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Sample records for zip1 promotes bi-orientation

  1. In vivo binding of hot pepper bZIP transcription factor CabZIP1 to the G-box region of pathogenesis-related protein 1 promoter

    SciT

    Lee, Boo-Ja; Park, Chang-Jin; Kim, Sung-Kyu

    2006-05-26

    We find that salicylic acid and ethephon treatment in hot pepper increases the expression of a putative basic/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor gene, CabZIP1. CabZIP1 mRNA is expressed ubiquitously in various organs. The green fluorescent protein-fused transcription factor, CabZIP1::GFP, can be specifically localized to the nucleus, an action that is consistent with the presence of a nuclear localization signal in its protein sequence. Transient overexpression of the CabZIP1 transcription factor results in an increase in PR-1 transcripts level in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that CabZIP1 binds to the G-box elements in native promoter of the hotmore » pepper pathogenesis-related protein 1 (CaPR-1) gene in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that CabZIP1 plays a role as a transcriptional regulator of the CaPR-1 gene.« less

  2. A basic leucine zipper transcription factor, AabZIP1, connects abscisic acid signaling with artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangyuan; Fu, Xueqing; Lv, Zongyou; Lu, Xu; Shen, Qian; Zhang, Ling; Zhu, Mengmeng; Wang, Guofeng; Sun, Xiaofen; Liao, Zhihua; Tang, Kexuan

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin is a sesquiterpenoid especially synthesized in the Chinese herbal plant, Artemisia annua, which is widely used in the treatment of malaria. Artemisinin accumulation can be enhanced by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. However, it is not known how ABA signaling regulates artemisinin biosynthesis. A global expression profile and phylogenetic analysis as well as the dual-LUC screening revealed that a basic leucine zipper family transcription factor from A. annua (namely AabZIP1) was involved in ABA signaling to regulate artemisinin biosynthesis. AabZIP1 had a higher expression level in the inflorescences than in other tissues; ABA treatment, drought, and salt stress strongly induced the expression of AabZIP1. Yeast one-hybrid assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that AabZIP1 bound to the ABA-responsive elements (ABRE) in the promoter regions of the amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) gene and CYP71AV1, which are two key structural genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. A mutagenesis assay showed that the C1 domain in the N-terminus of AabZIP1 was important for its transactivation activity. Furthermore, the activation of ADS and CYP71AV1 promoters by AabZIP1 was enhanced by ABA treatment in transient dual-LUC analysis. The AabZIP1 variant with C1 domain deletion lost the ability to activate ADS and CYP71AV1 promoters regardless of ABA treatment. Notably, overexpression of AabZIP1 in A. annua resulted in significantly increased accumulation of artemisinin. Our results indicate that ABA promotes artemisinin biosynthesis, likely through 1 activation of ADS and CYP71AV1 expression by AabZIP in A. annua. Meanwhile, our findings reveal the potential value of AabZIP1 in genetic engineering of artemisinin production. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Poplar PtabZIP1-like enhances lateral root formation and biomass growth under drought stress

    DOE PAGES

    Dash, Madhumita; Yordanov, Yordan S.; Georgieva, Tatyana; ...

    2017-02-10

    Developing drought-resistance varieties is a major goal for bioenergy crops, such as poplar (Populus), which will be grown on marginal lands with little or no water input. Root architecture can affect drought resistance, but few genes that affect root architecture in relation to water availability have been identified. Here in this study, using activation tagging in the prime bioenergy crop poplar, we have identified a mutant that overcomes the block of lateral root (LR) formation under osmotic stress. Positioning of the tag, validation of the activation and recapitulation showed that the phenotype is caused by the poplar PtabZIP1-like (PtabZIP1L) genemore » with highest homology to bZIP1 from Arabidopsis. PtabZIP1L is predominantly expressed in roots, particularly in zones where lateral root primordia (LRP) initiate and LR differentiate and emerge. Transgenics overexpressing PtabZIP1L showed precocious LRP and LR development, while PtabZIP1L suppression significantly delayed both LRP and LR formation. Transgenic overexpression and suppression of PtabZIP1L also resulted in modulation of key metabolites like proline, asparagine, valine and several flavonoids. Consistently, expression of both of the poplar Proline Dehydrogenase orthologs and two of the Flavonol Synthases genes was also increased and decreased in overexpressed and suppressed transgenics, respectively. These findings suggest that PtabZIP1L mediates LR development and drought resistance through modulation of multiple metabolic pathways.« less

  4. Poplar PtabZIP1-like enhances lateral root formation and biomass growth under drought stress

    SciT

    Dash, Madhumita; Yordanov, Yordan S.; Georgieva, Tatyana

    Developing drought-resistance varieties is a major goal for bioenergy crops, such as poplar (Populus), which will be grown on marginal lands with little or no water input. Root architecture can affect drought resistance, but few genes that affect root architecture in relation to water availability have been identified. Here in this study, using activation tagging in the prime bioenergy crop poplar, we have identified a mutant that overcomes the block of lateral root (LR) formation under osmotic stress. Positioning of the tag, validation of the activation and recapitulation showed that the phenotype is caused by the poplar PtabZIP1-like (PtabZIP1L) genemore » with highest homology to bZIP1 from Arabidopsis. PtabZIP1L is predominantly expressed in roots, particularly in zones where lateral root primordia (LRP) initiate and LR differentiate and emerge. Transgenics overexpressing PtabZIP1L showed precocious LRP and LR development, while PtabZIP1L suppression significantly delayed both LRP and LR formation. Transgenic overexpression and suppression of PtabZIP1L also resulted in modulation of key metabolites like proline, asparagine, valine and several flavonoids. Consistently, expression of both of the poplar Proline Dehydrogenase orthologs and two of the Flavonol Synthases genes was also increased and decreased in overexpressed and suppressed transgenics, respectively. These findings suggest that PtabZIP1L mediates LR development and drought resistance through modulation of multiple metabolic pathways.« less

  5. The regulatory network of ThbZIP1 in response to abscisic acid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Liu, Guifeng; Liu, Yujia; Nie, Xianguang; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Yucheng

    2015-01-01

    Previously, a bZIP transcription factor from Tamarix hispida, ThbZIP1, was characterized: plants overexpressing ThbZIP1 displayed improved salt stress tolerance but were sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA). In the current study, we further characterized the regulatory network of ThbZIP1 and the mechanism of ABA sensitivity mediated by ThbZIP1. An ABF transcription factor from T. hispida, ThABF1, directly regulates the expression of ThbZIP1. Microarray analysis identified 1662 and 1609 genes that were respectively significantly upregulated or downregulated by ThbZIP1 when exposed to ABA. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that the processes including “response to stimulus,” “catalytic activity,” “binding function,” and “metabolic process” were highly altered in ThbZIP1 expressing plants exposed to ABA. The gene expression in ThbZIP1 transformed plants were compared between exposed to ABA and salt on the genome scale. Genes differentially regulated by both salt and ABA treatment only accounted for 9.75% of total differentially regulated genes. GO analysis showed that structural molecule activity, organelle part, membrane-enclosed lumen, reproduction, and reproductive process are enhanced by ABA but inhibited by salt stress. Conversely, immune system and multi-organism process were improved by salt but inhibited by ABA. Transcription regulator activity, enzyme regulator activity, and developmental process were significantly altered by ABA but were not affected by salt stress. Our study provides insights into how ThbZIP1 mediates ABA and salt stress response at the molecular level. PMID:25713576

  6. hZIP1 zinc uptake transporter down regulation and zinc depletion in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Renty B; Feng, Pei; Milon, B; Desouki, Mohamed M; Singh, Keshav K; Kajdacsy-Balla, André; Bagasra, Omar; Costello, Leslie C

    2005-01-01

    Background The genetic and molecular mechanisms responsible for and associated with the development and progression of prostate malignancy are largely unidentified. The peripheral zone is the major region of the human prostate gland where malignancy develops. The normal peripheral zone glandular epithelium has the unique function of accumulating high levels of zinc. In contrast, the ability to accumulate zinc is lost in the malignant cells. The lost ability of the neoplastic epithelial cells to accumulate zinc is a consistent factor in their development of malignancy. Recent studies identified ZIP1 (SLC39A1) as an important zinc transporter involved in zinc accumulation in prostate cells. Therefore, we investigated the possibility that down-regulation of hZIP1 gene expression might be involved in the inability of malignant prostate cells to accumulate zinc. To address this issue, the expression of hZIP1 and the depletion of zinc in malignant versus non-malignant prostate glands of prostate cancer tissue sections were analyzed. hZIP1 expression was also determined in malignant prostate cell lines. Results hZIP1 gene expression, ZIP1 transporter protein, and cellular zinc were prominent in normal peripheral zone glandular epithelium and in benign hyperplastic glands (also zinc accumulating glands). In contrast, hZIP1 gene expression and transporter protein were markedly down-regulated and zinc was depleted in adenocarcinomatous glands and in prostate intra-epithelial neoplastic foci (PIN). These changes occur early in malignancy and are sustained during its progression in the peripheral zone. hZIP1 is also expressed in the malignant cell lines LNCaP, PC-3, DU-145; and in the nonmalignant cell lines HPr-1 and BPH-1. Conclusion The studies clearly establish that hZIP1 gene expression is down regulated and zinc is depleted in adenocarcinomatous glands. The fact that all the malignant cell lines express hZIP1 indicates that the down-regulation in adenocarcinomatous

  7. Abscisic acid-dependent regulation of small rubber particle protein gene expression in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum is mediated by TbbZIP1.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Julia; Hillebrand, Andrea; Twyman, Richard M; Prüfer, Dirk; Schulze Gronover, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Natural rubber is a high-molecular-mass biopolymer found in the latex of >2,500 plant species, including Hevea brasiliensis, Parthenium argentatum and Taraxacum spp. The active sites of rubber biosynthesis are rubber particles, which comprise a hydrophobic rubber core surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer membrane containing species-dependent lipids and associated proteins. Small rubber particle proteins are the most abundant rubber particle-associated proteins in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum (TbSRPPs) and may promote rubber biosynthesis by stabilizing the rubber particle architecture. We investigated the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding SRPPs and identified a bZIP transcription factor (TbbZIP.1) similar to the Arabidopsis thaliana ABI5-ABF-AREB subfamily, which is thought to include downstream targets of ABA and/or abiotic stress-inducible protein kinases. The TbbZIP.1 gene was predominantly expressed in laticifers and regulates the expression of TbSRPP genes in an ABA-dependent manner. The individual TbSRPP genes showed distinct induction profiles, suggesting diverse roles in rubber biosynthesis and stress adaptation. The potential involvement of TbSRPPs in the adaptation of T. brevicorniculatum plants to environmental stress is discussed based on our current knowledge of the stress-response roles of SRPPs and their homologs, and the protective function of latex and rubber against pathogens. Our data suggest that TbSRPPs contribute to stress tolerance in T. brevicorniculatum and that their effects are mediated by TbbZIP.1.

  8. Basic leucine zipper transcription factor SlbZIP1 mediates salt and drought stress tolerance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingku; Meng, Xiaoqing; Cai, Jing; Li, Ge; Dong, Tingting; Li, Zongyun

    2018-05-08

    Basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors perform as crucial regulators in ABA-mediated stress response in plants. Nevertheless, the functions for most bZIP family members in tomato remain to be deciphered. Here we examined the functional characterization of SlbZIP1 under salt and drought stresses in tomato. Silencing of SlbZIP1 in tomato resulted in reduced expression of multiple ABA biosynthesis- and signal transduction-related genes in transgenic plants. In stress assays, SlbZIP1-RNAi transgenic plants exhibited reduced tolerance to salt and drought stresses compared with WT plants, as are evaluated by multiple physiological parameters associated with stress responses, such as decreased ABA, chlorophyll contents and CAT activity, and increased MDA content. In addition, RNA-seq analysis of transgenic plants revealed that the transcription levels of multiple genes encoding defense proteins related to responses to abiotic stress (e.g. endochitinase, peroxidases, and lipid transfer proteins) and biotic stress (e.g. pathogenesis-related proteins) were downregulated in SlbZIP1-RNAi plants, suggesting that SlbZIP1 plays a role in regulating the genes related to biotic and abiotic stress response. Collectively, the data suggest that SlbZIP1 exerts an essential role in salt and drought stress tolerance through modulating an ABA-mediated pathway, and SlbZIP1 may hold potential applications in the engineering of salt- and drought-tolerant tomato cultivars.

  9. Functional analysis RaZIP1 transporter of the ZIP family from the ectomycorrhizal Zn-accumulating Russula atropurpurea.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Tereza; Sácký, Jan; Kotrba, Pavel

    2018-04-01

    A search of R. atropurpurea transcriptome for sequences encoding the transporters of the Zrt-, Irt-like Protein (ZIP) family, which are in eukaryotes integral to Zn supply into cytoplasm, allowed the identification of RaZIP1 cDNA with a predicted product belonging to ZIP I subfamily; it was subjected to functional studies in mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The expression of RaZIP1, but not RaZIP1 H208A or RaZIP1 H232A mutants lacking conserved-among-ZIPs transmembrane histidyls, complemented Zn uptake deficiency in zrt1Δzrt2Δ yeasts. RaZIP1 substantially increased cellular Zn uptake in this strain and added to Zn sensitivity in zrc1Δcot1Δ mutant. The Fe uptake deficiency in ftr1Δ strain was not rescued and Mn uptake was insufficient for toxicity in Mn-sensitive pmr1Δ yeasts. By contrast, RaZIP1 increased Cd sensitivity in yap1Δ strain and conferred Cd transport activity in yeasts, albeit with substantially lower efficiency compared to Zn transport. In metal uptake assays, the accumulation of Zn in zrt1Δzrt2Δ strain remained unaffected by Cd, Fe, and Mn present in 20-fold molar excess over Zn. Immunofluorescence microscopy detected functional hemagglutinin-tagged HA::RaZIP1 on the yeast cell protoplast periphery. Altogether, these data indicate that RaZIP1 is a high-affinity plasma membrane transporter specialized in Zn uptake, and improve the understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of Zn in R. atropurpurea that is known for its ability to accumulate remarkably high concentrations of Zn.

  10. Zinc Fortification Decreases ZIP1 Gene Expression of Some Adolescent Females with Appropriate Plasma Zinc Levels

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Rosa O.; Santiago, Alejandra; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B.; de la Barca, Ana M. Calderón; García, Hugo S.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis is achieved after intake variation by changes in the expression levels of zinc transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary intake (by 24-h recall), absorption, plasma zinc (by absorption spectrophotometry) and the expression levels (by quantitative PCR), of the transporters ZIP1 (zinc importer) and ZnT1 (zinc exporter) in peripheral white blood cells from 24 adolescent girls before and after drinking zinc-fortified milk for 27 day. Zinc intake increased (p < 0.001) from 10.5 ± 3.9 mg/day to 17.6 ± 4.4 mg/day, and its estimated absorption from 3.1 ± 1.2 to 5.3 ± 1.3 mg/day. Mean plasma zinc concentration remained unchanged (p > 0.05) near 150 µg/dL, but increased by 31 µg/dL (p < 0.05) for 6/24 adolescents (group A) and decreased by 25 µg/dL (p < 0.05) for other 6/24 adolescents (group B). Expression of ZIP1 in blood leukocytes was reduced 1.4-fold (p < 0.006) in group A, while for the expression of ZnT1 there was no difference after intervention (p = 0.39). An increase of dietary zinc after 27-days consumption of fortified-milk did not increase (p > 0.05) the plasma level of adolescent girls but for 6/24 participants from group A in spite of the formerly appropriation, which cellular zinc uptake decreased as assessed by reduction of the expression of ZIP1. PMID:24922175

  11. "Hit-and-Run" transcription: de novo transcription initiated by a transient bZIP1 "hit" persists after the "run".

    PubMed

    Doidy, Joan; Li, Ying; Neymotin, Benjamin; Edwards, Molly B; Varala, Kranthi; Gresham, David; Coruzzi, Gloria M

    2016-02-03

    Dynamic transcriptional regulation is critical for an organism's response to environmental signals and yet remains elusive to capture. Such transcriptional regulation is mediated by master transcription factors (TF) that control large gene regulatory networks. Recently, we described a dynamic mode of TF regulation named "hit-and-run". This model proposes that master TF can interact transiently with a set of targets, but the transcription of these transient targets continues after the TF dissociation from the target promoter. However, experimental evidence validating active transcription of the transient TF-targets is still lacking. Here, we show that active transcription continues after transient TF-target interactions by tracking de novo synthesis of RNAs made in response to TF nuclear import. To do this, we introduced an affinity-labeled 4-thiouracil (4tU) nucleobase to specifically isolate newly synthesized transcripts following conditional TF nuclear import. Thus, we extended the TARGET system (Transient Assay Reporting Genome-wide Effects of Transcription factors) to include 4tU-labeling and named this new technology TARGET-tU. Our proof-of-principle example is the master TF Basic Leucine Zipper 1 (bZIP1), a central integrator of metabolic signaling in plants. Using TARGET-tU, we captured newly synthesized mRNAs made in response to bZIP1 nuclear import at a time when bZIP1 is no longer detectably bound to its target. Thus, the analysis of de novo transcripomics demonstrates that bZIP1 may act as a catalyst TF to initiate a transcriptional complex ("hit"), after which active transcription by RNA polymerase continues without the TF being bound to the gene promoter ("run"). Our findings provide experimental proof for active transcription of transient TF-targets supporting a "hit-and-run" mode of action. This dynamic regulatory model allows a master TF to catalytically propagate rapid and broad transcriptional responses to changes in environment. Thus, the

  12. Oxidative stress upregulates zinc uptake activity via Zrt/Irt-like protein 1 (ZIP1) in cultured mouse astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Takahiro; Ohshima, Chiaki; Matsumura, Mayu; Takebayashi, Naoto; Hirota, Emi; Mawaribuchi, Toshiki; Nishida, Kentaro; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2016-04-15

    Zinc released from glutamatergic boutons and astrocytes acts as neuro- and glio-transmitters, and thus its extracellular level has to be strictly regulated. We previously revealed that uptake of zinc by astrocytes plays a critical role in its clearance, and zinc transporter Zrt/Irt-like protein 1 (ZIP1) is the molecule responsible for the uptake. However, it is unknown whether or not the functionality of the zinc clearance system is altered under oxidative stress-loaded conditions. Here, we characterized zinc uptake by oxidative stress-loaded astrocytes. Cultured mouse astrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to load oxidative stress. Functional expression of ZIP1 in astrocytes was evaluated by means of (65)Zn uptake, Western blotting and immunocytochemical analysis. Treatment of astrocytes with 0.4mM H2O2 for 24h increased the expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein and 4-hydroxynonenal without significant decreases in their viability, indicating that induction of oxidative stress in astrocytes. Under oxidative stress-loaded conditions, astrocytes exhibited increased (65)Zn uptake activity, and the maximum uptake velocity for the uptake was significantly increased compared to that in the control group, while there was no change in the Michaelis constants, which were almost identical to that of mouse ZIP1. In the H2O2-treated astrocytes, the expression levels of ZIP1 were significantly increased in the cellular and plasma membrane fractions. It appears that under oxidative stress-loaded conditions, astrocytes exhibit increased zinc clearance activity and this is due, at least in part, to increased ZIP1 expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatiotemporal dynamics of Aurora B-PLK1-MCAK signaling axis orchestrates kinetochore bi-orientation and faithful chromosome segregation

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Hengyi; Huang, Yuejia; Zhang, Liangyu; Yuan, Kai; Chu, Youjun; Dou, Zhen; Jin, Changjiang; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva; Liu, Xing; Yao, Xuebiao

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome segregation in mitosis is orchestrated by the dynamic interactions between the kinetochore and spindle microtubules. The microtubule depolymerase mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK) is a key regulator for an accurate kinetochore-microtubule attachment. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying precise MCAK depolymerase activity control during mitosis remains elusive. Here, we describe a novel pathway involving an Aurora B-PLK1 axis for regulation of MCAK activity in mitosis. Aurora B phosphorylates PLK1 on Thr210 to activate its kinase activity at the kinetochores during mitosis. Aurora B-orchestrated PLK1 kinase activity was examined in real-time mitosis using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based reporter and quantitative analysis of native PLK1 substrate phosphorylation. Active PLK1, in turn, phosphorylates MCAK at Ser715 which promotes its microtubule depolymerase activity essential for faithful chromosome segregation. Importantly, inhibition of PLK1 kinase activity or expression of a non-phosphorylatable MCAK mutant prevents correct kinetochore-microtubule attachment, resulting in abnormal anaphase with chromosome bridges. We reason that the Aurora B-PLK1 signaling at the kinetochore orchestrates MCAK activity, which is essential for timely correction of aberrant kinetochore attachment to ensure accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis. PMID:26206521

  14. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  15. The Pch2 AAA+ ATPase promotes phosphorylation of the Hop1 meiotic checkpoint adaptor in response to synaptonemal complex defects

    PubMed Central

    Herruzo, Esther; Ontoso, David; González-Arranz, Sara; Cavero, Santiago; Lechuga, Ana; San-Segundo, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms that monitor critical events such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Meiotic defects resulting from the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in delayed or arrested meiotic progression. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the checkpoint-induced meiotic block in the zip1 mutant, where Pch2 is only detectable at the ribosomal DNA array (nucleolus). We describe here that high levels of the Hop1 protein, a checkpoint adaptor that localizes to chromosome axes, suppress the checkpoint defect of a zip1 pch2 mutant restoring Mek1 activity and meiotic cell cycle delay. We demonstrate that the critical role of Pch2 in this synapsis checkpoint is to sustain Mec1-dependent phosphorylation of Hop1 at threonine 318. We also show that the ATPase activity of Pch2 is essential for its checkpoint function and that ATP binding to Pch2 is required for its localization. Previous work has shown that Pch2 negatively regulates Hop1 chromosome abundance during unchallenged meiosis. Based on our results, we propose that, under checkpoint-inducing conditions, Pch2 also possesses a positive action on Hop1 promoting its phosphorylation and its proper distribution on unsynapsed chromosome axes. PMID:27257060

  16. The Pch2 AAA+ ATPase promotes phosphorylation of the Hop1 meiotic checkpoint adaptor in response to synaptonemal complex defects.

    PubMed

    Herruzo, Esther; Ontoso, David; González-Arranz, Sara; Cavero, Santiago; Lechuga, Ana; San-Segundo, Pedro A

    2016-09-19

    Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms that monitor critical events such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Meiotic defects resulting from the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in delayed or arrested meiotic progression. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the checkpoint-induced meiotic block in the zip1 mutant, where Pch2 is only detectable at the ribosomal DNA array (nucleolus). We describe here that high levels of the Hop1 protein, a checkpoint adaptor that localizes to chromosome axes, suppress the checkpoint defect of a zip1 pch2 mutant restoring Mek1 activity and meiotic cell cycle delay. We demonstrate that the critical role of Pch2 in this synapsis checkpoint is to sustain Mec1-dependent phosphorylation of Hop1 at threonine 318. We also show that the ATPase activity of Pch2 is essential for its checkpoint function and that ATP binding to Pch2 is required for its localization. Previous work has shown that Pch2 negatively regulates Hop1 chromosome abundance during unchallenged meiosis. Based on our results, we propose that, under checkpoint-inducing conditions, Pch2 also possesses a positive action on Hop1 promoting its phosphorylation and its proper distribution on unsynapsed chromosome axes. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. The Zn finger protein Iguana impacts Hedgehog signaling by promoting ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Glazer, Andrew M; Wilkinson, Alex W; Backer, Chelsea B; Lapan, Sylvain W; Gutzman, Jennifer H; Cheeseman, Iain M; Reddien, Peter W

    2010-01-01

    Hedgehog signaling is critical for metazoan development and requires cilia for pathway activity. The gene iguana was discovered in zebrafish as required for Hedgehog signaling, and encodes a novel Zn finger protein. Planarians are flatworms with robust regenerative capacities and utilize epidermal cilia for locomotion. RNA interference of Smed-iguana in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea caused cilia loss and failure to regenerate new cilia, but did not cause defects similar to those observed in hedgehog(RNAi) animals. Smed-iguana gene expression was also similar in pattern to the expression of multiple other ciliogenesis genes, but was not required for expression of these ciliogenesis genes. iguana-defective zebrafish had too few motile cilia in pronephric ducts and in Kupffer's vesicle. Kupffer's vesicle promotes left-right asymmetry and iguana mutant embryos had left-right asymmetry defects. Finally, human Iguana proteins (dZIP1 and dZIP1L) localize to the basal bodies of primary cilia and, together, are required for primary cilia formation. Our results indicate that a critical and broadly conserved function for Iguana is in ciliogenesis and that this function has come to be required for Hedgehog signaling in vertebrates.

  18. GLANDULAR TRICHOME-SPECIFIC WRKY 1 promotes artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minghui; Yan, Tingxiang; Shen, Qian; Lu, Xu; Pan, Qifang; Huang, Youran; Tang, Yueli; Fu, Xueqing; Liu, Meng; Jiang, Weimin; Lv, Zongyou; Shi, Pu; Ma, Ya-Nan; Hao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lida; Li, Ling; Tang, Kexuan

    2017-04-01

    Artemisinin is a type of sesquiterpene lactone well known as an antimalarial drug, and is specifically produced in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua. However, the regulatory network for the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway remains poorly understood. Exploration of trichome-specific transcription factors would facilitate the elucidation of regulatory mechanism of artemisinin biosynthesis. The WRKY transcription factor GLANDULAR TRICHOME-SPECIFIC WRKY 1 (AaGSW1) was cloned and analysed in A. annua. AaGSW1 exhibited similar expression patterns to the trichome-specific genes of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway and AP2/ERF transcription factor AaORA. A β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining assay further demonstrated that AaGSW1 is a glandular trichome-specific transcription factor. AaGSW1 positively regulates CYP71AV1 and AaORA expression by directly binding to the W-box motifs in their promoters. Overexpression of AaGSW1 in A. annua significantly improves artemisinin and dihydroartemisinic acid contents; moreover, AaGSW1 can be directly regulated by AaMYC2 and AabZIP1, which are positive regulators of jasmonate (JA)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated artemisinin biosynthetic pathways, respectively. These results demonstrate that AaGSW1 is a glandular trichome-specific WRKY transcription factor and a positive regulator in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. Moreover, we propose that two trifurcate feed-forward pathways involving AaGSW1, CYP71AV1 and AaMYC2/AabZIP1 function in the JA/ABA response in A. annua. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Regulation and function of the pepper pectin methylesterase inhibitor (CaPMEI1) gene promoter in defense and ethylene and methyl jasmonate signaling in plants.

    PubMed

    An, Soo Hyun; Choi, Hyong Woo; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2009-11-01

    Analysis of the promoters of defense-related genes is valuable for determining stress signaling and transcriptional activation during pathogen infection. Here, we have isolated and functionally characterized the promoter region of the pepper (Capsicum annuum) pectin methylesterase inhibitor 1 (CaPMEI1) gene in transiently transformed tobacco plants and stably transformed Arabidopsis plants. Among four 5' deletion constructs analyzed, the -958-bp CaPMEI1 promoter induced a high level of GUS reporter activity in tobacco leaf tissue, driven by pathogen infection as well as by ethylene and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. The 204-bp region from -958 bp to -754 bp of the CaPMEI1 promoter is responsible for the stress-responsive expression. In addition, the pepper transcription factor CARAV1 activated the CaPMEI1 promoter in tobacco leaves, whereas the transcription factor CAbZIP1 did not. In the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, the -958 bp CaPMEI1 promoter was functionally regulated by developmental cues, bacterial and oomycete pathogen infections, and treatment with ethylene and MeJA. Histochemical GUS staining analyses of Arabidopsis tissues revealed that the CaPMEI1 promoter was mainly activated in leaf veins in response to various biotic and abiotic stimuli. Together, these results suggest that CaPMEI1 promoter activation may be a critical molecular event for host defense response and ethylene- and MeJA-mediated CaPMEI1 gene expression.

  20. Identification and functional expression of ZIP1 transporter protein in Triticum dicoccoides

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a common problem, especially in cereal-growing areas, leading to severe decreases in grain yield and nutritional quality. Among the cereal species, durum wheat is the most sensitive crop to Zn deficiency. One major reason for this high sensitivity of durum wheat is its poor ...

  1. Overlap microtubules link sister k-fibres and balance the forces on bi-oriented kinetochores

    PubMed Central

    Kajtez, Janko; Solomatina, Anastasia; Novak, Maja; Polak, Bruno; Vukušić, Kruno; Rüdiger, Jonas; Cojoc, Gheorghe; Milas, Ana; Šumanovac Šestak, Ivana; Risteski, Patrik; Tavano, Federica; Klemm, Anna H.; Roscioli, Emanuele; Welburn, Julie; Cimini, Daniela; Glunčić, Matko; Pavin, Nenad; Tolić, Iva M.

    2016-01-01

    During metaphase, forces on kinetochores are exerted by k-fibres, bundles of microtubules that end at the kinetochore. Interestingly, non-kinetochore microtubules have been observed between sister kinetochores, but their function is unknown. Here we show by laser-cutting of a k-fibre in HeLa and PtK1 cells that a bundle of non-kinetochore microtubules, which we term ‘bridging fibre', bridges sister k-fibres and balances the interkinetochore tension. We found PRC1 and EB3 in the bridging fibre, suggesting that it consists of antiparallel dynamic microtubules. By using a theoretical model that includes a bridging fibre, we show that the forces at the pole and at the kinetochore depend on the bridging fibre thickness. Moreover, our theory and experiments show larger relaxation of the interkinetochore distance for cuts closer to kinetochores. We conclude that the bridging fibre, by linking sister k-fibres, withstands the tension between sister kinetochores and enables the spindle to obtain a curved shape. PMID:26728792

  2. Health promotion.

    PubMed

    Miyake, S; Lucas-Miyake, M

    1989-01-01

    This article will describe a marketing model for the development of a role for occupational therapy in the industrial market. Health promotion activities are used as a means to diversify existing revenue bases by establishing new referral sources in industry. The technique of need satisfaction -selling or marketing one's services to a customer based on needs expressed by the customer - is reviewed, and implementation of this approach is described from two settings, one in psychiatry and the other in rehabilitation.

  3. Developing a Promotional Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epley, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…

  4. Health promoting schools.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Promoting the health of children through schools has long been an important task of the WHO. Guided by the recommendations of the Expert Committee on Comprehensive School Health Education and Promotion, the Initiative seeks to strengthen health promotion and education activities at the local, national, regional, and global levels. It aims to increase the number of schools that can truly be called "Health-Promoting Schools". The four strategies undertaken by WHO in creating Health-Promoting Schools are: 1) strengthening the ability to advocate for improved school health programs, 2) creating networks and alliances for the development of Health-Promoting Schools, 3) strengthening national capacities, and 4) research to improve school health program. Finally, WHO recognizes that the success of the Global School Health Initiative lies on the extent to which partnerships can be formed at local, national, and international levels.

  5. 77 FR 47820 - Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Invention Promoters/Promotion... investigate these complaints or participate in any legal proceedings against invention promoters or promotion... invention promoter or promotion firm, explain the basis for the complaint, and include the signature of the...

  6. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice.

  7. Promoting Resilience in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Sharne A.

    2002-01-01

    This booklet invites reflection on ways in which childhood resilience can be promoted, thereby helping children to adapt effectively in the face of adversity. The attributes of resilient children are described, as is the importance of protective factors in building or promoting resilience. The booklet discusses the complex interplay between risk…

  8. Health Promotion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, Cheryl

    The Health Promotion Program began with establishment of a one-credit course in health promotion and wellness and the training of family practice residents at the Mountain Area Health Education Center to serve as lab leaders in the course. The course later became part of the university's general education requirements. In addition, a health…

  9. High expression Zymomonas promoters

    DOEpatents

    Viitanen, Paul V [West Chester, PA; Tao, Luan [Havertown, PA; Zhang, Yuying [New Hope, PA; Caimi, Perry G [Kennett Square, PA; McCole, Laura : Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen [Lakewood, CO; McCutchen, Carol M [Wilmington, DE; Franden, Mary Ann [Centennial, CO

    2011-08-02

    Identified are mutants of the promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, which direct improved expression levels of operably linked heterologous nucleic acids. These are high expression promoters useful for expression of chimeric genes in Zymomonas, Zymobacter, and other related bacteria.

  10. Looking Forward to Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Brent W; Wright, Scott M

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine what clinician-educators consider important for promotion, and what support they find helpful and useful for success. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Eighty academic medical centers in the United States. PARTICIPANTS One hundred eighty-three participants of the Prospective Study of Promotion in Academia comprising assistant professors in departments of medicine from 80 different medical schools in 35 states. MEASUREMENTS Differences between clinician-educators' and clinician-investigators' work activities, promotion preparedness, and faculty support needs. RESULTS One hundred seven (58%) of the faculty were clinician-educators (CEs), and 63 (34%) were clinician-investigators (CIs); the remaining 13 fit neither category. Participants had been in their faculty position for 4.7 years. Ninety-eight percent of CIs reported a publication expectation for promotion, and 75% of CEs also reported such an expectation. More CIs had career mentors available than CEs (68% vs 32%, P < .001). Seventy-nine percent of CIs indicated >10% protected scholarly work time, compared to only 35% of CEs (P < .001). Fifty-three percent of CIs as compared to 32% of CEs (P < .01) meet more often than yearly with their chief/chair for performance review, and more CIs have seen written promotion guidelines (72% vs 51%, P < .01). Clinician educators believed out of 11 job performance areas, research, written scholarship, and reputation were the 3 most important factors that would determine the success of their application for promotion. Both CEs and CIs sense that CIs are more likely get promoted (82% vs 79%). CONCLUSIONS Clinician educators are less familiar with promotion guidelines, meet less often with superiors for performance review, and have less protected time than CI colleagues. There is dissonance between CEs' beliefs and previously published data from promotion committee chairs in the importance given to specific aspects of job performance. PMID:12950478

  11. The health promoting nurse.

    PubMed

    Robinson, S; Hill, Y

    1998-05-01

    This paper suggests that (i) the dominance of an individualistic philosophy of nursing, (ii) nurses' own perceptions of their role and (iii) the hospital:community divide are all obstacles to health promotion being well integrated into nursing practice. It explores how these obstacles need to be overcome in order for the new health promoting nurse to emerge in practice. This is an attempt to clearly demonstrate 'who' the health promoting nurse is, 'what' she/he does, 'how' she/he works and 'where' she/he works.

  12. Promoting Your Web Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)

  13. Novelty and Promotional Items

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small novelty or promotional products, primarily used for outreach and educational purposes, must effectively convey a message, and their purchase will only be allowed if the item will contribute to the accomplishment of the Agency's mission.

  14. 50 Practical Promotion Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeyski, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Includes 50 cost-effective ideas for promoting camp in the areas of recruiting new campers, encouraging returning campers, advertising strategies, printing brochures and other written materials, using photographs, targeting groups for camp facility rental, and effectively using the media. (LP)

  15. Promoting Continuing Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Gayle A.

    This handbook is intended for use by institutions in marketing their continuing education programs. A section on "Devising Your Strategy" looks at identifying a target audience, determining the marketing approach, and developing a marketing plan and promotional techniques. A discussion of media options looks at the advantages and…

  16. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  17. Promoting La Cultura Hispana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Launched in 1985 at Arizona State University, the Hispanic Research Center's (HRC) efforts to promote Latino and Chicano art and issues have flourished in recent years. In 2004, the HRC hosted the Arizona International Latina/o Arts Festival in collaboration with the Mesa Southwest Museum. The HRC has also founded a mentoring institute for…

  18. Does Paid Promotion Pay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Chris

    1980-01-01

    A study to determine the cost effectiveness of newspaper display advertising for cooperative extension programs showed such publicity to be more effective in large metropolitan areas. Though not a technique for increasing enrollment, this method provided long-range benefits in the overall promotion of extension educational services. (SK)

  19. Promotion of Academic Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Ingrid

    1986-01-01

    A study of attitudes toward institutional promotion policy and practices among 104 faculty at an Australian university revealed that staff perceive their institution as actively encouraging research, and especially publication, through rewards and incentives but paying only lip service to teaching, without adequate rewards or recognition. (MSE)

  20. Act To Promote Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    An act of the German Lower Saxony Parliament to promote adult education is presented. It has 24 general provisions relating to the following: purpose of adult education, principle for promotion, conditions for promotions of establishments, independence of adult education, prerequisites and form of acknowledgement of entitlement to promotion,…

  1. 7 CFR 1250.310 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.310 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including paid...

  2. Breastfeeding promotion in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hangchaovanich, Yupayong; Voramongkol, Nipunporn

    2006-10-01

    National Breastfeeding Project in Thailand began in 1989. The main activities were the promotion of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative; legislation on maternity leave; and the Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes and related products. The development of Baby - Friendly Hospital Initiative may in part explain the increasing of prevalence rate of breastfeeding. However exclusive breastfeeding has not shown favorable increases. The survey in 2005 found exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was 14.5% while the national target of the Ninth National Health Development Plan (NHDP) has been set at 30%. There are many factors affecting the success of breastfeeding promotion. The Ministry of Public Health, which is responsible for infant/child health, has to find solutions with the most potential for any problem related to such a matter especially prevention of childhood diseases. Furthermore, it must also create an environment where good health fundamentals for physical and intellectual developments from infancy to childhood and maturity exist.

  3. Mental health promotion system.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Umar; Jang, Dae-Geun; Jang, Jae-Keun; Park, Seung-Hun

    2011-01-01

    Mental activity promotion system is presented that analyzes, quantifies, trains and prescribes based on analysis of logical, memorizing, concentrative, decisive, in conditions where time and space is involved, possibility of dementia, and on evaluation of lifestyle of subjects. Special consideration has been made to make the system motivational, persuasive, attractive and fun to use. The system has been successfully deployed in Bitgeoul Senior health town, Gwangju, South Korea.

  4. Human Promoters Are Intrinsically Directional

    PubMed Central

    Duttke, Sascha H.C.; Lacadie, Scott A.; Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; Glass, Christopher K.; Corcoran, David L.; Benner, Christopher; Heinz, Sven; Kadonaga, James T.; Ohler, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Divergent transcription, in which reverse-oriented transcripts occur upstream of eukaryotic promoters in regions devoid of annotated genes, has been suggested to be a general property of active promoters. Here we show that the human basal RNA polymerase II transcriptional machinery and core promoter are inherently unidirectional, and that reverse-oriented transcripts originate from their own cognate reverse-directed core promoters. In vitro transcription analysis and mapping of nascent transcripts in cells revealed that sequences at reverse start sites are similar to those of their forward counterparts. The use of DNase I accessibility to define proximal promoter borders revealed that up to half of promoters are unidirectional and that unidirectional promoters are depleted at their upstream edges of reverse core promoter sequences and their associated chromatin features. Divergent transcription is thus not an inherent property of the transcription process, but rather the consequence of the presence of both forward- and reverse-directed core promoters. PMID:25639469

  5. Health promotion in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Onya, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Health promotion first entered the South African health system in 1990. Today, Health Promotion is a Directorate located within the Social Sector Cluster (SSC) within Primary Health Care (PHC), District and Development operations which falls under the Deputy Director General for Health Service Delivery in the National Department of Health (DoH). The first significant piece of new policy for health promotion in South Africa appeared in the African National Congress (ANC) health policy document, health care services including reproductive health care. At the moment, health promotion service delivery is the responsibility of the national, provincial and local governments with provincial and local governments mainly implementing and the National Health Promotion Directorate offering support. Funding for health promotion activities comes from the Department of Health budget allocation by the National Treasury. One major problem for Health Promotion development is infrastructure. There is significant community participation in South Africa including health promotion policy and strategy document development. Health Promotion research and evaluation is limited. The National Department of Health considers the settings approach to be crucial in driving the progress of health promotion. There are very few trained health promotion specialists either capable or in the position to inform politicians and opinion leaders about the relationship between health and social determinants, and the evidence of effectiveness of health promotion action. Mechanisms for demonstrating evidence of health promotion effectiveness in terms of health, social, economic and political impact are lacking and occupational standards for health promotion education and training are needed.

  6. [Promoting Research Integrity].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2018-01-01

     Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) was launched in April 2015 to promote integrated medical research and development (R&D) ranging from basic research to practical applications, in order to smoothly achieve the nationwide application of research outcomes, and to establish an environment therefor. AMED consolidates budgets for R&D expenses, which had previously been allocated from different sources, such as the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. It provides funds strategically to universities, research institutions, etc. By promoting medical R&D, AMED aims to achieve the world's highest level of medical care/services to contribute to a society in which people live long and healthy lives. To achieve this mission, it is imperative that R&D funded by AMED is widely understood and supported. Maintaining and improving research integrity is a prerequisite to this end. AMED is taking various measures to ensure fair and appropriate R&D. It is asking researchers to participate in its responsible conduct in research (RCR) education program and to comply with its rules for managing conflicts of interest (COI). In addition, AMED also conducts a grant program to create and distribute a variety of educational materials on RCR and other matters. Further, AMED is establishing a platform that allows researchers to exchange information about research integrity, and it is undertaking additional measures, such as holding meetings and international symposia on research integrity.

  7. The promotion of happiness.

    PubMed

    Klamut, Marian Kazimierz

    2002-01-01

    The human mind is capable of creating an internal world--the psychic sphere--including the phenomena characteristic of human nature, such as selfconsciousness, conscious experiences, conceptual thinking, symbolic language, dreams, art, creation of culture, sense of values, interest in the distant past and care about the distant future. According to the exceptionally concordant opinions of the sages and scholars of the East and the West it is just within this internal world that human happiness dwells. Happiness is a state of the spirit which consists in: internal peace, satisfaction with one's life, the joy of life, benevolence and cordiality towards oneself and towards others; sensitivity to the beauty of nature, culture and art; harmonious co-existence with the surroundings. The achievement and experiencing of the states of thus understood happiness depend mainly on ourselves and, similarly to the project of health promotion, require knowledge, willingness and possibilities. Happiness Promotion denotes the commendation and popularizing of a certain definite way of thinking and acting--showing the road which leads to the frequent experiencing of happy moments.

  8. Promoter classifier: software package for promoter database analysis.

    PubMed

    Gershenzon, Naum I; Ioshikhes, Ilya P

    2005-01-01

    Promoter Classifier is a package of seven stand-alone Windows-based C++ programs allowing the following basic manipulations with a set of promoter sequences: (i) calculation of positional distributions of nucleotides averaged over all promoters of the dataset; (ii) calculation of the averaged occurrence frequencies of the transcription factor binding sites and their combinations; (iii) division of the dataset into subsets of sequences containing or lacking certain promoter elements or combinations; (iv) extraction of the promoter subsets containing or lacking CpG islands around the transcription start site; and (v) calculation of spatial distributions of the promoter DNA stacking energy and bending stiffness. All programs have a user-friendly interface and provide the results in a convenient graphical form. The Promoter Classifier package is an effective tool for various basic manipulations with eukaryotic promoter sequences that usually are necessary for analysis of large promoter datasets. The program Promoter Divider is described in more detail as a representative component of the package.

  9. Buying time promotes happiness

    PubMed Central

    Whillans, Ashley V.; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Smeets, Paul; Bekkers, Rene; Norton, Michael I.

    2017-01-01

    Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada, Denmark, and The Netherlands (n = 6,271), we show that individuals who spend money on time-saving services report greater life satisfaction. A field experiment provides causal evidence that working adults report greater happiness after spending money on a time-saving purchase than on a material purchase. Together, these results suggest that using money to buy time can protect people from the detrimental effects of time pressure on life satisfaction. PMID:28739889

  10. Tryptophan promotes charitable donating

    PubMed Central

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2014-01-01

    The link between serotonin (5-HT) and one of the most important elements of prosocial behavior, charity, has remained largely uninvestigated. In the present study, we tested whether charitable donating can be promoted by administering the food supplement L-Tryptophan (TRP), the biochemical precursor of 5-HT. Participants were compared with respect to the amount of money they donated when given the opportunity to make a charitable donation. As expected, compared to a neutral placebo, TRP appears to increase the participants’ willingness to donate money to a charity. This result supports the idea that the food we eat may act as a cognitive enhancer modulating the way we think and perceive the world and others. PMID:25566132

  11. Buying time promotes happiness.

    PubMed

    Whillans, Ashley V; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Smeets, Paul; Bekkers, Rene; Norton, Michael I

    2017-08-08

    Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada, Denmark, and The Netherlands ( n = 6,271), we show that individuals who spend money on time-saving services report greater life satisfaction. A field experiment provides causal evidence that working adults report greater happiness after spending money on a time-saving purchase than on a material purchase. Together, these results suggest that using money to buy time can protect people from the detrimental effects of time pressure on life satisfaction.

  12. Promoting excellence in care.

    PubMed

    2004-07-01

    Welcome to Nurse Researcher. This year's annual RCN International Nursing Research Conference was held recently in Cambridge, UK. The event, which attracted over 500 delegates from a range of diverse and academic settings across the world, brought together nurses and other healthcare professionals to promote and develop nursing knowledge. Over 200 papers and poster presentations covered a wide range of topics in nursing and healthcare research, including: issues in research methodology; education; theoretical perspectives; transcultural nursing; evidence-based practice; employment issues; and research governance. In addition to concurrent sessions and posters, many symposia, workshops and other fringe and networking events offered opportunities for sharing good practice and research collaboration. Next year's conference will be held in Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK from Tuesday 8 to Friday 11 March 2005. For more information visit: www.man.ac.uk/rcn/research2005.

  13. Surface Protonics Promotes Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, R.; Okada, S.; Inagaki, R.; Oshima, K.; Ogo, S.; Sekine, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic steam reforming of methane for hydrogen production proceeds even at 473 K over 1 wt% Pd/CeO2 catalyst in an electric field, thanks to the surface protonics. Kinetic analyses demonstrated the synergetic effect between catalytic reaction and electric field, revealing strengthened water pressure dependence of the reaction rate when applying an electric field, with one-third the apparent activation energy at the lower reaction temperature range. Operando–IR measurements revealed that proton conduction via adsorbed water on the catalyst surface occurred during electric field application. Methane was activated by proton collision at the Pd–CeO2 interface, based on the inverse kinetic isotope effect. Proton conduction on the catalyst surface plays an important role in methane activation at low temperature. This report is the first describing promotion of the catalytic reaction by surface protonics. PMID:27905505

  14. Anger Promotes Economic Conservatism.

    PubMed

    Kettle, Keri L; Salerno, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    Research suggests that certain facets of people's political ideals can be motivated by different goals. Although it is widely accepted that emotions motivate goal-directed behavior, less is known about how emotion-specific goals may influence different facets of ideology. In this research, we examine how anger affects political ideology and through what mechanisms such effects occur. Drawing on the dual-process motivational model of ideology and the functionalist perspective of emotion, we propose that anger leads people to support conservative economic ideals, which promote economic independence and discourage societal resource sharing. Four studies support our hypothesis that anger can enhance support for an election candidate espousing conservative economic ideals. We find that anger shifts people toward economic conservatism by orienting them toward competition for resources. Implications and future research on the relationship between emotions and political ideology are discussed.

  15. Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism

    PubMed Central

    De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Greer, Lindred L.; Van Kleef, Gerben A.; Shalvi, Shaul; Handgraaf, Michel J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Human ethnocentrism—the tendency to view one's group as centrally important and superior to other groups—creates intergroup bias that fuels prejudice, xenophobia, and intergroup violence. Grounded in the idea that ethnocentrism also facilitates within-group trust, cooperation, and coordination, we conjecture that ethnocentrism may be modulated by brain oxytocin, a peptide shown to promote cooperation among in-group members. In double-blind, placebo-controlled designs, males self-administered oxytocin or placebo and privately performed computer-guided tasks to gauge different manifestations of ethnocentric in-group favoritism as well as out-group derogation. Experiments 1 and 2 used the Implicit Association Test to assess in-group favoritism and out-group derogation. Experiment 3 used the infrahumanization task to assess the extent to which humans ascribe secondary, uniquely human emotions to their in-group and to an out-group. Experiments 4 and 5 confronted participants with the option to save the life of a larger collective by sacrificing one individual, nominated as in-group or as out-group. Results show that oxytocin creates intergroup bias because oxytocin motivates in-group favoritism and, to a lesser extent, out-group derogation. These findings call into question the view of oxytocin as an indiscriminate “love drug” or “cuddle chemical” and suggest that oxytocin has a role in the emergence of intergroup conflict and violence. PMID:21220339

  16. Ambient Oxygen Promotes Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Starost, Matthew F.; Lago, Cory U.; Lim, Philip K.; Sack, Michael N.; Kang, Ju-Gyeong; Wang, Ping-yuan; Hwang, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53−/− mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53−/− mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo. PMID:21589870

  17. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating.

  18. Health promotion health center project.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Wha; Lee, Chung Yul; Kim, Hee Soon; Ham, Ok Kyung

    2007-01-01

    As part of a major government support for health promotion, a health promotion health center (HPHC) project was launched at the national level in Korea. The purpose of the study was to describe this 2-year HPHC project within the framework of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and to evaluate the preliminary outcomes of the community residents. A cross-sectional design was used. A total of 2,261 community residents participated in the survey, with 792 in HPHC sites and 1,469 in non-HPHC sites. The instrument included questions on participants' demographic characteristics, awareness, participation, health behavior (smoking, exercise, meat consumption, and blood pressure checkup), and satisfaction with the health promotion programs. The 5 main health promotion strategies of the Ottawa Charter were evident in the HPHCs. HPHCs were successful in enhancing awareness, participation, and satisfaction through their health promotion programs, although health behaviors were not significantly different between the 2 groups, except exercise. Ottawa Charter strategies embedded within the practice of the community health promotion activities were effective in increasing the short-term outcomes (awareness, participation, and satisfaction with health promotion programs), which is a promising finding for the development of health promotion behaviors in the future.

  19. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass avocados...

  20. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass avocados...

  1. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action to advance the image, desirability, or marketability of Hass avocados...

  2. Health-promoting schools: an opportunity for oral health promotion.

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Stella Y. L.; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M.; Borutta, Annerose

    2005-01-01

    Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated framework and appropriate methodologies for the evaluation of school oral health projects is emphasized. PMID:16211159

  3. Biofilms promote altruism.

    PubMed

    Kreft, Jan-Ulrich

    2004-08-01

    The origin of altruism is a fundamental problem in evolution, and the maintenance of biodiversity is a fundamental problem in ecology. These two problems combine with the fundamental microbiological question of whether it is always advantageous for a unicellular organism to grow as fast as possible. The common basis for these three themes is a trade-off between growth rate and growth yield, which in turn is based on irreversible thermodynamics. The trade-off creates an evolutionary alternative between two strategies: high growth yield at low growth rate versus high growth rate at low growth yield. High growth yield at low growth rate is a case of an altruistic strategy because it increases the fitness of the group by using resources economically at the cost of decreased fitness, or growth rate, of the individual. The group-beneficial behaviour is advantageous in the long term, whereas the high growth rate strategy is advantageous in the short term. Coexistence of species requires differences between their niches, and niche space is typically divided into four 'axes' (time, space, resources, predators). This neglects survival strategies based on cooperation, which extend the possibilities of coexistence, arguing for the inclusion of cooperation as the fifth 'axis'. Here, individual-based model simulations show that spatial structure, as in, for example, biofilms, is necessary for the origin and maintenance of this 'primitive' altruistic strategy and that the common belief that growth rate but not yield decides the outcome of competition is based on chemostat models and experiments. This evolutionary perspective on life in biofilms can explain long-known biofilm characteristics, such as the structural organization into microcolonies, the often-observed lack of mixing among microcolonies, and the shedding of single cells, as promoting the origin and maintenance of the altruistic strategy. Whereas biofilms enrich altruists, enrichment cultures, microbiology's paradigm

  4. Testing promotes effector transfer.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Arnaud; Panzer, Stefan; Salesse, Robin N; Blandin, Yannick

    2012-11-01

    The retrieval of information from memory during testing has recently been shown to promote transfer in the verbal domain. Motor-related research, however, has ignored testing as a relevant method to enhance motor transfer. We thus investigated whether testing has the potential to induce generalised motor memories by favouring effector transfer. Participants were required to reproduce a spatial-temporal pattern of elbow extensions and flexions with their dominant right arm. We tested the ability of participants to transfer the original pattern (extrinsic transformation; i.e., goal-based configuration) or the mirrored pattern (intrinsic transformation; i.e., movement-based configuration) to the unpractised non-dominant left arm. To evaluate how testing affects motor transfer at 24-h testing, participants were either administered an initial testing session during early practice (early testing group) or shortly after the end of practice (late testing group; i.e., no alternation between practice and testing sessions). No initial testing session was completed for the control group. We found better effector transfer at 24-h testing for the early testing group for both extrinsic and intrinsic transformations of the movement pattern when compared with the control group, while no testing benefit was observed for the late testing group. This indicates that testing positively affects motor learning, yielding enhanced long-term transfer capabilities. We thus demonstrate the critical role of retrieval practice via testing during the process of motor memory encoding, and provide the conditions under which testing effectively contributes to the generalisation of motor memories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrative approaches: promoting socioecological resilience

    J.W. Long; Carl Skinner; M. North; C.T. Hunsaker; L. Quinn-Davidson

    2014-01-01

    This chapter begins by discussing current challenges for ecosystem management that emerged from multiple chapters of the full synthesis. It then considers integrative approaches to promote resilience, including general strategies that recognize the integrated nature of socioecological systems, the importance of promoting disturbance regimes upon which these systems...

  6. Promoting Reading in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Vincent, Ed.

    With the intention of illuminating the many obstacles involved with literacy promotion in the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America, the authors of the 10 articles in this collection share their knowledge and experience of literacy promotion in the developing world--including the unique challenges faced by those who publish, print,…

  7. Insurance Incentives for Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosokawa, Michael C.

    1984-01-01

    To reduce the cost of reimbursements, many insurance companies have begun to use insurance incentives as a way to motivate individuals to participate in health promotion activities. Traditional health education, research and demonstration, and policy-premium incentives are methods of health promotion used by life and health insurance companies.…

  8. Promoting Leadership in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…

  9. Varicella Zoster Virus Promoter Sequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Fragments from each of the recombinant plasmids were excised to determine the optimal sequences used for promoter function. The ExonucleaseIII/ Mung ...activation o f these two herpesvirus l ate promoters by vzv is str i kingly similar . 4 . Definition of the functional promo ter for the early/late ILl

  10. Promoting Trade Books to Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teguis, Ellen

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the role and functions of the library promotion director within a commercial publishing house, outlining in the process the responsibilities and activities of the library services director for a specific firm (Dial Press/Delacourte Press). The nature of book promotion for bookstores and libraries is described. (JL)

  11. Promoting Creativity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper discusses creativity in young children and what teachers can do to support and promote it. Topics addressed in the paper include: (1) teacher interest in promoting creativity; (2) defining creativity; (3) creativity in the socioemotional domain; (4) the relationship between creativity and empathy for others; (4) bibliotherapy; (5)…

  12. MCH promotes family planning.

    PubMed

    Duan, Y

    1992-06-01

    Family planning (FP) has been promoted in China through improvements in maternal and child health (MCH) which have affected people's attitude toward childbearing. A case study of FP in Taicang County of Jiangsu Province, China is given. Total population is 446,620; natural increase is 10/1000. 99% of births have been planned in recent years. Contraceptive prevalence has reached 92.71%. Contraceptive awareness has opened people up to health education in general. The community participates in management of human wastes, improvement of water supplies, and parasite control in rural areas. MCH was begun in the early 1980s with premarital examinations, prenatal examinations, postnatal visits, and physical checkups. A systematic program has established in 1983. A pilot program integrating FP, MCH, and parasite control operated between 1984 and 1986, in 7 townships was established and MCH was institutionalized. Increases occurred in comprehensive care for women from 49.1% in 1984 to 78.3% in 1986. Children's coverage rose from 78.2% to 85.9%. Perinatal mortality dropped from 30.2/1000 to 20.8/1000. Neonatal mortality declined from 21.3/1000 to 17.3/1000. Infant mortality also decreased from 31.6/1000 to 21.5/1000. Integration of programs throughout the county was achieved after 1987. 99% of women used the MCH handbook. Between 1987 and 1990, the perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rate dropped to 12.9/1000, 9.5/1000, and 14.7/1000, respectively. MCH achievements are attributed to a strengthening of the MCH network to improve access and improve MCH workers' level of professional skill, to the availability of premarriage and couples of reproductive age services and child care, and to the contribution of research. Careful monitoring during pregnancy helped reduce the incidence of difficult labors for high risk women from 17.55 in 1984 to 11-15% in recent years. 99.9% deliver in hospitals. There were no maternal deaths in 1989 or 1990. Neonatal tetanus has been

  13. Dynamics and control of sister kinetochore behavior during the meiotic divisions in Drosophila spermatocytes

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Sister kinetochores are connected to the same spindle pole during meiosis I and to opposite poles during meiosis II. The molecular mechanisms controlling the distinct behavior of sister kinetochores during the two meiotic divisions are poorly understood. To study kinetochore behavior during meiosis, we have optimized time lapse imaging with Drosophila spermatocytes, enabling kinetochore tracking with high temporal and spatial resolution through both meiotic divisions. The correct bipolar orientation of chromosomes within the spindle proceeds rapidly during both divisions. Stable bi-orientation of the last chromosome is achieved within ten minutes after the onset of kinetochore-microtubule interactions. Our analyses of mnm and tef mutants, where univalents instead of bivalents are present during meiosis I, indicate that the high efficiency of normal bi-orientation depends on pronounced stabilization of kinetochore attachments to spindle microtubules by the mechanical tension generated by spindle forces upon bi-orientation. Except for occasional brief separation episodes, sister kinetochores are so closely associated that they cannot be resolved individually by light microscopy during meiosis I, interkinesis and at the start of meiosis II. Permanent evident separation of sister kinetochores during M II depends on spindle forces resulting from bi-orientation. In mnm and tef mutants, sister kinetochore separation can be observed already during meiosis I in bi-oriented univalents. Interestingly, however, this sister kinetochore separation is delayed until the metaphase to anaphase transition and depends on the Fzy/Cdc20 activator of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. We propose that univalent bi-orientation in mnm and tef mutants exposes a release of sister kinetochore conjunction that occurs also during normal meiosis I in preparation for bi-orientation of dyads during meiosis II. PMID:29734336

  14. Information technology in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Lintonen, T P; Konu, A I; Seedhouse, D

    2008-06-01

    eHealth, the use of information technology to improve or enable health and health care, has recently been high on the health care development agenda. Given the vivid interest in eHealth, little reference has been made to the use of these technologies in the promotion of health. The aim of this present study was to conduct a review on recent uses of information technology in health promotion through looking at research articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Fifteen relevant journals with issues published between 2003 and June 2005 yielded altogether 1352 articles, 56 of which contained content related to the use of information technology in the context of health promotion. As reflected by this rather small proportion, research on the role of information technology is only starting to emerge. Four broad thematic application areas within health promotion were identified: use of information technology as an intervention medium, use of information technology as a research focus, use of information technology as a research instrument and use of information technology for professional development. In line with this rather instrumental focus, the concepts 'ePromotion of Health' or 'Health ePromotion' would come close to describing the role of information technology in health promotion.

  15. Promoting mental health as an essential aspect of health promotion.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, Shona

    2006-12-01

    This paper advocates that mental health promotion receive appropriate attention within health promotion. It is of great concern that, in practice, mental health promotion is frequently overlooked in health promotion programmes although the WHO definitions of health and the Ottawa Charter describe mental health as an integral part of health. It is suggested that more attention be given to addressing the determinants of mental health in terms of protective and risk factors for both physical and mental conditions, particularly in developing countries. Examples of evidence-based mental health programmes operating in widely diverse settings are presented to demonstrate that well designed interventions can contribute to the well-being of populations. It is advocated that particular attention be given to the intersectorial cooperation needed for this work.

  16. Health promotion: an ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stacy M

    2014-04-01

    Thinking and practising ethically requires reasoning systematically about the right thing to do. Health promotion ethics - a form of applied ethics - includes analysis of health promotion practice and how this can be ethically justified. Existing frameworks can assist in such evaluation. These acknowledge the moral value of delivering benefits. But benefits need to be weighed against burdens, harms or wrongs, and these should be minimised: they include invading privacy, breaking confidentiality, restraining liberty, undermining self-determination or people's own values, or perpetuating injustice. Thinking about the ethics of health promotion also means recognising health promotion as a normative ideal: a vision of the good society. This ideal society values health, sees citizens as active and includes them in decisions that affect them, and makes the state responsible for providing all of its citizens, no matter how advantaged or disadvantaged, with the conditions and resources they need to be healthy. Ethicists writing about health promotion have focused on this relationship between the citizen and the state. Comparing existing frameworks, theories and the expressed values of practitioners themselves, we can see common patterns. All oppose pursuing an instrumental, individualistic, health-at-all-costs vision of health promotion. And all defend the moral significance of just processes: those that engage with citizens in a transparent, inclusive and open way. In recent years, some Australian governments have sought to delegitimise health promotion, defining it as extraneous to the role of the state. Good evidence is not enough to counter this trend, because it is founded in competing visions of a good society. For this reason, the most pressing agenda for health promotion ethics is to engage with communities, in a procedurally just way, about the role and responsibilities of the citizen and the state in promoting and maintaining good health.

  17. The Nuclear Transport Factor Kap121 Is Required for Stability of the Dam1 Complex and Mitotic Kinetochore Bi-orientation.

    PubMed

    Cairo, Lucas V; Wozniak, Richard W

    2016-03-15

    The karyopherin (Kap) family of nuclear transport factors facilitates macromolecular transport through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). The binding of Kaps to their cargos can also regulate, both temporally and spatially, the interactions of the cargo protein with interacting partners. Here, we show that the essential yeast Kap, Kap121, binds Dam1 and Duo1, components of the microtubule (MT)-associated Dam1 complex required for linking dynamic MT ends with kinetochores (KTs). Like mutations in the Dam1 complex, loss of Kap121 function compromises the formation of normal KT-MT attachments during mitosis. We show that the stability of the Dam1 complex in vivo is dependent on its association with Kap121. Furthermore, we show that the Kap121/Duo1 complex is maintained in the presence of RanGTP but Kap121 is released by the cooperative actions of RanGTP and tubulin. We propose that Kap121 stabilizes the Dam1 complex and participates in escorting it to spindle MTs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    DOEpatents

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  19. Social Promotion: Problem or Solution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, William G.; Owens, Ray C.

    1976-01-01

    Social promotion is accomplishing what it was intended to do; it is relieving the various grades of over-age, floundering students. If we are to help these potential failures, we must devise new educational systems. (Editor)

  20. Nutritional Recommendation Should Promote Sustainability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)

  1. [Five paradoxes in health promotion].

    PubMed

    López-Dicastillo, Olga; Canga-Armayor, Navidad; Mujika, Agurtzane; Pardavila-Belio, Miren Idoia; Belintxon, Maider; Serrano-Monzó, Inmaculada; Pumar-Méndez, María J

    The World Health Organization states that health promotion is a key strategy to improve health, and it is conceived as a global process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. Health promotion does not focus solely on empowering individuals dealing with their knowledge, attitudes and skills, but it also takes political, social, economic and environmental aspects influencing health and wellbeing into account. The complexity of applying these concepts is reflected in the five paradoxes in health promotion; these arise in between the rhetoric in health promotion and implementation. The detected paradoxes which are described herein involve the patient versus the person, the individual versus the group, disease professionals versus health professionals, disease indicators versus health indicators, and health as an expense versus health as an investment. Making these contradictions explicit can help determine why it is so complex to put the concepts related to health promotion into practice. It can also help to put forward aspects that need further work if health promotion is to put into practice. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Drug promotion practices: A review.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Nilan T

    2018-01-18

    Over the years, the pharmaceutical industry has been at the forefront of research and innovation in drug discovery and development. The process of drug discovery extending from preclinical studies to multicentric clinical trials and postmarketing phase is a costly affair running into billions of dollars. On the flip side, not all investigational molecules clear the trial phases and get approved, which puts pressure on the manufacturers to maximize the profit from approved drugs. It is in this key area that the practice of drug promotion plays its role. The World Health Organization defines drug promotion as "all informational and persuasive activities by manufacturers and distributors, the effect of which is to influence the prescription, supply, purchase or use of medicinal drugs". With its humble intent of creating awareness among healthcare professionals and updating their knowledge on recent advances in treatment options, drug promotion has been an important tool, but gradually it has evolved to embrace aggressive marketing strategies and sometimes unethical business and scientific practices where the need for profit-making eclipses commitment to patient care and scientific exploration. In this review, we discuss the evolution of drug promotion practices, the various types, its merits and demerits, the influence of drug promotion on physician prescribing behaviour, the role of regulatory bodies, unethical promotional practices and finally summarize with future directions. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Research environments that promote integrity.

    PubMed

    Jeffers, Brenda Recchia; Whittemore, Robin

    2005-01-01

    The body of empirical knowledge about research integrity and the factors that promote research integrity in nursing research environments remains small. To propose an internal control model as an innovative framework for the design and structure of nursing research environments that promote integrity. An internal control model is adapted to illustrate its use for conceptualizing and designing research environments that promote integrity. The internal control model integrates both the organizational elements necessary to promote research integrity and the processes needed to assess research environments. The model provides five interrelated process components within which any number of research integrity variables and processes may be used and studied: internal control environment, risk assessment, internal control activities, monitoring, and information and communication. The components of the proposed research integrity internal control model proposed comprise an integrated conceptualization of the processes that provide reasonable assurance that research integrity will be promoted within the nursing research environment. Schools of nursing can use the model to design, implement, and evaluate systems that promote research integrity. The model process components need further exploration to substantiate the use of the model in nursing research environments.

  4. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1206.17 Section 1206.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means...

  5. 7 CFR 1250.310 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1250.310 Section 1250.310 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.310 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including paid...

  6. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1210.312 Section 1210.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any...

  7. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.114 Promotion. Promotion means actions such as paid advertising, sales... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1150.114 Section 1150.114 Agriculture...

  8. 7 CFR 1260.122 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1260.122 Section 1260.122 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.122 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including paid...

  9. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1216.23 Section 1216.23 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion...

  10. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.16... popcorn. ...

  11. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.16... popcorn. ...

  12. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.16... popcorn. ...

  13. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.16... popcorn. ...

  14. Analytic thinking promotes religious disbelief.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Will M; Norenzayan, Ara

    2012-04-27

    Scientific interest in the cognitive underpinnings of religious belief has grown in recent years. However, to date, little experimental research has focused on the cognitive processes that may promote religious disbelief. The present studies apply a dual-process model of cognitive processing to this problem, testing the hypothesis that analytic processing promotes religious disbelief. Individual differences in the tendency to analytically override initially flawed intuitions in reasoning were associated with increased religious disbelief. Four additional experiments provided evidence of causation, as subtle manipulations known to trigger analytic processing also encouraged religious disbelief. Combined, these studies indicate that analytic processing is one factor (presumably among several) that promotes religious disbelief. Although these findings do not speak directly to conversations about the inherent rationality, value, or truth of religious beliefs, they illuminate one cognitive factor that may influence such discussions.

  15. Introduction to Global Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in universities throughout the country especially in programs focused on health and behavioral sciences, law, economics, and political science. Introduction to Global Health Promotion is a book that can be used by both instructors and students in the field of global health. The book provides theories and models, human rights, and technology relevant to the field. In addition the book is designed to share best evidence for promoting health and reducing morbidity and mortality in a variety of areas. The book can be used by health educators, public health practitioners, professors, and students as a resource for research and practice in the field of health promotion and disease prevention.

  16. How effectors promote beneficial interactions.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Hiroki; Okazaki, Shin

    2017-08-01

    Beneficial microbes such as rhizobia possess effector proteins that are secreted into the host cytoplasm where they modulate host-signaling pathways. Among these effectors, type 3 secreted effectors (T3Es) of rhizobia play roles in promoting nitrogen-fixing nodule symbiosis, suppressing host defenses and directly activating symbiosis-related processes. Rhizobia use the same strategy as pathogenic bacteria to suppress host defenses such as targeting the MAPK cascade. In addition, rhizobial T3E can promote root nodule symbiosis by directly activating Nod factor signaling, which bypasses Nod factor perception. The various strategies employed by beneficial microbes to promote infection and maintain viability in the host are therefore crucial for plant endosymbiosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. AAHD's Health Promotion and Wellness, Part 2: Health Promotion Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article is part 2 of a 4-part series on "Health Promotion and Wellness" from the American Association on Health and Disability (AAHD). According to the U.S. Census Bureau, more than 54 million people--one in five Americans--have a disability, and these Americans are more likely to report: (1) Being in poorer overall health; (2) Having less…

  18. Promoting Community Cohesion in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Andrew B.; McDaid, Maggie; Potter, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Following serious disturbances in some northern cities in England in 2001, concerns about possible rising inter-communal tension have led to a statutory duty to promote community cohesion being placed on schools. Inspectors from the Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) are required to make judgements in the leadership and management section…

  19. The Rhetoric of "Promoting Health."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Uses Chaim Perelman's theories of argumentation to examine a recent Institute of Medicine report, "Promoting Health: Intervention Strategies from Social and Behavioral Research" (2000). Notes that it focuses on social, economic, behavioral, and political health as a means of assuring population health--and thereby expands the…

  20. Health Promotion: A Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert, Ed.; Kickbusch, Ilona, Ed.

    Health promotion redirects thinking about health by: reasserting its social and political aspects; ensuring the people the power to define their own health concerns; and placing health more clearly in the context of other aims in life. This compilation of 41 articles in 8 sections attempts to document this process of redirection of thought. The…

  1. Promoting Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djietror, Beauty B. K.; Okai, Edward; Kwapong, Olivia A. T. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Inclusive education is critical for nation building. The government of Ghana has put in measures for promoting inclusion from basic through to tertiary level of education. Some of these measures include expansion of school facilities, implementation of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE); the change of policy on girls who drop…

  2. Promoting Discussions in ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Background: Teachers who work with English as a Second Language (ESL) students, struggle with promoting discussion during guided reading. When ESL students are asked comprehension questions during group discussions and throughout the reading of a book, often teachers receive minimal feedback. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify…

  3. Health Promotion at the Ballpark.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Bonni C

    2017-03-01

    The arrival of a new summer collegiate baseball league franchise to a small central New York city was seen as an opportunity for health promotion. The initiative was set up to explore two overarching questions: (1) Are summer collegiate baseball events acceptable to local public health organizations as viable places for health promotion activities addressing local health issues? (2) Are summer collegiate baseball organizations amenable to health promotion activities built in to their fan and/or player experiences? Planning and implementation were guided by precede-proceed, social cognitive theory, social marketing, and diffusion of innovations constructs. Environmental changes were implemented to support healthy eating and nontobacco use by players and fans; four health awareness nights were implemented at home games corresponding to local public health priorities and included public service announcements, between inning quizzes, information dissemination at concession and team market locations, and special guests. Sales and fan feedback support mostly healthy concession offerings and a tobacco-free ballpark; postseason evaluations from team staff and public health partners support continuing the trials of this sports event as a venue for health promotion.

  4. Using Data to Promote Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shum, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Data plays a starring role in promoting educational equity, and data-driven decision making begins with good state policies. With the recent passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) and a proposed federal rule to address racial disproportionality in special education, states will shoulder increased responsibility for eliminating…

  5. University Festival Promotes STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quagliata, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    STEM education is argued as an essential ingredient in preparing our children for careers of the future. This study describes a university festival that includes the promotion of STEM-related career interests in young people among its goals. A total of 203 participants between the age of 7 and 17 completed both pre-event and post-event surveys. In…

  6. Promoting SETI in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Alan

    2013-10-01

    MEETING REPORT What does the UK presently do in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence and what are the plans for the future? Alan Penny reports on a meeting of UK academics active in SETI, held as sessions in the recent National Astronomy Meeting in Scotland - and the formation of the UK SETI Research Network to promote UK academic work.

  7. Promoting Metacognition in Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Carol W.

    2013-01-01

    Metacognition is a type of thinking in which learners think about their own cognitive processes. Because it transcends disciplines and grade levels, metacognition is useful in many educational settings and can be transferred from the music classroom to other subject areas. Music educators can promote metacognition by designing and implementing…

  8. Compulsory Autonomy-Promoting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinkel, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Today, many liberal philosophers of education worry that certain kinds of education may frustrate the development of personal autonomy, with negative consequences for the individuals concerned, the liberal state, or both. Autonomy liberals hold not only that we should promote the development of autonomy in children, but also that this aim should…

  9. Advertising and Sales Promotion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 4-unit, 1-year marketing education course in advertising and sales promotion offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. The preface contains a rationale for the development of the course, a course description, course objectives, a list of the instructional units of the course, and a list of the…

  10. 7 CFR 1280.118 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.118 Promotion. Promotion... information and public relations with emphasis on new marketing strategies, to present a favorable image of U...

  11. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and the...

  12. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and the...

  13. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and the...

  14. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion. Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and the...

  15. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion... image of peanuts to the public to improve the competitive position of peanuts in the marketplace...

  16. 21 CFR 601.45 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Promotional materials. 601.45 Section 601.45 Food... Promotional materials. For biological products being considered for approval under this subpart, unless... preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials, including promotional labeling as well as...

  17. 5 CFR 532.407 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 532.407 Section 532.407... Administration § 532.407 Promotion. (a) An employee who is promoted is entitled to be paid at the lowest.... (c) If the promotion is to a position in a different wage area, the agency shall determine the...

  18. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1221.23 Section 1221.23 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.23 Promotion...

  19. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Promotion. Promotion means any action, including paid advertising, to enhance the image or desirability of... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1215.16 Section 1215.16 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...

  20. 7 CFR 1160.111 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... demand for fluid milk products. (b) Advertising, which means any advertising or promotion program... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1160.111 Section 1160.111 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order...

  1. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1218.17 Section 1218.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.17 Promotion...

  2. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in the United States, including paid advertising, sales promotion, and publicity. Promotion... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1219.22 Section 1219.22 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...

  3. 7 CFR 1230.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including but not limited to paid advertising and retail or food...

  4. 7 CFR 1230.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.22 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including but not limited to paid advertising and retail or food...

  5. Methods of affecting nitrogen assimilation in plants

    DOEpatents

    Coruzzi, Gloria; Gutierrez, Rodrigo A.; Nero, Damion C.

    2016-10-11

    Provided herein are compositions and methods for producing transgenic plants. In specific embodiments, transgenic plants comprise a construct comprising a polynucleotide encoding CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1, operably linked to a plant-specific promote, wherein the CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 is ectopically overexpressed in the transgenic plants, and wherein the promoter is optionally a constitutive or inducible promoter. In other embodiments, transgenic plants in which express a lower level of CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 are provided. Also provided herein are commercial products (e.g., pulp, paper, paper products, or lumber) derived from the transgenic plants (e.g., transgenic trees) produced using the methods provided herein.

  6. Transgenic plants expressing GLK1 and CCA1 having increased nitrogen assimilation capacity

    DOEpatents

    Coruzzi, Gloria [New York, NY; Gutierrez, Rodrigo A [Santiago, CL; Nero, Damion C [Woodside, NY

    2012-04-10

    Provided herein are compositions and methods for producing transgenic plants. In specific embodiments, transgenic plants comprise a construct comprising a polynucleotide encoding CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1, operably linked to a plant-specific promote, wherein the CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 is ectopically overexpressed in the transgenic plants, and wherein the promoter is optionally a constitutive or inducible promoter. In other embodiments, transgenic plants in which express a lower level of CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 are provided. Also provided herein are commercial products (e.g., pulp, paper, paper products, or lumber) derived from the transgenic plants (e.g., transgenic trees) produced using the methods provided herein.

  7. Promoted ignition of oxygen regulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Barry E.; Langford, Richard K.; Meyer, Gene R.

    An investigation has been conducted of the ignition-containment capability of 12 oxygen regulators contaminated by various levels of hydrocarbon oils and subjected to promoted ignition. The regulators inlets were pressurized to 15.2 MPa with gaseous oxygen, and the oil was ignited by an electrical arc located upstream of the test article inlet port; the flame was allowed to propagate with the oxygen flow throughout the regulator internal cavities. The resulting reactions, which ranged in character from complete containment of the promoted ignition for one two-stage regulator to extensive burning and explosive energy release for several other (both single- and double-stage) regulators, indicate the need to prevent oil from being introduced into regulators.

  8. Promoted ignition of oxygen regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, Barry E.; Langford, Richard K.; Meyer, Gene R.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted of the ignition-containment capability of 12 oxygen regulators contaminated by various levels of hydrocarbon oils and subjected to promoted ignition. The regulators inlets were pressurized to 15.2 MPa with gaseous oxygen, and the oil was ignited by an electrical arc located upstream of the test article inlet port; the flame was allowed to propagate with the oxygen flow throughout the regulator internal cavities. The resulting reactions, which ranged in character from complete containment of the promoted ignition for one two-stage regulator to extensive burning and explosive energy release for several other (both single- and double-stage) regulators, indicate the need to prevent oil from being introduced into regulators.

  9. Competitive intransitivity promotes species coexistence.

    PubMed

    Laird, Robert A; Schamp, Brandon S

    2006-08-01

    Using a spatially explicit cellular automaton model with local competition, we investigate the potential for varied levels of competitive intransitivity (i.e., nonhierarchical competition) to promote species coexistence. As predicted, on average, increased levels of intransitivity result in more sustained coexistence within simulated communities, although the outcome of competition also becomes increasingly unpredictable. Interestingly, even a moderate degree of intransitivity within a community can promote coexistence, in terms of both the length of time until the first competitive exclusion and the number of species remaining in the community after 500 simulated generations. These results suggest that modest levels of intransitivity in nature, such as those that are thought to be characteristic of plant communities, can contribute to coexistence and, therefore, community-scale biodiversity. We explore a potential connection between competitive intransitivity and neutral theory, whereby competitive intransitivity may represent an important mechanism for "ecological equivalence."

  10. Promoting the exotic pet practice.

    PubMed

    Harris, Don J

    2005-09-01

    The marketing and promotion of an exotic pet veterinary practice allows the use of strategies that are not necessarily available in other veterinary disciplines. The advantage that an exotics practice enjoys is that it is able to capitalize not only on the unique nature of the species being attended but also on the specialized features of the hospital itself that make it specifically appropriate in caring for exotic pets. Before marketing, however, comes the responsibility that the practice live up to the claims made in promotional materials. A practice cannot ethically be presented as an "exotics" practice if it is nothing more than a dog and cat facility that is willing to attend to exotic pets. It is the competence of the veterinary staff and the appropriateness of the facility that determines the suitability of the practice for exotics management.

  11. [Empowerment and health promotion programming].

    PubMed

    Laverack, G

    2008-12-01

    Health promotion often presents a tension between "bottom up" and "top down" programming. "Bottom-up" is associated with community empowerment and begins on issues of concern to particular groups or individuals and regards an increase in overall control as an important element of the health outcome. "Top-down" is associated with disease prevention efforts and begins by seeking to involve beneficiaries on issues defined by health agencies. It regards improvements in health behaviours or bio-medical indicators as the important outcome and community empowerment is viewed simply as a means to the end of health behaviour change. The tension between these two approaches is not unresolvable, and this article presents a framework, the "parallel-track", intended to assist health promotion practitioners to systematically accommodate community empowerment goals within "top-down" health programming.

  12. South Asia's health promotion kaleidoscope.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2007-01-01

    South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region.

  13. Incentives to promote family planning

    PubMed Central

    Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. PMID:22743293

  14. Programming gene expression with combinatorial promoters

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Robert Sidney; Surette, Michael G; Elowitz, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    Promoters control the expression of genes in response to one or more transcription factors (TFs). The architecture of a promoter is the arrangement and type of binding sites within it. To understand natural genetic circuits and to design promoters for synthetic biology, it is essential to understand the relationship between promoter function and architecture. We constructed a combinatorial library of random promoter architectures. We characterized 288 promoters in Escherichia coli, each containing up to three inputs from four different TFs. The library design allowed for multiple −10 and −35 boxes, and we observed varied promoter strength over five decades. To further analyze the functional repertoire, we defined a representation of promoter function in terms of regulatory range, logic type, and symmetry. Using these results, we identified heuristic rules for programming gene expression with combinatorial promoters. PMID:18004278

  15. Promotion to professor: a career development resource.

    PubMed

    Sanfey, Hilary

    2010-10-01

    By the time a faculty member is being considered for promotion to full professor, he/she will be about 10 years out of residency training and will almost certainly have prior experience with the academic promotion process. The preparation for promotion to full professor should begin soon after the promotion to associate professor. This is a time to reassess opportunities, resources, skills, and career goals. The timing of the promotion to full professor is usually less rigid than the timeframe for promotion at lower ranks, but schools vary in this regard. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    PubMed

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  17. Natural Selection Promotes Antigenic Evolvability

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Christopher J.; Ros, Vera I. D.; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D.; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed ‘cassettes’ that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections

  18. Breastfeeding promotion: the right start.

    PubMed

    Huffman, S

    1989-09-01

    A survey in Guatemala revealed that 50% of physicians did not know that breast milk provides protection against diarrhea or that it is also an important food after the 1st 6 months of life. Some countries (Indonesia, Thailand, Panama, and the US) have successfully trained health workers in the advantages of breast feeding, but not all training programs have incorporated techniques to help mothers to breast feed, e.g., how to prevent engorgement. Health workers need to show mothers the positioning of the infant which aids breast feeding. Further, some infants do not want to suck or suck ineffectively. Moreover many hospitals need to change their method of managing childbirth. Hospital workers should encourage immediate physical contact between mothers and babies after birth which facilitates breast feeding and babies are more likely to receive the protective colostrum. Similarly they should promote rooming in of newborns with their mothers. In addition, health workers should minimize analgesic use. They should also promote exclusive breast feeding and not give any glucose water or other supplements to newborns which, in addition to other reasons, sends the message that supplemental feedings are fine when indeed they contribute to diarrhea. Moreover, in oral rehydration therapy (ORT) units, oral rehydration solution (ORS) should be spoonfed to diarrhea patients and not given in bottles so mothers will not conclude that the medical community approves of bottle use. Health workers should encourage mothers to spoon feed ORS at home as well. Further, ORT units and inpatient intravenous units should encourage mothers to stay with their infants. Pediatricians should lead the way in promoting breast feeding.

  19. Immune cell promotion of metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Takanori; Qian, Bin-Zhi; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic disease is the major cause of death from cancer, and immunotherapy and chemotherapy have had limited success in reversing its progression. Data from mouse models suggest that the recruitment of immunosuppressive cells to tumours protects metastatic cancer cells from surveillance by killer cells, which nullifies the effects of immunotherapy and thus establishes metastasis. Furthermore, in most cases, tumour-infiltrating immune cells differentiate into cells that promote each step of the metastatic cascade and thus are novel targets for therapy. In this Review, we describe how tumour-infiltrating immune cells contribute to the metastatic cascade and we discuss potential therapeutic strategies to target these cells. PMID:25614318

  20. RIC-7 Promotes Neuropeptide Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yingsong; Hu, Zhitao; Sieburth, Derek; Kaplan, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    Secretion of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides is mediated by exocytosis of distinct secretory organelles, synaptic vesicles (SVs) and dense core vesicles (DCVs) respectively. Relatively little is known about factors that differentially regulate SV and DCV secretion. Here we identify a novel protein RIC-7 that is required for neuropeptide secretion in Caenorhabditis elegans. The RIC-7 protein is expressed in all neurons and is localized to presynaptic terminals. Imaging, electrophysiology, and behavioral analysis of ric-7 mutants indicates that acetylcholine release occurs normally, while neuropeptide release is significantly decreased. These results suggest that RIC-7 promotes DCV–mediated secretion. PMID:22275875

  1. Health promotion capacity mapping: the Korean situation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Eun Woo; Engelhardt, Katrin

    2007-06-01

    Ten years ago the Republic of Korea enacted the National Health Promotion Act, setting the stage for health promotion action in the country. A National Health Promotion Fund was established, financed through tobacco taxes, which is now one of the largest in the world. However, despite abundant financial resources, the infrastructure needed to plan, implement, coordinate and evaluate health promotion efforts is still underdeveloped. Currently, health promotion capacity mapping efforts are emerging in Korea. Two international capacity mapping tools have been used to assess the Korean situation, namely HP-Source and the Health Promotion Capacity Profile, which was developed prior to the sixth Global Conference of Health Promotion, held in August 2005 in Bangkok, Thailand. The article summarizes and discusses the results of the capacity mapping exercise, highlights its challenges and suggest ways to improve the accuracy of health promotion capacity mapping.

  2. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... desirability of mushrooms, including paid advertising. ...

  3. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... desirability of mushrooms, including paid advertising. ...

  4. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... desirability of mushrooms, including paid advertising. ...

  5. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209... desirability of mushrooms, including paid advertising. ...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.121 Promotion. The term..., to enhance the image or desirability of soybeans or soybean products in domestic and foreign markets...

  7. 29 CFR 541.503 - Promotion work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Promotion work. 541.503 Section 541.503 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.503 Promotion work. (a) Promotion work is one type of activity often performed by persons who make sales, which may or may not be exempt outside sales work, depending upon the...

  8. 29 CFR 541.503 - Promotion work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Promotion work. 541.503 Section 541.503 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.503 Promotion work. (a) Promotion work is one type of activity often performed by persons who make sales, which may or may not be exempt outside sales work, depending upon the...

  9. 21 CFR 314.550 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotional materials. 314.550 Section 314.550... Serious or Life-Threatening Illnesses § 314.550 Promotional materials. For drug products being considered... the agency for consideration during the preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials...

  10. 17 CFR 33.8 - Promotional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Promotional material. 33.8... DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.8 Promotional material. Each futures commission... promotional material it provides, directly or indirectly, to option customers as well as the true source of...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... promotion means any action, including paid advertising, technical assistance, and trade servicing activities... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1220.121 Section 1220.121 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...

  12. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1209.17 Section 1209.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  13. The epidemiology of drug promotion.

    PubMed

    Silverman, M

    1977-01-01

    A survey was conducted on the promotion of 28 prescription drugs in the form of 40 different products marketed in the United States and Latin America by 23 multinational pharmaceutical companies. Striking differences were found in the manner in which the identical drug, marketed by the identical company or its foreign affiliate, was described to physicians in the United States and to physicians in Latin America. In the United States, the listed indications were usually few in number, while the contraindications, warnings, and potential adverse reactions were given in extensive detail. In Latin America, the listed indications were far more numerous, while the hazards were usually minimized, glossed over, or totally ignored. The differences were not simply between the United States on the one hand and all the Latin American countries on the other. There were substantial differences within Latin America, with the same global company telling one story in Mexico, another in Central America, a third in Ecuador and Colombia, and yet another in Brazil. The companies have sought to defend these practices by contending that they are not breaking any Latin American laws. In some countries, however, such promotion is in clear violation of the law. The corporate ethics and social responsibilities concerned here call for examination and action.

  14. Promoting breast screening in Glasgow.

    PubMed

    Cohen, L; Dobson, H; McGuire, F

    2000-03-01

    To establish whether there is a role for advertising in the promotion of the Breast Screening Programme and what the role of advertising might be. Four hundred and sixty questionnaires were completed by women attending their breast screening appointment. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from the static unit at Calder Street and the mobile unit in Govan. The advertising (budget 30,000 Pounds) campaign ran over an eight week period in the Govan, Paisley Road West and Cardonald areas of Glasgow. Media used included press advertising, The Glasgow Underground, adshells, bus advertising (interiors) and poster distribution via local outlets. Forty-two per cent of the sample were aware of the campaign. Ninety-seven per cent liked the campaign images. Eighty eight per cent felt that breast screening should be advertised more. Screening uptake increased in the areas covered by the advertising campaign. Govan -58%-71% and Ibrox (Paisley Road West and Cardonald) -59%-61%. Women were very supportive of the role of advertising for the Breast Screening Programme. In particular they found the campaign images and messages reassuring, supportive and credible. Their views suggest that the role of advertising should be: To raise awareness of the service To make women more conscious of the benefits of screening To change public perceptions of the screening process However, it is recognised that a fully integrated approach is required for the promotion of the service to account for the improvement in uptake, as advertising cannot be expected to work in isolation.

  15. Do online gossipers promote brands?

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Shintaro; Rubio, Natalia; Campo, Sara

    2013-02-01

    Online gossip has been recognized as small talk on social networking sites (SNSs) that influences consumer behavior, but little attention has been paid to its role. This study makes three theoretical predictions: (a) propensity to gossip online leads to greater information value, entertainment value, and friendship value; (b) upon exposure to a high-involvement product, online gossipers are more willing to spread such information through electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in search of prestige or fame as a knowledge expert; and (c) this tendency will be more pronounced when they are connected with strong ties (rather than weak ties) and belong to a large network (rather than a small network). An experimental survey was conducted with a scenario method. In total, 818 general consumers participated in the survey. A multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) provides empirical support for prediction (1). With regard to predictions (2) and (3), a series of three-way and two-way between-subjective ANOVAs were performed. When a high-involvement product is promoted, gossipers, rather than nongossipers, are more willing to participate in eWOM on an SNS. Furthermore, a significant interaction effect indicates that online gossipers' willingness to particiapte in eWOM would be more pronounced if they belonged to a large network rather than a small network. However, when a low-involvement product is promoted, no interaction effect is found between online gossip and network size. In closing, theoretical and managerial implications are discussed, while important limitations are recognized.

  16. Tea polyphenols for health promotion

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    People have been consuming brewed tea from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant for almost 50 centuries. Although health benefits have been attributed to tea, especially green tea consumption since the beginning of its history, scientific investigations of this beverage and its constituents have been underway for less than three decades. Currently, tea, in the form of green or black tea, next to water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. In vitro and animal studies provide strong evidence that polyphenols derived from tea may possess the bioactivity to affect the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Among all tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin-3-gallate has been shown to be responsible for much of the health promoting ability of green tea. Tea and tea preparations have been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis in a variety of animal models of carcinogenesis. However, with increasing interest in the health promoting properties of tea and a significant rise in scientific investigation, this review covers recent findings on the medicinal properties and health benefits of tea with special reference to cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:17655876

  17. Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ather; Katz, David L.

    2015-01-01

    As a discipline, preventive medicine has traditionally been described to encompass primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The fields of preventive medicine and public health share the objectives of promoting general health, preventing disease, and applying epidemiologic techniques to these goals. This paper discusses a conceptual approach between the overlap and potential synergies of integrative medicine principles and practices with preventive medicine in the context of these levels of prevention, acknowledging the relative deficiency of research on the effectiveness of practice-based integrative care. One goal of integrative medicine is to make the widest array of appropriate options available to patients, ultimately blurring the boundaries between conventional and complementary medicine. Both disciplines should be subject to rigorous scientific inquiry so that interventions that are efficacious and effective are systematically distinguished from those that are not. Furthermore, principles of preventive medicine can be infused into prevalent practices in complementary and integrative medicine, promoting public health in the context of more-responsible practices. The case is made that an integrative preventive approach involves the responsible use of science with responsiveness to the needs of patients that persist when conclusive data are exhausted, providing a framework to make clinical decisions among integrative therapies. PMID:26477898

  18. Using a health promotion model to promote benchmarking.

    PubMed

    Welby, Jane

    2006-07-01

    The North East (England) Neonatal Benchmarking Group has been established for almost a decade and has researched and developed a substantial number of evidence-based benchmarks. With no firm evidence that these were being used or that there was any standardisation of neonatal care throughout the region, the group embarked on a programme to review the benchmarks and determine what evidence-based guidelines were needed to support standardisation. A health promotion planning model was used by one subgroup to structure the programme; it enabled all members of the sub group to engage in the review process and provided the motivation and supporting documentation for implementation of changes in practice. The need for a regional guideline development group to complement the activity of the benchmarking group is being addressed.

  19. The punctilious RNA polymerase II core promoter

    PubMed Central

    Vo ngoc, Long; Wang, Yuan-Liang; Kassavetis, George A.; Kadonaga, James T.

    2017-01-01

    The signals that direct the initiation of transcription ultimately converge at the core promoter, which is the gateway to transcription. Here we provide an overview of the RNA polymerase II core promoter in bilateria (bilaterally symmetric animals). The core promoter is diverse in terms of its composition and function yet is also punctilious, as it acts with strict rules and precision. We additionally describe an expanded view of the core promoter that comprises the classical DNA sequence motifs, sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors, chromatin signals, and DNA structure. This model may eventually lead to a more unified conceptual understanding of the core promoter. PMID:28808065

  20. Stimulating innovative research in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Larouche, Annie; Potvin, Louise

    2013-06-01

    The Global Working Group on Health Promotion Research (GWG HPR) of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) presents a collection of four articles illustrating innovative avenues for health promotion research. This commentary synthesizes the contributions of these articles while attempting to define the contours of research in health promotion. We propose that innovation in research involves the adoption of a reflexive approach wherein consideration of context plays different roles. The reflexive process consists of questioning what is taken for granted in the conceptualization and operationalization of research. It involves linking research findings and its theoretical foundations to characteristics and goals of the field and observed realities, while orienting reflection on specific objects. The reflexive nature of the research activity is of paramount importance for innovation in health promotion. With the publication of this series, the GWG HPR wishes to strengthen health promotion research capacity at the global level and reaffirm health promotion as a specific research domain.

  1. Pharmaceutical promotion, advertising, and consumers.

    PubMed

    Batchlor, Elaine; Laouri, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Proponents of drug promotion and advertising claim that it is informative and educational; opponents are concerned that the information conveyed encourages inappropriate and unnecessary use. Health Affairs papers by Joel Weissman and colleagues and by Robert Dubois provide some validation for the views of both sides of this debate but do not allow us to draw definitive conclusions about key issues involving inappropriate use of expensive medications and their substitution for cheaper medications that are just as effective. The extent to which consumers have been protected from the rising cost of pharmaceuticals further muddles the picture. However, new insurance benefit designs that threaten to shift more costs to consumers may fuel demand for more comprehensive and balanced information.

  2. Body ownership promotes visual awareness.

    PubMed

    van der Hoort, Björn; Reingardt, Maria; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2017-08-17

    The sense of ownership of one's body is important for survival, e.g., in defending the body against a threat. However, in addition to affecting behavior, it also affects perception of the world. In the case of visuospatial perception, it has been shown that the sense of ownership causes external space to be perceptually scaled according to the size of the body. Here, we investigated the effect of ownership on another fundamental aspect of visual perception: visual awareness. In two binocular rivalry experiments, we manipulated the sense of ownership of a stranger's hand through visuotactile stimulation while that hand was one of the rival stimuli. The results show that ownership, but not mere visuotactile stimulation, increases the dominance of the hand percept. This effect is due to a combination of longer perceptual dominance durations and shorter suppression durations. Together, these results suggest that the sense of body ownership promotes visual awareness.

  3. Promoting Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.

  4. Health Promotion in Small Business

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Kira; Stinson, Kaylan; Scott, Kenneth; Tenney, Liliana; Newman, Lee S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the evidence regarding the adoption and efficacy of worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs) in small businesses. Methods Peer-reviewed research articles were identified from a database search. Included articles were published before July 2013, described a study that used an experimental or quasiexperimental design and either assessed adoption of WHPPs or conducted interventions in businesses with fewer than 500 employees. A review team scored the study’s rigor using the WHO-adapted GRADEprofiler “quality of evidence” criteria. Results Of the 84 retrieved articles, 19 met study inclusion criteria. Of these, only two met criteria for high rigor. Conclusions Fewer small businesses adopt WHPPs compared with large businesses. Two high-rigor studies found that employees were healthier postintervention. Higher quality research is needed to better understand why small businesses rarely adopt wellness programs and to demonstrate the value of such programs. PMID:24905421

  5. Asian motivators for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Coburn, Carolyn L; Weismuller, Penny C

    2012-04-01

    Change in health behaviors requires motivation on the part of the individual. The aim of this article is to compare elements of the motivation process across cultures. A secondary aim is to determine whether a Western model of behavior change for health promotion, such as the PRECEDE-PROCEED model, can be applied to Asian populations. An integrative review and critical analysis of research literature was done by reviewing 20 studies with observational survey design and 6 integrative literature reviews. Findings show that the motivation process is similar for Eastern and Western cultures, but the motivators are different. The findings identify 10 motivators, congruent with Asian culture, that would allow the PRECEDE-PROCEED model to be used in Asian settings.

  6. Body ownership promotes visual awareness

    PubMed Central

    Reingardt, Maria; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The sense of ownership of one’s body is important for survival, e.g., in defending the body against a threat. However, in addition to affecting behavior, it also affects perception of the world. In the case of visuospatial perception, it has been shown that the sense of ownership causes external space to be perceptually scaled according to the size of the body. Here, we investigated the effect of ownership on another fundamental aspect of visual perception: visual awareness. In two binocular rivalry experiments, we manipulated the sense of ownership of a stranger’s hand through visuotactile stimulation while that hand was one of the rival stimuli. The results show that ownership, but not mere visuotactile stimulation, increases the dominance of the hand percept. This effect is due to a combination of longer perceptual dominance durations and shorter suppression durations. Together, these results suggest that the sense of body ownership promotes visual awareness. PMID:28826500

  7. NEDDylation promotes stress granule assembly

    PubMed Central

    Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Sanchez, Anthony; Park, Ra Young; Yoon, Sang Pil; Kang, Gum-Yong; Baek, Je-Hyun; Anderson, Paul; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) harbour translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoproteins and play important roles in regulating gene expression and cell fate. Here we show that neddylation promotes SG assembly in response to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition or depletion of key components of the neddylation machinery concomitantly inhibits stress-induced polysome disassembly and SG assembly. Affinity purification and subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of Nedd8-conjugated proteins from translationally stalled ribosomal fractions identified ribosomal proteins, translation factors and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including SRSF3, a previously known SG regulator. We show that SRSF3 is selectively neddylated at Lys85 in response to arsenite. A non-neddylatable SRSF3 (K85R) mutant do not prevent arsenite-induced polysome disassembly, but fails to support the SG assembly, suggesting that the neddylation pathway plays an important role in SG assembly. PMID:27381497

  8. NEDDylation promotes stress granule assembly.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Sanchez, Anthony; Park, Ra Young; Yoon, Sang Pil; Kang, Gum-Yong; Baek, Je-Hyun; Anderson, Paul; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum

    2016-07-06

    Stress granules (SGs) harbour translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoproteins and play important roles in regulating gene expression and cell fate. Here we show that neddylation promotes SG assembly in response to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition or depletion of key components of the neddylation machinery concomitantly inhibits stress-induced polysome disassembly and SG assembly. Affinity purification and subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of Nedd8-conjugated proteins from translationally stalled ribosomal fractions identified ribosomal proteins, translation factors and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including SRSF3, a previously known SG regulator. We show that SRSF3 is selectively neddylated at Lys85 in response to arsenite. A non-neddylatable SRSF3 (K85R) mutant do not prevent arsenite-induced polysome disassembly, but fails to support the SG assembly, suggesting that the neddylation pathway plays an important role in SG assembly.

  9. Preconception care: promoting reproductive planning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Preconception care recognizes that many adolescent girls and young women will be thrust into motherhood without the knowledge, skills or support they need. Sixty million adolescents give birth each year worldwide, even though pregnancy in adolescence has mortality rates at least twice as high as pregnancy in women aged 20-29 years. Reproductive planning and contraceptive use can prevent unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions and sexually-transmitted infections in adolescent girls and women. Smaller families also mean better nutrition and development opportunities, yet 222 million couples continue to lack access to modern contraception. Method A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Comprehensive interventions can prevent first pregnancy in adolescence by 15% and repeat adolescent pregnancy by 37%. Such interventions should address underlying social and community factors, include sexual and reproductive health services, contraceptive provision; personal development programs and emphasizes completion of education. Appropriate birth spacing (18-24 months from birth to next pregnancy compared to short intervals <6 months) can significantly lower maternal mortality, preterm births, stillbirths, low birth weight and early neonatal deaths. Conclusion Improving adolescent health and preventing adolescent pregnancy; and promotion of birth spacing through increasing correct and consistent use of effective contraception are fundamental to preconception care. Promoting reproductive planning on a wider scale is closely interlinked with the

  10. Do Online Gossipers Promote Brands?

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Natalia; Campo, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Online gossip has been recognized as small talk on social networking sites (SNSs) that influences consumer behavior, but little attention has been paid to its role. This study makes three theoretical predictions: (a) propensity to gossip online leads to greater information value, entertainment value, and friendship value; (b) upon exposure to a high-involvement product, online gossipers are more willing to spread such information through electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in search of prestige or fame as a knowledge expert; and (c) this tendency will be more pronounced when they are connected with strong ties (rather than weak ties) and belong to a large network (rather than a small network). An experimental survey was conducted with a scenario method. In total, 818 general consumers participated in the survey. A multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) provides empirical support for prediction (1). With regard to predictions (2) and (3), a series of three-way and two-way between-subjective ANOVAs were performed. When a high-involvement product is promoted, gossipers, rather than nongossipers, are more willing to participate in eWOM on an SNS. Furthermore, a significant interaction effect indicates that online gossipers' willingness to particiapte in eWOM would be more pronounced if they belonged to a large network rather than a small network. However, when a low-involvement product is promoted, no interaction effect is found between online gossip and network size. In closing, theoretical and managerial implications are discussed, while important limitations are recognized. PMID:23276259

  11. Ecklonia cava promotes hair growth.

    PubMed

    Bak, S S; Ahn, B N; Kim, J A; Shin, S H; Kim, J C; Kim, M K; Sung, Y K; Kim, S K

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have reported the protective effects on skin elasticity of the edible marine seaweed Ecklonia cava, which acts through regulation of both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses. We evaluated the effect of E. cava and one of its components, dioxinodehydroeckol, on hair-shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and on hair growth in mice. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was used to check cell viability of human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and outer root sheath (ORS) cells after treatment with E. cava and its metabolite, dioxinodehydroeckol. Hair-shaft growth was measured using the in vitro hair-follicle organ-culture system, in the presence or absence of E. cava and dioxinodehydroeckol. Anagen induction activity was examined by topical application of E. cava to the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 expression was measured by reverse transcriptase PCR and ELISA. The proliferation activity was found to be highest for the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of E. cava (EAFE) in DPCs and in ORS cells. Treatment with EAFE resulted in elongation of the hair shaft in cultured human hair follicles, and promoted transition of the hair cycle from the telogen to the anagen phase in the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. In addition, EAFE induced an increase in IGF-1 expression in DPCs. Dioxinodehydroeckol, a component of E. cava, induced elongation of the hair shaft, an increase in proliferation of DPCs and ORS cells, and an increase in expression of IGF-1 in DPCs. These results suggest that E. cava containing dioxinodehydroeckol promotes hair growth through stimulation of DPCs and ORS cells. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Hsp90 Promotes Kinase Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lachowiec, Jennifer; Lemus, Tzitziki; Borenstein, Elhanan; Queitsch, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) promotes the maturation and stability of its client proteins, including many kinases. In doing so, Hsp90 may allow its clients to accumulate mutations as previously proposed by the capacitor hypothesis. If true, Hsp90 clients should show increased evolutionary rate compared with nonclients; however, other factors, such as gene expression and protein connectivity, may confound or obscure the chaperone’s putative contribution. Here, we compared the evolutionary rates of many Hsp90 clients and nonclients in the human protein kinase superfamily. We show that Hsp90 client status promotes evolutionary rate independently of, but in a small magnitude similar to that of gene expression and protein connectivity. Hsp90’s effect on kinase evolutionary rate was detected across mammals, specifically relaxing purifying selection. Hsp90 clients also showed increased nucleotide diversity and harbored more damaging variation than nonclient kinases across humans. These results are consistent with the central argument of the capacitor hypothesis that interaction with the chaperone allows its clients to harbor genetic variation. Hsp90 client status is thought to be highly dynamic with as few as one amino acid change rendering a protein dependent on the chaperone. Contrary to this expectation, we found that across protein kinase phylogeny Hsp90 client status tends to be gained, maintained, and shared among closely related kinases. We also infer that the ancestral protein kinase was not an Hsp90 client. Taken together, our results suggest that Hsp90 played an important role in shaping the kinase superfamily. PMID:25246701

  13. Health promotion and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Maltz, Marisa; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene) should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  14. How have health promotion frameworks considered gender?

    PubMed

    Gelb, Karen; Pederson, Ann; Greaves, Lorraine

    2012-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of five key internationally recognized health promotion frameworks and assesses their consideration of gender. This analysis was conducted as part of the Promoting Health in Women project, a Canadian initiative focused on generating a framework for effective health promotion for women. To date, no review of health promotion frameworks has specifically focused on assessing the treatment of gender. This analysis draws on a comprehensive literature review that covered available literature on gender and health promotion frameworks published internationally between 1974 and 2010. Analysis of five key health promotion frameworks revealed that although gender was at times mentioned as a determinant of health, gender was never identified and integrated as a factor critical to successful health promotion. This superficial attention to the role of gender in health promotion is problematic as it limits our capacity to understand how gender influences health, health contexts and health promotion, as well as our ability to integrate gender into future comprehensive health promotion strategies.

  15. Health promotion practices in primary care groups.

    PubMed

    Heidemann, Ivonete Teresinha Schulter Buss; Alonso da Costa, Maria Fernanda Baeta Neves; Hermida, Patrícia Madalena Vieira; Marçal, Cláudia Cossentino Bruck; Antonini, Fabiano Oliveira; Cypriano, Camilla Costa

    2018-04-01

    This is a descriptive-exploratory study using a qualitative approach, conducted in ten municipalities in southern Brazil. Data were obtained by talking to 21 nurses from February to November 2012, through semi-structured interviews using questions to probe their health promotion practices. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis focused on health promotion concepts. We identified four themes about health promotion practices of family health nurses in Brazil: a) training of nurses for health promotion practice was weak; b) nurses formed health promotion groups around diseases and life stages; c) nurses formed groups to meet community needs; and d) nurses used health promotion techniques in group work. These family health nurses were somewhat aware of the importance of health promotion, and how to assist the population against various ailments using some health promotion strategies. The main weaknesses were the lack of understanding about health promotion concepts, and the difficulty of understanding the relevance of its practice, probably attributable to limitations in training. We conclude that primary care groups in Brazil's unified health system could do better in applying health promotion concepts in their practice.

  16. Alcohol promotions in Australian supermarket catalogues.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Robyn; Stafford, Julia; Pierce, Hannah; Daube, Mike

    2017-07-01

    In Australia, most alcohol is sold as packaged liquor from off-premises retailers, a market increasingly dominated by supermarket chains. Competition between retailers may encourage marketing approaches, for example, discounting, that evidence indicates contribute to alcohol-related harms. This research documented the nature and variety of promotional methods used by two major supermarket retailers to promote alcohol products in their supermarket catalogues. Weekly catalogues from the two largest Australian supermarket chains were reviewed for alcohol-related content over 12 months. Alcohol promotions were assessed for promotion type, product type, number of standard drinks, purchase price and price/standard drink. Each store catalogue included, on average, 13 alcohol promotions/week, with price-based promotions most common. Forty-five percent of promotions required the purchase of multiple alcohol items. Wine was the most frequently promoted product (44%), followed by beer (24%) and spirits (18%). Most (99%) wine cask (2-5 L container) promotions required multiple (two to three) casks to be purchased. The average number of standard drinks required to be purchased to participate in catalogue promotions was 31.7 (SD = 24.9; median = 23.1). The median price per standard drink was $1.49 (range $0.19-$9.81). Cask wines had the lowest cost per standard drink across all product types. Supermarket catalogues' emphasis on low prices/high volumes of alcohol reflects that retailers are taking advantage of limited restrictions on off-premise sales and promotion, which allow them to approach market competition in ways that may increase alcohol-related harms in consumers. Regulation of alcohol marketing should address retailer catalogue promotions. [Johnston R, Stafford J, Pierce H, Daube M. Alcohol promotions in Australian supermarket catalogues. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:456-463]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. The Red Lotus Health Promotion Model: a new model for holistic, ecological, salutogenic health promotion practice.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Jane; O'Hara, Lily

    2007-04-01

    There is a need for a system of values and principles consistent with modern health promotion that enables practitioners to use these values and principles to understand health and in their needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation practice. Grounded theory, document analysis and the authors' own practice experience were used to systematically collect and analyse data from key health promotion literature and to develop the Red Lotus Health Promotion Model. The Red Lotus Health Promotion Model is a new model for holistic, ecological, salutogenic health promotion practice. It is distinct from other health promotion models in that it incorporates a system of values and principles that is applied across the phases of health promotion, including determining the health paradigm, needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. The Red Lotus Health Promotion Model enables practitioners to proactively and purposefully put into action a connected system of values and principles across the phases of a health promotion process.

  18. Hypercholesterolemia Promotes an Osteoporotic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Pelton, Kristine; Krieder, Jaclynn; Joiner, Danese; Freeman, Michael R.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Solomon, Keith R.

    2013-01-01

    A role for hypercholesterolemia in the development of osteoporosis has been suggested in published reports. However, few studies contain direct evidence of a role for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis in bone health. Using isocaloric high-fat/high-cholesterol and low-fat/no-cholesterol diets in a 4-month feeding study combined with micro computed tomography analysis, we demonstrated in two different mouse strains that mice with hypercholesterolemia lose cortical and trabecular bone in the femurs and vertebrae (bone mineral density was decreased on average by ≈90 mg/mL in the cortical vertebrae in one strain) and cortical bone in the calvariae (bone mineral density was decreased on average by ≈60 mg/mL in one strain). Mechanical testing of the femurs demonstrated that loss of bone in the mice with hypercholesterolemia caused changes in the mechanical properties of the bone including loss of failure load (failure load was decreased by ≈10 N in one strain) and energy to failure. Serologic and histomorphologic analyses suggested that hypercholesterolemia promotes osteoclastogenesis. These studies support a role for hypercholesterolemia in the development of osteoporosis and provide a model with which to test intervention strategies to reduce the effects of hypercholesterolemia on bone health. PMID:22770664

  19. Promoting innovation in pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bier, Dennis M

    2010-01-01

    Truly impactful innovation can only be recognized in retrospect. Moreover, almost by definition, developing algorithmic paths on roadmaps for innovation are likely to be unsuccessful because innovators do not generally follow established routes. Nonetheless, environments can be established within Departments of Pediatrics that promote innovating thinking. The environmental factors necessary to do so include: (1) demand that academic Pediatrics Departments function in an aggressively scholarly mode; (2) capture the most fundamental science in postnatal developmental biology; (3) focus education and training on the boundaries of our knowledge, rather than the almost exclusive attention to what we think we already know; (4) devote mentoring, time and resources to only the most compelling unanswered questions in the pediatric sciences, including nutrition; (5) accept only systematic, evidence-based answers to clinical questions; (6) if systematic, evidence-based data are not available, design the proper studies to get them; (7) prize questioning the answers to further move beyond the knowledge limit; (8) support the principle that experiments in children will be required to convincingly answer clinical questions important to children, and (9) establish the multicenter resources in pediatric scientist training, clinical study design and implementation, and laboratory and instrument technologies required to answer today's questions with tomorrow's methods. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Safety belt promotion: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Nelson, G D; Moffit, P B

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide practitioners a rationale and description of selected theoretically based approaches to safety belt promotion. Theory failure is a threat to the integrity and effectiveness of safety belt promotion. The absence of theory driven programs designed to promote safety belt use is a concern of this paper. Six theoretical models from the social and behavioral sciences are reviewed with suggestions for application to promoting safety belt use and include Theory of Reasoned Action, the Health Belief Model, Fear Arousal, Operant Learning, Social Learning Theory, and Diffusion of Innovations. Guidelines for the selection and utilization of theory are discussed.

  1. WHO Health Promotion Glossary: new terms.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ben J; Tang, Kwok Cho; Nutbeam, Don

    2006-12-01

    The WHO Health Promotion Glossary was written to facilitate understanding, communication and cooperation among those engaged in health promotion at the local, regional, national and global levels. Two editions of the Glossary have been released, the first in 1986 and the second in 1998, and continued revision of the document is necessary to promote consensus regarding meanings and to take account of developments in thinking and practice. In this update 10 new terms that are to be included in the Glossary are presented. Criteria for the inclusion of terms in the Glossary are that they differentiate health promotion from other health concepts, or have a specific application or meaning when used in relation to health promotion. The terms defined here are: burden of disease; capacity building; evidence-based health promotion; global health; health impact assessment; needs assessment; self-efficacy; social marketing; sustainable health promotion strategies, and; wellness. WHO will continue to periodically update the Health Promotion Glossary to ensure its relevance to the international health promotion community.

  2. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  3. Effective Promotion in a Greater Metropolitan Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, J. Terence

    Community colleges offering or contemplating offering television-based courses will be successful in promotional efforts if the fundamental, philosophical purpose is built upon a need for expanding current educational services to a population thus far unaffected by on-campus programs. Efforts in promoting television courses should be made so that…

  4. Health-Promoting Behaviours in Conservatoire Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreutz, Gunter; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on health-promoting behaviours in students from two conservatoires, the Royal Northern College of Music (RNCM, Manchester, UK; n =199) and the Royal College of Music (RCM, London, UK; n = 74). The research questions concern (a) the levels and types of health-promoting behaviours among performance students and (b) the association…

  5. 7 CFR 1230.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.22... service merchandising, taken to present a favorable image for porcine animals, pork, or pork products to...

  6. 7 CFR 1230.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.22... service merchandising, taken to present a favorable image for porcine animals, pork, or pork products to...

  7. 7 CFR 1230.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.22... service merchandising, taken to present a favorable image for porcine animals, pork, or pork products to...

  8. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.22... activities are designed to improve the competitive position and stimulate sales of Hass avocados in the...

  9. Promotion Factors For Enlisted Infantry Marines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    description , billet accomplishments, mission accomplishment, individual character, leadership, intellect and wisdom, fulfillment of evaluation , RS...staff sergeant. To assess which ranks proportionally promote more high-quality Marines, we compare two performance evaluation methods: proficiency and...adverse fitness reports. From the two performance evaluation methods we find that the Marine Corps promotes proportionally more high-quality Marines

  10. A Health Promotion Program for School Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flack, Vilma T.; Kilcoyne, Martha E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Programs that provide support for the health and well-being of school employees are rare. A health promotion program focusing on self-help is discussed in this article. Methods of program development and implementation are presented. Results indicate that school employees can be trained to facilitate a health promotion program in the school…

  11. Identifying Opinion Leaders to Promote Behavior Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Thomas W.; Pumpuang, Patchareeya

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews 10 techniques used to identify opinion leaders to promote behavior change. Opinion leaders can act as gatekeepers for interventions, help change social norms, and accelerate behavior change. Few studies document the manner in which opinion leaders are identified, recruited, and trained to promote health. The authors categorize…

  12. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use the...

  13. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use the...

  14. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use the...

  15. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use the...

  16. 7 CFR 1214.18 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.18... favorable image of Christmas trees to the general public with the intent of improving the perception and...

  17. 7 CFR 1214.18 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.18... favorable image of Christmas trees to the general public with the intent of improving the perception and...

  18. 7 CFR 1214.18 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHRISTMAS TREE PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1214.18... favorable image of Christmas trees to the general public with the intent of improving the perception and...

  19. Promoting people's health: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Heitkamp, P

    1998-01-01

    Promoting health underlines the right of each individual to the highest attainable standard of health. It stresses the importance of the participation of people and recognizes different sociocultural values and beliefs that are prevalent throughout the world. Working on health development has a sustainable effect only when done comprehensively: personal development, community development, organizational development, and political development. The international conferences that have marked the way of health promotion have been goal posts of an energetic movement to strengthen health worldwide. The Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion has been a worldwide source of guidance for health promotion through its five strategies: building health policy, creating supportive elements, strengthening community action, developing personal skills, and reorienting health services. Moreover, the Jakarta Declaration on "Leading Health Promotion into the 21st Century" identifies five priorities in the next millennium: 1) promote social responsibility for health; 2) increase investments for health development; 3) consolidate and expand partnerships for health; 4) increase community capacity and empower the individual in matters of health; and 5) secure an infrastructure for health promotion. Increasing the investment in health development calls for the need to find new mechanisms for funding as well as reorienting existing resources towards health promotion and health education.

  20. Promoting Relationships and Eliminating Violence in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The Promoting Relationships and Eliminating Violence Network (PREVNet) involves Canadian researchers and national organizations working to promote healthy relationships and prevent bullying. In this paper, we provide the rationale for establishing PREVNet, a description of the work of the network, and an assessment of the success of PREVNet.…

  1. Promotion in Call Centres: Opportunities and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjup, Maria Tatiana; Valverde, Mireia; Ryan, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of jobs in call centres by focusing on the opportunities for promotion in this sector. More specifically, the research questions focus on discovering whether promotion is common practise in the call centre sector and on identifying the factors that affect this.…

  2. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use the...

  3. Activities for Engaging Schools in Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardi, Mohammad; Burbank, Andrea; Choi, Wayne; Chow, Lawrence; Jang, Wesley; Roccamatisi, Dawn; Timberley-Berg, Tonia; Sanghera, Mandeep; Zhang, Margaret; Macnab, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe activities used to initiate health promotion in the school setting. Design/Methodology/Approach: Description of successful pilot Health Promoting School (HPS) initiatives in Canada and Uganda and the validated measures central to each program. Evaluation methodologies: quantitative data from the…

  4. Can hospital promotional activities be more ethical?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiyi; Yin, Zhou; Xie, Qiong; Shao, Zhexin

    2014-01-01

    At present, there exist a lot of violations of medical ethics in advertising and promotional activities, which have been infringing the rights of patients. Therefore, the ethical criteria should be established as soon as possible to regulate the hospital promotional activities, to regain the trust of people. PMID:24948998

  5. Promoting Tech Schools within Your Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a number of promotional events and practices that the author's school engages in. The author hopes that his school's experiences will serve as an inspiration and useful model for other "Tech Directions" readers. There are many methods for successfully promoting one's tech program. Two key strategies are: (1) Connect in…

  6. Promoting Learning. NIACE Lifelines in Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Kate

    This document is intended to help adult educators in the United Kingdom promote learning. The guide presents practical advice, case studies, and tips for undertaking and implementing effective promotional work. Sections 1 through 11 discuss the following topics: recognizing the increasing need for lifelong learning; the rationale for campaigns…

  7. The double jeopardy of sales promotions.

    PubMed

    Jones, J P

    1990-01-01

    The maturing of most consumer markets in the United States has put great pressure on manufacturers in their search for growth. They have concentrated on building sales and expanding share proportions in the stagnant markets with devices like niche products, product extensions, mergers, and international ventures. They have shifted emphasis to sales promotions at the expense of advertising. But promotions, when you come right down to it, mean price reductions. Trade promotions are almost always rebates, and consumer promotions are usually temporary price reductions or coupons. The cost in reduced profit, demonstrated mathematically through calculations of price elasticity, is severe. Besides, when the promotion is over, the manufacturer has not moved forward an inch in shoring up the brand franchise. Promotions bring volatile demand, whereas the producer seeks stable demand. By sustaining a brand image and building customer loyalty, on the other hand, theme advertising can stabilize demand. Moreover, this type of advertising is less likely than promotion is to invite destructive competitive retaliation. Calculation of the advertising elasticity of a brand indicates that sometimes even modest sales increases can produce healthy profit improvement. In a well-planned marketing campaign, there is often good reason to include trade or consumer promotion--to counter a leading competitor's moves, for example. But there is no point in carrying out wild swings at rivals in a struggle for market share. Mathematical techniques can aid the efficiency of marketing planning and put on a more rational basis the decision on where to put the dollars.

  8. Promote Your Vocational Office Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Daniel R.

    1973-01-01

    Suggestions for promoting a VOE program within the school include these: bulletin boards and displays, school publications, assemblies, and VOE club activites. Community promotional activities include use of store windows for displays, use of mass media, recognition of local businessmen at the VOE banquet, and programs presented to service clubs.…

  9. Marketing and Promotion of Library Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Julie

    As librarians we should be actively marketing and promoting our library services. This paper aims to demystify marketing for librarians. Practical solutions are provided on how to implement a marketing strategy, with particular emphasis on the value of using electronic information resources. It also shows the link between promoting library services and raising the profile of the library.

  10. Promoting Transformative Learning through Reading Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoggan, Chad; Cranton, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This article is a report on research into the role of fiction in promoting transformative learning in higher education settings. Participants were 131 undergraduate and graduate students from two universities in the United States. To determine the type of learning promoted by reading fiction, we performed qualitative analyses on participants'…

  11. Promotion of oral health by community nurses.

    PubMed

    Garry, Brendan; Boran, Sue

    2017-10-02

    To explore the enablers and barriers perceived by community nurses in the promotion of oral health in an adult community trust directorate. Oral health care promotion in community care settings is being neglected. England and Wales have witnessed marked improvements in periodontal disease; however, no improvements have been seen in older people. A qualitative methodology was employed, where eight nurses from Band 5 to 7 were interviewed using a semi-structured approach. The data was analysed thematically. Data analysis was organised into four themes: professional self-concept and the development of knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary in the promotion of oral health; the impact an organisation has on the promotion of oral health and an exploration of the enablers and barriers identified by the community nurses while delivering care; the relationships between the nurse and patient and the potential impact on oral health promotion; the concept of self-regard in relation to the promotion of oral health and its overall impact. A commitment to improving oral health and requests for additional educational input were apparent. Organisational enablers and barriers were identified, alongside the crucial role a positive self-regard for oral health care may play in the promotion of oral health. Nurses need relevant education, organisational support, adequate resources and support from a multidisciplinary team to deliver optimal oral health promotion.

  12. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... honey products to the public and food industry with the intent of improving the perception and... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...

  13. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... honey products to the public and food industry with the intent of improving the perception and... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...

  14. Media Characteristics in Promoting Management Education Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Dick

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of direct media employed for promoting marketing, service and sales management conferences and institutes was analyzed. Direct mail was the preferred media for program promotion for business clientele. Three enrollment tables illustrate the effectiveness of different media by program area and course type. (EM)

  15. Health Promoting Schools: A New Zealand Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Penni

    2008-01-01

    In the last 20 years the health promoting schools movement has gained momentum internationally. Without strong national leadership and direction its development in New Zealand has been ad hoc and sporadic. However, as the evidence supporting the role of health promoting schools in contributing to students' health and academic outcomes becomes more…

  16. Promoting School Connectedness through Whole School Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Fiona; Stewart, Donald; Patterson, Carla

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to demonstrate the contribution of whole school approaches embodied by the health-promoting school approach, to the promotion of school connectedness, defined as the cohesiveness between diverse groups in the school community, including students, families, school staff and the wider…

  17. Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes.

    PubMed

    Santoyo, Gustavo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma del Carmen; Glick, Bernard R

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial endophytes ubiquitously colonize the internal tissues of plants, being found in nearly every plant worldwide. Some endophytes are able to promote the growth of plants. For those strains the mechanisms of plant growth-promotion known to be employed by bacterial endophytes are similar to the mechanisms used by rhizospheric bacteria, e.g., the acquisition of resources needed for plant growth and modulation of plant growth and development. Similar to rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria, endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria can act to facilitate plant growth in agriculture, horticulture and silviculture as well as in strategies for environmental cleanup (i.e., phytoremediation). Genome comparisons between bacterial endophytes and the genomes of rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria are starting to unveil potential genetic factors involved in an endophytic lifestyle, which should facilitate a better understanding of the functioning of bacterial endophytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN).

    PubMed

    Ringsberg, Karin C

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 at the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV). This article aims to describe the foundation of the NHPRN, the development and the present status of the work of NHPRN. The NHPRN consists of about 50 senior and junior researchers from all Nordic countries. It is a working network that aims to develop the theoretical understanding of health promotion, to create research cooperation in health promotion from a Nordic perspective and to extend the scope of health promotion through education. Network members meet biannually to discuss and further develop research within the field and are also responsible for the Nordic conference on Health Promotion, organized every 3 years. The NHV hosted the network between 2007 and 2014; and the World Health Organisation (WHO) will assume this role in 2015. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  19. What makes health promotion research distinct?

    PubMed

    Woodall, James; Warwick-Booth, Louise; South, Jane; Cross, Ruth

    2018-02-01

    There have been concerns about the decline of health promotion as a practice and discipline and, alongside this, calls for a clearer articulation of health promotion research and what, if anything, makes it distinct. This discussion paper, based on a review of the literature, the authors' own experiences in the field, and a workshop delivered by two of the authors at the 8th Nordic Health Promotion Conference, seeks to state the reasons why health promotion research is distinctive. While by no means exhaustive, the paper suggests four distinctive features. The paper hopes to be a catalyst to enable health promotion researchers to be explicit in their practice and to begin the process of developing an agreed set of research principles.

  20. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  1. Promoting Health in Early Childhood Environments: A Health-Promotion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…

  2. Generic Entry, Reformulations, and Promotion of SSRIs

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Julie M.; Koss, Catherine; Berndt, Ernst R.; Frank, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that a manufacturer’s promotional strategy for a brand-name drug is typically affected by generic entry. However, little is known about how newer strategies to extend patent life, including product reformulation introduction or obtaining approval to market for additional clinical indications, influence promotion. Objective To examine the relationship between promotional expenditures, generic entry, reformulation entry, and new indication approval. Study Design/Setting We used quarterly data on national product-level promotional spending (including expenditures for physician detailing and direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA), and the retail value of free samples distributed in physician offices) for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) over the period 1997 through 2004. We estimated econometric models of detailing, DTCA, and total quarterly promotional expenditures as a function of the timing of generic entry, entry of new product formulations, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for new clinical indications for existing medications in the SSRI class. Main Outcome Measure Expenditures by pharmaceutical manufacturers for promotion of antidepressant medications. Results Over the period 1997–2004, there was considerable variation in the composition of promotional expenditures across the SSRIs. Promotional expenditures for the original brand molecule decreased dramatically when a reformulation of the molecule was introduced. Promotional spending (both total and detailing alone) for a specific molecule was generally lower after generic entry than before, although the effect of generic entry on promotional spending appears to be closely linked with the choice of product reformulation strategy pursued by the manufacturer. Detailing expenditures for Paxil were increased after the manufacturer received FDA approval to market the drug for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), while the likelihood of DTCA outlays

  3. Corynebacterium glutamicum promoters: a practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Pátek, Miroslav; Holátko, Jiří; Busche, Tobias; Kalinowski, Jörn; Nešvera, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Summary Transcription initiation is the key step in gene expression in bacteria, and it is therefore studied for both theoretical and practical reasons. Promoters, the traffic lights of transcription initiation, are used as construction elements in biotechnological efforts to coordinate ‘green waves’ in the metabolic pathways leading to the desired metabolites. Detailed analyses of Corynebacterium glutamicum promoters have already provided large amounts of data on their structures, regulatory mechanisms and practical capabilities in metabolic engineering. In this minireview the main aspects of promoter studies, the methods developed for their analysis and their practical use in C. glutamicum are discussed. These include definitions of the consensus sequences of the distinct promoter classes, promoter localization and characterization, activity measurements, the functions of transcriptional regulators and examples of practical uses of constitutive, inducible and modified promoters in biotechnology. The implications of the introduction of novel techniques, such as in vitro transcription and RNA sequencing, to C. glutamicum promoter studies are outlined. PMID:23305350

  4. [Prediction of Promoter Motifs in Virophages].

    PubMed

    Gong, Chaowen; Zhou, Xuewen; Pan, Yingjie; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-07-01

    Virophages have crucial roles in ecosystems and are the transport vectors of genetic materials. To shed light on regulation and control mechanisms in virophage--host systems as well as evolution between virophages and their hosts, the promoter motifs of virophages were predicted on the upstream regions of start codons using an analytical tool for prediction of promoter motifs: Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation. Seventeen potential promoter motifs were identified based on the E-value, location, number and length of promoters in genomes. Sputnik and zamilon motif 2 with AT-rich regions were distributed widely on genomes, suggesting that these motifs may be associated with regulation of the expression of various genes. Motifs containing the TCTA box were predicted to be late promoter motif in mavirus; motifs containing the ATCT box were the potential late promoter motif in the Ace Lake mavirus . AT-rich regions were identified on motif 2 in the Organic Lake virophage, motif 3 in Yellowstone Lake virophage (YSLV)1 and 2, motif 1 in YSLV3, and motif 1 and 2 in YSLV4, respectively. AT-rich regions were distributed widely on the genomes of virophages. All of these motifs may be promoter motifs of virophages. Our results provide insights into further exploration of temporal expression of genes in virophages as well as associations between virophages and giant viruses.

  5. The impact of the distance-dependent promotional effect on the promotion cost sharing decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Gwo-Ji; Wang, Shih-Yen; Yeh, Yingchieh

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the promotion cost sharing decision between a supplier and a retailer. The customer demand is affected by both national and local promotional effects while the local promotional effect on a customer is dependent on the distance between the retailer and this customer. We propose a continuous approximation approach to modelling the sum of the customer demand in the whole market area served by the retailer. A model is provided to help managers decide on the retail price, the local advertising expenditure, the national advertising expenditure, and the supplier participation rate, with consideration of the influence of distance on the promotional effect. We also find that the supplier's promotion cost sharing rate increases as the market size increases or the influence of distance on the promotional effect decreases. A numerical example is given to show that the nature of distance-dependent promotional effect has a significant impact on the decisions and profits.

  6. Worksite health promotion: some important questions.

    PubMed

    Matteson, M T; Ivancevich, J M

    1988-01-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid growth in the number of worksite health promotion programs being offered. While the potential benefits to employers of such programs are many, a variety of issues influence to what extent these benefits are obtained. This article identifies several such issues in the form of questions which need to be addressed by organizations engaged in health promotion activities. Questions relating to program needs and objectives identification, program introduction strategies, costs, legal issues, and ethical considerations are discussed. It is suggested that continued growth and success in worksite health promotion activities is in part dependent upon thoughtful consideration of such questions.

  7. Prerequisites for effective condom promotion campaigns.

    PubMed

    Spencer, B

    1992-01-01

    Before delving ahead to promote the acceptance and use of condoms, planners should make sure the institutional environment for the process is as favorable as possible. This may include lobbying officials to abolish import duties, legislation, or codes of practice which prohibit advertising. It may also be necessary to provide professional education. The author highly recommends intersectoral collaboration in both the promotion of health and the marketing of products. The following basic marketing concepts are stressed and briefly discussed: ensure the appropriate good quality product; plan and maintain wide distribution; promote through whatever means possible; and fix the right price.

  8. Health promotion: challenges revealed in successful practices

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Kênia Lara; de Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura Franco; Silva, Paloma Morais; Rodrigues, Andreza Trevenzoli

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine successful practices of health promotion in health, education, culture, welfare and sport, leisure, identifying the elements of success and challenges in the field. METHODS A qualitative study with data obtained from in-depth analysis that included participant observation, interviews with managers, coordinators, professionals and participants from 29 practices reported as successful for promoting health in six municipalities of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011. The variables of the study were concept, dimension, dissemination and ease of access, identified in practices guided by content analysis. RESULTS The results indicate a conceptual and methodological uncertainty about health promotion as evidenced by conflicting objects and contradictory purposes. The practices differ in size, coverage and ease of access, determined by inter-sector coordination and political and financial investment. CONCLUSIONS We identified challenges to health promotion focusing on vulnerable populations, limits to financing and intersectoral partnerships. PMID:24789640

  9. A decision theoretical approach for diffusion promotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Fei; Liu, Yun

    2009-09-01

    In order to maximize cost efficiency from scarce marketing resources, marketers are facing the problem of which group of consumers to target for promotions. We propose to use a decision theoretical approach to model this strategic situation. According to one promotion model that we develop, marketers balance between probabilities of successful persuasion and the expected profits on a diffusion scale, before making their decisions. In the other promotion model, the cost for identifying influence information is considered, and marketers are allowed to ignore individual heterogeneity. We apply the proposed approach to two threshold influence models, evaluate the utility of each promotion action, and provide discussions about the best strategy. Our results show that efforts for targeting influentials or easily influenced people might be redundant under some conditions.

  10. The Causes and Costs of Promotion Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Lu Ann W.; McGrath, Loraine G.

    1983-01-01

    Minimizing the stress that nurses experience after a promotion requires an understanding of the factors associated with moving up the managerial ladder. Knowing these factors, nursing administrators can plan their programs to support their managers in transition. (SSH)

  11. 78 FR 24239 - Temporary Mailing Promotion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... providers that do not have their own permit imprints. To include them in the promotion, the Postal Service intends to allow the mail service providers to apply for a permit imprint without paying the application...

  12. The effectiveness of highway signs promoting ridesharing.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1986-01-01

    The study determined the most effective sign message for informing commuters of the ridesharing services available to them. An inventory of the signs in Virginia revealed that eight different messages were being used to promote ridesharing, the most ...

  13. THE ROLE AND PROMOTION OF NURSING.

    PubMed

    Benceković, Željka; Benko, Ivica; Režek, Biserka; Grgas-Bile, Cecilija

    2016-06-01

    Nurses have great influence on health care system. As they face many different states of affairs nowadays, it is necessary to find a way to promote and enable their profession. The significant interaction between nurses and patients and other medical professions makes them a powerful marketing tool of a medical institution. Therefore, the promotion of their image is necessary because of authorizing their professional status. There are numerous ways of creating and improving their image. Some of them include implementation of marketing principles and the Internet as well. This paper presents the web page promotion of nursing, i.e. the Nursing and Related Professions of the Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center homepage, as a tool of nursing promotion.

  14. Promoting consumer empowerment through entrepreneurship: a proposal.

    PubMed

    Prince, Jonathan D

    2007-01-01

    In order to promote life control, this proposal suggests strategies to help people who use community mental health services to access small loans or "microcredit" for entrepreneurship in self-help groups.

  15. Widespread Enhancer Activity from Core Promoters.

    PubMed

    Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Santiago-Algarra, David; Puthier, Denis; Spicuglia, Salvatore

    2018-06-01

    Gene expression in higher eukaryotes is precisely regulated in time and space through the interplay between promoters and gene-distal regulatory regions, known as enhancers. The original definition of enhancers implies the ability to activate gene expression remotely, while promoters entail the capability to locally induce gene expression. Despite the conventional distinction between them, promoters and enhancers share many genomic and epigenomic features. One intriguing finding in the gene regulation field comes from the observation that many core promoter regions display enhancer activity. Recent high-throughput reporter assays along with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-related approaches have indicated that this phenomenon is common and might have a strong impact on our global understanding of genome organisation and gene expression regulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Promotion-in-place: a logical approach.

    PubMed

    Futrell, D E

    1992-01-01

    The promotion-in-place system, says the author, can be a valuable tool for your healthcare institution. It can create a climate for individual achievement without the traditional roadblocks to success.

  17. Worksite health promotion programs in college settings

    PubMed Central

    Hill-Mey, Patricia E.; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Merrill, Ray M.; Reel, Justine; Hyatt-Neville, Beverly; Richardson, Glenn E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the multifaceted nature and benefits of worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs), with emphasis on the college setting. An assessment of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted of articles published since 2000. Several search engines were accessed and selected key words were used. Most studies examining WHPPs have focused on return on investment and productivity. Research that targets the softer side-benefits of health promotion programs in the workplace is less available. Although the college setting offers some advantages for implementing health promotion programs. They may also have unique challenges due to their large and diverse employee population. There is little research to show the effectiveness and unique challenges of college-based health promotion programs. PMID:25861657

  18. Career development resource: promotion to associate professor.

    PubMed

    Sanfey, Hilary; Hollands, Celeste

    2012-07-01

    This will most likely be the first time through the promotion and tenure process for the faculty member. The faculty member is responsible for meeting with the department chair and/or division chief on a regular basis to determine if she is on the right time line to successfully achieve promotion to associate professor. A physician will begin seriously preparing her portfolio for promotion to associate professor about 5 to 6 years out of training, at which time she will have some considerable experience running a practice and managing her time. However, the planning process for promotion should begin immediately upon starting the first academic position. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Organizational networks for promoting child passenger safety

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-10-01

    The report describes the organizational network of various support groups that was established by the Tennessee Child Passenger Safety Program as a means of supporting and promoting Tennessee's child passenger protection law. Chapter I introduces the...

  20. Promoting Community Health Resources: Preferred Communication Strategies

    Background: Community health promotion efforts involve communicating resource information to priority populations. Which communication strategies are most effective is largely unknown for specific populations. Objective: A random-dialed telephone survey was conducted to assess health resource comm...

  1. Promoted Combustion Test Propagation Rate Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borstorff, J.; Jones, P.; Lowery, F.

    2002-01-01

    Combustion propagation rate data were examined for potential use in benchmarking a thermal model of the Promoted Combustion Test (PCT), and also for potential use in measuring the repeatability of PCT results.

  2. Advertising and promotion of medical devices.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Portnoy, a former senior clinical reviewer and manager for the FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health, provides guidance for determining acceptable practices for the claims, content, and appearance of advertising and promotional materials for medical devices. In the course of doing so, he discusses important regulatory and legal precedents, and provides examples of successful and problematic advertising and promotion strategies including those that resulted in FDA Warning Letters, enforcement activities, and in some cases, monetary and criminal penalties.

  3. 27 CFR 6.96 - Consumer promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumer promotions. 6.96 Section 6.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.96 Consumer promotions. (a) Coupons. The act by an industry member of furnishing to consumer...

  4. 27 CFR 6.96 - Consumer promotions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consumer promotions. 6.96 Section 6.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.96 Consumer promotions. (a) Coupons. The act by an industry member of furnishing to consumer...

  5. Cultural aspects of ageing and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Mariño, R J

    2015-03-01

    The emphasis of Australian Government policy is on the promotion of good health in later life and positive experiences with ageing. Conceptually, a new gerontology framework has replaced the study of disease, decline, loss and disability. Within this framework, health promotion offers a mechanism by which individuals can be assisted to create environments that offer better opportunities for continued participation in society and improved quality of health and self-care. Oral health is instrumental to older people's health, life satisfaction, quality of life and perception of self. Australia is culturally diverse, composed of numerous ethno-cultural groups coexisting within a larger, predominant culture, creating a multicultural and multiracial society. However, despite this cultural diversity, the well documented ageing profile of the Australian population and repeated calls for comprehensive geriatric assessment, the oral health of older adults remains a challenge for oral health providers and for society. A major challenge will be to translate existing knowledge and experience of disease prevention and health promotion into appropriate programmes for older adults. Health promotion is the key to improving oral health in later life as it encourages older adults to be proactive in regard to their health. Therefore, increased efforts should be directed towards identifying opportunities for health promotion activities and the development of community based models that encourage older people to improve and maintain their oral health. Ignoring opportunities for health promotion may increase inequalities in oral health and may lead to even greater demands for curative and oral rehabilitative services from these groups This article firstly provides a brief rationale for oral health promotion. Its second part explores the influence of culture on health beliefs, behaviours and outcomes in older adults and how oral health can relate to cultural background. The last section

  6. [Health promotion in gas industrial workers].

    PubMed

    Volodina, E P; Tiagnenko, V A; Novikov, I V

    2004-01-01

    Health promotion in the workers of the limited liability company "Astrakhangazprom" in their working places (without discontinuing work) with the complexes of nutrients (including omega-3) enriched with vitamins, macro- and microelements, made in Russia yielded a positive therapeutic effect in improving the health status, in normalizing and improving laboratory and instrumental data, and in reducing sick cases with temporary disability. The duration of a health promotion course was 2 months.

  7. [Health promotion for immigrant women in Quebec].

    PubMed

    Vissandjée, B; Carignan, P; Gravel, S; Leduc, N

    1998-03-01

    Over the past fifteen years, the Canadian population has undergone increasing cultural diversification. Many researchers have investigated the role of culture with respect to social and health services. Most studies confirm the fact that increased cultural diversification related to immigration challenges the public health system in many ways. Certain groups, such as economically challenged immigrant women, may pose even greater problems to the health system. While these individuals are in relatively good health upon arrival to Canada, there is a need to ensure that adequate health promotion as well as disease prevention strategies are instituted. It is important to examine the concepts of health promotion and disease prevention through a cultural perspective. Little research has been done in this area. Concepts of promotion and prevention as they are understood by immigrants may not always coincide with North American or European definitions. Therefore, it is essential to consider life conditions that surround potential health promotion and prevention behaviors of immigrants. Empowerment, economic integration and acculturation are among the many factors that need to be taken into account when studying immigrants' health promotion behavior. Here, we present a critical analysis of current knowledge in this field. This is followed by research recommendations aimed at facilitating the development of health promotion and prevention strategies that are appropriate to the needs of Canadian, and more specifically of immigrant women in Québec.

  8. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and consumer...

  9. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval any...

  10. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1207.335 Section 1207.335... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.333 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1205.333 Section 1205.333... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Research and Promotion § 1205.333 Research and promotion. The Cotton...

  12. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1207.335 Section 1207.335... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.333 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1205.333 Section 1205.333... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Research and Promotion § 1205.333 Research and promotion. The Cotton...

  14. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval any...

  15. Nurses and Teachers: Partnerships for Green Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendall, Marguerite C.; Lidstone, John; Fleming, MaryLou; Domocol, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Background: The term "green health promotion" is given to health promotion underpinned by the principles of ecological health and sustainability. Green health promotion is supported philosophically by global health promotion documents such as the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the ecological public health movement. Green…

  16. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval any...

  17. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval any...

  18. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval any...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.333 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1205.333 Section 1205.333... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Research and Promotion § 1205.333 Research and promotion. The Cotton...

  20. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... development, and marketing promotion, including paid advertising, designed to assist, improve, or promote the... direct expenditures for such marketing promotion including paid advertising as may be authorized. The... promotion including paid advertising, that promotes the sale of hazelnuts, hazelnut products, or their uses...

  1. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and consumer...

  2. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and potato...

  3. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and potato...

  4. The rcsA Promoter of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii Features a Low-Level Constitutive Promoter and an EsaR Quorum-Sensing-Regulated Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Carlier, Aurelien L.; von Bodman, S. B.

    2006-01-01

    The upstream region of the Pantoea stewartii rcsA gene features two promoters, one for constitutive basal-level expression and a second autoregulated promoter for induced expression. The EsaR quorum-sensing repressor binds to a site centered between the two promoters, blocking transcription elongation from the regulated promoter under noninducing conditions. PMID:16740966

  5. Development of a promoter shutoff system in Aspergillus oryzae using a sorbitol-sensitive promoter.

    PubMed

    Oda, Ken; Terado, Shiho; Toyoura, Rieko; Fukuda, Hisashi; Kawauchi, Moriyuki; Iwashita, Kazuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Promoter shutoff is a general method for analyzing essential genes, but in the fungus Aspergillus oryzae, no tightly repressed promoters have been reported. To overcome the current limitations of conditional promoters, we examined sorbitol- and galactose-responsive genes using microarrays to identify regulatable genes with only minor physiological and genetic effects. We identified two sorbitol-induced genes (designated as sorA and sorB), cloned their promoters, and built a regulated egfp and brlA expression system. Growth medium-dependent enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) fluorescence and conidiation were confirmed for egfp and brlA under the control of their respective promoters. We also used this shutoff system to regulate the essential rhoA, which demonstrated the expected growth inhibition under repressed growth conditions. Our new sorbitol promoter shutoff system developed can serve as a valuable new tool for essential gene analyses of filamentous fungi.

  6. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Andrew E.; Evans, Alexandra E.

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254

  7. Employer and Promoter Perspectives on the Quality of Health Promotion Within the Healthy Workplace Accreditation.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chen-Yin; Yin, Yun-Wen; Liu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chia-Chen; Zhou, Yi-Ping

    2017-07-01

    To explore the employers' and promoters' perspective of health promotion quality according to the healthy workplace accreditation. We assessed the perspectives of 85 employers and 81 health promoters regarding the quality of health promotion at their workplaces. The method of measurement referenced the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion (ENWHP) quality criteria. In the large workplaces, the accredited corporation employers had a higher impression (P < 0.001) of all criteria. The small-medium accredited workplace employers had a slightly higher perspective than non-accredited ones. Nevertheless, there were no differences between the perspectives of health promoters from different sized workplaces with or without accreditation (P > 0.05). It seems that employers' perspectives of healthy workplace accreditation surpassed employers from non-accredited workplaces. Specifically, large accredited corporations could share their successful experiences to encourage a more involved workplace in small-medium workplaces.

  8. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners.

    PubMed

    Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning.

  9. Promotion of prescription drugs to consumers.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Meredith B; Berndt, Ernst R; Donohue, Julie M; Frank, Richard G; Epstein, Arnold M

    2002-02-14

    Spending on prescription drugs is the fastest growing component of the health care budget. There is public concern about the possibility that direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs will result in inappropriate prescribing and higher costs of care. Guidelines issued in 1997 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding advertising to consumers through electronic media are considered by some to be responsible for unleashing a flood of direct-to-consumer advertising. Using data on spending for promotional purposes and sales of prescription drugs, we examined industrywide trends for various types of promotion. We also tracked the relation between promotional efforts and sales over time. Finally, we documented the variation in direct-to-consumer advertising among and within five therapeutic classes of drugs and compared the variation in the intensity of such advertising with variation in the intensity of promotion to health care professionals. Annual spending on direct-to-consumer advertising for prescription drugs tripled between 1996 and 2000, when it reached nearly $2.5 billion. Despite this increase, such advertising accounts for only 15 percent of the money spent on drug promotion and is highly concentrated on a subgroup of products. Within a therapeutic class, there is marked variation in the intensity of direct-to-consumer advertising, and the amount of such advertising for specific products fluctuates over time. The initial surge in direct-to-consumer advertising preceded the 1997 FDA guidelines that clarified the rules for electronic direct-to-consumer advertising, and thus the 1997 guidelines may not have been the most important reason for the overall increase. Although the use of direct-to-consumer advertising has grown disproportionately to other forms of promotion, it continues to account for a small proportion of total promotional efforts. Nevertheless, physicians must assist patients in evaluating health-related information obtained

  10. Database construction for PromoterCAD: synthetic promoter design for mammals and plants.

    PubMed

    Nishikata, Koro; Cox, Robert Sidney; Shimoyama, Sayoko; Yoshida, Yuko; Matsui, Minami; Makita, Yuko; Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic promoters can control a gene's timing, location, and expression level. The PromoterCAD web server ( http://promotercad.org ) allows the design of synthetic promoters to control plant gene expression, by novel arrangement of cis-regulatory elements. Recently, we have expanded PromoterCAD's scope with additional plant and animal data: (1) PLACE (Plant Cis-acting Regulatory DNA Elements), including various sized sequence motifs; (2) PEDB (Mammalian Promoter/Enhancer Database), including gene expression data for mammalian tissues. The plant PromoterCAD data now contains 22 000 Arabidopsis thaliana genes, 2 200 000 microarray measurements in 20 growth conditions and 79 tissue organs and developmental stages, while the new mammalian PromoterCAD data contains 679 Mus musculus genes and 65 000 microarray measurements in 96 tissue organs and cell types ( http://promotercad.org/mammal/ ). This work presents step-by-step instructions for adding both regulatory motif and gene expression data to PromoterCAD, to illustrate how users can expand PromoterCAD functionality for their own applications and organisms.

  11. Promoter and Terminator Discovery and Engineering.

    PubMed

    Deaner, Matthew; Alper, Hal S

    Control of gene expression is crucial to optimize metabolic pathways and synthetic gene networks. Promoters and terminators are stretches of DNA upstream and downstream (respectively) of genes that control both the rate at which the gene is transcribed and the rate at which mRNA is degraded. As a result, both of these elements control net protein expression from a synthetic construct. Thus, it is highly important to discover and engineer promoters and terminators with desired characteristics. This chapter highlights various approaches taken to catalogue these important synthetic elements. Specifically, early strategies have focused largely on semi-rational techniques such as saturation mutagenesis to diversify native promoters and terminators. Next, in an effort to reduce the length of the synthetic biology design cycle, efforts in the field have turned towards the rational design of synthetic promoters and terminators. In this vein, we cover recently developed methods such as hybrid engineering, high throughput characterization, and thermodynamic modeling which allow finer control in the rational design of novel promoters and terminators. Emphasis is placed on the methodologies used and this chapter showcases the utility of these methods across multiple host organisms.

  12. Promoter Motifs in NCLDVs: An Evolutionary Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Graziele Pereira; Andrade, Ana Cláudia dos Santos Pereira; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Araújo Lima; Arantes, Thalita Souza; Boratto, Paulo Victor Miranda; Silva, Ludmila Karen dos Santos; Dornas, Fábio Pio; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; La Scola, Bernard; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

    2017-01-01

    For many years, gene expression in the three cellular domains has been studied in an attempt to discover sequences associated with the regulation of the transcription process. Some specific transcriptional features were described in viruses, although few studies have been devoted to understanding the evolutionary aspects related to the spread of promoter motifs through related viral families. The discovery of giant viruses and the proposition of the new viral order Megavirales that comprise a monophyletic group, named nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV), raised new questions in the field. Some putative promoter sequences have already been described for some NCLDV members, bringing new insights into the evolutionary history of these complex microorganisms. In this review, we summarize the main aspects of the transcription regulation process in the three domains of life, followed by a systematic description of what is currently known about promoter regions in several NCLDVs. We also discuss how the analysis of the promoter sequences could bring new ideas about the giant viruses’ evolution. Finally, considering a possible common ancestor for the NCLDV group, we discussed possible promoters’ evolutionary scenarios and propose the term “MEGA-box” to designate an ancestor promoter motif (‘TATATAAAATTGA’) that could be evolved gradually by nucleotides’ gain and loss and point mutations. PMID:28117683

  13. Reliability assessments in qualitative health promotion research.

    PubMed

    Cook, Kay E

    2012-03-01

    This article contributes to the debate about the use of reliability assessments in qualitative research in general, and health promotion research in particular. In this article, I examine the use of reliability assessments in qualitative health promotion research in response to health promotion researchers' commonly held misconception that reliability assessments improve the rigor of qualitative research. All qualitative articles published in the journal Health Promotion International from 2003 to 2009 employing reliability assessments were examined. In total, 31.3% (20/64) articles employed some form of reliability assessment. The use of reliability assessments increased over the study period, ranging from <20% in 2003/2004 to 50% and above in 2008/2009, while at the same time the total number of qualitative articles decreased. The articles were then classified into four types of reliability assessments, including the verification of thematic codes, the use of inter-rater reliability statistics, congruence in team coding and congruence in coding across sites. The merits of each type were discussed, with the subsequent discussion focusing on the deductive nature of reliable thematic coding, the limited depth of immediately verifiable data and the usefulness of such studies to health promotion and the advancement of the qualitative paradigm.

  14. [Novel bidirectional promoter from human genome].

    PubMed

    Orekhova, A S; Sverdlova, P S; Spirin, P V; Leonova, O G; Popenko, V I; Prasolov, V S; Rubtsov, P M

    2011-01-01

    In human and other mammalian genomes a number of closely linked gene pairs transcribed in opposite directions are found. According to bioinformatic analysis up to 10% of human genes are arranged in this way. In present work the fragment of human genome was cloned that separates genes localized at 2p13.1 and oriented "head-to-head", coding for hypothetical proteins with unknown functions--CCDC (Coiled Coil Domain Containing) 142 and TTC (TetraTricopeptide repeat Containing) 31. Intergenic CCDC142-TTC31 region overlaps with CpG-island and contains a number of potential binding sites for transcription factors. This fragment functions as bidirectional promoter in the system ofluciferase reporter gene expression upon transfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. The vectors containing genes of two fluorescent proteins--green (EGFP) and red (DsRed2) in opposite orientations separated by the fragment of CCDC142-TTC31 intergenic region were constructed. In HEK293 cells transfected with these vectors simultaneous expression of two fluorescent proteins is observed. Truncated versions of intergenic region were obtained and their promoter activity measured. Minimal promoter fragment contains elements Inr, BRE, DPE characteristic for TATA-less promoters. Thus, from the human genome the novel bidirectional promoter was cloned that can be used for simultaneous constitutive expression of two genes in human cells.

  15. Initiatives and resources to promote antimicrobial stewardship.

    PubMed

    Paño-Pardo, José Ramón; Campos, José; Natera Kindelán, Clara; Ramos, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    The development of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) requires institutional support. However, obtaining sufficient institutional support is often a complex task that requires convincing the hospital's managers of the benefits of these programs. Additionally, in the design and implementation of an ASP, antimicrobial stewardship (AS) leaders need tools for diverse purposes, such as measuring antimicrobial consumption, education and training and designing protocols. In this review we provide useful information for AS promoters to facilitate the task of designing and implementing an ASP. First, we summarize information about various institutions that promote AS and include evidence that supports the need for and benefits of these programs. Then, several campaigns promoting AS are described. Finally, online resources for professionals dealing with AS are briefly summarized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Universal light-switchable gene promoter system

    DOEpatents

    Quail, Peter H.; Huq, Enamul; Tepperman, James; Sato, Sae

    2005-02-22

    An artificial promoter system that can be fused upstream of any desired gene enabling reversible induction or repression of the expression of the gene at will in any suitable host cell or organisms by light is described. The design of the system is such that a molecule of the plant photoreceptor phytochrome is targeted to the specific DNA binding site in the promoter by a protein domain that is fused to the phytochrome and that specifically recognizes this binding site. This bound phytochrome, upon activation by light, recruits a second fusion protein consisting of a protein that binds to phytochrome only upon light activation and a transcriptional activation domain that activates expression of the gene downstream of the promoter.

  17. Identifying opinion leaders to promote behavior change.

    PubMed

    Valente, Thomas W; Pumpuang, Patchareeya

    2007-12-01

    This article reviews 10 techniques used to identify opinion leaders to promote behavior change. Opinion leaders can act as gatekeepers for interventions, help change social norms, and accelerate behavior change. Few studies document the manner in which opinion leaders are identified, recruited, and trained to promote health. The authors categorize close to 200 studies that have studied or used opinion leaders to promote behavior change into 10 different methods. They present the advantages and disadvantages of the 10 opinion leader identification methods and provide sample instruments for each. Factors that might influence programs to select one or another method are then discussed, and the article closes with a discussion of combining and comparing methods.

  18. Challenges of a worksite health promotion project.

    PubMed

    Gates, Donna M; Brehm, Bonnie J

    2010-03-01

    It is estimated that American employers spend more than $900 billion annually on health care and that obesity-attributable health care expenditures total $75 billion. The authors discuss a yearlong health promotion research project aimed at obesity and involving eight small manufacturing companies. Three hundred forty-one employees randomly selected at the intervention and control worksites were followed at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months for anthropometric measures, lifestyle behaviors, absences, and work performance. The authors conclude that although the worksite offers unique opportunities to develop health promotion programs, these efforts are not without challenges due to the tensions regarding the need to protect and promote health for the population, the increasing concerns over health care costs and access, and the priority to maintain individuals' rights and privacy.

  19. Promotional literature: how do we critically appraise?

    PubMed

    Shetty, V V; Karve, A V

    2008-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of new and generic drugs coming into the market. The busy practitioner obtains the information from various sources, of which promotional literature forms an important source. The promotional literature provided by the pharmaceutical companies cannot be entirely relied upon; moreover, very few physicians are equipped with the skills of critically appraising it. The new drug should be relevant to the clinician's practice in terms of population studied, the disease and the need for new treatment. The methodology of the study should be carefully judged to determine the authenticity of the evidence. The new drug should be preferred over the existing one if it offers clear advantages in terms of safety, tolerability, efficacy and price. Critical appraisal of promotional literature can provide valuable information to the busy physician to practice evidence-based medicine.

  20. [Life style: instrument in health promotion programs].

    PubMed

    Jiménez, D

    1993-05-01

    Non communicable diseases are increasing in third world countries, including Chile. Life style is one of the principal factors influencing this increase. Therefore programs and health strategies to modify the population life styles are needed. The programs developed to change life styles depend on the medical sociocultural scenery and the concept becomes outstanding when disease prevention is replaced by health promotion. The requirements for the application of the concept of life style in health promotion plans and fostering of healthy life styles are: 1) Training in behavioral epidemiology. 2) Election of a biopsychosocial concept of life style. 3) Identify the predominant scenery and target population. 4) Choose the appropriate educational methodologies to change behaviors. 5) Formalize strategies according to the boundaries where the program is applied. 6) Specify the qualifying requisites of the change agents, health promoters and program operators.

  1. Meanings of care in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Falcón, Gladys Carmela Santos; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Backes, Dirce Stein

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study is to understand the meaning built by students and professors on health promotion in the teaching and learning process of health care in Nursing. It is a qualitative study using ground theory as a methodological reference. Data was collected through interviews, with three samples groups, 13 students and four professors, by classroom observation, and through meetings with nursing professors. The central subject resulting from this analysis was: constructing teaching and learning in order, disorder and self organization for a new way of caring promoting health. The teaching/learning process directed at health promotion develops in a stage of crisis, going from a state of order to a state of disorder that is uncertain and contradictory regarding what society understands about health.

  2. Cigarette promotional offers: who takes advantage?

    PubMed

    White, Victoria M; White, Martha M; Freeman, Karen; Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Pierce, John P

    2006-03-01

    Promotional offers on cigarettes (e.g., dollar-off, multipack discounts) composed the largest share of tobacco industry marketing expenditures, totaling $8.9 billion, or 72% of the total budget in 2002. Internal industry documents indicate that young adults, potential quitters, and other price-sensitive groups are the targets of these marketing tactics. How effective they are in actually reaching these groups in the general population of smokers has not yet been investigated. Data were from 4618 current smokers responding to the large, random-digit-dialed population-based 2002 California Tobacco Survey. The characteristics were identified of smokers who reported that they used these offers "every time I see one." Thirty-five percent of smokers used promotional offers every time they saw one. Multivariate analyses identified young adults, women, African Americans, those with higher daily cigarette consumption, and those worried about cigarette costs as more likely to use promotional offers at every opportunity. Smokers most committed to quitting were no more likely to use promotional offers than those with no intention to quit. Cigarette brand was highly correlated with age and race/ethnicity, and therefore was not included in the multivariate analysis. Those who smoked menthol cigarettes and Camels, more often young adults and African Americans, were much more likely than those of other brands to use promotional offers. With the exception of smokers intending to quit, cigarette promotional offers are effectively reaching most industry-targeted groups. Importantly, young adults, who have the greatest long-term customer potential, are responding.

  3. Milestones in Nordic Health Promotion research.

    PubMed

    Haglund, Bo J A; Tillgren, Per

    2018-02-01

    Based on the storytelling tradition and analyses of conference material, this article provides an overview of the evolving Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) and its conferences over the last 20 years. The story goes from the planning of the first conference in Bergen, Norway, back in 1996 to the eighth conference in Jyväskylä, Finland, in 2016. There have been three phases of development. During the first phase, 1996-2007, the five first conferences were initiated and implemented by departments of public health in the Nordic countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative centres of Health Promotion in Bergen University and a group at Karolinska Institute, Department of Social Medicine, creating supportive environments for health in Stockholm played key roles in initiating and supporting NHPRN. During the second phase, 2007-2014, the network was strengthened and supported by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) in Gothenburg. The third phase started when NHV closed down in 2015 and networking activities were transferred to the European Office of WHO in Copenhagen. The Nordic Health Promotion Research Conference series has served several purposes and will continue to do so. They are important Nordic meeting places, stimulating Health Promotion research, as well as explicitly managing ongoing concerns in the international Health Promotion community. This is reflected in the shift of foci over time. The content of the conferences has been highly responsive to whatever challenges are particularly relevant at different points in time, while also contributing to developing Health Promotion as a discipline, given that every conference has built on the previous ones.

  4. A Menagerie of Promotional Characters: Promoting Food to Children through Food Packaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; Innes-Hughes, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which (1) promotional characters are used on food packaging for healthful and less-healthful food and (2) different companies use this persuasive marketing strategy. Design: Cross-sectional supermarket audit of all food and beverages featuring promotional characters on the packaging. Setting: Three Australian…

  5. Conceptualizing Parental Autonomy Support: Adolescent Perceptions of Promotion of Independence versus Promotion of Volitional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Luc; Beyers, Wim; Ryan, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    In current research on parenting, 2 ways of conceptualizing perceived parental autonomy support can be distinguished. Parental autonomy support can be defined in terms of promotion of independence (PI) or in terms of promotion of volitional functioning (PVF). This study aimed to establish the empirical distinctiveness of both conceptualizations…

  6. Beyond Grade Retention and Social Promotion: Promoting the Social and Academic Competence of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Pletcher, Sarah M. W.; Graydon, Kelly; Schnurr, Britton L.; Nickerson, Amanda B.; Kundert, Deborah K.

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, amidst the current context emphasizing educational standards and accountability, the practice of grade retention has increased. The call for an end to social promotion has generated a variety of recommendations and legislation regarding promotion policies. This context has served as a catalyst for numerous debates regarding…

  7. Streamlining Appointment, Promotion, and Tenure Procedures to Promote Early-Career Faculty Success.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon B; Hollerbach, Ann; Donato, Annemarie Sipkes; Edlund, Barbara J; Atz, Teresa; Kelechi, Teresa J

    2016-01-01

    A critical component of the progression of a successful academic career is being promoted in rank. Early-career faculty are required to have an understanding of appointment, promotion, and tenure (APT) guidelines, but many factors often impede this understanding, thwarting a smooth and planned promotion pathway for professional advancement. This article outlines the steps taken by an APT committee to improve the promotion process from instructor to assistant professor. Six sigma's DMAIC improvement model was selected as the guiding operational framework to remove variation in the promotion process. After faculty handbook revisions were made, several checklists developed, and a process review rubric was implemented; recently promoted faculty were surveyed on satisfaction with the process. Faculty opinions captured in the survey suggest increased transparency in the process and perceived support offered by the APT committee. Positive outcomes include a strengthened faculty support framework, streamlined promotion processes, and improved faculty satisfaction. Changes to the APT processes resulted in an unambiguous and standardized pathway for successful promotion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dog EEG for wake-promotion studies.

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Régis; Bricout, Denis; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Giboulot, Thierry

    2006-10-01

    Described in this unit is a protocol for investigating the wake-promoting activity of new chemical entities (NCEs) in dog. The experimental approach is based on scoring of sleep/wake stages in animals implanted with a telemetry device for recording EMG and cortical EEG signals. A major advantage of this procedure is that it is conducted in nontethered animals, limiting possible bias and complications encountered with conventional recording systems. In this procedure, polygraphic recording is conducted using four implanted beagles. Results of studies with modafinil, a wake-promoting agent, are described to demonstrate the utility of this test procedure.

  9. Health promotion, environmental health and Agenda 21.

    PubMed

    Scriven, A; Young, S

    1998-04-01

    In 1992, at the Rio Earth Summit, many governments, including our own, committed themselves to developing local strategies for sustainable development in the form of Local Agenda 21. Sustainable development is discussed, as is the philosophy and practice of health promotion and environmental health. Common approaches are identified and the links in relation to key areas of activities, strategies, values and principles are outlined. Finally, recommendations are made and conclusions drawn in relation to the overlap between environmental health action, Agenda 21 strategies and health promotion practice.

  10. Pet dogs as promoters of wellbeing.

    PubMed

    While, Alison

    2017-07-02

    The rise in life expectancy requires strategies to enable healthy ageing and the promotion of a high quality of life in old age. Poor mental health including depression and social isolation can blight older people's lives. Despite the positive benefits of physical activity for both mental and physical health, only a minority of those over 65 years are attaining the recommended levels of physical activity. The evidence relating to the benefits of pet dogs as promoters of wellbeing is set out in this article, although meeting their care needs may place an additional strain on an older person and/or their carer who has limited resources and physical capabilities.

  11. The role of promotion in alcoholism treatment marketing.

    PubMed

    Jones, M A; Self, D R; Owens, C A; Kline, T A

    1988-01-01

    This article is an overview of the promotion function as a part of the ATM's marketing mix. It approaches various promotion decision areas from a managerial perspective, focusing upon some key components of promotion planning. Rather than provide specific operational or implementation details (how to write a brochure) it is more conceptual in nature and offers a framework for promotion planners. The article addresses promotion management, promotion objectives, analysis for promotion planning, the promotion mix, and addresses the benefits and limitations of some specific promotion tools available to the ATM manager. It treats ATMs as a service and reveals specific implications for promotion strategy dictated by services. The article also reports promotion tools employed by Alabama ATMs citing data from the Alabama study.

  12. Employer and Promoter Perspectives on the Quality of Health Promotion Within the Healthy Workplace Accreditation

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Chen-Yin; Yin, Yun-Wen; Liu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chia-Chen; Zhou, Yi-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the employers’ and promoters’ perspective of health promotion quality according to the healthy workplace accreditation. Methods: We assessed the perspectives of 85 employers and 81 health promoters regarding the quality of health promotion at their workplaces. The method of measurement referenced the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion (ENWHP) quality criteria. Results: In the large workplaces, the accredited corporation employers had a higher impression (P < 0.001) of all criteria. The small–medium accredited workplace employers had a slightly higher perspective than non-accredited ones. Nevertheless, there were no differences between the perspectives of health promoters from different sized workplaces with or without accreditation (P > 0.05). Conclusions: It seems that employers’ perspectives of healthy workplace accreditation surpassed employers from non-accredited workplaces. Specifically, large accredited corporations could share their successful experiences to encourage a more involved workplace in small–medium workplaces. PMID:28691998

  13. An antitumor promoter from Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Guevara, A P; Vargas, C; Sakurai, H; Fujiwara, Y; Hashimoto, K; Maoka, T; Kozuka, M; Ito, Y; Tokuda, H; Nishino, H

    1999-04-06

    In the course of studies on the isolation of bioactive compounds from Philippine plants, the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. were examined and from the ethanol extract were isolated the new O-ethyl-4-(alpha-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl carbamate (1) together with seven known compounds, 4(alpha-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (2), niazimicin (3), niazirin (4), beta-sitosterol (5), glycerol-1-(9-octadecanoate) (6), 3-O-(6'-O-oleoyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-beta-sitosterol (7), and beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8). Four of the isolates (2, 3, 7, and 8), which were obtained in relatively good yields, were tested for their potential antitumor promoting activity using an in vitro assay which tested their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus-early antigen (EBV-EA) activation in Raji cells induced by the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). All the tested compounds showed inhibitory activity against EBV-EA activation, with compounds 2, 3 and 8 having shown very significant activities. Based on the in vitro results, niazimicin (3) was further subjected to in vivo test and found to have potent antitumor promoting activity in the two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin using 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) as initiator and TPA as tumor promoter. From these results, niazimicin (3) is proposed to be a potent chemo-preventive agent in chemical carcinogenesis. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Health Promotion and the Costs of Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Alan H.

    1989-01-01

    As industry, individuals, and insurance providers realize the benefits of disease prevention, the demand for information and services will grow. Health promotion activities should be tapered to individual needs and resource requirements of the institution planning the program. Programs should include screening procedures to identify underlying…

  15. Alternatives to Social Promotion and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Studies indicate that retention negatively impacts students' behavior, attitude, and attendance, but it is still practiced in schools around the country. Social promotion undermines students' futures when they fail to develop critical study and job-related skills; however, it too is still practiced in many schools throughout the United…

  16. Perspective Taking Promotes Action Understanding and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Martin Hard, Bridgette; Tversky, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    People often learn actions by watching others. The authors propose and test the hypothesis that perspective taking promotes encoding a hierarchical representation of an actor's goals and subgoals-a key process for observational learning. Observers segmented videos of an object assembly task into coarse and fine action units. They described what…

  17. Cooperative Learning to Promote Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.

    2003-01-01

    When people think about how education at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels can promote human rights, most people think about the content. For example, they think about lessons on topics such as overcoming discrimination or the right to a fair trial. However, teaching for human rights is not only about the "what," the content of…

  18. Health Promoting Schools: Consensus, Strategies, and Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Gagnon, Faith A.; Stewart, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize a consensus statement generated on the current challenges, strategies, and potential of health promoting schools (HPS) at a 2011 colloquium at the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study where 40 people from five continents came together to share their global and regional experience surrounding…

  19. Complement component 5 promotes lethal thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Tomohiro; Yoshioka, Kengo; Mizuno, Masashi; Shimizu, Mie; Nagano, Fumihiko; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Tsuboi, Naotake; Maruyama, Shoichi; Nagamatsu, Tadashi; Imai, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular histones promote platelet aggregation and thrombosis; this is followed by induction of coagulation disorder, which results in exhaustion of coagulation factors. Complement component 5 (C5) is known to be associated with platelet aggregation and coagulation system activation. To date, the pathological mechanism underlying liver injury has remained unclear. Here, we investigated whether C5 promotes liver injury associated with histone-induced lethal thrombosis. C5-sufficient and C5-deficient mice received single tail vein injections of purified, unfractionated histones obtained from calf thymus (45–75 μg/g). Subsequently, the mice were monitored for survival for up to 72 h. Based on the survival data, the 45 μg/g dose was used for analysis of blood cell count, liver function, blood coagulation ability, and promotion of platelet aggregation and platelet/leukocyte aggregate (PLA) production by extracellular histones. C5-deficient mice were protected from lethal thrombosis and had milder thrombocytopenia, consumptive coagulopathy, and liver injury with embolism and lower PLA production than C5-sufficient mice. These results indicate that C5 is associated with coagulation disorders, PLA production, and embolism-induced liver injury. In conclusion, C5 promotes liver injury associated with histone-induced lethal thrombosis. PMID:28205538

  20. Healthy Universities: Mapping Health-Promotion Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarmiento, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to map out and characterize existing health-promotion initiatives at Florida International University (FIU) in the USA in order to inform decision makers involved in the development of a comprehensive and a long-term healthy university strategy. Design/methodology/approach: This study encompasses a narrative…

  1. A Typology of Relapse Promoting Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Saul

    Outcome data on smoking cessation has emphasized that most people have difficulty not in quitting smoking, but in maintaining cessation. An attempt was made to develop a more meaningful typology of relapse-promoting situations using a sample of 183 exsmokers who called a telephone hotline seeking help to stay away from cigarettes. Two higher order…

  2. Entomology: Promoting Creativity in the Science Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcay, Behiye B.

    2013-01-01

    A class activity has been designed to help fourth grade students to identify basic insect features as a means of promoting student creativity while making an imaginary insect model. The 5Es (Engage, Explore, Explain, Extend [or Elaborate], and Evaluate) learning cycle teaching model is used. The 5Es approach allows students to work in small…

  3. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work News & Media About ODPHP Food and Nutrition Physical Activity Health Literacy Health Care Quality Healthy People healthfinder Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Spotlight: This Diabetes Month, Don’t Forget About the Importance of Exercise for People with Type 1 Diabetes ...

  4. Nectarine promotes longevity in Drosophila melanogaster

    Aging is associated with increased oxidative damage and gradual decline of physiology function with age, and is modulated by numerous genetic and environmental factors. Functional fruits are thought to be ideal candidates for promoting longevity and healthspan due to their high contents of polypheno...

  5. Promotion of School Children's Invention in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    In the late 1980s an American newspaper reported that by one measure--the number of patents cited by successive inventors--Japan overtook the United States in the number of inventions produced during the 1970s. The reasons for this are not clear, but educational efforts promoting creative behaviors in school children are probably essential and…

  6. Promoting Diversity through Leadership at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Cheryl F.

    1996-01-01

    Providing leadership for a diverse camp population and providing diverse leadership is a challenge. Presents ways to diversify campers and staff, and ways to promote diversity through socialization, education, and experience. Planned and spontaneous incidents should be related to diversity, and similarities should be discussed so that no one feels…

  7. Promoting Conceptual Understanding via Adaptive Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jacob P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of a scalable concept map based navigation system for a digital textbook. A literature review has been conducted to identify possible methods to promote conceptual understanding in the context of a digital textbook, and these hypothesized solutions will be evaluated through…

  8. Mental health promotion in comprehensive schools.

    PubMed

    Onnela, A M; Vuokila-Oikkonen, P; Hurtig, T; Ebeling, H

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a participatory action research process on the development of a professional practice model of mental health nurses in mental health promotion in a comprehensive school environment in the city of Oulu, Finland. The developed model is a new method of mental health promotion for mental health nurses working in comprehensive schools. The professional practice model has been developed in workshops together with school staff, interest groups, parents and students. Information gathered from the workshops was analysed using action research methods. Mental health promotion interventions are delivered at three levels: universal, which is an intervention that affects the whole school or community; selective, which is an intervention focusing on a certain group of students; and indicated, which is an individually focused intervention. All interventions are delivered within the school setting, which is a universal setting for all school-aged children. The interventions share the goal of promoting mental health. The purposes of the interventions are enhancing protective factors, reducing risk factors relating to mental health problems and early identification of mental health problems as well as rapid delivery of support or referral to specialized services. The common effect of the interventions on all levels is the increase in the experience of positive mental health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Promoting the Priorities of Practitioner Research Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    One of the aims of the Library and Information Science Research Coalition is to promote library and information science practitioner research. Successfully meeting this aim should result in greater use of the existing knowledge base and the creation of new knowledge on Library and Information Science (LIS) practice. LIS practitioner engagement in…

  10. [Agroecology and health promotion in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Elaine de; Pelicioni, Maria Cecília Focesi

    2012-04-01

    Research how specialists in health promotion and agroecology understand the concepts in those areas of common guidelines and how the relationship between such concepts is conceived. METHODS. Qualitative research. Fourteen specialists in the two areas were interviewed about the relationship between the agrofood system and health, concepts of agroecology and health promotion, and the relevance of including agroecology in public health training courses and vice-versa. There is little dialogue between the fields of study that were considered similar, food quality being the main interface between the areas. agroecology appeared to be a system of healthy food production, but the study showed other connections: agroecology and empowerment, a spur to autonomy and quality of life, and better socioeconomic conditions for the farmer; agroecology and environmental health; agroecology and community involvement; agroecology, territoriality, and cultural rescue [translator's note: this is a term for measures taken to revitalize or preserve imperiled indigenous cultures]; and agroecology, local foods, and low costs of production. Health promotion already was linked in effect to practices oriented to healthy lifestyles. The specialists appeared favorable toward including knowledge about public health in agroecology and vice-versa. Agroecology and health promotion contribute to one another and are complementary, and bringing them closer together can lead to an enriched discussion about rural health and the concept of public policies that focus on this theme, thereby stimulating actions for improvement and intersectoral practices.

  11. Motivations and Barriers in Promoting Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küçükturan, A. Güler; Akbaba Altun, Sadegül

    2017-01-01

    This study is designed to explore the reasons for sending and not sending preschool age children to preschools at an early age by exploring the motivations for and barriers towards promoting preschool education in Turkey. It aimed to determine various stakeholders' perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge related to preschool education in order to…

  12. Waging a Battle to Promote Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Suzanne Liacos

    2010-01-01

    As advocates for reading, librarians cannot help but love a reading program. In this article, the author talks about the Battle of the Books, a reading enrichment program that had been in place since 1996. Battle of the Books promotes reading among middle school students by offering interesting books and a trivia-type competition. The author…

  13. PROMOTING AIR QUALITY THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the promotion of improved air quality through environmental technology verifications (ETVs). In 1995, the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development began the ETV Program in response to President Clinton's "Bridge to a Sustainable Future" and Vice Presiden...

  14. Directors of Health Promotion and Education

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dev Career Center DHPE Webinars Systems Change for Health School Employee Wellness CHES/Attendee Certificates Calendar of Events Internships ... Calendar of Events Career Center Policy Briefs School Employee Wellness Links to Other ... of Health Promotion and Education (DHPE) News & Updates more & ...

  15. School Health Promotion and Teacher Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jourdan, Didier; Simar, Carine; Deasy, Christine; Carvalho, Graça S.; McNamara, Patricia Mannix

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Health and education are inextricably linked. Health promotion sits somewhat uncomfortably within schools, often remaining a marginal aspect of teachers' work. The purpose of this paper is to examine the compatibility of an HP-initiative with teacher professional identity. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research design was…

  16. Does Religious Education Promote Good Community Relations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orchard, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The aims of religious education (RE) as a curriculum subject are contested and under constant review. One particular aim widely promoted by policymakers, practitioners and other stakeholders is that RE distinctively among curriculum subjects, prepares future citizens for life in a religiously and culturally diverse society. I support the view that…

  17. Use of Adhesion Promoters in Asphalt Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cihlářová, Denisa; Fencl, Ivan; Cápayová, Silvia; Pospíšil, Petr

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of asphalt binder as a significant binder in road constructions is to permanently bind aggregates of different compositions and grain sizes. The asphalt binder itself does not have suitable adhesiveness, so after a period of time, bare grains can appear. This results in a gradual separation of the grains from an asphalt layer and the presence of potholes in a pavement. Adhesion promoters or adhesive agents are important and proven promoters in practice. They are substances mainly based on the fatty acids of polyamides which should increase the reliability of the asphalt's binder adhesion to the aggregates, thus increasing the lifetime period of the asphalt mixture as well as its resistance to mechanical strain. The amount of a promoter or agent added to the asphalt mixture is negligible and constitutes about 0.3% of the asphalt's binder weight. Nevertheless, even this quantity significantly increases the adhesive qualities of an asphalt binder. The article was created in cooperatation with the Slovak University of Technology, in Bratislava, Slovakia, and focuses on proving the new AD2 adhesive additive and comparing it with the Addibit and Wetfix BE promoters used on aggregates from the Skuteč - Litická and Bystřec quarries.

  18. Promoter methylation in head and neck tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Josena K; Chen, Kang Mei; Havard, Shaleta; Harris, Glynis; Worsham, Maria J

    2012-01-01

    In addition to genetic alterations of gains and losses, epigenetic events of promoter methylation appear to further undermine a destabilized genomic repertoire in squamous head and neck carcinoma (HNSCC). This chapter provides an overview of frequently methylated tumor suppressor genes in benign head and neck papillomas, primary HNSCC tumors, and HNSCC cell lines and their relevance as epigenetic markers in head and neck tumorigenesis.

  19. 7 CFR 1280.118 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... information and public relations with emphasis on new marketing strategies, to present a favorable image of U... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1280.118 Section 1280.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS...

  20. Management Strategies for Promoting Teacher Collective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Eric C. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to validate a theoretical model for developing teacher collective learning by using a quasi-experimental design, and explores the management strategies that would provide a school administrator practical steps to effectively promote collective learning in the school organization. Twenty aided secondary schools in Hong Kong were…

  1. p53 mutations promote proteasomal activity.

    PubMed

    Oren, Moshe; Kotler, Eran

    2016-07-27

    p53 mutations occur very frequently in human cancer. Besides abrogating the tumour suppressive functions of wild-type p53, many of those mutations also acquire oncogenic gain-of-function activities. Augmentation of proteasome activity is now reported as a common gain-of-function mechanism shared by different p53 mutants, which promotes cancer resistance to proteasome inhibitors.

  2. Method for promoting Michael addition reactions

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Pankaj V.; Vietti, David E.; Whitman, David William

    2010-09-21

    Homogeneously dispersed solid reaction promoters having an average particle size from 0.01 .mu.m to 500 .mu.m are disclosed for preparing curable mixtures of at least one Michael donor and at least one Michael acceptor. The resulting curable mixtures are useful as coatings, adhesives, sealants and elastomers.

  3. Promoting Systems Thinking through Biology Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riess, Werner; Mischo, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    This study's goal was to analyze various teaching approaches within the context of natural science lessons, especially in biology. The main focus of the paper lies on the effectiveness of different teaching methods in promoting systems thinking in the field of Education for Sustainable Development. The following methods were incorporated into the…

  4. Promoting Physical Activity in Adapted Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Joonkoo; Beamer, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    The importance of physical activity has received considerable attention during the past decade. Physical education has been viewed as a cost-effective way to promote physical activity as a public health initiative. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that a "substantial percentage" of students' overall…

  5. 21 CFR 314.550 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS..., including promotional labeling as well as advertisements, intended for dissemination or publication within... intended time of initial dissemination of the labeling or initial publication of the advertisement. ...

  6. 21 CFR 314.550 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS..., including promotional labeling as well as advertisements, intended for dissemination or publication within... intended time of initial dissemination of the labeling or initial publication of the advertisement. ...

  7. 21 CFR 314.550 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS..., including promotional labeling as well as advertisements, intended for dissemination or publication within... intended time of initial dissemination of the labeling or initial publication of the advertisement. ...

  8. 21 CFR 314.550 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS..., including promotional labeling as well as advertisements, intended for dissemination or publication within... intended time of initial dissemination of the labeling or initial publication of the advertisement. ...

  9. Promoting Healthy Lifestyles with Schoolwide Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virgilio, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Schoolwide events to promote healthy lifestyles include fitness field day; family-fitness night; geography run; school health fair; morning and evening stretches and workouts; Jump Rope for Heart, Hoops for Heart, and Step for Heart; All Children Exercising Simultaneously; holiday classics; neighborhood fitness trail; morning and evening workouts;…

  10. Mental Health Promotion Education in Multicultural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanlou, Nazilla

    2003-01-01

    A mental health promotion perspective provides a system-based understanding of relationships between culture and health. Educating nurses for multicultural practice should adopt an interdisciplinary approach that fosters critical awareness of diverse influences on mental health and their intersections. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)

  11. Environmental Health Promotion: Progress and Future Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Shobha; Dearry, Allen

    2004-01-01

    Health promotion seeks to provide practitioners of medicine and public health as well as members of the public with the information, resources, and tools that they can use to improve health and well-being. This goal is consonant with that of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), namely, to improve public health outcomes via research,…

  12. Strengthening "School" in School Mental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowling, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight new and existing research on school characteristics that are essential elements in building the capacity of school communities to implement whole school approaches to mental health promotion. Design/methodology/approach: Through an overview of recent research and writing the need for a…

  13. Developing Partnerships to Promote Local Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters-Bayer, Ann; van Veldhuizen, Laurens; Wettasinha, Chesha; Wongtschowski, Mariana

    2004-01-01

    Local innovation in agriculture and natural resource management is the process through which individuals or groups discover or develop new and better ways of managing resources, building on and expanding the boundaries of their existing knowledge. Prolinnova (Promoting Local Innovation) is a NGO-led global partnership programme that is being built…

  14. Coursework for Promoting Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandamby, G. W. T. C.

    2017-01-01

    Teaching is to be amalgamated with learning environment where students attend work with interest. Coursework was designed and conducted for Quantity Surveying module from 2014 as a study and found that it has supported for promoting teaching and learning. It was revealed that encouragement made only for attendance is not sufficient to obtain high…

  15. Performance as a Factor in Enlisted Promotions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    the Airman Performance Report. When one reviews the previous research into the matter of enlisted promotions, one senses a feeling of corporate " deja ... vu ." An Air War College research report noted in 1952 that the 7 _... .. . .. _. ._. . . . . I I ’ . Air Force NCO corps had been "destroyed" during

  16. A Market Case Study of Telecourse Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Market Facts, Washington, DC.

    A study was undertaken in 1981 to evaluate the telecourse campaign supported through the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) and the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). This report contains a summary of promotional strategies used in six selected markets and an evaluation of the effectiveness of these strategies. The objectives of the study…

  17. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Approval of Biological Products When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 601.94...

  18. 21 CFR 314.640 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Approval of New Drugs When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.640 Promotional materials. For drug products being...

  19. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Approval of Biological Products When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 601.94...

  20. 21 CFR 314.640 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Approval of New Drugs When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.640 Promotional materials. For drug products being...

  1. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Approval of Biological Products When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 601.94...

  2. 21 CFR 314.640 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Approval of New Drugs When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.640 Promotional materials. For drug products being...

  3. 21 CFR 314.640 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Approval of New Drugs When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.640 Promotional materials. For drug products being...

  4. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Approval of Biological Products When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 601.94...

  5. 21 CFR 314.640 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Approval of New Drugs When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.640 Promotional materials. For drug products being...

  6. 21 CFR 601.94 - Promotional materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Promotional materials. 601.94 Section 601.94 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Approval of Biological Products When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 601.94...

  7. "Concreteness Fading" Promotes Transfer of Mathematical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Nicole M.; Fyfe, Emily R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that educators should avoid concrete instantiations when the goal is to promote transfer. However, concrete instantiations may benefit transfer in the long run, particularly if they are "faded" into more abstract instantiations. Undergraduates were randomly assigned to learn a mathematical concept in one of three…

  8. Promotion and resignation in employee networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jia; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Linyan; Wan, Xue-Song; Yu, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Tao

    2016-02-01

    Enterprises have put more and more emphasis on data analysis so as to obtain effective management advices. Managers and researchers are trying to dig out the major factors that lead to employees' promotion and resignation. Most previous analyses are based on questionnaire survey, which usually consists of a small fraction of samples and contains biases caused by psychological defense. In this paper, we successfully collect a data set consisting of all the employees' work-related interactions (action network, AN for short) and online social connections (social network, SN for short) of a company, which inspires us to reveal the correlations between structural features and employees' career development, namely promotion and resignation. Through statistical analysis, we show that the structural features of both AN and SN are correlated and predictive to employees' promotion and resignation, and the AN has higher correlation and predictability. More specifically, the in-degree in AN is the most relevant indicator for promotion, while the k-shell index in AN and in-degree in SN are both very predictive to resignation. Our results provide a novel and actionable understanding of enterprise management and suggest that to enhance the interplays among employees, no matter work-related or social interplays, can be helpful to reduce staffs' turnover risk.

  9. 76 FR 34871 - Mobile Barcode Promotion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Mobile Barcode Promotion AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal Service is revising the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service... mailpieces with mobile barcodes must be one of the following: 1. Presorted or automation First-Class Mail...

  10. Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Children, Families, and Learning, Roseville. Food and Nutrition Service.

    "Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work" is a Minnesota program based on the USDA's Team Nutrition program. The program's goal is to improve the health of children through school meals and nutrition education. This is accomplished by empowering schools to serve meals meeting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and motivating…

  11. Promoting Reasoning through the Magic V Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Leicha A.; Widjaja, Wanty; Loong, Esther Yook-Kin; Vale, Colleen; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reasoning in mathematics plays a critical role in developing mathematical understandings. In this article, Bragg, Loong, Widjaja, Vale & Herbert explore an adaptation of the Magic V Task and how it was used in several classrooms to promote and develop reasoning skills.

  12. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  13. Parent Involvement, Business Partnerships Promote Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Danny D.

    1994-01-01

    To tap the resources, knowledge, and expertise of parents, a West Virginia middle school initiated a parent-involvement program in fall 1992. The parents created their own program, the Red Apple Corps, which planned and promoted a back-to-school day, a birthday bulletin board, a tutoring program, a school pride award, and the school newspaper.…

  14. Reflection a neglected art in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paul

    2007-10-01

    Evaluation and quality assurance have, over time, become the bedrock of health promotion practice in ensuring effectiveness and efficiency of programme planning and delivery. There has been less emphasis, however, on formal recognition of the contribution of the personal characteristics and perspectives of those who plan and deliver programmes and to the more subtle underlying effects of prevailing societal and professional norms. This paper seeks to highlight the neglect of formal reflection as a key professional skill in professional health promotion practice. It outlines key theories underpinning the development of the concepts of reflection and reflective practice. The role of reflection in critical health education as it contributes to critical consciousness raising is highlighted through its contribution to the empowerment of change agents in a societal change context. A conceptual typology of reflective practice is described which provides a flexible structure with which professionals can reflect on the role of self, the context and the process of health promotion programme planning. Its use is illustrated from the author's published work in health promotion which is related to prevention of workplace violence.

  15. Promoting Student Engagement in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundick, Matthew J.; Quaglia, Russell J.; Corso, Michael J.; Haywood, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Much progress has been made toward a greater understanding of student engagement and its role in promoting a host of desirable outcomes, including academic outcomes such as higher achievement and reduced dropout, as well as various well-being and life outcomes. Nonetheless, disengagement in our schools is widespread. This may…

  16. 77 FR 56552 - Holiday Mobile Shopping Promotion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... period''). The Promotion is designed to spur mobile purchasing by putting mailers' mobile-optimized... rebate on the pre-discount postage of their qualifying mailings if a portion of their orders is fulfilled... * * * * * 709 Experimental and Temporary Classifications * * * * * [Revise the title of 3.0 as follows:] 3.0...

  17. Health Promotion by Social Cognitive Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandura, Albert

    2004-01-01

    This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. This theory posits a multifaceted causal structure in which self-efficacy beliefs operate together with goals, outcome expectations, and perceived environmental impediments and facilitators in the regulation of human motivation, behavior,…

  18. Pleiotrophin promotes perineural invasion in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Hu, Xiu-Feng; Feng, Xiao-Shan; Gao, She-Gan

    2013-10-21

    Perineural invasion (PNI) in pancreatic cancer is an important cause of local recurrence, but little is known about its mechanism. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an important neurotrophic factor. It is of interest that our recent experimental data showed its involvement in PNI of pancreatic cancer. PTN strongly presents in the cytoplasm of pancreatic cancer cells, and high expression of PTN and its receptor may contribute to the high PNI of pancreatic cancer. Correspondingly, PNI is prone to happen in PTN-positive tumors. We thus hypothesize that, as a neurite growth-promoting factor, PTN may promote PNI in pancreatic cancer. PTN is released at the time of tumor cell necrosis, and binds with its high-affinity receptor, N-syndecan on pancreatic nerves, to promote neural growth in pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, neural destruction leads to a distorted neural homeostasis. Neurons and Schwann cells produce more N-syndecan in an effort to repair the pancreatic nerves. However, the abundance of N-syndecan attracts further PTN-positive cancer cells to the site of injury, creating a vicious cycle. Ultimately, increased PTN and N-syndecan levels, due to the continuous nerve injury, may promote cancer invasion and propagation along the neural structures. Therefore, it is meaningful to discuss the relationship between PTN/N-syndecan signaling and PNI in pancreatic cancer, which may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of PNI in pancreatic cancer.

  19. Pleiotrophin promotes perineural invasion in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Hu, Xiu-Feng; Feng, Xiao-Shan; Gao, She-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) in pancreatic cancer is an important cause of local recurrence, but little is known about its mechanism. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an important neurotrophic factor. It is of interest that our recent experimental data showed its involvement in PNI of pancreatic cancer. PTN strongly presents in the cytoplasm of pancreatic cancer cells, and high expression of PTN and its receptor may contribute to the high PNI of pancreatic cancer. Correspondingly, PNI is prone to happen in PTN-positive tumors. We thus hypothesize that, as a neurite growth-promoting factor, PTN may promote PNI in pancreatic cancer. PTN is released at the time of tumor cell necrosis, and binds with its high-affinity receptor, N-syndecan on pancreatic nerves, to promote neural growth in pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, neural destruction leads to a distorted neural homeostasis. Neurons and Schwann cells produce more N-syndecan in an effort to repair the pancreatic nerves. However, the abundance of N-syndecan attracts further PTN-positive cancer cells to the site of injury, creating a vicious cycle. Ultimately, increased PTN and N-syndecan levels, due to the continuous nerve injury, may promote cancer invasion and propagation along the neural structures. Therefore, it is meaningful to discuss the relationship between PTN/N-syndecan signaling and PNI in pancreatic cancer, which may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of PNI in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24151381

  20. Dialogic Reading Aloud to Promote Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    How can teachers motivate students to read extensively in a second language? One strategy is for teachers to read aloud to students to promote the joys of reading generally, to build students' language skills and to introduce students to specific authors, book series, genres, websites, etc. This article begins by discussing why teachers might want…

  1. Symposium Promotes Technological Literacy through STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havice, Bill; Marshall, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a symposium which promotes technological literacy through science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The three-day symposium titled, "The Anderson, Oconee, Pickens Symposium on Teaching and Learning STEM Standards for the 21st Century," was held August 4-6, 2008 at the Tri-County Technical College…

  2. Health Promoting Schools: Initiatives in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Stewart, Donald; Gagnon, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and potential of World Health Organization (WHO) health promoting schools (HPS) in Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Overview of the related literature and presentations at the 2011 Stellenbosch international colloquium on HPS relating to sub-Saharan Africa. Findings: Schools…

  3. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  4. Reducing DNA context dependence in bacterial promoters

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Swati B.; Densmore, Douglas M.

    2017-01-01

    Variation in the DNA sequence upstream of bacterial promoters is known to affect the expression levels of the products they regulate, sometimes dramatically. While neutral synthetic insulator sequences have been found to buffer promoters from upstream DNA context, there are no established methods for designing effective insulator sequences with predictable effects on expression levels. We address this problem with Degenerate Insulation Screening (DIS), a novel method based on a randomized 36-nucleotide insulator library and a simple, high-throughput, flow-cytometry-based screen that randomly samples from a library of 436 potential insulated promoters. The results of this screen can then be compared against a reference uninsulated device to select a set of insulated promoters providing a precise level of expression. We verify this method by insulating the constitutive, inducible, and repressible promotors of a four transcriptional-unit inverter (NOT-gate) circuit, finding both that order dependence is largely eliminated by insulation and that circuit performance is also significantly improved, with a 5.8-fold mean improvement in on/off ratio. PMID:28422998

  5. Healthy Schools Promotion: An Experience in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erawan, Prawit

    2005-01-01

    The promotion of health education in schools has been operated continuously in Thailand with expecting to enhance a healthy society based on the definition of health under the new trend "A comprehensive and integrated health and social dimensions of body, mind and soul into a lifestyle linked and interrelated the human relationship with a…

  6. Promoting Workplace Literacy and Basic Skills Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Elizabeth A.; Ott, Joyce; Wilson, Kathleen

    This document is intended to help literacy practitioners and others in South Carolina promote workplace literacy and basic skills development programs. The introduction examines the following topics: South Carolina's current workforce and its outlook; the definitions of literacy and workplace literacy; the need for workplace literacy and basic…

  7. Promoting Civil Discourse in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnie, Billie F.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers are responsible for what happens in their classrooms, and promoting civil discourse should be among their top priorities. Not only should they model civil speech and behavior, but they also should establish clear boundaries for students, create a climate that nourishes courteous exchange, and help students build vocabularies that enable…

  8. Diversity ? Inclusion: Promoting Integration in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    I argue that enrollment of a diverse student body is but a pragmatic first step toward the broader social goal of inclusion and ask whether motives for campus diversification are aligned with pedagogic goals. I address this question by focusing on inclusion, namely, organizational strategies and practices that promote meaningful social and…

  9. Acknowledging Educational Perspectives on Health Promoting Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadi, Nastaran Keshavarz; Rowling, Louise; Nutbeam, Don

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore educational perspectives towards the concept of health promoting schools and its potential benefits for schools in more depth. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the results of a qualitative study based on interviews with school staff including principals, and teachers with…

  10. Promoting Learning in Libraries through Information Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breivik, Patricia Senn; Ford, Barbara J.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses information literacy and describes activities under the sponsorship of the National Forum on Information Literacy (NFIL) that promotes information literacy in schools and libraries. Activities of member organizations of the NFIL are described, including policy formation, publications, and programs; and the role of the American Library…

  11. Waterpipe Promotion and Use on Instagram: #Hookah.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Chu, Kar-Hai; Cruz, Tess Boley; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-10-01

    Waterpipe (hookah) use is becoming more prevalent in the United States and abroad with potential implications for public health. As waterpipe use rapidly grows in popularity, novel data streams are needed that can help capture and document the social and environmental context in which individuals use, and are marketed, this emerging tobacco product. This study characterized waterpipe-related posts on Instagram in order to inform regulatory and policy activities in the United States. Data were collected from Instagram, an image-based social media site. Inclusion criteria for this study comprised an Instagram post with the hashtag "#hookah" that was accompanied by geo-location metadata demonstrating that the post was inside the contiguous United States. Rules were established for coding themes of images (n = 1705). Seven percent of images depicted a single person using a waterpipe and/or blowing smoke, 25% depicted two or more persons lounging and/or using a waterpipe, 6% depicted waterpipes, coals or flavored tobacco without people, 18% of images were promotional material for hookah lounges and restaurant/bars/nightclubs referencing hookah in the text or depicting a waterpipe, 25% were non-waterpipe-related promotional material, 1% were sexually explicit material, and 18% other. 31% of all images depicted or referenced alcohol. 30% of posts provided geo-location from a hookah lounge, 56% from a restaurant/bar/nightclub, and 14% from other types of locations. The cross promotion of waterpipe and alcohol use by hookah lounges, and restaurants/bars/nightclubs suggests that poly-substance use is regularly depicted, and promoted, in nightlife entertainment as well as normalized on Instagram in the United States. In the US Instagram posts with the hashtag #hookah regularly depicted waterpipe use in conjunction with alcohol use. Instagram's focus on images facilitates picture-based advertising where hookah lounges promote drink specials at the same time nightclubs promote

  12. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  13. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  14. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  15. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  16. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  17. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative develop...

  18. 5 CFR 302.403 - Qualifications for promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications for promotion. 302.403... EMPLOYMENT IN THE EXCEPTED SERVICE Selection and Appointment; Reappointment; and Qualifications for Promotion § 302.403 Qualifications for promotion. In determining qualifications for promotion with respect to an...

  19. 5 CFR 531.243 - Promotion of a GM employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion of a GM employee. 531.243... Promotion of a GM employee. (a) Upon promotion, an employee's status as a GM employee ends, as provided in § 531.241(b). (b) When an employee loses status as a GM employee because of a temporary promotion and is...

  20. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of record...

  1. SALES PROMOTION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RUBIN, ALAN J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A BASIC COURSE IN SALES PROMOTION IS DESIGNED FOR NOT LESS THAN FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) ASPECTS OF SALES PROMOTION, (2) SALES PROMOTION TECHNIQUES, (3) NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING, (4) WINDOW AND INTERIOR DISPLAY PRINCIPLES, AND (5) SELECTED PROMOTIONAL MEDIA AND DEVICES. POSSIBLE TEACHERS INCLUDE A SALES PROMOTION…

  2. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative develop...

  3. Studies on promoting action in skin carcinogenesis

    SciT

    Saffiotti, U.; Shubik, P.

    1963-01-01

    A number of substances were tested for carcinogenic promoting activity in Swiss mice by applying them twice weekly to the clipped dorsal skin, beginning 1 wk after a single application of 9,10-dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA; 1 to 1.5% in mineral oil). Tests with silver nitrate (10% aqueous), iodoacetic acid (0.9% in acetone, fumaric acid (1% in acetone), ethylphenylpropiolate (5% in acetone), trihydroxymethylanthraquinone. (Emodin; 0.5% in acetone), oleic alcohol, monostearin (5% in acetone) and sorbitan monolaurate were essentially negative; when a single application of croton oil (5% in mineral oil) was interspersed between the carcinogen and silver nitrate, 6/20 mice developed 14more » benign tumors and 1 carcinoma. N-Dodecane showed moderate promoting activity (26 tumors, with 2 carcinomas, in 12/30 mice). Tests of several petroleum fractions showed high initial promoting activity (404 tumors, with 31 carcinomas, in 36/50 mice), but the activity disappeared on storage; while there was no carcinogenic activity in mice, in New Zealand albino rabbits the petroleum fractions alone produced considerable numbers of tumors. One application of DMBA, however, did increase tumor incidence and shorten the latent period. The hexane-eluted fraction of a methanolic extract of croton seeds (which had little vesicant activity), had all the promoting activity of the original croton oil; this could be demonstrated with uethan (20 mg/day ip for 5 days) as the initiator as well as with DMBA. In conclusion, the authors distinguish sharply between the promoting activity of compounds such as croton oil, which lead mostly to benign tumors (many of which regress spontaneously), and the additive effects of carcinogenic substances which may have a stimulatory effect on the second stage of carcinogenesis; for this additive carcinogenic effect, they suggest the term developing action. Other studies on croton oil are also reviewed.« less

  4. Advances in health promotion in Asia-Pacific: promoting health through hospitals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin; Chiou, Shu-Ti

    2016-03-01

    Since 1990, the WHO Health Promoting Hospital (HPH) movement has tried to facilitate and support hospitals to assume a core responsibility in health promotion. The Taiwan HPH Network was established in December 2006, and became the largest HPH network in the world in 2013. Compared to Europe where the HPH has been more established, the pace of HPH development has been much more rapid. This rapid development provides an inspiring example for research and health promotion practice. Systematic data and empirical information have been collected about HPH in Taiwan, allowing for research to be published about the achievements of the HPH movement. This paper provides an overview of the existing literature on current progress of the HPH project according to the four main perspectives of the WHO-HPH movement: promoting the health of patients, promoting the health of staff, changing the organization to a health-promoting setting, and promoting the health of the community in the catchment area of the hospital. The assessment can serve as a stepping stone in understanding current HPH development in Taiwan and as a reference for future research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Institutional barriers and strategies to health promotion: perspectives and experiences of Cape Verdean women health promoters.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria

    2010-06-01

    Health promoters are critical resources in improving health care access and in providing culturally-responsive health education and interventions to members of medically underserved communities. Little is known about the barriers that impede their health-promoting practices and the strategies used to overcome these barriers. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine Cape Verdean women health promoters to examine their perspectives on barriers and strategies to health promotion. Findings revealed how their health promotion practice is influenced by a host of institutional barriers, including insufficient program funding, restrictive institutional policies, and a lack of culturally and linguistically appropriate health resources. Adaptive and resistant strategies used to counterbalance these barriers included forming supportive internal and external alliances, having a good mentor, and "making noise." A complete and effective model of health promotion must embrace not only individual-level factors, but also macro-level factors, thus emphasizing the need for institutional change to enhance health-promoting practices.

  6. Institutional Barriers and Strategies to Health Promotion: Perspectives and Experiences of Cape Verdean Women Health Promoters

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Health promoters are critical resources in improving health care access and in providing culturally-responsive health education and interventions to members of medically underserved communities. Little is known about the barriers that impede their health-promoting practices and the strategies used to overcome these barriers. Methods In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine Cape Verdean women health promoters to examine their perspectives on barriers and strategies to health promotion. Results Findings revealed how their health promotion practice is influenced by a host of institutional barriers, including insufficient program funding, restrictive institutional policies, and a lack of culturally and linguistically appropriate health resources. Adaptive and resistant strategies used to counterbalance these barriers included forming supportive internal and external alliances, having a good mentor, and “making noise.” Discussion A complete and effective model of health promotion must embrace not only individual-level factors, but also macro-level factors, thus emphasizing the need for institutional change to enhance health-promoting practices. PMID:18307042

  7. A future task for health-promotion research: Integration of health promotion and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Jelsøe, Erling; Thualagant, Nicole; Holm, Jesper; Kjærgård, Bente; Andersen, Heidi Myglegård; From, Ditte-Marie; Land, Birgit; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm

    2018-02-01

    Based on previous studies and reflections collected from participants in a workshop at the 8th Nordic Health Promotion Research Network conference, we reveal current tendencies and discuss future challenges for health-promotion research regarding integration of sustainable development principles. Despite obvious interfaces and interactions between the two, our contention is that strategies for health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development and that policies aimed at solving health or sustainability problems may therefore cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental and health problems. As illustrated in previous research and as deliberated in the above-mentioned workshop, a number of barriers are identified. These are believed to be related to historical segregation, the conceptual understandings of health promotion and sustainable development, as well as the politics and implementation of policy goals in both areas. Three focal points are proposed as important challenges to address in future research: (a) the duality of health promotion and sustainability and how it can be handled in order to enhance mutually supportive processes between them; (b) the social dimension of sustainability and how it can be strengthened in the development of strategies for health promotion and sustainable development; and (c) exploring and identifying policy approaches and strategies for integrating health promotion and sustainable development.

  8. Health promoting leadership - different views of the concept.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Andrea; Axelsson, Runo; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari

    2011-01-01

    To describe and analyse different views of health promoting leadership among actors involved in workplace health promotion in eight Swedish municipalities. Twenty individuals were interviewed and their views were analysed according to the methodology of phenomenograpic research, exploring how health promoting leadership was described, what motives were expressed, and what critical conditions were perceived for developing such leadership. The informants described health promoting leadership in three ways: organising health promoting activities, having a supportive leadership style, and developing a health promoting workplace. The motives mentioned for developing health promoting leadership were instrumental motives and improved health. The critical conditions for health promoting leadership were organisational conditions, characteristics of individual managers, and support to managers. It seems that the concept of health promoting leadership was often used to link ideas about good leadership to the health of employees. Organisational goals and management trends may also have influenced the motives as well as the conditions for development of health promoting leadership.

  9. Developing a promotional strategy: important questions for social marketing.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Hanson, Carl L

    2007-10-01

    Health practitioners often use the terms marketing and promotion interchangeably. Yet, promotion is just one element of an overall marketing strategy. To realize the greatest impact there must be a combination of all the marketing components, including product, price, place, and promotion. The purpose of this article is to clarify the role of promotion and describe key elements of developing a promotional strategy within the broader context of a social marketing initiative.

  10. The Realities of Management Promotion. An Investigation of Factors Influencing the Promotion of Managers in Three Major Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruderman, Marian N.; Ohlott, Patricia J.

    Promotions, particularly management promotions, play an important role in organizations. Despite their importance for both individuals and organizations, little is known about how and why most promotions occur. This publication presents findings of a study that examined 64 promotions that occurred in three Fortune 500 companies from 1986-89. The…

  11. Interventions to promote cycling: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Sahlqvist, Shannon; McMinn, Alison; Griffin, Simon J; Ogilvie, David

    2010-10-18

    To determine what interventions are effective in promoting cycling, the size of the effects of interventions, and evidence of any associated benefits on overall physical activity or anthropometric measures. Systematic review. Published and unpublished reports in any language identified by searching 13 electronic databases, websites, reference lists, and existing systematic reviews, and papers identified by experts in the field. Review methods Controlled "before and after" experimental or observational studies of the effect of any type of intervention on cycling behaviour measured at either individual or population level. Twenty five studies (of which two were randomised controlled trials) from seven countries were included. Six studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling, of which four (an intensive individual intervention in obese women, high quality improvements to a cycle route network, and two multifaceted cycle promotion initiatives at town or city level) were found to be associated with increases in cycling. Those studies that evaluated interventions at population level reported net increases of up to 3.4 percentage points in the population prevalence of cycling or the proportion of trips made by bicycle. Sixteen studies assessing individualised marketing of "environmentally friendly" modes of transport to interested households reported modest but consistent net effects equating to an average of eight additional cycling trips per person per year in the local population. Other interventions that targeted travel behaviour in general were not associated with a clear increase in cycling. Only two studies assessed effects of interventions on physical activity; one reported a positive shift in the population distribution of overall physical activity during the intervention. Community-wide promotional activities and improving infrastructure for cycling have the potential to increase cycling by modest amounts, but further controlled

  12. Interventions to promote cycling: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Sahlqvist, Shannon; McMinn, Alison; Griffin, Simon J

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine what interventions are effective in promoting cycling, the size of the effects of interventions, and evidence of any associated benefits on overall physical activity or anthropometric measures. Design Systematic review. Data sources Published and unpublished reports in any language identified by searching 13 electronic databases, websites, reference lists, and existing systematic reviews, and papers identified by experts in the field. Review methods Controlled “before and after” experimental or observational studies of the effect of any type of intervention on cycling behaviour measured at either individual or population level. Results Twenty five studies (of which two were randomised controlled trials) from seven countries were included. Six studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling, of which four (an intensive individual intervention in obese women, high quality improvements to a cycle route network, and two multifaceted cycle promotion initiatives at town or city level) were found to be associated with increases in cycling. Those studies that evaluated interventions at population level reported net increases of up to 3.4 percentage points in the population prevalence of cycling or the proportion of trips made by bicycle. Sixteen studies assessing individualised marketing of “environmentally friendly” modes of transport to interested households reported modest but consistent net effects equating to an average of eight additional cycling trips per person per year in the local population. Other interventions that targeted travel behaviour in general were not associated with a clear increase in cycling. Only two studies assessed effects of interventions on physical activity; one reported a positive shift in the population distribution of overall physical activity during the intervention. Conclusions Community-wide promotional activities and improving infrastructure for cycling have the potential to

  13. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Selection criteria Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency

  14. [The health promotion programs for the children based at health promotion institutions].

    PubMed

    Kotenko, K V; Khan, M A; Rassulova, M A; Korchazhkina, N B; Kuyantseva, L V; Bykova, N I

    The research carried out in the framework of the health promotion programs for the children made it possible to obtain characteristics of the patients admitted to health promotion facilities, identify the risk factors for the development of acute respiratory diseases, and substantiate the principles of the differentiated approach to the rehabilitation of such patients based at the institutions of this type taking into consideration the health group to which a concrete patient is referred and the risk factors of acute respiratory diseases. The feasibility and effectiveness of the addition of aromatherapy and treatment with the use of polarized light into the health promotion programs for the children presenting with acute respiratory diseases that they develop during the period of adaptation based at health promotion institutions are discussed.

  15. Caspase 3 promotes genetic instability and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinjian; He, Yujun; Li, Fang; Huang, Qian; Kato, Takamitsu A.; Hall, Russell P; Li, Chuan-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Apoptosis is typically considered an anti-oncogenic process since caspase activation can promote the elimination of genetically unstable or damaged cells. We report that a central effector of apoptosis, caspase 3, facilitates, rather than suppresses, chemical and radiation-induced genetic instability and carcinogenesis. We found that a significant fraction of mammalian cells treated with ionizing radiation can survive, despite caspase 3 activation. Moreover, this sublethal activation of caspase 3 promoted persistent DNA damage and oncogenic transformation. In addition, chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis was significantly reduced in mice genetically deficient in caspase 3. Furthermore, attenuation of Endo G activity significantly reduced radiation-induced DNA damage and oncogenic transformation, identifying Endo G as a downstream effector of caspase 3 in this pathway. Our findings suggest that rather than acting as a broad inhibitor of carcinogenesis, caspase 3 activation may contribute to genome instability and play a pivotal role in tumor formation following damage. PMID:25866249

  16. Inhibition of strigolactones promotes adventitious root formation

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, Christine A.; Geelen, Danny

    2012-01-01

    Roots that form from non-root tissues (adventitious roots) are crucial for cutting propagation in the forestry and horticulture industries. Strigolactone has been demonstrated to be an important regulator of these roots in both Arabidopsis and pea using strigolactone deficient mutants and exogenous hormone applications. Strigolactones are produced from a carotenoid precursor which can be blocked using the widely available but broad terpenoid biosynthesis blocker, fluridone. We demonstrate here that fluridone can be used to promote adventitious rooting in the model species Pisum sativum (pea). In addition, in the garden species Plumbago auriculata and Jasminium polyanthum fluridone was equally as successful at promoting roots as a commercial rooting compound containing NAA and IBA. Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of strigolactone signaling has the potential to be used to improve adventitious rooting in commercially relevant species. PMID:22580687

  17. Promoted Combustion Test Data Re-Examined

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michelle; Jeffers, Nathan; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Promoted combustion testing of metallic materials has been performed by NASA since the mid-1980s to determine the burn resistance of materials in oxygen-enriched environments. As the technolo gy has advanced, the method of interpreting, presenting, and applying the promoted combustion data has advanced as well. Recently NASA changed the bum criterion from 15 cm (6 in.) to 3 cm (1.2 in.). This new burn criterion was adopted for ASTM G 124, Standard Test Method for Determining the Combustion Behavior- of Metallic Materials in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres. Its effect on the test data and the latest method to display the test data will be discussed. Two specific examples that illustrate how this new criterion affects the burn/no-bum thresholds of metal alloys will also be presented.

  18. Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.

  19. Do workplace health promotion (wellness) programs work?

    PubMed

    Goetzel, Ron Z; Henke, Rachel Mosher; Tabrizi, Maryam; Pelletier, Kenneth R; Loeppke, Ron; Ballard, David W; Grossmeier, Jessica; Anderson, David R; Yach, Derek; Kelly, Rebecca K; McCalister, Treʼ; Serxner, Seth; Selecky, Christobel; Shallenberger, Leba G; Fries, James F; Baase, Catherine; Isaac, Fikry; Crighton, K Andrew; Wald, Peter; Exum, Ellen; Shurney, Dexter; Metz, R Douglas

    2014-09-01

    To respond to the question, "Do workplace health promotion programs work?" A compilation of the evidence on workplace programs' effectiveness coupled with recommendations for critical review of outcome studies. Also, reviewed are recent studies questioning the value of workplace programs. Evidence accumulated over the past three decades shows that well-designed and well-executed programs that are founded on evidence-based principles can achieve positive health and financial outcomes. Employers seeking a program that "works" are urged to consider their goals and whether they have an organizational culture that can facilitate success. Employers who choose to adopt a health promotion program should use best and promising practices to maximize the likelihood of achieving positive results.

  20. Highlighting relatedness promotes prosocial motives and behavior.

    PubMed

    Pavey, Louisa; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Sparks, Paul

    2011-07-01

    According to self-determination theory, people have three basic psychological needs: relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Of these, the authors reasoned that relatedness need satisfaction is particularly important for promoting prosocial behavior because of the increased sense of connectedness to others that this engenders. In Experiment 1, the authors manipulated relatedness, autonomy, competence, or gave participants a neutral task, and found that highlighting relatedness led to higher interest in volunteering and intentions to volunteer relative to the other conditions. Experiment 2 found that writing about relatedness experiences promoted feelings of connectedness to others, which in turn predicted greater prosocial intentions. Experiment 3 found that relatedness manipulation participants donated significantly more money to charity than did participants given a neutral task. The results suggest that highlighting relatedness increases engagement in prosocial activities and are discussed in relation to the conflict and compatibility between individual and social outcomes. © 2011 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc

  1. Promotion Assistance Tool for Mobile Phone Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intraprasert, P.; Jatikul, N.; Chantrapornchai, C.

    In this paper, we propose an application tool to help analyze the usage of a mobile phone for a typical user. From the past usage, the tool can analyze the promotion that is suitable for the user which may save the total expense. The application consists of both client and server side. On the server side, the information for each promotion package for a phone operator is stored as well as the usage database for each client. The client side is a user interface for both phone operators and users to enter their information. The analysis engine are based on KNN, ANN, decision tree and Naïve Bayes models. For comparison, it is shown that KNN and decision outperforms the others.

  2. Health promotion by social cognitive means.

    PubMed

    Bandura, Albert

    2004-04-01

    This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. This theory posits a multifaceted causal structure in which self-efficacy beliefs operate together with goals, outcome expectations, and perceived environmental impediments and facilitators in the regulation of human motivation, behavior, and well-being. Belief in one's efficacy to exercise control is a common pathway through which psychosocial influences affect health functioning. This core belief affects each of the basic processes of personal change--whether people even consider changing their health habits, whether they mobilize the motivation and perseverance needed to succeed should they do so, their ability to recover from setbacks and relapses, and how well they maintain the habit changes they have achieved. Human health is a social matter, not just an individual one. A comprehensive approach to health promotion also requires changing the practices of social systems that have widespread effects on human health.

  3. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  4. Moonlight project promotes energy-saving technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, A.

    1986-01-01

    In promoting energy saving, development of energy conservation technologies aimed at raising energy efficiency in the fields of energy conversion, its transportation, its storage, and its consumption is considered, along with enactment of legal actions urging rational use of energies and implementation of an enlightenment campaign for energy conservation to play a crucial role. Under the Moonlight Project, technical development is at present being centered around the following six pillars: (1) large scale energy saving technology; (2) pioneering and fundamental energy saving technology; (3) international cooperative research project; (4) research and survey of energy saving technology; (5) energy saving technology development by private industry; and (6) promotion of energy saving through standardization. Heat pumps, magnetohydrodynamic generators and fuel cells are discussed.

  5. Social diversity promotes cooperation in spatial multigames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jiahu; Chen, Yaming; Kang, Yu; Perc, Matjaž

    2017-04-01

    Social diversity is omnipresent in the modern world. Here we introduce this diversity into spatial multigames and study its impact on the evolution of cooperation. Multigames are characterized by two or more different social dilemmas being contested among players in the population. When a fraction of players plays the prisoner's dilemma game while the remainder plays the snowdrift game cooperation becomes a difficult proposition. We show that social diversity, determined by the payoff scaling factors from the uniform, exponential or power-law distribution, significantly promotes cooperation. In particular, the stronger the social diversity, the more widespread cooperative behavior becomes. Monte Carlo simulations on the square lattice reveal that a power-law distribution of social diversity is in fact optimal for socially favorable states, thus resonating with findings previously reported for single social dilemmas. We also show that the same promotion mechanism works in time-varying environments, thus further generalizing the important role of social diversity for cooperation in social dilemmas.

  6. National news. Indonesia. Promoting ARH awareness.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    Limited availability of IEC materials is hindering efforts to promote adolescent reproductive health in Indonesia. This, in turn, reflects a lack of awareness on the part of policy makers and community leaders about the importance of interventions directed at young people. Two ongoing United Nations Population Fund projects seek to promote awareness of adolescent reproductive health needs in Jakarta, Yogyakarta, West Java, Bali, Lampung, and Riau. A coalition of governmental and nongovernmental agencies has been established to implement the project. By project end in 1999, government agencies and nongovernmental organizations are expected to have incorporated youth-oriented activities into their overall programming and formulated relevant policy guidelines. Another project (Strengthening Strategies to Improve Adolescent Reproductive Health through Materials Development), implemented by the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association, is focusing on the development and distribution of reproductive health materials for specific target audiences.

  7. [Promotion of Occupational Mental Health with Psychiatrists].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Katsutoshi

    2015-01-01

    The promotion of occupational mental health is stipulated by laws and precedents, including the Labor Standards Act, Industrial Safety and Health Act, and Labor Contract Act. These laws and precedents are used to formulate actual mental health activities and responses to individuals with mental health disorders to some extent. Among mental health-related undertakings, the most important role that occupational health staff should play as healthcare professionals is to support business operators' obligations regarding safety. This role is to prevent health problems in the workplace, not to manage corporate risk. However, the health and safety obligations imposed on business operators under the current precedents are far beyond the levels that non-specialists can handle. The active participation of psychiatrists is needed to promote workplace mental health today.

  8. The Evolution of Physical Activity Promotion.

    PubMed

    Richards, Elizabeth Ann

    2015-08-01

    A physically active lifestyle has numerous physical and mental health benefits for patients of all ages. Despite these significant benefits, a majority of Americans do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Health care providers, especially nurses, play a vital role in physical activity promotion. Over the past several decades, exercise and physical activity guidelines have evolved from a focus on structured, vigorous exercise to a focus on moderate-intensity "lifestyle" physical activity. The author updates nurses on physical activity guidelines and provides tips for promoting physical activity, with a focus on lifestyle activities such as walking to work. This article also addresses new research findings on the importance of decreasing sedentary and sitting time, even in physically active people.

  9. Food for creativity: tyrosine promotes deep thinking.

    PubMed

    Colzato, Lorenza S; de Haan, Annelies M; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that creative people sometimes use food to overcome mental blocks and lack of inspiration, but empirical support for this possibility is still lacking. In this study, we investigated whether creativity in convergent- and divergent-thinking tasks is promoted by the food supplement L-Tyrosine (TYR)-a biochemical precursor of dopamine, which is assumed to drive cognitive control and creativity. We found no evidence for an impact of TYR on divergent thinking ("brainstorming") but it did promote convergent ("deep") thinking. As convergent thinking arguably requires more cognitive top-down control, this finding suggests that TYR can facilitate control-hungry creative operations. Hence, the food we eat may affect the way we think.

  10. NOTCH pathway inactivation promotes bladder cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Maraver, Antonio; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; Cash, Timothy P.; Mendez-Pertuz, Marinela; Dueñas, Marta; Maietta, Paolo; Martinelli, Paola; Muñoz-Martin, Maribel; Martínez-Fernández, Mónica; Cañamero, Marta; Roncador, Giovanna; Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Grivas, Dimitrios; de la Pompa, Jose Luis; Valencia, Alfonso; Paramio, Jesús M.; Real, Francisco X.; Serrano, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    NOTCH signaling suppresses tumor growth and proliferation in several types of stratified epithelia. Here, we show that missense mutations in NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 found in human bladder cancers result in loss of function. In murine models, genetic ablation of the NOTCH pathway accelerated bladder tumorigenesis and promoted the formation of squamous cell carcinomas, with areas of mesenchymal features. Using bladder cancer cells, we determined that the NOTCH pathway stabilizes the epithelial phenotype through its effector HES1 and, consequently, loss of NOTCH activity favors the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Evaluation of human bladder cancer samples revealed that tumors with low levels of HES1 present mesenchymal features and are more aggressive. Together, our results indicate that NOTCH serves as a tumor suppressor in the bladder and that loss of this pathway promotes mesenchymal and invasive features. PMID:25574842

  11. Greasing the palm: can collectivism promote bribery?

    PubMed

    Mazar, Nina; Aggarwal, Pankaj

    2011-07-01

    Why are there national differences in the propensity to bribe? To investigate this question, we conducted a correlational study with cross-national data and a laboratory experiment. We found a significant effect of the degree of collectivism versus individualism present in a national culture on the propensity to offer bribes to international business partners. Furthermore, the effect was mediated by individuals' sense of responsibility for their actions. Together, these results suggest that collectivism promotes bribery through lower perceived responsibility for one's actions.

  12. Promoter methylation profile in gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Roa, Juan Carlos; Anabalón, Leonardo; Roa, Iván; Melo, Angélica; Araya, Juan Carlos; Tapia, Oscar; de Aretxabala, Xavier; Muñoz, Sergio; Schneider, Barbara

    2006-03-01

    Methylation in the promoter region of genes is an important mechanism of inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Our objective was to analyze the methylation pattern of some of the genes involved in carcinogenesis of the gallbladder, examining the immunohistochemical expression of proteins, clinical features, and patient survival time. Twenty cases of gallbladder cancer were selected from the frozen tumor bank. The DNA extracted was analyzed by means of a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction test for the CDKN2A (p16), MLH1, APC, FHIT, and CDH1 (E-cadherin) genes. Morphological and clinical data and follow-up information were obtained. All cases were in an advanced stage: histologically moderate or poorly differentiated tumors (95%). Methylation of the promoter area of genes was observed in 5%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 65% of cases, and an altered immunohistochemical pattern (AIP) in 5%, 35%, 21%, 25%, and 66% for the MLH1, CDKN2A, FHIT, APC, and CDH1 genes, respectively. The Kappa concordance index between methylation of the promoter area and AIP for the MLH1 and CDH1 genes was very high (K > 0.75) and substantial for APC (K > 0.45). No correlation was found between survival time and the methylation of the genes studied. The high frequency of gene methylation (with the exception of MLH1) and the high agreement between AIP and methylation of the gene promoter area for the MLH1, APC, and CDH1 genes suggest that the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and of the genes related to the control of cellular proliferation through this mechanism is involved in gallbladder carcinogenesis.

  13. Promoting Institutional Change Through Bias Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Carnes, Molly; Devine, Patricia G.; Isaac, Carol; Manwell, Linda Baier; Ford, Cecelia E.; Byars-Winston, Angela; Fine, Eve; Sheridan, Jennifer Thurik

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation and others conclude that institutional transformation is required to ensure equal opportunities for the participation and advancement of men and women in academic science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). Such transformation requires changing the habitual attitudes and behaviors of faculty. Approaching implicit bias as a remediable habit, we present the theoretical basis and conceptual model underpinning an educational intervention to promote bias literacy among university faculty as a step toward institutional transformation regarding gender equity. We describe the development and implementation of a Bias Literacy Workshop in detail so others can replicate or adapt it to their setting. Of the 220 (167 faculty and 53 nonfaculty) attendees from the initial 17 departments/divisions offered this workshop, all 180 who completed a written evaluation found the workshop at least “somewhat useful” and 74% found it “very useful.” Over 68% indicated increased knowledge of the workshop material. Of the 186 participants who wrote a commitment to engage in new activities to promote gender equity, 87% incorporated specific workshop content. Twenty-four participants were interviewed 4–6 months after attending the workshop; 75% of these not only demonstrated increased bias awareness, but described plans to change—or had actually changed—behaviors because of the workshop. Based on our sample of faculty from a Midwestern university, we conclude that at least one third of STEMM faculty who are invited will attend a 2.5-hr Bias Literacy Workshop, that nearly all will find it useful, and that most will complete a written commitment to promoting gender equity. These findings suggest that this educational intervention may effectively promote institutional change regarding gender equity. PMID:22822416

  14. Promoter-Based Theranostics for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    diagnosis vector consists of the tumor-specific PEG-promoter (PEG-Prom) and cDNA of human chorionic gonadotropin β chain (βhCG) as a reporter. We...transfection efficiency. We also used CpG-free cDNA of Figure 5. pCpGfree-PEGwt-HSV1-tk-neo vector expressed functional thymidine kinase in human

  15. The Conundrum of Online Prescription Drug Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Wanasika, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses pertinent issues from Hyosun Kim’s paper on online prescription drug promotion. The study is well-designed and the findings highlight some of the consequences of the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) decision to deregulate online advertising of prescription drugs. While Kim’s findings confirm some of the early concerns, they also provide a perspective of implementation challenges in the ever-changing technological environment. PMID:27285519

  16. Management strategies for promoting successful breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Bear, K; Tigges, B B

    1993-06-01

    Clinicians can promote a successful breastfeeding experience by providing support, anticipatory guidance and practical information. This article presents the components of early follow-up and guidelines for assessment. Management strategies for common problems are discussed, such as nipple soreness, cracked nipples, plugged ducts and mastitis, insufficient infant weight gain, perceived inadequacy of milk supply, breast-milk jaundice, sexual adjustment and failure at breastfeeding. Breastfeeding guidelines for employed mothers and adoptive mothers are indicated.

  17. Promoting health literacy with orofacial myofunctional patients.

    PubMed

    Reed, Hope C

    2007-11-01

    The definition of health literacy is provided along with information substantiating its importance. Focused initiatives, the consequences of poor health literacy, and at-risk populations are briefly discussed. The focus of this article is the application of health literacy principles to the discipline of orofacial myology and how the promotion of health literacy facilitates positive growth for patients, orfacial myologists, and the professions. The article concludes with a vision for a health literate society.

  18. Promoting Science in Secondary School Education.

    PubMed

    Chiovitti, Anthony; Duncan, Jacinta C; Jabbar, Abdul

    2017-06-01

    Engaging secondary school students with science education is crucial for a society that demands a high level of scientific literacy in order to deal with the economic and social challenges of the 21st century. Here we present how parasitology could be used to engage and promote science in secondary school students under the auspice of a 'Specialist Centre' model for science education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Humor: a pedagogical tool to promote learning.

    PubMed

    Chabeli, M

    2008-09-01

    It has become critical that learners are exposed to varied methods of teaching and assessment that will promote critical thinking of learners. Humor creates a relaxed atmosphere where learning can be enhanced and appreciated. When learners are relaxed, thinking becomes eminent. Authoritative and tense environment hinders thinking. This paper seeks to explore the perceptions of nurse teacher learners regarding the use of humor as a pedagogical tool to promote learning. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was employed (Burns & Grove, 2001:61; Mouton, 1996:103). 130 naive sketches were collected from nurse teacher learners who volunteered to take part in the study (Giorgi in_Omery, 1983:52) Follow up interviews were conducted to verify the findings. A qualitative, open-coding method of content analysis was done Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:155). Measures to ensure trustworthiness of the study were taken in accordance with the protocol of (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:290-326). The findings of the study will assist the nurse educators to create a positive, affective, psychological and social learning environment through the use of humor in a positive manner. Nurse educators will appreciate the fact that integration of humor to the learning content will promote the learners' critical thinking and emotional intelligence. Negative humor has a negative impact on learning. Learner nurses who become critical thinkers will be able to be analytical and solve problems amicably in practice.

  20. Advertising and promotion of smokeless tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Ernster, V L

    1989-01-01

    This paper is focused on the approaches used to advertise and promote smokeless tobacco products during the early to mid-1980s. These included traditional motifs that featured rugged-looking masculine models in sporting and outdoor settings as well as an expanded white-collar appeal. Smokeless tobacco was not affected by the ban on broadcast advertising of cigarettes that went into effect in 1971, and, until 1986, both print and broadcast media were used to advertise it. Promotional activities ranged from sponsorship of sporting events to offers for clothing bearing smokeless tobacco product logos. Despite the claims of manufacturers that advertising and promotional efforts were not targeted to youth, smokeless tobacco companies sponsored tobacco-spitting contests with teenage participants, a college marketing program, and college scholarships. In efforts that appeared designed to bolster their public image in the face of growing concern over the consequences of smokeless tobacco use by young people, companies like U.S. Tobacco Company contributed to major social programs, including, ironically, alcohol- and drug-abuse prevention programs. Spurred by public health groups, federal legislation was passed in 1986 that banned television and radio advertising of smokeless tobacco products and required manufacturers to include warning labels on their products on the potential health hazards of smokeless tobacco use.

  1. Cu(II) promotes amyloid pore formation

    SciT

    Zhang, Hangyu, E-mail: hangyuz@uw.edu; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2015-08-14

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is associated with dopamine neuron death in Parkinson's disease. There is controversy in the field over the question of which species of the aggregates, fibrils or protofibrils, are toxic. Moreover, compelling evidence suggested the exposure to heavy metals to be a risk of PD. Nevertheless, the mechanism of metal ions in promoting PD remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the structural basis of Cu(II) induced aggregation of α-synuclein. Using transmission electron microscopy experiments, Cu(II) was found to promote in vitro aggregation of α-synuclein by facilitating annular protofibril formation rather than fibril formation. Furthermore, neuroprotective baicalein disaggregatedmore » annular protofibrils accompanied by considerable decrease of β-sheet content. These results strongly support the hypothesis that annular protofibrils are the toxic species, rather than fibrils, thereby inspiring us to search novel therapeutic strategies for the suppression of the toxic annular protofibril formation. - Highlights: • Cu(II) promoted the annular protofibril formation of α-synuclein in vitro. • Cu(II) postponed the in vitro fibrillization of α-synuclein. • Neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils.« less

  2. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults.

    PubMed

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L

    2014-06-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In 2 studies, we examined whether considering older adults' preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively- as opposed to negatively-framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Do remittances promote financial development in Africa?

    PubMed

    Karikari, Nana Kwasi; Mensah, Sam; Harvey, Simon K

    2016-01-01

    The paper seeks to establish whether or not remittances promoted financial developments and explore the traceable causality between remittances and financial developments in some countries in Africa. We examine the association between remittances received and how they affect the availability of credit to private sector, bank deposits intermediated by financial institutions and money supply. We also question whether the development in the financial sector causes higher levels or otherwise of remittances received. This paper uses data on remittance flows to 50 developing countries in Africa from 1990 to 2011 to explore the nexus. The study uses fixed effects and random effect estimations as well as Vector Error Correction Model method on the panel data. The study shows that remittances promote certain aspects of financial development to some extent and better financial system foster receipts of remittances. The effect of causality is seen in the short run and not in the long-run. The study alludes to literature that remittances could promote financial development in the short run and the development of the financial sector helps increase the propensity to remit via formal channels.

  4. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In two studies, we examined whether considering older adults’ preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively as opposed to negatively framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PMID:24956001

  5. Exosome secretion promotes chemotaxis of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bong Hwan; Weaver, Alissa M

    2017-03-04

    Migration of cells toward chemical cues, or chemotaxis, is important for many biologic processes such as immune defense, wound healing and cancer metastasis. Although chemotaxis is thought to occur in cancer cells, it is less well characterized than chemotaxis of professional immune cells such as neutrophils. Here, we show that cancer cell chemotaxis relies on secretion of exosome-type extracellular vesicles. Migration of fibrosarcoma cells toward a gradient of exosome-depleted serum was diminished by knockdown of the exosome secretion regulator Rab27a. Rescue experiments in which chemotaxis chambers were coated with purified extracellular vesicles demonstrate that exosomes but not microvesicles affect both speed and directionality of migrating cells. Chamber coating with purified fibronectin and fibronectin-depleted exosomes demonstrates that the exosome cargo fibronectin promotes cell speed but cannot account for the role of exosomes in promoting directionality of fibrosarcoma cell movement during chemotaxis. These experiments indicate that exosomes contain multiple motility-promoting cargoes that contribute to different aspects of cell motility.

  6. Promotion of responsible drinking in hotels.

    PubMed

    McLean, S; Wood, L J; Montgomery, I M; Davidson, J; Jones, M E

    1994-01-01

    This study reports on an intervention programme to promote responsible drinking in hotels. The licensees of eight hotels agreed to participate in a trial of measures designed to assist patrons to avoid drink-driving, and seven other hotels were used as controls. The interventions acceptable to licensees comprised commercial-quality promotional material with the theme "0.05 Know Your Limits", and a breath analysis machine and poster on its use. Patrons leaving the hotels on Thursday, Friday and Saturday nights were interviewed and breath-tested. Although the intervention material had been seen by one-third of patrons in the intervention hotels, there was no significant difference between them and control hotel patrons in either median BAC or the proportion who were going to drive with BAC over the legal limit. There was poor compliance by hotels with the intervention procedures, indicating that a major impediment to the implementation and evaluation of programmes to promote responsible drinking is a lack of motivation by many licensees, despite support by some licensees and the Australian Hotels Association.

  7. Transcription Factor Map Alignment of Promoter Regions

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Enrique; Messeguer, Xavier; Smith, Temple F; Guigó, Roderic

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of comparing and characterizing the promoter regions of genes with similar expression patterns. This remains a challenging problem in sequence analysis, because often the promoter regions of co-expressed genes do not show discernible sequence conservation. In our approach, thus, we have not directly compared the nucleotide sequence of promoters. Instead, we have obtained predictions of transcription factor binding sites, annotated the predicted sites with the labels of the corresponding binding factors, and aligned the resulting sequences of labels—to which we refer here as transcription factor maps (TF-maps). To obtain the global pairwise alignment of two TF-maps, we have adapted an algorithm initially developed to align restriction enzyme maps. We have optimized the parameters of the algorithm in a small, but well-curated, collection of human–mouse orthologous gene pairs. Results in this dataset, as well as in an independent much larger dataset from the CISRED database, indicate that TF-map alignments are able to uncover conserved regulatory elements, which cannot be detected by the typical sequence alignments. PMID:16733547

  8. Promoting Systems Thinking through Biology Lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riess, Werner; Mischo, Christoph

    2010-04-01

    This study's goal was to analyze various teaching approaches within the context of natural science lessons, especially in biology. The main focus of the paper lies on the effectiveness of different teaching methods in promoting systems thinking in the field of Education for Sustainable Development. The following methods were incorporated into the study: special lessons designed to promote systems thinking, a computer-simulated scenario on the topic "ecosystem forest," and a combination of both special lessons and the computer simulation. These groups were then compared to a control group. A questionnaire was used to assess systems thinking skills of 424 sixth-grade students of secondary schools in Germany. The assessment differentiated between a conceptual understanding (measured as achievement score) and a reflexive justification (measured as justification score) of systems thinking. The following control variables were used: logical thinking, grades in school, memory span, and motivational goal orientation. Based on the pretest-posttest control group design, only those students who received both special instruction and worked with the computer simulation showed a significant increase in their achievement scores. The justification score increased in the computer simulation condition as well as in the combination of computer simulation and lesson condition. The possibilities and limits of promoting various forms of systems thinking by using realistic computer simulations are discussed.

  9. Peer Interventions to Promote Health: Conceptual Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Simoni, Jane M.; Franks, Julie C.; Lehavot, Keren; Yard, Samantha S.

    2013-01-01

    Peers have intervened to promote health since ancient times, yet few attempts have been made to describe theoretically their role and their interventions. After a brief overview of the history and variety of peer-based health interventions, a 4-part definition of peer interveners is presented here with a consideration of the dimensions of their involvement in health promotion. Then, a 2-step process is proposed as a means of conceptualizing peer interventions to promote health. Step 1 involves establishing a theoretical framework for the intervention’s main focus (i.e., education, social support, social norms, self-efficacy, and patient advocacy), and Step 2 involves identifying a theory that justifies the use of peers and might explain their impact. As examples, the following might be referred to: theoretical perspectives from the mutual support group and self-help literature, social cognitive and social learning theories, the social support literature, social comparison theory, social network approaches, and empowerment models. PMID:21729015

  10. Promoting research integrity in the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Tony

    2015-04-01

    Conducting research in a responsible manner in compliance with codes of research integrity is essential. The geosciences, as with all other areas of research endeavour, has its fair share of misconduct cases and causes celebres. As research becomes more global, more collaborative and more cross-disciplinary, the need for all concerned to work to the same high standards becomes imperative. Modern technology makes it far easier to 'cut and paste', to use Photoshop to manipulate imagery to falsify results at the same time as making research easier and more meaningful. So we need to promote the highest standards of research integrity and the responsible conduct of research. While ultimately, responsibility for misconduct rests with the individual, institutions and the academic research system have to take steps to alleviate the pressure on researchers and promote good practice through training programmes and mentoring. The role of the World Conferences on Research Integrity in promoting the importance of research integrity and statements about good practice will be presented and the need for training and mentoring programmes will be discussed

  11. Breastfeeding promotion: a vital emergency intervention disregarded?

    PubMed

    Patten, T

    1997-09-01

    This article explains the need for promotion of breast feeding among donors and humanitarian aid organizations in emergency situations. Breast feeding offers fewer health hazards than artificial feeding in war or emergency settings. Breast feeding normally also provides the advantage of immune protection for the infant, psychological well-being of the mother and child, fertility regulation, an hygienic food source, and an economic means of feeding infants. Many war casualties are women and children. War casualties are exposed to injury, the disruption of water and food supplies, epidemics, and other detrimental social and environmental conditions. Refugees tend to have a poorer psychological state of health than control populations. This is attributed to displacement, sexual violence, loss of emotion support, and loss of cultural traditions. Women lose traditional sources of independence and authority when their homes are destroyed. Prevailing conditions of conflict that contribute to a mother's anxiety and insecurity may interfere with a mother's "let down" reflex and lactation. Health professionals in emergency settings need to be aware of breast feeding difficulties. Mothers with the proper encouragement and support can overcome their breast feeding difficulties. The promotion of breast feeding is a practical means of helping women gain control over their lives. Breast feeding allows women to feed their infants safely and effectively, to feed their infants by a cheap and sustainable means, to contribute to the well-being of another, to rebuild feelings of confidence, and to reduce intervention costs. Promotion of breast feeding can be started without delay.

  12. Alternative intronic promoters in development and disease.

    PubMed

    Vacik, Tomas; Raska, Ivan

    2017-05-01

    Approximately 20,000 mammalian genes are estimated to encode between 250 thousand and 1 million different proteins. This enormous diversity of the mammalian proteome is caused by the ability of a single-gene locus to encode multiple protein isoforms. Protein isoforms encoded by one gene locus can be functionally distinct, and they can even have antagonistic functions. One of the mechanisms involved in creating this proteome complexity is alternative promoter usage. Alternative intronic promoters are located downstream from their canonical counterparts and drive the expression of alternative RNA isoforms that lack upstream exons. These upstream exons can encode some important functional domains, and proteins encoded by alternative mRNA isoforms can be thus functionally distinct from the full-length protein encoded by canonical mRNA isoforms. Since any misbalance of functionally distinct protein isoforms is likely to have detrimental consequences for the cell and the whole organism, their expression must be precisely regulated. Misregulation of alternative intronic promoters is frequently associated with various developmental defects and diseases including cancer, and it is becoming increasingly clear that this phenomenon deserves more attention.

  13. Targeting Epigenetics to Prevent Obesity Promoted Cancers.

    PubMed

    Berger, Nathan A; Scacheri, Peter C

    2018-03-01

    Epigenetic changes in DNA and associated chromatin proteins are increasingly being considered as important mediators of the linkage between obesity and cancer. Although multiple agents, targeted at epigenetic changes, are being tested for therapy of established cancers, this issue of Cancer Prevention Research carries two articles demonstrating that the bromodomain inhibitor I-BET-762 can attenuate adipose tissue-promoted cancers. Although I-BET-762 significantly delayed, rather than completely prevented, the onset of adiposity-promoted transformation and malignancy, these experiments provide important proof of principle for the strategies of targeting epigenetic changes to disrupt the obesity-cancer linkage. Because bromodomain proteins represent only one of multiple epigenetic mediators, it is probable that targeting other epigenetic processes, alone or in combination, may serve to even more effectively disrupt the obesity promotion of cancer. Given the magnitude of the current obesity pandemic and its impact on cancer, preventive measures to disrupt this linkage are critically important. Cancer Prev Res; 11(3); 125-8. ©2018 AACR See related article by Chakraborty et al., p. 129 . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Activity promoting games and increased energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Foster, Randal C.; McCrady, Shelly K.; Jensen, Teresa B.; Mitre, Naim; Levine, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Children and adults spend large portions of their days in front of screens. Our hypothesis was that both children and adults would expend more calories and move more while playing activity-promoting video games compared to sedentary video games. Study Design In this single-group study, twenty-two healthy children (12 ± 2 years, 11 M, 11 F) and 20 adults (34 ± 11 years, 10 M, 10 F) were recruited. Energy expenditure and physical activity were measured while participants were resting, standing, watching television seated, sitting and playing a traditional sedentary video game, and while playing an activity-promoting video game (Nintendo® Wii™ Boxing). Physical activity was measured using accelerometers and energy expenditure was measured using an indirect calorimeter. Results Energy expenditure increased significantly above all activities when children or adults played Nintendo® Wii™ (mean increase over resting, 189 ± 63 kcal/hr, p < 0.001, and 148 ± 71 kcal/hr, p < 0.001, respectively). Upon examination of movement using accelerometry, children moved significantly more than adults (55 ± 5 AAU and 23 ± 2 AAU, respectively, p < 0.001) while playing Nintendo® Wii™. Conclusions Activity-promoting video games have the potential to increase movement and energy expenditure in children and adults. PMID:19324368

  15. SUMOylated MAFB promotes colorectal cancer tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yin-Yin; Sun, Xiao-Jian; Zhao, Ren; Huang, Qiu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor, v-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog B (MAFB), promotes tumorigenesis in some cancers. In this study, we found that MAFB levels were increased in clinical colorectal cancer (CRC) samples, and higher expression correlated with more advanced TNM stage. We identified MAFB amplifications in a majority of tumor types in an assessment of The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Altered MAFB levels due to gene amplification, deletion, mutation, or transcription upregulation occurred in 9% of CRC cases within the database. shRNA knockdown experiments demonstrated that MAFB deficiency blocked CRC cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase in vitro. We found that MAFB could be SUMOylated by SUMO1 at lysine 32, and this modification was critical for cell cycle regulation by MAFB in CRC cells. SUMOylated MAFB directly regulated cyclin-dependent kinase 6 transcription by binding to its promoter. MAFB knockdown CRC cell xenograft tumors in mice grew more slowly than controls, and wild-type MAFB-overexpressing tumors grew more quickly than tumors overexpressing MAFB mutated at lysine 32. These data suggest that SUMOylated MAFB promotes CRC tumorigenesis through cell cycle regulation. MAFB and its SUMOylation process may serve as novel therapeutic targets for CRC treatment. PMID:27829226

  16. Nurses and teachers: partnerships for green health promotion.

    PubMed

    Sendall, Marguerite C; Lidstone, John; Fleming, Marylou; Domocol, Michelle

    2013-07-01

    The term green health promotion is given to health promotion underpinned by the principles of ecological health and sustainability. Green health promotion is supported philosophically by global health promotion documents such as the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the ecological public health movement. Green health promotion in schools means the practice, the principles of ecological health, and sustainability. A literature review revealed a paucity of publications about green health promotion in schools. Literature about nurses and health promotion in schools is generally found in nursing publications. Literature about ecological sustainability in schools is mostly found in teaching publications. This article explores the nexus between nursing and health promotion, and teachers and ecological sustainability. Collaborative partnerships between health and education do not capitalize on programs such as Health Promoting Schools and the School Based Youth Health Nurse Program in Queensland, Australia. The authors consider how collaborative partnerships between health and education in schools can work toward green health promotion. Nursing's approach to health promotion and education's approach to ecological sustainability need to be aligned to enhance green health promotion in schools. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  17. Engineering Promoter Architecture in Oleaginous Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Shabbir Hussain, Murtaza; Gambill, Lauren; Smith, Spencer; Blenner, Mark A

    2016-03-18

    Eukaryotic promoters have a complex architecture to control both the strength and timing of gene transcription spanning up to thousands of bases from the initiation site. This complexity makes rational fine-tuning of promoters in fungi difficult to predict; however, this very same complexity enables multiple possible strategies for engineering promoter strength. Here, we studied promoter architecture in the oleaginous yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica. While recent studies have focused on upstream activating sequences, we systematically examined various components common in fungal promoters. Here, we examine several promoter components including upstream activating sequences, proximal promoter sequences, core promoters, and the TATA box in autonomously replicating expression plasmids and integrated into the genome. Our findings show that promoter strength can be fine-tuned through the engineering of the TATA box sequence, core promoter, and upstream activating sequences. Additionally, we identified a previously unreported oleic acid responsive transcription enhancement in the XPR2 upstream activating sequences, which illustrates the complexity of fungal promoters. The promoters engineered here provide new genetic tools for metabolic engineering in Y. lipolytica and provide promoter engineering strategies that may be useful in engineering other non-model fungal systems.

  18. A menagerie of promotional characters: promoting food to children through food packaging.

    PubMed

    Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; Innes-Hughes, Christine

    2011-01-01

    To determine the extent to which (1) promotional characters are used on food packaging for healthful and less-healthful food and (2) different companies use this persuasive marketing strategy. Cross-sectional supermarket audit of all food and beverages featuring promotional characters on the packaging. Three Australian supermarket chains. Frequency of observed products, package size, nutritional composition. Frequencies and bivariate analyses was conducted. Nutritional composition (healthful vs less healthful) was analyzed by character type and company type, that is, whether the company was signed to the Australian Food and Grocery Council Responsible Marketing to Children Initiative (RMCI) signatory. Products featuring promotional characters on packaging (n = 352) were predominantly less-healthful food and beverages (70%). [corrected]. Nutritional composition varied significantly by character type, with 69% of products with sportspersons, celebrities, or movie tie-ins being healthful, compared with 38% of licensed and 16% [corrected] of company-owned characters. Only 13 of the 75 companies using characters on packaging were RMCI signatory. Promotional characters are largely used on food packaging to promote less-healthful food to children. Most of these characters are company-owned characters that are not subject to any form of regulation in Australia. Further efforts to limit this form of marketing to children are required. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How music may promote healthy behaviour.

    PubMed

    Batt-Rawden, Kari; Tellnes, Gunnar

    2011-03-01

    Using music to promote healthy behaviour may enhance coping mechanisms in spite of illness. 1) To explore the role and significance of music and musicking in the life of men and women with long-term illnesses in or through different life phases, situations, events, issues and contexts. 2) To increase knowledge on how participants, through exposure to and exchange of new musical materials and practices, may learn to use music as a ''technology of self '' in relation to health promotion and rehabilitation. This exploratory study sought to instigate narratives about music's role in supporting health through a pragmatic synthesis of elements of action-research, ethnography and grounded theory. Music CDs were conceived as an interactive and dialectical tool. This longitudinal study involved eight in-depth ethnographic interviews per participant, involving nine men and 13 women, aged between 35 and 65 with long-term illnesses. Music is a motivational device for moving our bodies, releasing anger or aggression and even transcending pain. Personal preferences in music seemed to be important for these participants while exercising, substantiated in the importance of well-being and pleasure in everyday activities and situations. This study has contributed to an increase in self-awareness and consciousness, well-being and health for the majority of the participants in the study. It has brought to the level of consciousness forms of ''expert'' practice that may otherwise have occurred tacitly. Implementation of future health promotion and rehabilitation programmes ought to strengthen their focus on musical, cultural and physical activity both at an individual level and within local communities.

  20. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Hsu, Ping-I; Graham, David Y; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2005-04-01

    Identification of a disease-specific H pylori virulence factors predictive of the outcome of infection remains unachieved. We used the polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot to compare the presence of 14 vir homologue genes with clinical presentation of H pylori infection, mucosal histology, and mucosal interleukin (IL)-8 levels. We examined 500 H pylori strains from East Asia and South America, including 120 with gastritis, 140 with duodenal ulcer (DU), 110 with gastric ulcer (GU), and 130 with gastric cancer. Only 1 gene that encompassed both jhp0917 and jhp0918 called dupA (duodenal ulcer promoting gene) was associated with a specific clinical outcome. dupA was present in 42% of DU vs. 21% of gastritis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7-5.7). Its presence was also associated with more intense antral neutrophil infiltration and IL-8 levels and was a marker for protection against gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer (OR for gastric cancer = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9 compared with gastritis). In vitro studies in gastric epithelial cells using dupA -deleted and -complemented mutants showed that the dupA plays roles in IL-8 production, in activation of transcription factors responsible for IL-8 promoter activity, and in increased survivability at low pH. dupA is a novel marker associated with an increased risk for DU and reduced risk for gastric atrophy and cancer. Its association with DU-promoting and -protective effects against atrophy/cancer was evident in both Asian and Western countries.

  1. Duodenal Ulcer Promoting Gene of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    LU, HONG; HSU, PING–I; GRAHAM, DAVID Y.; YAMAOKA, YOSHIO

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Identification of a disease-specific H pylori virulence factors predictive of the outcome of infection remains unachieved. Methods We used the polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot to compare the presence of 14 vir homologue genes with clinical presentation of H pylori infection, mucosal histology, and mucosal interleukin (IL)-8 levels. Results We examined 500 H pylori strains from East Asia and South America, including 120 with gastritis, 140 with duodenal ulcer (DU), 110 with gastric ulcer (GU), and 130 with gastric cancer. Only 1 gene that encompassed both jhp0917 and jhp0918 called dupA (duodenal ulcer promoting gene) was associated with a specific clinical outcome. dupA was present in 42% of DU vs. 21% of gastritis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7–5.7). Its presence was also associated with more intense antral neutrophil infiltration and IL-8 levels and was a marker for protection against gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer (OR for gastric cancer = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.2–0.9 compared with gastritis). In vitro studies in gastric epithelial cells using dupA-deleted and -complemented mutants showed that the dupA plays roles in IL-8 production, in activation of transcription factors responsible for IL-8 promoter activity, and in increased survivability at low pH. Conclusions dupA is a novel marker associated with an increased risk for DU and reduced risk for gastric atrophy and cancer. Its association with DU-promoting and -protective effects against atrophy/cancer was evident in both Asian and Western countries. PMID:15825067

  2. Promoting safe motherhood in rural India.

    PubMed

    Maclean, G

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies some activities performed to promote safe motherhood in rural India. Nurses from a voluntary organization in Hyderabad, India, trained women's groups from 32 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh state over 3 days in 1996 in maternal and child care, health and family welfare, gender issues, sanitation, leadership, literacy, negotiating skills, and health monitoring. The women were encouraged to perform health activities in their villages. In October 1996, a Conference of Women celebrated the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, with women's groups reporting on health activities in specific villages. Each women's group had its own banner. Every woman wore a conference delegate badge. One woman's group was rewarded for making the most significant progress. Participants included women from 29 villages and auxiliary nurse-midwives. For some women, this was the first time away from home. Conference delegates toured the primary health center facilities at Shamirpet and met with staff. The aim was to reduce fear and reluctance to use the services and to promote awareness of available health care. Most villages in India rely on auxiliary nurse-midwives for maternal and child health care. Promotion of safe motherhood requires close cooperation between the auxiliary nurse-midwifes and women's groups. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India is introducing in-service training to improve the clinical skills of auxiliary nurse-midwives in eight states. The nurse-midwives use adapted and new educational material from WHO's safe motherhood midwifery training modules. A workshop was used to introduce the new modules and to propose teaching methods for senior project staff. The five modules include a trainers' manual of educational methods.

  3. Promoting research on research integrity in Canada.

    PubMed

    Master, Zubin; McDonald, Michael; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Research on research integrity is an important element in building a strong national research integrity framework. There is a lack of empirical evidence and conceptual research on research integrity in Canada. To further strengthen and develop our system of research integrity, we believe that greater support is needed to promote research on research integrity. Research on research integrity is imperative in order to gain a richer understanding of the diversity of responsible conduct of research norms, practices, education and policies from a Canadian perspective. The knowledge gained would help in the development of an evidenced-based and responsive Canadian system of research integrity.

  4. Biomedical databases: protecting privacy and promoting research.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Jean E; Mineau, Geraldine P

    2003-03-01

    When combined with medical information, large electronic databases of information that identify individuals provide superlative resources for genetic, epidemiology and other biomedical research. Such research resources increasingly need to balance the protection of privacy and confidentiality with the promotion of research. Models that do not allow the use of such individual-identifying information constrain research; models that involve commercial interests raise concerns about what type of access is acceptable. Researchers, individuals representing the public interest and those developing regulatory guidelines must be involved in an ongoing dialogue to identify practical models.

  5. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cartee, Gregory D.; Hepple, Russell T.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Zierath, Juleen R.

    2016-01-01

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics, and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes “healthy aging” by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle. PMID:27304505

  6. Social marketing: consumer focused health promotion.

    PubMed

    Blair, J E

    1995-10-01

    1. Social marketing provides a theoretical basis to increase awareness of preventable health conditions and to increase participation in wellness programs. 2. The philosophy of social marketing underscores the necessity to be aware of and responsive to the consumer's perception of needs. 3. Social marketing is distinguished by its emphasis on "non-tangible" products such as ideas, attitudes, and lifestyle changes. 4. "Marketing mix" is a social marketing strategy that intertwines elements of product, price, place, and promotion to satisfy needs and wants of consumers.

  7. Mentorship, productivity, and promotion among academic hospitalists.

    PubMed

    Reid, Mark B; Misky, Gregory J; Harrison, Rebecca A; Sharpe, Brad; Auerbach, Andrew; Glasheen, Jeffrey J

    2012-01-01

    United States academic hospitals have rapidly adopted the hospitalist model of care. Academic hospitalists have taken on much of the clinical and teaching responsibilities at many institutions, yet little is known about their academic productivity and promotion. We sought to discover the attitudes and attributes of academic hospitalists regarding mentorship, productivity, and promotion. We performed a web-based email survey of academic hospitalists consisting of 61 questions. Four hundred and twenty academic hospitalists. Demographic details, scholarly production, presence of mentorship and attitudes towards mentor, academic rank Two hundred and sixty-six (63%) of hospitalists responded. The majority were under 41 (80%) and had been working as hospitalists for <5 years (62%). Only 42% of academic hospitalists had a mentor. Forty-four percent of hospitalists had not presented a poster or abstract at national meeting; 51% had not been first author on a peer-reviewed publication. Factors positively associated with publication of a peer-reviewed first author paper included: 1) male gender, AOR = 2.38 (95% CI 1.30, 4.33), 2) >20% "protected" time, AOR = 1.92 (95% CI 1.00, 3.69), and 3) a better-than-average understanding of the criteria for promotion, AOR = 3.66 (95% CI 1.76, 7.62). A lack of mentorship was negatively associated with producing any peer-reviewed first author publications AOR = 0.43 (95% CI 0.23, 0.81); any non-peer reviewed publications AOR = 0.45 (95% CI 0.24, 0.83), and leading a teaching session at a national meeting AOR = 0.41 (95% CI 0.19, 0.88). Most hospitalists promoted to the level of associate professor had been first author on four to six peer-reviewed publications. Most academic hospitalists had not presented a poster at a national meeting, authored an academic publication, or presented grand rounds at their institution. Many academic hospitalists lacked mentorship and this was associated with a failure to produce

  8. Embryogenesis-promoting factors in rat serum.

    PubMed

    Katoh, M; Kimura, R; Shoji, R

    1998-06-15

    Regarding whole rat embryo cultures in vitro, rat serum as a culture medium is known to support the normal growth of rat embryos in the organogenesis phase. The purpose of the present study was to isolate the embryogenesis-promoting factors from rat serum as a first step in the development of a defined serum-free medium for a whole embryo culture system. Pooled rat serum after heat inactivation was fractionated into three major peaks (frA, containing a region of void volume, frB, and frC) by gel filtration. The 9.5-day rat embryos that were cultivated for 48 hr in essential salt medium containing frB (with a molecular size range of 100-500 kDa) revealed normal growth. Three proteins (27 kDa, 76 kDa, and 190 kDa) that had the embryogenesis-promoting effects were isolated from 3-hr delayed centrifuged rat serum by the ion exchange chromatography. The 76-kDa protein was found to be rat transferrin by immunoblotting. The 27-kDa protein was identified as apo-AI (the major apoprotein of high-density lipoprotein) by immunoblotting. High-density lipoprotein obtained from pooled rat serum by a NaBr density gradient ultracentrifugation was found to have a positive effect on embryogenesis. The 10-kDa protein was also identified as alpha 1-inhibitor 3 by immunoblotting. In addition, the embryogenesis-promoting effect of the fraction containing 27-kDa and 190-kDa proteins declined within a short period of storage at -20 degrees C. This decrease was countered by supplementing its fraction (D-2) with albumin isolated from rat serum. These results in the present study suggest that transferrin, high-density lipoprotein, and alpha 1-inhibitor 3 in rat serum may be embryogenesis-promoting factors, and that albumin appeared to play a role in the embryogenesis of rat embryos in whole embryo cultures.

  9. Promoting Spontaneous Second Harmonic Generation through Organogelation.

    PubMed

    Marco, A Belén; Aparicio, Fátima; Faour, Lara; Iliopoulos, Konstantinos; Morille, Yohann; Allain, Magali; Franco, Santiago; Andreu, Raquel; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Gindre, Denis; Canevet, David; Sallé, Marc

    2016-07-27

    An organogelator based on the Disperse Red nonlinear optical chromophore was synthesized according to a simple and efficient three-step procedure. The supramolecular gel organization leads to xerogels which display a spontaneous second harmonic generation (SHG) response without any need for preprocessing, and this SHG activity appears to be stable over several months. These findings, based on an intrinsic structural approach, are supported by favorable intermolecular supramolecular interactions, which promote a locally non-centrosymmetric NLO-active organization. This is in sharp contrast with most materials designed for SHG purposes, which generally require the use of expensive or heavy-to-handle external techniques for managing the dipoles' alignment.

  10. 75 FR 14491 - Potato Research and Promotion Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ...] Potato Research and Promotion Plan AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Correcting amendments. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service is making corrections to its Potato Research and..., Marketing Specialist, Research and Promotion Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Programs, AMS, USDA, 1400...

  11. Insulators form gene loops by interacting with promoters in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Erokhin, Maksim; Davydova, Anna; Kyrchanova, Olga; Parshikov, Alexander; Georgiev, Pavel; Chetverina, Darya

    2011-09-01

    Chromatin insulators are regulatory elements involved in the modulation of enhancer-promoter communication. The 1A2 and Wari insulators are located immediately downstream of the Drosophila yellow and white genes, respectively. Using an assay based on the yeast GAL4 activator, we have found that both insulators are able to interact with their target promoters in transgenic lines, forming gene loops. The existence of an insulator-promoter loop is confirmed by the fact that insulator proteins could be detected on the promoter only in the presence of an insulator in the transgene. The upstream promoter regions, which are required for long-distance stimulation by enhancers, are not essential for promoter-insulator interactions. Both insulators support basal activity of the yellow and white promoters in eyes. Thus, the ability of insulators to interact with promoters might play an important role in the regulation of basal gene transcription.

  12. Predictors of Employee Involvement in a Worksite Health Promotion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rost, Kathryn; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A recruitment effort aimed at utility company employees enrolled 64 percent (679) in a health promotion program. Results demonstrate that sociodemographic predictors of recruitment are almost a mirror image of employee participation in worksite health promotion programs. (JOW)

  13. A journey into school health promotion: district implementation of the health promoting schools approach.

    PubMed

    Gleddie, Doug

    2012-03-01

    The health-promoting schools approach has gained momentum in the last decade with many jurisdictions providing guidelines and frameworks for general implementation. Although general agreement exists as to the broad strokes needed for effectiveness, less apparent are local implementation designs and models. The Battle River Project was designed to explore one such local implementation strategy for a provincial (Alberta, Canada) health promoting schools program. Located in the Battle River School Division, the project featured a partnership between Ever Active Schools, the school division and the local health authority. Case study was used to come to a greater understanding of how the health promoting schools approach worked in this particular school authority and model. Three themes emerged: participation, coordination and, integration.

  14. Un-health promotion: results of a survey of alcohol promotion on television.

    PubMed

    Barton, R; Godfrey, S

    1988-06-04

    To estimate how widely and to whom alcoholic drinks are promoted 1258 television advertisements were studied over a 10 week period that included the Christmas and New Year holidays in 1986-7. A total of 156 advertisements (12%) promoted alcohol, and this percentage increased significantly over the holiday period to 17%. These advertisements were longer than those advertising other products, and just over half (56%) occupied the first position in commercial breaks. During sports programmes and between the hours of 1800 and 1900 there was an increase in the number of advertisements for alcohol, but there was no difference before and after 2100. It was found that the extent and influence of the promotion of alcohol were great and that such advertising is seen by many children and adolescents.

  15. Private Cultural Promotion in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fohrbeck, Karla; Wiesand, Andreas Johannes

    Private cultural promotion has become a major topic of interest in cultural policy in recent years. Ranging from personal patronage, to salons, to lifestyle promotion, this document is concerned with presenting the great variety of possible fields of activity in private cultural promotion. Divided into eight chapters the topics covered include:…

  16. 78 FR 18376 - Promotional Rates for Global Express Guaranteed Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Promotional Rates for Global Express Guaranteed Service AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice of Promotional Rates. SUMMARY: The Postal Service gives notice of promotional rates for Global Express Guaranteed[supreg] (GXG[supreg]) service consistent with Governors' Decision No. 12-02...

  17. 76 FR 18422 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed rule would adjust representation on the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 (Act), to reflect changes...

  18. 76 FR 42012 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule adjusts representation on the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 (Act), to reflect changes in...

  19. 7 CFR 966.48 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research and promotion. 966.48 Section 966.48... Regulating Handling Research and Development § 966.48 Research and promotion. The committee may, with the... research, marketing research and development projects, and marketing promotion including paid advertising...

  20. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48... Order Regulating Handling Research, Market Development and Promotion § 930.48 Research, market... establishment of production and processing research, market research and development, and/or promotional...

  1. 4 CFR 3.1 - Appointment, promotion, and assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appointment, promotion, and assignment. 3.1 Section 3.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYMENT § 3.1 Appointment, promotion, and assignment. Employees of GAO shall be appointed, promoted and assigned solely on the basis of merit and...

  2. Marketing: Giveaways that Give Back--Marketing with Promotional Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2006-01-01

    In marketing one's library wares, an effective publicity strategy is to use promotional giveaway materials, mainly personalized items that promote one's resources and services. As with any marketing effort, it is important to be clear about the promotional initiative and whom librarians are attempting to reach. This author emphasizes that…

  3. Method for using a yeast alpha-amylase promoter

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Johnway; Skeen, Rodney S.; Hooker, Brian S.; Anderson, Daniel B.

    2003-04-22

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of an alpha-amylase gene of a starch utilizing yeast strain Schwanniomyces castellii. The isolated alpha-amylase promoter is an inducible promoter, which can regulate strong gene expression in starch culture medium.

  4. 77 FR 26911 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...-FR] RIN 0581-AC79 Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order AGENCY: Agricultural... Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order). The program will be implemented under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (1996 Act). Under the Order, producers of raspberries for...

  5. Health Promotion in Schools: A Scoping Review of Systematic Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilton, Roy; Pearson, Mark; Anderson, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Schools are an important setting for a wide variety of activities to promote health. The purpose of this paper is to map the different types of health promotion programmes and activities in schools, to estimate the amount of published evaluations of health promotion within UK schools, and to identify any provisional "candidate…

  6. 46 CFR 80.30 - Promotional literature or advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Promotional literature or advertising. 80.30 Section 80... SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.30 Promotional literature or advertising. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, all promotional literature or advertising in or over any medium...

  7. 46 CFR 80.30 - Promotional literature or advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Promotional literature or advertising. 80.30 Section 80... SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.30 Promotional literature or advertising. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, all promotional literature or advertising in or over any medium...

  8. 46 CFR 80.30 - Promotional literature or advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Promotional literature or advertising. 80.30 Section 80... SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.30 Promotional literature or advertising. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, all promotional literature or advertising in or over any medium...

  9. 46 CFR 80.30 - Promotional literature or advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Promotional literature or advertising. 80.30 Section 80... SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.30 Promotional literature or advertising. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, all promotional literature or advertising in or over any medium...

  10. 7 CFR 982.64 - Creditable promotion and advertising reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Creditable promotion and advertising reports. 982.64... promotion and advertising reports. Each handler shall file such reports of creditable promotion including paid advertising conducted pursuant to § 982.58 as recommended by the Board and approved by the...

  11. 21 CFR 530.4 - Advertising and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advertising and promotion. 530.4 Section 530.4... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.4 Advertising and promotion. Nothing in this part shall be construed as permitting the advertising or promotion of...

  12. 21 CFR 530.4 - Advertising and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising and promotion. 530.4 Section 530.4... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.4 Advertising and promotion. Nothing in this part shall be construed as permitting the advertising or promotion of...

  13. 7 CFR 982.64 - Creditable promotion and advertising reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creditable promotion and advertising reports. 982.64... promotion and advertising reports. Each handler shall file such reports of creditable promotion including paid advertising conducted pursuant to § 982.58 as recommended by the Board and approved by the...

  14. 46 CFR 80.30 - Promotional literature or advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Promotional literature or advertising. 80.30 Section 80... SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.30 Promotional literature or advertising. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, all promotional literature or advertising in or over any medium...

  15. 21 CFR 530.4 - Advertising and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advertising and promotion. 530.4 Section 530.4... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.4 Advertising and promotion. Nothing in this part shall be construed as permitting the advertising or promotion of...

  16. 21 CFR 530.4 - Advertising and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertising and promotion. 530.4 Section 530.4... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.4 Advertising and promotion. Nothing in this part shall be construed as permitting the advertising or promotion of...

  17. 21 CFR 530.4 - Advertising and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising and promotion. 530.4 Section 530.4... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.4 Advertising and promotion. Nothing in this part shall be construed as permitting the advertising or promotion of...

  18. Health Promotion Education Politics and Schooling: The Greek Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifanti, Amalia A.; Argyriou, Andreas A.; Kalofonos, Haralabos P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the politics of health promotion as a continual process of public health globally and locally. Our main objective in this study is to present the health promotion education initiatives taken by the World Health Organization (WHO) at an international level and also to examine the politics of health promotion in Greece,…

  19. 76 FR 36281 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order), which is authorized under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (Act), a review of the composition of the Board must be...

  20. 22 CFR 101.2 - Promotion of American interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotion of American interests. 101.2 Section... FUNCTIONS § 101.2 Promotion of American interests. Officers of the Foreign Service shall further the.... (g) By taking appropriate steps to facilitate the promotion of such import trade into the United...

  1. 7 CFR 966.48 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... research, marketing research and development projects, and marketing promotion including paid advertising... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and promotion. 966.48 Section 966.48... Regulating Handling Research and Development § 966.48 Research and promotion. The committee may, with the...

  2. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48... Order Regulating Handling Research, Market Development and Promotion § 930.48 Research, market development and promotion. The Board, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish or provide for the...

  3. 7 CFR 987.33 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... promotion. (a) The Committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish or provide for the establishment of marketing research and development projects, including marketing promotion and paid advertising... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and promotion. 987.33 Section 987.33...

  4. 76 FR 13530 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...] Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service.... In accordance with the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order), which is authorized under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (Act), a review of the composition...

  5. Initiation-promotion skin carcinogenesis and immunological competence.

    PubMed

    Curtis, G L; Stenbäck, F; Ryan, W L

    1975-10-01

    The immune competence of mice during initiation-promotion skin carcinogenesis was determined by skin allograft rejection and lymphocyte mitogenesis. The carcinogen 7, 12-dimethylbenzanthracene inhibited the cellular immune competence of mice while lymphocytes from croton oil treated mice had enhanced PWM response. Chlorphenesin, a stimulator of cellular immunity, was found to inhibit tumorigenesis in initiation-promotion skin carcinogenesis when injected during promotion.

  6. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body’s H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  7. Cyclooxygenase 2 Promotes Parathyroid Hyperplasia in ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Qiu, Junsi; Li, Haiming; Lu, Yanwen; Wang, Xiaoyun; Yang, Junwei; Wang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Liyin; Gu, Yong; Hao, Chuan-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the PTG underlies the secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) observed in CKD, but the mechanism underlying this hyperplasia is incompletely understood. Because aberrant cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression promotes epithelial cell proliferation, we examined the effects of COX2 on the parathyroid gland in uremia. In patients with ESRD who underwent parathyroidectomy, clusters of cells within the parathyroid glands had increased COX2 expression. Some COX2-positive cells exhibited two nuclei, consistent with proliferation. Furthermore, nearly 78% of COX2-positive cells expressed proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In the 5/6-nephrectomy rat model, rats fed a high-phosphate diet had significantly higher serum PTH levels and larger parathyroid glands than sham-operated rats. Compared with controls, the parathyroid glands of uremic rats exhibited more PCNA-positive cells and greater COX2 expression in the chief cells. Treatment with COX2 inhibitor celecoxib significantly reduced PCNA expression, attenuated serum PTH levels, and reduced the size of the glands. In conclusion, COX2 promotes the pathogenesis of hyperparathyroidism in ESRD, suggesting that inhibiting the COX2 pathway could be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:21335517

  8. Antipredator behavior promotes diversification of feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Ledón-Rettig, Cris C; Pfennig, David W

    2012-07-01

    Animals often facultatively engage in less risky behavior when predators are present. Few studies, however, have investigated whether, or how, such predator-mediated behavior promotes diversification. Here, we ask whether tadpoles of the spadefoot toad Scaphiopus couchii have a diminished ability to utilize a potentially valuable resource--anostracan fairy shrimp--because of behavioral responses to predation risk imposed by carnivorous tadpoles of the genus Spea. Observations of a congener of Sc. couchii that occurs in allopatry with Spea, coupled with an ancestral character state reconstruction, revealed that Sc. couchii's ancestors likely consumed shrimp. By experimentally manipulating the presence of Spea carnivore-morph tadpoles in microcosms, we found that Sc. couchii reduce feeding and avoid areas where both Spea carnivores and shrimp occur. We hypothesize that the recurrent expression of such behaviors in sympatric populations of Sc. couchii led to the evolutionary fixation of a detritivorous feeding strategy, which is associated with a reduced risk of predation from Spea carnivores. Generally, predator-mediated behavior might play a key role in promoting diversification of feeding strategies.

  9. Onymity promotes cooperation in social dilemma experiments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Jusup, Marko; Wang, Rui-Wu; Shi, Lei; Iwasa, Yoh; Moreno, Yamir; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    One of the most elusive scientific challenges for over 150 years has been to explain why cooperation survives despite being a seemingly inferior strategy from an evolutionary point of view. Over the years, various theoretical scenarios aimed at solving the evolutionary puzzle of cooperation have been proposed, eventually identifying several cooperation-promoting mechanisms: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. We report the results of repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma experiments with anonymous and onymous pairwise interactions among individuals. We find that onymity significantly increases the frequency of cooperation and the median payoff per round relative to anonymity. Furthermore, we also show that the correlation between players’ ranks and the usage of strategies (cooperation, defection, or punishment) underwent a fundamental shift, whereby more prosocial actions are rewarded with a better ranking under onymity. Our findings prove that reducing anonymity is a valid promoter of cooperation, leading to higher payoffs for cooperators and thus suppressing an incentive—anonymity—that would ultimately favor defection. PMID:28435860

  10. Workplace Wellness Programs to Promote Cancer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Soldano, Sharon K

    2016-08-01

    To define the diversity of and business case for workplace wellness programs, highlight best practices for a comprehensive health promotion program, and describe the opportunities for employees to become wellness advocates. Current literature and articles published between 2010 and 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Enhancement Research Organization, National Business Group on Health, Wellness Councils of America, best practice program guidelines and internet resources. Employers are increasingly affected by rising health care costs and epidemic rates of obesity and associated chronic diseases within the workforce. Employers who offer workplace wellness programs can contribute to the overall health and well-being of their employees, improve employee productivity and retention, and reduce absenteeism and health care costs. Employees participating in workplace wellness programs can reduce their health risks and serve as health promotion advocates. Nurses can lead by example by participating in their workplace wellness programs, serving as an advocate to influence their employers and colleagues, and educating their patients regarding the benefits of workplace wellness programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Oxytocin promotes group-serving dishonesty.

    PubMed

    Shalvi, Shaul; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2014-04-15

    To protect and promote the well-being of others, humans may bend the truth and behave unethically. Here we link such tendencies to oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to promote affiliation and cooperation with others. Using a simple coin-toss prediction task in which participants could dishonestly report their performance levels to benefit their group's outcome, we tested the prediction that oxytocin increases group-serving dishonesty. A double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment allowing individuals to lie privately and anonymously to benefit themselves and fellow group members showed that healthy males (n = 60) receiving intranasal oxytocin, rather than placebo, lied more to benefit their group, and did so faster, yet did not necessarily do so because they expected reciprocal dishonesty from fellow group members. Treatment effects emerged when lying had financial consequences and money could be gained; when losses were at stake, individuals in placebo and oxytocin conditions lied to similar degrees. In a control condition (n = 60) in which dishonesty only benefited participants themselves, but not fellow group members, oxytocin did not influence lying. Together, these findings fit a functional perspective on morality revealing dishonesty to be plastic and rooted in evolved neurobiological circuitries, and align with work showing that oxytocin shifts the decision-maker's focus from self to group interests. These findings highlight the role of bonding and cooperation in shaping dishonesty, providing insight into when and why collaboration turns into corruption.

  12. Social stress induces neurovascular pathology promoting depression

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Caroline; Pfau, Madeline L.; Hodes, Georgia E.; Kana, Veronika; Wang, Victoria X.; Bouchard, Sylvain; Takahashi, Aki; Flanigan, Meghan E.; Aleyasin, Hossein; LeClair, Katherine B.; Janssen, William G.; Labonté, Benoit; Parise, Eric M.; Lorsch, Zachary S.; Golden, Sam A.; Heshmati, Mitra; Tamminga, Carol; Turecki, Gustavo; Campbell, Matthew; Fayad, Zahi; Tang, Cheuk Ying; Merad, Miriam; Russo, Scott J.

    2017-01-01

    Studies suggest that heightened peripheral inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder. We investigated the effect of chronic social defeat stress, a mouse model of depression, on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and infiltration of peripheral immune signals. We found reduced expression of endothelial cell tight junction protein claudin-5 (cldn5) and abnormal blood vessel morphology in nucleus accumbens (NAc) of stress-susceptible but not resilient mice. CLDN5 expression was also decreased in NAc of depressed patients. Cldn5 down-regulation was sufficient to induce depression-like behaviors following subthreshold social stress while chronic antidepressant treatment rescued cldn5 loss and promoted resilience. Reduced BBB integrity in NAc of stress-susceptible or AAV-shRNA-cldn5-injected mice caused infiltration of peripheral cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) into brain parenchyma and subsequent expression of depression-like behaviors. These findings suggest that chronic social stress alters BBB integrity through loss of tight junction protein cldn5, promoting peripheral IL-6 passage across the BBB and depression. PMID:29184215

  13. Development and promotion of Malaysian Dietary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tee, E-Siong

    2011-01-01

    Development and promotion of dietary guidelines is one of the key activities outlined in the National Plan of Action for Nutrition of Malaysia for the prevention of nutrition-related disorders. The first official Malaysian Dietary Guidelines (MDG) was published in 1999 and was thoroughly reviewed and launched on 25 March 2010. The new MDG 2010 is a compilation of science-based nutrition and physical activity recommendations. These guidelines form the basis of consistent and scientifically sound nutrition messages for the public. There are 14 key messages and 55 recommendations, covering the whole range of food and nutrition issues, from importance of consuming a variety of foods to guidance on specific food groups, messages to encourage physical activities, consuming safe food and beverages and making effective use of nutrition information on food labels. The MDG also has an updated food pyramid. Various efforts have been made to ensure that the revised MDG is disseminated to all stakeholders. The Ministry of Health has organised a series of workshops for nutritionists and other health care professionals, and the food industry. In collaboration with other professional bodies and the private sector, the Nutrition Society of Malaysia has been promoting the dissemination and usage of the MDG to the public through a variety of formats and channels. These include the publication of a series of leaflets, educational press articles, educational booklets, as well as through educational activities for children. It is imperative to monitor the usage and evaluation of these dietary messages.

  14. Promoting Influenza Vaccination to Restaurant Employees.

    PubMed

    Graves, Meredith C; Harris, Jeffrey R; Hannon, Peggy A; Hammerback, Kristen; Parrish, Amanda T; Ahmed, Faruque; Zhou, Chuan; Allen, Claire L

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate an evidence-based workplace approach to increasing adult influenza vaccination levels applied in the restaurant setting We implemented an intervention and conducted a pre/post analysis to determine effect on vaccination. Eleven Seattle-area restaurants. Restaurants with 25+ employees speaking English or Spanish and over 18 years. Restaurants received influenza vaccination promotion materials, assistance arranging on-site vaccination events, and free influenza vaccinations for employees. Pre/post employee surveys of vaccination status with direct observation and employer interviews to evaluate implementation. We conducted descriptive analysis of employee survey data and performed qualitative analysis of implementation data. To assess intervention effect, we used a mixed-effects logistic regression model with a restaurant-specific random effect. Vaccination levels increased from 26% to 46% (adjusted odds ratio 2.33, 95% confidence interval 1.69, 3.22), with 428 employees surveyed preintervention, 305 surveyed postintervention, and response rates of 73% and 55%, respectively. The intervention was effective across subgroups, but there were restaurant-level differences. An access-based workplace intervention can increase influenza vaccination levels in restaurant employees, but restaurant-level factors may influence success. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  15. Evaluating promotional claims as false or misleading.

    PubMed

    Brushwood, David B; Knox, Caitlin A; Liu, Wei; Jenkins, Kevin A

    2013-11-01

    In light of the "false or misleading" standard resulting from the recent legal ruling, it can be concluded that a true claim is one that is both factually and analytically true. Factual truth could be based on the accuracy of the information and the sufficiency of the information. Analytical truth could be based on the scientific foundation for the claim and whether the information within the claim is presented in a balanced way. Regarding the assessment of whether a truthful claim is misleading, the evaluator could consider the relevance, consistency, and context of the information. Standards are important in medication use and medication regulation. Health care professionals who must decide whether a claim is truthful and not misleading will rely on guidance from FDA in determining how to evaluate promotional claims. As the court suggested in the case reviewed here, FDA could take the lead and provide guidance "in differentiating between misleading and false promotion, exaggerations and embellishments, and truthful or non-misleading information." Existing FDA regulations provide a foundation for such guidance. The next step for the agency would be to expand existing guidance to specifically describe how an off-label claim can be identified as either false or misleading.

  16. Nrf2 promotes neuronal cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Wu, Tongde; Lau, Alexandria; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Zheping; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Weimin; Wong, Pak Kin; Zhang, Donna D

    2009-09-15

    The transcription factor Nrf2 has emerged as a master regulator of the endogenous antioxidant response, which is critical in defending cells against environmental insults and in maintaining intracellular redox balance. However, whether Nrf2 has any role in neuronal cell differentiation is largely unknown. In this report, we have examined the effects of Nrf2 on cell differentiation using a neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y. Retinoic acid (RA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, two well-studied inducers of neuronal differentiation, are able to induce Nrf2 and its target gene NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. RA-induced Nrf2 up-regulation is accompanied by neurite outgrowth and an induction of two neuronal differentiation markers, neurofilament-M and microtubule-associated protein 2. Overexpression of Nrf2 in SH-SY5Y cells promotes neuronal differentiation, whereas inhibition of endogenous Nrf2 expression inhibited neuronal differentiation. More remarkably, the positive role of Nrf2 in neuronal differentiation was verified ex vivo in primary neuron culture. Primary neurons isolated from Nrf2-null mice showed a retarded progress in differentiation, compared to those from wild-type mice. Collectively, our data demonstrate a novel role for Nrf2 in promoting neuronal cell differentiation, which will open new perspectives for therapeutic uses of Nrf2 activators in patients with neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Promoting cancer screening among Ontario Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Roberta I; Larsh, Susan; Dobi, Lorna; Mai, Verna

    2009-01-01

    Cancer screening participation is typically low among newcomers to Canada. Consequently, mortality and morbidity rates are higher in ethno/cultural populations. There are inherent challenges in reaching these population groups to increase awareness and participation in cancer screening. Many reports have cited the need for culturally appropriate materials and multi-pronged strategies for effective outreach in the Chinese community. This paper outlines the consultation/development process and evaluation strategy for promoting cancer screening among Chinese women with limited English language skills. As Chinese is the third most commonly spoken language in Canada, this community education project focused on health promoters providing services to Chinese women 50 years and older. Ontario communities. Partners and stakeholders were consulted and engaged to define the best approach to develop and distribute culturally sensitive public education resources to assist communities in realizing greater awareness of and participation in cancer screening. Customized resource kits were developed and distributed to the target population over the course of two phases of this project. An evaluation strategy was designed and implemented to assess the impact of the project. The process to develop culturally sensitive and evidence-based materials for Chinese is detailed in this article. This multi-year project designed and distributed customized resource kits, through consultation with partners and stakeholders. Project outcomes will be further assessed one year after distribution of the kits. This project template may be useful for adaptation and use in other ethnocultural groups within and outside Ontario.

  18. Enhanced Shewanella biofilm promotes bioelectricity generation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Yu, Yang-Yang; Deng, Xiao-Peng; Ng, Chun Kiat; Cao, Bin; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Rice, Scott A; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Song, Hao

    2015-10-01

    Electroactive biofilms play essential roles in determining the power output of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). To engineer the electroactive biofilm formation of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model exoelectrogen, we herein heterologously overexpressed a c-di-GMP biosynthesis gene ydeH in S. oneidensis MR-1, constructing a mutant strain in which the expression of ydeH is under the control of IPTG-inducible promoter, and a strain in which ydeH is under the control of a constitutive promoter. Such engineered Shewanella strains had significantly enhanced biofilm formation and bioelectricity generation. The MFCs inoculated with these engineered strains accomplished a maximum power density of 167.6 ± 3.6 mW/m(2) , which was ∼ 2.8 times of that achieved by the wild-type MR-1 (61.0 ± 1.9 mW/m(2) ). In addition, the engineered strains in the bioelectrochemical system at poised potential of 0.2 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE) generated a stable current density of 1100 mA/m(2) , ∼ 3.4 times of that by wild-type MR-1 (320 mA/m(2) ). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Psychedelics Promote Structural and Functional Neural Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ly, Calvin; Greb, Alexandra C; Cameron, Lindsay P; Wong, Jonathan M; Barragan, Eden V; Wilson, Paige C; Burbach, Kyle F; Soltanzadeh Zarandi, Sina; Sood, Alexander; Paddy, Michael R; Duim, Whitney C; Dennis, Megan Y; McAllister, A Kimberley; Ori-McKenney, Kassandra M; Gray, John A; Olson, David E

    2018-06-12

    Atrophy of neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of depression and related disorders. The ability to promote both structural and functional plasticity in the PFC has been hypothesized to underlie the fast-acting antidepressant properties of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine. Here, we report that, like ketamine, serotonergic psychedelics are capable of robustly increasing neuritogenesis and/or spinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. These changes in neuronal structure are accompanied by increased synapse number and function, as measured by fluorescence microscopy and electrophysiology. The structural changes induced by psychedelics appear to result from stimulation of the TrkB, mTOR, and 5-HT2A signaling pathways and could possibly explain the clinical effectiveness of these compounds. Our results underscore the therapeutic potential of psychedelics and, importantly, identify several lead scaffolds for medicinal chemistry efforts focused on developing plasticity-promoting compounds as safe, effective, and fast-acting treatments for depression and related disorders. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity–induced plasticity with specific cognitive training–induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330