Science.gov

Sample records for zip code area

  1. Manifestations of poverty and birthrates among young teenagers in California zip code areas.

    PubMed

    Kirby, D; Coyle, K; Gould, J B

    2001-01-01

    Given that many communities are implementing community-wide initiatives to reduce teenage pregnancy or childbearing, it is important to understand the effects of a community's characteristics on adolescent birthrates. Data from the 1990 census and from California birth certificates were obtained for zip codes in California. Regression analyses were conducted on data from zip code areas with at least 200 females aged 15-17 between 1991 and 1996, to predict the effects of race and ethnicity marital status, education, employment, income and poverty, and housing on birthrates among young teenagers. In bivariate analyses, the proportion of families living below poverty level within a zip code was highly related to the birthrate among young teenagers in that zip code (r=.80, p<.001). In multivariate analyses, which controlled for some of the correlates of family poverty level, the proportion of families living below poverty level remained by far the most important predictor of the birthrate among young teenagers (b=1.54), followed by the proportion of adults aged 25 or older who have a college education (b=-0.80). Race and ethnicity were only weakly related to birthrate. In all three racial and ethnic groups, poverty and education were significantly related to birthrate, but the effect of college education was greater among Hispanics (b=-2.98) than among either non-Hispanic whites (b=-0.53) or blacks (b=-1.12). Male employment and unemployment and female unemployment were highly related to the birthrate among young teenagers in some racial or ethnic groups, but not in others. Multiple manifestations of poverty, including poverty itself, low levels of education and employment, and high levels of unemployment, may have a large impact upon birthrates among young teenagers. Addressing some of these issues could substantially reduce childbearing among young adolescents.

  2. Generating Health Estimates by Zip Code: A Semiparametric Small Area Estimation Approach Using the California Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yueyan; Ponce, Ninez A; Wang, Pan; Opsomer, Jean D; Yu, Hongjian

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method to meet challenges in generating health estimates for granular geographic areas in which the survey sample size is extremely small. Our generalized linear mixed model predicts health outcomes using both individual-level and neighborhood-level predictors. The model's feature of nonparametric smoothing function on neighborhood-level variables better captures the association between neighborhood environment and the outcome. Using 2011 to 2012 data from the California Health Interview Survey, we demonstrate an empirical application of this method to estimate the fraction of residents without health insurance for Zip Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs). Our method generated stable estimates of uninsurance for 1519 of 1765 ZCTAs (86%) in California. For some areas with great socioeconomic diversity across adjacent neighborhoods, such as Los Angeles County, the modeled uninsured estimates revealed much heterogeneity among geographically adjacent ZCTAs. The proposed method can increase the value of health surveys by providing modeled estimates for health data at a granular geographic level. It can account for variations in health outcomes at the neighborhood level as a result of both socioeconomic characteristics and geographic locations.

  3. Changing Postal ZIP Code Boundaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-23

    the nine postal areas from John E. Potter (now CRS-5 Postmaster General, then senior vice president for operations) and Deborah Wilhite, senior vice...accommodations were reached in 64% of the first 28 reviews to be completed.10 Steve Burkholder , mayor of Lakewood, CO, and point person for the

  4. Using ZIP Code Business Patterns Data to Measure Alcohol Outlet Density

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Stephen A.; McCarthy, John D.; Rafail, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    Some states maintain high-quality alcohol outlet databases but quality varies by state, making comprehensive comparative analysis across US communities difficult. This study assesses the adequacy of using ZIP Code Business Patterns (ZIP-BP) data on establishments as estimates of the number of alcohol outlets by ZIP code. Specifically we compare ZIP-BP alcohol outlet counts with high-quality data from state and local records surrounding 44 college campus communities across 10 states plus the District of Columbia. Results show that a composite measure is strongly correlated (R=0.89) with counts of alcohol outlets generated from official state records. Analyses based on Generalized Estimation Equation models show that community and contextual factors have little impact on the concordance between the two data sources. There are also minimal inter-state differences in the level of agreement. To validate the use of a convenient secondary data set (ZIP-BP) it is important to have a high correlation with the more complex, high quality and more costly data product (i.e., datasets based on the acquisition and geocoding of state and local records) and then to clearly demonstrate that the discrepancy between the two to be unrelated to relevant explanatory variables. Thus our overall findings support the adequacy of using a conveniently available data set (ZIP-BP data) to estimate alcohol outlet densities in ZIP code areas in future research. PMID:21411233

  5. Using ZIP code business patterns data to measure alcohol outlet density.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Stephen A; McCarthy, John D; Rafail, Patrick S

    2011-07-01

    Some states maintain high-quality alcohol outlet databases but quality varies by state, making comprehensive comparative analysis across US communities difficult. This study assesses the adequacy of using ZIP Code Business Patterns (ZIP-BP) data on establishments as estimates of the number of alcohol outlets by ZIP code. Specifically we compare ZIP-BP alcohol outlet counts with high-quality data from state and local records surrounding 44 college campus communities across 10 states plus the District of Columbia. Results show that a composite measure is strongly correlated (R=0.89) with counts of alcohol outlets generated from official state records. Analyses based on Generalized Estimation Equation models show that community and contextual factors have little impact on the concordance between the two data sources. There are also minimal inter-state differences in the level of agreement. To validate the use of a convenient secondary data set (ZIP-BP) it is important to have a high correlation with the more complex, high quality and more costly data product (i.e., datasets based on the acquisition and geocoding of state and local records) and then to clearly demonstrate that the discrepancy between the two to be unrelated to relevant explanatory variables. Thus our overall findings support the adequacy of using a conveniently available data set (ZIP-BP data) to estimate alcohol outlet densities in ZIP code areas in future research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficient Proximity Computation Techniques Using ZIP Code Data for Smart Cities †

    PubMed Central

    Murdani, Muhammad Harist; Hong, Bonghee

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in computing ZIP code proximity from two perspectives, proximity between two ZIP codes (Ad-Hoc) and neighborhood proximity (Top-K). Such a computation can be used for ZIP code-based target marketing as one of the smart city applications. A naïve approach to this computation is the usage of the distance between ZIP codes. We redefine a distance metric combining the centroid distance with the intersecting road network between ZIP codes by using a weighted sum method. Furthermore, we prove that the results of our combined approach conform to the characteristics of distance measurement. We have proposed a general and heuristic approach for computing Ad-Hoc proximity, while for computing Top-K proximity, we have proposed a general approach only. Our experimental results indicate that our approaches are verifiable and effective in reducing the execution time and search space. PMID:29587366

  7. Efficient Proximity Computation Techniques Using ZIP Code Data for Smart Cities †.

    PubMed

    Murdani, Muhammad Harist; Kwon, Joonho; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Hong, Bonghee

    2018-03-24

    In this paper, we are interested in computing ZIP code proximity from two perspectives, proximity between two ZIP codes ( Ad-Hoc ) and neighborhood proximity ( Top-K ). Such a computation can be used for ZIP code-based target marketing as one of the smart city applications. A naïve approach to this computation is the usage of the distance between ZIP codes. We redefine a distance metric combining the centroid distance with the intersecting road network between ZIP codes by using a weighted sum method. Furthermore, we prove that the results of our combined approach conform to the characteristics of distance measurement. We have proposed a general and heuristic approach for computing Ad-Hoc proximity, while for computing Top-K proximity, we have proposed a general approach only. Our experimental results indicate that our approaches are verifiable and effective in reducing the execution time and search space.

  8. Services provided by community pharmacies in Wayne County, Michigan: a comparison by ZIP code characteristics.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Steven R; Workman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    To document the availability of selected pharmacy services and out-of-pocket cost of medication throughout a diverse county in Michigan and to assess possible associations between availability of services and price of medication and characteristics of residents of the ZIP codes in which the pharmacies were located. Cross-sectional telephone survey of pharmacies coupled with ZIP code-level census data. 503 pharmacies throughout the 63 ZIP codes of Wayne County, MI. The out-of-pocket cost for a 30 days' supply of levothyroxine 50 mcg and brand-name atorvastatin (Lipitor-Pfizer) 20 mg, availability of discount generic drug programs, home delivery of medications, hours of pharmacy operation, and availability of pharmacy-based immunization services. Census data aggregated at the ZIP code level included race, annual household income, age, and number of residents per pharmacy. The overall results per ZIP code showed that the average cost for levothyroxine was $10.01 ± $2.29 and $140.45 + $14.70 for Lipitor. Per ZIP code, the mean (± SD) percentages of pharmacies offering discount generic drug programs was 66.9% ± 15.0%; home delivery of medications was 44.5% ± 22.7%; and immunization for influenza was 46.7% ± 24.3% of pharmacies. The mean (± SD) hours of operation per pharmacy per ZIP code was 67.0 ± 25.2. ZIP codes with higher household income as well as higher percentage of residents being white had lower levothyroxine price, greater percentage of pharmacies offering discount generic drug programs, more hours of operation per week, and more pharmacy-based immunization services. The cost of Lipitor was not associated with any ZIP code characteristic. Disparities in the cost of generic levothyroxine, the availability of services such as discount generic drug programs, hours of operation, and pharmacy-based immunization services are evident based on race and household income within this diverse metropolitan county.

  9. Computing travel time when the exact address is unknown: a comparison of point and polygon ZIP code approximation methods.

    PubMed

    Berke, Ethan M; Shi, Xun

    2009-04-29

    Travel time is an important metric of geographic access to health care. We compared strategies of estimating travel times when only subject ZIP code data were available. Using simulated data from New Hampshire and Arizona, we estimated travel times to nearest cancer centers by using: 1) geometric centroid of ZIP code polygons as origins, 2) population centroids as origin, 3) service area rings around each cancer center, assigning subjects to rings by assuming they are evenly distributed within their ZIP code, 4) service area rings around each center, assuming the subjects follow the population distribution within the ZIP code. We used travel times based on street addresses as true values to validate estimates. Population-based methods have smaller errors than geometry-based methods. Within categories (geometry or population), centroid and service area methods have similar errors. Errors are smaller in urban areas than in rural areas. Population-based methods are superior to the geometry-based methods, with the population centroid method appearing to be the best choice for estimating travel time. Estimates in rural areas are less reliable.

  10. Why Your ZIP Code Matters More Than Your Genetic Code: Promoting Healthy Outcomes from Mother to Child.

    PubMed

    Graham, Garth N

    2016-10-01

    Health equity has long been the dominant theme in the work of the Aetna Foundation. Recent data have focused on disparities through another lens, particularly the correlation between where people live (i.e., ZIP code) and their quality-and length-of life. In various cities across America, average life expectancies in certain communities are 20-30 years shorter than those mere miles away. In general, health disparities are founded on a complex interplay of racial, economic, educational, and other social factors. For example, breastfeeding rates in the United States differ significantly depending upon the race and income of the mother. Government policy makers are acutely aware of these disparities, but recent health system reforms have focused predominately on the processes used to administer, finance, and deliver care. What is needed is an approach that considers the health and wellness of all people in a geographic area, beyond established patients, and that measures more than clinical factors-such as genetics, environmental health, social circumstances, and individual behaviors. Solutions also must extend beyond the traditional healthcare arena. In particular, novel technological innovations show promise to bridge gaps between our healthcare capabilities and the needs of underserved populations. Digital tools are poised to revolutionize measurement, diagnostics, treatment, and global aspect of our healthcare system. The Aetna Foundation views technology as a core strategy in reducing health inequities through an approach that addresses both clinical and social factors in populations to dismantle the persistent paradigm of ZIP code as personal health destiny.

  11. 77 FR 18716 - Transportation Security Administration Postal Zip Code Change; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... organizational changes and it has no substantive effect on the public. DATES: Effective March 28, 2012. FOR... No. 1572-9] Transportation Security Administration Postal Zip Code Change; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule is a technical change to...

  12. Determining Market Categorization of United States Zip Codes for Purposes of Army Recruiting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited DETERMINING MARKET ...2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DETERMINING MARKET CATEGORIZATION OF UNITED STATES ZIP CODES FOR...Army uses commercial market segmentation data to analyze markets and past accessions to assign recruiters and quotas to maximize production. We use

  13. Bias with respect to socioeconomic status: A closer look at zip code matching in a pneumococcal vaccine effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Link-Gelles, Ruth; Westreich, Daniel; Aiello, Allison E; Shang, Nong; Weber, David J; Holtzman, Corinne; Scherzinger, Karen; Reingold, Arthur; Schaffner, William; Harrison, Lee H; Rosen, Jennifer B; Petit, Susan; Farley, Monica; Thomas, Ann; Eason, Jeffrey; Wigen, Christine; Barnes, Meghan; Thomas, Ola; Zansky, Shelley; Beall, Bernard; Whitney, Cynthia G; Moore, Matthew R

    2016-12-01

    In 2010, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was introduced in the US for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease in children. Individual-level socioeconomic status (SES) is a potential confounder of the estimated effectiveness of PCV13 and is often controlled for in observational studies using zip code as a proxy. We assessed the utility of zip code matching for control of SES in a post-licensure evaluation of the effectiveness of PCV13 (calculated as [1-matched odds ratio]*100). We used a directed acyclic graph to identify subsets of confounders and collected SES variables from birth certificates, geo-coding, a parent interview, and follow-up with medical providers. Cases tended to be more affluent than eligible controls (for example, 48.3% of cases had private insurance vs. 44.6% of eligible controls), but less affluent than enrolled controls (52.9% of whom had private insurance). Control of confounding subsets, however, did not result in a meaningful change in estimated vaccine effectiveness (original estimate: 85.1%, 95% CI 74.8-91.9%; adjusted estimate: 82.5%, 95% CI 65.6-91.1%). In the context of a post-licensure vaccine effectiveness study, zip code appears to be an adequate, though not perfect, proxy for individual SES.

  14. Analysis of Enrollment by Zip Codes Fall 1982 to Fall 1984. Research Monograph IV [and] Student Enrollment by Majors and Educational Intent. Research Monograph VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirazi, Annmarie

    These two reports analyze enrollments at Oklahoma City Community College (OCCC) by zip code between fall 1982 and fall 1984, by student major between spring 1981 and spring 1985, and by student educational goals for spring 1985. Highlighted findings include the following: (1) the enrollment from Oklahoma City showed a steady decline in terms of…

  15. Enhanced Gene Expression Rather than Natural Polymorphism in Coding Sequence of the OsbZIP23 Determines Drought Tolerance and Yield Improvement in Rice Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Avishek; Samanta, Milan Kumar; Gayen, Srimonta; Sen, Soumitra K.; Maiti, Mrinal K.

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of the major limiting factors for productivity of crops including rice (Oryza sativa L.). Understanding the role of allelic variations of key regulatory genes involved in stress-tolerance is essential for developing an effective strategy to combat drought. The bZIP transcription factors play a crucial role in abiotic-stress adaptation in plants via abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway. The present study aimed to search for allelic polymorphism in the OsbZIP23 gene across selected drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive rice genotypes, and to characterize the new allele through overexpression (OE) and gene-silencing (RNAi). Analyses of the coding DNA sequence (CDS) of the cloned OsbZIP23 gene revealed single nucleotide polymorphism at four places and a 15-nucleotide deletion at one place. The single-copy OsbZIP23 gene is expressed at relatively higher level in leaf tissues of drought-tolerant genotypes, and its abundance is more in reproductive stage. Cloning and sequence analyses of the OsbZIP23-promoter from drought-tolerant O. rufipogon and drought-sensitive IR20 cultivar showed variation in the number of stress-responsive cis-elements and a 35-nucleotide deletion at 5’-UTR in IR20. Analysis of the GFP reporter gene function revealed that the promoter activity of O. rufipogon is comparatively higher than that of IR20. The overexpression of any of the two polymorphic forms (1083 bp and 1068 bp CDS) of OsbZIP23 improved drought tolerance and yield-related traits significantly by retaining higher content of cellular water, soluble sugar and proline; and exhibited decrease in membrane lipid peroxidation in comparison to RNAi lines and non-transgenic plants. The OE lines showed higher expression of target genes-OsRab16B, OsRab21 and OsLEA3-1 and increased ABA sensitivity; indicating that OsbZIP23 is a positive transcriptional-regulator of the ABA-signaling pathway. Taken together, the present study concludes that the enhanced gene expression rather

  16. Conformationally Constrained Analogues of Diacylglycerol. 29. Cells Sort Diacylglycerol-Lactone Chemical Zip Codes to Produce Diverse and Selective Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Dehui; Sigano, Dina M.; Kelley, James A.; Lai, Christopher C.; Lewin, Nancy E.; Kedei, Noemi; Peach, Megan L.; Lee, Jeewoo; Abeyweera, Thushara P.; Rotenberg, Susan A.; Kim, Hee; Kim, Young Ho; Kazzouli, Saïd El; Chung, Jae-Uk; Young, Howard A.; Young, Matthew R.; Baker, Alyson; Colburn, Nancy H.; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana; Truman, Jean-Philip; Parrish, Damon A.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Perry, Nicholas A.; Surawski, Robert J.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Marquez, Victor E.

    2008-01-01

    Diacylglycerol-lactone (DAG-lactone) libraries generated by a solid-phase approach using IRORI technology produced a variety of unique biological activities. Subtle differences in chemical diversity in two areas of the molecule, the combination of which generates what we have termed “chemical zip codes”, are able to transform a relatively small chemical space into a larger universe of biological activities, as membrane-containing organelles within the cell appear to be able to decode these “chemical zip codes”. It is postulated that after binding to protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes or other non-kinase target proteins that contain diacylglycerol responsive, membrane interacting domains (C1 domains), the resulting complexes are directed to diverse intracellular sites where different sets of substrates are accessed. Multiple cellular bioassays show that DAG-lactones, which bind in vitro to PKCα to varying degrees, expand their biological repertoire into a larger domain, eliciting distinct cellular responses. PMID:18698758

  17. Cross-sectional association between ZIP code-level gentrification and homelessness among a large community-based sample of people who inject drugs in 19 US cities

    PubMed Central

    Linton, Sabriya L; Cooper, Hannah LF; Kelley, Mary E; Karnes, Conny C; Ross, Zev; Wolfe, Mary E; Friedman, Samuel R; Jarlais, Don Des; Semaan, Salaam; Tempalski, Barbara; Sionean, Catlainn; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Wejnert, Cyprian; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Background Housing instability has been associated with poor health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). This study investigates the associations of local-level housing and economic conditions with homelessness among a large sample of PWID, which is an underexplored topic to date. Methods PWID in this cross-sectional study were recruited from 19 large cities in the USA as part of National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. PWID provided self-reported information on demographics, behaviours and life events. Homelessness was defined as residing on the street, in a shelter, in a single room occupancy hotel, or in a car or temporarily residing with friends or relatives any time in the past year. Data on county-level rental housing unaffordability and demand for assisted housing units, and ZIP code-level gentrification (eg, index of percent increases in non-Hispanic white residents, household income, gross rent from 1990 to 2009) and economic deprivation were collected from the US Census Bureau and Department of Housing and Urban Development. Multilevel models evaluated the associations of local economic and housing characteristics with homelessness. Results Sixty percent (5394/8992) of the participants reported homelessness in the past year. The multivariable model demonstrated that PWID living in ZIP codes with higher levels of gentrification had higher odds of homelessness in the past year (gentrification: adjusted OR=1.11, 95% CI=1.04 to 1.17). Conclusions Additional research is needed to determine the mechanisms through which gentrification increases homelessness among PWID to develop appropriate community-level interventions. PMID:28637724

  18. Cross-sectional association between ZIP code-level gentrification and homelessness among a large community-based sample of people who inject drugs in 19 US cities.

    PubMed

    Linton, Sabriya L; Cooper, Hannah Lf; Kelley, Mary E; Karnes, Conny C; Ross, Zev; Wolfe, Mary E; Friedman, Samuel R; Jarlais, Don Des; Semaan, Salaam; Tempalski, Barbara; Sionean, Catlainn; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Wejnert, Cyprian; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2017-06-20

    Housing instability has been associated with poor health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). This study investigates the associations of local-level housing and economic conditions with homelessness among a large sample of PWID, which is an underexplored topic to date. PWID in this cross-sectional study were recruited from 19 large cities in the USA as part of National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. PWID provided self-reported information on demographics, behaviours and life events. Homelessness was defined as residing on the street, in a shelter, in a single room occupancy hotel, or in a car or temporarily residing with friends or relatives any time in the past year. Data on county-level rental housing unaffordability and demand for assisted housing units, and ZIP code-level gentrification (eg, index of percent increases in non-Hispanic white residents, household income, gross rent from 1990 to 2009) and economic deprivation were collected from the US Census Bureau and Department of Housing and Urban Development. Multilevel models evaluated the associations of local economic and housing characteristics with homelessness. Sixty percent (5394/8992) of the participants reported homelessness in the past year. The multivariable model demonstrated that PWID living in ZIP codes with higher levels of gentrification had higher odds of homelessness in the past year (gentrification: adjusted OR=1.11, 95% CI=1.04 to 1.17). Additional research is needed to determine the mechanisms through which gentrification increases homelessness among PWID to develop appropriate community-level interventions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. A Comparison of the Nutritional Quality of Food Products Advertised in Grocery Store Circulars of High- versus Low-Income New York City Zip Codes

    PubMed Central

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H.; Rajan, Sonali; Samuel, Lalitha; Hammond, Rodney N.

    2013-01-01

    Grocery stores can be an important resource for health and nutrition with the variety and economic value of foods offered. Weekly circulars are a means of promoting foods at a sale price. To date, little is known about the extent that nutritious foods are advertised and prominently placed in circulars. This study’s aim was to compare the nutritional quality of products advertised on the front page of online circulars from grocery stores in high- versus low-income neighborhoods in New York City (NYC). Circulars from grocery stores in the five highest and five lowest median household income NYC zip codes were analyzed. Nutrition information for food products was collected over a two-month period with a total of 805 products coded. The study found no significant difference between the nutritional quality of products advertised on the front page of online circulars from grocery stores in high- versus low-income neighborhoods in New York City (NYC). In both groups, almost two-thirds of the products advertised were processed, one-quarter were high in carbohydrates, and few to no products were low-sodium, high-fiber, or reduced-, low- or zero fat. Through innovative partnerships with health professionals, grocery stores are increasingly implementing in-store and online health promotion strategies. Weekly circulars can be used as a means to regularly advertise and prominently place more healthful and seasonal foods at an affordable price, particularly for populations at higher risk for nutrition-related chronic disease. PMID:24384775

  20. A comparison of the nutritional quality of food products advertised in grocery store circulars of high- versus low-income New York City zip codes.

    PubMed

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H; Rajan, Sonali; Samuel, Lalitha; Hammond, Rodney N

    2013-12-31

    Grocery stores can be an important resource for health and nutrition with the variety and economic value of foods offered. Weekly circulars are a means of promoting foods at a sale price. To date, little is known about the extent that nutritious foods are advertised and prominently placed in circulars. This study's aim was to compare the nutritional quality of products advertised on the front page of online circulars from grocery stores in high- versus low-income neighborhoods in New York City (NYC). Circulars from grocery stores in the five highest and five lowest median household income NYC zip codes were analyzed. Nutrition information for food products was collected over a two-month period with a total of 805 products coded. The study found no significant difference between the nutritional quality of products advertised on the front page of online circulars from grocery stores in high- versus low-income neighborhoods in New York City (NYC). In both groups, almost two-thirds of the products advertised were processed, one-quarter were high in carbohydrates, and few to no products were low-sodium, high-fiber, or reduced-, low- or zero fat. Through innovative partnerships with health professionals, grocery stores are increasingly implementing in-store and online health promotion strategies. Weekly circulars can be used as a means to regularly advertise and prominently place more healthful and seasonal foods at an affordable price, particularly for populations at higher risk for nutrition-related chronic disease.

  1. 47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... new area codes within their states. Such matters may include, but are not limited to: Directing... realignment; establishing new area code boundaries; establishing necessary dates for the implementation of... code relief planning encompasses all functions related to the implementation of new area codes that...

  2. 47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... new area codes within their states. Such matters may include, but are not limited to: Directing... realignment; establishing new area code boundaries; establishing necessary dates for the implementation of... code relief planning encompasses all functions related to the implementation of new area codes that...

  3. Variation in Drug Prices at Pharmacies: Are Prices Higher in Poorer Areas?

    PubMed Central

    Gellad, Walid F; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Friedberg, Mark W; Brookhart, M Alan; Haas, Jennifer S; Shrank, William H

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether retail prices for prescription drugs are higher in poorer areas. Data Sources The MyFloridarx.com website, which provides retail prescription prices at Florida pharmacies, and median ZIP code income from the 2000 Census. Study Design We compared mean pharmacy prices for each of the four study drugs across ZIP code income groups. Pharmacies were classified as either chain pharmacies or independent pharmacies. Data Collection Prices were downloaded in November 2006. Principal Findings Across the four study drugs, mean prices were highest in the poorest ZIP codes: 9 percent above the statewide average. Independent pharmacies in the poorest ZIP codes charged the highest mean prices. Conclusions Retail prescription prices appear to be higher in poorer ZIP codes of Florida. PMID:19178584

  4. 47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) NUMBERING... commissions may perform any or all functions related to initiation and development of area code relief plans... paragraph (b)(2) of this section. For the purposes of this paragraph, initiation and development of area...

  5. 47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) NUMBERING... commissions may perform any or all functions related to initiation and development of area code relief plans... paragraph (b)(2) of this section. For the purposes of this paragraph, initiation and development of area...

  6. 47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) NUMBERING... commissions may perform any or all functions related to initiation and development of area code relief plans... paragraph (b)(2) of this section. For the purposes of this paragraph, initiation and development of area...

  7. Two Cassava Basic Leucine Zipper (bZIP) Transcription Factors (MebZIP3 and MebZIP5) Confer Disease Resistance against Cassava Bacterial Blight.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Fan, Shuhong; Hu, Wei; Liu, Guoyin; Wei, Yunxie; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao

    2017-01-01

    Basic domain-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor, one type of conserved gene family, plays an important role in plant development and stress responses. Although 77 MebZIPs have been genome-wide identified in cassava, their in vivo roles remain unknown. In this study, we analyzed the expression pattern and the function of two MebZIPs ( MebZIP3 and MebZIP5 ) in response to pathogen infection. Gene expression analysis indicated that MebZIP3 and MebZIP5 were commonly regulated by flg22, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis ( Xam ), salicylic acid (SA), and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Subcellular localization analysis showed that MebZIP3 and MebZIP5 are specifically located in cell nucleus. Through overexpression in tobacco, we found that MebZIP3 and MebZIP5 conferred improved disease resistance against cassava bacterial blight, with more callose depositions. On the contrary, MebZIP3- and MebZIP5 -silenced plants by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) showed disease sensitive phenotype, lower transcript levels of defense-related genes and less callose depositions. Taken together, this study highlights the positive role of MebZIP3 and MebZIP5 in disease resistance against cassava bacterial blight for further utilization in genetic improvement of cassava disease resistance.

  8. Bioinformatic analyses implicate the collaborating meiotic crossover/chiasma proteins Zip2, Zip3, and Spo22/Zip4 in ubiquitin labeling

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jason; Kleckner, Nancy; Börner, G. Valentin

    2005-01-01

    Zip2 and Zip3 are meiosis-specific proteins that, in collaboration with several partners, act at the sites of crossover-designated, axis-associated recombinational interactions to mediate crossover/chiasma formation. Here, Spo22 (also called Zip4) is identified as a probable functional collaborator of Zip2/3. The molecular roles of Zip2, Zip3, and Spo22/Zip4 are unknown. All three proteins are part of a small evolutionary cohort comprising similar homologs in four related yeasts. Zip3 is shown to contain a RING finger whose structural features most closely match those of known ubiquitin E3s. Further, Zip3 exhibits major domainal homologies to Rad18, a known DNA-binding ubiquitin E3. Also described is an approach to the identification and mapping of repeated protein sequence motifs, Alignment Based Repeat Annotation (ABRA), that we have developed. When ABRA is applied to Zip2 and Spo22/Zip4, they emerge as a 14-blade WD40-like repeat protein and a 22-unit tetratricopeptide repeat protein, respectively. WD40 repeats of Cdc20, Cdh1, and Cdc16 and tetratricopeptide repeats of Cdc16, Cdc23, and Cdc27, all components of the anaphase-promoting complex, are also analyzed. These and other findings suggest that Zip2, Zip3, and Zip4 act together to mediate a process that involves Zip3-mediated ubiquitin labeling, potentially as a unique type of ubiquitin-conjugating complex. PMID:16314568

  9. 77 FR 59629 - Statutorily Mandated Designation of Difficult Development Areas for 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Economist, Economic Development and Public Finance Division, Office of Policy Development and Research... evaluative list of metropolitan zip codes that would be designated Small Area DDAs using this methodology and... Research. [FR Doc. 2012-23900 Filed 9-27-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4210-67-P ...

  10. Error-Detecting Identification Codes for Algebra Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses common error-detecting identification codes using linear algebra terminology to provide an interesting application of algebra. Presents examples from the International Standard Book Number, the Universal Product Code, bank identification numbers, and the ZIP code bar code. (YP)

  11. Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Lian, Min; Schootman, Mario; Yun, Shumei

    2008-10-16

    With a secular trend of increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, concerns about disparities in CRC screening also have been rising. It is unclear if CRC screening varies geographically, if area-level poverty rate affects CRC screening, and if individual-level characteristics mediate the area-level effects on CRC screening. Using 2006 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data, a multilevel study was conducted to examine geographic variation and the effect of area-level poverty rate on CRC screening use among persons age 50 or older. Individuals were nested within ZIP codes (ZIP5 areas), which in turn, were nested within aggregations of ZIP codes (ZIP3 areas). Six groups of individual-level covariates were considered as potential mediators. An estimated 51.8% of Missourians aged 50 or older adhered to CRC screening recommendations. Nearly 15% of the total variation in CRC screening lay between ZIP5 areas. Persons residing in ZIP5 areas with > or = 10% of poverty rate had lower odds of CRC screening use than those residing in ZIP5 areas with <10% poverty rate (unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.58-0.81; adjusted OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98). Persons who resided in ZIP3 areas with > or = 20% poverty rate also had lower odds of following CRC screening guidelines than those residing in ZIP3 areas with <20% poverty rate (unadjusted OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.52-0.83; adjusted OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.83). Obesity, history of depression/anxiety and access to care were associated with CRC screening, but did not mediate the effect of area-level poverty on CRC screening. Large geographic variation of CRC screening exists in Missouri. Area-level poverty rate, independent of individual-level characteristics, is a significant predictor of CRC screening, but it only explains a small portion of the geographic heterogeneity of CRC screening. Individual-level factors we examined do not mediate the effect of the area

  12. Zip Pak (Boys) for Third Reader Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Norval C., Comp.

    Aim of the Zip Pak is to improve the migrant child's interest in reading. Behavioral objectives are to have the migrant child indicate 10 percent happier faces on the posttest; to have an equal number of blame-self, blame-others on the posttest; and to have 25 percent more praise-self on the posttest. The workbook for boys includes a story about…

  13. Expression Profile Analysis of Zinc Transporters (ZIP4, ZIP9, ZIP11, ZnT9) in Gliomas and their Correlation with IDH1 Mutation Status.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xing; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Jie; Li, Gang; Dai, Peng-Gao; Chen, Chao; Wang, Hui-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Zinc transporters have been considered as essential regulators in many cancers; however, their mechanisms remain unknown, especially in gliomas. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1(IDH1) mutation is crucial to glioma. This study aimed to investigate whether zinc transporters are correlated with glioma grade and IDH1 mutation status. IDH1 mutation status and mRNA expression of four zinc transporters (ZIP4, ZIP9, ZIP11, and ZnT9) were determined by subjecting a panel of 74 glioma tissue samples to quantitative real-time PCR and pyrosequencing. The correlations between the expression levels of these zinc transporter genes and the grade of glioma, as well as IDH1 mutation status, were investigated. Among the four zinc transporter genes, high ZIP4 expression and low ZIP11 expression were significantly associated with higher grade (grades III and IV) tumors compared with lower grade (grades I and II) counterparts (p<0.0001). However, only ZIP11 exhibited weak correlation with IDH1 mutation status (p=0.045). Samples with mutations in IDH1 displayed higher ZIP11 expression than those without IDH1 mutations. This finding indicated that zinc transporters may interact with IDH1 mutation by direct modulation or action in some shared pathways or genes to promote the development of glioma. Zinc transporters may play an important role in glioma. ZIP4 and ZIP11 are promising molecular diagnostic markers and novel therapeutic targets. Nevertheless, the detailed biological function of zinc transporters and the mechanism of the potential interaction between ZIP11 and IDH1 mutation in gliomagenesis should be further investigated.

  14. A ZIP6-ZIP10 heteromer controls NCAM1 phosphorylation and integration into focal adhesion complexes during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Brethour, Dylan; Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Williams, Declan; Wang, Xinzhu; Ghodrati, Farinaz; Ehsani, Sepehr; Rubie, Elizabeth A; Woodgett, James R; Sevalle, Jean; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2017-01-18

    The prion protein (PrP) evolved from the subbranch of ZIP metal ion transporters comprising ZIPs 5, 6 and 10, raising the prospect that the study of these ZIPs may reveal insights relevant for understanding the function of PrP. Building on data which suggested PrP and ZIP6 are critical during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we investigated ZIP6 in an EMT paradigm using ZIP6 knockout cells, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic methods. Reminiscent of PrP, ZIP6 levels are five-fold upregulated during EMT and the protein forms a complex with NCAM1. ZIP6 also interacts with ZIP10 and the two ZIP transporters exhibit interdependency during their expression. ZIP6 contributes to the integration of NCAM1 in focal adhesion complexes but, unlike cells lacking PrP, ZIP6 deficiency does not abolish polysialylation of NCAM1. Instead, ZIP6 mediates phosphorylation of NCAM1 on a cluster of cytosolic acceptor sites. Substrate consensus motif features and in vitro phosphorylation data point toward GSK3 as the kinase responsible, and interface mapping experiments identified histidine-rich cytoplasmic loops within the ZIP6/ZIP10 heteromer as a novel scaffold for GSK3 binding. Our data suggests that PrP and ZIP6 inherited the ability to interact with NCAM1 from their common ZIP ancestors but have since diverged to control distinct posttranslational modifications of NCAM1.

  15. Investigation of Super*Zip separation joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation to determine the most likely cause of two failures of five tests on 79 inch diameter Lockheed Super*Zip spacecraft separation joints being used for the development of a Shuttle/Centaur propulsion system. This joint utilizes an explosively expanded tube to fracture surrounding prenotched aluminum plates to achieve planar separation. A test method was developed and more than 300 tests firings were made to provide an understanding of severance mechanisms and the functional performance effects of system variables. An approach for defining functional margin was developed, and specific recommendations were made for improving existing and future systems.

  16. Functional analysis RaZIP1 transporter of the ZIP family from the ectomycorrhizal Zn-accumulating Russula atropurpurea.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Tereza; Sácký, Jan; Kotrba, Pavel

    2018-04-01

    A search of R. atropurpurea transcriptome for sequences encoding the transporters of the Zrt-, Irt-like Protein (ZIP) family, which are in eukaryotes integral to Zn supply into cytoplasm, allowed the identification of RaZIP1 cDNA with a predicted product belonging to ZIP I subfamily; it was subjected to functional studies in mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The expression of RaZIP1, but not RaZIP1 H208A or RaZIP1 H232A mutants lacking conserved-among-ZIPs transmembrane histidyls, complemented Zn uptake deficiency in zrt1Δzrt2Δ yeasts. RaZIP1 substantially increased cellular Zn uptake in this strain and added to Zn sensitivity in zrc1Δcot1Δ mutant. The Fe uptake deficiency in ftr1Δ strain was not rescued and Mn uptake was insufficient for toxicity in Mn-sensitive pmr1Δ yeasts. By contrast, RaZIP1 increased Cd sensitivity in yap1Δ strain and conferred Cd transport activity in yeasts, albeit with substantially lower efficiency compared to Zn transport. In metal uptake assays, the accumulation of Zn in zrt1Δzrt2Δ strain remained unaffected by Cd, Fe, and Mn present in 20-fold molar excess over Zn. Immunofluorescence microscopy detected functional hemagglutinin-tagged HA::RaZIP1 on the yeast cell protoplast periphery. Altogether, these data indicate that RaZIP1 is a high-affinity plasma membrane transporter specialized in Zn uptake, and improve the understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of Zn in R. atropurpurea that is known for its ability to accumulate remarkably high concentrations of Zn.

  17. ZIP4 silencing improves bone loss in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingxuan; Ding, Hao; LeBrun, Drake; Ding, Kai; Houchen, Courtney W.; Postier, Russell G.; Ambrose, Catherine G.; Li, Zhaoshen; Bi, Xiaohong; Li, Min

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic bone disorders are associated with several types of human cancers. Pancreatic cancer patients usually suffer from severe nutrition deficiency, muscle wasting, and loss of bone mass. We have previously found that silencing of a zinc transporter ZIP4 prolongs the survival and reduces the severity of the cachexia in vivo. However, the role of ZIP4 in the pancreatic cancer related bone loss remains unknown. In this study we investigated the effect of ZIP4 knockdown on the bone structure, composition and mechanical properties of femurs in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. Our data showed that silencing of ZIP4 resulted in increased bone tissue mineral density, decreased bone crystallinity and restoration of bone strength through the RANK/RANKL pathway. The results further support the impact of ZIP4 on the progression of pancreatic cancer, and suggest its potential significance as a therapeutic target for treating patients with such devastating disease and cancer related disorders. PMID:26305676

  18. Evaluating Area-Based Socioeconomic Status Indicators for Monitoring Disparities within Health Care Systems: Results from a Primary Care Network

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, Seth A; Traore, Carine Y; Singer, Daniel E; Atlas, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine which area-based socioeconomic status (SES) indicator is best suited to monitor health care disparities from a delivery system perspective. Data Sources/Study Setting 142,659 adults seen in a primary care network from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2011. Study Design Cross-sectional, comparing associations between area-based SES indicators and patient outcomes. Data Collection Address data were geocoded to construct area-based SES indicators at block group (BG), census tract (CT), and ZIP code (ZIP) levels. Data on health outcomes were abstracted from electronic records. Relative indices of inequality (RIIs) were calculated to quantify disparities detected by area-based SES indicators and compared to RIIs from self-reported educational attainment. Principal Findings ZIP indicators had less missing data than BG or CT indicators (p < .0001). Area-based SES indicators were strongly associated with self-report educational attainment (p < .0001). ZIP, BG, and CT indicators all detected expected SES gradients in health outcomes similarly. Single-item, cut point defined indicators performed as well as multidimensional indices and quantile indicators. Conclusions Area-based SES indicators detected health outcome differences well and may be useful for monitoring disparities within health care systems. Our preferred indicator was ZIP-level median household income or percent poverty, using cut points. PMID:25219917

  19. Evaluating area-based socioeconomic status indicators for monitoring disparities within health care systems: results from a primary care network.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Seth A; Traore, Carine Y; Singer, Daniel E; Atlas, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    To determine which area-based socioeconomic status (SES) indicator is best suited to monitor health care disparities from a delivery system perspective. 142,659 adults seen in a primary care network from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2011. Cross-sectional, comparing associations between area-based SES indicators and patient outcomes. Address data were geocoded to construct area-based SES indicators at block group (BG), census tract (CT), and ZIP code (ZIP) levels. Data on health outcomes were abstracted from electronic records. Relative indices of inequality (RIIs) were calculated to quantify disparities detected by area-based SES indicators and compared to RIIs from self-reported educational attainment. ZIP indicators had less missing data than BG or CT indicators (p < .0001). Area-based SES indicators were strongly associated with self-report educational attainment (p < .0001). ZIP, BG, and CT indicators all detected expected SES gradients in health outcomes similarly. Single-item, cut point defined indicators performed as well as multidimensional indices and quantile indicators. Area-based SES indicators detected health outcome differences well and may be useful for monitoring disparities within health care systems. Our preferred indicator was ZIP-level median household income or percent poverty, using cut points. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. Clusters in irregular areas and lattices.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, William F; Delmerico, Alan M; Rogerson, Peter A; Wong, David W S

    2012-01-01

    Geographic areas of different sizes and shapes of polygons that represent counts or rate data are often encountered in social, economic, health, and other information. Often political or census boundaries are used to define these areas because the information is available only for those geographies. Therefore, these types of boundaries are frequently used to define neighborhoods in spatial analyses using geographic information systems and related approaches such as multilevel models. When point data can be geocoded, it is possible to examine the impact of polygon shape on spatial statistical properties, such as clustering. We utilized point data (alcohol outlets) to examine the issue of polygon shape and size on visualization and statistical properties. The point data were allocated to regular lattices (hexagons and squares) and census areas for zip-code tabulation areas and tracts. The number of units in the lattices was set to be similar to the number of tract and zip-code areas. A spatial clustering statistic and visualization were used to assess the impact of polygon shape for zip- and tract-sized units. Results showed substantial similarities and notable differences across shape and size. The specific circumstances of a spatial analysis that aggregates points to polygons will determine the size and shape of the areal units to be used. The irregular polygons of census units may reflect underlying characteristics that could be missed by large regular lattices. Future research to examine the potential for using a combination of irregular polygons and regular lattices would be useful.

  1. A conserved proline residue in the leucine zipper region of AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 in Arabidopsis thaliana interferes with the formation of homodimer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huaishun; Cao, Kaiming; Wang, Xiping

    2007-10-19

    Two putative Arabidopsis E group bZIP transcript factors, AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61, are nuclear-localized and their transcriptional activation domain is in their N-terminal region. By searching GenBank, we found other eight plant homologues of AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61. All of them have a proline residue in the third heptad of zipper region. Yeast two-hybrid assay and EMSA showed that AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 could not form homodimer while their mutant forms, AtbZIP34m and AtbZIP61m, which the proline residue was replaced by an alanine residue in the zipper region, could form homodimer and bind G-box element. These results suggest that the conserved proline residue interferes with the homodimer formation. However, both AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 could form heterodimers with members of I group and S group transcription factors in which some members involved in vascular development. So we speculate that AtbZIP34 and AtbZIP61 may participate in plant development via interacting with other group bZIP transcription factors.

  2. Special Area Coding Community College District Boundaries on the Los Angeles County DIME File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Paul W.; And Others

    This report documents the development of three major products: (1) a Los Angeles County Dual Independent Map Encoding (DIME) File to which community college district boundaries have been special area coded; (2) a book-like listing of all house number ranges and street names and the college district and census tract they are found in; and (3) a…

  3. Soybean extracts increase cell surface ZIP4 abundance and cellular zinc levels: a potential novel strategy to enhance zinc absorption by ZIP4 targeting.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Ohkura, Katsuma; Takahashi, Masakazu; Kizu, Kumiko; Narita, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Shuichi; Miyamae, Yusaku; Masuda, Seiji; Nagao, Masaya; Irie, Kazuhiro; Ohigashi, Hajime; Andrews, Glen K; Kambe, Taiho

    2015-12-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency puts human health at risk, so we explored strategies for enhancing zinc absorption. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter ZIP4 functions as an essential component of zinc absorption. Overexpression of ZIP4 protein increases zinc uptake and thereby cellular zinc levels, suggesting that food components with the ability to increase ZIP4 could potentially enhance zinc absorption via the intestine. In the present study, we used mouse Hepa cells, which regulate mouse Zip4 (mZip4) in a manner indistinguishable from that in intestinal enterocytes, to screen for suitable food components that can increase the abundance of ZIP4. Using this ZIP4-targeting strategy, two such soybean extracts were identified that were specifically able to decrease mZip4 endocytosis in response to zinc. These soybean extracts also effectively increased the abundance of apically localized mZip4 in transfected polarized Caco2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and, moreover, two apically localized mZip4 acrodermatitis enteropathica mutants. Soybean components were purified from one extract and soyasaponin Bb was identified as an active component that increased both mZip4 protein abundance and zinc levels in Hepa cells. Finally, we confirmed that soyasaponin Bb is capable of enhancing cell surface endogenous human ZIP4 in human cells. Our results suggest that ZIP4 targeting may represent a new strategy to improve zinc absorption in humans. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  4. Validity and reliability of the Fitbit Zip as a measure of preschool children’s step count

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Catherine A; Mackintosh, Kelly A; Erjavec, Mihela; Pascoe, Duncan M; Horne, Pauline J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Validation of physical activity measurement tools is essential to determine the relationship between physical activity and health in preschool children, but research to date has not focused on this priority. The aims of this study were to ascertain inter-rater reliability of observer step count, and interdevice reliability and validity of Fitbit Zip accelerometer step counts in preschool children. Methods Fifty-six children aged 3–4 years (29 girls) recruited from 10 nurseries in North Wales, UK, wore two Fitbit Zip accelerometers while performing a timed walking task in their childcare settings. Accelerometers were worn in secure pockets inside a custom-made tabard. Video recordings enabled two observers to independently code the number of steps performed in 3 min by each child during the walking task. Intraclass correlations (ICCs), concordance correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots and absolute per cent error were calculated to assess the reliability and validity of the consumer-grade device. Results An excellent ICC was found between the two observer codings (ICC=1.00) and the two Fitbit Zips (ICC=0.91). Concordance between the Fitbit Zips and observer counts was also high (r=0.77), with an acceptable absolute per cent error (6%–7%). Bland-Altman analyses identified a bias for Fitbit 1 of 22.8±19.1 steps with limits of agreement between −14.7 and 60.2 steps, and a bias for Fitbit 2 of 25.2±23.2 steps with limits of agreement between −20.2 and 70.5 steps. Conclusions Fitbit Zip accelerometers are a reliable and valid method of recording preschool children’s step count in a childcare setting. PMID:29081984

  5. HIV-1 Vpr Induces the Degradation of ZIP and sZIP, Adaptors of the NuRD Chromatin Remodeling Complex, by Hijacking DCAF1/VprBP

    PubMed Central

    Maudet, Claire; Sourisce, Adèle; Dragin, Loïc; Lahouassa, Hichem; Rain, Jean-Christophe; Bouaziz, Serge; Ramirez, Bertha Cécilia; Margottin-Goguet, Florence

    2013-01-01

    The Vpr protein from type 1 and type 2 Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) is thought to inactivate several host proteins through the hijacking of the DCAF1 adaptor of the Cul4A ubiquitin ligase. Here, we identified two transcriptional regulators, ZIP and sZIP, as Vpr-binding proteins degraded in the presence of Vpr. ZIP and sZIP have been shown to act through the recruitment of the NuRD chromatin remodeling complex. Strikingly, chromatin is the only cellular fraction where Vpr is present together with Cul4A ubiquitin ligase subunits. Components of the NuRD complex and exogenous ZIP and sZIP were also associated with this fraction. Several lines of evidence indicate that Vpr induces ZIP and sZIP degradation by hijacking DCAF1: (i) Vpr induced a drastic decrease of exogenously expressed ZIP and sZIP in a dose-dependent manner, (ii) this decrease relied on the proteasome activity, (iii) ZIP or sZIP degradation was impaired in the presence of a DCAF1-binding deficient Vpr mutant or when DCAF1 expression was silenced. Vpr-mediated ZIP and sZIP degradation did not correlate with the growth-related Vpr activities, namely G2 arrest and G2 arrest-independent cytotoxicity. Nonetheless, infection with HIV-1 viruses expressing Vpr led to the degradation of the two proteins. Altogether our results highlight the existence of two host transcription factors inactivated by Vpr. The role of Vpr-mediated ZIP and sZIP degradation in the HIV-1 replication cycle remains to be deciphered. PMID:24116224

  6. A Ramie bZIP Transcription Factor BnbZIP2 Is Involved in Drought, Salt, and Heavy Metal Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chengjian; Zhou, Jinghua; Jie, Yucheng; Xing, Hucheng; Zhong, Yingli; Yu, Weilin; She, Wei; Ma, Yushen; Liu, Zehang; Zhang, Ying

    2016-12-01

    bZIP transcription factors play key roles in plant growth, development, and stress signaling. A bZIP gene BnbZIP2 (GenBank accession number: KP642148) was cloned from ramie. BnbZIP2 has a 1416 base pair open reading frame, encoding a 471 amino acid protein containing a characteristic bZIP domain and a leucine zipper. BnbZIP2 shares high sequence similarity with bZIP factors from other plants. The BnbZIP2 protein is localized to both nuclei and cytoplasm. Transcripts of BnbZIP2 were found in various tissues in ramie, with significantly higher levels in female and male flowers. Its expression was induced by drought, high salinity, and abscisic acid treatments. Analysis of the cis-elements in promoters of BnbZIP2 identified cis-acting elements involved in growth, developmental processes, and a variety of stress responses. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants' overexpression of BnbZIP2 exhibited more sensitivity to drought and heavy metal Cd stress during seed germination, whereas more tolerance to high-salinity stress than the wild type during both seed germination and plant development. Thus, BnbZIP2 may act as a positive regulator in plants' response to high-salinity stress and be an important candidate gene for molecular breeding of salt-tolerant plants.

  7. The neural code for face orientation in the human fusiform face area.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Fernando M; Cichy, Radoslaw M; Allefeld, Carsten; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2014-09-03

    Humans recognize faces and objects with high speed and accuracy regardless of their orientation. Recent studies have proposed that orientation invariance in face recognition involves an intermediate representation where neural responses are similar for mirror-symmetric views. Here, we used fMRI, multivariate pattern analysis, and computational modeling to investigate the neural encoding of faces and vehicles at different rotational angles. Corroborating previous studies, we demonstrate a representation of face orientation in the fusiform face-selective area (FFA). We go beyond these studies by showing that this representation is category-selective and tolerant to retinal translation. Critically, by controlling for low-level confounds, we found the representation of orientation in FFA to be compatible with a linear angle code. Aspects of mirror-symmetric coding cannot be ruled out when FFA mean activity levels are considered as a dimension of coding. Finally, we used a parametric family of computational models, involving a biased sampling of view-tuned neuronal clusters, to compare different face angle encoding models. The best fitting model exhibited a predominance of neuronal clusters tuned to frontal views of faces. In sum, our findings suggest a category-selective and monotonic code of face orientation in the human FFA, in line with primate electrophysiology studies that observed mirror-symmetric tuning of neural responses at higher stages of the visual system, beyond the putative homolog of human FFA. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3412155-13$15.00/0.

  8. Characterization of pollen-expressed bZIP protein interactions and the role of ATbZIP18 in the male gametophyte.

    PubMed

    Gibalová, Antónia; Steinbachová, Lenka; Hafidh, Said; Bláhová, Veronika; Gadiou, Zuzana; Michailidis, Christos; Műller, Karel; Pleskot, Roman; Dupľáková, Nikoleta; Honys, David

    2017-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : bZIP TF network in pollen. Transcriptional control of gene expression represents an important mechanism guiding organisms through developmental processes and providing plasticity towards environmental stimuli. Because of their sessile nature, plants require effective gene regulation for rapid response to variation in environmental and developmental conditions. Transcription factors (TFs) provide such control ensuring correct gene expression in spatial and temporal manner. Our work reports the interaction network of six bZIP TFs expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen and highlights the potential functional role for AtbZIP18 in pollen. AtbZIP18 was shown to interact with three other pollen-expressed bZIP TFs-AtbZIP34, AtbZIP52, and AtbZIP61 in yeast two-hybrid assays. AtbZIP18 transcripts are highly expressed in pollen, and at the subcellular level, an AtbZIP18-GFP fusion protein was located in the nucleus and cytoplasm/ER. To address the role of AtbZIP18 in the male gametophyte, we performed phenotypic analysis of a T-DNA knockout allele, which showed slightly reduced transmission through the male gametophyte. Some of the phenotype defects in atbzip18 pollen, although observed at low penetrance, were similar to those seen at higher frequency in the T-DNA knockout of the interacting partner, AtbZIP34. To gain deeper insight into the regulatory role of AtbZIP18, we analysed atbzip18/- pollen microarray data. Our results point towards a potential repressive role for AtbZIP18 and its functional redundancy with AtbZIP34 in pollen.

  9. Zipping dielectric elastomer actuators: characterization, design and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffli, L.; Rosset, S.; Shea, H. R.

    2013-10-01

    We report on miniature dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) operating in zipping mode with an analytical model that predicts their behavior. Electrostatic zipping is a well-known mechanism in silicon MEMS to obtain large deformations and forces at lower voltages than for parallel plate electrostatic actuation. We extend this concept to DEAs, which allows us to obtain much larger out-of-plane displacements compared to silicon thanks to the softness of the elastomer membrane. We study experimentally the effect of sidewall angles and elastomer prestretch on 2.3 mm diameter actuators with PDMS membranes. With 15° and 22.5° sidewall angles, the devices zip in a bistable manner down 300 μm to the bottom of the chambers. The highly tunable bistable behavior is controllable by both chamber geometry and membrane parameters. Other specific characteristics of zipping DEAs include well-controlled deflected shape, tunable displacement versus voltage characteristics to virtually any shape, including multi-stable modes, sealing of embedded holes or channels for valving action and the reduction of the operating voltage. These properties make zipping DEAs an excellent candidate for applications such as integrated microfluidics actuators or Braille displays.

  10. Requirement of Zinc Transporter SLC39A7/ZIP7 for Dermal Development to Fine-Tune Endoplasmic Reticulum Function by Regulating Protein Disulfide Isomerase.

    PubMed

    Bin, Bum-Ho; Bhin, Jinhyuk; Seo, Juyeon; Kim, Se-Young; Lee, Eunyoung; Park, Kyuhee; Choi, Dong-Hwa; Takagishi, Teruhisa; Hara, Takafumi; Hwang, Daehee; Koseki, Haruhiko; Asada, Yoshinobu; Shimoda, Shinji; Mishima, Kenji; Fukada, Toshiyuki

    2017-08-01

    Skin is the first area that manifests zinc deficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms by which zinc homeostasis affects skin development remain largely unknown. Here, we show that zinc-regulation transporter-/iron-regulation transporter-like protein 7 (ZIP7) localized to the endoplasmic reticulum plays critical roles in connective tissue development. Mice lacking the Slc39a7/Zip7 gene in collagen 1-expressing tissue exhibited dermal dysplasia. Ablation of ZIP7 in mesenchymal stem cells inhibited cell proliferation thereby preventing proper dermis formation, indicating that ZIP7 is required for dermal development. We also found that mesenchymal stem cells lacking ZIP7 accumulated zinc in the endoplasmic reticulum, which triggered zinc-dependent aggregation and inhibition of protein disulfide isomerase, leading to endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction. These results suggest that ZIP7 is necessary for endoplasmic reticulum function in mesenchymal stem cells and, as such, is essential for dermal development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tissue-Specific Induction of Mouse ZIP8 and ZIP14 Divalent Cation/Bicarbonate Symporters by, and Cytokine Response to, Inflammatory Signals

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez-Peralta, Marina; Wang, Zhifang; Bao, Shengying; Knoell, Daren L; Nebert, Daniel W

    2014-01-01

    Mouse Slc39a8 and Slc39a14 genes encode ZIP8 and ZIP14, respectively, which are ubiquitous divalent cation/(HCO3−)2 symporters responsible for uptake of Zn2+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ into cells. Cd2+ and other toxic nonessential metals can displace essential cations, thereby entering vertebrate cells. Whereas Slc39a8 encodes a single protein, Slc39a14 has two exons 4 which, via alternative splicing, give rise to ZIP14A and ZIP14B; why differences exist in cell-type-specific expression of ZIP14A and ZIP14B remains unknown. Inflammatory stimuli have been associated with ZIP8 and ZIP14 up-regulation, but a systematic study of many tissues simultaneously in a laboratory animal following inflammatory cytokine exposure has not yet been reported. Herein we show that C57BL/6J male mice—treated intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or interleukin-6 (IL6)—exhibited quantatively very different, highly tissue-specific, and markedly time-dependent up- and down-regulation of ZIP8, ZIP14A and ZIP14B mRNA levels in twelve tissues. Magnitude of the inflammatory response was confirmed by measuring the proinflammatory cytokine TNF, IL6 and interleukin-1β (IL1B) mRNA levels in the same tissues of these animals. Our data suggest that most if not all tissues use ZIP8, ZIP14A and/or ZIP14B) for Zn2+ uptake, some tissues under basal conditions and others moreso when inflammatory stressors are present; collectively, this might lead to substantial alterations in plasma Zn2+ levels, due to Zn2+ redistribution not just in liver, but across many vital organs. In the context of cadmium-mediated toxicity, our data suggest that tissues other than liver, kidney and lung should also be considered. PMID:24728862

  12. The role of ZIP transporters and group F bZIP transcription factors in the Zn-deficiency response of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Evens, Nicholas P; Buchner, Peter; Williams, Lorraine E; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the molecular basis of zinc (Zn) uptake and transport in staple cereal crops is critical for improving both Zn content and tolerance to low-Zn soils. This study demonstrates the importance of group F bZIP transcription factors and ZIP transporters in responses to Zn deficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Seven group F TabZIP genes and 14 ZIPs with homeologs were identified in hexaploid wheat. Promoter analysis revealed the presence of Zn-deficiency-response elements (ZDREs) in a number of the ZIPs. Functional complementation of the zrt1/zrt2 yeast mutant by TaZIP3, -6, -7, -9 and -13 supported an ability to transport Zn. Group F TabZIPs contain the group-defining cysteine-histidine-rich motifs, which are the predicted binding site of Zn 2+ in the Zn-deficiency response. Conservation of these motifs varied between the TabZIPs suggesting that individual TabZIPs may have specific roles in the wheat Zn-homeostatic network. Increased expression in response to low Zn levels was observed for several of the wheat ZIPs and bZIPs; this varied temporally and spatially suggesting specific functions in the response mechanism. The ability of the group F TabZIPs to bind to specific ZDREs in the promoters of TaZIPs indicates a conserved mechanism in monocots and dicots in responding to Zn deficiency. In support of this, TabZIPF1-7DL and TabZIPF4-7AL afforded a strong level of rescue to the Arabidopsis hypersensitive bzip19 bzip23 double mutant under Zn deficiency. These results provide a greater understanding of Zn-homeostatic mechanisms in wheat, demonstrating an expanded repertoire of group F bZIP transcription factors, adding to the complexity of Zn homeostasis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Governor Bush makes first phone call to KSC using new area code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the videoconference room at Headquarters, key representatives of KSC contractors, along with KSC directorates, fill the room during an early morning phone call from Florida Governor Jeb Bush (seen on the video screen) in Tallahassee, Fla. The call is to inaugurate the change of KSC's area code from 407 to 321, effective today. Deputy Director for Business Operations Jim Jennings (fourth from right) received the call. Next to Jennings (at his right) is seated Robert Osband, Florida Space Institute, who suggested the 3-2-1 sequence to reflect the importance of the space industry to Florida's space coast.

  14. Neural noise and movement-related codes in the macaque supplementary motor area.

    PubMed

    Averbeck, Bruno B; Lee, Daeyeol

    2003-08-20

    We analyzed the variability of spike counts and the coding capacity of simultaneously recorded pairs of neurons in the macaque supplementary motor area (SMA). We analyzed the mean-variance functions for single neurons, as well as signal and noise correlations between pairs of neurons. All three statistics showed a strong dependence on the bin width chosen for analysis. Changes in the correlation structure of single neuron spike trains over different bin sizes affected the mean-variance function, and signal and noise correlations between pairs of neurons were much smaller at small bin widths, increasing monotonically with the width of the bin. Analyses in the frequency domain showed that the noise between pairs of neurons, on average, was most strongly correlated at low frequencies, which explained the increase in noise correlation with increasing bin width. The coding performance was analyzed to determine whether the temporal precision of spike arrival times and the interactions within and between neurons could improve the prediction of the upcoming movement. We found that in approximately 62% of neuron pairs, the arrival times of spikes at a resolution between 66 and 40 msec carried more information than spike counts in a 200 msec bin. In addition, in 19% of neuron pairs, inclusion of within (11%)- or between-neuron (8%) correlations in spike trains improved decoding accuracy. These results suggest that in some SMA neurons elements of the spatiotemporal pattern of activity may be relevant for neural coding.

  15. 3DFEMWATER/3DLEWASTE: NUMERICAL CODES FOR DELINEATING WELLHEAD PROTECTION AREAS IN AGRICULTURAL REGIONS BASED ON THE ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY CRITERION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two related numerical codes, 3DFEMWATER and 3DLEWASTE, are presented sed to delineate wellhead protection areas in agricultural regions using the assimilative capacity criterion. DFEMWATER (Three-dimensional Finite Element Model of Water Flow Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media) ...

  16. Codes for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States and the Caribbean outlying areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1988-01-01

    This standard provides codes to be used for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States, the Caribbean and other outlying areas. Outlying areas include Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Midway Islands, Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, and miscellaneous Pacific Islands. Each code identifies an aquifer or rock-stratigraphic unit and its age designation. The codes provide a standardized base for use by organizations in the storage, retrieval, and exchange of ground-water data; the indexing and inventory of ground-water data and information; the cataloging of ground-water data acquisition activities; and a variety of other applications.

  17. Codes for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States and the Caribbean outlying areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1985-01-01

    This standard provides codes to be used for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States, the Caribbean and other outlying areas. Outlying areas include Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Midway Islands, Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, and miscellaneous Pacific Islands. Each code identifies an aquifer or rock-stratigraphic unit and its age designation. The codes provide a standardized base for use by organizations in the storage, retrieval, and exchange of ground-water data; the indexing and inventory of ground-water data and information; the cataloging of ground-water data acquisition activities; and a variety of other applications.

  18. Governor Bush makes first phone call to KSC using new area code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At 8 a.m. in the videoconference room at Headquarters, Deputy Director for Business Operations Jim Jennings (center) makes the connection for a phone call from Florida Governor Jeb Bush and Center Director Roy Bridges in Tallahassee, Fla. The call is to inaugurate the change of KSC's area code from 407 to 321, effective today. Key representatives of KSC contractors, along with KSC directorates, fill the room where the phone call is being received. Seated next to Jennings are Robert Osband (left), Florida Space Institute, and Col. Stephan Duresky (right), vice commander, 45th Space Wing. Osband is the one who suggested the 3-2-1 sequence to reflect the importance of the space industry to Florida's space coast.

  19. Governor Bush makes first phone call to KSC using new area code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At 8 a.m. in the videoconference room at Headquarters, Deputy Director for Business Operations Jim Jennings (center) waits for a phone call from Florida Governor Jeb Bush and Center Director Roy Bridges in Tallahassee, Fla. The call is to inaugurate the change of KSC's area code from 407 to 321, effective today. Key representatives of KSC contractors, along with KSC directorates, fill the room where the phone call is being received. Seated next to Jennings are Robert Osband (left), Florida Space Institute, and Col. Stephan Duresky (right), vice commander, 45th Space Wing. Osband is the one who suggested the 3-2-1 sequence, to reflect the importance of the space industry to Florida's space coast.

  20. Contour Curvature As an Invariant Code for Objects in Visual Area V4

    PubMed Central

    Pasupathy, Anitha

    2016-01-01

    Size-invariant object recognition—the ability to recognize objects across transformations of scale—is a fundamental feature of biological and artificial vision. To investigate its basis in the primate cerebral cortex, we measured single neuron responses to stimuli of varying size in visual area V4, a cornerstone of the object-processing pathway, in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Leveraging two competing models for how neuronal selectivity for the bounding contours of objects may depend on stimulus size, we show that most V4 neurons (∼70%) encode objects in a size-invariant manner, consistent with selectivity for a size-independent parameter of boundary form: for these neurons, “normalized” curvature, rather than “absolute” curvature, provided a better account of responses. Our results demonstrate the suitability of contour curvature as a basis for size-invariant object representation in the visual cortex, and posit V4 as a foundation for behaviorally relevant object codes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Size-invariant object recognition is a bedrock for many perceptual and cognitive functions. Despite growing neurophysiological evidence for invariant object representations in the primate cortex, we still lack a basic understanding of the encoding rules that govern them. Classic work in the field of visual shape theory has long postulated that a representation of objects based on information about their bounding contours is well suited to mediate such an invariant code. In this study, we provide the first empirical support for this hypothesis, and its instantiation in single neurons of visual area V4. PMID:27194333

  1. SlbZIP38, a Tomato bZIP Family Gene Downregulated by Abscisic Acid, Is a Negative Regulator of Drought and Salt Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yanglu; Hu, Xin; Li, Chunyan; Xu, Xing; Su, Chenggang; Li, Jinhua; Song, Hongyuan; Zhang, Xingguo; Pan, Yu

    2017-01-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors have crucial roles in plant stress responses. In this study, the bZIP family gene SlbZIP38 (GenBank accession No: XM004239373) was isolated from a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig) mature leaf cDNA library. The DNA sequence of SlbZIP38 encodes a protein of 484 amino acids, including a highly conserved bZIP DNA-binding domain in the C-terminal region. We found that SlbZIP38 was differentially expressed in various organs of the tomato plant and was downregulated by drought, salt stress, and abscisic acid (ABA). However, overexpression of SlbZIP38 significantly decreased drought and salt stress tolerance in tomatoes (Ailsa Craig). The findings that SlbZIP38 overexpression reduced the chlorophyll and free proline content in leaves but increased the malondialdehyde content may explain the reduced drought and salt tolerance observed in these lines. These results suggest that SlbZIP38 is a negative regulator of drought and salt resistance that acts by modulating ABA signaling. PMID:29261143

  2. Predictive Coding in Area V4: Dynamic Shape Discrimination under Partial Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hannah; Pasupathy, Anitha; Shea-Brown, Eric

    2018-01-01

    The primate visual system has an exquisite ability to discriminate partially occluded shapes. Recent electrophysiological recordings suggest that response dynamics in intermediate visual cortical area V4, shaped by feedback from prefrontal cortex (PFC), may play a key role. To probe the algorithms that may underlie these findings, we build and test a model of V4 and PFC interactions based on a hierarchical predictive coding framework. We propose that probabilistic inference occurs in two steps. Initially, V4 responses are driven solely by bottom-up sensory input and are thus strongly influenced by the level of occlusion. After a delay, V4 responses combine both feedforward input and feedback signals from the PFC; the latter reflect predictions made by PFC about the visual stimulus underlying V4 activity. We find that this model captures key features of V4 and PFC dynamics observed in experiments. Specifically, PFC responses are strongest for occluded stimuli and delayed responses in V4 are less sensitive to occlusion, supporting our hypothesis that the feedback signals from PFC underlie robust discrimination of occluded shapes. Thus, our study proposes that area V4 and PFC participate in hierarchical inference, with feedback signals encoding top-down predictions about occluded shapes. PMID:29566355

  3. Efficacy analysis of LDPC coded APSK modulated differential space-time-frequency coded for wireless body area network using MB-pulsed OFDM UWB technology.

    PubMed

    Manimegalai, C T; Gauni, Sabitha; Kalimuthu, K

    2017-12-04

    Wireless body area network (WBAN) is a breakthrough technology in healthcare areas such as hospital and telemedicine. The human body has a complex mixture of different tissues. It is expected that the nature of propagation of electromagnetic signals is distinct in each of these tissues. This forms the base for the WBAN, which is different from other environments. In this paper, the knowledge of Ultra Wide Band (UWB) channel is explored in the WBAN (IEEE 802.15.6) system. The measurements of parameters in frequency range from 3.1-10.6 GHz are taken. The proposed system, transmits data up to 480 Mbps by using LDPC coded APSK Modulated Differential Space-Time-Frequency Coded MB-OFDM to increase the throughput and power efficiency.

  4. The ZIP family zinc transporters support the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Do, Eunsoo; Hu, Guanggan; Caza, Mélissa; Kronstad, James W.; Jung, Won Hee

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential element in living organisms and a cofactor for various metalloproteins. To disseminate and survive, a pathogenic microbe must obtain zinc from the host, which is an environment with extremely limited zinc availability. In this study, we investigated the roles of the ZIP family zinc transporters Zip1 and Zip2 in the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Zip1 and Zip2 are homologous to Zrt1 and Zrt2 of the model fungus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively. We found that the expression of ZIP1 was regulated by the zinc concentration in the environment. Furthermore, the mutant lacking ZIP1 displayed a severe growth defect under zinc-limited conditions, while the mutant lacking ZIP2 displayed normal growth. Inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectroscopy analysis showed that the absence of Zip1 expression significantly reduced total cellular zinc levels relative to that in the wild type, while overexpression of Zip1 was associated with increased cellular zinc levels. These findings suggested that Zip1 plays roles in zinc uptake in C. neoformans. We also constructed a Zip1-FLAG fusion protein and found, by immunofluorescence, not only that the protein was localized to the periphery implying it is a membrane transporter, but also that the protein was N-glycosylated. Furthermore, the mutant lacking ZIP1 showed attenuated virulence in a murine inhalation model of cryptococcosis and reduced survival within murine macrophages. Overall, our data suggest that Zip1 plays essential roles in zinc transport and the virulence of C. neoformans. PMID:27118799

  5. Characterization of zinc transport by divalent metal transporters of the ZIP family from the model legume medicago truncatula

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To understand how plants from the Fabaceae family maintain zinc (Zn) homeostasis, we have characterized the kinetics of the Zn transporting proteins from the ZIP family of divalent metal transporters in the model legume Medicago truncatula. MtZIP1, MtZIP5, and MtZIP6 were the only members from this ...

  6. Evolutionary Descent of Prion Genes from the ZIP Family of Metal Ion Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold; Ehsani, Sepehr; Watts, Joel C.; Westaway, David; Wille, Holger

    2009-01-01

    In the more than twenty years since its discovery, both the phylogenetic origin and cellular function of the prion protein (PrP) have remained enigmatic. Insights into a possible function of PrP may be obtained through the characterization of its molecular neighborhood in cells. Quantitative interactome data demonstrated the spatial proximity of two metal ion transporters of the ZIP family, ZIP6 and ZIP10, to mammalian prion proteins in vivo. A subsequent bioinformatic analysis revealed the unexpected presence of a PrP-like amino acid sequence within the N-terminal, extracellular domain of a distinct sub-branch of the ZIP protein family that includes ZIP5, ZIP6 and ZIP10. Additional structural threading and orthologous sequence alignment analyses argued that the prion gene family is phylogenetically derived from a ZIP-like ancestral molecule. The level of sequence homology and the presence of prion protein genes in most chordate species place the split from the ZIP-like ancestor gene at the base of the chordate lineage. This relationship explains structural and functional features found within mammalian prion proteins as elements of an ancient involvement in the transmembrane transport of divalent cations. The phylogenetic and spatial connection to ZIP proteins is expected to open new avenues of research to elucidate the biology of the prion protein in health and disease. PMID:19784368

  7. A role for the Drosophila zinc transporter Zip88E in protecting against dietary zinc toxicity.

    PubMed

    Richards, Christopher D; Warr, Coral G; Burke, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Zinc absorption in animals is thought to be regulated in a local, cell autonomous manner with intestinal cells responding to dietary zinc content. The Drosophila zinc transporter Zip88E shows strong sequence similarity to Zips 42C.1, 42C.2 and 89B as well as mammalian Zips 1, 2 and 3, suggesting that it may act in concert with the apically-localised Drosophila zinc uptake transporters to facilitate dietary zinc absorption by importing ions into the midgut enterocytes. However, the functional characterisation of Zip88E presented here indicates that Zip88E may instead play a role in detecting and responding to zinc toxicity. Larvae homozygous for a null Zip88E allele are viable yet display heightened sensitivity to elevated levels of dietary zinc. This decreased zinc tolerance is accompanied by an overall decrease in Metallothionein B transcription throughout the larval midgut. A Zip88E reporter gene is expressed only in the salivary glands, a handful of enteroendocrine cells at the boundary between the anterior and middle midgut regions, and in two parallel strips of sensory cell projections connecting to the larval ventral ganglion. Zip88E expression solely in this restricted subset of cells is sufficient to rescue the Zip88E mutant phenotype. Together, our data suggest that Zip88E may be functioning in a small subset of cells to detect excessive zinc levels and induce a systemic response to reduce dietary zinc absorption and hence protect against toxicity.

  8. Interplay of HD-Zip II and III transcription factors in auxin-regulated plant development.

    PubMed

    Turchi, L; Baima, S; Morelli, G; Ruberti, I

    2015-08-01

    The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) class of transcription factors is unique to plants. HD-Zip proteins bind to DNA exclusively as dimers recognizing dyad symmetric sequences and act as positive or negative regulators of gene expression. On the basis of sequence homology in the HD-Zip DNA-binding domain, HD-Zip proteins have been grouped into four families (HD-Zip I-IV). Each HD-Zip family can be further divided into subfamilies containing paralogous genes that have arisen through genome duplication. Remarkably, all the members of the HD-Zip IIγ and -δ clades are regulated by light quality changes that induce in the majority of the angiosperms the shade-avoidance response, a process regulated at multiple levels by auxin. Intriguingly, it has recently emerged that, apart from their function in shade avoidance, the HD-Zip IIγ and -δ transcription factors control several auxin-regulated developmental processes, including apical embryo patterning, lateral organ polarity, and gynoecium development, in a white-light environment. This review presents recent advances in our understanding of HD-Zip II protein function in plant development, with particular emphasis on the impact of loss-of-function HD-Zip II mutations on auxin distribution and response. The review also describes evidence demonstrating that HD-Zip IIγ and -δ genes are directly and positively regulated by HD-Zip III transcription factors, primary determinants of apical shoot development, known to control the expression of several auxin biosynthesis, transport, and response genes. Finally, the interplay between HD-Zip II and III transcription factors in embryo apical patterning and organ polarity is discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A Novel Wheat C-bZIP Gene, TabZIP14-B, Participates in Salt and Freezing Tolerance in Transgenic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Lichao; Xia, Chuan; Gao, Lifeng; Hao, Chenyang; Zhao, Guangyao; Jia, Jizeng; Kong, Xiuying

    2017-01-01

    The group C-bZIP transcription factors (TFs) are involved in diverse biological processes, such as the regulation of seed storage protein (SSP) production and the responses to pathogen challenge and abiotic stress. However, our knowledge of the abiotic functions of group C-bZIP genes in wheat remains limited. Here, we present the function of a novel TabZIP14-B gene in wheat. This gene belongs to the group C-bZIP TFs and contains six exons and five introns; three haplotypes were identified among accessions of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. A subcellular localization analysis indicated that TabZIP14-B was targeted to the nucleus of tobacco epidermal cells. A transactivation assay demonstrated that TabZIP14-B showed transcriptional activation ability and was capable of binding the abscisic acid (ABA) responsive element (ABRE) in yeast. RT-qPCR revealed that TabZIP14-B was expressed in the roots, stems, leaves, and young spikes and was up-regulated by exogenous ABA, salt, low-temperature, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress treatments. Furthermore, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TabZIP14-B exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt, freezing stresses and ABA sensitivity. Overexpression of TabZIP14-B resulted in increased expression of the AtRD29A, AtCOR47, AtRD20, AtGSTF6, and AtRAB18 genes and changes in several physiological characteristics. These results suggest that TabZIP14-B could function as a positive regulator in mediating the abiotic stress response. PMID:28536588

  10. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Area of Interest (AOI) 6: Develop and Validate Aeroelastic Codes for Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Kevin D.; Liu, Jong-Shang; Murthy, Durbha V.; Kruse, Marlin J.; James, Darrell

    1999-01-01

    AlliedSignal Engines, in cooperation with NASA GRC (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center), completed an evaluation of recently-developed aeroelastic computer codes using test cases from the AlliedSignal Engines fan blisk and turbine databases. Test data included strain gage, performance, and steady-state pressure information obtained for conditions where synchronous or flutter vibratory conditions were found to occur. Aeroelastic codes evaluated included quasi 3-D UNSFLO (MIT Developed/AE Modified, Quasi 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code), 2-D FREPS (NASA-Developed Forced Response Prediction System Aeroelastic Computer Code), and 3-D TURBO-AE (NASA/Mississippi State University Developed 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code). Unsteady pressure predictions for the turbine test case were used to evaluate the forced response prediction capabilities of each of the three aeroelastic codes. Additionally, one of the fan flutter cases was evaluated using TURBO-AE. The UNSFLO and FREPS evaluation predictions showed good agreement with the experimental test data trends, but quantitative improvements are needed. UNSFLO over-predicted turbine blade response reductions, while FREPS under-predicted them. The inviscid TURBO-AE turbine analysis predicted no discernible blade response reduction, indicating the necessity of including viscous effects for this test case. For the TURBO-AE fan blisk test case, significant effort was expended getting the viscous version of the code to give converged steady flow solutions for the transonic flow conditions. Once converged, the steady solutions provided an excellent match with test data and the calibrated DAWES (AlliedSignal 3-D Viscous Steady Flow CFD Solver). However, efforts expended establishing quality steady-state solutions prevented exercising the unsteady portion of the TURBO-AE code during the present program. AlliedSignal recommends that unsteady pressure measurement data be obtained for both test cases examined

  11. Stakeholder perceptions of indicators of tourism use and codes of conduct in a coastal protected area in Alaska

    Treesearch

    Emily F. Pomeranz; Mark D. Needham; Linda E. Kruger

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on a collaborative approach for addressing impacts of watercraft-based tourism in Tracy Arm-Fords Terror Wilderness, Alaska. This approach is the Wilderness Best Management Practices (WBMP) and involves codes of conduct for managing use in this area. This article examines use-related indicators that stakeholders prioritize for inclusion in the WBMP...

  12. Functional Analysis of Maize Silk-Specific ZmbZIP25 Promoter.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanying; Yu, Dan; Yu, Jingjuan; Zhu, Dengyun; Zhao, Qian

    2018-03-12

    ZmbZIP25 ( Zea mays bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factor 25) is a function-unknown protein that belongs to the D group of the bZIP transcription factor family. RNA-seq data showed that the expression of ZmbZIP25 was tissue-specific in maize silks, and this specificity was confirmed by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). In situ RNA hybridization showed that ZmbZIP25 was expressed exclusively in the xylem of maize silks. A 5' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay identified an adenine residue as the transcription start site of the ZmbZIP25 gene. To characterize this silk-specific promoter, we isolated and analyzed a 2450 bp (from -2083 to +367) and a 2600 bp sequence of ZmbZIP25 (from -2083 to +517, the transcription start site was denoted +1). Stable expression assays in Arabidopsis showed that the expression of the reporter gene GUS driven by the 2450 bp ZmbZIP25 5'-flanking fragment occurred exclusively in the papillae of Arabidopsis stigmas. Furthermore, transient expression assays in maize indicated that GUS and GFP expression driven by the 2450 bp ZmbZIP25 5'-flanking sequences occurred only in maize silks and not in other tissues. However, no GUS or GFP expression was driven by the 2600 bp ZmbZIP25 5'-flanking sequences in either stable or transient expression assays. A series of deletion analyses of the 2450 bp ZmbZIP25 5'-flanking sequence was performed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and probable elements prediction analysis revealed the possible presence of negative regulatory elements within the 161 bp region from -1117 to -957 that were responsible for the specificity of the ZmbZIP25 5'-flanking sequence.

  13. Functional Analysis of Maize Silk-Specific ZmbZIP25 Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wanying; Yu, Dan; Yu, Jingjuan; Zhu, Dengyun; Zhao, Qian

    2018-01-01

    ZmbZIP25 (Zea mays bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factor 25) is a function-unknown protein that belongs to the D group of the bZIP transcription factor family. RNA-seq data showed that the expression of ZmbZIP25 was tissue-specific in maize silks, and this specificity was confirmed by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). In situ RNA hybridization showed that ZmbZIP25 was expressed exclusively in the xylem of maize silks. A 5′ RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay identified an adenine residue as the transcription start site of the ZmbZIP25 gene. To characterize this silk-specific promoter, we isolated and analyzed a 2450 bp (from −2083 to +367) and a 2600 bp sequence of ZmbZIP25 (from −2083 to +517, the transcription start site was denoted +1). Stable expression assays in Arabidopsis showed that the expression of the reporter gene GUS driven by the 2450 bp ZmbZIP25 5′-flanking fragment occurred exclusively in the papillae of Arabidopsis stigmas. Furthermore, transient expression assays in maize indicated that GUS and GFP expression driven by the 2450 bp ZmbZIP25 5′-flanking sequences occurred only in maize silks and not in other tissues. However, no GUS or GFP expression was driven by the 2600 bp ZmbZIP25 5′-flanking sequences in either stable or transient expression assays. A series of deletion analyses of the 2450 bp ZmbZIP25 5′-flanking sequence was performed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and probable elements prediction analysis revealed the possible presence of negative regulatory elements within the 161 bp region from −1117 to −957 that were responsible for the specificity of the ZmbZIP25 5′-flanking sequence. PMID:29534529

  14. In vivo binding of hot pepper bZIP transcription factor CabZIP1 to the G-box region of pathogenesis-related protein 1 promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Boo-Ja; Park, Chang-Jin; Kim, Sung-Kyu

    2006-05-26

    We find that salicylic acid and ethephon treatment in hot pepper increases the expression of a putative basic/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor gene, CabZIP1. CabZIP1 mRNA is expressed ubiquitously in various organs. The green fluorescent protein-fused transcription factor, CabZIP1::GFP, can be specifically localized to the nucleus, an action that is consistent with the presence of a nuclear localization signal in its protein sequence. Transient overexpression of the CabZIP1 transcription factor results in an increase in PR-1 transcripts level in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that CabZIP1 binds to the G-box elements in native promoter of the hotmore » pepper pathogenesis-related protein 1 (CaPR-1) gene in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that CabZIP1 plays a role as a transcriptional regulator of the CaPR-1 gene.« less

  15. Structure and function of homodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins.

    PubMed

    Elhiti, Mohamed; Stasolla, Claudio

    2009-02-01

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins are transcription factors unique to plants and are encoded by more than 25 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on sequence analyses these proteins have been classified into four distinct groups: HD-Zip I-IV. HD-Zip proteins are characterized by the presence of two functional domains; a homeodomain (HD) responsible for DNA binding and a leucine zipper domain (Zip) located immediately C-terminal to the homeodomain and involved in protein-protein interaction. Despite sequence similarities HD-ZIP proteins participate in a variety of processes during plant growth and development. HD-Zip I proteins are generally involved in responses related to abiotic stress, abscisic acid (ABA), blue light, de-etiolation and embryogenesis. HD-Zip II proteins participate in light response, shade avoidance and auxin signalling. Members of the third group (HD-Zip III) control embryogenesis, leaf polarity, lateral organ initiation and meristem function. HD-Zip IV proteins play significant roles during anthocyanin accumulation, differentiation of epidermal cells, trichome formation and root development.

  16. From Phonemes to Articulatory Codes: An fMRI Study of the Role of Broca's Area in Speech Production

    PubMed Central

    de Zwart, Jacco A.; Jansma, J. Martijn; Pickering, Martin J.; Bednar, James A.; Horwitz, Barry

    2009-01-01

    We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neuroanatomical substrates of phonetic encoding and the generation of articulatory codes from phonological representations. Our focus was on the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and in particular whether the LIFG plays a role in sublexical phonological processing such as syllabification or whether it is directly involved in phonetic encoding and the generation of articulatory codes. To answer this question, we contrasted the brain activation patterns elicited by pseudowords with high– or low–sublexical frequency components, which we expected would reveal areas related to the generation of articulatory codes but not areas related to phonological encoding. We found significant activation of a premotor network consisting of the dorsal precentral gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, and the supplementary motor area for low– versus high–sublexical frequency pseudowords. Based on our hypothesis, we concluded that these areas and in particular the LIFG are involved in phonetic and not phonological encoding. We further discuss our findings with respect to the mechanisms of phonetic encoding and provide evidence in support of a functional segregation of the posterior part of Broca's area, the pars opercularis. PMID:19181696

  17. Decryption-decompression of AES protected ZIP files on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Tan Nhat; Pham, Phong Hong; Nguyen, Duc Huu; Nguyen, Thuy Thanh; Le, Hung Duc

    2011-10-01

    AES is a strong encryption system, so decryption-decompression of AES encrypted ZIP files requires very large computing power and techniques of reducing the password space. This makes implementations of techniques on common computing system not practical. In [1], we reduced the original very large password search space to a much smaller one which surely containing the correct password. Based on reduced set of passwords, in this paper, we parallel decryption, decompression and plain text recognition for encrypted ZIP files by using CUDA computing technology on graphics cards GeForce GTX295 of NVIDIA, to find out the correct password. The experimental results have shown that the speed of decrypting, decompressing, recognizing plain text and finding out the original password increases about from 45 to 180 times (depends on the number of GPUs) compared to sequential execution on the Intel Core 2 Quad Q8400 2.66 GHz. These results have demonstrated the potential applicability of GPUs in this cryptanalysis field.

  18. Genome-Wide Analysis of bZIP-Encoding Genes in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Kaifa; Chen, Juan; Wang, Yanmei; Chen, Yanhui; Chen, Shaoxiang; Lin, Yina; Pan, Si; Zhong, Xiaojun; Xie, Daoxin

    2012-01-01

    In plants, basic leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins regulate numerous biological processes such as seed maturation, flower and vascular development, stress signalling and pathogen defence. We have carried out a genome-wide identification and analysis of 125 bZIP genes that exist in the maize genome, encoding 170 distinct bZIP proteins. This family can be divided into 11 groups according to the phylogenetic relationship among the maize bZIP proteins and those in Arabidopsis and rice. Six kinds of intron patterns (a–f) within the basic and hinge regions are defined. The additional conserved motifs have been identified and present the group specificity. Detailed three-dimensional structure analysis has been done to display the sequence conservation and potential distribution of the bZIP domain. Further, we predict the DNA-binding pattern and the dimerization property on the basis of the characteristic features in the basic and hinge regions and the leucine zipper, respectively, which supports our classification greatly and helps to classify 26 distinct subfamilies. The chromosome distribution and the genetic analysis reveal that 58 ZmbZIP genes are located in the segmental duplicate regions in the maize genome, suggesting that the segment chromosomal duplications contribute greatly to the expansion of the maize bZIP family. Across the 60 different developmental stages of 11 organs, three apparent clusters formed represent three kinds of different expression patterns among the ZmbZIP gene family in maize development. A similar but slightly different expression pattern of bZIPs in two inbred lines displays that 22 detected ZmbZIP genes might be involved in drought stress. Thirteen pairs and 143 pairs of ZmbZIP genes show strongly negative and positive correlations in the four distinct fungal infections, respectively, based on the expression profile and Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis. PMID:23103471

  19. Area, speed and power measurements of FPGA-based complex orthogonal space-time block code channel encoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passas, Georgios; Freear, Steven; Fawcett, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Space-time coding (STC) is an important milestone in modern wireless communications. In this technique, more copies of the same signal are transmitted through different antennas (space) and different symbol periods (time), to improve the robustness of a wireless system by increasing its diversity gain. STCs are channel coding algorithms that can be readily implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. This work provides some figures for the amount of required FPGA hardware resources, the speed that the algorithms can operate and the power consumption requirements of a space-time block code (STBC) encoder. Seven encoder very high-speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL) designs have been coded, synthesised and tested. Each design realises a complex orthogonal space-time block code with a different transmission matrix. All VHDL designs are parameterisable in terms of sample precision. Precisions ranging from 4 bits to 32 bits have been synthesised. Alamouti's STBC encoder design [Alamouti, S.M. (1998), 'A Simple Transmit Diversity Technique for Wireless Communications', IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 16:55-108.] proved to be the best trade-off, since it is on average 3.2 times smaller, 1.5 times faster and requires slightly less power than the next best trade-off in the comparison, which is a 3/4-rate full-diversity 3Tx-antenna STBC.

  20. Telepharmacy and bar-code technology in an i.v. chemotherapy admixture area.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Brian C; Worden, John C; Couldry, Rick J

    2009-07-01

    A program using telepharmacy and bar-code technology to increase the presence of the pharmacist at a critical risk point during chemotherapy preparation is described. Telepharmacy hardware and software were acquired, and an inspection camera was placed in a biological safety cabinet to allow the pharmacy technician to take digital photographs at various stages of the chemotherapy preparation process. Once the pharmacist checks the medication vials' agreement with the work label, the technician takes the product into the biological safety cabinet, where the appropriate patient is selected from the pending work list, a queue of patient orders sent from the pharmacy information system. The technician then scans the bar code on the vial. Assuming the bar code matches, the technician photographs the work label, vials, diluents and fluids to be used, and the syringe (before injecting the contents into the bag) along with the vial. The pharmacist views all images as a part of the final product-checking process. This process allows the pharmacist to verify that the correct quantity of medication was transferred from the primary source to a secondary container without being physically present at the time of transfer. Telepharmacy and bar coding provide a means to improve the accuracy of chemotherapy preparation by decreasing the likelihood of using the incorrect product or quantity of drug. The system facilitates the reading of small product labels and removes the need for a pharmacist to handle contaminated syringes and vials when checking the final product.

  1. Poplar PtabZIP1-like enhances lateral root formation and biomass growth under drought stress

    DOE PAGES

    Dash, Madhumita; Yordanov, Yordan S.; Georgieva, Tatyana; ...

    2017-02-10

    Developing drought-resistance varieties is a major goal for bioenergy crops, such as poplar (Populus), which will be grown on marginal lands with little or no water input. Root architecture can affect drought resistance, but few genes that affect root architecture in relation to water availability have been identified. Here in this study, using activation tagging in the prime bioenergy crop poplar, we have identified a mutant that overcomes the block of lateral root (LR) formation under osmotic stress. Positioning of the tag, validation of the activation and recapitulation showed that the phenotype is caused by the poplar PtabZIP1-like (PtabZIP1L) genemore » with highest homology to bZIP1 from Arabidopsis. PtabZIP1L is predominantly expressed in roots, particularly in zones where lateral root primordia (LRP) initiate and LR differentiate and emerge. Transgenics overexpressing PtabZIP1L showed precocious LRP and LR development, while PtabZIP1L suppression significantly delayed both LRP and LR formation. Transgenic overexpression and suppression of PtabZIP1L also resulted in modulation of key metabolites like proline, asparagine, valine and several flavonoids. Consistently, expression of both of the poplar Proline Dehydrogenase orthologs and two of the Flavonol Synthases genes was also increased and decreased in overexpressed and suppressed transgenics, respectively. These findings suggest that PtabZIP1L mediates LR development and drought resistance through modulation of multiple metabolic pathways.« less

  2. Poplar PtabZIP1-like enhances lateral root formation and biomass growth under drought stress

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, Madhumita; Yordanov, Yordan S.; Georgieva, Tatyana

    Developing drought-resistance varieties is a major goal for bioenergy crops, such as poplar (Populus), which will be grown on marginal lands with little or no water input. Root architecture can affect drought resistance, but few genes that affect root architecture in relation to water availability have been identified. Here in this study, using activation tagging in the prime bioenergy crop poplar, we have identified a mutant that overcomes the block of lateral root (LR) formation under osmotic stress. Positioning of the tag, validation of the activation and recapitulation showed that the phenotype is caused by the poplar PtabZIP1-like (PtabZIP1L) genemore » with highest homology to bZIP1 from Arabidopsis. PtabZIP1L is predominantly expressed in roots, particularly in zones where lateral root primordia (LRP) initiate and LR differentiate and emerge. Transgenics overexpressing PtabZIP1L showed precocious LRP and LR development, while PtabZIP1L suppression significantly delayed both LRP and LR formation. Transgenic overexpression and suppression of PtabZIP1L also resulted in modulation of key metabolites like proline, asparagine, valine and several flavonoids. Consistently, expression of both of the poplar Proline Dehydrogenase orthologs and two of the Flavonol Synthases genes was also increased and decreased in overexpressed and suppressed transgenics, respectively. These findings suggest that PtabZIP1L mediates LR development and drought resistance through modulation of multiple metabolic pathways.« less

  3. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and Microarray Analysis Suggest Functional Cooperation between Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus ORF57 and K-bZIP

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Olga V.; Sei, Emi; Richardson, R. Blake

    2013-01-01

    The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) open reading frame 57 (ORF57)-encoded protein (Mta) is a multifunctional regulator of viral gene expression. ORF57 is essential for viral replication, so elucidation of its molecular mechanisms is important for understanding KSHV infection. ORF57 has been implicated in nearly every aspect of viral gene expression, including transcription, RNA stability, splicing, export, and translation. Here we demonstrate that ORF57 interacts with the KSHV K-bZIP protein in vitro and in cell extracts from lytically reactivated infected cells. To further test the biological relevance of the interaction, we performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray (ChIP-chip) analysis using anti-ORF57 antibodies and a KSHV tiling array. The results revealed four specific areas of enrichment, including the ORF4 and K8 (K-bZIP) promoters, as well as oriLyt, all of which interact with K-bZIP. In addition, ORF57 associated with DNA corresponding to the PAN RNA transcribed region, a known posttranscriptional target of ORF57. All of the peaks were RNase insensitive, demonstrating that ORF57 association with the viral genome is unlikely to be mediated exclusively by an RNA tether. Our data demonstrate that ORF57 associates with the viral genome by using at least two modes of recruitment, and they suggest that ORF57 and K-bZIP coregulate viral gene expression during lytic infection. PMID:23365430

  4. The regulatory network of ThbZIP1 in response to abscisic acid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Liu, Guifeng; Liu, Yujia; Nie, Xianguang; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Yucheng

    2015-01-01

    Previously, a bZIP transcription factor from Tamarix hispida, ThbZIP1, was characterized: plants overexpressing ThbZIP1 displayed improved salt stress tolerance but were sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA). In the current study, we further characterized the regulatory network of ThbZIP1 and the mechanism of ABA sensitivity mediated by ThbZIP1. An ABF transcription factor from T. hispida, ThABF1, directly regulates the expression of ThbZIP1. Microarray analysis identified 1662 and 1609 genes that were respectively significantly upregulated or downregulated by ThbZIP1 when exposed to ABA. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that the processes including “response to stimulus,” “catalytic activity,” “binding function,” and “metabolic process” were highly altered in ThbZIP1 expressing plants exposed to ABA. The gene expression in ThbZIP1 transformed plants were compared between exposed to ABA and salt on the genome scale. Genes differentially regulated by both salt and ABA treatment only accounted for 9.75% of total differentially regulated genes. GO analysis showed that structural molecule activity, organelle part, membrane-enclosed lumen, reproduction, and reproductive process are enhanced by ABA but inhibited by salt stress. Conversely, immune system and multi-organism process were improved by salt but inhibited by ABA. Transcription regulator activity, enzyme regulator activity, and developmental process were significantly altered by ABA but were not affected by salt stress. Our study provides insights into how ThbZIP1 mediates ABA and salt stress response at the molecular level. PMID:25713576

  5. Trends in Breast Cancer Stage and Mortality in Michigan (1992–2009) by Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Area Healthcare Resources

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Soliman, Amr S.; Copeland, Glenn; Banerjee, Mousumi; Schwartz, Kendra; Merajver, Sofia D.

    2013-01-01

    The long-term effect of socioeconomic status (SES) and healthcare resources availability (HCA) on breast cancer stage of presentation and mortality rates among patients in Michigan is unclear. Using data from the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH) between 1992 and 2009, we calculated annual proportions of late-stage diagnosis and age-adjusted breast cancer mortality rates by race and zip code in Michigan. SES and HCA were defined at the zip-code level. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) in the median zip-code level percent late stage diagnosis and mortality rate for blacks and whites and for each level of SES and HCA. Between 1992 and 2009, the proportion of late stage diagnosis increased among white women [AAPC = 1.0 (0.4, 1.6)], but was statistically unchanged among black women [AAPC = −0.5 (−1.9, 0.8)]. The breast cancer mortality rate declined among whites [AAPC = −1.3% (−1.8,−0.8)], but remained statistically unchanged among blacks [AAPC = −0.3% (−0.3, 1.0)]. In all SES and HCA area types, disparities in percent late stage between blacks and whites appeared to narrow over time, while the differences in breast cancer mortality rates between blacks and whites appeared to increase over time. PMID:23637921

  6. Fractional Brownian motion and the critical dynamics of zipping polymers.

    PubMed

    Walter, J-C; Ferrantini, A; Carlon, E; Vanderzande, C

    2012-03-01

    We consider two complementary polymer strands of length L attached by a common-end monomer. The two strands bind through complementary monomers and at low temperatures form a double-stranded conformation (zipping), while at high temperature they dissociate (unzipping). This is a simple model of DNA (or RNA) hairpin formation. Here we investigate the dynamics of the strands at the equilibrium critical temperature T=T(c) using Monte Carlo Rouse dynamics. We find that the dynamics is anomalous, with a characteristic time scaling as τ∼L(2.26(2)), exceeding the Rouse time ∼L(2.18). We investigate the probability distribution function, velocity autocorrelation function, survival probability, and boundary behavior of the underlying stochastic process. These quantities scale as expected from a fractional Brownian motion with a Hurst exponent H=0.44(1). We discuss similarities to and differences from unbiased polymer translocation.

  7. Professional Practice and Innovation: Level of Agreement between Coding Sources of Percentage Total Body Surface Area Burnt (%TBSA).

    PubMed

    Watterson, Dina; Cleland, Heather; Picton, Natalie; Simpson, Pam M; Gabbe, Belinda J

    2011-03-01

    The percentage of total body surface area burnt (%TBSA) is a critical measure of burn injury severity and a key predictor of burn injury outcome. This study evaluated the level of agreement between four sources of %TBSA using 120 cases identified through the Victorian State Trauma Registry. Expert clinician, ICD-10-AM, Abbreviated Injury Scale, and burns registry coding were compared using measures of agreement. There was near-perfect agreement (weighted Kappa statistic 0.81-1) between all sources of data, suggesting that ICD-10-AM is a valid source of %TBSA and use of ICD-10-AM codes could reduce the resource used by trauma and burns registries capturing this information.

  8. The bZIP transcription factor PfZipA regulates secondary metabolism and oxidative stress response in the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuna; Wu, Fan; Liu, Ling; Liu, Xingzhong; Che, Yongsheng; Keller, Nancy P; Guo, Liyun; Yin, Wen-Bing

    2015-08-01

    The bZIP transcription factors are conserved in all eukaryotes and play critical roles in organismal responses to environmental challenges. In filamentous fungi, several lines of evidence indicate that secondary metabolism (SM) is associated with oxidative stress mediated by bZIP proteins. Here we uncover a connection with a bZIP protein and oxidative stress induction of SM in the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici. A homology search of the P. fici genome with the bZIP protein RsmA, involved in SM and the oxidative stress response in Aspergillus nidulans, identified PfZipA. Deletion of PfzipA resulted in a strain that displayed resistant to the oxidative reagents tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBOOH), diamide, and menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB), but increased sensitivity to H2O2 as compared to wild type (WT). Secondary metabolite production presented a complex pattern dependent on PfzipA and oxidative reagents. Without oxidative treatment, the ΔPfzipA strain produced less isosulochrin and ficipyroneA than WT; addition of tBOOH further decreased production of iso-A82775C and pestaloficiol M in ΔPfzipA; diamide treatment resulted in equivalent production of isosulochrin and ficipyroneA in the two strains; MSB treatment further decreased production of RES1214-1 and iso-A82775C but increased pestaloficiol M production in the mutant; and H2O2 treatment resulted in enhanced production of isosulochrin, RES1214-1 and pestheic acid but decreased ficipyroneA and pestaloficiol M in ΔPfzipA compared to WT. Our results suggest that PfZipA regulation of SM is modified by oxidative stress pathways and provide insights into a possible role of PfZipA in mediating SM synthesis in the endophytic lifestyle of P. fici. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Knockdown of zinc transporter ZIP8 expression inhibits neuroblastoma progression and metastasis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zhengrong; Yan, Pengke; Wang, Ying; Liu, Shaozhi; He, Fang

    2018-05-02

    Neuroblastoma is one of the leading causes of cancer‑associated mortality worldwide, particularly in children, partially due to the absence of effective therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers. Therefore, novel molecular targets are critical to the development of therapeutic approaches for neuroblastoma. In the present study, the functions of zinc transporter ZIP8 (Zip8), a member of the zinc transporting protein family, were investigated as novel molecular targets in neuroblastoma cancer cells. The proliferation rates of neuroblastoma cancer cells were significantly decreased when Zip8 was knocked down by lentiviral‑mediated RNA interference. Study of the molecular mechanism suggested that Zip8 modulated the expression of key genes involved in the nuclear factor‑κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, Zip8 depletion suppressed the migratory potential of neuroblastoma cancer cells by reducing the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that Zip8 was an important regulator of neuroblastoma cell proliferation and migration, indicating that Zip8 may be a potential anticancer therapeutic target and a promising diagnostic biomarker for human neuroblastoma.

  10. Molecular pathogenesis of Spondylocheirodysplastic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome caused by mutant ZIP13 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Bum-Ho; Hojyo, Shintaro; Hosaka, Toshiaki; Bhin, Jinhyuk; Kano, Hiroki; Miyai, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Mariko; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Shirouzu, Mikako; Cho, Eun-Gyung; Fukue, Kazuhisa; Kambe, Taiho; Ohashi, Wakana; Kim, Kyu-Han; Seo, Juyeon; Choi, Dong-Hwa; Nam, Yeon-Ju; Hwang, Daehee; Fukunaka, Ayako; Fujitani, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Ikegawa, Shiro; Lee, Tae Ryong; Fukada, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    The zinc transporter protein ZIP13 plays critical roles in bone, tooth, and connective tissue development, and its dysfunction is responsible for the spondylocheirodysplastic form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (SCD-EDS, OMIM 612350). Here, we report the molecular pathogenic mechanism of SCD-EDS caused by two different mutant ZIP13 proteins found in human patients: ZIP13G64D, in which Gly at amino acid position 64 is replaced by Asp, and ZIP13ΔFLA, which contains a deletion of Phe-Leu-Ala. We demonstrated that both the ZIP13G64D and ZIP13ΔFLA protein levels are decreased by degradation via the valosin-containing protein (VCP)-linked ubiquitin proteasome pathway. The inhibition of degradation pathways rescued the protein expression levels, resulting in improved intracellular Zn homeostasis. Our findings uncover the pathogenic mechanisms elicited by mutant ZIP13 proteins. Further elucidation of these degradation processes may lead to novel therapeutic targets for SCD-EDS. PMID:25007800

  11. Knockdown of Zinc Transporter ZIP5 by RNA Interference Inhibits Esophageal Cancer Growth In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Jin, Jing; Liu, Jianghui; Wang, Liqun; He, Yutong

    2016-01-01

    We recently found that SLC39A5 (ZIP5), a zinc transporter, is overexpressed in esophageal cancer. Downregulation of ZIP5 inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of the esophageal cancer cell line KYSE170 in vitro. In this study, we found that downregulation of SLC39A5 (ZIP5) by interference resulted in a significant reduction in esophageal cancer tumor volume and weight in vivo. COX2 (cyclooxygenase 2) expression was decreased and E-cadherin expression was increased in the KYSE170K xenografts, which was caused by the downregulation of ZIP5. However, we did not find that the downregulation of ZIP5 caused a change in the relative expressions of cyclin D1, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), MMP9 (matrix metalloprotein 9), and Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma/leukmia-2) mRNA or an alteration in the average level of zinc in the peripheral blood and xenografts in vivo. Collectively, these findings indicate that knocking down ZIP5 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) might be a novel treatment strategy for esophageal cancer with ZIP5 overexpression.

  12. Genome Wide Identification of Orthologous ZIP Genes Associated with Zinc and Iron Translocation in Setaria italica.

    PubMed

    Alagarasan, Ganesh; Dubey, Mahima; Aswathy, Kumar S; Chandel, Girish

    2017-01-01

    Genes in the ZIP family encode transcripts to store and transport bivalent metal micronutrient, particularly iron (Fe) and or zinc (Zn). These transcripts are important for a variety of functions involved in the developmental and physiological processes in many plant species, including most, if not all, Poaceae plant species and the model species Arabidopsis. Here, we present the report of a genome wide investigation of orthologous ZIP genes in Setaria italica and the identification of 7 single copy genes. RT-PCR shows 4 of them could be used to increase the bio-availability of zinc and iron content in grains. Of 36 ZIP members, 25 genes have traces of signal peptide based sub-cellular localization, as compared to those of plant species studied previously, yet translocation of ions remains unclear. In silico analysis of gene structure and protein nature suggests that these two were preeminent in shaping the functional diversity of the ZIP gene family in S. italica . NAC, bZIP and bHLH are the predominant Fe and Zn responsive transcription factors present in SiZIP genes. Together, our results provide new insights into the signal peptide based/independent iron and zinc translocation in the plant system and allowed identification of ZIP genes that may be involved in the zinc and iron absorption from the soil, and thus transporting it to the cereal grain underlying high micronutrient accumulation.

  13. Structural insights of ZIP4 extracellular domain critical for optimal zinc transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tuo; Sui, Dexin; Hu, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The ZIP zinc transporter family is responsible for zinc uptake from the extracellular milieu or intracellular vesicles. The LIV-1 subfamily, containing nine out of the 14 human ZIP proteins, is featured with a large extracellular domain (ECD). The critical role of the ECD is manifested by disease-causing mutations on ZIP4, a representative LIV-1 protein. Here we report the first crystal structure of a mammalian ZIP4-ECD, which reveals two structurally independent subdomains and an unprecedented dimer centred at the signature PAL motif. Structure-guided mutagenesis, cell-based zinc uptake assays and mapping of the disease-causing mutations indicate that the two subdomains play pivotal but distinct roles and that the bridging region connecting them is particularly important for ZIP4 function. These findings lead to working hypotheses on how ZIP4-ECD exerts critical functions in zinc transport. The conserved dimeric architecture in ZIP4-ECD is also demonstrated to be a common structural feature among the LIV-1 proteins.

  14. Medicare costs and surgeon supply in hospital service areas.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Thomas C; Belsky, Daniel W

    2012-03-01

    To quantify the correlates of variations of Medicare per beneficiary costs at the hospital service area level and determine whether physician supply and the specialty of physicians has a significant relationship with cost variation. The American Medical Association Masterfile data on physician and surgeon location, characteristics and specialty; Census derived sociodemographic data from 2006 ZIP code level Claritas PopFacts database; and Medicare per beneficiary costs from the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care project. A correlational analysis using bivariate plots and fixed effects linear regression models controlling for hospital service area sociodemographics and the number and characteristics of the physician supply. Data were aggregated to the Dartmouth hospital service area level from ZIP code level files. We found that costs are strongly related to the sociodemographic character of the hospital service areas and the overall supply of physicians but a mixed correlation to the specialist supply depending on the interaction of the proportion of the physician supply who are international medical graduates. The ratio of general surgeons and surgical subspecialists to population are associated with lower costs in the models, again with difference depending on the influence of international medical graduates. There is a strong association between higher costs and the local proportion of physician supply made up of graduates of non-US or Canadian medical schools and female graduates. These results suggest that strategies to reduce overall costs by changing physician supply must consider more than just overall numbers.

  15. Hepatic ZIP14-mediated zinc transport is required for adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Hyun; Aydemir, Tolunay B.; Kim, Jinhee; Cousins, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress damages the liver, causing apoptosis and steatosis despite the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Restriction of zinc from cells can induce ER stress, indicating that zinc is essential to maintain normal ER function. However, a role for zinc during hepatic ER stress is largely unknown despite important roles in metabolic disorders, including obesity and nonalcoholic liver disease. We have explored a role for the metal transporter ZIP14 during pharmacologically and high-fat diet–induced ER stress using Zip14−/− (KO) mice, which exhibit impaired hepatic zinc uptake. Here, we report that ZIP14-mediated hepatic zinc uptake is critical for adaptation to ER stress, preventing sustained apoptosis and steatosis. Impaired hepatic zinc uptake in Zip14 KO mice during ER stress coincides with greater expression of proapoptotic proteins. ER stress-induced Zip14 KO mice show greater levels of hepatic steatosis due to higher expression of genes involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis, which are suppressed in ER stress-induced WT mice. During ER stress, the UPR-activated transcription factors ATF4 and ATF6α transcriptionally up-regulate Zip14 expression. We propose ZIP14 mediates zinc transport into hepatocytes to inhibit protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity, which acts to suppress apoptosis and steatosis associated with hepatic ER stress. Zip14 KO mice showed greater hepatic PTP1B activity during ER stress. These results show the importance of zinc trafficking and functional ZIP14 transporter activity for adaptation to ER stress associated with chronic metabolic disorders. PMID:28673968

  16. Hepatic ZIP14-mediated zinc transport is required for adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hyun; Aydemir, Tolunay B; Kim, Jinhee; Cousins, Robert J

    2017-07-18

    Extensive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress damages the liver, causing apoptosis and steatosis despite the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Restriction of zinc from cells can induce ER stress, indicating that zinc is essential to maintain normal ER function. However, a role for zinc during hepatic ER stress is largely unknown despite important roles in metabolic disorders, including obesity and nonalcoholic liver disease. We have explored a role for the metal transporter ZIP14 during pharmacologically and high-fat diet-induced ER stress using Zip14 -/- (KO) mice, which exhibit impaired hepatic zinc uptake. Here, we report that ZIP14-mediated hepatic zinc uptake is critical for adaptation to ER stress, preventing sustained apoptosis and steatosis. Impaired hepatic zinc uptake in Zip14 KO mice during ER stress coincides with greater expression of proapoptotic proteins. ER stress-induced Zip14 KO mice show greater levels of hepatic steatosis due to higher expression of genes involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis, which are suppressed in ER stress-induced WT mice. During ER stress, the UPR-activated transcription factors ATF4 and ATF6α transcriptionally up-regulate Zip14 expression. We propose ZIP14 mediates zinc transport into hepatocytes to inhibit protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity, which acts to suppress apoptosis and steatosis associated with hepatic ER stress. Zip14 KO mice showed greater hepatic PTP1B activity during ER stress. These results show the importance of zinc trafficking and functional ZIP14 transporter activity for adaptation to ER stress associated with chronic metabolic disorders.

  17. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 169a - Codes and Definitions of Functional Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) intermediate/direct/general maintenance performed by fixed activities that are not designed for deployment to combat areas and that provide direct support of organizations performing or designed to perform combat... commercial activities that are especially designed and constructed for the low-cost and efficient storage and...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 169a - Codes and Definitions of Functional Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) intermediate/direct/general maintenance performed by fixed activities that are not designed for deployment to combat areas and that provide direct support of organizations performing or designed to perform combat... commercial activities that are especially designed and constructed for the low-cost and efficient storage and...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 169a - Codes and Definitions of Functional Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) intermediate/direct/general maintenance performed by fixed activities that are not designed for deployment to combat areas and that provide direct support of organizations performing or designed to perform combat... commercial activities that are especially designed and constructed for the low-cost and efficient storage and...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 169a - Codes and Definitions of Functional Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) intermediate/direct/general maintenance performed by fixed activities that are not designed for deployment to combat areas and that provide direct support of organizations performing or designed to perform combat... commercial activities that are especially designed and constructed for the low-cost and efficient storage and...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 169a - Codes and Definitions of Functional Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) intermediate/direct/general maintenance performed by fixed activities that are not designed for deployment to combat areas and that provide direct support of organizations performing or designed to perform combat... commercial activities that are especially designed and constructed for the low-cost and efficient storage and...

  2. Overexpression of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bZIP transcription factor gene, TabZIP6, decreased the freezing tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings by down-regulating the expression of CBFs.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wangting; Yang, Yaling; Wang, Weiwei; Guo, Guangyan; Liu, Wei; Bi, Caili

    2018-03-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins play important roles against abiotic stress in plants, including cold stress. However, most bZIPs involved in plant freezing tolerance are positive regulators. Only a few bZIPs function negatively in cold stress response. In this study, TabZIP6, a Group C bZIP transcription factor gene from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), was cloned and characterized. The transcript of TabZIP6 was strongly induced by cold treatment (4 °C). TabZIP6 is a nuclear-localized protein with transcriptional activation activity. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TabZIP6 showed decreased tolerance to freezing stress. Microarray as well as quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that CBFs and some key COR genes, including COR47 and COR15B, were down-regulated by cold treatment in TabZIP6-overexpressing Arabidopsis lines. TabZIP6 was capable of binding to the G-box motif and the CBF1 and CBF3 promoters in yeast cells. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that TabZIP6, as well as the other two Group S bZIP proteins involved in cold stress tolerance in wheat, Wlip19 and TaOBF1, can form homodimers by themselves and heterodimers with each other. These results suggest that TabZIP6 may function negatively in the cold stress response by binding to the promoters of CBFs, and thereby decreasing the expression of downstream COR genes in TabZIP6-overexpressing Arabidopsis seedlings. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Time trends in the association of ESRD incidence with area-level poverty in the US population.

    PubMed

    Garrity, Bridget H; Kramer, Holly; Vellanki, Kavitha; Leehey, David; Brown, Julia; Shoham, David A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the temporal trends of the association between area-level poverty status and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence. We hypothesized that the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence has increased significantly over time. Patient data from the United States Renal Data System were linked with data from the 2000 and 2010 US census. Area-level poverty was defined as living in a zip code-defined area with ≥20% of households living below the federal poverty line. Negative binomial regression models were created to examine the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence by time period in the US adult population while simultaneously adjusting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code. Time was categorized as January 1, 1995 through December 31, 2004 (Period 1) and January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2010 (Period 2). The percentage of adults initiating dialysis with area-level poverty increased from 27.4% during Period 1 to 34.0% in Period 2. After accounting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code, area-level poverty status was associated with a 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22, 1.25)-fold higher ESRD incidence. However, this association differed by time period with 1.04-fold (95% CI 1.02, 1.05) higher ESRD incidence associated with poverty status for Period 2 compared with the association between ESRD and poverty status in Period 1. Area-level poverty and its association with ESRD incidence is not static over time. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  4. Genome-wide characterization and analysis of bZIP transcription factor gene family related to abiotic stress in cassava.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Yang, Hubiao; Yan, Yan; Wei, Yunxie; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Zuo, Jiao; Peng, Ming; Li, Kaimian

    2016-03-07

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor family plays crucial roles in various aspects of biological processes. Currently, no information is available regarding the bZIP family in the important tropical crop cassava. Herein, 77 bZIP genes were identified from cassava. Evolutionary analysis indicated that MebZIPs could be divided into 10 subfamilies, which was further supported by conserved motif and gene structure analyses. Global expression analysis suggested that MebZIPs showed similar or distinct expression patterns in different tissues between cultivated variety and wild subspecies. Transcriptome analysis of three cassava genotypes revealed that many MebZIP genes were activated by drought in the root of W14 subspecies, indicating the involvement of these genes in the strong resistance of cassava to drought. Expression analysis of selected MebZIP genes in response to osmotic, salt, cold, ABA, and H2O2 suggested that they might participate in distinct signaling pathways. Our systematic analysis of MebZIPs reveals constitutive, tissue-specific and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MebZIP genes for further functional characterization in planta, yields new insights into transcriptional regulation of MebZIP genes, and lays a foundation for understanding of bZIP-mediated abiotic stress response.

  5. Isolation and expression analysis of EcbZIP17 from different finger millet genotypes shows conserved nature of the gene.

    PubMed

    Chopperla, Ramakrishna; Singh, Sonam; Mohanty, Sasmita; Reddy, Nanja; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Solanke, Amolkumar U

    2017-10-01

    Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors comprise one of the largest gene families in plants. They play a key role in almost every aspect of plant growth and development and also in biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, we report isolation and characterization of EcbZIP17 , a group B bZIP transcription factor from a climate smart cereal, finger millet ( Eleusine coracana L.). The genomic sequence of EcbZIP17 is 2662 bp long encompassing two exons and one intron with ORF of 1722 bp and peptide length of 573 aa. This gene is homologous to AtbZIP17 ( Arabidopsis ), ZmbZIP17 (maize) and OsbZIP60 (rice) which play a key role in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. In silico analysis confirmed the presence of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) and transmembrane (TM) domains in the EcbZIP17 protein. Allele mining of this gene in 16 different genotypes by Sanger sequencing revealed no variation in nucleotide sequence, including the 618 bp long intron. Expression analysis of EcbZIP17 under heat stress exhibited similar pattern of expression in all the genotypes across time intervals with highest upregulation after 4 h. The present study established the conserved nature of EcbZIP17 at nucleotide and expression level.

  6. Area-level risk factors for adverse birth outcomes: trends in urban and rural settings.

    PubMed

    Kent, Shia T; McClure, Leslie A; Zaitchik, Ben F; Gohlke, Julia M

    2013-06-10

    Significant and persistent racial and income disparities in birth outcomes exist in the US. The analyses in this manuscript examine whether adverse birth outcome time trends and associations between area-level variables and adverse birth outcomes differ by urban-rural status. Alabama births records were merged with ZIP code-level census measures of race, poverty, and rurality. B-splines were used to determine long-term preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) trends by rurality. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the relationships between ZIP code-level percent poverty or percent African-American with either PTB or LBW. Interactions with rurality were examined. Population dense areas had higher adverse birth outcome rates compared to other regions. For LBW, the disparity between population dense and other regions increased during the 1991-2005 time period, and the magnitude of the disparity was maintained through 2010. Overall PTB and LBW rates have decreased since 2006, except within isolated rural regions. The addition of individual-level socioeconomic or race risk factors greatly attenuated these geographical disparities, but isolated rural regions maintained increased odds of adverse birth outcomes. ZIP code-level percent poverty and percent African American both had significant relationships with adverse birth outcomes. Poverty associations remained significant in the most population-dense regions when models were adjusted for individual-level risk factors. Population dense urban areas have heightened rates of adverse birth outcomes. High-poverty African American areas have higher odds of adverse birth outcomes in urban versus rural regions. These results suggest there are urban-specific social or environmental factors increasing risk for adverse birth outcomes in underserved communities. On the other hand, trends in PTBs and LBWs suggest interventions that have decreased adverse birth outcomes elsewhere may not be reaching

  7. Area-level risk factors for adverse birth outcomes: trends in urban and rural settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant and persistent racial and income disparities in birth outcomes exist in the US. The analyses in this manuscript examine whether adverse birth outcome time trends and associations between area-level variables and adverse birth outcomes differ by urban–rural status. Methods Alabama births records were merged with ZIP code-level census measures of race, poverty, and rurality. B-splines were used to determine long-term preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) trends by rurality. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the relationships between ZIP code-level percent poverty or percent African-American with either PTB or LBW. Interactions with rurality were examined. Results Population dense areas had higher adverse birth outcome rates compared to other regions. For LBW, the disparity between population dense and other regions increased during the 1991–2005 time period, and the magnitude of the disparity was maintained through 2010. Overall PTB and LBW rates have decreased since 2006, except within isolated rural regions. The addition of individual-level socioeconomic or race risk factors greatly attenuated these geographical disparities, but isolated rural regions maintained increased odds of adverse birth outcomes. ZIP code-level percent poverty and percent African American both had significant relationships with adverse birth outcomes. Poverty associations remained significant in the most population-dense regions when models were adjusted for individual-level risk factors. Conclusions Population dense urban areas have heightened rates of adverse birth outcomes. High-poverty African American areas have higher odds of adverse birth outcomes in urban versus rural regions. These results suggest there are urban-specific social or environmental factors increasing risk for adverse birth outcomes in underserved communities. On the other hand, trends in PTBs and LBWs suggest interventions that have decreased adverse

  8. A directional nucleation-zipping mechanism for triple helix formation

    PubMed Central

    Alberti, Patrizia; Arimondo, Paola B.; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Garestier, Thérèse; Hélène, Claude; Sun, Jian-Sheng

    2002-01-01

    A detailed kinetic study of triple helix formation was performed by surface plasmon resonance. Three systems were investigated involving 15mer pyrimidine oligonucleotides as third strands. Rate constants and activation energies were validated by comparison with thermodynamic values calculated from UV-melting analysis. Replacement of a T·A base pair by a C·G pair at either the 5′ or the 3′ end of the target sequence allowed us to assess mismatch effects and to delineate the mechanism of triple helix formation. Our data show that the association rate constant is governed by the sequence of base triplets on the 5′ side of the triplex (referred to as the 5′ side of the target oligopurine strand) and provides evidence that the reaction pathway for triple helix formation in the pyrimidine motif proceeds from the 5′ end to the 3′ end of the triplex according to the nucleation-zipping model. It seems that this is a general feature for all triple helices formation, probably due to the right-handedness of the DNA double helix that provides a stronger base stacking at the 5′ than at the 3′ duplex–triplex junction. Understanding the mechanism of triple helix formation is not only of fundamental interest, but may also help in designing better triple helix-forming oligonucleotides for gene targeting and control of gene expression. PMID:12490709

  9. hZIP1 zinc uptake transporter down regulation and zinc depletion in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Renty B; Feng, Pei; Milon, B; Desouki, Mohamed M; Singh, Keshav K; Kajdacsy-Balla, André; Bagasra, Omar; Costello, Leslie C

    2005-01-01

    Background The genetic and molecular mechanisms responsible for and associated with the development and progression of prostate malignancy are largely unidentified. The peripheral zone is the major region of the human prostate gland where malignancy develops. The normal peripheral zone glandular epithelium has the unique function of accumulating high levels of zinc. In contrast, the ability to accumulate zinc is lost in the malignant cells. The lost ability of the neoplastic epithelial cells to accumulate zinc is a consistent factor in their development of malignancy. Recent studies identified ZIP1 (SLC39A1) as an important zinc transporter involved in zinc accumulation in prostate cells. Therefore, we investigated the possibility that down-regulation of hZIP1 gene expression might be involved in the inability of malignant prostate cells to accumulate zinc. To address this issue, the expression of hZIP1 and the depletion of zinc in malignant versus non-malignant prostate glands of prostate cancer tissue sections were analyzed. hZIP1 expression was also determined in malignant prostate cell lines. Results hZIP1 gene expression, ZIP1 transporter protein, and cellular zinc were prominent in normal peripheral zone glandular epithelium and in benign hyperplastic glands (also zinc accumulating glands). In contrast, hZIP1 gene expression and transporter protein were markedly down-regulated and zinc was depleted in adenocarcinomatous glands and in prostate intra-epithelial neoplastic foci (PIN). These changes occur early in malignancy and are sustained during its progression in the peripheral zone. hZIP1 is also expressed in the malignant cell lines LNCaP, PC-3, DU-145; and in the nonmalignant cell lines HPr-1 and BPH-1. Conclusion The studies clearly establish that hZIP1 gene expression is down regulated and zinc is depleted in adenocarcinomatous glands. The fact that all the malignant cell lines express hZIP1 indicates that the down-regulation in adenocarcinomatous

  10. Arabidopsis HD-Zip II transcription factors control apical embryo development and meristem function.

    PubMed

    Turchi, Luana; Carabelli, Monica; Ruzza, Valentino; Possenti, Marco; Sassi, Massimiliano; Peñalosa, Andrés; Sessa, Giovanna; Salvi, Sergio; Forte, Valentina; Morelli, Giorgio; Ruberti, Ida

    2013-05-01

    The Arabidopsis genome encodes ten Homeodomain-Leucine zipper (HD-Zip) II proteins. ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX 2 (ATHB2), HOMEOBOX ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA 1 (HAT1), HAT2, HAT3 and ATHB4 are regulated by changes in the red/far red light ratio that induce shade avoidance in most of the angiosperms. Here, we show that progressive loss of HAT3, ATHB4 and ATHB2 activity causes developmental defects from embryogenesis onwards in white light. Cotyledon development and number are altered in hat3 athb4 embryos, and these defects correlate with changes in auxin distribution and response. athb2 gain-of-function mutation and ATHB2 expression driven by its promoter in hat3 athb4 result in significant attenuation of phenotypes, thus demonstrating that ATHB2 is functionally redundant to HAT3 and ATHB4. In analogy to loss-of-function mutations in HD-Zip III genes, loss of HAT3 and ATHB4 results in organ polarity defects, whereas triple hat3 athb4 athb2 mutants develop one or two radialized cotyledons and lack an active shoot apical meristem (SAM). Consistent with overlapping expression pattern of HD-Zip II and HD-Zip III gene family members, bilateral symmetry and SAM defects are enhanced when hat3 athb4 is combined with mutations in PHABULOSA (PHB), PHAVOLUTA (PHV) or REVOLUTA (REV). Finally, we show that ATHB2 is part of a complex regulatory circuit directly involving both HD-Zip II and HD-Zip III proteins. Taken together, our study provides evidence that a genetic system consisting of HD-Zip II and HD-Zip III genes cooperates in establishing bilateral symmetry and patterning along the adaxial-abaxial axis in the embryo as well as in controlling SAM activity.

  11. Tryptophan-dependent auxin biosynthesis is required for HD-ZIP III-mediated xylem patterning.

    PubMed

    Ursache, Robertas; Miyashima, Shunsuke; Chen, Qingguo; Vatén, Anne; Nakajima, Keiji; Carlsbecker, Annelie; Zhao, Yunde; Helariutta, Ykä; Dettmer, Jan

    2014-03-01

    The development and growth of higher plants is highly dependent on the conduction of water and minerals throughout the plant by xylem vessels. In Arabidopsis roots the xylem is organized as an axis of cell files with two distinct cell fates: the central metaxylem and the peripheral protoxylem. During vascular development, high and low expression levels of the class III HD-ZIP transcription factors promote metaxylem and protoxylem identities, respectively. Protoxylem specification is determined by both mobile, ground tissue-emanating miRNA165/6 species, which downregulate, and auxin concentrated by polar transport, which promotes HD-ZIP III expression. However, the factors promoting high HD-ZIP III expression for metaxylem identity have remained elusive. We show here that auxin biosynthesis promotes HD-ZIP III expression and metaxylem specification. Several auxin biosynthesis genes are expressed in the outer layers surrounding the vascular tissue in Arabidopsis root and downregulation of HD-ZIP III expression accompanied by specific defects in metaxylem development is seen in auxin biosynthesis mutants, such as trp2-12, wei8 tar2 or a quintuple yucca mutant, and in plants treated with L-kynurenine, a pharmacological inhibitor of auxin biosynthesis. Some of the patterning defects can be suppressed by synthetically elevated HD-ZIP III expression. Taken together, our results indicate that polar auxin transport, which was earlier shown to be required for protoxylem formation, is not sufficient to establish a proper xylem axis but that root-based auxin biosynthesis is additionally required.

  12. Gain Modulation as a Mechanism for Coding Depth from Motion Parallax in Macaque Area MT

    PubMed Central

    Kim, HyungGoo R.; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2017-01-01

    Observer translation produces differential image motion between objects that are located at different distances from the observer's point of fixation [motion parallax (MP)]. However, MP can be ambiguous with respect to depth sign (near vs far), and this ambiguity can be resolved by combining retinal image motion with signals regarding eye movement relative to the scene. We have previously demonstrated that both extra-retinal and visual signals related to smooth eye movements can modulate the responses of neurons in area MT of macaque monkeys, and that these modulations generate neural selectivity for depth sign. However, the neural mechanisms that govern this selectivity have remained unclear. In this study, we analyze responses of MT neurons as a function of both retinal velocity and direction of eye movement, and we show that smooth eye movements modulate MT responses in a systematic, temporally precise, and directionally specific manner to generate depth-sign selectivity. We demonstrate that depth-sign selectivity is primarily generated by multiplicative modulations of the response gain of MT neurons. Through simulations, we further demonstrate that depth can be estimated reasonably well by a linear decoding of a population of MT neurons with response gains that depend on eye velocity. Together, our findings provide the first mechanistic description of how visual cortical neurons signal depth from MP. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Motion parallax is a monocular cue to depth that commonly arises during observer translation. To compute from motion parallax whether an object appears nearer or farther than the point of fixation requires combining retinal image motion with signals related to eye rotation, but the neurobiological mechanisms have remained unclear. This study provides the first mechanistic account of how this interaction takes place in the responses of cortical neurons. Specifically, we show that smooth eye movements modulate the gain of responses of neurons

  13. Genome-wide analysis and expression profile of the bZIP transcription factor gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor gene family is one of the largest and most diverse families in plants. Current studies have shown that the bZIP proteins regulate numerous growth and developmental processes and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Nonetheless, knowledge concerning the specific expression patterns and evolutionary history of plant bZIP family members remains very limited. Results We identified 55 bZIP transcription factor-encoding genes in the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) genome, and divided them into 10 groups according to the phylogenetic relationship with those in Arabidopsis. The chromosome distribution and the collinearity analyses suggest that expansion of the grapevine bZIP (VvbZIP) transcription factor family was greatly contributed by the segment/chromosomal duplications, which may be associated with the grapevine genome fusion events. Nine intron/exon structural patterns within the bZIP domain and the additional conserved motifs were identified among all VvbZIP proteins, and showed a high group-specificity. The predicted specificities on DNA-binding domains indicated that some highly conserved amino acid residues exist across each major group in the tree of land plant life. The expression patterns of VvbZIP genes across the grapevine gene expression atlas, based on microarray technology, suggest that VvbZIP genes are involved in grapevine organ development, especially seed development. Expression analysis based on qRT-PCR indicated that VvbZIP genes are extensively involved in drought- and heat-responses, with possibly different mechanisms. Conclusions The genome-wide identification, chromosome organization, gene structures, evolutionary and expression analyses of grapevine bZIP genes provide an overall insight of this gene family and their potential involvement in growth, development and stress responses. This will facilitate further research on the bZIP gene family regarding their evolutionary history and

  14. Bioinformatic Analyses of Subgroup-A Members of the Wheat bZIP Transcription Factor Family and Functional Identification of TabZIP174 Involved in Drought Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueyin; Feng, Biane; Zhang, Fengjie; Tang, Yimiao; Zhang, Liping; Ma, Lingjian; Zhao, Changping; Gao, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    Extensive studies in Arabidopsis and rice have demonstrated that Subgroup-A members of the bZIP transcription factor family play important roles in plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses. Although common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world, there are limited investigations into Subgroup A of the bZIP family in wheat. In this study, we performed bioinformatic analyses of the 41 Subgroup-A members of the wheat bZIP family. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analyses showed that most of the Subgroup-A bZIP proteins involved in abiotic stress responses of wheat, Arabidopsis, and rice clustered in Clade A1 of the phylogenetic tree, and shared a majority of conserved motifs, suggesting the potential importance of Clade-A1 members in abiotic stress responses. Gene structure analysis showed that TabZIP genes with close phylogenetic relationships tended to possess similar exon–intron compositions, and the positions of introns in the hinge regions of the bZIP domains were highly conserved, whereas introns in the leucine zipper regions were at variable positions. Additionally, eleven groups of homologs and two groups of tandem paralogs were also identified in Subgroup A of the wheat bZIP family. Expression profiling analysis indicated that most Subgroup-A TabZIP genes were responsive to abscisic acid and various abiotic stress treatments. TabZIP27, TabZIP74, TabZIP138, and TabZIP174 proteins were localized in the nucleus of wheat protoplasts, whereas TabZIP9-GFP fusion protein was simultaneously present in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TabZIP174 displayed increased seed germination rates and primary root lengths under drought treatments. Overexpression of TabZIP174 in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred enhanced drought tolerance, and transgenic plants exhibited lower water loss rates, higher survival rates, higher proline, soluble sugar, and leaf chlorophyll

  15. A System for Mailpiece ZIP Code Assignment through Contextual Analysis. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Segmentation Address Block Interpretation Automatic Feature Generation Word Recognition Feature Detection Word Verification Optical Character Recognition Directory...in the Phase III effort. 1.1 Motivation The United States Postal Service (USPS) deploys large numbers of optical character recognition (OCR) machines...4):208-218, November 1986. [2] Gronmeyer, L. K., Ruffin, B. W., Lybanon, M. A., Neely, P. L., and Pierce, S. E. An Overview of Optical Character Recognition (OCR

  16. A Petunia Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper Protein, PhHD-Zip, Plays an Important Role in Flower Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S.; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence. PMID:24551088

  17. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  18. Basic leucine zipper transcription factor SlbZIP1 mediates salt and drought stress tolerance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingku; Meng, Xiaoqing; Cai, Jing; Li, Ge; Dong, Tingting; Li, Zongyun

    2018-05-08

    Basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors perform as crucial regulators in ABA-mediated stress response in plants. Nevertheless, the functions for most bZIP family members in tomato remain to be deciphered. Here we examined the functional characterization of SlbZIP1 under salt and drought stresses in tomato. Silencing of SlbZIP1 in tomato resulted in reduced expression of multiple ABA biosynthesis- and signal transduction-related genes in transgenic plants. In stress assays, SlbZIP1-RNAi transgenic plants exhibited reduced tolerance to salt and drought stresses compared with WT plants, as are evaluated by multiple physiological parameters associated with stress responses, such as decreased ABA, chlorophyll contents and CAT activity, and increased MDA content. In addition, RNA-seq analysis of transgenic plants revealed that the transcription levels of multiple genes encoding defense proteins related to responses to abiotic stress (e.g. endochitinase, peroxidases, and lipid transfer proteins) and biotic stress (e.g. pathogenesis-related proteins) were downregulated in SlbZIP1-RNAi plants, suggesting that SlbZIP1 plays a role in regulating the genes related to biotic and abiotic stress response. Collectively, the data suggest that SlbZIP1 exerts an essential role in salt and drought stress tolerance through modulating an ABA-mediated pathway, and SlbZIP1 may hold potential applications in the engineering of salt- and drought-tolerant tomato cultivars.

  19. OsbZIP58, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, regulates starch biosynthesis in rice endosperm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie-Chen; Xu, Heng; Zhu, Ying; Liu, Qiao-Quan; Cai, Xiu-Ling

    2013-08-01

    Starch composition and the amount in endosperm, both of which contribute dramatically to seed yield, cooking quality, and taste in cereals, are determined by a series of complex biochemical reactions. However, the mechanism regulating starch biosynthesis in cereal seeds is not well understood. This study showed that OsbZIP58, a bZIP transcription factor, is a key transcriptional regulator controlling starch synthesis in rice endosperm. OsbZIP58 was expressed mainly in endosperm during active starch synthesis. osbzip58 null mutants displayed abnormal seed morphology with altered starch accumulation in the white belly region and decreased amounts of total starch and amylose. Moreover, osbzip58 had a higher proportion of short chains and a lower proportion of intermediate chains of amylopectin. Furthermore, OsbZIP58 was shown to bind directly to the promoters of six starch-synthesizing genes, OsAGPL3, Wx, OsSSIIa, SBE1, OsBEIIb, and ISA2, and to regulate their expression. These findings indicate that OsbZIP58 functions as a key regulator of starch synthesis in rice seeds and provide new insights into seed quality control.

  20. Salt and drought stress and ABA responses related to bZIP genes from V. radiata and V. angularis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lanfen; Zhu, Jifeng; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Shumin; Wu, Jing

    2018-04-20

    Mung bean and adzuki bean are warm-season legumes widely cultivated in China. However, bean production in major producing regions is limited by biotic and abiotic stress, such as drought and salt stress. Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) genes play key roles in responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, only several bZIP genes involved in drought and salt stress in legumes, especially Vigna radiata and Vigna angularis, have been identified. In this study, we identified 54 and 50 bZIP proteins from whole-genome sequences of V. radiata and V. angularis, respectively. First, we comprehensively surveyed the characteristics of all bZIP genes, including their gene structure, chromosome distribution and motif composition. Phylogenetic trees showed that VrbZIP and VabZIP proteins were divided into ten clades comprising nine known and one unknown subgroup. The results of the nucleotide substitution rate of the orthologous gene pairs showed that bZIP proteins have undergone strong purifying selection: V. radiata and V. angularis diverged 1.25 million years ago (mya) to 9.20 mya (average of 4.95 mya). We also found that many cis-acting regulatory elements (CAREs) involved in abiotic stress and plant hormone responses were detected in the putative promoter regions of the bZIP genes. Finally, using the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) method, we performed expression profiling of the bZIP genes in response to drought, salt and abscisic acid (ABA). We identified several bZIP genes that may be involved in drought and salt responses. Generally, our results provided useful and rich resources of VrbZIP and VabZIP genes for the functional characterization and understanding of bZIP transcription factors (TFs) in warm-season legumes. In addition, our results revealed important and interesting data - a subset of VrbZIP and VabZIP gene expression profiles in response to drought, salt and ABA stress. These results provide gene expression evidence for the selection of

  1. What's behind a face: person context coding in fusiform face area as revealed by multivoxel pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, J; Gentile, F; Jansma, B M

    2011-12-01

    The identification of a face comprises processing of both visual features and conceptual knowledge. Studies showing that the fusiform face area (FFA) is sensitive to face identity generally neglect this dissociation. The present study is the first that isolates conceptual face processing by using words presented in a person context instead of faces. The design consisted of 2 different conditions. In one condition, participants were presented with blocks of words related to each other at the categorical level (e.g., brands of cars, European cities). The second condition consisted of blocks of words linked to the personality features of a specific face. Both conditions were created from the same 8 × 8 word matrix, thereby controlling for visual input across conditions. Univariate statistical contrasts did not yield any significant differences between the 2 conditions in FFA. However, a machine learning classification algorithm was able to successfully learn the functional relationship between the 2 contexts and their underlying response patterns in FFA, suggesting that these activation patterns can code for different semantic contexts. These results suggest that the level of processing in FFA goes beyond facial features. This has strong implications for the debate about the role of FFA in face identification.

  2. Increasing the affinity of selective bZIP-binding peptides through surface residue redesign.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jenifer B; Reinke, Aaron W; Keating, Amy E

    2014-07-01

    The coiled-coil dimer is a prevalent protein interaction motif that is important for many cellular processes. The basic leucine-zipper (bZIP) transcription factors are one family of proteins for which coiled-coil mediated dimerization is essential for function, and misregulation of bZIPs can lead to disease states including cancer. This makes coiled coils attractive protein-protein interaction targets to disrupt using engineered molecules. Previous work designing peptides to compete with native coiled-coil interactions focused primarily on designing the core residues of the interface to achieve affinity and specificity. However, folding studies on the model bZIP GCN4 show that coiled-coil surface residues also contribute to binding affinity. Here we extend a prior study in which peptides were designed to bind tightly and specifically to representative members of each of 20 human bZIP families. These "anti-bZIP" peptides were designed with an emphasis on target-binding specificity, with contributions to design-target specificity and affinity engineered considering only the coiled-coil core residues. High-throughput testing using peptide arrays indicated many successes. We have now measured the binding affinities and specificities of anti-bZIPs that bind to FOS, XBP1, ATF6, and CREBZF in solution and tested whether redesigning the surface residues can increase design-target affinity. Incorporating residues that favor helix formation into the designs increased binding affinities in all cases, providing low-nanomolar binders of each target. However, changes in surface electrostatic interactions sometimes changed the binding specificity of the designed peptides. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  3. Genome-Wide Identification and Structural Analysis of bZIP Transcription Factor Genes in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Xu, Daixiang; Jia, Ledong; Huang, Xiaohu; Ma, Guoqiang; Wang, Shuxian; Zhu, Meichen; Zhang, Aoxiang; Guan, Mingwei; Lu, Kun; Xu, Xinfu; Wang, Rui; Li, Jiana; Qu, Cunmin

    2017-10-24

    The basic region/leucine zipper motif (bZIP) transcription factor family is one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. bZIP genes have been systematically characterized in some plants, but not in rapeseed ( Brassica napus ). In this study, we identified 247 BnbZIP genes in the rapeseed genome, which we classified into 10 subfamilies based on phylogenetic analysis of their deduced protein sequences. The BnbZIP genes were grouped into functional clades with Arabidopsis genes with similar putative functions, indicating functional conservation. Genome mapping analysis revealed that the BnbZIPs are distributed unevenly across all 19 chromosomes, and that some of these genes arose through whole-genome duplication and dispersed duplication events. All expression profiles of 247 bZIP genes were extracted from RNA-sequencing data obtained from 17 different B . napus ZS11 tissues with 42 various developmental stages. These genes exhibited different expression patterns in various tissues, revealing that these genes are differentially regulated. Our results provide a valuable foundation for functional dissection of the different BnbZIP homologs in B . napus and its parental lines and for molecular breeding studies of bZIP genes in B . napus .

  4. Genome-Wide Identification and Structural Analysis of bZIP Transcription Factor Genes in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Xu, Daixiang; Jia, Ledong; Huang, Xiaohu; Ma, Guoqiang; Wang, Shuxian; Zhu, Meichen; Zhang, Aoxiang; Guan, Mingwei; Xu, Xinfu; Wang, Rui; Li, Jiana

    2017-01-01

    The basic region/leucine zipper motif (bZIP) transcription factor family is one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. bZIP genes have been systematically characterized in some plants, but not in rapeseed (Brassica napus). In this study, we identified 247 BnbZIP genes in the rapeseed genome, which we classified into 10 subfamilies based on phylogenetic analysis of their deduced protein sequences. The BnbZIP genes were grouped into functional clades with Arabidopsis genes with similar putative functions, indicating functional conservation. Genome mapping analysis revealed that the BnbZIPs are distributed unevenly across all 19 chromosomes, and that some of these genes arose through whole-genome duplication and dispersed duplication events. All expression profiles of 247 bZIP genes were extracted from RNA-sequencing data obtained from 17 different B. napus ZS11 tissues with 42 various developmental stages. These genes exhibited different expression patterns in various tissues, revealing that these genes are differentially regulated. Our results provide a valuable foundation for functional dissection of the different BnbZIP homologs in B. napus and its parental lines and for molecular breeding studies of bZIP genes in B. napus. PMID:29064393

  5. Genome-wide analysis of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Zhang, C H; Ma, R J; Shen, Z J; Sun, X; Korir, N K; Yu, M L

    2014-04-08

    In this study, 33 homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) genes were identified in peach using the HD-ZIP amino acid sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana as a probe. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and the individual gene or protein characteristics, the HD-ZIP gene family in peach can be classified into 4 subfamilies, HD-ZIP I, II, III, and IV, containing 14, 7, 4, and 8 members, respectively. The most closely related peach HD-ZIP members within the same subfamilies shared very similar gene structure in terms of either intron/exon numbers or lengths. Almost all members of the same subfamily shared common motif compositions, thereby implying that the HD-ZIP proteins within the same subfamily may have functional similarity. The 33 peach HD-ZIP genes were distributed across scaffolds 1 to 7. Although the primary structure varied among HD-ZIP family proteins, their tertiary structures were similar. The results from this study will be useful in selecting candidate genes from specific subfamilies for functional analysis.

  6. Genomic identification of bZIP family genes involved in drought and heat stresses in strawberry (Fragaria vesca)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) genes are known to play dominant roles in plant response to development signals, as well as abiotic or biotic stress stimuli. Fifty bZIP genes across the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) genome were identified and analyzed. They can be divided into 10 clades according...

  7. The Populus Class III HD ZIP transcription factor POPCORONA affects cell differentiation during secondary growth of woody stems

    Treesearch

    Juan Du; Eriko Miura; Marcel Robischon; Ciera Martinez; Andrew Groover

    2011-01-01

    The developmental mechanisms regulating cell differentiation and patterning during the secondary growth of woody tissues are poorly understood. Class III HD ZIP transcription factors are evolutionarily ancient and play fundamental roles in various aspects of plant development. Here we investigate the role of a Class III HD ZIP transcription factor, ...

  8. The value of area-based analyses of donation patterns for recruitment strategies.

    PubMed

    James, Adelbert B; Josephson, Cassandra D; Shaz, Beth H; Schreiber, George B; Hillyer, Christopher D; Roback, John D

    2014-12-01

    Lack of ready access to a donation site may be a potential barrier to or influence the frequency of blood donations. In this study, we applied geographic analysis to blood donor behavior and use of different donation sites. The study population consisted of blood donors who gave whole blood in Georgia between 2004 and 2008. Zip code, city, and county of donor's residence were matched with the addresses of their donation sites. Donors were dichotomized as either nonmetro Atlanta or metro Atlanta residents. Six donation site categories were defined: donation within the same or a different zip code, within the same or a different city, and within the same or a different county. Logistic regression was used to compare donations by zip code, city, and county. The study population consisted of 402,692 blood donors who donated 1,147,442 whole blood units between 2004 and 2008, more than half of whom (56.4%) resided in the metro Atlanta area. The majority of donors were white (75.0%) and female (55.7%). In nonmetro Atlanta, repeat donors were more likely to have donated at fixed sites (p < 0.001). In metro Atlanta, repeat donors were more likely to have donated at a mobile site than at a fixed site (p < 0.001). Geographic and demographic differences in blood donation patterns exist. The locations of donor residences and blood donation sites influence donor behaviors. Understanding the geographic influence on donation patterns provides an important tool for optimizing donor recruitment strategies. © 2014 AABB.

  9. A modified detector concept for SuperCDMS: The HiZIP and its charge performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Kedar Mohan

    SuperCDMS is a leading direct dark matter search experiment which uses solid state detectors (Ge crystals) at milliKelvin temperatures to look for nuclear recoils caused by dark matter interactions in the detector. 'Weakly Interacting Massive Particles' (WIMPs) are the most favoured dark matter candidate particles. SuperCDMS, like many other direct dark matter search experiments, primarily looks for WIMPs. The measurement of both the ionization and the lattice vibration (phonon) signals from an interaction in the detector allow it to discriminate against electron recoils which are the main source of background for WIMP detection. SuperCDMS currently operates about 9 kgs worth of germanium detectors at the Soudan underground lab in northern Minnesota. In its next phase, SuperCDMS SNOLAB, it plans to use 100-200 kg of target mass (Ge) which would allow it to probe more of the interesting and unexplored parameter space for WIMPs predicted by theoretical models. The SuperCDMS Queen's Test Facility is a detector testing facility which is intended to serve detector testing and detector research and development purposes for the SuperCDMS experiment. A modified detector called the 'HiZIP' (Half-iZIP), which is reduced in complexity in comparison to the currently used iZIP (interleaved Z-sensitive Ionization and Phonon mediated) detectors, is studied in this thesis. The HiZIP detector design also serves to discriminate against background from multiple scatter events occurring close to the surfaces in a single detector. Studies carried out to compare the surface event leakage in the HiZIP detector using limited information from iZIP data taken at SuperCDMS test facility at UC Berkley produce a highly conservative upper limit of 5 out of 10,000 events at 90% confidence level. This upper limit is the best among many different HiZIP configurations that were investigated and is comparable to the upper limit calculated for an iZIP detector in the same way using the same data. A

  10. The Zinc Transporter Zip5 (Slc39a5) Regulates Intestinal Zinc Excretion and Protects the Pancreas against Zinc Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Jim; De Lisle, Robert C.; Andrews, Glen K.

    2013-01-01

    Background ZIP5 localizes to the baso-lateral membranes of intestinal enterocytes and pancreatic acinar cells and is internalized and degraded coordinately in these cell-types during periods of dietary zinc deficiency. These cell-types are thought to control zinc excretion from the body. The baso-lateral localization and zinc-regulation of ZIP5 in these cells are unique among the 14 members of the Slc39a family and suggest that ZIP5 plays a role in zinc excretion. Methods/Principal Findings We created mice with floxed Zip5 genes and deleted this gene in the entire mouse or specifically in enterocytes or acinar cells and then examined the effects on zinc homeostasis. We found that ZIP5 is not essential for growth and viability but total knockout of ZIP5 led to increased zinc in the liver in mice fed a zinc-adequate (ZnA) diet but impaired accumulation of pancreatic zinc in mice fed a zinc-excess (ZnE) diet. Loss-of-function of enterocyte ZIP5, in contrast, led to increased pancreatic zinc in mice fed a ZnA diet and increased abundance of intestinal Zip4 mRNA. Finally, loss-of-function of acinar cell ZIP5 modestly reduced pancreatic zinc in mice fed a ZnA diet but did not impair zinc uptake as measured by the rapid accumulation of 67zinc. Retention of pancreatic 67zinc was impaired in these mice but the absence of pancreatic ZIP5 sensitized them to zinc-induced pancreatitis and exacerbated the formation of large cytoplasmic vacuoles containing secretory protein in acinar cells. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that ZIP5 participates in the control of zinc excretion in mice. Specifically, they reveal a paramount function of intestinal ZIP5 in zinc excretion but suggest a role for pancreatic ZIP5 in zinc accumulation/retention in acinar cells. ZIP5 functions in acinar cells to protect against zinc-induced acute pancreatitis and attenuate the process of zymophagy. This suggests that it may play a role in autophagy. PMID:24303081

  11. 77 FR 69651 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program for Small Area Fair Market Rent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... for the year to which they apply, of rents for existing or newly constructed rental dwelling units, as... Census geography. Furthermore, The Census Bureau will not continue to support both ZIP code and ZCTA...

  12. Coding of Neuroinfectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Gregory L

    2015-12-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  13. Diagnostic Coding for Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Korwyn; Nuwer, Marc R; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  14. A basic leucine zipper transcription factor, AabZIP1, connects abscisic acid signaling with artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangyuan; Fu, Xueqing; Lv, Zongyou; Lu, Xu; Shen, Qian; Zhang, Ling; Zhu, Mengmeng; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Liao, Zhihua; Tang, Kexuan

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin is a sesquiterpenoid especially synthesized in the Chinese herbal plant, Artemisia annua, which is widely used in the treatment of malaria. Artemisinin accumulation can be enhanced by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. However, it is not known how ABA signaling regulates artemisinin biosynthesis. A global expression profile and phylogenetic analysis as well as the dual-LUC screening revealed that a basic leucine zipper family transcription factor from A. annua (namely AabZIP1) was involved in ABA signaling to regulate artemisinin biosynthesis. AabZIP1 had a higher expression level in the inflorescences than in other tissues; ABA treatment, drought, and salt stress strongly induced the expression of AabZIP1. Yeast one-hybrid assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that AabZIP1 bound to the ABA-responsive elements (ABRE) in the promoter regions of the amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) gene and CYP71AV1, which are two key structural genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. A mutagenesis assay showed that the C1 domain in the N-terminus of AabZIP1 was important for its transactivation activity. Furthermore, the activation of ADS and CYP71AV1 promoters by AabZIP1 was enhanced by ABA treatment in transient dual-LUC analysis. The AabZIP1 variant with C1 domain deletion lost the ability to activate ADS and CYP71AV1 promoters regardless of ABA treatment. Notably, overexpression of AabZIP1 in A. annua resulted in significantly increased accumulation of artemisinin. Our results indicate that ABA promotes artemisinin biosynthesis, likely through 1 activation of ADS and CYP71AV1 expression by AabZIP in A. annua. Meanwhile, our findings reveal the potential value of AabZIP1 in genetic engineering of artemisinin production. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of soybean HD-Zip gene family and expression profiling under salinity and drought treatments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Chen, Zhu; Zhao, Hualin; Zhao, Yang; Cheng, Beijiu; Xiang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins, a group of homeobox transcription factors, participate in various aspects of normal plant growth and developmental processes as well as environmental responses. To date, no overall analysis or expression profiling of the HD-Zip gene family in soybean (Glycine max) has been reported. An investigation of the soybean genome revealed 88 putative HD-Zip genes. These genes were classified into four subfamilies, I to IV, based on phylogenetic analysis. In each subfamily, the constituent parts of gene structure and motif were relatively conserved. A total of 87 out of 88 genes were distributed unequally on 20 chromosomes with 36 segmental duplication events, indicating that segmental duplication is important for the expansion of the HD-Zip family. Analysis of the Ka/Ks ratios showed that the duplicated genes of the HD-Zip family basically underwent purifying selection with restrictive functional divergence after the duplication events. Analysis of expression profiles showed that 80 genes differentially expressed across 14 tissues, and 59 HD-Zip genes are differentially expressed under salinity and drought stress, with 20 paralogous pairs showing nearly identical expression patterns and three paralogous pairs diversifying significantly under drought stress. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of six paralogous pairs of 12 selected soybean HD-Zip genes under both drought and salinity stress confirmed their stress-inducible expression patterns. This study presents a thorough overview of the soybean HD-Zip gene family and provides a new perspective on the evolution of this gene family. The results indicate that HD-Zip family genes may be involved in many plant responses to stress conditions. Additionally, this study provides a solid foundation for uncovering the biological roles of HD-Zip genes in soybean growth and development.

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of Soybean HD-Zip Gene Family and Expression Profiling under Salinity and Drought Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xue; Chen, Zhu; Zhao, Hualin; Zhao, Yang; Cheng, Beijiu; Xiang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins, a group of homeobox transcription factors, participate in various aspects of normal plant growth and developmental processes as well as environmental responses. To date, no overall analysis or expression profiling of the HD-Zip gene family in soybean (Glycine max) has been reported. Methods and Findings An investigation of the soybean genome revealed 88 putative HD-Zip genes. These genes were classified into four subfamilies, I to IV, based on phylogenetic analysis. In each subfamily, the constituent parts of gene structure and motif were relatively conserved. A total of 87 out of 88 genes were distributed unequally on 20 chromosomes with 36 segmental duplication events, indicating that segmental duplication is important for the expansion of the HD-Zip family. Analysis of the Ka/Ks ratios showed that the duplicated genes of the HD-Zip family basically underwent purifying selection with restrictive functional divergence after the duplication events. Analysis of expression profiles showed that 80 genes differentially expressed across 14 tissues, and 59 HD-Zip genes are differentially expressed under salinity and drought stress, with 20 paralogous pairs showing nearly identical expression patterns and three paralogous pairs diversifying significantly under drought stress. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of six paralogous pairs of 12 selected soybean HD-Zip genes under both drought and salinity stress confirmed their stress-inducible expression patterns. Conclusions This study presents a thorough overview of the soybean HD-Zip gene family and provides a new perspective on the evolution of this gene family. The results indicate that HD-Zip family genes may be involved in many plant responses to stress conditions. Additionally, this study provides a solid foundation for uncovering the biological roles of HD-Zip genes in soybean growth and development. PMID:24498296

  17. PSD-Zip70 Deficiency Causes Prefrontal Hypofunction Associated with Glutamatergic Synapse Maturation Defects by Dysregulation of Rap2 Activity.

    PubMed

    Mayanagi, Taira; Yasuda, Hiroki; Sobue, Kenji

    2015-10-21

    Dysregulation of synapse formation and plasticity is closely related to the pathophysiology of psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is particularly important for executive functions such as working memory, cognition, and emotional control, which are impaired in the disorders. PSD-Zip70 (Lzts1/FEZ1) is a postsynaptic density (PSD) protein predominantly expressed in the frontal cortex, olfactory bulb, striatum, and hippocampus. Here we found that PSD-Zip70 knock-out (PSD-Zip70KO) mice exhibit working memory and cognitive defects, and enhanced anxiety-like behaviors. These abnormal behaviors are caused by impaired glutamatergic synapse transmission accompanied by tiny-headed immature dendritic spines in the PFC, due to aberrant Rap2 activation, which has roles in synapse formation and plasticity. PSD-Zip70 modulates the Rap2 activity by interacting with SPAR (spine-associated RapGAP) and PDZ-GEF1 (RapGEF) in the postsynapse. Furthermore, suppression of the aberrant Rap2 activation in the PFC rescued the behavioral defects in PSD-Zip70KO mice. Our data demonstrate a critical role for PSD-Zip70 in Rap2-dependent spine synapse development in the PFC and underscore the importance of this regulation in PFC-dependent behaviors. PSD-Zip70 deficiency causes behavioral defects in working memory and cognition, and enhanced anxiety due to prefrontal hypofunction. This study revealed that PSD-Zip70 plays essential roles in glutamatergic synapse maturation via modulation of the Rap2 activity in the PFC. PSD-Zip70 interacts with both SPAR (spine-associated RapGAP) and PDZ-GEF1 (RapGEF) and modulates the Rap2 activity in postsynaptic sites. Our results provide a novel Rap2-specific regulatory mechanism in synaptic maturation involving PSD-Zip70. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3514327-14$15.00/0.

  18. Mm-size bistable zipping dielectric elastomer actuators for integrated microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffli, Luc; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert R.

    2013-04-01

    We report on a new structure of Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEAs) called zipping DEAs, which have a set of unique characteristics that are a good match for the requirements of electrically-powered integrated microfluidic pumping and/or valving units as well as Braille displays. The zipping DEAs operate by pulling electrostatically an elastomer membrane in contact with the rigid sidewalls of a sloped chamber. In this work, we report on fully functional mm-size zipping DEAs that demonstrate a complete sealing of the chamber sidewalls and a tunable bistable behavior, and compare the measurements with an analytical model. Compared to our first generation of devices, we are able vary the sidewall angle and benefit therefore from more flexibility to study the requirements to make fully functional actuators. In particular, we show that with Nusil CF19 as membrane material (1.2 MPa Young's modulus), it is possible to zip completely 2.3 mm diameter chambers with 15° and 21° sidewalls angle equibiaxially prestretched to λ0=1.12 and 15° chambers with λ0=1.27.

  19. The prion-ZIP connection: From cousins to partners in iron uptake

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neena; Asthana, Abhishek; Baksi, Shounak; Desai, Vilok; Haldar, Swati; Hari, Sahi; Tripathi, Ajai K

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Converging observations from disparate lines of inquiry are beginning to clarify the cause of brain iron dyshomeostasis in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), a neurodegenerative condition associated with the conversion of prion protein (PrPC), a plasma membrane glycoprotein, from α-helical to a β-sheet rich PrP-scrapie (PrPSc) isoform. Biochemical evidence indicates that PrPC facilitates cellular iron uptake by functioning as a membrane-bound ferrireductase (FR), an activity necessary for the transport of iron across biological membranes through metal transporters. An entirely different experimental approach reveals an evolutionary link between PrPC and the Zrt, Irt-like protein (ZIP) family, a group of proteins involved in the transport of zinc, iron, and manganese across the plasma membrane. Close physical proximity of PrPC with certain members of the ZIP family on the plasma membrane and increased uptake of extracellular iron by cells that co-express PrPC and ZIP14 suggest that PrPC functions as a FR partner for certain members of this family. The connection between PrPC and ZIP proteins therefore extends beyond common ancestry to that of functional cooperation. Here, we summarize evidence supporting the facilitative role of PrPC in cellular iron uptake, and implications of this activity on iron metabolism in sCJD brains. PMID:26689487

  20. Molecular evolution of the HD-ZIP I gene family in legume genomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Haiyang; Zhou, Lingyan; Deng, Lin; Lin, Yongxiang; Peng, Xiaojian; Yan, Hanwei; Cheng, Beijiu

    2014-01-01

    Homeodomain leucine zipper I (HD-ZIP I) genes were used to increase the plasticity of plants by mediating external signals and regulating growth in response to environmental conditions. The way genomic histories drove the evolution of the HD-ZIP I family in legume species was described; HD-ZIP I genes were searched in Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula, Cajanus cajan and Phaseolus vulgaris, and then divided into five clades through phylogenetic analysis. Microsynteny analysis was made based on genomic segments containing the HD-ZIP I genes. Some pairs turned out to conform with syntenic genome regions, while others corresponded to those that were inverted, expanded, or contracted after the divergence of legumes. Besides, we dated their duplications by Ks analysis and demonstrated that all the blocks were formed after the monocot-dicot split; we observed Ka/Ks ratios representing strong purifying selections in the four legume species which might have been followed by gene loss and rearrangement. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. IRT-ZIP Modeling for Multivariate Zero-Inflated Count Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces an item response theory-zero-inflated Poisson (IRT-ZIP) model to investigate psychometric properties of multiple items and predict individuals' latent trait scores for multivariate zero-inflated count data. In the model, two link functions are used to capture two processes of the zero-inflated count data. Item parameters are…

  2. Beyond Molecular Codes: Simple Rules to Wire Complex Brains

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Bassem A.; Hiesinger, P. Robin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Molecular codes, like postal zip codes, are generally considered a robust way to ensure the specificity of neuronal target selection. However, a code capable of unambiguously generating complex neural circuits is difficult to conceive. Here, we re-examine the notion of molecular codes in the light of developmental algorithms. We explore how molecules and mechanisms that have been considered part of a code may alternatively implement simple pattern formation rules sufficient to ensure wiring specificity in neural circuits. This analysis delineates a pattern-based framework for circuit construction that may contribute to our understanding of brain wiring. PMID:26451480

  3. Recovery from temporary endoplasmic reticulum stress in plants relies on the tissue-specific and largely independent roles of bZIP28 and bZIP60, as well as an antagonizing function of BAX-Inhibitor 1 upon the pro-adaptive signaling mediated by bZIP28.

    PubMed

    Ruberti, Cristina; Lai, YaShiuan; Brandizzi, Federica

    2018-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an ancient signaling pathway that commits to life-or-death outcomes in response to proteotoxic stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In plants, the membrane-tethered transcription factor bZIP28 and the ribonuclease-kinase IRE1 along with its splicing target, bZIP60, govern the two cytoprotective UPR signaling pathways known to date. The conserved ER membrane-associated BAX inhibitor 1 (BI1) modulates ER stress-induced programmed cell death through yet-unknown mechanisms. Despite the significance of the UPR for cell homeostasis, in plants the regulatory circuitry underlying ER stress resolution is still largely unmapped. To gain insights into the coordination of plant UPR strategies, we analyzed the functional relationship of the UPR modulators through the analysis of single and higher order mutants of IRE1, bZIP60, bZIP28 and BI1 in experimental conditions causing either temporary or chronic ER stress. We established a functional duality of bZIP28 and bZIP60, as they exert partially independent tissue-specific roles in recovery from ER stress, but redundantly actuate survival strategies in chronic ER stress. We also discovered that BI1 attenuates the pro-survival function of bZIP28 in ER stress resolution and, differently to animal cells, it does not temper the ribonuclease activity of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) under temporary ER stress. Together these findings reveal a functional independence of bZIP28 and bZIP60 in plant UPR, and identify an antagonizing role of BI1 in the pro-adaptive signaling mediated by bZIP28, bringing to light the distinctive complexity of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in plants. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Memory Retrieval Has a Dynamic Influence on the Maintenance Mechanisms That Are Sensitive to ζ-Inhibitory Peptide (ZIP).

    PubMed

    Levitan, David; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Figueroa, Joshua A; Reid, Emily E; Yoshida, Takashi; Barry, Nicholas C; Russo, Abigail; Katz, Donald B

    2016-10-12

    In neuroscientists' attempts to understand the long-term storage of memory, topics of particular importance and interest are the cellular and system mechanisms of maintenance (e.g., those sensitive to ζ-inhibitory peptide, ZIP) and those induced by memory retrieval (i.e., reconsolidation). Much is known about each of these processes in isolation, but less is known concerning how they interact. It is known that ZIP sensitivity and memory retrieval share at least some molecular targets (e.g., recycling α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, AMPA, receptors to the plasma membrane); conversely, the fact that sensitivity to ZIP emerges only after consolidation ends suggests that consolidation (and by extension reconsolidation) and maintenance might be mutually exclusive processes, the onset of one canceling the other. Here, we use conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in rats, a cortically dependent learning paradigm, to test this hypothesis. First, we demonstrate that ZIP infusions into gustatory cortex begin interfering with CTA memory 43-45 h after memory acquisition-after consolidation ends. Next, we show that a retrieval trial administered after this time point interrupts the ability of ZIP to induce amnesia and that ZIP's ability to induce amnesia is reengaged only 45 h after retrieval. This pattern of results suggests that memory retrieval and ZIP-sensitive maintenance mechanisms are mutually exclusive and that the progression from one to the other are similar after acquisition and retrieval. They also reveal concrete differences between ZIP-sensitive mechanisms induced by acquisition and retrieval: the latency with which ZIP-sensitive mechanisms are expressed differ for the two processes. Memory retrieval and the molecular mechanisms that are sensitive to ζ-inhibitory peptide (ZIP) are the few manipulations that have been shown to effect memory maintenance. Although much is known about their effect on maintenance separately, it is unknown how they

  5. Abscisic-acid-dependent basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors in plant abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aditya; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep

    2017-01-01

    One of the major causes of significant crop loss throughout the world is the myriad of environmental stresses including drought, salinity, cold, heavy metal toxicity, and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays. Plants as sessile organisms have evolved various effective mechanism which enable them to withstand this plethora of stresses. Most of such regulatory mechanisms usually follow the abscisic-acid (ABA)-dependent pathway. In this review, we have primarily focussed on the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) activated by the ABA-mediated signalosome. Upon perception of ABA by specialized receptors, the signal is transduced via various groups of Ser/Thr kinases, which phosphorylate the bZIP TFs. Following such post-translational modification of TFs, they are activated so that they bind to specific cis-acting sequences called abscisic-acid-responsive elements (ABREs) or GC-rich coupling elements (CE), thereby influencing the expression of their target downstream genes. Several in silico techniques have been adopted so far to predict the structural features, recognize the regulatory modification sites, undergo phylogenetic analyses, and facilitate genome-wide survey of TF under multiple stresses. Current investigations on the epigenetic regulation that controls greater accessibility of the inducible regions of DNA of the target gene to the bZIP TFs exclusively under stress situations, along with the evolved stress memory responses via genomic imprinting mechanism, have been highlighted. The potentiality of overexpression of bZIP TFs, either in a homologous or in a heterologous background, in generating transgenic plants tolerant to various abiotic stressors have also been addressed by various groups. The present review will provide a coherent documentation on the functional characterization and regulation of bZIP TFs under multiple environmental stresses, with the major goal of generating multiple-stress-tolerant plant cultivars in near future.

  6. Expression of a grape (Vitis vinifera) bZIP transcription factor, VlbZIP36, in Arabidopsis thaliana confers tolerance of drought stress during seed germination and seedling establishment.

    PubMed

    Tu, Mingxing; Wang, Xianhang; Feng, Tongying; Sun, Xiaomeng; Wang, Yaqiong; Huang, Li; Gao, Min; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2016-11-01

    Drought is one of the most serious factors that limit agricultural productivity and there is considerable interest in understanding the molecular bases of drought responses and their regulation. While numbers of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) are known to play key roles in response of plants to various abiotic stresses, only a few group K bZIP TFs have been functionally characterized in the context of stress signaling. In this study, we characterized the expression of the grape (Vitis vinifera) group K bZIP gene, VlbZIP36, and found evidence for its involvement in response to drought and the stress-associated phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines over-expressing VlbZIP36 under the control of a constitutive promoter showed enhanced dehydration tolerance during the seed germination stage, as well as in the seedling and mature plant stages. The results indicated that VlbZIP36 plays a role in drought tolerance by improving the water status, through limiting water loss, and mitigating cellular damage. The latter was evidenced by reduced cell death, lower electrolyte leakage in the transgenic plants, as well as by increased activities of antioxidant enzymes. We concluded that VlbZIP36 enhances drought tolerance through the transcriptional regulation of ABA-/stress-related genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early memory formation disrupted by atypical PKC inhibitor ZIP in the medial prefrontal cortex but not hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Evuarherhe, Obaro; Barker, Gareth R. I.; Savalli, Giorgia; Warburton, Elizabeth C.; Brown, Malcolm W.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical isoforms of protein kinase C (aPKCs; particularly protein kinase M zeta: PKMζ) have been hypothesised to be necessary and sufficient for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long term memory by maintaining postsynaptic AMPA receptors via the GluR2 subunit. A myristoylated PKMζ pseudosubstrate peptide (ZIP) blocks PKMζ activity. We examined the actions of ZIP in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus in associative recognition memory in rats during early memory formation and memory maintenance. ZIP infusion in either hippocampus or mPFC impaired memory maintenance. However, early memory formation was impaired by ZIP in mPFC but not hippocampus; and blocking GluR2-dependent removal of AMPA receptors did not affect this impairment caused by ZIP in the mPFC. The findings indicate: (i) a difference in the actions of ZIP in hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, and (ii) a GluR2-independent target of ZIP (possibly PKCλ) in the mPFC during early memory formation. PMID:24729442

  8. Zinc Transporter SLC39A7/ZIP7 Promotes Intestinal Epithelial Self-Renewal by Resolving ER Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Wakana; Kimura, Shunsuke; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Furusawa, Yukihiro; Irié, Tarou; Izumi, Hironori; Watanabe, Takashi; Hara, Takafumi; Ohara, Osamu; Koseki, Haruhiko; Sato, Toshiro; Robine, Sylvie; Mori, Hisashi; Hattori, Yuichi; Mishima, Kenji; Ohno, Hiroshi; Hase, Koji; Fukada, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Zinc transporters play a critical role in spatiotemporal regulation of zinc homeostasis. Although disruption of zinc homeostasis has been implicated in disorders such as intestinal inflammation and aberrant epithelial morphology, it is largely unknown which zinc transporters are responsible for the intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Here, we show that Zrt-Irt-like protein (ZIP) transporter ZIP7, which is highly expressed in the intestinal crypt, is essential for intestinal epithelial proliferation. Mice lacking Zip7 in intestinal epithelium triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in proliferative progenitor cells, leading to significant cell death of progenitor cells. Zip7 deficiency led to the loss of Olfm4+ intestinal stem cells and the degeneration of post-mitotic Paneth cells, indicating a fundamental requirement for Zip7 in homeostatic intestinal regeneration. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the importance of ZIP7 in maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis through the regulation of ER function in proliferative progenitor cells and maintenance of intestinal stem cells. Therapeutic targeting of ZIP7 could lead to effective treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27736879

  9. ZIP8 expression in human proximal tubule cells, human urothelial cells transformed by Cd+2 and As+3 and in specimens of normal human urothelium and urothelial cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background ZIP8 functions endogenously as a Zn+2/HCO3- symporter that can also bring cadmium (Cd+2) into the cell. It has also been proposed that ZIP8 participates in Cd-induced testicular necrosis and renal disease. In this study real-time PCR, western analysis, immunostaining and fluorescent localization were used to define the expression of ZIP8 in human kidney, cultured human proximal tubule (HPT) cells, normal and malignant human urothelium and Cd+2 and arsenite (As+3) transformed urothelial cells. Results It was shown that in the renal system both the non-glycosylated and glycosylated form of ZIP8 was expressed in the proximal tubule cells with localization of ZIP8 to the cytoplasm and cell membrane; findings in line with previous studies on ZIP8. The studies in the bladder were the first to show that ZIP8 was expressed in normal urothelium and that ZIP8 could be localized to the paranuclear region. Studies in the UROtsa cell line confirmed a paranuclear localization of ZIP8, however addition of growth medium to the cells increased the expression of the protein in the UROtsa cells. In archival human samples of the normal urothelium, the expression of ZIP8 was variable in intensity whereas in urothelial cancers ZIP8 was expressed in 13 of 14 samples, with one high grade invasive urothelial cancer showing no expression. The expression of ZIP8 was similar in the Cd+2 and As+3 transformed UROtsa cell lines and their tumor transplants. Conclusion This is the first study which shows that ZIP8 is expressed in the normal urothelium and in bladder cancer. In addition the normal UROtsa cell line and its transformed counterparts show similar expression of ZIP8 compared to the normal urothelium and the urothelial cancers suggesting that the UROtsa cell line could serve as a model system to study the expression of ZIP8 in bladder disease. PMID:22550998

  10. Comparative Genomic Analysis of slc39a12/ZIP12: Insight into a Zinc Transporter Required for Vertebrate Nervous System Development

    PubMed Central

    Chowanadisai, Winyoo

    2014-01-01

    The zinc transporter ZIP12, which is encoded by the gene slc39a12, has previously been shown to be important for neuronal differentiation in mouse Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells and primary mouse neurons and necessary for neurulation during Xenopus tropicalis embryogenesis. However, relatively little is known about the biochemical properties, cellular regulation, or the physiological role of this gene. The hypothesis that ZIP12 is a zinc transporter important for nervous system function and development guided a comparative genetics approach to uncover the presence of ZIP12 in various genomes and identify conserved sequences and expression patterns associated with ZIP12. Ortholog detection of slc39a12 was conducted with reciprocal BLAST hits with the amino acid sequence of human ZIP12 in comparison to the human paralog ZIP4 and conserved local synteny between genomes. ZIP12 is present in the genomes of almost all vertebrates examined, from humans and other mammals to most teleost fish. However, ZIP12 appears to be absent from the zebrafish genome. The discrimination of ZIP12 compared to ZIP4 was unsuccessful or inconclusive in other invertebrate chordates and deuterostomes. Splice variation, due to the inclusion or exclusion of a conserved exon, is present in humans, rats, and cows and likely has biological significance. ZIP12 also possesses many putative di-leucine and tyrosine motifs often associated with intracellular trafficking, which may control cellular zinc uptake activity through the localization of ZIP12 within the cell. These findings highlight multiple aspects of ZIP12 at the biochemical, cellular, and physiological levels with likely biological significance. ZIP12 appears to have conserved function as a zinc uptake transporter in vertebrate nervous system development. Consequently, the role of ZIP12 may be an important link to reported congenital malformations in numerous animal models and humans that are caused by zinc deficiency. PMID:25375179

  11. A specific role for the ZipA protein in cell division: stabilization of the FtsZ protein.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Manuel; Natale, Paolo; Vicente, Miguel

    2013-02-01

    In Escherichia coli, the cell division protein FtsZ is anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane by the action of the bitopic membrane protein ZipA and the cytoplasmic protein FtsA. Although the presence of both ZipA and FtsA is strictly indispensable for cell division, an FtsA gain-of-function mutant FtsA* (R286W) can bypass the ZipA requirement for cell division. This observation casts doubts on the role of ZipA and its need for cell division. Maxicells are nucleoid-free bacterial cells used as a whole cell in vitro system to probe protein-protein interactions without the need of protein purification. We show that ZipA protects FtsZ from the ClpXP-directed degradation observed in E. coli maxicells and that ZipA-stabilized FtsZ forms membrane-attached spiral-like structures in the bacterial cytoplasm. The overproduction of the FtsZ-binding ZipA domain is sufficient to protect FtsZ from degradation, whereas other C-terminal ZipA partial deletions lacking it are not. Individual overproduction of the proto-ring component FtsA or its gain-of-function mutant FtsA* does not result in FtsZ protection. Overproduction of FtsA or FtsA* together with ZipA does not interfere with the FtsZ protection. Moreover, neither FtsA nor FtsA* protects FtsZ when overproduced together with ZipA mutants lacking the FZB domain. We propose that ZipA protects FtsZ from degradation by ClpP by making the FtsZ site of interaction unavailable to the ClpX moiety of the ClpXP protease. This role cannot be replaced by either FtsA or FtsA*, suggesting a unique function for ZipA in proto-ring stability.

  12. Does it really matter that people zip through ads? Testing the effectiveness of simultaneous presentation advertising in an IDTV environment.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yoonjae; Kwon, Kyonghee H; Lee, Sungjoon

    2010-04-01

    In an IDTV environment, which facilitates self-scheduling, skipping advertisements by zipping is an emerging ad-avoidance behavior. This study explores whether an alternative ad format, called simultaneous presentation advertising (SPA), may overcome the limitations of classical sequential advertising (CSA) in controlling zipping behavior and increasing the effectiveness of ads. The experiment revealed that SPA is more effective than CSA in reducing zipping and increasing recall, but SPA was more intrusive and produced a negative product image. There was no difference regarding cognitive avoidance. This work discusses the implications of these findings in the interactive media environment.

  13. Susceptibility to Mortality in Weather Extremes: Effect Modification by Personal and Small Area Characteristics In a Multi-City Case-Only Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zanobetti, Antonella; O’Neill, Marie S.; Gronlund, Carina J.; Schwartz, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    Background Extremes of temperature have been associated with short-term increases in daily mortality. We identified subpopulations with increased susceptibility to dying during temperature extremes, based on personal demographics, small-area characteristics and preexisting medical conditions. Methods We examined Medicare participants in 135 U.S. cities and identified preexisting conditions based on hospitalization records prior to their deaths, from 1985–2006. Personal characteristics were obtained from the Medicare records, and area characteristics were assigned based on zip-code of residence. We conducted a case-only analysis of over 11 million deaths, and evaluated modification of the risk of dying associated with extremely hot days and extremely cold days, continuous temperatures, and water-vapor pressure. Modifiers included preexisting conditions, personal characteristics, zip-code-level population characteristics, and land-cover characteristics. For each effect modifier, a city-specific logistic regression model was fitted and then an overall national estimate was calculated using meta-analysis. Results People with certain preexisting conditions were more susceptible to extreme heat, with an additional 6% (95% confidence interval= 4% – 8%) increase in the risk of dying on an extremely hot day in subjects with previous admission for atrial fibrillation, an additional 8% (4%–12%) in subjects with Alzheimer disease, and an additional 6% (3%–9%) in subjects with dementia. Zip-code level and personal characteristics were also associated with increased susceptibility to temperature. Conclusions We identified several subgroups of the population who are particularly susceptible to temperature extremes, including persons with atrial fibrillation. PMID:24045717

  14. Visual-area coding technique (VACT): optical parallel implementation of fuzzy logic and its visualization with the digital-halftoning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Tanida, Jun; Ichioka, Yoshiki

    1995-06-01

    A novel technique, the visual-area coding technique (VACT), for the optical implementation of fuzzy logic with the capability of visualization of the results is presented. This technique is based on the microfont method and is considered to be an instance of digitized analog optical computing. Huge amounts of data can be processed in fuzzy logic with the VACT. In addition, real-time visualization of the processed result can be accomplished.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor gene family in six legume genomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihui; Cheng, Ke; Wan, Liyun; Yan, Liying; Jiang, Huifang; Liu, Shengyi; Lei, Yong; Liao, Boshou

    2015-12-10

    Plant bZIP proteins characteristically harbor a highly conserved bZIP domain with two structural features: a DNA-binding basic region and a leucine (Leu) zipper dimerization region. They have been shown to be diverse transcriptional regulators, playing crucial roles in plant development, physiological processes, and biotic/abiotic stress responses. Despite the availability of six completely sequenced legume genomes, a comprehensive investigation of bZIP family members in legumes has yet to be presented. In this study, we identified 428 bZIP genes encoding 585 distinct proteins in six legumes, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum, Cajanus cajan, and Lotus japonicus. The legume bZIP genes were categorized into 11 groups according to their phylogenetic relationships with genes from Arabidopsis. Four kinds of intron patterns (a-d) within the basic and hinge regions were defined and additional conserved motifs were identified, both presenting high group specificity and supporting the group classification. We predicted the DNA-binding patterns and the dimerization properties, based on the characteristic features in the basic and hinge regions and the Leu zipper, respectively, which indicated that some highly conserved amino acid residues existed across each major group. The chromosome distribution and analysis for WGD-derived duplicated blocks revealed that the legume bZIP genes have expanded mainly by segmental duplication rather than tandem duplication. Expression data further revealed that the legume bZIP genes were expressed constitutively or in an organ-specific, development-dependent manner playing roles in multiple seed developmental stages and tissues. We also detected several key legume bZIP genes involved in drought- and salt-responses by comparing fold changes of expression values in drought-stressed or salt-stressed roots and leaves. In summary, this genome-wide identification, characterization and expression analysis of

  16. Exploring the bZIP transcription factor regulatory network in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chaoguang; Li, Jingyi; Glass, N. Louise

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are key nodes of regulatory networks in eukaryotic organisms, including filamentous fungi such as Neurospora crassa. The 178 predicted DNA-binding TFs in N. crassa are distributed primarily among six gene families, which represent an ancient expansion in filamentous ascomycete genomes; 98 TF genes show detectable expression levels during vegetative growth of N. crassa, including 35 that show a significant difference in expression level between hyphae at the periphery versus hyphae in the interior of a colony. Regulatory networks within a species genome include paralogous TFs and their respective target genes (TF regulon). To investigate TF network evolution in N. crassa, we focused on the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) TF family, which contains nine members. We performed baseline transcriptional profiling during vegetative growth of the wild-type and seven isogenic, viable bZIP deletion mutants. We further characterized the regulatory network of one member of the bZIP family, NCU03905. NCU03905 encodes an Ap1-like protein (NcAp-1), which is involved in resistance to multiple stress responses, including oxidative and heavy metal stress. Relocalization of NcAp-1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus was associated with exposure to stress. A comparison of the NcAp-1 regulon with Ap1-like regulons in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus showed both conservation and divergence. These data indicate how N. crassa responds to stress and provide information on pathway evolution. PMID:21081763

  17. Exploring the bZIP transcription factor regulatory network in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chaoguang; Li, Jingyi; Glass, N Louise

    2011-03-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are key nodes of regulatory networks in eukaryotic organisms, including filamentous fungi such as Neurospora crassa. The 178 predicted DNA-binding TFs in N. crassa are distributed primarily among six gene families, which represent an ancient expansion in filamentous ascomycete genomes; 98 TF genes show detectable expression levels during vegetative growth of N. crassa, including 35 that show a significant difference in expression level between hyphae at the periphery versus hyphae in the interior of a colony. Regulatory networks within a species genome include paralogous TFs and their respective target genes (TF regulon). To investigate TF network evolution in N. crassa, we focused on the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) TF family, which contains nine members. We performed baseline transcriptional profiling during vegetative growth of the wild-type and seven isogenic, viable bZIP deletion mutants. We further characterized the regulatory network of one member of the bZIP family, NCU03905. NCU03905 encodes an Ap1-like protein (NcAp-1), which is involved in resistance to multiple stress responses, including oxidative and heavy metal stress. Relocalization of NcAp-1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus was associated with exposure to stress. A comparison of the NcAp-1 regulon with Ap1-like regulons in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus showed both conservation and divergence. These data indicate how N. crassa responds to stress and provide information on pathway evolution.

  18. Crosstalk between Two bZIP Signaling Pathways Orchestrates Salt-Induced Metabolic Reprogramming in Arabidopsis Roots

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Laura; Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Weiste, Christoph; Fekete, Agnes; Schierstaedt, Jasper; Göttler, Jasmin; Kempa, Stefan; Krischke, Markus; Dietrich, Katrin; Mueller, Martin J.; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesus; Hanson, Johannes; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Soil salinity increasingly causes crop losses worldwide. Although roots are the primary targets of salt stress, the signaling networks that facilitate metabolic reprogramming to induce stress tolerance are less understood than those in leaves. Here, a combination of transcriptomic and metabolic approaches was performed in salt-treated Arabidopsis thaliana roots, which revealed that the group S1 basic leucine zipper transcription factors bZIP1 and bZIP53 reprogram primary C- and N-metabolism. In particular, gluconeogenesis and amino acid catabolism are affected by these transcription factors. Importantly, bZIP1 expression reflects cellular stress and energy status in roots. In addition to the well-described abiotic stress response pathway initiated by the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and executed by SnRK2 (Snf1-RELATED-PROTEIN-KINASE2) and AREB-like bZIP factors, we identify a structurally related ABA-independent signaling module consisting of SnRK1s and S1 bZIPs. Crosstalk between these signaling pathways recruits particular bZIP factor combinations to establish at least four distinct gene expression patterns. Understanding this signaling network provides a framework for securing future crop productivity. PMID:26276836

  19. Seismic Data from Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah FORGE Study Area

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John

    This set of data contains raw and processed 2D and 3D seismic data from the Utah FORGE study area near Roosevelt Hot Springs. The zipped archives numbered from 1-100 to 1001-1122 contain 3D seismic uncorrelated shot gatherers SEG-Y files. The zipped archives numbered from 1-100C to 1001-1122C contain 3D seismic correlated shot gatherers SEG-Y files. Other data have intuitive names.

  20. Policy challenges in the fight against childhood obesity: low adherence in San Diego area schools to the California Education Code regulating physical education.

    PubMed

    Consiglieri, G; Leon-Chi, L; Newfield, R S

    2013-01-01

    Assess the adherence to the Physical Education (PE) requirements per California Education Code in San Diego area schools. Surveys were administered anonymously to children and adolescents capable of physical activity, visiting a specialty clinic at Rady Children's Hospital San Diego. The main questions asked were their gender, grade, PE classes per week, and time spent doing PE. 324 surveys were filled, with 36 charter-school students not having to abide by state code excluded. We report on 288 students (59% females), mostly Hispanic (43%) or Caucasian (34%). In grades 1-6, 66.7% reported under the 200 min per 10 school days required by the PE code. Only 20.7% had daily PE. Average PE days/week was 2.6. In grades 7-12, 42.2% had reported under the 400 min per 10 school days required. Daily PE was noted in 47.8%. Average PE days/week was 3.4. Almost 17% had no PE, more so in the final two grades of high school (45.7%). There is low adherence to the California Physical Education mandate in the San Diego area, contributing to poor fitness and obesity. Lack of adequate PE is most evident in grades 1-6 and grades 11-12. Better resources, awareness, and enforcement are crucial.

  1. Feedback Regulation of ABA Signaling and Biosynthesis by a bZIP Transcription Factor Targets Drought-Resistance-Related Genes1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ning; Yang, Jun; Peng, Lei; Ma, Siqi; Xu, Yan; Li, Guoliang

    2016-01-01

    The OsbZIP23 transcription factor has been characterized for its essential role in drought resistance in rice (Oryza sativa), but the mechanism is unknown. In this study, we first investigated the transcriptional activation of OsbZIP23. A homolog of SnRK2 protein kinase (SAPK2) was found to interact with and phosphorylate OsbZIP23 for its transcriptional activation. SAPK2 also interacted with OsPP2C49, an ABI1 homolog, which deactivated the SAPK2 to inhibit the transcriptional activation activity of OsbZIP23. Next, we performed genome-wide identification of OsbZIP23 targets by immunoprecipitation sequencing and RNA sequencing analyses in the OsbZIP23-overexpression, osbzip23 mutant, and wild-type rice under normal and drought stress conditions. OsbZIP23 directly regulates a large number of reported genes that function in stress response, hormone signaling, and developmental processes. Among these targets, we found that OsbZIP23 could positively regulate OsPP2C49, and overexpression of OsPP2C49 in rice resulted in significantly decreased sensitivity of the abscisic acid (ABA) response and rapid dehydration. Moreover, OsNCED4 (9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase4), a key gene in ABA biosynthesis, was also positively regulated by OsbZIP23. Together, our results suggest that OsbZIP23 acts as a central regulator in ABA signaling and biosynthesis, and drought resistance in rice. PMID:27325665

  2. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of non-coding area in the CP gene are correlated with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Xiao, Jianqiu; Zheng, Zhiyong; Fei, Guoqiang; Zhang, Feng; Jin, Lirong; Zhong, Chunjiu

    2015-04-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that ceruloplasmin (CP) dysmetabolism is correlated with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the causes of decreased serum CP levels in PD patients remain to be clarified. This study aimed to explore the potential association between genetic variants of the CP gene and PD. Clinical features, serum CP levels, and the CP gene (both promoter and coding regions) were analyzed in 60 PD patients and 50 controls. A luciferase reporter system was used to investigate the function of promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). High-density comparative genomic hybridization microarrays were also used to detect large-scale copy-number variations in CP and an additional 47 genes involved in PD and/or copper/iron metabolism. The frequencies of eight SNPs (one intronic SNP and seven promoter SNPs of the CP gene) and their haplotypes were significantly different between PD patients, especially those with lowered serum CP levels, and controls. However, the luciferase reporter system revealed no significant effect of the risk haplotype on promoter activity of the CP gene. Neither these SNPs nor their haplotypes were correlated with the Hoehn and Yahr staging of PD. The results of this study suggest that common genetic variants of CP are associated with PD and further investigation is needed to explore their functions in PD.

  3. Interleukin-6 regulates the zinc transporter Zip14 in liver and contributes to the hypozincemia of the acute-phase response

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Juan P.; Lichten, Louis A.; Rivera, Seth; Blanchard, Raymond K.; Aydemir, Tolunay Beker; Knutson, Mitchell D.; Ganz, Tomas; Cousins, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Infection and inflammation produce systemic responses that include hypozincemia and hypoferremia. The latter involves regulation of the iron transporter ferroportin 1 by hepcidin. The mechanism of reduced plasma zinc is not known. Transcripts of the two zinc transporter gene families (ZnT and Zip) were screened for regulation in mouse liver after turpentine-induced inflammation and LPS administration. Zip14 mRNA was the transporter transcript most up-regulated by inflammation and LPS. IL-6 knockout (IL-6–/–) mice did not exhibit either hypozincemia or the induction of Zip14 with turpentine inflammation. However, in IL-6–/– mice, LPS produced a milder hypozincemic response but no Zip14 induction. Northern analysis showed Zip14 up-regulation was specific for the liver, with one major transcript. Immunohistochemistry, using an antibody to an extracellular Zip14 epitope, showed both LPS and turpentine increased abundance of Zip14 at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. IL-6 produced increased expression of Zip14 in primary hepatocytes cultures and localization of the protein to the plasma membrane. Transfection of mZip14 cDNA into human embryonic kidney cells increased zinc uptake as measured by both a fluorescent probe for free Zn2+ and 65Zn accumulation, as well as by metallothionein mRNA induction, all indicating that Zip14 functions as a zinc importer. Zip14 was localized in plasma membrane of the transfected cells. These in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrate that Zip14 expression is up-regulated through IL-6, and that this zinc transporter most likely plays a major role in the mechanism responsible for hypozincemia that accompanies the acute-phase response to inflammation and infection. PMID:15863613

  4. Multiple PAR and E4BP4 bZIP transcription factors in zebrafish: diverse spatial and temporal expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Ben-Moshe, Zohar; Vatine, Gad; Alon, Shahar; Tovin, Adi; Mracek, Philipp; Foulkes, Nicholas S; Gothilf, Yoav

    2010-09-01

    Circadian rhythms of physiology and behavior are generated by an autonomous circadian oscillator that is synchronized daily with the environment, mainly by light input. The PAR subfamily of transcriptional activators and the related E4BP4 repressor belonging to the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family are clock-controlled genes that are suggested to mediate downstream circadian clock processes and to feedback onto the core oscillator. Here, the authors report the characterization of these genes in the zebrafish, an increasingly important model in the field of chronobiology. Five novel PAR and six novel e4bp4 zebrafish homolog genes were identified using bioinformatic tools and their coding sequences were cloned. Based on their evolutionary relationships, these genes were annotated as ztef2, zhlf1 and zhlf2, zdbp1 and zdbp2, and ze4bp4-1 to -6. The spatial and temporal mRNA expression pattern of each of these factors was characterized in zebrafish embryos in the context of a functional circadian clock and regulation by light. Nine of the factors exhibited augmented and rhythmic expression in the pineal gland, a central clock organ in zebrafish. Moreover, these genes were found to be regulated, to variable extents, by the circadian clock and/or by light. Differential expression patterns of multiple paralogs in zebrafish suggest multiple roles for these factors within the vertebrate circadian clock. This study, in the genetically accessible zebrafish model, lays the foundation for further research regarding the involvement and specific roles of PAR and E4BP4 transcription factors in the vertebrate circadian clock mechanism.

  5. Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the United States for use in Environmental Public Health Tracking.

    PubMed

    Ortega Hinojosa, Alberto M; Davies, Molly M; Jarjour, Sarah; Burnett, Richard T; Mann, Jennifer K; Hughes, Edward; Balmes, John R; Turner, Michelle C; Jerrett, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Globally and in the United States, smoking and obesity are leading causes of death and disability. Reliable estimates of prevalence for these risk factors are often missing variables in public health surveillance programs. This may limit the capacity of public health surveillance to target interventions or to assess associations between other environmental risk factors (e.g., air pollution) and health because smoking and obesity are often important confounders. To generate prevalence estimates of smoking and obesity rates over small areas for the United States (i.e., at the ZIP code and census tract levels). We predicted smoking and obesity prevalence using a combined approach first using a lasso-based variable selection procedure followed by a two-level random effects regression with a Poisson link clustered on state and county. We used data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from 1991 to 2010 to estimate the model. We used 10-fold cross-validated mean squared errors and the variance of the residuals to test our model. To downscale the estimates we combined the prediction equations with 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census data for each of the four five-year time periods in this time range at the ZIP code and census tract levels. Several sensitivity analyses were conducted using models that included only basic terms, that accounted for spatial autocorrelation, and used Generalized Linear Models that did not include random effects. The two-level random effects model produced improved estimates compared to the fixed effects-only models. Estimates were particularly improved for the two-thirds of the conterminous U.S. where BRFSS data were available to estimate the county level random effects. We downscaled the smoking and obesity rate predictions to derive ZIP code and census tract estimates. To our knowledge these smoking and obesity predictions are the first to be developed for the entire conterminous U.S. for census tracts and ZIP codes. Our

  6. Prion protein functions as a ferrireductase partner for ZIP14 and DMT1

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Juan; Beserra, Amber; Suda, Srinivas; Singh, Ajay; Hopfer, Ulrich; Chen, Shu G.; Garrick, Michael D.; Turner, Jerrold R.; Knutson, Mitchell D.; Singh, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Excess circulating iron is stored in the liver, and requires reduction of non-Tf-bound-iron (NTBI) and transferrin (Tf)-iron at the plasma membrane and endosomes respectively by ferrireductase (FR) proteins for transport across biological membranes through divalent metal transporters. Here, we report that prion-protein (PrPC), a ubiquitously expressed glycoprotein most abundant on neuronal cells, functions as a FR partner for divalent-metal transporter-1 (DMT1) and ZIP14. Thus, absence of PrPC in PrP-knock-out (PrP−/−) mice resulted in markedly reduced liver iron stores, a deficiency that was not corrected by chronic or acute administration of iron by the oral or intra-peritoneal routes. Likewise, preferential radiolabeling of circulating NTBI with 59Fe revealed significantly reduced uptake and storage of NTBI by the liver of PrP−/− mice relative to matched PrP+/+ controls. However, uptake, storage, and utilization of ferritin-bound iron that does not require reduction for uptake was increased in PrP−/− mice, indicating a compensatory response to the iron-deficiency. Expression of exogenous PrPC in HepG2-cells increased uptake and storage of ferric-iron (Fe3+), not ferrous-iron (Fe2+) from the medium, supporting the function of PrPC as a plasma membrane FR. Co-expression of PrPC with ZIP14 and DMT1 in HepG2 cells increased uptake of Fe3+ significantly, and surprisingly, increased the ratio of N-terminally truncated PrPC forms lacking the FR domain relative to full-length PrPC. Together, these observations indicate that PrPC promotes, and possibly regulates the uptake of NTBI through DMT1 and Zip14 via its FR activity. Implications of these observations for neuronal iron homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions are discussed. PMID:25862412

  7. Zinc Fortification Decreases ZIP1 Gene Expression of Some Adolescent Females with Appropriate Plasma Zinc Levels

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Rosa O.; Santiago, Alejandra; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B.; de la Barca, Ana M. Calderón; García, Hugo S.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis is achieved after intake variation by changes in the expression levels of zinc transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary intake (by 24-h recall), absorption, plasma zinc (by absorption spectrophotometry) and the expression levels (by quantitative PCR), of the transporters ZIP1 (zinc importer) and ZnT1 (zinc exporter) in peripheral white blood cells from 24 adolescent girls before and after drinking zinc-fortified milk for 27 day. Zinc intake increased (p < 0.001) from 10.5 ± 3.9 mg/day to 17.6 ± 4.4 mg/day, and its estimated absorption from 3.1 ± 1.2 to 5.3 ± 1.3 mg/day. Mean plasma zinc concentration remained unchanged (p > 0.05) near 150 µg/dL, but increased by 31 µg/dL (p < 0.05) for 6/24 adolescents (group A) and decreased by 25 µg/dL (p < 0.05) for other 6/24 adolescents (group B). Expression of ZIP1 in blood leukocytes was reduced 1.4-fold (p < 0.006) in group A, while for the expression of ZnT1 there was no difference after intervention (p = 0.39). An increase of dietary zinc after 27-days consumption of fortified-milk did not increase (p > 0.05) the plasma level of adolescent girls but for 6/24 participants from group A in spite of the formerly appropriation, which cellular zinc uptake decreased as assessed by reduction of the expression of ZIP1. PMID:24922175

  8. Genome-wide analyses of the bZIP family reveal their involvement in the development, ripening and abiotic stress response in banana

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Wang, Lianzhe; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Ding, Zehong; Liu, Juhua; Li, Meiying; Peng, Ming; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play important roles in multiple biological processes. However, less information is available regarding the bZIP family in the important fruit crop banana. In this study, 121 bZIP transcription factor genes were identified in the banana genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MabZIPs were classified into 11 subfamilies. The majority of MabZIP genes in the same subfamily shared similar gene structures and conserved motifs. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis of two banana genotypes revealed the differential expression patterns of MabZIP genes in different organs, in various stages of fruit development and ripening, and in responses to abiotic stresses, including drought, cold, and salt. Interaction networks and co-expression assays showed that group A MabZIP-mediated networks participated in various stress signaling, which was strongly activated in Musa ABB Pisang Awak. This study provided new insights into the complicated transcriptional control of MabZIP genes and provided robust tissue-specific, development-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MabZIP genes for potential applications in the genetic improvement of banana cultivars. PMID:27445085

  9. LiZIP3 is a cellular zinc transporter that mediates the tightly regulated import of zinc in Leishmania infantum parasites

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Sandra; da Silva, Rosa Barreira; Shawki, Ali; Castro, Helena; Lamy, Márcia; Eide, David; Costa, Vítor; Mackenzie, Bryan; Tomás, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cellular zinc homeostasis ensures that the intracellular concentration of this element is kept within limits that enable its participation in critical physiological processes without exerting toxic effects. We report here the identification and characterization of the first mediator of zinc homeostasis in Leishmania infantum, LiZIP3, a member of the ZIP family of divalent metal-ion transporters. The zinc transporter activity of LiZIP3 was first disclosed by its capacity to rescue the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains deficient in zinc acquisition. Subsequent expression of LiZIP3 in Xenopus laevis oocytes was shown to stimulate the uptake of a broad range of metal ions, among which Zn2+ was the preferred LiZIP3 substrate (K0.5 ≈ 0.1 μM). Evidence that LiZIP3 functions as a zinc importer in L. infantum came from the observations that the protein locates to the cell membrane and that its overexpression leads to augmented zinc internalization. Importantly, expression and cell-surface location of LiZIP3 are lost when parasites face high zinc bioavailability. LiZIP3 decline in response to zinc is regulated at the mRNA level in a process involving (a) short-lived protein(s). Collectively, our data reveal that LiZIP3 enables L. infantum to acquire zinc in a highly regulated manner, hence contributing to zinc homeostasis. PMID:25644708

  10. A Novel Alternative Splicing Isoform of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 bZIP Factor (HBZ-SI) Targets Distinct Subnuclear Localization

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Ken; Hayashibara, Toshihisa; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Uemura, Akiko; Yamaguchi, Taku; Harasawa, Hitomi; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Tsuruda, Kazuto; Okazaki, Toshiro; Koji, Takehiko; Miyanishi, Takayuki; Yamada, Yasuaki; Kamihira, Shimeru

    2006-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is associated with prior infection with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1); however, the mechanism by which HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia has not been fully elucidated. Recently, a functional basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein coded in the minus strand of HTLV-1 genome (HBZ) was identified. We report here a novel isoform of the HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ), HBZ-SI, identified by means of reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) in conjunction with 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). HBZ-SI is a 206-amino-acid-long protein and is generated by alternative splicing between part of the HBZ gene and a novel exon located in the 3′ long terminal repeat of the HTLV-1 genome. Consequently, these isoforms share >95% amino acid sequence identity, and differ only at their N termini, indicating that HBZ-SI is also a functional protein. Duplex RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that the mRNAs of these isoforms were expressed at equivalent levels in all ATL cell samples examined. Nonetheless, we found by Western blotting that the HBZ-SI protein was preferentially expressed in some ATL cell lines examined. A key finding was obtained from the subcellular localization analyses of these isoforms. Despite their high sequence similarity, each isoform was targeted to distinguishable subnuclear structures. These data show the presence of a novel isoform of HBZ in ATL cells, and in addition, shed new light on the possibility that each isoform may play a unique role in distinct regions in the cell nucleus. PMID:16474156

  11. Zip it!

    PubMed

    Conde, Crystal

    2012-07-01

    When it comes to enforcing HIPAA data security and privacy standards, the federal government means business. In fact, the government is conducting a national pilot program to audit 150 physicians and others that HIPAA covers as the first phase of a concerted effort to crack down on HIPAA violations.

  12. Genome-Wide Investigation and Expression Profiling of HD-Zip Transcription Factors in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.).

    PubMed

    Chai, Wenbo; Si, Weina; Ji, Wei; Qin, Qianqian; Zhao, Manli; Jiang, Haiyang

    2018-01-01

    HD-Zip proteins represent the major transcription factors in higher plants, playing essential roles in plant development and stress responses. Foxtail millet is a crop to investigate the systems biology of millet and biofuel grasses and the HD-Zip gene family has not been studied in foxtail millet. For further investigation of the expression profile of the HD-Zip gene family in foxtail millet, a comprehensive genome-wide expression analysis was conducted in this study. We found 47 protein-encoding genes in foxtail millet using BLAST search tools; the putative proteins were classified into four subfamilies, namely, subfamilies I, II, III, and IV. Gene structure and motif analysis indicate that the genes in one subfamily were conserved. Promotor analysis showed that HD-Zip gene was involved in abiotic stress. Duplication analysis revealed that 8 (~17%) hdz genes were tandemly duplicated and 28 (58%) were segmentally duplicated; purifying duplication plays important roles in gene expansion. Microsynteny analysis revealed the maximum relationship in foxtail millet-sorghum and foxtail millet-rice. Expression profiling upon the abiotic stresses of drought and high salinity and the biotic stress of ABA revealed that some genes regulated responses to drought and salinity stresses via an ABA-dependent process, especially sihdz29 and sihdz45. Our study provides new insight into evolutionary and functional analyses of HD-Zip genes involved in environmental stress responses in foxtail millet.

  13. Transcriptome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of Putative Chrysanthemum HD-Zip I and II Genes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Aiping; Li, Peiling; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Zhao, Kunkun; Wu, Dan; Fan, Qingqing; Gao, Tianwei; Chen, Fadi; Guan, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factor family is a key transcription factor family and unique to the plant kingdom. It consists of a homeodomain and a leucine zipper that serve in combination as a dimerization motif. The family can be classified into four subfamilies, and these subfamilies participate in the development of hormones and mediation of hormone action and are involved in plant responses to environmental conditions. However, limited information on this gene family is available for the important chrysanthemum ornamental species (Chrysanthemum morifolium). Here, we characterized 17 chrysanthemum HD-Zip genes based on transcriptome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 17 CmHB genes were distributed in the HD-Zip subfamilies I and II and identified two pairs of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and four pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. The software MEME was used to identify 7 putative motifs with E values less than 1e-3 in the chrysanthemum HD-Zip factors, and they can be clearly classified into two groups based on the composition of the motifs. A bioinformatics analysis predicted that 8 CmHB genes could be targeted by 10 miRNA families, and the expression of these 17 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized. The results presented here will promote research on the various functions of the HD-Zip gene family members in plant hormones and stress responses. PMID:27196930

  14. Critical Care Coding for Neurologists.

    PubMed

    Nuwer, Marc R; Vespa, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  15. The Functions of Metallothionein and ZIP and ZnT Transporters: An Overview and Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tomoki; Kambe, Taiho

    2016-01-01

    Around 3000 proteins are thought to bind zinc in vivo, which corresponds to ~10% of the human proteome. Zinc plays a pivotal role as a structural, catalytic, and signaling component that functions in numerous physiological processes. It is more widely used as a structural element in proteins than any other transition metal ion, is a catalytic component of many enzymes, and acts as a cellular signaling mediator. Thus, it is expected that zinc metabolism and homeostasis have sophisticated regulation, and elucidating the underlying molecular basis of this is essential to understanding zinc functions in cellular physiology and pathogenesis. In recent decades, an increasing amount of evidence has uncovered critical roles of a number of proteins in zinc metabolism and homeostasis through influxing, chelating, sequestrating, coordinating, releasing, and effluxing zinc. Metallothioneins (MT) and Zrt- and Irt-like proteins (ZIP) and Zn transporters (ZnT) are the proteins primarily involved in these processes, and their malfunction has been implicated in a number of inherited diseases such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. The present review updates our current understanding of the biological functions of MTs and ZIP and ZnT transporters from several new perspectives. PMID:26959009

  16. Systematic Analysis of Sequences and Expression Patterns of Drought-Responsive Members of the HD-Zip Gene Family in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Zhou, Yuqiong; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Xiaoyu; Gan, Defang; Peng, Xiaojian; Zhu, Suwen; Cheng, Beijiu

    2011-01-01

    Background Members of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) gene family encode transcription factors that are unique to plants and have diverse functions in plant growth and development such as various stress responses, organ formation and vascular development. Although systematic characterization of this family has been carried out in Arabidopsis and rice, little is known about HD-Zip genes in maize (Zea mays L.). Methods and Findings In this study, we described the identification and structural characterization of HD-Zip genes in the maize genome. A complete set of 55 HD-Zip genes (Zmhdz1-55) were identified in the maize genome using Blast search tools and categorized into four classes (HD-Zip I-IV) based on phylogeny. Chromosomal location of these genes revealed that they are distributed unevenly across all 10 chromosomes. Segmental duplication contributed largely to the expansion of the maize HD-ZIP gene family, while tandem duplication was only responsible for the amplification of the HD-Zip II genes. Furthermore, most of the maize HD-Zip I genes were found to contain an overabundance of stress-related cis-elements in their promoter sequences. The expression levels of the 17 HD-Zip I genes under drought stress were also investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). All of the 17 maize HD-ZIP I genes were found to be regulated by drought stress, and the duplicated genes within a sister pair exhibited the similar expression patterns, suggesting their conserved functions during the process of evolution. Conclusions Our results reveal a comprehensive overview of the maize HD-Zip gene family and provide the first step towards the selection of Zmhdz genes for cloning and functional research to uncover their roles in maize growth and development. PMID:22164299

  17. Systematic analysis of sequences and expression patterns of drought-responsive members of the HD-Zip gene family in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Zhou, Yuqiong; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Xiaoyu; Gan, Defang; Peng, Xiaojian; Zhu, Suwen; Cheng, Beijiu

    2011-01-01

    Members of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) gene family encode transcription factors that are unique to plants and have diverse functions in plant growth and development such as various stress responses, organ formation and vascular development. Although systematic characterization of this family has been carried out in Arabidopsis and rice, little is known about HD-Zip genes in maize (Zea mays L.). In this study, we described the identification and structural characterization of HD-Zip genes in the maize genome. A complete set of 55 HD-Zip genes (Zmhdz1-55) were identified in the maize genome using Blast search tools and categorized into four classes (HD-Zip I-IV) based on phylogeny. Chromosomal location of these genes revealed that they are distributed unevenly across all 10 chromosomes. Segmental duplication contributed largely to the expansion of the maize HD-ZIP gene family, while tandem duplication was only responsible for the amplification of the HD-Zip II genes. Furthermore, most of the maize HD-Zip I genes were found to contain an overabundance of stress-related cis-elements in their promoter sequences. The expression levels of the 17 HD-Zip I genes under drought stress were also investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). All of the 17 maize HD-ZIP I genes were found to be regulated by drought stress, and the duplicated genes within a sister pair exhibited the similar expression patterns, suggesting their conserved functions during the process of evolution. Our results reveal a comprehensive overview of the maize HD-Zip gene family and provide the first step towards the selection of Zmhdz genes for cloning and functional research to uncover their roles in maize growth and development.

  18. Isolation and expression analysis of four HD-ZIP III family genes targeted by microRNA166 in peach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C H; Zhang, B B; Ma, R J; Yu, M L; Guo, S L; Guo, L

    2015-10-30

    MicroRNA166 (miR166) is known to have highly conserved targets that encode proteins of the class III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP III) family, in a broad range of plant species. To further understand the relationship between HD-ZIP III genes and miR166, four HD-ZIP III family genes (PpHB14, PpHB15, PpHB8, and PpREV) were isolated from peach (Prunus persica) tissue and characterized. Spatio-temporal expression profiles of the genes were analyzed. Genes of the peach HD-ZIP III family were predicted to encode five conserved domains. Deduced amino acid sequences and tertiary structures of the four peach HD-ZIP III genes were highly conserved, with corresponding genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. The expression level of four targets displayed the opposite trend to that of miR166 throughout fruit development, with the exception of PpHB14 from 35 to 55 days after full bloom (DAFB). This finding indicates that miR166 may negatively regulate its four targets throughout fruit development. As for leaf and phloem, the same trend in expression level was observed between four targets and miR166 from 75 to 105 DAFB. However, the opposite trend was observed for the transcript level between four targets and miR166 from 35 to 55 DAFB. miRNA166 may negatively regulate four targets in some but not all developmental stages for a given tissue. The four genes studied were observed to have, exactly or generally, the same change tendency as individual tissue development, a finding that suggests genes of the HD-ZIP III family in peach may have complementary or cooperative functions in various tissues.

  19. Comprehensive characterization and RNA-Seq profiling of the HD-Zip transcription factor family in soybean (Glycine max) during dehydration and salt stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factor family is one of the largest plant specific superfamilies, and includes genes with roles in modulation of plant growth and response to environmental stresses. Many HD-Zip genes are well characterized in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), ...

  20. To direct the United States Postal Service to designate a single, unique ZIP Code for Flanders, New York.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Bishop, Timothy H. [D-NY-1

    2010-03-02

    House - 05/25/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, Post Office, and the District of Columbia. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. It's Not Education by Zip Code Anymore--But What is It? Conceptions of Equity under the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornhaber, Mindy L.; Griffith, Kelly; Tyler, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards Initiative is a standards-based reform in which 45 U.S. states and the District of Columbia have agreed to participate. The reform seeks to anchor primary and secondary education across these states in one set of demanding, internationally benchmarked standards. Thereby, all students will be prepared for further…

  2. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP) gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient may be relevant for

  3. Generation of a Slc39a8 hypomorph mouse: Markedly decreased ZIP8 Zn{sup 2+}/(HCO{sub 3}{sup -}){sub 2} transporter expression

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bin; He, Lei; Dong, Hongbin

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} The mouse Slc39a8 gene encodes the ZIP8 transporter. {yields} ZIP8 functions endogenously as a electroneutral Zn{sup 2+}/(HCO{sub 3}{sup -}){sub 2} symporter. {yields} A Slc39a8(neo/neo) hypomorph mouse, due to retention of the neo mini-gene, has been created. {yields} ZIP8 expression in utero is {approx}90% decreased in all tissues examined. {yields} This mouse model will be useful for studying developmental and in utero physiological functions of ZIP8. -- Abstract: Previously this laboratory has identified the mouse Slc39a8 gene encoding the ZIP8 transporter, important in cadmium uptake. ZIP8 functions endogenously as a electroneutral Zn{sup 2+}/(HCO{sub 3}{sup -}){sub 2} symporter, moving bothmore » ions into the cell. The overall physiological importance of ZIP8 remains unclear. Herein we describe generation of a mouse line carrying the Slc39a8(neo) allele, containing the Frt-flanked neomycin-resistance (neo) mini-cassette in intron 3 and loxP sites in introns 3 and 6. Cre recombinase functions correctly in Escherichia coli and in adeno-Cre-infected mouse fetal fibroblasts, but does not function in the intact mouse for reasons not clear. Slc39a8(neo) is a hypomorphic allele, because Slc39a8(neo/neo) homozygotes exhibit dramatically decreased ZIP8 expression in embryo, fetus, and visceral yolk sac - in comparison to their littermate wild-type controls. This ZIP8 hypomorph will be instrumental in studying developmental and in utero physiological functions of the ZIP8 transporter.« less

  4. N-terminal segments modulate the α-helical propensities of the intrinsically disordered basic regions of bZIP proteins.

    PubMed

    Das, Rahul K; Crick, Scott L; Pappu, Rohit V

    2012-02-17

    Basic region leucine zippers (bZIPs) are modular transcription factors that play key roles in eukaryotic gene regulation. The basic regions of bZIPs (bZIP-bRs) are necessary and sufficient for DNA binding and specificity. Bioinformatic predictions and spectroscopic studies suggest that unbound monomeric bZIP-bRs are uniformly disordered as isolated domains. Here, we test this assumption through a comparative characterization of conformational ensembles for 15 different bZIP-bRs using a combination of atomistic simulations and circular dichroism measurements. We find that bZIP-bRs have quantifiable preferences for α-helical conformations in their unbound monomeric forms. This helicity varies from one bZIP-bR to another despite a significant sequence similarity of the DNA binding motifs (DBMs). Our analysis reveals that intramolecular interactions between DBMs and eight-residue segments directly N-terminal to DBMs are the primary modulators of bZIP-bR helicities. We test the accuracy of this inference by designing chimeras of bZIP-bRs to have either increased or decreased overall helicities. Our results yield quantitative insights regarding the relationship between sequence and the degree of intrinsic disorder within bZIP-bRs, and might have general implications for other intrinsically disordered proteins. Understanding how natural sequence variations lead to modulation of disorder is likely to be important for understanding the evolution of specificity in molecular recognition through intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Gainza-Cortés, Felipe; Pérez-Dïaz, Ricardo; Pérez-Castro, Ramón; Tapia, Jaime; Casaretto, José A; González, Sebastián; Peña-Cortés, Hugo; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; González, Enrique

    2012-07-23

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP) gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient may be relevant for reproductive development.

  6. The Populus class III HD ZIP, popREVOLUTA, influences cambium initiation and patterning of woody stems.

    PubMed

    Robischon, Marcel; Du, Juan; Miura, Eriko; Groover, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    The secondary growth of a woody stem requires the formation of a vascular cambium at an appropriate position and proper patterning of the vascular tissues derived from the cambium. Class III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD ZIP) transcription factors have been implicated in polarity determination and patterning in lateral organs and primary vascular tissues and in the initiation and function of shoot apical meristems. We report here the functional characterization of a Populus class III HD ZIP gene, popREVOLUTA (PRE), that demonstrates another role for class III HD ZIPs in regulating the development of cambia and secondary vascular tissues. PRE is orthologous to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) REVOLUTA and is expressed in both the shoot apical meristem and in the cambial zone and secondary vascular tissues. Transgenic Populus expressing a microRNA-resistant form of PRE presents unstable phenotypic abnormalities affecting both primary and secondary growth. Surprisingly, phenotypic changes include abnormal formation of cambia within cortical parenchyma that can produce secondary vascular tissues in reverse polarity. Genes misexpressed in PRE mutants include transcription factors and auxin-related genes previously implicated in class III HD ZIP functions during primary growth. Together, these results suggest that PRE plays a fundamental role in the initiation of the cambium and in regulating the patterning of secondary vascular tissues.

  7. The Populus Class III HD ZIP, popREVOLUTA, influences cambium initiation and patterning of woody stems

    Treesearch

    Marcel Robischon; Juan Du; Eriko Miura; Andrew Groover

    2011-01-01

    The secondary growth of a woody stem requires the formation of a vascular cambium at an appropriate position and proper patterning of the vascular tissues derived from the cambium. Class III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD ZIP) transcription factors have been implicated in polarity determination and patterning in lateral organs and primary vascular tissues and in the...

  8. 76 FR 75939 - ZipGlobal Holdings, Inc., Symbollon Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Microholdings US, Inc., ComCam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [ File No. 500-1] ZipGlobal Holdings, Inc., Symbollon Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Microholdings US, Inc., ComCam International, Inc., Outfront Companies, Augrid Global... periodic reports since the period ended March 31, 2011. 3. Microholdings US, Inc. is an Oklahoma...

  9. Zipping, entanglement, and the elastic modulus of aligned single-walled carbon nanotube films

    PubMed Central

    Won, Yoonjin; Gao, Yuan; Panzer, Matthew A.; Xiang, Rong; Maruyama, Shigeo; Kenny, Thomas W.; Cai, Wei; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Reliably routing heat to and from conversion materials is a daunting challenge for a variety of innovative energy technologies––from thermal solar to automotive waste heat recovery systems––whose efficiencies degrade due to massive thermomechanical stresses at interfaces. This problem may soon be addressed by adhesives based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, which promise the revolutionary combination of high through-plane thermal conductivity and vanishing in-plane mechanical stiffness. Here, we report the data for the in-plane modulus of aligned single-walled carbon nanotube films using a microfabricated resonator method. Molecular simulations and electron microscopy identify the nanoscale mechanisms responsible for this property. The zipping and unzipping of adjacent nanotubes and the degree of alignment and entanglement are shown to govern the spatially varying local modulus, thereby providing the route to engineered materials with outstanding combinations of mechanical and thermal properties. PMID:24309375

  10. Regulatory function of homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) family proteins during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Roodbarkelari, Farshad; Groot, Edwin P

    2017-01-01

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper proteins (HD-ZIPs) form a plant-specific family of transcription factors functioning as homo- or heterodimers. Certain members of all four classes of this family are involved in embryogenesis, the focus of this review. They support auxin biosynthesis, transport and response, which are in turn essential for the apical-basal patterning of the embryo, radicle formation and outgrowth of the cotyledons. They transcriptionally regulate meristem regulators to maintain the shoot apical meristem once it is initiated. Some members are specific to the protoderm, the outermost layer of the embryo, and play a role in shoot apical meristem function. Within classes, homeodomain-leucine zippers tend to act redundantly during embryo development, and there are many examples of regulation within and between classes of homeodomain-leucine zippers. This indicates a complex network of regulation that awaits future experiments to uncover. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Oxidative stress upregulates zinc uptake activity via Zrt/Irt-like protein 1 (ZIP1) in cultured mouse astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Takahiro; Ohshima, Chiaki; Matsumura, Mayu; Takebayashi, Naoto; Hirota, Emi; Mawaribuchi, Toshiki; Nishida, Kentaro; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2016-04-15

    Zinc released from glutamatergic boutons and astrocytes acts as neuro- and glio-transmitters, and thus its extracellular level has to be strictly regulated. We previously revealed that uptake of zinc by astrocytes plays a critical role in its clearance, and zinc transporter Zrt/Irt-like protein 1 (ZIP1) is the molecule responsible for the uptake. However, it is unknown whether or not the functionality of the zinc clearance system is altered under oxidative stress-loaded conditions. Here, we characterized zinc uptake by oxidative stress-loaded astrocytes. Cultured mouse astrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to load oxidative stress. Functional expression of ZIP1 in astrocytes was evaluated by means of (65)Zn uptake, Western blotting and immunocytochemical analysis. Treatment of astrocytes with 0.4mM H2O2 for 24h increased the expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein and 4-hydroxynonenal without significant decreases in their viability, indicating that induction of oxidative stress in astrocytes. Under oxidative stress-loaded conditions, astrocytes exhibited increased (65)Zn uptake activity, and the maximum uptake velocity for the uptake was significantly increased compared to that in the control group, while there was no change in the Michaelis constants, which were almost identical to that of mouse ZIP1. In the H2O2-treated astrocytes, the expression levels of ZIP1 were significantly increased in the cellular and plasma membrane fractions. It appears that under oxidative stress-loaded conditions, astrocytes exhibit increased zinc clearance activity and this is due, at least in part, to increased ZIP1 expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interleukin-1beta contributes via nitric oxide to the upregulation and functional activity of the zinc transporter Zip14 (Slc39a14) in murine hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lichten, Louis A; Liuzzi, Juan P; Cousins, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    Zinc metabolism during chronic disease is dysregulated by inflammatory cytokines. Experiments with IL-6 knockout mice show that LPS regulates expression of the zinc transporter, Zip14, by a mechanism that is partially independent of IL-6. The LPS-induced model of sepsis may occur by a mechanism signaled by nitric oxide (NO) as a secondary messenger. To address the hypothesis that NO can modulate Zip14 expression, we treated primary hepatocytes from wild-type mice with the NO donor S-nitroso N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP). After treatment with SNAP, steady-state Zip14 mRNA levels displayed a maximal increase after 8 h and a concomitant increase in the transcriptional activity of the gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation documented the kinetics of activator protein (AP)-1 and RNA polymerase II association with the Zip14 promoter after NO exposure, indicating a role of AP-1 in transcription of Zip14. We then stimulated the primary murine hepatocytes with IL-1beta, an LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine and a potent activator of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and NO production. In support of our hypothesis, IL-1beta treatment led to a threefold increase in Zip14 mRNA and enhanced zinc transport, as measured with a zinc fluorophore, in wild-type but not iNOS-/- hepatocytes. These data suggest that signaling pathways activated by NO are factors in the upregulation of Zip14, which in turn mediates hepatic zinc accumulation and hypozincemia during inflammation and sepsis.

  13. Conditional mouse models support the role of SLC39A14 (ZIP14) in Hyperostosis Cranialis Interna and in bone homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Steenackers, Ellen; Yorgan, Timur A.; Hermans, Christophe; Boudin, Eveline; Waterval, Jérôme J.; Jansen, Ineke D. C.; Aydemir, Tolunay Beker; Kamerling, Niels; Plumeyer, Christine; D’Haese, Patrick C.; Everts, Vincent; Lammens, Martin; Mortier, Geert; Cousins, Robert J.; Schinke, Thorsten; Stokroos, Robert J.; Manni, Johannes J.; Van Hul, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Hyperostosis Cranialis Interna (HCI) is a rare bone disorder characterized by progressive intracranial bone overgrowth at the skull. Here we identified by whole-exome sequencing a dominant mutation (L441R) in SLC39A14 (ZIP14). We show that L441R ZIP14 is no longer trafficked towards the plasma membrane and excessively accumulates intracellular zinc, resulting in hyper-activation of cAMP-CREB and NFAT signaling. Conditional knock-in mice overexpressing L438R Zip14 in osteoblasts have a severe skeletal phenotype marked by a drastic increase in cortical thickness due to an enhanced endosteal bone formation, resembling the underlying pathology in HCI patients. Remarkably, L438R Zip14 also generates an osteoporotic trabecular bone phenotype. The effects of osteoblastic overexpression of L438R Zip14 therefore mimic the disparate actions of estrogen on cortical and trabecular bone through osteoblasts. Collectively, we reveal ZIP14 as a novel regulator of bone homeostasis, and that manipulating ZIP14 might be a therapeutic strategy for bone diseases. PMID:29621230

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of a tomato cDNA encoding a systemically wound-inducible bZIP DNA-binding protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankovic, B.; Vian, A.; Henry-Vian, C.; Davies, E.

    2000-01-01

    Localized wounding of one leaf in intact tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants triggers rapid systemic transcriptional responses that might be involved in defense. To better understand the mechanism(s) of intercellular signal transmission in wounded tomatoes, and to identify the array of genes systemically up-regulated by wounding, a subtractive cDNA library for wounded tomato leaves was constructed. A novel cDNA clone (designated LebZIP1) encoding a DNA-binding protein was isolated and identified. This clone appears to be encoded by a single gene, and belongs to the family of basic leucine zipper domain (bZIP) transcription factors shown to be up-regulated by cold and dark treatments. Analysis of the mRNA levels suggests that the transcript for LebZIP1 is both organ-specific and up-regulated by wounding. In wounded wild-type tomatoes, the LebZIP1 mRNA levels in distant tissue were maximally up-regulated within only 5 min following localized wounding. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) prevented the rapid wound-induced increase in LebZIP1 mRNA levels, while the basal levels of LebZIP1 transcripts were higher in the ABA mutants notabilis (not), sitiens (sit), and flacca (flc), and wound-induced increases were greater in the ABA-deficient mutants. Together, these results suggest that ABA acts to curtail the wound-induced synthesis of LebZIP1 mRNA.

  15. Comparison of Methods for Estimating Prevalence of Chronic Diseases and Health Behaviors for Small Geographic Areas: Boston Validation Study, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Holt, James B.; Zhang, Xingyou; Lu, Hua; Shah, Snehal N.; Dooley, Daniel P.; Matthews, Kevin A.; Croft, Janet B.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Local health authorities need small-area estimates for prevalence of chronic diseases and health behaviors for multiple purposes. We generated city-level and census-tract–level prevalence estimates of 27 measures for the 500 largest US cities. Methods To validate the methodology, we constructed multilevel logistic regressions to predict 10 selected health indicators among adults aged 18 years or older by using 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data; we applied their predicted probabilities to census population data to generate city-level, neighborhood-level, and zip-code–level estimates for the city of Boston, Massachusetts. Results By comparing the predicted estimates with their corresponding direct estimates from a locally administered survey (Boston BRFSS 2010 and 2013), we found that our model-based estimates for most of the selected health indicators at the city level were close to the direct estimates from the local survey. We also found strong correlation between the model-based estimates and direct survey estimates at neighborhood and zip code levels for most indicators. Conclusion Findings suggest that our model-based estimates are reliable and valid at the city level for certain health outcomes. Local health authorities can use the neighborhood-level estimates if high quality local health survey data are not otherwise available. PMID:29049020

  16. Properties of Zip4 accumulation during zinc deficiency and its usefulness to evaluate zinc status: a study of the effects of zinc deficiency during lactation.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Nakagawa, Miki; Tsujimura, Natsuki; Miyazaki, Shiho; Kizu, Kumiko; Goto, Tomoko; Komatsu, Yusuke; Matsunaga, Ayu; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Narita, Hiroshi; Kambe, Taiho; Komai, Michio

    2016-03-01

    Systemic and cellular zinc homeostasis is elaborately controlled by ZIP and ZnT zinc transporters. Therefore, detailed characterization of their expression properties is of importance. Of these transporter proteins, Zip4 functions as the primarily important transporter to control systemic zinc homeostasis because of its indispensable function of zinc absorption in the small intestine. In this study, we closely investigated Zip4 protein accumulation in the rat small intestine in response to zinc status using an anti-Zip4 monoclonal antibody that we generated and contrasted this with the zinc-responsive activity of the membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP). We found that Zip4 accumulation is more rapid in response to zinc deficiency than previously thought. Accumulation increased in the jejunum as early as 1 day following a zinc-deficient diet. In the small intestine, Zip4 protein expression was higher in the jejunum than in the duodenum and was accompanied by reduction of ALP activity, suggesting that the jejunum can become zinc deficient more easily. Furthermore, by monitoring Zip4 accumulation levels and ALP activity in the duodenum and jejunum, we reasserted that zinc deficiency during lactation may transiently alter plasma glucose levels in the offspring in a sex-specific manner, without affecting homeostatic control of zinc metabolism. This confirms that zinc nutrition during lactation is extremely important for the health of the offspring. These results reveal that rapid Zip4 accumulation provides a significant conceptual advance in understanding the molecular basis of systemic zinc homeostatic control, and that properties of Zip4 protein accumulation are useful to evaluate zinc status closely. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Evolution and expression analysis reveal the potential role of the HD-Zip gene family in regulation of embryo abortion in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqian; Zhang, Chen; Guo, Yurui; Niu, Weili; Wang, Yuejin; Xu, Yan

    2017-09-21

    The HD-Zip family has a diversity of functions during plant development. In this study, we identify 33 HD-Zip transcription factors in grape and detect their expressions in ovules and somatic embryos, as well as in various vegetative organs. A genome-wide survey for HD-Zip transcription factors in Vitis was conducted based on the 12 X grape genome (V. vinifera L.). A total of 33 members were identified and classified into four subfamilies (I-IV) based on phylogeny analysis with Arabidopsis, rice and maize. VvHDZs in the same subfamily have similar protein motifs and intron/exon structures. An evaluation of duplication events suggests several HD-Zip genes arose before the divergence of the grape and Arabidopsis lineages. The 33 members of HD-Zip were differentially expressed in ovules of the stenospermic grape, Thompson Seedless and of the seeded grape, Pinot noir. Most have higher expressions during ovule abortion in Thompson Seedless. In addition, transcripts of the HD-Zip family were also detected in somatic embryogenesis of Thompson Seedless and in different vegetative organs of Thompson Seedless at varying levels. Additionally, VvHDZ28 is located in the nucleus and had transcriptional activity consistent with the typical features of the HD-Zip family. Our results provide a foundation for future grape HD-Zip gene function research. The identification and expression profiles of the HD-Zip transcription factors in grape, reveal their diverse roles during ovule abortion and organ development. Our results lay a foundation for functional analysis of grape HDZ genes.

  18. Membrane androgen receptor characteristics of human ZIP9 (SLC39A) zinc transporter in prostate cancer cells: Androgen-specific activation and involvement of an inhibitory G protein in zinc and MAP kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peter; Pang, Yefei; Dong, Jing

    2017-05-15

    Characteristics of novel human membrane androgen receptor (mAR), ZIP9 (SLC39A9), were investigated in ZIP9-transfected PC-3 cells (PC3-ZIP9). Ligand blot analysis showed plasma membrane [ 3 H]-T binding corresponds to the position of ZIP9 on Western blots which suggests ZIP9 can bind [ 3 H]-T alone, without a protein partner. Progesterone antagonized testosterone actions, blocking increases in zinc, Erk phosphorylation and apoptosis, further evidence that ZIP9 is specifically activated by androgens. Pre-treatment with GTPγS and pertussis toxin decreased plasma membrane [ 3 H]-T binding and blocked testosterone-induced increases in Erk phosphorylation and intracellular zinc, indicating ZIP9 is coupled to an inhibitory G protein (Gi) that mediates both MAP kinase and zinc signaling. Testosterone treatment of nuclei and mitochondria which express ZIP9 decreased their zinc contents, suggesting ZIP9 also regulates free zinc through releasing it from these intracellular organelles. The results show ZIP9 is a specific Gi coupled-mAR mediating testosterone-induced MAP kinase and zinc signaling in PC3-ZIP9 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Class III HD-Zip activity coordinates leaf development in Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Yip, Hoichong Karen; Floyd, Sandra K; Sakakibara, Keiko; Bowman, John L

    2016-11-01

    Land plant bodies develop from meristems, groups of pluripotent stem cells, which may persist throughout the life of a plant or, alternatively, have a transitory existence. Early diverging land plants exhibit indeterminate (persistent) growth in their haploid gametophytic generation, whereas later diverging lineages exhibit indeterminate growth in their diploid sporophytic generation, raising the question of whether genetic machinery directing meristematic functions was co-opted between generations. Class III HD-Zip (C3HDZ) genes are required for the establishment and maintenance of shoot apical meristems in flowering plants. We demonstrate that in the moss Physcomitrella patens, C3HDZ genes are expressed in transitory meristems in both the gametophytic and sporophytic generations, but not in the persistent shoot meristem of the gametyphyte. Loss-of-function of P. patens C3HDZ was engineered using ectopic expression of miR166, an endogenous regulator of C3HDZ gene activity. Loss of C3HDZ gene function impaired the function of gametophytic transitory meristematic activity but did not compromise the functioning of the persistent shoot apical meristem during the gametophyte generation. These results argue against a wholesale co-option of meristematic gene regulatory networks from the gametophyte to the sporophyte during land plant evolution, instead suggesting that persistent meristems with a single apical cell in P. patens and persistent complex meristems in flowering plants are regulated by different genetic programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Flavonoids modify root growth and modulate expression of SHORT-ROOT and HD-ZIP III.

    PubMed

    Franco, Danilo Miralha; Silva, Eder Marques; Saldanha, Luiz Leonardo; Adachi, Sérgio Akira; Schley, Thayssa Rabelo; Rodrigues, Tatiane Maria; Dokkedal, Anne Ligia; Nogueira, Fabio Tebaldi Silveira; Rolim de Almeida, Luiz Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Flavonoids are a class of distinct compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism that inhibit or promote plant development and have a relationship with auxin transport. We showed that, in terms of root development, Copaifera langsdorffii leaf extracts has an inhibitory effect on most flavonoid components compared with the application of exogenous flavonoids (glycosides and aglycones). These compounds alter the pattern of expression of the SHORT-ROOT and HD-ZIP III transcription factor gene family and cause morpho-physiological alterations in sorghum roots. In addition, to examine the flavonoid auxin interaction in stress, we correlated the responses with the effects of exogenous application of auxin and an auxin transport inhibitor. The results show that exogenous flavonoids inhibit primary root growth and increase the development of lateral roots. Exogenous flavonoids also change the pattern of expression of specific genes associated with root tissue differentiation. These findings indicate that flavonoid glycosides can influence the polar transport of auxin, leading to stress responses that depend on auxin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Variation Analysis of Physiological Traits in Betula platyphylla Overexpressing TaLEA-ThbZIP Gene under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhenhai; Wang, Fuwei; Li, Shuchun; Zang, Lina; Zheng, Mi; Li, Ying; Qu, Guan-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla) ectopic overexpressing a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) gene and a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) gene from the salt-tolerant genus Tamarix (salt cedar) show increased tolerance to salt (NaCl) stress. Co-transfer of TaLEA and ThbZIP in birch under the control of two independent CaMV 35S promoters significantly enhanced salt stress. PCR and northern blot analyses indicated that the two genes were ectopically overexpressed in several dual-gene transgenic birch lines. We compared the effects of salt stress among three transgenic birch lines (L-4, L-5, and L-8) and wild type (WT). In all lines, the net photosynthesis values were higher before salt stress treatment than afterwards. After the salt stress treatment, the transgenic lines L-4 and L-8 showed higher values for photosynthetic traits, chlorophyll fluorescence, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, and lower malondialdehyde and Na+ contents, compared with those in WT and L-5. These different responses to salt stress suggested that the transcriptional level of the TaLEA and ThbZIP genes differed among the transgenic lines, resulting in a variety of genetic and phenotypic effects. The results of this research can provide a theoretical basis for the genetic engineering of salt-tolerant trees. PMID:27802286

  2. SnRK1-triggered switch of bZIP63 dimerization mediates the low-energy response in plants

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Andrea; Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Anrather, Dorothea; Simeunovic, Andrea; Weiste, Christoph; Valerio, Concetta; Dietrich, Katrin; Kirchler, Tobias; Nägele, Thomas; Vicente Carbajosa, Jesús; Hanson, Johannes; Baena-González, Elena; Chaban, Christina; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Teige, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic adjustment to changing environmental conditions, particularly balancing of growth and defense responses, is crucial for all organisms to survive. The evolutionary conserved AMPK/Snf1/SnRK1 kinases are well-known metabolic master regulators in the low-energy response in animals, yeast and plants. They act at two different levels: by modulating the activity of key metabolic enzymes, and by massive transcriptional reprogramming. While the first part is well established, the latter function is only partially understood in animals and not at all in plants. Here we identified the Arabidopsis transcription factor bZIP63 as key regulator of the starvation response and direct target of the SnRK1 kinase. Phosphorylation of bZIP63 by SnRK1 changed its dimerization preference, thereby affecting target gene expression and ultimately primary metabolism. A bzip63 knock-out mutant exhibited starvation-related phenotypes, which could be functionally complemented by wild type bZIP63, but not by a version harboring point mutations in the identified SnRK1 target sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05828.001 PMID:26263501

  3. Comparison of indicators of the use of insulin and oral diabetes medication in a Polish population of patients in urban and rural areas in the years 2008, 2011 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Brzozowska, Melania; Czeleko, Tomasz; Karnafel, Waldemar; Sierocka, Aleksandra; Iltchev, Petre; Marczak, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the 10 most important chronic diseases in the world. According to the data of the International Diabetes Federation, in Poland 9% of the population between the ages of 20-79 suffer from diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the prevalence of diabetes in urban and rural areas in Poland, and the preparation of a model describing the phenomenon. Differences between urban and rural areas were studied for the occurrence of patients treated with diabetes per 100,000 inhabitants, the number of patients, structure of treatment per the used products, and the costs of reimbursement of treatment products between 2008-2012. Urban and rural cases were compared using zip codes. The basis for classifying a patient as being an inhabitant of an urban or rural area was an urban zip code of the declared place of residence. Differences were observed both between various areas of Poland, as well as depending on whether the declared place of residence of the patient was urban or rural. Differences between urban and rural areas within the studied period have increased. The difference in the prevalence of diabetes among the inhabitants of Podlaskie, Śląskie or Świętokrzyskie provinces is striking. Differences between urban and rural areas which depend on morbidity and detection of patients in the earlier phase of illness, the structures of medical technologies used in the treatment process, the number of purchased pharmaceuticals, enable better monitoring of effectiveness and quality of politics on prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. It is important for the creation of a health policy to devise a system of indicators, which will enable a decrease in the existing differences between regions, and between the urban and rural areas within the provinces.

  4. Use of Medicaid and housing data may help target areas of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Objective: To determine if there was a significant difference between mold contamination and asthma prevalence in Detroit and non-Detroit Michigan homes, between newer and older homes, and if there is a correlation between mold contamination and measures of Medicaid use for asthma in the 25 Detroit zip codes. Methods: Settled dust was collected from homes (n = 113) of Detroit asthmatic children and from a representative group of Michigan homes (n = 43). The mold contamination for each home was measured using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) scale and the mean ERMI values in Detroit and non-Detroit homes were statistically compared. Michigan Medicaid data (13 measures related to asthma) in each of the 25 zip codes in Detroit were tested for correlation to ERMI values for homes in those zip codes. Results: The mean ERMI value (14.5 ± 8.0) for Detroit asthmatic childrens' homes was significantly (Student's t-test, p 60 years old had significantly (p = 0.01) greater mean ERMI values than Detroit homes ≤ 60 years old (15.87 vs. 11.25). The percentage of children that underwent spirometry testing for their persistent asthma (based on Medicaid data) was significantly, positively correlated with the mean ERMI values of the homes in the 25 zip codes. Conclusions: Applying Medicaid-use data for spirometry testing and locating a city's older housing stock might help find foci of homes with high ERMI values. To further define the relationship between mo

  5. Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, Fabrizio; Hamkins, Jon; Dolinar, Sam; Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews uplink coding. The purpose and goals of the briefing are (1) Show a plan for using uplink coding and describe benefits (2) Define possible solutions and their applicability to different types of uplink, including emergency uplink (3) Concur with our conclusions so we can embark on a plan to use proposed uplink system (4) Identify the need for the development of appropriate technology and infusion in the DSN (5) Gain advocacy to implement uplink coding in flight projects Action Item EMB04-1-14 -- Show a plan for using uplink coding, including showing where it is useful or not (include discussion of emergency uplink coding).

  6. DNA Methylation Influences Chlorogenic Acid Biosynthesis in Lonicera japonica by Mediating LjbZIP8 to Regulate Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase 2 Expression.

    PubMed

    Zha, Liangping; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Juan; Jiang, Chao; Yu, Shulin; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Jian; Wang, Yaolong; Huang, Luqi

    2017-01-01

    The content of active compounds differ in buds and flowers of Lonicera japonica (FLJ) and L. japonica var. chinensis (rFLJ). Chlorogenic acid (CGAs) were major active compounds of L. japonica and regarded as measurements for quality evaluation. However, little is known concerning the formation of active compounds at the molecular level. We quantified the major CGAs in FLJ and rFLJ, and found the concentrations of CGAs were higher in the buds of rFLJ than those of FLJ. Further analysis of CpG methylation of CGAs biosynthesis genes showed differences between FLJ and rFLJ in the 5'-UTR of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 ( PAL2 ). We identified 11 LjbZIP proteins and 24 rLjbZIP proteins with conserved basic leucine zipper domains, subcellular localization, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the transcription factor LjbZIP8 is a nuclear-localized protein that specifically binds to the G-box element of the LjPAL2 5'-UTR. Additionally, a transactivation assay and LjbZIP8 overexpression in transgenic tobacco indicated that LjbZIP8 could function as a repressor of transcription. Finally, treatment with 5-azacytidine decreased the transcription level of LjPAL2 and CGAs content in FLJ leaves. These results raise the possibility that DNA methylation might influence the recruitment of LjbZIP8, regulating PAL2 expression level and CGAs content in L. japonica .

  7. DNA Methylation Influences Chlorogenic Acid Biosynthesis in Lonicera japonica by Mediating LjbZIP8 to Regulate Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase 2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Liangping; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Juan; Jiang, Chao; Yu, Shulin; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Jian; Wang, Yaolong; Huang, Luqi

    2017-01-01

    The content of active compounds differ in buds and flowers of Lonicera japonica (FLJ) and L. japonica var. chinensis (rFLJ). Chlorogenic acid (CGAs) were major active compounds of L. japonica and regarded as measurements for quality evaluation. However, little is known concerning the formation of active compounds at the molecular level. We quantified the major CGAs in FLJ and rFLJ, and found the concentrations of CGAs were higher in the buds of rFLJ than those of FLJ. Further analysis of CpG methylation of CGAs biosynthesis genes showed differences between FLJ and rFLJ in the 5′-UTR of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 (PAL2). We identified 11 LjbZIP proteins and 24 rLjbZIP proteins with conserved basic leucine zipper domains, subcellular localization, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the transcription factor LjbZIP8 is a nuclear-localized protein that specifically binds to the G-box element of the LjPAL2 5′-UTR. Additionally, a transactivation assay and LjbZIP8 overexpression in transgenic tobacco indicated that LjbZIP8 could function as a repressor of transcription. Finally, treatment with 5-azacytidine decreased the transcription level of LjPAL2 and CGAs content in FLJ leaves. These results raise the possibility that DNA methylation might influence the recruitment of LjbZIP8, regulating PAL2 expression level and CGAs content in L. japonica. PMID:28740500

  8. bZIP17 regulates the expression of genes related to seed storage and germination, reducing seed susceptibility to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes-Esquivel, Nicolás; Celiz-Balboa, Jonathan; Henriquez-Valencia, Carlos; Mitina, Irina; Arraño-Salinas, Paulina; Moreno, Adrián A; Meneses, Claudio; Blanco-Herrera, Francisca; Orellana, Ariel

    2018-04-25

    Low temperatures, salinity, and drought cause significant crop losses. These conditions involve osmotic stress, triggering transcriptional remodeling, and consequently, the restitution of cellular homeostasis and growth recovery. Protein transcription factors regulate target genes, thereby mediating plant responses to stress. bZIP17 is a transcription factor involved in cellular responses to salinity and the unfolded protein response. Because salinity can also produce osmotic stress, the role of bZIP17 in response to osmotic stress was assessed. Mannitol treatments induced the transcript accumulation and protein processing of bZIP17. Transcriptomic analyses showed that several genes associated with seed storage and germination showed lower expression in bzip17 mutants than in wild-type plants. Interestingly, bZIP17 transcript was more abundant in seeds, and germination analyses revealed that wild-type plants germinated later than bzip17 mutants in the presence of mannitol, but no effects were observed when the seeds were exposed to ABA. Finally, the transcript levels of bZIP17 target genes that control seed storage and germination were assessed in seeds exposed to mannitol treatments, which showed lower expression levels in bzip17 mutants compared to the wild-type seeds. These results suggest that bZIP17 plays a role in osmotic stress, acting as a negative regulator of germination through the regulation of genes involved in seed storage and germination. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Role of Homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip) IV transcription factors in plant development and plant protection from deleterious environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Chew, William; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2013-04-12

    Homeobox genes comprise an important group of genes that are responsible for regulation of developmental processes. These genes determine cell differentiation and cell fate in all eukaryotic organisms, starting from the early stages of embryo development. Homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors are unique to the plant kingdom. Members of the HD-Zip IV subfamily have a complex domain topology and can bind several cis-elements with overlapping sequences. Many of the reported HD-Zip IV genes were shown to be specifically or preferentially expressed in plant epidermal or sub-epidermal cells. HD-Zip IV TFs were found to be associated with differentiation and maintenance of outer cell layers, and regulation of lipid biosynthesis and transport. Insights about the role of these proteins in plant cuticle formation, and hence their possible involvement in plant protection from pathogens and abiotic stresses has just started to emerge. These roles make HD-Zip IV proteins an attractive tool for genetic engineering of crop plants. To this end, there is a need for in-depth studies to further clarify the function of each HD-Zip IV subfamily member in commercially important plant species.

  10. Role of Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip) IV Transcription Factors in Plant Development and Plant Protection from Deleterious Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chew, William; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2013-01-01

    Homeobox genes comprise an important group of genes that are responsible for regulation of developmental processes. These genes determine cell differentiation and cell fate in all eukaryotic organisms, starting from the early stages of embryo development. Homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors are unique to the plant kingdom. Members of the HD-Zip IV subfamily have a complex domain topology and can bind several cis-elements with overlapping sequences. Many of the reported HD-Zip IV genes were shown to be specifically or preferentially expressed in plant epidermal or sub-epidermal cells. HD-Zip IV TFs were found to be associated with differentiation and maintenance of outer cell layers, and regulation of lipid biosynthesis and transport. Insights about the role of these proteins in plant cuticle formation, and hence their possible involvement in plant protection from pathogens and abiotic stresses has just started to emerge. These roles make HD-Zip IV proteins an attractive tool for genetic engineering of crop plants. To this end, there is a need for in-depth studies to further clarify the function of each HD-Zip IV subfamily member in commercially important plant species. PMID:23584027

  11. A Nitrogen Response Pathway Regulates Virulence Functions in Fusarium oxysporum via the Protein Kinase TOR and the bZIP Protein MeaB[C][W

    PubMed Central

    López-Berges, Manuel S.; Rispail, Nicolas; Prados-Rosales, Rafael C.; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    During infection, fungal pathogens activate virulence mechanisms, such as host adhesion, penetration and invasive growth. In the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 is required for plant infection and controls processes such as cellophane penetration, vegetative hyphal fusion, or root adhesion. Here, we show that these virulence-related functions are repressed by the preferred nitrogen source ammonium and restored by treatment with l-methionine sulfoximine or rapamycin, two specific inhibitors of Gln synthetase and the protein kinase TOR, respectively. Deletion of the bZIP protein MeaB also resulted in nitrogen source–independent activation of virulence mechanisms. Activation of these functions did not require the global nitrogen regulator AreA, suggesting that MeaB-mediated repression of virulence functions does not act through inhibition of AreA. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) supplied with ammonium rather than nitrate showed a significant reduction in vascular wilt symptoms when infected with the wild type but not with the ΔmeaB strain. Nitrogen source also affected invasive growth in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and the wheat head blight pathogen Fusarium graminearum. We propose that a conserved nitrogen-responsive pathway might operate via TOR and MeaB to control virulence in plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:20639450

  12. A nitrogen response pathway regulates virulence functions in Fusarium oxysporum via the protein kinase TOR and the bZIP protein MeaB.

    PubMed

    López-Berges, Manuel S; Rispail, Nicolas; Prados-Rosales, Rafael C; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    During infection, fungal pathogens activate virulence mechanisms, such as host adhesion, penetration and invasive growth. In the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 is required for plant infection and controls processes such as cellophane penetration, vegetative hyphal fusion, or root adhesion. Here, we show that these virulence-related functions are repressed by the preferred nitrogen source ammonium and restored by treatment with l-methionine sulfoximine or rapamycin, two specific inhibitors of Gln synthetase and the protein kinase TOR, respectively. Deletion of the bZIP protein MeaB also resulted in nitrogen source-independent activation of virulence mechanisms. Activation of these functions did not require the global nitrogen regulator AreA, suggesting that MeaB-mediated repression of virulence functions does not act through inhibition of AreA. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) supplied with ammonium rather than nitrate showed a significant reduction in vascular wilt symptoms when infected with the wild type but not with the DeltameaB strain. Nitrogen source also affected invasive growth in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and the wheat head blight pathogen Fusarium graminearum. We propose that a conserved nitrogen-responsive pathway might operate via TOR and MeaB to control virulence in plant pathogenic fungi.

  13. Area-based socioeconomic factors and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among teen boys in the United States.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kevin A; Swiecki-Sikora, Allison L; Stroup, Antoinette M; Warner, Echo L; Kepka, Deanna

    2017-07-14

    This study is the first to examine associations between several area-based socioeconomic factors and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among boys in the United States (U.S.). Data from the 2012-2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen restricted-use data were analyzed to examine associations of HPV vaccination initiation (receipt of ≥1 dose) and series completion (receipt of three doses) among boys aged 13-17 years (N = 19,518) with several individual-level and ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) census measures. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of HPV vaccination initiation and series completion separately. In 2012-2013 approximately 27.9% (95% CI 26.6%-29.2%) of boys initiated and 10.38% (95% CI 9.48%-11.29%) completed the HPV vaccine series. Area-based poverty was not statistically significantly associated with HPV vaccination initiation. It was, however, associated with series completion, with boys living in high-poverty areas (≥20% of residents living below poverty) having higher odds of completing the series (AOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.48) than boys in low-poverty areas (0-4.99%). Interactions between race/ethnicity and ZIP code-level poverty indicated that Hispanic boys living in high-poverty areas had a statistically significantly higher odds of  HPV vaccine initiation (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.03-1.97) and series completion (AOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.05-2.32)  than Hispanic boys in  low-poverty areas. Non-Hispanic Black boys in high poverty areas had higher odds of initiation (AOR 2.23, 95% CI 1.33-3.75) and completion (AOR 2.61, 95% CI 1.06-6.44) than non-Hispanic Black boys in low-poverty areas. Rural/urban residence and population density were also significant factors, with boys from urban or densely populated areas having higher odds of initiation and completion compared to boys living in non-urban, less densely populated areas. Higher HPV vaccination coverage in urban areas and among racial/ethnic minorities in areas with

  14. Expression Patterns and Correlations with Metabolic Markers of Zinc Transporters ZIP14 and ZNT1 in Obesity and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Maxel, Trine; Svendsen, Pernille Fog; Smidt, Kamille; Lauridsen, Jesper Krogh; Brock, Birgitte; Pedersen, Steen Bønlykke; Rungby, Jørgen; Larsen, Agnete

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with infertility, increased androgen levels, and insulin resistance. In adipose tissue, zinc facilitates insulin signaling. Circulating zinc levels are altered in obesity, diabetes, and PCOS; and zinc supplementation can ameliorate metabolic disturbances in PCOS. In adipose tissue, expression of zinc influx transporter ZIP14 varies with body mass index (BMI), clinical markers of metabolic syndrome, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG). In this study, we investigated expression levels of ZIP14 and PPARG in subcutaneous adipose tissue of 36 PCOS women (17 lean and 19 obese women) compared with 23 healthy controls (7 lean and 16 obese women). Further, expression levels of zinc transporter ZIP9, a recently identified androgen receptor, and zinc efflux transporter ZNT1 were investigated, alongside lipid profile and markers of glucose metabolism [insulin degrading enzyme, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4)]. We find that ZIP14 expression is reduced in obesity and positively correlates with PPARG expression, which is downregulated with increasing BMI. ZNT1 is upregulated in obesity, and both ZIP14 and ZNT1 expression significantly correlates with clinical markers of altered glucose metabolism. In addition, RBP4 and GLUT4 associate with obesity, but an association with PCOS as such was present only for PPARG and RBP4. ZIP14 and ZNT1 does not relate to clinical androgen status and ZIP9 is unaffected by all parameters investigated. In conclusion, our findings support the existence of a zinc dyshomeostasis in adipose tissue in metabolic disturbances including PCOS-related obesity. PMID:28303117

  15. Major zircon megacryst suites of the Indo-Pacific lithospheric margin (ZIP) and their petrogenetic and regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Lin; Graham, Ian; Yaxley, Gregory; Armstrong, Richard; Giuliani, Gaston; Hoskin, Paul; Nechaev, Victor; Woodhead, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Zircon megacrysts (± gem corundum) appear in basalt fields of Indo-Pacific origin over a 12,000 km zone (ZIP) along West Pacific continental margins. Age-dating, trace element, oxygen and hafnium isotope studies on representative zircons (East Australia-Asia) indicate diverse magmatic sources. The U-Pb (249 to 1 Ma) and zircon fission track (ZFT) ages (65 to 1 Ma) suggest thermal annealing during later basalt transport, with < 1 to 203 Ma gaps between the U-Pb and ZFT ages. Magmatic growth zonation and Zr/Hf ratios (0.01-0.02) suggest alkaline magmatic sources, while Ti—in—zircon thermometry suggests that most zircons crystallized within ranges between 550 and 830 °C. Chondrite-normalised multi-element plots show variable enrichment patterns, mostly without marked Eu depletion, indicating little plagioclase fractionation in source melts. Key elements and ratios matched against zircons from magmatic rocks suggest a range of ultramafic to felsic source melts. Zircon O-isotope ratios (δ18O in the range 4 to 11‰) and initial Hf isotope ratios (ɛHf in the range +2 to +14) encompass ranges for both mantle and crustal melts. Calculated Depleted Mantle (TDM 0.03-0.56 Ga) and Crustal Residence (0.20-1.02 Ga) model ages suggest several mantle events, continental break-ups (Rodinia and Gondwana) and convergent margin collisions left imprints in the zircon source melts. East Australian ZIP sites reflect prolonged intraplate magmatism (~85 Ma), often during times of fast-migrating lithosphere. In contrast, East Asian-Russian ZIP sites reflect later basaltic magmatism (<40 Ma), often linked to episodes of back-arc rifting and spreading, slow-migrating lithosphere and slab subduction.

  16. Do lower income areas have more pedestrian casualties?

    PubMed

    Noland, Robert B; Klein, Nicholas J; Tulach, Nicholas K

    2013-10-01

    Pedestrian and motor vehicle casualties are analyzed for the State of New Jersey with the objective of determining how the income of an area may be associated with casualties. We develop a maximum-likelihood negative binomial model to examine how various spatially defined variables, including road, income, and vehicle ownership, may be associated with casualties using census block-group level data. Due to suspected spatial correlation in the data we also employ a conditional autoregressive Bayesian model using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation, implemented with Crimestat software. Results suggest that spatial correlation is an issue as some variables are not statistically significant in the spatial model. We find that both pedestrian and motor vehicle casualties are greater in lower income block groups. Both are also associated with less household vehicle ownership, which is not surprising for pedestrian casualties, but is a surprising result for motor vehicle casualties. Controls for various road categories provide expected relationships. Individual level data is further examined to determine relationships between the location of a crash victim and their residence zip code, and this largely confirms a residual effect associated with both lower income individuals and lower income areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Engineering of a novel zipFv using leucine zipper motif against rabies virus glycoprotein G with improved protection potency in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xi, Hualong; Zhang, Kaixin; Yin, Yanchun; Gu, Tiejun; Sun, Qing; Li, Zhuang; Cheng, Yue; Jiang, Chunlai; Kong, Wei; Wu, Yongge

    2017-06-01

    Rabies is an acute zoonotic infectious disease with a high fatality rate but is preventable with vaccination and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). The single-chain Fv fragment (scFv), a small engineered antigen-binding protein derived from antibody variable heavy (V H ) and light (V L ) chains connected by a peptide linker, can potentially be used to replace RIG. Here, we produced two peptides V H -JUN-HIS and V L -FOS-HA separately in Escherichia coli and assembled them to form zipFv successfully in vitro. The new zipFv utilizes FOS and JUN leucine zippers to form an antibody structure similar to the IgG counterpart with two free N-terminal ends of V H and V L . The zipFv protein showed notable improvement in binding ability and affinity over its corresponding scFv. The zipFv also demonstrated greater stability in serum and the same protective rate as RIG against challenge with a standard rabies virus (CVS-24) in mice. Our results indicated zipFv as a novel and efficient antibody form with enhanced neutralizing potency. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A genome-wide survey of homeodomain-leucine zipper genes and analysis of cold-responsive HD-Zip I members' expression in tomato.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenzhu; Chen, Xiuling; Guan, Xin; Liu, Yang; Chen, Hongyu; Wang, Tingting; Mouekouba, Liana Dalcantara Ongouya; Li, Jingfu; Wang, Aoxue

    2014-01-01

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins are a kind of transcriptional factors that play a vital role in plant growth and development. However, no detailed information of HD-Zip family in tomato has been reported till now. In this study, 51 HD-Zip genes (SlHZ01-51) in this family were identified and categorized into 4 classes by exon-intron and protein structure in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genome. The synthetical phylogenetic tree of tomato, Arabidopsis and rice HD-Zip genes were established for an insight into their evolutionary relationships and putative functions. The results showed that the contribution of segmental duplication was larger than that of tandem duplication for expansion and evolution of genes in this family of tomato. The expression profile results under abiotic stress suggested that all SlHZ I genes were responsive to cold stress. This study will provide a clue for the further investigation of functional identification and the role of tomato HD-Zip I subfamily in plant cold stress responses and developmental events.

  19. Abscisic acid signaling is controlled by a BRANCHED1/HD-ZIP I cascade in Arabidopsis axillary buds.

    PubMed

    González-Grandío, Eduardo; Pajoro, Alice; Franco-Zorrilla, José M; Tarancón, Carlos; Immink, Richard G H; Cubas, Pilar

    2017-01-10

    Shoot-branching patterns determine key aspects of plant life and are important targets for crop breeding. However, we are still largely ignorant of the genetic networks controlling locally the most important decision during branch development: whether the axillary bud, or branch primordium, grows out to give a lateral shoot or remains dormant. Here we show that, inside the buds, the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF (TCP) transcription factor BRANCHED1 (BRC1) binds to and positively regulates the transcription of three related Homeodomain leucine zipper protein (HD-ZIP)-encoding genes: HOMEOBOX PROTEIN 21 (HB21), HOMEOBOX PROTEIN 40 (HB40), and HOMEOBOX PROTEIN 53 (HB53). These three genes, together with BRC1, enhance 9-CIS-EPOXICAROTENOID DIOXIGENASE 3 (NCED3) expression, lead to abscisic acid accumulation, and trigger hormone response, thus causing suppression of bud development. This TCP/HD-ZIP genetic module seems to be conserved in dicot and monocotyledonous species to prevent branching under light-limiting conditions.

  20. GhABF2, a bZIP transcription factor, confers drought and salinity tolerance in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Liang, Chengzhen; Meng, Zhaohong; Meng, Zhigang; Malik, Waqas; Yan, Rong; Lwin, Khin Myat; Lin, Fazhuang; Wang, Yuan; Sun, Guoqing; Zhou, Tao; Zhu, Tao; Li, Jianying; Jin, Shuangxia; Guo, Sandui; Zhang, Rui

    2016-10-07

    The bZIP transcription factor (TF) act as an important regulator for the abscisic acid (ABA) mediated abiotic stresses signaling pathways in plants. Here, we reported the cloning and characterization of GhABF2, encoding for typical cotton bZIP TF. Overexpression of GhABF2 significantly improved drought and salt stress tolerance both in Arabidopsis and cotton. However, silencing of GhABF2 made transgenic cotton sensitive to PEG osmotic and salt stress. Expression of GhABF2 was induced by drought and ABA treatments but repressed by high salinity. Transcriptome analysis indicated that GhABF2 increases drought and salt tolerance by regulating genes related to ABA, drought and salt response. The proline contents, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were also significantly increased in GhABF2-overexpression cottons in comparison to wild type after drought and salt treatment. Further, an increase in fiber yield under drought and saline-alkali wetland exhibited the important role of GhABF2 in enhancing the drought and salt tolerance in transgenic lines. In conclusion, manipulation of GhABF2 by biotechnological tools could be a sustainable strategy to deploy drought and salt tolerance in cotton.

  1. Phosphorylation Affects DNA-Binding of the Senescence-Regulating bZIP Transcription Factor GBF1

    PubMed Central

    Smykowski, Anja; Fischer, Stefan M.; Zentgraf, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Massive changes in the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana during onset and progression of leaf senescence imply a central role for transcription factors. While many transcription factors are themselves up- or down-regulated during senescence, the bZIP transcription factor G-box-binding factor 1 (GBF1/bZIP41) is constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis leaf tissue but at the same time triggers the onset of leaf senescence, suggesting posttranscriptional mechanisms for senescence-specific GBF1 activation. Here we show that GBF1 is phosphorylated by the threonine/serine CASEIN KINASE II (CKII) in vitro and that CKII phosphorylation had a negative effect on GBF1 DNA-binding to G-boxes of two direct target genes, CATALASE2 and RBSCS1a. Phosphorylation mimicry at three serine positions in the basic region of GBF1 also had a negative effect on DNA-binding. Kinase assays revealed that CKII phosphorylates at least one serine in the basic domain but has additional phosphorylation sites outside this domain. Two different ckII α subunit1 and one α subunit2 T-DNA insertion lines showed no visible senescence phenotype, but in all lines the expression of the senescence marker gene SAG12 was remarkably diminished. A model is presented suggesting that senescence-specific GBF1 activation might be achieved by lowering the phosphorylation of GBF1 by CKII. PMID:27135347

  2. Isolation and functional characterisation of two new bZIP maize regulators of the ABA responsive gene rab28.

    PubMed

    Nieva, Claudia; Busk, Peter K; Domínguez-Puigjaner, Eva; Lumbreras, Victoria; Testillano, Pilar S; Risueño, Maria-Carmen; Pagès, Montserrat

    2005-08-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid regulates gene expression in response to growth stimuli and abiotic stress. Previous studies have implicated members of the bZIP family of transcription factors as mediators of abscisic acid dependent gene expression through the ABRE cis-element. Here, we identify two new maize bZIP transcription factors, EmBP-2 and ZmBZ-1 related to EmBP-1 and OsBZ-8 families. They are differentially expressed during embryo development; EmBP-2 is constitutive, whereas ZmBZ-1 is abscisic acid-inducible and accumulates during late embryogenesis. Both factors are nuclear proteins that bind to ABREs and activate transcription of the abscisic acid-inducible gene rab28 from maize. EmBP-2 and ZmBZ-1 are phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2 and phosphorylation alters their DNA binding properties. Our data suggest that EmBP-2 and ZmBZ-1 are involved in the expression of abscisic acid inducible genes such as rab28 and their activity is modulated by ABA and by phosphorylation.

  3. The Zinc Concentration in the Diet and the Length of the Feeding Period Affect the Methylation Status of the ZIP4 Zinc Transporter Gene in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Karweina, Diana; Kreuzer-Redmer, Susanne; Müller, Uwe; Franken, Tobias; Pieper, Robert; Baron, Udo; Olek, Sven; Zentek, Jürgen; Brockmann, Gudrun A.

    2015-01-01

    High doses of zinc oxide are commonly used in weaned pig diets to improve performance and health. Recent reports show that this may also lead to an imbalanced zinc homeostasis in the animal. For a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of different zinc intakes, we performed a feeding experiment to assess potential epigenetic regulation of the ZIP4 gene expression via DNA methylation in the small intestine of piglets. Fifty-four piglets were fed diets with 57 (LZn), 164 (NZn) or 2,425 (HZn) mg Zn/kg feed for one or four weeks. The ZIP4 expression data provided significant evidence for counter-regulation of zinc absorption with higher dietary zinc concentrations. The CpG +735 in the second exon had a 56% higher methylation in the HZn group compared to the others after one week of feeding (8.0·10-4 < p < 0.035); the methylation of this CpG was strongly negatively associated with the expression of the long ZIP4 transcripts (p < 0.007). In the LZn and NZn diets, the expression of the long ZIP4 transcripts were lower after four vs. one week of feeding (2.9·10-4 < p < 0.017). The strongest switch leading to high DNA methylation in nearly all analysed regions was dependent on feeding duration or age in all diet groups (3.7·10-10 < p < 0.099). The data suggest that DNA methylation serves as a fine-tuning mechanism of ZIP4 gene regulation to maintain zinc homeostasis. Methylation of the ZIP4 gene may play a minor role in the response to very high dietary zinc concentration, but may affect binding of alternate zinc-responsive transcription factors. PMID:26599865

  4. The bZIP dimer localizes at DNA full-sites where each basic region can alternately translocate and bind to subsites at the half-site.

    PubMed

    Chan, I-San; Al-Sarraj, Taufik; Shahravan, S Hesam; Fedorova, Anna V; Shin, Jumi A

    2012-08-21

    Crystal structures of the GCN4 bZIP (basic region/leucine zipper) with the AP-1 or CRE site show how each GCN4 basic region binds to a 4 bp cognate half-site as a single DNA target; however, this may not always fully describe how bZIP proteins interact with their target sites. Previously, we showed that the GCN4 basic region interacts with all 5 bp in half-site TTGCG (termed 5H-LR) and that 5H-LR comprises two 4 bp subsites, TTGC and TGCG, which individually are also target sites of the basic region. In this work, we explore how the basic region interacts with 5H-LR when the bZIP dimer localizes to full-sites. Using AMBER molecular modeling, we simulated GCN4 bZIP complexes with full-sites containing 5H-LR to investigate in silico the interface between the basic region and 5H-LR. We also performed in vitro investigation of bZIP-DNA interactions at a number of full-sites that contain 5H-LR versus either subsite: we analyzed results from DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and from EMSA titrations to quantify binding affinities. Our computational and experimental results together support a highly dynamic DNA-binding model: when a bZIP dimer localizes to its target full-site, the basic region can alternately recognize either subsite as a distinct target at 5H-LR and translocate between the subsites, potentially by sliding and hopping. This model provides added insights into how α-helical DNA-binding domains of transcription factors can localize to their gene regulatory sequences in vivo.

  5. ZIP2DL: An Elastic-Plastic, Large-Rotation Finite-Element Stress Analysis and Crack-Growth Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Xiaomin; Newman, James C., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    ZIP2DL is a two-dimensional, elastic-plastic finte element program for stress analysis and crack growth simulations, developed for the NASA Langley Research Center. It has many of the salient features of the ZIP2D program. For example, ZIP2DL contains five material models (linearly elastic, elastic-perfectly plastic, power-law hardening, linear hardening, and multi-linear hardening models), and it can simulate mixed-mode crack growth for prescribed crack growth paths under plane stress, plane strain and mixed state of stress conditions. Further, as an extension of ZIP2D, it also includes a number of new capabilities. The large-deformation kinematics in ZIP2DL will allow it to handle elastic problems with large strains and large rotations, and elastic-plastic problems with small strains and large rotations. Loading conditions in terms of surface traction, concentrated load, and nodal displacement can be applied with a default linear time dependence or they can be programmed according to a user-defined time dependence through a user subroutine. The restart capability of ZIP2DL will make it possible to stop the execution of the program at any time, analyze the results and/or modify execution options and resume and continue the execution of the program. This report includes three sectons: a theoretical manual section, a user manual section, and an example manual secton. In the theoretical secton, the mathematics behind the various aspects of the program are concisely outlined. In the user manual section, a line-by-line explanation of the input data is given. In the example manual secton, three types of examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and illustrate the use of this program.

  6. Well 14-2 Logs and Data: Roosevelt Hot Spring Area, Utah (Utah FORGE)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Joe Moore

    2016-03-03

    This is a compilation of logs and data from Well 14-2 in the Roosevelt Hot Springs area in Utah. This well is also in the Utah FORGE study area. The file is in a compressed .zip format and there is a data inventory table (Excel spreadsheet) in the root folder that is a guide to the data that is accessible in subfolders.

  7. Well 9-1 Logs and Data: Roosevelt Hot Spring Area, Utah (FORGE)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Joe Moore

    2016-03-03

    This is a compilation of logs and data from Well 9-1 in the Roosevelt Hot Springs area in Utah. This well is also in the Utah FORGE study area. The file is in a compressed .zip format and there is a data inventory table (Excel spreadsheet) in the root folder that is a guide to the data that is accessible in subfolders.

  8. Well 52-21 Logs and Data: Roosevelt Hot Spring Area, Utah (Utah FORGE)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Joe Moore

    2016-03-03

    This is a compilation of logs and data from Well 52-21 in the Roosevelt Hot Springs area in Utah. This well is also in the Utah FORGE study area. The file is in a compressed .zip format and there is a data inventory table (Excel spreadsheet) in the root folder that is a guide to the data that is accessible in subfolders.

  9. Well 82-33 Logs and Data: Roosevelt Hot Spring Area, Utah (Utah FORGE)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Joe Moore

    2016-03-03

    This is a compilation of logs and data from Well 82-33 in the Roosevelt Hot Springs area in Utah. This well is also in the Utah FORGE study area. The file is in a compressed .zip format and there is a data inventory table (Excel spreadsheet) in the root folder that is a guide to the data that is accessible in subfolders.

  10. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfullymore » regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that

  11. Coding for reliable satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaarder, N. T.; Lin, S.

    1986-01-01

    This research project was set up to study various kinds of coding techniques for error control in satellite and space communications for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. During the project period, researchers investigated the following areas: (1) decoding of Reed-Solomon codes in terms of dual basis; (2) concatenated and cascaded error control coding schemes for satellite and space communications; (3) use of hybrid coding schemes (error correction and detection incorporated with retransmission) to improve system reliability and throughput in satellite communications; (4) good codes for simultaneous error correction and error detection, and (5) error control techniques for ring and star networks.

  12. Do socially deprived urban areas have lesser supplies of cancer care services?

    PubMed

    Lamont, Elizabeth B; He, Yulei; Subramanian, S V; Zaslavsky, Alan M

    2012-09-10

    Area social deprivation is associated with unfavorable health outcomes of residents across the full clinical course of cancer from the stage at diagnosis through survival. We sought to determine whether area social factors are associated with the area health care supply. We studied the area supply of health services required for the provision of guideline-recommended care for patients with breast cancer and colorectal cancer (CRC) in each of the following three distinct clinical domains: screening, treatment, and post-treatment surveillance. We characterized area social factors in 3,096 urban zip code tabulation areas by using Census Bureau data and the health care supply in the corresponding 465 hospital service areas by using American Hospital Association, American Medical Association, and US Food and Drug Administration data. In two-level hierarchical models, we assessed associations between social factors and the supply of health services across areas. We found no clear associations between area social factors and the supply of health services essential to the provision of guideline recommended breast cancer and CRC care in urban areas. The measures of health service included the supply of physicians who facilitate screening, treatment, and post-treatment care and the supply of facilities required for the same services. Because we found that the supply of types of health care required for the provision of guideline-recommended cancer care for patients with breast cancer and CRC did not vary with markers of area socioeconomic disadvantage, it is possible that previously reported unfavorable breast cancer and CRC outcomes among individuals living in impoverished areas may have occurred despite an apparent adequate area health care supply.

  13. Impact on delay times and characteristics of patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the southern metropolitan area of Barcelona after implementation of the infarction code program.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hospital, Joan Antoni; Dallaglio, Paolo Domenico; Sánchez-Salado, Jose Carlos; Ariza, Albert; Homs, Silvia; Lorente, Victoria; Ferreiro, Jose Luis; Gomez-Lara, Josep; Romaguera, Rafael; Salazar-Mendiguchía, Joel; Teruel, Luis; Cequier, Ángel

    2012-10-01

    A standardized protocol of emergent transfer for primary percutaneous coronary intervention for patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction, defined as the Infarction Code, was implemented in June 2009 in the Catalan regional health system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the new protocol on delay times, number of procedures and clinical characteristics compared with the previous period in the population of patients referred to our hospital. All consecutive patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention in our hospital were prospectively registered. The clinical characteristics, delay times and mortality in the follow-up of the protocol implementation period (June 2009-May 2010) were analyzed and compared with the previous year (June 2008-May 2009). During the protocol period, 514 patients were included, compared with 241 in the previous year. Age, cardiovascular risk factors, anterior myocardial infarction and procedure characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. The first medical contact to balloon time was lower in the protocol period (median time 120 min vs 88 min; P<.001). Patients in the protocol period showed a trend toward less severe disease (Killip III, rescue angioplasty). The multivariate regression analysis showed a significant association between 1-year mortality and age, Killip class ≥ III at admission, anterior infarction and 3-vessel disease. The introduction of the Infarction Code program increased the number of patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention with a reduction in delay times and better clinical characteristics at presentation. Full English text available from:www.revespcardiol.org. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. PpHB22, a member of HD-Zip proteins, activates PpDAM1 to regulate bud dormancy transition in 'Suli' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia White Pear Group).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qinsong; Niu, Qingfeng; Li, Jianzhao; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Ma, Yunjing; Bai, Songling; Teng, Yuanwen

    2018-06-01

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins, which form one of the largest and most diverse families, regulate many biological processes in plants, including differentiation, flowering, vascular development, and stress signaling. Abscisic acid (ABA) has been proved to be one of the key regulators of bud dormancy and to influence several HD-Zip genes expression. However, the role of HD-Zip genes in regulating bud dormancy remains unclear. We identified 47 pear (P. pyrifolia White Pear Group) HD-Zip genes, which were classified into four subfamilies (HD-Zip I-IV). We further revealed that gene expression levels of some HD-Zip members were closely related to ABA concentrations in flower buds during dormancy transition. Exogenous ABA treatment confirmed that PpHB22 and several other HD-Zip genes responded to ABA. Yeast one-hybrid and dual luciferase assay results combining subcellular localization showed that PpHB22 was present in nucleus and directly induced PpDAM1 (dormancy associated MADS-box 1) expression. Thus, PpHB22 is a negative regulator of plant growth associated with the ABA response pathway and functions upstream of PpDAM1. These findings enrich our understanding of the function of HD-Zip genes related to the bud dormancy transition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Curto, Carina; Itskov, Vladimir; Morrison, Katherine; Roth, Zachary; Walker, Judy L

    2013-07-01

    Shannon's seminal 1948 work gave rise to two distinct areas of research: information theory and mathematical coding theory. While information theory has had a strong influence on theoretical neuroscience, ideas from mathematical coding theory have received considerably less attention. Here we take a new look at combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective, examining the error correction capabilities of familiar receptive field codes (RF codes). We find, perhaps surprisingly, that the high levels of redundancy present in these codes do not support accurate error correction, although the error-correcting performance of receptive field codes catches up to that of random comparison codes when a small tolerance to error is introduced. However, receptive field codes are good at reflecting distances between represented stimuli, while the random comparison codes are not. We suggest that a compromise in error-correcting capability may be a necessary price to pay for a neural code whose structure serves not only error correction, but must also reflect relationships between stimuli.

  16. Small-area Variation in Hypertension Prevalence among Black and White Medicaid Enrollees.

    PubMed

    White, Kellee; Stewart, John E; Lòpez-DeFede, Ana; Wilkerson, Rebecca C

    2016-07-21

    To examine within-state geographic heterogeneity in hypertension prevalence and evaluate associations between hypertension prevalence and small-area contextual characteristics for Black and White South Carolina Medicaid enrollees in urban vs rural areas. Ecological. South Carolina, United States. Hypertension prevalence. Data representing adult South Carolina Medicaid recipients enrolled in fiscal year 2013 (N=409,907) and ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA)-level contextual measures (racial segregation, rurality, poverty, educational attainment, unemployment and primary care physician adequacy) were linked in a spatially referenced database. Optimized Getis-Ord hotspot mapping was used to visualize geographic clustering of hypertension prevalence. Spatial regression was performed to examine the association between hypertension prevalence and small-area contextual indicators. Significant (alpha=.05) hotspot spatial clustering patterns were similar for Blacks and Whites. Black isolation was significantly associated with hypertension among Blacks and Whites in both urban (Black, b=1.34, P<.01; White, b=.66, P<.01) and rural settings (Black, b=.71, P=.02; White, b=.70, P<.01). Primary care physician adequacy was associated with hypertension among urban Blacks (b=-2.14, P<.01) and Whites (b=-1.74, P<.01). The significant geographic overlap of hypertension prevalence hotspots for Black and White Medicaid enrollees provides an opportunity for targeted health intervention. Provider adequacy findings suggest the value of ACA network adequacy standards for Medicaid managed care plans in ensuring health care accessibility for persons with hypertension and related chronic conditions.

  17. CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is an annually revised codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. The CFR is divided into 50 titles which represent broad areas subje...

  18. Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the objectives, meeting goals and overall NASA goals for the NASA Data Standards Working Group. The presentation includes information on the technical progress surrounding the objective, short LDPC codes, and the general results on the Pu-Pw tradeoff.

  19. QR Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  20. Migration of Hazardous Substances through Soil. Part 4. Development of a Serial Batch Extraction Method and Application to the Accelerated Testing of Seven Industrial Wastes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Evaluation Commnand &_. ADMASS Coly, 1W~., and ZIP Code ) 7b. ADDRESS (C01y, State, wid ZIP Code ) Dugwiay, Utahi 84022-5000 Aberdeen Proving Ground...Aency_________________________ 9L AoOMS(CRY, 0to, and ZIP Code ) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS Hazardous Waste Environmental RLsearch Lab PROGRAM PROJECT TASK...CLASSIFICATION 0 UNO.ASSIFIEDAIJNLIMITED 0l SAME AS RPT. 03 OTIC USERS UNCLA.SSIFIED 22a. RAWE OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b TELEPHONE (Include Area Code ) I

  1. [Identification of city areas with an urgent need for early help in Munich: presentation of a new procedure on the basis of data on regional social structures and on the health risks of newborn babies].

    PubMed

    Vogel, B; Schunk, M; Lack, N; Mielck, A

    2013-10-01

    In Germany, it is forbidden by law to physically punish children or to harm them mentally. Breaking these rules can result in severe health problems for the children. Home visiting programmes for families with young children are aimed at supporting young families who are facing large social problems, and at enhancing the chances of their children to grow up in a healthy way. Maps showing the regional distribution of the need for these home visiting programmes could be an important tool for local health policy planning. They could help to focus the resources on those families who are in greatest need. The method proposed here for developing such a regional map is based on the following steps: (a) search for data that indicate the potential for child neglect, maltreatment or abuse, and that are available for each zip code in the city of Munich, Germany; (b) based on these data, calculation of a summary score that could indicate high need for these home visits; (c) grouping of the zip code areas according to this score; (d) presentation of the regional distribution in a map. After inspecting different data sources, we could identify 5 variables that could indicate the need for these home visits and that are available for each zip code: index of purchasing power, percentage of the population with low education, percentage of the population with migration background, percentage of single mothers, percentage of new-borns with low birth weight (<2 500 g). If 'high need' is defined as 'upper quintile of at least 3 among the 5 variables listed above, about 1 087 newborn babies would have to be visited per year (i. e., 10% of all newborn infants in Munich). These home visits should be as little stigmatising as possible, and especially those families should be reached that are in greatest need. If it is not possible to reach all families in the community, it can be recommended to focus on city districts with a high percentage of families in greatest need. As far as we know

  2. Abscisic acid-dependent regulation of small rubber particle protein gene expression in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum is mediated by TbbZIP1.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Julia; Hillebrand, Andrea; Twyman, Richard M; Prüfer, Dirk; Schulze Gronover, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Natural rubber is a high-molecular-mass biopolymer found in the latex of >2,500 plant species, including Hevea brasiliensis, Parthenium argentatum and Taraxacum spp. The active sites of rubber biosynthesis are rubber particles, which comprise a hydrophobic rubber core surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer membrane containing species-dependent lipids and associated proteins. Small rubber particle proteins are the most abundant rubber particle-associated proteins in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum (TbSRPPs) and may promote rubber biosynthesis by stabilizing the rubber particle architecture. We investigated the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding SRPPs and identified a bZIP transcription factor (TbbZIP.1) similar to the Arabidopsis thaliana ABI5-ABF-AREB subfamily, which is thought to include downstream targets of ABA and/or abiotic stress-inducible protein kinases. The TbbZIP.1 gene was predominantly expressed in laticifers and regulates the expression of TbSRPP genes in an ABA-dependent manner. The individual TbSRPP genes showed distinct induction profiles, suggesting diverse roles in rubber biosynthesis and stress adaptation. The potential involvement of TbSRPPs in the adaptation of T. brevicorniculatum plants to environmental stress is discussed based on our current knowledge of the stress-response roles of SRPPs and their homologs, and the protective function of latex and rubber against pathogens. Our data suggest that TbSRPPs contribute to stress tolerance in T. brevicorniculatum and that their effects are mediated by TbbZIP.1.

  3. Mitochondrial AtTrxo1 is transcriptionally regulated by AtbZIP9 and AtAZF2 and affects seed germination under saline conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Espín, Ana; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Calderón, Aingeru; Carbonero, Pilar; Sevilla, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondrial thioredoxin-o (AtTrxo1) was characterized and its expression examined in different organs of Arabidopsis thaliana. AtTrxo1 transcript levels were particularly high in dry seeds and cotyledons where they reached a maximum 36 h after imbibition with water, coinciding with 50% germination. Expression was lower in seeds germinating in 100 mM NaCl. To gain insight into the transcriptional regulation of the AtTrxo1 gene, a phylogenomic analysis was coupled with the screening of an arrayed library of Arabidopsis transcription factors in yeast. The basic leucine zipper AtbZIP9 and the zinc finger protein AZF2 were identified as putative transcriptional regulators. Transcript regulation of AtbZIP9 and AtAFZ2 during germination was compatible with the proposed role in transcriptional regulation of AtTrxo1. Transient over-expression of AtbZIP9 and AtAZF2 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves demonstrated an activation effect of AtbZIP9 and a repressor effect of AtAZF2 on AtTrxo1 promoter-driven reporter expression. Although moderate concentrations of salt delayed germination in Arabidopsis wild-type seeds, those of two different AtTrxo1 knock-out mutants germinated faster and accumulated higher H2O2 levels than the wild-type. All these data indicate that AtTrxo1 has a role in redox homeostasis during seed germination under salt conditions. PMID:28184497

  4. Intra-Amygdala ZIP Injections Impair the Memory of Learned Active Avoidance Responses and Attenuate Conditioned Taste-Aversion Acquisition in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of protein kinase Mzeta (PKM[zeta]) inhibition in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) upon the retention of a nonspatial learned active avoidance response and conditioned taste-aversion (CTA) acquisition in rats. ZIP (10 nmol/[mu]L) injected into the BLA 24 h after training impaired retention of a learned…

  5. The IRE1/bZIP60 pathway and Bax inhibitor 1 suppress systemic accumulation of potyviruses and potexviruses in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The inositol requiring enzyme (IRE1) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor and when activated it splices the bZIP60 mRNA producing a truncated transcription factor that upregulates expression of genes involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR). Bax inhibitor 1 (BI-1) is another ER stre...

  6. ZIP3D: An elastic and elastic-plastic finite-element analysis program for cracked bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    ZIP3D is an elastic and an elastic-plastic finite element program to analyze cracks in three dimensional solids. The program may also be used to analyze uncracked bodies or multi-body problems involving contacting surfaces. For crack problems, the program has several unique features including the calculation of mixed-mode strain energy release rates using the three dimensional virtual crack closure technique, the calculation of the J integral using the equivalent domain integral method, the capability to extend the crack front under monotonic or cyclic loading, and the capability to close or open the crack surfaces during cyclic loading. The theories behind the various aspects of the program are explained briefly. Line-by-line data preparation is presented. Input data and results for an elastic analysis of a surface crack in a plate and for an elastic-plastic analysis of a single-edge-crack-tension specimen are also presented.

  7. Spatial-area selective retrieval of multiple object-place associations in a hierarchical cognitive map formed by theta phase coding.

    PubMed

    Sato, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2009-06-01

    The human cognitive map is known to be hierarchically organized consisting of a set of perceptually clustered landmarks. Patient studies have demonstrated that these cognitive maps are maintained by the hippocampus, while the neural dynamics are still poorly understood. The authors have shown that the neural dynamic "theta phase precession" observed in the rodent hippocampus may be capable of forming hierarchical cognitive maps in humans. In the model, a visual input sequence consisting of object and scene features in the central and peripheral visual fields, respectively, results in the formation of a hierarchical cognitive map for object-place associations. Surprisingly, it is possible for such a complex memory structure to be formed in a few seconds. In this paper, we evaluate the memory retrieval of object-place associations in the hierarchical network formed by theta phase precession. The results show that multiple object-place associations can be retrieved with the initial cue of a scene input. Importantly, according to the wide-to-narrow unidirectional connections among scene units, the spatial area for object-place retrieval can be controlled by the spatial area of the initial cue input. These results indicate that the hierarchical cognitive maps have computational advantages on a spatial-area selective retrieval of multiple object-place associations. Theta phase precession dynamics is suggested as a fundamental neural mechanism of the human cognitive map.

  8. Pepper CabZIP63 acts as a positive regulator during Ralstonia solanacearum or high temperature-high humidity challenge in a positive feedback loop with CaWRKY40.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Zhiqin; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Tong; Liang, Jiaqi; Wen, Jiayu; Liu, Yanyan; Li, Jiazhi; Shi, Lanping; Tang, Qian; Shi, Wei; Hu, Jiong; Liu, Cailing; Zhang, Yangwen; Lin, Wei; Wang, Rongzhang; Yu, Huanxin; Mou, Shaoliang; Hussain, Ansar; Cheng, Wei; Cai, Hanyang; He, Li; Guan, Deyi; Wu, Yang; He, Shuilin

    2016-04-01

    CaWRKY40 is known to act as a positive regulator in the response of pepper (Capsicum annuum) to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation (RSI) or high temperature-high humidity (HTHH), but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Herein, we report that CabZIP63, a pepper bZIP family member, participates in this process by regulating the expression of CaWRKY40. CabZIP63 was found to localize in the nuclei, be up-regulated by RSI or HTHH, bind to promoters of both CabZIP63(pCabZIP63) and CaWRKY40(pCaWRKY40), and activate pCabZIP63- and pCaWRKY40-driven β-glucuronidase expression in a C- or G-box-dependent manner. Silencing of CabZIP63 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in pepper plants significantly attenuated their resistance to RSI and tolerance to HTHH, accompanied by down-regulation of immunity- or thermotolerance-associated CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1, and CaHSP24. Hypersensitive response-mediated cell death and expression of the tested immunity- and thermotolerance-associated marker genes were induced by transient overexpression (TOE) of CabZIP63, but decreased by that of CabZIP63-SRDX. Additionally, binding of CabZIP63 to pCaWRKY40 was up-regulated by RSI or HTHH, and the transcript level of CaWRKY40 and binding of CaWRKY40 to the promoters of CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1 and CaHSP24 were up-regulated by TOE of CabZIP63. On the other hand, CabZIP63 was also up-regulated transcriptionally by TOE of CaWRKY40. The data suggest collectively that CabZIP63 directly or indirectly regulates the expression of CaWRKY40 at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, forming a positive feedback loop with CaWRKY40 during pepper's response to RSI or HTHH. Altogether, our data will help to elucidate the underlying mechanism of crosstalk between pepper's response to RSI and HTHH. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Attenuation of progressive hearing loss in DBA/2J mice by reagents that affect epigenetic modifications is associated with up-regulation of the zinc importer Zip4.

    PubMed

    Mutai, Hideki; Miya, Fuyuki; Fujii, Masato; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Matsunaga, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Various factors that are important for proper hearing have been identified, including serum levels of zinc. Here we investigated whether epigenetic regulatory pathways, which can be modified by environmental factors, could modulate hearing. RT-PCR detected expression of genes encoding DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase (Hdac) in the postnatal as well as adult mouse auditory epithelium. DBA/2J mice, which are a model for progressive hearing loss, were injected subcutaneously with one or a combination of the following reagents: L-methionine as a methyl donor, valproic acid as a pan-Hdac inhibitor, and folic acid and vitamin B12 as putative factors involved in age-related hearing loss. The mice were treated from ages 4 to 12 weeks (N ≥ 5), and auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were measured at 8, 16, and 32 kHz. Treatment of the mice with a combination of L-methionine and valproic acid (M+V) significantly reduced the increase in the ABR threshold at 32 kHz. Treatment with any of these reagents individually produced no such effect. Microarray analyses detected 299 gene probes that were significantly up- or down-regulated in the cochleae of mice treated with M+V compared with the control vehicle-treated mice. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant up-regulation of a zinc importer gene, Zip4, in the cochleae of mice treated with M+V. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated an intense Zip4 signal in cochlear tissues such as the lateral wall, organ of Corti, and spiral ganglion. Finally, mice treated with the Zip4 inducer (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate showed a significant reduction in the increase of the ABR threshold at 32 kHz and up-regulation of Zip4 expression in the cochlea. This study suggests that epigenetic regulatory pathways can modify auditory function and that zinc intake in the cochlea via Zip4 mediates maintenance of mammalian hearing.

  10. Extreme Population Differences in the Human Zinc Transporter ZIP4 (SLC39A4) Are Explained by Positive Selection in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pybus, Marc; Andrews, Glen K.; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Comas, David; Sekler, Israel; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio; Stoneking, Mark; Valverde, Miguel A.; Vicente, Rubén; Bosch, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Extreme differences in allele frequency between West Africans and Eurasians were observed for a leucine-to-valine substitution (Leu372Val) in the human intestinal zinc uptake transporter, ZIP4, yet no further evidence was found for a selective sweep around the ZIP4 gene (SLC39A4). By interrogating allele frequencies in more than 100 diverse human populations and resequencing Neanderthal DNA, we confirmed the ancestral state of this locus and found a strong geographical gradient for the derived allele (Val372), with near fixation in West Africa. In extensive coalescent simulations, we show that the extreme differences in allele frequency, yet absence of a classical sweep signature, can be explained by the effect of a local recombination hotspot, together with directional selection favoring the Val372 allele in Sub-Saharan Africans. The possible functional effect of the Leu372Val substitution, together with two pathological mutations at the same codon (Leu372Pro and Leu372Arg) that cause acrodermatitis enteropathica (a disease phenotype characterized by extreme zinc deficiency), was investigated by transient overexpression of human ZIP4 protein in HeLa cells. Both acrodermatitis mutations cause absence of the ZIP4 transporter cell surface expression and nearly absent zinc uptake, while the Val372 variant displayed significantly reduced surface protein expression, reduced basal levels of intracellular zinc, and reduced zinc uptake in comparison with the Leu372 variant. We speculate that reduced zinc uptake by the ZIP4-derived Val372 isoform may act by starving certain pathogens of zinc, and hence may have been advantageous in Sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, these functional results may indicate differences in zinc homeostasis among modern human populations with possible relevance for disease risk. PMID:24586184

  11. Seasonal Abscisic Acid Signal and a Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor, DkbZIP5, Regulate Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Persimmon Fruit1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Takashi; Katayama-Ikegami, Ayako; Kobayashi, Shozo; Sato, Akihiko; Kono, Atsushi; Yonemori, Keizo

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are secondary metabolites that contribute to plant protection and crop quality. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) has a unique characteristic of accumulating large amounts of PAs, particularly in its fruit. Normal astringent-type and mutant nonastringent-type fruits show different PA accumulation patterns depending on the seasonal expression patterns of DkMyb4, which is a Myb transcription factor (TF) regulating many PA pathway genes in persimmon. In this study, attempts were made to identify the factors involved in DkMyb4 expression and the resultant PA accumulation in persimmon fruit. Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) and an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor resulted in differential changes in the expression patterns of DkMyb4 and PA biosynthesis in astringent-type and nonastringent-type fruits depending on the development stage. To obtain an ABA-signaling TF, we isolated a full-length basic leucine zipper (bZIP) TF, DkbZIP5, which is highly expressed in persimmon fruit. We also showed that ectopic DkbZIP5 overexpression in persimmon calluses induced the up-regulation of DkMyb4 and the resultant PA biosynthesis. In addition, a detailed molecular characterization using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and transient reporter assay indicated that DkbZIP5 recognized ABA-responsive elements in the promoter region of DkMyb4 and acted as a direct regulator of DkMyb4 in an ABA-dependent manner. These results suggest that ABA signals may be involved in PA biosynthesis in persimmon fruit via DkMyb4 activation by DkbZIP5. PMID:22190340

  12. The Arabidopsis bZIP11 transcription factor links low-energy signalling to auxin-mediated control of primary root growth.

    PubMed

    Weiste, Christoph; Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Selvanayagam, Jebasingh; Muralidhara, Prathibha; Fröschel, Christian; Novák, Ondřej; Ljung, Karin; Hanson, Johannes; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Plants have to tightly control their energy homeostasis to ensure survival and fitness under constantly changing environmental conditions. Thus, it is stringently required that energy-consuming stress-adaptation and growth-related processes are dynamically tuned according to the prevailing energy availability. The evolutionary conserved SUCROSE NON-FERMENTING1 RELATED KINASES1 (SnRK1) and the downstream group C/S1 basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) are well-characterised central players in plants' low-energy management. Nevertheless, mechanistic insights into plant growth control under energy deprived conditions remains largely elusive. In this work, we disclose the novel function of the low-energy activated group S1 bZIP11-related TFs as regulators of auxin-mediated primary root growth. Whereas transgenic gain-of-function approaches of these bZIPs interfere with the activity of the root apical meristem and result in root growth repression, root growth of loss-of-function plants show a pronounced insensitivity to low-energy conditions. Based on ensuing molecular and biochemical analyses, we propose a mechanistic model, in which bZIP11-related TFs gain control over the root meristem by directly activating IAA3/SHY2 transcription. IAA3/SHY2 is a pivotal negative regulator of root growth, which has been demonstrated to efficiently repress transcription of major auxin transport facilitators of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) gene family, thereby restricting polar auxin transport to the root tip and in consequence auxin-driven primary root growth. Taken together, our results disclose the central low-energy activated SnRK1-C/S1-bZIP signalling module as gateway to integrate information on the plant's energy status into root meristem control, thereby balancing plant growth and cellular energy resources.

  13. The Arabidopsis bZIP11 transcription factor links low-energy signalling to auxin-mediated control of primary root growth

    PubMed Central

    Weiste, Christoph; Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Muralidhara, Prathibha; Ljung, Karin; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Plants have to tightly control their energy homeostasis to ensure survival and fitness under constantly changing environmental conditions. Thus, it is stringently required that energy-consuming stress-adaptation and growth-related processes are dynamically tuned according to the prevailing energy availability. The evolutionary conserved SUCROSE NON-FERMENTING1 RELATED KINASES1 (SnRK1) and the downstream group C/S1 basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) are well-characterised central players in plants’ low-energy management. Nevertheless, mechanistic insights into plant growth control under energy deprived conditions remains largely elusive. In this work, we disclose the novel function of the low-energy activated group S1 bZIP11-related TFs as regulators of auxin-mediated primary root growth. Whereas transgenic gain-of-function approaches of these bZIPs interfere with the activity of the root apical meristem and result in root growth repression, root growth of loss-of-function plants show a pronounced insensitivity to low-energy conditions. Based on ensuing molecular and biochemical analyses, we propose a mechanistic model, in which bZIP11-related TFs gain control over the root meristem by directly activating IAA3/SHY2 transcription. IAA3/SHY2 is a pivotal negative regulator of root growth, which has been demonstrated to efficiently repress transcription of major auxin transport facilitators of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) gene family, thereby restricting polar auxin transport to the root tip and in consequence auxin-driven primary root growth. Taken together, our results disclose the central low-energy activated SnRK1-C/S1-bZIP signalling module as gateway to integrate information on the plant’s energy status into root meristem control, thereby balancing plant growth and cellular energy resources. PMID:28158182

  14. The bZIP dimer localizes at DNA full-sites where each basic region can alternately translocate and bind to subsites at the half-site

    PubMed Central

    Chan, I-San; Al-Sarraj, Taufik; Shahravan, S. Hesam; Fedorova, Anna V.; Shin, Jumi A.

    2012-01-01

    Crystal structures of the GCN4 bZIP (basic region/leucine zipper) with the AP-1 or CRE site show how each GCN4 basic region binds to a 4-bp cognate half-site as a single DNA target; however, this may not always fully describe how bZIP proteins interact with their target sites. Previously, we showed that the GCN4 basic region interacts with all 5 bp in half-site TTGCG (termed 5H-LR), and that 5H-LR comprises two 4-bp subsites, TTGC and TGCG, which individually are also target sites of the basic region. In this work, we explored how the basic region interacts with 5H-LR when the bZIP dimer localizes to full-sites. Using AMBER molecular modeling, we simulated GCN4 bZIP complexes with full-sites containing 5H-LR to investigate in silico the interface between the basic region and 5H-LR. We also performed in vitro investigation of bZIP–DNA interactions at a number of full-sites that contain 5H-LR vs. either subsite: we analyzed results from DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and from EMSA titrations to quantify binding affinities. Our computational and experimental results together support a highly dynamic DNA-binding model: when a bZIP dimer localizes to its target full-site, the basic region can alternately recognize either subsite as a distinct target at 5H-LR and translocate between the subsites, potentially by sliding and hopping. This model provides added insights into how α-helical DNA-binding domains of transcription factors can localize to their gene regulatory sequences in vivo. PMID:22856882

  15. Designing an Intervention for Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus from Medically Underserved Areas to Improve Care: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Candace H; Bermas, Bonnie L; Zibit, Melanie; Fraser, Patricia; Todd, Derrick J; Fortin, Paul R; Massarotti, Elena; Costenbader, Karen H

    2013-01-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) disproportionately affects women, racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. We held focus groups for women from medically underserved communities to discuss interventions to improve care. Methods From our Lupus Registry, we invited 282 women, > 18 years, residing in urban, medically underserved areas. Hospital-based clinics and support groups also recruited participants. Women were randomly assigned to 3 focus groups. 75-minute sessions were recorded, transcribed and coded thematically using interpretative phenomenologic analysis and single counting methods. We categorized interventions by benefits, limitations, target populations and implementation questions. Results 29 women with lupus participated in 3 focus groups, (n=9, 9, 11). 80% were African American and 83% were from medically underserved zip codes. Themes included the desire for lupus education, isolation at the time of diagnosis, emotional and physical barriers to care, and the need for assistance navigating the healthcare system. 20 of 29 participants (69%) favored a peer support intervention; 17 (59%) also supported a lupus health passport. Newly diagnosed women were optimal intervention targets. Improvements in quality of life and mental health were proposed outcome measures. Conclusion Women with lupus from medically underserved areas have unique needs best addressed with an intervention designed through collaboration between community members and researchers. PMID:23087258

  16. Assessment of dose rate to terrestrial biota in the area around coal fired power plant applying ERICA tool and RESRAD BIOTA code.

    PubMed

    Ćujić, Mirjana; Dragović, Snežana

    2018-08-01

    This paper presents the environmental radiation risk assessment based on two software program approaches ERICA Tool (version 1.2) and RESRAD BIOTA (version 1.5) to estimate dose rates to terrestrial biota in the area around the largest coal fired power plant in Serbia. For dose rate assessment software's default reference animals and plants and the best estimated values of activity concentrations of 238 U, 234 U, 234 Th, 232 Th, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 137 Cs in soil were used. Both approaches revealed the highest contribution to the internal dose rate due to 226 Ra and 210 Po, while 137 Cs contributed the most to the external dose rate. In the investigated area total dose rate to biota derived using ERICA Tool ranged from 0.3 to 14.4 μGy h -1 . The natural radionuclides exhibited significantly higher contribution to the total dose rate than the artificial one. In the investigated area, only dose rate for lichens and bryophytes exceeded ERICA Tool screening value of total dose rate of 10 μGy h -1 suggested as confident that environmental risks are negligible. The assessed total dose rates for reference animals and plants using RESRAD BIOTA were found to be 7 and 3 μGy h -1 , respectively. In RESRAD BIOTA - Level 3, 10 species (Lumbricus terrestris, Rana lessonae, Sciurus vulgaris, Anas platyrhynchos, Lepus europaeus, Vulpes vulpes, Capreolus capreolus, Suss crofa, Quercu srobur, Tilia spp.) representative for the study area were modeled. Among them the highest total dose rate (4.5 μGy h -1 ) was obtained for large mammals. Differences in the predicted dose rates to biota using the two software programs are the consequence of the difference in the values of transfer parameters used to calculate activity concentrations in biota. Doses of ionizing radiation estimated in this study will not exhibit deterministic effects at the population level. Thus, the obtained results indicate no significant radiation impact of coal fired power plant operation on

  17. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced changes in the chemical coding of extrinsic sensory neurons supplying the prepyloric area of the porcine stomach.

    PubMed

    Rytel, L; Calka, J

    2016-03-23

    Acetylsalicylic acid is a popular drug that is commonly used to treat fever and inflammation, but which can also negativity affect the mucosal layer of the stomach, although knowledge concerning its influence on gastric innervation is very scarce. Thus, the aim of the present study was to study the influence of prolonged acetylsalicylic acid supplementation on the extrinsic primary sensory neurons supplying the porcine stomach prepyloric region. Fast Blue (FB) was injected into the above-mentioned region of the stomach. Acetylsalicylic acid was then given orally to the experimental gilts from the seventh day after FB injection to the 27th day of the experiment. After euthanasia, the nodose ganglia (NG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were collected. Sections of these ganglia were processed for routine double-labelling immunofluorescence technique for substance P (SP), calcitonine gene related peptide (CGRP), galanin (GAL), neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Under physiological conditions within the nodose ganglia, the percentage of the FB-labeled neurons immunoreactive to particular substances ranged between 17.9 ± 2.7% (VIP-like immunoreactive (LI) neurons in the right NG) and 60.4 ± 1.7% (SP-LI cells within the left NG). Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation caused a considerable increase in the expression of all active substances studied within both left and right NG and the percentage of neurons positive to particular substances fluctuated from 47.2 ± 3.6% (GAL-LI neurons in the right NG) to 67.2 ± 2.0% (cells immunoreactive to SP in the left NG). All studied substances were also observed in DRG neurons supplying the prepyloric region of the stomach, but the number of immunoreactive neurons was too small to conduct a statistical analysis. The obtained results show that ASA may influence chemical coding of the sensory neurons supplying the porcine stomach, but the exact mechanisms of this action still

  18. A new code SORD for simulation of polarized light scattering in the Earth atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkin, Sergey; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sinyuk, Aliaksandr; Holben, Brent

    2016-05-01

    We report a new publicly available radiative transfer (RT) code for numerical simulation of polarized light scattering in plane-parallel Earth atmosphere. Using 44 benchmark tests, we prove high accuracy of the new RT code, SORD (Successive ORDers of scattering1, 2). We describe capabilities of SORD and show run time for each test on two different machines. At present, SORD is supposed to work as part of the Aerosol Robotic NETwork3 (AERONET) inversion algorithm. For natural integration with the AERONET software, SORD is coded in Fortran 90/95. The code is available by email request from the corresponding (first) author or from ftp://climate1.gsfc.nasa.gov/skorkin/SORD/ or ftp://maiac.gsfc.nasa.gov/pub/SORD.zip

  19. Envirenmental Baseline Survey, Manch Manor Housing Area, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    within the Manch Manor Housing Area three times within the last 5 years. 3.2.1.3 Surface Drainage. Nellis AFB is in the Colorado River Drainage Basin...PAVING CORNER DURANGO AND CHEYENNE SHWS TC736310.3s Page 3 of 7 ORPHAN SUMMARY Clly EDRIO Si!eName Site Address Zip Dalabase{s) Facility JD LAS VEGAS

  20. White Sands Missile Range Main Cantonment and NASA Area Faults, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Greg

    This is a zipped ArcGIS shapefile containing faults mapped for the Tularosa Basin geothermal play fairway analysis project. The faults were interpolated from gravity and seismic (NASA area) data, and from geomorphic features on aerial photography. Field work was also done for validation of faults which had surface expressions.

  1. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... for Residential Construction in High Wind Areas. ICC 700: National Green Building Standard. The... Codes and Standards that are comprehensive, coordinated, and necessary to regulate the built environment... International Codes and Standards consist of the following: ICC Codes International Building Code. International...

  2. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, A.; Divsalar, D.; Yao, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes. This class of codes can be viewed as trubo-like codes, namely a double serial concatenation of a rate-1 accumulator as an outer code, a regular or irregular repetition as a middle code, and a punctured accumulator as an inner code.

  3. ABP9, a maize bZIP transcription factor, enhances tolerance to salt and drought in transgenic cotton.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunling; Lu, Guoqing; Hao, Yuqiong; Guo, Huiming; Guo, Yan; Zhao, Jun; Cheng, Hongmei

    2017-09-01

    ABP9 , encoding a bZIP transcription factor from maize, enhances tolerance to multiple stresses and may participate in the ABA signaling pathway in transgenic cotton by altering physiological and biochemical processes and stress-related gene expression. Abiotic stresses, such as soil salinity and drought, negatively affect growth, development, and yield in cotton. Gene ABP9, which encodes a bZIP transcription factor, binds to the abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive-element (ABRE2) motif of the maize catalase1 gene. Its expression significantly improves tolerance in Arabidopsis to multiple abiotic stresses, but little is known about its role in cotton. In the present study, the ABP9 gene was introduced into upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar R15 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, and 12 independent transgenic cotton lines were obtained. Cotton plants over-expressing ABP9 have enhanced tolerance to salt and osmotic stress. Under stress, they developed better root systems in a greenhouse and higher germination, reduced stomatal aperture, and stomatal density in a growth chamber. Under drought conditions, survival rate and relative water content (RWC) of transgenic cotton were higher than those of R15 plants. Under salt and osmotic stresses, chlorophyll, proline, and soluble sugar contents significantly increased in transgenic cotton leaves and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was lower than in R15. Overexpression of ABP9 also enhanced oxidative stress tolerance, reduced cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through increased activities of antioxidative enzymes, and alleviated oxidative damage to cell. Interestingly, ABP9 over-expressing cotton was more sensitive to exogenous ABA than R15 at seed germination, root growth, stomatal aperture, and stomatal density. Moreover, ABP9 overexpression upregulated significantly the transcription levels of stress-related genes such as GhDBP2, GhNCED2, GhZFP1, GhERF1, GhHB1, and GhSAP1 under

  4. Magnesium Increases Homoeologous Crossover Frequency During Meiosis in ZIP4 (Ph1 Gene) Mutant Wheat-Wild Relative Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Rey, María-Dolores; Martín, Azahara C; Smedley, Mark; Hayta, Sadiye; Harwood, Wendy; Shaw, Peter; Moore, Graham

    2018-01-01

    Wild relatives provide an important source of useful traits in wheat breeding. Wheat and wild relative hybrids have been widely used in breeding programs to introduce such traits into wheat. However, successful introgression is limited by the low frequency of homoeologous crossover (CO) between wheat and wild relative chromosomes. Hybrids between wheat carrying a 70 Mb deletion on chromosome 5B ( ph1b ) and wild relatives, have been exploited to increase the level of homoeologous CO, allowing chromosome exchange between their chromosomes. In ph1b -rye hybrids, CO number increases from a mean of 1 CO to 7 COs per cell. CO number can be further increased up to a mean of 12 COs per cell in these ph1b hybrids by treating the plants with Hoagland solution. More recently, it was shown that the major meiotic crossover gene ZIP4 on chromosome 5B ( TaZIP4-B2 ) within the 70 Mb deletion, was responsible for the restriction of homoeologous COs in wheat-wild relative hybrids, confirming the ph1b phenotype as a complete Tazip4-B2 deletion mutant ( Tazip4-B2 ph1b) . In this study, we have identified the particular Hoagland solution constituent responsible for the increased chiasma frequency in Tazip4-B2 ph1b mutant-rye hybrids and extended the analysis to Tazip4-B2 TILLING and CRISPR mutant- Ae variabilis hybrids. Chiasma frequency at meiotic metaphase I, in the absence of each Hoagland solution macronutrient (NH 4 H 2 PO 4 , KNO 3 , Ca (NO 3 )2·4H 2 O or Mg SO 4 ·7H 2 O) was analyzed. A significant decrease in homoeologous CO frequency was observed when the Mg 2+ ion was absent. A significant increase of homoeologous CO frequency was observed in all analyzed hybrids, when plants were irrigated with a 1 mM Mg 2+ solution. These observations suggest a role for magnesium supplementation in improving the success of genetic material introgression from wild relatives into wheat.

  5. Identification and functional expression of ZIP1 transporter protein in Triticum dicoccoides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a common problem, especially in cereal-growing areas, leading to severe decreases in grain yield and nutritional quality. Among the cereal species, durum wheat is the most sensitive crop to Zn deficiency. One major reason for this high sensitivity of durum wheat is its poor ...

  6. Evolution of the Class IV HD-Zip Gene Family in Streptophytes

    PubMed Central

    Zalewski, Christopher S.; Floyd, Sandra K.; Furumizu, Chihiro; Sakakibara, Keiko; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Bowman, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Class IV homeodomain leucine zipper (C4HDZ) genes are plant-specific transcription factors that, based on phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana, play an important role in epidermal development. In this study, we sampled all major extant lineages and their closest algal relatives for C4HDZ homologs and phylogenetic analyses result in a gene tree that mirrors land plant evolution with evidence for gene duplications in many lineages, but minimal evidence for gene losses. Our analysis suggests an ancestral C4HDZ gene originated in an algal ancestor of land plants and a single ancestral gene was present in the last common ancestor of land plants. Independent gene duplications are evident within several lineages including mosses, lycophytes, euphyllophytes, seed plants, and, most notably, angiosperms. In recently evolved angiosperm paralogs, we find evidence of pseudogenization via mutations in both coding and regulatory sequences. The increasing complexity of the C4HDZ gene family through the diversification of land plants correlates to increasing complexity in epidermal characters. PMID:23894141

  7. Analysis of Champus Per Capita Mental Health Expenditures and Utilization for Beneficiaries Less Than Eighteen Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    and (If applicable) Clinical Investigation Icty HSAD -A HQ HSC/HSCL-M 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b. TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 22c. OFFICE SYMBOL Dr. Scott A. Optenberg, GM-14 (512) 221-5880 HSAD -A DD Form

  8. Securing mobile code.

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware ismore » necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called 'white-boxing'. We put forth some new attacks and

  9. Identification and characterization of bZIP-type transcription factors involved in carrot (Daucus carota L.) somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yucheng; Ren, Haibo; Xie, He; Ma, Zeyang; Chen, Fan

    2009-10-01

    Seed dormancy is an important adaptive trait that enables seeds of many species to remain quiescent until conditions become favorable for germination. Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in these developmental processes. Like dormancy and germination, the elongation of carrot somatic embryo radicles is retarded by sucrose concentrations at or above 6%, and normal growth resumes at sucrose concentrations below 3%. Using a yeast one-hybrid screening system, we isolated two bZIP-type transcription factors, CAREB1 and CAREB2, from a cDNA library prepared from carrot somatic embryos cultured in a high-sucrose medium. Both CAREB1 and CAREB2 were localized to the nucleus, and specifically bound to the ABA response element (ABRE) in the Dc3 promoter. Expression of CAREB2 was induced in seedlings by drought and exogenous ABA application; whereas expression of CAREB1 increased during late embryogenesis, and reduced dramatically when somatic embryos were treated with fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis. Overexpression of CAREB1 caused somatic embryos to develop slowly when cultured in low-sucrose medium, and retarded the elongation of the radicles. These results indicate that CAREB1 and CAREB2 have similar DNA-binding activities, but play different roles during carrot development. Our results indicate that CAREB1 functions as an important trans-acting factor in the ABA signal transduction pathway during carrot somatic embryogenesis.

  10. Nuclear Import of the Parsley bZIP Transcription Factor CPRF2 Is Regulated by Phytochrome Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Kircher, Stefan; Wellmer, Frank; Nick, Peter; Rügner, Alexander; Schäfer, Eberhard; Harter, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    In plants, light perception by photoreceptors leads to differential expression of an enormous number of genes. An important step for differential gene expression is the regulation of transcription factor activities. To understand these processes in light signal transduction we analyzed the three well-known members of the common plant regulatory factor (CPRF) family from parsley (Petroselinum crispum). Here, we demonstrate that these CPRFs, which belong to the basic- region leucine-zipper (bZIP) domain-containing transcription factors, are differentially distributed within parsley cells, indicating different regulatory functions within the regulatory networks of the plant cell. In particular, we show by cell fractionation and immunolocalization approaches that CPRF2 is transported from the cytosol into the nucleus upon irradiation due to action of phytochrome photoreceptors. Two NH2-terminal domains responsible for cytoplasmic localization of CPRF2 in the dark were characterized by deletion analysis using a set of CPRF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene fusion constructs transiently expressed in parsley protoplasts. We suggest that light-induced nuclear import of CPRF2 is an essential step in phytochrome signal transduction. PMID:9922448

  11. The bZIP transcription factor MdHY5 regulates anthocyanin accumulation and nitrate assimilation in apple.

    PubMed

    An, Jian-Ping; Qu, Feng-Jia; Yao, Ji-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Na; You, Chun-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor HY5 plays a multifaceted role in plant growth and development. Here the apple MdHY5 gene was cloned based on its homology with Arabidopsis HY5 . Expression analysis demonstrated that MdHY5 transcription was induced by light and abscisic acid treatments. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and transient expression assays subsequently showed that MdHY5 positively regulated both its own transcription and that of MdMYB10 by binding to E-box and G-box motifs, respectively. Furthermore, we obtained transgenic apple calli that overexpressed the MdHY5 gene, and apple calli coloration assays showed that MdHY5 promoted anthocyanin accumulation by regulating expression of the MdMYB10 gene and downstream anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. In addition, the transcript levels of a series of nitrate reductase genes and nitrate uptake genes in both wild-type and transgenic apple calli were detected. In association with increased nitrate reductase activities and nitrate contents, the results indicated that MdHY5 might be an important regulator in nutrient assimilation. Taken together, these results indicate that MdHY5 plays a vital role in anthocyanin accumulation and nitrate assimilation in apple.

  12. Error-correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  13. Stage-specific regulation of four HD-ZIP III transcription factors during polar pattern formation in Larix leptolepis somatic embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, Shui-gen; Li, Wan-feng; Han, Su-ying; Yang, Wen-hua; Qi, Li-wang

    2013-06-15

    Polar auxin transport provides a developmental signal for cell fate specification during somatic embryogenesis. Some members of the HD-ZIP III transcription factors participate in regulation of auxin transport, but little is known about this regulation in somatic embryogenesis. Here, four HD-ZIP III homologues from Larix leptolepis were identified and designated LaHDZ31, 32, 33 and 34. The occurrence of a miR165/166 target sequence in all four cDNA sequences indicated that they might be targets of miR165/166. Identification of the cleavage products of LaHDZ31 and LaHDZ32 in vivo confirmed that they were regulated by miRNA. Their mRNA accumulation patterns during somatic embryogenesis and the effects of 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) on their transcript levels and somatic embryo maturation were investigated. The results showed that the four genes had higher transcript levels at mature stages than at the proliferation stage, and that NPA treatment down-regulated the mRNA abundance of LaHDZ31, 32 and 33 at cotyledonary embryo stages, but had no effect on the mRNA abundance of LaHDZ34. We concluded that these four members of Larix HD-ZIP III family might participate in polar auxin transport and the development of somatic embryos, providing new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of somatic embryogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The membrane tethered transcription factor EcbZIP17 from finger millet promotes plant growth and enhances tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Chopperla; Singh, Sonam; Raghavendrarao, Sangala; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Mohanty, Sasmita; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Solanke, Amolkumar U

    2018-02-01

    The occurrence of various stresses, as the outcome of global climate change, results in the yield losses of crop plants. Prospecting of genes in stress tolerant plant species may help to protect and improve their agronomic performance. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) is a valuable source of superior genes and alleles for stress tolerance. In this study, we isolated a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane tethered bZIP transcription factor from finger millet, EcbZIP17. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing this gene showed better vegetative growth and seed yield compared with wild type (WT) plants under optimal growth conditions and confirmed upregulation of brassinosteroid signalling genes. Under various abiotic stresses, such as 250 mM NaCl, 10% PEG6000, 400 mM mannitol, water withdrawal, and heat stress, the transgenic plants showed higher germination rate, biomass, primary and secondary root formation, and recovery rate, compared with WT plants. The transgenic plants exposed to an ER stress inducer resulted in greater leaf diameter and plant height as well as higher expression of the ER stress-responsive genes BiP, PDIL, and CRT1. Overall, our results indicated that EcbZIP17 improves plant growth at optimal conditions through brassinosteroid signalling and provide tolerance to various environmental stresses via ER signalling pathways.

  15. The bZIP repressor proteins, c-Jun dimerization protein 2 and activating transcription factor 3, recruit multiple HDAC members to the ATF3 promoter.

    PubMed

    Darlyuk-Saadon, Ilona; Weidenfeld-Baranboim, Keren; Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Hai, Tsonwin; Aronheim, Ami

    2012-01-01

    JDP2, is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein displaying a high degree of homology with the stress inducible transcription factor, ATF3. Both proteins bind to cAMP and TPA response elements and repress transcription by multiple mechanisms. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a key role in gene inactivation by deacetylating lysine residues on histones. Here we describe the association of JDP2 and ATF3 with HDACs 1, 2-6 and 10. Association of HDAC3 and HDAC6 with JDP2 and ATF3 occurs via direct protein-protein interactions. Only part of the N-terminal bZIP motif of JDP2 and ATF3 basic domain is necessary and sufficient for the interaction with HDACs in a manner that is independent of coiled-coil dimerization. Class I HDACs associate with the bZIP repressors via the DAC conserved domain whereas the Class IIb HDAC6 associates through its C-terminal unique binder of ubiquitin Zn finger domain. Both JDP2 and ATF3 are known to bind and repress the ATF3 promoter. MEF cells treated with histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA) display enhanced ATF3 transcription. ATF3 enhanced transcription is significantly reduced in MEF cells lacking both ATF3 and JDP2. Collectively, we propose that the recruitment of multiple HDAC members to JDP2 and ATF3 is part of their transcription repression mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Identifying areas of high risk of human exposure to coccidioidomycosis in Texas using serology data from dogs.

    PubMed

    Gautam, R; Srinath, I; Clavijo, A; Szonyi, B; Bani-Yaghoub, M; Park, S; Ivanek, R

    2013-03-01

    Coccidioidomycosis or Valley Fever (VF) is an emerging soil-borne fungal zoonosis affecting humans and animals. Most non-human cases of VF are found in dogs, which we hypothesize may serve as sentinels for estimating the human exposure risk. The objective of this study is to use the spatial and temporal distribution and clusters of dogs seropositive for VF to define the geographic area in Texas where VF is endemic, and thus presents a higher risk of exposure to humans. The included specimens were seropositive dogs tested at a major diagnostic laboratory between 1999 and 2009. Data were aggregated by zip code and smoothed by empirical Bayesian estimation to develop an isopleth map of VF seropositive rates using kriging. Clusters of seropositive dogs were identified using the spatial scan test. Both the isopleth map and the scan test identified an area with a high rate of VF-seropositive dogs in the western and southwestern parts of Texas (relative risk = 31). This location overlapped an area that was previously identified as a potential endemic region based on human surveys. Together, these data suggest that dogs may serve as sentinels for estimating the risk of human exposure to VF. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Comparison of small-area deprivation measures as predictors of chronic disease burden in a low-income population.

    PubMed

    Lòpez-De Fede, Ana; Stewart, John E; Hardin, James W; Mayfield-Smith, Kathy

    2016-06-10

    Measures of small-area deprivation may be valuable in geographically targeting limited resources to prevent, diagnose, and effectively manage chronic conditions in vulnerable populations. We developed a census-based small-area socioeconomic deprivation index specifically to predict chronic disease burden among publically insured Medicaid recipients in South Carolina, a relatively poor state in the southern United States. We compared the predictive ability of the new index with that of four other small-area deprivation indicators. To derive the ZIP Code Tabulation Area-Level Palmetto Small-Area Deprivation Index (Palmetto SADI), we evaluated ten census variables across five socioeconomic deprivation domains, identifying the combination of census indicators most highly correlated with a set of five chronic disease conditions among South Carolina Medicaid enrollees. In separate validation studies, we used both logistic and spatial regression methods to assess the ability of Palmetto SADI to predict chronic disease burden among state Medicaid recipients relative to four alternative small-area socioeconomic deprivation measures: the Townsend index of material deprivation; a single-variable poverty indicator; and two small-area designations of health care resource deprivation, Primary Care Health Professional Shortage Area and Medically Underserved Area/Medically Underserved Population. Palmetto SADI was the best predictor of chronic disease burden (presence of at least one condition and presence of two or more conditions) among state Medicaid recipients compared to all alternative deprivation measures tested. A low-cost, regionally optimized socioeconomic deprivation index, Palmetto SADI can be used to identify areas in South Carolina at high risk for chronic disease burden among Medicaid recipients and other low-income Medicaid-eligible populations for targeted prevention, screening, diagnosis, disease self-management, and care coordination activities.

  18. Hexokinase 1 is required for glucose-induced repression of bZIP63, At5g22920, and BT2 in Arabidopsis

    DOE PAGES

    Kunz, Sabine; Gardestrom, Per; Pesquet, Edouard; ...

    2015-07-14

    Simple sugars, like glucose (Glc) and sucrose (Suc), act as signals to modulate the expression of hundreds of genes in plants. Frequently, however, it remains unclear whether this regulation is induced by the sugars themselves or by their derivatives generated in the course of carbohydrate (CH) metabolism. In the present study, we tested the relevance of different CH metabolism and allocation pathways affecting expression patterns of five selected sugar-responsive genes ( bZIP63, At5g22920, BT2, MGD2, and TPS9) in Arabidopsis thaliana. In general, the expression followed diurnal changes in the overall sugar availability. However, under steady growth conditions, this response wasmore » hardly impaired in the mutants for CH metabolizing/ transporting proteins ( adg1, sex1, sus1-4, sus5/6, and tpt2), including also hexokinase1 (HXK1) loss- and gain-of-function plants— gin2.1 and oe3.2, respectively. In addition, transgenic plants carrying pbZIP63::GUS showed no changes in reporter-gene-expression when grown on sugar under steady-state conditions. In contrast, short-term treatments of agar-grown seedlings with 1% Glc or Suc induced pbZIP63::GUS repression, which became even more apparent in seedlings grown in liquid media. Subsequent analyses of liquid-grown gin2.1 and oe3.2 seedlings revealed that Glc -dependent regulation of the five selected genes was not affected in gin2.1, whereas it was enhanced in oe3.2 plants for bZIP63, At5g22920, and BT. The sugar treatments had no effect on ATP/ADP ratio, suggesting that changes in gene expression were not linked to cellular energy status. Altogether, the data suggest that HXK1 does not act as Glc sensor controlling bZIP63, At5g22920, and BT2 expression, but it is nevertheless required for the production of a downstream metabolic signal regulating their expression« less

  19. Hexokinase 1 is required for glucose-induced repression of bZIP63, At5g22920, and BT2 in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Sabine; Gardestrom, Per; Pesquet, Edouard

    Simple sugars, like glucose (Glc) and sucrose (Suc), act as signals to modulate the expression of hundreds of genes in plants. Frequently, however, it remains unclear whether this regulation is induced by the sugars themselves or by their derivatives generated in the course of carbohydrate (CH) metabolism. In the present study, we tested the relevance of different CH metabolism and allocation pathways affecting expression patterns of five selected sugar-responsive genes ( bZIP63, At5g22920, BT2, MGD2, and TPS9) in Arabidopsis thaliana. In general, the expression followed diurnal changes in the overall sugar availability. However, under steady growth conditions, this response wasmore » hardly impaired in the mutants for CH metabolizing/ transporting proteins ( adg1, sex1, sus1-4, sus5/6, and tpt2), including also hexokinase1 (HXK1) loss- and gain-of-function plants— gin2.1 and oe3.2, respectively. In addition, transgenic plants carrying pbZIP63::GUS showed no changes in reporter-gene-expression when grown on sugar under steady-state conditions. In contrast, short-term treatments of agar-grown seedlings with 1% Glc or Suc induced pbZIP63::GUS repression, which became even more apparent in seedlings grown in liquid media. Subsequent analyses of liquid-grown gin2.1 and oe3.2 seedlings revealed that Glc -dependent regulation of the five selected genes was not affected in gin2.1, whereas it was enhanced in oe3.2 plants for bZIP63, At5g22920, and BT. The sugar treatments had no effect on ATP/ADP ratio, suggesting that changes in gene expression were not linked to cellular energy status. Altogether, the data suggest that HXK1 does not act as Glc sensor controlling bZIP63, At5g22920, and BT2 expression, but it is nevertheless required for the production of a downstream metabolic signal regulating their expression« less

  20. Attenuation of Progressive Hearing Loss in DBA/2J Mice by Reagents that Affect Epigenetic Modifications Is Associated with Up-Regulation of the Zinc Importer Zip4

    PubMed Central

    Mutai, Hideki; Miya, Fuyuki; Fujii, Masato; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Matsunaga, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Various factors that are important for proper hearing have been identified, including serum levels of zinc. Here we investigated whether epigenetic regulatory pathways, which can be modified by environmental factors, could modulate hearing. RT-PCR detected expression of genes encoding DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase (Hdac) in the postnatal as well as adult mouse auditory epithelium. DBA/2J mice, which are a model for progressive hearing loss, were injected subcutaneously with one or a combination of the following reagents: L-methionine as a methyl donor, valproic acid as a pan-Hdac inhibitor, and folic acid and vitamin B12 as putative factors involved in age-related hearing loss. The mice were treated from ages 4 to 12 weeks (N ≥ 5), and auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were measured at 8, 16, and 32 kHz. Treatment of the mice with a combination of L-methionine and valproic acid (M+V) significantly reduced the increase in the ABR threshold at 32 kHz. Treatment with any of these reagents individually produced no such effect. Microarray analyses detected 299 gene probes that were significantly up- or down-regulated in the cochleae of mice treated with M+V compared with the control vehicle-treated mice. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant up-regulation of a zinc importer gene, Zip4, in the cochleae of mice treated with M+V. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated an intense Zip4 signal in cochlear tissues such as the lateral wall, organ of Corti, and spiral ganglion. Finally, mice treated with the Zip4 inducer (–)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate showed a significant reduction in the increase of the ABR threshold at 32 kHz and up-regulation of Zip4 expression in the cochlea. This study suggests that epigenetic regulatory pathways can modify auditory function and that zinc intake in the cochlea via Zip4 mediates maintenance of mammalian hearing. PMID:25875282

  1. K-bZIP Mediated SUMO-2/3 Specific Modification on the KSHV Genome Negatively Regulates Lytic Gene Expression and Viral Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wan-Shan; Hsu, Hung-Wei; Campbell, Mel; Cheng, Chia-Yang; Chang, Pei-Ching

    2015-01-01

    SUMOylation is associated with epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure and transcription. Epigenetic modifications of herpesviral genomes accompany the transcriptional switch of latent and lytic genes during the virus life cycle. Here, we report a genome-wide comparison of SUMO paralog modification on the KSHV genome. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation in conjunction with high-throughput sequencing, our study revealed highly distinct landscape changes of SUMO paralog genomic modifications associated with KSHV reactivation. A rapid and widespread deposition of SUMO-2/3, compared with SUMO-1, modification across the KSHV genome upon reactivation was observed. Interestingly, SUMO-2/3 enrichment was inversely correlated with H3K9me3 mark after reactivation, indicating that SUMO-2/3 may be responsible for regulating the expression of viral genes located in low heterochromatin regions during viral reactivation. RNA-sequencing analysis showed that the SUMO-2/3 enrichment pattern positively correlated with KSHV gene expression profiles. Activation of KSHV lytic genes located in regions with high SUMO-2/3 enrichment was enhanced by SUMO-2/3 knockdown. These findings suggest that SUMO-2/3 viral chromatin modification contributes to the diminution of viral gene expression during reactivation. Our previous study identified a SUMO-2/3-specific viral E3 ligase, K-bZIP, suggesting a potential role of this enzyme in regulating SUMO-2/3 enrichment and viral gene repression. Consistent with this prediction, higher K-bZIP binding on SUMO-2/3 enrichment region during reactivation was observed. Moreover, a K-bZIP SUMO E3 ligase dead mutant, K-bZIP-L75A, in the viral context, showed no SUMO-2/3 enrichment on viral chromatin and higher expression of viral genes located in SUMO-2/3 enriched regions during reactivation. Importantly, virus production significantly increased in both SUMO-2/3 knockdown and KSHV K-bZIP-L75A mutant cells. These results indicate that SUMO-2/3 modification

  2. The ZPIC educational code suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calado, R.; Pardal, M.; Ninhos, P.; Helm, A.; Mori, W. B.; Decyk, V. K.; Vieira, J.; Silva, L. O.; Fonseca, R. A.

    2017-10-01

    Particle-in-Cell (PIC) codes are used in almost all areas of plasma physics, such as fusion energy research, plasma accelerators, space physics, ion propulsion, and plasma processing, and many other areas. In this work, we present the ZPIC educational code suite, a new initiative to foster training in plasma physics using computer simulations. Leveraging on our expertise and experience from the development and use of the OSIRIS PIC code, we have developed a suite of 1D/2D fully relativistic electromagnetic PIC codes, as well as 1D electrostatic. These codes are self-contained and require only a standard laptop/desktop computer with a C compiler to be run. The output files are written in a new file format called ZDF that can be easily read using the supplied routines in a number of languages, such as Python, and IDL. The code suite also includes a number of example problems that can be used to illustrate several textbook and advanced plasma mechanisms, including instructions for parameter space exploration. We also invite contributions to this repository of test problems that will be made freely available to the community provided the input files comply with the format defined by the ZPIC team. The code suite is freely available and hosted on GitHub at https://github.com/zambzamb/zpic. Work partially supported by PICKSC.

  3. Individual education, area income, and mortality and recurrence of myocardial infarction in a Medicare cohort: the National Longitudinal Mortality Study.

    PubMed

    Coady, Sean A; Johnson, Norman J; Hakes, Jahn K; Sorlie, Paul D

    2014-07-09

    The Medicare program provides universal access to hospital care for the elderly; however, mortality disparities may still persist in this population. The association of individual education and area income with survival and recurrence post Myocardial Infarction (MI) was assessed in a national sample. Individual level education from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study was linked to Medicare and National Death Index records over the period of 1991-2001 to test the association of individual education and zip code tabulation area median income with survival and recurrence post-MI. Survival was partitioned into 3 periods: in-hospital, discharge to 1 year, and 1 year to 5 years and recurrence was partitioned into two periods: 28 day to 1 year, and 1 year to 5 years. First MIs were found in 8,043 women and 7,929 men. In women and men 66-79 years of age, less than a high school education compared with a college degree or more was associated with 1-5 year mortality in both women (HRR 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.03-2.50) and men (HRR 1.37, 1.06-1.76). Education was also associated with 1-5 year recurrence in men (HRR 1.68, 1.18-2.41, < High School compared with college degree or more), but not women. Across the spectrum of survival and recurrence periods median zip code level income was inconsistently associated with outcomes. Associations were limited to discharge-1 year survival (RR lowest versus highest quintile 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.67) and 28 day-1 year recurrence (RR lowest versus highest quintile 1.72, 95% confidence interval 1.14-2.57) in older men. Despite the Medicare entitlement program, disparities related to individual socioeconomic status remain. Additional research is needed to elucidate the barriers and mechanisms to eliminating health disparities among the elderly.

  4. zipHMMlib: a highly optimised HMM library exploiting repetitions in the input to speed up the forward algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sand, Andreas; Kristiansen, Martin; Pedersen, Christian N S; Mailund, Thomas

    2013-11-22

    Hidden Markov models are widely used for genome analysis as they combine ease of modelling with efficient analysis algorithms. Calculating the likelihood of a model using the forward algorithm has worst case time complexity linear in the length of the sequence and quadratic in the number of states in the model. For genome analysis, however, the length runs to millions or billions of observations, and when maximising the likelihood hundreds of evaluations are often needed. A time efficient forward algorithm is therefore a key ingredient in an efficient hidden Markov model library. We have built a software library for efficiently computing the likelihood of a hidden Markov model. The library exploits commonly occurring substrings in the input to reuse computations in the forward algorithm. In a pre-processing step our library identifies common substrings and builds a structure over the computations in the forward algorithm which can be reused. This analysis can be saved between uses of the library and is independent of concrete hidden Markov models so one preprocessing can be used to run a number of different models.Using this library, we achieve up to 78 times shorter wall-clock time for realistic whole-genome analyses with a real and reasonably complex hidden Markov model. In one particular case the analysis was performed in less than 8 minutes compared to 9.6 hours for the previously fastest library. We have implemented the preprocessing procedure and forward algorithm as a C++ library, zipHMM, with Python bindings for use in scripts. The library is available at http://birc.au.dk/software/ziphmm/.

  5. Model Children's Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  6. Code Modernization of VPIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Robert; Nystrom, David; Albright, Brian

    2017-10-01

    The ability of scientific simulations to effectively deliver performant computation is increasingly being challenged by successive generations of high-performance computing architectures. Code development to support efficient computation on these modern architectures is both expensive, and highly complex; if it is approached without due care, it may also not be directly transferable between subsequent hardware generations. Previous works have discussed techniques to support the process of adapting a legacy code for modern hardware generations, but despite the breakthroughs in the areas of mini-app development, portable-performance, and cache oblivious algorithms the problem still remains largely unsolved. In this work we demonstrate how a focus on platform agnostic modern code-development can be applied to Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to facilitate effective scientific delivery. This work builds directly on our previous work optimizing VPIC, in which we replaced intrinsic based vectorisation with compile generated auto-vectorization to improve the performance and portability of VPIC. In this work we present the use of a specialized SIMD queue for processing some particle operations, and also preview a GPU capable OpenMP variant of VPIC. Finally we include a lessons learnt. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 and supported by the LANL LDRD program.

  7. Hyperglycemia-Induced Changes in ZIP7 and ZnT7 Expression Cause Zn2+ Release From the Sarco(endo)plasmic Reticulum and Mediate ER Stress in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Tuncay, Erkan; Bitirim, Verda C; Durak, Aysegul; Carrat, Gaelle R J; Taylor, Kathryn M; Rutter, Guy A; Turan, Belma

    2017-05-01

    Changes in cellular free Zn 2+ concentration, including those in the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum [S(E)R], are primarily coordinated by Zn 2+ transporters (ZnTs) whose identity and role in the heart are not well established. We hypothesized that ZIP7 and ZnT7 transport Zn 2+ in opposing directions across the S(E)R membrane in cardiomyocytes and that changes in their activity play an important role in the development of ER stress during hyperglycemia. The subcellular S(E)R localization of ZIP7 and ZnT7 was determined in cardiomyocytes and in isolated S(E)R preparations. Markedly increased mRNA and protein levels of ZIP7 were observed in ventricular cardiomyocytes from diabetic rats or high-glucose-treated H9c2 cells while ZnT7 expression was low. In addition, we observed increased ZIP7 phosphorylation in response to high glucose in vivo and in vitro. By using recombinant-targeted Förster resonance energy transfer sensors, we show that hyperglycemia induces a marked redistribution of cellular free Zn 2+ , increasing cytosolic free Zn 2+ and lowering free Zn 2+ in the S(E)R. These changes involve alterations in ZIP7 phosphorylation and were suppressed by small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of CK2α. Opposing changes in the expression of ZIP7 and ZnT7 were also observed in hyperglycemia. We conclude that subcellular free Zn 2+ redistribution in the hyperglycemic heart, resulting from altered ZIP7 and ZnT7 activity, contributes to cardiac dysfunction in diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. Residential Segregation and the Availability of Primary Care Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Darrell J; Dinwiddie, Gniesha Y; Chan, Kitty S; McCleary, Rachael R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between residential segregation and geographic access to primary care physicians (PCPs) in metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Data Sources We combined zip code level data on primary care physicians from the 2006 American Medical Association master file with demographic, socioeconomic, and segregation measures from the 2000 U.S. Census. Our sample consisted of 15,465 zip codes located completely or partially in an MSA. Methods We defined PCP shortage areas as those zip codes with no PCP or a population to PCP ratio of >3,500. Using logistic regressions, we estimated the association between a zip code's odds of being a PCP shortage area and its minority composition and degree of segregation in its MSA. Principal Findings We found that odds of being a PCP shortage area were 67 percent higher for majority African American zip codes but 27 percent lower for majority Hispanic zip codes. The association varied with the degree of segregation. As the degree of segregation increased, the odds of being a PCP shortage area increased for majority African American zip codes; however, the converse was true for majority Hispanic and Asian zip codes. Conclusions Efforts to address PCP shortages should target African American communities especially in segregated MSAs. PMID:22524264

  9. Well Acord 1-26 Logs and Data: Roosevelt Hot Spring Area, Utah (Utah FORGE)

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Moore

    This is a compilation of logs and data from Well Acord 1-26 in the Roosevelt Hot Springs area in Utah. This well is also in the Utah FORGE study area. The file is in a compressed .zip format and there is a data inventory table (Excel spreadsheet) in the root folder that is a guide to the data that is accessible in subfolders.

  10. "Hit-and-Run" transcription: de novo transcription initiated by a transient bZIP1 "hit" persists after the "run".

    PubMed

    Doidy, Joan; Li, Ying; Neymotin, Benjamin; Edwards, Molly B; Varala, Kranthi; Gresham, David; Coruzzi, Gloria M

    2016-02-03

    Dynamic transcriptional regulation is critical for an organism's response to environmental signals and yet remains elusive to capture. Such transcriptional regulation is mediated by master transcription factors (TF) that control large gene regulatory networks. Recently, we described a dynamic mode of TF regulation named "hit-and-run". This model proposes that master TF can interact transiently with a set of targets, but the transcription of these transient targets continues after the TF dissociation from the target promoter. However, experimental evidence validating active transcription of the transient TF-targets is still lacking. Here, we show that active transcription continues after transient TF-target interactions by tracking de novo synthesis of RNAs made in response to TF nuclear import. To do this, we introduced an affinity-labeled 4-thiouracil (4tU) nucleobase to specifically isolate newly synthesized transcripts following conditional TF nuclear import. Thus, we extended the TARGET system (Transient Assay Reporting Genome-wide Effects of Transcription factors) to include 4tU-labeling and named this new technology TARGET-tU. Our proof-of-principle example is the master TF Basic Leucine Zipper 1 (bZIP1), a central integrator of metabolic signaling in plants. Using TARGET-tU, we captured newly synthesized mRNAs made in response to bZIP1 nuclear import at a time when bZIP1 is no longer detectably bound to its target. Thus, the analysis of de novo transcripomics demonstrates that bZIP1 may act as a catalyst TF to initiate a transcriptional complex ("hit"), after which active transcription by RNA polymerase continues without the TF being bound to the gene promoter ("run"). Our findings provide experimental proof for active transcription of transient TF-targets supporting a "hit-and-run" mode of action. This dynamic regulatory model allows a master TF to catalytically propagate rapid and broad transcriptional responses to changes in environment. Thus, the

  11. Concatenated Coding Using Trellis-Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Michael W.

    1997-01-01

    In the late seventies and early eighties a technique known as Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) was developed for providing spectrally efficient error correction coding. Instead of adding redundant information in the form of parity bits, redundancy is added at the modulation stage thereby increasing bandwidth efficiency. A digital communications system can be designed to use bandwidth-efficient multilevel/phase modulation such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Performance gain can be achieved by increasing the number of signals over the corresponding uncoded system to compensate for the redundancy introduced by the code. A considerable amount of research and development has been devoted toward developing good TCM codes for severely bandlimited applications. More recently, the use of TCM for satellite and deep space communications applications has received increased attention. This report describes the general approach of using a concatenated coding scheme that features TCM and RS coding. Results have indicated that substantial (6-10 dB) performance gains can be achieved with this approach with comparatively little bandwidth expansion. Since all of the bandwidth expansion is due to the RS code we see that TCM based concatenated coding results in roughly 10-50% bandwidth expansion compared to 70-150% expansion for similar concatenated scheme which use convolution code. We stress that combined coding and modulation optimization is important for achieving performance gains while maintaining spectral efficiency.

  12. Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

  13. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  14. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  15. Manually operated coded switch

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Jon H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.

  16. Coding in Muscle Disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lyell K; Ney, John P

    2016-12-01

    Accurate coding is critically important for clinical practice and research. Ongoing changes to diagnostic and billing codes require the clinician to stay abreast of coding updates. Payment for health care services, data sets for health services research, and reporting for medical quality improvement all require accurate administrative coding. This article provides an overview of administrative coding for patients with muscle disease and includes a case-based review of diagnostic and Evaluation and Management (E/M) coding principles in patients with myopathy. Procedural coding for electrodiagnostic studies and neuromuscular ultrasound is also reviewed.

  17. QR Codes 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  18. ARA type protograph codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.

  19. A multilevel model for cardiovascular disease prevalence in the US and its application to micro area prevalence estimates.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Peter

    2009-01-30

    Estimates of disease prevalence for small areas are increasingly required for the allocation of health funds according to local need. Both individual level and geographic risk factors are likely to be relevant to explaining prevalence variations, and in turn relevant to the procedure for small area prevalence estimation. Prevalence estimates are of particular importance for major chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease. A multilevel prevalence model for cardiovascular outcomes is proposed that incorporates both survey information on patient risk factors and the effects of geographic location. The model is applied to derive micro area prevalence estimates, specifically estimates of cardiovascular disease for Zip Code Tabulation Areas in the USA. The model incorporates prevalence differentials by age, sex, ethnicity and educational attainment from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Influences of geographic context are modelled at both county and state level, with the county effects relating to poverty and urbanity. State level influences are modelled using a random effects approach that allows both for spatial correlation and spatial isolates. To assess the importance of geographic variables, three types of model are compared: a model with person level variables only; a model with geographic effects that do not interact with person attributes; and a full model, allowing for state level random effects that differ by ethnicity. There is clear evidence that geographic effects improve statistical fit. Geographic variations in disease prevalence partly reflect the demographic composition of area populations. However, prevalence variations may also show distinct geographic 'contextual' effects. The present study demonstrates by formal modelling methods that improved explanation is obtained by allowing for distinct geographic effects (for counties and states) and for interaction between geographic and person variables. Thus an appropriate

  20. A multilevel model for cardiovascular disease prevalence in the US and its application to micro area prevalence estimates

    PubMed Central

    Congdon, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Estimates of disease prevalence for small areas are increasingly required for the allocation of health funds according to local need. Both individual level and geographic risk factors are likely to be relevant to explaining prevalence variations, and in turn relevant to the procedure for small area prevalence estimation. Prevalence estimates are of particular importance for major chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease. Methods A multilevel prevalence model for cardiovascular outcomes is proposed that incorporates both survey information on patient risk factors and the effects of geographic location. The model is applied to derive micro area prevalence estimates, specifically estimates of cardiovascular disease for Zip Code Tabulation Areas in the USA. The model incorporates prevalence differentials by age, sex, ethnicity and educational attainment from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Influences of geographic context are modelled at both county and state level, with the county effects relating to poverty and urbanity. State level influences are modelled using a random effects approach that allows both for spatial correlation and spatial isolates. Results To assess the importance of geographic variables, three types of model are compared: a model with person level variables only; a model with geographic effects that do not interact with person attributes; and a full model, allowing for state level random effects that differ by ethnicity. There is clear evidence that geographic effects improve statistical fit. Conclusion Geographic variations in disease prevalence partly reflect the demographic composition of area populations. However, prevalence variations may also show distinct geographic 'contextual' effects. The present study demonstrates by formal modelling methods that improved explanation is obtained by allowing for distinct geographic effects (for counties and states) and for interaction between geographic and

  1. CFD Code Development for Combustor Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    During the lifetime of this grant, work has been performed in the areas of model development, code development, code validation and code application. For model development, this has included the PDF combustion module, chemical kinetics based on thermodynamics, neural network storage of chemical kinetics, ILDM chemical kinetics and assumed PDF work. Many of these models were then implemented in the code, and in addition many improvements were made to the code, including the addition of new chemistry integrators, property evaluation schemes, new chemistry models and turbulence-chemistry interaction methodology. Validation of all new models and code improvements were also performed, while application of the code to the ZCET program and also the NPSS GEW combustor program were also performed. Several important items remain under development, including the NOx post processing, assumed PDF model development and chemical kinetic development. It is expected that this work will continue under the new grant.

  2. Natural antioxidants exhibit chemopreventive characteristics through the regulation of CNC b-Zip transcription factors in estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anwesha; Ronghe, Amruta; Singh, Bhupendra; Bhat, Nimee K; Chen, Jie; Bhat, Hari K

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the role of resveratrol (Res) and vitamin C (VC) in prevention of estrogen-induced breast cancer through regulation of cap "n"collar (CNC) b-zip transcription factors. Human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A was treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) and VC or Res with or without E2. mRNA and protein expression levels of CNC b-zip transcription factors nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 3 (Nrf3), and Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) were quantified. The treatment with E2 suppressed, whereas VC and Res prevented E2-mediated decrease in the expression levels of SOD3, NQO1, Nrf2 mRNA, and protein in MCF-10A cells. The treatment with E2, Res, or VC significantly increased mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf1. 17β-Estradiol treatment significantly increased but VC or Res decreased Nrf3 mRNA and protein expression levels. Our studies demonstrate that estrogen-induced breast cancer might be prevented through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes via Nrf-dependent pathways. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Zinc Transporter SLC39A13/ZIP13 Is Required for Connective Tissue Development; Its Involvement in BMP/TGF-β Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Shinji; Mishima, Kenji; Higashiyama, Hiroyuki; Idaira, Yayoi; Asada, Yoshinobu; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Satoru; Hojyo, Shintaro; Nakayama, Manabu; Ohara, Osamu; Koseki, Haruhiko; dos Santos, Heloisa G.; Bonafe, Luisa; Ha-Vinh, Russia; Zankl, Andreas; Unger, Sheila; Kraenzlin, Marius E.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Saito, Ichiro; Rivolta, Carlo; Ikegawa, Shiro; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Hirano, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element and it is abundant in connective tissues, however biological roles of Zn and its transporters in those tissues and cells remain unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report that mice deficient in Zn transporter Slc39a13/Zip13 show changes in bone, teeth and connective tissue reminiscent of the clinical spectrum of human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). The Slc39a13 knockout (Slc39a13-KO) mice show defects in the maturation of osteoblasts, chondrocytes, odontoblasts, and fibroblasts. In the corresponding tissues and cells, impairment in bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and TGF-β signaling were observed. Homozygosity for a SLC39A13 loss of function mutation was detected in sibs affected by a unique variant of EDS that recapitulates the phenotype observed in Slc39a13-KO mice. Conclusions/Significance Hence, our results reveal a crucial role of SLC39A13/ZIP13 in connective tissue development at least in part due to its involvement in the BMP/TGF-β signaling pathways. The Slc39a13-KO mouse represents a novel animal model linking zinc metabolism, BMP/TGF-β signaling and connective tissue dysfunction. PMID:18985159

  4. The zygomatic implant perforated (ZIP) flap: a new technique for combined surgical reconstruction and rapid fixed dental rehabilitation following low-level maxillectomy.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, C J; Rogers, S N

    2017-12-01

    This aim of this report is to describe the development and evolution of a new surgical technique for the immediate surgical reconstruction and rapid post-operative prosthodontic rehabilitation with a fixed dental prosthesis following low-level maxillectomy for malignant disease.The technique involves the use of a zygomatic oncology implant perforated micro-vascular soft tissue flap (ZIP flap) for the primary management of maxillary malignancy with surgical closure of the resultant maxillary defect and the installation of osseointegrated support for a zygomatic implant-supported maxillary fixed dental prosthesis.The use of this technique facilitates extremely rapid oral and dental rehabilitation within a few weeks of resective surgery, providing rapid return to function and restoring appearance following low-level maxillary resection, even in cases where radiotherapy is required as an adjuvant treatment post-operatively. The ZIP flap technique has been adopted as a standard procedure in the unit for the management of low-level maxillary malignancy, and this report provides a detailed step-by-step approach to treatment and discusses modifications developed over the treatment of an initial cohort of patients.

  5. Subspace Arrangement Codes and Cryptosystems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-09

    any other prov1sion of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply w1th a collection of information if it does not display a...NUMBER OF PAGES 49 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std...theory is finding codes that have a small number of digits (length) with a high number codewords (dimension), as well as good error-correction properties

  6. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  7. QR Code Mania!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumack, Kellie A.; Reilly, Erin; Chamberlain, Nik

    2013-01-01

    space, has error-correction capacity, and can be read from any direction. These codes are used in manufacturing, shipping, and marketing, as well as in education. QR codes can be created to produce…

  8. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  9. FERRET data analysis code

    SciTech Connect

    Schmittroth, F.

    1979-09-01

    A documentation of the FERRET data analysis code is given. The code provides a way to combine related measurements and calculations in a consistent evaluation. Basically a very general least-squares code, it is oriented towards problems frequently encountered in nuclear data and reactor physics. A strong emphasis is on the proper treatment of uncertainties and correlations and in providing quantitative uncertainty estimates. Documentation includes a review of the method, structure of the code, input formats, and examples.

  10. Universal Noiseless Coding Subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlutsmeyer, A. P.; Rice, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Software package consists of FORTRAN subroutines that perform universal noiseless coding and decoding of integer and binary data strings. Purpose of this type of coding to achieve data compression in sense that coded data represents original data perfectly (noiselessly) while taking fewer bits to do so. Routines universal because they apply to virtually any "real-world" data source.

  11. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  12. Specific TATAA and bZIP requirements suggest that HTLV-I Tax has transcriptional activity subsequent to the assembly of an initiation complex

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Yick-Pang; Chun, Abel CS; Chin, King-Tung; Zhang, Zhi-Qing; Jeang, Kuan-Teh; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2004-01-01

    Background Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax protein is a transcriptional regulator of viral and cellular genes. In this study we have examined in detail the determinants for Tax-mediated transcriptional activation. Results Whereas previously the LTR enhancer elements were thought to be the sole Tax-targets, herein, we find that the core HTLV-I TATAA motif also provides specific responsiveness not seen with either the SV40 or the E1b TATAA boxes. When enhancer elements which can mediate Tax-responsiveness were compared, the authentic HTLV-I 21-bp repeats were found to be the most effective. Related bZIP factors such as CREB, ATF4, c-Jun and LZIP are often thought to recognize the 21-bp repeats equivalently. However, amongst bZIP factors, we found that CREB, by far, is preferred by Tax for activation. When LTR transcription was reconstituted by substituting either κB or serum response elements in place of the 21-bp repeats, Tax activated these surrogate motifs using surfaces which are different from that utilized for CREB interaction. Finally, we employed artificial recruitment of TATA-binding protein to the HTLV-I promoter in "bypass" experiments to show for the first time that Tax has transcriptional activity subsequent to the assembly of an initiation complex at the promoter. Conclusions Optimal activation of the HTLV-I LTR by Tax specifically requires the core HTLV-I TATAA promoter, CREB and the 21-bp repeats. In addition, we also provide the first evidence for transcriptional activity of Tax after the recruitment of TATA-binding protein to the promoter. PMID:15285791

  13. OsLOL1, a C2C2-type zinc finger protein, interacts with OsbZIP58 to promote seed germination through the modulation of gibberellin biosynthesis in Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiahe; Zhu, Chuanfeng; Pang, Jinhuan; Zhang, Xiangrong; Yang, Chunlin; Xia, Guixian; Tian, Yingchuan; He, Chaozu

    2014-12-01

    Seed germination is a key developmental process in the plant life cycle that is influenced by various environmental cues and phytohormones through gene expression and a series of metabolism pathways. In the present study, we investigated a C2C2-type finger protein, OsLOL1, which promotes gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and affects seed germination in Oryza sativa (rice). We used OsLOL1 antisense and sense transgenic lines to explore OsLOL1 functions. Seed germination timing in antisense plants was restored to wild type when exogenous GA3 was applied. The reduced expression of the GA biosynthesis gene OsKO2 and the accumulation of ent-kaurene were observed during germination in antisense plants. Based on yeast two-hybrid and firefly luciferase complementation analyses, OsLOL1 interacted with the basic leucine zipper protein OsbZIP58. The results from electrophoretic mobility shift and dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that OsbZIP58 binds the G-box cis-element of the OsKO2 promoter and activates LUC reporter gene expression, and that interaction between OsLOL1 and OsbZIP58 activates OsKO2 gene expression. In addition, OsLOL1 decreased SOD1 gene expression and accelerated programmed cell death (PCD) in the aleurone layer of rice grains. These findings demonstrate that the interaction between OsLOL1 and OsbZIP58 influences GA biosynthesis through the activation of OsKO2 via OsbZIP58, thereby stimulating aleurone PCD and seed germination. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Likelihood of home death associated with local rates of home birth: influence of local area healthcare preferences on site of death.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Maria J; Copeland, Laurel A; Feudtner, Chris

    2006-07-01

    We tested whether local cultural and social values regarding the use of health care are associated with the likelihood of home death, using variation in local rates of home births as a proxy for geographic variation in these values. For each of 351110 adult decedents in Washington state who died from 1989 through 1998, we calculated the home birth rate in each zip code during the year of death and then used multivariate regression modeling to estimate the relation between the likelihood of home death and the local rate of home births. Individuals residing in local areas with higher home birth rates had greater adjusted likelihood of dying at home (odds ratio [OR]=1.04 for each percentage point increase in home birth rate; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.05). Moreover, the likelihood of dying at home increased with local wealth (OR=1.04 per $10000; 95% CI=1.02, 1.06) but decreased with local hospital bed availability (OR=0.96 per 1000 beds; 95% CI=0.95, 0.97). The likelihood of home death is associated with local rates of home births, suggesting the influence of health care use preferences.

  15. Industrial Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1991-01-01

    The industrial codes will consist of modules of 2-D and simplified 2-D or 1-D codes, intended for expeditious parametric studies, analysis, and design of a wide variety of seals. Integration into a unified system is accomplished by the industrial Knowledge Based System (KBS), which will also provide user friendly interaction, contact sensitive and hypertext help, design guidance, and an expandable database. The types of analysis to be included with the industrial codes are interfacial performance (leakage, load, stiffness, friction losses, etc.), thermoelastic distortions, and dynamic response to rotor excursions. The first three codes to be completed and which are presently being incorporated into the KBS are the incompressible cylindrical code, ICYL, and the compressible cylindrical code, GCYL.

  16. More box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new investigation shows that, starting from the BCH (21,15;3) code represented as a 7 x 3 matrix and adding a row and column to add even parity, one obtains an 8 x 4 matrix (32,15;8) code. An additional dimension is obtained by specifying odd parity on the rows and even parity on the columns, i.e., adjoining to the 8 x 4 matrix, the matrix, which is zero except for the fourth column (of all ones). Furthermore, any seven rows and three columns will form the BCH (21,15;3) code. This box code has the same weight structure as the quadratic residue and BCH codes of the same dimensions. Whether there exists an algebraic isomorphism to either code is as yet unknown.

  17. Mechanical code comparator

    DOEpatents

    Peter, Frank J.; Dalton, Larry J.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  18. Theory of epigenetic coding.

    PubMed

    Elder, D

    1984-06-07

    The logic of genetic control of development may be based on a binary epigenetic code. This paper revises the author's previous scheme dealing with the numerology of annelid metamerism in these terms. Certain features of the code had been deduced to be combinatorial, others not. This paradoxical contrast is resolved here by the interpretation that these features relate to different operations of the code; the combinatiorial to coding identity of units, the non-combinatorial to coding production of units. Consideration of a second paradox in the theory of epigenetic coding leads to a new solution which further provides a basis for epimorphic regeneration, and may in particular throw light on the "regeneration-duplication" phenomenon. A possible test of the model is also put forward.

  19. Phonological coding during reading

    PubMed Central

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  20. Phonological coding during reading.

    PubMed

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-11-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Industrial Computer Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.

  2. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  3. GOES satellite time code dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beehler, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The GOES time code system, the performance achieved to date, and some potential improvements in the future are discussed. The disseminated time code is originated from a triply redundant set of atomic standards, time code generators and related equipment maintained by NBS at NOAA's Wallops Island, VA satellite control facility. It is relayed by two GOES satellites located at 75 W and 135 W longitude on a continuous basis to users within North and South America (with overlapping coverage) and well out into the Atlantic and Pacific ocean areas. Downlink frequencies are near 468 MHz. The signals from both satellites are monitored and controlled from the NBS labs at Boulder, CO with additional monitoring input from geographically separated receivers in Washington, D.C. and Hawaii. Performance experience with the received time codes for periods ranging from several years to one day is discussed. Results are also presented for simultaneous, common-view reception by co-located receivers and by receivers separated by several thousand kilometers.

  4. Computation of the Genetic Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Nicolay N.; Kozlova, Olga N.

    2018-03-01

    One of the problems in the development of mathematical theory of the genetic code (summary is presented in [1], the detailed -to [2]) is the problem of the calculation of the genetic code. Similar problems in the world is unknown and could be delivered only in the 21st century. One approach to solving this problem is devoted to this work. For the first time provides a detailed description of the method of calculation of the genetic code, the idea of which was first published earlier [3]), and the choice of one of the most important sets for the calculation was based on an article [4]. Such a set of amino acid corresponds to a complete set of representations of the plurality of overlapping triple gene belonging to the same DNA strand. A separate issue was the initial point, triggering an iterative search process all codes submitted by the initial data. Mathematical analysis has shown that the said set contains some ambiguities, which have been founded because of our proposed compressed representation of the set. As a result, the developed method of calculation was limited to the two main stages of research, where the first stage only the of the area were used in the calculations. The proposed approach will significantly reduce the amount of computations at each step in this complex discrete structure.

  5. Bar Code Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  6. Visual Coding of Human Bodies: Perceptual Aftereffects Reveal Norm-Based, Opponent Coding of Body Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Boeing, Alexandra; Calder, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the discovery of body-selective neural areas in occipitotemporal cortex, little is known about how bodies are visually coded. We used perceptual adaptation to determine how body identity is coded. Brief exposure to a body (e.g., anti-Rose) biased perception toward an identity with opposite properties (Rose). Moreover, the size of this…

  7. NR-code: Nonlinear reconstruction code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yu; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhu, Hong-Ming

    2018-04-01

    NR-code applies nonlinear reconstruction to the dark matter density field in redshift space and solves for the nonlinear mapping from the initial Lagrangian positions to the final redshift space positions; this reverses the large-scale bulk flows and improves the precision measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) scale.

  8. The EDIT-COMGEOM Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    This report assumes a familiarity with the GIFT and MAGIC computer codes. The EDIT-COMGEOM code is a FORTRAN computer code. The EDIT-COMGEOM code...converts the target description data which was used in the MAGIC computer code to the target description data which can be used in the GIFT computer code

  9. Overview of Recent Radiation Transport Code Comparisons for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Lawrence

    Recent advances in radiation transport code development for space applications have resulted in various comparisons of code predictions for a variety of scenarios and codes. Comparisons among both Monte Carlo and deterministic codes have been made and published by vari-ous groups and collaborations, including comparisons involving, but not limited to HZETRN, HETC-HEDS, FLUKA, GEANT, PHITS, and MCNPX. In this work, an overview of recent code prediction inter-comparisons, including comparisons to available experimental data, is presented and discussed, with emphases on those areas of agreement and disagreement among the various code predictions and published data.

  10. Survey Of Lossless Image Coding Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnychuck, Paul W.; Rabbani, Majid

    1989-04-01

    Many image transmission/storage applications requiring some form of data compression additionally require that the decoded image be an exact replica of the original. Lossless image coding algorithms meet this requirement by generating a decoded image that is numerically identical to the original. Several lossless coding techniques are modifications of well-known lossy schemes, whereas others are new. Traditional Markov-based models and newer arithmetic coding techniques are applied to predictive coding, bit plane processing, and lossy plus residual coding. Generally speaking, the compression ratio offered by these techniques are in the area of 1.6:1 to 3:1 for 8-bit pictorial images. Compression ratios for 12-bit radiological images approach 3:1, as these images have less detailed structure, and hence, their higher pel correlation leads to a greater removal of image redundancy.

  11. Lichenase and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2000-08-15

    The present invention provides a fungal lichenase, i.e., an endo-1,3-1,4-.beta.-D-glucanohydrolase, its coding sequence, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the lichenase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present lichenase is from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  12. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  13. Synthesizing Certified Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

  14. Combustion chamber analysis code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

  15. Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A.; DuPrie, K.; Berriman, B.; Hanisch, R. J.; Mink, J.; Teuben, P. J.

    2013-10-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, is a free on-line registry for source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. The library is housed on the discussion forum for Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) and can be accessed at http://ascl.net. The ASCL has a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used to generate results published in or submitted to refereed journals and continues to grow. The ASCL currently has entries for over 500 codes; its records are citable and are indexed by ADS. The editors of the ASCL and members of its Advisory Committee were on hand at a demonstration table in the ADASS poster room to present the ASCL, accept code submissions, show how the ASCL is starting to be used by the astrophysics community, and take questions on and suggestions for improving the resource.

  16. Huffman coding in advanced audio coding standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

    2012-05-01

    This article presents several hardware architectures of Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) Huffman noiseless encoder, its optimisations and working implementation. Much attention has been paid to optimise the demand of hardware resources especially memory size. The aim of design was to get as short binary stream as possible in this standard. The Huffman encoder with whole audio-video system has been implemented in FPGA devices.

  17. Pyramid image codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    All vision systems, both human and machine, transform the spatial image into a coded representation. Particular codes may be optimized for efficiency or to extract useful image features. Researchers explored image codes based on primary visual cortex in man and other primates. Understanding these codes will advance the art in image coding, autonomous vision, and computational human factors. In cortex, imagery is coded by features that vary in size, orientation, and position. Researchers have devised a mathematical model of this transformation, called the Hexagonal oriented Orthogonal quadrature Pyramid (HOP). In a pyramid code, features are segregated by size into layers, with fewer features in the layers devoted to large features. Pyramid schemes provide scale invariance, and are useful for coarse-to-fine searching and for progressive transmission of images. The HOP Pyramid is novel in three respects: (1) it uses a hexagonal pixel lattice, (2) it uses oriented features, and (3) it accurately models most of the prominent aspects of primary visual cortex. The transform uses seven basic features (kernels), which may be regarded as three oriented edges, three oriented bars, and one non-oriented blob. Application of these kernels to non-overlapping seven-pixel neighborhoods yields six oriented, high-pass pyramid layers, and one low-pass (blob) layer.

  18. Report number codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.N.

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in thismore » publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.« less

  19. Increased tornado hazard in large metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The tornado climate was compared between large metropolitan areas and neighbouring non-metro cities using modern tornado reports in the Storm Prediction Center (SPC) archives. Twenty large metro areas in the higher-risk region of the U.S. were used to boost sample sizes hence robustness of results. Observational biases were minimised by using the most densely populated zips. The analysis found 50% greater tornado frequency and a thicker-tailed severity distribution in metro areas compared to the non-metro cities. These differences are significant at the 1% level. Regarding tornado frequency, the primary question is whether the raised occurrence rates in metro areas are due to observation biases or real differences in tornado climate. Past studies found no relative biases at the population densities used here, whereas there are two potential urban drivers of tornadogenesis. First, the urban heat island raises the storm severity above and downwind of main urban areas, as recorded in precipitation and lightning datasets. Second, the increased surface roughness over metro areas raises low-level shear which in turn has been found to be favourable for tornadogenesis. Modification of convective storms over large metro areas is the more plausible explanation of raised tornado frequency. The drivers of a thicker-tailed tornado severity distribution in metro areas are less certain. Potential causes include: increased debris-loading in metro tornadoes; modification of storms' lower boundary layer by increased surface roughness in metro areas; the reduced density of damage indicators in non-metro cities.

  20. Color-Coded Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviews (C-ACASI) for Poorly Educated Men and Women in a Semi-rural Area of South India: “Good, Scary and Thrilling”

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Tarun; Brown, Joelle; Saravanamurthy, P. Sakthivel; Kumar, Raju Mohan; Detels, Roger

    2013-01-01

    It is challenging to collect accurate and complete data on sensitive issues such as sexual behaviors. Our objective was to explore experience and perceptions regarding the use of a locally programmed color-coded audio computer-assisted self interview (C-ACASI) system among men and women in a semi-rural setting in south India. We conducted a mixed-methods cross-sectional survey using semi-structured interviews among 89 truck drivers and 101 truck driver wives who had participated earlier in the C-ACASI survey across a predominantly rural district in Tamil Nadu. To assess the color-coded format used, descriptive quantitative analysis was coupled with thematic content analysis of qualitative data. Only 10 % of participants had ever used a computer before. Nearly 75 % did not report any problem in using C-ACASI. The length of the C-ACASI survey was acceptable to 98 % of participants. Overall, 87 % of wives and 73 % of truck drivers stated that C-ACASI was user-friendly and felt comfortable in responding to the sensitive questions. Nearly all (97 %) participants reported that using C-ACASI encouraged them to respond honestly compared to face-to-face personal interviews. Both the drivers and wives expressed that C-ACASI provided confidentiality, privacy, anonymity, and an easy mechanism for responding truthfully to potentially embarrassing questions about their personal sexual relationships. It is feasible and acceptable to use C-ACASI for collecting sensitive data from poorly computer-literate, non-English-speaking, predominantly rural populations of women and men. Our findings support the implementation of effective and culturally sensitive C-ACASI for data collection, albeit with additional validation. PMID:23361948

  1. Color-coded audio computer-assisted self-interviews (C-ACASI) for poorly educated men and women in a semi-rural area of South India: "good, scary and thrilling".

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Tarun; Brown, Joelle; Saravanamurthy, P Sakthivel; Kumar, Raju Mohan; Detels, Roger

    2013-07-01

    It is challenging to collect accurate and complete data on sensitive issues such as sexual behaviors. Our objective was to explore experience and perceptions regarding the use of a locally programmed color-coded audio computer-assisted self interview (C-ACASI) system among men and women in a semi-rural setting in south India. We conducted a mixed-methods cross-sectional survey using semi-structured interviews among 89 truck drivers and 101 truck driver wives who had participated earlier in the C-ACASI survey across a predominantly rural district in Tamil Nadu. To assess the color-coded format used, descriptive quantitative analysis was coupled with thematic content analysis of qualitative data. Only 10% of participants had ever used a computer before. Nearly 75% did not report any problem in using C-ACASI. The length of the C-ACASI survey was acceptable to 98% of participants. Overall, 87% of wives and 73% of truck drivers stated that C-ACASI was user-friendly and felt comfortable in responding to the sensitive questions. Nearly all (97%) participants reported that using C-ACASI encouraged them to respond honestly compared to face-to-face personal interviews. Both the drivers and wives expressed that C-ACASI provided confidentiality, privacy, anonymity, and an easy mechanism for responding truthfully to potentially embarrassing questions about their personal sexual relationships. It is feasible and acceptable to use C-ACASI for collecting sensitive data from poorly computer-literate, non-English-speaking, predominantly rural populations of women and men. Our findings support the implementation of effective and culturally sensitive C-ACASI for data collection, albeit with additional validation.

  2. The Interplay of Socioeconomic Status, Distance to Center, and Interdonor Service Area Travel on Kidney Transplant Access and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, David A.; Dzebisashvili, Nino; Schnitzler, Mark A.; Salvalaggio, Paolo R.; Segev, Dorry L.; Gentry, Sommer E.; Tuttle-Newhall, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Variation in kidney transplant access across the United States may motivate relocation of patients with ability to travel to better-supplied areas. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We examined national transplant registry and U.S. Census data for kidney transplant candidates listed in 1999 to 2009 with a reported residential zip code (n = 203,267). Cox's regression was used to assess associations of socioeconomic status (SES), distance from residence to transplant center, and relocation to a different donation service area (DSA) with transplant access and outcomes. Results: Patients in the highest SES quartile had increased access to transplant compared with those with lowest SES, driven strongly by 76% higher likelihood of living donor transplantation (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70 to 1.83). Waitlist death was reduced in high compared with low SES candidates (aHR 0.86, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.89). High SES patients also experienced lower mortality after living and deceased donor transplant. Patients living farther from the transplant center had reduced access to deceased donor transplant and increased risk of post-transplant death. Inter-DSA travel was associated with a dramatic increase in deceased donor transplant access (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.88 to 2.00) and was predicted by high SES, white race, and longer deceased-donor allograft waiting time in initial DSA. Conclusions: Ongoing disparities exist in kidney transplantation access and outcomes on the basis of geography and SES despite near-universal insurance coverage under Medicare. Inter-DSA travel improves access and is more common among high SES candidates. PMID:20798250

  3. Implementing newborn mock codes.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Teresa Gail

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of a newborn mock code program. Although the Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) is one of the most widely used health education programs in the world and is required for most hospital providers who attend deliveries, research tells us that retention of NRP skills deteriorates rapidly after completion of the course. NRP requires coordination and cooperation among all providers; however, a lack of leadership and teamwork during resuscitation (often associated with a lack of confidence) has been noted. Implementation of newborn mock code scenarios can encourage teamwork, communication, skills building, and increased confidence levels of providers. Mock codes can help providers become strong team members and team leaders by helping them be better prepared for serious situations in the delivery room. Implementation of newborn mock codes can be effectively accomplished with appropriate planning and consideration for adult learning behaviors.

  4. The STAGS computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almroth, B. O.; Brogan, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Basic information about the computer code STAGS (Structural Analysis of General Shells) is presented to describe to potential users the scope of the code and the solution procedures that are incorporated. Primarily, STAGS is intended for analysis of shell structures, although it has been extended to more complex shell configurations through the inclusion of springs and beam elements. The formulation is based on a variational approach in combination with local two dimensional power series representations of the displacement components. The computer code includes options for analysis of linear or nonlinear static stress, stability, vibrations, and transient response. Material as well as geometric nonlinearities are included. A few examples of applications of the code are presented for further illustration of its scope.

  5. Improved convolutional coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doland, G. D.

    1970-01-01

    Convolutional coding, used to upgrade digital data transmission under adverse signal conditions, has been improved by a method which ensures data transitions, permitting bit synchronizer operation at lower signal levels. Method also increases decoding ability by removing ambiguous condition.

  6. Shape Coding for Daymarks

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted on form discrimination to select and evaluate forms for shape coding of daymarks. The discriminability of the forms was measured by the frequency with which each form was identified correctly and the frequency with wh...

  7. Seals Flow Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In recognition of a deficiency in the current modeling capability for seals, an effort was established by NASA to develop verified computational fluid dynamic concepts, codes, and analyses for seals. The objectives were to develop advanced concepts for the design and analysis of seals, to effectively disseminate the information to potential users by way of annual workshops, and to provide experimental verification for the models and codes under a wide range of operating conditions.

  8. The Arabidopsis NAC Transcription Factor ANAC096 Cooperates with bZIP-Type Transcription Factors in Dehydration and Osmotic Stress Responses[W

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zheng-Yi; Kim, Soo Youn; Hyeon, Do Young; Kim, Dae Heon; Dong, Ting; Park, Youngmin; Jin, Jing Bo; Joo, Se-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Ki; Hong, Jong Chan; Hwang, Daehee; Hwang, Inhwan

    2013-01-01

    Multiple transcription factors (TFs) play essential roles in plants under abiotic stress, but how these multiple TFs cooperate in abiotic stress responses remains largely unknown. In this study, we provide evidence that the NAC (for NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) TF ANAC096 cooperates with the bZIP-type TFs ABRE binding factor and ABRE binding protein (ABF/AREB) to help plants survive under dehydration and osmotic stress conditions. ANAC096 directly interacts with ABF2 and ABF4, but not with ABF3, both in vitro and in vivo. ANAC096 and ABF2 synergistically activate RD29A transcription. Our genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed that a major proportion of abscisic acid (ABA)–responsive genes are under the transcriptional regulation of ANAC096. We found that the Arabidopsis thaliana anac096 mutant is hyposensitive to exogenous ABA and shows impaired ABA-induced stomatal closure and increased water loss under dehydration stress conditions. Furthermore, we found the anac096 abf2 abf4 triple mutant is much more sensitive to dehydration and osmotic stresses than the anac096 single mutant or the abf2 abf4 double mutant. Based on these results, we propose that ANAC096 is involved in a synergistic relationship with a subset of ABFs for the transcriptional activation of ABA-inducible genes in response to dehydration and osmotic stresses. PMID:24285786

  9. Modeling Associations between Principals' Reported Indoor Environmental Quality and Students' Self-Reported Respiratory Health Outcomes Using GLMM and ZIP Models.

    PubMed

    Toyinbo, Oluyemi; Matilainen, Markus; Turunen, Mari; Putus, Tuula; Shaughnessy, Richard; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla

    2016-03-30

    The aim of this paper was to examine associations between school building characteristics, indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and health responses using questionnaire data from both school principals and students. From 334 randomly sampled schools, 4248 sixth grade students from 297 schools participated in a questionnaire. From these schools, 134 principals returned questionnaires concerning 51 IEQ related questions of their school. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to study the associations between IEQ indicators and existence of self-reported upper respiratory symptoms, while hierarchical Zero Inflated Poisson (ZIP)-models were used to model the number of symptoms. Significant associations were established between existence of upper respiratory symptoms and unsatisfactory classroom temperature during the heating season (ORs 1.45 for too hot and cold, and 1.27 for too cold as compared to satisfactory temperature) and dampness or moisture damage during the year 2006-2007 (OR: 1.80 as compared to no moisture damage), respectively. The number of upper respiratory symptoms was significantly associated with inadequate ventilation and dampness or moisture damage. A higher number of missed school days due to respiratory infections were reported in schools with inadequate ventilation (RR: 1.16). The school level IEQ indicator variables described in this paper could explain a relatively large part of the school level variation observed in the self-reported upper respiratory symptoms and missed school days due to respiratory infections among students.

  10. Modeling Associations between Principals’ Reported Indoor Environmental Quality and Students’ Self-Reported Respiratory Health Outcomes Using GLMM and ZIP Models

    PubMed Central

    Toyinbo, Oluyemi; Matilainen, Markus; Turunen, Mari; Putus, Tuula; Shaughnessy, Richard; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this paper was to examine associations between school building characteristics, indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and health responses using questionnaire data from both school principals and students. Methods: From 334 randomly sampled schools, 4248 sixth grade students from 297 schools participated in a questionnaire. From these schools, 134 principals returned questionnaires concerning 51 IEQ related questions of their school. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to study the associations between IEQ indicators and existence of self-reported upper respiratory symptoms, while hierarchical Zero Inflated Poisson (ZIP)—models were used to model the number of symptoms. Results: Significant associations were established between existence of upper respiratory symptoms and unsatisfactory classroom temperature during the heating season (ORs 1.45 for too hot and cold, and 1.27 for too cold as compared to satisfactory temperature) and dampness or moisture damage during the year 2006–2007 (OR: 1.80 as compared to no moisture damage), respectively. The number of upper respiratory symptoms was significantly associated with inadequate ventilation and dampness or moisture damage. A higher number of missed school days due to respiratory infections were reported in schools with inadequate ventilation (RR: 1.16). Conclusions: The school level IEQ indicator variables described in this paper could explain a relatively large part of the school level variation observed in the self-reported upper respiratory symptoms and missed school days due to respiratory infections among students. PMID:27043595

  11. The bZIP transcription factor HY5 interacts with the promoter of the monoterpene synthase gene QH6 in modulating its rhythmic expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fei; Sun, Tian-Hu; Zhao, Lei; Pan, Xi-Wu; Lu, Shan

    2015-01-01

    The Artemisia annua L. β-pinene synthase QH6 was previously determined to be circadian-regulated at the transcriptional level, showing a rhythmic fluctuation of steady-state transcript abundances. Here we isolated both the genomic sequence and upstream promoter region of QH6. Different regulatory elements, such as G-box (TGACACGTGGCA, -421 bp from the translation initiation site) which might have effects on rhythmic gene expression, were found. Using the yeast one-hybrid and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we confirmed that the bZIP transcription factor HY5 binds to this motif of QH6. Studies with promoter truncations before and after this motif suggested that this G-box was important for the diurnal fluctuation of the transgenic β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) transcript abundance in Arabidopsis thaliana. GUS gene driven by the promoter region immediately after G-box showed an arrhythmic expression in both light/dark (LD) and constant dark (DD) conditions, whereas the control with G-box retained its fluctuation in both LD and DD. We further transformed A. thaliana with the luciferase gene (LUC) driven by an 1400 bp fragment upstream QH6 with its G-box intact or mutated, respectively. The luciferase activity assay showed that a peak in the early morning disappeared in the mutant. Gene expression analysis also demonstrated that the rhythmic expression of LUC was abolished in the hy5-1 mutant.

  12. A nitrogen response pathway regulates virulence in plant pathogenic fungi: role of TOR and the bZIP protein MeaB.

    PubMed

    López-Berges, Manuel S; Rispail, Nicolas; Prados-Rosales, Rafael C; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Virulence in plant pathogenic fungi is controlled through a variety of cellular pathways in response to the host environment. Nitrogen limitation has been proposed to act as a key signal to trigger the in planta expression of virulence genes. Moreover, a conserved Pathogenicity mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is strictly required for plant infection in a wide range of pathogens. We investigated the relationship between nitrogen signaling and the Pathogenicity MAPK cascade in controlling infectious growth of the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Several MAPK-activated virulence functions such as invasive growth, vegetative hyphal fusion and host adhesion were strongly repressed in the presence of the preferred nitrogen source ammonium. Repression of these functions by ammonium was abolished by L-Methionine sulfoximine (MSX) or rapamycin, two specific inhibitors of Gln synthetase and the protein kinase TOR (Target Of Rapamycin), respectively, and was dependent on the bZIP protein MeaB. Supplying tomato plants with ammonium rather than nitrate resulted in a significant delay of vascular wilt symptoms caused by the F. oxysporum wild type strain, but not by the ΔmeaB mutant. Ammonium also repressed invasive growth in two other pathogens, the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and the wheat head blight pathogen Fusarium graminearum. Our results suggest the presence of a conserved nitrogen-responsive pathway that operates via TOR and MeaB to control infectious growth in plant pathogenic fungi.

  13. Antagonistic Basic Helix-Loop-Helix/bZIP Transcription Factors Form Transcriptional Modules That Integrate Light and Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dongqin; Xu, Gang; Tang, Weijiang; Jing, Yanjun; Ji, Qiang; Fei, Zhangjun; Lin, Rongcheng

    2013-01-01

    The critical developmental switch from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth of plants involves light signaling transduction and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS function as signaling molecules that regulate multiple developmental processes, including cell death. However, the relationship between light and ROS signaling remains unclear. Here, we identify transcriptional modules composed of the basic helix-loop-helix and bZIP transcription factors PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1), PIF3, ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), and HY5 HOMOLOGY (HYH) that bridge light and ROS signaling to regulate cell death and photooxidative response. We show that pif mutants release more singlet oxygen and exhibit more extensive cell death than the wild type during Arabidopsis thaliana deetiolation. Genome-wide expression profiling indicates that PIF1 represses numerous ROS and stress-related genes. Molecular and biochemical analyses reveal that PIF1/PIF3 and HY5/HYH physically interact and coordinately regulate the expression of five ROS-responsive genes by directly binding to their promoters. Furthermore, PIF1/PIF3 and HY5/HYH function antagonistically during the seedling greening process. In addition, phytochromes, cryptochromes, and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 act upstream to regulate ROS signaling. Together, this study reveals that the PIF1/PIF3-HY5/HYH transcriptional modules mediate crosstalk between light and ROS signaling and sheds light on a new mechanism by which plants adapt to the light environments. PMID:23645630

  14. Influence of the valine zipper region on the structure and aggregation of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5).

    PubMed

    Ciaccio, Natalie A; Reynolds, T Steele; Middaugh, C Russell; Laurence, Jennifer S

    2012-11-05

    Protein aggregation is a major problem for biopharmaceuticals. While the control of aggregation is critically important for the future of protein pharmaceuticals, mechanisms of aggregate assembly, particularly the role that structure plays, are still poorly understood. Increasing evidence indicates that partially folded intermediates critically influence the aggregation pathway. We have previously reported the use of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) as a partially folded model system to investigate protein aggregation. This domain contains three regions with differing structural propensity: a N-terminal polybasic region, a central helical leucine zipper region, and a C-terminal extended valine zipper region. Additionally, a centrally positioned cysteine residue readily forms an intermolecular disulfide bond that reduces aggregation. Computational analysis of ATF5 predicts that the valine zipper region facilitates self-association. Here we test this hypothesis using a truncated mutant lacking the C-terminal valine zipper region. We compare the structure and aggregation of this mutant to the wild-type (WT) form under both reducing and nonreducing conditions. Our data indicate that removal of this region results in a loss of α-helical structure in the leucine zipper and a change in the mechanism of self-association. The mutant form displays increased association at low temperature but improved resistance to thermally induced aggregation.

  15. ABF2, an ABRE-binding bZIP factor, is an essential component of glucose signaling and its overexpression affects multiple stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunmi; Kang, Jung-Youn; Cho, Dong-Im; Park, Ji Hye; Kim, Soo Young

    2004-10-01

    Phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates stress-responsive gene expression during vegetative growth, which is mediated largely by cis-elements sharing the ACGTGGC consensus. Although many transcription factors are known to bind the elements in vitro, only a few have been demonstrated to have in vivo functions and their specific roles in ABA/stress responses are mostly unknown. Here, we report that ABF2, an ABF subfamily member of bZIP proteins interacting with the ABA-responsive elements, is involved in ABA/stress responses. Its overexpression altered ABA sensitivity, dehydration tolerance, and the expression levels of ABA/stress-regulated genes. Furthermore, ABF2 overexpression promoted glucose-induced inhibition of seedling development, whereas its mutation impaired glucose response. The reduced sugar sensitivity was not observed with mutants of two other ABF family members, ABF3 and ABF4. Instead, these mutants displayed defects in ABA, salt, and dehydration responses, which were not observed with the abf2 mutant. Our data indicate distinct roles of ABF family members: whereas ABF3 and ABF4 play essential roles in ABA/stress responses, ABF2 is required for normal glucose response. We also show that ABF2 overexpression affects multiple stress tolerance.

  16. Robust Nonlinear Neural Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.

  17. Future trends in image coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Ali

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present a discussion on the future of image data compression in the next two decades. It is virtually impossible to predict with any degree of certainty the breakthroughs in theory and developments, the milestones in advancement of technology and the success of the upcoming commercial products in the market place which will be the main factors in establishing the future stage to image coding. What we propose to do, instead, is look back at the progress in image coding during the last two decades and assess the state of the art in image coding today. Then, by observing the trends in developments of theory, software, and hardware coupled with the future needs for use and dissemination of imagery data and the constraints on the bandwidth and capacity of various networks, predict the future state of image coding. What seems to be certain today is the growing need for bandwidth compression. The television is using a technology which is half a century old and is ready to be replaced by high definition television with an extremely high digital bandwidth. Smart telephones coupled with personal computers and TV monitors accommodating both printed and video data will be common in homes and businesses within the next decade. Efficient and compact digital processing modules using developing technologies will make bandwidth compressed imagery the cheap and preferred alternative in satellite and on-board applications. In view of the above needs, we expect increased activities in development of theory, software, special purpose chips and hardware for image bandwidth compression in the next two decades. The following sections summarize the future trends in these areas.

  18. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database A measurement of connectivity in the U.S. Passenger Transportation System : [2016

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-10-01

    Each database record shows the modes that serve the facility, those that are nearby but not connecting, and incudes facility location information. The data can be analyzed on a city, state, zip code, metropolitan area, or modal basis. Geographic coor...

  19. Long-term evolution of the western South Atlantic passive continental margin in a key area of SE Brazil revealed by thermokinematic numerical modeling using the software code Pecube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stippich, Christian; Krob, Florian; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Hackspacher, Peter C.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the research is to quantify the long-term evolution of the western South Atlantic passive continental margin (SAPCM) in SE-Brazil. Excellent onshore outcrop conditions and extensive pre-rift to post-rift archives between São Paulo and Laguna allow a high precision quantification of exhumation, and rock uplift rates, influencing physical parameters, long-term acting forces, and process-response systems. Research will integrate published1 and partly published thermochronological data from Brazil, and test lately published new concepts on causes of long-term landscape and lithospheric evolution in southern Brazil. Six distinct lithospheric blocks (Laguna, Florianópolis, Curitiba, Ilha Comprida, Peruibe and Santos), which are separated by fracture zones1 are characterized by individual thermochronological age spectra. Furthermore, the thermal evolution derived by numerical modeling indicates variable post-rift exhumation histories of these blocks. In this context, we will provide information on the causes for the complex exhumation history of the Florianópolis, and adjacent blocks. The climate-continental margin-mantle coupled process-response system is caused by the interaction between endogenous and exogenous forces, which are related to the mantle-process driven rift - drift - passive continental margin evolution of the South Atlantic, and the climate change since the Early/Late Cretaceous climate maximum. Special emphasis will be given to the influence of long-living transform faults such as the Florianopolis Fracture Zone (FFZ) on the long-term topography evolution of the SAPCM's. A long-term landscape evolution model with process rates will be achieved by thermo-kinematic 3-D modeling (software code PECUBE2,3 and FastScape4). Testing model solutions obtained for a multidimensional parameter space against the real thermochronological and geomorphological data set, the most likely combinations of parameter rates, and values can be constrained. The

  20. Prioritized LT Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Simon S.; Cheng, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    The original Luby Transform (LT) coding scheme is extended to account for data transmissions where some information symbols in a message block are more important than others. Prioritized LT codes provide unequal error protection (UEP) of data on an erasure channel by modifying the original LT encoder. The prioritized algorithm improves high-priority data protection without penalizing low-priority data recovery. Moreover, low-latency decoding is also obtained for high-priority data due to fast encoding. Prioritized LT codes only require a slight change in the original encoding algorithm, and no changes at all at the decoder. Hence, with a small complexity increase in the LT encoder, an improved UEP and low-decoding latency performance for high-priority data can be achieved. LT encoding partitions a data stream into fixed-sized message blocks each with a constant number of information symbols. To generate a code symbol from the information symbols in a message, the Robust-Soliton probability distribution is first applied in order to determine the number of information symbols to be used to compute the code symbol. Then, the specific information symbols are chosen uniform randomly from the message block. Finally, the selected information symbols are XORed to form the code symbol. The Prioritized LT code construction includes an additional restriction that code symbols formed by a relatively small number of XORed information symbols select some of these information symbols from the pool of high-priority data. Once high-priority data are fully covered, encoding continues with the conventional LT approach where code symbols are generated by selecting information symbols from the entire message block including all different priorities. Therefore, if code symbols derived from high-priority data experience an unusual high number of erasures, Prioritized LT codes can still reliably recover both high- and low-priority data. This hybrid approach decides not only "how to encode

  1. Error coding simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1993-01-01

    There are various elements such as radio frequency interference (RFI) which may induce errors in data being transmitted via a satellite communication link. When a transmission is affected by interference or other error-causing elements, the transmitted data becomes indecipherable. It becomes necessary to implement techniques to recover from these disturbances. The objective of this research is to develop software which simulates error control circuits and evaluate the performance of these modules in various bit error rate environments. The results of the evaluation provide the engineer with information which helps determine the optimal error control scheme. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommends the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) and convolutional encoders and Viterbi and RS decoders for error correction. The use of forward error correction techniques greatly reduces the received signal to noise needed for a certain desired bit error rate. The use of concatenated coding, e.g. inner convolutional code and outer RS code, provides even greater coding gain. The 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is recommended by CCSDS for error detection.

  2. Adaptive distributed source coding.

    PubMed

    Varodayan, David; Lin, Yao-Chung; Girod, Bernd

    2012-05-01

    We consider distributed source coding in the presence of hidden variables that parameterize the statistical dependence among sources. We derive the Slepian-Wolf bound and devise coding algorithms for a block-candidate model of this problem. The encoder sends, in addition to syndrome bits, a portion of the source to the decoder uncoded as doping bits. The decoder uses the sum-product algorithm to simultaneously recover the source symbols and the hidden statistical dependence variables. We also develop novel techniques based on density evolution (DE) to analyze the coding algorithms. We experimentally confirm that our DE analysis closely approximates practical performance. This result allows us to efficiently optimize parameters of the algorithms. In particular, we show that the system performs close to the Slepian-Wolf bound when an appropriate doping rate is selected. We then apply our coding and analysis techniques to a reduced-reference video quality monitoring system and show a bit rate saving of about 75% compared with fixed-length coding.

  3. Seals Code Development Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler); Liang, Anita D. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    Seals Workshop of 1995 industrial code (INDSEAL) release include ICYL, GCYLT, IFACE, GFACE, SPIRALG, SPIRALI, DYSEAL, and KTK. The scientific code (SCISEAL) release includes conjugate heat transfer and multidomain with rotordynamic capability. Several seals and bearings codes (e.g., HYDROFLEX, HYDROTRAN, HYDROB3D, FLOWCON1, FLOWCON2) are presented and results compared. Current computational and experimental emphasis includes multiple connected cavity flows with goals of reducing parasitic losses and gas ingestion. Labyrinth seals continue to play a significant role in sealing with face, honeycomb, and new sealing concepts under investigation for advanced engine concepts in view of strict environmental constraints. The clean sheet approach to engine design is advocated with program directions and anticipated percentage SFC reductions cited. Future activities center on engine applications with coupled seal/power/secondary flow streams.

  4. SAC: Sheffield Advanced Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Mike; Fedun, Viktor; Mumford, Stuart; Gent, Frederick

    2013-06-01

    The Sheffield Advanced Code (SAC) is a fully non-linear MHD code designed for simulations of linear and non-linear wave propagation in gravitationally strongly stratified magnetized plasma. It was developed primarily for the forward modelling of helioseismological processes and for the coupling processes in the solar interior, photosphere, and corona; it is built on the well-known VAC platform that allows robust simulation of the macroscopic processes in gravitationally stratified (non-)magnetized plasmas. The code has no limitations of simulation length in time imposed by complications originating from the upper boundary, nor does it require implementation of special procedures to treat the upper boundaries. SAC inherited its modular structure from VAC, thereby allowing modification to easily add new physics.

  5. The Coding Question.

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-07-01

    Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward. A combinatorial code is more plausible. If the engram consists of altered synaptic conductances (the usual assumption), then we must ask how numbers may be written to synapses. It is much easier to formulate a coding hypothesis if the engram is realized by a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Code query by example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  7. Superluminal Labview Code

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, Robert; Marksteiner, Quinn; Quenzer, Jonathan

    2012-03-26

    This labview code is used to set the phase and amplitudes on the 72 antenna of the superluminal machine, and to map out the radiation patter from the superluminal antenna.Each antenna radiates a modulated signal consisting of two separate frequencies, in the range of 2 GHz to 2.8 GHz. The phases and amplitudes from each antenna are controlled by a pair of AD8349 vector modulators (VMs). These VMs set the phase and amplitude of a high frequency signal using a set of four DC inputs, which are controlled by Linear Technologies LTC1990 digital to analog converters (DACs). The labview codemore » controls these DACs through an 8051 microcontroller.This code also monitors the phases and amplitudes of the 72 channels. Near each antenna, there is a coupler that channels a portion of the power into a binary network. Through a labview controlled switching array, any of the 72 coupled signals can be channeled in to the Tektronix TDS 7404 digital oscilloscope. Then the labview code takes an FFT of the signal, and compares it to the FFT of a reference signal in the oscilloscope to determine the magnitude and phase of each sideband of the signal. The code compensates for phase and amplitude errors introduced by differences in cable lengths.The labview code sets each of the 72 elements to a user determined phase and amplitude. For each element, the code runs an iterative procedure, where it adjusts the DACs until the correct phases and amplitudes have been reached.« less

  8. Code inspection instructional validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option

  9. Aeroacoustic Prediction Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P; Mani, R.; Shin, H.; Mitchell, B.; Ashford, G.; Salamah, S.; Connell, S.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes work performed on Contract NAS3-27720AoI 13 as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction Technology effort. Computer codes were developed to provide quantitative prediction, design, and analysis capability for several aircraft engine noise sources. The objective was to provide improved, physics-based tools for exploration of noise-reduction concepts and understanding of experimental results. Methods and codes focused on fan broadband and 'buzz saw' noise and on low-emissions combustor noise and compliment work done by other contractors under the NASA AST program to develop methods and codes for fan harmonic tone noise and jet noise. The methods and codes developed and reported herein employ a wide range of approaches, from the strictly empirical to the completely computational, with some being semiempirical analytical, and/or analytical/computational. Emphasis was on capturing the essential physics while still considering method or code utility as a practical design and analysis tool for everyday engineering use. Codes and prediction models were developed for: (1) an improved empirical correlation model for fan rotor exit flow mean and turbulence properties, for use in predicting broadband noise generated by rotor exit flow turbulence interaction with downstream stator vanes: (2) fan broadband noise models for rotor and stator/turbulence interaction sources including 3D effects, noncompact-source effects. directivity modeling, and extensions to the rotor supersonic tip-speed regime; (3) fan multiple-pure-tone in-duct sound pressure prediction methodology based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis; and (4) low-emissions combustor prediction methodology and computer code based on CFD and actuator disk theory. In addition. the relative importance of dipole and quadrupole source mechanisms was studied using direct CFD source computation for a simple cascadeigust interaction problem, and an empirical combustor

  10. Sandia National Laboratories analysis code data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, C. W.

    1994-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories' mission is to solve important problems in the areas of national defense, energy security, environmental integrity, and industrial technology. The laboratories' strategy for accomplishing this mission is to conduct research to provide an understanding of the important physical phenomena underlying any problem, and then to construct validated computational models of the phenomena which can be used as tools to solve the problem. In the course of implementing this strategy, Sandia's technical staff has produced a wide variety of numerical problem-solving tools which they use regularly in the design, analysis, performance prediction, and optimization of Sandia components, systems, and manufacturing processes. This report provides the relevant technical and accessibility data on the numerical codes used at Sandia, including information on the technical competency or capability area that each code addresses, code 'ownership' and release status, and references describing the physical models and numerical implementation.

  11. A novel bZIP transcription factor ClrC positively regulates multiple stress responses, conidiation and cellulase expression in Penicillium oxalicum.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yunfeng; Liu, Guodong; Yao, Guangshan; Li, Zhonghai; Qin, Yuqi; Qu, Yinbo

    2016-06-01

    Cellulase production in filamentous fungi is largely regulated at the transcriptional level, and several transcription factors have been reported to be involved in this process. In this study, we identified ClrC, a novel transcription factor in cellulase production in Penicillium oxalicum. ClrC and its orthologs have a highly conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) DNA binding domain, and their biological functions have not been explored. Deletion of clrC resulted in pleiotropic effects, including altered growth, reduced conidiation and increased sensitivity to oxidative and cell wall stresses. In particular, the clrC deletion mutant ΔclrC showed 46.1% ± 8.1% and 58.0% ± 8.7% decreases in production of filter paper enzyme and xylanase activities in cellulose medium, respectively. In contrast, 57.4% ± 10.0% and 70.9% ± 19.4% increased production of filter paper enzyme, and xylanase was observed in the clrC overexpressing strain, respectively. The transcription levels of major cellulase genes, as well as two cellulase transcriptional activator genes, clrB and xlnR, were significantly downregulated in ΔclrC, but substantially upregulated in clrC overexpressing strains. Furthermore, we observed that the absence of ClrC reduced full induction of cellulase expression even in the clrB overexpressing strain. These results indicated that ClrC is a novel and efficient engineering target for improving cellulolytic enzyme production in filamentous fungi. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Co-option of the bZIP transcription factor Vrille as the activator of Doublesex1 in environmental sex determination of the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Ishak, Nur Syafiqah; Nong, Quang Dang; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Kato, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hajime

    2017-11-01

    Divergence of upstream regulatory pathways of the transcription factor Doublesex (Dsx) serves as a basis for evolution of sex-determining mechanisms in animals. However, little is known about the regulation of Dsx in environmental sex determination. In the crustacean Daphnia magna, environmental sex determination is implemented by male-specific expression of the Dsx ortholog, Dsx1. Transcriptional regulation of Dsx1 comprises at least three phases during embryogenesis: non-sex-specific initiation, male-specific up-regulation, and its maintenance. Herein, we demonstrate that the male-specific up-regulation is controlled by the bZIP transcription factor, Vrille (Vri), an ortholog of the circadian clock genes-Drosophila Vri and mammalian E4BP4/NFIL3. Sequence analysis of the Dsx1 promoter/enhancer revealed a conserved element among two Daphnia species (D. magna and D. pulex), which contains a potential enhancer harboring a consensus Vri binding site overlapped with a consensus Dsx binding site. Besides non-sex-specific expression of Vri in late embryos, we found male-specific expression in early gastrula before the Dsx1 up-regulation phase begins. Knockdown of Vri in male embryos showed reduction of Dsx1 expression. In addition, transient overexpression of Vri in early female embryos up-regulated the expression of Dsx1 and induced male-specific trait. Targeted mutagenesis using CRISPR/Cas9 disrupted the enhancer on genome in males, which led to the reduction of Dsx1 expression. These results indicate that Vri was co-opted as a transcriptional activator of Dsx1 in environmental sex determination of D. magna. The data suggests the remarkably plastic nature of gene regulatory network in sex determination.

  13. HTLV-1 bZIP factor protein targets the Rb/E2F-1 pathway to promote proliferation and apoptosis of primary CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Kawatsuki, A; Yasunaga, J-i; Mitobe, Y; Green, PL; Matsuoka, M

    2016-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an oncogenic retrovirus that induces a fatal T-cell malignancy, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Among several regulatory/accessory genes in HTLV-1, HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) is the only viral gene constitutively expressed in infected cells. Our previous study showed that HBZ functions in two different molecular forms, HBZ protein and HBZ RNA. In this study, we show that HBZ protein targets retinoblastoma protein (Rb), which is a critical tumor suppressor in many types of cancers. HBZ protein interacts with the Rb/E2F-1 complex and activates the transcription of E2F-target genes associated with cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Mouse primary CD4+ T cells transduced with HBZ show accelerated G1/S transition and apoptosis, and importantly, T cells from HBZ transgenic (HBZ-Tg) mice also demonstrate enhanced cell proliferation and apoptosis. To evaluate the functions of HBZ protein alone in vivo, we generated a new transgenic mouse strain that expresses HBZ mRNA altered by silent mutations but encoding intact protein. In these mice, the numbers of effector/memory and Foxp3+ T cells were increased, and genes associated with proliferation and apoptosis were upregulated. This study shows that HBZ protein promotes cell proliferation and apoptosis in primary CD4+ T cells through activation of the Rb/E2F pathway, and that HBZ protein also confers onto CD4+ T-cell immunophenotype similar to those of ATL cells, suggesting that HBZ protein has important roles in dysregulation of CD4+ T cells infected with HTLV-1. PMID:26804169

  14. Co-option of the bZIP transcription factor Vrille as the activator of Doublesex1 in environmental sex determination of the crustacean Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Nong, Quang Dang; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Divergence of upstream regulatory pathways of the transcription factor Doublesex (Dsx) serves as a basis for evolution of sex-determining mechanisms in animals. However, little is known about the regulation of Dsx in environmental sex determination. In the crustacean Daphnia magna, environmental sex determination is implemented by male-specific expression of the Dsx ortholog, Dsx1. Transcriptional regulation of Dsx1 comprises at least three phases during embryogenesis: non-sex-specific initiation, male-specific up-regulation, and its maintenance. Herein, we demonstrate that the male-specific up-regulation is controlled by the bZIP transcription factor, Vrille (Vri), an ortholog of the circadian clock genes—Drosophila Vri and mammalian E4BP4/NFIL3. Sequence analysis of the Dsx1 promoter/enhancer revealed a conserved element among two Daphnia species (D. magna and D. pulex), which contains a potential enhancer harboring a consensus Vri binding site overlapped with a consensus Dsx binding site. Besides non-sex-specific expression of Vri in late embryos, we found male-specific expression in early gastrula before the Dsx1 up-regulation phase begins. Knockdown of Vri in male embryos showed reduction of Dsx1 expression. In addition, transient overexpression of Vri in early female embryos up-regulated the expression of Dsx1 and induced male-specific trait. Targeted mutagenesis using CRISPR/Cas9 disrupted the enhancer on genome in males, which led to the reduction of Dsx1 expression. These results indicate that Vri was co-opted as a transcriptional activator of Dsx1 in environmental sex determination of D. magna. The data suggests the remarkably plastic nature of gene regulatory network in sex determination. PMID:29095827

  15. Expression of apoptosis related proteins: RAIDD, ZIP kinase, Bim/BOD, p21, Bax, Bcl-2 and NF-kappaB in brains of patients with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Engidawork, E; Gulesserian, T; Seidl, R; Cairns, N; Lubec, G

    2001-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disease that exhibits significant neuropathological parallels with Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the features of DS, neuronal loss, has been hypothesized to occur as a result of apoptosis. An increasing number of proteins are implicated in apoptosis and several of them were shown to be altered in AD, however, the knowledge in DS is far from complete. To further substantiate the hypothesis that apoptosis is the underlying mechanism for neuronal loss and contribute towards the current knowledge of apoptosis in DS, we analyzed the expression of apoptosis related proteins in frontal cortex and cerebellum of DS by western blot and ELISA techniques. Quantitative analysis revealed a significant increase in DS frontal (P < 0.0001) and cerebellar (P < 0.05) Bim/BOD (Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death/Bcl-2 related ovarian death gene), cerebellar Bcl-2 (P < 0.01) as well as p21 (P < 0.05) levels compared to controls. No significant change was detected in Bax, RAIDD (receptor interacting protein (RIP)-associated ICH-1/CED-3-homologus protein with death domain), ZIP (Zipper interacting protein) kinase and NF-kappaB p65 levels in both regions, although frontal cortex levels of RAIDD, Bcl-2 and p21 levels tended to increase. In addition, a 45 kDa truncated form of NF-kappaB p65 displayed a significant elevation (P < 0.05) in DS cerebellum. No significant correlation had been obtained between postmortem interval and level of the proteins analyzed. With regard to age, it was only NF-kappaB p65 that showed significant correlation (r = -0.8964, P = 0.0155, n = 9) in frontal cortex of controls. These findings provide further evidence that apoptosis indeed accounts for the neuronal loss in DS but Bax and RAIDD do not appear to take part in this process.

  16. Detection of human T lymphotropic virus type-I bZIP factor and tax in the salivary glands of Sjögren's syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hideki; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Sasaki, Daisuke; Takatani, Ayuko; Shimizu, Toshimasa; Kurushima, Shota; Horai, Yoshiro; Nakashima, Yoshikazu; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Fukuoka, Junya; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2018-03-20

    To detect HTLV-I bZIP factor (HBZ), tax and relevant molecules in labial salivary glands (LSGs) from patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The expressions of HBZ and tax in T cell lines and LSGs were analysed by in situ hybridization (ISH) or real time PCR. The expressions of forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) and p65 in immunohistochemistry were quantified. After specificity of ISH probes was determined in 5 T cell lines, in LSGs from an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patient and 3 HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM)-SS patients, both HBZ and tax signals were detected in infiltrating mononuclear cells (MNCs) and ducts, and HBZ and tax were dominantly expressed in MNCs of ATL and HAM-SS, respectively. HBZ was dominantly observed in LSGs from 8 HTLV-I asymptomatic carrier (AC)-SS patients; faint expression of HBZ was observed in LSGs from 5 HTLV-I-seronegative SS patients. No cell adhesion molecule 1(CADM1) expressed in LSGs from the ATL patient. Although Foxp3 expression was observed in LSG MNCs of all of the SS patients, the ATL patient's expression was significantly greater than that of the AC-SS (p<0.01) and HTLV-I-seronegative SS (p<0.01) patients. The Foxp3 expression was similar in ATL and HAMSS, but significantly higher in HAM-SS than AC-SS (p<0.05). p65 was expressed in LSG MNC nuclei from all SS patients and co-expressed with Foxp3. The expressions of Foxp3 in ducts differed according to HTLV-I infection. These results suggest that HBZ-mediated Foxp3 expression is partly associated with the pathogenesis of HTLV-I-seropositive SS.

  17. UV-B-Responsive Association of the Arabidopsis bZIP Transcription Factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 with Target Genes, Including Its Own Promoter[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Binkert, Melanie; Kozma-Bognár, László; Terecskei, Kata; De Veylder, Lieven; Nagy, Ferenc; Ulm, Roman

    2014-01-01

    In plants subjected to UV-B radiation, responses are activated that minimize damage caused by UV-B. The bZIP transcription factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) acts downstream of the UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) and promotes UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis and acclimation. Expression of HY5 is induced by UV-B; however, the transcription factor(s) that regulate HY5 transcription in response to UV-B and the impact of UV-B on the association of HY5 with its target promoters are currently unclear. Here, we show that HY5 binding to the promoters of UV-B-responsive genes is enhanced by UV-B in a UVR8-dependent manner in Arabidopsis thaliana. In agreement, overexpression of REPRESSOR OF UV-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS2, a negative regulator of UVR8 function, blocks UV-B-responsive HY5 enrichment at target promoters. Moreover, we have identified a T/G-box in the HY5 promoter that is required for its UV-B responsiveness. We show that HY5 and its homolog HYH bind to the T/GHY5-box cis-acting element and that they act redundantly in the induction of HY5 expression upon UV-B exposure. Therefore, HY5 is enriched at target promoters in response to UV-B in a UVR8 photoreceptor-dependent manner, and HY5 and HYH interact directly with a T/G-box cis-acting element of the HY5 promoter, mediating the transcriptional activation of HY5 in response to UV-B. PMID:25351492

  18. Recent advances in coding theory for near error-free communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K.-M.; Deutsch, L. J.; Dolinar, S. J.; Mceliece, R. J.; Pollara, F.; Shahshahani, M.; Swanson, L.

    1991-01-01

    Channel and source coding theories are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: large constraint length convolutional codes (the Galileo code); decoder design (the big Viterbi decoder); Voyager's and Galileo's data compression scheme; current research in data compression for images; neural networks for soft decoding; neural networks for source decoding; finite-state codes; and fractals for data compression.

  19. Coding for reliable satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S.

    1984-01-01

    Several error control coding techniques for reliable satellite communications were investigated to find algorithms for fast decoding of Reed-Solomon codes in terms of dual basis. The decoding of the (255,223) Reed-Solomon code, which is used as the outer code in the concatenated TDRSS decoder, was of particular concern.

  20. The Redox Code.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dean P; Sies, Helmut

    2015-09-20

    The redox code is a set of principles that defines the positioning of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, NADP) and thiol/disulfide and other redox systems as well as the thiol redox proteome in space and time in biological systems. The code is richly elaborated in an oxygen-dependent life, where activation/deactivation cycles involving O₂ and H₂O₂ contribute to spatiotemporal organization for differentiation, development, and adaptation to the environment. Disruption of this organizational structure during oxidative stress represents a fundamental mechanism in system failure and disease. Methodology in assessing components of the redox code under physiological conditions has progressed, permitting insight into spatiotemporal organization and allowing for identification of redox partners in redox proteomics and redox metabolomics. Complexity of redox networks and redox regulation is being revealed step by step, yet much still needs to be learned. Detailed knowledge of the molecular patterns generated from the principles of the redox code under defined physiological or pathological conditions in cells and organs will contribute to understanding the redox component in health and disease. Ultimately, there will be a scientific basis to a modern redox medicine.

  1. Dress Codes. Legal Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    As illustrated by two recent decisions, the courts in the past decade have demarcated wide boundaries for school officials considering dress codes, whether in the form of selective prohibitions or required uniforms. Administrators must warn the community, provide legitimate justification and reasonable clarity, and comply with state law. (MLH)

  2. Deciphering the Ubiquitin Code.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Gunnar; Selbach, Matthias

    2017-03-02

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Zhang et al. (2017) systematically identify proteins interacting with all possible di-ubiquitin linkages, thus providing a catalog of readers of the ubiquitin code. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Code Optimization Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    MAGEE,GLEN I.

    Computers transfer data in a number of different ways. Whether through a serial port, a parallel port, over a modem, over an ethernet cable, or internally from a hard disk to memory, some data will be lost. To compensate for that loss, numerous error detection and correction algorithms have been developed. One of the most common error correction codes is the Reed-Solomon code, which is a special subset of BCH (Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem) linear cyclic block codes. In the AURA project, an unmanned aircraft sends the data it collects back to earth so it can be analyzed during flight and possible flightmore » modifications made. To counter possible data corruption during transmission, the data is encoded using a multi-block Reed-Solomon implementation with a possibly shortened final block. In order to maximize the amount of data transmitted, it was necessary to reduce the computation time of a Reed-Solomon encoding to three percent of the processor's time. To achieve such a reduction, many code optimization techniques were employed. This paper outlines the steps taken to reduce the processing time of a Reed-Solomon encoding and the insight into modern optimization techniques gained from the experience.« less

  4. Dress Codes and Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda; Miller, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    Students do not always make choices that adults agree with in their choice of school dress. Dress-code issues are explored in this Research Roundup, and guidance is offered to principals seeking to maintain a positive school climate. In "Do School Uniforms Fit?" Kerry White discusses arguments for and against school uniforms and summarizes the…

  5. Sharing the Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Florence

    2003-01-01

    Colleges and universities are beginning to consider collaborating on open-source-code projects as a way to meet critical software and computing needs. Points out the attractive features of noncommercial open-source software and describes some examples in use now, especially for the creation of Web infrastructure. (SLD)

  6. Multiple trellis coded modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique for designing trellis codes to minimize bit error performance for a fading channel. The invention provides a criteria which may be used in the design of such codes which is significantly different from that used for average white Gaussian noise channels. The method of multiple trellis coded modulation of the present invention comprises the steps of: (a) coding b bits of input data into s intermediate outputs; (b) grouping said s intermediate outputs into k groups of s.sub.i intermediate outputs each where the summation of all s.sub.i,s is equal to s and k is equal to at least 2; (c) mapping each of said k groups of intermediate outputs into one of a plurality of symbols in accordance with a plurality of modulation schemes, one for each group such that the first group is mapped in accordance with a first modulation scheme and the second group is mapped in accordance with a second modulation scheme; and (d) outputting each of said symbols to provide k output symbols for each b bits of input data.

  7. Building Codes and Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, John L.

    The hazard of fire is of great concern to libraries due to combustible books and new plastics used in construction and interiors. Building codes and standards can offer architects and planners guidelines to follow but these standards should be closely monitored, updated, and researched for fire prevention. (DS)

  8. Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC)is a state-of-the-art hydrodynamic model that can be used to simulate aquatic systems in one, two, and three dimensions. It has evolved over the past two decades to become one of the most widely used and technically defensible hydrodyn...

  9. Dual Coding in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, John K.; Wildman, Terry M.

    The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the dual coding hypothesis to children's recall performance. The hypothesis predicts that visual interference will have a small effect on the recall of visually presented words or pictures, but that acoustic interference will cause a decline in recall of visually presented words and…

  10. Code Compression for DSP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    PAGES 6 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b . ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8...Automation Conference, June 1998. [Liao95] S. Liao, S. Devadas , K. Keutzer, “Code Density Optimization for Embedded DSP Processors Using Data Compression

  11. The Redox Code

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dean P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The redox code is a set of principles that defines the positioning of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, NADP) and thiol/disulfide and other redox systems as well as the thiol redox proteome in space and time in biological systems. The code is richly elaborated in an oxygen-dependent life, where activation/deactivation cycles involving O2 and H2O2 contribute to spatiotemporal organization for differentiation, development, and adaptation to the environment. Disruption of this organizational structure during oxidative stress represents a fundamental mechanism in system failure and disease. Recent Advances: Methodology in assessing components of the redox code under physiological conditions has progressed, permitting insight into spatiotemporal organization and allowing for identification of redox partners in redox proteomics and redox metabolomics. Critical Issues: Complexity of redox networks and redox regulation is being revealed step by step, yet much still needs to be learned. Future Directions: Detailed knowledge of the molecular patterns generated from the principles of the redox code under defined physiological or pathological conditions in cells and organs will contribute to understanding the redox component in health and disease. Ultimately, there will be a scientific basis to a modern redox medicine. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 734–746. PMID:25891126

  12. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  13. Coding for urologic office procedures.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Robert A; Painter, Mark

    2013-11-01

    This article summarizes current best practices for documenting, coding, and billing common office-based urologic procedures. Topics covered include general principles, basic and advanced urologic coding, creation of medical records that support compliant coding practices, bundled codes and unbundling, global periods, modifiers for procedure codes, when to bill for evaluation and management services during the same visit, coding for supplies, and laboratory and radiology procedures pertinent to urology practice. Detailed information is included for the most common urology office procedures, and suggested resources and references are provided. This information is of value to physicians, office managers, and their coding staff. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiphysics Code Demonstrated for Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Melis, Matthew E.

    1998-01-01

    The utility of multidisciplinary analysis tools for aeropropulsion applications is being investigated at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The goal of this project is to apply Spectrum, a multiphysics code developed by Centric Engineering Systems, Inc., to simulate multidisciplinary effects in turbomachinery components. Many engineering problems today involve detailed computer analyses to predict the thermal, aerodynamic, and structural response of a mechanical system as it undergoes service loading. Analysis of aerospace structures generally requires attention in all three disciplinary areas to adequately predict component service behavior, and in many cases, the results from one discipline substantially affect the outcome of the other two. There are numerous computer codes currently available in the engineering community to perform such analyses in each of these disciplines. Many of these codes are developed and used in-house by a given organization, and many are commercially available. However, few, if any, of these codes are designed specifically for multidisciplinary analyses. The Spectrum code has been developed for performing fully coupled fluid, thermal, and structural analyses on a mechanical system with a single simulation that accounts for all simultaneous interactions, thus eliminating the requirement for running a large number of sequential, separate, disciplinary analyses. The Spectrum code has a true multiphysics analysis capability, which improves analysis efficiency as well as accuracy. Centric Engineering, Inc., working with a team of Lewis and AlliedSignal Engines engineers, has been evaluating Spectrum for a variety of propulsion applications including disk quenching, drum cavity flow, aeromechanical simulations, and a centrifugal compressor flow simulation.

  15. Measuring diagnoses: ICD code accuracy.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Kimberly J; Cook, Karon F; Price, Matt D; Wildes, Kimberly Raiford; Hurdle, John F; Ashton, Carol M

    2005-10-01

    To examine potential sources of errors at each step of the described inpatient International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding process. The use of disease codes from the ICD has expanded from classifying morbidity and mortality information for statistical purposes to diverse sets of applications in research, health care policy, and health care finance. By describing a brief history of ICD coding, detailing the process for assigning codes, identifying where errors can be introduced into the process, and reviewing methods for examining code accuracy, we help code users more systematically evaluate code accuracy for their particular applications. We summarize the inpatient ICD diagnostic coding process from patient admission to diagnostic code assignment. We examine potential sources of errors at each step and offer code users a tool for systematically evaluating code accuracy. Main error sources along the "patient trajectory" include amount and quality of information at admission, communication among patients and providers, the clinician's knowledge and experience with the illness, and the clinician's attention to detail. Main error sources along the "paper trail" include variance in the electronic and written records, coder training and experience, facility quality-control efforts, and unintentional and intentional coder errors, such as misspecification, unbundling, and upcoding. By clearly specifying the code assignment process and heightening their awareness of potential error sources, code users can better evaluate the applicability and limitations of codes for their particular situations. ICD codes can then be used in the most appropriate ways.

  16. [Definition and adoption of a building code based on biological and ecological sustainability in the Local Health Authority 11 of Empoli (Tuscany Region, Central Italy): strengths and areas for improvement].

    PubMed

    Petronio, Maria Grazia; Battisti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Built environment is an important social determinant of health, but nowadays local health authorities (LHAs) have lost their competences in the issuing of building permits, especially since a new legislation introduced the possibility of personal declaration of conformity. They are also usually excluded from the urban planning process. At the same time, in recent years construction of buildings has been developed with insufficient regard to environmental health requirements, proper exposure to sunlight and winds, comfort, building materials, consumption of resources, and waste production. To deal with these issues, an interdepartmental working group was set up under the direction of the Department of Prevention of the LHA of Empoli (Tuscany Region, Central Italy), with members of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency, along with experts of the 15 Municipalities included in the LHA territory and members of other local institutions. The objective of the Working Group was to define and propose as mandatory a set of rules for local governments aimed at regulating construction activities according to criteria of environmental sustainability, eco-efficiency, comfort, and healthiness of living areas, at the same time encouraging the responsible use of natural resources, the reduction of energy consumption and the use of renewable energy sources in order to place environmental safety and health at the heart of all building activities. Experts of six Municipalities joined the working group and the regulation framework was adopted (and made legally binding) in 8 out of 15 Municipalities, with an almost complete overlap with participation in the working group. The active participation of experts, whose work consists in examining municipal building, permits, and declarations, has therefore marked the difference in the transition from theory to practice. The level of know-how attained by the participants and their motivation and enthusiasm have been so relevant in the

  17. Efficient convolutional sparse coding

    DOEpatents

    Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-06-20

    Computationally efficient algorithms may be applied for fast dictionary learning solving the convolutional sparse coding problem in the Fourier domain. More specifically, efficient convolutional sparse coding may be derived within an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) framework that utilizes fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to solve the main linear system in the frequency domain. Such algorithms may enable a significant reduction in computational cost over conventional approaches by implementing a linear solver for the most critical and computationally expensive component of the conventional iterative algorithm. The theoretical computational cost of the algorithm may be reduced from O(M.sup.3N) to O(MN log N), where N is the dimensionality of the data and M is the number of elements in the dictionary. This significant improvement in efficiency may greatly increase the range of problems that can practically be addressed via convolutional sparse representations.

  18. Sinusoidal transform coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, Robert J.; Quatieri, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    It has been shown that an analysis/synthesis system based on a sinusoidal representation of speech leads to synthetic speech that is essentially perceptually indistinguishable from the original. Strategies for coding the amplitudes, frequencies and phases of the sine waves have been developed that have led to a multirate coder operating at rates from 2400 to 9600 bps. The encoded speech is highly intelligible at all rates with a uniformly improving quality as the data rate is increased. A real-time fixed-point implementation has been developed using two ADSP2100 DSP chips. The methods used for coding and quantizing the sine-wave parameters for operation at the various frame rates are described.

  19. Canonical microcircuits for predictive coding

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Andre M.; Usrey, W. Martin; Adams, Rick A.; Mangun, George R.; Fries, Pascal; Friston, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary This review considers the influential notion of a canonical (cortical) microcircuit in light of recent theories about neuronal processing. Specifically, we conciliate quantitative studies of microcircuitry and the functional logic of neuronal computations. We revisit the established idea that message passing among hierarchical cortical areas implements a form of Bayesian inference – paying careful attention to the implications for intrinsic connections among neuronal populations. By deriving canonical forms for these computations, one can associate specific neuronal populations with specific computational roles. This analysis discloses a remarkable correspondence between the microcircuitry of the cortical column and the connectivity implied by predictive coding. Furthermore, it provides some intuitive insights into the functional asymmetries between feedforward and feedback connections and the characteristic frequencies over which they operate. PMID:23177956

  20. The 1992 Seals Flow Code Development Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Anita D.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    A two-day meeting was conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center on August 5 and 6, 1992, to inform the technical community of the progress of NASA Contract NAS3-26544. This contract was established in 1990 to develop industrial and CFD codes for the design and analysis of seals. Codes were demonstrated and disseminated to the user community for evaluation. The peer review panel which was formed in 1991 provided recommendations on this effort. The technical community presented results of their activities in the area of seals, with particular emphasis on brush seal systems.

  1. Discrete Sparse Coding.

    PubMed

    Exarchakis, Georgios; Lücke, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    Sparse coding algorithms with continuous latent variables have been the subject of a large number of studies. However, discrete latent spaces for sparse coding have been largely ignored. In this work, we study sparse coding with latents described by discrete instead of continuous prior distributions. We consider the general case in which the latents (while being sparse) can take on any value of a finite set of possible values and in which we learn the prior probability of any value from data. This approach can be applied to any data generated by discrete causes, and it can be applied as an approximation of continuous causes. As the prior probabilities are learned, the approach then allows for estimating the prior shape without assuming specific functional forms. To efficiently train the parameters of our probabilistic generative model, we apply a truncated expectation-maximization approach (expectation truncation) that we modify to work with a general discrete prior. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm by applying it to a variety of tasks: (1) we use artificial data to verify that the algorithm can recover the generating parameters from a random initialization, (2) use image patches of natural images and discuss the role of the prior for the extraction of image components, (3) use extracellular recordings of neurons to present a novel method of analysis for spiking neurons that includes an intuitive discretization strategy, and (4) apply the algorithm on the task of encoding audio waveforms of human speech. The diverse set of numerical experiments presented in this letter suggests that discrete sparse coding algorithms can scale efficiently to work with realistic data sets and provide novel statistical quantities to describe the structure of the data.

  2. VAC: Versatile Advection Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Gábor; Keppens, Rony

    2012-07-01

    The Versatile Advection Code (VAC) is a freely available general hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulation software that works in 1, 2 or 3 dimensions on Cartesian and logically Cartesian grids. VAC runs on any Unix/Linux system with a Fortran 90 (or 77) compiler and Perl interpreter. VAC can run on parallel machines using either the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library or a High Performance Fortran (HPF) compiler.

  3. Reeds computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjork, C.

    1981-01-01

    The REEDS (rocket exhaust effluent diffusion single layer) computer code is used for the estimation of certain rocket exhaust effluent concentrations and dosages and their distributions near the Earth's surface following a rocket launch event. Output from REEDS is used in producing near real time air quality and environmental assessments of the effects of certain potentially harmful effluents, namely HCl, Al2O3, CO, and NO.

  4. A new code for Galileo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past six to eight years, an extensive research effort was conducted to investigate advanced coding techniques which promised to yield more coding gain than is available with current NASA standard codes. The delay in Galileo's launch due to the temporary suspension of the shuttle program provided the Galileo project with an opportunity to evaluate the possibility of including some version of the advanced codes as a mission enhancement option. A study was initiated last summer to determine if substantial coding gain was feasible for Galileo and, is so, to recommend a suitable experimental code for use as a switchable alternative to the current NASA-standard code. The Galileo experimental code study resulted in the selection of a code with constant length 15 and rate 1/4. The code parameters were chosen to optimize performance within cost and risk constraints consistent with retrofitting the new code into the existing Galileo system design and launch schedule. The particular code was recommended after a very limited search among good codes with the chosen parameters. It will theoretically yield about 1.5 dB enhancement under idealizing assumptions relative to the current NASA-standard code at Galileo's desired bit error rates. This ideal predicted gain includes enough cushion to meet the project's target of at least 1 dB enhancement under real, non-ideal conditions.

  5. A Comparative Study on Seismic Analysis of Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) with Other Building Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Md. S.; Das, T.

    2013-09-01

    Tectonic framework of Bangladesh and adjoining areas indicate that Bangladesh lies well within an active seismic zone. The after effect of earthquake is more severe in an underdeveloped and a densely populated country like ours than any other developed countries. Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) was first established in 1993 to provide guidelines for design and construction of new structure subject to earthquake ground motions in order to minimize the risk to life for all structures. A revision of BNBC 1993 is undergoing to make this up to date with other international building codes. This paper aims at the comparison of various provisions of seismic analysis as given in building codes of different countries. This comparison will give an idea regarding where our country stands when it comes to safety against earth quake. Primarily, various seismic parameters in BNBC 2010 (draft) have been studied and compared with that of BNBC 1993. Later, both 1993 and 2010 edition of BNBC codes have been compared graphically with building codes of other countries such as National Building Code of India 2005 (NBC-India 2005), American Society of Civil Engineering 7-05 (ASCE 7-05). The base shear/weight ratios have been plotted against the height of the building. The investigation in this paper reveals that BNBC 1993 has the least base shear among all the codes. Factored Base shear values of BNBC 2010 are found to have increased significantly than that of BNBC 1993 for low rise buildings (≤20 m) around the country than its predecessor. Despite revision of the code, BNBC 2010 (draft) still suggests less base shear values when compared to the Indian and American code. Therefore, this increase in factor of safety against the earthquake imposed by the proposed BNBC 2010 code by suggesting higher values of base shear is appreciable.

  6. Orthopedics coding and funding.

    PubMed

    Baron, S; Duclos, C; Thoreux, P

    2014-02-01

    The French tarification à l'activité (T2A) prospective payment system is a financial system in which a health-care institution's resources are based on performed activity. Activity is described via the PMSI medical information system (programme de médicalisation du système d'information). The PMSI classifies hospital cases by clinical and economic categories known as diagnosis-related groups (DRG), each with an associated price tag. Coding a hospital case involves giving as realistic a description as possible so as to categorize it in the right DRG and thus ensure appropriate payment. For this, it is essential to understand what determines the pricing of inpatient stay: namely, the code for the surgical procedure, the patient's principal diagnosis (reason for admission), codes for comorbidities (everything that adds to management burden), and the management of the length of inpatient stay. The PMSI is used to analyze the institution's activity and dynamism: change on previous year, relation to target, and comparison with competing institutions based on indicators such as the mean length of stay performance indicator (MLS PI). The T2A system improves overall care efficiency. Quality of care, however, is not presently taken account of in the payment made to the institution, as there are no indicators for this; work needs to be done on this topic. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. MELCOR computer code manuals

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, andmore » combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.« less

  8. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  9. SAFETY IN THE DESIGN OF SCIENCE LABORATORIES AND BUILDING CODES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOROWITZ, HAROLD

    THE DESIGN OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS USED FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IS DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF LABORATORY SAFETY AND BUILDING CODES AND REGULATIONS. MAJOR TOPIC AREAS ARE--(1) SAFETY RELATED DESIGN FEATURES OF SCIENCE LABORATORIES, (2) LABORATORY SAFETY AND BUILDING CODES, AND (3) EVIDENCE OF UNSAFE DESIGN. EXAMPLES EMPHASIZE…

  10. Optimal Near-Hitless Network Failure Recovery Using Diversity Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Serhat Nazim

    2013-01-01

    Link failures in wide area networks are common and cause significant data losses. Mesh-based protection schemes offer high capacity efficiency but they are slow, require complex signaling, and instable. Diversity coding is a proactive coding-based recovery technique which offers near-hitless (sub-ms) restoration with a competitive spare capacity…

  11. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 6: Codes and Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 6 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred safety practices) concentrates on codes and laws. The purpose and specific objectives of the Codes and Laws Program, Federal authority in the area of highway safety, and policies regarding traffic regulation are described.…

  12. Computer-assisted coding and clinical documentation: first things first.

    PubMed

    Tully, Melinda; Carmichael, Angela

    2012-10-01

    Computer-assisted coding tools have the potential to drive improvements in seven areas: Transparency of coding. Productivity (generally by 20 to 25 percent for inpatient claims). Accuracy (by improving specificity of documentation). Cost containment (by reducing overtime expenses, audit fees, and denials). Compliance. Efficiency. Consistency.

  13. Design of convolutional tornado code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hui; Yang, Yao; Gao, Hongmin; Tan, Lu

    2017-09-01

    As a linear block code, the traditional tornado (tTN) code is inefficient in burst-erasure environment and its multi-level structure may lead to high encoding/decoding complexity. This paper presents a convolutional tornado (cTN) code which is able to improve the burst-erasure protection capability by applying the convolution property to the tTN code, and reduce computational complexity by abrogating the multi-level structure. The simulation results show that cTN code can provide a better packet loss protection performance with lower computation complexity than tTN code.

  14. Preliminary Assessment of Turbomachinery Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, Quamrul H.

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses different CFD codes developed and currently being used at Glenn Research Center to predict turbomachinery fluid flow and heat transfer behavior. This report will consider the following codes: APNASA, TURBO, GlennHT, H3D, and SWIFT. Each code will be described separately in the following section with their current modeling capabilities, level of validation, pre/post processing, and future development and validation requirements. This report addresses only previously published and validations of the codes. However, the codes have been further developed to extend the capabilities of the codes.

  15. Zn2+-transporters ZIP7 and ZnT7 play important role in progression of cardiac dysfunction via affecting sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum-mitochondria coupling in hyperglycemic cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Tuncay, Erkan; Bitirim, C Verda; Olgar, Yusuf; Durak, Aysegul; Rutter, Guy A; Turan, Belma

    2018-01-04

    Functional contribution of S(E)R-mitochondria coupling to normal cellular processes is crucial and any alteration in S(E)R-mitochondria axis may be responsible for the onset of diseases. Mitochondrial free Zn 2+ level in cardiomyocytes ([Zn 2+ ] Mit ) is lower comparison to either its cytosolic or S(E)R level under physiological condition. However, there is little information about distribution of Zn 2+ -transporters on mitochondria and role of Zn 2+ -dependent mitochondrial-function associated with [Zn 2+ ] Mit . Since we recently have shown how hyperglycemia (HG)-induced changes in ZIP7 and ZnT7 contribute to Zn 2+ -transport across S(E)R and contribute to S(E)R-stress in the heart, herein, we hypothesized that these transporters can also be localized to mitochondria and affect the S(E)R-mitochondria coupling, and thereby contribute to cellular Zn 2+ -muffling between S(E)R-mitochondria in HG-cells. Mitochondrial localizations of ZIP7 and ZnT7 were demonstrated using fluorescence technique while they were confirmed in isolated mitochondrial fractions using biochemical analysis. Markedly decreased ZIP7 and increased ZnT7 levels were measured in isolated mitochondrial fractions from either HG- or doxorubicin, DOX (as positive control)-treated cardiomyocytes. Significantly increases in [Zn 2+ ] Mit and ROS production levels and depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential were also measured in HG cells. The expression levels of some key proteins, responsible for proper S(E)R-mitochondria coupling such as Mfn-1, Fis-1, OPA1, BAP31, STIM1 and PML in either HG- or DOX-cells were supported our above hypothesis, strongly. Overall, this study provides an important description about the role of ZIP7 and ZnT7, localized to both mitochondria and S(E)R and contribute to cellular Zn 2+ -muffling between cellular-compartments in HG or hypertrophic cardiomyocytes via affecting S(E)R-mitochondria coupling. Any alteration in this axis and/or cellular [Zn 2+ ] may provide new

  16. Cis-regulatory signatures of orthologous stress-associated bZIP transcription factors from rice, sorghum and Arabidopsis based on phylogenetic footprints

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The potential contribution of upstream sequence variation to the unique features of orthologous genes is just beginning to be unraveled. A core subset of stress-associated bZIP transcription factors from rice (Oryza sativa) formed ten clusters of orthologous groups (COG) with genes from the monocot sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and dicot Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The total cis-regulatory information content of each stress-associated COG was examined by phylogenetic footprinting to reveal ortholog-specific, lineage-specific and species-specific conservation patterns. Results The most apparent pattern observed was the occurrence of spatially conserved ‘core modules’ among the COGs but not among paralogs. These core modules are comprised of various combinations of two to four putative transcription factor binding site (TFBS) classes associated with either developmental or stress-related functions. Outside the core modules are specific stress (ABA, oxidative, abiotic, biotic) or organ-associated signals, which may be functioning as ‘regulatory fine-tuners’ and further define lineage-specific and species-specific cis-regulatory signatures. Orthologous monocot and dicot promoters have distinct TFBS classes involved in disease and oxidative-regulated expression, while the orthologous rice and sorghum promoters have distinct combinations of root-specific signals, a pattern that is not particularly conserved in Arabidopsis. Conclusions Patterns of cis-regulatory conservation imply that each ortholog has distinct signatures, further suggesting that they are potentially unique in a regulatory context despite the presumed conservation of broad biological function during speciation. Based on the observed patterns of conservation, we postulate that core modules are likely primary determinants of basal developmental programming, which may be integrated with and further elaborated by additional intrinsic or extrinsic signals in conjunction with lineage

  17. It's (Zipped) in the Bag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard H.; Everett, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic baggies, especially the sealable variety, seem to be a ubiquitous part of human culture. The zipper-type seal on plastic baggies is an example of an unappreciated engineering accomplishment that is relevant to everyday life. In fact, the challenge of fastening two pieces together probably dates back to the making of tools and clothing by…

  18. Convolutional coding techniques for data protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of research on the use of convolutional codes in data communications are presented. Convolutional coding fundamentals are discussed along with modulation and coding interaction. Concatenated coding systems and data compression with convolutional codes are described.

  19. Residential Building Energy Code Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    R. Bartlett, M. Halverson, V. Mendon, J. Hathaway, Y. Xie

    This document presents a methodology for assessing baseline energy efficiency in new single-family residential buildings and quantifying related savings potential. The approach was developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program with the objective of assisting states as they assess energy efficiency in residential buildings and implementation of their building energy codes, as well as to target areas for improvement through energy codes and broader energy-efficiency programs. It is also intended to facilitate a consistent and replicable approach to research studies of this type and establish a transparent data setmore » to represent baseline construction practices across U.S. states.« less

  20. Visual coding of human bodies: perceptual aftereffects reveal norm-based, opponent coding of body identity.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Boeing, Alexandra; Calder, Andrew J

    2013-04-01

    Despite the discovery of body-selective neural areas in occipitotemporal cortex, little is known about how bodies are visually coded. We used perceptual adaptation to determine how body identity is coded. Brief exposure to a body (e.g., anti-Rose) biased perception toward an identity with opposite properties (Rose). Moreover, the size of this aftereffect increased with adaptor extremity, as predicted by norm-based, opponent coding of body identity. A size change between adapt and test bodies minimized the effects of low-level, retinotopic adaptation. These results demonstrate that body identity, like face identity, is opponent coded in higher-level vision. More generally, they show that a norm-based multidimensional framework, which is well established for face perception, may provide a powerful framework for understanding body perception.

  1. Employment and residential characteristics in relation to automated external defibrillator locations

    PubMed Central

    Griffis, Heather M.; Band, Roger A; Ruther, Matthew; Harhay, Michael; Asch, David A.; Hershey, John C.; Hill, Shawndra; Nadkarni, Lindsay; Kilaru, Austin; Branas, Charles C.; Shofer, Frances; Nichol, Graham; Becker, Lance B.; Merchant, Raina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is generally poor and varies by geography. Variability in automated external defibrillator (AED) locations may be a contributing factor. To inform optimal placement of AEDs, we investigated AED access in a major US city relative to demographic and employment characteristics. Methods and Results This was a retrospective analysis of a Philadelphia AED registry (2,559 total AEDs). The 2010 US Census and the Local Employment Dynamics (LED) database by ZIP code was used. AED access was calculated as the weighted areal percentage of each ZIP code covered by a 400 meter radius around each AED. Of 47 ZIP codes, only 9%(4) were high AED service areas. In 26%(12) of ZIP codes, less than 35% of the area was covered by AED service areas. Higher AED access ZIP codes were more likely to have a moderately populated residential area (p=0.032), higher median household income (p=0.006), and higher paying jobs (p=008). Conclusions The locations of AEDs vary across specific ZIP codes; select residential and employment characteristics explain some variation. Further work on evaluating OHCA locations, AED use and availability, and OHCA outcomes could inform AED placement policies. Optimizing the placement of AEDs through this work may help to increase survival. PMID:26856232

  2. Code stroke in Asturias.

    PubMed

    Benavente, L; Villanueva, M J; Vega, P; Casado, I; Vidal, J A; Castaño, B; Amorín, M; de la Vega, V; Santos, H; Trigo, A; Gómez, M B; Larrosa, D; Temprano, T; González, M; Murias, E; Calleja, S

    2016-04-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase is an effective treatment for ischaemic stroke when applied during the first 4.5 hours, but less than 15% of patients have access to this technique. Mechanical thrombectomy is more frequently able to recanalise proximal occlusions in large vessels, but the infrastructure it requires makes it even less available. We describe the implementation of code stroke in Asturias, as well as the process of adapting various existing resources for urgent stroke care in the region. By considering these resources, and the demographic and geographic circumstances of our region, we examine ways of reorganising the code stroke protocol that would optimise treatment times and provide the most appropriate treatment for each patient. We distributed the 8 health districts in Asturias so as to permit referral of candidates for reperfusion therapies to either of the 2 hospitals with 24-hour stroke units and on-call neurologists and providing IV fibrinolysis. Hospitals were assigned according to proximity and stroke severity; the most severe cases were immediately referred to the hospital with on-call interventional neurology care. Patient triage was provided by pre-hospital emergency services according to the NIHSS score. Modifications to code stroke in Asturias have allowed us to apply reperfusion therapies with good results, while emphasising equitable care and managing the severity-time ratio to offer the best and safest treatment for each patient as soon as possible. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Ptolemy Coding Style

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-05

    shell script that checks Java code and prints out an alphabetical list of unrec- ognized spellings. It properly handles namesWithEmbeddedCapitalization...local/bin/ispell. To run this script, type $PTII/util/testsuite/ptspell *.java • testsuite/chkjava is a shell script for checking various other...best if the svn:native property is set. Below is how to check the values for a file named README.txt: bash-3.2$ svn proplist README.txt Properties on

  4. Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms.

    PubMed

    Li, Lianlin; Jun Cui, Tie; Ji, Wei; Liu, Shuo; Ding, Jun; Wan, Xiang; Bo Li, Yun; Jiang, Menghua; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Zhang, Shuang

    2017-08-04

    Metasurfaces have enabled a plethora of emerging functions within an ultrathin dimension, paving way towards flat and highly integrated photonic devices. Despite the rapid progress in this area, simultaneous realization of reconfigurability, high efficiency, and full control over the phase and amplitude of scattered light is posing a great challenge. Here, we try to tackle this challenge by introducing the concept of a reprogrammable hologram based on 1-bit coding metasurfaces. The state of each unit cell of the coding metasurface can be switched between '1' and '0' by electrically controlling the loaded diodes. Our proof-of-concept experiments show that multiple desired holographic images can be realized in real time with only a single coding metasurface. The proposed reprogrammable hologram may be a key in enabling future intelligent devices with reconfigurable and programmable functionalities that may lead to advances in a variety of applications such as microscopy, display, security, data storage, and information processing.Realizing metasurfaces with reconfigurability, high efficiency, and control over phase and amplitude is a challenge. Here, Li et al. introduce a reprogrammable hologram based on a 1-bit coding metasurface, where the state of each unit cell of the coding metasurface can be switched electrically.

  5. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  6. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  7. Dual Coding, Reasoning and Fallacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hample, Dale

    1982-01-01

    Develops the theory that a fallacy is not a comparison of a rhetorical text to a set of definitions but a comparison of one person's cognition with another's. Reviews Paivio's dual coding theory, relates nonverbal coding to reasoning processes, and generates a limited fallacy theory based on dual coding theory. (PD)

  8. New quantum codes constructed from quaternary BCH codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we firstly study construction of new quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of quaternary imprimitive BCH codes. As a result, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing quaternary BCH codes are determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 53:1183-1188, 2007) for each different code length. Thus, families of new QECCs are newly obtained, and the constructed QECCs have larger distance than those in the previous literature. Secondly, we apply a combinatorial construction to the imprimitive BCH codes with their corresponding primitive counterpart and construct many new linear quantum codes with good parameters, some of which have parameters exceeding the finite Gilbert-Varshamov bound for linear quantum codes.

  9. The random coding bound is tight for the average code.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallager, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    The random coding bound of information theory provides a well-known upper bound to the probability of decoding error for the best code of a given rate and block length. The bound is constructed by upperbounding the average error probability over an ensemble of codes. The bound is known to give the correct exponential dependence of error probability on block length for transmission rates above the critical rate, but it gives an incorrect exponential dependence at rates below a second lower critical rate. Here we derive an asymptotic expression for the average error probability over the ensemble of codes used in the random coding bound. The result shows that the weakness of the random coding bound at rates below the second critical rate is due not to upperbounding the ensemble average, but rather to the fact that the best codes are much better than the average at low rates.

  10. Low Density Parity Check Codes: Bandwidth Efficient Channel Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Wai; Lin, Shu; Maki, Gary; Yeh, Pen-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Codes provide near-Shannon Capacity performance for NASA Missions. These codes have high coding rates R=0.82 and 0.875 with moderate code lengths, n=4096 and 8176. Their decoders have inherently parallel structures which allows for high-speed implementation. Two codes based on Euclidean Geometry (EG) were selected for flight ASIC implementation. These codes are cyclic and quasi-cyclic in nature and therefore have a simple encoder structure. This results in power and size benefits. These codes also have a large minimum distance as much as d,,, = 65 giving them powerful error correcting capabilities and error floors less than lo- BER. This paper will present development of the LDPC flight encoder and decoder, its applications and status.

  11. Measuring Diagnoses: ICD Code Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kimberly J; Cook, Karon F; Price, Matt D; Wildes, Kimberly Raiford; Hurdle, John F; Ashton, Carol M

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine potential sources of errors at each step of the described inpatient International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding process. Data Sources/Study Setting The use of disease codes from the ICD has expanded from classifying morbidity and mortality information for statistical purposes to diverse sets of applications in research, health care policy, and health care finance. By describing a brief history of ICD coding, detailing the process for assigning codes, identifying where errors can be introduced into the process, and reviewing methods for examining code accuracy, we help code users more systematically evaluate code accuracy for their particular applications. Study Design/Methods We summarize the inpatient ICD diagnostic coding process from patient admission to diagnostic code assignment. We examine potential sources of errors at each step and offer code users a tool for systematically evaluating code accuracy. Principle Findings Main error sources along the “patient trajectory” include amount and quality of information at admission, communication among patients and providers, the clinician's knowledge and experience with the illness, and the clinician's attention to detail. Main error sources along the “paper trail” include variance in the electronic and written records, coder training and experience, facility quality-control efforts, and unintentional and intentional coder errors, such as misspecification, unbundling, and upcoding. Conclusions By clearly specifying the code assignment process and heightening their awareness of potential error sources, code users can better evaluate the applicability and limitations of codes for their particular situations. ICD codes can then be used in the most appropriate ways. PMID:16178999

  12. Two-terminal video coding.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Stanković, Vladimir; Xiong, Zixiang; Zhao, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Following recent works on the rate region of the quadratic Gaussian two-terminal source coding problem and limit-approaching code designs, this paper examines multiterminal source coding of two correlated, i.e., stereo, video sequences to save the sum rate over independent coding of both sequences. Two multiterminal video coding schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, the left sequence of the stereo pair is coded by H.264/AVC and used at the joint decoder to facilitate Wyner-Ziv coding of the right video sequence. The first I-frame of the right sequence is successively coded by H.264/AVC Intracoding and Wyner-Ziv coding. An efficient stereo matching algorithm based on loopy belief propagation is then adopted at the decoder to produce pixel-level disparity maps between the corresponding frames of the two decoded video sequences on the fly. Based on the disparity maps, side information for both motion vectors and motion-compensated residual frames of the right sequence are generated at the decoder before Wyner-Ziv encoding. In the second scheme, source splitting is employed on top of classic and Wyner-Ziv coding for compression of both I-frames to allow flexible rate allocation between the two sequences. Experiments with both schemes on stereo video sequences using H.264/AVC, LDPC codes for Slepian-Wolf coding of the motion vectors, and scalar quantization in conjunction with LDPC codes for Wyner-Ziv coding of the residual coefficients give a slightly lower sum rate than separate H.264/AVC coding of both sequences at the same video quality.

  13. Energy Codes at a Glance

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Pamala C.; Richman, Eric E.

    2008-09-01

    Feeling dim from energy code confusion? Read on to give your inspections a charge. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Energy Codes Program addresses hundreds of inquiries from the energy codes community every year. This article offers clarification for topics of confusion submitted to BECP Technical Support of interest to electrical inspectors, focusing on the residential and commercial energy code requirements based on the most recently published 2006 International Energy Conservation Code® and ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA1 Standard 90.1-2004.

  14. bZIP transcription factor SmJLB1 regulates autophagy-related genes Smatg8 and Smatg4 and is required for fruiting-body development and vegetative growth in Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Oliver; Herzog, Britta; Jakobshagen, Antonia; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2013-12-01

    Autophagy is a precisely controlled degradation process in eukaryotic cells, during which the bulk of the cytoplasm is engulfed by a double membrane vesicle, the autophagosome. Fusion of the autophagosome with the vacuole leads to breakdown of its contents, such as proteins and organelles, and the recycling of nutrients. Earlier studies of autophagic genes of the core autophagic machinery in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora elucidated the impact of autophagy on fungal viability, vegetative growth and fruiting-body development. To gain further knowledge about the regulation of autophagy in S. macrospora, we analyzed the function of the bZIP transcription factor SmJLB1, a homolog of the Podospora anserina basic zipper-type transcription factor induced during incompatibility 4 (IDI-4) and the Aspergillus nidulans transcription factor jun-like bZIP A (JlbA). Generation of the homokaryotic deletion mutant demonstrated S. macrospora Smjlb1 is associated with autophagy-dependent processes. Deletion of Smjlb1 abolished fruiting-body formation and impaired vegetative growth. SmJLB1 is localized to the cytoplasm and to nuclei. Quantitative real-time PCR experiments revealed an upregulated expression of autophagy-related genes Smatg8 and Smatg4 in the Smjlb1 deletion mutant, suggesting a transcriptional repression function of SmJLB1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Developmental and seasonal expression of PtaHB1, a Populus gene encoding a class III HD-Zip protein, is closely associated with secondary growth and inversely correlated with the level of microRNA (miR166).

    PubMed

    Ko, Jae-Heung; Prassinos, Constantinos; Han, Kyung-Hwan

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to our knowledge of the shoot apical meristem, our understanding of cambium meristem differentiation and maintenance is limited. Class III homeodomain leucine-zipper (HD-Zip) proteins have been shown to play a regulatory role in vascular differentiation. The hybrid aspen (Populus tremulaxPopulus alba) class III HD-Zip transcription factor (PtaHB1) and microRNA 166 (Pta-miR166) family were cloned from hybrid aspen using a combination of in silico and polymerase chain reaction methods. Expression analyses of PtaHB1 and Pta-miR166 were performed by Northern blot analysis. The expression of PtaHB1 was closely associated with wood formation and regulated both developmentally and seasonally, with the highest expression during the active growing season. Also, its expression was inversely correlated with the level of Pta-miR166. Pta-miR166-directed cleavage of PtaHB1 in vivo was confirmed using modified 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The expression of Pta-miR166 was much higher in the winter than in the growing seasons, suggesting seasonal and developmental regulation of microRNA in this perennial plant species.

  16. Ethical codes for attorneys: a brief introduction.

    PubMed

    Zarkowski, P

    1997-01-01

    Ethical standards for lawyers are contained in the Model Rules of Professional Conduct (which lays out both "shall/shall not" rules and "may" suggestions in nine broad areas) and the Model Code of Professional Responsibility (which covers essentially the same topic areas but offers more detailed commentary). Topics included in the Rules are the client-lawyer relationship, the attorney's role as an advocate and counselor, law firms and associations, public service, transactions with individuals other than clients and information about legal services including advertising, firm names, and letterhead. The American Dental Association's Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct is organized around the five ethical principles of patient autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity. There are substantial similarities in intent between the ethical standards of dentists and lawyers; there are also differences.

  17. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyung-Doo; Chang, Won-Pyo

    1997-07-01

    In Korea, the current uses of thermal hydraulic codes are categorized into 3 areas. The first application is in designing both nuclear fuel and NSSS. The codes have usually been introduced based on the technology transfer programs agreed between KAERI and the foreign vendors. Another area is in the supporting of the plant operations and licensing by the utility. The third category is research purposes. In this area assessments and some applications to the safety issue resolutions are major activities using the best estimate thermal hydraulic codes such as RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE2. Recently KEPCO plans to couple thermal hydraulic codesmore » with a neutronics code for the design of the evolutionary type reactor by 2004. KAERI also plans to develop its own best estimate thermal hydraulic code, however, application range is different from KEPCO developing code. Considering these activities, it is anticipated that use of the best estimate hydraulic analysis code developed in Korea may be possible in the area of safety evaluation within 10 years.« less

  18. Subspace-Aware Index Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Kailkhura, Bhavya; Theagarajan, Lakshmi Narasimhan; Varshney, Pramod K.

    In this paper, we generalize the well-known index coding problem to exploit the structure in the source-data to improve system throughput. In many applications (e.g., multimedia), the data to be transmitted may lie (or can be well approximated) in a low-dimensional subspace. We exploit this low-dimensional structure of the data using an algebraic framework to solve the index coding problem (referred to as subspace-aware index coding) as opposed to the traditional index coding problem which is subspace-unaware. Also, we propose an efficient algorithm based on the alternating minimization approach to obtain near optimal index codes for both subspace-aware and -unawaremore » cases. In conclusion, our simulations indicate that under certain conditions, a significant throughput gain (about 90%) can be achieved by subspace-aware index codes over conventional subspace-unaware index codes.« less

  19. Visual pattern image sequence coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silsbee, Peter; Bovik, Alan C.; Chen, Dapang

    1990-01-01

    The visual pattern image coding (VPIC) configurable digital image-coding process is capable of coding with visual fidelity comparable to the best available techniques, at compressions which (at 30-40:1) exceed all other technologies. These capabilities are associated with unprecedented coding efficiencies; coding and decoding operations are entirely linear with respect to image size and entail a complexity that is 1-2 orders of magnitude faster than any previous high-compression technique. The visual pattern image sequence coding to which attention is presently given exploits all the advantages of the static VPIC in the reduction of information from an additional, temporal dimension, to achieve unprecedented image sequence coding performance.

  20. Subspace-Aware Index Codes

    DOE PAGES

    Kailkhura, Bhavya; Theagarajan, Lakshmi Narasimhan; Varshney, Pramod K.

    2017-04-12

    In this paper, we generalize the well-known index coding problem to exploit the structure in the source-data to improve system throughput. In many applications (e.g., multimedia), the data to be transmitted may lie (or can be well approximated) in a low-dimensional subspace. We exploit this low-dimensional structure of the data using an algebraic framework to solve the index coding problem (referred to as subspace-aware index coding) as opposed to the traditional index coding problem which is subspace-unaware. Also, we propose an efficient algorithm based on the alternating minimization approach to obtain near optimal index codes for both subspace-aware and -unawaremore » cases. In conclusion, our simulations indicate that under certain conditions, a significant throughput gain (about 90%) can be achieved by subspace-aware index codes over conventional subspace-unaware index codes.« less

  1. Making your code citable with the Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice; DuPrie, Kimberly; Schmidt, Judy; Berriman, G. Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J.; Mink, Jessica D.; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark B.; Teuben, Peter J.; Wallin, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL, ascl.net) is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research. With nearly 1,200 codes, it is the largest indexed resource for astronomy codes in existence. Established in 1999, it offers software authors a path to citation of their research codes even without publication of a paper describing the software, and offers scientists a way to find codes used in refereed publications, thus improving the transparency of the research. It also provides a method to quantify the impact of source codes in a fashion similar to the science metrics of journal articles. Citations using ASCL IDs are accepted by major astronomy journals and if formatted properly are tracked by ADS and other indexing services. The number of citations to ASCL entries increased sharply from 110 citations in January 2014 to 456 citations in September 2015. The percentage of code entries in ASCL that were cited at least once rose from 7.5% in January 2014 to 17.4% in September 2015. The ASCL's mid-2014 infrastructure upgrade added an easy entry submission form, more flexible browsing, search capabilities, and an RSS feeder for updates. A Changes/Additions form added this past fall lets authors submit links for papers that use their codes for addition to the ASCL entry even if those papers don't formally cite the codes, thus increasing the transparency of that research and capturing the value of their software to the community.

  2. Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A.; Teuben, P.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.

    2012-09-01

    Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysics source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL has on average added 19 codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available either via a download site or from an identified source. This paper provides the history and description of the ASCL. It lists the requirements for including codes, examines the advantages of the ASCL, and outlines some of its future plans.

  3. Spatial Analysis of Potentially Preventable Pneumonia and Asthma Hospitalizations for Children in the Texas Coastal Bend Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Na

    Pneumonia and asthma, two common Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSCs), were two top reasons for the admission of children to the hospitals and emergency rooms in the United States in 2011. Pneumonia and asthma are potentially preventable if the child's environment is properly managed. Underlying vulnerabilities such as low socioeconomic status (SES) and proximity to air pollution play an important role in ACSCs hospitalization. Pneumonia and asthma are two common reasons for hospitalizations among children and missed school days in Texas Coastal Bend Area. This thesis examines the relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics, meteorological conditions and children ACSCs hospitalization, including pneumonia and asthma among children age 0-17 in this area. Hospital discharge data from 2007 to 2009 based on Zip Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) were examined along with American Community Survey (ACS) data, air pollution data from Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and temperature data from National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Hotspot and Local Moran's I analyses were applied to identify the concentrations of the illnesses. Two regressions (OLS and GWR) were applied to identify factors that contribute the most to ACSCs hospitalization. Pearson's correlation was calculated to examine the relationship between meteorological condition and child hospitalization for asthma and pneumonia. A human subject survey was conducted to examine the relationships between neighborhood environment and children asthma cases. The main finding was that children from families with health insurance, children from single father families and children from poor families were more likely to visit hospital for ACSCs and pneumonia care. "Hispanic families" and especially "Hispanic families with father but no mother" also contributed most to child hospitalization for ACSCs and pneumonia, suggesting that family preventative health care education is needed for Hispanic

  4. Residential Area Life Expectancy: Association With Outcomes and Processes of Care for Patients With ESRD in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schold, Jesse D; Flechner, Stuart M; Poggio, Emilio D; Augustine, Joshua J; Goldfarb, David A; Sedor, John R; Buccini, Laura D

    2018-03-07

    The effects of underlying noncodified risks are unclear on the prognosis of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We aimed to evaluate the association of residential area life expectancy with outcomes and processes of care for patients with ESRD in the United States. Retrospective cohort study. Adult patients with incident ESRD between 2006 and 2013 recorded in the US Renal Data System (n=606,046). The primary exposure was life expectancy in the patient's residential county estimated by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Death, placement on the kidney transplant wait list, living and deceased donor kidney transplantation, and posttransplantation graft loss. Median life expectancies of patients' residences were 75.6 (males) and 80.4 years (females). Compared to the highest life expectancy quintile and adjusted for demographic factors, disease cause, and multiple comorbid conditions, the lowest quintile had adjusted HRs for mortality of 1.20 (95% CI, 1.18-1.22); placement onto the waiting list, 0.68 (95% CI, 0.67-0.70); living donor transplantation, 0.53 (95% CI, 0.51-0.56); posttransplantation graft loss, 1.35 (95% CI, 1.27-1.43); and posttransplantation mortality, 1.29 (95% CI, 1.19-1.39). Patients living in areas with lower life expectancy were less likely to be informed about transplantation, be under the care of a nephrologist, or receive an arteriovenous fistula as the initial dialysis access. Results remained consistent with additional adjustment for zip code-level median income, population size, and urban-rural locality. Potential residual confounding and attribution of effects to individuals based on residential area-level data. Residential area life expectancy, a proxy for socioeconomic, environmental, genetic, and behavioral factors, was independently associated with mortality and process-of-care measures for patients with ESRD. These results emphasize the underlying effect on health outcomes of the environment in which patients

  5. Peripheral coding of taste

    PubMed Central

    Liman, Emily R.; Zhang, Yali V.; Montell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty and sour (acid) are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

  6. DNA codes for nanoscience.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Bruno; Zuccheri, Giampaolo

    2005-02-11

    The nanometer scale is a special place where all sciences meet and develop a particularly strong interdisciplinarity. While biology is a source of inspiration for nanoscientists, chemistry has a central role in turning inspirations and methods from biological systems to nanotechnological use. DNA is the biological molecule by which nanoscience and nanotechnology is mostly fascinated. Nature uses DNA not only as a repository of the genetic information, but also as a controller of the expression of the genes it contains. Thus, there are codes embedded in the DNA sequence that serve to control recognition processes on the atomic scale, such as the base pairing, and others that control processes taking place on the nanoscale. From the chemical point of view, DNA is the supramolecular building block with the highest informational content. Nanoscience has therefore the opportunity of using DNA molecules to increase the level of complexity and efficiency in self-assembling and self-directing processes.

  7. Surface code quantum communication.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Austin G; Wang, David S; Hill, Charles D; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Van Meter, Rodney; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2010-05-07

    Quantum communication typically involves a linear chain of repeater stations, each capable of reliable local quantum computation and connected to their nearest neighbors by unreliable communication links. The communication rate of existing protocols is low as two-way classical communication is used. By using a surface code across the repeater chain and generating Bell pairs between neighboring stations with probability of heralded success greater than 0.65 and fidelity greater than 0.96, we show that two-way communication can be avoided and quantum information can be sent over arbitrary distances with arbitrarily low error at a rate limited only by the local gate speed. This is achieved by using the unreliable Bell pairs to measure nonlocal stabilizers and feeding heralded failure information into post-transmission error correction. Our scheme also applies when the probability of heralded success is arbitrarily low.

  8. Hanford meteorological station computer codes: Volume 9, The quality assurance computer codes

    SciTech Connect

    Burk, K.W.; Andrews, G.L.

    1989-02-01

    The Hanford Meteorological Station (HMS) was established in 1944 on the Hanford Site to collect and archive meteorological data and provide weather forecasts and related services for Hanford Site approximately 1/2 mile east of the 200 West Area and is operated by PNL for the US Department of Energy. Meteorological data are collected from various sensors and equipment located on and off the Hanford Site. These data are stored in data bases on the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAX 11/750 at the HMS (hereafter referred to as the HMS computer). Files from those data bases are routinely transferred to themore » Emergency Management System (EMS) computer at the Unified Dose Assessment Center (UDAC). To ensure the quality and integrity of the HMS data, a set of Quality Assurance (QA) computer codes has been written. The codes will be routinely used by the HMS system manager or the data base custodian. The QA codes provide detailed output files that will be used in correcting erroneous data. The following sections in this volume describe the implementation and operation of QA computer codes. The appendices contain detailed descriptions, flow charts, and source code listings of each computer code. 2 refs.« less

  9. Surface acoustic wave coding for orthogonal frequency coded devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Kozlovski, Nikolai (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and systems for coding SAW OFC devices to mitigate code collisions in a wireless multi-tag system. Each device producing plural stepped frequencies as an OFC signal with a chip offset delay to increase code diversity. A method for assigning a different OCF to each device includes using a matrix based on the number of OFCs needed and the number chips per code, populating each matrix cell with OFC chip, and assigning the codes from the matrix to the devices. The asynchronous passive multi-tag system includes plural surface acoustic wave devices each producing a different OFC signal having the same number of chips and including a chip offset time delay, an algorithm for assigning OFCs to each device, and a transceiver to transmit an interrogation signal and receive OFC signals in response with minimal code collisions during transmission.

  10. Investigating the Simulink Auto-Coding Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gualdoni, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    the program; additionally, this is lost time that could be spent testing and analyzing the code. This is one of the more prominent issues with the auto-coding process, and while much information is available with regard to optimizing Simulink designs to produce efficient and reliable C++ code, not much research has been made public on how to reduce the code generation time. It is of interest to develop some insight as to what causes code generation times to be so significant, and determine if there are architecture guidelines or a desirable auto-coding configuration set to assist in streamlining this step of the design process for particular applications. To address the issue at hand, the Simulink coder was studied at a foundational level. For each different component type made available by the software, the features, auto-code generation time, and the format of the generated code were analyzed and documented. Tools were developed and documented to expedite these studies, particularly in the area of automating sequential builds to ensure accurate data was obtained. Next, the Ramses model was examined in an attempt to determine the composition and the types of technologies used in the model. This enabled the development of a model that uses similar technologies, but takes a fraction of the time to auto-code to reduce the turnaround time for experimentation. Lastly, the model was used to run a wide array of experiments and collect data to obtain knowledge about where to search for bottlenecks in the Ramses model. The resulting contributions of the overall effort consist of an experimental model for further investigation into the subject, as well as several automation tools to assist in analyzing the model, and a reference document offering insight to the auto-coding process, including documentation of the tools used in the model analysis, data illustrating some potential problem areas in the auto-coding process, and recommendations on areas or practices in the current

  11. Self-complementary circular codes in coding theory.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Michel, Christian J; Starman, Martin; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2018-04-01

    Self-complementary circular codes are involved in pairing genetic processes. A maximal [Formula: see text] self-complementary circular code X of trinucleotides was identified in genes of bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes, plasmids and viruses (Michel in Life 7(20):1-16 2017, J Theor Biol 380:156-177, 2015; Arquès and Michel in J Theor Biol 182:45-58 1996). In this paper, self-complementary circular codes are investigated using the graph theory approach recently formulated in Fimmel et al. (Philos Trans R Soc A 374:20150058, 2016). A directed graph [Formula: see text] associated with any code X mirrors the properties of the code. In the present paper, we demonstrate a necessary condition for the self-complementarity of an arbitrary code X in terms of the graph theory. The same condition has been proven to be sufficient for codes which are circular and of large size [Formula: see text] trinucleotides, in particular for maximal circular codes ([Formula: see text] trinucleotides). For codes of small-size [Formula: see text] trinucleotides, some very rare counterexamples have been constructed. Furthermore, the length and the structure of the longest paths in the graphs associated with the self-complementary circular codes are investigated. It has been proven that the longest paths in such graphs determine the reading frame for the self-complementary circular codes. By applying this result, the reading frame in any arbitrary sequence of trinucleotides is retrieved after at most 15 nucleotides, i.e., 5 consecutive trinucleotides, from the circular code X identified in genes. Thus, an X motif of a length of at least 15 nucleotides in an arbitrary sequence of trinucleotides (not necessarily all of them belonging to X) uniquely defines the reading (correct) frame, an important criterion for analyzing the X motifs in genes in the future.

  12. Where Do Freestanding Emergency Departments Choose to Locate? A National Inventory and Geographic Analysis in Three States.

    PubMed

    Schuur, Jeremiah D; Baker, Olesya; Freshman, Jaclyn; Wilson, Michael; Cutler, David M

    2017-04-01

    We determine the number and location of freestanding emergency departments (EDs) across the United States and determine the population characteristics of areas where freestanding EDs are located. We conducted a systematic inventory of US freestanding EDs. For the 3 states with the highest number of freestanding EDs, we linked demographic, insurance, and health services data, using the 5-digit ZIP code corresponding to the freestanding ED's location. To create a comparison nonfreestanding ED group, we matched 187 freestanding EDs to 1,048 nonfreestanding ED ZIP codes on land and population within state. We compared differences in demographic, insurance, and health services factors between matched ZIP codes with and without freestanding EDs, using univariate regressions with weights. We identified 360 freestanding EDs located in 30 states; 54.2% of freestanding EDs were hospital satellites, 36.6% were independent, and 9.2% were not classifiable. The 3 states with the highest number of freestanding EDs accounted for 66% of all freestanding EDs: Texas (181), Ohio (34), and Colorado (24). Across all 3 states, freestanding EDs were located in ZIP codes that had higher incomes and a lower proportion of the population with Medicaid. In Texas and Ohio, freestanding EDs were located in ZIP codes with a higher proportion of the population with private insurance. In Texas, freestanding EDs were located in ZIP codes that had fewer Hispanics, had a greater number of hospital-based EDs and physician offices, and had more physician visits and medical spending per year than ZIP codes without a freestanding ED. In Ohio, freestanding EDs were located in ZIP codes with fewer hospital-based EDs. In Texas, Ohio, and Colorado, freestanding EDs were located in areas with a better payer mix. The location of freestanding EDs in relation to other health care facilities and use and spending on health care varied between states. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians

  13. Interframe vector wavelet coding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wus, John P.; Li, Weiping

    1997-01-01

    Wavelet coding is often used to divide an image into multi- resolution wavelet coefficients which are quantized and coded. By 'vectorizing' scalar wavelet coding and combining this with vector quantization (VQ), vector wavelet coding (VWC) can be implemented. Using a finite number of states, finite-state vector quantization (FSVQ) takes advantage of the similarity between frames by incorporating memory into the video coding system. Lattice VQ eliminates the potential mismatch that could occur using pre-trained VQ codebooks. It also eliminates the need for codebook storage in the VQ process, thereby creating a more robust coding system. Therefore, by using the VWC coding method in conjunction with the FSVQ system and lattice VQ, the formulation of a high quality very low bit rate coding systems is proposed. A coding system using a simple FSVQ system where the current state is determined by the previous channel symbol only is developed. To achieve a higher degree of compression, a tree-like FSVQ system is implemented. The groupings are done in this tree-like structure from the lower subbands to the higher subbands in order to exploit the nature of subband analysis in terms of the parent-child relationship. Class A and Class B video sequences from the MPEG-IV testing evaluations are used in the evaluation of this coding method.

  14. New optimal asymmetric quantum codes constructed from constacyclic codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Lü, Liangdong

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose the construction of asymmetric quantum codes from two families of constacyclic codes over finite field 𝔽q2 of code length n, where for the first family, q is an odd prime power with the form 4t + 1 (t ≥ 1 is integer) or 4t - 1 (t ≥ 2 is integer) and n1 = q2+1 2; for the second family, q is an odd prime power with the form 10t + 3 or 10t + 7 (t ≥ 0 is integer) and n2 = q2+1 5. As a result, families of new asymmetric quantum codes [[n,k,dz/dx

  15. 39 CFR Appendix A to Part 121 - Tables Depicting Service Standard Day Ranges

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Days) Alaska Hawaii, Guam, & American Samoa Puerto Rico & USVI Periodicals 1 1-3 1 1-3 1-4 (AK)11 (JNU... 2-3 12 11 11 AK = Alaska 3-digit ZIP Codes 995-997; JNU = Juneau AK 3-digit ZIP Code 998; KTN = Ketchikan AK 3-digit ZIP Code 999; HI = Hawaii 3-digit ZIP Codes 967 and 968; GU = Guam 3-digit ZIP Code 969...

  16. Nonlinear, nonbinary cyclic group codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    New cyclic group codes of length 2(exp m) - 1 over (m - j)-bit symbols are introduced. These codes can be systematically encoded and decoded algebraically. The code rates are very close to Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and are much better than Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes (a former alternative). The binary (m - j)-tuples are identified with a subgroup of the binary m-tuples which represents the field GF(2 exp m). Encoding is systematic and involves a two-stage procedure consisting of the usual linear feedback register (using the division or check polynomial) and a small table lookup. For low rates, a second shift-register encoding operation may be invoked. Decoding uses the RS error-correcting procedures for the m-tuple codes for m = 4, 5, and 6.

  17. Understanding Local Spatial Variation Along the Care Continuum: The Potential Impact of Transportation Vulnerability on HIV Linkage to Care and Viral Suppression in High-Poverty Areas, Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Neela D; Schmitz, Michelle M; Sanchez, Travis; Dasgupta, Sharoda; Sullivan, Patrick; Cooper, Hannah; Rane, Deepali; Kelly, Jane; Del Rio, Carlos; Waller, Lance A

    2016-05-01

    Engagement in care is central to reducing mortality for HIV-infected persons and achieving the White House National AIDS Strategy of 80% viral suppression in the US by 2020. Where an HIV-infected person lives impacts his or her ability to achieve viral suppression. Reliable transportation access for healthcare may be a key determinant of this place-suppression relationship. ZIP code tabulation areas (ZCTAs) were the units of analysis. We used geospatial and ecologic analyses to examine spatial distributions of neighborhood-level variables (eg, transportation accessibility) and associations with: (1) community linkage to care, and (2) community viral suppression. Among Atlanta ZCTAs with data for newly diagnosed HIV cases (2006-2010), we used Moran I to evaluate spatial clustering and linear regression models to evaluate associations between neighborhood variables and outcomes. In 100 ZCTAs with 8413 newly diagnosed HIV-positive residents, a median of 60 HIV cases were diagnosed per ZCTA during the 5-year period. We found significant clustering of ZCTAs with low linkage to care and viral suppression (Moran I = 0.218, P < 0.05). In high-poverty ZCTAs, a 10% point increase in ZCTA-level household vehicle ownership was associated with a 4% point increase in linkage to care (P = 0.02, R = 0.16). In low-poverty ZCTAs, a 10% point increase in ZCTA-level household vehicle ownership was associated with a 30% point increase in ZCTA-level viral suppression (P = 0.01, R = 0.08). Correlations between transportation variables and community-level care linkage and viral suppression vary by area poverty level and provide opportunities for interventions beyond individual-level factors.

  18. QR code for medical information uses.

    PubMed

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Ducut, Erick G

    2008-11-06

    We developed QR code online tools, simulated and tested QR code applications for medical information uses including scanning QR code labels, URLs and authentication. Our results show possible applications for QR code in medicine.

  19. Implementation issues in source coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Chen, Yun-Chung; Hadenfeldt, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    An edge preserving image coding scheme which can be operated in both a lossy and a lossless manner was developed. The technique is an extension of the lossless encoding algorithm developed for the Mars observer spectral data. It can also be viewed as a modification of the DPCM algorithm. A packet video simulator was also developed from an existing modified packet network simulator. The coding scheme for this system is a modification of the mixture block coding (MBC) scheme described in the last report. Coding algorithms for packet video were also investigated.

  20. Nuclear shell model code CRUNCHER

    SciTech Connect

    Resler, D.A.; Grimes, S.M.

    1988-05-01

    A new nuclear shell model code CRUNCHER, patterned after the code VLADIMIR, has been developed. While CRUNCHER and VLADIMIR employ the techniques of an uncoupled basis and the Lanczos process, improvements in the new code allow it to handle much larger problems than the previous code and to perform them more efficiently. Tests involving a moderately sized calculation indicate that CRUNCHER running on a SUN 3/260 workstation requires approximately one-half the central processing unit (CPU) time required by VLADIMIR running on a CRAY-1 supercomputer.

  1. Variable Coded Modulation software simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sielicki, Thomas A.; Hamkins, Jon; Thorsen, Denise

    This paper reports on the design and performance of a new Variable Coded Modulation (VCM) system. This VCM system comprises eight of NASA's recommended codes from the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standards, including four turbo and four AR4JA/C2 low-density parity-check codes, together with six modulations types (BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK, 16-APSK, 32-APSK, 64-APSK). The signaling protocol for the transmission mode is based on a CCSDS recommendation. The coded modulation may be dynamically chosen, block to block, to optimize throughput.

  2. Astrophysics Source Code Library Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Allen, A.; Berriman, G. B.; DuPrie, K.; Mink, J.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Schmidt, J.; Shamir, L.; Shortridge, K.; Taylor, M.; Teuben, P. J.; Wallin, J.

    2015-09-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL)1 is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research; it currently contains over 900 codes and is indexed by ADS. The ASCL has recently moved a new infrastructure into production. The new site provides a true database for the code entries and integrates the WordPress news and information pages and the discussion forum into one site. Previous capabilities are retained and permalinks to ascl.net continue to work. This improvement offers more functionality and flexibility than the previous site, is easier to maintain, and offers new possibilities for collaboration. This paper covers these recent changes to the ASCL.

  3. The FLUKA Code: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M. V.; hide

    2006-01-01

    FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

  4. High Order Modulation Protograph Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods for designing protograph-based bit-interleaved code modulation that is general and applies to any modulation. The general coding framework can support not only multiple rates but also adaptive modulation. The method is a two stage lifting approach. In the first stage, an original protograph is lifted to a slightly larger intermediate protograph. The intermediate protograph is then lifted via a circulant matrix to the expected codeword length to form a protograph-based low-density parity-check code.

  5. Patched Conic Trajectory Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brooke Anderson; Wright, Henry

    2012-01-01

    PatCon code was developed to help mission designers run trade studies on launch and arrival times for any given planet. Initially developed in Fortran, the required inputs included launch date, arrival date, and other orbital parameters of the launch planet and arrival planets at the given dates. These parameters include the position of the planets, the eccentricity, semi-major axes, argument of periapsis, ascending node, and inclination of the planets. With these inputs, a patched conic approximation is used to determine the trajectory. The patched conic approximation divides the planetary mission into three parts: (1) the departure phase, in which the two relevant bodies are Earth and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a departure hyperbola with Earth at the focus; (2) the cruise phase, in which the two bodies are the Sun and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a transfer ellipse with the Sun at the focus; and (3) the arrival phase, in which the two bodies are the target planet and the spacecraft, where the trajectory is an arrival hyperbola with the planet as the focus.

  6. SCALE Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T.; Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    The SCALE Code System is a widely-used modeling and simulation suite for nuclear safety analysis and design that is developed, maintained, tested, and managed by the Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division (RNSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SCALE provides a comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly tool set for criticality safety, reactor and lattice physics, radiation shielding, spent fuel and radioactive source term characterization, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Since 1980, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for safety analysis and design. SCALE provides an integrated framework with dozens of computational modules including three deterministicmore » and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that are selected based on the desired solution strategy. SCALE includes current nuclear data libraries and problem-dependent processing tools for continuous-energy (CE) and multigroup (MG) neutronics and coupled neutron-gamma calculations, as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE includes unique capabilities for automated variance reduction for shielding calculations, as well as sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. SCALE’s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization of nuclear data, and convenient access to desired results.« less

  7. Mobile code security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalingam, Srikumar

    2001-11-01

    A highly secure mobile agent system is very important for a mobile computing environment. The security issues in mobile agent system comprise protecting mobile hosts from malicious agents, protecting agents from other malicious agents, protecting hosts from other malicious hosts and protecting agents from malicious hosts. Using traditional security mechanisms the first three security problems can be solved. Apart from using trusted hardware, very few approaches exist to protect mobile code from malicious hosts. Some of the approaches to solve this problem are the use of trusted computing, computing with encrypted function, steganography, cryptographic traces, Seal Calculas, etc. This paper focuses on the simulation of some of these existing techniques in the designed mobile language. Some new approaches to solve malicious network problem and agent tampering problem are developed using public key encryption system and steganographic concepts. The approaches are based on encrypting and hiding the partial solutions of the mobile agents. The partial results are stored and the address of the storage is destroyed as the agent moves from one host to another host. This allows only the originator to make use of the partial results. Through these approaches some of the existing problems are solved.

  8. Standard interface files and procedures for reactor physics codes, version III

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, B.M.

    Standards and procedures for promoting the exchange of reactor physics codes are updated to Version-III status. Standards covering program structure, interface files, file handling subroutines, and card input format are included. The implementation status of the standards in codes and the extension of the standards to new code areas are summarized. (15 references) (auth)

  9. One Speaker, Two Languages. Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Code-Switching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milroy, Lesley, Ed.; Muysken, Pieter, Ed.

    Fifteen articles review code-switching in the four major areas: policy implications in specific institutional and community settings; perspectives of social theory of code-switching as a form of speech behavior in particular social contexts; the grammatical analysis of code-switching, including factors that constrain switching even within a…

  10. The Social Interactive Coding System (SICS): An On-Line, Clinically Relevant Descriptive Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The Social Interactive Coding System (SICS) assesses the continuous verbal interactions of preschool children as a function of play areas, addressees, script codes, and play levels. This paper describes the 26 subjects and the setting involved in SICS development, coding definitions and procedures, training procedures, reliability, sample…

  11. An active Mitochondrial Complex II Present in Mature Seeds Contains an Embryo-Specific Iron-Sulfur Subunit Regulated by ABA and bZIP53 and Is Involved in Germination and Seedling Establishment.

    PubMed

    Restovic, Franko; Espinoza-Corral, Roberto; Gómez, Isabel; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús; Jordana, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Complex II (succinate dehydrogenase) is an essential mitochondrial enzyme involved in both the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the respiratory chain. In Arabidopsis thaliana , its iron-sulfur subunit (SDH2) is encoded by three genes, one of them ( SDH2.3 ) being specifically expressed during seed maturation in the embryo. Here we show that seed SDH2.3 expression is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and we define the promoter region (-114 to +49) possessing all the cis -elements necessary and sufficient for high expression in seeds. This region includes between -114 and -32 three ABRE (ABA-responsive) elements and one RY-enhancer like element, and we demonstrate that these elements, although necessary, are not sufficient for seed expression, our results supporting a role for the region encoding the 5' untranslated region (+1 to +49). The SDH2.3 promoter is activated in leaf protoplasts by heterodimers between the basic leucine zipper transcription factors bZIP53 (group S1) and bZIP10 (group C) acting through the ABRE elements, and by the B3 domain transcription factor ABA insensitive 3 (ABI3). The in vivo role of bZIP53 is further supported by decreased SDH2.3 expression in a knockdown bzip53 mutant. By using the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide and sdh2 mutants we have been able to conclusively show that complex II is already present in mature embryos before imbibition, and contains mainly SDH2.3 as iron-sulfur subunit. This complex plays a role during seed germination sensu-stricto since we have previously shown that seeds lacking SDH2.3 show retarded germination and now we demonstrate that low concentrations of thenoyltrifluoroacetone, a complex II inhibitor, also delay germination. Furthermore, complex II inhibitors completely block hypocotyl elongation in the dark and seedling establishment in the light, highlighting an essential role of complex II in the acquisition of photosynthetic competence and the transition from heterotrophy to autotrophy.

  12. Civil Code, 11 December 1987.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    Article 162 of this Mexican Code provides, among other things, that "Every person has the right freely, responsibly, and in an informed fashion to determine the number and spacing of his or her children." When a marriage is involved, this right is to be observed by the spouses "in agreement with each other." The civil codes of the following states contain the same provisions: 1) Baja California (Art. 159 of the Civil Code of 28 April 1972 as revised in Decree No. 167 of 31 January 1974); 2) Morelos (Art. 255 of the Civil Code of 26 September 1949 as revised in Decree No. 135 of 29 December 1981); 3) Queretaro (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 29 December 1950 as revised in the Act of 9 January 1981); 4) San Luis Potosi (Art. 147 of the Civil Code of 24 March 1946 as revised in 13 June 1978); Sinaloa (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 18 June 1940 as revised in Decree No. 28 of 14 October 1975); 5) Tamaulipas (Art. 146 of the Civil Code of 21 November 1960 as revised in Decree No. 20 of 30 April 1975); 6) Veracruz-Llave (Art. 98 of the Civil Code of 1 September 1932 as revised in the Act of 30 December 1975); and 7) Zacatecas (Art. 253 of the Civil Code of 9 February 1965 as revised in Decree No. 104 of 13 August 1975). The Civil Codes of Puebla and Tlaxcala provide for this right only in the context of marriage with the spouses in agreement. See Art. 317 of the Civil Code of Puebla of 15 April 1985 and Article 52 of the Civil Code of Tlaxcala of 31 August 1976 as revised in Decree No. 23 of 2 April 1984. The Family Code of Hidalgo requires as a formality of marriage a certification that the spouses are aware of methods of controlling fertility, responsible parenthood, and family planning. In addition, Article 22 the Civil Code of the Federal District provides that the legal capacity of natural persons is acquired at birth and lost at death; however, from the moment of conception the individual comes under the protection of the law, which is valid with respect to the

  13. Error coding simulations in C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1994-01-01

    When data is transmitted through a noisy channel, errors are produced within the data rendering it indecipherable. Through the use of error control coding techniques, the bit error rate can be reduced to any desired level without sacrificing the transmission data rate. The Astrionics Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center has decided to use a modular, end-to-end telemetry data simulator to simulate the transmission of data from flight to ground and various methods of error control. The simulator includes modules for random data generation, data compression, Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) transfer frame formation, error correction/detection, error generation and error statistics. The simulator utilizes a concatenated coding scheme which includes CCSDS standard (255,223) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF(2(exp 8)) with interleave depth of 5 as the outermost code, (7, 1/2) convolutional code as an inner code and CCSDS recommended (n, n-16) cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code as the innermost code, where n is the number of information bits plus 16 parity bits. The received signal-to-noise for a desired bit error rate is greatly reduced through the use of forward error correction techniques. Even greater coding gain is provided through the use of a concatenated coding scheme. Interleaving/deinterleaving is necessary to randomize burst errors which may appear at the input of the RS decoder. The burst correction capability length is increased in proportion to the interleave depth. The modular nature of the simulator allows for inclusion or exclusion of modules as needed. This paper describes the development and operation of the simulator, the verification of a C-language Reed-Solomon code, and the possibility of using Comdisco SPW(tm) as a tool for determining optimal error control schemes.

  14. Advanced technology development for image gathering, coding, and processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.

    1990-01-01

    Three overlapping areas of research activities are presented: (1) Information theory and optimal filtering are extended to visual information acquisition and processing. The goal is to provide a comprehensive methodology for quantitatively assessing the end-to-end performance of image gathering, coding, and processing. (2) Focal-plane processing techniques and technology are developed to combine effectively image gathering with coding. The emphasis is on low-level vision processing akin to the retinal processing in human vision. (3) A breadboard adaptive image-coding system is being assembled. This system will be used to develop and evaluate a number of advanced image-coding technologies and techniques as well as research the concept of adaptive image coding.

  15. Error-correction coding for digital communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G. C., Jr.; Cain, J. B.

    This book is written for the design engineer who must build the coding and decoding equipment and for the communication system engineer who must incorporate this equipment into a system. It is also suitable as a senior-level or first-year graduate text for an introductory one-semester course in coding theory. Fundamental concepts of coding are discussed along with group codes, taking into account basic principles, practical constraints, performance computations, coding bounds, generalized parity check codes, polynomial codes, and important classes of group codes. Other topics explored are related to simple nonalgebraic decoding techniques for group codes, soft decision decoding of block codes, algebraic techniques for multiple error correction, the convolutional code structure and Viterbi decoding, syndrome decoding techniques, and sequential decoding techniques. System applications are also considered, giving attention to concatenated codes, coding for the white Gaussian noise channel, interleaver structures for coded systems, and coding for burst noise channels.

  16. Language Recognition via Sparse Coding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-08

    a posteriori (MAP) adaptation scheme that further optimizes the discriminative quality of sparse-coded speech fea - tures. We empirically validate the...significantly improve the discriminative quality of sparse-coded speech fea - tures. In Section 4, we evaluate the proposed approaches against an i-vector

  17. South Carolina TEC Student Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, C. A., Ed.; Kiser, J. A., Ed.

    This student code has statewide application to South Carolina Technical Colleges and Technical Education Centers (TEC). Provisions are divided into eight articles: (1) General Provisions, including the purpose of a student code, the precept of internal solution of problems, and definitions; (2) Student Rights, including Bill of Rights protections;…

  18. Building codes : obstacle or opportunity?

    Treesearch

    Alberto Goetzl; David B. McKeever

    1999-01-01

    Building codes are critically important in the use of wood products for construction. The codes contain regulations that are prescriptive or performance related for various kinds of buildings and construction types. A prescriptive standard might dictate that a particular type of material be used in a given application. A performance standard requires that a particular...

  19. A GPL Relativistic Hydrodynamical Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olvera, D.; Mendoza, S.

    We are currently building a free (in the sense of a GNU GPL license) 2DRHD code in order to be used for different astrophysical situations. Our final target will be to include strong gravitational fields and magnetic fields. We intend to form a large group of developers as it is usually done for GPL codes.

  20. Breaking the Code of Silence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbig, Wolfgang W.

    2000-01-01

    Schools and communities must break the adolescent code of silence concerning threats of violence. Schools need character education stressing courage, caring, and responsibility; regular discussions of the school discipline code; formal security discussions with parents; 24-hour hotlines; and protocols for handling reports of potential violence.…

  1. Computer algorithm for coding gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    Development of a computer algorithm for coding gain for use in an automated communications link design system. Using an empirical formula which defines coding gain as used in space communications engineering, an algorithm is constructed on the basis of available performance data for nonsystematic convolutional encoding with soft-decision (eight-level) Viterbi decoding.

  2. Community Alcohol Outlet Density and Underage Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W.; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Aim This study examined how community alcohol outlet density may be associated with drinking among youths. Methods Longitudinal data were collected from 1091 adolescents (aged 14–16 at baseline) recruited from 50 zip codes in California with varying levels of alcohol outlet density and median household income. Hierarchical linear models were used to examine the associations between zip code alcohol outlet density and frequency rates of general alcohol use and excessive drinking, taking into account zip code median household income and individual-level variables (age, gender, race/ethnicity, personal income, mobility, and perceived drinking by parents and peers). Findings When all other factors were controlled, higher initial levels of drinking and excessive drinking were observed among youths residing in zip codes with higher alcohol outlet densities. Growth in drinking and excessive drinking was on average more rapid in zip codes with lower alcohol outlet densities. The relation of zip code alcohol outlet density with drinking appeared to be mitigated by having friends with access to a car. Conclusion Alcohol outlet density may play a significant role in initiation of underage drinking during early teen ages, especially when youths have limited mobility. Youth who reside in areas with low alcohol outlet density may overcome geographic constraints through social networks that increase their mobility and the ability to seek alcohol and drinking opportunities beyond the local community. PMID:20078485

  3. MEMOPS: data modelling and automatic code generation.

    PubMed

    Fogh, Rasmus H; Boucher, Wayne; Ionides, John M C; Vranken, Wim F; Stevens, Tim J; Laue, Ernest D

    2010-03-25

    In recent years the amount of biological data has exploded to the point where much useful information can only be extracted by complex computational analyses. Such analyses are greatly facilitated by metadata standards, both in terms of the ability to compare data originating from different sources, and in terms of exchanging data in standard forms, e.g. when running processes on a distributed computing infrastructure. However, standards thrive on stability whereas science tends to constantly move, with new methods being developed and old ones modified. Therefore maintaining both metadata standards, and all the code that is required to make them useful, is a non-trivial problem. Memops is a framework that uses an abstract definition of the metadata (described in UML) to generate internal data structures and subroutine libraries for data access (application programming interfaces--APIs--currently in Python, C and Java) and data storage (in XML files or databases). For the individual project these libraries obviate the need for writing code for input parsing, validity checking or output. Memops also ensures that the code is always internally consistent, massively reducing the need for code reorganisation. Across a scientific domain a Memops-supported data model makes it easier to support complex standards that can capture all the data produced in a scientific area, share them among all programs in a complex software pipeline, and carry them forward to deposition in an archive. The principles behind the Memops generation code will be presented, along with example applications in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and structural biology.

  4. Tristan code and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.

    Since TRISTAN: The 3-D Electromagnetic Particle Code was introduced in 1990, it has been used for many applications including the simulations of global solar windmagnetosphere interaction. The most essential ingridients of this code have been published in the ISSS-4 book. In this abstract we describe some of issues and an application of this code for the study of global solar wind-magnetosphere interaction including a substorm study. The basic code (tristan.f) for the global simulation and a local simulation of reconnection with a Harris model (issrec2.f) are available at http:/www.physics.rutger.edu/˜kenichi. For beginners the code (isssrc2.f) with simpler boundary conditions is suitable to start to run simulations. The future of global particle simulations for a global geospace general circulation (GGCM) model with predictive capability (for Space Weather Program) is discussed.

  5. PARAVT: Parallel Voronoi tessellation code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, R. E.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present a new open source code for massive parallel computation of Voronoi tessellations (VT hereafter) in large data sets. The code is focused for astrophysical purposes where VT densities and neighbors are widely used. There are several serial Voronoi tessellation codes, however no open source and parallel implementations are available to handle the large number of particles/galaxies in current N-body simulations and sky surveys. Parallelization is implemented under MPI and VT using Qhull library. Domain decomposition takes into account consistent boundary computation between tasks, and includes periodic conditions. In addition, the code computes neighbors list, Voronoi density, Voronoi cell volume, density gradient for each particle, and densities on a regular grid. Code implementation and user guide are publicly available at https://github.com/regonzar/paravt.

  6. UUGM Code Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-26

    atmospheres of at this time. certain solar system planets. The JPL work was directed at very specific applications; however, the Studi"ss-1 7 WorkRe ported in...pressure atmospheres of certain 1-60 Hz. The spark plug power output was varied inversely solar system planets. The JPL work was directed at very with...general case of explosive dust diaper - deposited as a thin layer over the surface area of the sion. We will consider particle density variation from 4

  7. Chickpea WRKY70 Regulates the Expression of a Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip) I Transcription Factor CaHDZ12, which Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco and Chickpea.

    PubMed

    Sen, Senjuti; Chakraborty, Joydeep; Ghosh, Prithwi; Basu, Debabrata; Das, Sampa

    2017-11-01

    Drought and salinity are the two major environmental constraints that severely affect global agricultural productivity. Plant-specific HD-Zip transcription factors are involved in plant growth, development and stress responses. In the present study, we explored the functional characteristics and regulation of a novel HD-Zip (I) gene from chickpea, CaHDZ12, in response to water-deficit and salt-stress conditions. Transgenic tobacco lines over-expressing CaHDZ12 exhibited improved tolerance to osmotic stresses and increased sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Physiological compatibility of transgenic lines was found to be more robust compared to the wild-type plants under drought and salinity stress. Additionally, expression of several stress-responsive genes was significantly induced in CaHDZ12 transgenic plants. On the other hand, silencing of CaHDZ12 in chickpea resulted in increased sensitivity to salt and drought stresses. Analysis of different promoter deletion mutants identified CaWRKY70 transcription factor as a transcriptional regulator of CaHDZ12 expression. In vivo and in vitro interaction studies detected an association between CaWRKY70 and CaHDZ12 promoter during stress responses. Epigenetic modifications underlying histone acetylation at the CaHDZ12 promoter region play a significant role in stress-induced activation of this gene. Collectively, our study describes a crucial and unique mechanistic link between two distinct transcription factors in regulating plant adaptive stress response. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. SPIDERMAN: Fast code to simulate secondary transits and phase curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louden, Tom; Kreidberg, Laura

    2017-11-01

    SPIDERMAN calculates exoplanet phase curves and secondary eclipses with arbitrary surface brightness distributions in two dimensions. The code uses a geometrical algorithm to solve exactly the area of sections of the disc of the planet that are occulted by the star. Approximately 1000 models can be generated per second in typical use, which makes making Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses practicable. The code is modular and allows comparison of the effect of multiple different brightness distributions for a dataset.

  9. Coding for effective denial management.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jackie; Lineberry, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Nearly everyone will agree that accurate and consistent coding of diagnoses and procedures is the cornerstone for operating a compliant practice. The CPT or HCPCS procedure code tells the payor what service was performed and also (in most cases) determines the amount of payment. The ICD-9-CM diagnosis code, on the other hand, tells the payor why the service was performed. If the diagnosis code does not meet the payor's criteria for medical necessity, all payment for the service will be denied. Implementation of an effective denial management program can help "stop the bleeding." Denial management is a comprehensive process that works in two ways. First, it evaluates the cause of denials and takes steps to prevent them. Second, denial management creates specific procedures for refiling or appealing claims that are initially denied. Accurate, consistent and compliant coding is key to both of these functions. The process of proactively managing claim denials also reveals a practice's administrative strengths and weaknesses, enabling radiology business managers to streamline processes, eliminate duplicated efforts and shift a larger proportion of the staff's focus from paperwork to servicing patients--all of which are sure to enhance operations and improve practice management and office morale. Accurate coding requires a program of ongoing training and education in both CPT and ICD-9-CM coding. Radiology business managers must make education a top priority for their coding staff. Front office staff, technologists and radiologists should also be familiar with the types of information needed for accurate coding. A good staff training program will also cover the proper use of Advance Beneficiary Notices (ABNs). Registration and coding staff should understand how to determine whether the patient's clinical history meets criteria for Medicare coverage, and how to administer an ABN if the exam is likely to be denied. Staff should also understand the restrictions on use of

  10. Content Coding of Psychotherapy Transcripts Using Labeled Topic Models.

    PubMed

    Gaut, Garren; Steyvers, Mark; Imel, Zac E; Atkins, David C; Smyth, Padhraic

    2017-03-01

    Psychotherapy represents a broad class of medical interventions received by millions of patients each year. Unlike most medical treatments, its primary mechanisms are linguistic; i.e., the treatment relies directly on a conversation between a patient and provider. However, the evaluation of patient-provider conversation suffers from critical shortcomings, including intensive labor requirements, coder error, nonstandardized coding systems, and inability to scale up to larger data sets. To overcome these shortcomings, psychotherapy analysis needs a reliable and scalable method for summarizing the content of treatment encounters. We used a publicly available psychotherapy corpus from Alexander Street press comprising a large collection of transcripts of patient-provider conversations to compare coding performance for two machine learning methods. We used the labeled latent Dirichlet allocation (L-LDA) model to learn associations between text and codes, to predict codes in psychotherapy sessions, and to localize specific passages of within-session text representative of a session code. We compared the L-LDA model to a baseline lasso regression model using predictive accuracy and model generalizability (measured by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) from the receiver operating characteristic curve). The L-LDA model outperforms the lasso logistic regression model at predicting session-level codes with average AUC scores of 0.79, and 0.70, respectively. For fine-grained level coding, L-LDA and logistic regression are able to identify specific talk-turns representative of symptom codes. However, model performance for talk-turn identification is not yet as reliable as human coders. We conclude that the L-LDA model has the potential to be an objective, scalable method for accurate automated coding of psychotherapy sessions that perform better than comparable discriminative methods at session-level coding and can also predict fine-grained codes.

  11. Content Coding of Psychotherapy Transcripts Using Labeled Topic Models

    PubMed Central

    Gaut, Garren; Steyvers, Mark; Imel, Zac E; Atkins, David C; Smyth, Padhraic

    2016-01-01

    Psychotherapy represents a broad class of medical interventions received by millions of patients each year. Unlike most medical treatments, its primary mechanisms are linguistic; i.e., the treatment relies directly on a conversation between a patient and provider. However, the evaluation of patient-provider conversation suffers from critical shortcomings, including intensive labor requirements, coder error, non-standardized coding systems, and inability to scale up to larger data sets. To overcome these shortcomings, psychotherapy analysis needs a reliable and scalable method for summarizing the content of treatment encounters. We used a publicly-available psychotherapy corpus from Alexander Street press comprising a large collection of transcripts of patient-provider conversations to compare coding performance for two machine learning methods. We used the Labeled Latent Dirichlet Allocation (L-LDA) model to learn associations between text and codes, to predict codes in psychotherapy sessions, and to localize specific passages of within-session text representative of a session code. We compared the L-LDA model to a baseline lasso regression model using predictive accuracy and model generalizability (measured by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve). The L-LDA model outperforms the lasso logistic regression model at predicting session-level codes with average AUC scores of .79, and .70, respectively. For fine-grained level coding, L-LDA and logistic regression are able to identify specific talk-turns representative of symptom codes. However, model performance for talk-turn identification is not yet as reliable as human coders. We conclude that the L-LDA model has the potential to be an objective, scaleable method for accurate automated coding of psychotherapy sessions that performs better than comparable discriminative methods at session-level coding and can also predict fine-grained codes. PMID:26625437

  12. Learning Short Binary Codes for Large-scale Image Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Yu, Mengyang; Shao, Ling

    2017-03-01

    Large-scale visual information retrieval has become an active research area in this big data era. Recently, hashing/binary coding algorithms prove to be effective for scalable retrieval applications. Most existing hashing methods require relatively long binary codes (i.e., over hundreds of bits, sometimes even thousands of bits) to achieve reasonable retrieval accuracies. However, for some realistic and unique applications, such as on wearable or mobile devices, only short binary codes can be used for efficient image retrieval due to the limitation of computational resources or bandwidth on these devices. In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised hashing approach called min-cost ranking (MCR) specifically for learning powerful short binary codes (i.e., usually the code length shorter than 100 b) for scalable image retrieval tasks. By exploring the discriminative ability of each dimension of data, MCR can generate one bit binary code for each dimension and simultaneously rank the discriminative separability of each bit according to the proposed cost function. Only top-ranked bits with minimum cost-values are then selected and grouped together to compose the final salient binary codes. Extensive experimental results on large-scale retrieval demonstrate that MCR can achieve comparative performance as the state-of-the-art hashing algorithms but with significantly shorter codes, leading to much faster large-scale retrieval.

  13. Surface code implementation of block code state distillation.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Austin G; Devitt, Simon J; Jones, Cody

    2013-01-01

    State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved [formula: see text] state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved [formula: see text] states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three.

  14. Surface code implementation of block code state distillation

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon J.; Jones, Cody

    2013-01-01

    State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved |A〉 state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A〉 states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three. PMID:23736868

  15. Coding and decoding for code division multiple user communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    A new algorithm is introduced which decodes code division multiple user communication signals. The algorithm makes use of the distinctive form or pattern of each signal to separate it from the composite signal created by the multiple users. Although the algorithm is presented in terms of frequency-hopped signals, the actual transmitter modulator can use any of the existing digital modulation techniques. The algorithm is applicable to error-free codes or to codes where controlled interference is permitted. It can be used when block synchronization is assumed, and in some cases when it is not. The paper also discusses briefly some of the codes which can be used in connection with the algorithm, and relates the algorithm to past studies which use other approaches to the same problem.

  16. GAMERA - The New Magnetospheric Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, J.; Sorathia, K.; Zhang, B.; Merkin, V. G.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Daldorff, L. K. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) code has been a main-line magnetospheric simulation code for 30 years. The code base, designed in the age of memory to memory vector ma- chines,is still in wide use for science production but needs upgrading to ensure the long term sustainability. In this presentation, we will discuss our recent efforts to update and improve that code base and also highlight some recent results. The new project GAM- ERA, Grid Agnostic MHD for Extended Research Applications, has kept the original design characteristics of the LFM and made significant improvements. The original de- sign included high order numerical differencing with very aggressive limiting, the ability to use arbitrary, but logically rectangular, grids, and maintenance of div B = 0 through the use of the Yee grid. Significant improvements include high-order upwinding and a non-clipping limiter. One other improvement with wider applicability is an im- proved averaging technique for the singularities in polar and spherical grids. The new code adopts a hybrid structure - multi-threaded OpenMP with an overarching MPI layer for large scale and coupled applications. The MPI layer uses a combination of standard MPI and the Global Array Toolkit from PNL to provide a lightweight mechanism for coupling codes together concurrently. The single processor code is highly efficient and can run magnetospheric simulations at the default CCMC resolution faster than real time on a MacBook pro. We have run the new code through the Athena suite of tests, and the results compare favorably with the codes available to the astrophysics community. LFM/GAMERA has been applied to many different situations ranging from the inner and outer heliosphere and magnetospheres of Venus, the Earth, Jupiter and Saturn. We present example results the Earth's magnetosphere including a coupled ring current (RCM), the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, and the inner heliosphere.

  17. SCALE Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    The SCALE Code System is a widely-used modeling and simulation suite for nuclear safety analysis and design that is developed, maintained, tested, and managed by the Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division (RNSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SCALE provides a comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly tool set for criticality safety, reactor and lattice physics, radiation shielding, spent fuel and radioactive source term characterization, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Since 1980, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for safety analysis and design. SCALE provides an integrated framework with dozens of computational modules including three deterministicmore » and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that are selected based on the desired solution strategy. SCALE includes current nuclear data libraries and problem-dependent processing tools for continuous-energy (CE) and multigroup (MG) neutronics and coupled neutron-gamma calculations, as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE includes unique capabilities for automated variance reduction for shielding calculations, as well as sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. SCALE’s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization of nuclear data, and convenient access to desired results.SCALE 6.2 provides many new capabilities and significant improvements of existing features.New capabilities include:• ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data libraries CE and MG with enhanced group structures,• Neutron covariance data based on ENDF/B-VII.1 and supplemented with ORNL data,• Covariance data for fission product yields and decay constants,• Stochastic uncertainty and correlation quantification for any SCALE sequence with Sampler,• Parallel calculations with KENO,• Problem-dependent temperature corrections for CE calculations,• CE shielding and criticality accident alarm system analysis with

  18. Superimposed Code Theoretic Analysis of DNA Codes and DNA Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    complements of one another and the DNA duplex formed is a Watson - Crick (WC) duplex. However, there are many instances when the formation of non-WC...that the user’s requirements for probe selection are met based on the Watson - Crick probe locality within a target. The second type, called...AFRL-RI-RS-TR-2007-288 Final Technical Report January 2008 SUPERIMPOSED CODE THEORETIC ANALYSIS OF DNA CODES AND DNA COMPUTING

  19. Coding for Efficient Image Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA publication second in series on data-coding techniques for noiseless channels. Techniques used even in noisy channels, provided data further processed with Reed-Solomon or other error-correcting code. Techniques discussed in context of transmission of monochrome imagery from Voyager II spacecraft but applicable to other streams of data. Objective of this type coding to "compress" data; that is, to transmit using as few bits as possible by omitting as much as possible of portion of information repeated in subsequent samples (or picture elements).

  20. Neural Decoder for Topological Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torlai, Giacomo; Melko, Roger G.

    2017-07-01

    We present an algorithm for error correction in topological codes that exploits modern machine learning techniques. Our decoder is constructed from a stochastic neural network called a Boltzmann machine, of the type extensively used in deep learning. We provide a general prescription for the training of the network and a decoding strategy that is applicable to a wide variety of stabilizer codes with very little specialization. We demonstrate the neural decoder numerically on the well-known two-dimensional toric code with phase-flip errors.