for glycosylation analyses by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  10. Sliding Window Generalized Kernel Affine Projection Algorithm Using Projection Mappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavakis, Konstantinos; Theodoridis, Sergios

    2008-12-01

    Very recently, a solution to the kernel-based online classification problem has been given by the adaptive projected subgradient method (APSM). The developed algorithm can be considered as a generalization of a kernel affine projection algorithm (APA) and the kernel normalized least mean squares (NLMS). Furthermore, sparsification of the resulting kernel series expansion was achieved by imposing a closed ball (convex set) constraint on the norm of the classifiers. This paper presents another sparsification method for the APSM approach to the online classification task by generating a sequence of linear subspaces in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS). To cope with the inherent memory limitations of online systems and to embed tracking capabilities to the design, an upper bound on the dimension of the linear subspaces is imposed. The underlying principle of the design is the notion of projection mappings. Classification is performed by metric projection mappings, sparsification is achieved by orthogonal projections, while the online system's memory requirements and tracking are attained by oblique projections. The resulting sparsification scheme shows strong similarities with the classical sliding window adaptive schemes. The proposed design is validated by the adaptive equalization problem of a nonlinear communication channel, and is compared with classical and recent stochastic gradient descent techniques, as well as with the APSM's solution where sparsification is performed by a closed ball constraint on the norm of the classifiers.

  11. Aspartic acid incorporated monolithic columns for affinity glycoprotein purification.

    PubMed

    Armutcu, Canan; Bereli, Nilay; Bayram, Engin; Uzun, Lokman; Say, Rıdvan; Denizli, Adil

    2014-02-01

    Novel aspartic acid incorporated monolithic columns were prepared to efficiently affinity purify immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human plasma. The monolithic columns were synthesised in a stainless steel HPLC column (20 cm × 5 mm id) by in situ bulk polymerisation of N-methacryloyl-L-aspartic acid (MAAsp), a polymerisable derivative of L-aspartic acid, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Monolithic columns [poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-aspartic acid) (PHEMAsp)] were characterised by swelling studies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The monolithic columns were used for IgG adsorption/desorption from aqueous solutions and human plasma. The IgG adsorption depended on the buffer type, and the maximum IgG adsorption from aqueous solution in phosphate buffer was 0.085 mg/g at pH 6.0. The monolithic columns allowed for one-step IgG purification with a negligible capacity decrease after ten adsorption-desorption cycles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Repression of the Low Affinity Iron Transporter Gene FET4

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Soraia M.; Menezes, Regina; Amaral, Catarina; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina; Pimentel, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is a well known mutagenic metal that can enter cells via nonspecific metal transporters, causing several cellular damages and eventually leading to death. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Yap1 plays a key role in the regulation of several genes involved in metal stress response. We have previously shown that Yap1 represses the expression of FET4, a gene encoding a low affinity iron transporter able to transport metals other than iron. Here, we have studied the relevance of this repression in cell tolerance to cadmium. Our results indicate that genomic deletion of Yap1 increases FET4 transcript and protein levels. In addition, the cadmium toxicity exhibited by this strain is completely reversed by co-deletion of FET4 gene. These data correlate well with the increased intracellular levels of cadmium observed in the mutant yap1. Rox1, a well known aerobic repressor of hypoxic genes, conveys the Yap1-mediated repression of FET4. We further show that, in a scenario where the activity of Yap1 or Rox1 is compromised, cells activate post-transcriptional mechanisms, involving the exoribonuclease Xrn1, to compensate the derepression of FET4. Our data thus reveal a novel protection mechanism against cadmium toxicity mediated by Yap1 that relies on the aerobic repression of FET4 and results in the impairment of cadmium uptake. PMID:26063801

  13. Methods for determining the genetic affinity of microorganisms and viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, George E. (Inventor); Willson, III, Richard C. (Inventor); Zhang, Zhengdong (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Selecting which sub-sequences in a database of nucleic acid such as 16S rRNA are highly characteristic of particular groupings of bacteria, microorganisms, fungi, etc. on a substantially phylogenetic tree. Also applicable to viruses comprising viral genomic RNA or DNA. A catalogue of highly characteristic sequences identified by this method is assembled to establish the genetic identity of an unknown organism. The characteristic sequences are used to design nucleic acid hybridization probes that include the characteristic sequence or its complement, or are derived from one or more characteristic sequences. A plurality of these characteristic sequences is used in hybridization to determine the phylogenetic tree position of the organism(s) in a sample. Those target organisms represented in the original sequence database and sufficient characteristic sequences can identify to the species or subspecies level. Oligonucleotide arrays of many probes are especially preferred. A hybridization signal can comprise fluorescence, chemiluminescence, or isotopic labeling, etc.; or sequences in a sample can be detected by direct means, e.g. mass spectrometry. The method's characteristic sequences can also be used to design specific PCR primers. The method uniquely identifies the phylogenetic affinity of an unknown organism without requiring prior knowledge of what is present in the sample. Even if the organism has not been previously encountered, the method still provides useful information about which phylogenetic tree bifurcation nodes encompass the organism.

  14. Questioning hagfish affinities of the enigmatic Devonian vertebrate Palaeospondylus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanson, Zerina; Smith, Moya; Sanchez, Sophie; Senden, Tim; Trinajstic, Kate; Pfaff, Cathrin

    2017-07-01

    Palaeospondylus gunni Traquair, 1890 is an enigmatic Devonian vertebrate whose taxonomic affinities have been debated since it was first described. Most recently, Palaeospondylus has been identified as a stem-group hagfish (Myxinoidea). However, one character questioning this assignment is the presence of three semicircular canals in the otic region of the cartilaginous skull, a feature of jawed vertebrates. Additionally, new tomographic data reveal that the following characters of crown-group gnathostomes (chondrichthyans + osteichthyans) are present in Palaeospondylus: a longer telencephalic region of the braincase, separation of otic and occipital regions by the otico-occipital fissure, and vertebral centra. As well, a precerebral fontanelle and postorbital articulation of the palatoquadrate are characteristic of certain chondrichthyans. Similarities in the structure of the postorbital process to taxa such as Pucapampella, and possible presence of the ventral cranial fissure, both support a resolution of Pa. gunni as a stem chondrichthyan. The internally mineralized cartilaginous skeleton in Palaeospondylus may represent a stage in the loss of bone characteristic of the Chondrichthyes.

  15. An affinity-directed protein missile system for targeted proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Luke J; Macartney, Thomas; Bozatzi, Polyxeni; Hornberger, Annika; Rojas-Fernandez, Alejandro; Sapkota, Gopal P

    2016-10-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein serves to recruit the hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF1α) protein under normoxia to the CUL2 E3 ubiquitin ligase for its ubiquitylation and degradation through the proteasome. In this report, we modify VHL to engineer an affinity-directed protein missile (AdPROM) system to direct specific endogenous target proteins for proteolysis in mammalian cells. The proteolytic AdPROM construct harbours a cameloid anti-green fluorescence protein (aGFP) nanobody that is fused to VHL for either constitutive or tetracycline-inducible expression. For target proteins, we exploit CRISPR/Cas9 to rapidly generate human kidney HEK293 and U2OS osteosarcoma homozygous knock-in cells harbouring GFP tags at the VPS34 (vacuolar protein sorting 34) and protein associated with SMAD1 (PAWS1, aka FAM83G) loci, respectively. Using these cells, we demonstrate that the expression of the VHL-aGFP AdPROM system results in near-complete degradation of the endogenous GFP-VPS34 and PAWS1-GFP proteins through the proteasome. Additionally, we show that Tet-inducible destruction of GFP-VPS34 results in the degradation of its associated partner, UVRAG, and reduction in levels of cellular phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. © 2016 The Authors.

  16. An affinity-directed protein missile system for targeted proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Fulcher, Luke J.; Macartney, Thomas; Bozatzi, Polyxeni; Hornberger, Annika; Rojas-Fernandez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) protein serves to recruit the hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF1α) protein under normoxia to the CUL2 E3 ubiquitin ligase for its ubiquitylation and degradation through the proteasome. In this report, we modify VHL to engineer an affinity-directed protein missile (AdPROM) system to direct specific endogenous target proteins for proteolysis in mammalian cells. The proteolytic AdPROM construct harbours a cameloid anti-green fluorescence protein (aGFP) nanobody that is fused to VHL for either constitutive or tetracycline-inducible expression. For target proteins, we exploit CRISPR/Cas9 to rapidly generate human kidney HEK293 and U2OS osteosarcoma homozygous knock-in cells harbouring GFP tags at the VPS34 (vacuolar protein sorting 34) and protein associated with SMAD1 (PAWS1, aka FAM83G) loci, respectively. Using these cells, we demonstrate that the expression of the VHL-aGFP AdPROM system results in near-complete degradation of the endogenous GFP-VPS34 and PAWS1-GFP proteins through the proteasome. Additionally, we show that Tet-inducible destruction of GFP-VPS34 results in the degradation of its associated partner, UVRAG, and reduction in levels of cellular phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. PMID:27784791

  17. Wall effects in continuous microfluidic magneto-affinity cell separation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liqun; Zhang, Yong; Palaniapan, Moorthi; Roy, Partha

    2010-05-01

    Continuous microfluidic magneto-affinity cell separator combines unique microscale flow phenomenon with advantageous nanobead properties, to isolate cells with high specificity. Owing to the comparable size of the cell-bead complexes and the microchannels, the walls of the microchannel exert a strong influence on the separation of cells by this method. We present a theoretical and experimental study that provides a quantitative description of hydrodynamic wall interactions and wall rolling velocity of cells. A transient convection model describes the transport of cells in two-phase microfluidic flow under the influence of an external magnetic field. Transport of cells along the microchannel walls is also considered via an additional equation. Results show the variation of cell flux in the fluid phases and the wall as a function of a dimensionless parameter arising in the equations. Our results suggest that conditions may be optimized to maximize cell separation while minimizing contact with the wall surfaces. Experimentally measured cell rolling velocities on the wall indicate the presence of other near-wall forces in addition to fluid shear forces. Separation of a human colon carcinoma cell line from a mixture of red blood cells, with folic acid conjugated 1 microm and 200 nm beads, is reported.

  18. Melatonin administration alters nicotine preference consumption via signaling through high-affinity melatonin receptors.

    PubMed

    Horton, William J; Gissel, Hannah J; Saboy, Jennifer E; Wright, Kenneth P; Stitzel, Jerry A

    2015-07-01

    While it is known that tobacco use varies across the 24-h day, the time-of-day effects are poorly understood. Findings from several previous studies indicate a potential role for melatonin in these time-of-day effects; however, the specific underlying mechanisms have not been well characterized. Understanding of these mechanisms may lead to potential novel smoking cessation treatments. The objective of this study is examine the role of melatonin and melatonin receptors in nicotine free-choice consumption A two-bottle oral nicotine choice paradigm was utilized with melatonin supplementation in melatonin-deficient mice (C57BL/6J) or without melatonin supplementation in mice proficient at melatonin synthesis (C3H/Ibg) compared to melatonin-proficient mice lacking both or one of the high-affinity melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2; double-null mutant DM, or MT1 or MT2). Preference for bitter and sweet tastants also was assessed in wild-type and MT1 and MT2 DM mice. Finally, home cage locomotor monitoring was performed to determine the effect of melatonin administration on activity patterns. Supplemental melatonin in drinking water significantly reduced free-choice nicotine consumption in C57BL/6J mice, which do not produce endogenous melatonin, while not altering activity patterns. Independently, genetic deletion of both MT1 and MT2 receptors in a melatonin-proficient mouse strain (C3H) resulted in significantly more nicotine consumption than controls. However, single genetic deletion of either the MT1 or MT2 receptor alone did not result in increased nicotine consumption. Deletion of MT1 and MT2 did not impact taste preference. This study demonstrates that nicotine consumption can be affected by exogenous or endogenous melatonin and requires at least one of the high-affinity melatonin receptors. The fact that expression of either the MT1 or MT2 melatonin receptor is sufficient to maintain lower nicotine consumption suggests functional overlap and potential mechanistic

  19. Independence for the physically disabled.

    PubMed

    Gordon, N

    1992-01-01

    The difficulties in giving even relative independence to handicapped children are reviewed. A compromise has to be worked out between too much and too little independence. The personality of the child will be a governing factor, but there are many environmental influences. Not least among these are the attitudes of the parents, and to what extent they accept the handicapped child and encourage self-reliance. Education must be realistically based on the child's ability and likely potentials on leaving school. Acquiring daily-living skills may be as important as academic qualifications. More needs to be learnt about the balance between independence and over-protection, and the success of management for an individual child can only be judged when maturity is reached with adequate self-confidence, and a maximal ability to compete in the adult world.

  20. Affinity Purification of Proteins in Tag-Free Form: Split Intein-Mediated Ultrarapid Purification (SIRP).

    PubMed

    Guan, Dongli; Chen, Zhilei

    2017-01-01

    Proteins purified using affinity-based chromatography often exploit a recombinant affinity tag. Existing methods for the removal of the extraneous tag, needed for many applications, suffer from poor efficiency and/or high cost. Here we describe a simple, efficient, and potentially low-cost approach-split intein-mediated ultrarapid purification (SIRP)-for both the purification of the desired tagged protein from Escherichia coli lysate and removal of the tag in less than 1 h. The N- and C-fragment of a self-cleaving variant of a naturally split DnaE intein from Nostoc punctiforme are genetically fused to the N-terminus of an affinity tag and a protein of interest (POI), respectively. The N-intein/affinity tag is used to functionalize an affinity resin. The high affinity between the N- and C-fragment of DnaE intein enables the POI to be purified from the lysate via affinity to the resin, and the intein-mediated C-terminal cleavage reaction causes tagless POI to be released into the flow-through. The intein cleavage reaction is strongly inhibited by divalent ions (e.g., Zn 2+ ) under non-reducing conditions and is significantly enhanced by reducing conditions. The POI is cleaved efficiently regardless of the identity of the N-terminal amino acid except in the cases of threonine and proline, and the N-intein-functionalized affinity resin can be regenerated for multiple cycles of use.

  1. PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY FOR EDC RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION: MODEL II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The training set used to derive a common reactivity pattern (COREPA) model for estrogen receptor (ER) binding affinity in Model I (see Abstract I in this series) was extended to include 47 rat estrogen receptor (rER) relative binding affinity (RBA) measurements in addition to the...

  2. PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY FOR EDC RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION: A COMPARISON OF THREE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparative analysis of how three COREPA models for ER binding affinity performed when used to predict potential estrogen receptor (ER) ligands is presented. Models I and II were developed based on training sets of 232 and 279 rat ER binding affinity measurements, respectively....

  3. Structural Insights into the Affinity of Cel7A Carbohydrate-binding Module for Lignin*

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Kathryn L.; Pfeiffer, Katherine A.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Clark, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    The high cost of hydrolytic enzymes impedes the commercial production of lignocellulosic biofuels. High enzyme loadings are required in part due to their non-productive adsorption to lignin, a major component of biomass. Despite numerous studies documenting cellulase adsorption to lignin, few attempts have been made to engineer enzymes to reduce lignin binding. In this work, we used alanine-scanning mutagenesis to elucidate the structural basis for the lignin affinity of Trichoderma reesei Cel7A carbohydrate binding module (CBM). T. reesei Cel7A CBM mutants were produced with a Talaromyces emersonii Cel7A catalytic domain and screened for their binding to cellulose and lignin. Mutation of aromatic and polar residues on the planar face of the CBM greatly decreased binding to both cellulose and lignin, supporting the hypothesis that the cellulose-binding face is also responsible for lignin affinity. Cellulose and lignin affinity of the 31 mutants were highly correlated, although several mutants displayed selective reductions in lignin or cellulose affinity. Four mutants with increased cellulose selectivity (Q2A, H4A, V18A, and P30A) did not exhibit improved hydrolysis of cellulose in the presence of lignin. Further reduction in lignin affinity while maintaining a high level of cellulose affinity is thus necessary to generate an enzyme with improved hydrolysis capability. This work provides insights into the structural underpinnings of lignin affinity, identifies residues amenable to mutation without compromising cellulose affinity, and informs engineering strategies for family one CBMs. PMID:26209638

  4. A HIGH-LEVEL CALCULATION OF THE PROTON AFFINITY OF DIBORANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The experimental proton affinity of diborane (B2H6) is based on an unstable species, B2H,+, 4 which has been observed only at low temperatures. The present work calculates the proton 5 affinity of diborane using the Gaussian-3 method and other high-level compound ab initio 6 met...

  5. Affinity for Quantitative Tools: Undergraduate Marketing Students Moving beyond Quantitative Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarasi, Crina O.; Wilson, J. Holton; Puri, Cheenu; Divine, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Marketing students are known as less likely to have an affinity for the quantitative aspects of the marketing discipline. In this article, we study the reasons why this might be true and develop a parsimonious 20-item scale for measuring quantitative affinity in undergraduate marketing students. The scale was administered to a sample of business…

  6. An Investigation of State Educational Twitter Hashtags (SETHS) as Affinity Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Joshua M.; Greenhalgh, Spencer P.; Koehler, Matthew J.; Hamilton, Erica R.; Akcaoglu, Mete

    2016-01-01

    Affinity spaces are digital or physical spaces in which participants interact with one another around content of shared interest and through a common portal (or platform). Among teachers, some of the largest affinity spaces may be those organized around hashtags on Twitter: These spaces are public, largely unmoderated, and thriving, yet very…

  7. Determination of hydride affinities of various aldehydes and ketones in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xi; Mei, Lian-Rui

    2011-05-06

    The hydride affinities of 21 typical aldehydes and ketones in acetonitrile were determined by using an experimental method, which is valuable for chemists choosing suitable reducing agents to reduce them. The focus of this paper is to introduce a very facile experimental method, which can be used to determine the hydride affinities of various carbonyl compounds in solution.

  8. The Independent Technical Analysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2007-04-13

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide technical analytical support for system-wide fish passage information (BPA Project No. 2006-010-00). The goal of this project was to produce rigorous technical analysis products using independent analysts and anonymous peer reviewers. In the past, regional parties have interacted with a single entity, the Fish Passage Center to access the data, analyses, and coordination related to fish passage. This project provided an independent technical source for non-routine fish passage analyses while allowing routine support functions to be performed by other well-qualified entities.

  9. Affinity resins as new tools for identifying target proteins of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Yuji; Nishino, Kohei; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Ito, Hideyuki; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Tai, Akihiro

    2018-02-12

    l-Ascorbic acid (AA) has diverse physiological functions, but little is known about the functional mechanisms of AA. In this study, we synthesized two types of affinity resin on which AA is immobilized in a stable form to identify new AA-targeted proteins, which can provide important clues for elucidating unknown functional mechanisms of AA. To our knowledge, an affinity resin on which AA as a ligand is immobilized has not been prepared, because AA is very unstable and rapidly degraded in an aqueous solution. By using the affinity resins, cytochrome c (cyt c) was identified as an AA-targeted protein, and we showed that oxidized cyt c exhibits specific affinity for AA. These results suggest that two kinds of AA-affinity resin can be powerful tools to identify new target proteins of AA.

  10. Host-Guest Complexes with Protein-Ligand-Like Affinities: Computational Analysis and Design

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Sarvin; Inoue, Yoshihisa

    2009-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that guests combining a nonpolar core with cationic substituents bind cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) in water with ultra-high affinities. The present study uses the Mining Minima algorithm to study the physics of these extraordinary associations and to computationally test a new series of CB[7] ligands designed to bind with similarly high affinity. The calculations reproduce key experimental observations regarding the affinities of ferrocene-based guests with CB[7] and β-cyclodextrin and provide a coherent view of the roles of electrostatics and configurational entropy as determinants of affinity in these systems. The newly designed series of compounds is based on a bicyclo[2.2.2]octane core, which is similar in size and polarity to the ferrocene core of the existing series. Mining Minima predicts that these new compounds will, like the ferrocenes, bind CB[7] with extremely high affinities. PMID:19133781

  11. [An examination of the determinants of social withdrawal and affinity for social withdrawal].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Asami; Matsui, Yutaka; Takatsuka, Yusuke

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the determinants of social withdrawal using data from a survey by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office for Youth Affairs and Public Safety (2008). In addition, this study identified young people who showed an affinity for social withdrawal although they were not in a state of withdrawal, and examined the determinants of an affinity for social withdrawal. The results of stepwise discriminant analysis showed that factors such as social phobia, depression, violence, and emotional bonds with family differentiated between the general youth group and the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". Social phobia, violence, and refusal to be interfered in self-decision making differentiated between the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". This study shows that an "affinity group" should be cared as well as an actual withdrawal group.

  12. Magnetic Affinity Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay for Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Japonicum in Persons with Low-Intensity Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qin; Yang, Hai; Feng, Youmei; Zhu, Yanhong; Yang, Xiangliang

    2012-01-01

    Most schistosome-endemic areas in China are characterized by low-intensity infections that are independent of prevalence. To establish an effective diagnostic method, we developed a magnetic affinity enzyme-linked immunoassay based on soluble egg antigens (SEA-MEIA) for diagnosing schistosomiasis in persons with low-intensity infection with Schistosoma japonicum by comparing it with a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that the SEA-MEIA had a higher sensitivity and greater precision in the diagnosis of low-intensity S. japonicum infections than the ELISA. In addition, when we used Pearson's correlation in associating SEA-MEIA with ELISA, a significant correlation existed between the two assays (r = 0.845, P < 0.001). Our data indicated that SEA-MEIA, with a higher sensitivity and greater ease of performance, would be valuable for diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonicum in persons with low-intensity infections. PMID:22869635

  13. Strategic Planning for Independent Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Susan C.

    This manual is intended to serve independent schools beginning strategic planning methods. Chapter 1, "The Case for Strategic Planning," suggests replacing the term "long range planning" with the term "strategic planning," which emphasizes change. The strategic planning and policy development process begins with…

  14. Content Independence in Multimedia Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Arjen P.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the role of data management in multimedia digital libraries, and its implications for the design of database management systems. Introduces the notions of content abstraction and content independence. Proposes a blueprint of a new class of database technology, which supports the basic functionality for the management of both content…

  15. Student Orientations to Independent Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alice; Jones, Douglas

    1996-01-01

    A study investigated the relationship of 46 college students' preferred teaching method (conventional lecture versus independent study package) and their own approaches to study (surface, deep, achieving). Results indicated that while students preferred the conventional lecture method, preference did not correlate with their study approach and…

  16. Haptic Tracking Permits Bimanual Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Dawson, Amanda A.; Challis, John H.

    2006-01-01

    This study shows that in a novel task--bimanual haptic tracking--neurologically normal human adults can move their 2 hands independently for extended periods of time with little or no training. Participants lightly touched buttons whose positions were moved either quasi-randomly in the horizontal plane by 1 or 2 human drivers (Experiment 1), in…

  17. Selective Influence through Conditional Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a generalization and improvement for the definition proposed by E. Dzhafarov (2001) for selectiveness in the dependence of several random variables on several (sets of) external factors. This generalization links the notion of selective influence with that of conditional independence. (SLD)

  18. Response to "Parenting for Independence."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Claims that Matthews sees independence as moving freely and being able to function apart from the adult, leading to competence and cognitive development for life. Reiterates the importance of emotion, relationships, and the mother as the central part of the child's prepared environment. (MOK)

  19. Black Studies in Independent Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitin, S. L.; And Others

    This packet, prepared to give support and guidance to independent schools striving to develop courses and design curricula in Afro-American studies, presents sampling course descriptions from seven selected schools on black studies intended for junior high and senior high students and offers two statements on black literature. The booklet is…

  20. Characteristics of Independent Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upitis, Rena; Abrami, Philip C.; Brook, Julia; Boese, Karen; King, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to learn about the characteristics of independent music teachers, their beliefs about music teaching, and their studio practices. A self-report survey included questions about the teachers' (a) background experiences, (b) pedagogical approaches, (c) use of digital technologies, and (d) professional development…

  1. Field Independence: Reviewing the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Carol; Richardson, John T. E.; Waring, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: The construct of ?eld independence (FI) remains one of the most widely cited notions in research on cognitive style and on learning and instruction more generally. However, a great deal of confusion continues to exist around the de?nition of FI, its measurement, and the interpretation of research results, all of which have served to…

  2. Dimension independence in exterior algebra.

    PubMed Central

    Hawrylycz, M

    1995-01-01

    The identities between homogeneous expressions in rank 1 vectors and rank n - 1 covectors in a Grassmann-Cayley algebra of rank n, in which one set occurs multilinearly, are shown to represent a set of dimension-independent identities. The theorem yields an infinite set of nontrivial geometric identities from a given identity. PMID:11607520

  3. The Independent School Trustee Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkman, Francis; Springer, E. Laurence

    This handbook takes an up-to-date look at the complex issues of trusteeship and school governance. Although addressed to trustees of independent schools, it contains valuable insights and suggestions for all who serve on boards, in and out of education. The main topics covered are "Governing Boards,""The Board and the Head of the School," and…

  4. Boston: Cradle of American Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2005 American Association of Community Colleges Annual Convention will be held April 6-9 in Boston. While thoroughly modern, the iconic city's identity is firmly rooted in the past. As the cradle of American independence, Boston's long history is an integral part of the American fabric. Adams, Revere, Hancock are more than historical figures;…

  5. Characterizing informative sequence descriptors and predicting binding affinities of heterodimeric protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Srinivasulu, Yerukala Sathipati; Wang, Jyun-Rong; Hsu, Kai-Ti; Tsai, Ming-Ju; Charoenkwan, Phasit; Huang, Wen-Lin; Huang, Hui-Ling; Ho, Shinn-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are involved in various biological processes, and underlying mechanism of the interactions plays a crucial role in therapeutics and protein engineering. Most machine learning approaches have been developed for predicting the binding affinity of protein-protein complexes based on structure and functional information. This work aims to predict the binding affinity of heterodimeric protein complexes from sequences only. This work proposes a support vector machine (SVM) based binding affinity classifier, called SVM-BAC, to classify heterodimeric protein complexes based on the prediction of their binding affinity. SVM-BAC identified 14 of 580 sequence descriptors (physicochemical, energetic and conformational properties of the 20 amino acids) to classify 216 heterodimeric protein complexes into low and high binding affinity. SVM-BAC yielded the training accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, AUC and test accuracy of 85.80%, 0.89, 0.83, 0.86 and 83.33%, respectively, better than existing machine learning algorithms. The 14 features and support vector regression were further used to estimate the binding affinities (Pkd) of 200 heterodimeric protein complexes. Prediction performance of a Jackknife test was the correlation coefficient of 0.34 and mean absolute error of 1.4. We further analyze three informative physicochemical properties according to their contribution to prediction performance. Results reveal that the following properties are effective in predicting the binding affinity of heterodimeric protein complexes: apparent partition energy based on buried molar fractions, relations between chemical structure and biological activity in principal component analysis IV, and normalized frequency of beta turn. The proposed sequence-based prediction method SVM-BAC uses an optimal feature selection method to identify 14 informative features to classify and predict binding affinity of heterodimeric protein complexes. The characterization

  6. Characterizing informative sequence descriptors and predicting binding affinities of heterodimeric protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are involved in various biological processes, and underlying mechanism of the interactions plays a crucial role in therapeutics and protein engineering. Most machine learning approaches have been developed for predicting the binding affinity of protein-protein complexes based on structure and functional information. This work aims to predict the binding affinity of heterodimeric protein complexes from sequences only. Results This work proposes a support vector machine (SVM) based binding affinity classifier, called SVM-BAC, to classify heterodimeric protein complexes based on the prediction of their binding affinity. SVM-BAC identified 14 of 580 sequence descriptors (physicochemical, energetic and conformational properties of the 20 amino acids) to classify 216 heterodimeric protein complexes into low and high binding affinity. SVM-BAC yielded the training accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, AUC and test accuracy of 85.80%, 0.89, 0.83, 0.86 and 83.33%, respectively, better than existing machine learning algorithms. The 14 features and support vector regression were further used to estimate the binding affinities (Pkd) of 200 heterodimeric protein complexes. Prediction performance of a Jackknife test was the correlation coefficient of 0.34 and mean absolute error of 1.4. We further analyze three informative physicochemical properties according to their contribution to prediction performance. Results reveal that the following properties are effective in predicting the binding affinity of heterodimeric protein complexes: apparent partition energy based on buried molar fractions, relations between chemical structure and biological activity in principal component analysis IV, and normalized frequency of beta turn. Conclusions The proposed sequence-based prediction method SVM-BAC uses an optimal feature selection method to identify 14 informative features to classify and predict binding affinity of heterodimeric protein

  7. Normalized Synergy Predicts That CD8 Co-Receptor Contribution to T Cell Receptor (TCR) and pMHC Binding Decreases As TCR Affinity Increases in Human Viral-Specific T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Chad M.; Schonnesen, Alexandra A.; Zhang, Shu-Qi; Ma, Ke-Yue; He, Chenfeng; Yamamoto, Tori; Eckhardt, S. Gail; Klebanoff, Christopher A.; Jiang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of naturally occurring T cell receptors (TCRs) that confer specific, high-affinity recognition of pathogen and cancer-associated antigens remains a major goal in cellular immunotherapies. The contribution of the CD8 co-receptor to the interaction between the TCR and peptide-bound major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) has previously been correlated with the activation and responsiveness of CD8+ T cells. However, these studies have been limited to model systems of genetically engineered hybridoma TCRs or transgenic mouse TCRs against either a single epitope or an array of altered peptide ligands. CD8 contribution in a native human antigen-specific T cell response remains elusive. Here, using Hepatitis C Virus-specific precursor CTLs spanning a large range of TCR affinities, we discovered that the functional responsiveness of any given TCR correlated with the contribution of CD8 to TCR/pMHC binding. Furthermore, we found that CD8 contribution to TCR/pMHC binding in the two-dimensional (2D) system was more accurately reflected by normalized synergy (CD8 cooperation normalized by total TCR/pMHC bonds) rather than synergy (total CD8 cooperation) alone. While synergy showed an increasing trend with TCR affinity, normalized synergy was demonstrated to decrease with the increase of TCR affinity. Critically, normalized synergy was shown to correlate with CTL functionality and peptide sensitivity, corroborating three-dimensional (3D) analysis of CD8 contribution with respect to TCR affinity. In addition, we identified TCRs that were independent of CD8 for TCR/pMHC binding. Our results resolve the current discrepancy between 2D and 3D analysis on CD8 contribution to TCR/pMHC binding, and demonstrate that naturally occurring high-affinity TCRs are more capable of CD8-independent interactions that yield greater functional responsiveness even with CD8 blocking. Taken together, our data suggest that addition of the normalized synergy parameter to our previously

  8. Benzonitrile: Electron affinity, excited states, and anion solvation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Andrew R.; Khuseynov, Dmitry; Sanov, Andrei

    2015-10-01

    We report a negative-ion photoelectron imaging study of benzonitrile and several of its hydrated, oxygenated, and homo-molecularly solvated cluster anions. The photodetachment from the unsolvated benzonitrile anion to the X ˜ 1 A 1 state of the neutral peaks at 58 ± 5 meV. This value is assigned as the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of the valence anion and the upper bound of adiabatic electron affinity (EA) of benzonitrile. The EA of the lowest excited electronic state of benzonitrile, a ˜ 3 A 1 , is determined as 3.41 ± 0.01 eV, corresponding to a 3.35 eV lower bound for the singlet-triplet splitting. The next excited state, the open-shell singlet A ˜ 1 A 1 , is found about an electron-volt above the triplet, with a VDE of 4.45 ± 0.01 eV. These results are in good agreement with ab initio calculations for neutral benzonitrile and its valence anion but do not preclude the existence of a dipole-bound state of similar energy and geometry. The step-wise and cumulative solvation energies of benzonitrile anions by several types of species were determined, including homo-molecular solvation by benzonitrile, hydration by 1-3 waters, oxygenation by 1-3 oxygen molecules, and mixed solvation by various combinations of O2, H2O, and benzonitrile. The plausible structures of the dimer anion of benzonitrile were examined using density functional theory and compared to the experimental observations. It is predicted that the dimer anion favors a stacked geometry capitalizing on the π-π interactions between the two partially charged benzonitrile moieties.

  9. A global/local affinity graph for image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Xiaofang Wang; Yuxing Tang; Masnou, Simon; Liming Chen

    2015-04-01

    Construction of a reliable graph capturing perceptual grouping cues of an image is fundamental for graph-cut based image segmentation methods. In this paper, we propose a novel sparse global/local affinity graph over superpixels of an input image to capture both short- and long-range grouping cues, and thereby enabling perceptual grouping laws, including proximity, similarity, continuity, and to enter in action through a suitable graph-cut algorithm. Moreover, we also evaluate three major visual features, namely, color, texture, and shape, for their effectiveness in perceptual segmentation and propose a simple graph fusion scheme to implement some recent findings from psychophysics, which suggest combining these visual features with different emphases for perceptual grouping. In particular, an input image is first oversegmented into superpixels at different scales. We postulate a gravitation law based on empirical observations and divide superpixels adaptively into small-, medium-, and large-sized sets. Global grouping is achieved using medium-sized superpixels through a sparse representation of superpixels' features by solving a ℓ0-minimization problem, and thereby enabling continuity or propagation of local smoothness over long-range connections. Small- and large-sized superpixels are then used to achieve local smoothness through an adjacent graph in a given feature space, and thus implementing perceptual laws, for example, similarity and proximity. Finally, a bipartite graph is also introduced to enable propagation of grouping cues between superpixels of different scales. Extensive experiments are carried out on the Berkeley segmentation database in comparison with several state-of-the-art graph constructions. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, which outperforms state-of-the-art graphs using four different objective criteria, namely, the probabilistic rand index, the variation of information, the global consistency error, and the

  10. A new Late Devonian genus with seed plant affinities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deming; Liu, Le

    2015-02-26

    Many ovules of Late Devonian (Famennian) seed plants have been well studied. However, because few taxa occur with anatomically preserved stems and/or petioles, the vascular system of these earliest spermatophytes is little understood and available data come mostly from Euramerica. There remains great controversy over the anatomical differentiation of Late Devonian and Carboniferous seed plant groups of Buteoxylonales, Calamopityales and Lyginopteridales. Protostele evolution of these early spermatophytes needs more research. A new taxon Yiduxylon trilobum gen. et sp. nov. with seed plant affinities has been discovered in the Upper Devonian (Famennian) Tizikou Formation of Hubei Province, China. It is represented by stems, helically arranged and bifurcate fronds with two orders of pinnae and planate pinnules. Both secondary pinnae and pinnules are borne alternately. Stems contain a small protostele with three primary xylem ribs possessing a single peripheral protoxylem strand. Thick secondary xylem displays multiseriate bordered pitting on the tangential and radial walls of the tracheids, and has biseriate to multiseriate and high rays. A narrow cortex consists of inner cortex without sclerotic nests and sparganum-type outer cortex with peripheral bands of vertically aligned sclerenchyma cells. Two leaf traces successively arise tangentially from each primary xylem rib and they divide once to produce four circular-oval traces in the stem cortex. Four vascular bundles occur in two C-shaped groups at each petiole base with ground tissue and peripheral bands of sclerenchyma cells. Yiduxylon justifies the assignment to a new genus mainly because of the protostele with protoxylem strands only near the periphery of primary xylem ribs, leaf trace origination and petiolar vascular supply structure. It shares many definitive characters with Calamopityales and Lyginopteridales, further underscoring the anatomical similarities among early seed plants. The primary vascular

  11. Temperature enhances the affinity of soil alkaline phosphatase to Cd.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiangping; Machmuller, Megan B; Wang, Ziquan; Li, Xudong; He, Wenxiang; Cotrufo, M Francesca; Shen, Weijun

    2018-04-01

    Both elevated temperature and heavy metal contamination can have profound effects on microbial function and soil biogeochemical cycling. However, the interactive effects of heavy metal toxicity and temperature on microbial activity have been poorly understood. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of temperature and cadmium (Cd) toxicity on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) produced by microbes to acquire phosphorus. To determine whether these effects were dependent on soil properties, we utilized 11 soil types from cropland throughout China. We measured ALP activities and kinetics across a temperature (17, 27, 37, and 47 °C) and Cd concentration gradient (0, 0.6, 5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 500 mg kg -1 ). We found that the half saturation constant (K m ) and the velocity constant (k) of ALP increased nonlinearly with temperature across all soil types. However, the maximum reaction velocity (V max ) increased linearly with temperature. Regardless of soil type and temperature, Cd had a non-competitive inhibitory mechanism. Soil pH, TOC, and clay content were the major factors controlling the affinity of ALP for Cd (K i ). The ecology dose (ED 50 ) for V max and k, and K i were negatively related to temperature, indicating that the toxicity of Cd on ALP is temperature-dependent. Additionally, higher temperatures led to more inhibition of Cd on ALP activity in alkaline soils than that in acidic and neutral soils. Our results suggest that global warming might accelerate the deficiency of available phosphorus in Cd contaminated soils due to higher inhibition of Cd on ALP activity, particularly in alkaline soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Accreditation of Independent Ethics Committees].

    PubMed

    Ramiro Avilés, Miguel A

    According to Law 14/2007 and Royal Decree 1090/2015, biomedical research must be assessed by an Research Ethics Committee (REC), which must be accredited as an Research ethics committee for clinical trials involving medicinal products (RECm) if the opinion is issued for a clinical trial involving medicinal products or clinical research with medical devices. The aim of this study is to ascertain how IEC and IECm accreditation is regulated. National and regional legislation governing biomedical research was analysed. No clearly-defined IEC or IECm accreditation procedures exist in the national or regional legislation. Independent Ethics Committees are vital for the development of basic or clinical biomedical research, and they must be accredited by an external body in order to safeguard their independence, multidisciplinary composition and review procedures. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Affinity purification using recombinant PXR as a tool to characterize environmental ligands.

    PubMed

    Dagnino, Sonia; Bellet, Virginie; Grimaldi, Marina; Riu, Anne; Aït-Aïssa, Sélim; Cavaillès, Vincent; Fenet, Hélène; Balaguer, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Many environmental endocrine disrupting compounds act as ligands for nuclear receptors. The human pregnane X receptor (hPXR), for instance, is activated by a variety of environmental ligands such as steroids, pharmaceutical drugs, pesticides, alkylphenols, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybromo diethylethers. Some of us have previously reported the occurrence of hPXR ligands in environmental samples but failed to identify them. The aim of this study was to test whether a PXR-affinity column, in which recombinant hPXR was immobilized on solid support, could help the purification of these chemicals. Using PXR ligands of different affinity (10 nM < EC50 < 10 μM), we demonstrated that the PXR-affinity preferentially column captured ligands with medium to high affinities (EC50 < 1 μM). Furthermore, by using the PXR-affinity column to analyze an environmental sample containing ERα, AhR, AR, and PXR activities, we show that (i) half of the PXR activity of the sample was due to compounds with medium to high affinity for PXR and (ii) PXR shared ligands with ERα, AR, and AhR. These findings demonstrate that the newly developed PXR-affinity column coupled to reporter cell lines represents a valuable tool for the characterization of the nature of PXR active compounds and should therefore guide and facilitate their further analysis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  14. Specificity and Affinity Quantification of Flexible Recognition from Underlying Energy Landscape Topography

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Xiakun; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Flexibility in biomolecular recognition is essential and critical for many cellular activities. Flexible recognition often leads to moderate affinity but high specificity, in contradiction with the conventional wisdom that high affinity and high specificity are coupled. Furthermore, quantitative understanding of the role of flexibility in biomolecular recognition is still challenging. Here, we meet the challenge by quantifying the intrinsic biomolecular recognition energy landscapes with and without flexibility through the underlying density of states. We quantified the thermodynamic intrinsic specificity by the topography of the intrinsic binding energy landscape and the kinetic specificity by association rate. We found that the thermodynamic and kinetic specificity are strongly correlated. Furthermore, we found that flexibility decreases binding affinity on one hand, but increases binding specificity on the other hand, and the decreasing or increasing proportion of affinity and specificity are strongly correlated with the degree of flexibility. This shows more (less) flexibility leads to weaker (stronger) coupling between affinity and specificity. Our work provides a theoretical foundation and quantitative explanation of the previous qualitative studies on the relationship among flexibility, affinity and specificity. In addition, we found that the folding energy landscapes are more funneled with binding, indicating that binding helps folding during the recognition. Finally, we demonstrated that the whole binding-folding energy landscapes can be integrated by the rigid binding and isolated folding energy landscapes under weak flexibility. Our results provide a novel way to quantify the affinity and specificity in flexible biomolecular recognition. PMID:25144525

  15. Genetic identification of a gene involved in constitutive, high-affinity nitrate transport in higher plants.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, R; Crawford, N M

    1996-01-01

    Two mutations have been found in a gene (NRT2) of Arabidopsis thaliana that specifically impair constitutive, high-affinity nitrate uptake. These mutants were selected for resistance to 0.1 mM chlorate in the absence of nitrate. Progency from one of the backcrossed mutants showed no constitutive uptake of nitrate below 0.5 mM at pH 7.0 in liquid culture (that is, within 30 min of initial exposure to nitrate). All other uptake activities measured (high-affinity phosphate and sulfate uptake, inducible high-affinity nitrate uptake, and constitutive low-affinity nitrate uptake) were present or nearly normal in the backcrossed mutant. Electrophysiological analysis of individual root cells showed that the nrt2 mutant showed little response to 0.25 mM of nitrate, whereas NRT2 wild-type cells showed an initial depolarization followed by recovery. At 10 mM of nitrate both the mutant and wild-type cells displayed similar, strong electrical responses. These results indicate that NRT2 is a critical and perhaps necessary gene for constitutive, high-affinity nitrate uptake in Arabidopsis, but not for inducible, high-affinity nor constitutive, low-affinity nitrate uptake. Thus, these systems are genetically distinct. PMID:8799195

  16. Specificity and affinity quantification of flexible recognition from underlying energy landscape topography.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiakun; Wang, Jin

    2014-08-01

    Flexibility in biomolecular recognition is essential and critical for many cellular activities. Flexible recognition often leads to moderate affinity but high specificity, in contradiction with the conventional wisdom that high affinity and high specificity are coupled. Furthermore, quantitative understanding of the role of flexibility in biomolecular recognition is still challenging. Here, we meet the challenge by quantifying the intrinsic biomolecular recognition energy landscapes with and without flexibility through the underlying density of states. We quantified the thermodynamic intrinsic specificity by the topography of the intrinsic binding energy landscape and the kinetic specificity by association rate. We found that the thermodynamic and kinetic specificity are strongly correlated. Furthermore, we found that flexibility decreases binding affinity on one hand, but increases binding specificity on the other hand, and the decreasing or increasing proportion of affinity and specificity are strongly correlated with the degree of flexibility. This shows more (less) flexibility leads to weaker (stronger) coupling between affinity and specificity. Our work provides a theoretical foundation and quantitative explanation of the previous qualitative studies on the relationship among flexibility, affinity and specificity. In addition, we found that the folding energy landscapes are more funneled with binding, indicating that binding helps folding during the recognition. Finally, we demonstrated that the whole binding-folding energy landscapes can be integrated by the rigid binding and isolated folding energy landscapes under weak flexibility. Our results provide a novel way to quantify the affinity and specificity in flexible biomolecular recognition.

  17. Influence of bone affinity on the skeletal distribution of fluorescently labeled bisphosphonates in vivo.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Anke J; Stewart, Charlotte A; Sun, Shuting; Błażewska, Katarzyna M; Kashemirov, Boris A; McKenna, Charles E; Russell, R Graham G; Rogers, Michael J; Lundy, Mark W; Ebetino, Frank H; Coxon, Fraser P

    2012-04-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used antiresorptive drugs that bind to calcium. It has become evident that these drugs have differing affinities for bone mineral; however, it is unclear whether such differences affect their distribution on mineral surfaces. In this study, fluorescent conjugates of risedronate, and its lower-affinity analogues deoxy-risedronate and 3-PEHPC, were used to compare the localization of compounds with differing mineral affinities in vivo. Binding to dentine in vitro confirmed differences in mineral binding between compounds, which was influenced predominantly by the characteristics of the parent compound but also by the choice of fluorescent tag. In growing rats, all compounds preferentially bound to forming endocortical as opposed to resorbing periosteal surfaces in cortical bone, 1 day after administration. At resorbing surfaces, lower-affinity compounds showed preferential binding to resorption lacunae, whereas the highest-affinity compound showed more uniform labeling. At forming surfaces, penetration into the mineralizing osteoid was found to inversely correlate with mineral affinity. These differences in distribution at resorbing and forming surfaces were not observed at quiescent surfaces. Lower-affinity compounds also showed a relatively higher degree of labeling of osteocyte lacunar walls and labeled lacunae deeper within cortical bone, indicating increased penetration of the osteocyte canalicular network. Similar differences in mineralizing surface and osteocyte network penetration between high- and low-affinity compounds were evident 7 days after administration, with fluorescent conjugates at forming surfaces buried under a new layer of bone. Fluorescent compounds were incorporated into these areas of newly formed bone, indicating that "recycling" had occurred, albeit at very low levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that the bone mineral affinity of bisphosphonates is likely to influence their distribution within the

  18. Methyl cation affinities of neutral and anionic maingroup-element hydrides: trends across the periodic table and correlation with proton affinities.

    PubMed

    Mulder, R Joshua; Guerra, Célia Fonseca; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2010-07-22

    We have computed the methyl cation affinities in the gas phase of archetypal anionic and neutral bases across the periodic table using ZORA-relativistic density functional theory (DFT) at BP86/QZ4P//BP86/TZ2P. The main purpose of this work is to provide the methyl cation affinities (and corresponding entropies) at 298 K of all anionic (XH(n-1)(-)) and neutral bases (XH(n)) constituted by maingroup-element hydrides of groups 14-17 and the noble gases (i.e., group 18) along the periods 2-6. The cation affinity of the bases decreases from H(+) to CH(3)(+). To understand this trend, we have carried out quantitative bond energy decomposition analyses (EDA). Quantitative correlations are established between the MCA and PA values.

  19. The Effect of Volcanic Ash Composition on Ice Nucleation Affinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genareau, K. D.; Cloer, S.; Primm, K.; Woods, T.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the role that volcanic ash plays in ice nucleation is important for knowledge of lightning generation in both volcanic plumes and in clouds developing downwind from active volcanoes. Volcanic ash has long been suggested to influence heterogeneous ice nucleation following explosive eruptions, but determining precisely how composition and mineralogy affects ice nucleation affinity (INA) is poorly constrained. For the study presented here, volcanic ash samples with different compositions and mineral/glass contents were tested in both the deposition and immersion modes, following the methods presented in Schill et al. (2015). Bulk composition was determined with X-ray fluorescence (XRF), grain size distribution was determined with laser diffraction particle size analysis (LDPSA), and mineralogy was determined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results of the deposition-mode experiments reveal that there is no relationship between ice saturation ratios (Sice) and either mineralogy or bulk ash composition, as all samples have similar Sice ratios. In the immersion-mode experiments, frozen fractions were determined from -20 °C to -50 °C using three different amounts of ash (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt% of slurry). Results from the immersion freezing reveal that the rhyolitic samples (73 wt% SiO2) nucleate ice at higher temperatures compared to the basaltic samples (49 wt% SiO2). There is no observed correlation between frozen fractions and mineral content of ash samples, but the two most efficient ice nuclei are rhyolites that contain the greatest proportion of amorphous glass (> 90 %), and are enriched in K2O relative to transition metals (MnO and TiO2), the latter of which show a negative correlation with frozen fraction. Higher ash abundance in water droplets increases the frozen fraction at all temperatures, indicating that ash amount plays the biggest role in ice nucleation. If volcanic ash can reach sufficient abundance (

  20. Surface cleaning for negative electron affinity GaN photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Jianliang; Yin, Yingpeng; Gao, Youtang; Niu, Jun; Qian, Yunsheng; Chang, Benkang

    2012-10-01

    In the preparation process for negative electron affinity (NEA) GaN photocathode, the surface cleanness is very important to activation, it influences the sensitivity and stability of NEA GaN photocathode. The traditional corrosion methods based on oxidizing and dissolving can't remove oxygen (O) and carbon (C) on GaN surface effectively. How to get an ideal atom clean surface is still an important question at present. The cleaning techniques for GaN photocathode was studied by using NEA photocathode activation system and XPS surface analysis system. The experiment sample is p-type GaN doped with Mg, doped concentration is 1.37×1017 cm-3, the transfer rate is 3.08 cm2/V-S, and the thickness of activation layer is 0.51 μm, the substrate is 300 μm thick sapphire. The sample was dealed with chemical cleaning depuration at first. And to get the atom clean surface, the vacuum heat cleaning process was needed. The methods of chemical cleaning and the vacuum heating cleaning were given in detail. According to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of GaN surface after chemical cleaning and the vacuum degree curve of the activation chamber during the heat cleaning, the cleaning effect and the cleaning mechanism were discussed. After the effective chemical cleaning and the heating of 700 Centigrade degree about 20 minutes in ultrahigh vacuum system, the oxides and carbon contaminants on cathode surface can be removed effectively, and the ideal atom clean surface can be obtained. The purpose of heating depuration process is that not only to get the atom clean GaN surface, but also to guarantee the contents of Ga, N on GaN surface stabilize and to keep the system ultra-high vacuum degree. Because of the volatilization of oxide and carbon impurity on the cathode surface, the vacuum degree curve drops with the rising of temperature on the whole.

  1. Heparin affin regulatory peptide/pleiotrophin negatively affects diverse biological activities in C6 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Parthymou, Anastasia; Lampropoulou, Evgenia; Mikelis, Constantinos; Drosou, Georgia; Papadimitriou, Evangelia

    2008-01-01

    Heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP) or pleiotrophin seems to be involved in the progression of several tumors of diverse origin. In this study, we tried to determine the role of HARP in rat C6 glioma cells by using an antisense strategy for inhibition of HARP expression. Decrease of the expression of endogenous HARP in C6 cells (AS-C6 cells) significantly increased proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth of cells. Implantation of AS-C6 cells onto chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes resulted in a significant increase of tumor-induced angiogenesis compared with that induced by non-transfected or C6 cells transfected with the plasmid alone (PC-C6 cells). In the same line, conditioned medium from AS-C6 cells significantly increased endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro compared with the effect of conditioned medium from C6 or PC-C6 cells. Interestingly, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced C6 cell proliferation and migration, and SU1496, a selective inhibitor of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), blocked increased glioma cell growth, migration, and angiogenicity observed in AS-C6 cell cultures. The above results seem to be due to a direct interaction between HARP and VEGF in the culture medium of C6 and PC-C6 cells, while AS-C6 cells secreted comparable amounts of VEGF that do not interact with HARP. Collectively, these data suggest that HARP negatively affects diverse biological activities in C6 glioma cells, mainly due to binding of HARP to VEGF, which may sequester secreted VEGF from signalling through VEGFR2.

  2. Determination of binding affinity upon mutation for type I dockerin-cohesin complexes from Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium cellulolyticum using deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kowalsky, Caitlin A; Whitehead, Timothy A

    2016-12-01

    The comprehensive sequence determinants of binding affinity for type I cohesin toward dockerin from Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium cellulolyticum was evaluated using deep mutational scanning coupled to yeast surface display. We measured the relative binding affinity to dockerin for 2970 and 2778 single point mutants of C. thermocellum and C. cellulolyticum, respectively, representing over 96% of all possible single point mutants. The interface ΔΔG for each variant was reconstructed from sequencing counts and compared with the three independent experimental methods. This reconstruction results in a narrow dynamic range of -0.8-0.5 kcal/mol. The computational software packages FoldX and Rosetta were used to predict mutations that disrupt binding by more than 0.4 kcal/mol. The area under the curve of receiver operator curves was 0.82 for FoldX and 0.77 for Rosetta, showing reasonable agreements between predictions and experimental results. Destabilizing mutations to core and rim positions were predicted with higher accuracy than support positions. This benchmark dataset may be useful for developing new computational prediction tools for the prediction of the mutational effect on binding affinities for protein-protein interactions. Experimental considerations to improve precision and range of the reconstruction method are discussed. Proteins 2016; 84:1914-1928. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The assessment of potentially interfering metabolites and dietary components in blood using an osmotic glucose sensor based on the concanavalin A-dextran affinity assay.

    PubMed

    Krushinitskaya, Olga; Tønnessen, Tor Inge; Jakobsen, Henrik; Johannessen, Erik

    2011-10-15

    Continuous surveillance of blood glucose is a prerogative of maintaining a tight glycaemic control in people suffering from diabetes mellitus. Implantable sensor technology offers the potential of conducting direct long term continuous glucose measurements, but current size restrictions and operational challenges have limited their applications. The osmotic sensor utilises diffusion to create a hydrostatic pressure that is independent of sensor operation and power consumption. This permits ultra-low power architectures to be realized with a minimal start-up time in a package suitable for miniaturization. In contrast, osmotic sensors suffer from the inability of their membranes to discriminate between different constituents in blood or the interstitial fluid that are of comparable size to glucose. By implementing an affinity assay based on the competitive bonding between concanavalin A and dextran, the selectivity of the membrane can be transferred to the glucose specific recognition of the affinity assay. The osmotic effect from the physiological levels of several key metabolites and nutritional components has been addressed identifying in particular ethanol, lactate and amino acids as potential interfering constituents. Both ascorbic acid and mannose would have a normal physiological concentration that is too low to be detected. The studies shows that an osmotic glucose sensor equipped with the con A-dextran affinity assay, is able to filter out potential interfering constituents present in blood, plasma and the interstitial fluid yet retaining a pressure that is proportional to glucose only. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Independent Component Analysis of Textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manduchi, Roberto; Portilla, Javier

    2000-01-01

    A common method for texture representation is to use the marginal probability densities over the outputs of a set of multi-orientation, multi-scale filters as a description of the texture. We propose a technique, based on Independent Components Analysis, for choosing the set of filters that yield the most informative marginals, meaning that the product over the marginals most closely approximates the joint probability density function of the filter outputs. The algorithm is implemented using a steerable filter space. Experiments involving both texture classification and synthesis show that compared to Principal Components Analysis, ICA provides superior performance for modeling of natural and synthetic textures.

  5. Expanded HTA, Legitimacy and Independence

    PubMed Central

    Syrett, Keith

    2016-01-01

    This brief commentary seeks to develop the analysis of Daniels, Porteny and Urrutia of the implications of expansion of the scope of health technology assessment (HTA) beyond issues of safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. Drawing in particular on experience in the United Kingdom, it suggests that such expansion can be understood not only as a response to the problem of insufficiency of evidence, but also to that of legitimacy. However, as expansion of HTA also renders it more visibly political in character, it is plausible that its legitimacy may be undermined, rather than enhanced by, independence from the policy process. PMID:27694685

  6. The fourth dimension in immunological space: how the struggle for nutrients selects high-affinity lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wensveen, Felix M; van Gisbergen, Klaas P J M; Eldering, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Lymphocyte activation via the antigen receptor is associated with radical shifts in metabolism and changes in requirements for nutrients and cytokines. Concomitantly, drastic changes occur in the expression of pro-and anti-apoptotic proteins that alter the sensitivity of lymphocytes to limiting concentrations of key survival factors. Antigen affinity is a primary determinant for the capacity of activated lymphocytes to access these vital resources. The shift in metabolic needs and the variable access to key survival factors is used by the immune system to eliminate activated low-affinity cells and to generate an optimal high-affinity response. In this review, we focus on the control of apoptosis regulators in activated lymphocytes by nutrients, cytokines, and costimulation. We propose that the struggle among individual clones that leads to the formation of high-affinity effector cell populations is in effect an 'invisible' fourth signal required for effective immune responses. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. The Binding of Biotin to Sepharose-Avidin Column: Demonstration of the Affinity Chromatography Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landman, A. D.; Landman, N. N.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a biochemistry experiment that illustrates the methodology of affinity chromatography by attaching avidin, a glycoprotein in egg white, to a Sepharose matrix in order to bind biotin-containing proteins. (MLH)

  8. Improving the convergence rate in affine registration of PET and SPECT brain images using histogram equalization.

    PubMed

    Salas-Gonzalez, D; Górriz, J M; Ramírez, J; Padilla, P; Illán, I A

    2013-01-01

    A procedure to improve the convergence rate for affine registration methods of medical brain images when the images differ greatly from the template is presented. The methodology is based on a histogram matching of the source images with respect to the reference brain template before proceeding with the affine registration. The preprocessed source brain images are spatially normalized to a template using a general affine model with 12 parameters. A sum of squared differences between the source images and the template is considered as objective function, and a Gauss-Newton optimization algorithm is used to find the minimum of the cost function. Using histogram equalization as a preprocessing step improves the convergence rate in the affine registration algorithm of brain images as we show in this work using SPECT and PET brain images.

  9. PREDICTING ER BINDING AFFINITY FOR EDC RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION: MODEL I

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Common Reactivity Pattern (COREPA) model, based on consideration of multiple energetically reasonable conformations of flexible chemicals was developed using a training set of 232 rat estrogen receptor (rER) relative binding affinity (RBA) measurements. The training set include...

  10. Role of β/δ101Gln in Regulating the Effect of Temperature and Allosteric Effectors on Oxygen Affinity in Woolly Mammoth Hemoglobin†

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yue; Byrd, Catherine; Shen, Tong-Jian; Simplaceanu, Virgil; Tam, Tsuey Chyi S.; Ho, Chien

    2013-01-01

    The oxygen affinity of woolly mammoth hemoglobin (rHb WM) is less affected by temperature change than that of Asian elephant hemoglobin (rHb AE) or human adult hemoglobin (Hb A). We report here a biochemical-biophysical study of Hb A, rHb AE, rHb WM and three rHb WM mutants with amino acid substitutions at β/δ101 (β/δ101Gln→Glu, Lys, or Asp) plus a double and a triple mutant, designed to clarify the role of the β/δ101 residue. The β/δ101Gln residue is important for responding to allosteric effectors, such as phosphate, inositol hexaphosphate (IHP), and chloride. The rHb WM mutants studied generally have higher affinity for oxygen under various conditions of pH, temperature, and salt concentration, and in the presence or absence of organic phosphate, than do rHb WM, rHb AE and Hb A. Titrations for the O2 affinity of these mutant rHbs as a function of chloride concentration indicate a lower heterotopic effect of this anion due to the replacement of β/δ101Gln in rHb WM. The alkaline Bohr effect of rHb WM and its mutants is reduced by 20–50% compared to that of Hb A and is independent of changes in temperature, in contrast to what has been observed in the hemoglobins of most mammalian species, including human. The results of our study on the temperature dependence of the O2 affinity of rHb WM and its mutant rHbs illustrate the important role of β/δ101Gln in regulating the functional properties of these hemoglobins. PMID:24228693

  11. A study of combined filtration and adsorption on nylon-based dye-affinity membranes: separation of recombinant L-alanine dehydrogenase from crude fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Weissenborn, M; Hutter, B; Singh, M; Beeskow, T C; Anspach, F B

    1997-04-01

    Dextran, hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC), and poly(vinyl alcohol) PVA were covalently linked to bisoxirane-activated nylon membranes. Cibacron Blue F3G-A was immobilized on to these membranes to yield a dye-affinity membrane. The hydrodynamic permeability of affinity membranes was reduced to approximately 50% of that of the original Nylon membrane due to extension of polymer coils into flow-through pores. Adsorption of pre-purified human serum albumin (HSA) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) displayed highest maximum binding capacities on HEC-coated dye-ligand-affinity membranes, ranging from (163 micrograms/cm2 for HSA to 316 micrograms/cm2 for MDH. The protein recovery of HSA was 100% on dextran-coated membranes compared with 70% on PVA-coated membranes, whereas almost 100% recovery was found for MDH, independent of the polymer. Application of crude supernatant from recombinant Escherichia coli yielded purification factors of 7.4, 8.9 and 11.2 for recombinant alanine dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis for HEC-, dextran- and PVA-coated membranes respectively. Dynamic capacities decreased remarkably to approximately 3 micrograms/cm2 due to co-adsorption of host proteins. The presence of cell debris caused only a slight decrease of purification factors, but a dramatic decrease of the permeability of affinity membranes due to development of a particle layer in front of the membranes. Although enzyme recoveries were up to 90% using cell-free supernatant, more than 50% of the product was lost due to polarization, concentration and rejection at particle layers when using crude homogenates. In order to further improve this integrated downstream process, sophisticated membrane techniques are required by which the formation of a filter cake is circumvented. Further refinement of polymer-coated membranes would not help one to avoid this problem.

  12. Secured independent tools in peritoneoscopy.

    PubMed

    Tsin, Daniel A; Davila, Fausto; Dominguez, Guillermo; Manolas, Panagiotis

    2010-01-01

    Secured independent tools are being introduced to aid in peritoneoscopy. We present a simple technique for anchoring instruments, powered lights, and micro machines through the abdominal wall. We used a laparoscopic trainer, micro alligator clips with one or two 2-0 nylon tails and cables for engines and lights. The above instruments were introduced via a 12-mm or 15-mm port. Clips were placed for traction, retraction and exposure, lights for illumination, and motors for potential work. A laparoscopy port closure or suture passer was introduced percutaneously to grab and extract the tails or cables outside of the simulated abdominal cavity. The engines and lights were powered by a direct electric current (DC) plugged into exteriorized cables. We used 2 to 3 clips for each, and engines performed well. This basic simulation adds independent instruments, lights, and engines. We replaced cannulas with threads or cables in an attempt to limit the number of ports. This technique further opens the door for innovations in wired machines in laparoscopy, single-port laparoscopy, or natural orifice surgery.

  13. Independent EEG Sources Are Dipolar

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, Arnaud; Palmer, Jason; Onton, Julie; Oostenveld, Robert; Makeig, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) and blind source separation (BSS) methods are increasingly used to separate individual brain and non-brain source signals mixed by volume conduction in electroencephalographic (EEG) and other electrophysiological recordings. We compared results of decomposing thirteen 71-channel human scalp EEG datasets by 22 ICA and BSS algorithms, assessing the pairwise mutual information (PMI) in scalp channel pairs, the remaining PMI in component pairs, the overall mutual information reduction (MIR) effected by each decomposition, and decomposition ‘dipolarity’ defined as the number of component scalp maps matching the projection of a single equivalent dipole with less than a given residual variance. The least well-performing algorithm was principal component analysis (PCA); best performing were AMICA and other likelihood/mutual information based ICA methods. Though these and other commonly-used decomposition methods returned many similar components, across 18 ICA/BSS algorithms mean dipolarity varied linearly with both MIR and with PMI remaining between the resulting component time courses, a result compatible with an interpretation of many maximally independent EEG components as being volume-conducted projections of partially-synchronous local cortical field activity within single compact cortical domains. To encourage further method comparisons, the data and software used to prepare the results have been made available (http://sccn.ucsd.edu/wiki/BSSComparison). PMID:22355308

  14. ]Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Shuttle program is one of the most complex engineering activities undertaken anywhere in the world at the present time. The Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) was chartered in September 1999 by NASA to provide an independent review of the Space Shuttle sub-systems and maintenance practices. During the period from October through December 1999, the team led by Dr. McDonald and comprised of NASA, contractor, and DOD experts reviewed NASA practices, Space Shuffle anomalies, as well as civilian and military aerospace experience. In performing the review, much of a very positive nature was observed by the SIAT, not the least of which was the skill and dedication of the workforce. It is in the unfortunate nature of this type of review that the very positive elements are either not mentioned or dwelt upon. This very complex program has undergone a massive change in structure in the last few years with the transition to a slimmed down, contractor-run operation, the Shuttle Flight Operations Contract (SFOC). This has been accomplished with significant cost savings and without a major incident. This report has identified significant problems that must be addressed to maintain an effective program. These problems are described in each of the Issues, Findings or Observations summarized, and unless noted, appear to be systemic in nature and not confined to any one Shuttle sub-system or element. Specifics are given in the body of the report, along with recommendations to improve the present systems.

  15. Community care: the independent sector.

    PubMed Central

    Barodawala, S.

    1996-01-01

    The independent sector, which consists of the voluntary and private sectors, is a vital element in supporting older people in the community. The voluntary sector, coordinated by the Council for Voluntary Service and the National Council for Voluntary Organisations, provides a variety of services, including practical help, reassurance and companionship, and advice, information, campaigning, and advocacy. The private sector owns all of the nursing homes and most of the residential homes and is gradually becoming more involved with the provision of services to help support older people in their own homes. With this increase in size and importance of the independent sector over recent years, there is now a real need for greater communication between the private, voluntary, and statutory agencies in any one region. In some areas, forums made up of representatives of these various sectors meet to discuss relevant issues and construct local policies, thus allowing a more coordinated approach to the delivery of services. Images p740-a p742-a PMID:8819449

  16. Opposing intermolecular tuning of Ca2+ affinity for Calmodulin by its target peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Margaret

    We investigated the impact of bound calmodulin (CaM)-target compound structure on the affinity of calcium (Ca2+) by integrating coarse-grained models and all-atomistic simulations with non-equilibrium physics. We focused on binding between CaM and two specific targets, Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and neurogranin (Ng), as they both regulate CaM-dependent Ca2+ signaling pathways in neurons. It was shown experimentally that Ca2+/CaM binds to the CaMKII peptide with higher affinity than the Ng peptide. The binding of CaMKII peptide to CaM in return increases the Ca2+ affinity for CaM. However, this reciprocal relation was not observed in the Ng peptide, which binds to Ca2+-free CaM or Ca2+/CaM with similar binding affinity. Unlike CaM-CaMKII peptide that allowed structure determination by crystallography, the structural description of CaM-Ng peptide is unknown due to low binding affinity, therefore, we computationally generated an ensemble of CaM-Ng peptide structures by matching the changes in the chemical shifts of CaM upon Ng peptide binding from nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. We computed the changes in Ca2+ affinity for CaM with and without binding targets in atomistic models using Jarzynski's equality. We discovered the molecular underpinnings of lowered affinity of Ca2+ for CaM in the presence of Ng by showing that the N-terminal acidic region of Ng peptide pries open the β-sheet structure between the Ca2+ binding loops particularly at C-domain of CaM, enabling Ca2+release. In contrast, CaMKII increases Ca2+ affinity for the C-domain of CaM by stabilizing the two Ca2+ binding loops.

  17. Purification of L-( sup 3 H) Nicotine eliminates low affinity binding

    SciTech Connect

    Romm, E.; Marks, M.J.; Collins, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    Some studies of L-({sup 3}H) nicotine binding to rodent and human brain tissue have detected two binding sites as evidenced by nonlinear Scatchard plots. Evidence presented here indicated that the low affinity binding site is not stereospecific, is not inhibited by low concentrations of cholinergic agonists and is probably due to breakdown products of nicotine since purification of the L-({sup 3}H)nicotine eliminates the low affinity site.

  18. Tumour necrosis factors modulate the affinity state of the leukotriene B4 receptor on human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Brom, J; Knöller, J; Köller, M; König, W

    1988-01-01

    Pre-incubation of human polymorphonuclear granulocytes with recombinant human tumour necrosis factors (TNF) revealed a time- and dose-dependent reduction of the expression of leukotriene B4-receptor sites. Analysis of the binding data by Scatchard plots showed a shift from a heterologous receptor population (indicating high- and low-affinity subsets) to a homologous population. From the results it is considered that TNF can influence host defence through the modulation of leukotriene B4 receptor affinity. PMID:2851543

  19. Self-Affinity and Lacunarity of Chromatin Texture in Benign and Malignant Breast Epithelial Cell Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Wu, Hai-Shan; Gil, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Methods are presented for characterizing the self-affinity and lacunarity of arbitrarily shaped images. Chromatin appearance in breast epithelial cell nuclei is shown to be statistically self-affine. Spectral and Minkowski dimensions are lesser in nuclei of malignant cases than in nuclei of benign cases, and lacunarity further quantifies morphologic differences such as chromatin clumping and nucleoli. Fractal texture features are used as the basis for an accurate cytologic diagnosis of breast cancer.

  20. Bioengineering of Bacteria To Assemble Custom-Made Polyester Affinity Resins

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Iain D.; Du, Jinping; Burr, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Proof of concept for the in vivo bacterial production of a polyester resin displaying various customizable affinity protein binding domains is provided. This was achieved by engineering various protein binding domains into a bacterial polyester-synthesizing enzyme. Affinity binding domains based on various structural folds and derived from molecular libraries were used to demonstrate the potential of this technique. Designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins), engineered OB-fold domains (OBodies), and VHH domains from camelid antibodies (nanobodies) were employed. The respective resins were produced in a single bacterial fermentation step, and a simple purification protocol was developed. Purified resins were suitable for most lab-scale affinity chromatography purposes. All of the affinity domains tested produced polyester beads with specific affinity for the target protein. The binding capacity of these affinity resins ranged from 90 to 600 nmol of protein per wet gram of polyester affinity resin, enabling purification of a recombinant protein target from a complex bacterial cell lysate up to a purity level of 96% in one step. The polyester resin was efficiently produced by conventional lab-scale shake flask fermentation, resulting in bacteria accumulating up to 55% of their cellular dry weight as polyester. A further proof of concept demonstrating the practicality of this technique was obtained through the intracellular coproduction of a specific affinity resin and its target. This enables in vivo binding and purification of the coproduced “target protein.” Overall, this study provides evidence for the use of molecular engineering of polyester synthases toward the microbial production of specific bioseparation resins implementing previously selected binding domains. PMID:25344238

  1. Length-Two Representations of Quantum Affine Superalgebras and Baxter Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huafeng

    2018-03-01

    Associated to quantum affine general linear Lie superalgebras are two families of short exact sequences of representations whose first and third terms are irreducible: the Baxter TQ relations involving infinite-dimensional representations; the extended T-systems of Kirillov-Reshetikhin modules. We make use of these representations over the full quantum affine superalgebra to define Baxter operators as transfer matrices for the quantum integrable model and to deduce Bethe Ansatz Equations, under genericity conditions.

  2. [The evaluation of the efficacy of antihypoxic agents lowering hemoglobin oxygen affinity in acute cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Plotnikova, T M; Plotnikov, M B; Bazhenova, T G

    1991-02-01

    Influence of natrii hydroxybutyrate (100 mg/kg), ascorbate (100 mg/kg), cavinton (5 mg/kg), bemitil (50 mg/kg), ethomersol (50 mg/kg) on Hb-O2 affinity and cortex PO2 after both carotid artery occlusion in rats was investigated. Correlation (r-0.87; P less than 0.05) between lowering of Hb-O2 affinity and antihypoxic effect was demonstrated in the line of these drugs.

  3. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immobilizing affinity proteins to nitrocellulose: a toolbox for paper-based assay developers.

    PubMed

    Holstein, Carly A; Chevalier, Aaron; Bennett, Steven; Anderson, Caitlin E; Keniston, Karen; Olsen, Cathryn; Li, Bing; Bales, Brian; Moore, David R; Fu, Elain; Baker, David; Yager, Paul

    2016-02-01

    To enable enhanced paper-based diagnostics with improved detection capabilities, new methods are needed to immobilize affinity reagents to porous substrates, especially for capture molecules other than IgG. To this end, we have developed and characterized three novel methods for immobilizing protein-based affinity reagents to nitrocellulose membranes. We have demonstrated these methods using recombinant affinity proteins for the influenza surface protein hemagglutinin, leveraging the customizability of these recombinant "flu binders" for the design of features for immobilization. The three approaches shown are: (1) covalent attachment of thiolated affinity protein to an epoxide-functionalized nitrocellulose membrane, (2) attachment of biotinylated affinity protein through a nitrocellulose-binding streptavidin anchor protein, and (3) fusion of affinity protein to a novel nitrocellulose-binding anchor protein for direct coupling and immobilization. We also characterized the use of direct adsorption for the flu binders, as a point of comparison and motivation for these novel methods. Finally, we demonstrated that these novel methods can provide improved performance to an influenza hemagglutinin assay, compared to a traditional antibody-based capture system. Taken together, this work advances the toolkit available for the development of next-generation paper-based diagnostics.

  5. The role of CH/π interactions in the high affinity binding of streptavidin and biotin.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Motoyasu; Ozawa, Tomonaga; Nishio, Motohiro; Ueda, Kazuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    The streptavidin-biotin complex has an extraordinarily high affinity (Ka: 10 15 mol -1 ) and contains one of the strongest non-covalent interactions known. This strong interaction is widely used in biological tools, including for affinity tags, detection, and immobilization of proteins. Although hydrogen bond networks and hydrophobic interactions have been proposed to explain this high affinity, the reasons for it remain poorly understood. Inspired by the deceased affinity of biotin observed for point mutations of streptavidin at tryptophan residues, we hypothesized that a CH/π interaction may also contribute to the strong interaction between streptavidin and biotin. CH/π interactions were explored and analyzed at the biotin-binding site and at the interface of the subunits by the fragment molecular orbital method (FMO) and extended applications: PIEDA and FMO4. The results show that CH/π interactions are involved in the high affinity for biotin at the binding site of streptavidin. We further suggest that the involvement of CH/π interactions at the subunit interfaces and an extended CH/π network play more critical roles in determining the high affinity, rather than involvement at the binding site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pushing antibody-based labeling systems to higher sensitivity by linker-assisted affinity enhancement.

    PubMed

    Gorris, Hans H; Bade, Steffen; Röckendorf, Niels; Fránek, Milan; Frey, Andreas

    2011-08-17

    The sensitivity of antibody/hapten-based labeling systems is limited by the natural affinity ceiling of immunoglobulins. Breaking this limit by antibody engineering is difficult. We thus attempted a different approach and investigated if the so-called bridge effect, a corecognition of the linker present between hapten and carrier protein during antibody generation, can be utilized to improve the affinity of such labeling systems. The well-known haptens 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were equipped with various linkers, and the resulting affinity change of their cognate antibodies was analyzed by ELISA. Anti-2,4-DNP antibodies exhibited the best affinity to their hapten when it was combined with aminobutanoic acid or aminohexanoic acid. The affinity of anti-2,4-D antibodies could be enhanced even further with longer aliphatic spacers connected to the hapten. The affinity toward aminoundecanoic acid-2,4-D derivatives, for instance, was improved about 100-fold compared to 2,4-D alone and yielded detection limits as low as 100 amoles of analyte. As the effect occurred for all antibodies and haptens tested, it may be sensible to implement the bridge effect in future antibody/hapten-labeling systems in order to achieve the highest sensitivity possible.

  7. Binding affinities of anti-acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, J.J.; Drachman, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies directed against acetylcholine (ACh) receptors are present in the sera of nearly 90% of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), and are involved in the pathogenesis of this autoimmune disease. However, the antibody titers measured by the standard radioimmunoassay correspond poorly with the clinical severity of the disease. To determine whether this disparity could be accounted for by differences in the binding affinities of anti-ACh receptor antibodies in different patients, we have measured the binding affinities of these autoantibodies in 15 sera from MG patients. The affinity constants (K/sub o/), as determined by Scatchard analysis, were all in the rangemore » of 10/sup 10/ M/sup -1/, comparable to the highest values reported in immunized animals. The affinity constants were truly representative of the population of autoantibodies detected by the radioimmunoassay, as shown by the remarkable linearity of the Scatchard plots (r/sup 2/>0.90) and the close correlation between the antibody titers determined by extrapolation of the Scatchard plots and by saturation analysis (r = 0.99; p < 0.001). There was only a 6-fold variation in affinity constants measured in this series of patients despite widely differing antibody titers and severity of the disease. Factors other than the titer and affinity of anti-ACh receptor antibodies may correlate better with the clinical manifestations of MG.« less

  8. The protein-protein interface evolution acts in a similar way to antibody affinity maturation.

    PubMed

    Li, Bohua; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Chong; Guo, Huaizu; Wu, Lan; Zhang, Xunming; Qian, Weizhu; Wang, Hao; Guo, Yajun

    2010-02-05

    Understanding the evolutionary mechanism that acts at the interfaces of protein-protein complexes is a fundamental issue with high interest for delineating the macromolecular complexes and networks responsible for regulation and complexity in biological systems. To investigate whether the evolution of protein-protein interface acts in a similar way as antibody affinity maturation, we incorporated evolutionary information derived from antibody affinity maturation with common simulation techniques to evaluate prediction success rates of the computational method in affinity improvement in four different systems: antibody-receptor, antibody-peptide, receptor-membrane ligand, and receptor-soluble ligand. It was interesting to find that the same evolutionary information could improve the prediction success rates in all the four protein-protein complexes with an exceptional high accuracy (>57%). One of the most striking findings in our present study is that not only in the antibody-combining site but in other protein-protein interfaces almost all of the affinity-enhancing mutations are located at the germline hotspot sequences (RGYW or WA), indicating that DNA hot spot mechanisms may be widely used in the evolution of protein-protein interfaces. Our data suggest that the evolution of distinct protein-protein interfaces may use the same basic strategy under selection pressure to maintain interactions. Additionally, our data indicate that classical simulation techniques incorporating the evolutionary information derived from in vivo antibody affinity maturation can be utilized as a powerful tool to improve the binding affinity of protein-protein complex with a high accuracy.

  9. Paper-based immune-affinity arrays for detection of multiple mycotoxins in cereals.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Chen, Hongpu; Lv, Xiaolan; Wang, Min; Jiang, Xizhi; Jiang, Yifei; Wang, Heye; Zhao, Yongfu; Xia, Liru

    2018-03-01

    Mycotoxins produced by different species of fungi may coexist in cereals and feedstuffs, and could be highly toxic for humans and animals. For quantification of multiple mycotoxins in cereals, we developed a paper-based mycotoxin immune-affinity array. First, paper-based microzone arrays were fabricated by photolithography. Then, monoclonal mycotoxin antibodies were added in a copolymerization reaction with a cross-linker to form an immune-affinity monolith on the paper-based microzone array. With use of a competitive immune-response format, paper-based mycotoxin immune-affinity arrays were successfully applied to detect mycotoxins in samples. The detection limits for deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and HT-2 toxin were 62.7, 10.8, 0.36, and 0.23 μg·kg -1 , respectively, which meet relevant requirements for these compounds in food. The recovery rates were 81-86% for deoxynivalenol, 89-117% for zearalenone, 79-86% for T-2 toxin, and 78-83% for HT-2 toxin, and showed the paper-based immune-affinity arrays had good reproducibility. In summary, the paper-based mycotoxin immune-affinity array provides a sensitive, rapid, accurate, stable, and convenient platform for detection of multiple mycotoxins in agro-foods. Graphical abstract Paper-based immune-affinity monolithic array. DON deoxynivalenol, HT-2 HT-2 toxin, T-2 T-2 toxin, PEGDA polyethylene glycol diacrylate, ZEN zearalenone.

  10. Cadmium accumulation characteristics of the winter farmland weeds Cardamine hirsuta Linn. and Gnaphalium affine D. Don.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lijin; Shi, Jun; Liu, Qihua; Liao, Ming'an; Mei, Luoyin

    2014-07-01

    In a preliminary study, we found that the cadmium (Cd) concentrations in shoots of the winter farmland weeds Cardamine hirsuta Linn. and Gnaphalium affine D. Don exceeded the critical value of a Cd-hyperaccumulator (100 mg kg(-1)), indicating that these two farmland weeds might be Cd-hyperaccumulators. In this study, we grew these species in soil containing various concentrations of Cd to further evaluate their Cd accumulation characteristics. The biomasses of C. hirsuta and G. affine decreased with increasing Cd concentrations in the soil, while the root/shoot ratio and the Cd concentrations in shoot tissues increased. The Cd concentrations in shoots of C. hirsuta and G. affine reached 121.96 and 143.91 mg kg(-1), respectively, at the soil Cd concentration of 50 mg kg(-1). Both of these concentrations exceeded the critical value of a Cd-hyperaccumulator (100 mg kg(-1)). The shoot bioconcentration factors of C. hirsuta and G. affine were greater than 1. The translocation factor of C. hirsuta was less than 1 and that of G. affine was greater than 1. These findings indicated that C. hirsuta is a Cd-accumulator and G. affine is Cd-hyperaccumulator. Both plants are distributed widely in the field, and they could be used to remediate Cd-contaminated farmland soil in winter.

  11. Detachment of affinity-captured bioparticles by elastic deformation of a macroporous hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Dainiak, Maria B.; Kumar, Ashok; Galaev, Igor Yu.; Mattiasson, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Adsorption of bioparticles to affinity surfaces involves polyvalent interactions, complicating greatly the recovery of the adsorbed material. A unique system for the efficient binding and release of different cells and particles is described. Affinity-bound bioparticles and synthetic particles are detached from the macroporous hydrogel matrix, a so-called cryogel, when the cryogel undergoes elastic deformation. The particle detachment upon elastic deformation is believed to be due to breaking of many of the multipoint attachments between the particles and the affinity matrix and the change in the distance between affinity ligands when the matrix is deformed. However, no release of affinity-bound protein occurred upon elastic deformation. The phenomenon of particle detachment upon elastic deformation is believed to be of a generic nature, because it was demonstrated for a variety of bioparticles of different sizes and for synthetic particles, for different ligand–receptor pairs (IgG–protein A, sugar–ConA, metal ion–chelating ligand), and when the deformation was caused by either external forces (mechanical deformation) or internal forces (the shrinkage of thermosensitive, macroporous hydrogel upon an increase in temperature). The elasticity of cryogel monoliths ensures high recovery of captured cells under mild conditions, with highly retained viability. This property, along with their continuous porous structure makes cryogel monoliths very attractive for applications in affinity cell separation. PMID:16418282

  12. Cyclization strategies of meditopes: affinity and diffraction studies of meditope–Fab complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Bzymek, Krzysztof P.; Ma, Yuelong; Avery, Kendra A.

    An overview of cyclization strategies of a Fab-binding peptide to maximize affinity. Recently, a unique binding site for a cyclic 12-residue peptide was discovered within a cavity formed by the light and heavy chains of the cetuximab Fab domain. In order to better understand the interactions that drive this unique complex, a number of variants including the residues within the meditope peptide and the antibody, as well as the cyclization region of the meditope peptide, were created. Here, multiple crystal structures of meditope peptides incorporating different cyclization strategies bound to the central cavity of the cetuximab Fab domain are presented.more » The affinity of each cyclic derivative for the Fab was determined by surface plasmon resonance and correlated to structural differences. Overall, it was observed that the disulfide bond used to cyclize the peptide favorably packs against a hydrophobic ‘pocket’ and that amidation and acetylation of the original disulfide meditope increased the overall affinity ∼2.3-fold. Conversely, replacing the terminal cysteines with serines and thus creating a linear peptide reduced the affinity over 50-fold, with much of this difference being reflected in a decrease in the on-rate. Other cyclization methods, including the formation of a lactam, reduced the affinity but not to the extent of the linear peptide. Collectively, the structural and kinetic data presented here indicate that small perturbations introduced by different cyclization strategies can significantly affect the affinity of the meditope–Fab complex.« less

  13. Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds by Self-assembled Monolayer Coated Sensor Array with Concentration-independent Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ye; Tang, Ning; Qu, Hemi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Daihua; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Duan, Xuexin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have modeled and analyzed affinities and kinetics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) adsorption (and desorption) on various surface chemical groups using multiple self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) functionalized film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) array. The high-frequency and micro-scale resonator provides improved sensitivity in the detections of VOCs at trace levels. With the study of affinities and kinetics, three concentration-independent intrinsic parameters (monolayer adsorption capacity, adsorption energy constant and desorption rate) of gas-surface interactions are obtained to contribute to a multi-parameter fingerprint library of VOC analytes. Effects of functional group’s properties on gas-surface interactions are also discussed. The proposed sensor array with concentration-independent fingerprint library shows potential as a portable electronic nose (e-nose) system for VOCs discrimination and gas-sensitive materials selections. PMID:27045012

  14. Gene expression analysis of microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 2 in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Erin A; Ng, Kevin W; Anderson, Christine; Hubaux, Roland; Thu, Kelsie L; Lam, Wan L; Martinez, Victor D

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and has a five-year survival rate of 18% [1]. MARK2 is a serine/threonine-protein kinase, and is a key component in the phosphorylation of microtubule-associated proteins [2], [3]. A recent study published by Hubaux et al. found that microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 2 (MARK2) showed highly frequent DNA and RNA level disruption in lung cancer cell lines and independent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cohorts [4]. These alterations result in the acquisition of oncogenic properties in cell lines, such as increased viability and anchorage-independent growth. Furthermore, a microarray-based transcriptome analysis of three short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated MARK2 knockdown lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (GEO#: GSE57966) revealed an association between MARK2 gene expression and cell cycle activation and DNA damage response. Here, we present a detailed description of transcriptome analysis to support the described role of MARK2 in promoting a malignant phenotype.

  15. 46 CFR 535.801 - Independent action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent action. 535.801 Section 535.801 Shipping... Provisions § 535.801 Independent action. (a) Each conference agreement shall specify the independent action... independent action on any rate or service item upon not more than 5 calendar days' notice to the conference...

  16. Device-independent color scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Rudolph E.

    1993-08-01

    Color calibration technology is being incorporated into both Apple and Microsoft's operating systems. These color savvy operating systems will produce a market pull towards 'smart color' scanners and printers which, in turn, will lead towards a distributed architecture for color management systems (CMS). Today's desktop scanners produce red-green-blue color signals that do not accurately describe the color of the object being scanned. Future scanners will be self-calibrating and communicate their own 'device profile' to the operating system based CMS. This paper describes some of the key technologies required for this next generation of smart color scanners. Topics covered include a comparison of colorimetric and conventional scanning technologies, and the impact of metamerism, dye fluorescence and chromatic adaptation on device independent color scanning.

  17. Generation of a pair of independently binding DNA aptamers in a single round of selection using proximity ligation.

    PubMed

    Chumphukam, O; Le, T T; Piletsky, S; Cass, A E G

    2015-05-28

    The ability to rapidly generate a pair of aptamers that bind independently to a protein target would greatly extend their use as reagents for two site ('sandwich') assays. We describe here a method to achieve this through proximity ligation. Using lysozyme as a target we demonstrate that under optimal conditions such a pair of aptamers, with nanomolar affinities, can be generated in a single round.

  18. The binding of glucose to yeast hexokinase monomers is independent of ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Mayes, E L; Hoggett, J G; Kellett, G L

    1982-05-01

    Hoggett & Kellett [Eur. J. Biochem. 66, 65-77 (1976)] have reported that the binding of glucose to the monomer of hexokinase PII isoenzyme is independent of ionic strength, in contrast to the subsequent claim of Feldman & Kramp [Biochemistry 17, 1541-1547 (1978)] that the binding is strongly dependent on ionic strength. Since measurements with native hexokinase P forms are complicated by the fact that the enzyme exists in a monomer-dimer association-dissociation equilibrium, we have now studied the binding of glucose to the proteolytically-modified S forms which are monomeric. At pH 8.5, the affinity of glucose for both SI and SII monomers is independent of salt concentration over the range of KCl concentrations 0-1.0 mol . dm-3 and is in good agreement with that of the corresponding P forms in both low and high salt. These observations confirm that the binding of glucose to hexokinase P monomers is independent of ionic strength and that the affinity of glucose for the hexokinase PII monomer is about an order of magnitude greater than that for the dimer.

  19. The binding of glucose to yeast hexokinase monomers is independent of ionic strength.

    PubMed Central

    Mayes, E L; Hoggett, J G; Kellett, G L

    1982-01-01

    Hoggett & Kellett [Eur. J. Biochem. 66, 65-77 (1976)] have reported that the binding of glucose to the monomer of hexokinase PII isoenzyme is independent of ionic strength, in contrast to the subsequent claim of Feldman & Kramp [Biochemistry 17, 1541-1547 (1978)] that the binding is strongly dependent on ionic strength. Since measurements with native hexokinase P forms are complicated by the fact that the enzyme exists in a monomer-dimer association-dissociation equilibrium, we have now studied the binding of glucose to the proteolytically-modified S forms which are monomeric. At pH 8.5, the affinity of glucose for both SI and SII monomers is independent of salt concentration over the range of KCl concentrations 0-1.0 mol . dm-3 and is in good agreement with that of the corresponding P forms in both low and high salt. These observations confirm that the binding of glucose to hexokinase P monomers is independent of ionic strength and that the affinity of glucose for the hexokinase PII monomer is about an order of magnitude greater than that for the dimer. PMID:7052060

  20. Hemoglobin–oxygen affinity in high-altitude vertebrates: is there evidence for an adaptive trend?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In air-breathing vertebrates at high altitude, fine-tuned adjustments in hemoglobin (Hb)–O2 affinity provide an energetically efficient means of mitigating the effects of arterial hypoxemia. However, it is not always clear whether an increased or decreased Hb–O2 affinity should be expected to improve tissue O2 delivery under different degrees of hypoxia, due to the inherent trade-off between arterial O2 loading and peripheral O2 unloading. Theoretical results indicate that the optimal Hb–O2 affinity varies as a non-linear function of environmental O2 availability, and the threshold elevation at which an increased Hb–O2 affinity becomes advantageous depends on the magnitude of diffusion limitation (the extent to which O2 equilibration at the blood–gas interface is limited by the kinetics of O2 exchange). This body of theory provides a framework for interpreting the possible adaptive significance of evolved changes in Hb–O2 affinity in vertebrates that have colonized high-altitude environments. To evaluate the evidence for an empirical generalization and to test theoretical predictions, I synthesized comparative data in a phylogenetic framework to assess the strength of the relationship between Hb–O2 affinity and native elevation in mammals and birds. Evidence for a general trend in mammals is equivocal, but there is a remarkably strong positive relationship between Hb–O2 affinity and native elevation in birds. Evolved changes in Hb function in high-altitude birds provide one of the most compelling examples of convergent biochemical adaptation in vertebrates. PMID:27802149

  1. Hemoglobin-oxygen affinity in high-altitude vertebrates: is there evidence for an adaptive trend?

    PubMed

    Storz, Jay F

    2016-10-15

    In air-breathing vertebrates at high altitude, fine-tuned adjustments in hemoglobin (Hb)-O 2 affinity provide an energetically efficient means of mitigating the effects of arterial hypoxemia. However, it is not always clear whether an increased or decreased Hb-O 2 affinity should be expected to improve tissue O 2 delivery under different degrees of hypoxia, due to the inherent trade-off between arterial O 2 loading and peripheral O 2 unloading. Theoretical results indicate that the optimal Hb-O 2 affinity varies as a non-linear function of environmental O 2 availability, and the threshold elevation at which an increased Hb-O 2 affinity becomes advantageous depends on the magnitude of diffusion limitation (the extent to which O 2 equilibration at the blood-gas interface is limited by the kinetics of O 2 exchange). This body of theory provides a framework for interpreting the possible adaptive significance of evolved changes in Hb-O 2 affinity in vertebrates that have colonized high-altitude environments. To evaluate the evidence for an empirical generalization and to test theoretical predictions, I synthesized comparative data in a phylogenetic framework to assess the strength of the relationship between Hb-O 2 affinity and native elevation in mammals and birds. Evidence for a general trend in mammals is equivocal, but there is a remarkably strong positive relationship between Hb-O 2 affinity and native elevation in birds. Evolved changes in Hb function in high-altitude birds provide one of the most compelling examples of convergent biochemical adaptation in vertebrates. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Multilayer affinity adsorption of albumin on polymer brushes modified membranes in a continuous-flow system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meng-Xin; Li, Xiang; Li, Ji-Nian; Huang, Jing-Jing; Ren, Ge-Rui

    2018-02-23

    Polymer brushes modified surfaces have been widely used for protein immobilization and isolation. Modification of membranes with polymer brushes increases the surface concentration of affinity ligands used for protein binding. Albumin is one of the transporting proteins and shows a high affinity to bile acids. In this work, the modified membranes with cholic acid-containing polymer brushes can be facilely prepared by the immobilization of cholic acid on the poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) grafted microporous polypropylene membranes (MPPMs) for affinity adsorption of albumin. ATR/FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the chemical composition of the modified membranes. Water contact angle measurements were used to analyze the hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties of the membrane surface. The modified MPPMs show a high affinity to albumin and have little non-specific adsorption of hemoglobin. The dynamic binding capacity of albumin in the continous-flow system increases with the cycle number and feed rate as the binding degree of cholic acid is moderate. The highest binding capacity of affinity membranes is about 52.49 g/m 2 membrane, which is about 24 times more than the monolayer binding capacity. These results reveal proteins could be captured in multilayers by the polymer brushes containing affinity ligands similar to the polymer brushes containing ion-exchange groups, which open up the potential of the polymer brushes containing affinity ligands in protein or another components separation. And the cholic acid containing polymer brushes modified membranes has the promising potential for albumin separation and purification rapidly from serum or fermented solution in medical diagnosis and bioseparation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Production and Characterization of Desmalonichrome Relative Binding Affinity for Uranyl Ions in Relation to Other Siderophores

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, Kai-For; Dai, Ziyu; Wunschel, David S.

    2016-06-24

    Siderophores are Fe binding secondary metabolites that have been investigated for their uranium binding properties. Much of the previous work has focused on characterizing hydroxamate types of siderophores, such as desferrioxamine B, for their uranyl binding affinity. Carboxylate forms of these metabolites hold potential to be more efficient chelators of uranyl, yet they have not been widely studied and are more difficult to obtain. Desmalonichrome is a carboxylate siderophore which is not commercially available and so was obtained from the ascomycete fungus Fusarium oxysporum cultivated under Fe depleted conditions. The relative affinity for uranyl binding of desmalonichrome was investigated usingmore » a competitive analysis of binding affinities between uranyl acetate and different concentrations of iron(III) chloride using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In addition to desmalonichrome, three other siderophores, including two hydroxamates (desferrioxamine B and desferrichrome) and one carboxylate (desferrichrome A) were studied to understand their relative affinities for the uranyl ion at two pH values. The binding affinities of hydroxymate siderophores to uranyl ion were found to decrease to a greater degree at lower pH as the concentration of Fe (III) ion increases. On the other hand, lowering pH has little impact on the binding affinities between carboxylate siderophores and uranyl ion. Desmalonichrome was shown to have the greatest relative affinity for uranyl at any pH and Fe(III) concentration. These results suggest that acidic functional groups in the ligands are critical for strong chelation with uranium at lower pH.« less

  4. Temporal Hierarchy of Gene Expression Mediated by Transcription Factor Binding Affinity and Activation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding cellular responses to environmental stimuli requires not only the knowledge of specific regulatory components but also the quantitative characterization of the magnitude and timing of regulatory events. The two-component system is one of the major prokaryotic signaling schemes and is the focus of extensive interest in quantitative modeling and investigation of signaling dynamics. Here we report how the binding affinity of the PhoB two-component response regulator (RR) to target promoters impacts the level and timing of expression of PhoB-regulated genes. Information content has often been used to assess the degree of conservation for transcription factor (TF)-binding sites. We show that increasing the information content of PhoB-binding sites in designed phoA promoters increased the binding affinity and that the binding affinity and concentration of phosphorylated PhoB (PhoB~P) together dictate the level and timing of expression of phoA promoter variants. For various PhoB-regulated promoters with distinct promoter architectures, expression levels appear not to be correlated with TF-binding affinities, in contrast to the intuitive and oversimplified assumption that promoters with higher affinity for a TF tend to have higher expression levels. However, the expression timing of the core set of PhoB-regulated genes correlates well with the binding affinity of PhoB~P to individual promoters and the temporal hierarchy of gene expression appears to be related to the function of gene products during the phosphate starvation response. Modulation of the information content and binding affinity of TF-binding sites may be a common strategy for temporal programming of the expression profile of RR-regulated genes. PMID:26015501

  5. Analysis of Structural Features Contributing to Weak Affinities of Ubiquitin/Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ariel; Rosenthal, Eran; Shifman, Julia M

    2017-11-10

    Ubiquitin is a small protein that enables one of the most common post-translational modifications, where the whole ubiquitin molecule is attached to various target proteins, forming mono- or polyubiquitin conjugations. As a prototypical multispecific protein, ubiquitin interacts non-covalently with a variety of proteins in the cell, including ubiquitin-modifying enzymes and ubiquitin receptors that recognize signals from ubiquitin-conjugated substrates. To enable recognition of multiple targets and to support fast dissociation from the ubiquitin modifying enzymes, ubiquitin/protein interactions are characterized with low affinities, frequently in the higher μM and lower mM range. To determine how structure encodes low binding affinity of ubiquitin/protein complexes, we analyzed structures of more than a hundred such complexes compiled in the Ubiquitin Structural Relational Database. We calculated various structure-based features of ubiquitin/protein binding interfaces and compared them to the same features of general protein-protein interactions (PPIs) with various functions and generally higher affinities. Our analysis shows that ubiquitin/protein binding interfaces on average do not differ in size and shape complementarity from interfaces of higher-affinity PPIs. However, they contain fewer favorable hydrogen bonds and more unfavorable hydrophobic/charge interactions. We further analyzed how binding interfaces change upon affinity maturation of ubiquitin toward its target proteins. We demonstrate that while different features are improved in different experiments, the majority of the evolved complexes exhibit better shape complementarity and hydrogen bond pattern compared to wild-type complexes. Our analysis helps to understand how low-affinity PPIs have evolved and how they could be converted into high-affinity PPIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Robust feature matching via support-line voting and affine-invariant ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiayuan; Hu, Qingwu; Ai, Mingyao; Zhong, Ruofei

    2017-10-01

    Robust image matching is crucial for many applications of remote sensing and photogrammetry, such as image fusion, image registration, and change detection. In this paper, we propose a robust feature matching method based on support-line voting and affine-invariant ratios. We first use popular feature matching algorithms, such as SIFT, to obtain a set of initial matches. A support-line descriptor based on multiple adaptive binning gradient histograms is subsequently applied in the support-line voting stage to filter outliers. In addition, we use affine-invariant ratios computed by a two-line structure to refine the matching results and estimate the local affine transformation. The local affine model is more robust to distortions caused by elevation differences than the global affine transformation, especially for high-resolution remote sensing images and UAV images. Thus, the proposed method is suitable for both rigid and non-rigid image matching problems. Finally, we extract as many high-precision correspondences as possible based on the local affine extension and build a grid-wise affine model for remote sensing image registration. We compare the proposed method with six state-of-the-art algorithms on several data sets and show that our method significantly outperforms the other methods. The proposed method achieves 94.46% average precision on 15 challenging remote sensing image pairs, while the second-best method, RANSAC, only achieves 70.3%. In addition, the number of detected correct matches of the proposed method is approximately four times the number of initial SIFT matches.

  7. Preprototype independent air revitalization subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hallick, T. M.; Woods, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The performance and maturity of a preprototype, three-person capacity, automatically controlled and monitored, self-contained independent air revitalization subsystem were evaluated. The subsystem maintains the cabin partial pressure of oxygen at 22 kPa (3.2 psia) and that of carbon dioxide at 400 Pa (3 mm Hg) over a wide range of cabin air relative humidity conditions. Consumption of water vapor by the water vapor electrolysis module also provides partial humidity control of the cabin environment. During operation, the average carbon dioxide removal efficiency at baseline conditions remained constant throughout the test at 84%. The average electrochemical depolarized concentrator cell voltage at the end of the parametric/endurance test was 0.41 V, representing a very slowly decreasing average cell voltage. The average water vapor electrolysis cell voltage increased only at a rate of 20 mu/h from the initial level of 1.67 V to the final level of 1.69 V at conclusion of the testing.

  8. Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. "The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains," said Max Bonamente from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala., lead author on the paper describing the results. "Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations." Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances. The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance. Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion

  9. Paternal genetic affinity between western Austronesians and Daic populations

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Austronesian is a linguistic family spread in most areas of the Southeast Asia, the Pacific Ocean, and the Indian Ocean. Based on their linguistic similarity, this linguistic family included Malayo-Polynesians and Taiwan aborigines. The linguistic similarity also led to the controversial hypothesis that Taiwan is the homeland of all the Malayo-Polynesians, a hypothesis that has been debated by ethnologists, linguists, archaeologists, and geneticists. It is well accepted that the Eastern Austronesians (Micronesians and Polynesians) derived from the Western Austronesians (Island Southeast Asians and Taiwanese), and that the Daic populations on the mainland are supposed to be the headstream of all the Austronesian populations. Results In this report, we studied 20 SNPs and 7 STRs in the non-recombining region of the 1,509 Y chromosomes from 30 China Daic populations, 23 Indonesian and Vietnam Malayo-Polynesian populations, and 11 Taiwan aboriginal populations. These three groups show many resemblances in paternal lineages. Admixture analyses demonstrated that the Daic populations are hardly influenced by Han Chinese genetically, and that they make up the largest proportion of Indonesians. Most of the population samples contain a high frequency of haplogroup O1a-M119, which is nearly absent in other ethnic families. The STR network of haplogroup O1a* illustrated that Indonesian lineages did not derive from Taiwan aborigines as linguistic studies suggest, but from Daic populations. Conclusion We show that, in contrast to the Taiwan homeland hypothesis, the Island Southeast Asians do not have a Taiwan origin based on their paternal lineages. Furthermore, we show that both Taiwan aborigines and Indonesians likely derived from the Daic populations based on their paternal lineages. These two populations seem to have evolved independently of each other. Our results indicate that a super-phylum, which includes Taiwan aborigines, Daic, and Malayo-Polynesians, is

  10. Paternal genetic affinity between Western Austronesians and Daic populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Wen, Bo; Chen, Shu-Juo; Su, Bing; Pramoonjago, Patcharin; Liu, Yangfan; Pan, Shangling; Qin, Zhendong; Liu, Wenhong; Cheng, Xu; Yang, Ningning; Li, Xin; Tran, Dinhbinh; Lu, Daru; Hsu, Mu-Tsu; Deka, Ranjan; Marzuki, Sangkot; Tan, Chia-Chen; Jin, Li

    2008-05-15

    Austronesian is a linguistic family spread in most areas of the Southeast Asia, the Pacific Ocean, and the Indian Ocean. Based on their linguistic similarity, this linguistic family included Malayo-Polynesians and Taiwan aborigines. The linguistic similarity also led to the controversial hypothesis that Taiwan is the homeland of all the Malayo-Polynesians, a hypothesis that has been debated by ethnologists, linguists, archaeologists, and geneticists. It is well accepted that the Eastern Austronesians (Micronesians and Polynesians) derived from the Western Austronesians (Island Southeast Asians and Taiwanese), and that the Daic populations on the mainland are supposed to be the headstream of all the Austronesian populations. In this report, we studied 20 SNPs and 7 STRs in the non-recombining region of the 1,509 Y chromosomes from 30 China Daic populations, 23 Indonesian and Vietnam Malayo-Polynesian populations, and 11 Taiwan aboriginal populations. These three groups show many resemblances in paternal lineages. Admixture analyses demonstrated that the Daic populations are hardly influenced by Han Chinese genetically, and that they make up the largest proportion of Indonesians. Most of the population samples contain a high frequency of haplogroup O1a-M119, which is nearly absent in other ethnic families. The STR network of haplogroup O1a* illustrated that Indonesian lineages did not derive from Taiwan aborigines as linguistic studies suggest, but from Daic populations. We show that, in contrast to the Taiwan homeland hypothesis, the Island Southeast Asians do not have a Taiwan origin based on their paternal lineages. Furthermore, we show that both Taiwan aborigines and Indonesians likely derived from the Daic populations based on their paternal lineages. These two populations seem to have evolved independently of each other. Our results indicate that a super-phylum, which includes Taiwan aborigines, Daic, and Malayo-Polynesians, is genetically educible.

  11. Opposing Intermolecular Tuning of Ca2+ Affinity for Calmodulin by Neurogranin and CaMKII Peptides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengzhi; Tripathi, Swarnendu; Trinh, Hoa; Cheung, Margaret S

    2017-03-28

    We investigated the impact of bound calmodulin (CaM)-target compound structure on the affinity of calcium (Ca 2+ ) by integrating coarse-grained models and all-atomistic simulations with nonequilibrium physics. We focused on binding between CaM and two specific targets, Ca 2+ /CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and neurogranin (Ng), as they both regulate CaM-dependent Ca 2+ signaling pathways in neurons. It was shown experimentally that Ca 2+ /CaM (holoCaM) binds to the CaMKII peptide with overwhelmingly higher affinity than Ca 2+ -free CaM (apoCaM); the binding of CaMKII peptide to CaM in return increases the Ca 2+ affinity for CaM. However, this reciprocal relation was not observed in the Ng peptide (Ng 13-49 ), which binds to apoCaM or holoCaM with binding affinities of the same order of magnitude. Unlike the holoCaM-CaMKII peptide, whose structure can be determined by crystallography, the structural description of the apoCaM-Ng 13-49 is unknown due to low binding affinity, therefore we computationally generated an ensemble of apoCaM-Ng 13-49 structures by matching the changes in the chemical shifts of CaM upon Ng 13-49 binding from nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. Next, we computed the changes in Ca 2+ affinity for CaM with and without binding targets in atomistic models using Jarzynski's equality. We discovered the molecular underpinnings of lowered affinity of Ca 2+ for CaM in the presence of Ng 13-49 by showing that the N-terminal acidic region of Ng peptide pries open the β-sheet structure between the Ca 2+ binding loops particularly at C-domain of CaM, enabling Ca 2+ release. In contrast, CaMKII peptide increases Ca 2+ affinity for the C-domain of CaM by stabilizing the two Ca 2+ binding loops. We speculate that the distinctive structural difference in the bound complexes of apoCaM-Ng 13-49 and holoCaM-CaMKII delineates the importance of CaM's progressive mechanism of target binding on its Ca 2+ binding affinities. Copyright © 2017

  12. Facile Affinity Maturation of Antibody Variable Domains Using Natural Diversity Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tiller, Kathryn E.; Chowdhury, Ratul; Li, Tong; Ludwig, Seth D.; Sen, Sabyasachi; Maranas, Costas D.; Tessier, Peter M.

    2017-01-01

    The identification of mutations that enhance antibody affinity while maintaining high antibody specificity and stability is a time-consuming and laborious process. Here, we report an efficient methodology for systematically and rapidly enhancing the affinity of antibody variable domains while maximizing specificity and stability using novel synthetic antibody libraries. Our approach first uses computational and experimental alanine scanning mutagenesis to identify sites in the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) that are permissive to mutagenesis while maintaining antigen binding. Next, we mutagenize the most permissive CDR positions using degenerate codons to encode wild-type residues and a small number of the most frequently occurring residues at each CDR position based on natural antibody diversity. This mutagenesis approach results in antibody libraries with variants that have a wide range of numbers of CDR mutations, including antibody domains with single mutations and others with tens of mutations. Finally, we sort the modest size libraries (~10 million variants) displayed on the surface of yeast to identify CDR mutations with the greatest increases in affinity. Importantly, we find that single-domain (VHH) antibodies specific for the α-synuclein protein (whose aggregation is associated with Parkinson’s disease) with the greatest gains in affinity (>5-fold) have several (four to six) CDR mutations. This finding highlights the importance of sampling combinations of CDR mutations during the first step of affinity maturation to maximize the efficiency of the process. Interestingly, we find that some natural diversity mutations simultaneously enhance all three key antibody properties (affinity, specificity, and stability) while other mutations enhance some of these properties (e.g., increased specificity) and display trade-offs in others (e.g., reduced affinity and/or stability). Computational modeling reveals that improvements in affinity are generally

  13. Tuning the Protein Corona of Hydrogel Nanoparticles: The Synthesis of Abiotic Protein and Peptide Affinity Reagents.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jeffrey; Shea, Kenneth J

    2016-06-21

    Nanomaterials, when introduced into a complex, protein-rich environment, rapidly acquire a protein corona. The type and amount of proteins that constitute the corona depend significantly on the synthetic identity of the nanomaterial. For example, hydrogel nanoparticles (NPs) such as poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (NIPAm) have little affinity for plasma proteins; in contrast, carboxylated poly(styrene) NPs acquire a dense protein corona. This range of protein adsorption suggests that the protein corona might be "tuned" by controlling the chemical composition of the NP. In this Account, we demonstrate that small libraries of synthetic polymer NPs incorporating a diverse pool of functional monomers can be screened for candidates with high affinity and selectivity to targeted biomacromolecules. Through directed synthetic evolution of NP compositions, one can tailor the protein corona to create synthetic organic hydrogel polymer NPs with high affinity and specificity to peptide toxins, enzymes, and other functional proteins, as well as to specific domains of large proteins. In addition, many NIPAm NPs undergo a change in morphology as a function of temperature. This transformation often correlates with a significant change in NP-biomacromolecule affinity, resulting in a temperature-dependent protein corona. This temperature dependence has been used to develop NP hydrogels with autonomous affinity switching for the protection of proteins from thermal stress and as a method of biomacromolecule purification through a selective thermally induced catch and release. In addition to temperature, changes in pH or buffer can also alter a NP protein corona composition, a property that has been exploited for protein purification. Finally, synthetic polymer nanoparticles with low nanomolar affinity for a peptide toxin were shown to capture and neutralize the toxin in the bloodstream of living mice. While the development of synthetic polymer alternatives to protein affinity reagents is

  14. CHL1 is a dual-affinity nitrate transporter of Arabidopsis involved in multiple phases of nitrate uptake.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, K H; Huang, C Y; Tsay, Y F

    1999-01-01

    Higher plants have both high- and low-affinity nitrate uptake systems. These systems are generally thought to be genetically distinct. Here, we demonstrate that a well-known low-affinity nitrate uptake mutant of Arabidopsis, chl1, is also defective in high-affinity nitrate uptake. Two to 3 hr after nitrate induction, uptake activities of various chl1 mutants at 250 microM nitrate (a high-affinity concentration) were only 18 to 30% of those of wild-type plants. In these mutants, both the inducible phase and the constitutive phase of high-affinity nitrate uptake activities were reduced, with the inducible phase being severely reduced. Expressing a CHL1 cDNA driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in a transgenic chl1 plant effectively recovered the defect in high-affinity uptake for the constitutive phase but not for the induced phase, which is consistent with the constitutive level of CHL1 expression in the transgenic plant. Kinetic analysis of nitrate uptake by CHL1-injected Xenopus oocytes displayed a biphasic pattern with a Michaelis-Menten Km value of approximately 50 microM for the high-affinity phase and approximately 4 mM for the low-affinity phase. These results indicate that in addition to being a low-affinity nitrate transporter, as previously recognized, CHL1 is also involved in both the inducible and constitutive phases of high-affinity nitrate uptake in Arabidopsis. PMID:10330471

  15. Hooking horseradish peroxidase by using the affinity Langmuir-Blodgett technique for an oriented immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ye; Ling-Ling, Hu; Yu-Zhi, Du; Yong-Juan, Xu; Hua-Gang, Ni; Cong, Chen; Xiao-Lin, Lu; Xiao-Jun, Huang

    2017-05-01

    A novel method of oriented immobilization was presented: affinity Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. Firstly, a long carbon chain was bond to a ligand of Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP). The ligand derivative appears surface activity with the hydrophobic carbon chain oriented to air and the hydrophilic ligand faced to water. Then, this derivative was put onto the water/air surface to assemble a LB film and formed the affinity interaction with the active site of HRP. After that, the affinity LB film with the enzyme was transferred onto the support to obtain the oriented immobilized HRP. The specific activity of HRP immobilized by affinity LB (182.1 ± 14 U/mg) was higher than that by adsorption (40.5 ± 5 U/mg). HRP immobilized by affinity LB could maintain a more native conformation, compared to that by adsorption. This method could be effectively used to immobilize protein with orientation and show widely promising applications in many fields including biosensor and bioreactor.

  16. Quantifying domain-ligand affinities and specificities by high-throughput holdup assay

    PubMed Central

    Vincentelli, Renaud; Luck, Katja; Poirson, Juline; Polanowska, Jolanta; Abdat, Julie; Blémont, Marilyne; Turchetto, Jeremy; Iv, François; Ricquier, Kevin; Straub, Marie-Laure; Forster, Anne; Cassonnet, Patricia; Borg, Jean-Paul; Jacob, Yves; Masson, Murielle; Nominé, Yves; Reboul, Jérôme; Wolff, Nicolas; Charbonnier, Sebastian; Travé, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Many protein interactions are mediated by small linear motifs interacting specifically with defined families of globular domains. Quantifying the specificity of a motif requires measuring and comparing its binding affinities to all its putative target domains. To this aim, we developed the high-throughput holdup assay, a chromatographic approach that can measure up to a thousand domain-motif equilibrium binding affinities per day. Extracts of overexpressed domains are incubated with peptide-coated resins and subjected to filtration. Binding affinities are deduced from microfluidic capillary electrophoresis of flow-throughs. After benchmarking the approach on 210 PDZ-peptide pairs with known affinities, we determined the affinities of two viral PDZ-binding motifs derived from Human Papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins for 209 PDZ domains covering 79% of the human PDZome. We obtained exquisite sequence-dependent binding profiles, describing quantitatively the PDZome recognition specificity of each motif. This approach, applicable to many categories of domain-ligand interactions, has a wide potential for quantifying the specificities of interactomes. PMID:26053890

  17. How Much Binding Affinity Can be Gained by Filling a Cavity?

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Yuko; Chufan, Eduardo E.; Lafont, Virginie; Hidaka, Koushi; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Amzel, L. Mario; Freire, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Binding affinity optimization is critical during drug development. Here we evaluate the thermodynamic consequences of filling a binding cavity with functionalities of increasing van der Waals radii (-H, -F, -Cl and CH3) that improve the geometric fit without participating in hydrogen bonding or other specific interactions. We observe a binding affinity increase of two orders of magnitude. There appears to be three phases in the process. The first phase is associated with the formation of stable van der Waals interactions. This phase is characterized by a gain in binding enthalpy and a loss in binding entropy, attributed to a loss of conformational degrees of freedom. For the specific case presented in this paper, the enthalpy gain amounts to −1.5 kcal/mol while the entropic losses amount to +0.9 kcal/mol resulting in a net 3.5-fold affinity gain. The second phase is characterized by simultaneous enthalpic and entropic gains. This phase improves the binding affinity 25-fold. The third phase represents the collapse of the trend and is triggered by the introduction of chemical functionalities larger than the binding cavity itself (CH(CH3)2). It is characterized by large enthalpy and affinity losses. The thermodynamic signatures associated with each phase provide guidelines for lead optimization. PMID:20028396

  18. Evaluation of protein-ligand affinity prediction using steered molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Okimoto, Noriaki; Suenaga, Atsushi; Taiji, Makoto

    2017-11-01

    In computational drug design, ranking a series of compound analogs in a manner that is consistent with experimental affinities remains a challenge. In this study, we evaluated the prediction of protein-ligand binding affinities using steered molecular dynamics simulations. First, we investigated the appropriate conditions for accurate predictions in these simulations. A conic harmonic restraint was applied to the system for efficient sampling of work values on the ligand unbinding pathway. We found that pulling velocity significantly influenced affinity predictions, but that the number of collectable trajectories was less influential. We identified the appropriate pulling velocity and collectable trajectories for binding affinity predictions as 1.25 Å/ns and 100, respectively, and these parameters were used to evaluate three target proteins (FK506 binding protein, trypsin, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2). For these proteins using our parameters, the accuracy of affinity prediction was higher and more stable when Jarzynski's equality was employed compared with the second-order cumulant expansion equation of Jarzynski's equality. Our results showed that steered molecular dynamics simulations are effective for predicting the rank order of ligands; thus, they are a potential tool for compound selection in hit-to-lead and lead optimization processes.

  19. IA-2 autoantibody affinity in children at risk for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Stephanie; Chmiel, Ruth; Bonifacio, Ezio; Scholz, Marlon; Powell, Michael; Furmaniak, Jadwiga; Rees Smith, Bernard; Ziegler, Anette-G; Achenbach, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Autoantibodies to insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2A) are associated with increased risk for type 1 diabetes. Here we examined IA-2A affinity and epitope specificity to assess heterogeneity in response intensity in relation to pathogenesis and diabetes risk in 50 children who were prospectively followed from birth. At first IA-2A appearance, affinity ranged from 10(7) to 10(11)L/mol and was high (>1.0×10(9)L/mol) in 41 (82%) children. IA-2A affinity was not associated with epitope specificity or HLA class II haplotype. On follow-up, affinity increased or remained high, and IA-2A were commonly against epitopes within the protein tyrosine phosphatase-like IA-2 domain and the homologue protein IA-2β. IA-2A were preceded or accompanied by other islet autoantibodies in 49 (98%) children, of which 34 progressed to diabetes. IA-2A affinity did not stratify diabetes risk. In conclusion, the IA-2A response in children is intense with rapid maturation against immunogenic epitopes and a strong association with diabetes development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Alkali Metal Cation versus Proton and Methyl Cation Affinities: Structure and Bonding Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Boughlala, Zakaria; Fonseca Guerra, Célia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We have analyzed the structure and bonding of gas‐phase Cl−X and [HCl−X]+ complexes for X+= H+, CH3 +, Li+, and Na+, using relativistic density functional theory (DFT). We wish to establish a quantitative trend in affinities of the anionic and neutral Lewis bases Cl− and HCl for the various cations. The Cl−X bond becomes longer and weaker along X+ = H+, CH3 +, Li+, and Na+. Our main purpose is to understand the heterolytic bonding mechanism behind the intrinsic (i.e., in the absence of solvent) alkali metal cation affinities (AMCA) and how this compares with and differs from those of the proton affinity (PA) and methyl cation affinity (MCA). Our analyses are based on Kohn–Sham molecular orbital (KS‐MO) theory in combination with a quantitative energy decomposition analysis (EDA) that pinpoints the importance of the different features in the bonding mechanism. Orbital overlap appears to play an important role in determining the trend in cation affinities. PMID:27551660