Science.gov

Sample records for zirc4 ss aisi-348

  1. Relativistic jets in SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margon, B.

    1982-01-01

    A variety of recent optical, radio, and X-ray observations have confirmed the hypothesis that the peculiar star SS 433 is ejecting two narrow, opposed, highly collimated jets of matter at one-quarter the speed of light. This unique behavior is probably driven by mass exchange between a relatively normal star and a compact companion, either a neutron star or a black hole. However, numerous details regarding the energetics, radiation, acceleration, and collimation of the jets remain to be understood. This phenomenon may well be a miniature example of similar collimated ejection of gas by active extragalactic objects such as quasars and radio galaxies.

  2. Experimental measurement of stationary SS 304, SS 316L and 8630 GTA weld pool surface temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, H.G.

    1989-07-01

    The optical spectral radiometric/laser reflectance experimental method, previously developed by the author, was extended to obtain high-resolution surface temperature maps of stationary GTA molten weld pools using thick-plate SS 304, SS316L, and 8630 steel. Increasing the welding current from 50 to 200 A resulted in peak pool surface temperatures from 1050{sup 0} to 2400{sup 0}C for the SS 304. At a constant welding current of 150 A, the SS 304 and various heats of SS 316L and 8630 resulted in peak weld pool temperatures from 2300{sup 0} to 2700{sup 0}C. Temperature contour plots of all the welds made are given.more » Surface temperature maps are classified into types that are believed to be indicative of the convective circulation patterns present in the weld pools.« less

  3. Middle Level SS&C Energy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Linda W.; Aldridge, Bill G.

    The project on Scope Sequence and Coordination of Secondary School Science (SS&C) was initiated by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and recommends that all students study science every year and advocates carefully sequenced, well-coordinated instruction in biology, chemistry, earth/space science, and physics. This document…

  4. An Ss Model with Adverse Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Christopher L.; Leahy, John V.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model of the market for a used durable in which agents face fixed costs of adjustment, the magnitude of which depends on the degree of adverse selection in the secondary market. We find that, unlike typical models, the sS bands in our model contract as the variance of the shock increases. We also analyze a dynamic version of the model…

  5. The Power of SS 433's Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David F.

    1999-01-01

    We observed SS 433 for the third time with RXTE, this time simultaneously with a Nobeyama millimeter band monitoring campaign. These observations extended the RXTE coverage of SS 433's precession phases. and once again monitored the source during a binary eclipse. Our AO-2 campaign of a joint RXTE-VLBA-VLA-MERLIN observation was delayed to little more than a month before the AO-3 observations. We also had an AO-1 observation of SS 433. In each case we observed an eclipse of the compact ob'ect by the companion star, and had contemporaneous optical observations. We are analyzing all three sets of observations together. A publication is in preparation; Its completion will be supported by the remaining AO-2 funds. Here I will summarize the general results and point out the relevant features of the AO-3 observations. The spectrum is detected to approx. 50 keV, which is entirely within the PCA energy band. We find that the HEXTE data do not add significantly to the spectrum, and most of our fits are without HEXTE. We find that the continuum can be fit with a power law with an exponential cutoff; the photon index is usually approx. 1.4. A line at approx. 6.4 keV is definitely required, and the fits improve significant, if we add a second line, also with an energy in the iron K(alpha) complex, and an absorption edge. The edge usually has an energy of approx. 5.8 keV, which does not correspond to any known physical feature. and may be an instrumental artifact. This is under further investigation.

  6. Mechanochemical regulations of RPA's binding to ssDNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin; Le, Shimin; Basu, Anindita; Chazin, Walter J.; Yan, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein that serves to protect ssDNA from degradation and annealing, and as a template for recruitment of many downstream factors in virtually all DNA transactions in cell. During many of these transactions, DNA is tethered and is likely subject to force. Previous studies of RPA's binding behavior on ssDNA were conducted in the absence of force; therefore the RPA-ssDNA conformations regulated by force remain unclear. Here, using a combination of atomic force microscopy imaging and mechanical manipulation of single ssDNA tethers, we show that force mediates a switch of the RPA bound ssDNA from amorphous aggregation to a much more regular extended conformation. Further, we found an interesting non-monotonic dependence of the binding affinity on monovalent salt concentration in the presence of force. In addition, we discovered that zinc in micromolar concentrations drives ssDNA to a unique, highly stiff and more compact state. These results provide new mechanochemical insights into the influences and the mechanisms of action of RPA on large single ssDNA.

  7. SynBioSS-aided design of synthetic biological constructs.

    PubMed

    Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2011-01-01

    We present walkthrough examples of using SynBioSS to design, model, and simulate synthetic gene regulatory networks. SynBioSS stands for Synthetic Biology Software Suite, a platform that is publicly available with Open Licenses at www.synbioss.org. An important aim of computational synthetic biology is the development of a mathematical modeling formalism that is applicable to a wide variety of simple synthetic biological constructs. SynBioSS-based modeling of biomolecular ensembles that interact away from the thermodynamic limit and not necessarily at steady state affords for a theoretical framework that is generally applicable to known synthetic biological systems, such as bistable switches, AND gates, and oscillators. Here, we discuss how SynBioSS creates links between DNA sequences and targeted dynamic phenotypes of these simple systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. SS-mPMG and SS-GA: tools for finding pathways and dynamic simulation of metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Tetsuo; Ono, Naoaki; Yasumoto, Keiichi; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Hirai, Masami Y; Sriyudthsak, Kansuporn; Sawada, Yuji; Yamashita, Yui; Chiba, Yukako; Onouchi, Hitoshi; Fujiwara, Toru; Naito, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Fumihide; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2013-05-01

    Metabolomics analysis tools can provide quantitative information on the concentration of metabolites in an organism. In this paper, we propose the minimum pathway model generator tool for simulating the dynamics of metabolite concentrations (SS-mPMG) and a tool for parameter estimation by genetic algorithm (SS-GA). SS-mPMG can extract a subsystem of the metabolic network from the genome-scale pathway maps to reduce the complexity of the simulation model and automatically construct a dynamic simulator to evaluate the experimentally observed behavior of metabolites. Using this tool, we show that stochastic simulation can reproduce experimentally observed dynamics of amino acid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this simulation, SS-mPMG extracts the metabolic network subsystem from published databases. The parameters needed for the simulation are determined using a genetic algorithm to fit the simulation results to the experimental data. We expect that SS-mPMG and SS-GA will help researchers to create relevant metabolic networks and carry out simulations of metabolic reactions derived from metabolomics data.

  9. Test launch of a Topol/SS-25 missile

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-10

    View of test launch of a Topol/SS-25 missile on Oct. 10, 2013 as seen by the Expedition 37 crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The missile was launched at 17:39 MSK (13:39 UTC) from Kapustin Yar to the Sary Shagan test site in Kazakhstan. Also sent as Twitter message.

  10. The Symbiotic System SS73 17 seen with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Randall K.; Mushotzky, Richard; Kallman, Tim; Tueller, Jack; Mukai, Koji; Markwardt, Craig

    2007-01-01

    We observed with Suzaku the symbiotic star SS73 17, motivated by the discovery by the INTEGRAL satellite and the Swift BAT survey that it emits hard X-rays. Our observations showed a highly-absorbed X-ray spectrum with NH > loz3 emp2, equivalent to Av > 26, although the source has B magnitude 11.3 and is also bright in UV. The source also shows strong, narrow iron lines including fluorescent Fe K as well as Fe xxv and Fe XXVI. The X-ray spectrum can be fit with a thermal model including an absorption component that partially covers the source. Most of the equivalent width of the iron fluorescent line in this model can be explained as a combination of reprocessing in a dense absorber plus reflection off a white dwarf surface, but it is likely that the continuum is partially seen in reflection as well. Unlike other symbiotic systems that show hard X-ray emission (CH Cyg, RT Cru, T CrB, GX1+4), SS73 17 is not known to have shown nova-like optical variability, X-ray flashes, or pulsations, and has always shown faint soft X-ray emission. As a result, although it is likely a white dwarf, the nature of the compact object in SS73 17 is still uncertain. SS73 17 is probably an extreme example of the recently discovered and relatively small class of hard X-ray emitting symbiotic systems.

  11. NARSTO EPA SS NEW YORK AIR CHEM PM MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2018-04-09

    NARSTO EPA SS NEW YORK AIR CHEM PM MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... Nitrogen Oxides Ozone Surface Winds Air Temperature Humidity Solar Irradiance Particulate Matter ... Data Guide Documents:  New York Air Chem Guide CPM Summary Report  (PDF) Nitrate ...

  12. NARSTO EPA SS LOS ANGELES PM25 NITRATE

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2018-04-09

    NARSTO EPA SS LOS ANGELES PM25 NITRATE Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Order:   E arthdata Search Parameters:  Nitrate Particles Order Data:  Earthdata Search:   Order ... Guide Documents:  Los Angeles PM25 Nitrate Guide Los Angeles Project Plan  (PDF) Los ...

  13. A user's guide to the ssWavelets package

    Treesearch

    J.H. ​Gove

    2017-01-01

    ssWavelets is an R package that is meant to be used in conjunction with the sampSurf package (Gove, 2012) to perform wavelet decomposition on the results of a sampling surface simulation. In general, the wavelet filter decomposes the sampSurf simulation results by scale (distance), with each scale corresponding to a different level of the...

  14. RPA homologs and ssDNA processing during meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Jonathan; Abby, Emilie; Livera, Gabriel; Martini, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    Meiotic homologous recombination is a specialized process that involves homologous chromosome pairing and strand exchange to guarantee proper chromosome segregation and genetic diversity. The formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during meiotic recombination differs from those during mitotic recombination in that the homologous chromosome rather than the sister chromatid is the preferred repair template. The processing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) formed on intermediate recombination structures is central to driving the specific outcomes of DSB repair during meiosis. Replication protein A (RPA) is the main ssDNA-binding protein complex involved in DNA metabolism. However, the existence of RPA orthologs in plants and the recent discovery of meiosis specific with OB domains (MEIOB), a widely conserved meiosis-specific RPA1 paralog, strongly suggest that multiple RPA complexes evolved and specialized to subdivide their roles during DNA metabolism. Here we review ssDNA formation and maturation during mitotic and meiotic recombination underlying the meiotic specific features. We describe and discuss the existence and properties of MEIOB and multiple RPA subunits in plants and highlight how they can provide meiosis-specific fates to ssDNA processing during homologous recombination. Understanding the functions of these RPA homologs and how they interact with the canonical RPA subunits is of major interest in the fields of meiosis and DNA repair.

  15. Lactic acid bacteria increase antiallergic effect of Artemisia princeps pampanini SS-1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Shin, Yong-Wook; Bae, Eun-Ah; Lee, Bomi; Min, Sungwon; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Hae-Gon; Kim, Nam-Jae; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2006-09-01

    Artemisia princeps Pampanini, which is called Ssajuarissuk in Korean (SS-1), was fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction-inhibitory activity was investigated. Of these fermented agents, SS-1 extract fermented with Bifidobacterium infantis K-525 (F-SS-1) most effectively inhibited the release of P-hexosamindase from RBL-2H3 cells induced IgE. In IgE-induced RBL-2H3 cells, F-SS-1 inhibited proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA expression. Oral administration of SS-1 and F-SS-1 to mice inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction induced by IgE and scratching behaviors induced by compound 48/80. The inhibitory activity of F-SS-1 against scratching behaviors was more effective than that of SS-1. These findings suggest that the fermentation of SS-1 with LAB can increase its antiallergic activity.

  16. Nuclear processes in the jets of SS 433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The very narrow gamma-ray lines observed at 1.495 and 6.695 MeV from SS 433 which are blueshifted 1.369 and 6.129 emissions from deexcitations of (24)Mg-asterisk and (16)O-asterisk in grains moving with the jets and inelastically excited by interactions with the ambient medium are discussed. Energetic particle interactions in grains produce very narrow gamma ray lines from deexcitation of nuclear levels whose lifetimes are long enough that the excited nuclei stop before deexcitation. The presence of grains in the jets resolves hitherto discussed difficulties of inelastic excitation models for gamma ray production in SS 433, the very narrow widths of the observed lines and the absence of other strong lines, expected from abundant elements. A model is proposed which could be distinguished from a previously proposed fusion model by gamma ray line observations.

  17. Nuclear processes in the jets of SS433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The very narrow gamma-ray lines observed at 1.495 and 6.695 MeV from SS433 which are blueshifted 1.369 and 6.129 emissions from deexcitations of (24)Mg* and (16)O* in grains moving with the jets and inelastically excited by interactions with the ambient medium are discussed. Energetic particle interactions in grains produce very narrow gamma ray lines from deexcitation of nuclear levels whose lifetimes are long enough that the excited nuclei stop before deexcitation. The presence of grains in the jets resolves hitherto discussed difficulties of inelastic excitation models for gamma ray production in SS433, the very narrow widths of the observed lines and the absence of other strong lines, expected from abundant elements. A model is proposed which could be distinguished from a previously proposed fusion model by gamma ray line observations.

  18. Validation of Robotic Surgery Simulator (RoSS).

    PubMed

    Kesavadas, Thenkurussi; Stegemann, Andrew; Sathyaseelan, Gughan; Chowriappa, Ashirwad; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Seixas-Mikelus, Stéfanie; Chandrasekhar, Rameella; Wilding, Gregory; Guru, Khurshid

    2011-01-01

    Recent growth of daVinci Robotic Surgical System as a minimally invasive surgery tool has led to a call for better training of future surgeons. In this paper, a new virtual reality simulator, called RoSS is presented. Initial results from two studies - face and content validity, are very encouraging. 90% of the cohort of expert robotic surgeons felt that the simulator was excellent or somewhat close to the touch and feel of the daVinci console. Content validity of the simulator received 90% approval in some cases. These studies demonstrate that RoSS has the potential of becoming an important training tool for the daVinci surgical robot.

  19. Oxynitrides decorated 316L SS for potential bioimplant application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan Kaliaraj, Gobi; Kumar, N.

    2018-03-01

    Titanium oxynitride (TiON) and zirconium oxynitride (ZrON) were deposited onto 316L stainless steel (316L SS) using reactive magnetron sputtering technique. The monoclinic and cubic phase of TiON and ZrON were obtained by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Nanoindentation and wear test analysis exhibited the better mechanical properties of TiON and ZrON films. Wettability studies showed hydrophilic nature on coated films; whereas bare 316L SS substrate was least hydrophilic. Drastic reduction of bacterial adhesion (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), as well as biofilm formation, was observed in both the films at different time duration. TiON and ZrON films were exhibited excellent hemocompatibility by preventing the platelet activation. Furthermore, the coated films exhibited corrosion protection in presence and absence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in artificial blood plasma (ABP) solution.

  20. Social class and survival on the S.S. Titanic.

    PubMed

    Hall, W

    1986-01-01

    Passengers' chances of surviving the sinking of the S.S. Titanic were related to their sex and their social class: females were more likely to survive than males, and the chances of survival declined with social class as measured by the class in which the passenger travelled. The probable reasons for these differences in rates of survival are discussed as are the reasons accepted by the Mersey Committee of Inquiry into the sinking.

  1. EMPReSS: European mouse phenotyping resource for standardized screens.

    PubMed

    Green, Eain C J; Gkoutos, Georgios V; Lad, Heena V; Blake, Andrew; Weekes, Joseph; Hancock, John M

    2005-06-15

    Standardized phenotyping protocols are essential for the characterization of phenotypes so that results are comparable between different laboratories and phenotypic data can be related to ontological descriptions in an automated manner. We describe a web-based resource for the visualization, searching and downloading of standard operating procedures and other documents, the European Mouse Phenotyping Resource for Standardized Screens-EMPReSS. Direct access: http://www.empress.har.mrc.ac.uk e.green@har.mrc.ac.uk.

  2. LoCuSS: Testing hydrostatic equilibrium in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. P.; Mazzotta, P.; Okabe, N.; Ziparo, F.; Mulroy, S. L.; Babul, A.; Finoguenov, A.; McCarthy, I. G.; Lieu, M.; Bahé, Y. M.; Bourdin, H.; Evrard, A. E.; Futamase, T.; Haines, C. P.; Jauzac, M.; Marrone, D. P.; Martino, R.; May, P. E.; Taylor, J. E.; Umetsu, K.

    2016-02-01

    We test the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium in an X-ray luminosity selected sample of 50 galaxy clusters at 0.15 < z < 0.3 from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey (LoCuSS). Our weak-lensing measurements of M500 control systematic biases to sub-4 per cent, and our hydrostatic measurements of the same achieve excellent agreement between XMM-Newton and Chandra. The mean ratio of X-ray to lensing mass for these 50 clusters is β_X= 0.95± 0.05, and for the 44 clusters also detected by Planck, the mean ratio of Planck mass estimate to LoCuSS lensing mass is β_P= 0.95± 0.04. Based on a careful like-for-like analysis, we find that LoCuSS, the Canadian Cluster Comparison Project, and Weighing the Giants agree on β_P ≃ 0.9-0.95 at 0.15 < z < 0.3. This small level of hydrostatic bias disagrees at ˜5σ with the level required to reconcile Planck cosmology results from the cosmic microwave background and galaxy cluster counts.

  3. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B.; Miranda, L. F.

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are locatedmore » in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10{sup 8-9} cm{sup –3}), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful

  4. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors E... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and Management...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors E... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and Management...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors E... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App. E Appendix E to Part 246—Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors A. Organization and Management...

  7. LOFAR 150-MHz observations of SS 433 and W 50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broderick, J. W.; Fender, R. P.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Trushkin, S. A.; Stewart, A. J.; Anderson, G. E.; Staley, T. D.; Blundell, K. M.; Pietka, M.; Markoff, S.; Rowlinson, A.; Swinbank, J. D.; van der Horst, A. J.; Bell, M. E.; Breton, R. P.; Carbone, D.; Corbel, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Falcke, H.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Law, C. J.; Molenaar, G. J.; Serylak, M.; Stappers, B. W.; van Leeuwen, J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wijnands, R.; Wise, M. W.; Zarka, P.

    2018-04-01

    We present Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) high-band data over the frequency range 115-189 MHz for the X-ray binary SS 433, obtained in an observing campaign from 2013 February to 2014 May. Our results include a deep, wide-field map, allowing a detailed view of the surrounding supernova remnant W 50 at low radio frequencies, as well as a light curve for SS 433 determined from shorter monitoring runs. The complex morphology of W 50 is in excellent agreement with previously published higher frequency maps; we find additional evidence for a spectral turnover in the eastern wing, potentially due to foreground free-free absorption. Furthermore, SS 433 is tentatively variable at 150 MHz, with both a debiased modulation index of 11 per cent and a χ2 probability of a flat light curve of 8.2 × 10-3. By comparing the LOFAR flux densities with contemporaneous observations carried out at 4800 MHz with the RATAN-600 telescope, we suggest that an observed ˜0.5-1 Jy rise in the 150-MHz flux density may correspond to sustained flaring activity over a period of approximately 6 months at 4800 MHz. However, the increase is too large to be explained with a standard synchrotron bubble model. We also detect a wealth of structure along the nearby Galactic plane, including the most complete detection to date of the radio shell of the candidate supernova remnant G 38.7-1.4. This further demonstrates the potential of supernova remnant studies with the current generation of low-frequency radio telescopes.

  8. Osler usque ad mare: the SS William Osler

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, C S; Fransiszyn, M

    1999-01-01

    William Osler's connections with the sea included a strong family history of seafaring, his own transatlantic crossings (of which there were at least 32) and the occasional use of nautical imagery in his inspirational writings. An unusual Oslerian connection with the sea emerged after his death in the form of a World War II Liberty ship. Through the SS William Osler and its sister ships, Osler was symbolically reunited with colleagues associated with the early days of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The William Osler circumnavigated the globe in 1943 without engaging the enemy. She was then converted into an army hospital ship and renamed the USHS Wisteria. PMID:10530306

  9. Molecular determinants of the interactions between proteins and ssDNA.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Garima; Levy, Yaakov

    2015-04-21

    ssDNA binding proteins (SSBs) protect ssDNA from chemical and enzymatic assault that can derail DNA processing machinery. Complexes between SSBs and ssDNA are often highly stable, but predicting their structures is challenging, mostly because of the inherent flexibility of ssDNA and the geometric and energetic complexity of the interfaces that it forms. Here, we report a newly developed coarse-grained model to predict the structure of SSB-ssDNA complexes. The model is successfully applied to predict the binding modes of six SSBs with ssDNA strands of lengths of 6-65 nt. In addition to charge-charge interactions (which are often central to governing protein interactions with nucleic acids by means of electrostatic complementarity), an essential energetic term to predict SSB-ssDNA complexes is the interactions between aromatic residues and DNA bases. For some systems, flexibility is required from not only the ssDNA but also, the SSB to allow it to undergo conformational changes and the penetration of the ssDNA into its binding pocket. The association mechanisms can be quite varied, and in several cases, they involve the ssDNA sliding along the protein surface. The binding mechanism suggests that coarse-grained models are appropriate to study the motion of SSBs along ssDNA, which is expected to be central to the function carried out by the SSBs.

  10. Spectroscopic Observations of the Mass Donor Star in SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillwig, T. C.; Gies, D. R.

    2008-03-01

    The microquasar SS 433 is an interacting massive binary consisting of an evolved mass donor and a compact companion that ejects relativistic jets. The mass donor was previously identified through spectroscopic observations of absorption lines in the blue part of the spectrum that showed Doppler shifts associated with orbital motion and strength variations related to the orbital modulation of the star-to-disk flux ratio and to disk obscuration. However, subsequent observations revealed other absorption features that lacked these properties and that were probably formed in the disk gas outflow. We present follow-up observations of SS 433 at orbital and precession phases identical to those from several previous studies, with the goals of confirming the detection of the mass donor spectrum and providing more reliable masses for the two system components. We show that the absorption features present as well as those previously observed almost certainly belong to the mass donor star, and find revised masses of 12.3 ± 3.3 and 4.3 ± 0.8 M⊙ for the mass donor and compact object, respectively. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (US), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and SECYT (Argentina).

  11. XTE Proposal #20102--"SS 433's High Energy Spectrum"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; Blanco, P.; Rothschild, R.; Kawai, N.; Kotani, T.; Oka, T.; Wagner, R. M.; Hjellming, R.; Rupen, M.; Brinkmann, W.

    1999-01-01

    We observed the jet-producing compact binary system SS 433 with RXTE during three multiwavelength campaigns, the first in conjunction with ASCA observations, the second simultaneous with a VLA-VLBA-MERLIN campaign, and the third associated with a Nobeyama millimeter-band campaign. All these campaigns included optical observations. Occurring at different jet precession and binary phases, the observations also monitored the system during a radio flare. The data provide SS 433's X-ray spectrum over more than an energy decade, and track the spectral variations as the X-ray source was partially eclipsed. The continuum can be modeled as a power law with an exponential cutoff, which can be detected to approximately 50 keV. Strong line emission is evident in the 5-10 keV range which can be modeled as a broad line whose energy is precession independent and a narrow line whose energy does vary with jet precession phase; this line model is clearly an over simplification since the PCA does not have sufficient energy resolution to detect the lines ASCA observed. The eclipses are deeper at high energy and at jet precession phases when the jets are more inclined towards and away from us. A large radio flare occurred between two sets of X-ray monitoring observations; an X-ray observation at the peak of the flare found a softer spectrum with a flux approximately 1/3 that of the quiescent level.

  12. Succession of splicing regulatory elements determines cryptic 5΄ss functionality

    PubMed Central

    Brillen, Anna-Lena; Schöneweis, Katrin; Walotka, Lara; Hartmann, Linda; Müller, Lisa; Ptok, Johannes; Kaisers, Wolfgang; Poschmann, Gereon; Stühler, Kai; Buratti, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A critical step in exon definition is the recognition of a proper splice donor (5΄ss) by the 5’ end of U1 snRNA. In the selection of appropriate 5΄ss, cis-acting splicing regulatory elements (SREs) are indispensable. As a model for 5΄ss recognition, we investigated cryptic 5΄ss selection within the human fibrinogen Bβ-chain gene (FGB) exon 7, where we identified several exonic SREs that simultaneously acted on up- and downstream cryptic 5΄ss. In the FGB exon 7 model system, 5΄ss selection iteratively proceeded along an alternating sequence of U1 snRNA binding sites and interleaved SREs which in principle supported different 3’ exon ends. Like in a relay race, SREs either suppressed a potential 5΄ss and passed the splicing baton on or splicing actually occurred. From RNA-Seq data, we systematically selected 19 genes containing exons with silent U1 snRNA binding sites competing with nearby highly used 5΄ss. Extensive SRE analysis by different algorithms found authentic 5΄ss significantly more supported by SREs than silent U1 snRNA binding sites, indicating that our concept may permit generalization to a model for 5΄ss selection and 3’ exon end definition. PMID:28039323

  13. Clinical characteristics of RA patients with secondary SS and association with joint damage.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lindsay E; Frits, Michelle L; Iannaccone, Christine K; Weinblatt, Michael E; Shadick, Nancy A; Liao, Katherine P

    2015-05-01

    Secondary SS (sSS) is a common extra-articular manifestation of RA. There are conflicting data regarding the association of sSS with worse joint damage. This study aims to characterize sSS patients in an RA cohort and study the association between sSS and joint damage. We conducted a cross-sectional study of RA patients with ≥1 year of follow-up at a large academic centre. Subjects with co-morbid diseases that can also result in sicca symptoms were excluded from the analysis. Subjects were considered to have sSS if they were reported as having sSS by their rheumatologist at recruitment into the cohort and had the diagnosis confirmed by chart review. The primary outcome was Sharp score using bilateral hand radiographs at recruitment. We constructed a linear regression model to determine the association of sSS status and Sharp score adjusted by age, gender, disease duration and ACPA and RF status. We studied 829 RA subjects, mean age 57 years, 83% female, mean RA duration 13 years, 74% seropositive; 85 subjects (10.3%) had sSS. We observed a female predominance (95.3%), longer mean disease duration (16.9 years) and higher frequency of RF or ACPA positive among patients with sSS and RA. Having sSS at baseline was associated with higher Sharp scores (P = 0.03), independent of age, gender, RA disease duration and seropositive disease. In our RA cohort, RA subjects with sSS had worse joint damage, suggesting that sSS is a marker of more aggressive disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Performance Analysis of HF Band FB-MC-SS

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein Moradi; Stephen Andrew Laraway; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    Abstract—In a recent paper [1] the filter bank multicarrier spread spectrum (FB-MC-SS) waveform was proposed for wideband spread spectrum HF communications. A significant benefit of this waveform is robustness against narrow and partial band interference. Simulation results in [1] demonstrated good performance in a wideband HF channel over a wide range of conditions. In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of the bit error probably for this system. Our analysis tailors the results from [2] where BER performance was analyzed for maximum ration combining systems that accounted for correlation between subcarriers and channel estimation error. Equations are give formore » BER that closely match the simulated performance in most situations.« less

  15. Performance analysis of SS7 congestion controls under sustained overload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfield, David R.; Millsteed, Gregory K.; Zukerman, Moshe

    1994-04-01

    Congestion controls are a key factor in achieving the robust performance required of common channel signaling (CCS) networks in the face of partial network failures and extreme traffic loads, especially as networks become large and carry high traffic volume. The CCITT recommendations define a number of types of congestion control, and the parameters of the controls must be well set in order to ensure their efficacy under transient and sustained signalling network overload. The objective of this paper is to present a modeling approach to the determination of the network parameters that govern the performance of the SS7 congestion controls under sustained overload. Results of the investigation by simulation are presented and discussed.

  16. ss Component of the Proton and the Strangeness Magnetic Moment

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, B.S.; Riska, D.O.; Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physical Sciences, POB 64, 00014 University of Helsinki

    2005-08-12

    A complete analysis is given of the implications of the empirical indications for a positive strangeness magnetic moment {mu}{sub s} of the proton on the possible configurations of the uudss component of the proton. A positive value for {mu}{sub s} is obtained in the ss configuration where the uuds subsystem is in an orbitally excited state with [4]{sub FS}[22]{sub F}[22]{sub S} flavor-spin symmetry, which is likely to have the lowest energy. The configurations in which the s is orbitally excited, which include the conventional K{sup +}{lambda}{sup 0} configuration, with the exception of that in which the uuds component has spinmore » 2, yield negative values for {mu}{sub s}. The hidden strangeness analogues of recently proposed quark cluster models for the {theta}{sup +} pentaquark give differing signs for {mu}{sub s}.« less

  17. Controllable g5p-Protein-Directed Aggregation of ssDNA-Gold Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Maye, M; Zhang, Y

    We assembled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) conjugated nanoparticles using the phage M13 gene 5 protein (g5p) as the molecular glue to bind two antiparallel noncomplementary ssDNA strands. The entire process was controlled tightly by the concentration of the g5p protein and the presence of double-stranded DNA. The g5p-ssDNA aggregate was disintegrated by hybridization with complementary ssDNA (C-ssDNA) that triggers the dissociation of the complex. Polyhistidine-tagged g5p was bound to nickel nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni2+-NTA) conjugated nanoparticles and subsequently used to coassemble the ssDNA-conjugated nanoparticles into multiparticle-type aggregates. Our approach offers great promise for designing biologically functional, controllable protein/nanoparticle composites.

  18. Effectiveness of bomber deployed autonomous airborne vehicles in finding rail mobile SS-24s

    SciTech Connect

    Abey, A.E.; Erickson, S.A.; Norquist, P.D.

    1990-08-01

    Computer simulation predictions of the effectiveness of autonomous airborne vehicles in finding rail mobile SS-24s are presented. Effectiveness is discussed for several autonomous airborne vehicle endurances and survivabilities for the search area southwest of Moscow. The effect of where the Soviets place the SS-24s on the rail network was also investigated. The simulation predicts significant variations in the ability of a multi-autonomous airborne vehicle system to find SS-24s with these parameters. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of PEG-P(MAA-SS-VCL) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L. L.; Yang, K.; Mu, R. H.; Zhang, N.; Su, L.

    2016-07-01

    The PEG-P(MAA-SS-VCL) nanoparticles were obtained using disulfide containing dimethacrylate (SS) as cross-linking agent, using polyethylene glycol methyl acrylate (PEGMA), N-Vinyl-ε-caprolactam (VCL), and methacrylic acid (MAA) as monomers via homogeneous polymerization in aqueous. The PEG-P(MAA-SS-VCL) nanoparticles were characterized by FT-IR and TGA. The particle size and morphology variation in different environments were detected by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is the very method that PEG-P(MAA-SS-VCL) nanoparticles can be obtained in this study.

  20. APOBEC3G Interacts with ssDNA by Two Modes: AFM Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlyakhtenko, Luda S.; Dutta, Samrat; Banga, Jaspreet; Li, Ming; Harris, Reuben S.; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.

    2015-10-01

    APOBEC3G (A3G) protein has antiviral activity against HIV and other pathogenic retroviruses. A3G has two domains: a catalytic C-terminal domain (CTD) that deaminates cytidine, and a N-terminal domain (NTD) that binds to ssDNA. Although abundant information exists about the biological activities of A3G protein, the interplay between sequence specific deaminase activity and A3G binding to ssDNA remains controversial. We used the topographic imaging and force spectroscopy modalities of Atomic Force Spectroscopy (AFM) to characterize the interaction of A3G protein with deaminase specific and nonspecific ssDNA substrates. AFM imaging demonstrated that A3G has elevated affinity for deaminase specific ssDNA than for nonspecific ssDNA. AFM force spectroscopy revealed two distinct binding modes by which A3G interacts with ssDNA. One mode requires sequence specificity, as demonstrated by stronger and more stable complexes with deaminase specific ssDNA than with nonspecific ssDNA. Overall these observations enforce prior studies suggesting that both domains of A3G contribute to the sequence specific binding of ssDNA.

  1. APOBEC3G Interacts with ssDNA by Two Modes: AFM Studies.

    PubMed

    Shlyakhtenko, Luda S; Dutta, Samrat; Banga, Jaspreet; Li, Ming; Harris, Reuben S; Lyubchenko, Yuri L

    2015-10-27

    APOBEC3G (A3G) protein has antiviral activity against HIV and other pathogenic retroviruses. A3G has two domains: a catalytic C-terminal domain (CTD) that deaminates cytidine, and a N-terminal domain (NTD) that binds to ssDNA. Although abundant information exists about the biological activities of A3G protein, the interplay between sequence specific deaminase activity and A3G binding to ssDNA remains controversial. We used the topographic imaging and force spectroscopy modalities of Atomic Force Spectroscopy (AFM) to characterize the interaction of A3G protein with deaminase specific and nonspecific ssDNA substrates. AFM imaging demonstrated that A3G has elevated affinity for deaminase specific ssDNA than for nonspecific ssDNA. AFM force spectroscopy revealed two distinct binding modes by which A3G interacts with ssDNA. One mode requires sequence specificity, as demonstrated by stronger and more stable complexes with deaminase specific ssDNA than with nonspecific ssDNA. Overall these observations enforce prior studies suggesting that both domains of A3G contribute to the sequence specific binding of ssDNA.

  2. APOBEC3G Interacts with ssDNA by Two Modes: AFM Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shlyakhtenko, Luda S.; Dutta, Samrat; Banga, Jaspreet; Li, Ming; Harris, Reuben S.; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.

    2015-01-01

    APOBEC3G (A3G) protein has antiviral activity against HIV and other pathogenic retroviruses. A3G has two domains: a catalytic C-terminal domain (CTD) that deaminates cytidine, and a N-terminal domain (NTD) that binds to ssDNA. Although abundant information exists about the biological activities of A3G protein, the interplay between sequence specific deaminase activity and A3G binding to ssDNA remains controversial. We used the topographic imaging and force spectroscopy modalities of Atomic Force Spectroscopy (AFM) to characterize the interaction of A3G protein with deaminase specific and nonspecific ssDNA substrates. AFM imaging demonstrated that A3G has elevated affinity for deaminase specific ssDNA than for nonspecific ssDNA. AFM force spectroscopy revealed two distinct binding modes by which A3G interacts with ssDNA. One mode requires sequence specificity, as demonstrated by stronger and more stable complexes with deaminase specific ssDNA than with nonspecific ssDNA. Overall these observations enforce prior studies suggesting that both domains of A3G contribute to the sequence specific binding of ssDNA. PMID:26503602

  3. Tritium release from SS316 under vacuum condition

    SciTech Connect

    Torikai, Y.; Penzhorn, R.D.

    The plasma facing surface of the ITER vacuum vessel, partly made of low carbon austenitic stainless steel type 316L, will incorporate tritium during machine operation. In this paper the kinetics of tritium release from stainless steel type 316 into vacuum and into a noble gas stream are compared and modelled. Type 316 stainless steel specimens loaded with tritium either by exposure to 1.2 kPa HT at 573 K or submersion into liquid HTO at 298 K showed characteristic thin surface layers trapping tritium in concentrations far higher than those determined in the bulk. The evolution of the tritium depth profilemore » in the bulk during heating under vacuum was non-discernible from that of tritium liberated into a stream of argon. Only the relative amount of the two released tritium-species, i.e. HT or HTO, was different. Temperature-dependent depth profiles could be predicted with a one-dimensional diffusion model. Diffusion coefficients derived from fitting of the tritium release into an evacuated vessel or a stream of argon were found to be (1.4 ± 1.0)*10{sup -7} and (1.3 ± 0.9)*10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/s at 573 and 423 K, respectively. Polished surfaces on type SS316 stainless steel inhibit considerably the thermal release rate of tritium.« less

  4. ASCA observations of SS Cygni during an anomalous outburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nousek, John A.; Baluta, Christopher J.; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Mukai, Koji; Osborne, Julian P.; Ishida, Manabu

    1994-01-01

    SS Cygni was observed by the ASCA satellite on 1993 May 27, the first cataclysmic variable studied by ASCA. The observations were conducted while the system was in an outburst of the 'anomalous' variety. The SIS spectrum cannot be explained by two-temperature Raymond-Smith coronal plasma models as invoked in previous studies with lower spectral resolution. Significantly better agreement is found for models with plasma emission at kT = 0.8, 3.5 keV and thermal bremsstrahlung at kT = 18 keV. The gas imaging spectrometer (GIS) data are consistent with the solid state imaging spectrometer (SIS) data, showing evidence for Fe line emission but showing no evidence of pulsation over times ranging from seconds to minutes. These observations seem at variance with standard theory in two regards: we simultaneously see hard X-rays and optically thin soft X-rays while the system is in outburst, and we see a nonsmooth emission measure distribution. We speculate on possible scenarios which might resolve these differences.

  5. Radio-emitting component kinematics in SS433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirling, A. M.; Jowett, F. H.; Spencer, R. E.; Paragi, Z.; Ogley, R. N.; Cawthorne, T. V.

    2002-12-01

    SS433 is a galactic X-ray binary source, variable across most wavelengths of observation. On arcsecond-scales the radio emission is composed of a bright core and the famous bipolar `corkscrew' radio jets. A series of MERLIN observations at 5 GHz were taken in 1991 December and 1992 January. The emission from the radio jet was categorized by replacing discrete features with Gaussian flux-density profiles. These fitted components were used to derive proper motions, ejection position-angles and ejection dates for evolving features in the jets. The observed component position-angles and ejection dates were compared to those predicted by the kinematic model of epoch 1989. The position-angle of the precession cone was refined to . A discrepancy was discovered in the observed precessional phase which was leading that of the kinematic model by 7-10 d. This observed discrepancy was in agreement with a transient deviation in precessional phase as measured by the redshifts of optical bullets at a similar time. Analysis of the proper motions of all the fitted components leads to a distance measurement of 4.61 +/- 0.35 pc. A pair of symmetrically ejected knots with a velocity much lower than 0.26c were also discovered. Their ejection time overlapped with a period of unusual Doppler shift residuals and fragmentation of optical bullets. These events may represent the first evidence for an interaction between radio components and optical bullets.

  6. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from the American Forces Information Service (AFIS) and one S&S may attend the meetings of the other S... DoD policy, the Unified Commands shall ask the Director of the AFIS for resolution. The S&S commander... Unified Commands shall forward the on-going strategic and corporate plan to the Director of the AFIS for...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... from the American Forces Information Service (AFIS) and one S&S may attend the meetings of the other S... DoD policy, the Unified Commands shall ask the Director of the AFIS for resolution. The S&S commander... Unified Commands shall forward the on-going strategic and corporate plan to the Director of the AFIS for...

  8. Mechanisms for RNA capture by ssDNA viruses: grand theft RNA.

    PubMed

    Stedman, Kenneth

    2013-06-01

    Viruses contain three common types of packaged genomes; double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), RNA (mostly single and occasionally double stranded) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). There are relatively straightforward explanations for the prevalence of viruses with dsDNA and RNA genomes, but the evolutionary basis for the apparent success of ssDNA viruses is less clear. The recent discovery of four ssDNA virus genomes that appear to have been formed by recombination between co-infecting RNA and ssDNA viruses, together with the high mutation rate of ssDNA viruses provide possible explanations. RNA-DNA recombination allows ssDNA viruses to access much broader sequence space than through nucleotide substitution and DNA-DNA recombination alone. Multiple non-exclusive mechanisms, all due to the unique replication of ssDNA viruses, are proposed for this unusual RNA capture. RNA capture provides an explanation for the evolutionary success of the ssDNA viruses and may help elucidate the mystery of integrated RNA viruses in viral and cellular DNA genomes.

  9. French validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS).

    PubMed

    Faye-Dumanget, Christine; Carré, Julie; Le Borgne, Margaux; Boudoukha, Pr Abdel Halim

    2017-12-01

    Several international studies have been conducted on student burnout. To contribute to the clinical examination as well as research on the mental health of students, the MBI-SS (Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey) has been validated and used in different countries but not in French. The aim of this study is to examine the validity of the 3-dimensional model of the French version of the MBI-SS, which is characterized by emotional "Emotional Exhaustion" (EE); "Cynicism" (CY); and low scores in "Academic Efficacy" (AE). A total of 667 university students were questioned to study the 3-dimensional structure of the French translation of the MBI-SS. The results validate the 3-dimensional structure of the MBI-SS and indicate satisfactory psychometric values. It is concluded that the MBI-SS can be used to assess burnout in French students. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. AtlasT4SS: a curated database for type IV secretion systems.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rangel C; del Rosario Quispe Saji, Guadalupe; Costa, Maiana O C; Netto, Diogo S; Lima, Nicholas C B; Klein, Cecília C; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Nicolás, Marisa F

    2012-08-09

    The type IV secretion system (T4SS) can be classified as a large family of macromolecule transporter systems, divided into three recognized sub-families, according to the well-known functions. The major sub-family is the conjugation system, which allows transfer of genetic material, such as a nucleoprotein, via cell contact among bacteria. Also, the conjugation system can transfer genetic material from bacteria to eukaryotic cells; such is the case with the T-DNA transfer of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant cells. The system of effector protein transport constitutes the second sub-family, and the third one corresponds to the DNA uptake/release system. Genome analyses have revealed numerous T4SS in Bacteria and Archaea. The purpose of this work was to organize, classify, and integrate the T4SS data into a single database, called AtlasT4SS - the first public database devoted exclusively to this prokaryotic secretion system. The AtlasT4SS is a manual curated database that describes a large number of proteins related to the type IV secretion system reported so far in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as in Archaea. The database was created using the RDBMS MySQL and the Catalyst Framework based in the Perl programming language and using the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern for Web. The current version holds a comprehensive collection of 1,617 T4SS proteins from 58 Bacteria (49 Gram-negative and 9 Gram-Positive), one Archaea and 11 plasmids. By applying the bi-directional best hit (BBH) relationship in pairwise genome comparison, it was possible to obtain a core set of 134 clusters of orthologous genes encoding T4SS proteins. In our database we present one way of classifying orthologous groups of T4SSs in a hierarchical classification scheme with three levels. The first level comprises four classes that are based on the organization of genetic determinants, shared homologies, and evolutionary relationships: (i) F-T4SS, (ii) P-T4SS, (iii

  11. MUFOLD-SS: New deep inception-inside-inception networks for protein secondary structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chao; Shang, Yi; Xu, Dong

    2018-05-01

    Protein secondary structure prediction can provide important information for protein 3D structure prediction and protein functions. Deep learning offers a new opportunity to significantly improve prediction accuracy. In this article, a new deep neural network architecture, named the Deep inception-inside-inception (Deep3I) network, is proposed for protein secondary structure prediction and implemented as a software tool MUFOLD-SS. The input to MUFOLD-SS is a carefully designed feature matrix corresponding to the primary amino acid sequence of a protein, which consists of a rich set of information derived from individual amino acid, as well as the context of the protein sequence. Specifically, the feature matrix is a composition of physio-chemical properties of amino acids, PSI-BLAST profile, and HHBlits profile. MUFOLD-SS is composed of a sequence of nested inception modules and maps the input matrix to either eight states or three states of secondary structures. The architecture of MUFOLD-SS enables effective processing of local and global interactions between amino acids in making accurate prediction. In extensive experiments on multiple datasets, MUFOLD-SS outperformed the best existing methods and other deep neural networks significantly. MUFold-SS can be downloaded from http://dslsrv8.cs.missouri.edu/~cf797/MUFoldSS/download.html. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Chitin-induced T6SS in Vibrio cholerae is dependent on ChiS activation.

    PubMed

    Chourashi, Rhishita; Das, Suman; Dhar, Debarpan; Okamoto, Keinosuke; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar

    2018-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae regularly colonizes the chitinous exoskeleton of crustacean shells in the aquatic region. The type 6 secretion system (T6SS) in V. cholerae is an interbacterial killing device. This system is thought to provide a competitive advantage to V. cholerae in a polymicrobial community of the aquatic region under nutrient-poor conditions. V. cholerae chitin sensing is known to be initiated by the activation of a two-component sensor histidine kinase ChiS in the presence of GlcNAc2 (N,N'-diacetylchitobiose) residues generated by the action of chitinases on chitin. It is known that T6SS in V. cholerae is generally induced by chitin. However, the effect of ChiS activation on T6SS is unknown. Here, we found that ChiS inactivation resulted in impaired bacterial killing and reduced expression of T6SS genes. Active ChiS positively affected T6SS-mediated natural transformation in V. cholerae. ChiS depletion or inactivation also resulted in reduced colonization on insoluble chitin surfaces. Therefore, we have shown that V. cholerae colonization on chitinous surfaces activates ChiS, which promotes T6SS-dependent bacterial killing and horizontal gene transfer. We also highlight the importance of chitinases in T6SS upregulation.

  13. A novel protein elicitor (SsCut) from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum induces multiple defense responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huajian; Wu, Qun; Cao, Shun; Zhao, Tongyao; Chen, Ling; Zhuang, Peitong; Zhou, Xiuhong; Gao, Zhimou

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we report the cloning of the SsCut gene encoding cutinase from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We isolated a 609-bp cDNA encoding a polypeptide of 202 amino acids with a molecular weight of 20.4 kDa. Heterologous expression of SsCut in Escherichia coli (His-SsCut) caused the formation of lesions in tobacco that closely resembled hypersensitive response lesions. Mutational analysis identified the C-terminal-half peptide and the same amino acids indispensable for both enzyme and elicitor activity. His-SsCut was caused cell death in Arabidopsis, soybean (Glycine max), oilseed rape (Brassica napus), rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), indicating that both dicot and monocot species are responsive to the elicitor. Furthermore, the elicitation of tobacco was effective in the induction of the activities of hydrogen peroxide, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxides, and polyphenol oxidase. His-SsCut-treated plants exhibited enhanced resistance as indicated by a significant reduction in the number and size of S. sclerotiorum, Phytophthora sojae, and P. nicotianae lesions on leaves relative to controls. Real-time PCR results indicated that the expression of defense-related genes and genes involved in signal transduction were induced by His-SsCut. Our results demonstrate that SsCut is an elicitor that triggers defense responses in plants and will help to clarify its relationship to downstream signaling pathways that induce defense responses.

  14. Karl Blumenreuter (1881-1969): Himmler's chief pharmacist and medical supply quartermaster of the SS.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Gross, D; Westemeier, J

    2018-04-02

    The present article elucidates the role and function of SS Gruppenführer Karl Blumenreuter (1881-1969), the leading pharmacist of the SS. The aim is to clarify how he participated in the crimes of the Nazi Party and especially the SS during the "Third Reich" and the extent to which he was brought to justice after 1945. Central elements of the study are based on researched archival primary sources. The latter were compared with each other and supplemented with the currently available secondary literature on the subject. It can be established that Blumenreuter was a zealous National Socialist with marked career ambitions who advanced within the SS to the rank of SS Gruppenführer and Lieutenant General of the Waffen SS (Generalleutnant der Waffen SS). He supplied pre-measured phenol ampoules for the murder of prisoners in the concentration camps. Blumenreuter furthermore organised equipment and material supplies for various experiments on humans. After 1945 he succeeded in playing down his participation in the crimes in the time of National Socialism. Blumenreuter died in 1969 without having being brought to justice by the judiciary and without having reflected self-critically on his role in the "Third Reich".

  15. Construction, characterization and evaluation of the protective efficacy of the Streptococcus suis double mutant strain ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC as a live vaccine candidate in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jin; You, Wujin; Wang, Bin; Hu, Xueying; Tan, Chen; Liu, Jinlin; Chen, Huanchun; Bei, Weicheng

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) causes sepsis and meningitis in piglets and humans, and results in one of the most serious bacterial diseases affecting the production of commercial pigs around the world. Due to the failure of the current inactivated vaccine to protect against the disease, development of a new attenuated live vaccine against S. suis 2 by deleting essential virulence factors is urgently needed. We have previously reported the construction and characterization of an SsPep single gene deletion mutant strain ΔSsPep based on S. suis 2. Our previous results have shown that SsPep plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of S. suis 2. In this study, a precisely defined double-deletion mutant ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC of S. suis 2 without antibiotic-resistance markers was constructed based on ΔSsPep, and the levels of virulence of the wild-type (WT) and ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC were compared in a mouse experimental infection model. We demonstrated that the double mutant ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC was less virulent than the WT, and could induce a noticeable antibody response. Analysis of IgG subclasses (IgG1 and IgG2a) indicated that both Th1 and Th2 responses were induced by ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC, although the IgG2a (Th1) response predominated over the IgG1 (Th2) response. Moreover, ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC could confer 90% protective efficacy against challenge with a lethal dose of fully virulent S. suis 2. Taken together, these data demonstrate that ΔSsPep/ΔSsPspC can be used as an effective live vaccine and provide a novel strategy against infection of S. suis 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. ssDNA damage dependence from singlet oxygen concentration at photodynamic interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, V. V.; Kaydanov, N. E.; Emelyanov, A. K.; Bogdanov, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Single stranded DNA damage at photodynamic treatment with Radachlorin photosensitizer was investigated. Chemical trap method was used to evaluate generation of singlet oxygen in water solution. Interaction of singlet oxygen with ssDNA resulted into decrease of the replication activity of ssDNA. DNA stopped replicating during PCR at irradiation doses greater than 15 J/cm2 and concentration of photosensitizer [PS] = 3.8 μM. The dependence of replication activity of ssDNA on generated singlet oxygen concentration was identified.

  17. The SS x-ray unit as an instrument for "total registration" and "race selection".

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Mathias; Winzen, Tina; Gross, Dominik

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this article is to show that, after the onset of World War II at the latest, the central task of the x-ray unit of the Nazi-SS (Schutzstaffel) led by Prof. Hans Holfelder was by no means the early diagnosis of tuberculosis. Its primary purpose, rather, was to serve the various "racial" and inhuman aims of the SS itself. Main historical sources and information about the SS x-ray unit are surveyed and analyzed. Clearly, the significance of the x-ray storm unit was increasingly subordinated to the necessities of the war until its original objectives disappeared from focus completely. The main purpose of operation of the x-ray storm unit thus by no means lay in the early detection of tuberculosis and did not therefore serve tuberculosis control. The actual objective lay, rather, in the implementation of SS aims in terms of Volk politics, genetics, and "racial hygiene".

  18. Damage Analysis of Tensile Deformation of Co-rolled SMATed 304SS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.; Leung, A. Y. T.; Chen, A.; Ruan, H.; Lu, J.

    2010-05-01

    One of recent experimental progresses in strengthening and toughening metals simultaneously is to adopt techniques of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) and warm co-rolling to 304 stainless steel (SS). To capture deformation behavior and associated damage initiation/evolution process in the co-rolled SMATed 304SS, cohesive finite element method (CFEM) is employed in this paper and simulation results are in agreement with experimental results. Both strengthening effect due to high yield stress of the nanograin layer and toughening effect due to non-localized damage in the nanograin layer are captured. Effect of energy release rate of nanograin layer on failure strain of layered co-rolled SMATed 304SS is investigated. It is found that the more brittle the nanograin layer is, the more potential necking sites in the nanograin layer are, and the more ductile the layered co-rolled SMATed 304SS is.

  19. Characterization of 316L(N)-IG SS joint produced by hot isostatic pressing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, J.; Miwa, Y.; Tsukada, T.; Kikuchi, M.; Kita, S.; Nemoto, Y.; Tsuji, H.; Jitsukawa, S.

    2002-12-01

    Type 316L(N) stainless steel of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor grade (316L(N)-IG SS) is being considered for the first wall/blanket module. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technique is expected for the fabrication of the module. To evaluate the integrity and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of HIPed 316L(N)-IG SS, tensile tests in vacuum and slow strain rate tests in high temperature water were performed. Specimen with the HIPed joint had similar tensile properties to specimens of 316L(N)-IG SS, and did not show susceptibility to SCC in oxygenated water at 423 K. Thermally sensitized specimen was low susceptible to SCC even in the creviced condition. It is concluded that the tensile properties of HIPed SS are as high as those of the base alloy and the HIP process caused no deleterious effects.

  20. Space Segment (SS) and the Navigation User Segment (US) Interface Control Document (ICD)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1993-10-10

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) defines the requirements related to the interface between the Space Segment (SS) of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Navigation Users Segment of the GPS. 2880k, 154p.

  1. Strong circumstantial proofs about the intermediate polar nature of the cataclysmic variable SS Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannelli, Franco; Sabau-Graziati, Lola

    This paper is the updated version of that published in the proceedings of the Integral/Bart Workshop 2011 (Giovannelli & Sabau-Graziati, 2012a). SS Cyg is a cataclysmic variable usually classified as dwarf nova, a subclass of the non-magnetic cataclysmic variables. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate -- on the basis of the many arguments and circumstantial proofs derived from the numerous multifrequency data obtained from the SS Cyg binary system -- that such classification is wrong and that the intermediate polar nature of SS Cyg is the most probable. We derive the magnetic field intensity at the surface of the white dwarf in SS Cyg as B ≃ 1.6 ± 0.7 MG. This value is in complete agreement with the evaluation made by Fabbiano et al. (1981) (B< 1.9 MG) using simultaneous X-ray, UV, and optical data.

  2. Integrated Composite Stiffener Structure (ICoSS) Concept for Planetary Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris

    2016-01-01

    Results from the design, manufacturing, and testing of a lightweight Integrated Composite Stiffened Structure (ICoSS) concept, intended for multi-mission planetary entry vehicles are presented. Tests from both component and full-scale tests for a typical Earth Entry Vehicle forward shell manufactured using the ICoSS concept are presented and advantages of the concept for the particular application of passive Earth Entry Vehicles over other structural concepts are discussed.

  3. Novel Immunocytokine IL12-SS1 (Fv) Inhibits Mesothelioma Tumor Growth in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heungnam; Gao, Wei; Ho, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Mesothelin is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein that is highly expressed on the cell surface of malignant mesothelioma. Monoclonal antibodies against mesothelin are being evaluated for the treatment of mesothelioma. Immunocytokines represent a novel class of armed antibodies. To provide an alternative approach to current mesothelin-targeted antibody therapies, we have developed a novel immunocytokine based on interleukin-12 (IL12) and the SS1 Fv specific for mesothelin. IL12 possesses potent anti-tumor activity in a wide variety of solid tumors. The newly-developed recombinant immunocytokine, IL12-SS1 (Fv), was produced in insect cells using a baculovirus-insect cell expression system. The SS1 single-chain Fv was fused to the C terminus of the p35 subunit of IL12 through a short linker (GSADGG). The single-chain IL12-SS1 (Fv) immunocytokine bound native mesothelin proteins on malignant mesothelioma (NCI-H226) and ovarian (OVCAR-3) cells as well as recombinant mesothelin on A431/H9 cells. The immunocytokine retained sufficient bioactivity of IL12 and significantly inhibited human malignant mesothelioma (NCI-H226) grown in the peritoneal cavity of nude mice and showed comparable anti-tumor activity to that of the SS1P immunotoxin. IL12-SS1 (Fv) is the first reported immunocytokine to mesothelin-positive tumors and may be an attractive addition to mesothelin-targeted cancer therapies. PMID:24260587

  4. Supramolecular order following binding of the dichroic birefringent sulfonic dye Ponceau SS to collagen fibers.

    PubMed

    Vidal, B C; Mello, M L S

    2005-06-15

    The optical anisotropies (linear dichroism or LD and birefringence) of crystalline aggregates of the sulfonic azo-dye Ponceau SS and of dye complexed with chicken tendon collagen fibers were investigated in order to assess their polarizing properties and similarity to liquid crystals. In some experiments, the staining was preceded by treatment with picric acid. Crystalline fibrous aggregates of the dye had a negative LD, and their electronic transitions were oriented perpendicular to the filamentary structures. The binding of Ponceau SS molecules to the collagen fibers altered the LD signal, with variations in the fiber orientation affecting the resulting dichroic ratios. The long axis of the rod-like dye molecule was assumed to be bound in register, parallel to the collagen fiber. Picric acid did not affect the oriented binding of the azo dye to collagen fibers. There were differences in the optical anisotropy of Ponceau SS-stained tendons from 21-day-old and 41-day-old chickens, indicating that Ponceau SS was able to distinguish between different ordered states of macromolecular aggregation in chicken tendon collagen fibers. In the presence of dichroic rod-like azo-dye molecules such as Ponceau SS, collagen also formed structures with a much higher degree of orientation. The presence of LD in the Ponceau SS-collagen complex even in unpolarized light indicated that this complex can act as a polarizer. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Network Management and FDIR for SpaceWire Networks (N-MaSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montano, Giuseppe; Jameux, David; Cook, Barry; Peel, Rodger; McCormick, Ecaterina; Walker, Paul; Kollias, Vangelis; Pogkas, Nikos

    2014-08-01

    The SpaceWire network management layer, which manages network topology and routing, is not yet standardised. This paper presents the European Space Agency (ESA) N-MaSS study, which focuses on implementation and standardisation of Fault Detection, Isolation and Recovery (FDIR) functions within the SpaceWire network management layer. N-MaSS provides an autonomous FDIR solution. It is defined at the SpaceWire network layer in order to achieve efficient re-use for heterogeneous missions, allowing for the incorporation of legacy equipment. The N-MaSS FDIR functions identify SpaceWire link and node failures and provide recovery using redundant nodes.This paper provides an overview of the overall N- MaSS study. In particular, the following topics are discussed: (a) how user requirements have been captured from the industry, SpaceWire Working Group and ESA; (b) how the N-MaSS architecture was organically shaped on the basis of the requirements captured; (c) how the N-MaSS concept is currently being implemented in a demonstrator and verified.

  6. Promotion of plant growth by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 via novel volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Dutta, Swarnalee; Ann, Mina; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Park, Kyungseok

    2015-05-29

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play key roles in modulating plant growth and induced systemic resistance (ISR) to pathogens. Despite their significance, the physiological functions of the specific VOCs produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 (Pf.SS101) have not been precisely elucidated. The effects of Pf.SS101 and its VOCs on augmentation of plant growth promotion were investigated in vitro and in planta. A significant growth promotion was observed in plants exposed Pf.SS101 under both conditions, suggesting that its VOCs play a key role in promoting plant growth. Solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and a gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) system were used to characterize the VOCs emitted by Pf.SS101 and 11 different compounds were detected in samples inoculated this bacterium, including 13-Tetradecadien-1-ol, 2-butanone and 2-Methyl-n-1-tridecene. Application of these compounds resulted in enhanced plant growth. This study suggests that Pf.SS101 promotes the growth of plants via the release of VOCs including 13-Tetradecadien-1-ol, 2-butanone and 2-Methyl-n-1-tridecene, thus increasing understanding of the role of VOCs in plant-bacterial inter-communication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. VMD-SS: A graphical user interface plug-in to calculate the protein secondary structure in VMD program.

    PubMed

    Yahyavi, Masoumeh; Falsafi-Zadeh, Sajad; Karimi, Zahra; Kalatarian, Giti; Galehdari, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The investigation on the types of secondary structure (SS) of a protein is important. The evolution of secondary structures during molecular dynamics simulations is a useful parameter to analyze protein structures. Therefore, it is of interest to describe VMD-SS (a software program) for the identification of secondary structure elements and its trajectories during simulation for known structures available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The program helps to calculate (1) percentage SS, (2) SS occurrence in each residue, (3) percentage SS during simulation, and (4) percentage residues in all SS types during simulation. The VMD-SS plug-in was designed using TCL script and stride to calculate secondary structure features. The database is available for free at http://science.scu.ac.ir/HomePage.aspx?TabID=13755.

  8. Kidney Disease among Patients with Sickle Cell Disease, Hemoglobin SS and SC

    PubMed Central

    Drawz, Paul; Ayyappan, Sabarish; Nouraie, Mehdi; Saraf, Santosh; Gordeuk, Victor; Hostetter, Thomas; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited anemia that afflicts millions worldwide. Kidney disease is a major contributor to its morbidity and mortality. We examined contemporary and historical SCD populations to understand how renal disease behaved in hemoglobin SS (HbSS) compared with HbSC. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Kidney function was examined in the multicentered Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension and Sickle Cell Disease with Sildenafil Therapy (Walk-PHaSST) Trial (HbSS=463; HbSC=127; years 2007–2009) and historical comparator populations from the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease (CSSCD; HbSS=708) and the Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea in Sickle Cell Disease (MSH; HbSS=299). Results In adults with SCD, eGFR was lower among older individuals: −1.78 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year of age (95% confidence interval [95% CI], −2.06 to −1.50; Walk-PHaSST Trial), −1.75 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year of age (95% CI, −2.05 to −1.44; MSH), and −1.69 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year of age (95% CI, −2.00 to −1.38; CSSCD) in HbSS compared with −1.09 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year of age (95% CI, −1.39 to −0.75) in HbSC (Walk-PHaSST Trial). Macroalbuminuria was seen in 20% of participants with SCD (HbSS or HbSC; P=0.45; Walk-PHaSST Trial), but microalbuminuria was more prevalent in HbSS (44% versus 23% in HbSC; P<0.002). In the Walk-PHaSST Trial, albuminuria was associated with hemolysis (higher lactate dehydrogenase, P<0.001; higher absolute reticulocyte count, P<0.02; and lower Hb, P=0.07) and elevated systolic BP (P<0.001) in HbSS. One half of all participants with HbSS (20 of 39) versus one fifth without (41 of 228) elevated tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (≥3 m/s; adverse prognostic indicator in SCD) had macroalbuminuria (P<0.001). In the CSSCD, overt proteinuria, detected (less sensitively) by urine dipstick, associated with higher 3-year mortality (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.07 to 5.77). Serum

  9. KiSS-1 and reproduction: focus on its role in the metabolic regulation of fertility.

    PubMed

    Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Unraveling of the master role of kisspeptins, the products of the KiSS-1 gene, and their receptor, GPR54, in the control of reproduction has been a major breakthrough in contemporary neuroendocrinology. Indeed, since the disclosure of their reproductive dimension in late 2003, an ever-growing number of genetic, molecular, physiologic and pharmacological studies have defined the crucial role of KiSS-1 neurons as central processors for the dynamic regulation of the gonadotropic axis and its full activation at puberty. Yet, the potential role of the hypothalamic KiSS-1 system as an intermediary factor for the well-known interplay between energy status and reproduction initially received little attention. Recent data, however, strongly suggest a prominent role of KiSS-1 in the metabolic control of fertility, as expression of KiSS-1 gene at the hypothalamus is down-regulated in conditions of negative energy balance and kisspeptin administration is capable of overcoming the hypogonadotropic state observed in undernutrition and disturbed metabolic conditions. Leptin, the adipocyte hormone signaling the size of body energy stores, is likely to play a pivotal role in the metabolic control of the KiSS-1 system, since kisspeptin neurons express leptin receptors and leptin is able to normalize defective KiSS-1 gene expression in models of impaired gonadotropin secretion linked to hypoleptinemia, such as the ob/ob mouse and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. In sum, these data provide strong evidence for a central role of kisspeptins and GPR54 as molecular conduits for the metabolic regulation of reproductive function - a phenomenon with potential physiopathologic and therapeutic implications.

  10. Toxicity of Neurons Treated with Herbicides and Neuroprotection by Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SS31

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Tejaswini P.; Manczak, Maria; Calkins, Marcus J.; Mao, Peizhong; Reddy, Arubala P.; Shirendeb, Ulziibat; Park, Byung; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the neurotoxicity of two commonly used herbicides: picloram and triclopyr and the neuroprotective effects of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, SS31. Using mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells and primary neurons from C57BL/6 mice, we investigated the toxicity of these herbicides, and protective effects of SS1 peptide against picloram and triclopyr toxicity. We measured total RNA content, cell viability and mRNA expression of peroxiredoxins, neuroprotective genes, mitochondrial-encoded electron transport chain (ETC) genes in N2a cells treated with herbicides and SS31. Using primary neurons from C57BL/6 mice, neuronal survival was studied in neurons treated with herbicides, in neurons pretreated with SS31 plus treated with herbicides, neurons treated with SS31 alone, and untreated neurons. Significantly decreased total RNA content, and cell viability in N2a cells treated with picloram and triclopyr were found compared to untreated N2a cells. Decreased mRNA expression of neuroprotective genes, and ETC genes in cells treated with herbicides was found compared to untreated cells. Decreased mRNA expression of peroxiredoxins 1–6 in N2a cells treated with picloram was found, suggesting that picloram affects the antioxidant enzymes in N2a cells. Immunofluorescence analysis of primary neurons revealed that decreased neuronal branching and degenerating neurons in neurons treated with picloram and triclopyr. However, neurons pretreated with SS31 prevented degenerative process caused by herbicides. Based on these results, we propose that herbicides—picloram and triclopyr appear to damage neurons, and the SS31 peptide appears to protect neurons from herbicide toxicity. PMID:21318024

  11. An improved DNA force field for ssDNA interactions with gold nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xiankai; Huai, Ping; Fan, Chunhai

    The widespread applications of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have spurred an increasing interest in the interactions between ssDNA and AuNPs. Despite extensive studies using the most sophisticated experimental techniques, the detailed molecular mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can thus be used to supplement experiments by providing complementary information about ssDNA-AuNP interactions. However, up to now, all modern force fields for DNA were developed based on the properties of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules, which have hydrophilic outer backbones “protecting” hydrophobic inner nucleobases from water. Without the double-helix structure of dsDNA and thusmore » the “protection” by the outer backbone, the nucleobases of ssDNA are directly exposed to solvent, and their behavior in water is very different from that of dsDNA, especially at the interface with nanoparticles. In this work, we have improved the force field of ssDNA for use with nanoparticles, such as AuNPs, based on recent experimental results and quantum mechanics calculations. With the new improved force field, we demonstrated that a poly(A) sequence adsorbed on a AuNP surface is much more stable than a poly(T) sequence, which is consistent with recent experimental observations. On the contrary, the current standard force fields, including AMBER03, CHARMM27, and OPLSAA, all gave erroneous results as compared to experiments. The current improved force field is expected to have wide applications in the study of ssDNA with nanomaterials including AuNPs, which might help promote the development of ssDNA-based biosensors and other bionano-devices.« less

  12. An improved DNA force field for ssDNA interactions with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiankai; Gao, Jun; Huynh, Tien; Huai, Ping; Fan, Chunhai; Zhou, Ruhong; Song, Bo

    2014-06-01

    The widespread applications of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have spurred an increasing interest in the interactions between ssDNA and AuNPs. Despite extensive studies using the most sophisticated experimental techniques, the detailed molecular mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can thus be used to supplement experiments by providing complementary information about ssDNA-AuNP interactions. However, up to now, all modern force fields for DNA were developed based on the properties of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules, which have hydrophilic outer backbones "protecting" hydrophobic inner nucleobases from water. Without the double-helix structure of dsDNA and thus the "protection" by the outer backbone, the nucleobases of ssDNA are directly exposed to solvent, and their behavior in water is very different from that of dsDNA, especially at the interface with nanoparticles. In this work, we have improved the force field of ssDNA for use with nanoparticles, such as AuNPs, based on recent experimental results and quantum mechanics calculations. With the new improved force field, we demonstrated that a poly(A) sequence adsorbed on a AuNP surface is much more stable than a poly(T) sequence, which is consistent with recent experimental observations. On the contrary, the current standard force fields, including AMBER03, CHARMM27, and OPLSAA, all gave erroneous results as compared to experiments. The current improved force field is expected to have wide applications in the study of ssDNA with nanomaterials including AuNPs, which might help promote the development of ssDNA-based biosensors and other bionano-devices.

  13. An improved DNA force field for ssDNA interactions with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiankai; Gao, Jun; Huynh, Tien; Huai, Ping; Fan, Chunhai; Zhou, Ruhong; Song, Bo

    2014-06-21

    The widespread applications of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have spurred an increasing interest in the interactions between ssDNA and AuNPs. Despite extensive studies using the most sophisticated experimental techniques, the detailed molecular mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can thus be used to supplement experiments by providing complementary information about ssDNA-AuNP interactions. However, up to now, all modern force fields for DNA were developed based on the properties of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules, which have hydrophilic outer backbones "protecting" hydrophobic inner nucleobases from water. Without the double-helix structure of dsDNA and thus the "protection" by the outer backbone, the nucleobases of ssDNA are directly exposed to solvent, and their behavior in water is very different from that of dsDNA, especially at the interface with nanoparticles. In this work, we have improved the force field of ssDNA for use with nanoparticles, such as AuNPs, based on recent experimental results and quantum mechanics calculations. With the new improved force field, we demonstrated that a poly(A) sequence adsorbed on a AuNP surface is much more stable than a poly(T) sequence, which is consistent with recent experimental observations. On the contrary, the current standard force fields, including AMBER03, CHARMM27, and OPLSAA, all gave erroneous results as compared to experiments. The current improved force field is expected to have wide applications in the study of ssDNA with nanomaterials including AuNPs, which might help promote the development of ssDNA-based biosensors and other bionano-devices.

  14. [Study and development of a new automatic suction system (SS) of intratracheal sputum in order to improve QOL of many patients with tracheostomy mechanical ventilation (TMV) and their family members by this new autonomic SS].

    PubMed

    Hokezu, Youichi; Yamamoto, Makoto; Tokunaga, Syuichi; Niikura, Makoto; Nagamatsu, Keiji; Kira, Jun-ichi; Fukunaga, Toshihide; Shima, Kouji; Kikuchi, Seiji; Kimura, Itaru; Kondo, Kiyohiko; Mori, Teruhiko; Goto, Katumasa; Takigami, Shigeru; Shioya, Keiichi; Uehara, Minako

    2009-11-01

    In Japan, many patients equipped with TMV are under medical treatment at home after 1990. These patients can't put out sputa in trachea, so that these patient's family members must suck these patient's intratracheal sputa all days. Mr Yamamoto and Mr Tokunaga, main researchers of this study, began the study on the automatic SS of itratracheal sputa from 1999. In first stage, They developed the intermittent SS in detaining the suction tube within tracheal cannula, monitering the intratracheal pressure, but this system takes the ventilation away from the patient. Hypoventilation caused by this SS may cause the serious accident in patient. Therefore, we remodel the SS from intermittent SS to rollerpomp-type SS continuing to suck the itratracheal sputa with low volume from 2004, and thereafter we made up the SS of piston pomp type-SS finally at 2007. We developed the tracheal cannula with double suction holes of inner and lower hole in the lower part of its cannula together with the suction machine. We think that the practical use of this automatic SS will bring these patients with TMV and their family members great benefits. We desire that the practical use of this SS will be realized as soon as possible.

  15. Excessive Counterion Condensation on Immobilized ssDNA in Solutions of High Ionic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Rant, Ulrich; Arinaga, Kenji; Fujiwara, Tsuyoshi; Fujita, Shozo; Tornow, Marc; Yokoyama, Naoki; Abstreiter, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    We present experiments on the bias-induced release of immobilized, single-stranded (ss) 24-mer oligonucleotides from Au-surfaces into electrolyte solutions of varying ionic strength. Desorption is evidenced by fluorescence measurements of dye-labeled ssDNA. Electrostatic interactions between adsorbed ssDNA and the Au-surface are investigated with respect to 1), a variation of the bias potential applied to the Au-electrode; and 2), the screening effect of the electrolyte solution. For the latter, the concentration of monovalent salt in solution is varied from 3 to 1600 mM. We find that the strength of electric interaction is predominantly determined by the effective charge of the ssDNA itself and that the release of DNA mainly occurs before the electrochemical double layer has been established at the electrolyte/Au interface. In agreement with Manning's condensation theory, the measured desorption efficiency (ηrel) stays constant over a wide range of salt concentrations; however, as the Debye length is reduced below a value comparable to the axial charge spacing of the DNA, ηrel decreases substantially. We assign this effect to excessive counterion condensation on the DNA in solutions of high ionic strength. In addition, the relative translational diffusion coefficient of ssDNA in solution is evaluated for different salt concentrations. PMID:14645075

  16. Excessive counterion condensation on immobilized ssDNA in solutions of high ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Rant, Ulrich; Arinaga, Kenji; Fujiwara, Tsuyoshi; Fujita, Shozo; Tornow, Marc; Yokoyama, Naoki; Abstreiter, Gerhard

    2003-12-01

    We present experiments on the bias-induced release of immobilized, single-stranded (ss) 24-mer oligonucleotides from Au-surfaces into electrolyte solutions of varying ionic strength. Desorption is evidenced by fluorescence measurements of dye-labeled ssDNA. Electrostatic interactions between adsorbed ssDNA and the Au-surface are investigated with respect to 1), a variation of the bias potential applied to the Au-electrode; and 2), the screening effect of the electrolyte solution. For the latter, the concentration of monovalent salt in solution is varied from 3 to 1600 mM. We find that the strength of electric interaction is predominantly determined by the effective charge of the ssDNA itself and that the release of DNA mainly occurs before the electrochemical double layer has been established at the electrolyte/Au interface. In agreement with Manning's condensation theory, the measured desorption efficiency (etarel) stays constant over a wide range of salt concentrations; however, as the Debye length is reduced below a value comparable to the axial charge spacing of the DNA, etarel decreases substantially. We assign this effect to excessive counterion condensation on the DNA in solutions of high ionic strength. In addition, the relative translational diffusion coefficient of ssDNA in solution is evaluated for different salt concentrations.

  17. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A.nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Laser Melted 304L SS Weldment in Nitric Acid Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Girija; Kishor, P. S. V. R. A.; Dasgupta, Arup; Upadhyay, B. N.; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2017-02-01

    The manuscript presents the effect of laser surface melting on the corrosion property of 304L SS weldment in nitric acid medium. 304L SS weldment was prepared by gas tungsten arc welding process and subsequently laser surface melted using Nd:YAG laser. The microstructure and corrosion resistance of laser surface melted 304L SS weldment was evaluated and compared with that of 304L SS as-weldment and 304L SS base. Microstructural evaluation was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopes attached with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Corrosion investigations were carried out in 4 and 8 M nitric acid by potentiodynamic polarization technique. From the results, it was found that laser surface melting of the weldment led to chemical and microstructural homogeneities, accompanied by a substantial decrease in delta ferrite content, that enhanced the corrosion resistance of the weldment in 4 and 8 M nitric acid. However, the enhancement in the corrosion resistance was not substantial. The presence of small amount of delta ferrite (2-4 wt.%) in the laser surface melted specimens was found to be detrimental in nitric acid. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies were carried out to investigate the composition of the passive film.

  19. Structure/property (constitutive and dynamic strength/damage) characterization of additively manufactured 316L SS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, G. T., III; Livescu, V.; Rigg, P. A.; Trujillo, C. P.; Cady, C. M.; Chen, S. R.; Carpenter, J. S.; Lienert, T. J.; Fensin, S.

    2015-09-01

    For additive manufacturing (AM), the certification and qualification paradigm needs to evolve as there exists no "ASTM-type" additive manufacturing certified process or AM-material produced specifications. Accordingly, utilization of AM materials to meet engineering applications requires quantification of the constitutive properties of these evolving materials in comparison to conventionally-manufactured metals and alloys. Cylinders of 316L SS were produced using a LENS MR-7 laser additive manufacturing system from Optomec (Albuquerque, NM) equipped with a 1kW Yb-fiber laser. The microstructure of the AM-316L SS is detailed in both the as-built condition and following heat-treatments designed to obtain full recrystallization. The constitutive behavior as a function of strain rate and temperature is presented and compared to that of nominal annealed wrought 316L SS plate. The dynamic damage evolution and failure response of all three materials was probed using flyer-plate impact driven spallation experiments at a peak stress of 4.5 GPa to examine incipient spallation response. The spall strength of AM-produced 316L SS was found to be very similar for the peak shock stress studied to that of annealed wrought or AM-316L SS following recrystallization. The damage evolution as a function of microstructure was characterized using optical metallography.

  20. Lead (Pb) bioaccumulation; genera Bacillus isolate S1 and SS19 as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifiyanto, Achmad; Apriyanti, Fitria Dwi; Purwaningsih, Puput; Kalqutny, Septian Hary; Agustina, Dyah; Surtiningsih, Tini; Shovitri, Maya; Zulaika, Enny

    2017-06-01

    Lead (Pb) includes a group of large heavy metal in nature was toxic either on animal or human and did not provide an advantage function biologically. Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 known resistant to lead up to 50 mg / L PbCl2. In this research will be examined whether genera Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 could accumulate metal lead (Pb), their capability in accumulating and profile protein differences when the bacteria genera Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 get exposed metal lead (Pb). Inoculum at age ± 9 hours are used, with a Nutrient Broth (NB) containing 50, 75 and 100 mg / L PbCl2. Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP) used to assessed Pb2+ concentrations. Bioaccumulation levels of Pb2+ by Bacillus isolate S1 and SS19 related to the distinction of beginning concentration to the final concentration. Bacillus isolate S1 achieved 53% and 51% bioaccumulation efficiency rate in lead presence concentration (75 and 100 mg/L) and 51% (50 mg/L). Another way Bacillus isolate SS19 was able to accumulate 57% (50 mg/L PbCl2) and kept stable on 36% bioaccumulation efficiency rate (75 and 100 mg/L PbCl2). Regarding SDS-PAGE electrophoresis protein profile result, protein in ± 127 kDa, molecule mass detected in the presence of Lead for Bacillus isolate S1.

  1. Architecture and ssDNA interaction of the Timeless-Tipin-RPA complex.

    PubMed

    Witosch, Justine; Wolf, Eva; Mizuno, Naoko

    2014-11-10

    The Timeless-Tipin (Tim-Tipin) complex, also referred to as the fork protection complex, is involved in coordination of DNA replication. Tim-Tipin is suggested to be recruited to replication forks via Replication Protein A (RPA) but details of the interaction are unknown. Here, using cryo-EM and biochemical methods, we characterized complex formation of Tim-Tipin, RPA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Tim-Tipin and RPA form a 258 kDa complex with a 1:1:1 stoichiometry. The cryo-EM 3D reconstruction revealed a globular architecture of the Tim-Tipin-RPA complex with a ring-like and a U-shaped domain covered by a RPA lid. Interestingly, RPA in the complex adopts a horse shoe-like shape resembling its conformation in the presence of long ssDNA (>30 nucleotides). Furthermore, the recruitment of the Tim-Tipin-RPA complex to ssDNA is modulated by the RPA conformation and requires RPA to be in the more compact 30 nt ssDNA binding mode. The dynamic formation and disruption of the Tim-Tipin-RPA-ssDNA complex implicates the RPA-based recruitment of Tim-Tipin to the replication fork. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Architecture and ssDNA interaction of the Timeless-Tipin-RPA complex

    PubMed Central

    Witosch, Justine; Wolf, Eva; Mizuno, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    The Timeless-Tipin (Tim-Tipin) complex, also referred to as the fork protection complex, is involved in coordination of DNA replication. Tim-Tipin is suggested to be recruited to replication forks via Replication Protein A (RPA) but details of the interaction are unknown. Here, using cryo-EM and biochemical methods, we characterized complex formation of Tim-Tipin, RPA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Tim-Tipin and RPA form a 258 kDa complex with a 1:1:1 stoichiometry. The cryo-EM 3D reconstruction revealed a globular architecture of the Tim-Tipin-RPA complex with a ring-like and a U-shaped domain covered by a RPA lid. Interestingly, RPA in the complex adopts a horse shoe-like shape resembling its conformation in the presence of long ssDNA (>30 nucleotides). Furthermore, the recruitment of the Tim-Tipin-RPA complex to ssDNA is modulated by the RPA conformation and requires RPA to be in the more compact 30 nt ssDNA binding mode. The dynamic formation and disruption of the Tim-Tipin-RPA-ssDNA complex implicates the RPA-based recruitment of Tim-Tipin to the replication fork. PMID:25348395

  3. Previously unknown and highly divergent ssDNA viruses populate the oceans.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Jessica M; Suttle, Curtis A

    2013-11-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses are economically important pathogens of plants and animals, and are widespread in oceans; yet, the diversity and evolutionary relationships among marine ssDNA viruses remain largely unknown. Here we present the results from a metagenomic study of composite samples from temperate (Saanich Inlet, 11 samples; Strait of Georgia, 85 samples) and subtropical (46 samples, Gulf of Mexico) seawater. Most sequences (84%) had no evident similarity to sequenced viruses. In total, 608 putative complete genomes of ssDNA viruses were assembled, almost doubling the number of ssDNA viral genomes in databases. These comprised 129 genetically distinct groups, each represented by at least one complete genome that had no recognizable similarity to each other or to other virus sequences. Given that the seven recognized families of ssDNA viruses have considerable sequence homology within them, this suggests that many of these genetic groups may represent new viral families. Moreover, nearly 70% of the sequences were similar to one of these genomes, indicating that most of the sequences could be assigned to a genetically distinct group. Most sequences fell within 11 well-defined gene groups, each sharing a common gene. Some of these encoded putative replication and coat proteins that had similarity to sequences from viruses infecting eukaryotes, suggesting that these were likely from viruses infecting eukaryotic phytoplankton and zooplankton.

  4. EuroPhenome and EMPReSS: online mouse phenotyping resource

    PubMed Central

    Mallon, Ann-Marie; Hancock, John M.

    2008-01-01

    EuroPhenome (http://www.europhenome.org) and EMPReSS (http://empress.har.mrc.ac.uk/) form an integrated resource to provide access to data and procedures for mouse phenotyping. EMPReSS describes 96 Standard Operating Procedures for mouse phenotyping. EuroPhenome contains data resulting from carrying out EMPReSS protocols on four inbred laboratory mouse strains. As well as web interfaces, both resources support web services to enable integration with other mouse phenotyping and functional genetics resources, and are committed to initiatives to improve integration of mouse phenotype databases. EuroPhenome will be the repository for a recently initiated effort to carry out large-scale phenotyping on a large number of knockout mouse lines (EUMODIC). PMID:17905814

  5. EuroPhenome and EMPReSS: online mouse phenotyping resource.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Ann-Marie; Blake, Andrew; Hancock, John M

    2008-01-01

    EuroPhenome (http://www.europhenome.org) and EMPReSS (http://empress.har.mrc.ac.uk/) form an integrated resource to provide access to data and procedures for mouse phenotyping. EMPReSS describes 96 Standard Operating Procedures for mouse phenotyping. EuroPhenome contains data resulting from carrying out EMPReSS protocols on four inbred laboratory mouse strains. As well as web interfaces, both resources support web services to enable integration with other mouse phenotyping and functional genetics resources, and are committed to initiatives to improve integration of mouse phenotype databases. EuroPhenome will be the repository for a recently initiated effort to carry out large-scale phenotyping on a large number of knockout mouse lines (EUMODIC).

  6. Fast Ss-Ilm a Computationally Efficient Algorithm to Discover Socially Important Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokuz, A. S.; Celik, M.

    2017-11-01

    Socially important locations are places which are frequently visited by social media users in their social media lifetime. Discovering socially important locations provide several valuable information about user behaviours on social media networking sites. However, discovering socially important locations are challenging due to data volume and dimensions, spatial and temporal calculations, location sparseness in social media datasets, and inefficiency of current algorithms. In the literature, several studies are conducted to discover important locations, however, the proposed approaches do not work in computationally efficient manner. In this study, we propose Fast SS-ILM algorithm by modifying the algorithm of SS-ILM to mine socially important locations efficiently. Experimental results show that proposed Fast SS-ILM algorithm decreases execution time of socially important locations discovery process up to 20 %.

  7. Combinatorial gene editing in mammalian cells using ssODNs and TALENs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Niamat, Rohina A.; Rivera-Torres, Natalia; Kmiec, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of gene editing is being elucidated in mammalian cells and its potential as well as its limitations are becoming evident. ssODNs carry out gene editing by annealing to their complimentary sequence at the target site and acting as primers for replication fork extension. To effect a genetic change, a large amount of ssODN molecules must be introduced into cells and as such induce a Reduced Proliferation Phenotype (RPP), a phenomenon in which corrected cells do not proliferate. To overcome this limitation, we have used TAL-Effector Nucleases (TALENs) to increase the frequency, while reducing the amount of ssODN required to direct gene correction. This strategy resolves the problem and averts the serious effects of RPP. The efficiency of gene editing can be increased significantly if cells are targeted while they progress through S phase. Our studies define new reaction parameters that will help guide experimental strategies of gene editing.

  8. SWIFT Observations of a Far UV Luminosity Component in SS433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannizzo, J. K.; Boyd, P. T.; Dolan, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    SS433 is a binary system showing relativistic Doppler shifts in its two sets of emission lines. The origin of its UV continuum is not well established. We observed SS433 to determine the emission mechanism responsible for its far UV spectrum. The source was observed at several different phases of both its 13 d orbital period and 162.5 d precession period using the UVOT and XRT detector systems on Swift. The far UV spectrum down to 1880 Angstrom lies significantly above the spectral flux distribution predicted by extrapolating the reddened blackbody continuum that fits the spectrum above 3500 Angstroms. The intensity of the far UV flux varies over a period of days and the variability is correlated with the variability of the soft X-ray flux from the source. An emission mechanism in addition to those previously detected in the optical and X-ray regions must exist in the far UV spectrum of SS433.

  9. Resistance of superhydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces to varied temperature applications on 316L SS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Hamza; Basit, Kanza; Saleem, Sajid; Siddiqui, Bilal A.

    316L SS also called Marine Stainless Steel is an important material for structural and marine applications. When superhydrophobic and oleophobic coatings are applied on 316L SS it shows significant resistance to wear and corrosion. This paper aims to validate the coatings manufacturer's information on optimal temperature range and test the viability of coating against multiple oil based cleaning agents. 316L SS was coated with multiple superhydrophic and oleohobic coatings and observed under SEM for validity of adhesion and thickness and then scanned under FFM to validate the tribological information. The samples were then dipped into multiple cleaning agents maintained at the range of operating temperatures specified by the manufacturer. Coating was observed for deterioration over a fixed time intervals through SEM and FFM. A comparison was drawn to validate the most critical cleaning agent and the most critical temperature at which the coating fails to leave the base substrate exposed to the environment.

  10. MIX and match: mobile T6SS MIX-effectors enhance bacterial fitness

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Dor

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein secretion systems that mediate interbacterial competition secret a wide repertoire of antibacterial toxins. A major player in these competitions is the newly discovered bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS). We recently found that a subset of polymorphic MIX-effectors, which are a widespread class of effectors secreted by T6SSs, are horizontally shared between marine bacteria and are used to diversify their T6SS effector repertoires, thus enhancing their environmental fitness. In this commentary, I expand on the ideas that were introduced in the previous report, and further speculate on the possible mobility of other MIX-effectors. In addition, I discuss the possible role of horizontal gene transfer in the dissemination of MIX-effectors through bacterial genomes, as well as its possible role in diversifying the T6SS effector repertoire. PMID:27066305

  11. Synergistic Protective Effects of Mitochondrial Division Inhibitor 1 and Mitochondria-Targeted Small Peptide SS31 in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Hemachandra; Manczak, Maria; Yin, XiangLing; Reddy, Arubala P

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the synergistic protective effects of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 and mitochondria division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi1) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using biochemical methods, we assessed mitochondrial function by measuring the levels of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome c oxidase activity, mitochondrial ATP, and GTPase Drp1 enzymatic activity in mutant AβPP cells. Using biochemical methods, we also measured cell survival and apoptotic cell death. Amyloid-β (Aβ) levels were measured using sandwich ELISA, and using real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we assessed mtDNA (mtDNA) copy number in relation to nuclear DNA (nDNA) in all groups of cells. We found significantly reduced levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in mutant AβPP cells treated with SS31, Mdivi1, and SS31+Mdivi1, and the reduction of Aβ42 levels were much higher in SS31+Mdivi1 treated cells than individual treatments of SS31 and Mdivi1. The levels of mtDNA copy number and cell survival were significantly increased in SS31, Mdivi1, and SS31+Mdivi1 treated mutant AβPP cells; however, the increased levels of mtDNA copy number and cell survival were much higher in SS31+Mdivi1 treated cells than individual treatments of SS31 and Mdivi1. Mitochondrial dysfunction is significantly reduced in SS31, Mdivi1, and SS31+Mdivi1 treated mutant AβPP cells; however, the reduction is much higher in cells treated with both SS31+Mdvi1. Similarly, GTPase Drp1 activity is reduced in all treatments, but reduced much higher in SS31+Mdivi1 treated cells. These observations strongly suggest that combined treatment of SS31+Mdivi1 is effective than individual treatments of SS31 and Mdivi1. Therefore, we propose that combined treatment of SS31+Mdivi1 is a better therapeutic strategy for AD. Ours is the first study to investigate combined treatment of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 and mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 in AD neurons.

  12. Xylanase production by a newly isolated Aspergillus niger SS7 in submerged culture.

    PubMed

    Bakri, Yasser; Al-Jazairi, Manal; Al-Kayat, Ghassan

    2008-01-01

    Xylanase production by a newly isolated Aspergillus niger SS7 was studied in submerged culture. The optimum initial pH for xylanase production was found to be 7.0. Different agricultural and industrial wastes were evaluated for their ability to induce xylanase production by this isolate. The best xylanase production (293.82 IU/ml) was recorded at 3% (w/v) corn cob hulls after 120 h of incubation. The Aspergillus niger SS7 isolate grown in a simple medium, proved to be a promising microorganism for xylanase production.

  13. Skipping Strategy (SS) for Initial Population of Job-Shop Scheduling Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolrazzagh-Nezhad, M.; Nababan, E. B.; Sarim, H. M.

    2018-03-01

    Initial population in job-shop scheduling problem (JSSP) is an essential step to obtain near optimal solution. Techniques used to solve JSSP are computationally demanding. Skipping strategy (SS) is employed to acquire initial population after sequence of job on machine and sequence of operations (expressed in Plates-jobs and mPlates-jobs) are determined. The proposed technique is applied to benchmark datasets and the results are compared to that of other initialization techniques. It is shown that the initial population obtained from the SS approach could generate optimal solution.

  14. True logarithmic amplification of frequency clock in SS-OCT for calibration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Azimi, Ehsan; Brezinski, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    With swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), imprecise signal calibration prevents optimal imaging of biological tissues such as coronary artery. This work demonstrates an approach using a true logarithmic amplifier to precondition the clock signal, with the effort to minimize the noises and phase errors for optimal calibration. This method was validated and tested with a high-speed SS-OCT. The experimental results manifest its superior ability on optimization of the calibration and improvement of the imaging performance. Particularly, this hardware-based approach is suitable for real-time calibration in a high-speed system where computation time is constrained. PMID:21698036

  15. Scalable and reusable emulator for evaluating the performance of SS7 networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Aurel A.; Tseng, Kent H.; Lim, Koon Seng; Choe, Winston

    1994-04-01

    A scalable and reusable emulator was designed and implemented for studying the behavior of SS7 networks. The emulator design was largely based on public domain software. It was developed on top of an environment supported by PVM, the Parallel Virtual Machine, and managed by OSIMIS-the OSI Management Information Service platform. The emulator runs on top of a commercially available ATM LAN interconnecting engineering workstations. As a case study for evaluating the emulator, the behavior of the Singapore National SS7 Network under fault and unbalanced loading conditions was investigated.

  16. Is PiSS Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Associated with Disease?

    PubMed

    McGee, Dawn; Schwarz, Laura; McClure, Rebecca; Peterka, Lauren; Rouhani, Farshid; Brantly, Mark; Strange, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    Background. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AAT) is an inherited condition that predisposes to lung and/or liver disease. Objective. The current study examined the clinical features of the PiSS genotype. Methods. Nineteen study participants (PiSS) and 29 matched control participants (PiMM) were telephone interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Demographic features, cigarette smoking, vocation, medication history, and clinical diagnoses were compared. Statistical analysis was performed. Finally, a comprehensive literature review was performed by two investigators. Results. 12/19 (63.2%) study participants reported the presence of lung and/or liver disease compared to 12/29 (41.4%) control participants. There trended toward having a higher frequency of medication allergies in the study population (42.11% versus 20.69%). Conclusions. The PiSS genotype was associated with a similar incidence of obstructive lung disease to controls. Selective bias intrinsic in testing for AAT deficiency and the rarity of the PiSS genotype will make future study of this association dependent on population-based tests.

  17. Is PiSS Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Associated with Disease?

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Dawn; Schwarz, Laura; McClure, Rebecca; Peterka, Lauren; Rouhani, Farshid; Brantly, Mark; Strange, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    Background. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AAT) is an inherited condition that predisposes to lung and/or liver disease. Objective. The current study examined the clinical features of the PiSS genotype. Methods. Nineteen study participants (PiSS) and 29 matched control participants (PiMM) were telephone interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Demographic features, cigarette smoking, vocation, medication history, and clinical diagnoses were compared. Statistical analysis was performed. Finally, a comprehensive literature review was performed by two investigators. Results. 12/19 (63.2%) study participants reported the presence of lung and/or liver disease compared to 12/29 (41.4%) control participants. There trended toward having a higher frequency of medication allergies in the study population (42.11% versus 20.69%). Conclusions. The PiSS genotype was associated with a similar incidence of obstructive lung disease to controls. Selective bias intrinsic in testing for AAT deficiency and the rarity of the PiSS genotype will make future study of this association dependent on population-based tests. PMID:21687342

  18. PU/SS EUTECTIC ASSESSMENT IN 9975 PACKAGINGS IN A STORAGE FACILITY DURING EXTENDED FIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.

    2012-03-26

    In a radioactive material (RAM) packaging, the formation of eutectic at the Pu/SS (plutonium/stainless steel) interface is a serious concern and must be avoided to prevent of leakage of fissile material to the environment. The eutectic temperature for the Pu/SS is rather low (410 C) and could seriously impact the structural integrity of the containment vessel under accident conditions involving fire. The 9975 packaging is used for long term storage of Pu bearing materials in the DOE complex where the Pu comes in contact with the stainless steel containment vessel. Due to the serious consequences of the containment breach atmore » the eutectic site, the Pu/SS interface temperature is kept well below the eutectic formation temperature of 410 C. This paper discusses the thermal models and the results for the extended fire conditions (1500 F for 86 minutes) that exist in a long term storage facility and concludes that the 9975 packaging Pu/SS interface temperature is well below the eutectic temperature.« less

  19. Simultaneous IUE and Ground Based Observations of SS Cygni and HL Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansperger, C. S.; Kaitchuck, R. H.; Garnavich, P.; Dinshaw, N.

    1993-05-01

    SS Cyg and HL CMa were observed by IUE for three consecutive nights in November of 1992. During the first two nights, simultaneous photometric ground based observations of SS Cyg were made at the Ball State University Observatory. SS Cyg and HL CMa were observed simultaneously with the 90-inch telescope at the Steward Observatory on the last two nights of this run. These spectroscopic observations covered the wavelength range of 4100 Angstroms to 5000 Angstroms, while the spectra taken with the short wavelength camera on IUE resulted in wavelength coverage from 1150 Angstroms to 1980 Angstroms. SS Cyg is a U Gem type dwarf nova with an orbital period of 6.6 hours. Good simultaneous UV and optical orbital coverage was obtained for this system. HL CMa is a Z Cam type dwarf nova with an outburst period of 18 days. The AAVSO reports that this system was in outburst 4 days after the observing run. Therefore, HL CMa may have been in a preoutburst state during these observations. The C IV and H \\beta emission lines appeared to have weakened during this time.

  20. Safe and effective error rate monitors for SS7 signaling links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Douglas C.

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes SS7 error monitor characteristics, discusses the existing SUERM (Signal Unit Error Rate Monitor), and develops the recently proposed EIM (Error Interval Monitor) for higher speed SS7 links. A SS7 error monitor is considered safe if it ensures acceptable link quality and is considered effective if it is tolerant to short-term phenomena. Formal criteria for safe and effective error monitors are formulated in this paper. This paper develops models of changeover transients, the unstable component of queue length resulting from errors. These models are in the form of recursive digital filters. Time is divided into sequential intervals. The filter's input is the number of errors which have occurred in each interval. The output is the corresponding change in transmit queue length. Engineered EIM's are constructed by comparing an estimated changeover transient with a threshold T using a transient model modified to enforce SS7 standards. When this estimate exceeds T, a changeover will be initiated and the link will be removed from service. EIM's can be differentiated from SUERM by the fact that EIM's monitor errors over an interval while SUERM's count errored messages. EIM's offer several advantages over SUERM's, including the fact that they are safe and effective, impose uniform standards in link quality, are easily implemented, and make minimal use of real-time resources.

  1. Characterization of Circular ssDNA Viruses within the Echinoderm Nanobiome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, E.; Bistolas, K. S.; Hewson, I.

    2016-02-01

    Viral metagenomics has revealed a great diversity and presence of circular single-stranded(ss) DNA viruses most similar to the viral family Circoviridae in various environments both ambient and host. These viruses are an emerging paradigm in viral discovery amongst aquatic invertebrates mainly from the sub-phlya Crustacea and to a lesser extent the phylum Echinodermata. This parasite-host relationship is furthered here with the discovery of circo-like viruses extracted from the tissue of members from the family Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers). Verification and presence of these viruses within the tissue of the host was confirmed through rigorous genome architecture screening and PCR amplification of the rep gene from unamplified viral DNA extracts. Phylogenetic analysis of the rep gene reveals high similarity to circular ssDNA viruses from environmental metagenomic surveys of marine habitats. The significance of these findings is changing the perception and understanding of circular ssDNA viruses by broadening the known host range and blurring certain defining characteristics established by their pathogenic counterparts. Aside from discover and characterization, the potential ecological impacts of ssDNA viruses upon their host remains relatively unknown and further investigations should aim to determine the pathology, route of infection, and ecological implications of viral infection.

  2. Discrimination against RNA Backbones by a ssDNA Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Neil R; Wuttke, Deborah S

    2018-05-01

    Pot1 is the shelterin component responsible for the protection of the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) overhang at telomeres in nearly all eukaryotic organisms. The C-terminal domain of the DNA-binding domain, Pot1pC, exhibits non-specific ssDNA recognition, achieved through thermodynamically equivalent alternative binding conformations. Given this flexibility, it is unclear how specificity for ssDNA over RNA, an activity required for biological function, is achieved. Examination of the ribose-position specificity of Pot1pC shows that ssDNA specificity is additive but not uniformly distributed across the ligand. High-resolution structures of several Pot1pC complexes with RNA-DNA chimeric ligands reveal Pot1pC discriminates against RNA by utilizing non-compensatory binding modes that feature significant rearrangement of the binding interface. These alternative conformations, accessed through both ligand and protein flexibility, recover much, but not all, of the binding energy, leading to the observed reduction in affinities. These findings suggest that intermolecular interfaces are remarkably sophisticated in their tuning of specificity toward flexible ligands. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Lopharia s.s., Dendrodontia, Dentocorticium and Fuscocerrena (Basidiomycota, Polyporales)

    Treesearch

    Shi-Liang Liu; Karen K. Nakasone; Sheng-Hua Wu; Shuang-Hui He; Yu-Cheng Dai

    2018-01-01

    Eleven taxa of Lopharia s.s., Dendrodontia, Dentocorticium and Fuscocerrena in Polyporales are included in the phylogenetic analyses of nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS), D1-D2 domains of nuc 28S rDNA (28S) and RNA polymerase II second-largest subunit (rpb2) sequences. New species Lopharia resupinata...

  4. 47. Photograph of a line drawing. '304 S.S. NUTSCHE BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photograph of a line drawing. '304 S.S. NUTSCHE BOX AND FILTER PROBES, BUILDING H.' Holston Defense Corporation. June 24, 1955; revised 1958, 1960, 1965, 1968, 1982. Delineator: G. Sahlin. Drawing # 7651-1008/262. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  5. Dynamic Cooperation of Hydrogen Binding and π Stacking in ssDNA Adsorption on Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Lei, Xiaoling; Tu, Yusong; Tan, Zhi-Jie; Song, Bo; Fang, Haiping

    2017-09-21

    Functional nanoscale structures consisting of a DNA molecule coupled to graphene or graphene oxide (GO) have great potential for applications in biosensors, biomedicine, nanotechnology, and materials science. Extensive studies using the most sophisticated experimental techniques and theoretical methods have still not clarified the dynamic process of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) adsorbed on GO surfaces. Based on a molecular dynamics simulation, this work shows that an ssDNA segment could be stably adsorbed on a GO surface through hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions, with preferential binding to the oxidized rather than to the unoxidized region of the GO surface. The adsorption process shows a dynamic cooperation adsorption behavior; the ssDNA segment first captures the oxidized groups of the GO surface by hydrogen bonding interaction, and then the configuration relaxes to maximize the π-π stacking interactions between the aromatic rings of the nucleobases and those of the GO surface. We attributed this behavior to the faster forming hydrogen bonding interaction compared to π-π stacking; the π-π stacking interaction needs more relaxation time to regulate the configuration of the ssDNA segment to fit the aromatic rings on the GO surface. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Study of advanced communications satellite systems based on SS-FDMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiesling, J.

    1980-01-01

    A satellite communication system based on the use of a multiple, contiguous beam satellite antenna and frequency division multiple access (FDMA) is studied. Emphasis is on the evaluation of the feasibility of SS (satellite switching) FDMA technology, particularly the multiple, contiguous beam antenna, the onboard switch and channelization, and on methods to overcome the effects of severe Ka band fading caused by precipitation. This technology is evaluated and plans for technology development and evaluation are given. The application of SS-FDMA to domestic satellite communications is also evaluated. Due to the potentially low cost Earth stations, SS-FDMA is particularly attractive for thin route applications up to several hundred kilobits per second, and offers the potential for competing with terrestrial facilities at low data rates and over short routes. The onboard switch also provides added route flexibility for heavy route systems. The key beneficial SS-FDMA strategy is to simplify and thus reduce the cost of the direct access Earth station at the expense of increased satellite complexity.

  7. Brasiliocroton : a new crotonoid genus of Euphorbiaceae s.s. from eastern Brazil

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Berry; Ines Cordeiro; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Maria Amelia Vitorino-Cruz; Leticia Ribes de Lima

    2005-01-01

    A new genus and species of Euphorbiaceae s.s., Brasiliocroton mamoninha, is described from two disjunct areas of lowland forest remnants in eastern and northeastern Brazil. It is a member of tribe Crotoneae and was previously confused with Croton and Micrandra. The resemblance to Micrandra is based on the branched inflorescences and terminal position of the pistillate...

  8. In vivo fate of 125I SS-B (La) injected into mice.

    PubMed Central

    Schrieber, L; Erhardt, C C; Melsom, R D; Venables, P J; McCarthy, D A; Mumford, P A; Horsfall, A C; Maini, R N

    1983-01-01

    The fate of the radiolabelled soluble cellular antigen SS-B (La) was compared with that of other 125I-labelled proteins of known molecular weight (MW) and electrostatic charge, following i.v. injection into BALB/c mice. The plasma half-life of 125I-SS-B was 3 min, while that of 125I-bovine serum albumin (similar MW and electrostatic charge) was 270 min. 125I-heat-aggregated IgG (MW greater than 1 x 10(6)) and 125I-7S human IgG (MW 168,000) had plasma half-lives of 40 min and greater than 300 min, respectively. Liver and kidney showed preferential uptake of 125I-SS-B, followed by a rapid decrease in radioactivity. During this time low MW, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble, material appeared in urine. This suggests a specific uptake mechanism followed by a catabolic phase. These studies demonstrate that normal mice remove 125I-SS-B rapidly from the circulation and then degrade it. This rapid antigen elimination may protect against the induction of potentially harmful autoantibody responses. PMID:6832805

  9. Establishment and characterization of the NCC-SS1-C1 synovial sarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Kito, Fusako; Oyama, Rieko; Takai, Yoko; Sakumoto, Marimu; Shiozawa, Kumiko; Qiao, Zhiwei; Uehara, Takenori; Yoshida, Akihiko; Kawai, Akira; Kondo, Tadashi

    2018-04-01

    Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive mesenchymal malignancy characterized by unique gene fusions. Tissue culture cells are essential tools for further understanding tumorigenesis and anti-cancer drug development; however, only a limited number of well-characterized synovial sarcoma cell lines exist. Thus, the objective of this study was to establish a patient-derived synovial sarcoma cell line. We established a synovial sarcoma cell line from tumor tissue isolated from a 72-year-old female patient. Prepared cells were analyzed for the presence of gene fusions by fluorescence in situ hybridization, RT-PCR, and karyotyping. In addition, the resulting cell line was characterized by viability, short tandem repeat, colony and spheroid formation, and invasion analyses. Differences in gene enrichment between the primary tumor and cell line were examined by mass spectrometric protein expression profiling and KEGG pathway analysis. Our analyses revealed that the primary tumor and NCC-SS1-C1 cell line harbored the SS18-SSX1 fusion gene typical of synovial sarcoma and similar proteomics profiles. In vitro analyses also confirmed that the established cell line harbored invasive, colony-forming, and spheroid-forming potentials. Moreover, drug screening with chemotherapeutic agents and tyrosine kinase inhibitors revealed that doxorubicin, a subset of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and several molecular targeting drugs markedly decreased NCC-SS1-C1 cell viability. Results from the present study support that the NCC-SS1-C1 cell line will be an effective tool for sarcoma research.

  10. 20 CFR 225.24 - SS Earnings PIA used in survivor annuities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Security Earnings PIA (SS Earnings PIA) used in survivor annuities may be used in computing the tier II... the Social Security Act as in effect on December 31, 1974. It is computed using the deceased employee... RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Survivor Annuities and the...

  11. Corrosion studies of DC reactive magnetron sputtered alumina coating on 304 SS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangaraj, Baskar; Mahadevan, Krishnan

    2017-12-01

    Aluminum oxide films on SS 304 deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique were studied with respect to the composition of the sputter gas (Ar:O2), gas pressure, substrate temperature, current etc. to achieve good insulating films with high corrosion resistance. The films were characterized by XRD and SEM techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were made under static conditions in order to evaluate the corrosion performance of the alumina-coated SS 304 for various immersion durations in 0.5 M and 1 M NaCl solution. Alumina-coated SS 304 has low corrosion value of 0.4550 and 1.1090MPY for 24 h immersion time in both solutions. The impedance plots for the alumina coated SS 304 in 1 M NaCl solution at different durations are slightly different to when compared to its immersion in 0.5 M NaCl solutions and are composed of two depressed semi circles. For the alumina coated film, the impedance spectrum decreased, when immersion time increased.

  12. Very high resolution observations of SS433 at 10.65 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geldzahler, B. J.; Downes, A. J. B.; Shaffer, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of SS433 made on June 12, 1979, from West Germany, Massachusetts, and West Virginia are discussed. It is noted that SS433 did not show fringes on any baseline although all the calibration sources were seen at their expected strengths. The measured total flux density of SS433 was found to be approximately 0.5 Jy, consistent with previous observations. The source was observed by on-offs at each telescope, which indicates that they were all pointed properly during the observations. The absence of fringes is not attributed to poor observing conditions or instrumental difficulties. It is concluded that if all the 10.65 GHz radiation emanates from a single component, then that component is at least 0.005 arcsec (approximately 10 to the 14th cm) in size. The measurements made on more sensitive intercontinental baselines indicate that there is no component of SS433 smaller than 0.001 arcsec emitting 10.65 GHz radiation above a level of 50 mJy.

  13. BER analysis of SS-WDM based FSO system for Vellore weather conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabu, K.; Charanya, S.; Jain, Mehul; Guha, Debapriya

    2017-11-01

    Spectrum Slicing Wavelength Division Multiplexing (SS-WDM) has been advanced to boost the long distance communication in FSO channel which assists immense bit rate due to its high capacity and efficiency. It is a substitute to WDM systems having multiple coherent lasers with different wavelengths which is expensive. This paper is subjected to investigate the characteristics and quality of communication links of data rate 1.56 GB/s and wavelength of 1550 nm. The SS-WDM technique has been inspected for 4, 8 and 16 channels to increase the performance of communication under various weather conditions. The proposed model is susceptible to system degradation due to turbulences where wind velocity, refractive index and height of buildings have been majorly focused. A case study has been experimented on how the height of buildings around VIT, Vellore campus interfere the transmission of light in free space. Based on the above study, the results shows that the benefits of spectrum slicing wavelength division multiplexing (SS-WDM) have been worked up on for the climatic conditions which enhance performance of system. Moreover, the graphs plotted against bit error rate (BER), attenuation and distance makes the analysis better which highlights the characteristic features of SS-WDM.

  14. Stanford SsTO Mission to Mars: A Realistic, Safe and Cost Effective Approach to Human Mars Exploration Using the Stanford SsTO Launch System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Robert D.

    1999-06-01

    In recent years, a lot of time and energy has been spent exploring possible mission scenarios for a human mission to Mars. NASA along with the privately funded Mars Society and a number of universities have come up with many options that could place people on the surface of Mars in a relatively short period of time at a relatively low cost. However, a common theme among all or at least most of these missions is that they require heavy lift vehicles such as the Russian Energia or the NASA proposed Magnum 100MT class vehicle to transport large payloads from the surface of Earth into a staging orbit about Earth. However, there is no current budget or any signs for a future budget to review the Russian Energia, the US made Saturn V, or to design and build a new heavy lift vehicle. However, there is a lot of interest and many companies looking into the possibility of "space planes". These vehicles will have the capability to place a payload into orbit without throwing any parts of the vehicle away. The concept of a space plane is basically that the plane is transported to a given altitude either by it's own power or on the back of another air worthy vehicle before the rocket engines are ignited. From this altitude, a Single Step to Orbit (SsTO) vehicle with a significant payload is possible. This report looks at the possibility of removing the requirement of a heavy lift vehicle by using the Stanford designed Single Step to Orbit.(SsTO) Launch Vehicle. The SsTO would eliminate the need for heavy lift vehicles and actually reduce the cost of the mission because of the very low costs involved with each SSTO launch. Although this scenario may add a small amount of risk assembling transfer vehicles in Earth orbit, it should add no additional risk to the crew.

  15. Alterations in hypothalamic KiSS-1 system in experimental diabetes: early changes and functional consequences.

    PubMed

    Castellano, J M; Navarro, V M; Roa, J; Pineda, R; Sánchez-Garrido, M A; García-Galiano, D; Vigo, E; Dieguez, C; Aguilar, E; Pinilla, L; Tena-Sempere, M

    2009-02-01

    Using long-term streptozotocin (STZ)-treated male rats, we recently proposed that defective function of hypothalamic KiSS-1 system is mechanistically relevant for central hypogonadotropism of uncontrolled diabetes. However, the temporal pattern of such defects and its potential contribution to disturbed gonadotropin secretion in the diabetic female remain so far unexplored. To cover these issues, expression analyses and hormonal tests were conducted in diabetic male (1 wk after STZ; short term) and female (4 wk after STZ; long term) rats. Short-term diabetic males had lower basal testosterone levels and decreased gonadotropin responses to orchidectomy (ORX), which associated with significantly attenuated post-ORX rises of hypothalamic KiSS-1 mRNA. Yet kisspeptin administration to diabetic males was able to acutely elicit supramaximal LH and testosterone responses and normalize post-ORX gonadotropin secretion. Long-term diabetic females showed persistent anestrus and significantly decreased basal gonadotropin levels as well as blunted LH responses to ovariectomy; changes that were linked to lowering of basal and postovariectomy expression of hypothalamic KiSS-1 mRNA. Moreover, despite prevailing gonadotropin suppression, LH responses to acute kisspeptin administration were fully preserved, and even enhanced after its repeated injection, in diabetic females. In sum, our present findings further define the temporal course and mechanistic relevance of altered hypothalamic KiSS-1 system in the hypogonadotropic state of uncontrolled diabetes. Furthermore, our data provide the basis for the potential therapeutic intervention of the KiSS-1 system as adjuvant in the management of disturbed gonadotropin secretion of type 1 diabetes in the female.

  16. First insights into the genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Debeljak, Zoran; Boufana, Belgees; Interisano, Maria; Vidanovic, Dejan; Kulisic, Zoran; Casulli, Adriano

    2016-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is a cosmopolitan zoonotic infection which is endemic in Serbia where it is subject to mandatory reporting. However, information on the incidence of the disease in humans and prevalence of hydatid infection in livestock remains limited. We used sequenced data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) mitochondrial gene to examine the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) from intermediate hosts from Serbia. We also compared our generated nucleotide sequences with those reported for neighbouring European countries. Echinococcus canadensis was molecularly confirmed from pig and human hydatid isolates. E. granulosus (G1) was confirmed from sheep and cattle hydatid isolates as well as the first molecular confirmation in Serbia of E. granulosus G2 in sheep and E. granulosus G3 in sheep and cattle hydatid isolates. The Serbian E. granulosus (s.s.) parsimony network displayed 2 main haplotypes (SB02 and SB05) which together with the neutrality indices were suggestive of bottleneck and/or balancing selection. Haplotype analysis showed the presence of the common E. granulosus haplotype described from other worldwide regions. Investigation of the pairwise fixation (Fst) index suggested that Serbian populations of E. granulosus (s.s.) from sheep and cattle hosts showed moderate genetic differentiation. Six of the Serbian haplotypes (SB02-SB07) were shared with haplotypes from Bulgaria, Hungary and/or Romania. Further studies using a larger number of hydatid isolates from various locations across Serbia will provide more information on the genetic structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) within this region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Phage Lysin PlySs2 Decolonizes Streptococcus suis from Murine Intranasal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Gilmer, Daniel B; Schmitz, Jonathan E; Thandar, Mya; Euler, Chad W; Fischetti, Vincent A

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis infects pigs worldwide and may be zoonotically transmitted to humans with a mortality rate of up to 20%. S. suis has been shown to develop in vitro resistance to the two leading drugs of choice, penicillin and gentamicin. Because of this, we have pursued an alternative therapy to treat these pathogens using bacteriophage lysins. The bacteriophage lysin PlySs2 is derived from an S. suis phage and displays potent lytic activity against most strains of that species including serotypes 2 and 9. At 64 μg/ml, PlySs2 reduced multiple serotypes of S. suis by 5 to 6-logs within 1 hour in vitro and exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 μg/ml for a S. suis serotype 2 strain and 64 μg/ml for a serotype 9 strain. Using a single 0.1-mg dose, the colonizing S. suis serotype 9 strain was reduced from the murine intranasal mucosa by >4 logs; a 0.1-mg dose of gentamicin reduced S. suis by <3-logs. A combination of 0.05 mg PlySs2 + 0.05 mg gentamicin reduced S. suis by >5-logs. While resistance to gentamicin was induced after systematically increasing levels of gentamicin in an S. suis culture, the same protocol resulted in no observable resistance to PlySs2. Thus, PlySs2 has both broad and high killing activity against multiple serotypes and strains of S. suis, making it a possible tool in the control and prevention of S. suis infections in pigs and humans.

  18. The Phage Lysin PlySs2 Decolonizes Streptococcus suis from Murine Intranasal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Gilmer, Daniel B.; Schmitz, Jonathan E.; Thandar, Mya; Euler, Chad W.; Fischetti, Vincent A.

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis infects pigs worldwide and may be zoonotically transmitted to humans with a mortality rate of up to 20%. S. suis has been shown to develop in vitro resistance to the two leading drugs of choice, penicillin and gentamicin. Because of this, we have pursued an alternative therapy to treat these pathogens using bacteriophage lysins. The bacteriophage lysin PlySs2 is derived from an S. suis phage and displays potent lytic activity against most strains of that species including serotypes 2 and 9. At 64 μg/ml, PlySs2 reduced multiple serotypes of S. suis by 5 to 6-logs within 1 hour in vitro and exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 μg/ml for a S. suis serotype 2 strain and 64 μg/ml for a serotype 9 strain. Using a single 0.1-mg dose, the colonizing S. suis serotype 9 strain was reduced from the murine intranasal mucosa by >4 logs; a 0.1-mg dose of gentamicin reduced S. suis by <3-logs. A combination of 0.05 mg PlySs2 + 0.05 mg gentamicin reduced S. suis by >5-logs. While resistance to gentamicin was induced after systematically increasing levels of gentamicin in an S. suis culture, the same protocol resulted in no observable resistance to PlySs2. Thus, PlySs2 has both broad and high killing activity against multiple serotypes and strains of S. suis, making it a possible tool in the control and prevention of S. suis infections in pigs and humans. PMID:28046082

  19. Validity of Automated Choroidal Segmentation in SS-OCT and SD-OCT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Lee, Kyungmoo; Sonka, Milan; Springelkamp, Henriët; Hofman, Albert; Vingerling, Johannes R; Mullins, Robert F; Klaver, Caroline C W; Abràmoff, Michael D

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the validity of a novel fully automated three-dimensional (3D) method capable of segmenting the choroid from two different optical coherence tomography scanners: swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) and spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT). One hundred eight subjects were imaged using SS-OCT and SD-OCT. A 3D method was used to segment the choroid and quantify the choroidal thickness along each A-scan. The segmented choroidal posterior boundary was evaluated by comparing to manual segmentation. Differences were assessed to test the agreement between segmentation results of the same subject. Choroidal thickness was defined as the Euclidian distance between Bruch's membrane and the choroidal posterior boundary, and reproducibility was analyzed using automatically and manually determined choroidal thicknesses. For SS-OCT, the average choroidal thickness of the entire 6- by 6-mm2 macular region was 219.5 μm (95% confidence interval [CI], 204.9-234.2 μm), and for SD-OCT it was 209.5 μm (95% CI, 197.9-221.0 μm). The agreement between automated and manual segmentations was high: Average relative difference was less than 5 μm, and average absolute difference was less than 15 μm. Reproducibility of choroidal thickness between repeated SS-OCT scans was high (coefficient of variation [CV] of 3.3%, intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] of 0.98), and differences between SS-OCT and SD-OCT results were small (CV of 11.0%, ICC of 0.73). We have developed a fully automated 3D method for segmenting the choroid and quantifying choroidal thickness along each A-scan. The method yielded high validity. Our method can be used reliably to study local choroidal changes and may improve the diagnosis and management of patients with ocular diseases in which the choroid is affected.

  20. Electrochemical studies on the performance of SS316L electrode in electrokinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeong-Hee; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Lee, Hyun-Goo; Ha, Tae-Hyun; Bae, Jeong-Hyo

    2009-10-01

    Organic and trace metal pollutants are removed by employing various electrodes in an electrokinetic (EK) process. Stainless steel was used either as an anode or a cathode by various investigators in electroremediation systems. In the present study, the role of SS316L as an anode and cathode in EK system was studied by the measurements of pH, conductivity of electrolyte, and potential of the anode and cathode at different current densities. The weight loss of the anode and cathode and the leaching of chromium, iron, and nickel at different current densities were measured and discussed with an electroosmosis process. The electrochemical behavior of SS316L electrode in neutral, acidic and alkaline pH in soil environment was studied by an electrochemical technique viz. polarization study. Surface analysis of SS316L after EK was done by XPS and SEM. The higher conductivity was noticed at anolyte when compared to catholyte. The weight loss of the anode was in the following order 0.615 > 0.307 > 0.123 mA/cm2 and the cathode corrosion rate was vice versa. Peroxide production was also noticed at the anolyte, which may encourage the degradation of the total organic content (TOC) in the soil. The OCP (open circuit potential) of SS316L was about +75 mV vs SCE in the soil extract; while adding acetic acid, the potential shifted to the positive side, to about +380 mV vs SCE. The breakdown potential and the range of passivation potential were higher in acetic acid added system when compared to other systems. Pitting was observed on both the anode and cathode within 48 h during the EK process. The present study concludes that SS is not a proper electrode material for the EK process.

  1. Mechanism of the formation of the RecA-ssDNA nucleoprotein filament structure: a coarse-grained approach.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Goutam; Pal, Arumay; Levy, Yaakov

    2017-11-21

    In prokaryotes, the RecA protein catalyzes the repair and strand exchange of double-stranded DNA. RecA binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and forms a presynaptic complex in which the protein polymerizes around the ssDNA to form a right-handed helical nucleoprotein filament structure. In the present work, the mechanism for the formation of the RecA-ssDNA filament structure is modeled using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. Information from the X-ray structure was used to model the protein itself but not its interactions; the interactions between the protein and the ssDNA were modeled solely by electrostatic, aromatic, and repulsive energies. For the present study, the monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric units of RecA and 4, 8, and 11 NT-long ssDNA, respectively, were studied. Our results indicate that monomeric RecA is not sufficient for nucleoprotein filament formation; rather, dimeric RecA is the elementary binding unit, with higher multimeric units of RecA facilitating filament formation. Our results reveal that loop region flexibility at the primary binding site of RecA is essential for it to bind the incoming ssDNA, that the aromatic residues present in the loop region play an important role in ssDNA binding, and that ATP may play a role in guiding the ssDNA by changing the electrostatic potential of the RecA protein.

  2. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain SS, which produces a series of uridyl peptide antibiotic sansanmycins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifei; Xie, Yunying; Li, Qinglian; He, Ning; Yao, Entai; Xu, Hongzhang; Yu, Ying; Chen, Ruxian; Hong, Bin

    2012-12-01

    Streptomyces sp. SS produces a series of uridyl peptide antibiotic sansanmycins. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. SS containing the biosynthetic gene cluster for the antibiotics. The identification of the biosynthetic gene cluster of sansanmycins may provide further insight into biosynthetic mechanisms for uridyl peptide antibiotics.

  3. Seismic Anisotropy in Mantle Transition Zone: Constraints from Observations and Synthetic Modeling of SS Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Q.; Schmerr, N. C.; Waszek, L.; Beghein, C.; Weidner, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    Mantle transition zone (MTZ) is delineated by the 410 and 660 km discontinuities and plays an important role in mantle convection. Mineral physics experiments predict that wadsleyite and ringwoodite can have 13% and 2% single-crystal anisotropy respectively, indicating that seismic anisotropy is likely to exist in the upper part of the MTZ when MTZ minerals are aligned by mantle flow (e.g. subducting slabs). Here we use the SS precursors to study the topography change and seismic anisotropy in the vicinity of MTZ discontinuities. An up-to-date SS precursor dataset consisting of 45,624 records was collected to investigate MTZ topography and anisotropy. We stacked the whole dataset into 9 geographical caps to obtain the global topography of 410 and 660 km discontinuities. The MTZ is thickened by 15 km beneath subduction zones (e.g. Japan and South America) and also thinned by 15 km beneath mantle plume regions (e.g. Bowie and Iceland hotspots), which is consistent with thermal heterogeneity in the mid-mantle. We identify four locations with sufficient bounce point density and azimuthal coverage of SS precursors to study azimuthal anisotropy in MTZ; the central Pacific, the northwest Pacific, Greenland and the central Atlantic. We stack the data by the azimuth of SS bounce points falling within the range of 2000 km in these four locations. The goal is to detect the azimuthal dependence of travel time and amplitude of SS precursors, thus to constrain azimuthal anisotropy in MTZ. The central Pacific bin has fast direction at 110° for both S410S and S660S azimuthal stacks, which is interpreted as seismic anisotropy in the overlying upper mantle. We also stack data in subduction zones by the relative azimuths of bounce points compared to mantle flow directions to test the hypothesis that subducting slabs can cause azimuthal anisotropy in MTZ. A trench-parallel fast direction is observed for both S410S and S660S travel times and amplitudes, but not for their differential

  4. Immunization with the recombinant antigen Ss-IR induces protective immunity to infection with Strongyloides stercoralis in mice.

    PubMed

    Abraham, David; Hess, Jessica A; Mejia, Rojelio; Nolan, Thomas J; Lok, James B; Lustigman, Sara; Nutman, Thomas B

    2011-10-19

    Human intestinal infections with the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis remain a significant problem worldwide and a vaccine would be a useful addition to the tools available to prevent and control this infection. The goal of this study was to test single antigens for their efficacy in a vaccine against S. stercoralis larvae in mice. Alum was used as the adjuvant in these studies and antigens selected for analysis were either recognized by protective human IgG (Ss-TMY-1, Ss-EAT-6, and Ss-LEC-5) or were known to be highly immunogenic in humans (Ss-NIE-1 and Ss-IR). Only mice immunized with the Ss-IR antigen demonstrated a significant decrease of approximately 80% in the survival of larval parasites in the challenge infection. Antibodies, recovered from mice with protective immunity to S. stercoralis after immunization with Ss-IR, were used to locate the antigen in the larvae. Confocal microscopy revealed that IgG from mice immunized with Ss-IR bound to the surface of the parasites and observations by electron microscopy indicated that IgG bound to granules in the glandular esophagus. Serum collected from mice immunized with Ss-IR passively transferred immunity to naïve mice. These studies demonstrate that Ss-IR, in combination with alum, induces high levels of protective immunity through an antibody dependent mechanism and may therefore be suitable for further development as a vaccine against human strongyloidiasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence for two distinct KiSS genes in non-placental vertebrates that encode kisspeptins with different gonadotropin-releasing activities in fish and mammals.

    PubMed

    Felip, Alicia; Zanuy, Silvia; Pineda, Rafael; Pinilla, Leonor; Carrillo, Manuel; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Gómez, Ana

    2009-11-27

    Kisspeptins, the products of KiSS-1 gene, have recently emerged as fundamental regulators of reproductive function in different mammalian and, presumably, non-mammalian species. To date, a single form of KiSS-1 has been described in mammals, and recently, in several fish species and Xenopus. We report herein the cloning and characterization of two distinct KiSS-like genes, namely, KiSS-1 and KiSS-2, in the teleost sea bass. While KiSS-1 encodes a peptide identical to rodent kisspeptin-10, the predicted KiSS-2 decapeptide diverges at 4 amino acids (FNFNPFGLRF). Genome database searches showed that both genes are present in non-placental vertebrate genomes. Indeed, phylogenetic and genome mapping analyses suggest that KiSS-1 and KiSS-2 are paralogous genes that originated by duplication of an ancestral gene, although KiSS-2 is lost in placental mammals. KiSS-1 and KiSS-2 mRNAs are present in brain and gonads of sea bass, medaka and zebrafish. Comparative functional studies demonstrated that KiSS-2 decapeptide was significantly more potent than KiSS-1 peptide in inducing LH and FSH secretion in sea bass. In contrast, KiSS-2 decapeptide only weakly elicited LH secretion in rats, whereas KiSS-1 peptide was maximally effective. Our data are the first to provide conclusive evidence for the existence of a second KiSS gene, KiSS-2, in non-placental vertebrates, whose product is likely to play a dominant stimulatory role in the regulation of the gonadotropic axis at least in teleosts.

  6. QUANTIFYING THE CARBON ABUNDANCES IN THE SECONDARY STARS OF SS CYGNI, RU PEGASI, AND GK PERSEI

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Hamilton, Ryan T., E-mail: tharriso@nmsu.edu, E-mail: rthamilton@sofia.usra.edu

    We use a modified version of MOOG to generate large grids of synthetic spectra in an attempt to derive quantitative abundances for three CVs (GK Per, RU Peg, and SS Cyg) by comparing the models to moderate resolution (R ∼ 25,000) K-band spectra obtained with NIRSPEC on Keck. For each of the three systems we find solar, or slightly sub-solar values for [Fe/H], but significant deficits of carbon: for SS Cyg we find [C/Fe] = −0.50, for RU Peg [C/Fe] = −0.75, and for GK Per [C/Fe] = −1.00. We show that it is possible to use lower resolution (Rmore » ∼ 2000) spectra to quantify carbon deficits. We examine realistic veiling scenarios and find that emission from H i or CO cannot reproduce the observations.« less

  7. KiSS-1: a likely candidate for the photoperiodic control of reproduction in seasonal breeders.

    PubMed

    Revel, Florent G; Saboureau, Michel; Masson-Pévet, Mireille; Pévet, Paul; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2006-01-01

    In seasonal species, photoperiod exerts tight regulation of reproduction to ensure that birth occurs at the most favorable time of yr. A distinct photoneuroendocrine circuit composed of the retina, suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and pineal gland transduces daylength into a rhythmic secretion of melatonin. The duration of the night-time rise of this hormone conveys daylength information to the organism. Melatonin is known to mediate the control of seasonal reproduction, but how it modulates sexual activity is far from understood. Recent data indicate that the product of the KiSS-1 gene is a potent stimulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and may play, together with its receptor GPR54, a central role in the neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion. This article briefly reviews these findings and presents arguments that KiSS-1 could take part in the seasonal control of reproduction.

  8. Effect of Thermal Aging and Test Temperatures on Fracture Toughness of SS 316(N) Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, B. Shashank; Babu, M. Nani; Shanthi, G.; Moitra, A.; Sasikala, G.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of thermal aging and test temperatures on fracture toughness (J 0.2) of SS 316(N) weld material has been studied based on J-R curve evaluations. The aging of the welds was carried out at temperatures 370, 475 and 550 °C and for durations varying from 1000 to 20,000 h. The fracture toughness (J-R curve) tests were carried out at 380 and 550 °C for specimens after all aging conditions, including as-weld condition. The initiation fracture toughness (J 0.2) of the SS 316(N) weld material has shown degradation after 20,000-h aging durations and is reflected in all the test temperatures and aging temperatures. The fracture toughness after different aging conditions and test temperatures, including as-weld condition, was higher than the minimum specified value for this class of welds.

  9. Nodding motions of accretion rings and disks - A short-term period in SS 433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. I.; Anderson, S. F.; Grandi, S. A.; Margon, B.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that accretion disks and rings in mass transfer binaries have been observed spectroscopically and calculated theoretically for many years. The present investigation is partly based on the availability of several years of spectroscopic observations of the Doppler shifts of the moving lines in SS433. A formalism is presented to compute frequencies and amplitudes of short-term 'nodding' motions in precessing accretion disks in close binary systems. This formalism is applied to an analysis of the moving-line Doppler shifts in SS433. The 35d X-ray cycle of Hercules X-1 is also discussed. In the considered model, the companion star exerts a gravitational torque on the disk rim. Averaged over the binary orbit, this yields a steady torque which results in the mean driven counterprecession of the disk.

  10. On the origin of X-ray variability of SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, D. L.; Grindlay, J. E.

    1984-10-01

    The X-ray flares observed from the central source in SS 433 by the Einstein telescope are attributed to surges in the mass transfer rate due to changes in the critical Roche volume of the companion. Analysis of the Roche potential for a primary with spin misaligned with the orbital axis, as required by the slaved disk model, predicts that the critical Roche volume will contract twice per orbit if the orbit is circular. A critical Roche volume fractional change of 1-2 percent is found by applying this potential to SS 433. The nutation of the companion should not affect the steady precession of its spin. Aspects of this work strengthen the evidence that the compact object might be a black hole.

  11. Preparation of SS316L MIM feedstock with biopolymer as a binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. A.; Norita, H.; Azlina, H. N.; Sulong, A. B.; Mas'ood, N. N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper focus on feedstock preparation for SS316L metal injection molding (MIM) part. The primary step of feedstock preparation, critical powder loading determined by two method; maximum filled volume calculation model and torque analysis. The critical powder loading determined by calculation was 70 vol% to 77 vol% while for experimental approaches shows the value of 75 vol%. The feedstock was prepared by mixing SS316L powder and polymer binder with ratio 70:30 at 175 °C with speed of 50 rpm. The feedstock was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The composition for the feedstock after preparation step was confirmed by TGA. It was found that the prepared feedstock component was compatible to each other and composition is maintain along the mixing step.

  12. Surface modification of SS-316L steel using microwave processed Ni/WC based composite clads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, Sarbjeet; Singh, Dilkaran; Gupta, Dheeraj; Jain, Vivek; Bhowmick, Hiralal

    2018-04-01

    In the present investigation, the claddings of Ni/WC based composite powder were developed on SS-316L steel through microwave hybrid heating method. The experimental trials were carried out inside a domestic microwave oven working at 2.45 GHz and 900 W. The so developed composite clads were characterized using XRD, Vicker's microhardness measurement, and SEM/EDS. The presence of different phases like Co3W3C, NiW, FeNi3, NiSi was confirmed by XRD analysis. Microstructural analysis revealed that the clad of approximately 0.6 mm thickness was developed with no interfacial cracks and negligible porosity. The WC particles were uniformly distributed in the form of cellular structure inside Ni matrix. The average Vicker's microhardness value of the clad section was observed as 925±50 HV, which is three times that of the SS-316L substrate.

  13. ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAX OF THE DWARF NOVA SS CYGNI

    SciTech Connect

    Nelan, Edmund P.; Bond, Howard E., E-mail: nelan@stsci.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu

    SS Cygni is one of the brightest dwarf novae (DNe), and one of the best studied prototypes of the cataclysmic variables. Astrometric observations with the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGSs) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), published in 2004, gave an absolute trigonometric parallax of 6.06 {+-} 0.44 mas. However, recent very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), obtained during radio outbursts of SS Cyg, has yielded a significantly larger absolute parallax of 8.80 {+-} 0.12 mas, as well as a large difference in the direction of the proper motion (PM) compared to the HST result. The VLBI distance reduces the implied luminositymore » of SS Cyg by about a factor of two, giving good agreement with predictions based on accretion-disk theory in order to explain the observed DN outburst behavior. This discrepancy raises the possibility of significant systematic errors in FGS parallaxes and PMs. We have reanalyzed the archival HST/FGS data, including (1) a critical redetermination of the parallaxes of the background astrometric reference stars, (2) updated input values of the reference-star PMs, and (3) correction of the position measurements for color-dependent shifts. Our new analysis yields a PM of SS Cyg that agrees well with the VLBI motion, and an absolute parallax of 8.30 {+-} 0.41 mas, also statistically concordant with the VLBI result at the {approx}1.2 {sigma} level. Our results suggest that HST/FGS parallaxes are free of large systematic errors, when the data are reduced using high-quality input values for the astrometry of the reference stars, and when instrumental signatures are properly removed.« less

  14. SS Bootis - A totally eclipsing binary of the RS CVn type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaucher, C. A.; Africano, J. L.; Henry, G. W.; Hall, D. S.; Wilson, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Photoelectric photometry gathered for SS Bootis over the 1976-1981 period shows a distortion wave amplitude variation from 0.05 to 0.20 mag, with no apparent pattern. From the rectified light curve, a new time of midprimary eclipse was found to be 2444332.0335 + or - 0.0005 days. Solutions of the primary eclipse data, rectified for star spots as well as for ellipticity and reflection, are presented.

  15. Baseband processor development/test performance for 30/20 GHz SS-TDMA communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L.; Sabourin, D.; Attwood, S.

    1984-01-01

    The baseband processor (BBP) development for the 30/20 GHz Satellite Communication System is described. The SS-TDMA concept for future satellite communications is reviewed, describing the overall system, the satellite payload, and the frequency plan. A brief general description of the BBP is given, and the proof-of-concept model of the BBP is summarized. Key technologies and custom LSI developed for the BBP are listed. Finally, key technology developments and test data are reported for the BBP.

  16. Evidence for 4-chlorobenzoic acid dehalogenation mediated by plasmids related to pSS50.

    PubMed Central

    Layton, A C; Sanseverino, J; Wallace, W; Corcoran, C; Sayler, G S

    1992-01-01

    The biodegradation of 4-chlorobiphenyl usually proceeds through the intermediate 4-chlorobenzoate. Few bacterial strains can degrade 4-chlorobiphenyl to 4-chlorobenzoate and 4-chlorobenzoate to CO2. This study demonstrates that the 4-chlorobiphenyl-degrading Alcaligenes sp. strain ALP83 can degrade 4-chlorobenzoate to 4-hydroxybenzoate. The dehalogenase activity is correlated with a 10-kb fragment carried on plasmid pSS70. Images PMID:1539985

  17. Impact of the Arizona NExSS Winter School on Interdisciplinary Knowledge and Attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Cierra; Burnam-Fink, Michael; Desch, Steven; Apai, Dániel

    2018-01-01

    The Nexus for Exoplanet System Science (NExSS) is a NASA-funded research coordination network whose focus is on investigating exoplanet diversity and devising strategies for searching for life on exoplanets. The fields of exoplanets and astrobiology are inherently highly interdisciplinary. Progress in these fields demands that researchers with various scientific backgrounds understand the issues and techniques of allied fields of study, including the tools and approaches used to solve different problems, as well as their limitations.In 2016, the NExSS teams at Arizona State University (ASU) and University of Arizona (UA) hosted 32 graduate students and postdoctoral researchers from various scientific backgrounds for one week at the Arizona NExSS Winter School. To bridge the gaps between fields and promote interdisciplinarity, students participated in lessons, field trips, hands-on activities, and a capstone proposal-writing activity. To assess the impact of the School on knowledge and attitudes about other fields, we administered a pre- and post-School questionnaire designed using the Impact Analysis Method of Davis & Scalice (2015).The results show that all participants gained knowledge at the School, especially in areas outside their primary field of study. The questionnaire revealed interesting differences in attitudes as well. When asked whether the geochemistry of Earth without life is predictable, planetary scientists were more likely than average to say yes, and geologists were more likely than average to say no. Their attitudes had converged after participation in the School. These results demonstrate that the Arizona NExSS Winter School was impactful not just in the knowledge gained, but in the interdisciplinary attitudes of students.

  18. Symbolic and Sub-Symbolic Robotic Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS) Users Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    platform and simulators via either a serial or Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)/IP connection. The implementation of SS-RICS was designed and...box 4.2 SubSim Config Dialog This interface (Fig. 22) is designed to provide execution and property control of all of the subsimprocessors... post fixed with a “_” to designate the end of the variable (e.g., $Line1_memory was found). Example: rTestDollarSign { (* $LookType Distance

  19. Small Subunits of Serine Palmitoyltransferase (ssSPTs) and Their Physiological Roles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-12

    showing that organisms also have unique sphingoid base chain lengths. In insects, such as Drosophila melanogaster , the predominant chain lengths of the ... Drosophila melanogaster mutant defective in male meiotic cytokinesis (‘Ghiberti’) has a mutation in a gene with low homology to the ssSPT subunits of...INTRODUCTION: Sphingolipid metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster (fly) is an active area of research. It is a good model system to study the roles of

  20. Beginning of the End: The Leadership of SS Obersturmbannfuehrer Jochen Peiper

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-17

    of Rudolf Lehmann and Ralf Tiemann on the Leibstandarte are based on the Bundesarchiven (National Archives) in Koblenz and Freiburg in Germany...Hans Schmidt, Paul Hausser, Richard Schulze-Kossens, Rudolf Lehmann, and Ralf Tiemann. Some German sources are at odds with American sources, but that...or a constitution. Among the men who set up the first military training for the Waffen-SS were Felix Steiner and Cassius Freiherr (Baron) von

  1. Exploring optimization parameters to increase ssDNA recombineering in Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus reuteri

    PubMed Central

    van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Neoh, Kar Mun; Sirias, Denise; Findley, Anthony S.; Britton, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a technology which is used to make subtle changes in the chromosome of several bacterial genera. Cells which express a single-stranded DNA binding protein (RecT or Bet) are transformed with an oligonucleotide which is incorporated via an annealing and replication-dependent mechanism. By in silico analysis we identified ssDNA binding protein homologs in the genus Lactobacillus and Lactococcus lactis. To assess whether we could further improve the recombineering efficiency in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 we expressed several RecT homologs in this strain. RecT derived from Enterococcus faecalis CRMEN 19 yielded comparable efficiencies compared with a native RecT protein, but none of the other proteins further increased the recombineering efficiency. We successfully improved recombineering efficiency 10-fold in L. lactis by increasing oligonucleotide concentration combined with the use of oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate-linkages (PTOs). Surprisingly, neither increased oligonucleotide concentration nor PTO linkages enhanced recombineering in L. reuteri 6475. To emphasize the utility of this technology in improving probiotic features we modified six bases in a transcriptional regulatory element region of the pdu-operon of L. reuteri 6475, yielding a 3-fold increase in the production of the antimicrobial compound reuterin. Directed genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria through ssDNA recombineering will simplify strain improvement in a way that, when mutating a single base, is genetically indistinguishable from strains obtained through directed evolution. PMID:22750793

  2. Defining the Content of an Online Sexual Health Intervention: The MenSS Website

    PubMed Central

    Gerressu, Makeda; Michie, Susan; Estcourt, Claudia; Anderson, Jane; Ang, Chee Siang; Murray, Elizabeth; Rait, Greta; Stephenson, Judith; Bailey, Julia V

    2015-01-01

    Background Health promotion and risk reduction are essential components of sexual health care. However, it can be difficult to prioritize these within busy clinical services. Digital interventions may provide a new method for supporting these. Objective The MenSS (Men’s Safer Sex) website is an interactive digital intervention developed by a multidisciplinary team, which aims to improve condom use in men who have sex with women (MSW). This paper describes the content of this intervention, and the rationale for it. Methods Content was informed by a literature review regarding men’s barriers to condom use, workshops with experts in sexual health and technology (N=16) and interviews with men in sexual health clinics (N=20). Data from these sources were analyzed thematically, and synthesized using the Behavior Change Wheel framework. Results The MenSS intervention is a website optimized for delivery via tablet computer within a clinic waiting room setting. Key targets identified were condom use skills, beliefs about pleasure and knowledge about risk. Content was developed using behavior change techniques, and interactive website features provided feedback tailored for individual users. Conclusions This paper provides a detailed description of an evidence-based interactive digital intervention for sexual health, including how behavior change techniques were translated into practice within the design of the MenSS website. Triangulation between a targeted literature review, expert workshops, and interviews with men ensured that a range of potential influences on condom use were captured. PMID:26142304

  3. GPR54 and KiSS-1: role in the regulation of puberty and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kuohung, Wendy; Kaiser, Ursula B

    2006-12-01

    The finding of inactivating mutations in GPR54 in IHH patients and the lack of reproductive maturation of the GPR54 null mouse have uncovered a previously unrecognized role for GPR54 and KiSS-1 in the physiologic regulation of puberty and reproduction. This newly identified function for GPR54 and its cognate ligand, kisspeptin, has led to additional studies that have localized GPR54 and KiSS-1 mRNA in the hypothalamus, colocalized GPR54 in GnRH neurons, demonstrated GnRH-dependent activation of LH and FSH release by kisspeptin, and shown increased hypothalamic KiSS-1 and GPR54 mRNA levels at the time of puberty. Taken together, these findings establish the role of the kisspeptin-GPR54 system in the stimulation of GnRH neurons during puberty. The mechanisms by which kisspeptin activates GnRH release, as well as the trigger for this pathway at the onset of puberty, are yet to be elucidated. In the future, modulators of GPR54 activity, including kisspeptin, may prove valuable in clinical applications in the fields of both cancer therapy and reproductive medicine.

  4. A novel, highly divergent ssDNA virus identified in Brazil infecting apple, pear and grapevine.

    PubMed

    Basso, Marcos Fernando; da Silva, José Cleydson Ferreira; Fajardo, Thor Vinícius Martins; Fontes, Elizabeth Pacheco Batista; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo

    2015-12-02

    Fruit trees of temperate and tropical climates are of great economical importance worldwide and several viruses have been reported affecting their productivity and longevity. Fruit trees of different Brazilian regions displaying virus-like symptoms were evaluated for infection by circular DNA viruses. Seventy-four fruit trees were sampled and a novel, highly divergent, monopartite circular ssDNA virus was cloned from apple, pear and grapevine trees. Forty-five complete viral genomes were sequenced, with a size of approx. 3.4 kb and organized into five ORFs. Deduced amino acid sequences showed identities in the range of 38% with unclassified circular ssDNA viruses, nanoviruses and alphasatellites (putative Replication-associated protein, Rep), and begomo-, curto- and mastreviruses (putative coat protein, CP, and movement protein, MP). A large intergenic region contains a short palindromic sequence capable of forming a hairpin-like structure with the loop sequence TAGTATTAC, identical to the conserved nonanucleotide of circoviruses, nanoviruses and alphasatellites. Recombination events were not detected and phylogenetic analysis showed a relationship with circo-, nano- and geminiviruses. PCR confirmed the presence of this novel ssDNA virus in field plants. Infectivity tests using the cloned viral genome confirmed its ability to infect apple and pear tree seedlings, but not Nicotiana benthamiana. The name "Temperate fruit decay-associated virus" (TFDaV) is proposed for this novel virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. ssDNA degradation along capillary electrophoresis process using a Tris buffer.

    PubMed

    Ric, Audrey; Ong-Meang, Varravaddheay; Poinsot, Verena; Martins-Froment, Nathalie; Chauvet, Fabien; Boutonnet, Audrey; Ginot, Frédéric; Ecochard, Vincent; Paquereau, Laurent; Couderc, François

    2017-06-01

    Tris-Acetate buffer is currently used in the selection and the characterization of ssDNA by capillary electrophoresis (CE). By applying high voltage, the migration of ionic species into the capillary generates a current that induces water electrolysis. This phenomenon is followed by the modification of the pH and the production of Tris derivatives. By injecting ten times by capillary electrophoresis ssDNA (50 nM), the whole oligonucleotide was degraded. In this paper, we will show that the Tris buffer in the running vials is modified along the electrophoretic process by electrochemical reactions. We also observed that the composition of the metal ions changes in the running buffer vials. This phenomenon, never described in CE, is important for fluorescent ssDNA analysis using Tris buffer. The oligonucleotides are degraded by electrochemically synthesized species (present in the running Tris vials) until it disappears, even if the separation buffer in the capillary is clean. To address these issues, we propose to use a sodium phosphate buffer that we demonstrate to be electrochemically inactive. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Bithermal Low-Cycle Fatigue Evaluation of Automotive Exhaust System Alloy SS409

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Gui-Ying; Behling, Mike B.; Halford, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    This investigation provides, for the first time, cyclic strainrange-controlled, thermomechanical fatigue results for the ferritic stainless steel alloy SS409. The alloy has seen extensive application for automotive exhaust system components. The data were generated to calibrate the Total Strain Version of the Strainrange Partitioning (TS-SRP) method for eventual application to the design and durability assessment of automotive exhaust systems. The thermomechanical cyclic lifetime and cyclic stress-strain constitutive behavior for alloy SS409 were measured using bithermal tests cycling between isothermal extremes of 400 and 800 C. Lives ranged up to 10,000 cycles to failure with hold-times of 0.33 to 2.0 minutes. The bithermal fatigue behavior is compared to isothermal, strain-controlled fatigue behavior at both 400 and 800 C. Thermomechanical cycling was found to have a profound detrimental influence on the fatigue failure resistance of SS409 compared to isothermal cycling. Supplementary bithermal cyclic stress-strain constitutive tests with hold-times ranging from 40 seconds up to 1.5 hours were conducted to calibrate the TS-SRP equation for extrapolation to longer lifetime predictions. Observed thermomechanical (bithermal) fatigue lives correlated well with lives calculated using the calibrated TS-SRP equations: 70% of the bithermal fatigue data fall within a factor of 1.2 of calculated life; 85% within a factor of 1.4; and 100% within a factor of 1.8.

  7. Assuring SS7 dependability: A robustness characterization of signaling network elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmarkar, Vikram V.

    1994-04-01

    Current and evolving telecommunication services will rely on signaling network performance and reliability properties to build competitive call and connection control mechanisms under increasing demands on flexibility without compromising on quality. The dimensions of signaling dependability most often evaluated are the Rate of Call Loss and End-to-End Route Unavailability. A third dimension of dependability that captures the concern about large or catastrophic failures can be termed Network Robustness. This paper is concerned with the dependability aspects of the evolving Signaling System No. 7 (SS7) networks and attempts to strike a balance between the probabilistic and deterministic measures that must be evaluated to accomplish a risk-trend assessment to drive architecture decisions. Starting with high-level network dependability objectives and field experience with SS7 in the U.S., potential areas of growing stringency in network element (NE) dependability are identified to improve against current measures of SS7 network quality, as per-call signaling interactions increase. A sensitivity analysis is presented to highlight the impact due to imperfect coverage of duplex network component or element failures (i.e., correlated failures), to assist in the setting of requirements on NE robustness. A benefit analysis, covering several dimensions of dependability, is used to generate the domain of solutions available to the network architect in terms of network and network element fault tolerance that may be specified to meet the desired signaling quality goals.

  8. Protein dynamics during presynaptic complex assembly on individual ssDNA molecules

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Bryan; Ye, Ling F.; Kwon, YoungHo; Niu, Hengyao; Sung, Patrick; Greene, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a conserved pathway for repairing double–stranded breaks, which are processed to yield single–stranded DNA overhangs that serve as platforms for presynaptic complex assembly. Here we use single–molecule imaging to reveal the interplay between Saccharomyce cerevisiae RPA, Rad52, and Rad51 during presynaptic complex assembly. We show that Rad52 binds RPA–ssDNA and suppresses RPA turnover, highlighting an unanticipated regulatory influence on protein dynamics. Rad51 binding extends the ssDNA, and Rad52–RPA clusters remain interspersed along the presynaptic complex. These clusters promote additional binding of RPA and Rad52. Together, our work illustrates the spatial and temporal progression of RPA and Rad52 association with the presynaptic complex, and reveals a novel RPA–Rad52–Rad51–ssDNA intermediate, which has implications for understanding how the activities of Rad52 and RPA are coordinated with Rad51 during the later stages recombination. PMID:25195049

  9. iSS-PseDNC: identifying splicing sites using pseudo dinucleotide composition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Feng, Peng-Mian; Lin, Hao; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotic genes, exons are generally interrupted by introns. Accurately removing introns and joining exons together are essential processes in eukaryotic gene expression. With the avalanche of genome sequences generated in the postgenomic age, it is highly desired to develop automated methods for rapid and effective detection of splice sites that play important roles in gene structure annotation and even in RNA splicing. Although a series of computational methods were proposed for splice site identification, most of them neglected the intrinsic local structural properties. In the present study, a predictor called "iSS-PseDNC" was developed for identifying splice sites. In the new predictor, the sequences were formulated by a novel feature-vector called "pseudo dinucleotide composition" (PseDNC) into which six DNA local structural properties were incorporated. It was observed by the rigorous cross-validation tests on two benchmark datasets that the overall success rates achieved by iSS-PseDNC in identifying splice donor site and splice acceptor site were 85.45% and 87.73%, respectively. It is anticipated that iSS-PseDNC may become a useful tool for identifying splice sites and that the six DNA local structural properties described in this paper may provide novel insights for in-depth investigations into the mechanism of RNA splicing.

  10. Electropolymerization of camphorsulfonic acid doped conductive polypyrrole anti-corrosive coating for 304SS bipolar plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Li; Syed, Junaid Ali; Gao, Yangzhi; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Lu, Hongbin; Meng, Xiangkang

    2017-12-01

    Conductive polymer coating doped with large molecular organic acid is an alternative method used to protect stainless steel (SS) bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, it is difficult to select the proper doping acid, which improves the corrosion resistance of the coating without affecting its conductivity. In this study, large spatial molecular group camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) doped polypyrrole (PPY) conductive coating was prepared by galvanostatic electropolymerization on 304SS. The electrochemical properties of the coating were evaluated in 0.1 M H2SO4 solution in order to simulate the PEMFC service environment. The results indicate that the coating increased the corrosion potential and shifted Ecorr towards more positive value, particularly the jcorr value of PPY-CSA coated 304SS was dropped from 97.3 to 0.00187 μA cm-2. The long-term immersion tests (660 h) show that the PPY-CSA coating exhibits better corrosion resistance in comparison with the small acid (SO42-) doped PPY-SO42- or PPY/PPY-SO42- coatings. Moreover, the PPY-CSA coating presents low contact resistance and maintains strong corrosion resistance during the prolonged exposure time due to barrier effect and anodic protection.

  11. Using long ssDNA polynucleotides to amplify STRs loci in degraded DNA samples

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Santángelo, Agustín; Corti Bielsa, Rodrigo M.; Sala, Andrea; Ginart, Santiago; Corach, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining informative short tandem repeat (STR) profiles from degraded DNA samples is a challenging task usually undermined by locus or allele dropouts and peak-high imbalances observed in capillary electrophoresis (CE) electropherograms, especially for those markers with large amplicon sizes. We hereby show that the current STR assays may be greatly improved for the detection of genetic markers in degraded DNA samples by using long single stranded DNA polynucleotides (ssDNA polynucleotides) as surrogates for PCR primers. These long primers allow a closer annealing to the repeat sequences, thereby reducing the length of the template required for the amplification in fragmented DNA samples, while at the same time rendering amplicons of larger sizes suitable for multiplex assays. We also demonstrate that the annealing of long ssDNA polynucleotides does not need to be fully complementary in the 5’ region of the primers, thus allowing for the design of practically any long primer sequence for developing new multiplex assays. Furthermore, genotyping of intact DNA samples could also benefit from utilizing long primers since their close annealing to the target STR sequences may overcome wrong profiling generated by insertions/deletions present between the STR region and the annealing site of the primers. Additionally, long ssDNA polynucleotides might be utilized in multiplex PCR assays for other types of degraded or fragmented DNA, e.g. circulating, cell-free DNA (ccfDNA). PMID:29099837

  12. Defining the Content of an Online Sexual Health Intervention: The MenSS Website.

    PubMed

    Webster, Rosie; Gerressu, Makeda; Michie, Susan; Estcourt, Claudia; Anderson, Jane; Ang, Chee Siang; Murray, Elizabeth; Rait, Greta; Stephenson, Judith; Bailey, Julia V

    2015-07-03

    Health promotion and risk reduction are essential components of sexual health care. However, it can be difficult to prioritize these within busy clinical services. Digital interventions may provide a new method for supporting these. The MenSS (Men's Safer Sex) website is an interactive digital intervention developed by a multidisciplinary team, which aims to improve condom use in men who have sex with women (MSW). This paper describes the content of this intervention, and the rationale for it. Content was informed by a literature review regarding men's barriers to condom use, workshops with experts in sexual health and technology (N=16) and interviews with men in sexual health clinics (N=20). Data from these sources were analyzed thematically, and synthesized using the Behavior Change Wheel framework. The MenSS intervention is a website optimized for delivery via tablet computer within a clinic waiting room setting. Key targets identified were condom use skills, beliefs about pleasure and knowledge about risk. Content was developed using behavior change techniques, and interactive website features provided feedback tailored for individual users. This paper provides a detailed description of an evidence-based interactive digital intervention for sexual health, including how behavior change techniques were translated into practice within the design of the MenSS website. Triangulation between a targeted literature review, expert workshops, and interviews with men ensured that a range of potential influences on condom use were captured.

  13. Coordinated X-ray, ultraviolet and optical observations of AM Herculis, U Geminorum, and SS Cygni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabbiano, G.; Hartmann, L.; Raymond, J.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Matilsky, T.; Steiner, J.

    1981-01-01

    Simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous optical, UV and X-ray observations of the accreting degenerate dwarf stars AM Herculis, U Geminorum and SS Cygni are reported. The observations were obtained in March 1979, by instruments on board the Einstein Observatory and the IUE satellite, and optical properties were monitored on the ground. AM Her was found to be in a high state at the time of the observations, while SS Cyg and U Gem appeared to be in the optical low state. The presence of a strong UV excess is found in SS Cyg, U Gem and AM Her, which most likely originates from the boundary of the accretion disk in U Gem. The observed excess, with a blackbody component greater than 10 eV, is noted to be inconsistent with standard accretion disk and column models. It is suggested that nuclear burning at the surface of the white dwarf may be responsible for the excess UV flux in the three systems, with differences in spectral distributions resulting from different levels of magnetic field intensity and accretion rate.

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses T3SS to inhibit diabetic wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Goldufsky, Josef; Wood, Stephen J.; Jayaraman, Vijayakumar; Majdobeh, Omar; Chen, Lin; Qin, Shanshan; Zhang, Chunxiang; DiPietro, Luisa A.; Shafikhani, Sasha H.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are responsible for more hospitalizations than any other complication of diabetes. Bacterial infection is recognized as an important factor associated with impaired healing in diabetic ulcers. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequently detected Gram-negative pathogen in diabetic ulcers. P. aeruginosa infection has been shown to impair healing in diabetic wounds in a manner that correlates with its ability to form biofilm. While the majority of infections in diabetic ulcers are biofilm associated, 33% of infections are nonbiofilm in nature. P. aeruginosa is the most prevalent Gram-negative pathogen in all diabetic wound types, which suggests that the deleterious impact of P. aeruginosa on healing in diabetic wounds goes beyond its ability to form biofilm and likely involves other factors. The Type III Secretion System (T3SS) virulence structure is required for the pathogenesis of all P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, suggesting that it may also play a role in the inhibition of wound repair in diabetic skin ulcers. We evaluated the role of T3SS in mediating P. aeruginosa–induced tissue damage in the wounds of diabetic mice. Our data demonstrate that P. aeruginosa establishes a robust and persistent infection in diabetic wounds independent of its ability to form biofilm and causes severe wound damage in a manner that primarily depends on its T3SS. PMID:25912785

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses T3SS to inhibit diabetic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Goldufsky, Josef; Wood, Stephen J; Jayaraman, Vijayakumar; Majdobeh, Omar; Chen, Lin; Qin, Shanshan; Zhang, Chunxiang; DiPietro, Luisa A; Shafikhani, Sasha H

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are responsible for more hospitalizations than any other complication of diabetes. Bacterial infection is recognized as an important factor associated with impaired healing in diabetic ulcers. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequently detected Gram-negative pathogen in diabetic ulcers. P. aeruginosa infection has been shown to impair healing in diabetic wounds in a manner that correlates with its ability to form biofilm. While the majority of infections in diabetic ulcers are biofilm associated, 33% of infections are nonbiofilm in nature. P. aeruginosa is the most prevalent Gram-negative pathogen in all diabetic wound types, which suggests that the deleterious impact of P. aeruginosa on healing in diabetic wounds goes beyond its ability to form biofilm and likely involves other factors. The Type III Secretion System (T3SS) virulence structure is required for the pathogenesis of all P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, suggesting that it may also play a role in the inhibition of wound repair in diabetic skin ulcers. We evaluated the role of T3SS in mediating P. aeruginosa-induced tissue damage in the wounds of diabetic mice. Our data demonstrate that P. aeruginosa establishes a robust and persistent infection in diabetic wounds independent of its ability to form biofilm and causes severe wound damage in a manner that primarily depends on its T3SS. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  16. TIMES-SS--recent refinements resulting from an industrial skin sensitisation consortium.

    PubMed

    Patlewicz, G; Kuseva, C; Mehmed, A; Popova, Y; Dimitrova, G; Ellis, G; Hunziker, R; Kern, P; Low, L; Ringeissen, S; Roberts, D W; Mekenyan, O

    2014-01-01

    The TImes MEtabolism Simulator platform for predicting Skin Sensitisation (TIMES-SS) is a hybrid expert system, first developed at Bourgas University using funding and data from a consortium of industry and regulators. TIMES-SS encodes structure-toxicity and structure-skin metabolism relationships through a number of transformations, some of which are underpinned by mechanistic 3D QSARs. The model estimates semi-quantitative skin sensitisation potency classes and has been developed with the aim of minimising animal testing, and also to be scientifically valid in accordance with the OECD principles for (Q)SAR validation. In 2007 an external validation exercise was undertaken to fully address these principles. In 2010, a new industry consortium was established to coordinate research efforts in three specific areas: refinement of abiotic reactions in the skin (namely autoxidation) in the skin, refinement of the manner in which chemical reactivity was captured in terms of structure-toxicity rules (inclusion of alert reliability parameters) and defining the domain based on the underlying experimental data (study of discrepancies between local lymph node assay Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) and Guinea Pig Maximisation Test (GPMT)). The present paper summarises the progress of these activities and explains how the insights derived have been translated into refinements, resulting in increased confidence and transparency in the robustness of the TIMES-SS predictions.

  17. Multi-scale virtual view on the precessing jet SS433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monceau-Baroux, R.; Porth, O.; Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.

    2014-07-01

    Observations of SS433 infer how an X-ray binary gives rise to a corkscrew patterned relativistic jet. XRB SS433 is well known on a large range of scales for wich we realize 3D simulation and radio mappings. For our study we use relativistic hydrodynamic in special relativity using a relativistic effective polytropic index. We use parameters extracted from observations to impose thermodynamical conditions of the ISM and jet. We follow the kinetic and thermal energy content, of the various ISM and jet regions. Our simulation follows simultaneously the evolution of the population of electrons which are accelerated by the jet. The evolving spectrum of these electrons, together with an assumed equipartition between dynamic and magnetic pressure, gives input for estimating the radio emission from our simulation. Ray tracing according to a direction of sight then realizes radio mappings of our data. Single snapshots are realised to compare with VLA observation as in Roberts et al. 2008. A radio movie is realised to compare with the 41 days movie made with the VLBA instrument. Finaly a larger scale simulation explore the discrepancy of opening angle between 10 and 20 degree between the large scale observation of SS433 and its close in observation.

  18. Symmetry in the Changing Jets of SS 433 and Its True Distance from Us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundell, Katherine M.; Bowler, Michael G.

    2004-12-01

    We present the deepest yet radio image of the Galactic jet source SS 433, which reveals over two full precession cycles (>2×163 days) of the jet axis. Systematic and identifiable deviations from the traditional kinematical model for the jets are found: variations in jet speed, lasting for as long as tens of days, are necessary to match the detailed structure of each jet. It is remarkable that these variations are equal and opposite, matching the two jets simultaneously. This explains certain features of the correlated redshift residuals found in fits to the kinematic model of SS 433 reported in the literature. Asymmetries in the image caused by light-travel time enabled us to measure the jet speeds of particular points to be within a range from 0.24c to 0.28c, consistent with, yet determined independently from, the speeds derived from the famous moving optical emission lines. Taken together with the angular periodicity of the zigzag/corkscrew structure projected on the plane of the sky (produced by the precession of the jet axis), these measurements determine beyond all reasonable doubt the distance to SS 433 to be 5.5+/-0.2 kpc, significantly different from the distance most recently inferred using neutral hydrogen measurements together with the current rotation model for the Galaxy.

  19. Fatigue Crack Propagation from Notched Specimens of 304 SS in elevated Temperature Aqueous Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wire, G. L.; Mills, W. J.

    2002-08-01

    Fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates for 304 stainless steel (304SS) were determined in 24 degree C and 288 degree C air and 288 degree C water using double-edged notch (DEN) specimens of 304 stainless steel (304 SS). Test performed at matched loading conditions in air and water at 288 degree C with 20-6- cc h[sub]2/kg h[sub]2O provided a direct comparison of the relative crack growth rates in air and water over a wide range of crack growth rates. The DEN crack extension ranged from short cracks (0.03-0.25 mm) to long cracks up to 4.06 mm, which are consistent with conventionalmore » deep crack tests. Crack growth rates of 304 SS in water were about 12 times the air rate. This 12X environmental enhancement persisted to crack extensions up to 4.06 mm, far outside the range associated with short crack effects. The large environmental degradation for 304 SS crack growth is consistent with the strong reduction of fatigue life in high hydrogen water. Further, very similar environmental effects w ere reported in fatigue crack growth tests in hydrogen water chemistry (HWC). Most literature data in high hydrogen water show only a mild environmental effect for 304 SS, of order 2.5 times air or less, but the tests were predominantly performed at high cyclic stress intensity or equivalently, high air rates. The environmental effect in low oxygen environments at low stress intensity depends strongly on both the stress ratio, R, and the load rise time, T[sub]r, as recently reported for austenitic stainless steel in BWR water. Fractography was performed for both tests in air and water. At 288 degree C in water, the fracture surfaces were crisply faceted with a crystallographic appearance, and showed striations under high magnification. The cleavage-like facets on the fracture surfaces suggest that hydrogen embrittlement is the primary cause of accelerated cracking.« less

  20. Binding of antibodies to the extractable nuclear antigens SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La is induced on the surface of human keratinocytes by ultraviolet light (UVL): Implications for the pathogenesis of photosensitive cutaneous lupus

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, F.; Kashihara-Sawami, M.; Lyons, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the non-histone nucleoprotein antigens SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, and RNP are highly associated with photosensitive cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE). In order to better understand the potential mechanisms of ultraviolet (UV) light on photosensitivity in patients with cutaneous LE, we designed immunopathologic in vitro and in vivo experiments to evaluate the effects of UV on the binding of such autoantibodies to the surface of human keratinocytes, one major target of immunologic damage in photosensitive LE. Short-term 2% paraformaldehyde fixation of suspensions of cultured human keratinocytes previously incubated with monospecific antiserum probes enabled the detection of ENA expression on the cell surfacemore » by flow-cytometry analysis. UVB light (280-320 nm) induced the binding of monospecific antibody probes for SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La on keratinocytes in a dose-dependent pattern with maximal induction observed at the dose of 200 mJ/cm2 UVB. Binding of SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, and RNP antibody was augmented strongly, but binding of anti-Sm was very weak. In contrast, UVA (320-400 nm) light had no effect on the induction of binding of these antibody probes. Identical results were seen by standard immunofluorescence techniques. Hydroxyurea-treated keratinocytes showed similar induction of those antigens by UVB irradiation, which suggested that ENA expression on cultured keratinocytes by UVB were cell-cycle independent. Tunicamycin, an inhibitor of glycosylation of proteins, reduced UVB light effect on the SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La antigen's expression. These in vitro FACS analyses revealed that ENA augmentation on the keratinocyte cell surface was dose dependent, UVB dependent, glycosylation dependent, and cell-cycle independent. In vivo ENA augmentation on the keratinocyte surface was examined in suction blister epidermal roofs.« less

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Chilean version of the Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS.

    PubMed

    Ruston, Francisco Contreras; Moreti, Felipe; Vivero, Martín; Malebran, Celina; Behlau, Mara

    This research aims to accomplish the cross-cultural equivalence of the Chilean version of the VoiSS protocol through its cultural and linguistic adaptation. After the translation of the VoiSS protocol to Chilean Spanish by two bilingual speech therapists and its back translation to English, we compared the items of the original tool with the previous translated version. The existing discrepancies were modified by a consensus committee of five speech therapists and the translated version was entitled Escala de Sintomas Vocales - ESV, with 30 questions and five answers: "Never", "Occasionally", "Sometimes", "Most of the time", "Always". For cross-cultural equivalence, the protocol was applied to 15 individuals with vocal problems. In each question the option of "Not applicable" was added to the answer choices for identification of the questions not comprehended or not appropriate for the target population. Two individuals had difficulty answering two questions, which made it necessary to adapt the translation of only one of them. The modified ESV was applied to three individuals with vocal problems, and there were incomprehensible inappropriate questions for the Chilean culture. The ESV reflects the original English version, both in the number of questions and the limitations of the emotional and physical domains. There is now a cross-cultural equivalence of VoiSS in Chilean Spanish, titled ESV. The validation of the ESV for Chilean Spanish is ongoing. RESUMEN Este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la equivalencia cultural de la versión Chilena del protocolo Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS por medio de su adaptación cultural y lingüística. Después de la traducción del VoiSS para el Español Chileno, por dos fonoaudiólogos bilingües, y de la retro traducción para el inglés, se realizó una comparación de los ítems del instrumento original con la versión traducida, surgiendo discrepancias; tales divergencias fueron resueltas por un comité compuesto por

  2. Examination of some parameters of the kinematic model of SS433 based on an alternative theory of special relativity theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, M. G.

    On the basis of a new examination of the Michelson-Morley experiment, a theory is suggested, based on two principles and not on Lorentz transformations. The physical vacuum conception was revisited. Under these assumptions some parameters of the kinematic model of SS433 were reconsidered. A coincidence of some data of the theory with the special relativity conclusions for SS433 was noted in a plan of further investigations.

  3. Reduced infectivity of waterborne viable but nonculturable Helicobacter pylori strain SS1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Eaton, Kathryn A; Fontaine, Clinton; Brewster, Rebecca; Wu, Jianfeng; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Valdivieso, Manuel; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu

    2017-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to clean water and proper sanitation, but no studies have demonstrated that the transmission of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) H. pylori can occur from drinking contaminated water. In this study, we used a laboratory mouse model to test whether waterborne VBNCH. pylori could cause gastric infection. We performed five mouse experiments to assess the infectivity of VBNCH. pylori in various exposure scenarios. VBNC viability was examined using Live/Dead staining and Biolog phenotype metabolism arrays. High doses of VBNCH. pylori in water were chosen to test the "worst-case" scenario for different periods of time. One experiment also investigated the infectious capabilities of VBNC SS1 using gavage. Further, immunocompromised mice were exposed to examine infectivity among potentially vulnerable groups. After exposure, mice were euthanized and their stomachs were examined for H. pylori infection using culture and PCR methodology. VBNC cells were membrane intact and retained metabolic activity. Mice exposed to VBNCH. pylori via drinking water and gavage were not infected, despite the various exposure scenarios (immunocompromised, high doses) that might have permitted infection with VBNCH. pylori. The positive controls exposed to viable, culturable H. pylori did become infected. While other studies that have used viable, culturable SS1 via gavage or drinking water exposures to successfully infect mice, in our study, waterborne VBNC SS1 failed to colonize mice under all test conditions. Future studies could examine different H. pylori strains in similar exposure scenarios to compare the relative infectivity of the VBNC vs the viable, culturable state, which would help inform future risk assessments of H. pylori in water. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Search for Doppler-shifted gamma-ray emission from SS 433 using the SMM spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geldzahler, B. J.; Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.; Magura, J.; Chupp, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    Data accumulated from 1980 to 1983 with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer aboard NASA's Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite were searched for evidence of red and blue Doppler-shifted 1.37 MeV Mg-24 nuclear lines from SS 433. The SMM data base covers 270 days when SS 433 was in the field of view and includes periods of radio flaring and quiescence. No evidence was found for Doppler-shifted line emission in any of the spectra. The range of 3-sigma upper limits for individual 9 day integration periods was 0.0008-0.0023 photons/sq cm per sec for the blue beam, encompassing the reported about 1.5 MeV line, and 0.0008-0.002 photons/sq cm per sec for the red beam, encompassing the reported about 1.2 MeV line; the average 3-sigma upper limit in each beam for shifted about 1.37 MeV lines is 0.0015 photons/sq cm per sec for single 9 day integrations. The 3-sigma upper limit on 1.37 MeV gamma-ray emission over 23 9-day integration intervals for the red beam and 28 intervals for the blue beam is 0.0002 photons/sq cm per sec. These new limits from SMM can be reconciled with the HEAO 3 results only if SS 433 emits gamma radiation at or above the SMM sensitivity limit on rare occasions due to variable physical conditions in the system.

  5. Thick SS316 materials TIG welding development activities towards advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B. Ramesh; Gangradey, R.

    2012-11-01

    Advanced fusion reactors like ITER and up coming Indian DEMO devices are having challenges in terms of their materials design and fabrication procedures. The operation of these devices is having various loads like structural, thermo-mechanical and neutron irradiation effects on major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, magnets and blanket modules. The concept of double wall vacuum vessel (VV) is proposed in view of protecting of major reactor subsystems like super conducting magnets, diagnostic systems and other critical components from high energy 14 MeV neutrons generated from fusion plasma produced by D-T reactions. The double walled vacuum vessel is used in combination with pressurized water circulation and some special grade borated steel blocks to shield these high energy neutrons effectively. The fabrication of sub components in VV are mainly used with high thickness SS materials in range of 20 mm- 60 mm of various grades based on the required protocols. The structural components of double wall vacuum vessel uses various parts like shields, ribs, shells and diagnostic vacuum ports. These components are to be developed with various welding techniques like TIG welding, Narrow gap TIG welding, Laser welding, Hybrid TIG laser welding, Electron beam welding based on requirement. In the present paper the samples of 20 mm and 40 mm thick SS 316 materials are developed with TIG welding process and their mechanical properties characterization with Tensile, Bend tests and Impact tests are carried out. In addition Vickers hardness tests and microstructural properties of Base metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone are done. TIG welding application with high thick SS materials in connection with vacuum vessel requirements and involved criticalities towards welding process are highlighted.

  6. An evaluation of microbial growth and corrosion of 316L SS in glycol/seawater mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason S.; Ray, Richard I.; Lowe, Kristine L.; Jones-Meehan, Joanne; Little, Brenda J.

    2003-01-01

    Glycol/seawater mixtures containing > 50% glycol inhibit corrosion of 316L stainless steel and do not support bacterial growth. The results indicate bacteria are able to use low concentrations of glycol (10%) as a growth medium, but bacterial growth decreased with increasing glycol concentration. Pitting potential, determined by anodic polarization, was used to evaluate susceptibility of 316L SS to corrosion in seawater-contaminated glycol. Mixture containing a minimum concentration of 50% propylene glycol-based coolant inhibited pitting corrosion. A slightly higher minimum concentration (55%) was needed for corrosion protection in ethylene glycol mixtures.

  7. The Masses and Evolutionary State of the Stars in the Dwarf Nova SS Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitner, Martin A.; Robinson, Edward L.; Behr, Bradford B.

    2007-06-01

    The dwarf nova SS Cygni is a close binary star consisting of a K star transferring mass to a white dwarf by way of an accretion disk. We have obtained new spectroscopic observations of SS Cyg. Fits of synthetic spectra for Roche lobe-filling stars to the absorption-line spectrum of the K star yield the amplitude of the K star's radial velocity curve and the mass ratio, KK=162.5+/-1.0 km s-1 and q=MK/MWD=0.685+/-0.015. The fits also show that the accretion disk and white dwarf contribute a fraction f=0.535+/-0.075 of the total flux at 5500 Å. Taking the weighted average of our results with previously published results obtained using similar techniques, we find =163.7+/-0.7 km s-1 and =0.683+/-0.012. The orbital light curve of SS Cyg shows an ellipsoidal variation diluted by light from the disk and white dwarf. From an analysis of the ellipsoidal variations, we limit the orbital inclination to the range 45deg<=i<=56deg. The derived masses of the K star and white dwarf are MK=0.55+/-0.13 Msolar and MWD=0.81+/-0.19 Msolar, where the uncertainties are dominated by systematic errors in the orbital inclination. The K star in SS Cyg is 10%-50% larger than an unevolved star with the same mass and thus does not follow the mass-radius relation for zero-age main-sequence stars, nor does it follow the ZAMS mass-spectral type relation. Its mass and spectral type are, however, consistent with models in which the core hydrogen has been significantly depleted. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  8. Multiresolution imaging of mantle reflectivity structure using SS and P'P' precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Ryan; Gu, Yu J.

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge of the mantle reflectivity structure is highly dependent on our ability to efficiently extract, and properly interpret, small seismic arrivals. Among the various data types and techniques, long-period SS/PP precursors and high-frequency receiver functions are routinely utilized to increase the confidence of the recovered mantle stratifications at distinct spatial scales. However, low resolution and a complex Fresnel zone are glaring weaknesses of SS precursors, while over-reliance on receiver distribution is a formidable challenge for the analysis of converted waves from oceanic regions. A promising high frequency alternative to receiver functions is P'P' precursors, which are capable of resolving mantle structures at vertical and lateral resolution of ˜5 and ˜200 km, respectively, owing to their spectral content, shallow angle of incidence and near-symmetric Fresnel zones. This study presents a novel processing method for both SS (or PP) and P'P' precursors based on deconvolution, stacking, Radon transform and depth migration. A suite of synthetic tests is performed to quantify the fidelity and stability of this method under different data conditions. Our multiresolution survey of the mantle at targeted areas near Nazca-South America subduction zone reveal both olivine and garnet related transitions at depths below 400 km. We attribute a depressed 660 to thermal variations, whereas compositional variations atop the upper-mantle transition zone are needed to explain the diminished or highly complex reflected/scattered signals from the 410 km discontinuity. We also observe prominent P'P' reflections within the transition zone, and the anomalous amplitudes near the plate boundary zone indicate a sharp (˜10 km thick) transition that likely resonates with the frequency content of P'P' precursors. The migration of SS precursors in this study shows no evidence of split 660 reflections, but potential majorite-ilmenite (590-640 km) and ilmenite

  9. Simulation of kinematics of SS 433 radio jets that interact with the ambient medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panferov, A.

    2014-02-01

    Context. The mildly relativistic jets of SS 433 are believed to inflate the surrounding supernova remnant W 50, possibly depositing more than 99% of their kinetic energy in the remnant expansion. Where and how this transformation of the energy occurs is as yet unknown. We can learn from this that the jets decelerate and that this deceleration is non-dissipative. Aims: We uncover the deviation of the arcsecond-scale precessing radio jets of SS 433 from the ballistic locus described by the kinematic model as a signature of the dynamics issuing from the interaction of the jets with the ambient medium. Methods: To do this, we simulated the kinematics of these jets, taking into account the ram pressure on the jets, which we estimated from the profile of brightness of synchrotron radiation along the radio jets, assuming pressure balance in the jets. Results: We found that to fit an observable locus in all scales the radio jets need to be decelerated and twisted in addition to the precession torsion, mostly within the first one-fifth of the precession period, and subsequently they extend in a way that imitates ballistic jets. This jet kinematics implies a smaller distance to SS 433 than the currently accepted 5.5 kpc. The physical parameters of the jet model, which links jets dynamics with radiation, are physically reliable and characteristic for the SS 433 jets. The model proposes that beyond the radio-brightening zone, the jet clouds expand because they are in pressure balance with the intercloud medium, and heat up with distance according to the law T = 2 × 104(r/1015 cm)1.5 K. Conclusions: This model naturally explains and agrees with, the observed properties of the radio jets: a) the shock-pressed morphology; b) the brightness profile; c) the ~10% deflections of the jet kinematics from the standard kinematic model - a magnitude of the jet speed decrement in our simulation; d) the precession-phase deviations from the standard kinematic model predictions; e) the

  10. Roche tomography of cataclysmic variables - VIII. The irradiated and spotted dwarf nova, SS Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, C. A.; Smith, Robert Connon; Hebb, L.; Szkody, P.

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of our spectroscopic study of the dwarf nova SS Cyg, using Roche tomography to map the stellar surface and derive the system parameters. Given that this technique takes into account the inhomogeneous brightness distribution on the surface of the secondary star, our derived parameters are (in principle) the most robust yet found for this system. Furthermore, our surface maps reveal that the secondary star is highly spotted, with strongly asymmetric irradiation on the inner hemisphere. Moreover, by constructing Doppler tomograms of several Balmer emission lines, we find strong asymmetric emission from the irradiated secondary star, and an asymmetric accretion disc that exhibits spiral structures.

  11. SS 433: Total Coverage of 162-Day Precession Phase in Four Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The observations prior to AO-4 covered a number of precession phases, leaving a gap at phase 0.8. In addition, ASCA and previous observations of SS 433 did not observe the spectrum above approx. 10 keV, and consequently the continuum underlying the spectral lines was poorly constrained. Therefore RXTE observations were scheduled for April 1997 to extend the observed spectrum to higher energies; these observations were planned to sample the X-ray lightcurve during the 13.08 day binary period, concentrating on the eclipse of the compact object which emits the jets. We proposed and were awarded ASCA observations simultaneous with the RXTE observations; the purpose of the ASCA observations was to provide greater spectral resolution at the low end of the spectrum observed by RXTE, and to complete the phase coverage of SS 433. As a result of scheduling difficulties early in the mission the RXTE observations were confined to a much shorter time range than originally planned, April 18-91 1997. Optical observations of SS 433 were performed at a number of observatories. The ASCA observations occurred from April 18 13:10 (UT) to April 21 13:20 (UT) for a total effective exposure of 120 ks. The continuum X-ray light curve shows that the ASCA observations started shortly before the ingress into the X-ray partial eclipse, and ended approximately at the time of the egress. Light curves were also obtained for the prominent Fe emission lines in the blue-shifted frame (approaching jet), red-shifted frame (receding jet), and the stationary frame (fluorescent line from the ambient matter). Through the eclipse mapping technique using the light curves, the parameters of the jet emission model were constrained, showing that the kinetic power in the jet exceeds 104? erg s-l. If the energy source is gravitational accretion, as is commonly believed, the derived l;inetic power implies extremely supercritical accretion even for a black; hole with 10M. These results will be described more

  12. Upper Mantle Discontinuity Structure Beneath the Western Atlantic Ocean and Eastern North America from SS Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmerr, N. C.; Beghein, C.; Kostic, D.; Baldridge, A. M.; West, J. D.; Nittler, L. R.; Bull, A. L.; Montesi, L.; Byrne, P. K.; Hummer, D. R.; Plescia, J. B.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Lekic, V.; Schmidt, B. E.; Elkins, L. J.; Cooper, C. M.; ten Kate, I. L.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Parai, R.; Glass, J. B.; Ni, J.; Fuji, N.; McCubbin, F. M.; Michalski, J. R.; Zhao, C.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Koelemeijer, P.; Courtier, A. M.; Dalton, H.; Waszek, L.; Bahamonde, J.; Schmerr, B.; Gilpin, N.; Rosenshein, E.; Mach, K.; Ostrach, L. R.; Caracas, R.; Craddock, R. A.; Moore-Driskell, M. M.; Du Frane, W. L.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic discontinuities within the mantle arise from a wide range of mechanisms, including changes in mineralogy, major element composition, melt content, volatile abundance, anisotropy, or a combination of the above. In particular, the depth and sharpness of upper mantle discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth are attributed to solid-state phase changes sensitive to both mantle temperature and composition, where regions of thermal heterogeneity produce topography and chemical heterogeneity changes the impedance contrast across the discontinuity. Seismic mapping of this topography and sharpness thus provides constraint on the thermal and compositional state of the mantle. The EarthScope USArray is providing unprecedented access to a wide variety of new regions previously undersampled by the SS precursors. This includes the boundary between the oceanic plate in the western Atlantic Ocean and continental margin of eastern North America. Here we use a seismic array approach to image the depth, sharpness, and topography of the upper mantle discontinuities, as well as other possible upper mantle reflectors beneath this region. This array approach utilizes seismic waves that reflect off the underside of a mantle discontinuity and arrive several hundred seconds prior to the SS seismic phase as precursory energy. In this study, we collected high-quality broadband data SS precursors data from shallow focus (< 30 km deep), mid-Atlantic ridge earthquakes recorded by USArray seismometers in Alaska. We generated 4th root vespagrams to enhance the SS precursors and determine how they sample the mantle. Our data show detection of localized structure on the discontinuity boundaries as well as additional horizons, such as the X-discontinuity and a potential reflection from a discontinuity near the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. These structures are related to the transition from predominantly old ocean lithosphere to underlying continental lithosphere, as while

  13. Parameter Optimization Of Natural Hydroxyapatite/SS316l Via Metal Injection Molding (MIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, N.; Ibrahim1, M. H. I.; Amin, A. M.; Asmawi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Metal injection molding (MIM) are well known as a worldwide application of powder injection molding (PIM) where as applied the shaping concept and the beneficial of plastic injection molding but develops the applications to various high performance metals and alloys, plus metal matrix composites and ceramics. This study investigates the strength of green part by using stainless steel 316L/ Natural hydroxyapatite composite as a feedstock. Stainless steel 316L (SS316L) was mixed with Natural hydroxyapatite (NHAP) by adding 40 wt. % Low Density Polyethylene and 60 %wt. Palm Stearin as a binder system at 63 wt. % powder loading consist of 90 % wt. of SS316 L and 10 wt. % NHAP prepared thru critical powder volume percentage (CPVC). Taguchi method was functional as a tool in determining the optimum green strength for Metal Injection Molding (MIM) parameters. The green strength was optimized with 4 significant injection parameter such as Injection temperature (A), Mold temperature (B), Pressure (C) and Speed (D) were selected throughout screening process. An orthogonal array of L9 (3)4 was conducted. The optimum injection parameters for highest green strength were established at A1, B2, C0 and D1 and where as calculated based on Signal to Noise Ratio.

  14. Varieties of charge distributions in coat proteins of ssRNA+  viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lošdorfer Božič, Anže; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2018-01-01

    A major part of the interactions involved in the assembly and stability of icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA+) viruses is electrostatic in nature, as can be inferred from the strong pH- and salt-dependence of their assembly phase diagrams. Electrostatic interactions do not act only between the capsid coat proteins (CPs), but just as often provide a significant contribution to the interactions of the CPs with the genomic RNA, mediated to a large extent by positively charged, flexible N-terminal tails of the CPs. In this work, we provide two clear and complementary definitions of an N-terminal tail of a protein, and use them to extract the tail sequences of a large number of CPs of ssRNA+  viruses. We examine the pH-dependent interplay of charge on both tails and CPs alike, and show that—in contrast to the charge on the CPs—the net positive charge on the N-tails persists even to very basic pH values. In addition, we note a limit to the length of the wild-type genomes of those viruses which utilize positively charged tails, when compared to viruses without charged tails and similar capsid size. At the same time, we observe no clear connection between the charge on the N-tails and the genome lengths of the viruses included in our study.

  15. Caffeine inhibits gene conversion by displacing Rad51 from ssDNA

    PubMed Central

    Tsabar, Michael; Mason, Jennifer M.; Chan, Yuen-Ling; Bishop, Douglas K.; Haber, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient repair of chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination relies on the formation of a Rad51 recombinase filament that forms on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) created at DSB ends. This filament facilitates the search for a homologous donor sequence and promotes strand invasion. Recently caffeine treatment has been shown to prevent gene targeting in mammalian cells by increasing non-productive Rad51 interactions between the DSB and random regions of the genome. Here we show that caffeine treatment prevents gene conversion in yeast, independently of its inhibition of the Mec1ATR/Tel1ATM-dependent DNA damage response or caffeine's inhibition of 5′ to 3′ resection of DSB ends. Caffeine treatment results in a dosage-dependent eviction of Rad51 from ssDNA. Gene conversion is impaired even at low concentrations of caffeine, where there is no discernible dismantling of the Rad51 filament. Loss of the Rad51 filament integrity is independent of Srs2's Rad51 filament dismantling activity or Rad51's ATPase activity and does not depend on non-specific Rad51 binding to undamaged double-stranded DNA. Caffeine treatment had similar effects on irradiated HeLa cells, promoting loss of previously assembled Rad51 foci. We conclude that caffeine treatment can disrupt gene conversion by disrupting Rad51 filaments. PMID:26019181

  16. Molecular determinants of the DprA−RecA interaction for nucleation on ssDNA

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Johnny; Andreani, Jessica; Sanchez, Dyana; Boudes, Marion; Collinet, Bruno; Liger, Dominique; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Guérois, Raphael; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Natural transformation is a major mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria that depends on DNA recombination. RecA is central to the homologous recombination pathway, catalyzing DNA strand invasion and homology search. DprA was shown to be a key binding partner of RecA acting as a specific mediator for its loading on the incoming exogenous ssDNA. Although the 3D structures of both RecA and DprA have been solved, the mechanisms underlying their cross-talk remained elusive. By combining molecular docking simulations and experimental validation, we identified a region on RecA, buried at its self-assembly interface and involving three basic residues that contact an acidic triad of DprA previously shown to be crucial for the interaction. At the core of these patches, DprAM238 and RecAF230 are involved in the interaction. The other DprA binding regions of RecA could involve the N-terminal α-helix and a DNA-binding region. Our data favor a model of DprA acting as a cap of the RecA filament, involving a DprA−RecA interplay at two levels: their own oligomeric states and their respective interaction with DNA. Our model forms the basis for a mechanistic explanation of how DprA can act as a mediator for the loading of RecA on ssDNA. PMID:24782530

  17. Impact of the Arizona NExSS Winter School on Astrobiology Knowledge and Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Burnam-Fink, Michael; Desch, Steven J; Scalice, Daniella; Davis, Hilarie; Huff, Cierra J; Apai, Dániel

    2018-03-01

    Astrobiology is an inherently interdisciplinary area of study, demanding communication across multiple fields: astronomy, geochemistry, planetary science, and so on. Successful communication requires that researchers be aware of the basic findings, open questions, and tools and techniques of allied fields and possess an appreciation and respect for what these fields consider good science. To facilitate this communication between early-career researchers, the Arizona NExSS Winter School was hosted in February 2016, bringing together graduate students and postdoctoral researchers from backgrounds spanning the field of astrobiology. Students virtually attended a scientific Workshop Without Walls and participated in lectures, discussions, field trips, and hands-on activities, culminating in the writing and review of mock proposals by interdisciplinary teams. We assess the impact of the school on interdisciplinarity using a pre- and posttest survey of 24 students, informed by National Science Foundation impact categories (Friedman et al., 2008 ) within the Impact Analysis Method (IAM) described by Davis and Scalice ( 2015 ). We demonstrate that students gained knowledge, especially in fields outside their home discipline. Furthermore, an underlying disciplinary divide between geochemists and planetary scientists on the role of life in planetary evolution is observed and interpreted. These findings demonstrate that the Arizona NExSS Winter School had measurable impact on interdisciplinarity and that the IAM rubric has utility in measuring impact. We make recommendations for further research to understand the interdisciplinary gaps in astrobiology and how best to bridge them. Key Words: Interdisciplinarity-Attitudes-Knowledge-Scientific dialogue-Training. Astrobiology 18, 365-375.

  18. X-ray variability of SS 433: Evidence for supercritical accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atapin, K. E.; Fabrika, S. N.

    2016-08-01

    We study the X-ray variability of SS 433 based on data from the ASCA observatory and the MAXI and RXTE/ASM monitoring missions. Based on the ASCA data, we have constructed the power spectrum of SS 433 in the frequency range from 10-6 to 0.1 Hz, which confirms the presence of a flat portion in the spectrum at frequencies 3 × 10-5-10-3 Hz. The periodic variability (precession, nutation, eclipses) begins to dominate significantly over the stochastic variability at lower frequencies, which does not allow the stochastic variability to be studied reliably. The model in which the flat portion extends to 9.5 × 10-6 Hz, while a power-law rise with an index of 2.6 occurs below provides the best agreement with the observations. The nutational oscillations of the jets with a period of about three days suggests that the time for the passage of material through the disk is less than this value. At frequencies below 4 × 10-6 Hz, the shape of the power spectrum probably does not reflect the disk structure but is determined by external factors, for example, by a change in the amount of material supplied by the donor. The flat portion can arise from a rapid decrease in the viscous time in the supercritical or radiative disk zones. The flat spectrum is associated with the variability of the X-ray jets that are formed in the supercritical disk region.

  19. NExSS/NAI Joint ExoPAG SAG 16 Report on Remote Biosignatures for Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Nancy Y.; Parenteau, Mary Nicole; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn

    2017-01-01

    Future exoplanet observations will soon focus on the search for life beyond the Solar System. Exoplanet biosignatures to be sought are those with global, potentially detectable, impacts on a planet. Biosignatures occur in an environmental context in which geological, atmospheric, and stellar processes and interactions may work to enhance, suppress or mimic these biosignatures. Thus biosignature scienceis inherently interdisciplinary. Its advance is necessary to inform the design of the next flagship missions that will obtain spectra of habitable extrasolar planets. The NExSS NAI Joint Exoplanet Biosignatures Workshop Without Walls brought together the astrobiology, exoplanet, and mission concept communities to review, discuss, debate, and advance the science of remote detection of planetary biosignatures. The multi-meeting workshop began in June 2016, and was a process that engaged a broad range of experts across the interdisciplinary reaches of NASA's Nexus for Exoplanet System Science (NExSS) program, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI), NASAs Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP), and international partners, such as the European Astrobiology Network Association (EANA) and Japans Earth Life Science Institute (ELSI). These groups spanned expertise in astronomy, planetary science, Earth sciences, heliophysics, biology, instrument mission development, and engineering.

  20. A Pseudomonas T6SS effector recruits PQS-containing outer membrane vesicles for iron acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jinshui; Zhang, Weipeng; Cheng, Juanli; Yang, Xu; Zhu, Kaixiang; Wang, Yao; Wei, Gehong; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Luo, Zhao-Qing; Shen, Xihui

    2017-01-01

    Iron sequestration by host proteins contributes to the defence against bacterial pathogens, which need iron for their metabolism and virulence. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant lacking all three known iron acquisition systems retains the ability to grow in media containing iron chelators, suggesting the presence of additional pathways involved in iron uptake. Here we screen P. aeruginosa mutants defective in growth in iron-depleted media and find that gene PA2374, proximal to the type VI secretion system H3 (H3-T6SS), functions synergistically with known iron acquisition systems. PA2374 (which we have renamed TseF) appears to be secreted by H3-T6SS and is incorporated into outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) by directly interacting with the iron-binding Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), a cell–cell signalling compound. TseF facilitates the delivery of OMV-associated iron to bacterial cells by engaging the Fe(III)-pyochelin receptor FptA and the porin OprF. Our results reveal links between type VI secretion, cell–cell signalling and classic siderophore receptors for iron acquisition in P. aeruginosa. PMID:28348410

  1. SS/RCS surface tension propellant acquisition/expulsion tankage technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of published propellant physical property data together with bubble point tests of fine-mesh screen in propellants, was conducted. The effort consisted of: (1) the collection and evaluation of pertinent physical property data for hydrazine (N2H4), monomethylhydrazine (MMH), and nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4); (2) testing to determine the effect of dissolved pressurant gas, temperature, purity, and system cleanliness or contamination on system bubble point, and (3) the compilation and publishing of both the literature and test results. The space shuttle reaction control system (SS/RCS) is a bipropellant system using N2O4 and MMH, while the auxiliary power system (SS/APU) employs monopropellant N2H4. Since both the RCS and the APU use a surface tension device for propellant acquisition, the propellant properties of interest are those which impact the design and operation of surface tension systems. Information on propellant density, viscosity, surface tension, and contact angle was collected, compiled, and evaluated.

  2. Sequence analysis of mitochondrial ND1 gene can reveal the genetic structure and origin of Bactrocera dorsalis s.s.

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., is one of the most important quarantine pests in many countries, including China. Although the oriental fruit fly has been investigated extensively, its origins and genetic structure remain disputed. In this study, the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) gene was used as a genetic marker to examine the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow of B. dorsalis s.s. throughout its range in China and southeast Asia. Results Haplotype networks and phylogenetic analysis indicated two distinguishable lineages of the fly population but provided no strong support for geographical subdivision in B. philippinensis. Demographic analysis revealed rapid expansion of B. dorsalis s.s. populations in China and Southeast Asia in the recent years. The greatest amount of genetic diversity was observed in Manila, Pattaya, and Bangkok, and asymmetric migration patterns were observed in different parts of China. The data collected here further show that B. dorsalis s.s. in Yunnan, Guangdong, and Fujian Provinces, and in Taiwan might have different origins within southeast Asia. Conclusions Using the mitochondrial ND1 gene, the results of the present study showed B. dorsalis s.s. from different parts of China to have different genetic structures and origins. B. dorsalis s.s. in China and southeast Asia was found to have experienced rapid expansion in recent years. Data further support the existence of two distinguishable lineages of B. dorsalis s.s. in China and indicate genetic diversity and gene flow from multiple origins. The sequences in this paper have been deposited in GenBank/NCBI under accession numbers KC413034–KC413367. PMID:24655832

  3. Serotoninergic neuronal systems and ethanol sensitivity in long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.A.; Weiner, N.

    LS and SS mice selectively bred for differences in CNS sensitivity to ethanol (EtOH) exhibit markedly different sleep times (LS = 120 min; SS = 13 min) and differ considerably in hypothermic response following EtOH< 4 g/kg i.p. Basal levels of serotonin (5HT), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and 5HT turnover (defined as 5-hydroxy-tryptophan accumulation after inhibition of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) in 6 brain regions (hypthalamus (HYP), dorsal raphe (DR), pontine-medullary raphe (PMR), striatum (STR), hippocampus (HIP) and cortex (CTX)) differ minimally between the two lines. 5 HT turnover in STR, HIP, CTX and PMR of either LS or SS micemore » or in HYP or DR of SS mice was not altered at either 20 or 120 min after EtOH, 4 g/kg. However, in LS mice, 5HT turnover was decreased 23% in HYP at 20 min and 30-34% in HYP and DR at 120 min. LS mice become 1.2 and 2.2/sup 0/ more hypothermic than SS mice at 20 and 120 min after EtOH, 4 g/kg. When approximately equi-effective hypothermic doses of EtOH were administered to LS (3.5 g/kg) and SS (5.0 g/kg) mice, differences in 5HT turnover were still apparent. Pentobarbital administration (65 mg/kg) both decreased brain 5HT turnover 30-60% and produced comparable degrees of hypothermia in LS and SS mice. These data suggest that the apparent increase in sensitivity to inhibition by EtOH of 5HT neurons of HYP and DR of LS mice may contribute to the greater degree of hypothermia induced in this line.« less

  4. HIV-Derived ssRNA Binds to TLR8 to Induce Inflammation-Driven Macrophage Foam Cell Formation

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Mark A.; Han, Xinbing; Inderbitzin, Sonya; Agbim, Ifunanya; Zhao, Hui; Koziel, Henry; Tachado, Souvenir D.

    2014-01-01

    Even though combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) dramatically improves patient survival, they remain at a higher risk of being afflicted with non-infectious complications such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is linked to persistent inflammation and chronic immune activation. In this study, we assessed whether this complication is related to HIV-derived ssRNAs inducing in macrophages increases in TNFα release through TLR8 activation leading to foam cell formation. HIV ssRNAs induced foam cell formation in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) in a dose-dependent manner. This response was reduced when either endocytosis or endosomal acidification was inhibited by dynasore or chloroquine, respectively. Using a flow cytometry FRET assay, we demonstrated that ssRNAs bind to TLR8 in HEK cells. In MDMs, ssRNAs triggered a TLR8-mediated inflammatory response that ultimately lead to foam cell formation. Targeted silencing of the TLR8 and MYD88 genes reduced foam cell formation. Furthermore, foam cell formation induced by these ssRNAs was blocked by an anti-TNFα neutralizing antibody. Taken together in MDMs, HIV ssRNAs are internalized; bind TLR8 in the endosome followed by endosomal acidification. TLR8 signaling then triggers TNFα release and ultimately leads to foam cell formation. As this response was inhibited by a blocking anti-TNFα antibody, drug targeting HIV ssRNA-driven TLR8 activation may serve as a potential therapeutic target to reduce chronic immune activation and inflammation leading to CVD in HIV+ patients. PMID:25090652

  5. Redox-sensitive micelles assembled from amphiphilic mPEG-PCL-SS-DTX conjugates for the delivery of docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiyuan; Wang, Kaiming; Zhang, Pei; He, Wenxiu; Song, Aixin; Luan, Yuxia

    2016-06-01

    Docetaxel (DTX) can produce anti-tumor effects by inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis. However, the poor solubility of DTX restricts its application and its clinical formulation has caused serious adverse reaction due to the use of Tween-80. In the present study, DTX was conjugated to an amphiphilic di-block polymer to solve these problems. Methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) was selected as the polymer skeleton and a redox sensitive disulfide bond was used as the linker between DTX and mPEG-PCL. The synthesized mPEG-PCL-SS-DTX conjugates were characterized by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Interestingly, the mPEG-PCL-SS-DTX conjugates could self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of mPEG-PCL-SS-DTX micelles was about 2.3mgL(-1) determined using pyrene molecule fluorescent probe method while the size of mPEG-PCL-SS-DTX micelles was determined to be ca. 17.6nm and 116.0nm with a bimodal distribution by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The in vitro release results indicated that the as-prepared micelles exhibited a sustained release profile with good redox sensitive properties. In particular, the hemolytic toxicity test indicated the as-prepared mPEG-PCL-SS-DTX micelles had negligible hemolytic activity, demonstrating their safety in drug delivery system. Cytotoxicity assay of the mPEG-PCL-SS-DTX micelles verified their highly enhanced cytotoxicity to MCF-7/A and A549 cells. These results thus demonstrated that the present redox-sensitive mPEG-PCL-SS-DTX micelle was an efficient and safe sustained drug delivery system in the biomedical area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Intra-instar larval cannibalism in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Crasta, Graziano; Bellini, Romeo; Comandatore, Francesco; Rossi, Paolo; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio; Urbanelli, Sandra

    2016-11-02

    Cannibalism has been observed in a wide range of animal taxa and its importance in persistence and stability of populations has been documented. In anopheline malaria vectors the inter-instar cannibalism between fourth- and first-instar larvae (L4-L1) has been shown in several species, while intra-instar cannibalism remains poorly investigated. In this study we tested the occurrence of intra-instar cannibalism within larvae of second-, third- and fourth-instar (L2, L3 and L4) of Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and An. stephensi. Experiments were set up under laboratory conditions and the effects of larval density, duration of the contact period among larvae and the presence of an older larva (i.e. a potential cannibal of bigger size) on cannibalism rate were analysed. Cannibalism was assessed by computing the number of missing larvae after 24 and 48 h from the beginning of the experiments and further documented by records with a GoPro videocamera. Intra-instar cannibalism was observed in all larval instars of both species with higher frequency in An. gambiae (s.s.) than in An. stephensi. In both species the total number of cannibalistic events increased from 0-24 to 0-48 h. The density affected the cannibalism rate, but its effect was related to the larval instar and to the presence of older larvae. Interestingly, the lower cannibalism rate between L4 larvae was observed at the highest density and the cannibalism rate between L3 larvae decreased when one L4 was added. The present study provides experimental evidence of intra-instar cannibalism in the malaria vectors An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. stephensi and highlights the possible occurrence of complex interactions between all larval instars potentially present in the breeding sites. We hypothesize that the high density and the presence of a potential cannibal of bigger size could affect the readiness to attack conspecifics, resulting into low risk larval behavior and lower cannibalism rate. The understanding of

  7. Behaviour of mantle transition zone discontinuities beneath the Indian Ocean from PP and SS precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Anne-Sophie; Thomas, Christine

    2015-04-01

    As part of the RHUM-RUM project we investigate the upwelling plume beneath the island La Réunion, located in the Indian Ocean 200 km east of Madagascar. This plume belongs to one of the most active hotspot regions in the world and is still active today. Understanding the depth origin and dimensions of such a plume helps to better understand mantle processes and the heat flux of the Earth. If the plume originates at the core-mantle boundary the Earth is cooled down differently compared with an indirect cooling of plumes originating in the upper mantle. Here we use underside reflections of PP and SS waves off the seismic discontinuities at 410 km and 660 km depth that arrive as precursors to the main phase in order to investigate the topography of these discontinuities that mark the top and bottom of the mantle transition zone. If hotter or colder material intersects the mantle transition zone, the discontinuities at 410 km and 660 km depth are deflected, hence the topography of the mantle transition zone can be an indicator for an upwelling plume. The 410 km discontinuity, which exists due to the phase change of olivine to spinel, should be depressed significantly in the presence of hot upwelling material. Because of the opposite Clapeyron slope of the phase change of spinel to magnesiowuestite and perovskite at 660 km depth, the topography of this discontinuity should be elevated. For this study we analyse over 200 events with Mw ≥ 5.8 and bounce points distributed over the entire Indian Ocean. Array seismology methods, such as vespagrams and slowness-backazimuth analysis, are used to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio and detect and identify precursors. Using different source-receiver combinations enables us to get a dense coverage of bounce points of PP and SS waves in the Indian Ocean and especially around La Réunion, also with crossing ray paths. The differential travel times of PP and SS arrivals and their precursors of robust stacks are converted into

  8. Microstructural and Electrochemical Evaluation of Fusion Welded Low-Nickel and 304 SS at Different Heat Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansod, Ankur V.; Patil, Awanikumar P.; Moon, Abhijeet P.; Shukla, Sourabh

    2017-12-01

    The present research study investigates the effect of heat input using E 308 electrode (controlled by welding current, i.e., 70, 85 and 100 A) on microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of low-nickel and 304 stainless steel (SS) weldments produced by shielded metal arc welding technique. SEM investigation shows that with the higher heat input, δ-ferrite content was reduced. Dendrite and inter-dendritic length is also reduced by lowering the heat input. For all the heat inputs, it is observed that δ-ferrite content was higher in 304 stainless steel (SS) as compared to that of low-nickel austenitic stainless steel (Cr-Mn SS). Considering the heat input for Cr-Mn SS, coarse grains were observed in the heat-affected zone region. For low heat input (LHI), tensile fracture surface has exhibited river-like pattern with dimple appearance. Corrosion studies show better pitting resistance for low heat input (LHI) samples due to higher δ-ferrite present in the weld region. Similarly, higher interphase corrosion resistance is observed in both the SS grades causing more dissolution in the LHI samples.

  9. Reprint of "Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia".

    PubMed

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A. nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics of interstitial lung disease in SS-A positive/Jo-1 positive inflammatory myopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Váncsa, Andrea; Csípo, I; Németh, J; Dévényi, K; Gergely, L; Dankó, K

    2009-07-01

    The strongest predictive factor for the development of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in myositis (IIM) patients is the presence of different antisynthetase antibodies. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics, radiological findings and therapeutic response between the anti-SS-A positive and negative antisynthetase syndrome (ASS) patients. A prospective study of 315 IIM patients was conducted including 27 anti-Jo-1 positive ASS patients. Mean disease duration was 46.6 (range 4-198) months. All patients fulfilled the classification criteria for IIM. All patients underwent chest radiography, pulmonary function tests and HRCT at he time of diagnosis and 6 months after the immunosuppressive therapy. Routine laboratory tests, RF, ANA, anti-ENA, anti-SS-A, anti-histidyl-transfer RNA antibody (Jo-1) measurements were performed in all patients. ILD was found to be present in 70.4% of ASS patients. The anti-SS-A negative ASS group had a more frequent association with alveolitis and responded well to immunosuppressive therapy (p < 0.05). HRCT scan showed more fibrosis in the SS-A positive group. 15.8% of patients died due to pulmonary or cardiac complications. In conclusion, coexistence of anti-SS-A and anti-Jo-1 antibody may be a good predictor for a more coarse and severe ILD in IIM patients who require a more aggressive approach in therapy.

  11. Vocal Tract Discomfort Scale (VTDS) and Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS) in the Evaluation of Patients With Voice Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; de Oliveira Florencio, Vanessa; Silva, Priscila Oliveira Costa; da Nóbrega E Ugulino, Ana Celiane; Almeida, Anna Alice

    2018-01-04

    We aimed to correlate the Vocal Tract Discomfort Scale (VTDS) with the Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS) for evaluation of patients with dysphonia. In addition, we aimed to compare vocal tract discomfort symptoms in patients with and without self-reported voice problem. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and retrospective study. We analyzed 143 women and 62 men with voice disorders, as confirmed by endoscopic larynx examination. All patients completed the VTDS and VoiSS at vocal evaluation. Descriptive statistics and the Spearman correlation test were applied to all variables. The degree of covariance of variables was noted. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the average number of discomfort symptoms among patients with and without self-reported voice problems. A weak to moderate positive correlation was observed between the average number, frequency, and intensity of comfort symptom and the total score, physical domain score, and limitation domain score of the VoiSS. The vocal tract discomfort symptoms and the emotional domain score of the VoiSS were weakly correlated. Patients with self-reported voice problems had a higher number, frequency, and intensity of vocal tract discomfort symptoms. There is correlation between the VTDS and VoiSS scales, with greater references to vocal tract discomfort symptom in patients with self-reported voice problems. Therefore, the discomfort symptoms seem to influence the perception of the impact of a voice problem. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemostat studies of bacteriophage M13 infected Escherichia coli JM109 for continuous ssDNA production.

    PubMed

    Kick, Benjamin; Behler, Karl Lorenz; Severin, Timm Steffen; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2017-09-20

    Steady state studies in a chemostat enable the control of microbial growth rate at defined reaction conditions. The effects of bacteriophage M13 infection on maximum growth rate of Escherichia coli JM109 were studied in parallel operated chemostats on a milliliter-scale to analyze the steady state kinetics of phage production. The bacteriophage infection led to a decrease in maximum specific growth rate of 15% from 0.74h -1 to 0.63h -1 . Under steady state conditions, a constant cell specific ssDNA formation rate of 0.15±0.004 mg ssDNA g CDW -1 h -1 was observed, which was independent of the growth rate. Using the estimated kinetic parameters for E. coli infected with bacteriophage M13, the ssDNA concentration in the steady state could be predicted as function of the dilution rate and the glucose concentration in the substrate. Scalability of milliliter-scale data was approved by steady state studies on a liter-scale at a selected dilution rate. An ssDNA space-time yield of 5.7mgL -1 h -1 was achieved with increased glucose concentration in the feed at a dilution rate of 0.3h -1 , which is comparable to established fed-batch fermentation with bacteriophage M13 for ssDNA production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Studies with pyrethroids (kadethrin and deltamethrin) and lindane in ethanol sensitive (LS) and insensitive (SS) mouse strains

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, J.; Baker, R.C.; Deitrich, R.

    1990-02-26

    Ethanol (E) sensitive (LS) and insensitive (SS) mouse strains are distinguished by their sleeping time to a given dose of E and the locus for this difference is at the level of the neuron. In attempts to understand the neuropharmacological basis of insecticide action and to further define the differences in these mouse lines, LS and SS mice were dosed with type I (kadethrine, K) and II (deltamethrin, D) pyrethroids and lindane (L). These compounds were selected because their proposed modes of action are on the Na+ channel (K and D) and/or the GABA receptor ionophore (D and L). Nomore » consistent differences in the effects of K, D or L in the SS and LS mouse lines were evident. In preliminary studies both SS and LS mice dosed with 50 or 100 {mu}g/brain of L (intracerebroventricularly) but not D slept much longer (2-3X) than when dosed with E alone, an effect opposite of that predicted from L's known excitatory action. These data indicate that as far as can be distinguished by pyrethroids and L, the Na+ channel and GABA receptor/ionophore complex are similar in both the LS and SS mouse lines.« less

  14. Identification of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus type III secretion system 2-associated chaperone VocC for the T3SS2-specific effector VopC.

    PubMed

    Akeda, Yukihiro; Kodama, Toshio; Saito, Kazunobu; Iida, Tetsuya; Oishi, Kazunori; Honda, Takeshi

    2011-11-01

    The enteropathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus possesses two sets of type III secretion systems, T3SS1 and T3SS2. Effector proteins secreted by these T3SSs are delivered into host cells, leading to cell death or diarrhea. However, it is not known how specific effectors are secreted through a specific T3SS when both T3SSs are expressed within bacteria. One molecule thought to determine secretion specificity is a T3SS-associated chaperone; however, no T3SS2-specific chaperone has been identified. Therefore, we screened T3SS2 chaperone candidates by a pull-down assay using T3SS2 effectors fused with glutathione-S-transferase. A secretion assay revealed that the newly identified cognate chaperone VocC for the T3SS2-specific effector VopC was required for the efficient secretion of the substrate through T3SS2. Further experiments determined the chaperone-binding domain and the amino-terminal secretion signal of the cognate effector. These findings, in addition to the previously identified T3SS1-specific chaperone, VecA, provide a strategy to clarify the specificity of effector secretion through T3SSs of V. parahaemolyticus. 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of stress relaxation mechanisms for ductility improvement in SS316L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, Anand; Gokhale, Aditya; Jain, Jayant; Hariharan, Krishnaswamy; Cizek, Pavel; Barnett, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Stress relaxation during plastic deformation has been reported to improve ductility and alter the mechanical properties of metallic materials. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of various mechanisms responsible for this in stainless steel SS 316L. The fractography of the tested samples is analysed using an image analyser and the void fraction at failure is correlated with the corresponding mechanisms. The parametric studies on stress relaxation at different pre-strain and relaxation time correlate well with the fractography results supporting the proposed mechanisms. TEM investigation of dislocation structures and void characterisation further confirm the role of dislocation annihilation. Moreover, a novel indentation technique combining micro- and nano-indentation techniques is used to verify the role of stress homogenisation mechanism.

  16. [Myocardiopathy diagnosed in utero in a mother with SS-A antibodies treated with plasmapheresis].

    PubMed

    Arroyave, C M; Puente Ledezma, F; Montiel Amoroso, G; Martínez García, A C

    1995-03-01

    We report a 36 years old patient with Sjogren's syndrome, who during her second pregnancy, the product developed a miocardiopathy with complete heart block that was diagnosed in utero at 26 weeks of pregnancy. Simultaneously, laboratory data reported a SS-A/Ro titer of 1:50,000 with positive antiphospholipids antibodies. Patient was subjected three times to plasmapheresis with three blood volume exchange each time. During the procedures, we had monitor the product and no hemodinamic changes were observed. Unfortunately, 25 days later the patient reported absence of fetal movement and by ecosonography and Doppler was not observed fetal movement or cardiac function. This pregnancy ends in cesarea. The patient is in perfect clinical conditions under control using prednisone and methotrexate.

  17. The ss(bar sign) component of the proton and the strangeness magnetic moment

    SciTech Connect

    Riska, D. O.; Zou, B. S.

    2006-07-11

    The implications of the empirical indications for a positive strangeness magnetic moment on the possible configurations of the uudss(bar sign) component of the proton are analysed. A positive value for {mu}s is obtained in the ss(bar sign) configuration where the uuds subsystem is in an orbitally excited state with [4]FS[22]F[22]S flavor-spin symmetry, which is likely to have the lowest energy. The configurations in which the s-bar is orbitally excited, which include the conventional K+{lambda}0 configuration, with exception of that in which the uuds component has spin 2, yield negative values for {mu}s. The hidden strangeness analogues of recently proposed quarkmore » cluster models for the {theta}+ pentaquark give differing signs for {mu}s.« less

  18. PREFACE: The 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dengqing; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013) run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and hosted by Harbin Institute of Technology (China) from 7-9 January 2013. The conference has been organized in collaboration with the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and follows a one day seminar on Ropes, Cables, Belts and Chains: Theory and Applications and the MoSS2006 symposium held at the University of Northampton (UK) in 2004 and 2006, respectively, the MoSS2008 symposium held at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (USA) in 2008 and the MoSS2010 symposium hosted by Mondragon University and held in San Sebastian (Spain) in 2010. The remit of the Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures series involves a broad range of scientific areas. Applications of slender structures include terrestrial, marine and space systems. Moving elastic elements such as ropes, cables, belts and tethers are pivotal components of many engineering systems. Their lengths often vary when the system is in operation. The applications include vertical transportation installations and, more recently, space tether propulsion systems. Traction drive elevator installations employ ropes and belts of variable length as a means of suspension, and also for the compensation of tensile forces over the traction sheave. In cranes and mine hoists, cables and ropes are subject to length variation in order to carry payloads. Tethers experiencing extension and retraction are important components of offshore and marine installations, as well as being proposed for a variety of different space vehicle propulsion systems based on different applications of momentum exchange and electrodynamic interactions with planetary magnetic fields. Furthermore, cables and slender rods are used extensively in civil engineering

  19. A PIONIER and Incisive Look at the Interacting Binary SS Lep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blind, N.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Berger, J.-P.; Lebouquin, J.-B.; Mérand, A.

    2011-09-01

    Symbiotic stars are excellent laboratories to study a broad range of poorly understood physical processes, such as mass loss of red giants, accretion onto compact objects, and evolution of nova-like outbursts. As their evolution is strongly influenced by the mass transfer episodes, understanding the history of these systems requires foremost to determine which process is at play: Roche lobe overflow, stellar wind accretion, or some more complex mixture of both. We report here an interferometric study of the symbiotic system SS Leporis, performed with the unique PIONIER instrument. By determining the binary orbit and revisiting the parameters of the two stars, we show that the giant does not fill its Roche lobe, and that the mass transfer most likely occurs via the accretion of an important part of the giant's wind.

  20. [Studies on purification and properties of antagonistic protein from bacteria SS02 of Paenibacillus daejeonensis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kai; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Ren, Zhi; Feng, Ding-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Ding

    2007-07-01

    The antifungal, anti-bacterical, anti-brine shrimp activities of SD22 isolated from Paenibacillus daejeonensis Bacteria SS02 were studied. The separation steps included ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration and (NH4)2SO4 fractional precipitation, further purification was performed by SephadexG-75 and DEAE-32 chromatography. Its molecular weight determined by SDS-PAGE was 56.0 kD and its isoelectfic point was 6.4. SD22 was thermostable to some extent and stable to ultraviolet, but sensitive to some of the enzyme. SD22 could kill most pathogens from propagation, such as Rhizoctonia cerealis, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Physalospora piricala, Trichodema viride, Gliocladium viride, Curvularia leaf spot, Fusarium sp, Fusarium head blight, Beauveria Bassiana, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis , Candidal vaginitis, Fusarium oxysporum Schl. emend. Sayder & Hansem et al. The results will be helpful to find out a novel antifungal protein.

  1. Periodicity Analysis of X-ray Light Curves of SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-yi; Lu, Xiang-long; Zhao, Qiu-wen; Dong, Dian-qiao; Lao, Bao-qiang; Lu, Yang; Wei, Yan-heng; Wu, Xiao-cong; An, Tao

    2017-01-01

    SS 433 is sofar the unique X-ray binary that has the simultaneously detected orbital period, super-orbital period, and nutation period, as well as a bidirectional spiral jet. The study on its X-ray light variability is helpful for understanding the dynamic process of the system, and the correlations between the different wavebands. In this paper, two time-series analysis techniques, i.e., the Lomb-Scargle periodogram and weighted wavelet Z-transform, are employed to search for the periods in the Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope) (15-50 keV) and RXTE/ASM (Rose X-ray Timing Explorer/All Sky Monitor) (1.5-3, 3- 4, and 5-12 keV) light curves of SS 433, and the Monte Carlo simulation is performed for the obtained periodical components. For the 15-50 keV energy band, five significant periodical components are detected, which are P1(∼6.29 d), P2 (∼6.54 d), P3 (∼13.08 d), P4 (∼81.50 d), and P5 (∼162.30 d). For the 3-5 and 5-12 keV energy bands, the periodical components P3 (∼13 d) and P5 (∼162 d) are detected in both energy bands. However, for the 1.5-3 keV energy band, no significant periodic signal is detected. P5 is the strongest periodic signal in the power spectrum for all the energy bands of 3-5, 5-12, and 15-50 keV, and it is consistent with the previous result obtained from the study of optical light curves. Furthermore, in combination with the radio spiral jet of SS 433, it is suggested that the X-ray and optical variability of P5 (∼162 d) is probably related to the precession of its relativistic jet. The high correlation between the X-ray and optical light curves may also imply that the X-ray and optical radiations are of the same physical origin. P3 shows a good agreement with the orbital period (∼13.07 d) obtained by the previous study, and P2 and P4 are respectively the high-frequency harmonics of P3 and P5. P1 is detected only in the power spectrum of the 15-50 keV energy band, and it is consistent with the nutation period of the system. As

  2. Corrosion Testing of 304L SS 3013 Inner Container and Teardrop Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Tokash, Justin Charles; Hill, Mary Ann; Lillard, Scott

    The Department of Energy (DOE) 3013 Standard specifies a minimum of two containers to be used for the storage of plutonium-bearing materials containing at least 30 wt.% plutonium and uranium. Three nested containers are typically used, the outer, inner, and convenience containers, shown in Figure 1. Both the outer and inner containers are sealed with a weld while the innermost convenience container must not be sealed. Lifetime of the containers is expected to be fifty years. The containers are fabricated of austenitic stainless steels (SS) due to their high corrosion resistance. Potential failure mechanisms of the storage containers have beenmore » examined by Kolman and Lillard et al.« less

  3. Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2: a new kind of T3SS?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingxu; Guo, Zhiyan; Duan, Qiangde; Hardwidge, Philip R; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2014-03-19

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are employed by Gram-negative bacteria to deliver effector proteins into the cytoplasm of infected host cells. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli use a T3SS to deliver effector proteins that result in the creation of the attaching and effacing lesions. The genome sequence of the Escherichia coli pathotype O157:H7 revealed the existence of a gene cluster encoding components of a second type III secretion system, the E. coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2). Researchers have revealed that, although ETT2 may not be a functional secretion system in most (or all) strains, it still plays an important role in bacterial virulence. This article summarizes current knowledge regarding the E. coli ETT2, including its genetic characteristics, prevalence, function, association with virulence, and prospects for future work.

  4. Combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of surface modified SS410 stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarendra, H. J.; Pratap, M. S.; Karthik, S.; Punitha Kumara, M. S.; Rajath, H. C.; Ranjith, H.; Shubhatunga, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    Slurry erosion and combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of thermal spray coatings are studied and compared with the as-received martensitic stainless steel material. 70Ni-Cr coatings are deposited on SS 410 material through plasma thermal spray process. The synergy effect of the combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of plasma thermal spray coatings were investigated in a slurry pot tester in the presence of bluff bodies known as Cavitation Inducers. Results showed the combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of martensitic stainless steel - 410 can be improved by plasma thermal spray coating. It is observed that the plasma spray coated specimens are better erosion resistant than the as- received material, subjected to erosion test under similar conditions. As-received and the surface modified steels are mechanically characterized for its hardness, bending. Morphological studies are conducted through scanning electron microscope.

  5. Differential biotin labelling of the cell envelope proteins in lipopolysaccharidic diderm bacteria: Exploring the proteosurfaceome of Escherichia coli using sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin and sulfo-NHS-PEG4-bismannose-SS-biotin.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Ricardo; Chafsey, Ingrid; Leroy, Sabine; Chambon, Christophe; Hébraud, Michel; Livrelli, Valérie; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Desvaux, Mickaël

    2018-06-15

    Surface proteins are the major factor for the interaction between bacteria and its environment, playing an important role in infection, colonisation, virulence and adaptation. However, the study of surface proteins has proven difficult mainly due to their hydrophobicity and/or relatively low abundance compared with cytoplasmic proteins. To overcome these issues new proteomic strategies have been developed, such as cell-surface protein labelling using biotinylation reagents. Sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin is the most commonly used reagent to investigate the proteins expressed at the cell surface of various organisms but its use in lipopolysaccharidic diderm bacteria (archetypical Gram-negative bacteria) remains limited to a handful of species. While generally pass over in silence, some periplasmic proteins, but also some inner membrane lipoproteins, integral membrane proteins and cytoplasmic proteins (cytoproteins) are systematically identified following this approach. To limit cell lysis and diffusion of the sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin through the outer membrane, biotin labelling was tested over short incubation times and proved to be as efficient for 1 min at room temperature. To further limit labelling of protein located below the outer membrane, the use of high-molecular weight sulfo-NHS-PEG4-bismannose-SS-biotin appeared to recover differentially cell-envelope proteins compared to low-molecular weight sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin. Actually, the sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin recovers at a higher extent the proteins completely or partly exposed in the periplasm than sulfo-NHS-PEG4-bismannose-SS-biotin, namely periplasmic and integral membrane proteins as well as inner membrane and outer membrane lipoproteins. These results highlight that protein labelling using biotinylation reagents of different sizes provides a sophisticated and accurate way to differentially explore the cell envelope proteome of lipopolysaccharidic diderm bacteria. While generally pass over in silence, some periplasmic proteins

  6. Spectroscopic monitoring of SS 433: A search for long-term variations of kinematic model parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, V. V.; Esipov, V. F.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2008-06-01

    Between 1994 and 2006, we obtained uniform spectroscopic observations of SS 433 in the region of H α. We determined Doppler shifts of the moving emission lines, H α + and H α -, and studied various irregularities in the profiles for the moving emission lines. The total number of Doppler shifts measured in these 13 years is 488 for H α - and 389 for H α +. We have also used published data to study possible long-term variations of the SS 433 system, based on 755 Doppler shifts for H α - and 630 for H α + obtained over 28 years. We have derived improved kinematic model parameters for the precessing relativistic jets of S S 433 using five-and eight-parameter models. On average, the precession period was stable during the 28 years of observations (60 precession cycles), at 162.250d ± 0.003d. Phase jumps of the precession period and random variations of its length with amplitudes of ≈6% and ≈1%, respectively, were observed, but no secular changes in the precession period were detected. The nutation period, P nut = 6.2876d ± 0.00035d, and its phase were stable during 28 years (more than 1600 nutation cycles). We find no secular variations of the nutation cycle. The ejection speed of the relativistic jets, v, was, on average, constant during the 28 years, β = v/c = 0.2561 ± 0.0157. No secular variation of β is detected. In general, S S 433 demonstrates remarkably stable long-term characteristics of its precession and nutation, as well as of the central “engine” near the relativistic object that collimates the plasma in the jets and accelerates it to v = 0.2561 c. Our results support a model with a “slaved” accretion disk in S S 433, which follows the precession of the optical star’s rotation axis.

  7. Association analysis of polymorphism in KiSS1 gene with reproductive traits in goats.

    PubMed

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S; Zaglool, Asmaa W; El-Tarabany, Akram A; Awad, Ashraf

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the genetic information of related genes is helpful for the selection and breeding course through marker assisted selection. The aim of the current study was to detect polymorphisms of the KiSS1 gene in 137 animals, including Baladi, Zaraibi and Damascus goat breeds by PCR-RFLP, and DNA sequencing and to investigate the association between these variants and reproductive traits. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence indicated the substitution of T with A at position 121 (T121A) in the intron 1 of the KiSS1 gene in all goat breeds. This substitution distorts the restriction site of the XmnI restriction enzyme and consequently two genotypes were detected (TA and TT). The T121A SNP is associated significantly with litter size in Damascus and Zaribi breeds (p=0.025 and 0.001, respectively). The animals with the TT genotype in Damascus and Zaribi breeds had a significantly higher estradiol 17β level than that recorded in TA genotype at estrus phase (p=0.013 and 0.028, respectively) and late-luteal phase (p=0.067 and 0.041, respectively) of the estrus cycle. Furthermore, animals with the TT genotype in Damascus and Zaribi breeds had significant higher progesterone level at mid-luteal (p=0.037 and 0.045, respectively) phase. Meanwhile, there were no significant differences in progesterone level in late-luteal phase between both genotypes in Zaribi breed (p=0.267). The current trial indicated that the prolific TT genotype in both Damascus and Zaribi breeds had superior estradiol 17β level at estrus phase and an eminent progesterone level at both early and mid-luteal phases of the estrous cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pulsar-driven Jets In Sne, Grbs, Lmxbs, Ss 433, And The Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleditch, John

    2011-05-01

    The model of pulsar emission through superluminally induced polarization currents, (SLIP), predicts that pulsations produced by such currents at many light cylinder radii by a rotating, magnetized body, will drive pulsations close to the axis of rotation. In SN 1987A, the possible Rosetta Stone for 99% of SNe, GRBs, ms pulsars, and SS 433, such highly collimated (>1 in 10,000) 2.14 ms pulsations, and the similarly collimated jets of particles which they drove, including 1e-6 solar masses with velocities 0.95 c, were responsible for its very early light curve (days 3-20), its "Mystery Spot," observed slightly later (0.5 to 0.3 c, at days 30-50 and after), and still later, in less collimated form, its bipolarity. The axially driven pulsations enforce a toroidal geometry onto all early SNRs, rendering even SNe Ia unsuitable as standard candles. The numbers for Sco X-1's jet are identical, while those for SS 433 are lower (0.26 c), because of the absence of velocity "boosting" via collisions of heavy elements with lighter ones, due to the nearly pure hydrogen content of the supercritical accretion. SLIP also drives positrons from SNe to high energies, possibly accounting for the excess seen by PAMELA at scores of GeV, and predicts that almost all pulsars with very sharp single pulses have been detected because the Earth is in a favored direction where their fluxes diminish only as 1/distance, and this has been verified in the laboratory as well as for the Parkes Multibeam Survey. SLIP also predicts that GRB afterglows will be 100% pulsed at 500 Hz in their proper frame. Finally, SLIP jets from SNe of the first stars may allow galaxies to form without the need for dark matter. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy through the Los Alamos Directed Research Grant DR20080085.

  9. The effect of topography of upper-mantle discontinuities on SS precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroni, Maria; Trampert, Jeannot

    2016-01-01

    Using the spectral-element method, we explored the effect of topography of upper-mantle discontinuities on the traveltimes of SS precursors recorded on transverse component seismograms. The latter are routinely used to infer the topography of mantle transition zone discontinuities. The step from precursory traveltimes to topographic changes is mainly done using linearised ray theory, or sometimes using finite-frequency kernels. We simulated exact seismograms in 1-D and 3-D elastic models of the mantle. In a second simulation, we added topography to the discontinuities. We compared the waveforms obtained with and without topography by cross correlation of the SS precursors. Since we did not add noise, the precursors are visible in individual seismograms without the need of stacking. The resulting time anomalies were then converted into topographic variations and compared to the original topographic models. Based on the correlation between initial and inferred models, and provided that ray coverage is good, we found that linearised ray theory gives a relatively good idea on the location of the uplifts and depressions of the discontinuities. It seriously underestimates the amplitude of the topographic variations by a factor ranging between 2 and 7. Real data depend on the 3-D elastic structure and the topography. All studies to date correct for the 3-D elastic effects assuming that the traveltimes can be linearly decomposed into a structure and a discontinuity part. We found a strong non-linearity in this decomposition which cannot be modelled without a fully non-linear inversion for elastic structure and discontinuities simultaneously.

  10. The effect of topography of upper mantle discontinuities on SS precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroni, M.; Trampert, J.

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the reliability of methods used to infer the topography of the mantle transition zone discontinuities. In particular, using the spectral-element method,we explored the effect of topography of the '410' and '660' mantle discontinuities on the travel times of SS precursors recorded on transverse component seismograms.The latter are routinely used to infer the topography of mantle transition zone discontinuities. The step from precursorytravel times to topographic changes is mainly done using linearised ray theory, or sometimes using finite frequency kernels.We simulated exact seismograms in 1-D and 3-D elastic models of the mantle. In a second simulation, we added topography to the discontinuities. We compared the waveforms obtained with and without topography by cross-correlation of the SS precursors. Since we did not add noise, the precursors are visible in individual seismograms without the need of stacking. The resultingtime anomalies were then converted into topographic variations and compared to the original models of topography. We found that linearised ray theory gives a relatively good idea on the location of the uplifts and depressions of the discontinuities, provided that the ray coverage is good, although it seriously underestimates the amplitude of the topography. The amplitude of the topographic variation is underestimated in average by a factor of 2.8 for the '660' and of 4.5 for the '410'. Additionally, we found a strong non-linearity in the measured data which cannot be modelled without a fully non-linear inversion for elastic structure and discontinuities simultaneously.

  11. Molecular determinants of the DprA-RecA interaction for nucleation on ssDNA.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Johnny; Andreani, Jessica; Sanchez, Dyana; Boudes, Marion; Collinet, Bruno; Liger, Dominique; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Guérois, Raphael; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie

    2014-06-01

    Natural transformation is a major mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria that depends on DNA recombination. RecA is central to the homologous recombination pathway, catalyzing DNA strand invasion and homology search. DprA was shown to be a key binding partner of RecA acting as a specific mediator for its loading on the incoming exogenous ssDNA. Although the 3D structures of both RecA and DprA have been solved, the mechanisms underlying their cross-talk remained elusive. By combining molecular docking simulations and experimental validation, we identified a region on RecA, buried at its self-assembly interface and involving three basic residues that contact an acidic triad of DprA previously shown to be crucial for the interaction. At the core of these patches, (DprA)M238 and (RecA)F230 are involved in the interaction. The other DprA binding regions of RecA could involve the N-terminal α-helix and a DNA-binding region. Our data favor a model of DprA acting as a cap of the RecA filament, involving a DprA-RecA interplay at two levels: their own oligomeric states and their respective interaction with DNA. Our model forms the basis for a mechanistic explanation of how DprA can act as a mediator for the loading of RecA on ssDNA. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Increased risk of SSEs in bone-only metastatic breast cancer patients treated with zoledronic acid.

    PubMed

    Yanae, Masashi; Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Tane, Kaori; Tanioka, Maki; Fujiwara, Kimiko; Tsubaki, Masanobu; Yamazoe, Yuzuru; Morishima, Yoshiyuki; Chiba, Yasutaka; Takao, Shintaro; Komoike, Yoshifumi; Tsurutani, Junji; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Nishida, Shozo

    2017-09-01

    Bone represents one of the most common sites to which breast cancer cells metastasize. Patients experience skeletal related adverse events (pathological fractures, spinal cord compressions, and irradiation for deteriorated pain on bone) even during treatment with zoledronic acid (ZA). Therefore, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate the predictive factors for symptomatic skeletal events (SSEs) in bone-metastasized breast cancer (b-MBC) patients. We retrospectively collected data on b-MBC patients treated with ZA. Patient characteristics, including age, subtype, the presence of non-bone lesions, the presence of multiple bone metastases at the commencement of ZA therapy, duration of ZA therapy, the time interval between breast cancer diagnosis and the initiation of ZA therapy, and type of systemic therapy, presence of previous SSE were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The medical records of 183 patients were reviewed and 176 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 59 (range, 30-87) years. Eighty-seven patients were aged ≥60 years and 89 patients were aged < 60 years. The proportions of patients with estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive disease were 81.8%, 63.1%, and 17.6%, respectively. Fifty-three patients had bone-only MBC at the commencement of ZA therapy. SSEs were observed in 42 patients. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, bone-only MBC but not a breast cancer subtype was an independent risk factor for an SSE during ZA therapy (odds ratio: 3.878, 95% confidence interval: 1.647-9.481; p = 0.002). Bone-only MBC patients are more likely to experience an SSE even after treatment with ZA.

  13. Discriminative feeding behaviour of Anopheles gambiae s.s. on endemic plants in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Manda, H.; Gouagna, L. C.; Nyandat, E.; Kabiru, E. W.; Jackson, R. R.; Foster, W. A.; Githure, J. I.; Beier, J. C.; Hassanali, A.

    2009-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) is known to feed on plant sugars, but this is the first experimental study to consider whether it discriminates between plant species. Thirteen perennial plant species were selected on the basis of their local availability within the vicinity of human dwellings and larval habitats of An. gambiae s.s. in western Kenya. Groups of 100 or 200 mosquitoes were released into cages either with a cutting of one plant type at a time (single-plant assay) or with cuttings of all 13 plants simultaneously (choice assay), respectively, and left overnight. In the choice assay, direct observations of the percentages of mosquitoes perching or feeding on each plant were recorded over four 1-h periods each night. For both types of assay, mosquitoes were recaptured and the percentage that had fed on plants was assessed by testing them individually for the presence of fructose. To identify which plants the choice-assay mosquitoes had fed on, gas chromatography (GC) profiles of samples of mosquito homogenates were compared with GC profiles of extracts from relevant parts of each plant. Four of the plants that were observed to have been fed on most frequently in the choice assay (Parthenium hysterophorus L., Tecoma stans L., Ricinus communis L., and Senna didymobotrya Fresen) were also shown to have been ingested most often by mosquitoes in both types of assay, suggesting that An. gambiae is differentially responsive to this range of plants, regardless of whether the plants were presented singly or mixed together. Significantly more females than males fed on plants, with the exception of P. hysterophorus L., one of the plants most frequently fed on. For most plant species (ten of 13), GC profiles indicated that An. gambiae obtained sugars primarily from flowers. The exceptions were P. hysterophorus L., Lantana camara L. and R. communis L., on which An. gambiae fed more often from leaves and stems than from flowers. PMID:17373953

  14. An atlas of H-alpha-emitting regions in M33: A systematic search for SS433 star candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calzetti, Daniela; Kinney, Anne L.; Ford, Holland; Doggett, Jesse; Long, Knox S.

    1995-01-01

    We report finding charts and accurate positions for 432 compact H-alpha emitting regions in the Local Group galaxy M 33 (NGC 598), in an effort to isolate candidates for an SS433-like stellar system. The objects were extracted from narrow band images, centered in the rest-frame H-alpha (lambda 6563 A) and in the red continuum at 6100 A. The atlas is complete down to V approximately equal to 20 and includes 279 compact HII regions and 153 line emitting point-like sources. The point-like sources undoubtedly include a variety of objects: very small HII regions, early type stars with intense stellar winds, and Wolf-Rayet stars, but should also contain objects with the characteristics of SS433. This extensive survey of compact H-alpha regions in M 33 is a first step towards the identification of peculiar stellar systems like SS433 in external galaxies.

  15. Antibacterial effects, biocompatibility and electrochemical behavior of zinc incorporated niobium oxide coating on 316L SS for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep PremKumar, K.; Duraipandy, N.; Manikantan Syamala, Kiran; Rajendran, N.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, Nb2O5 (NZ0) composite coatings with various concentrations of zinc (NZ2, NZ4 & NZ6) are produced on 316L SS by sol-gel method with the aim of improving its antibacterial activity, bone formability and corrosion resistance properties. This work studied the surface characterization of NZ0, NZ2, NZ4 & NZ6 coated 316L SS by ATR-FTIR, XRD, HR-SEM with EDAX. The synthesized coatings were different in the morphological aspects, NZ0 shows mesoporous morphology whereas irregular cluster like morphology was observed for the zinc incorporated coatings. The chemical composition of the NZ0 and NZ4 composite coatings were studied by XPS and the results revealed that the zinc exist as ZnO and Nb as Nb2O5 in the coatings. The increase in the concentration of zinc in Nb2O5 increases the hydrophilic nature identified by water contact angle studies. The potentiodynamic polarization studies in simulated body fluid reveals the increase in polarization resistance with decrease in current density (icorr) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic studies with increase in charge transfer resistance (Rct) and double layer capacitance (Qdl) were observed for NZ4 coated 316L SS. The inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria were identified for NZ4 coated 316L SS by bacterial viability studies. The NZ4 coated 316L SS showed better Osseo-integration by spreading the MG 63 osteoblast cells. The study results imply that zinc incorporated Nb2O5 (NZ4) composite coating exhibits antibacterial activity and also enhance the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the 316L SS.

  16. Differential sensitivity of the nicotinic receptor of long (LS) and short (SS) sleep mice to ethanol (E) and forane (F)

    SciTech Connect

    McArdle, J.J.; Choi, J.J.

    1989-02-09

    Studies of inbred mice indicate that heredity determines the behavioral response to CNS depressants. For example, LS mice lose their righting reflex at blood levels of E having no effect on this reflex of SS mice. In order to determine if such differential sensitivity extends to the effects of depressants known to alter the mean open time (tau) of the ion channel activated by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AR), we used an extracellular electrode to record miniature end-plate currents (23 C) from the triangularis sterni muscle of adult male LS and SS mice. The average decay time constant (tau) ofmore » 70 currents was calculated before, during and after drug exposure. Tau was the same for LS and SS mice (1.41 {plus minus} 0.03 mS and 1.47 {plus minus} 0.02 mS, respectively) prior to treatment and was reversible prolonged by E and shortened by F as expected. However, tau of SS mice was more responsive. For example, 25 mM of E increased tau by 12.9% and 3.8% in SS and LS mice, respectively. Likewise, the decrease of tau in response to 3 mM F was 18.5% and 9.2%. The net result was that the curve relating tau for LS mice to drug concentration was to the right of the for SS mice. These data suggest that the sensitivity of the peripheral AR to CNS depressants can be genetically controlled.« less

  17. SS-mPEG chemical modification of recombinant phospholipase C for enhanced thermal stability and catalytic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xian; Wang, Xueting; Li, Guiling; Zeng, Jun; Li, Jian; Liu, Jingwen

    2018-05-01

    PEGylation is one of the most promising and extensively studied strategies for improving the properties of proteins as well as enzymic physical and thermal stability. Phospholipase C, hydrolyzing the phospholipids offers tremendous applications in diverse fields. However, the poor thermal stability and higher cost of production have restricted its industrial application. This study focused on improving the stabilization of recombinant PLC by chemical modification with methoxypolyethylene glycol-Succinimidyl Succinate (SS-mPEG, MW 5000). PLC gene from isolate Bacillus cereus HSL3 was fused with SUMO, a novel small ubiquitin-related modifier expression vector and over expressed in Escherichia coli. The soluble fraction of SUMO-PLC reached 80% of the total recombinant protein. The enzyme exhibited maximum catalytic activity at 80 °C and was relatively thermostable at 40-70 °C. It showed extensive substrate specificity pattern and marked activity toward phosphatidylcholine, which made it a typical non-specific PLC for industrial purpose. SS-mPEG-PLC complex exhibited an enhanced thermal stability at 70-80 °C and the catalytic efficiency (K cat /K m ) had increased by 3.03 folds compared with free PLC. CD spectrum of SS-mPEG-PLC indicated a possible enzyme aggregation after chemical modification, which contributed to the higher thermostability of SS-mPEG-PLC. The increase of antiparallel β sheets in secondary structure also made it more stable than parallel β sheets. The presence of SS-mPEG chains on the enzyme molecule surface somewhat changed the binding rate of the substrates, leading to a significant improvement in catalytic efficiency. This study provided an insight into the addition of SS-mPEG for enhancing the industrial applications of phospholipase C at higher temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Establishment and proteomic characterization of a novel synovial sarcoma cell line, NCC-SS2-C1.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Rieko; Kito, Fusako; Sakumoto, Marimu; Shiozawa, Kumiko; Toki, Shunichi; Endo, Makoto; Yoshida, Akihiko; Kawai, Akira; Kondo, Tadashi

    2018-05-01

    Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive mesenchymal tumor, characterized by the presence of unique transfusion gene, SS18-SSX. Cell lines enable researchers to investigate the molecular backgrounds of disease and the significance of SS18-SSX in relevant cellular contexts. We report the establishment and proteomic characterization of a novel synovial sarcoma cell line. Primary tissue culture was performed using tumor tissue of synovial sarcoma. The established cell line was authenticated by assessing its DNA microsatellite short tandem repeat analysis and characterized by in vitro assay. Proteomic study was achieved by mass spectrometry, and the results were analyzed by treemap. The cell line NCC-SS2-C1 was established from a primary tumor tissue of a synovial sarcoma patient. The cell line has grown well for 11 mo and has been subcultured more than 15 times. The established cells were authenticated by assessing their short tandem repeat pattern comparing with that of original tumor tissue. The cells showed polygonal in shape and formed spheroid when seeded on the low-attachment dish. Proteomic analysis revealed the molecular pathways which are unique to the original tumor tissue or the established cell line. In conclusion, a novel synovial sarcoma cell line NCC-SS2-C1 was successfully established from the primary tumor tissue. The cell line has characteristic transfusion SS18-SSX and poses aggressive in vitro growth and capability of spheroid formation. Thus, NCC-SS2-C1 cell line will be a useful tool for investigation of the mechanisms of disease and the biological role of fusion gene.

  19. Biodegradable mixed MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles for triggered intracellular release of paclitaxel and reversing multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Kai; Yan, Yan; Wang, Pengchong; Shi, Xianpeng; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Ke; Xing, Jianfeng; Dong, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a type of multifunctional mixed micelles were prepared by a novel biodegradable amphiphilic polymer (MPEG-SS-2SA) and a multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agent (d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate, TPGS). The mixed micelles could achieve rapid intracellular drug release and reversal of MDR. First, the amphiphilic polymer, MPEG-SS-2SA, was synthesized through disulfide bonds between poly (ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (MPEG) and stearic acid (SA). The structure of the obtained polymer was similar to poly (ethylene glycol)-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE). Then the mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, were prepared by MPEG-SS-2SA and TPGS through the thin film hydration method and loaded paclitaxel (PTX) as the model drug. The in vitro release study revealed that the mixed micelles could rapidly release PTX within 24 h under a reductive environment because of the breaking of disulfide bonds. In cell experiments, the mixed micelles significantly inhibited the activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex II, also reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the content of adenosine triphosphate, thus effectively inhibiting the efflux of PTX from cells. Moreover, in the confocal laser scanning microscopy, cellular uptake and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays, the MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS micelles achieved faster release and more uptake of PTX in Michigan Cancer Foundation-7/PTX cells and showed better antitumor effects as compared with the insensitive control. In conclusion, the biodegradable mixed micelles, MPEG-SS-2SA/TPGS, could be potential vehicles for delivering hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs in MDR cancer therapy. PMID:27785018

  20. Isolation and characterization of Halomonas sp. strain C2SS100, a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium under hypersaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Mnif, S; Chamkha, M; Sayadi, S

    2009-09-01

    To isolate and characterize an efficient hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium under hypersaline conditions, from a Tunisian off-shore oil field. Production water collected from 'Sercina' petroleum reservoir, located near the Kerkennah island, Tunisia, was used for the screening of halotolerant or halophilic bacteria able to degrade crude oil. Bacterial strain C2SS100 was isolated after enrichment on crude oil, in the presence of 100 g l(-1) NaCl and at 37 degrees C. This strain was aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, oxidase + and catalase +. Phenotypic characters and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene of the isolate C2SS100 showed that it was related to members of the Halomonas genus. The degradation of several compounds present in crude oil was confirmed by GC-MS analysis. The use of refined petroleum products such as diesel fuel and lubricating oil as sole carbon source, under the same conditions of temperature and salinity, showed that significant amounts of these heterogenic compounds could be degraded. Strain C2SS100 was able to degrade hexadecane (C16). During growth on hexadecane, cells surface hydrophobicity and emulsifying activity increased indicating the production of biosurfactant by strain C2SS100. A halotolerant bacterial strain Halomonas sp. C2SS100 was isolated from production water of an oil field, after enrichment on crude oil. This strain is able to degrade hydrocarbons efficiently. The mode of hydrocarbon uptake is realized by the production of a biosurfactant which enhances the solubility of hydrocarbons and renders them more accessible for biodegradation. The biodegradation potential of the Halomonas sp. strain C2SS100 gives it an advantage for possibly application on bioremediation of water, hydrocarbon-contaminated sites under high-salinity level.

  1. Ab initio determination of mode coupling in HSSH - The torsional splitting in the first excited S-S stretching state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbst, Eric; Winnewisser, G.; Yamada, K. M. T.; Defrees, D. J.; Mclean, A. D.

    1989-01-01

    A mechanism for the enhanced splitting detected in the millimeter-wave rotational spectra of the first excited S-S stretching state of HSSH (disulfane) has been studied. The mechanism, which involves a potential coupling between the first excited S-S stretching state and excited torsional states, has been investigated in part by the use of ab initio theory. Based on an ab initio potential surface, coupling matrix elements have been calculated, and the amount of splitting has then been estimated by second-order perturbation theory. The result, while not in quantitative agreement with the measured splitting, lends plausibility to the assumed mechanism.

  2. Ectopic Overexpression of SsCBF1, a CRT/DRE-Binding Factor from the Nightshade Plant Solanum lycopersicoides, Confers Freezing and Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lili; Li, Zhenjun; Li, Jingfu; Wang, Aoxue

    2013-01-01

    The C-repeat (CRT)/dehydration-responsive element (DRE) binding factor (CBF/DREB1) transcription factors play a key role in cold response. However, the detailed roles of many plant CBFs are far from fully understood. A CBF gene (SsCBF1) was isolated from the cold-hardy plant Solanum lycopersicoides. A subcellular localization study using GFP fusion protein indicated that SsCBF1 is localized in the nucleus. We delimited the SsCBF1 transcriptional activation domain to the C-terminal segment comprising amino acid residues 193–228 (SsCBF1193–228). The expression of SsCBF1 could be dramatically induced by cold, drought and high salinity. Transactivation assays in tobacco leaves revealed that SsCBF1 could specifically bind to the CRT cis-elements in vivo to activate the expression of downstream reporter genes. The ectopic overexpression of SsCBF1 conferred increased freezing and high-salinity tolerance and late flowering phenotype to transgenic Arabidopsis. RNA-sequencing data exhibited that a set of cold and salt stress responsive genes were up-regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that SsCBF1 behaves as a typical CBF to contribute to plant freezing tolerance. Increased resistance to high-salinity and late flowering phenotype derived from SsCBF1 OE lines lend more credence to the hypothesis that plant CBFs participate in diverse physiological and biochemical processes related to adverse conditions. PMID:23755095

  3. Dynamic rockfall risk assessment along the SS113 coastal road (Northern Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrolembo, V. Brunella; Penna, Ivanna; Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls are natural hazards that usually affect only small areas. However, due to the big amount of material that can be moved and the associated kinetic energy they can cost serious damages to infrastructures and people. Even fairly small rockfall fragments are a significant hazard if deposited on a highway or along a rail-road track since they are not easily detected and can cause accidents or derailments. Rockfalls can also cause the closure of streets resulting in long term indirect economic losses due to transportation delays as well as to the impact on the commercial and tourist activities. In letterature there are numerous examples of rockfall risk assessments along transportation corridors, most of them are based on the use of standard risk estimation methods. The latters are static approaches founded on a macroscopic view of road traffic, assumed as uniform in space and time, thus characterized by average values of parameters. Lately, a new dynamic approach has been developed within the 'risk analysis group' at the University of Lausanne (Voumard, 2013). It consists of a kinematic interpretation of road traffic where vehicles are parametrized as single entities with different characteristics, speed, dimensions and behaviour. We apply this new approach to estimate the dynamic risk due to rockfall occurrence on the SS113 national road running along the northern coast of Sicily. In this work we focus our attention on a ≈10 km section along which the SS113 road and a railway connect all the costal villages going through very steep cliffs and very close to the sea with evident problems of erosion and maintenance. The area is a tourist destination and many hotels and facilities are found along the road. Moreover the area was already hit in the past by numerous rockfalls resulting in the closure of the road for periods running from a few days up to a few years with big direct and indirect damages to the local socio-economic activities. In order to achieve a

  4. Periodicity Analysis of X-ray Light Curves of SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. Y.; Lu, X. L.; Zhao, Q. W.; Dong, D. Q.; Lao, B. Q.; Lu, Y.; Wei, Y. H.; Wu, X. C.; An, T.

    2016-03-01

    SS 433 is the only X-ray binary to date that was detected to have a pair of well-collimated jets, and its orbital period, super orbital period, and nutation period were all detected at the same time. The study on the periodic X-ray variabilities is helpful for understanding its dynamic process of the central engine and the correlation with other bands. In the present paper, two time series analysis techniques, Lomb-Scargle periodogram and weighted wavelet Z-transform, are employed to search for the periodicities from the Swift/BAT (Burst Alert Telescope)(15--50 keV) and RXTE/ASM (Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer/All-Sky Monitor)(1.5--3, 3--5 and 5--12 keV) light curves of SS 433, and the Monte Carlo simulation is performed. For the 15--50 keV energy band, five significant periodic signals are detected, which are P_1(˜6.29 d), P_2 (˜6.54 d), P_3 (˜13.08 d), P_4 (˜81.50 d), and P_5 (˜162.30 d). For the 3--5 and 5--12 keV energy bands, periodic signals P_3 (˜13 d) and P_5 (˜162 d) are detected in both energy bands. However, for the 1.5--3 keV energy band, no significant periodic signal is detected. P_5 has the strongest periodic signal in the power spectrum for all the energy bands of 3--5, 5--12, and 15--50 keV, and it is consistent with that obtained by previous study in optical band. Further, due to the existence of relativistic radio jets, the X-ray and optical band variability of P_5 (˜162 d) is probably related to the precession of the relativistic jets. High coherence between X-ray and optical light curves may also imply that the X-ray and optical emissions are of the same physical origin. P_3 shows a good agreement with the orbital period (˜13.07 d) first obtained by previous study, and P_2 and P_4 are the high frequency harmonic components of P_3 and P_5, respectively. P_1 is detected from the power spectrum of 15--50 keV energy band only, and it is consistent with the systematic nutation period. As the power of energy band decreases (from hard X-ray to

  5. Activity of Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing status of insecticide resistant mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa is a threatening alert to the existing control efforts. All sibling species of An. gambiae complex have evolved insecticide resistance in wild populations for different approved classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. An alternative compound for vector control is absolutely urgently needed. In this study, the larvicidal activity and chemical composition of the Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oils were investigated. Methods C. osmophloeum leaf essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 6 hours, and their chemical compositions identified using GC-MS. These oils were evaluated against An. gambiae s.s. in both laboratory and semi-field situations. The WHO test procedures for monitoring larvicidal efficacy in malaria vectors were used. Results The composition of C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil has been found to have 11 active compounds. The most abundant compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde (70.20%) and the least abundant was caryophyllene oxide (0.08%). The larvicidal activity was found to be dosage and time dependant both in laboratory and semi-field environments with mortality ranging from 0% to 100%. The LC50 value was found to vary from 22.18 to 58.15 μg/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it was 11.91 to 63.63 μg/ml. The LC90 value was found to range between 57.71 to 91.54 μg/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments was 52.07 to 173.77 μg/ml. Mortality ranged from 13% to 100% in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it ranged between 43% to 100% within mortality recording time intervals of 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Conclusions The larvicidal activity shown by C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil is a promising alternative to existing larvicides or to be incorporated in integrated larval source management compounds for An. gambiae s.s control. The efficacy

  6. Mantle transition zone structure beneath India and Western China from migration of PP and SS precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessing, Stephan; Thomas, Christine; Rost, Sebastian; Cobden, Laura; Dobson, David P.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the seismic structure of the upper-mantle and mantle transition zone beneath India and Western China using PP and SS underside reflections off seismic discontinuities, which arrive as precursors to the PP and SS arrival. We use high-resolution array seismic techniques to identify precursory energy and to map lateral variations of discontinuity depths. We find deep reflections off the 410 km discontinuity (P410P and S410S) beneath Tibet, Western China and India at depths of 410-440 km and elevated underside reflections of the 410 km discontinuity at 370-390 km depth beneath the Tien Shan region and Eastern Himalayas. These reflections likely correspond to the olivine to wadsleyite phase transition. The 410 km discontinuity appears to deepen in Central and Northern Tibet. We also find reflections off the 660 km discontinuity beneath Northern China at depths between 660 and 700 km (P660P and S660S) which could be attributed to the mineral transformation of ringwoodite to magnesiowuestite and perovskite. These observations could be consistent with the presence of cold material in the middle and lower part of the mantle transition zone in this region. We also find a deeper reflector between 700 and 740 km depth beneath Tibet which cannot be explained by a depressed 660 km discontinuity. This structure could, however, be explained by the segregation of oceanic crust and the formation of a neutrally buoyant garnet-rich layer beneath the mantle transition zone, due to subduction of oceanic crust of the Tethys Ocean. For several combinations of sources and receivers we do not detect arrivals of P660P and S660S although similar combinations of sources and receivers give well-developed P660P and S660S arrivals. Our thermodynamic modelling of seismic structure for a range of compositions and mantle geotherms shows that non-observations of P660P and S660S arrivals could be caused by the dependence of underside reflection coefficients on the incidence angle of the

  7. Larval and adult environmental temperatures influence the adult reproductive traits of Anopheles gambiae s.s.

    PubMed

    Christiansen-Jucht, Céline D; Parham, Paul E; Saddler, Adam; Koella, Jacob C; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2015-09-17

    Anopheles mosquito life-history parameters and population dynamics strongly influence malaria transmission, and environmental factors, particularly temperature, strongly affect these parameters. There are currently some studies on how temperature affects Anopheles gambiae s.s. survival but very few exist examining other life-history traits. We investigate here the effect of temperature on population dynamics parameters. Anopheles gambiae s.s. immatures were reared individually at 23 ± 1 °C, 27 ± 1 °C, 31 ± 1 °C, and 35 ± 1 °C, and adults were held at their larval temperature or at one of the other temperatures. Larvae were checked every 24 h for development to the next stage and measured for size; wing length was measured as a proxy for adult size. Females were blood fed three times, and the number of females feeding and laying eggs was counted. The numbers of eggs and percentage of eggs hatched were recorded. Increasing temperatures during the larval stages resulted in significantly smaller larvae (p = 0.005) and smaller adults (p < 0.001). Adult temperature had no effect on the time to egg laying, and the larval temperature of adults only affected the incubation period of the first egg batch. Temperature influenced the time to hatching of eggs, as well as the time to development at every stage. The number of eggs laid was highest when adults were kept at 27 °C, and lowest at 31 °C, and higher adult temperatures decreased the proportion of eggs hatching after the second and third blood meal. Higher adult temperatures significantly decreased the probability of blood feeding, but the larval temperature of adults had no influence on the probability of taking a blood meal. Differences were observed between the first, second, and third blood meal in the times to egg laying and hatching, number of eggs laid, and probabilities of feeding and laying eggs. Our study shows that environmental temperature during the larval stages as

  8. Highlights from the functional single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with human muscle size and strength or FAMuSS study.

    PubMed

    Pescatello, Linda S; Devaney, Joseph M; Hubal, Monica J; Thompson, Paul D; Hoffman, Eric P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength study or FAMuSS was to identify genetic factors that dictated the response of health-related fitness phenotypes to resistance exercise training (RT). The phenotypes examined were baseline muscle strength and muscle, fat, and bone volume and their response to RT. FAMuSS participants were 1300 young (24 years), healthy men (42%) and women (58%) that were primarily of European-American descent. They were genotyped for ~500 polymorphisms and completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess energy expenditure and time spent in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity habitual physical activity and sitting. Subjects then performed a 12-week progressive, unilateral RT program of the nondominant arm with the dominant arm used as a comparison. Before and after RT, muscle strength was measured with the maximum voluntary contraction and one repetition maximum, while MRI measured muscle, fat, and bone volume. We will discuss the history of how FAMuSS originated, provide a brief overview of the FAMuSS methods, and summarize our major findings regarding genotype associations with muscle strength and size, body composition, cardiometabolic biomarkers, and physical activity.

  9. Highlights from the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength or FAMuSS Study

    PubMed Central

    Pescatello, Linda S.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Hubal, Monica J.; Thompson, Paul D.; Hoffman, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Human Muscle Size and Strength study or FAMuSS was to identify genetic factors that dictated the response of health-related fitness phenotypes to resistance exercise training (RT). The phenotypes examined were baseline muscle strength and muscle, fat, and bone volume and their response to RT. FAMuSS participants were 1300 young (24 years), healthy men (42%) and women (58%) that were primarily of European-American descent. They were genotyped for ~500 polymorphisms and completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess energy expenditure and time spent in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity habitual physical activity and sitting. Subjects then performed a 12-week progressive, unilateral RT program of the nondominant arm with the dominant arm used as a comparison. Before and after RT, muscle strength was measured with the maximum voluntary contraction and one repetition maximum, while MRI measured muscle, fat, and bone volume. We will discuss the history of how FAMuSS originated, provide a brief overview of the FAMuSS methods, and summarize our major findings regarding genotype associations with muscle strength and size, body composition, cardiometabolic biomarkers, and physical activity. PMID:24455711

  10. ssHMM: extracting intuitive sequence-structure motifs from high-throughput RNA-binding protein data

    PubMed Central

    Krestel, Ralf; Ohler, Uwe; Vingron, Martin; Marsico, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play an important role in RNA post-transcriptional regulation and recognize target RNAs via sequence-structure motifs. The extent to which RNA structure influences protein binding in the presence or absence of a sequence motif is still poorly understood. Existing RNA motif finders either take the structure of the RNA only partially into account, or employ models which are not directly interpretable as sequence-structure motifs. We developed ssHMM, an RNA motif finder based on a hidden Markov model (HMM) and Gibbs sampling which fully captures the relationship between RNA sequence and secondary structure preference of a given RBP. Compared to previous methods which output separate logos for sequence and structure, it directly produces a combined sequence-structure motif when trained on a large set of sequences. ssHMM’s model is visualized intuitively as a graph and facilitates biological interpretation. ssHMM can be used to find novel bona fide sequence-structure motifs of uncharacterized RBPs, such as the one presented here for the YY1 protein. ssHMM reaches a high motif recovery rate on synthetic data, it recovers known RBP motifs from CLIP-Seq data, and scales linearly on the input size, being considerably faster than MEMERIS and RNAcontext on large datasets while being on par with GraphProt. It is freely available on Github and as a Docker image. PMID:28977546

  11. Voyage on the SS "School Library Leadership": Collaboration in Teaching and Learning at the University of Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Judith L.; Ballard, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the SS "School Library Leadership" maiden voyage, which departed from the University of Vermont (UVM) during the 2010 fall semester. Twelve intrepid sailors followed their sense of adventure into uncharted waters with cocaptains Judy Kaplan and Susan Ballard in an online collaboration that provided a powerful…

  12. Polymorphisms rs12998 and rs5780218 in KiSS1 suppressor metastasis gene in Mexican patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Quevedo, Edhit Guadalupe Cruz; Aguilar, Gabriela Monserrat Mimendi; Aguilar, Luis Anselmo Juárez; Rubio, Susan Andrea Gutierrez; Martínez, Silvia Esperanza Flores; Rodríguez, Ingrid Patricia Dávalos; Corona, José Sánchez; Morán, Martha Isabel Torres; Gómez, Roberto Carlos Rosales; Moguel, María Cristina Morán

    2015-01-01

    KiSS1 is a metastasis suppressor gene associated with inhibition of cellular chemotaxis and invasion attenuating the metastasis in melanoma and breast cancer cell lines. Along the KiSS-1 gene at least 294 SNPs have been described; however the association of these polymorphisms as genetic markers for metastasis in breast cancer studies has not been investigated. Here we describe two simple PCR-RFLPs protocols to identify the rs5780218 (9DelT) and the rs12998 (E20K) KiSS1 polymorphisms and the allelic, genotypic, and haplotypic frequencies in Mexican general population (GP) and patients with benign breast disease (BBD) or breast cancer (BC). The rs5780218 polymorphism was individually associated with breast cancer (P = 0.0332) and the rs12998 polymorphism shows statistically significant differences when GP versus case (BC and BBD) groups were compared (P < 0.0001). The H1 Haplotype (G/-) occurred more frequently in BC group (0.4256) whereas H2 haplotype (G/T) was the most prevalent in BBD group (0.4674). Our data indicated that the rs5780218 polymorphism individually confers susceptibility for development of breast cancer in Mexican population and a possible role as a genetic marker in breast cancer metastasis for H1 haplotype (Wt/variant) in KiSS1 gene must be analyzed in other populations.

  13. Identification of multi-locus genetic heterogeneity in anaplasma marginale ss. centrale and its restriction following tick-borne transmission.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anaplasma marginale ss. centrale was the first vaccine used to protect against a rickettsial disease and continues in widespread use a century after initial implementation. As its use preceded development of either cryopreservation or cell culture, the vaccine strain was maintained for decades by se...

  14. Efficient Computation of Sparse Matrix Functions for Large-Scale Electronic Structure Calculations: The CheSS Library.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Stephan; Dawson, William; Wagner, Michael; Caliste, Damien; Nakajima, Takahito; Genovese, Luigi

    2017-10-10

    We present CheSS, the "Chebyshev Sparse Solvers" library, which has been designed to solve typical problems arising in large-scale electronic structure calculations using localized basis sets. The library is based on a flexible and efficient expansion in terms of Chebyshev polynomials and presently features the calculation of the density matrix, the calculation of matrix powers for arbitrary powers, and the extraction of eigenvalues in a selected interval. CheSS is able to exploit the sparsity of the matrices and scales linearly with respect to the number of nonzero entries, making it well-suited for large-scale calculations. The approach is particularly adapted for setups leading to small spectral widths of the involved matrices and outperforms alternative methods in this regime. By coupling CheSS to the DFT code BigDFT, we show that such a favorable setup is indeed possible in practice. In addition, the approach based on Chebyshev polynomials can be massively parallelized, and CheSS exhibits excellent scaling up to thousands of cores even for relatively small matrix sizes.

  15. Weighted ssGBLUP improves genomic selection accuracy for bacterial cold water disease resistance in a rainbow trout population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to compare methods for genomic evaluation in a Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population for survival when challenged by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD). The used methods were: 1)regular ssGBLUP that assume...

  16. [Story of three SS dentists during World War II: Pr Hugo Blaschke, Dr Hermann Pook and Dr Willy Frank].

    PubMed

    Riaud, Xavier

    2006-12-01

    This story of three SS dentists shows very clearly that the medical code of ethics, under a totalitarian regime, ends where ideology begins. Professor Hugo Blaschke provided dental care to the most eminent Nazi leaders, but he also was the senior SS dentist. He was in charge of dental care in the Waffen-SS, and therefore, he had responsibility for the stocks of dental gold collected from the mouths of those who died in the concentration camps, in order to make dentures for his soldiers. Dr Hermann Pook was the dentist in charge of all the other dentists practising in the concentration camps. He was responsible for gathering statistics on the dental care provided for prisoners in the camps. His instructions were very clear: "No conservation or restorative treatment. Only extractions, and with no anaesthesia!" He was also in charge of gathering the gold that was collected in the camps, for the financial department of the SS. Dr Willy Frank, an Auschwitz dentist, took part in the selection of some of the convoys for the gas chambers. His participation in the collection of gold from the mouths of the dead was also established. These three men were sentenced to prison for War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity.

  17. RNA-processing proteins regulate Mec1/ATR activation by promoting generation of RPA-coated ssDNA.

    PubMed

    Manfrini, Nicola; Trovesi, Camilla; Wery, Maxime; Martina, Marina; Cesena, Daniele; Descrimes, Marc; Morillon, Antonin; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2015-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by activating a checkpoint that depends on the protein kinases Tel1/ATM and Mec1/ATR. Mec1/ATR is activated by RPA-coated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which arises upon nucleolytic degradation (resection) of the DSB. Emerging evidences indicate that RNA-processing factors play critical, yet poorly understood, roles in genomic stability. Here, we provide evidence that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA decay factors Xrn1, Rrp6 and Trf4 regulate Mec1/ATR activation by promoting generation of RPA-coated ssDNA. The lack of Xrn1 inhibits ssDNA generation at the DSB by preventing the loading of the MRX complex. By contrast, DSB resection is not affected in the absence of Rrp6 or Trf4, but their lack impairs the recruitment of RPA, and therefore of Mec1, to the DSB. Rrp6 and Trf4 inactivation affects neither Rad51/Rad52 association nor DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR), suggesting that full Mec1 activation requires higher amount of RPA-coated ssDNA than HR-mediated repair. Noteworthy, deep transcriptome analyses do not identify common misregulated gene expression that could explain the observed phenotypes. Our results provide a novel link between RNA processing and genome stability. © 2014 The Authors.

  18. Monitoring ssDNA Binding to the DnaB Helicase from Helicobacter pylori by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Thomas; Cadalbert, Riccardo; Gardiennet, Carole; Timmins, Joanna; Terradot, Laurent; Böckmann, Anja; Meier, Beat H

    2016-11-02

    DnaB helicases are bacterial, ATP-driven enzymes that unwind double-stranded DNA during DNA replication. Herein, we study the sequential binding of the "non-hydrolysable" ATP analogue AMP-PNP and of single-stranded (ss) DNA to the dodecameric DnaB helicase from Helicobacter pylori using solid-state NMR. Phosphorus cross-polarization experiments monitor the binding of AMP-PNP and DNA to the helicase. 13 C chemical-shift perturbations (CSPs) are used to detect conformational changes in the protein upon binding. The helicase switches upon AMP-PNP addition into a conformation apt for ssDNA binding, and AMP-PNP is hydrolyzed and released upon binding of ssDNA. Our study sheds light on the conformational changes which are triggered by the interaction with AMP-PNP and are needed for ssDNA binding of H. pylori DnaB in vitro. They also demonstrate the level of detail solid-state NMR can provide for the characterization of protein-DNA interactions and the interplay with ATP or its analogues. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. YebC controls virulence by activating T3SS gene expression in the pathogen Edwardsiella piscicida.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lifan; Wu, Yanyan; Qiao, Haoxian; Xu, Wensheng; Zhang, Yuanxing; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Qiyao

    2018-06-12

    Edwardsiella piscicida is an infectious Gram-negative bacterium that causes great losses to the aquaculture industry worldwide. Based on pattern analysis of conditional essentiality (PACE), a new method for transposon insertion sequencing (Tn-seq) data analysis, we investigated the genome-wide genetic requirements during the dynamic process of infection and colonization in turbot in this study. As a result, disruption of ETAE_1437 was discovered to lead to substantially reduced colonization, which was similar to the in vivo dynamic patterns of the mutants of T3SS or T6SS. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that ETAE_1437 is a YebC/PmpR family regulator. Moreover, we found that ETAE_1437 not only regulated quorum sensing by directly binding to the edwR promoter region but also activated T3SS expression by directly binding to the promoter region of the T3SS gene ETAE_0873. In addition, ETAE_1437 mutants exhibited substantial colonization defects and significantly decreased virulence in turbot. Overall, this study identified ETAE_1437 as a novel virulence regulator in E. piscicida and enriched our understanding of the pathogenesis of E. piscicida in fish. We thus reannotated ETAE_1437 as YebC.

  20. On the Nature of the Compact Object in SS 433: Observational Evidence of X-ray Photon Index Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifina, Elena; Titarchuk, Lev

    2010-10-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray spectral properties observed from the black hole candidate (BHC) binary SS 433. We have analyzed Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data from this source, coordinated with Green Bank Interferometer/RATAN-600. We show that SS 433 undergoes an X-ray spectral transition from the low hard state to the intermediate state (IS). We show that the X-ray broadband energy spectra during all spectral states are well fitted by a sum of the so-called bulk motion Comptonization (BMC) component and by two (broad and narrow) Gaussians for the continuum and line emissions, respectively. In addition to these spectral model components, we also find a strong feature that we identify as a "blackbody-like (BB)" component in which the color temperature is in the range of 4-5 keV in 24 IS spectra during the radio outburst decay in SS 433. Our observational results on the "high-temperature BB" bump lead us to suggest the presence of gravitationally redshifted annihilation line emission in this source. In fact, this spectral feature has been recently reproduced in Monte Carlo simulations by Laurent & Titarchuk. We have also established the photon index saturation at about 2.3 in index versus mass accretion correlation. This index-mass accretion correlation allows us to evaluate the low limit of the black hole (BH) mass of the compact object in SS 433, M_{{bh}}≳ 2 solar masses, using the scaling method using BHC GX 339 - 4 as a reference source. Our estimate of the BH mass in SS 433 is consistent with the recent BH mass measurement using the radial velocity measurements of the binary system by Hillwig & Gies, who find that Mx = (4.3 ± 0.8) solar masses. This is the smallest BH mass found up to now among all BH sources. Moreover, the index saturation effect versus mass accretion rate revealed in SS 433, as in a number of other BH candidates, is strong observational evidence for the presence of a BH in SS 433.

  1. Administration of antioxidant peptide SS-31 attenuates transverse aortic constriction-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hung-I; Huang, Tien-Hung; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Chen, Yung-Lung; Chua, Sarah; Chai, Han-Yan; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Liu, Chu-Feng; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Zhen, Yen-Yi; Lee, Fan-Yen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2016-05-01

    Antioxidant peptide SS-31 is a class of cell-permeable small peptides, which selectively resides on the inner mitochondrial membrane and possesses intrinsic mitochondrial protective capacities. In this study we investigated the therapeutic effects of antioxidant peptide SS-31 on transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in a murine model. Adult male mice were divided into 3 groups: sham-operated mice, TAC mice, and TAC+SS-31 mice that underwent TAC surgery and received SS-31 (2 mg/d, ip) for 60 d. The right ventricular systolic blood pressure (RVSBP) was measured on d 60 prior to sacrificing the mice; then their right heart and lung tissues were collected for histological and biochemical examinations. Lung injury scores were defined by the increased crowded area and decreased number of alveolar sacs. TAC mice showed significantly higher RVSBP compared with sham-operated mice, the elevation was substantially suppressed in TAC+SS-31 mice. The same pattern of changes was found in pulmonary levels of oxidative stress proteins (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized proteins), cytosolic cytochrome c, biomarkers related to inflammation (MMP-9/TNF-α/iNOS), calcium overload index (TRPC1, 2, 4, 6), apoptosis (mitochondrial BAX, cleaved caspase 3/PARP), fibrosis (Smad3/TGF-β), hypoxic (HIF-1α), DNA damage (γ-H2AX) and endothelial function (eNOS/ET-1R), as well as in lung injury score, number of muscularized vessels in lungs, number of TRPC1(+) and HIF-1α(+) cells in pulmonary artery, and number of γ-H2AX(+) and Ki-67(+) cells in lung parenchyma. An opposite pattern of changes was observed in pulmonary anti-fibrotic markers (Smad1/5, BMP-2), number of small vessels, and number of alveolar sacs. In contrast, the levels of antioxidant proteins (HO-1/NQO-1/GR/GPx) in lung parenchyma were progressively and significantly increased from sham-operated mice, TAC mice to TAC+SS-31 mice. Antioxidant peptide SS-31 administration effectively attenuates TAC

  2. On the Nature of the Compact Object in SS 433. Observational Evidence of X-Ray Photon Index Saturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seifina, Elena; Titarchuk, Lev

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray spectral properties observed from black hole , candidate (BHC) binary SS 433. We have analyzed Rossi X-ray Time Explorer (RXTE) data from this source, coordinated with Green Bank Interferometer/RATAN-600. We show that SS 433 undergoes a X-ray spectral transition from the low hard state (LHS) to the intermediate state (IS). We show that the X-ray broad-band energy spectra during all spectral states are well fit by a sum of so called "Bulk Motion Comptonization (BMC) component" and by two (broad and narrow) Gaussians for the continuum and line emissions respectively. In addition to these spectral model components we also find a strong feature that we identify as a" blackbody-like (BB)" component which color temperature is in the range of 4-5 keV in 24 IS spectra during the radio outburst decay in SS 433. Our observational results on the "high temperature BB" bump leads us to suggest the presence of gravitationally redshifted annihilation line emission in this source. In fact this spectral feature has been recently reproduced in Monte Carlo simulations by Laurent and Titarchuk. We have also established the photon index saturation at about 2.3 in index vs mass accretion correlation. This index-mass accretion correlation allows us to evaluate the low limit of black hole (BH) mass of compact object in SS 433, M(sub bh) approximately > 2 solar masses, using the scaling method using BHC GX 339-4 as a reference source. Our estimate of the BH mass in SS 433 is consistent with recent BH mass measurement using the radial-velocity measurements of the binary system by Hillwig & Gies who find that M(sub x)( = (4.3 +/- 0.8) solar masses. This is the smallest BH mass found up to now among all BH sources. Moreover, the index saturation effect versus mass accretion rate revealed in SS 433, like in a number of other BH candidates, is the strong observational evidence for the presence of a BH in SS 433.

  3. Dahl SS rats demonstrate enhanced aortic perivascular adipose tissue-mediated buffering of vasoconstriction through activation of NOS in the endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Spradley, Frank T.; Ho, Dao H.

    2015-01-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) mediates buffering of vasoconstriction through activation of endothelium-derived factors. We hypothesized that the PVAT of Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl SS) rats has reduced ability to buffer vasoconstriction. Vascular reactivity experiments were performed on aortic rings with PVAT intact (+PVAT) or removed (−PVAT), and endothelium intact (+ENDO) or removed (−ENDO) from Dahl SS rats and control SS.13BN rats (Dahl SS rats that have had chromosome 13 completely replaced with that of the Brown Norway rat, rendering this strain insensitive to high-salt or high-fat diet-induced hypertension). Endothelial dysfunction, assessed by ACh-mediated vasorelaxation, was confirmed in aortic rings of Dahl SS rats. The +PVAT+ENDO aortic rings had indistinguishable phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction between genotypes. In both strains, removal of PVAT significantly enhanced vasoconstriction. Dahl SS rat −PVAT+ENDO aortic rings displayed exaggerated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine vs. SS.13BN rats, indicating that PVAT-mediated buffering of vasoconstriction was greater in Dahl SS rats. Removal of both the ENDO and PVAT restored vasoconstriction in both strains. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), produced a similar effect as that seen with −ENDO. These data indicate that the function of the PVAT to activate endothelium-derived NOS is enhanced in Dahl SS compared with SS.13BN rats and, most likely, occurs through a pathway that is distinct from ACh-mediated activation of NOS. PVAT weight and total PVAT leptin levels were greater in Dahl SS rats. Leptin induced a significantly decreased vasoconstriction in −PVAT+ENDO aortic rings from Dahl SS rats, but not SS.13BN rats. In contrast to our initial hypothesis, PVAT in Dahl SS rats buffers vasoconstriction by activating endothelial NOS via mechanisms that may include the involvement of leptin. Thus, the PVAT serves a vasoprotective role in

  4. Development in corrosion resistance by microstructural refinement in Zr-16 SS 304 alloy using suction casting technique

    SciTech Connect

    Das, N., E-mail: nirupamd@barc.gov.in; Sengupta, P.; Abraham, G.

    Highlights: • Grain refinement was made in Zr–16 wt.% SS alloy while prepared by suction casting process. • Distribution of Laves phase, e.g., Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Cr) was raised in suction cast (SC) Zr–16 wt.% SS. • Corrosion resistance was improved in SC alloy compared to that of arc-melt-cast alloy. • Grain refinement in SC alloy assisted for an increase in its corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Zirconium (Zr)-stainless steel (SS) hybrid alloys are being considered as baseline alloys for developing metallic-waste-form (MWF) with the motivation of disposing of Zr and SS base nuclear metallic wastes. Zr–16 wt.% SS, a MWF alloymore » optimized from previous studies, exhibit significant grain refinement and changes in phase assemblages (soft phase: Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Cr)/α-Zr vs. hard phase: Zr{sub 3}(Fe, Ni)) when prepared by suction casting (SC) technique in comparison to arc-cast-melt (AMC) route. Variation in Cr-distribution among different phases are found to be low in suction cast alloy, which along with grain refinement restricted Cr-depletion at the Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Cr)/Zr interfaces, prone to localized attack. Hence, SC alloy, compared to AMC alloy, showed lower current density, higher potential at the breakdown of passivity and higher corrosion potential during polarization experiments (carried out under possible geological repository environments, viz., pH 8, 5 and 1) indicating its superior corrosion resistance.« less

  5. Rapid variability of the arcsec-scale X-ray jets of SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliari, S.; Fender, R. P.; Blundell, K. M.; Méndez, M.; van der Klis, M.

    2005-04-01

    We present X-ray images of all the available Chandra observations of the galactic jet source SS 433. We have studied the morphology of the X-ray images and inspected the evolution of the arcsec X-ray jets, recently found to be manifestations of in situ reheating of the relativistic gas downstream in the jets. The Chandra images reveal that the arcsec X-ray jets are not steady long-term structures; the structure varies, indicating that the reheating processes have no preference for a particular precession phase or distance from the binary core. Three observations made within about five days in 2001 May, and a 60-ks observation made in 2003 July, show that the variability of the jets can be very rapid, from time-scales of days to (possibly) hours. The three 2001 May images show two resolved knots in the east jet getting brighter one after the other, suggesting that a common phenomenon might be at the origin of the sequential reheatings of the knots. We discuss possible scenarios and propose a model to interpret these brightenings in terms of a propagating shock wave, revealing a second, faster outflow in the jet.

  6. Computational approach to analyze isolated ssDNA aptamers against angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Heiat, Mohammad; Najafi, Ali; Ranjbar, Reza; Latifi, Ali Mohammad; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad

    2016-07-20

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides with highly structured molecules that can bind to their targets through specific 3-D conformation. Commonly, not all the nucleotides such as primer binding fixed region and some other sequences are vital for aptamers folding and interaction. Elimination of unnecessary regions needs trustworthy prediction tools to reduce experimental efforts and errors. Here we introduced a manipulated in-silico approach to predict the 3-D structure of aptamers and their target interactions. To design an approach for computational analysis of isolated ssDNA aptamers (FLC112, FLC125 and their truncated core region including CRC112 and CRC125), their secondary and tertiary structures were modeled by Mfold and RNA composer respectively. Output PDB files were modified from RNA to DNA in the discovery studio visualizer software. Using ZDOCK server, the aptamer-target interactions were predicted. Finally, the interaction scores were compared with the experimental results. In-silico interaction scores and the experimental outcomes were in the same descending arrangement of FLC112>CRC125>CRC112>FLC125 with similar intensity. The consistent results of innovative in-silico method with experimental outputs, affirmed that the present method may be a reliable approach. Also, it showed that the exact in-silico predictions can be utilized as a credible reference to find aptameric fragments binding potency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Combining use of a panel of ssDNA aptamers in the detection of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaoxiao; Li, Shaohua; Chen, Liucun; Ding, Hongmei; Xu, Hua; Huang, Yanping; Li, Jie; Liu, Nongle; Cao, Weihong; Zhu, Yanjun; Shen, Beifen; Shao, Ningsheng

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a panel of ssDNA aptamers specific to Staphylococcus aureus was obtained by a whole bacterium-based SELEX procedure and applied to probing S. aureus. After several rounds of selection with S. aureus as the target and Streptococcus and S. epidermidis as counter targets, the highly enriched oligonucleic acid pool was sequenced and then grouped under different families on the basis of the homology of the primary sequence and the similarity of the secondary structure. Eleven sequences from different families were selected for further characterization by confocal imaging and flow cytometry analysis. Results showed that five aptamers demonstrated high specificity and affinity to S. aureus individually. The five aptamers recognize different molecular targets by competitive experiment. Combining these five aptamers had a much better effect than the individual aptamer in the recognition of different S. aureus strains. In addition, the combined aptamers can probe single S. aureus in pyogenic fluids. Our work demonstrates that a set of aptamers specific to one bacterium can be used in combination for the identification of the bacterium instead of a single aptamer. PMID:19498077

  8. Combining use of a panel of ssDNA aptamers in the detection of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoxiao; Li, Shaohua; Chen, Liucun; Ding, Hongmei; Xu, Hua; Huang, Yanping; Li, Jie; Liu, Nongle; Cao, Weihong; Zhu, Yanjun; Shen, Beifen; Shao, Ningsheng

    2009-08-01

    In this article, a panel of ssDNA aptamers specific to Staphylococcus aureus was obtained by a whole bacterium-based SELEX procedure and applied to probing S. aureus. After several rounds of selection with S. aureus as the target and Streptococcus and S. epidermidis as counter targets, the highly enriched oligonucleic acid pool was sequenced and then grouped under different families on the basis of the homology of the primary sequence and the similarity of the secondary structure. Eleven sequences from different families were selected for further characterization by confocal imaging and flow cytometry analysis. Results showed that five aptamers demonstrated high specificity and affinity to S. aureus individually. The five aptamers recognize different molecular targets by competitive experiment. Combining these five aptamers had a much better effect than the individual aptamer in the recognition of different S. aureus strains. In addition, the combined aptamers can probe single S. aureus in pyogenic fluids. Our work demonstrates that a set of aptamers specific to one bacterium can be used in combination for the identification of the bacterium instead of a single aptamer.

  9. Crystal structure and enzymatic characterization of thymidylate synthase X from Helicobacter pylori strain SS1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kuifeng; Wang, Qi; Chen, Jing; Chen, Lili; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase X (ThyX) catalyzes the methylation of dUMP to form dTMP in bacterial life cycle and is regarded as a promising target for antibiotics discovery. Helicobacter pylori is a human pathogen associated with a number of human diseases. Here, we cloned and purified the ThyX enzyme from H. pylori SS1 strain (HpThyX). The recombinant HpThyX was discovered to exhibit the maximum activity at pH 8.5, and Km values of the two substrates dUMP and CH2H4folate were determined to be 15.3 ± 1.25 μM and 0.35 ± 0.18 mM, respectively. The analyzed crystal structure of HpThyX with the cofactor FAD and the substrate dUMP (at 2.31 Å) revealed that the enzyme was a tetramer bound to four dUMP and four FAD molecules. Different from the catalytic feature of the classical thymidylate synthase (ThyA), N5 atom of the FAD functioned as a nucleophile in the catalytic reaction instead of Ser84 and Ser85 residues. Our current work is expected to help better understand the structural and enzymatic features of HpThyX thus further providing valuable information for anti-H. pylori inhibitor discovery. PMID:21633987

  10. Anterior Chamber Angle Shape Analysis and Classification of Glaucoma in SS-OCT Images.

    PubMed

    Ni Ni, Soe; Tian, J; Marziliano, Pina; Wong, Hong-Tym

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography is a high resolution, rapid, and noninvasive diagnostic tool for angle closure glaucoma. In this paper, we present a new strategy for the classification of the angle closure glaucoma using morphological shape analysis of the iridocorneal angle. The angle structure configuration is quantified by the following six features: (1) mean of the continuous measurement of the angle opening distance; (2) area of the trapezoidal profile of the iridocorneal angle centered at Schwalbe's line; (3) mean of the iris curvature from the extracted iris image; (4) complex shape descriptor, fractal dimension, to quantify the complexity, or changes of iridocorneal angle; (5) ellipticity moment shape descriptor; and (6) triangularity moment shape descriptor. Then, the fuzzy k nearest neighbor (fkNN) classifier is utilized for classification of angle closure glaucoma. Two hundred and sixty-four swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) images from 148 patients were analyzed in this study. From the experimental results, the fkNN reveals the best classification accuracy (99.11 ± 0.76%) and AUC (0.98 ± 0.012) with the combination of fractal dimension and biometric parameters. It showed that the proposed approach has promising potential to become a computer aided diagnostic tool for angle closure glaucoma (ACG) disease.

  11. The Blattodea s.s. (Insecta, Dictyoptera) of the Guiana Shield

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Dominic A.; Chan, Kimberly; Kaplan, Kayla L.; Wilson, Megan M.; Ware, Jessica L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblatta berenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodea s.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under–sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under–sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp.) and Suriname (136 spp.) rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics. PMID:25684997

  12. Synthesis of calcium hydrogen phosphate and hydroxyapatite coating on SS316 substrate through pulsed electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Rajib; Sengupta, Srijan; Saha, Partha; Das, Karabi; Das, Siddhartha

    2016-12-01

    The orthopaedic implants for human body are generally made of different biomaterials like stainless steels or Ti based alloys. However, it has been found that from surface properties point of view, none of these materials is attractive for fast tissue or cell growth on the surface of implant. This is one of the most important criteria to assure quick bonding between implant and body tissues vis-à-vis minimum recovery time for the patient. Keeping in view of the above facts, this work involves the pulsed electro-deposition coating of biocompatible hydroxyapatite and its group compounds from a diluted bath of calcium and phosphate salt at various current densities over the biomaterial sheet of SS316. SEM study confirms different morphologies of the coatings at different current densities. Characterization techniques like X-ray diffraction, SEM with EDX and FTIR have been used to confirm the phase and percentage quantity of hydroxyapatite compound in the depositions. This coating can serve as a medium for faster tissue growth over the metallic implants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis Zoonosis – The Hundred Year War – Beyond Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sechi, Leonardo A.; Dow, Coad Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The factitive role of Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MAP) in Crohn’s disease has been debated for more than a century. The controversy is due to the fact that Crohn’s disease is so similar to a disease of MAP-infected ruminant animals, Johne’s disease; and, though MAP can be readily detected in the infected ruminants, it is much more difficult to detect in humans. Molecular techniques that can detect MAP in pathologic Crohn’s specimens as well as dedicated specialty labs successful in culturing MAP from Crohn’s patients have provided strong argument for MAP’s role in Crohn’s disease. Perhaps more incriminating for MAP as a zoonotic agent is the increasing number of diseases with which MAP has been related: Blau syndrome, type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and multiple sclerosis. In this article, we debate about genetic susceptibility to mycobacterial infection and human exposure to MAP; moreover, it suggests that molecular mimicry between protein epitopes of MAP and human proteins is a likely bridge between infection and these autoimmune disorders. PMID:25788897

  14. Cherenkov and scintillation light separation on the CheSS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caravaca, Javier; Land, Benjamin; Descamps, Freija; Orebi Gann, Gabriel D.

    2016-09-01

    Separation of the scintillation and Cherenkov light produced in liquid scintillators enables outstanding capabilities for future particle detectors, the most relevant being: particle directionality information in a low energy threshold detector and improved particle identification. The CheSS experiment uses an array of small, fast photomultipliers (PMTs) and state-of-the-art electronics to demonstrate the reconstruction of a Cherenkov ring in liquid scintillator using two techniques: based on the photon density and using the photon hit time information. A charged particle ionizing a scintillation medium produces a prompt Cherenkov cone and late isotropic scintillation light, typically delayed by several ns. The fast response of our PMTs and DAQ provides a precision well below the ns level, making possible the time separation. Furthermore, the usage of the new developed water-based liquid scintillators (WbLS) enhances the separation since it allows tuning of the Cherenkov/Scintillation ratio. Latest results on the separation for pure liquid scintillators and WbLS will be presented.

  15. DISCOVERY OF FAST, LARGE-AMPLITUDE OPTICAL VARIABILITY OF V648 Car (=SS73-17)

    SciTech Connect

    Angeloni, R.; Di Mille, F.; Ferreira Lopes, C. E.

    We report on the discovery of large-amplitude flickering from V648 Car (= SS73-17), a poorly studied object listed among the very few hard X-ray-emitting symbiotic stars. We performed millimagnitude precision optical photometry with the Swope Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and found that V648 Car shows large U-band variability over timescales of minutes. To our knowledge, it exhibits some of the largest flickering of a symbiotic star ever reported. Our finding supports the hypothesis that symbiotic white dwarfs producing hard X-rays are predominantly powered by accretion, rather than quasi-steady nuclear burning, and have masses close to the Chandrasekharmore » limit. No significant periodicity is evident from the flickering light curve. The All Sky Automated Survey long-term V light curve suggests the presence of a tidally distorted giant accreting via Roche lobe overflow, and a binary period of {approx}520 days. On the basis of the outstanding physical properties of V648 Car as hinted at by its fast and long-term optical variability, as well as by its nature as a hard X-ray emitter, we therefore call for simultaneous follow-up observations in different bands, ideally combined with time-resolved optical spectroscopy.« less

  16. Acute on chronic liver failure in a patient with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS)

    PubMed Central

    Im, Dana DaEun; Essien, Utibe; DePasse, Jacqueline W; Chiappa, Victor

    2015-01-01

    A man in his late 40s with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) presented to the emergency department with 2 weeks of diffuse oedema, increased abdominal girth and dyspnoea. His anasarca was thought to be indicative of an acute decompensation of his known liver cirrhosis with transfusion-induced haemosiderosis. While his anasarca improved with diuresis, his direct hyperbilirubinaemia suddenly worsened without any signs of haemolysis, biliary disease or obstruction. He also developed an acute worsening in serum creatinine (1.17–7.0 mg/dL in 7 days) despite subsequent treatment for presumed hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Given his clinical decline, the patient's goals of care were transitioned to comfort measures only. His clinical presentation and rapid liver and renal deterioration were most typical of sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis (SCIC). SCIC can lead to rapid deterioration in renal function and can be mistaken for HRS. When SCIC is suspected, consideration of exchange transfusions should be made early. PMID:26135492

  17. Global Discontinuity Structure of the Mantle Transition Zone from Finite-Frequency Tomography of SS Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Z.; Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    We report global structure of the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities from finite-frequency tomography using frequency-dependent traveltime measurements of SS precursors recorded at the Global Seismological Network (GSN). Finite-frequency sensitivity kernels for discontinuity depth perturbations are calculated in the framework of traveling-wave mode coupling. We parametrize the global discontinuities using a set of spherical triangular grid points and solve the tomographic inverse problem based on singular value decomposition. Our global 410-km and 660-km discontinuity models reveal distinctly different characteristics beneath the oceans and subduction zones. In general, oceanic regions are associated with a thinner mantle transition zone and depth perturbations of the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities are anti-correlated, in agreement with a thermal origin and an overall warm and dry mantle beneath the oceans. The perturbations are not uniform throughout the oceans but show strong small-scale variations, indicating complex processes in the mantle transition zone. In major subduction zones (except for South America where data coverage is sparse), depth perturbations of the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities are correlated, with both the 410-km and the 660-km discontinuities occurring at greater depths. The distributions of the anomalies are consistent with cold stagnant slabs just above the 660-km discontinuity and ascending return flows in a superadiabatic upper mantle.

  18. Fusion welding studies using laser on Ti-SS dissimilar combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugarajan, B.; Padmanabham, G.

    2012-11-01

    Laser welding investigations were carried out on dissimilar Ti-SS combination. The study is aimed to improve the weld strength and ductility by minimizing harmful intermetallics and taking advantage of high cooling rates in laser welding. Results of continuous wave 3.5 kW CO2 laser welding of totally dissimilar combination of Titanium and stainless steel (304) have been discussed. Bead on plate welding experiments were conducted to identify the laser welding parameters using depth of penetration as criteria. The welding of dissimilar combination has been attempted both autogenously and with interlayers such as Vanadium (V) and Tantalum (Ta) in the form of laser cladding as well as strip. Autogenous welds were carried out by varying the laser power, welding speed and position of the laser beam with respect to the joint centre. The resultant welds are characterized by macrostructure analysis, SEM/EDAX and XRD and as welded tensile test in UTM. The autogenous welds have exhibited extensive cracking even when welded at high speeds or by manipulating the beam position with respect to the joint. Similarly Vandaium as interlayer could not achieve crack free joint. A joint with 40 MPa strength could be made with Ta as interlayer. Results and analysis of these variants of laser welded joints are reported and discussed.

  19. Potential application of alkaline pectinase from Bacillus subtilis SS in pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, Sonia; Mandhan, R P; Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Kumar, Rakesh; Sharma, Jitender

    2008-06-01

    Pectinase production from Bacillus subtilis SS was optimized under solid-state fermentation (5,943 U/g of dry bacterial bran). The pectinase produced was stable in neutral to alkaline pH range at 70 degrees C; therefore, the suitability of this pectinase in pulp and paper industry was investigated. The enzyme pretreatment process was optimized, and a pectinase dose of 5 IU/g of oven-dried pulp (10% consistency) at pH 9.5 temperature 70 degrees C after 150 min of treatment gave the best pretreatment to the pulp. An increase of 4.3% in brightness along with an increase of 14.8 and 65.3% in whiteness and fluorescence, respectively, whereas a 15% decrease in the yellowness of the pretreated pulp were observed. There was a 5.85% reduction in kappa number and 6.1% reduction in permanganate number along with a reduction in the chemical oxygen demand value. Significant characteristics showed by pectinase open new possibilities of application of this cellulase-free enzyme in the pulp and paper industry by reducing the negative environmental impact of chemicals apart from improving the properties of paper.

  20. Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrum of SS Cygni in Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauche, Christopher W.

    2004-07-01

    We have fitted the Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating (LETG) spectrum of SS Cygni in outburst with a single-temperature blackbody suffering the photoelectric opacity of a neutral column density and the scattering opacity of an outflowing wind. We find that this simple model is capable of reproducing the essential features of the observed spectrum with the blackbody temperature Tbl~250+/-50 kK, hydrogen column density NH~5.0+2.9-1.5×1019cm-2, fractional emitting area f~5.6+60-4.5×10-3, boundary layer luminosity Lbl~5+18-3×1033ergss-1, wind velocity v~2500kms-1, wind mass-loss rate Mw~1.1×1016gs-1, and arbitrary values of the wind ionization fractions of 20 ions of O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe. Given that in outburst the accretion disk luminosity Ldisk~1×1035ergss-1, Lbl/Ldisk~0.05+0.18-0.03, which can be explained if the white dwarf (or an equatorial belt thereon) is rotating with an angular velocity Ωwd~0.7+0.1-0.2 Hz, hence Vrotsini~2300kms-1. This paper is dedicated to the memory and accomplishments of my colleague and friend Janet Akyüz Mattei, who died on 2004 March 22 after a long battle with acute myelogenous leukemia. Her passing is a great loss to the astronomical community, both amateur and professional.

  1. Analysis of the Corrosion Behavior of an A-TIG Welded SS 409 Weld Fusion Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidyarthy, R. S.; Dwivedi, D. K.

    2017-11-01

    AISI 409 (SS 409) ferritic stainless steel is generally used as the thick gauge section in freight train wagons, in ocean containers, and in sugar refinery equipment. Activating the flux tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding process can reduce the welding cost during fabrication of thick sections. However, corrosion behavior of the A-TIG weld fusion zone is a prime concern for this type of steel. In the present work, the effect of the A-TIG welding process parameters on the corrosion behavior of a weld fusion zone made of 8-mm-thick AISI 409 ferritic stainless-steel plate has been analyzed. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed to evaluate the corrosion behavior. The maximum corrosion potential ( E corr) was shown by the weld made using a welding current of 215 A, a welding speed of 95 mm/min, and a flux coating density of 0.81 mg/cm2. The minimum E corr was observed in the weld made using a welding current of 190 A, a welding speed of 120 mm/min, and a flux coating density of 1.40 mg/cm2. The current study also presents the inclusive microstructure-corrosion property relationships using the collective techniques of scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction.

  2. Magnetic field analysis of the bow and terminal shock of the SS 433 jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakemi, Haruka; Machida, Mami; Akahori, Takuya; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Kurahara, Kohei; Farnes, Jamie

    2018-03-01

    We report a polarization analysis of the eastern region of W 50, observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 1.4-3.0 GHz. In order to study the physical structures in the region where the SS 433 jet and W 50 interact, we obtain an intrinsic magnetic field vector map of that region. We find that the orientation of the intrinsic magnetic field vectors are aligned along the total intensity structures, and that there are characteristic, separate structures related to the jet, the bow shock, and the terminal shock. The Faraday rotation measures (RMs), and the results of Faraday tomography suggest that a high-intensity, filamentary structure in the north-south direction of the eastern-edge region can be separated into at least two parts to the north and south. The results of Faraday tomography also show that there are multiple components along the line of sight and/or within the beam area. In addition, we analyze the X-ray ring-like structure observed with XMM-Newton. While the possibility still remains that this X-ray ring is "real", it seems that the structure is not ring-like at radio wavelengths. Finally, we suggest that the structure is a part of the helical structure that coils the eastern ear of W 50.

  3. 78 FR 47056 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 941, 941-PR, 941-SS, 941-X, 941-X(PR), Schedule B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... 941, 941-PR, 941- SS, 941-X, 941-X(PR), Schedule B (Form 941), Schedule R (Form 941)and Schedule B... Islands), 941-X, Adjusted Employer's Quarterly Federal Tax Return or Claim for Refund, 941-X(PR), Schedule...: 941, 941-PR, 941-SS, 941-X, 941-X(PR), Schedule R (Form 941), Schedule B (Form 941), and Schedule B...

  4. The Type IX Secretion System (T9SS): Highlights and Recent Insights into Its Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Lasica, Anna M.; Ksiazek, Miroslaw; Madej, Mariusz; Potempa, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Protein secretion systems are vital for prokaryotic life, as they enable bacteria to acquire nutrients, communicate with other species, defend against biological and chemical agents, and facilitate disease through the delivery of virulence factors. In this review, we will focus on the recently discovered type IX secretion system (T9SS), a complex translocon found only in some species of the Bacteroidetes phylum. T9SS plays two roles, depending on the lifestyle of the bacteria. It provides either a means of movement (called gliding motility) for peace-loving environmental bacteria or a weapon for pathogens. The best-studied members of these two groups are Flavobacterium johnsoniae, a commensal microorganism often found in water and soil, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, a human oral pathogen that is a major causative agent of periodontitis. In P. gingivalis and some other periodontopathogens, T9SS translocates proteins, especially virulence factors, across the outer membrane (OM). Proteins destined for secretion bear a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) that directs the cargo to the OM translocon. At least 18 proteins are involved in this still enigmatic process, with some engaged in the post-translational modification of T9SS cargo proteins. Upon translocation across the OM, the CTD is removed by a protease with sortase-like activity and an anionic LPS is attached to the newly formed C-terminus. As a result, a cargo protein could be secreted into the extracellular milieu or covalently attached to the bacterial surface. T9SS is regulated by a two-component system; however, the precise environmental signal that triggers it has not been identified. Exploring unknown systems contributing to bacterial virulence is exciting, as it may eventually lead to new therapeutic strategies. During the past decade, the major components of T9SS were identified, as well as hints suggesting the possible mechanism of action. In addition, the list of characterized cargo proteins is

  5. Simulation of debris flow events in Sicily by cellular automata model SCIDDICA_SS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancelliere, A.; Lupiano, V.; Peres, D. J.; Stancanelli, L.; Avolio, M.; Foti, E.; Di Gregorio, S.

    2013-12-01

    Debris flow models are widely used for hazard mapping or for evaluating the effectiveness of risk mitigation measures. Several models analyze the dynamics of debris flow runout solving Partial Differential Equations. In use of such models, difficulties arise in estimating kinematic geotechnical soil parameters for real phenomena. In order to overcome such difficulties, alternative semi-empirical approaches can be employed, such as macroscopic Cellular Automata (CA). In particular, for CA simulation purposes, the runout of debris flows emerges from local interactions in a dynamical system, subdivided into elementary parts, whose state evolves within a spatial and temporal discretum. The attributes of each cell (substates) describe physical characteristics. For computational reasons, the natural phenomenon is splitted into a number of elementary processes, whose proper composition makes up the CA transition function. By simultaneously applying this function to all the cells, the evolution of the phenomenon can be simulated in terms of modifications of the substates. In this study, we present an application of the macroscopic CA semi-empirical model SCIDDICA_SS3 to the Peloritani Mountains area in Sicily island, Italy. The model was applied using detailed data from the 1 October 2009 debris flow event, which was triggered by a rainfall event of about 250 mm falling in 9 hours, that caused the death of 37 persons. This region is characterized by river valleys with large hillslope angles (30°-60°), catchment basins of small extensions (0.5-12 km2) and soil composed by metamorphic material, which is easy to be eroded. CA usage implies a calibration phase, that identifies an optimal set of parameters capable of adequately play back the considered case, and a validation phase, that tests the model on a sufficient (and different) number of cases similar in terms of physical and geomorphological properties. The performance of the model can be measured in terms of a fitness

  6. Subaru And Gemini Observations Of SS 433: New Constraint On The Mass Of The Compact Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, K.; Ueda, Y.; Fabrika, S.; Medvedev, A.; Barsukova, E. A.; Sholukhova, O.; Goranskij, V. P.

    2010-02-01

    We present results of optical spectroscopic observations of the mass donor star in SS 433 with Subaru and Gemini, with an aim to best constrain the mass of the compact object. Subaru/Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph observations were performed on four nights of 2007 October 6-8 and 10, covering the orbital phase of phi = 0.96 - 0.26. We first calculate the cross-correlation function (CCF) of these spectra with that of the reference star HD 9233 in the wavelength range of 4740-4840 Å. This region is selected to avoid "strong" absorption lines accompanied with contaminating emission components, which most probably originate from the surroundings of the donor star, such as the wind and gas stream. The same analysis is applied to archive data of Gemini/GMOS taken at phi = 0.84 - 0.30 by Hillwig & Gies. From the Subaru and Gemini CCF results, the amplitude of the radial velocity curve of the donor star is determined to be 58.3 ± 3.8 km s-1 with a systemic velocity of 59.2 ± 2.5 km s-1. Together with the radial velocity curve of the compact object, we derive the mass of the donor star and compact object to be M O = 12.4 ± 1.9 M sun and M X = 4.3 ± 0.6 M sun, respectively. We conclude, however, that these values should be taken as upper limits. From the analysis of the averaged absorption line profiles of strong lines (mostly ions) and weak lines (mostly neutrals) observed with Subaru, we find evidence for heating effects from the compact object. Using a simple model, we find that the true radial velocity amplitude of the donor star could be as low as 40 ± 5 km s-1 in order to produce the observed absorption-line profiles. Taking into account the heating of the donor star may lower the derived masses to M O = 10.4+2.3 -1.9 M sun and M X = 2.5+0.7 -0.6 M sun. Our final constraint, 1.9 M sun <=M X<= 4.9 M sun, indicates that the compact object in SS 433 is most likely a low mass black hole, although the possibility of a massive neutron star cannot be firmly

  7. Laser shock peening studies on SS316LN plate with various sacrificial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yella, Pardhu; Venkateswarlu, P.; Buddu, Ramesh K.; Vidyasagar, D. V.; Sankara Rao, K. Bhanu; Kiran, P. Prem; Rajulapati, Koteswararao V.

    2018-03-01

    Laser shock peening (LSP) has been utilized to modify the surface characteristics of SS316LN plates of 6 mm thickness. Laser pulse widths employed are 30 ps and 7 ns and the laser energy was varied in the range 5-90 mJ. Peening was performed in direct ablation mode as well as with various sacrificial layers such as black paint, transparent adhesive tape and absorbing adhesive tape. The surface characteristics were greatly influenced by the type of sacrificial layer employed. The average surface roughness values are about 0.4 μm when the black paint and transparent adhesive tape were used as sacrificial layers. In contrast to this, using absorbent adhesive tape as a sacrificial layer has resulted in an average surface roughness of about 0.04 μm. Irrespective of pulse durations (30 ps or 7 ns), absorbent adhesive tape has always resulted in compressive residual stresses whereas other layers appear to be not that effective. In case of 30 ps pulse, as the laser energy was increased from 5 mJ to 25 mJ, there was a texture observed in (111) reflection of X-ray diffractograms and the center of the peak has also gradually shifted to left. X-ray line profile analysis suggests that with the increase in laser energy, lattice microstrain also has increased. This lattice microstrain appears to be resulting from the increased dislocation density in the peened sample as evidenced during transmission electron microscopic investigations. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy performed on peened samples suggests that absorbing adhesive tape brings no surface damage to the samples whereas other sacrificial layers have resulted in some surface damage. Based on all these structural and microstructural details, it is recommended that absorbent tape could be used as a sacrificial layer during LSP process which induces surface residual stresses with no damage to the sample surface.

  8. SS-A/Ro52 promotes apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2 production

    SciTech Connect

    Jauharoh, Siti Nur Aisyah; Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta 15412; Saegusa, Jun

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52{sup low} HeLa cells are resistant to apoptosis upon various stimulations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52 is upregulated by IFN-{alpha}, etoposide, or IFN-{gamma} and anti-Fas Ab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52-mediated apoptosis is independent of p53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ro52 selectively regulates Bcl-2 expression. -- Abstract: SS-A/Ro52 (Ro52), an autoantigen in systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjoegren's syndrome, has E3 ligase activity to ubiquitinate proteins that protect against viral infection. To investigate Ro52's role during stress, we transiently knocked it down in HeLa cells by siRo52 transfection. We found that Ro52{sup low} HeLa cells were significantly more resistant to apoptosis than wild-typemore » HeLa cells when stimulated by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}- or diamide-induced oxidative stress, IFN-{alpha}, IFN-{gamma} and anti-Fas antibody, etoposide, or {gamma}-irradiation. Furthermore, Ro52-mediated apoptosis was not influenced by p53 protein level in HeLa cells. Depleting Ro52 in HeLa cells caused Bcl-2, but not other Bcl-2 family molecules, to be upregulated. Taken together, our data showed that Ro52 is a universal proapoptotic molecule, and that its proapoptotic effect does not depend on p53, but is exerted through negative regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These findings shed light on a new physiological role for Ro52 that is important to intracellular immunity.« less

  9. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF CATHODIC LIMITATIONS ON LOCALIZED CORROSION OF WETTED SS 316L, AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    F. Cui; F.J. Presuel-Moreno; R.G. Kelly

    2005-10-13

    The ability of a SS316L surface wetted with a thin electrolyte layer to serve as an effective cathode for an active localized corrosion site was studied computationally. The dependence of the total net cathodic current, I{sub net}, supplied at the repassivation potential E{sub rp} (of the anodic crevice) on relevant physical parameters including water layer thickness (WL), chloride concentration ([Cl{sup -}]) and length of cathode (Lc) were investigated using a three-level, full factorial design. The effects of kinetic parameters including the exchange current density (i{sub o,c}) and Tafel slope ({beta}{sub c}) of oxygen reduction, the anodic passive current density (i{submore » p}) (on the cathodic surface), and E{sub rp} were studied as well using three-level full factorial designs of [Cl{sup -}] and Lc with a fixed WL of 25 {micro}m. The study found that all the three parameters WL, [Cl{sup -}] and Lc as well as the interactions of Lc x WL and Lc x [Cl{sup -}] had significant impact on I{sub net}. A five-factor regression equation was obtained which fits the computation results reasonably well, but demonstrated that interactions are more complicated than can be explained with a simple linear model. Significant effects on I{sub net} were found upon varying either i{sub o,c}, {beta}{sub c}, or E{sub rp}, whereas i{sub p} in the studied range was found to have little impact. It was observed that I{sub net} asymptotically approached maximum values (I{sub max}) when Lc increased to critical minimum values. I{sub max} can be used to determine the stability of coupled localized corrosion and the critical Lc provides important information for experimental design and corrosion protection.« less

  10. Physical properties and microstructure study of 316L SS fabricated by metal injection moulding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandang, Nur Aidah Nabihah; Harun, Wan Sharuzi Wan; Khalil, Nur Zalikha; Ismail, Muhammad Hussain; Ibrahim, Rosdi

    2017-12-01

    Metal injection moulding (MIM) has been practised to process alloy powders to become components with significant physical and mechanical properties. Dissimilar than other methods, MIM focuses on the production of high volume, a small, and complex shape of products. The performance of the compacts depends on the suitable sintering parameters that governs their strengths in the final phase which determines the excellent properties of the sintered compacts. Three different sintering temperatures were utilised; 1100, 1200, and 1300 °C with two different soaking times; 1 and 3 hours at 10 °C/min heating rate to study their effect on the physical properties and microstructure analysis of 316L SS alloy compacts. The shrinkage measurement, surface roughness, and density measurement had been conducted for physical properties study. Different sintering temperatures give an effect to the physical properties of the sintered compacts. The shrinkage measurement at 1300 °C and 3-hour sintering condition demonstrated the highest percentage reading which was 10.1 % compared to the lowest percentage reading of 6.4 % at 1100 °C and 1-hour sintering conditions. Whereas, the minimum percentage of density measurement can be found at sintering conditions of 1100 °C and 1-hour which is 83.9 % and the highest percentage is at 1300 °C and 3-hour sintering condition which is about 89.51 %. Therefore, it has been determined that there could be a significant relationship between sintering temperature and physical properties in which it can be found from the porosity of the compact based on the microstructure studies.

  11. Canine echinococcosis: genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from definitive hosts.

    PubMed

    Boufana, B; Lett, W; Lahmar, S; Griffiths, A; Jenkins, D J; Buishi, I; Engliez, S A; Alrefadi, M A; Eljaki, A A; Elmestiri, F M; Reyes, M M; Pointing, S; Al-Hindi, A; Torgerson, P R; Okamoto, M; Craig, P S

    2015-11-01

    Canids, particularly dogs, constitute the major source of cystic echinococcosis (CE) infection to humans, with the majority of cases being caused by Echinococcus granulosus (G1 genotype). Canine echinococcosis is an asymptomatic disease caused by adult tapeworms of E. granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). Information on the population structure and genetic variation of adult E. granulosus is limited. Using sequenced data of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) we examined the genetic diversity and population structure of adult tapeworms of E. granulosus (G1 genotype) from canid definitive hosts originating from various geographical regions and compared it to that reported for the larval metacestode stage from sheep and human hosts. Echinococcus granulosus (s.s) was identified from adult tapeworm isolates from Kenya, Libya, Tunisia, Australia, China, Kazakhstan, United Kingdom and Peru, including the first known molecular confirmation from Gaza and the Falkland Islands. Haplotype analysis showed a star-shaped network with a centrally positioned common haplotype previously described for the metacestode stage from sheep and humans, and the neutrality indices indicated population expansion. Low Fst values suggested that populations of adult E. granulosus were not genetically differentiated. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities for E. granulosus isolates from sheep and human origin were twice as high as those reported from canid hosts. This may be related to self-fertilization of E. granulosus and/or to the longevity of the parasite in the respective intermediate and definitive hosts. Improved nuclear single loci are required to investigate the discrepancies in genetic variation seen in this study.

  12. Pulsar-driven Jets In Supernovae, LMXBs, SS 433, And The Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleditch, John

    2011-01-01

    The model of pulsar emission through superluminally induced polarization currents (SLIP) predicts that pulsations produced by such currents, induced at many light cylinder radii by a rotating, magnetized body, as would be the case for a neutron star born within any star of more than 1.4 solar masses, will drive pulsations close to the axis of rotation. In SN 1987A, such highly collimated (<1 in 10,000) 2.14 ms pulsations, and the similarly collimated jets of particles which they drove, including 1e-6 solar masses with velocities of up to 0.95 c, were responsible for the features of its very early light (days 3 - 20), its "Mystery Spot," observed slightly later (0.5 to 0.3 c, at days 30 - 50 and after), and still later, in less collimated form, its bipolarity. The kinematics of the jets in Sco X-1 are nearly identical, while those for SS 433 are lower (0.26 c), because of the absence of velocity "boosting" via collisions of heavy elements with lighter ones, due to the nearly pure hydrogen content of the supercritical accretion. SLIP also predicts that almost all pulsars with very sharp single pulses have been detected because the Earth is in a favored direction where their fluxes diminish only as 1/distance, and this has been verified in the laboratory as well as for the Parkes Multibeam Survey. The axially driven pulsations enforce a toroidal geometry onto all early SNRs, rendering even SNe Ia unsuitable as standard candles. SLIP also specifically predicts that gamma-ray-burst afterglows will be essentially 100% pulsed at 500 Hz in their proper frame. Finally, SLIP jets from SNe of the first stars may allow galaxies to form without the need for dark matter. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy through the Los Alamos Directed Research Grant DR20080085.

  13. Pulsar-driven Jets in Supernovae, Gamma-ray Bursts, and SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleditch, John

    2010-05-01

    The model of pulsar emission through superluminally induced polarization currents (SLIP) predicts that pulsations produced by such currents, induced at many light cylinder radii by a rotating, magnetized body, as would be the case for a neutron star born within any star of more than 1.4 solar masses, will drive pulsations close to the axis of rotation. In SN 1987A, such highly collimated (less than 1 in 10,000) 2.14 ms pulsations, and the similarly collimated jets of particles which they drove, including 1e-6 solar masses with velocities of up to 0.95 c, were responsible for the features of its very early light (days 3 - 20), its "Mystery Spot," observed slightly later (days 30 - 50 and after), and still later, in less collimated form, its bipolarity. SLIP also explains why the 2.14 ms pulsations were more or less consistently observed between years 5.0 and 6.5, and why they eventually disappeared after year 9.0. There is no reason to suggest that this mechanism is not universally applicable to all SNe with gaseous remnants remaining, and thus SN 1987A is the Rosetta Stone for 99% of SNe, gamma-ray bursts, and millisecond pulsars, and possibly SS 433. The axially driven pulsations enforce a toroidal geometry onto all early SNRs, rendering even Ia's unsuitable as standard candles. SLIP predicts that almost all pulsars with very sharp single pulses have been detected because the Earth is in a favored direction where their fluxes diminish only as 1/distance, and this has been verified in the laboratory as well as for the Parkes Multibeam Survey. SLIP also specifically predicts that gamma-ray-burst afterglows will be essentially 100% pulsed at 500 Hz in their proper frame. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy through the Los Alamos Directed Research Grant DR20080085.

  14. Approaches to optimization of SS/TDMA time slot assignment. [satellite switched time division multiple access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, T. O.

    1984-01-01

    Reduction techniques for traffic matrices are explored in some detail. These matrices arise in satellite switched time-division multiple access (SS/TDMA) techniques whereby switching of uplink and downlink beams is required to facilitate interconnectivity of beam zones. A traffic matrix is given to represent that traffic to be transmitted from n uplink beams to n downlink beams within a TDMA frame typically of 1 ms duration. The frame is divided into segments of time and during each segment a portion of the traffic is represented by a switching mode. This time slot assignment is characterized by a mode matrix in which there is not more than a single non-zero entry on each line (row or column) of the matrix. Investigation is confined to decomposition of an n x n traffic matrix by mode matrices with a requirement that the decomposition be 100 percent efficient or, equivalently, that the line(s) in the original traffic matrix whose sum is maximal (called critical line(s)) remain maximal as mode matrices are subtracted throughout the decomposition process. A method of decomposition of an n x n traffic matrix by mode matrices results in a number of steps that is bounded by n(2) - 2n + 2. It is shown that this upper bound exists for an n x n matrix wherein all the lines are maximal (called a quasi doubly stochastic (QDS) matrix) or for an n x n matrix that is completely arbitrary. That is, the fact that no method can exist with a lower upper bound is shown for both QDS and arbitrary matrices, in an elementary and straightforward manner.

  15. High-Resolution X-Ray Spectra of the Symbiotic Star SS73 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eze, R. N. C.; Luna, G. J. M.; Smith, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    SS73 17 was an innocuous Mira-type symbiotic star until the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory and Swift discovered its bright hard X-ray emission, adding it to the small class of "hard X-ray emitting symbiotics." Suzaku observations in 2006 then showed it emits three bright iron lines as well, with little to no emission in the 0.3-2.0 keV bandpass. We present here follow-up observations with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating and Suzaku that confirm the earlier detection of strong emission lines of Fe K(alpha) fluorescence, Fe XXV and Fe XXVI but also show significantly more soft X-ray emission. The high-resolution spectrum also shows emission lines of other highly ionized ions as Si xiv and possibly S XVI. In addition, a re-analysis of the 2006 Suzaku data using the latest calibration shows that the hard (15-50 keV) X-ray emission is brighter than previously thought and remains constant in both the 2006 and 2008 data. The G ratio calculated from the Fe xxv lines shows that these lines are thermal, not photoionized, in origin.With the exception of the hard X-ray emission, the spectra from both epochs can be fit using thermal radiation assuming a differential emission measure based on a cooling-flow model combined with a full and partial absorber. We show that acceptable fits can be obtained for all the data in the 1-10 keV band varying only the partial absorber. Based on the temperature and accretion rate, the thermal emission appears to be arising from the boundary layer between the accreting white dwarf and the accretion disk.

  16. Sentaurus® based modeling and simulation for GFET's characteristic for ssDNA immobilization and hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunfang, Jia; Cheng, Ju

    2016-01-01

    The graphene field effect transistor (GFET) has been widely studied and developed as sensors and functional devices. The first report about GFET sensing simulation on the device level is proposed. The GFET's characteristics, its responding for single strand DNA (ssDNA) and hybridization with the complimentary DNA (cDNA) are simulated based on Sentaurus, a popular CAD tool for electronic devices. The agreement between the simulated blank GFET feature and the reported experimental data suggests the feasibility of the presented simulation method. Then the simulations of ssDNA immobilization on GFET and hybridization with its cDNA are performed, the results are discussed based on the electron transfer (ET) mechanism between DNA and graphene. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61371028) and the Tianjin Natural Science Foundation (No. 12JCZDJC22400).

  17. [Fool's gold standards in language screening. Sensitivity and specificity of the Hessian child language screening test (Kindersprachscreening, KiSS)].

    PubMed

    Neumann, K; Holler-Zittlau, I; van Minnen, S; Sick, U; Zaretsky, Y; Euler, H A

    2011-01-01

    The German Kindersprachscreening (KiSS) is a universal speech and language screening test for large-scale identification of Hessian kindergarten children requiring special educational language training or clinical speech/language therapy. To calculate the procedural screening validity, 257 children (aged 4.0 to 4.5 years) were tested using KiSS and four language tests (Reynell Development Language Scales III, Patholinguistische Diagnostik, PLAKSS, AWST-R). The majority or consensus judgements of three speech-language professionals, based on the language test results, served as a reference criterion. The base (fail) rates of the professionals were either self-determined or preset based on known prevalence rates. Screening validity was higher for preset than for self-determined base rates due to higher inter-judge agreement. The confusion matrices of the overall index classification of the KiSS (speech-language abnormalities with educational or clinical needs) with the fixed base rate expert judgement about language impairment, including fluency or voice disorders, yielded a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 78%, for just language impairment 84% and 75%, respectively. Specificities for disorders requiring clinical diagnostics in the KiSS (language impairment alone or combined with fluency/voice disorders) related to the test-based consensus expert judgment was about 93%. Sensitivities were unsatisfactory because the differentiation between educational and clinical needs requires improvement. Since the judgement concordances between the speech-language professionals was only moderate, the development of a comprehensive German reference test for speech and language disorders with evidence-based algorithmic decision rules rather than subjective clinical judgement is advocated.

  18. Experimental comparison of pathogenic potential of two sibling species Anisakis simplex s.s. and Anisakis pegreffii in Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Romero, María; Valero, Adela; Navarro-Moll, María Concepción; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina

    2013-08-01

    There are little data available on the pathology caused by the sibling species Anisakis simplex s.s. and Anisakis pegreffii. The differences shown in their ability to penetrate the muscle of fish may also be manifested in humans. The purpose of this study is to confirm possible differences in pathogenicity between A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii using an experimental model which simulates infection in humans. Female Wistar rats were infected with 190 Anisakis type I L3 larvae from the Iberian coastline. After the animal was sacrificed, these L3 larvae were then recovered and identified via PCR-RFLP of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2. A logistic regression analysis was performed searching for association between experimental pathogenic potential and species. The distribution of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii between Atlantic and Mediterranean waters of the Iberian Peninsula showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.001) which were not observed in the hybrid genotypes (P > 0.3). 21.6% showed pathogenic potential, interpreted as the capacity of the larvae to cause lesions, stick to the gastrointestinal wall or penetrate it. The species variable showed association with the pathogenic role of the larva (P = 0.008). Taking A. simplex s.s. as our reference, the OR for A. pegreffii is 0.351 (P = 0.028). Despite this difference, A. pegreffii is also capable of causing anisakiasis, being responsible for 14.3% of the penetrations of the gastric mucosa found in rats, which justifies both species being considered aetiologic agents of this parasitic disorder. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. BDNF pathway is involved in the protective effects of SS-31 on isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Zhang, Mingqiang; Li, Huihui; Sun, Xiaoru; Hao, Shuangying; Ji, Muhuo; Yang, Jianjun; Li, Kuanyu

    2016-05-15

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the earliest pathogenesis of isoflurane-induced cognitive impairments in developing or aging mammalian brain. However, its molecular mechanism is poorly understood and a pharmacologic treatment to rapidly reverse mitochondrial dysfunction is lacking. Fifteen-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to isoflurane for two hours following intraperitoneal administration of mitochondrion-targeted peptide SS-31 or vehicle with 30min interval. The hippocampus was immediately removed for biochemical assays and mitochondria isolation after inhalation. Behavioral tests were evaluated by the open field test and fear conditioning test 24h after the experiment. We showed that cognitive deficits induced by exposure of the aging mice to isoflurane were accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction in hippocampus due to loss of the enzymatic activity of complex I. This loss resulted in the increase of reactive oxygen species production, decrease of ATP production and mitochondrial membrane potential, and opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Further, we provided evidence that the BDNF signaling pathway was involved in this process to regulate synaptic plasticity-related proteins, for instance, downregulation of synapsin 1, PSD-95 and p-CREB, and upregulation of NR2A, NR2B, CaMKIIα and CaMKIIβ. Of note, the isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits were rescued by SS-31 through reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction, which facilitated the regulation of BDNF signaling including the expression reversal of aforementioned important synaptic-signaling proteins in aging mice. Our data demonstrate that reversing mitochondrial dysfunction by SS-31 enhances BDNF signaling pathway and synaptic plasticity, and provides protective effects on cognitive function, thereby support the notion that SS-31 may have therapeutic benefits for elderly humans undertaking anesthesia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis of carbon nanotube using camphor with SS 316 as catalytic substrate via oxidative heat treatment preparation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulan, Praswasti Pembangun Dyah Kencana; Angelina, Dian

    2017-11-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a material that now often become the topic in nanotechnology research. CNT is widely used in the electronics industry especially for TV and computer flat panel displays, devices, automotives for car components, and batteries. Also for defense industries as well as other industries such as sports equipment. Camphor (C10H16O), a botanical hydrocarbon, can be used as a renewable and low cost carbon source for CNT synthesis. Synthesis was performed with stainless steel-316 (SS 316) as substrate, argon as carrier gas, and hydrogen as co-reactant. Preparation of the SS 316 was through a pretreatment by oxidative heat treatment method at a temperature of 850oC for 30 minutes, to remove the layer of chrome and make a rough surface as a growth media for CNT. The operating temperature of the synthesis used was 800oC with a reaction time of 60 minutes. Reactor, which made from stainless steel 316 (SS 316), was used for synthesis CNTs with maximum camphor mass of 20 grams. This research was conducted by varying the number of camphor mass by 5, 7, 10, 12, and 15 grams. The results showed that camphor decomposed into three compounds which are 40% benzene, 8% toluene, and 52% xylene. CNT grows on the surface of the SS 316 plate for each variation. CNTs have grown by follow tips growth model with deformations like buckling growth model and continuous growth model were also founded. The results of XRD showed that CNT were found in every camphor mass variation with high intensity at 2θ angle of 26° and 43°. The best quality and yield of CNT was obtained at camphor mass of 15 grams with carbon percentage of 87,1% and diameter 33 - 44 nm.

  1. Effects of Polymer Length and Salt Concentration on the Transport of ssDNA in Nanofluidic Channels.

    PubMed

    Qian, Weixin; Doi, Kentaro; Kawano, Satoyuki

    2017-03-14

    Electrokinetic phenomena in micro/nanofluidic channels have attracted considerable attention because precise control of molecular transport in liquids is required to optically and electrically capture the behavior of single molecules. However, the detailed mechanisms of polymer transport influenced by electroosmotic flows and electric fields in micro/nanofluidic channels have not yet been elucidated. In this study, a Langevin dynamics simulation was used to investigate the electrokinetic transport of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in a cylindrical nanochannel, employing a coarse-grained bead-spring model that quantitatively reproduced the radius of gyration, diffusion coefficient, and electrophoretic mobility of the polymer. Using this practical scale model, transport regimes of ssDNA with respect to the ζ-potential of the channel wall, the ion concentration, and the polymer length were successfully characterized. It was found that the relationship between the radius of gyration of ssDNA and the channel radius is critical to the formation of deformation regimes in a narrow channel. We conclude that a combination of electroosmotic flow velocity gradients and electric fields due to electrically polarized channel surfaces affects the alignment of molecular conformations, such that the ssDNA is stretched/compressed at negative/positive ζ-potentials in comparatively low-concentration solutions. Furthermore, this work suggests the possibility of controlling the center-of-mass position by tuning the salt concentration. These results should be applicable to the design of molecular manipulation techniques based on liquid flows in micro/nanofluidic devices. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Validation of the flow-through chamber (FTC) and steady-state (SS) methods for clearance rate measurements in bivalves

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Poul S.; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    Summary To obtain precise and reliable laboratory clearance rate (filtration rate) measurements with the ‘flow-through chamber method’ (FTC) the design must ensure that only inflow water reaches the bivalve's inhalant aperture and that exit flow is fully mixed. As earlier recommended these prerequisites can be checked by a plot of clearance rate (CR) versus increasing through-flow (Fl) to reach a plateau, which is the true CR, but we also recommend to plot percent particles cleared versus reciprocal through-flow where the plateau becomes the straight line CR/Fl, and we emphasize that the percent of particles cleared is in itself neither a criterion for valid CR measurement, nor an indicator of appropriate ‘chamber geometry’ as hitherto adapted in many studies. For the ‘steady-state method’ (SS), the design must ensure that inflow water becomes fully mixed with the bivalve's excurrent flow to establish a uniform chamber concentration prevailing at its incurrent flow and at the chamber outlet. These prerequisites can be checked by a plot of CR versus increasing Fl, which should give the true CR at all through-flows. Theoretically, the experimental uncertainty of CR for a given accuracy of concentration measurements depends on the percent reduction in particle concentration (100×P) from inlet to outlet of the ideal ‘chamber geomety’. For FTC, it decreases with increasing values of P while for SS it first decreases but then increases again, suggesting the use of an intermediate value of P. In practice, the optimal value of P may depend on the given ‘chamber geometry’. The fundamental differences between the FTC and the SS methods and practical guidelines for their use are pointed out, and new data on CR for the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, illustrate a design and use of the SS method which may be employed in e.g. long-term growth experiments at constant algal concentrations. PMID:23213362

  3. A new discussion of the cutaneous vascular reactivity in sensitive skin: A sub-group of SS?

    PubMed

    Chen, S Y; Yin, J; Wang, X M; Liu, Y Q; Gao, Y R; Liu, X P

    2018-02-02

    Sensitive skin (SS) seems not to be a one-dimensional condition and many scholars concentrate on skin barrier disruption or sensorineural change, but few focus on its increased vascular reactivity. This study explored the possibility of using the different selection methods and measurement methods to verify a high vascular reactivity in SS without an impaired cutaneous barrier function. Sixty "self-perceived sensitive skin" volunteers were enlisted and each one completed three kinds of screening tests: assess cutaneous sensory using questionnaire survey and Lactic Acid Sting Test (LAST); assess barrier function using Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) skin irritation test and assess cutaneous vascular reactivity using 98% DMSO test and non-invasive measurement. Volunteers were divided into different groups based on response to SLS. The DMSO clinical score and the biophysical parameters obtained by non-invasive measurement were subsequently analysed. (1) The positive correlations could be seen between sum LAST score and sum DMSO score regardless of the observation time; (2) The biological parameters (CBF、a*values and L* values) are all keeping with DMSO score; (3) If the participants were divided into SLS reactors and non-reactors, a composition ratio of DMSO score was significant difference in these two groups and in SLS non-reactors, there were still seven participants showed high reaction to DMSO. There is a sub-group of SS for characteristics of a high vascular reactivity without an impaired cutaneous barrier function. The DMSO test and novel non-invasive measurements which are conducive to assess cutaneous vascular reactivity, combined with SLS skin irritation test could help us to screen this kind of SS. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The KIzSS network, a sentinel surveillance system for infectious diseases in day care centers: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Enserink, Remko; Noel, Harold; Friesema, Ingrid H M; de Jager, Carolien M; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M D; Kortbeek, Laetitia M; Duizer, Erwin; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Smit, Henriette A; Pelt, Wilfrid van

    2012-10-15

    Day care-associated infectious diseases are widely recognized as a public health problem but rarely studied. Insights into their dynamics and their association with the day care setting are important for effective decision making in management of infectious disease control. This paper describes the purpose, design and potential of our national multi-center, day care-based sentinel surveillance network for infectious diseases (the KIzSS network). The aim of the KIzSS network is to acquire a long-term insight into the syndromic and microbiological aspects of day care-related infectious diseases and associated disease burden and to model these aspects with day care setting characteristics. The KIzSS network applies a prospective cohort design, following day care centers rather than individual children or staff members over time. Data on infectious disease symptoms and related morbidity (children and staff), medical consumption, absenteeism and circulating enteric pathogens (children) are collected on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Every two years, a survey is performed to assess the characteristics of participating day care centers. The KIzSS network offers a unique potential to study infectious disease dynamics in the day care setting over a sustained period of time. The created (bio)databases will help us to assess day care-related disease burden of infectious diseases among attending children and staff and their relation with the day care setting. This will support the much needed development of evidence-based and pragmatic guidelines for infectious disease control in day care centers.

  5. The KIzSS network, a sentinel surveillance system for infectious diseases in day care centers: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Day care-associated infectious diseases are widely recognized as a public health problem but rarely studied. Insights into their dynamics and their association with the day care setting are important for effective decision making in management of infectious disease control. This paper describes the purpose, design and potential of our national multi-center, day care-based sentinel surveillance network for infectious diseases (the KIzSS network). The aim of the KIzSS network is to acquire a long-term insight into the syndromic and microbiological aspects of day care-related infectious diseases and associated disease burden and to model these aspects with day care setting characteristics. Methods/design The KIzSS network applies a prospective cohort design, following day care centers rather than individual children or staff members over time. Data on infectious disease symptoms and related morbidity (children and staff), medical consumption, absenteeism and circulating enteric pathogens (children) are collected on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Every two years, a survey is performed to assess the characteristics of participating day care centers. Discussion The KIzSS network offers a unique potential to study infectious disease dynamics in the day care setting over a sustained period of time. The created (bio)databases will help us to assess day care-related disease burden of infectious diseases among attending children and staff and their relation with the day care setting. This will support the much needed development of evidence-based and pragmatic guidelines for infectious disease control in day care centers. PMID:23066727

  6. Essential strategies to optimize asymmetric PCR conditions as a reliable method to generate large amount of ssDNA aptamers.

    PubMed

    Heiat, Mohammad; Ranjbar, Reza; Latifi, Ali Mohammad; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad; Farnoosh, Gholamreza

    2017-07-01

    Asymmetric PCR, a simple method to generate single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamers in systematic evaluation of ligand by exponential enrichments rounds, is coupled with limitations. We investigated the essential strategies for optimization of conditions to perform a high-quality asymmetric PCR. Final concentrations of primers and template, the number of PCR cycles, and annealing temperature were selected as optimizing variables. The qualities of visualized PCR products were analyzed by ImageJ software. The highest proportion of interested DNA than unwanted products was considered as optimum conditions. Results revealed that the best values for primers ratio, final template concentration, annealing temperature, and PCR cycles were, respectively, 30:1, 1 ng/μL, 55 °C, and 20 cycles for the first and 50:1, 2 ng/μL, 59 °C, and 20 cycles for other rounds. No significant difference was found between optimized asymmetric PCR results in the rounds of two to eight (P > 0.05). The ssDNA quality in round 10 was significantly better than other rounds (P < 0.05). Generally, the ssDNA product with less dimers, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), and smear are preferable. The dsDNA contamination is the worst, because it can act as antidote and inhibits aptameric performance. Therefore, to choose the best conditions, the lower amount of dsDNA is more important than other unwanted products. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Rapid detection of ssDNA and RNA using multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yongkang; Ju, Huangxian

    2005-11-15

    A method for rapid sensitive detection of DNA or RNA was designed using a composite screen-printed carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). MWNTs showed catalytic characteristics for the direct electrochemical oxidation of guanine or adenine residues of signal strand DNA (ssDNA) and adenine residues of RNA, leading to indicator-free detection of ssDNA and RNA concentrations. With an accumulation time of 5 min, the proposed method could be used for detection of calf thymus ssDNA ranging from 17.0 to 345 microg ml(-1) with a detection limit of 2.0 microg ml(-1) at 3 sigma and yeast tRNA ranging from 8.2 microg ml(-1) to 4.1 mg ml(-1). AC impedance was employed to characterize the surface of modified electrodes. The advantages of convenient fabrication, low-cost detection, short analysis time and combination with nanotechnology for increasing the sensitivity made the subject worthy of special emphasis in the research programs and sources of new commercial products.

  8. Constituents of the Essential Oil of Suregada zanzibariensis Leaves are Repellent to the Mosquito, Anopheles gambiae s.s.

    PubMed Central

    Innocent, Ester; Joseph, Cosam C.; Gikonyo, Nicholas K.; Nkunya, Mayunga H.H.; Hassanali, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    In traditional African communities, repellent volatiles from certain plants generated by direct burning or by thermal expulsion have played an important role in protecting households against vectors of malaria and other diseases. Previous research on volatile constituents of plants has shown that some are good sources of potent mosquito repellents. In this bioprospecting initiative, the essential oil of leaves of the tree, Suregada zanzibariensis Verdc. (Angiospermae: Euphobiaceae) was tested against the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and found to be repellent. Gas chromatography (GC), GC-linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and, where possible, GC-co-injections with authentic compounds, led to the identification of about 34 compounds in the essential oil. About 56% of the constituents were terpenoid ketones, mostly methyl ketones. Phenylacetaldehyde (14.4%), artemisia ketone (10.1%), (1S)-(-)-verbenone (12.1%) and geranyl acetone (9.4%) were the main constituents. Apart from phenylacetaldehyde, repellent activities of the other main constituents were higher than that of the essential oil. The blends of the main constituents in proportions found in the essential oil were more repellent to An. gambiae s.s. than was the parent oil (p < 0.05), and the presence of artemisia ketone in the blend caused a significant increase in the repellency of the resulting blend. These results suggested that blends of some terpenoid ketones can serve as effective An. gambiae s.s. mosquito repellents. PMID:20569134

  9. Constituents of the essential oil of Suregada zanzibariensis leaves are repellent to the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae s.s.

    PubMed

    Innocent, Ester; Joseph, Cosam C; Gikonyo, Nicholas K; Nkunya, Mayunga H H; Hassanali, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    In traditional African communities, repellent volatiles from certain plants generated by direct burning or by thermal expulsion have played an important role in protecting households against vectors of malaria and other diseases. Previous research on volatile constituents of plants has shown that some are good sources of potent mosquito repellents. In this bioprospecting initiative, the essential oil of leaves of the tree, Suregada zanzibariensis Verdc. (Angiospermae: Euphobiaceae) was tested against the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and found to be repellent. Gas chromatography (GC), GC-linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and, where possible, GC-co-injections with authentic compounds, led to the identification of about 34 compounds in the essential oil. About 56% of the constituents were terpenoid ketones, mostly methyl ketones. Phenylacetaldehyde (14.4%), artemisia ketone (10.1%), (1S)-(-)-verbenone (12.1%) and geranyl acetone (9.4%) were the main constituents. Apart from phenylacetaldehyde, repellent activities of the other main constituents were higher than that of the essential oil. The blends of the main constituents in proportions found in the essential oil were more repellent to An. gambiae s.s. than was the parent oil (p < 0.05), and the presence of artemisia ketone in the blend caused a significant increase in the repellency of the resulting blend. These results suggested that blends of some terpenoid ketones can serve as effective An. gambiae s.s. mosquito repellents.

  10. CADRE-SS, an in Silico Tool for Predicting Skin Sensitization Potential Based on Modeling of Molecular Interactions.

    PubMed

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina

    2016-01-19

    Using computer models to accurately predict toxicity outcomes is considered to be a major challenge. However, state-of-the-art computational chemistry techniques can now be incorporated in predictive models, supported by advances in mechanistic toxicology and the exponential growth of computing resources witnessed over the past decade. The CADRE (Computer-Aided Discovery and REdesign) platform relies on quantum-mechanical modeling of molecular interactions that represent key biochemical triggers in toxicity pathways. Here, we present an external validation exercise for CADRE-SS, a variant developed to predict the skin sensitization potential of commercial chemicals. CADRE-SS is a hybrid model that evaluates skin permeability using Monte Carlo simulations, assigns reactive centers in a molecule and possible biotransformations via expert rules, and determines reactivity with skin proteins via quantum-mechanical modeling. The results were promising with an overall very good concordance of 93% between experimental and predicted values. Comparison to performance metrics yielded by other tools available for this endpoint suggests that CADRE-SS offers distinct advantages for first-round screenings of chemicals and could be used as an in silico alternative to animal tests where permissible by legislative programs.

  11. A novel measure of compulsive food restriction in anorexia nervosa: validation of the Self-Starvation Scale (SS).

    PubMed

    Godier, Lauren R; Park, Rebecca J

    2015-04-01

    The characteristic relentless self-starvation behaviour seen in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been described as evidence of compulsivity, with increasing suggestion of transdiagnostic parallels with addictive behaviour. There is a paucity of standardised self-report measures of compulsive behaviour in eating disorders (EDs). Measures that index the concept of compulsive self-starvation in AN are needed to explore the suggested parallels with addictions. With this aim a novel measure of self-starvation was developed (the Self-Starvation Scale, SS). 126 healthy participants, and 78 individuals with experience of AN, completed the new measure along with existing measures of eating disorder symptoms, anxiety and depression. Initial validation in the healthy sample indicated good reliability and construct validity, and incremental validity in predicting eating disorder symptoms. The psychometric properties of the SS scale were replicated in the AN sample. The ability of this scale to predict ED symptoms was particularly strong in individuals currently suffering from AN. These results suggest the SS may be a useful index of compulsive food restriction in AN. The concept of 'starvation dependence' in those with eating disorders, as a parallel with addiction, may be of clinical and theoretical importance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Mini-KiSS--a multimodal group therapy intervention for parents of young children with sleep disorders: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Schlarb, Angelika Anita; Brandhorst, Isabel; Hautzinger, Martin

    2011-05-01

    Sleep disorders in early childhood tend to be chronic and almost always a burden for the parents. This study developed and evaluated a multimodal parent training program for children 0.5 to 4 years of age suffering from sleep disorders (Mini-KiSS). We hypothesized that there would be specific improvements following the structured group training (reduction of sleep problems, improvement of parental well-being). The pilot study consisted of a pre-post test design without control group. Participants were n = 17 parents of children 0.5 to 4 years of age with sleep disorders determined according to the ICSD-II. Each of the six sessions was evaluated, and changes were assessed by sleep diary and CBCL. Behavioral and emotional problems of the child were assessed by CBCL, parental well-being, and SCL-90-R. The results showed high acceptance of Mini-KiSS and satisfactory feasibility. Children showed significant improvements of the sleep disturbances such as nightly awakenings as well as sleeping in parents' bed. Furthermore, improvements were found for children's emotional and behavioral problems and for parental well-being, in particular for the depression scale of the mother. This pilot study shows a high acceptance and good feasibility of the multimodal short-time parent-training program Mini-KiSS. Sleep problems were significantly reduced.

  13. Downregulation of SS18-SSX1 expression in synovial sarcoma by small interfering RNA enhances the focal adhesion pathway and inhibits anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Satoshi; Naka, Norifumi; Araki, Nobuhito; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Ueda, Takafumi; Yoshioka, Kiyoko; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Itoh, Kazuyuki

    2010-04-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is an aggressive soft-tissue malignancy characterized by a unique t(X;18) translocation resulting in expression of SS18-SSX fusion protein. In order to investigate the biological function of this fusion protein and to develop a novel therapeutic option, we examined downregulation of SS18-SSX1 expression by small interfering RNA targeting SS18-SSX1 in three human SS cell lines. Microarray analysis comparing SS18-SSX1-silenced cells with control cells in three SS cell lines showed that SS18-SSX1 mainly affected the focal adhesion pathway. In accord with the array data, silencing of SS18-SSX1 enhances adhesion to the extracellular matrix through the induction of expression of myosin light-chain kinase. Furthermore, the silencing of SS18-SSX1 inhibits anchorage-independent growth in vitro and systemic delivery of siRNA against SS18-SSX1 using a nanoparticle system inhibited tumor growth in a nude mouse xenograft model. Our results demonstrate that siRNA targeting of SS18-SSX1 has therapeutic potential for the treatment of SS.

  14. SS-Wrapper: a package of wrapper applications for similarity searches on Linux clusters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunlin; Lefkowitz, Elliot J

    2004-10-28

    Large-scale sequence comparison is a powerful tool for biological inference in modern molecular biology. Comparing new sequences to those in annotated databases is a useful source of functional and structural information about these sequences. Using software such as the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) or HMMPFAM to identify statistically significant matches between newly sequenced segments of genetic material and those in databases is an important task for most molecular biologists. Searching algorithms are intrinsically slow and data-intensive, especially in light of the rapid growth of biological sequence databases due to the emergence of high throughput DNA sequencing techniques. Thus, traditional bioinformatics tools are impractical on PCs and even on dedicated UNIX servers. To take advantage of larger databases and more reliable methods, high performance computation becomes necessary. We describe the implementation of SS-Wrapper (Similarity Search Wrapper), a package of wrapper applications that can parallelize similarity search applications on a Linux cluster. Our wrapper utilizes a query segmentation-search (QS-search) approach to parallelize sequence database search applications. It takes into consideration load balancing between each node on the cluster to maximize resource usage. QS-search is designed to wrap many different search tools, such as BLAST and HMMPFAM using the same interface. This implementation does not alter the original program, so newly obtained programs and program updates should be accommodated easily. Benchmark experiments using QS-search to optimize BLAST and HMMPFAM showed that QS-search accelerated the performance of these programs almost linearly in proportion to the number of CPUs used. We have also implemented a wrapper that utilizes a database segmentation approach (DS-BLAST) that provides a complementary solution for BLAST searches when the database is too large to fit into the memory of a single node. Used together

  15. SS-Wrapper: a package of wrapper applications for similarity searches on Linux clusters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunlin; Lefkowitz, Elliot J

    2004-01-01

    Background Large-scale sequence comparison is a powerful tool for biological inference in modern molecular biology. Comparing new sequences to those in annotated databases is a useful source of functional and structural information about these sequences. Using software such as the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) or HMMPFAM to identify statistically significant matches between newly sequenced segments of genetic material and those in databases is an important task for most molecular biologists. Searching algorithms are intrinsically slow and data-intensive, especially in light of the rapid growth of biological sequence databases due to the emergence of high throughput DNA sequencing techniques. Thus, traditional bioinformatics tools are impractical on PCs and even on dedicated UNIX servers. To take advantage of larger databases and more reliable methods, high performance computation becomes necessary. Results We describe the implementation of SS-Wrapper (Similarity Search Wrapper), a package of wrapper applications that can parallelize similarity search applications on a Linux cluster. Our wrapper utilizes a query segmentation-search (QS-search) approach to parallelize sequence database search applications. It takes into consideration load balancing between each node on the cluster to maximize resource usage. QS-search is designed to wrap many different search tools, such as BLAST and HMMPFAM using the same interface. This implementation does not alter the original program, so newly obtained programs and program updates should be accommodated easily. Benchmark experiments using QS-search to optimize BLAST and HMMPFAM showed that QS-search accelerated the performance of these programs almost linearly in proportion to the number of CPUs used. We have also implemented a wrapper that utilizes a database segmentation approach (DS-BLAST) that provides a complementary solution for BLAST searches when the database is too large to fit into the memory of a single

  16. Synthesis and antioxidant evaluation of (S,S)- and (R,R)-secoisolariciresinol diglucosides (SDGs).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Om P; Simmons, Nicholas; Tyagi, Sonia; Pietrofesa, Ralph; Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Valiulin, Roman A; Heretsch, Philipp; Nicolaou, K C; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2013-10-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucosides (SDGs) (S,S)-SDG-1 (major isomer in flaxseed) and (R,R)-SDG-2 (minor isomer in flaxseed) were synthesized from vanillin via secoisolariciresinol (6) and glucosyl donor 7 through a concise route that involved chromatographic separation of diastereomeric diglucoside derivatives (S,S)-8 and (R,R)-9. Synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1 and (R,R)-SDG-2 exhibited potent antioxidant properties (EC50=292.17±27.71 μM and 331.94±21.21 μM, respectively), which compared well with that of natural (S,S)-SDG-1 (EC50=275.24±13.15 μM). These values are significantly lower than those of ascorbic acid (EC50=1129.32±88.79 μM) and α-tocopherol (EC50=944.62±148.00 μM). Compounds (S,S)-SDG-1 and (R,R)-SDG-2 also demonstrated powerful scavenging activities against hydroxyl [natural (S,S)-SDG-1: 3.68±0.27; synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1: 2.09±0.16; synthetic (R,R)-SDG-2: 1.96±0.27], peroxyl [natural (S,S)-SDG-1: 2.55±0.11; synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1: 2.20±0.10; synthetic (R,R)-SDG-2: 3.03±0.04] and DPPH [natural (S,S)-SDG-1: EC50=83.94±2.80 μM; synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1: EC50=157.54±21.30 μM; synthetic (R,R)-SDG-2: EC50=123.63±8.67 μM] radicals. These results confirm previous studies with naturally occurring (S,S)-SDG-1 and establish both (S,S)-SDG-1 and (R,R)-SDG-2 as potent antioxidants and free radical scavengers for potential in vivo use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis and antioxidant evaluation of (S,S)- and (R,R)-secoisolariciresinol diglucosides (SDGs)

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Om P.; Simmons, Nicholas; Tyagi, Sonia; Pietrofesa, Ralph; Shuvaev, Vladimir V.; Valiulin, Roman A.; Heretsch, Philipp; Nicolaou, K. C.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2013-01-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucosides (SDGs) (S,S)-SDG-1 (major isomer in flaxseed) and (R,R)-SDG-2 (minor isomer in flaxseed) were synthesized from vanillin via secoisolariciresinol (6) and glucosyl donor 7 through a concise route that involved chromatographic separation of diastereomeric diglucoside derivatives (S,S)-8 and (R,R)-9. Synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1 and (R,R)-SDG-2 exhibited potent antioxidant properties (EC50 = 292.17 ± 27.71 μM and 331.94 ± 21.21 μM, respectively) which compared well with that of natural (S,S)-SDG-1 (EC50 = 275.24 ± 13.15 μM). These values are significantly lower than those of ascorbic acid (EC50 = 1129.32 ± 88.79 μM) and α-tocopherol (EC50 = 944.62 ± 148.00 μM). Compounds (S,S)-SDG-1 and (R,R)-SDG-2 also demonstrated powerful scavenging activities against hydroxyl [natural (S,S)-SDG-1: 3.68 ± 0.27; synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1: 2.09 ± 0.16; synthetic (R,R)-SDG-2: 1.96 ± 0.27], peroxyl [natural (S,S)-SDG-1: 2.55 ± 0.11; synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1: 2.20 ± 0.10; synthetic (R,R)-SDG-2: 3.03 ± 0.04] and DPPH [natural (S,S)-SDG-1: EC50 = 83.94 ± 2.80 μM; synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1: EC50 = 157.54 ± 21.30; synthetic (R,R)-SDG-2: EC50 = 123.63 ± 8.67] radicals. These results confirm previous studies with naturally occurring (S,S)-SDG-1 and establish both (S,S)-SDG-1 and (R,R)-SDG-2 as potent antioxidants and free radical scavengers for potential in vivo use. PMID:23978651

  18. Single-Shot Laser Ablation Split-Stream (SS-LASS) Analysis Depth Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Stearns, M. A.; Viete, D. R.; Cottle, J. M.; Hacker, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Laser ablation depth profiling of geochronometers—such as zircon, monazite, titanite and rutile—has become popular in recent years as a tool to both determine date vs. depth or trace-element (TE) composition vs. depth; the former allows the dating of thin rims and, potentially, inversion of Pb-loss profiles for thermal histories, whereas the latter can yield insight into changes in PTX or mineral parageneses and inversion of trace-element profiles for thermal histories. In this study, we combine both techniques, enabling simultaneous acquisition of U-Th/Pb isotopic ratios and trace-element compositions, by joining a 193 nm excimer laser to a multi-collector ICP-MS and single-collector ICP-MS. The simultaneous acquisition allows direct shot-by-shot linkage between time and petrology, expanding our ability to understand the evolution of complex geologic systems. We construct each depth profile by capturing the analyte with a succession of individual laser pulses (each ~100 nm deep) . This has two main advantages over a typical time-dependent analysis of a multi-shot routine composed of tens to hundreds of shots and a several μm deep hole. 1) The reference material is analyzed between each shot for a more-accurate standardization of each aliquot of ablated material. 2) There is no mixing of material ablated from successive laser pulses during transmission to the ICP. The method is limited by count rate, which depends on spot size, excavation rate, instrument sensitivity, etc., and, for single-collector ICP, the switching time, which limits the number of elements that can be analyzed and their total counts. We explore the latter theoretically and experimentally to provide insight on both the ideal number of elements to measure and the dwell time in any given sample. Examples of the utility of SS-LASS include the comparison of apparent Pb loss to diffusion profiles of trace elements in rims of metamorphic rutile and titanite, as well as the determination of the

  19. Auv Multibeam Bathymetry and Sidescan Survey of the SS Montebello wreck Offshore Cambria CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Conlin, D.; Thompson, D.; Paull, C. K.

    2010-12-01

    An MBARI Mapping AUV survey of the SS Montebello wreck offshore Cambria, CA collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and sidescan imagery of the vessel and the surrounding seafloor. The Montebello was an oil tanker that was torpedoed and sunk about 11 km offshore in 275 m water depth by a Japanese submarine on December 23, 1941. The Montebello was loaded with 3,000,000 gallons of crude oil, and there is no evidence that significant leakage of that cargo occurred at the time of the sinking or in the 69 years since. The California Department of Fish and Game’s Office of Spill Prevention and Response (OSPR) commissioned the AUV survey as part of a multi-agency Montebello Task Force effort to assess the potential pollution threat. The survey data will be used to determine the extent and general character of the wreckage for a pending Task Force report and to guide any future ROV dive or assessment activity . The AUV surveyed the wreck site from altitudes of 75 and 25 m; the low-altitude high-resolution survey consists of a grid with a 50 m line spacing both parallel and orthogonal to the ship. The 200 kHz multibeam bathymetry images the wreck from both above and from the sides with an 0.5 m lateral resolution. The combination of soundings from all of the survey lines results in a three-dimensional distribution of soundings that delineates the external morphology and some of the internal structure of the wreck. 410 kHz chirp sidescan sonar data also image the site from both directions. The bathymetry data indicate that the Montebello was pitched forward down when it impacted the bottom, crushing and breaking off the bow section. Both forward and aft deckhouses are largely intact, and in fact the multibeam images the individual decks within those structures. About half of the forward mast remains, both amidships masts and the smokestack are missing. A good deal of the deck piping and equipment appears intact, and aside from the bow, the ship’s sides appear

  20. Spatiotemporal regulation of a Legionella pneumophila T4SS substrate by the metaeffector SidJ.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kwang Cheol; Sexton, Jessica A; Vogel, Joseph P

    2015-03-01

    Modulation of host cell function is vital for intracellular pathogens to survive and replicate within host cells. Most commonly, these pathogens utilize specialized secretion systems to inject substrates (also called effector proteins) that function as toxins within host cells. Since it would be detrimental for an intracellular pathogen to immediately kill its host cell, it is essential that secreted toxins be inactivated or degraded after they have served their purpose. The pathogen Legionella pneumophila represents an ideal system to study interactions between toxins as it survives within host cells for approximately a day and its Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system (T4SS) injects a vast number of toxins. Previously we reported that the Dot/Icm substrates SidE, SdeA, SdeB, and SdeC (known as the SidE family of effectors) are secreted into host cells, where they localize to the cytoplasmic face of the Legionella containing vacuole (LCV) in the early stages of infection. SidJ, another effector that is unrelated to the SidE family, is also encoded in the sdeC-sdeA locus. Interestingly, while over-expression of SidE family proteins in a wild type Legionella strain has no effect, we found that their over-expression in a ∆sidJ mutant completely inhibits intracellular growth of the strain. In addition, we found expression of SidE proteins is toxic in both yeast and mammalian HEK293 cells, but this toxicity can be suppressed by co-expression of SidJ, suggesting that SidJ may modulate the function of SidE family proteins. Finally, we were able to demonstrate both in vivo and in vitro that SidJ acts on SidE proteins to mediate their disappearance from the LCV, thereby preventing lethal intoxication of host cells. Based on these findings, we propose that SidJ acts as a metaeffector to control the activity of other Legionella effectors.

  1. New insight into the Upper Mantle Structure Beneath the Pacific Ocean Using PP and SS Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurrola, H.; Rogers, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    The passing of the EarthScope Transportable array has provided a dense data set that enabled beam forming of SS and PP data that resultes in improved frequency content to as much a 1 Hz in the imaging of upper mantle structure. This combined with the application of simultaneous iterative deconvolution has resulted in images to as much as 4 Hz. The processing however results in structure being averaged over regions of 60 to 100 km in radius. This is becomes a powerful new tool to image the upper mantle beneath Oceanic regions where locating stations is expensive and difficult. This presentation will summarize work from a number of regions as to new observations of the upper mantle beneath the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. Images from a region of the Pacific Ocean furthest from hot spots or subduction zones (we will refer to this as the 'reference region'). show considerable layering in the upper mantle. The 410 km discontinuity is always imaged using these tools and appears to be a very sharp boundary. It does usually appear as an isolated positive phase. There appears to be a LAB at ~100 km as expected but there is a strong negative phase at ~ 200 km with a positive phase 15 km deeper. This is best explained as a lens of partial melt as expected for this depth based on the geothermal gradient. If so this should be a low friction point and so we would expect it to accommodate plate motion. Imaging of the Aleutian subduction zone does show the 100 km deep LAB as it descends but this 200 km deep horizon appears as a week descending positive anomaly without the shallower negative pulse. In addition to the 410, 100 and 200 km discontinuities there are a number of paired anomalies, between the 200 and 400 km depths, with a negative pulse 15 to 20 km shallower then the positive pulse. We do not believe these are side lobes or we would see side lobes on the 100 km and 410 km discontinuities. We believe these to be the result of friction induced partial melt along zones of

  2. Maternal predictive factors for fetal congenital heart block in pregnant mothers positive for anti-SS-A antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Hiroto; Sumida, Takayuki; Noma, Hisashi; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Anami, Ai; Fukushima, Kotaro; Horigome, Hitoshi; Maeno, Yasuki; Kishimoto, Mitsumasa; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Nakayama, Masahiro; Waguri, Masako; Sago, Haruhiko; Murashima, Atsuko

    2016-07-01

    To determine the maternal predictive factors for fetal congenital heart block (CHB) in pregnancy in mothers positive for anti-SS-A antibodies. The Research Team for Surveillance of Autoantibody-Exposed Fetuses and Treatment of Neonatal Lupus Erythematosus, the Research Program of the Japan Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, performed a national survey on pregnancy of mothers positive for anti-SS-A antibodies. We analyzed 635 pregnant mothers who tested positive for anti-SS-A antibodies before conception but had no previous history of fetal CHB. We performed univariate and multivariate analysis (models 1, 2, and 3 using different set of independent variables) investigated the relation between risk of fetal CHB and maternal clinical features. Of the 635 pregnant mothers, fetal CHB was detected in 16. Univariate analysis showed that fetal CHB associated with use of corticosteroids before conception (OR 3.72, p = 0.04), and negatively with use of corticosteroids (equivalent doses of prednisolone (PSL), at ≥10 mg/day) after conception before 16-week gestation (OR 0.17, p = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, model 1 identified the use of corticosteroids before conception (OR 4.28, p = 0.04) and high titer of anti-SS-A antibodies (OR 3.58, p = 0.02) as independent and significant risk factors, and model 3 identified use of corticosteroids (equivalent doses of PSL, at ≥10 mg/day) after conception before 16-week gestation as independent protective factor against the development of fetal CHB (OR 0.16, p = 0.03). Other maternal clinical features did not influence the development of fetal CHB. The results identified high titers of anti-SS-A antibodies and use of corticosteroids before conception as independent risk factors, and use of corticosteroids (equivalent doses of PSL, at ≥10 mg/day) after conception before 16-week gestation as an independent protective factor for fetal CHB.

  3. Constraints on particle acceleration in SS433/W50 from MAGIC and H.E.S.S. observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MAGIC Collaboration; Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Arcaro, C.; Babić, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Carosi, R.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Cumani, P.; da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Griffiths, S.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hassan, T.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Ishio, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; Kuveždić, D.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Oramas, A.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Minev, M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moreno, V.; Moretti, E.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Šnidarić, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Torres-Albà, N.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Zarić, D.; H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arakawa, M.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Büchele, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Coffaro, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; Dewilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'c.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katsuragawa, M.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Nakashima, S.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de Los Reyes, R.; Richter, S.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Safi-Harb, S.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, S.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seglar-Arroyo, M.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Takahashi, T.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tsuji, N.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Zywucka, N.

    2018-04-01

    Context. The large jet kinetic power and non-thermal processes occurring in the microquasar SS 433 make this source a good candidate for a very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emitter. Gamma-ray fluxes above the sensitivity limits of current Cherenkov telescopes have been predicted for both the central X-ray binary system and the interaction regions of SS 433 jets with the surrounding W50 nebula. Non-thermal emission at lower energies has been previously reported, indicating that efficient particle acceleration is taking place in the system. Aim. We explore the capability of SS 433 to emit VHE gamma rays during periods in which the expected flux attenuation due to periodic eclipses (Porb 13.1 days) and precession of the circumstellar disk (Ppre 162 days) periodically covering the central binary system is expected to be at its minimum. The eastern and western SS 433/W50 interaction regions are also examined using the whole data set available. We aim to constrain some theoretical models previously developed for this system with our observations. Methods: We made use of dedicated observations from the Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov telescopes (MAGIC) and High Energy Spectroscopic System (H.E.S.S.) of SS 433 taken from 2006 to 2011. These observation were combined for the first time and accounted for a total effective observation time of 16.5 h, which were scheduled considering the expected phases of minimum absorption of the putative VHE emission. Gamma-ray attenuation does not affect the jet/medium interaction regions. In this case, the analysis of a larger data set amounting to 40-80 h, depending on the region, was employed. Results: No evidence of VHE gamma-ray emission either from the central binary system or from the eastern/western interaction regions was found. Upper limits were computed for the combined data set. Differential fluxes from the central system are found to be ≲ 10-12-10-13 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1 in an energy interval ranging from few × 100 Ge

  4. ssDNA-dsRNAs are cleaved at the next to its chimera-junction point by an unknown RNase activity.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Shinichi; Higuchi, Sadaharu; Sakurai, Kazuo

    2012-11-30

    We found that there is an unknown aspect in serum RNases that cleaves ssDNA-dsRNA and ssRNA-dsRNA. In the first step, RNase cleaves the phosphodiester linkage between the first and second RNA, where the first one is connected to the single stranded RNA or DNA. In the second step, the ssRNA overhang attached siRNA is cleaved. When the 2' hydroxyl of the first RNA was replaced with methoxy, the cleavage did not occur. This RNase activity can be considered related to defense system against exogenous genetic materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Temperature during larval development and adult maintenance influences the survival of Anopheles gambiae s.s.

    PubMed

    Christiansen-Jucht, Céline; Parham, Paul E; Saddler, Adam; Koella, Jacob C; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2014-11-05

    Malaria transmission depends on vector life-history parameters and population dynamics, and particularly on the survival of adult Anopheles mosquitoes. These dynamics are sensitive to climatic and environmental factors, and temperature is a particularly important driver. Data currently exist on the influence of constant and fluctuating adult environmental temperature on adult Anopheles gambiae s.s. survival and on the effect of larval environmental temperature on larval survival, but none on how larval temperature affects adult life-history parameters. Mosquito larvae and pupae were reared individually at different temperatures (23 ± 1°C, 27 ± 1°C, 31 ± 1°C, and 35 ± 1°C), 75 ± 5% relative humidity. Upon emergence into imagoes, individual adult females were either left at their larval temperature or placed at a different temperature within the range above. Survival was monitored every 24 hours and data were analysed using non-parametric and parametric methods. The Gompertz distribution fitted the survivorship data better than the gamma, Weibull, and exponential distributions overall and was adopted to describe mosquito mortality rates. Increasing environmental temperature during the larval stages decreased larval survival (p < 0.001). Increases of 4°C (from 23°C to 27°C, 27°C to 31°C, and 31°C to 35°C), 8°C (27°C to 35°C) and 12°C (23°C to 35°C) statistically significantly increased larval mortality (p < 0.001). Higher environmental temperature during the adult stages significantly lowered adult survival overall (p < 0.001), with increases of 4°C and 8°C significantly influencing survival (p < 0.001). Increasing the larval environment temperature also significantly increased adult mortality overall (p < 0.001): a 4°C increase (23°C to 27°C) did not significantly affect adult survival (p > 0.05), but an 8°C increase did (p < 0.05). The effect of a 4°C increase in larval temperature from 27

  6. Analysis of the association of the expression of KiSS-1 in colorectal cancer tissues with the pathology and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Huo, Xinkai; Zhang, Lei; Li, Tao

    2018-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is a common malignant tumor of the digestive tract with high morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of the present study was to examine the expression level of KiSS-1 in tumor tissues of patients with colorectal cancer, and to explore the relationship with the clinicopathology and prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. Frozen tumor tissue and corresponding cancer-adjacent normal tissue specimens were selected from 56 patients with colorectal cancer who were treated in the Department of Surgery of our hospital from May 2009 to December 2011. The expression levels of KiSS-1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in tumor tissues and cancer-adjacent normal tissues were detected by reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The expression levels of KiSS-1 proteins in colorectal cancer tissues and cancer-adjacent normal tissues were further detected by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the association of the expression level of KiSS-1 proteins in tissues of colorectal cancer patients with pathological parameters and the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer was analyzed combined with clinical data. The RT-qPCR results showed that the expression of KiSS-1 mRNA in colorectal cancer tissues was significantly lower than that in cancer-adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry results indicated that the positive expression rate of KiSS-1 proteins in colorectal cancer tissues (26.79%) was significantly lower than that in cancer-adjacent normal tissues (80.36%). The low expression of KiSS-1 in colorectal cancer tissues was associated with the degree of differentiation, invasion and metastasis, as well as clinical staging. The 5-year overall survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer was 55.36% (31/56). The univariate survival analysis showed that patients with lowly expressed KiSS-1 had worse prognosis. The low expression of KiSS-1 is closely associated with the occurrence and development of colorectal

  7. Presence of T3SS2β genes in trh⁺ Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from seafood harvested along Mangalore coast, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B K; Deekshit, V K; Rai, P; Shekar, M; Karunasagar, I; Karunasagar, I

    2014-05-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a seafood-borne pathogen autochthonous to the marine and estuarine ecosystem, responsible for gastroenteritis when contaminated raw seafood is consumed. The pathogenicity has been associated with thermostable direct haemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related haemolysin (TRH). Of late, the presence of T3SS2α and T3SS2β gene clusters has been well documented in clinical isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and known to play an essential role in pathogenesis. However, reports on the presence of T3SSβ genes in V. parahaemolyticus isolated from the seafood and/or environmental samples are scanty. In this study, we have identified and analysed the distribution of the T3SS2β genes in V. parahaemolyticus isolated from seafood harvested along southwest coast of India. Results showed that T3SS2β genes are solely associated with trh⁺ and tdh⁺ /trh⁺ strains of V. parahaemolyticus. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) showed that the T3SS2β genes identified in trh⁺ V. parahaemolyticus were transcriptionally active. To our knowledge, this study appears to be the first description on the presence of T3SS2β-positive V. parahaemolyticus isolated from seafood in India. The study of T3SS2 along with other virulence factors will help in better understanding of the risk of seafood-borne illness due to V. parahaemolyticus. T3SSs (α or β) are the important virulence factors of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that contribute to their pathogenicity in humans. This study demonstrated the presence of T3SS2β genes in V. parahaemolyticus isolated from the seafood harvested along Mangalore coast. RT-PCR showed that the T3SS2β genes identified in seafood isolates of V. parahaemolyticus were found to be functional. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of T3SS2β genes in trh⁺ V. parahaemolyticus isolated from seafood in India. The presence of T3SS2 along with other virulence factors such as TDH and/or TRH highlights a potential health risk for

  8. Burnout syndrome among dental students: a short version of the "Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire" adapted for students (BCSQ-12-SS).

    PubMed

    Montero-Marin, Jesus; Monticelli, Francesca; Casas, Marina; Roman, Amparo; Tomas, Inmaculada; Gili, Margarita; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2011-12-12

    Burnout has been traditionally defined in relation to the dimensions of "exhaustion", "cynicism", and "inefficiency". More recently, the Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-12) further established three different subtypes of burnout: the "frenetic" subtype (related to "overload"), the "under-challenged" subtype (related to "lack of development"), and the "worn-out" subtype (related to "neglect"). However, to date, these definitions have not been applied to students. The aims of this research were (1) to adapt a Spanish version of the BCSQ-12 for use with students, (2) to test its factorial validity, internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and (3) to assess potential socio-demographic and occupational risk factors associated with the development of the subtypes. We used a cross-sectional design on a sample of dental students (n = 314) from Santiago and Huesca universities (Spain). Participants completed the Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire Student Survey (BCSQ-12-SS), the Maslach Burnout Inventory Student Survey (MBI-SS), and a series of socio-demographic and occupational questions formulated for the specific purpose of this study. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using the principal component method with varimax orthogonal rotation. To assess the relations with the criterion, we calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient (r), multiple correlation coefficient (R(y.123)), and the coefficient of determination (R(2)(y.123)). To assess the association between the subtypes and the socio-demographic variables, we examined the adjusted odds ratio (OR) obtained from multivariate logistic regression models. Factorial analyses supported the theoretical proposition of the BCSQ-12-SS, with α-values exceeding 0.80 for all dimensions. The "overload-exhaustion" relation was r = 0.59 (p < 0.001), "lack of development"-"cynicism", r = 0.49 (p < 0.001), "neglect"-"inefficiency", r = 0.47 (p < 0.001). The "overload

  9. Burnout syndrome among dental students: a short version of the "Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire" adapted for students (BCSQ-12-SS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Burnout has been traditionally defined in relation to the dimensions of "exhaustion", "cynicism", and "inefficiency". More recently, the Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-12) further established three different subtypes of burnout: the "frenetic" subtype (related to "overload"), the "under-challenged" subtype (related to "lack of development"), and the "worn-out" subtype (related to "neglect"). However, to date, these definitions have not been applied to students. The aims of this research were (1) to adapt a Spanish version of the BCSQ-12 for use with students, (2) to test its factorial validity, internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and (3) to assess potential socio-demographic and occupational risk factors associated with the development of the subtypes. Method We used a cross-sectional design on a sample of dental students (n = 314) from Santiago and Huesca universities (Spain). Participants completed the Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire Student Survey (BCSQ-12-SS), the Maslach Burnout Inventory Student Survey (MBI-SS), and a series of socio-demographic and occupational questions formulated for the specific purpose of this study. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using the principal component method with varimax orthogonal rotation. To assess the relations with the criterion, we calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient (r), multiple correlation coefficient (Ry.123), and the coefficient of determination (R2y.123). To assess the association between the subtypes and the socio-demographic variables, we examined the adjusted odds ratio (OR) obtained from multivariate logistic regression models. Results Factorial analyses supported the theoretical proposition of the BCSQ-12-SS, with α-values exceeding 0.80 for all dimensions. The "overload-exhaustion" relation was r = 0.59 (p < 0.001), "lack of development"-"cynicism", r = 0.49 (p < 0.001), "neglect"-"inefficiency", r = 0.47 (p < 0

  10. Significant Variation of Post-critical SsPmp Amplitude as a Result of Variation in Near-surface Velocity: Observations from the Yellowknife Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferragut, G.; Liu, T.; Klemperer, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years Virtual Deep Seismic Sounding (VDSS) emerged as a novel method to image the Moho, which uses the post-critical reflection P waves at the Moho generated by teleseismic S waves at the free surface near the receivers (SsPmp). However, observed SsPmp sometimes have significantly lower amplitude than predicted, raising doubts among the seismic community on the theoretical basis of the method. With over two decades of continuous digital broadband records and major subduction zones in the range of 30-50 degrees, the Yellowknife Array in northern Canada provides a rich opportunity for observation of post-critical SsPmp. We analyze S wave coda of events with epicenter distances of 30-50°, and pay special attention to earthquakes in a narrow azimuth range that ­­­encompasses the Kamchatka Peninsula. Among 21 events with strong direct S energy on the radial components, we observe significant variation of SsPmp energy. After associating the SsPmp energy with the virtual source location of each event, we observe a general trend of decreasing SsPmp energy from NE to SW. As the trend coincides with the transition from exposed basement of the Slave Craton to Paleozoic platform covered by Phanerozoic sediment, we interpret the decreasing SsPmp energy as a result of lower S velocity at the virtual sources, which reduces S-to-P reflection coefficients. We plan to include more events from the Aleutian Islands, the virtual sources of which are primarily located in the Paleozoic platform. This will allow us to further investigate the relationship between SsPmp amplitude and near-surface velocity.

  11. Associations between salivary gland histopathologic diagnoses and phenotypic features of Sjögren’s Syndrome (SS) among 1726 registry participants

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Troy E.; Cox, Darren; Shiboski, Caroline H.; Schiødt, Morten; Wu, Ava; Lanfranchi, Hector; Umehara, Hisanori; Zhao, Yan; Challacombe, Stephen; Lam, Mi Y.; DeSouza, Yvonne; Schiødt, Julie; Holm, Helena; Bisio, Patricia A. M.; Gandolfo, Mariana S.; Sawaki, Toshioki; Li, Mengtao; Zhang, Wen; Varghese-Jacob, Beni; Ibsen, Per; Keszler, Alicia; Kurose, Nozomu; Nojima, Takayuki; Odell, Edward; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Jordan, Richard; Greenspan, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The Sjögren’s International Collaborative Clinical Alliance (SICCA) is an ongoing NIH-funded registry whose cohort ranges from those with symptoms of possible Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) to those with obvious disease. Using this database we examined associations between labial salivary gland (LSG) histopathology and other phenotypic features of SS. Methods LSG biopsy specimens from SICCA participants underwent protocol-directed histopathological assessments. Among 1726 LSG specimens exhibiting any pattern of sialadenitis, we compared biopsy diagnoses against concurrent salivary, ocular and serological assessments. Results LSG specimens included 61% with focal lymphocytic sialadenitis, (FLS; 66% of which had focus scores [FS] ≥ 1 per 4 mm2) and 38% with non-specific or sclerosing chronic sialadenitis (NS/SCS). FS ≥ 1 was strongly associated with positive serum anti-SS-A/-B, rheumatoid factor and the ocular component of SS, but not with symptoms of dry mouth or eyes. Those with positive anti-SS-A/-B were 9 times more likely to have a FS ≥ 1 (95% CI: 7.4; 11.9) than FS<1 or another pattern, while those with unstimulated whole salivary flow < 0.1 ml/min were only 2 times more likely to have a FS ≥ 1 (95% CI:1.7; 2.8) than FS<1 or another pattern, while controlling for other phenotypic features of SS. Conclusions Distinguishing FLS from NS/SCS is essential in assessing LSG biopsies, before determining FS. A diagnosis of FLS with FS ≥ 1 per 4 mm2, as compared to FLS with FS< 1 or with NS/SCS, was strongly associated with the ocular and serological components of SS and reflects SS autoimmunity. PMID:21480190

  12. Comparison of the Booster Interface Temperature in Stainless Steel (SS) V-Channel Versus the Aluminum (Al) Y-Channel Primer Chamber Assemblies (PCAs). Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Technical Fellow for Propulsion, requested a technical assessment of the performance improvement achieved by the introduction of the stainless steel (SS) V-channel compared to the aluminum (Al) Y-channel Primer Chamber Assembly (PCA) design. The SS V-channel PCA was developed for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project. The principle focus of the assessment was to measure the transient temperature at the booster interface with both designs. This document contains the Appendices to the Volume I main report.

  13. NbCZF1, a Novel C2H2-Type Zinc Finger Protein, as a New Regulator of SsCut-Induced Plant Immunity in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huajian; Zhao, Tongyao; Zhuang, Peitong; Song, Zhiqiang; Du, Hui; Tang, Zhaozhao; Gao, Zhimou

    2016-12-01

    SsCut, which functions as an elicitor, can induce plant immunity. In this study, we utilized Nicotiana benthamiana and virus-induced gene silencing to decrease the expression of > 2,500 genes individually. Using this forward genetics approach, several genes were identified that, when silenced, compromised SsCut-triggered cell death based on a cell death assay. A C 2 H 2 -type zinc finger gene was isolated from N. benthamiana Sequence analysis indicated that the gene encodes a 27 kDa protein with 253 amino acids containing two typical C 2 H 2 -type zinc finger domains; this gene was named NbCZF1 We found that SsCut-induced cell death could be inhibited by virus-induced gene silencing of NbCZF1 in N. benthamiana In addition, SsCut induces stomatal closure, accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by NADPH oxidases and nitric oxide (NO) production. NbCZF1-silenced plants showed impaired SsCut-induced stomatal closure, decreased SsCut-induced production of ROS and NO in guard cells and reduced SsCut-induced resistance against Phytophthora nicotianae Taken together, these results demonstrate that the NbCZF1-ROS-NO pathway mediates multiple SsCut-triggered responses, including stomatal closure, hypersensitive responses and defense-related gene expression. This is the first report describing the function of a C 2 H 2 -type zinc finger protein in N. benthamiana. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) of Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9 and Its Roles in Legume Symbiosis and Rice Endophytic Association

    PubMed Central

    Songwattana, Pongpan; Noisangiam, Rujirek; Teamtisong, Kamonluck; Prakamhang, Janpen; Teulet, Albin; Tittabutr, Panlada; Piromyou, Pongdet; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Giraud, Eric; Teaumroong, Neung

    2017-01-01

    The Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9 strain isolated from a paddy field has the ability to nodulate a wide spectrum of legumes. Unlike other bradyrhizobia, this strain has a symbiotic plasmid harboring nod, nif, and type 3 secretion system (T3SS) genes. This T3SS cluster contains all the genes necessary for the formation of the secretory apparatus and the transcriptional activator (TtsI), which is preceded by a nod-box motif. An in silico search predicted 14 effectors putatively translocated by this T3SS machinery. In this study, we explored the role of the T3SS in the symbiotic performance of DOA9 by evaluating the ability of a T3SS mutant (ΩrhcN) to nodulate legumes belonging to Dalbergioid, Millettioid, and Genistoid tribes. Among the nine species tested, four (Arachis hypogea, Vigna radiata, Crotalaria juncea, and Macroptilium atropurpureum) responded positively to the rhcN mutation (ranging from suppression of plant defense reactions, an increase in the number of nodules and a dramatic improvement in nodule development and infection), one (Stylosanthes hamata) responded negatively (fewer nodules and less nitrogen fixation) and four species (Aeschynomene americana, Aeschynomene afraspera, Indigofera tinctoria, and Desmodium tortuosum) displayed no phenotype. We also tested the role of the T3SS in the ability of the DOA9 strain to endophytically colonize rice roots, but detected no effect of the T3SS mutation, in contrast to what was previously reported in the Bradyrhizobium SUTN9-2 strain. Taken together, these data indicate that DOA9 contains a functional T3SS that interferes with the ability of the strain to interact symbiotically with legumes but not with rice. PMID:28979252

  15. Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) of Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9 and Its Roles in Legume Symbiosis and Rice Endophytic Association.

    PubMed

    Songwattana, Pongpan; Noisangiam, Rujirek; Teamtisong, Kamonluck; Prakamhang, Janpen; Teulet, Albin; Tittabutr, Panlada; Piromyou, Pongdet; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Giraud, Eric; Teaumroong, Neung

    2017-01-01

    The Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9 strain isolated from a paddy field has the ability to nodulate a wide spectrum of legumes. Unlike other bradyrhizobia, this strain has a symbiotic plasmid harboring nod , nif , and type 3 secretion system (T3SS) genes. This T3SS cluster contains all the genes necessary for the formation of the secretory apparatus and the transcriptional activator (TtsI), which is preceded by a nod -box motif. An in silico search predicted 14 effectors putatively translocated by this T3SS machinery. In this study, we explored the role of the T3SS in the symbiotic performance of DOA9 by evaluating the ability of a T3SS mutant (Ω rhcN ) to nodulate legumes belonging to Dalbergioid, Millettioid, and Genistoid tribes. Among the nine species tested, four ( Arachis hypogea , Vigna radiata , Crotalaria juncea , and Macroptilium atropurpureum ) responded positively to the rhcN mutation (ranging from suppression of plant defense reactions, an increase in the number of nodules and a dramatic improvement in nodule development and infection), one ( Stylosanthes hamata ) responded negatively (fewer nodules and less nitrogen fixation) and four species ( Aeschynomene americana , Aeschynomene afraspera , Indigofera tinctoria , and Desmodium tortuosum ) displayed no phenotype. We also tested the role of the T3SS in the ability of the DOA9 strain to endophytically colonize rice roots, but detected no effect of the T3SS mutation, in contrast to what was previously reported in the Bradyrhizobium SUTN9-2 strain. Taken together, these data indicate that DOA9 contains a functional T3SS that interferes with the ability of the strain to interact symbiotically with legumes but not with rice.

  16. Key steps in type III secretion system (T3SS) towards translocon assembly with potential sensor at plant plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hongtao; Dong, Hansong

    2015-09-01

    Many plant- and animal-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria employ the type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins from bacterial cells into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells. The effector translocation occurs through an integral component of T3SS, the channel-like translocon, assembled by hydrophilic and hydrophobic proteinaceous translocators in a two-step process. In the first, hydrophilic translocators localize to the tip of a proteinaceous needle in animal pathogens, or a proteinaceous pilus in plant pathogens, and associate with hydrophobic translocators, which insert into host plasma membranes in the second step. However, the pilus needs to penetrate plant cell walls in advance. All hydrophilic translocators so far identified in plant pathogens are characteristic of harpins: T3SS accessory proteins containing a unitary hydrophilic domain or an additional enzymatic domain. Two-domain harpins carrying a pectate lyase domain potentially target plant cell walls and facilitate the penetration of the pectin-rich middle lamella by the bacterial pilus. One-domain harpins target plant plasma membranes and may play a crucial role in translocon assembly, which may also involve contrapuntal associations of hydrophobic translocators. In all cases, sensory components in the target plasma membrane are indispensable for the membrane recognition of translocators and the functionality of the translocon. The conjectural sensors point to membrane lipids and proteins, and a phosphatidic acid and an aquaporin are able to interact with selected harpin-type translocators. Interactions between translocators and their sensors at the target plasma membrane are assumed to be critical for translocon assembly. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  17. Project ExPreSS: Social studies and science remediation program for the Georgia High School Graduation Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearouse, Randy

    Over half of the states now require students to pass a high stakes exit exam before being allowed to graduate from high school. No Child Left Behind requires that standardized testing be included to determine whether or not a school makes Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). The purpose of this study is to examine the results of the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) of students who participated in the remedial program Project ExPreSS with those students who did not participate. Using a quantitative research design, the question that will be answered is whether Project ExPreSS makes a difference in passing the GHSGT in science and social studies among three groups: all Georgia students, African American students in one Georgia school system, and all students in one Georgia school system. A chi-square test was conducted and a determination was made that there is a statistically significant relationship between project participation and pass-fail status in all but one area. The majority of students in this study were 17--18 years of age and were taking the science or social studies section of the GHSGT for the second time. The findings of this study will be important not only for Georgia and the school system examined, but also for other states and systems that give High Stakes Exit Exams (HSEEs). The results indicate that highly focused remedial programs like Project ExPreSS make a difference for students who may not be successful on their first attempt at passing a HSEE.

  18. Selection of a high-affinity and in vivo bioactive ssDNA aptamer against angiotensin II peptide.

    PubMed

    Heiat, Mohammad; Ranjbar, Reza; Latifi, Ali Mohammad; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad

    2016-08-01

    Unique features of aptamers have attracted interests for a broad range of applications. Aptamers are able to specifically bind to targets and inhibit their functions. This study, aimed to isolate the high affinity ssDNA aptamers against bio-regulator peptide angiotensin II (Ang II) and investigate their bioactivity in cellular and animal models. To isolate ssDNA aptamers, 12 rounds of affinity chromatography SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) procedure were carried out. The SPR (surface plasmon resonance) and ELONA (enzyme linked oligonucleotide assay) analysis were used to determine the affinity and specificity of aptamers. The ability of selected aptamers to inhibit the proliferative effect of Ang II on human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HA-VSMCs) and their performance on Wistar rat urinary system and serum electrolyte levels were investigated. Two full-length aptamers (FLC112 and FLC125) with high affinity of respectively 7.52±2.44E-10 and 5.87±1.3E-9M were isolated against Ang II. The core regions of these aptamers (CRC112 and CRC125) also showed affinity of 5.33±1.15E-9 and 4.11±1.09E-9M. In vitro analysis revealed that FLC112 and FLC125 can inhibit the proliferative effect of Ang II on HA-VSMCs (P<0.05). They also significantly reduced the serum sodium level and increased the urine volume (P<0.05). The core regions of aptamers did not show high inhibitory potential against Ang II. It can be a spotlight that ssDNA aptamers have high potential for blocking Ang II. In conclusion, it appears that the researches focusing on high affinity and bioactive aptamers may lead to excellent results in blocking Ang II activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of ssDNA aptamers specific to clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans strains with different cariogenicity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Liu, Jiaojiao; Su, Donghua; Hu, Danyang; Hou, Shuai; Hu, Tongnan; Yang, Jiyong; Luo, Yanping; Xi, Qing; Chu, Bingfeng; Wang, Chenglong

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacterium, is considered to be a major etiological factor for dental caries. In this study, plaques from dental enamel surfaces of caries-active and caries-free individuals were obtained and cultivated for S. mutans isolation. Morphology examination, biochemical characterization, and polymerase chain reaction were performed to identify S. mutans The cariogenicity of S. mutans strains isolated from clinical specimens was evaluated by testing the acidogenicity, aciduricity, extracellular polysaccharide production, and adhesion ability of the bacteria. Finally, subtractive SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) technology targeting whole intact cells was used to screen for ssDNA aptamers specific to the strains with high cariogenicity. After nine rounds of subtractive SELEX, sufficient pool enrichment was achieved as shown by radioactive isotope analysis. The enriched pool was cloned and sequenced randomly, followed by MEME online and RNA structure software analysis of the sequences. Results from the flow cytometry indicated that aptamers H1, H16, H4, L1, L10, and H19 could discriminate highly cariogenic S. mutans strains from poorly cariogenic strains. Among these, Aptamer H19 had the strongest binding capacity with cariogenic S. mutans strains with a dissociation constant of 69.45 ± 38.53 nM. In conclusion, ssDNA aptamers specific to highly cariogenic clinical S. mutans strains were successfully obtained. These ssDNA aptamers might be used for the early diagnosis and treatment of dental caries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Optimisation of a polygon mirror-based spectral filter for swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everson, Michael; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Dobre, George

    2018-03-01

    Medical imaging using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) provides clinicians with 3D, high resolution reconstructions of microscopic structures, in depth. It has been initially developed for ophthalmology, in order to scan the retinas of patients to diagnose illness. The quality of the images depends upon their axial and lateral resolutions and the properties of the light being used. Research using a polygon mirror (PM) as a spectral filter in Swept Source OCT (SS-OCT) has resulted in a variety of different experimental arrangements. Although the application of PM-based SS-OCT sources has been successfully demonstrated, the combination of their components' fundamental properties and the overall impact they have on imaging performance is rarely reported. A more detailed examination of these properties would lead to a full description of their operation and to the best methods to employ if system performance is to be maximised. This work presents our current findings of on-going research into the optimisation of PM-based SS-OCT systems. A swept source spectral filter, consisting of a collimator, a transmission grating, a two-lens telescope and an off-axis PM with an end reflector mirror has been evaluated experimentally and compared with theoretical predictions. The system's performance has been compared for two different fibre collimators. Although the beam width on the grating is different for each of the two collimators, the spot size at the PM facet is made the same by selecting appropriate focal lengths. An improvement in the signal roll-off at the interferometer output of 1.0 dB/mm was obtained when using a 3.4 mm collimator compared to a 1.5 mm collimator.

  1. Interdependence of the kinetics of NTP hydrolysis and the stability of the RecA-ssDNA complex.

    PubMed

    Katz, F S; Bryant, F R

    2001-09-18

    The ssDNA-dependent NTP hydrolysis activity of the RecA protein was examined using a series of dTn oligomers ranging in size from dT10 to dT2000 as the ssDNA effector. There were three distinct manifestations of the dTn-dependent NTP hydrolysis reaction, depending on the length of the dTn effector that was used. With longer dTn oligomers, NTP hydrolysis occurred with a turnover number of 20-25 min(-1) and the observed S0.5 value for the NTP was independent of the concentration of the dTn oligomer (DNA concentration-independent hydrolysis). With dTn oligomers of intermediate length, NTP hydrolysis still occurred with a turnover number of 20-25 min(-1), but the observed S0.5 for the NTP decreased with increasing dTn concentration until reaching a value similar to that obtained with the longer dTn oligomers (DNA concentration-dependent hydrolysis). With shorter dTn oligomers, the NTP hydrolysis activity was effectively eliminated. Although this general progression of kinetic behavior was observed for the three structurally related NTPs (dATP, ATP, and GTP), the dTn oligomer length at which DNA concentration-independent, DNA concentration-dependent, and no NTP hydrolysis was observed depended on the NTP being considered. For example, dATP (S0.5 = 35 microM) was hydrolyzed in the presence of dT20, whereas ATP (S0.5 = 70 microM) and GTP (S0.5 = 1200 microM) required at least dT50 and dT200 for hydrolysis, respectively. These results are discussed in terms of a kinetic model in which the stability of the RecA-ssDNA-NTP complex is dependent on the intrinsic S0.5 value of the NTP being hydrolyzed.

  2. Ferulic Acid, But Not All Hydroxycinnamic Acids, Is a Novel T3SS Inducer of Ralstonia solanacearum and Promotes Its Infection Process in Host Plants under Hydroponic Condition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Jing; Zhang, Weiqi; Wang, Rongsheng; Qiu, Qiaoqing; Luo, Feng; Hikichi, Yasufumi; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Ding, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) are typical monocyclic phenylpropanoids, including cinnamic acid (Cin), coumaric acid (Cou), caffeic acid (Caf), ferulic acid (FA) and their isomers, and involved in the interactions between pathogens and host plants. Here, we focused on the impact of HCAs on expression of type III secretion system (T3SS) in Ralstonia solanacearum . FA significantly induced the expression of the T3SS and some type III effectors (T3Es) genes in hrp -inducing medium, while did not the other HCAs. However, exogenously supplemented FA did not affect the T3SS expression in planta and the elicitation of the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco leaves. Consistent with its central roles in pathogenicity, the FA-induced expression of the T3SS led to significant promotion on infection process of R. solanacearum in tomato plants under hydroponics cultivation. Moreover, the FA-induced expression of the T3SS was specifically mediated by the well-characterized signaling cascade PrhA-prhI/R-PrhJ-HrpG-HrpB, independent of the other known regulatory pathways. In summary, our results demonstrated that FA, a novel inducer of the T3SS in R. solanacearum , was able to promote its infection process in host plants under hydroponics condition.

  3. Pregnancy outcome in patients with sickle cell disease in the UK--a national cohort study comparing sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) with HbSC disease.

    PubMed

    Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Ayensah, Benjamin; Knight, Marian; Howard, Jo

    2015-04-01

    We describe the findings from a national study of maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancy in women with sickle cell disease (SCD). Data were collected via the United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System between 1 February 2010 and 31 January 2011 from 109 women, of whom 51 (46·8%) had HbSS and 44 (40·4%) had HbSC. Data included antenatal, maternal and fetal outcomes. Comparisons were made between women with HbSS and HbSC. Incidence of complications were acute pain (57%), blood transfusion (26%), urinary tract infection (UTI; 12%) and critical care unit admission (23%) and these were all more common in women with HbSS than HbSC. There was no difference in the incidence of acute chest syndrome, hypertension and venous thromboembolism between HbSS and HbSC. Women with HbSS were more likely to deliver at <37 weeks gestation (P = 0·01) and their babies were more likely to have reduced birth weight. Delivery at <34 weeks was increased in both HbSS and HbSC women (5·9% vs. 4·6%) compared to national data. This study confirms a high rate of maternal and fetal complications in mothers with SCD, even in women with HbSC, which has previously been considered to have a more benign phenotype in pregnancy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. New sesquiterpenes, JBIR-27 and -28, isolated from a tunicate-derived fungus, Penicillium sp. SS080624SCf1.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Keiichiro; Hashimoto, Junko; Inaba, Shigeki; Khan, Shams Tabrez; Komaki, Hisayuki; Nagai, Aya; Takagi, Motoki; Shin-ya, Kazuo

    2009-05-01

    In the course of our screening program for novel metabolites from tunicate-derived fungi, novel sesquiterpenoids, named JBIR-27 (1) and -28 (2), together with known sporogen-AO1 and phomenone, were isolated from the culture broth of Penicillium sp. SS080624SCf1. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined to be eremophilane analogs on the basis of extensive NMR and MS analyses. Sporogen-AO1, phomenone and 2 showed cytotoxicity against human cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa at IC(50) values of 8.3, 19 and 92 microM, respectively, whereas 1 was inactive at a concentration of 80 microM.

  5. Evaluation of the influence of electric nets on the behaviour of oviposition site seeking Anopheles gambiae s.s

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Electric nets (e-nets) are used to analyse the flight behaviour of insects and have been used extensively to study the host-oriented flight of tsetse flies. Recently we adapted this tool to analyse the oviposition behaviour of gravid malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae s.s., orienting towards aquatic habitats and traps by surrounding an artificial pond with e-nets and collecting electrocuted mosquitoes on sticky boards on the ground next to the nets. Here we study whether e-nets themselves affect the responses of gravid An. gambiae s.s.. Methods Dual-choice experiments were carried out in 80 m2 screened semi-field systems where 200 gravid An. gambiae s.s. were released each night for 12 nights per experiment. The numbers of mosquito landing on or approaching an oviposition site were studied by adding detergent to the water in an artificial pond or surrounding the pond with a square of e-nets. We also assessed whether the supporting framework of the nets or the sticky boards used to retain electrocuted mosquitoes influenced the catch. Results Two similar detergent treated ponds presented in choice tests caught an equal proportion of the mosquitoes released, whereas a pond surrounded by e-nets caught a higher proportion than an open pond (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 - 2.7; p < 0.017). The separate evaluation of the impact of the square of electric nets and the yellow boards on the approach of gravid females towards a pond suggests that the tower-like construction of the square of electric nets did not restrict the approach of females but the yellow sticky boards on the ground attract gravid females to a source of water (OR 2.7 95% CI 1.7 – 4.3; p < 0.001). Conclusion The trapping efficiency of the electric nets is increased when large yellow sticky boards are placed on the ground next to the e-nets to collect electrocuted mosquitoes, possibly because of increased visual contrast to the aquatic habitat. It is therefore

  6. The Entomological Institute of the Waffen-SS: evidence for offensive biological warfare research in the third Reich.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    In January 1942, Heinrich Himmler, head of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and police in Nazi Germany, ordered the creation of an entomological institute to study the physiology and control of insects that inflict harm to humans. Founded in the grounds of the concentration camp at Dachau, it has been the focus of previous research, notably into the question of whether it was involved in biological warfare research. This article examines research protocols by the appointed leader Eduard May, presented here for the first time, which confirm the existence of an offensive biological warfare research programme in Nazi Germany. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative Voronovskaya and Grüss-Voronovskaya type theorems for Jain-Durrmeyer operators of blending type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajla, Arun; Deshwal, Sheetal; Agrawal, P. N.

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper we introduce a Durrmeyer variant of Jain operators based on a function ρ (x) where ρ is a continuously differentiable function on [0,∞), ρ (0)=0 and \\inf ρ '(x)≥ a, a >0, x \\in [0,∞) . For these new operators, some indispensable auxiliary results are established first. Then, the degree of approximation with the aid of Ditzian-Totik modulus of smoothness and the rate of convergence for functions whose derivatives are of bounded variation, is obtained. Further, we focus on the study of a Voronovskaja type asymptotic theorem, quantitative Voronovskaya and Grüss-Voronovskaya type theorems.

  8. Role of T3SS-1 SipD Protein in Protecting Mice against Non-typhoidal Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Jneid, Bakhos; Moreau, Karine; Plaisance, Marc; Rouaix, Audrey; Dano, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica species are enteric pathogens that cause severe diseases ranging from self-limiting gastroenteritis to enteric fever and sepsis in humans. These infectious diseases are still the major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income countries, especially in children younger than 5 years and immunocompromised adults. Vaccines targeting typhoidal diseases are already marketed, but none protect against non-typhoidal Salmonella. The existence of multiple non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes as well as emerging antibiotic resistance highlight the need for development of a broad-spectrum protective vaccine. All Salmonella spp. utilize two type III Secretion Systems (T3SS 1 and 2) to initiate infection, allow replication in phagocytic cells and induce systemic disease. T3SS-1, which is essential to invade epithelial cells and cross the barrier, forms an extracellular needle and syringe necessary to inject effector proteins into the host cell. PrgI and SipD form, respectively, the T3SS-1 needle and the tip complex at the top of the needle. Because they are common and highly conserved in all virulent Salmonella spp., they might be ideal candidate antigens for a subunit-based, broad-spectrum vaccine. Principal Findings We investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of PrgI and SipD administered by subcutaneous, intranasal and oral routes, alone or combined, in a mouse model of Salmonella intestinal challenge. Robust IgG (in all immunization routes) and IgA (in intranasal and oral immunization routes) antibody responses were induced against both proteins, particularly SipD. Mice orally immunized with SipD alone or SipD combined with PrgI were protected against lethal intestinal challenge with Salmonella Typhimurium (100 Lethal Dose 50%) depending on antigen, route and adjuvant. Conclusions and Significance Salmonella T3SS SipD is a promising antigen for the development of a protective Salmonella vaccine, and could be developed for

  9. Brucella Rough Mutant Induce Macrophage Death via Activating IRE1α Pathway of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress by Enhanced T4SS Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Tian, Mingxing; Bao, Yanqing; Hu, Hai; Liu, Jiameng; Yin, Yi; Ding, Chan; Wang, Shaohui; Yu, Shengqing

    2017-01-01

    Brucella is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the worldwide zoonosis, known as brucellosis. Brucella virulence relies mostly on its ability to invade and replicate within phagocytic cells. The type IV secretion system (T4SS) and lipopolysaccharide are two major Brucella virulence factors. Brucella rough mutants reportedly induce the death of infected macrophages, which is T4SS dependent. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the T4SS secretion capacities of Brucella rough mutant and its smooth wild-type strain were comparatively investigated, by constructing the firefly luciferase fused T4SS effector, BPE123 and VceC. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were used to analyze the T4SS expression. The results showed that T4SS expression and secretion were enhanced significantly in the Brucella rough mutant. We also found that the activity of the T4SS virB operon promoter was notably increased in the Brucella rough mutant, which depends on quorum sensing-related regulators of VjbR upregulation. Cell infection and cell death assays revealed that deletion of vjbR in the Brucella rough mutant absolutely abolished cytotoxicity within macrophages by downregulating T4SS expression. This suggests that up-regulation of T4SS promoted by VjbR in rough mutant ΔrfbE contribute to macrophage death. In addition, we found that the Brucella rough mutant induce macrophage death via activating IRE1α pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Taken together, our study provide evidence that in comparison to the Brucella smooth wild-type strain, VjbR upregulation in the Brucella rough mutant increases transcription of the virB operon, resulting in overexpression of the T4SS gene, accompanied by the over-secretion of effecter proteins, thereby causing the death of infected macrophages via activating IRE1α pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress, suggesting novel insights into the molecular

  10. Brucella Rough Mutant Induce Macrophage Death via Activating IRE1α Pathway of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress by Enhanced T4SS Secretion.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Tian, Mingxing; Bao, Yanqing; Hu, Hai; Liu, Jiameng; Yin, Yi; Ding, Chan; Wang, Shaohui; Yu, Shengqing

    2017-01-01

    Brucella is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the worldwide zoonosis, known as brucellosis. Brucella virulence relies mostly on its ability to invade and replicate within phagocytic cells. The type IV secretion system (T4SS) and lipopolysaccharide are two major Brucella virulence factors. Brucella rough mutants reportedly induce the death of infected macrophages, which is T4SS dependent. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the T4SS secretion capacities of Brucella rough mutant and its smooth wild-type strain were comparatively investigated, by constructing the firefly luciferase fused T4SS effector, BPE123 and VceC. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were used to analyze the T4SS expression. The results showed that T4SS expression and secretion were enhanced significantly in the Brucella rough mutant. We also found that the activity of the T4SS virB operon promoter was notably increased in the Brucella rough mutant, which depends on quorum sensing-related regulators of VjbR upregulation. Cell infection and cell death assays revealed that deletion of vjbR in the Brucella rough mutant absolutely abolished cytotoxicity within macrophages by downregulating T4SS expression. This suggests that up-regulation of T4SS promoted by VjbR in rough mutant Δ rfbE contribute to macrophage death. In addition, we found that the Brucella rough mutant induce macrophage death via activating IRE1α pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Taken together, our study provide evidence that in comparison to the Brucella smooth wild-type strain, VjbR upregulation in the Brucella rough mutant increases transcription of the virB operon, resulting in overexpression of the T4SS gene, accompanied by the over-secretion of effecter proteins, thereby causing the death of infected macrophages via activating IRE1α pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress, suggesting novel insights into the molecular

  11. Singleshot T1 Mapping using Simultaneous Acquisitions of Spin- and STimulated-Echo Planar Imaging (2D ss-SESTEPI)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xianfeng; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jeong, Eun-Kee

    2011-01-01

    The conventional stimulated-echo NMR sequence only measures the longitudinal component, while discarding the transverse component, after tipping up the prepared magnetization. This transverse magnetization can be used to measure a spin-echo, in addition to the stimulated-echo. 2D ss-SESTEPI is an EPI-based singleshot imaging technique that simultaneously acquires a spin-echo-planar image (SEPI) and a stimulated-echo-planar image (STEPI) after a single RF excitation. The magnitudes of SEPI and STEPI differ by T1 decay and diffusion weighting for perfect 90° RF, and thus can be used to rapidly measure T1. However, the spatial variation of B1 amplitude induces un-even splitting of the transverse magnetization for SEPI and STEPI within the imaging FOV. Correction for B1 inhomogeneity is therefore critical for 2D ss-SESTEPI to be used for T1 measurement. We developed a method for B1 inhomogeneity correction by acquiring an additional STEPI with minimal mixing time, calculating the difference between the spin-echo and the stimulated-echo and multiplying the STEPI by the inverse functional map. Diffusion-induced decay is corrected by measuring the average diffusivity during the prescanning. Rapid singleshot T1 mapping may be useful for various applications, such as dynamic T1 mapping for real-time estimation of the concentration of contrast agent in DCE-MRI. PMID:20564579

  12. First Optical observation of a microquasar at sub-milliarsec scale: SS 433 resolved by VLTI/GRAVITY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, P.; Waisberg, I.; Lebouquin, J.; Dexter, J.; Dubus, G.; Perraut, K.; Kervella, P.; Gravity Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We present the first Optical observation at sub-milliarcsec (mas) scale of the famous microquasar SS 433 obtained with the GRAVITY instrument on the VLTI interferometer. This observation reveals the SS 433 inner regions with unprecedent details: The K-band continuum emitting region is dominated by a marginally resolved point source (< 1 mas) embedded inside a diffuse background accounting for 10% of the total flux. The significant visibility drop across the jet lines present in the K-band spectrum, together with the small and nearly identical phases for all baselines, point toward a jet that is offset by < 0.5 mas from the continuum source and resolved in the direction of propagation, with a size of ˜2 mas. Jet emission so close to the central binary system implies that line locking, if relevant to explain the 0.26c jet velocity, operates on elements heavier than hydrogen. Concerning The Brγ line, it is better resolved than the continuum and the S-shape phase signal present across the line suggests an East-West oriented geometry alike the jet direction and supporting a (polar) disk wind origin. This observation show the potentiality of Optical interferometry to constrain the inner regions of high energy sources like microquasars.

  13. Easi-CRISPR for creating knock-in and conditional knockout mouse models using long ssDNA donors.

    PubMed

    Miura, Hiromi; Quadros, Rolen M; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Ohtsuka, Masato

    2018-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing can easily generate knockout mouse models by disrupting the gene sequence, but its efficiency for creating models that require either insertion of exogenous DNA (knock-in) or replacement of genomic segments is very poor. The majority of mouse models used in research involve knock-in (reporters or recombinases) or gene replacement (e.g., conditional knockout alleles containing exons flanked by LoxP sites). A few methods for creating such models have been reported that use double-stranded DNA as donors, but their efficiency is typically 1-10% and therefore not suitable for routine use. We recently demonstrated that long single-stranded DNAs (ssDNAs) serve as very efficient donors, both for insertion and for gene replacement. We call this method efficient additions with ssDNA inserts-CRISPR (Easi-CRISPR) because it is a highly efficient technology (efficiency is typically 30-60% and reaches as high as 100% in some cases). The protocol takes ∼2 months to generate the founder mice.

  14. Low-Temperature Aging of Delta-Ferrite in 316L SS Welds; Changes in Mechanical Properties and Etching Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Keita; Watanabe, Yutaka

    Thermal aging embrittlement of LWR components made of stainless cast (e.g. CF-8 and CF-8M) is a potential degradation issue, and careful attention has been paid on it. Although welds of austenitic stainless steels (SSs) have γ-δ duplex microstructure, which is similar to that of the stainless cast, examination on thermal aging characteristics of the SS welds is very limited. In order to evaluate thermal aging behavior of weld metal of austenitic stainless steel, the 316L SS weld metal has been prepared and changes in mechanical properties and in etching properties at isothermal aging at 335°C have been investigated. The hardness of the ferrite phase has increased with aging, while the hardness of austenite phase has stayed same. It has been suggested that spinodal decomposition has occurred in δ-ferrite by the 335°C aging. The etching rates of δ-ferrite at immersion test in 5wt% hydrochloric acid solution have been also investigated using an AFM technique. The etching rate of ferrite phase has decreased consistently with the increase in hardness of ferrite phase. It has been thought that this characteristic is also caused by spinodal decomposition of ferrite into chromium-rich (α') and iron-rich (α).

  15. Surface plasmon resonance imaging reveals multiple binding modes of Agrobacterium transformation mediator VirE2 to ssDNA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghyun; Zbaida, David; Elbaum, Michael; Leh, Hervé; Nogues, Claude; Buckle, Malcolm

    2015-07-27

    VirE2 is the major secreted protein of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in its genetic transformation of plant hosts. It is co-expressed with a small acidic chaperone VirE1, which prevents VirE2 oligomerization. After secretion into the host cell, VirE2 serves functions similar to a viral capsid in protecting the single-stranded transferred DNA en route to the nucleus. Binding of VirE2 to ssDNA is strongly cooperative and depends moreover on protein-protein interactions. In order to isolate the protein-DNA interactions, imaging surface plasmon resonance (SPRi) studies were conducted using surface-immobilized DNA substrates of length comparable to the protein-binding footprint. Binding curves revealed an important influence of substrate rigidity with a notable preference for poly-T sequences and absence of binding to both poly-A and double-stranded DNA fragments. Dissociation at high salt concentration confirmed the electrostatic nature of the interaction. VirE1-VirE2 heterodimers also bound to ssDNA, though by a different mechanism that was insensitive to high salt. Neither VirE2 nor VirE1-VirE2 followed the Langmuir isotherm expected for reversible monomeric binding. The differences reflect the cooperative self-interactions of VirE2 that are suppressed by VirE1. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Larvicidal effect of disinfectant soap on Anopheles gambiae s.s (Diptera: Culicidae) in laboratory and semifield environs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mosquito larval control using chemicals and biological agents is of paramount importance in vector population and disease incidence reduction. A commercial synthetic disinfectant soap was evaluated against larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. in both laboratory and semi field conditions. Method Five concentrations of commercial synthetic disinfectant soap (0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1%) were prepared and evaluated against third instar larvae in laboratory and semi field environments. Mortality was scored at 12, 24, 48, and 72 hrs. Each dosage had 6 replicates, having twenty 3rd instar larvae of An.gambiae s.s. Results In the laboratory phase, all dosages had significantly higher larval mortalities than in controls, while in semi field conditions, the dosages of 0.0001, 0.001 and 0.01% had lower mortalities than laboratory trials. In the comparison between semi field and laboratory trials, only 0.1 and 1% dosage had significant difference with more mortality in semifield conditions. Proportions of larvae that died during mortality monitoring intervals in laboratory and semi field had significant differences only at 12 hrs and 72 hrs. Conclusion The findings of this study have demonstrated that the mortality of larvae caused by commercial synthetic disinfectant soap is worth further studies in open water bodies. More studies are necessary to find out the effect of sunlight on the chemistry of the synthetic disinfectant and other variables in small scale full field trials. PMID:24885903

  17. iSS-PC: Identifying Splicing Sites via Physical-Chemical Properties Using Deep Sparse Auto-Encoder.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhao-Chun; Wang, Peng; Qiu, Wang-Ren; Xiao, Xuan

    2017-08-15

    Gene splicing is one of the most significant biological processes in eukaryotic gene expression, such as RNA splicing, which can cause a pre-mRNA to produce one or more mature messenger RNAs containing the coded information with multiple biological functions. Thus, identifying splicing sites in DNA/RNA sequences is significant for both the bio-medical research and the discovery of new drugs. However, it is expensive and time consuming based only on experimental technique, so new computational methods are needed. To identify the splice donor sites and splice acceptor sites accurately and quickly, a deep sparse auto-encoder model with two hidden layers, called iSS-PC, was constructed based on minimum error law, in which we incorporated twelve physical-chemical properties of the dinucleotides within DNA into PseDNC to formulate given sequence samples via a battery of cross-covariance and auto-covariance transformations. In this paper, five-fold cross-validation test results based on the same benchmark data-sets indicated that the new predictor remarkably outperformed the existing prediction methods in this field. Furthermore, it is expected that many other related problems can be also studied by this approach. To implement classification accurately and quickly, an easy-to-use web-server for identifying slicing sites has been established for free access at: http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iSS-PC.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometric variability of BeSS-KELT stars (Labadie-Bartz+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labadie-Bartz, J.; Pepper, J.; McSwain, M. V.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Lund, M. B.; Rodriguez, J. E.; Stassun, K. G.; Stevens, D. J.; James, D. J.; Kuhn, R. B.; Siverd, R. J.; Beatty, T. G.

    2018-04-01

    Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) is a photometric survey using two small-aperture (42 mm) wide-field (26°x26°) telescopes, with a northern location at Winer Observatory in Arizona in the United States, and a southern location at the South African Astronomical Observatory near Sutherland, South Africa. The Be Star Spectra (BeSS) database is a continually updated catalog that attempts to include all known Be stars, as well as their stellar parameters. This catalog is based primarily on the catalog of classical Be stars published by Jaschek et al. (1982, Cat. III/67) but also includes more recently discovered Be stars from a variety of sources (e.g., Neiner et al. 2005ApJS..156..237N; Martayan et al. 2006A&A...445..931M). From the BeSS database, we compiled a list of all the classical Be stars with 7

  19. Structural pattern of the Saïss basin and Tabular Middle Atlas in northern Morocco: Hydrological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauteuil, O.; Moreau, F.; Qarqori, K.

    2016-07-01

    The plain of Saïss is a fertile area of great agricultural production with major economic interests. Therefore, the improved knowledge about the water supply is imperative within a context of recurrent droughts and overexploitation of the groundwater. This plain is located in the Meknes-Fes basin and between two deformed domains: the Rif and Middle Atlas. The aquifers are fed by water coming from the Tabular Middle Atlas, for which the pathways are poorly constrained. This study provides new data to determine the water pathways based on a structural map produced from a novel analysis of SPOT images and a digital elevation model. This structural map reveals two fracture sets trending NE-SW and NW-SE. The first set is well known and corresponds to a main trend that controlled the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the study area. On the other hand, the NW-SE set was poorly described until now: it is both diffuse and widespread on the Tabular Middle Atlas. A comparison between the regional water flow trend, drainage pattern and structural map shows that the NW-SE fractures control the water flow from the Tabular Middle Atlas to the Saïss plain. A hydrological model is discussed where the water flow is confined onto Liassic carbonates and driven by NW-SE fractures. This study explains how a detailed structural mapping shows hydrology constraints.

  20. Validation of the early childhood attitude toward women in science scale (ECWiSS): A pilot administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulkey, Lynn M.

    The intention of this research was to measure attitudes of young children toward women scientists. A 27-item instrument, the Early Childhood Women in Science Scale (ECWiSS) was validated in a test case of the proposition that differential socialization predicts entry into the scientific talent pool. Estimates of internal consistency indicated that the scale is highly reliable. Known groups and correlates procedures, employed to determine the validity of the instrument, revealed that the scale is able to discriminate significant differences between groups and distinguishes three dimensions of attitude (role-specific self-concept, home-related sex-role conflict, and work-related sex-role conflict). Results of the analyses also confirmed the anticipated pattern of correlations with measures of another construct. The findings suggest the utility of the ECWiSS for measurement of early childhood attitudes in models of the ascriptive and/or meritocratic processes affecting recruitment to science and more generally in program and curriculum evaluation where attitude toward women in science is the construct of interest.

  1. Implementation of QoSS (Quality-of-Security Service) for NoC-Based SoC Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepúlveda, Johanna; Pires, Ricardo; Strum, Marius; Chau, Wang Jiang

    Many of the current electronic systems embedded in a SoC (System-on-Chip) are used to capture, store, manipulate and access critical data, as well as to perform other key functions. In such a scenario, security is considered as an important issue. The Network-on-chip (NoC), as the foreseen communication structure of next-generation SoC devices, can be used to efficiently incorporate security. Our work proposes the implementation of QoSS (Quality of Security Service) to overcome present SoC vulnerabilities. QoSS is a novel concept for data protection that introduces security as a dimension of QoS. In this paper, we present the implementation of two security services (access control and authentication), that may be configured to assume one from several possible levels, the implementation of a technique to avoid denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, evaluate their effectiveness and estimate their impact on NoC performance.

  2. Spa47 is an oligomerization-activated type three secretion system (T3SS) ATPase from Shigella flexneri.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Jamie L; Jones, Heather B; Kumar, Prashant; Toth, Ronald T; Middaugh, C Russell; Antony, Edwin; Dickenson, Nicholas E

    2016-05-01

    Gram-negative pathogens often use conserved type three secretion systems (T3SS) for virulence. The Shigella type three secretion apparatus (T3SA) penetrates the host cell membrane and provides a unidirectional conduit for injection of effectors into host cells. The protein Spa47 localizes to the base of the apparatus and is speculated to be an ATPase that provides the energy for T3SA formation and secretion. Here, we developed an expression and purification protocol, producing active Spa47 and providing the first direct evidence that Spa47 is a bona fide ATPase. Additionally, size exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation identified multiple oligomeric species of Spa47 with the largest greater than 8 fold more active for ATP hydrolysis than the monomer. An ATPase inactive Spa47 point mutant was then engineered by targeting a conserved Lysine within the predicted Walker A motif of Spa47. Interestingly, the mutant maintained a similar oligomerization pattern as active Spa47, but was unable to restore invasion phenotype when used to complement a spa47 null S. flexneri strain. Together, these results identify Spa47 as a Shigella T3SS ATPase and suggest that its activity is linked to oligomerization, perhaps as a regulatory mechanism as seen in some related pathogens. Additionally, Spa47 catalyzed ATP hydrolysis appears to be essential for host cell invasion, providing a strong platform for additional studies dissecting its role in virulence and providing an attractive target for anti-infective agents. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  3. Effect of current and travel speed variation of TIG welding on microstructure and hardness of stainless steel SS 316L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatimurti, Wikan; Abdillah, Fakhri Aulia; Kurniawan, Budi Agung; Rochiem, Rochman

    2018-04-01

    One of the stainless steel types that widely used in industry is SS 316L, which is austenitic stainless steel. One of the welding methods to join stainless steel is Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG), which can affect its morphology, microstructure, strength, hardness, and even lead to cracks in the weld area due to the given heat input. This research has a purpose of analyzing the relationship between microstructure and hardness value of SS 316L stainless steel after TIG welding with the variation of current and travel speed. The macro observation shows a distinct difference in the weld metal and base metal area, and the weld form is not symmetrical. The metallographic test shows the phases that formed in the specimen are austenite and ferrite, which scattered in three welding areas. The hardness test showed that the highest hardness value found in the variation of travel speed 12 cm/min with current 100 A. Welding process and variation were given do not cause any defects in the microstructure, such as carbide precipitation and sigma phase, means that it does not affect the hardness and corrosion resistance of all welded specimen.

  4. Gas Metal Arc Welding Parameters Effect on Properties of Tailored Orbital Weld of SS304 and BS1387

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayof, M. N.; Hussein, N. I. S.; Noh, M. Z. Mohd

    2017-09-01

    Dissimilar material pipes in a power plant boiler water piping system are used to transmit water at various temperatures, either in extremely high temperature water or room temperature water. In this study, tailored orbital welding of dissimilar material of Stainless Steel (SS) 304 and British Steel (BS) 1387 were performed by Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) with automated fixed nozzle-rotational jig. This study focused on GMAW parameters variation effects on mechanical properties of SS304 and BS1387 dissimilar material tailored orbital welding. The weldment quality was tested by performing non-destructive dye penetrant test. The tensile strength and microhardness were studied to verify the influence of welding parameters variations. Design of Experiment (DOE) was employed to generate process parameter using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) method. Welding parameters that were arc current, arc voltage and travel speed as input response, whilst, tensile strength and microhardness as output response. Results from non-destructive test showed no major defect occurred. The tensile strength and microhardness increased when arc current and voltage increased and travel speed decreased. Microhardness at weldment was higher than base material.

  5. Sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin derivatization: a versatile tool for MALDI mass analysis of PTMs in lysine-rich proteins.

    PubMed

    Markoutsa, Stavroula; Bahr, Ute; Papasotiriou, Dimitrios G; Häfner, Ann-Kathrin; Karas, Michael; Sorg, Bernd L

    2014-03-01

    The discovery of PTMs in proteins by MS requires nearly complete sequence coverage of the detected proteolytic peptides. Unfortunately, mass spectrometric analysis of the desired sequence fragments is often impeded due to low ionization efficiency and/or signal suppression in complex samples. When several lysine residues are in close proximity tryptic peptides may be too short for mass analysis. Moreover, modified peptides often appear in low stoichiometry and need to be enriched before analysis. We present here how the use of sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin derivatization of lysine side chain can help to detect PTMs in lysine-rich proteins. This label leads to a mass shift which can be adjusted by reduction of the SS bridge and alkylation with different reagents. Low intensity peptides can be enriched by use of streptavidin beads. Using this method, the functionally relevant protein kinase A phosphorylation site in 5-lipoxygenase was detected for the first time by MS. Additionally, methylation and acetylation could be unambiguously determined in histones. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Larvicidal effect of disinfectant soap on Anopheles gambiae s.s (Diptera: Culicidae) in laboratory and semifield environs.

    PubMed

    Mdoe, France P; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Chobu, Mariam; Lyaruu, Lucile; Gyunda, Israel L; Mbepera, Saada; Xue, Rui-De; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2014-05-03

    Mosquito larval control using chemicals and biological agents is of paramount importance in vector population and disease incidence reduction. A commercial synthetic disinfectant soap was evaluated against larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. in both laboratory and semi field conditions. Five concentrations of commercial synthetic disinfectant soap (0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1%) were prepared and evaluated against third instar larvae in laboratory and semi field environments. Mortality was scored at 12, 24, 48, and 72 hrs. Each dosage had 6 replicates, having twenty 3rd instar larvae of An.gambiae s.s. In the laboratory phase, all dosages had significantly higher larval mortalities than in controls, while in semi field conditions, the dosages of 0.0001, 0.001 and 0.01% had lower mortalities than laboratory trials. In the comparison between semi field and laboratory trials, only 0.1 and 1% dosage had significant difference with more mortality in semifield conditions. Proportions of larvae that died during mortality monitoring intervals in laboratory and semi field had significant differences only at 12 hrs and 72 hrs. The findings of this study have demonstrated that the mortality of larvae caused by commercial synthetic disinfectant soap is worth further studies in open water bodies. More studies are necessary to find out the effect of sunlight on the chemistry of the synthetic disinfectant and other variables in small scale full field trials.

  7. Enhanced photocathodic protection performance of Ag/graphene/TiO2 composite for 304SS under visible light.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Wang, Xiutong; Wei, Qinyi; Liu, Xueqing; Qian, Zhouhai; Hou, Baorong

    2017-06-02

    Ag and graphene co-sensitized TiO 2 composites were successfully fabricated and used as photoanodes for photogenerated cathodic protection of 304 stainless steel (304SS) under visible light. Graphene films was firstly deposited onto the TiO 2 nanotube (NT) films via cyclic voltammetric electrodeposition. Ag/graphene/TiO 2 films were then fabricated via dipping and photoreduction method. The morphology, composition and optical response of the Ag/graphene/TiO 2 NT composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. The photocathodic protection performance of the Ag/graphene/TiO 2 composites were systematically studied through open-circuit potential and potentiodynamic polarization measurements in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution under visible light (λ > 400 nm). The composites exhibited enhanced photogenerated cathodic protection performance for 304SS under visible light irradiation compared to pure TiO 2 . Graphene and Ag have a synergistic effect on the enhancement of photocathodic protection performance of TiO 2 . The composites prepared with 30-cycle graphene film and 15 mM AgNO 3 solution showed the optimal corrosion protection performance.

  8. Enhanced photocathodic protection performance of Ag/graphene/TiO2 composite for 304SS under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Wang, Xiutong; Wei, Qinyi; Liu, Xueqing; Qian, Zhouhai; Hou, Baorong

    2017-06-01

    Ag and graphene co-sensitized TiO2 composites were successfully fabricated and used as photoanodes for photogenerated cathodic protection of 304 stainless steel (304SS) under visible light. Graphene films was firstly deposited onto the TiO2 nanotube (NT) films via cyclic voltammetric electrodeposition. Ag/graphene/TiO2 films were then fabricated via dipping and photoreduction method. The morphology, composition and optical response of the Ag/graphene/TiO2 NT composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. The photocathodic protection performance of the Ag/graphene/TiO2 composites were systematically studied through open-circuit potential and potentiodynamic polarization measurements in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution under visible light (λ > 400 nm). The composites exhibited enhanced photogenerated cathodic protection performance for 304SS under visible light irradiation compared to pure TiO2. Graphene and Ag have a synergistic effect on the enhancement of photocathodic protection performance of TiO2. The composites prepared with 30-cycle graphene film and 15 mM AgNO3 solution showed the optimal corrosion protection performance.

  9. Critical analysis of the discrepancy between V(beta) and V(ss) for drugs exhibiting different two-compartment disposition profiles.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Eyal; Bialer, Meir

    2005-03-01

    It is well known that in the two-compartment open body model the values of apparent volume of distribution (V(beta)) and volume of distribution at steady state (V(ss)) are never identical. There are at least two conditions when V(beta) significantly overestimates V(ss). The first is when most of a drug is eliminated relatively rapidly but a small fraction of the dose persists and gives rise to an extremely long half-life. The second is when a drug is rapidly cleared from the central compartment with a short half-life. The primary purpose of the current paper was to investigate how different two-compartment disposition profiles affect the magnitude of difference between V(beta) and V(ss). Novel equations have been developed that relate the V(beta)/V(ss) ratio to f1 (fraction of drug elimination associated with the distributive phase) and to beta/alpha (ratio of the exponential coefficients). This paper demonstrates mathematically that an increasing value of f1 is associated with a greater divergence between V(beta) and V(ss). A similar relationship was also found for the divergence between the terminal half-life (t(1/2beta)) and the mean residence time (MRT). An increase in the beta/alpha ratio results in a substantial decrease of this discrepancy and provides a maximal possible value, or an upper limit to the V(beta)/V(ss) ratio. The newly derived equations along with their graphical presentation may serve as an excellent predictive tool for checking the accuracy of the experimentally obtained values of V(beta) and V(ss). Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Epigenetic Regulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) Release in Human Macrophages by HIV-1 Single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) Is Dependent on TLR8 Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xinbing; Li, Xin; Yue, Simon C.; Anandaiah, Asha; Hashem, Falah; Reinach, Peter S.; Koziel, Henry; Tachado, Souvenir D.

    2012-01-01

    Human macrophages at mucosal sites are essential targets for acute HIV infection. During the chronic phase of infection, they are persistent reservoirs for the AIDS virus. HIV virions gain entry into macrophages following ligation of surface CD4-CCR5 co-receptors, which leads to the release of two copies of HIV ssRNA. These events lead to reverse transcription and viral replication initiation. Toll-like receptors TLR7 and TLR8 recognize specific intracellular viral ssRNA sequences, but in human alveolar macrophages, their individual roles in TLR-mediated HIV ssRNA recognition are unclear. In the current study, HIV-1 ssRNA induced TNFα release in a dose-dependent manner in adherent human macrophages expressing both intracellular TLR7 and TLR8. This response was reduced by inhibiting either endocytosis (50 μm dynasore) or endosomal acidification (1 μg/ml chloroquine). Either MYD88 or TLR8 gene knockdown with relevant siRNA reduced HIV-1 ssRNA-mediated TNFα release, but silencing TLR7 had no effect on this response. Furthermore, HIV-1 ssRNA induced histone 4 acetylation at the TNFα promoter as well as trimethylation of histone 3 at lysine 4, whereas TLR8 gene knockdown reduced these effects. Taken together in human macrophages, TLR8 binds and internalizes HIV ssRNA, leading to endosomal acidification, chromatin remodeling, and increases in TNFα release. Drugs targeting macrophage TLR8-linked signaling pathways may modulate the innate immune response to acute HIV infection by reducing viral replication. PMID:22393042

  11. IFNL4 ss469415590 Variant Is Associated with Treatment Response in Japanese HCV Genotype 1 Infected Individuals Treated with IFN-Including Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Miyamura, Tatsuo; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Arai, Makoto; Nakamura, Masato; Wu, Shuang; Jiang, Xia; Sasaki, Reina; Yasui, Shin; Ooka, Yoshihiko; Imazeki, Fumio; Mikami, Shigeru; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is still challenging even if interferon- (IFN-) free regimens with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for HCV-infected individuals are available in clinical practice. IFNL4 is a newly described protein, associated with human antiviral defenses. We investigated whether IFNL4 ss469415590 variant has an effect on the prediction of treatment response in HCV-infected patients treated with IFN-including regimens. Patients and Methods. In all, 185 patients infected with HCV genotype 1 treated with peg-IFN plus ribavirin, with or without telaprevir, were genotyped for IFNL4 ss469415590. We retrospectively investigated whether the role of IFNL4 ss469415590 variant and other factors could predict sustained virological response (SVR) in Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1. Results. There were 65.7%, 31.5%, and 2.8% patients in the IFNL4 ss469415590 TT/TT, TT/-G, and -G/-G groups, respectively. SVR rates were 82.1% or 49.3% in patients treated with peg-IFN plus ribavirin with or without telaprevir, respectively. IFNL4 ss469415590 variant and HCV viral loads or IFNL4 ss469415590 variant and early virological response were better predictors of SVR in patients treated with peg-IFN plus ribavirin with or without telaprevir, respectively. Conclusion. In the era of DAAs, measurement of IFNL4 ss469415590 variant could help the prediction of SVR in Japanese HCV genotype 1 infected individuals treated with IFN-including regimens. PMID:25548683

  12. Mitochondria-targeted molecules MitoQ and SS31 reduce mutant huntingtin-induced mitochondrial toxicity and synaptic damage in Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiangling; Manczak, Maria; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the protective effects of the mitochondria-targeted molecules MitoQ and SS31 in striatal neurons that stably express mutant huntingtin (Htt) (STHDhQ111/Q111) in Huntington's disease (HD). We studied mitochondrial and synaptic activities by measuring mRNA and the protein levels of mitochondrial and synaptic genes, mitochondrial function, and ultra-structural changes in MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons relative to untreated mutant Htt neurons. We used gene expression analysis, biochemical methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal microscopy methods. In the MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons, fission genes Drp1 and Fis1 were down-regulated, and fusion genes Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1 were up-regulated relative to untreated neurons, suggesting that mitochondria-targeted molecules reduce fission activity. Interestingly, the mitochondrial biogenesis genes PGC1α, PGC1β, Nrf1, Nrf2 and TFAM were up-regulated in MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons. The synaptic genes synaptophysin and PSD95 were up-regulated, and mitochondrial function was normal in the MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons. Immunoblotting findings of mitochondrial and synaptic proteins agreed with the mRNA findings. TEM studies revealed decreased numbers of structurally intact mitochondria in MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons. These findings suggest that mitochondria-targeted molecules MitoQ and SS31 are protective against mutant Htt-induced mitochondrial and synaptic damage in HD neurons, and these mitochondria-targeted molecules are potential therapeutic molecules for the treatment of HD neurons. PMID:26908605

  13. Mitochondria-targeted molecules MitoQ and SS31 reduce mutant huntingtin-induced mitochondrial toxicity and synaptic damage in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiangling; Manczak, Maria; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the protective effects of the mitochondria-targeted molecules MitoQ and SS31 in striatal neurons that stably express mutant huntingtin (Htt) (STHDhQ111/Q111) in Huntington's disease (HD). We studied mitochondrial and synaptic activities by measuring mRNA and the protein levels of mitochondrial and synaptic genes, mitochondrial function, and ultra-structural changes in MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons relative to untreated mutant Htt neurons. We used gene expression analysis, biochemical methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal microscopy methods. In the MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons, fission genes Drp1 and Fis1 were down-regulated, and fusion genes Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1 were up-regulated relative to untreated neurons, suggesting that mitochondria-targeted molecules reduce fission activity. Interestingly, the mitochondrial biogenesis genes PGC1α, PGC1β, Nrf1, Nrf2 and TFAM were up-regulated in MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons. The synaptic genes synaptophysin and PSD95 were up-regulated, and mitochondrial function was normal in the MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons. Immunoblotting findings of mitochondrial and synaptic proteins agreed with the mRNA findings. TEM studies revealed decreased numbers of structurally intact mitochondria in MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons. These findings suggest that mitochondria-targeted molecules MitoQ and SS31 are protective against mutant Htt-induced mitochondrial and synaptic damage in HD neurons, and these mitochondria-targeted molecules are potential therapeutic molecules for the treatment of HD neurons. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. [Endothelial response for the presence of chosen antinuclear antibodies, anti-Ro (SS-A) and anti-La (SS-B) and anti-Sm in vasculitis against the background of existing lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Doskocz, R; Adamiec, R; Kwiatkowska, W; Alexewicz, P; Doskocz, W; Adamiec, J

    1999-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematodes is a disease commonly associated with peripheric circulation disturbances. The goal of the study was the evaluation of the role of the following nuclear antibodies: anti-Ro (SS-A), anti-La (SS-B) and anti-Sm in the endothelium damage process in the SLE patients with symptoms of microcirculation disturbances. The concentration of plasma thrombomodulin was used as a marker of the endothelium destructive changes intensity. Twenty-four patients with SLE (22 women and 2 man) aged of 18-57 (the average age 40.50 +/- 9.72 years) in which occurred: the Raynauds symptom (16 patients), fingers cyanosis (5 patients) and fingers and/or toes necrosis (3 patients) were investigated. Antinuclear antibodies and thrombomodulin level was estimated with the ELISA method. In all patients, the concentration of anticardiolipin antibodies in serum was determined (ELISA-method, cardiolipin was used as an antigenes, Sigma USA). Higher titers of ANA antibodies in 83%, anti-SM antibodies in 30%, anti-Ro in 42% and anti-La in 42%, examined patients and higher titer of anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies together in 29% of examined patients were stated. Statistical significant correlation between the increased level of thrombomodulin and anti-La antibodies concentrations in serum of patients with the disease lasting over 6 years was found out. The significant statistical correlation of thrombomodulin concentration increasing and anti-La antibodies in serum was proved. The dynamism of limbs circulation disorders depends on the disease duration.

  15. The copolymer P(HEMA-co-SS) binds gluten and reduces immune response in gluten-sensitized mice and human tissues.

    PubMed

    Pinier, Maud; Fuhrmann, Gregor; Galipeau, Heather J; Rivard, Nathalie; Murray, Joseph A; David, Chella S; Drasarova, Hana; Tuckova, Ludmila; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Verdu, Elena F

    2012-02-01

    Copolymers of hydroxyethyl methacrylate and styrene sulfonate complex with isolated gliadin (the toxic fraction of gluten) and prevent damage to the intestinal barrier in HLA-HCD4/DQ8 mice. We studied the activity toward gluten and hordein digestion and biologic effects of poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-styrene sulfonate (P(HEMA-co-SS)). We also investigated the effect of gliadin complex formation in intestinal biopsy specimens from patients with celiac disease. We studied the ability of P(HEMA-co-SS) to reduce digestion of wheat gluten and barley hordein into immunotoxic peptides using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered P(HEMA-co-SS) was established in rodents using tritium-labeled polymer. We assessed the capacity of P(HEMA-co-SS) to prevent the immunologic and intestinal effects induced by a gluten-food mixture in gluten-sensitized HLA-HCD4/DQ8 mice after short-term and long-term administration. We measured the effects of gliadin complex formation on cytokine release ex vivo using intestinal biopsy specimens from patients with celiac disease. P(HEMA-co-SS) reduced digestion of wheat gluten and barley hordein in vitro, thereby decreasing formation of toxic peptides associated with celiac disease. After oral administration to rodents, P(HEMA-co-SS) was predominantly excreted in feces, even in the presence of low-grade mucosal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability. In gluten-sensitized mice, P(HEMA-co-SS) reduced paracellular permeability, normalized anti-gliadin immunoglobulin A in intestinal washes, and modulated the systemic immune response to gluten in a food mixture. Furthermore, incubation of P(HEMA-co-SS) with mucosal biopsy specimens from patients with celiac disease showed that secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α was reduced in the presence of partially digested gliadin. The copolymer P(HEMA-co-SS) reduced digestion of wheat gluten and barley hordein and

  16. Application of Framework for Integrating Safety, Security and Safeguards (3Ss) into the Design Of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Badwan, Faris M.; Demuth, Scott F

    Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Research and Development develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development focused on used nuclear fuel recycling and waste management to meet U.S. needs. Used nuclear fuel is currently stored onsite in either wet pools or in dry storage systems, with disposal envisioned in interim storage facility and, ultimately, in a deep-mined geologic repository. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is amore » fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Integrating safety, security, and safeguards (3Ss) fully in the early stages of the design process for a new nuclear facility has the potential to effectively minimize safety, proliferation, and security risks. The 3Ss integration framework could become the new national and international norm and the standard process for designing future nuclear facilities. The purpose of this report is to develop a framework for integrating the safety, security and safeguards concept into the design of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility (UNFSF). The primary focus is on integration of safeguards and security into the UNFSF based on the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approach to addressing the safety/security interface (10 CFR 73.58 and Regulatory Guide 5.73) for nuclear power plants. The methodology used for adaptation of the NRC safety/security interface will be used as the basis for development of the safeguards /security interface and later will be used as the basis for development of safety and safeguards interface. Then this will complete the integration cycle of safety, security, and safeguards. The overall methodology for integration of 3Ss will be proposed, but only the integration of safeguards and security will be applied to the design

  17. Differential roles of SS18-SSX fusion gene and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in synovial sarcoma cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Toernkvist, Maria; Natalishvili, Natalia; Xie Yuntao

    2008-04-11

    Recently we demonstrated that the synovial sarcoma specific fusion gene SS18-SSX is crucial for cyclin D1 expression and is linked to cell proliferation. In this report we explore the role of SS18-SSX and IGF-1R for their potential functions in cellular proliferation and survival in cultured synovial sarcoma cells. We found that targeting of SS18-SSX mRNA by antisense oligonucleotide treatment drastically and rapidly decreased cell proliferation but caused only a slight increase of apoptosis. The synovial sarcoma cells were confirmed to express IGF-1R, and treatment with an IGF-1R inhibitor resulted in substantially reduced cell viability by inducing apoptosis in these cells.more » Conversely, inhibition of the IGF-1R resulted only in a slight to moderate decrease in DNA synthesis. In conclusion, SS18-SSX and IGF-1R seem to play important but different roles in maintaining malignant growth of synovial sarcoma cells. Whereas SS18-SSX maintains cyclin D1 and cell proliferation, IGF-1R protects from apoptosis.« less

  18. Is the devil in the detail? Evidence for S-S learning after unconditional stimulus revaluation in human evaluative conditioning under a broader set of experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Fielding, Hannah; Luck, Camilla C; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2017-11-28

    Whether valence change during evaluative conditioning is mediated by a link between the conditional stimulus (CS) and the unconditional stimulus (US; S-S learning) or between the CS and the unconditional response (S-R learning) is a matter of continued debate. Changing the valence of the US after conditioning, known as US revaluation, can be used to dissociate these accounts. Changes in CS valence after US revaluation provide evidence for S-S learning but if CS valence does not change, evidence for S-R learning is found. Support for S-S learning has been provided by most past revaluation studies, but typically the CS and US have been from the same stimulus category, the task instructions have suggested that judgements of the CS should be based on the US, and USs have been mildly valenced stimuli. These factors may bias the results in favour of S-S learning. We examined whether S-R learning would be evident when CSs and USs were taken from different categories, the task instructions were removed, and more salient USs were used. US revaluation was found to influence explicit US evaluations and explicit and implicit CS evaluations, supporting an S-S learning account and suggesting that past results are stable across procedural changes.

  19. Meeting the complex needs of urban youth and their families through the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program: The "real world" meets evidence-informed care.

    PubMed

    Small, Latoya; Jackson, Jerrold; Gopalan, Geetha; McKay, Mary McKernan

    2015-07-01

    Youth living in poverty face compounding familial and environmental challenges in utilizing effective community mental health services. They have ongoing stressors that increase their dropout rate in mental health service use. Difficulties also exist in staying engaged in services when they are involved with the child welfare system. This study examines the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program, developed across four broad conceptual categories related to parenting skills and family processes that form a multiple family group service delivery approach. A total of 321 families were enrolled in this randomized intervention study, assigned to either the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program or standard care services. Caregivers and their children randomly assigned to the experimental condition received a 16 week multiple family group intervention through their respective outpatient community mental health clinic. Data was collected at baseline, midtest (8 weeks), posttest (16 weeks), and 6 month follow-up. Major findings include high engagement in the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program, compared to standard services. Although child welfare status is not related to attendance, family stress and parental depression are also related to participant engagement in this multiple family group intervention. Involvement in the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program resulted in improved effects for child behaviors. Lastly, no evidence of moderation effects on family stress, child welfare involvement, or parental needs were found. The 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program appeared able to engage families with more complex "real world" needs.

  20. Reduction-responsive PEtOz-SS-PCL micelle with tailored size to overcome blood-brain barrier and enhance doxorubicin antiglioma effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuling; Baiyang, Li; Leran, Bu; Zhen, Wang; Yandong, Xie; Baixiang, Du; Dandan, Zhu; Yufu, Zhu; Jun, Liang; Rutong, Yu; Hongmei, Liu

    2017-11-01

    A series of novel reduction-responsive micelles with tailored size were designed and prepared to release doxorubicin (DOX) for treating glioma, which were developed based on amphiphilic block copolymer poly (2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-b-poly (ε-caprolactone) (PEtOz-SS-PCL) and the micelle size could be regulated by designing the polymer structure. The DOX-loaded PEtOz-SS-PCL micelles had small size and rapid drug release in reductive intracellular environments. Biodistribution and in vivo imaging studies in C6 glioma mice tumor model showed that DOX loaded PEtOz-SS-PCL43 micelles with the smallest size had superior accumulation and fast drug release in tumor sites. In vivo antitumor activity demonstrated that DOX-loaded PEtOz-SS-PCL43 micelles improved antitumor efficacy in contrast to PEtOz-SS-PCL micelles with larger size toward the orthotopic C6-Luci cells-bearing mice. This study shows great potential in tailoring the micelle size and introducing the responsive bonds or compartment for intracellular drug delivery and release in glioma treatment by designing the architecture of the polymer.

  1. Protein dynamics of human RPA and RAD51 on ssDNA during assembly and disassembly of the RAD51 filament

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chu Jian; Gibb, Bryan; Kwon, YoungHo; Sung, Patrick; Greene, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is a crucial pathway for double-stranded DNA break (DSB) repair. During the early stages of HR, the newly generated DSB ends are processed to yield long single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) overhangs, which are quickly bound by replication protein A (RPA). RPA is then replaced by the DNA recombinase Rad51, which forms extended helical filaments on the ssDNA. The resulting nucleoprotein filament, known as the presynaptic complex, is responsible for pairing the ssDNA with homologous double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), which serves as the template to guide DSB repair. Here, we use single-molecule imaging to visualize the interplay between human RPA (hRPA) and human RAD51 during presynaptic complex assembly and disassembly. We demonstrate that ssDNA-bound hRPA can undergo facilitated exchange, enabling hRPA to undergo rapid exchange between free and ssDNA-bound states only when free hRPA is present in solution. Our results also indicate that the presence of free hRPA inhibits RAD51 filament nucleation, but has a lesser impact upon filament elongation. This finding suggests that hRPA exerts important regulatory influence over RAD51 and may in turn affect the properties of the assembled RAD51 filament. These experiments provide an important basis for further investigations into the regulation of human presynaptic complex assembly. PMID:27903895

  2. Protein dynamics of human RPA and RAD51 on ssDNA during assembly and disassembly of the RAD51 filament.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chu Jian; Gibb, Bryan; Kwon, YoungHo; Sung, Patrick; Greene, Eric C

    2017-01-25

    Homologous recombination (HR) is a crucial pathway for double-stranded DNA break (DSB) repair. During the early stages of HR, the newly generated DSB ends are processed to yield long single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) overhangs, which are quickly bound by replication protein A (RPA). RPA is then replaced by the DNA recombinase Rad51, which forms extended helical filaments on the ssDNA. The resulting nucleoprotein filament, known as the presynaptic complex, is responsible for pairing the ssDNA with homologous double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), which serves as the template to guide DSB repair. Here, we use single-molecule imaging to visualize the interplay between human RPA (hRPA) and human RAD51 during presynaptic complex assembly and disassembly. We demonstrate that ssDNA-bound hRPA can undergo facilitated exchange, enabling hRPA to undergo rapid exchange between free and ssDNA-bound states only when free hRPA is present in solution. Our results also indicate that the presence of free hRPA inhibits RAD51 filament nucleation, but has a lesser impact upon filament elongation. This finding suggests that hRPA exerts important regulatory influence over RAD51 and may in turn affect the properties of the assembled RAD51 filament. These experiments provide an important basis for further investigations into the regulation of human presynaptic complex assembly. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Mapping and characterization of the major quantitative trait locus qSS7 associated with increased length and decreased width of rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xianjin; Gong, Rong; Tan, Youbin; Yu, Sibin

    2012-12-01

    Seed shape in rice (Oryza sativa) is an important factor that determines grain appearance, cooking quality and grain yield. Here, we report a major quantitative trait locus qSS7 on the long arm of chromosome 7 for seed length, seed width and the ratio of seed length to width, identified using a segregating population derived from a cross between an indica variety Zhenshan97 and a chromosomal segment substitution line of a japonica variety Cypress within the genetic background of Zhenshan97. The Cypress allele at qSS7 contributes to an increase in seed length and the ratio of length to width, but a decrease in seed width, without significantly changing seed weight, plant height, heading date or number of spikelets per panicle. Using a large F(2) population generated from a substitution line that carries only a heterozygous single segment surrounding qSS7, we delimited the QTL to a 23-kb region containing two annotated genes. Progeny testing of the informative recombinants suggested that this qSS7 region is a composite QTL in which at least two genes contribute to seed length and width. Sequence comparison and expression analysis of two probable candidate genes revealed differences between the parental lines. These results will facilitate cloning of the gene(s) underlying qSS7 as well as marker-assisted transfer of desirable genes for seed shape in rice improvement.

  4. A cognitive robotics system: the symbolic and sub-symbolic robotic intelligence control system (SS-RICS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Troy D.; Avery, Eric

    2010-04-01

    This paper will detail the progress on the development of the Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotics Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS). The system is a goal oriented production system, based loosely on the cognitive architecture, the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) some additions and changes. We have found that in order to simulate complex cognition on a robot, many aspects of cognition (long term memory (LTM), perception) needed to be in place before any generalized intelligent behavior can be produced. In working with ACT-R, we found that it was a good instantiation of working memory, but that we needed to add other aspects of cognition including LTM and perception to have a complete cognitive system. Our progress to date will be noted and the challenges that remain will be addressed.

  5. 3D reconstruction of the Shigella T3SS transmembrane regions reveals 12-fold symmetry and novel features throughout

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkinson, Julie L.; Horsley, Ashley; Stabat, David; Simon, Martha; Johnson, Steven; da Fonseca, Paula C. A.; Morris, Edward P.; Wall, Joseph S.; Lea, Susan M.; Blocker, Ariel J.

    2009-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) mediate bacterial protein translocation into eukaryotic cells, a process essential for virulence of many Gram-negative pathogens. They are composed of a cytoplasmic secretion machinery and a base bridging both bacterial membranes into which a hollow, external needle is embedded. When isolated, the latter two parts are termed ‘needle complex’ (NC). Incomplete understanding of NC structure hampers studies of T3SS function. To estimate the stoichiometry of its components, the mass f its sub-domains was measured by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Subunit symmetries were determined by analysis of top and side views within negatively stained samples in low dose transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Application of 12-fold symmetry allowed generation of a 21-25Å resolution three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the NC base, revealing many new features and permitting tentative docking of the crystal structure of EscJ, an inner membrane component. PMID:19396171

  6. Production, process optimization and molecular characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) by CO2 sequestering B. cereus SS105.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Neha; Kumar, Madan; Thakur, Indu Shekhar; Srivastava, Shaili

    2018-04-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestering bacterial strains were previously isolated from free air CO 2 enriched (FACE) soil. In the present study, these strains were screened for PHA accumulation and Bacillus cereus SS105 was found to be the most prominent PHA accumulating strain on sodium bicarbonate and molasses as carbon source. This strain was further characterized by Spectrofluorometric method and Confocal microscopy after staining with Nile red. PHA granules in inclusion bodies were visualized by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The PHA and its monomer composition were characterized by GC-MS followed by FTIR and NMR. The genetic basis of PHA production was confirmed by the amplification, cloning and analysis of PHA biosynthesis genes phaR, phaB and phaC from B. cereus with the degenerate primers. The PHA production was further optimized by Response Surface Methodology and the percent increase observed after optimization was 55.16% (w/v). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Crystal Structure of a CRISPR RNA-guided Surveillance Complex Bound to a ssDNA Target

    SciTech Connect

    Mulepati, Sabin; Heroux, Annie; Bailey, Scott

    In prokaryotes, RNA derived from type I and type III CRISPR loci direct large ribonucleoprotein complexes to destroy invading bacteriophage and plasmids. In Escherichia coli, this 405-kilodalton complex is called Cascade. We report the crystal structure of Cascade bound to a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) target at a resolution of 3.03 angstroms. The structure reveals that the CRISPR RNA and target strands do not form a double helix but instead adopt an underwound ribbon-like structure. This noncanonical structure is facilitated by rotation of every sixth nucleotide out of the RNA-DNA hybrid and is stabilized by the highly interlocked organization of proteinmore » subunits. These studies provide insight into both the assembly and the activity of this complex and suggest a mechanism to enforce fidelity of target binding.« less

  8. [The province of East Prussia and "euthanasia" during national socialism: the SS-"Aktion Lange" and "Aktion T4"].

    PubMed

    Topp, Sascha; Fuchs, Petra; Hohendorf, Gerrit; Richter, Paul; Rotzoll, Maike

    2008-01-01

    During World War II, psychiatric patients hospitalized in asylums in Eastern Prussia became victims of two separate killing programmes: first, by the SS-special command Lange, second by the centrally (in Berlin) organized "euthanasia"-"Aktion T4". By an analysis of the patient files of the victims, the present paper shows that the historical actors responsible for the killings were communicating with each other. It is now also possible to reconstruct the exact dynamic in time and space of the killings. A comparative analysis of the selection criteria within the total population of the asylums documents that in both programs, the responsible historical actors included physicians and provincial administrative personnel; it further shows that under the conditions of war, only patients who were able to contribute to the asylum work and economy, and were behaviourally adapted could survive.

  9. Multifunctional zirconium nitride/copper multilayer coatings on medical grade 316L SS and titanium substrates for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D Dinesh; Kaliaraj, Gobi Saravanan

    2018-01-01

    Protecting from wear and corrosion of many medical devices in the biomedical field is an existing scientific challenge. Surface modification with multilayer ZrN/Cu coating was deposited on medical grade stainless steel (SS) and titanium substrates to enhance their surface properties. Structural results revealed that the ZrN/Cu coatings are highly crystalline and uniform microstructure on both the substrates. Dry and wet tribological measurements of the coated titanium substrate exhibit enhanced wear resistance and low friction coefficient due to the improved microstructure. Similarly, the corrosion resistance was exceptionally improved on titanium substrates, resulting from the high inertness of coating to the SBF electrolyte solution. Antibacterial activity and epifluorescence results signify the effective killing of pathogens by means of ion release killing as well as contact killing mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Temperature on Galling Behavior of SS 316, 316 L and 416 Under Self-Mated Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsha, A. P.; Limaye, P. K.; Tyagi, Rajnesh; Gupta, Ankit

    2016-11-01

    Galling behavior of three different stainless steels (SS 316, 316 L and 416) was evaluated at room temperature and 300 °C under a self-mated condition. An indigenously fabricated galling tester was used to evaluate the galling performance of mated materials as per ASTM G196-08 standard. The variation in frictional torque was recorded online during the test to assess the onset of galling. The galling50 (G50) stress value was used to compare the galling resistance of a combination of materials, and the results indicate a significant influence of temperature on the galling resistance of the materials tested. This has been attributed to the decrease in hardness and yield strength at elevated temperature which results in softening of the steel and limits its ability to resist severe deformation. Scanning electron micrographs of the galled surface reflected a severe plastic deformation in sliding direction, and a typical adhesive wear mechanism is prevalent during the galling process.

  11. Evaluating the effects of hydroxyapatite coating on the corrosion behavior of severely deformed 316Ti SS for surgical implants.

    PubMed

    Mhaede, Mansour; Ahmed, Aymen; Wollmann, Manfred; Wagner, Lothar

    2015-05-01

    The present work investigates the effects of severe plastic deformation by cold rolling on the microstructure, the mechanical properties and the corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steel (SS) 316Ti. Hydroxyapatite coating (HA) was applied on the deformed material to improve their corrosion resistance. The martensitic transformation due to cold rolling was recorded by X-ray diffraction spectra. The effects of cold rolling on the corrosion behavior were studied using potentiodynamic polarization. The electrochemical tests were carried out in Ringer's solution at 37±1 °C. Cold rolling markedly enhanced the mechanical properties while the electrochemical tests referred to a lower corrosion resistance of the deformed material. The best combination of both high strength and good corrosion resistance was achieved after applying hydroxyapatite coating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporary suspension of acute facial paralysis using the S-S Cable Suture (Medical U&A, Tokyo, Japan).

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Mine; Takushima, Akihiko; Momosawa, Akira; Kurita, Masakazu; Harii, Kiyonori

    2008-07-01

    For a treatment of facial paralysis, suture suspension of soft tissue is considered effective due to its less invasiveness and relatively simple technique, with minimal bruising and rapid recovery. However, suture suspension effect may not last for a long period of time. We obtained good outcome with temporary static suture suspension in 5 cases of severe facial paralysis in the intervening period between the onset of paralysis and expected spontaneous recovery. We used the S-S Cable Suture (Medical U&A, Tokyo, Japan), which was based on the modification of previously established method using the Gore-Tex cable suture originally reported by Sasaki et al in 2002. Because of the ease of technique and relatively strong lifting capability of the malar pad, we recommend it as a useful procedure for a patient suffering acute facial paralysis with possible spontaneous recovery for an improved quality of life by the quick elimination of facial distortion.

  13. Emissions due to the natural gas storage well-casing blowout at Aliso Canyon/SS-25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndon, Scott; Daube, Conner; Jervis, Dylan; Yacovitch, Tara; Roscioli, Joseph; Curry, Jason; Nelson, David; Knighton, Berk

    2017-04-01

    The pronounced increase in unconventional gas production in North America over the last fifteen years has intensified interest in understanding emissions and leaks in the supply chain from well pad to end use. Los Angeles, California is home 19 million consumers of natural gas in both industry and domestic end use. The well blowout at Aliso Canyon Natural Gas Storage Facility in the greater Los Angeles area was quantified using the tracer flux ratio method (TFR). Over 400 tracer plume transects were collected, each lasting 15-300 seconds, using instrumentation aboard a mobile platform on 25 days between December 21, 2015 and March 9, 2016. The leak rate from October 23rd to February 11th has been estimated here using a combination of this work (TFR) and the flight mass balance (FMB) data [Conley et al., 2016]. This estimate relies on the TFR data as the most specific SS-25 emission dataset. Scaling the FMB dataset, the leak rate is projected from Oct 23rd to December 21th. Adding up the emissions inferred and measured suggests a total leak burden of 86,022 ± 8,393 metric tons of methane. This work quantified the emissions during the "bottom kill" procedure which halted the primary emission leak. The ethane to methane enhancement ratio observed downwind of the leak site is consistent with the content of ethane in the natural gas at this site and provides definitive evidence that the methane emission rate quantified via tracer flux ratio is not due to a nearby landfill or other potential biogenic sources. Additionally, the TFR approach employed here is assessing only the leaks due to the SS-25 well blowout and excludes other possible emissions at the facility.

  14. Nonlinear 1D and 2D waveform inversions of SS precursors and their applications in mantle seismic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokht, R.; Gu, Y. J.; Sacchi, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic velocities and the topography of mantle discontinuities are crucial for the understanding of mantle structure, dynamics and mineralogy. While these two observables are closely linked, the vast majority of high-resolution seismic images are retrieved under the assumption of horizontally stratified mantle interfaces. This conventional correction-based process could lead to considerable errors due to the inherent trade-off between velocity and discontinuity depth. In this study, we introduce a nonlinear joint waveform inversion method that simultaneously recovers discontinuity depths and seismic velocities using the waveforms of SS precursors. Our target region is the upper mantle and transition zone beneath Northeast Asia. In this region, the inversion outcomes clearly delineate a westward dipping high-velocity structure in association with the subducting Pacific plate. Above the flat part of the slab west of the Japan sea, our results show a shear wave velocity reduction of 1.5% in the upper mantle and 10-15 km depression of the 410 km discontinuity beneath the Changbaishan volcanic field. We also identify the maximum correlation between shear velocity and transition zone thickness at an approximate slab dip of 30 degrees, which is consistent with previously reported values in this region.To validate the results of the 1D waveform inversion of SS precursors, we discretize the mantle beneath the study region and conduct a 2D waveform tomographic survey using the same nonlinear approach. The problem is simplified by adopting the discontinuity depths from the 1D inversion and solving only for perturbations in shear velocities. The resulting models obtained from the 1D and 2D approaches are self-consistent. Low-velocities beneath the Changbai intraplate volcano likely persist to a depth of 500 km. Collectively, our seismic observations suggest that the active volcanoes in eastern China may be fueled by a hot thermal anomaly originating from the mantle transition

  15. Characterization of systemic disease in primary Sjögren's syndrome: EULAR-SS Task Force recommendations for articular, cutaneous, pulmonary and renal involvements.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Seror, Raphaèle; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bowman, Simon J; Dörner, Thomas; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Mariette, Xavier; Theander, Elke; Bombardieri, Stefano; De Vita, Salvatore; Mandl, Thomas; Ng, Wan-Fai; Kruize, Aike; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Vitali, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    To reach a European consensus on the definition and characterization of the main organ-specific extraglandular manifestations in primary SS. The EULAR-SS Task Force Group steering committee agreed to approach SS-related systemic involvement according to the EULAR SS Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI) classification and proposed the preparation of four separate manuscripts: articular, cutaneous, pulmonary and renal ESSDAI involvement; muscular, peripheral nervous system, CNS and haematological ESSDAI involvement; organs not included in the ESSDAI classification; and lymphoproliferative disease. Currently available evidence was obtained by a systematic literature review focused on SS-related systemic features. The following information was summarized for articular, cutaneous, pulmonary and renal involvement: a clear, consensual definition of the clinical feature, a brief epidemiological description including an estimate of the prevalence reported in the main clinical series and a brief list of the key clinical and diagnostic features that could help physicians clearly identify these features. Unfortunately we found that the body of evidence relied predominantly on information retrieved from individual cases, and the scientific information provided was heterogeneous. The analysis of types of involvement was biased due to the unbalanced reporting of severe cases over non-severe cases, although the main sources of bias were the heterogeneous definitions of organ involvement (or even the lack of definition in some studies) and the heterogeneous diagnostic approach used in studies to investigate involvment of each organ. The proposals included in this article are a first step to developing an optimal diagnostic approach to systemic involvement in primary SS and may pave the way for further development of evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights

  16. [111In-DOTA]LTT-SS28, a first pansomatostatin radioligand for in vivo targeting of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors.

    PubMed

    Maina, Theodosia; Cescato, Renzo; Waser, Beatrice; Tatsi, Aikaterini; Kaloudi, Aikaterini; Krenning, Eric P; de Jong, Marion; Nock, Berthold A; Reubi, Jean Claude

    2014-08-14

    Radiolabeled pansomatostatin-like analogues are expected to enhance the diagnostic sensitivity and to expand the clinical indications of currently applied sst2-specific radioligands. In this study, we present the somatostatin mimic [DOTA]LTT-SS28 {[(DOTA)Ser1,Leu8,D-Trp22,Tyr25]SS28} and its 111In radioligand. [DOTA]LTT-SS28 exhibited a pansomatostatin-like profile binding with high affinity to all five hsst1-hsst5 subtypes (IC50 values in the lower nanomolar range). Furthermore, [DOTA]LTT-SS28 behaved as an agonist at hsst2, hsst3, and hsst5, efficiently stimulating internalization of the three receptor subtypes. Radioligand [111In-DOTA]LTT-SS28 showed good stability in the mouse bloodstream. It displayed strong and specific uptake in AR42J tumors 4 h postinjection (9.3±1.6% ID/g vs 0.3±0.0% ID/g during sst2 blockade) in mice. Significant and specific uptake was also observed in HEK293-hsst2-, HEK293-hsst3-, and HEK293-hsst5-expressing tumors (4.43±1.5, 4.88±1.1, and <3% ID/g, respectively, with values of <0.5% ID/g during receptor blockade). In conclusion, the somatostatin mimic [111In-DOTA]LTT-SS28 specifically localizes in sst2-, sst3-, and sst5-expressing xenografts in mice showing promise for multi-sst1-sst5 targeted tumor imaging.

  17. Peripheral vascular response to mild indirect cooling in patients with homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease and the frequency of painful crisis.

    PubMed

    Mohan, J; Marshall, J M; Reid, H L; Thomas, P W; Hambleton, I; Serjeant, G R

    1998-02-01

    1. In homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease, skin cooling is a common precipitating factor of the painful crisis which is associated with avascular necrosis of active bone marrow. Since skin cooling does not directly induce sickling, we have investigated the nature of the reflex vascular responses to mild cooling in SS patients in a steady state of the disease and compared them with their history of painful crises. 2. Experiments were performed in Jamaica on 60 male SS patients and 30 matched control subjects with normal haemoglobin (AA) genotype. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography and mean arterial pressure (MAP) by a Finapres device: forearm vascular resistance (FVR) was calculated as MAP/FBF. Cutaneous erythrocyte flux in forearm and hand was monitored by a laser Doppler meter. The contralateral hand was immersed in cool water at 16 degrees C for 2 min, 6 times, at random intervals of 0.5-3 min. 3. The first cool immersion evoked an increase in MAP, cutaneous vasoconstriction and a net increase in FVR in both AA and SS subjects. However, the direction of change in FVR varied between individuals such that 18 AA subjects showed an increase in FVR (constrictor group) while 12 showed a decrease in FVR, indicating vasodilatation in forearm muscle (dilator group). In contrast, 50 SS subjects showed an increase in FVR and only 10 showed a decrease in FVR. The proportion of subjects who showed net vasoconstriction was significantly greater in the SS than in the AA group (83% versus 60%, P = 0.03, chi 2 test). 4. By the sixth cool stimulus, the 'dilator' group of AA subjects showed no change in FVR while the 'dilator' group of SS patients showed an increase in FVR. We suggest that forearm muscle vasodilatation was the characteristic component of the alerting/defence response to novel or noxious stimuli which habituates on repetition. 5. In the whole group of SS patients, baseline values of cutaneous vascular resistance and FVR

  18. Further characterisation of rotavirus cores: Ss(+)RNAs can be packaged in vitro but packaging lacks sequence specificity☆

    PubMed Central

    Desselberger, Ulrich; Richards, James; Tchertanov, Luba; Lepault, Jean; Lever, Andrew; Burrone, Oscar; Cohen, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) cores were released from double-layered particles (DLPs) by high concentrations of CaCl2, purified and ‘opened’ by treatment with EDTA or EGTA. Under appropriate in vitro conditions DLPs have been shown to have transcriptase and ‘open cores’ replicase activity. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that transcriptase activity and infectivity of native cores can be restored by transcapsidation with VP6, VP7 and VP4. The missing link for particle reconstitution in vitro has been the manipulation of ‘open cores’ to become functionally active cores again. The experiments described here were undertaken with the aim of exploring packaging of RV RNAs into opened cores in vitro. Rotavirus cores were opened by approximately 200 μM EGTA, leading to the release of genomic dsRNA. Conversely, RV cores were found to be stable in the presence of minimum concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, spermidine3+ and cobalthexamine3+ of between 40 and 300 μM. Aggregates of purified cores were resolved in the presence of 0.3 mM deoxycholate (minimum concentration). Core shells opened with EGTA were reconstituted by the addition of di- or trivalent cations within 2 min of the opening procedure. Addition of purified, baculovirus recombinant-expressed VP6 to native and reconstituted cores led to the formation of DLPs or DLP-like particles, which upon transfection into MA104 cells were infectious. The rescued infectivity likely originated in part from unopened and in part from reconstituted cores. Radiolabelled RV (+) ssRNAs could be packaged into reconstituted cores and DLPs, as indicated by resistance to RNase I digestion. The packaging reaction was, however, not RV RNA sequence-specific, since unrelated ssRNAs, such as those transcribed from HIV-2 cDNAs, were also packaged. The kinetics of packaging of homologous and heterologous RNAs were similar, as evidenced by competitive packaging assays. None of the packaged in vitro engineered RNA segments has so far been

  19. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF SYMBIOTIC STARS. X. ORBITS FOR THREE S-TYPE SYSTEMS: V1044 CENTAURI, HEN 3-1213, AND SS 73-96

    SciTech Connect

    Fekel, Francis C.; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Joyce, Richard R.

    Employing new infrared radial velocities, we have computed orbits of the cool giants in three southern S-type symbiotic systems. The orbit for V1044 Cen, an M5.5 giant, has a period of 985 days and a modest eccentricity of 0.16. Hen 3-1213 is a K4 giant, yellow symbiotic with an orbital period of 533 days and a similar eccentricity of 0.18. For the M2 giant SS 73-96 the orbital period is 828 days, and this system has a somewhat larger eccentricity of 0.26. Measurement of the H i Paschen δ emission lines, which may at least partially reflect the motion ofmore » the secondary in SS 73-96, results in a mass ratio of 2.4 for the M giant relative to the presumed white dwarf. The estimated orbital inclinations of V1044 Cen and Hen 3-1213 are low, about 40°. However, for SS 73-96 the predicted inclination is 90°, and so an ephemeris for eclipses of the secondary or the hot nebula surrounding it is provided. A search of the orbital velocity residuals of V1044 Cen and SS 73-96 for pulsation periods produced no realistic or convincing period for either star.« less

  20. SynBioSS designer: a web-based tool for the automated generation of kinetic models for synthetic biological constructs

    PubMed Central

    Weeding, Emma; Houle, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Modeling tools can play an important role in synthetic biology the same way modeling helps in other engineering disciplines: simulations can quickly probe mechanisms and provide a clear picture of how different components influence the behavior of the whole. We present a brief review of available tools and present SynBioSS Designer. The Synthetic Biology Software Suite (SynBioSS) is used for the generation, storing, retrieval and quantitative simulation of synthetic biological networks. SynBioSS consists of three distinct components: the Desktop Simulator, the Wiki, and the Designer. SynBioSS Designer takes as input molecular parts involved in gene expression and regulation (e.g. promoters, transcription factors, ribosome binding sites, etc.), and automatically generates complete networks of reactions that represent transcription, translation, regulation, induction and degradation of those parts. Effectively, Designer uses DNA sequences as input and generates networks of biomolecular reactions as output. In this paper we describe how Designer uses universal principles of molecular biology to generate models of any arbitrary synthetic biological system. These models are useful as they explain biological phenotypic complexity in mechanistic terms. In turn, such mechanistic explanations can assist in designing synthetic biological systems. We also discuss, giving practical guidance to users, how Designer interfaces with the Registry of Standard Biological Parts, the de facto compendium of parts used in synthetic biology applications. PMID:20639523

  1. T3SS-dependent differential modulations of the jasmonic acid pathway in susceptible and resistant genotypes of Malus spp. challenged with Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Dugé De Bernonville, Thomas; Gaucher, Matthieu; Flors, Victor; Gaillard, Sylvain; Paulin, Jean-Pierre; Dat, James F; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle

    2012-06-01

    Fire blight is a bacterial disease of Maloideae caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea). This necrogenic enterobacterium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject type III effectors into the plant cells to cause disease on its susceptible hosts, including economically important crops like apple and pear. The expressions of marker genes of the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense regulation pathways were monitored by RT-qPCR in leaves of two apple genotypes, one susceptible and one resistant, challenged with a wild type strain, a T3SS-deficient strain or water. The transcriptional data taken together with hormone level measurements indicated that the SA pathway was similarly induced in both apple genotypes during infection by Ea. On the contrary, the data clearly showed a strong T3SS-dependent down-regulation of the JA pathway in leaves of the susceptible genotype but not in those of the resistant one. Accordingly, methyl-jasmonate treated susceptible plants displayed an increased resistance to Ea. Bacterial mutant analysis indicated that JA manipulation by Ea mainly relies on the type III effector DspA/E. Taken together, our data suggest that the T3SS-dependent down-regulation of the JA pathway is a critical step in the infection process of Malus spp. by Ea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization, Corrosion Resistance, and Cell Response of High-Velocity Flame-Sprayed HA and HA/TiO2 Coatings on 316L SS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Tejinder Pal; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Hazoor

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate corrosion and biocompatibility behavior of thermal spray hydroxyapatite (HA) and hydroxyapatite/titania bond (HA/TiO2)-coated 316L stainless steel (316L SS). In HA/TiO2 coatings, TiO2 was used as a bond coat between HA top coat and 316L SS substrate. The coatings were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, and corrosion resistance determined for the uncoated substrate and the two coatings. The biological behavior was investigated by the cell culture studies using osteosarcoma cell line KHOS-NP (R-970-5). The corrosion resistance of the steel was found to increase after the deposition of the HA and HA/TiO2 bond coatings. Both HA, as well as, HA/TiO2 coatings exhibit excellent bond strength of 49 and 47 MPa, respectively. The cell culture studies showed that HA-coated 316L SS specimens appeared more biocompatible than the uncoated and HA/TiO2-coated 316L SS specimens.

  3. Rapidly expanding genetic diversity and host range of the Circoviridae viral family and other Rep encoding small circular ssDNA genomes.

    PubMed

    Delwart, Eric; Li, Linlin

    2012-03-01

    The genomes of numerous circoviruses and distantly related circular ssDNA viruses encoding a rolling circle replication initiator protein (Rep) have been characterized from the tissues of mammals, fish, insects, plants (geminivirus and nanovirus), in human and animal feces, in an algae cell, and in diverse environmental samples. We review the genome organization, phylogenetic relationships and initial prevalence studies of cycloviruses, a proposed new genus in the Circoviridae family. Viral fossil rep sequences were also recently identified integrated on the chromosomes of mammals, frogs, lancelets, crustaceans, mites, gastropods, roundworms, placozoans, hydrozoans, protozoans, land plants, fungi, algae, and phytoplasma bacterias and their plasmids, reflecting the very wide past host range of rep bearing viruses. An ancient origin for viruses with Rep-encoding small circular ssDNA genomes, predating the diversification of eukaryotes, is discussed. The cellular hosts and pathogenicity of many recently described rep-containing circular ssDNA genomes remain to be determined. Future studies of the virome of single cell and multi-cellular eukaryotes are likely to further extend the known diversity and host-range of small rep-containing circular ssDNA viral genomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Drying Process on an IgG1 Monoclonal Antibody Using Solid-State Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange with Mass Spectrometric Analysis (ssHDX-MS).

    PubMed

    Moussa, Ehab M; Wilson, Nathan E; Zhou, Qi Tony; Singh, Satish K; Nema, Sandeep; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2018-01-03

    Lyophilization and spray drying are widely used to manufacture solid forms of therapeutic proteins. Lyophilization is used to stabilize proteins vulnerable to degradation in solution, whereas spray drying is mainly used to prepare inhalation powders or as an alternative to freezing for storing bulk drug substance. Both processes impose stresses that may adversely affect protein structure, stability and bioactivity. Here, we compared lyophilization with and without controlled ice nucleation, and spray drying for their effects on the solid-state conformation and matrix interactions of a model IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Solid-state conformation and matrix interactions of the mAb were probed using solid-state hydrogen-deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS), and solid-state Fourier transform infrared (ssFTIR) and solid-state fluorescence spectroscopies. mAb conformation and/or matrix interactions were most perturbed in mannitol-containing samples and the distribution of states was more heterogeneous in sucrose and trehalose samples that were spray dried. The findings demonstrate the sensitivity of ssHDX-MS to changes weakly indicated by spectroscopic methods, and support the broader use of ssHDX-MS to probe formulation and process effects on proteins in solid samples.

  5. Voxel-based morphometric brain comparison between healthy subjects and major depressive disorder patients in Japanese with the s/s genotype of 5-HTTLPR.

    PubMed

    Igata, Natsuki; Kakeda, Shingo; Watanabe, Keita; Ide, Satoru; Kishi, Taro; Abe, Osamu; Igata, Ryouhei; Katsuki, Asuka; Iwata, Nakao; Yoshimura, Reiji; Korogi, Yukunori

    2017-06-21

    Individuals with s/s genotype of serotonin transporter gene-linked promotor region (5-HTTLPR), which appear with a high frequency in Japanese, exhibit more diagnosable depression in relation to stressful life events than those with the s/l or l/l genotype. We prospectively investigated the brain volume changes in first-episode and medication naïve major depression disorder patients (MDD) with the s/s genotype in Japanese. We assessed the differences between 27 MDD with the s/s genotype and 44 healthy subjects (HS) with the same genotype using a whole-brain voxel-by-voxel statistical analysis of MRI. Gray matter volume in a brain region with significant clusters obtained via voxel-based morphometry analysis were measured and, as an exploratory analysis, evaluated for relationships to the subcategory scores (core, sleep, activity, psychic, somatic anxiety, delusion) of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS). The brain volume in the left insula lobe was significantly smaller in the MDD than in the HS. The left insula lobe volume correlated negatively with the "psychic" score of HAM-D and the SRRS. In a Japanese population with the s/s genotype, we found an atrophy of the insula in the MDD, which might be associated with "psychic" symptom and stress events.

  6. Specific growth rate and multiplicity of infection affect high-cell-density fermentation with bacteriophage M13 for ssDNA production.

    PubMed

    Kick, Benjamin; Hensler, Samantha; Praetorius, Florian; Dietz, Hendrik; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    The bacteriophage M13 has found frequent applications in nanobiotechnology due to its chemically and genetically tunable protein surface and its ability to self-assemble into colloidal membranes. Additionally, its single-stranded (ss) genome is commonly used as scaffold for DNA origami. Despite the manifold uses of M13, upstream production methods for phage and scaffold ssDNA are underexamined with respect to future industrial usage. Here, the high-cell-density phage production with Escherichia coli as host organism was studied in respect of medium composition, infection time, multiplicity of infection, and specific growth rate. The specific growth rate and the multiplicity of infection were identified as the crucial state variables that influence phage amplification rate on one hand and the concentration of produced ssDNA on the other hand. Using a growth rate of 0.15 h -1 and a multiplicity of infection of 0.05 pfu cfu -1 in the fed-batch production process, the concentration of pure isolated M13 ssDNA usable for scaffolded DNA origami could be enhanced by 54% to 590 mg L -1 . Thus, our results help enabling M13 production for industrial uses in nanobiotechnology. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 777-784. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. 75 FR 51531 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 941, 941-PR, 941-SS, 941-X, 941-X(PR), Schedule B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... 941, 941-PR, 941- SS, 941-X, 941-X(PR), Schedule B (Form 941), Schedule R (Form 941) and Schedule B... Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands), 941-X, Adjusted Employer's Quarterly Federal Tax Return or Claim for Refund, 941-X(PR), Ajuste a la Declaracion Federal Trimestral del Patrono o Reclamacion de...

  8. Further Characterization of a Type III Secretion System (T3SS) and of a New Effector Protein from a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas Hydrophila - Part I

    EPA Science Inventory

    A type III secretion system (T3SS)-associated cytotoxin, AexT, with ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and homology to Pseudomonas aeruginosa bifuncational toxins ExoT/S, was recently identified from a fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. In this study, we reported the molecular cha...

  9. Local mechanical properties of Alloy 82/182 dissimilar weld joint between SA508 Gr.1a and F316 SS at RT and 320 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Lee, Kyoungsoo; Kim, Jong Sung; Byun, Thak Sang

    2009-02-01

    The distributions of mechanical and microstructural properties were investigated for the dissimilar metal weld joints between SA508 Gr.1a ferritic steel and F316 austenitic stainless steel with Alloy 82/182 filler metal using small-size tensile specimens. The material properties varied significantly in different zones while those were relatively uniform within each material. In particular, significant gradient of the mechanical properties were observed near the both heat-affected zones (HAZs) of F316 SS and SA508 Gr.1a. Thus, the yield stress (YS) was under-matched with respect to the both HAZs, although, the YS of the weld metal was over-matched with respect to both base metals. The minimum ductility occurred in the HAZ of SA508 Gr.1a at both test temperatures. The plastic instability stress also varied considerably across the weld joints, with minimum values occurring in the SA508 Gr.1a base metal at RT and in the HAZ of F316 SS at 320 °C. The transmission electron micrographs showed that the strengthening in the HAZ of F316 SS was attributed to the strain hardening, induced by a strain mismatch between the weldment and the base metal, which was evidenced by high dislocation density in the HAZ of F316 SS.

  10. The extracellular matrix of the oleolytic biofilms of Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus comprises cytoplasmic proteins and T2SS effectors that promote growth on hydrocarbons and lipids.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Habiba; d'Abzac, Paul; Hakil, Florence; Branchu, Priscilla; Naïtali, Murielle; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Oueslati, Ridha; Desbrières, Jacques; Sivadon, Pierre; Grimaud, Régis

    2017-01-01

    The assimilation of the nearly water insoluble substrates hydrocarbons and lipids by bacteria entails specific adaptations such as the formation of oleolytic biofilms. The present article reports that the extracellular matrix of an oleolytic biofilm formed by Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus at n-hexadecane-water interfaces is largely composed of proteins typically cytoplasmic such as translation factors and chaperones, and a lesser amount of proteins of unknown function that are predicted extra-cytoplasmic. Matrix proteins appear to form a structured film on hydrophobic interfaces and were found mandatory for the development of biofilms on lipids, alkanes and polystyrene. Exo-proteins secreted through the type-2 secretion system (T2SS) were shown to be essential for the formation of oleolytic biofilms on both alkanes and triglycerides. The T2SS effector involved in biofilm formation on triglycerides was identified as a lipase. In the case of biofilm formation on n-hexadecane, the T2SS effector is likely involved in the mass transfer, capture or transport of alkanes. We propose that M. hydrocarbonoclasticus uses cytoplasmic proteins released by cell lysis to form a proteinaceous matrix and dedicated proteins secreted through the T2SS to act specifically in the assimilation pathways of hydrophobic substrates. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Overexpression of MTA1 and loss of KAI-1 and KiSS-1 expressions are associated with invasion, metastasis, and poor-prognosis of gallbladder adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjun; Yang, Zhu-lin; Liu, Jie-qiong; Yang, Le-ping; Yang, Xiao-jing; Fu, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Over 90% of patients with gallbladder cancer have invasion and/or metastasis when they are diagnosed at the clinic. Such patients usually have an extremely poor prognosis. The molecular mechanism responsible for the high prevalence of invasion and metastasis remains unknown. We investigated the expression of two metastasis-suppression genes--KAI-1 and KiSS-1--and a metastasis-associated gene--MTA1--in 108 adenocarcinomas, 15 gallbladder polyps, 35 chronic cholecystitis tissues, and 46 peritumoral tissues using in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry. We demonstrated that positive MTA1 expression was significantly higher whereas positive expressions of KAI-1 and KiSS-1 genes were significantly lower in gallbladder adenocarcinoma than in peritumoral tissues, polyps, and chronic cholecystitis. Positive MTA1 expression was significantly lower, but positive KAI-1 and KiSS-1 expressions were significantly higher in cases with well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, smaller tumor mass, no metastasis of lymph node, and no invasion of regional tissues than in cases having poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, larger tumor mass, metastasis and invasion. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that increased expression of MTA1 and lowered expression of KAI-1 and KiSS-1 were significantly associated with decreased overall survival. Cox regression analysis showed that tumor mass, lymph node metastasis, invasion, and MTA1 expression levels negatively correlated with survival. Our study suggested that KAI-1, KiSS-1, and MTA1 might be important biological markers involved in the carcinogenesis, metastasis, and invasion of gallbladder adenocarcinoma, but MTA1 is an independent factor of prognosis.

  12. Proton transfer and hydrogen bonding in the organic solid state: a combined XRD/XPS/ssNMR study of 17 organic acid-base complexes.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Joanna S; Byard, Stephen J; Seaton, Colin C; Sadiq, Ghazala; Davey, Roger J; Schroeder, Sven L M

    2014-01-21

    The properties of nitrogen centres acting either as hydrogen-bond or Brønsted acceptors in solid molecular acid-base complexes have been probed by N 1s X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as (15)N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy and are interpreted with reference to local crystallographic structure information provided by X-ray diffraction (XRD). We have previously shown that the strong chemical shift of the N 1s binding energy associated with the protonation of nitrogen centres unequivocally distinguishes protonated (salt) from hydrogen-bonded (co-crystal) nitrogen species. This result is further supported by significant ssNMR shifts to low frequency, which occur with proton transfer from the acid to the base component. Generally, only minor chemical shifts occur upon co-crystal formation, unless a strong hydrogen bond is formed. CASTEP density functional theory (DFT) calculations of (15)N ssNMR isotropic chemical shifts correlate well with the experimental data, confirming that computational predictions of H-bond strengths and associated ssNMR chemical shifts allow the identification of salt and co-crystal structures (NMR crystallography). The excellent agreement between the conclusions drawn by XPS and the combined CASTEP/ssNMR investigations opens up a reliable avenue for local structure characterization in molecular systems even in the absence of crystal structure information, for example for non-crystalline or amorphous matter. The range of 17 different systems investigated in this study demonstrates the generic nature of this approach, which will be applicable to many other molecular materials in organic, physical, and materials chemistry.

  13. Co-delivery of docetaxel and verapamil by reduction-sensitive PEG-PLGA-SS-DTX conjugate micelles to reverse the multi-drug resistance of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanyuan; He, Wenxiu; Yang, Shengfeng; Zhao, Dujuan; Li, Zhonghao; Luan, Yuxia

    2017-03-01

    The clinical usage of docetaxel (DTX) has been blocked in the clinic because of its poor solubility and tumour multi-drug resistance (MDR). The dominating mechanism of MDR is the over-expression of p-gp on tumour cells. Traditional nano-medicines, such as nanoparticles and micelles, have been used to physically entrap DTX to improve their solubility, while the drug loading content was very low and the tumour resistance was neglected. In this study, the synthesized reduction-sensitive mPEG-PLGA-SS-DTX conjugate was utilized to load the p-gp inhibitor veraparmil (VRP) to prepare DTX and VRP co-delivered mPEG-PLGA-SS-DTX/VRP (PP-SS-DTX/VRP) multi-functional micelles to reverse MDR and enhance the anti-tumour effect of DTX. The micelles had a high drug loading content and showed an obvious reduction-sensitive release property for both DTX and VRP. In addition, an in vitro anti-tumour assay revealed that the micelles markedly inhibited the efflux activity of p-gp and accelerated cell apoptosis, resulting in the improvement of anti-tumour activity and reversal of MDR. The PP-SS-DTX micelles markedly enhanced the in vivo circulation time and increased the drug accumulation in tumour tissues. Therefore, the PP-SS-DTX/VRP micelle is a desirable drug delivery system for multi-drug resistance therapy of DTX and is very promising for clinical usage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Low-Temperature Sensitization on the Corrosion Behavior of AISI Type 304L SS Weld Metal in Simulated Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Girija; Nandakumar, T.; Viswanath, A.

    2018-04-01

    The manuscript presents the investigations carried out on the effect of low-temperature sensitization (LTS) of 304L SS weld metal on its corrosion behavior in simulated groundwater, for its application as a canister material for long-term storage of nuclear vitrified high-level waste in geological repositories. AISI type 304L SS weld pad was fabricated by multipass gas tungsten arc welding process using 308L SS filler wire. The as-welded specimens were subsequently subjected to carbide nucleation and further to LTS at 500 °C for 11 days to simulate a temperature of 300 °C for 100-year life of the canister in geological repositories. Delta ferrite (δ-ferrite) content of the 304L SS weld metal substantially decreased on carbide nucleation treatment and further only a marginal decrease occurred on LTS treatment. The microstructure of the as-welded consisted of δ-ferrite as a minor phase distributed in austenite matrix. The δ-ferrite appeared fragmented in the carbide-nucleated and LTS-treated weld metal. The degree of sensitization measured by double-loop electrochemical potentokinetic reactivation method indicated an increase in carbide nucleation treatment when compared to the as-welded specimens, and further increase occurred on LTS treatment. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization investigations in simulated groundwater indicated a substantial decrease in the localized corrosion resistance of the carbide-nucleated and LTS 304L SS weld metals, when compared to the as-welded specimens. Post-experimental micrographs indicated pitting as the primary mode of attack in the as-welded, while pitting and intergranular corrosion (IGC) occurred in the carbide-nucleated weld metal. LTS-treated weld metal predominantly underwent IGC attack. The decrease in the localized corrosion resistance of the weld metal after LTS treatment was found to have a direct correlation with the degree of sensitization and the weld microstructure. The results are detailed in the manuscript.

  15. Effect of Low-Temperature Sensitization on the Corrosion Behavior of AISI Type 304L SS Weld Metal in Simulated Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Girija; Nandakumar, T.; Viswanath, A.

    2018-05-01

    The manuscript presents the investigations carried out on the effect of low-temperature sensitization (LTS) of 304L SS weld metal on its corrosion behavior in simulated groundwater, for its application as a canister material for long-term storage of nuclear vitrified high-level waste in geological repositories. AISI type 304L SS weld pad was fabricated by multipass gas tungsten arc welding process using 308L SS filler wire. The as-welded specimens were subsequently subjected to carbide nucleation and further to LTS at 500 °C for 11 days to simulate a temperature of 300 °C for 100-year life of the canister in geological repositories. Delta ferrite ( δ-ferrite) content of the 304L SS weld metal substantially decreased on carbide nucleation treatment and further only a marginal decrease occurred on LTS treatment. The microstructure of the as-welded consisted of δ-ferrite as a minor phase distributed in austenite matrix. The δ-ferrite appeared fragmented in the carbide-nucleated and LTS-treated weld metal. The degree of sensitization measured by double-loop electrochemical potentokinetic reactivation method indicated an increase in carbide nucleation treatment when compared to the as-welded specimens, and further increase occurred on LTS treatment. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization investigations in simulated groundwater indicated a substantial decrease in the localized corrosion resistance of the carbide-nucleated and LTS 304L SS weld metals, when compared to the as-welded specimens. Post-experimental micrographs indicated pitting as the primary mode of attack in the as-welded, while pitting and intergranular corrosion (IGC) occurred in the carbide-nucleated weld metal. LTS-treated weld metal predominantly underwent IGC attack. The decrease in the localized corrosion resistance of the weld metal after LTS treatment was found to have a direct correlation with the degree of sensitization and the weld microstructure. The results are detailed in the manuscript.

  16. A Mutation in the Start Codon of γ-Crystallin D Leads to Nuclear Cataracts in the Dahl SS/Jr-Ctr Strain

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ashley C.; Lee, Jonathan W.; Harmon, Ashlyn C.; Morris, Zaliya; Wang, Xuexiang; Fratkin, Jonathan; Rapp, John P.; Gomez-Sanchez, Elise; Garrett, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Cataracts are a major cause of blindness. The most common forms of cataracts are age and UV related and develops mostly in the elderly, while congenital cataracts appear at birth or in early childhood. The Dahl salt-sensitive (SS/Jr) rat is an extensively used model of salt-sensitive hypertension that exhibits concomitant renal disease. In the mid 1980’s, cataracts appeared in a few animals in the Dahl S colony, presumably the result of a spontaneous mutation. The mutation was fixed and bred to establish the SS/Jr-Ctr substrain. The SS/Jr-Ctr substrain has been exclusively used by a single investigator to study the role of steroids and hypertension. Using a classical positional cloning approach, we localized the cataract gene with high-resolution to a less than 1 Mbp region on chromosome 9 using an F1 (SS/Jr-Ctr X SHR) X SHR backcross population. The 1 Mbp region contained only 13 genes, including 4 genes from the γ-crystallins (Cryg) gene family which are known to play a role in cataract formation. All of the γ-crystallins were sequenced and a novel point mutation in the start codon (ATG → GTG) of the Crygd gene was identified which led to the complete absence of CRYGD protein in the eyes of the SS/Jr-Ctr strain. In summary, the identification of the genetic cause in this novel cataract model may provide an opportunity to better understand the development of cataracts, particularly in the context of hypertension. PMID:23404175

  17. Effect of dissolved oxygen on the corrosion behavior of 304 SS in 0.1 N nitric acid containing chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khobragade, Nilay N.; Bansod, Ankur V.; Patil, Awanikumar P.

    2018-04-01

    A study was undertaken in several selected mixed nitric acid/chloride ({{{{NO}}}3}-/{{{Cl}}}- ratio) electrolytes with the nitric acid concentration of 0.1 N and chloride concentration of 0, 10, 100, 1000 and 10 000 ppm. Electrochemical tests like potentiodynamic polarization test, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Mott-Schottky analysis (M-S) were carried out when the electrolytes were in deaerated condition and were in open to air (OTA) condition, and the effect of dissolved oxygen was evaluated on the corrosion behavior of 304 SS. It was found that at a critical {{{{NO}}}3}-/{{{Cl}}}- ratio, a passive state is attained at the earliest in OTA condition. Also, the passive film resistance showed higher values in OTA condition than in deaerated condition exhibiting the effect of dissolved oxygen. The results of EIS results confirmed the results obtained by potentiodynamic polarization wherein the low passive current densities were obtained in OTA condition. Mott-Schottky analysis revealed the lowest defect densities in 100 ppm Cl‑ solution in OTA condition and in 10 ppm Cl‑ solution in deaerated condition indicating less defective films formed in these solutions. XPS analysis showed that the film was bilayer in nature in confirmation with M-S analysis. The results were discussed with point defect model (PDM) and by competitive surface adsorption.

  18. Direct determination of potentially toxic elements in rice by SS-GF AAS: development of methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Daniel Menezes; Nomura, Cassiana Seimi

    2013-07-03

    The development of methods for direct determinations of Al, Cd, and Pb in rice by SS-GF AAS is presented. Heating program optimization associated with the use of an adequate chemical modifier containing Pd + Mg allowed direct analysis against aqueous calibrations. The obtained LOD values were 114.0, 3.0, and 16.0 μg kg⁻¹ for Al, Cd, and Pb, respectively. Important parameters associated with a solid sampling analysis were investigated, such as minimum and maximum sample mass size and analyte segregation. Seventeen rice samples available in São Paulo City were analyzed, and all of them presented analyte mass fractions less than the maximum allowed by legislation. The influences of rice washing and the cooking procedure were also investigated. The washing procedure diminished the Al and Pb total mass fractions, indicating an exogenous grain contamination. The cooking procedure diminished the Cd total mass fraction. Rice cooking using an aluminum container did not cause a significant increase in the Al mass fraction in the rice, indicating no translocation of this element from container to food. In general, coarse rice presented higher levels of Al when compared to polished or parabolized rice.

  19. Characterization of CuCrZr and CuCrZr/SS joint strength for different blanket components manufacturing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillia, Olivier; Briottet, Laurent; Chu, Isabelle; Lemoine, Patrick; Rigal, Emmanuel; Peacock, Alan

    2009-04-01

    This work describes studies on the strength of CuCrZr/SS joints for different manufacturing conditions foreseen for the fabrication of blanket components. In the meantime, as junction strength is expected to be strongly related to CuCrZr properties, investigation on the properties of the CuCrZr itself after the different manufacturing conditions is also presented. The initial manufacturing conditions retained were made of a HIP treatment combined with a fast cooling plus a subsequent ageing treatment. For security reasons, the HIP-quenching operation was not possible. A supplementary solutionning cycle with fast cooling has thus been inserted in the heat treatment process just after the HIP bonding treatment. The influence of solutionning temperature (1040 °C or 980 °C), the cooling rate after solutionning (70 °C/min to water quench), the ageing temperature (480 °C or 560 °C) and the HIP temperature (1040 °C or 980 °C) have been addressed. Test results show that the ageing temperature is very important for keeping high strength of material whereas elongation properties are not very sensible to the manufacturing conditions. 1040 °C HIP or solutionning temperature gives better strength properties, as well as a higher cooling rate after solutionning. Concerning samples with joints, it appears that CT test is more selective than other tests since tensile test does not give rupture at joint and KCU test eliminates a route without classifying other routes.

  20. Manufacturing of a novel double-function ssDNA aptamer for sensitive diagnosis and efficient neutralization of SEA.

    PubMed

    Sedighian, Hamid; Halabian, Raheleh; Amani, Jafar; Heiat, Mohammad; Taheri, Ramezan Ali; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali

    2018-05-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is an enterotoxin produced mainly by Staphylococcus aureus. In recent years, it has become the most prevalent compound for staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) around the world. In this study, we isolate new dual-function single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamers by using some new methods, such as the Taguchi method, by focusing on the detection and neutralization of SEA enterotoxin in food and clinical samples. For the asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (PCR) optimization of each round of systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), we use Taguchi L9 orthogonal arrays, and the aptamer mobility shift assay (AMSA) is used for initial evaluation of the protein-DNA interactions on the last SELEX round. In our investigation the dissociation constant (K D ) value and the limit of detection (LOD) of the candidate aptamer were found to be 8.5 ± 0.91 of nM and 5 ng/ml using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In the current study, the Taguchi and mobility shift assay methods were innovatively harnessed to improve the selection process and evaluate the protein-aptamer interactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on employing these two methods in aptamer technology especially against bacterial toxin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential Induction of Immunogenic Cell Death and Interferon Expression in Cancer Cells by Structured ssRNAs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaewoo; Lee, Youngju; Xu, Li; White, Rebekah; Sullenger, Bruce A

    2017-06-07

    Activation of the RNA-sensing pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in cancer cells leads to cell death and cytokine expression. This cancer cell death releases tumor antigens and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that induce anti-tumor immunity. However, these cytokines and DAMPs also cause adverse inflammatory and thrombotic complications that can limit the overall therapeutic benefits of PRR-targeting anti-cancer therapies. To overcome this problem, we generated and evaluated two novel and distinct ssRNA molecules (immunogenic cell-killing RNA [ICR]2 and ICR4). ICR2 and ICR4 differentially stimulated cell death and PRR signaling pathways and induced different patterns of cytokine expression in cancer and innate immune cells. Interestingly, DAMPs released from ICR2- and ICR4-treated cancer cells had distinct patterns of stimulation of innate immune receptors and coagulation. Finally, ICR2 and ICR4 inhibited in vivo tumor growth as effectively as poly(I:C). ICR2 and ICR4 are potential therapeutic agents that differentially induce cell death, immune stimulation, and coagulation when introduced into tumors. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of Superhydrophobic Material SS 17-4 PH for Bracket Orthodontic Application by Metal Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriadi, S.; Suharno, B.; Widjaya, T.; Ayuningtyas, S. T.; Baek, E. R.

    2018-01-01

    Dental’s plaque is a common problem that encountered during orthodontic treatment using bracket. It is caused by demineralization of enamel due to the activity of bacteria. The bacteria increase with remaining excess food which trapped in teeth and bracket. A hydrophobic surface could reduce food attachment on the bracket because of extremely low wettability properties that make it easy to clean with water. There are several methods to obtain hydrophobic surfaces, which are sol-gel, template replica and also etching. The propose of this work is to compare etching treatment and surface modification on sintered SS 17-4 PH as bracket material using CuCl2 and HCl as an etchant while stearic acid was used for surface modification. Hydrophobic surfaces were produced under various etching time i.e 15, 30, 45 and 60 seconds for CuCl2 and 40, 50, 60 and 70 minutes for HCl and also HCl concentration i.e 1,2 and 3 mol/L at room temperature. The hydrophobicity is observed using contact angle measurement while the microstructures observed by Scanning Electron Microscope. The result shows the contact angle could be achieved up to 60% higher than the as-sintered material. Hydrophobic structure has successfully fabricated using etching technique that might be applied to the orthodontic bracket.

  3. Determinations of the 12C/13C Ratio for the Secondary Stars of AE Aquarii, SS Cygni, and RU Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Marra, Rachel E.

    2017-07-01

    We present new moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of three CVs obtained using GNIRS on Gemini-North. These spectra covered three 13CO bandheads found in the K-band, allowing us to derive the isotopic abundance ratios for carbon. We find small 12C/13C ratios for all three donor stars. In addition, these three objects show carbon deficits, with AE Aqr being the most extreme ([C/Fe] = -1.4). This result confirms the conjecture that the donor stars in some long-period CVs have undergone considerable nuclear evolution prior to becoming semi-contact binaries. In addition to the results for carbon, we find that the abundance of sodium is enhanced in these three objects, and the secondary stars in both RU Peg and SS Cyg suffer magnesium deficits. Explaining such anomalies appears to require higher mass progenitors than commonly assumed for the donor stars of CVs. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  4. Generation of Aptamers from A Primer-Free Randomized ssDNA Library Using Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Shih-Ming; Lai, Ji-Ching; Horng, Horng-Er; Liu, Tu-Chen; Hong, Chin-Yih

    2017-04-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind to specific target molecules. Most aptamers are generated using random libraries in the standard systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Each random library contains oligonucleotides with a randomized central region and two fixed primer regions at both ends. The fixed primer regions are necessary for amplifying target-bound sequences by PCR. However, these extra-sequences may cause non-specific bindings, which potentially interfere with good binding for random sequences. The Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection (MARAS) is a newly developed protocol for generating single-strand DNA aptamers. No repeat selection cycle is required in the protocol. This study proposes and demonstrates a method to isolate aptamers for C-reactive proteins (CRP) from a randomized ssDNA library containing no fixed sequences at 5‧ and 3‧ termini using the MARAS platform. Furthermore, the isolated primer-free aptamer was sequenced and binding affinity for CRP was analyzed. The specificity of the obtained aptamer was validated using blind serum samples. The result was consistent with monoclonal antibody-based nephelometry analysis, which indicated that a primer-free aptamer has high specificity toward targets. MARAS is a feasible platform for efficiently generating primer-free aptamers for clinical diagnoses.

  5. LoCuSS: pre-processing in galaxy groups falling into massive galaxy clusters at z = 0.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, M.; Smith, G. P.; Haines, C. P.; McGee, S. L.; Finoguenov, A.; Egami, E.

    2018-01-01

    We report direct evidence of pre-processing of the galaxies residing in galaxy groups falling into galaxy clusters drawn from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey (LoCuSS). 34 groups have been identified via their X-ray emission in the infall regions of 23 massive ( = 1015 M⊙) clusters at 0.15 < z < 0.3. Highly complete spectroscopic coverage combined with 24 μm imaging from Spitzer allows us to make a consistent and robust selection of cluster and group members including star-forming galaxies down to a stellar mass limit of M⋆ = 2 × 1010 M⊙. The fraction fSF of star-forming galaxies in infalling groups is lower and with a flatter trend with respect to clustercentric radius when compared to the rest of the cluster galaxy population. At R ≈ 1.3 r200, the fraction of star-forming galaxies in infalling groups is half that in the cluster galaxy population. This is direct evidence that star-formation quenching is effective in galaxies already prior to them settling in the cluster potential, and that groups are favourable locations for this process.

  6. Water Sorption and Vapor-Phase Deuterium Exchange Studies on Methemoglobin CC, SC, SS, AS, and AA

    PubMed Central

    Killion, Philip J.; Cameron, Bruce F.

    1972-01-01

    Five hemoglobins whose genetic relationship to one another involves one set of alleles, hemoglobins CC, SC, SS, AS, and AA, were studied in the Met form. Two different investigations were conducted at 28°C on these methemoglobins within a McBain gravimetric sorption system: sorption of H2O vapor and vapor-phase deuterium-hydrogen exchange. For each of the five samples there was close agreement between the per cent hydration of polar sites as determined from sorption studies and the maximum per cent of labile hydrogens that were exchanged during the vapor-phase deuterium exchange study. Both studies measured a slight increase in the number of polar sites accessible to H2O or D2O vapor for those samples in which the substituent in the sixth position from the N-terminus of the two β-chains had a positively charged side chain and a slight decrease for those in which the substituent had a negatively charged side chain. The in-exchange of deuterium for hydrogen occurred at a faster observed rate than the out-exchange of hydrogen for deuterium. PMID:5030563

  7. Enhancing the Hardness of Sintered SS 17-4PH Using Nitriding Process for Bracket Orthodontic Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suharno, B.; Supriadi, S.; Ayuningtyas, S. T.; Widjaya, T.; Baek, E. R.

    2018-01-01

    Brackets orthodontic create teeth movement by applying force from wire to bracket then transferred to teeth. However, emergence of friction between brackets and wires reduces load for teeth movement towards desired area. In order to overcome these problem, surface treatment like nitriding chosen as a process which could escalate efficiency of transferred force by improving material hardness since hard materials have low friction levels. This work investigated nitriding treatment to form nitride layer which affecting hardness of sintered SS 17-4PH. The nitride layers produced after nitriding process at various temperature i.e. 470°C, 500°C, 530°C with 8hr holding time under 50% NH3 atmosphere. Optical metallography was conducted to compare microstructure of base and surface metal while the increasing of surface hardness then observed using vickers microhardness tester. Hardened surface layer was obtained after gaseous nitriding process because of nitride layer that contains Fe4N, CrN and Fe-αN formed. Hardness layers can achieved value 1051 HV associated with varies thickness from 53 to 119 μm. The presence of a precipitation process occurring in conjunction with nitriding process can lead to a decrease in hardness due to nitrogen content diminishing in solid solution phase. This problem causes weakening of nitrogen expansion in martensite lattice.

  8. Biodegradation and speciation of residual SS-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) in soil solution left after soil washing.

    PubMed

    Tandy, Susan; Ammann, Adrian; Schulin, Rainer; Nowack, Bernd

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to investigate the degradation and speciation of EDDS-complexes (SS-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid) in soil following soil washing. The changes in soil solution metal and EDDS concentrations were investigated for three polluted soils. EDDS was degraded after a lag phase of 7-11 days with a half-life of 4.18-5.60 days. No influence of EDDS-speciation on the reaction was observed. The decrease in EDDS resulted in a corresponding decrease in solubilized metals. Changes in EDDS speciation can be related to (1) initial composition of the soil, (2) temporarily anoxic conditions in the soil slurry after soil washing, (3) exchange of EDDS complexes with Cu even in soils without elevated Cu and (4) formation of NiEDDS. Dissolved organic matter is important for metal speciation at low EDDS concentrations. Our results show that even in polluted soils EDDS is degraded from a level of several hundred micromoles to below 1 microM within 50 days.

  9. Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Ceramic Deposition on SS430 Ferritic Steel Grown by PLD - Pulsed Laser Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid Rivai, Abu; Mardiyanto; Agusutrisno; Suharyadi, Edi

    2017-01-01

    Development of high temperature materials are one of the key issues for the deployment of advanced nuclear reactors due to higher temperature operation. One of the candidate materials for that purpose is ceramic-coated ferritic steel that one of the functions is to be a thermal barrier coating (TBC). Thin films of YSZ (Ytrria-Stabilized Zirconia) ceramic have been deposited on a SS430 ferritic steel using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) at Center For Science and Technology of Advanced Materials laboratory - National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN). The thin film was deposited with the chamber pressure range of 200-225 mTorr, the substrate temperature of 800oC, and the number of laser shots of 3×104, 6×104 and 9×104. Afterward, the samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscope (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Vickers hardness tester. The results showed that the YSZ could homogeneously and sticky deposited on the surface of the ferritic steel. The surfaces were very smoothly formed with the surface roughness was in the range of 70 nm. Furthermore, thickness, composition of Zr4+ dan Y3+, the crystallinity, and hardness property was increased with the increasing the number of the shots.

  10. Divergent dispersion behavior of ssDNA fragments during microchip electrophoresis in pDMA and LPA entangled polymer networks

    PubMed Central

    Fredlake, Christopher P.; Hert, Daniel G.; Niedringhaus, Thomas P.; Lin, Jennifer S.; Barron, Annelise E.

    2015-01-01

    Resolution of DNA fragments separated by electrophoresis in polymer solutions (“matrices”) is determined by both the spacing between peaks and the width of the peaks. Prior research on the development of high-performance separation matrices has been focused primarily on optimizing DNA mobility and matrix selectivity, and gave less attention to peak broadening. Quantitative data are rare for peak broadening in systems in which high electric field strengths are used (> 150 V/cm), which is surprising since capillary and microchip-based systems commonly run at these field strengths. Here, we report results for a study of band broadening behavior for ssDNA fragments on a glass microfluidic chip, for electric field strengths up to 320 V/cm. We compare dispersion coefficients obtained in a poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (pDMA) separation matrix that was developed for chip-based DNA sequencing with a commercially available linear polyacrylamide (LPA) matrix commonly used in capillaries. Much larger DNA dispersion coefficients were measured in the LPA matrix as compared to the pDMA matrix, and the dependences of dispersion coefficient on DNA size and electric field strength were found to differ quite starkly in the two matrices. These observations lead us to propose that DNA migration mechanisms differ substantially in our custom pDMA matrix compared to the commercially available LPA matrix. We discuss the implications of these results in terms of developing optimal matrices for specific separation (microchip or capillary) platforms. PMID:22648809

  11. Subpart SS Training Presentations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has produced the following training presentation(s) for reporters subject to this subpart. Generally, these presentations explain the rule or show how to use the reporting system e-GGRT to submit annual GHG reports to EPA.

  12. LoCuSS: comparison of observed X-ray and lensing galaxy cluster scaling relations with simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.-Y.; Finoguenov, A.; Böhringer, H.; Kneib, J.-P.; Smith, G. P.; Kneissl, R.; Okabe, N.; Dahle, H.

    2008-05-01

    The Local Cluster Substructure Survey (LoCuSS, Smith et al.) is a systematic multi-wavelength survey of more than 100 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters in the redshift range 0.14-0.3 selected from the ROSAT All Sky Survey. We used data on 37 LoCuSS clusters from the XMM-Newton archive to investigate the global scaling relations of galaxy clusters. The scaling relations based solely on the X-ray data (S-T, S-Y_X, P-Y_X, M-T, M-Y_X, M-M_gas, M_gas-T, L-T, L-Y_X, and L-M) obey empirical self-similarity and reveal no additional evolution beyond the large-scale structure growth. They also reveal up to 17 per cent segregation between all 37 clusters and non-cool core clusters. Weak lensing mass measurements are also available in the literature for 19 of the clusters with XMM-Newton data. The average of the weak lensing mass to X-ray based mass ratio is 1.09± 0.08, setting the limit of the non-thermal pressure support to 9 ± 8 per cent. The mean of the weak lensing mass to X-ray based mass ratio of these clusters is ~1, indicating good agreement between X-ray and weak lensing masses for most clusters, although with 31-51 per cent scatter. The scatter in the mass-observable relations (M-Y_X, M-M_gas, and M-T) is smaller using X-ray based masses than using weak lensing masses by a factor of 2. With the scaled radius defined by the YX profile - r500 Y_X,X, r500YX,wl, and r500Y_X,si, we obtain lower scatter in the weak lensing mass based mass-observable relations, which means the origin of the scatter is M^wl and MX instead of Y_X. The normalization of the M-YX relation using X-ray mass estimates is lower than the one from simulations by up to 18-24 per cent at 3σ significance. This agrees with the M-YX relation based on weak lensing masses, the normalization of the latter being ~20 per cent lower than the one from simulations at ~2σ significance. This difference between observations and simulations is also indicated in the M-M_gas and M-T relations. Despite the large

  13. Relationship between refractive index and mineral content of enamel and dentin using SS-OCT and TMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Ilnaz; Sadr, Alireza; Shimada, Yasushi; Nakashima, Syozi; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate relationship between refractive index (n) and mineral content (MC) (vol %) of enamel and dentin using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and transverse microradiography (TMR). Enamel and dentin blocks were partitioned into three regions. The middle partition of each sample was covered with a nail polish to protect the sound area during exposure to the treatment solutions. Samples were demineralized in a demineralizing solution, which was refreshed once a week, for 2 months. One window was covered with acid-resistant varnish, leaving the other window exposed; the samples were placed in a solution for remineralization. Samples then were sliced into disks with thickness of 300 μm to 400 μm and placed on metal plate in order to capture cross-sectional images of sound, demineralized and remineralized regions by OCT at 1319 nm center wavelength. The n then was calculated via formula using image analysis software. Following n measurement, these specimens were further polished for the TMR analysis. Correlation between OCT n and TMR MC was examined. A significant and highly positive correlation was found between the measured n and the actual MC at the corresponding locations (Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were 0.94 and 0.97 in enamel and 0.95 and 0.91 in dentin after de-/remineralization process, respectively p < 0.05). OCT showed a potential for quantitative analysis of the mineral loss or gain by measuring of the n in vitro. Supported by the grant from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, "International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases."

  14. ICR SS protozoan data site-by-site: a picture of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in U.S. surface water.

    PubMed

    Ongerth, Jerry E

    2013-09-17

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Information Collection Rule Supplemental Survey (ICR SS) required analysis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in 10 L surface water samples twice a week for a year by USEPA Method 1623 at 80 representative U.S. public water systems (PWS). The resulting data are examined site-by-site in relation to objectives of the Federal drinking water regulation, The Long-Term (2) Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2), currently under formal 6-year review by the USEPA. The data describe Cryptosporidium and Giardia in watersheds nation-wide over a single annual cycle. Due to limited recovery efficiency measurement results are not fully quantified. In the required sample volumes of 10 L no Cryptosporidium were found in 86% of samples and no Giardia were found in 67% of samples. Yet, organisms were found in enough samples at 34 of 80 sites to detail a specrtum of occurrence and variability for both organisms. The data are shown to describe indivudual site risk essential for guidance of watershed and water treatment management by PWSs. The span of median occurrence for both organisms was about 2 orders of magnitude above the limit of detection (LD), ca. 0.05 raw no's/L for Cryptosporidium and ca. 0.10 raw no's/L for Giardia. Data analysis illustrates key features of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in surface water: presence is continuous not intermittent; zeros indicate presence below the LD; occurrence level and variations depend on watershed sources; risk depends on both magnitude and variability of concentration; accurate estimation of risk requires routine measurement of recovery efficiency and calculation of concentration. The data and analysis illustrate features of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurrence in surface water relevant to their effective regulation for public health protection.

  15. S.S. Annunziata Church (L'Aquila, Italy) unveiled by non- and micro-destructive testing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfarra, Stefano; Cheilakou, Eleni; Theodorakeas, Panagiotis; Paoletti, Domenica; Koui, Maria

    2017-03-01

    The present research work explores the potential of an integrated inspection methodology, combining Non-destructive testing and micro-destructive analytical techniques, for both the structural assessment of the S.S. Annunziata Church located in Roio Colle (L'Aquila, Italy) and the characterization of its wall paintings' pigments. The study started by applying passive thermal imaging for the structural monitoring of the church before and after the application of a consolidation treatment, while active thermal imaging was further used for assessing this consolidation procedure. After the earthquake of 2009, which seriously damaged the city of L'Aquila and its surroundings, part of the internal plaster fell off revealing the presence of an ancient mural painting that was subsequently investigated by means of a combined analytical approach involving portable VIS-NIR fiber optics diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) and laboratory methods, such as environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The results obtained from the thermographic analysis provided information concerning the two different constrictive phases of the Church, enabled the assessment of the consolidation treatment, and contributed to the detection of localized problems mainly related to the rising damp phenomenon and to biological attack. In addition, the results obtained from the combined analytical approach allowed the identification of the wall painting pigments (red and yellow ochre, green earth, and smalt) and provided information on the binding media and the painting technique possibly applied by the artist. From the results of the present study, it is possible to conclude that the joint use of the above stated methods into an integrated methodology can produce the complete set of useful information required for the planning of the Church's restoration

  16. "iSS-Hyb-mRMR": Identification of splicing sites using hybrid space of pseudo trinucleotide and pseudo tetranucleotide composition.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Hayat, Maqsood

    2016-05-01

    Gene splicing is a vital source of protein diversity. Perfectly eradication of introns and joining exons is the prominent task in eukaryotic gene expression, as exons are usually interrupted by introns. Identification of splicing sites through experimental techniques is complicated and time-consuming task. With the avalanche of genome sequences generated in the post genomic age, it remains a complicated and challenging task to develop an automatic, robust and reliable computational method for fast and effective identification of splicing sites. In this study, a hybrid model "iSS-Hyb-mRMR" is proposed for quickly and accurately identification of splicing sites. Two sample representation methods namely; pseudo trinucleotide composition (PseTNC) and pseudo tetranucleotide composition (PseTetraNC) were used to extract numerical descriptors from DNA sequences. Hybrid model was developed by concatenating PseTNC and PseTetraNC. In order to select high discriminative features, minimum redundancy maximum relevance algorithm was applied on the hybrid feature space. The performance of these feature representation methods was tested using various classification algorithms including K-nearest neighbor, probabilistic neural network, general regression neural network, and fitting network. Jackknife test was used for evaluation of its performance on two benchmark datasets S1 and S2, respectively. The predictor, proposed in the current study achieved an accuracy of 93.26%, sensitivity of 88.77%, and specificity of 97.78% for S1, and the accuracy of 94.12%, sensitivity of 87.14%, and specificity of 98.64% for S2, respectively. It is observed, that the performance of proposed model is higher than the existing methods in the literature so for; and will be fruitful in the mechanism of RNA splicing, and other research academia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of cement kiln dust (CKD) for stabilization/solidification (S/S) of arsenic contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Wazne, Mahmoud; Yoon, In-Ho; Grubb, Dennis G

    2008-11-30

    A stabilization/solidification (S/S) process for arsenic (As) contaminated soils was evaluated using cement kiln dust (CKD). Laboratory-prepared slurries, made of either kaolinite or montmorillonite, and field soils spiked with either As(3+) or As(5+) were prepared and treated with CKD ranging from 10 to 25 wt%. Sodium arsenite and sodium arsenate at 0.1 wt% were used to simulate arsenite (As(3+)) and arsenate (As(5+)) source contamination in soils, respectively. The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated at curing periods of 1- and 7-days based on the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). As-CKD and As-clay-CKD slurries were also spiked at 10 wt% to evaluate As immobilization mechanism using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses. Overall, the TCLP results showed that only the As(5+) concentrations in kaolinite amended with 25 wt% CKD after 1 day of curing were less than the TCLP regulatory limit of 5mg/L. Moreover, at 7 days of curing, all As(3+) and As(5+) concentrations obtained from kaolinite soils were less than the TCLP criteria. However, none of the CKD-amended montmorillonite samples satisfied the TCLP-As criteria at 7 days. Only field soil samples amended with 20 wt% CKD complied with the TCLP criteria within 1 day of curing, where the source contamination was As(5+). XRPD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) results showed that Ca-As-O and NaCaAsO(4).7.5H(2)O were the primary phases responsible for As(3+) and As(5+) immobilization in the soils, respectively.

  18. [Factorial structure and psychometric criteria of the German translation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory--Student Version by Schaufeli et al. (MBI-SS)].

    PubMed

    Gumz, Antje; Erices, Rainer; Brähler, Elmar; Zenger, Markus

    2013-02-01

    The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is the most commonly used instrument in research on burnout. For the German translation of the MBI student version (MBI-SS), the postulated 3-factorial structure of the questionnaire could be confirmed using confirmatory analyses. The internal consistencies of the scales can be classified as good. First findings underline the construct validity of the questionnaire. As expected, burnout was associated with psychic and somatic complaints as well as with experienced social support. Couples reported higher "Efficiency" levels. Academic studies became less important with increasing duration. Time pressure during the last month was correlated with "Exhaustion". The presented findings on factorial structure and validity speak for the applicability of MBI-SS for research projects on students of German institutes of higher education. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. CalR is required for the expression of T6SS2 and the adhesion of Vibrio parahaemolyticus to HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingyu; Osei-Adjei, George; Zhang, Ying; Gao, He; Yang, Wenhui; Zhou, Dongsheng; Huang, Xinxiang; Yang, Huiying; Zhang, Yiquan

    2017-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus expresses one major virulence determinant T6SS2, which is constituted into three putative operons, i.e., VPA1027-1024, VPA1043-1028, and VPA1044-1046. CalR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, was originally identified as a repressor of the swarming motility and T3SS1 gene expression. As shown in this study, CalR binds to the promoter-proximal region of each of the three operons to activate their transcription, and moreover, CalR activates the adhesion of V. parahaemolyticus to HeLa cells. In addition, competitive EMSAs demonstrated that CalR acts as an antagonist of H-NS in V. parahaemolyticus. Collectively, these studies confirmed a new physiological role for CalR in V. parahaemolyticus.

  20. Pulsed laser deposited MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} protective layer on SS430 for solid oxide fuel cell application

    SciTech Connect

    Gaur, Anshu, E-mail: gauranshu20@gmail.com, E-mail: ahamed.vza@gmail.com; Mohiddon, Md. Ahamad, E-mail: gauranshu20@gmail.com, E-mail: ahamed.vza@gmail.com; Prasad, Muvva D.

    2016-05-23

    The growth and oxidation study of pulsed laser deposited MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} protective layer on SS430 substrate for solid oxide fuel cell application is demonstrated. MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been achieved in three different ways including, deposition at higher substrate temperature (700°C), and deposition at room temperature on pre-oxidized and untreated SS430 substrate followed by annealing at 700°C for 2 hrs. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy has been applied to demonstrate the kind of phases developed in each case. These three samples were subjected to heat treatment at 750°C for 5 hr. The extent of undesired Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phasemore » formation in the post deposition heat treated samples is discussed based on Raman spectroscopic results.« less

  1. Search for a light Higgs boson decaying to two gluons or ss̄ in the radiative decays of Υ(1S)

    DOE PAGES

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; ...

    2013-08-06

    We search for the decay Υ(1S)→γA⁰, A⁰→gg or ss̄, where A⁰ is the pseudoscalar light Higgs boson predicted by the next-to-minimal supersymmetric Standard Model. We use a sample of (17.6±0.3)×10⁶ Υ(1S) mesons produced in the BABAR experiment via e⁺e⁻→Υ(2S)→π⁺π⁻Υ(1S). We see no significant signal and set 90%-confidence-level upper limits on the product branching fraction B(Υ(1S)→γA⁰)·B(A⁰→gg or ss̄) ranging from 10⁻⁶ to 10⁻² for A⁰ masses in the range 0.5–9.0 GeV/c².

  2. Totally extraperitoneal (TEP) bilateral hernioplasty using the Single Site® robotic da Vinci platform (DV-SS TEP): description of the technique and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Cestari, A; Galli, A C; Sangalli, M N; Zanoni, M; Ferrari, M; Roviaro, G

    2017-06-01

    Laparoendoscopic single site totally extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repair showed to be a feasible alternative to conventional laparoscopic hernia repair; nevertheless single site surgery, with the loss of instruments triangulation can be a demanding procedure. To overcome those hurdles, the Single Site® (SS) platform of the da Vinci (DV) Si robotic system enables to perform surgical procedures through a 25-mm skin incision, with a stable 3D vision and restoring an adequate triangulation of the surgical instruments. We present in details the technique and the preliminary results of DV-SS TEP, to our knowledge the first cases reported in literature. In March 2016, three consecutive male patients (mean age 46.6 years-mean BMI 25.3) with bilateral symptomatic inguinal hernia were submitted to DV-SS TEP in our institutions. Feasibility, codification of the technique, operative time and perioperative outcomes were recorded. All the procedures were completed as scheduled, with no conversion to other techniques. Mean operative time was 98.6 min, ranging between 155 and 55 min, reflecting the learning curve of the operating room team on this new procedure. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were experienced and all the patients were discharged within 24 h after surgery. Patients reported satisfactory postoperative course, with no recurrence of inguinal hernia and satisfaction in cosmetic result at 6-month follow-up. DV-SS TEP inguinal hernia repair showed to be feasible and effective surgical option for bilateral groin hernia repair. Patients' outcome was uneventful, with optimal cosmetic results. Further studies comparing this innovative technique to TEP or LESS TEP should be promoted.

  3. Evolutionarily Conserved nodE, nodO, T1SS, and Hydrogenase System in Rhizobia of Astragalus membranaceus and Caragana intermedia.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Xie, Jian Bo; Ji, Zhao Jun; Yuan, Na; Tian, Chang Fu; Ji, Shou Kun; Wu, Zhong Yu; Zhong, Liang; Chen, Wen Xin; Du, Zheng Lin; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Feng

    2017-01-01

    Mesorhizobium species are the main microsymbionts associated with the medicinal or sand-fixation plants Astragalus membranaceus and Caragana intermedia (AC) in temperate regions of China, while all the Mesorhizobium strains isolated from each of these plants could nodulate both of them. However, Rhizobium yanglingense strain CCBAU01603 could nodulate AC plants and it's a high efficiency symbiotic and competitive strain with Caragana . Therefore, the common features shared by these symbiotic rhizobia in genera of Mesorhizobium and Rhizobium still remained undiscovered. In order to study the genomic background influencing the host preference of these AC symbiotic strains, the whole genomes of two ( M. silamurunense CCBAU01550, M. silamurunense CCBAU45272) and five representative strains ( M. septentrionale CCBAU01583, M. amorphae CCBAU01570, M. caraganae CCBAU01502, M. temperatum CCBAU01399, and R. yanglingense CCBAU01603) originally isolated from AC plants were sequenced, respectively. As results, type III secretion systems (T3SS) of AC rhizobia evolved in an irregular pattern, while an evolutionarily specific region including nodE, nodO , T1SS, and a hydrogenase system was detected to be conserved in all these AC rhizobia. Moreover, nodO was verified to be prevalently distributed in other AC rhizobia and was presumed as a factor affecting the nodule formation process. In conclusion, this research interpreted the multifactorial features of the AC rhizobia that may be associated with their host specificity at cross-nodulation group, including nodE, nodZ , T1SS as the possible main determinants; and nodO , hydrogenase system, and T3SS as factors regulating the bacteroid formation or nitrogen fixation efficiency.

  4. Predicting protein aggregation during storage in lyophilized solids using solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS).

    PubMed

    Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Schultz, Steven G; Kim, Sherry G; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2014-06-02

    Solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS) was used to assess the conformation of myoglobin (Mb) in lyophilized formulations, and the results correlated with the extent of aggregation during storage. Mb was colyophilized with sucrose (1:1 or 1:8 w/w), mannitol (1:1 w/w), or NaCl (1:1 w/w) or in the absence of excipients. Immediately after lyophilization, samples of each formulation were analyzed by ssHDX-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to assess Mb conformation, and by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to determine the extent of aggregation. The remaining samples were then placed on stability at 25 °C and 60% RH or 40 °C and 75% RH for up to 1 year, withdrawn at intervals, and analyzed for aggregate content by SEC and DLS. In ssHDX-MS of samples immediately after lyophilization (t = 0), Mb was less deuterated in solids containing sucrose (1:1 and 1:8 w/w) than in those containing mannitol (1:1 w/w), NaCl (1:1 w/w), or Mb alone. Deuterium uptake kinetics and peptide mass envelopes also indicated greater Mb structural perturbation in mannitol, NaCl, or Mb-alone samples at t = 0. The extent of deuterium incorporation and kinetic parameters related to rapidly and slowly exchanging amide pools (Nfast, Nslow), measured at t = 0, were highly correlated with the extent of aggregation on storage as measured by SEC. In contrast, the extent of aggregation was weakly correlated with FTIR band intensity and peak position measured at t = 0. The results support the use of ssHDX-MS as a formulation screening tool in developing lyophilized protein drug products.

  5. Predicting Protein Aggregation during Storage in Lyophilized Solids Using Solid State Amide Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange with Mass Spectrometric Analysis (ssHDX-MS)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS) was used to assess the conformation of myoglobin (Mb) in lyophilized formulations, and the results correlated with the extent of aggregation during storage. Mb was colyophilized with sucrose (1:1 or 1:8 w/w), mannitol (1:1 w/w), or NaCl (1:1 w/w) or in the absence of excipients. Immediately after lyophilization, samples of each formulation were analyzed by ssHDX-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to assess Mb conformation, and by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to determine the extent of aggregation. The remaining samples were then placed on stability at 25 °C and 60% RH or 40 °C and 75% RH for up to 1 year, withdrawn at intervals, and analyzed for aggregate content by SEC and DLS. In ssHDX-MS of samples immediately after lyophilization (t = 0), Mb was less deuterated in solids containing sucrose (1:1 and 1:8 w/w) than in those containing mannitol (1:1 w/w), NaCl (1:1 w/w), or Mb alone. Deuterium uptake kinetics and peptide mass envelopes also indicated greater Mb structural perturbation in mannitol, NaCl, or Mb-alone samples at t = 0. The extent of deuterium incorporation and kinetic parameters related to rapidly and slowly exchanging amide pools (Nfast, Nslow), measured at t = 0, were highly correlated with the extent of aggregation on storage as measured by SEC. In contrast, the extent of aggregation was weakly correlated with FTIR band intensity and peak position measured at t = 0. The results support the use of ssHDX-MS as a formulation screening tool in developing lyophilized protein drug products. PMID:24816133

  6. Development of TiN particulates reinforced SS316 based metal matrix composite by direct metal laser sintering technique and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Manowar; Mandal, Vijay; Kumar, Vikas; Das, A. K.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    The present study describes the fabrication of TiN particulates reinforced SS316 based Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) in nitrogen and argon atmosphere. The influence of sintering process parameters on microstructure, density, porosity, wear rate and microhardness of the fabricated samples has been analyzed. The input variable process parameters, such as, laser power density (range: 4.13-5.57 W/cm2 (× 104)), scanning speed (range: 3500-4500 mm/min) and the constant parameters, such as, laser beam diameter (0.4 mm), hatching distance (0.2 mm) and layer thickness (0.4 mm) have been considered in the process. It has been observed from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis that TiN and SS316 powder mixture can be sintered in which chromium acts as a binder. Fine gaps are not found at the interface between TiN and SS316 when the mixture is sintered in nitrogen atmosphere. With an increase in the percentage of TiN, the density and wear rate decreases. However, when the reinforcement is taken beyond 18% by weight, the wear rate starts increasing. The microhardness also increases with an increase in the percentage of TiN. The microstructure, elemental compositions and phase characterization of the developed sintered MMCs have been examined by FESEM, EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) and XRD (X-ray diffractometer) analysis, respectively. The results have demonstrated the suitability of the TiN reinforced SS316 MMCs for industrial applications.

  7. Isolation of a new ssDNA aptamer against staphylococcal enterotoxin B based on CNBr-activated sepharose-4B affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hedayati Ch, Mojtaba; Amani, Jafar; Sedighian, Hamid; Amin, Mohsen; Salimian, Jafar; Halabian, Raheleh; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus are potent human pathogens possessing arsenal of virulence factors. Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) and respiratory infections mediated by staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) are common clinical manifestations. Many diagnostic techniques are based on serological detection and quantification of SEB in different food and clinical samples. Aptamers are known as new therapeutic and detection tools which are available in different ssDNA, dsDNA and protein structures. In this study, we used a new set of ssDNA aptamers against SEB. The methods used included preparation of a dsDNA library using standard SEB protein as the target analyte, affinity chromatography matrix in microfuge tubes, SELEX procedures to isolate specific ssDNA-aptamer as an affinity ligand, aptamer purification using ethanol precipitation method, affinity binding assay using ELISA, aptamer cloning and specificity test. Among 12 readable sequences, three of them were selected as the most appropriate aptamer because of their affinity and specificity to SEB. This study presents a new set of ssDNA aptamer with favorable selectivity to SEB through 12 rounds of SELEX. Selected aptamers were used to detect SEB in infected serum samples. Results showed that SEB c1 aptamer (2 µg SEB/100 nM aptamer) had favorable specificity to SEB (kd  = 2.3 × 10(-11) ). In conclusion, aptamers can be considered as useful tools for detecting and evaluating SEB. The results showed that affinity chromatography was an affordable assay with acceptable accuracy to isolate sensitive and selective novel aptamers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Variability in response to nicotine in the LSxSS RI strains: potential role of polymorphisms in alpha4 and alpha6 nicotinic receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Tritto, Theresa; Stitzel, Jerry A; Marks, Michael J; Romm, Elena; Collins, Allan C

    2002-04-01

    Several studies have shown that genetic factors influence the effects of nicotine on respiration, acoustic startle, Y-maze crosses and rears, heart rate and body temperature in the mouse. Recently, we identified restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) associated with the alpha4 (Chrna4) and alpha6 (Chrna6) nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes in the recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from the Long-Sleep (LS) and Short-Sleep (SS) mouse lines. The alpha4 polymorphism has been identified as a point-mutation at position 529 (threonine to alanine) and the alpha6 polymorphism has not yet been identified. The studies described here evaluated the potential role of these polymorphisms in regulating sensitivity to nicotine by constructing dose-response curves for the effects of nicotine on six responses in the LSxSS RI strains. The results obtained suggest that both of the polymorphisms may play a role in regulating variability in sensitivity to nicotine. Those RI strains carrying the LS-like alpha4 RFLP were significantly more sensitive to the effects of nicotine on Y-maze crosses and rears, temperature and respiration and were less sensitive to the effects of nicotine on acoustic startle than those strains carrying the SS-like alpha4 RFLP. Those RI strains carrying the LS-like alpha6 RFLP were more sensitive to the effects of nicotine on respiration and acoustic startle, and less sensitive to the effects of nicotine on Y-maze crosses than those strains carrying the SS-like alpha6 RFLP. These results suggest that genetically determined differences in sensitivity to nicotine may be explained, in part, by variability associated with at least two of the neuronal nicotinic receptor genes, alpha4 and alpha6.

  9. MeSS: A novel prognostic scale specific for pediatric well-differentiated thyroid cancer: a population-based, SEER outcomes study.

    PubMed

    Shayota, Brian J; Pawar, Shonali C; Chamberlain, Ronald S

    2013-09-01

    High-risk prognostic factors for adults with well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) have been well established, but the same is not true for pediatric patients. This study sought to determine whether validated adult prognostic systems are applicable to pediatric patients and to develop a novel prognostic scale that may better reflect outcomes in pediatric subgroups. We queried 62,007 cases of WDTC from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1973-2009) to identify 895 patients <20 years of age with WDTC. Data abstracted included age, gender, race, histology type, primary tumor size, cancer stage, and mortality. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were set and data were analyzed with SAS version 9.2. Among 895 pediatric WDTC patients, the overall cause-specific mortality was 0.8%. The presence of distant metastasis was associated with the worst prognosis (P = .0045) followed by larger primary tumor size (P = .0135) and male gender (P = .0162). When classified into low-, moderate-, and high-risk categories according to the distant metastasis (Me), larger primary tumor size (S), and male sex (S) (MeSS) algorithm, mortality rates were 0%, 2.7%, and 23%, respectively. Commonly used prognostic indices for WDTC in adults do not reliably predict poor outcomes among pediatric patients. Rather, a system based on MeSS is more applicable to pediatric patients. Patients who exhibit a high MeSS score have a significantly worse overall survival than those who do not express any MeSS characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Vibrio alginolyticus T3SS effectors, Val1686 and Val1680, induce cell rounding, apoptosis and lysis of fish epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhe; Liu, Jinxin; Deng, Yiqin; Huang, Wen; Ren, Chunhua; Call, Douglas R.; Hu, Chaoqun

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vibrio alginolyticus is a Gram-negative bacterium that is an opportunistic pathogen of both marine animals and people. Its pathogenesis likely involves type III secretion system (T3SS) mediated induction of rapid apoptosis, cell rounding and osmotic lysis of infected eukaryotic cells. Herein, we report that effector proteins, Val1686 and Val1680 from V. alginolyticus, were responsible for T3SS-mediated death of fish cells. Val1686 is a Fic-domain containing protein that not only contributed to cell rounding by inhibiting Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), but was requisite for the induction of apoptosis because the deletion mutant (Δval1686) was severely weakened in its ability to induce cell rounding and apoptosis in fish cells. In addition, Val1686 alone was sufficient to induce cell rounding and apoptosis as evidenced by the transfection of Val1686 into fish cells. Importantly, the Fic-domain essential for cell rounding activity was equally important to activation of apoptosis of fish cells, indicating that apoptosis is a downstream event of Val1686-dependent GTPase inhibition. V. alginolyticus infection likely activates JNK and ERK pathways with sequential activation of caspases (caspase-8/-10, -9 and -3) and subsequent apoptosis. Val1680 contributed to T3SS-dependent lysis of fish cells in V. alginolyticus, but did not induce autophagy as has been reported for its homologue (VopQ) in V. parahaemolyticus. Together, Val1686 and Val1680 work together to induce apoptosis, cell rounding and cell lysis of V. alginolyticus-infected fish cells. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism of cell death caused by T3SS of V. alginolyticus. PMID:29252102

  11. Engineering Evaluation and Assessment (EE and A) Report for the Symbolic and Sub-symbolic Robotics Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-04-01

    Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions...2006. Since that time , SS-RICS has been the integration platform for many robotics algorithms using a variety of different disciplines from cognitive...voice recognition. Each noise level was run 10 times per gender, yielding 60 total runs. Two paths were chosen for testing (Paths A and B) of

  12. Treatment of Petroleum Sludge By Using Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) Method : Effect of Hydration Days to Heavy Metals Leaching and Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murshid, N.; Kamil, N. A. F. M.; Kadir, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Petroleum sludge is one of the major solid wastes generated in the petroleum industry. Generally, there are numbers of heavy metals in petroleum sludge and one treatment that is gaining prominence to treat a variety of mixed organic and inorganic waste is solidification/stabilization (S/S) method. The treatment protects human health and the environment by immobilizing contaminants within the treated material and prevents migration of the contaminants. In this study, solidification/stabilization (S/S) method has been used to treat the petroleum sludge. The comparison of hydration days, namely, 7th and 28th days in these cement-based waste materials were studied by using Synthetic Precipitate Leaching Procedure (SPLP). The results were compared to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. The results for leaching test concluded that less percentage OPC gave maximum concentration of heavy metals leaching due to deficient in Calcium Oxide (CaO), which is can caused weak solidification in the mixture. Physical and mechanical properties conducted such as compressive strength and density test. From the results, it shows addition up to of 30percentage PS give results which comply with minimum landfill dispose limit. The results shows correlation between strength and density are strong regression coefficient of 82.7%. In conclusion, S/S method can be alternative disposal method for PS in the same time complies with standard for minimum landfill disposal limit. The results for leaching test concluded the less OPC percentage gave maximum concentration of heavy metals leaching.

  13. Improving recovery of ECG signal with deterministic guarantees using split signal for multiple supports of matching pursuit (SS-MSMP) algorithm.

    PubMed

    Tawfic, Israa Shaker; Kayhan, Sema Koc

    2017-02-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) is a new field used for signal acquisition and design of sensor that made a large drooping in the cost of acquiring sparse signals. In this paper, new algorithms are developed to improve the performance of the greedy algorithms. In this paper, a new greedy pursuit algorithm, SS-MSMP (Split Signal for Multiple Support of Matching Pursuit), is introduced and theoretical analyses are given. The SS-MSMP is suggested for sparse data acquisition, in order to reconstruct analog and efficient signals via a small set of general measurements. This paper proposes a new fast method which depends on a study of the behavior of the support indices through picking the best estimation of the corrosion between residual and measurement matrix. The term multiple supports originates from an algorithm; in each iteration, the best support indices are picked based on maximum quality created by discovering correlation for a particular length of support. We depend on this new algorithm upon our previous derivative of halting condition that we produce for Least Support Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (LS-OMP) for clear and noisy signal. For better reconstructed results, SS-MSMP algorithm provides the recovery of support set for long signals such as signals used in WBAN. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the new suggested algorithm performs well compared to existing algorithms in terms of many factors used for reconstruction performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Re Effects on Phase Stability and Mechanical Properties of MoSS+Mo3Si+Mo5SiB2 alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ying; Bei, Hongbin; George, Easo P

    2013-01-01

    Because of their high melting points and good oxidation resistance Mo-Si-B alloys are of interest as potential ultrahigh-temperature structural materials. But their major drawbacks are poor ductility and fracture toughness at room temperature. Since alloying with Re has been suggested as a possible solution, we investigate here the effects of Re additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a ternary alloy with the composition Mo-12.5Si-8.5B (at.%). This alloy has a three-phase microstructure consisting of Mo solid-solution (MoSS), Mo3Si, and Mo5SiB2 and our results show that up to 8.4 at.% Re can be added to it without changing its microstructuremore » or forming any brittle phase at 1600 C. Three-point bend tests using chevron-notched specimens showed that Re did not improve fracture toughness of the three-phase alloy. Nanoindentation performed on the MoSS phase in the three-phase alloy showed that Re increases Young s modulus, but does not lower hardness as in some Mo solid solution alloys. Based on our thermodynamic calculations and microstructural analyses, the lack of a Re softening effect is attributed to the increased Si levels in the Re-containing MoSS phase since Si is known to increase its hardness. This lack of softening is possibly why there is no Re-induced improvement in fracture toughness.« less

  15. Optimal haematocrit in subjects with normal haemoglobin genotype (HbAA), sickle cell trait (HbAS), and homozygous sickle cell disease (HbSS).

    PubMed

    Bowers, A S; Pepple, D J; Reid, H L

    2011-01-01

    The determination of an optimal haematocrit (H0) has important clinical implications if such a level can be attained, and more importantly, maintained. This is defined as a haematocrit level, above or below which oxygen delivery is deleteriously affected. This study is designed to determine an optimal haematocrit in normal (AA), sickle cell trait (AS) and sickle cell disease (SS) subjects. Twenty-seven apparently healthy subjects having normal haemoglobin genotype, 24 with sickle cell trait and 42 with homozygous sickle cell disease were recruited into the study. Whole blood viscosity (WBV) was measured by a Wells Brookfield Cone and Plate Viscometer at a shear rate of 230 sec-1. Haematocrit was determined by an AC.Tron Coulter Counter. The optimal haematocrit was calculated as the inverse of a constant, K, which was derived from the haematocrit and viscosity data. Our findings showed that the H0 varied significantly among the 3 haemoglobin genotypes, in the order AA vs SS and AS vs SS. Additionally, the data indicated an increased H0 in subjects with sickle cell trait, suggesting a possible impairment in oxygen delivery in these individuals.

  16. Tn-Seq Analysis of Vibrio cholerae Intestinal Colonization Reveals a Role for T6SS-Mediated Antibacterial Activity in the Host

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yang; Waldor, Matthew K.; Mekalanos, John J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Analysis of genes required for host infection will provide clues to the drivers of evolutionary fitness of pathogens like Vibrio cholerae, a mounting threat to global heath. We used transposon insertion site sequencing (Tn-seq) to comprehensively assess the contribution of nearly all V. cholerae genes toward growth in the infant rabbit intestine. Four hundred genes were identified as critical to V. cholerae in vivo fitness. These included most known colonization factors and several new genes affecting the bacterium's metabolic properties, resistance to bile, and ability to synthesize cyclic AMP-GMP. Notably, a mutant carrying an insertion in tsiV3, encoding immunity to a bacteriocidal type VI secretion system (T6SS) effector VgrG3, exhibited a colonization defect. The reduced in vivo fitness of tsiV3 mutants depends on their cocolonization with bacterial cells carrying an intact T6SS locus and VgrG3 gene, suggesting that the V. cholerae T6SS is functional and mediates antagonistic interbacterial interactions during infection. PMID:24331463

  17. Type-IVC Secretion System: A Novel Subclass of Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) Common Existing in Gram-Positive Genus Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Gao, George F.

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of pathogens are being found to possess specialized secretion systems which they use in various ways to subvert host defenses. Type IV secretion system (T4SS) is one of versatile secretion systems essential for the virulence and even survival of some bacteria species, and they enable the secretion of protein and DNA substrates across the cell envelope. T4SS was once believed to be present only in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we present evidence of a new subclass of T4SS, Type-IVC secretion system and indicate its common existence in the Gram-positive bacterial genus Streptococcus. We further identified that VirB1, VirB4, VirB6 and VirD4 are the minimal key components of this system. Using genome comparisons and evolutionary relationship analysis, we proposed that Type-IVC secretion system is movable via transposon factors and mediates the conjugative transfer of DNA, enhances bacterial pathogenicity, and could cause large-scale outbreaks of infections in humans. PMID:23056296

  18. Testing the 4Rs and 2Ss Multiple Family Group intervention: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Acri, Mary; Hamovitch, Emily; Mini, Maria; Garay, Elene; Connolly, Claire; McKay, Mary

    2017-12-04

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a major mental health concern and highly prevalent among children living in poverty-impacted communities. Despite that treatments for ODD are among the most effective, few children living in poverty receive these services due to substantial barriers to access, as well as difficulties in the uptake and sustained adoption of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in community settings. The purpose of this study is to examine implementation processes that impact uptake of an evidence-based practice for childhood ODD, and the impact of a Clinic Implementation Team (CIT)-driven structured adaptation to enhance its fit within the public mental health clinic setting. This study, a Hybrid Type II effectiveness-implementation research trial, blends clinical effectiveness and implementation research methods to examine the impact of the 4Rs and 2Ss Multiple Family Group (MFG) intervention, family level mediators of child outcomes, clinic/provider-level mediators of implementation, and the impact of CITs on uptake and long-term utilization of this model. All New York City public outpatient mental health clinics have been invited to participate. A sampling procedure that included randomization at the agency level and a sub-study to examine the impact of clinic choice upon outcomes yielded a distribution of clinics across three study conditions. Quantitative data measuring child outcomes, organizational factors and implementation fidelity will be collected from caregivers and providers at baseline, 8, and 16 weeks from baseline, and 6 months from treatment completion. The expected participation is 134 clinics, 268 providers, and 2688 caregiver/child dyads. We will use mediation analysis with a multi-level Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) (MSEM including family level variables, provider variables, and clinic variables), as well as mediation tests to examine study hypotheses. The aim of the study is to generate knowledge about effectiveness and

  19. Submarine landslides and tsunami potential Off SE Australian Margin: results from the voyage SS2008/12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman Talukder, Asrarur; Boyd, Ron; Keene, Jock; Hubble, Tom; Clarke, Samantha; Kinsela, Michael; Exon, Neville; Gardner, Jim; Felzenberg, Janice

    2010-05-01

    Although the continental margins around Australia are themselves passive, they are surrounded by the Pacific Ring of Fire characterized by a great many earthquakes, tsunamis and submarine landslides. The Earthquake Catalogue of Geo-science Australia shows that in Australia earthquakes with a magnitude 5.5+ occur on average every two years with the potential of a disastrous earthquake of magnitude 6 or more every six years. Historical records also show that there were 47 tsunami hits in Australian Coasts during the last 150 years. The main objective of Voyage SS2008/12 onboard RV Southern Surveyor in 2008, was to map out the submarine landslides in the region off northern New South Wales and southern Queensland in order to investigate its tsunami-genic potential that could impact their densely populated coastal cities. During the survey ca. 13,000 square km of multi-beam swath bathymetry data (MBES) along with TOPAS high resolution seismic and different types of ground truth samples were collected in the continental slope. This study presents the preliminary morpho-tectonic analysis of the collected acoustic images of the seabeds and near surfaces. In the survey area, the continental slopes extend from the shelf break to the abyssal plain between ~150m to ~4500m water depth. The survey area can be divided into northern and southern areas separated by relatively stable seabed of the Nerang Plateau. The average slopes range from a minimum of 2.8° on plateau to a maximum of 8.5° in steeper segments. Submarine slides of all sizes from 0.5 to 20 cubic km were encountered, there having different morphologies. They can be characterized as slab slides, debris flows and carbonate platform slides. The gravity cores takes from selected slide planes suggest that they have different ages (between ca. 6 to 25 ka) and the northern slides are older than the southern ones. Other bathymetric features are box canyons, linear canyons, volcanic cones, carbonate mounds and pockmarks

  20. Comparison of the Booster Interface Temperature in Stainless Steel (SS) V-Channel versus the Aluminum (Al) Y-Channel Primer Chamber Assemblies (PCAs). Volume 1; Technical Assessment Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Technical Fellow for Propulsion, requested a technical assessment of the performance improvement achieved by the introduction of the stainless steel (SS) V-channel compared to the aluminum (Al) Y-channel Primer Chamber Assembly (PCA) design. The SS V-channel PCA was developed for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project. The principle focus of the assessment was to measure the transient temperature at the booster interface with both designs. This document contains the findings of the assessment.

  1. Current Scientific Impact of Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in the Scopus Database (1960-2014).

    PubMed

    Spiroski, Mirko

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze current scientific impact of Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in the Scopus Database (1960-2014). Affiliation search of the Scopus database was performed on November 23, 2014 in order to identify published papers from the Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje (UC&M), Republic of Macedonia. A total number of 3960 articles (3055 articles from UC&M, 861 articles from Faculty of Medicine, UC&M, and 144 articles from Faculty of Pharmacy, UC&M) were selected for analysis (1960-2014). SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) and h-index were calculated from the Scopus database. The number of published papers was sharply increased with maximum of 379 papers in 2012 year. The largest number of papers has been published in Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Journal of Molecular Structure, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Acta Pharmecutica, and Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. The biggest SJR and SNIP has journal Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. First three places of the top ten authors belong to Dimirovski GM, Gavrilovska L, and Gusev M. Top three places based on Scopus h-index (total number of published papers) belong to Kocarev L, Stafilov T, and Polenakovic M. The majority of papers originate from UC&M, but significant numbers of papers are affiliated to Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Institute of Chemistry as members of UC&M, as well as Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Articles are the most dominant type of documents followed by conference papers, and review articles. Medicine is the most represented subject. Officials of the Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje should undertake more effective and proactive policies for journal publishers and their Editorial Boards in order to include more journals from UC&M in the Scopus database.

  2. Current Scientific Impact of Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in the Scopus Database (1960-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Spiroski, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze current scientific impact of Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in the Scopus Database (1960-2014). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Affiliation search of the Scopus database was performed on November 23, 2014 in order to identify published papers from the Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje (UC&M), Republic of Macedonia. A total number of 3960 articles (3055 articles from UC&M, 861 articles from Faculty of Medicine, UC&M, and 144 articles from Faculty of Pharmacy, UC&M) were selected for analysis (1960-2014). SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) and h-index were calculated from the Scopus database. RESULTS: The number of published papers was sharply increased with maximum of 379 papers in 2012 year. The largest number of papers has been published in Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Journal of Molecular Structure, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Acta Pharmecutica, and Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. The biggest SJR and SNIP has journal Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. First three places of the top ten authors belong to Dimirovski GM, Gavrilovska L, and Gusev M. Top three places based on Scopus h-index (total number of published papers) belong to Kocarev L, Stafilov T, and Polenakovic M. The majority of papers originate from UC&M, but significant numbers of papers are affiliated to Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Institute of Chemistry as members of UC&M, as well as Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Articles are the most dominant type of documents followed by conference papers, and review articles. Medicine is the most represented subject. CONCLUSION: Officials of the Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje should undertake more effective and proactive policies for journal publishers and their Editorial Boards in order to include more journals from UC&M in the Scopus database. PMID:27275188

  3. Novel synthetic (S,S) and (R,R)-secoisolariciresinol diglucosides (SDGs) protect naked plasmid and genomic DNA From gamma radiation damage.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Om P; Pietrofesa, Ralph; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2014-07-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is the major lignan in wholegrain flaxseed. However, extraction methods are complex and are associated with low yield and high costs. Using a novel synthetic pathway, our group succeeded in chemically synthesizing SDG (S,S and R,R enantiomers), which faithfully recapitulates the properties of their natural counterparts, possessing strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. This study further extends initial findings by now investigating the DNA-radioprotective properties of the synthetic SDG enantiomers compared to the commercial SDG. DNA radioprotection was assessed by cell-free systems such as: (a) plasmid relaxation assay to determine the extent of the supercoiled (SC) converted to open-circular (OC) plasmid DNA (pBR322) after exposure of the plasmid to gamma radiation; and (b) determining the extent of genomic DNA fragmentation. Exposure of plasmid DNA to 25 Gy of γ radiation resulted in decreased supercoiled form and increased open-circular form, indicating radiation-induced DNA damage. Synthetic SDG (S,S) and SDG (R,R), and commercial SDG at concentrations of 25-250 μM significantly and equipotently reduced the radiation-induced supercoiled to open-circular plasmid DNA in a dose-dependent conversion. In addition, exposure of calf thymus DNA to 50 Gy of gamma radiation resulted in DNA fragments of low-molecular weight (<6,000 bps), which was prevented in a dose-dependence manner by all synthetic and natural SDG enantomers, at concentrations as low as 0.5 μM. These novel results demonstrated that synthetic SDG (S,S) and SDG (R,R) isomers and commercial SDG possess DNA-radioprotective properties. Such properties along with their antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, reported earlier, suggest that SDGs are promising candidates for radioprotection for normal tissue damage as a result of accidental exposure during radiation therapy for cancer treatment.

  4. Novel Synthetic (S,S) and (R,R)-Secoisolariciresinol Diglucosides (SDGs) Protect Naked Plasmid and Genomic DNA From Gamma Radiation Damage

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Om P.; Pietrofesa, Ralph; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2014-01-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is the major lignan in wholegrain flaxseed. However, extraction methods are complex and are associated with low yield and high costs. Using a novel synthetic pathway, our group succeeded in chemically synthesizing SDG (S,S and R,R enantiomers), which faithfully recapitulates the properties of their natural counterparts, possessing strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. This study further extends initial findings by now investigating the DNA-radioprotective properties of the synthetic SDG enantiomers compared to the commercial SDG. DNA radioprotection was assessed by cell-free systems such as: (a) plasmid relaxation assay to determine the extent of the supercoiled (SC) converted to open-circular (OC) plasmid DNA (pBR322) after exposure of the plasmid to gamma radiation; and (b) determining the extent of genomic DNA fragmentation. Exposure of plasmid DNA to 25 Gy of γ radiation resulted in decreased supercoiled form and increased open-circular form, indicating radiation-induced DNA damage. Synthetic SDG (S,S) and SDG (R,R), and commercial SDG at concentrations of 25–250 μM significantly and equipotently reduced the radiation-induced supercoiled to open-circular plasmid DNA in a dose-dependent conversion. In addition, exposure of calf thymus DNA to 50 Gy of gamma radiation resulted in DNA fragments of low-molecular weight (<6,000 bps), which was prevented in a dose-dependence manner by all synthetic and natural SDG enantomers, at concentrations as low as 0.5 μM. These novel results demonstrated that synthetic SDG (S,S) and SDG (R,R) isomers and commercial SDG possess DNA-radioprotective properties. Such properties along with their antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, reported earlier, suggest that SDGs are promising candidates for radioprotection for normal tissue damage as a result of accidental exposure during radiation therapy for cancer treatment. PMID:24945894

  5. Repellent and deterrent effects of SS220, Picaridin, and Deet suppress human blood feeding by Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Phlebotomus papatasi.

    PubMed

    Klun, Jerome A; Khrimian, Ashot; Debboun, Mustapha

    2006-01-01

    A series of behavioral tests with Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles stephensi Liston, mosquitoes, and the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli in the presence of Deet, SS220, and Picaridin topically applied to the skin of human volunteers showed that the insects were deterred from feeding on and repelled from surfaces emanating the compounds. When offered a 12- or 24-cm2 area of skin, one-half treated with compound and one-half untreated, the insects fed almost exclusively on untreated skin. The sand flies and mosquitoes did not at any time physically contact chemically treated surfaces. When treated and untreated skin areas were covered with cloth, insects contacted, landed, and bit only through cloth covering untreated skin. These observations provided evidence that the compounds deterred feeding and repelled insects from treated surfaces primarily as a result of olfactory sensing. When cloth, one-half untreated and one-half treated with chemical, was placed over untreated skin, insects only touched and specifically bit through the untreated cloth. This showed that the activity of the chemicals does not involve a chemical x skin interaction. In the presence of any of the three chemicals, no matter how they were presented to the insects, overall population biting activity was reduced by about one-half relative to controls. This reduction showed a true repellent effect for the compounds. Results clearly showed that Deet, SS220, and Picaridin exert repellent and deterrent effects upon the behavior of mosquitoes and sand flies. Heretofore, the combined behavioral effects of these compounds upon mosquito and sand fly behavior were unknown. Moreover, protection afforded by Deet, SS220, and Picaridin against the feeding of these three disease vectors on humans is mechanistically a consequence of the two chemical effects.

  6. Occupancy of Norepinephrine Transporter by Duloxetine in Human Brains Measured by Positron Emission Tomography with (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Sho; Takano, Harumasa; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Nagashima, Tomohisa; Takahata, Keisuke; Kubota, Manabu; Kitamura, Soichiro; Ishii, Tatsuya; Ichise, Masanori; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Shimada, Hitoshi; Mimura, Masaru; Meyer, Jeffrey H; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2017-12-01

    The norepinephrine transporter in the brain has been targeted in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Duloxetine is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that has been widely used for the treatment of depression. However, the relationship between dose and plasma concentration of duloxetine and norepinephrine transporter occupancy in the human brain has not been determined. In this study, we examined norepinephrine transporter occupancy by different doses of duloxetine. We calculated norepinephrine transporter occupancies from 2 positron emission tomography scans using (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2 before and after a single oral dose of duloxetine (20 mg, n = 3; 40 mg, n = 3; 60 mg, n =2). Positron emission tomography scans were performed from 120 to 180 minutes after an i.v. bolus injection of (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2. Venous blood samples were taken to measure the plasma concentration of duloxetine just before and after the second positron emission tomography scan. Norepinephrine transporter occupancy by duloxetine was 29.7% at 20 mg, 30.5% at 40 mg, and 40.0% at 60 mg. The estimated dose of duloxetine inducing 50% norepinephrine transporter occupancy was 76.8 mg, and the estimated plasma drug concentration inducing 50% norepinephrine transporter occupancy was 58.0 ng/mL. Norepinephrine transporter occupancy by clinical doses of duloxetine was approximately 30% to 40% in human brain as estimated using positron emission tomography with (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  7. Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in renal fibrosis promoted by hypochlorite-modified albumin in a remnant kidney model and protective effects of antioxidant peptide SS-31.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hao; Liu, Yan-Jun; Liu, Zong-Rui; Tang, Dong-Dong; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Chen, Yi-Hua; Zhou, Ru-Ning; Chen, Si-Qi; Niu, Hong-Xin

    2017-06-05

    Oxidative stress aggravates renal fibrosis, a pathway involved in almost all forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the underlying mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of renal oxidative stress has not been completely elucidated. In this study, we explored the role and mechanism of hypochlorite-modified albumin (HOCl-alb) in mediating oxidative stress and fibrotic response in a remnant-kidney rat model. Five-sixths nephrectomy (5/6 NX) was performed on the rats and then the animals were randomly assigned to intravenous treatment with either vehicle alone, or HOCl-rat serum albumin (RSA) in the presence or absence of SS-31 (administered intraperitoneally). A sham-operation control group was set up concurrently. Compared with the control group, 5/6 NX animals displayed marked mitochondrial (mt) dysfunction, as evidenced by decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), ATP production, mtDNA copy number alterations and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity, release of cytochrome C (Cyto C) from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, and increase of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in renal tissues. They also displayed increased levels of HOCl-alb in both plasma and renal tissues. These changes were accompanied by accumulation of extracellular matrix, worsened proteinuria, deteriorated renal function, and a marked increase of macrophage infiltration along with up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expression. HOCl-alb challenge further exacerbated the above biological effects in 5/6 NX animals, but these adverse effects were prevented by administration of SS-31, a mitochondrial targeted antioxidant peptide. These data suggest that accumulation of HOCl-alb may promote renal inflammation and fibrosis, probably related to mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction and that the mitochondrial targeted peptide SS-31 might be a novel therapy for renal fibrosis and chronic renal failure

  8. Production of Biogenic Mn Oxides by Leptothrix discophora SS-1 in a Chemically Defined Growth Medium and Evaluation of Their Pb Adsorption Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Yarrow M.; Lion, Leonard W.; Ghiorse, William C.; Shuler, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    Biogenic Mn oxides were produced by the bacterium Leptothrix discophora SS-1 (= ATCC 3182) in a chemically defined mineral salts medium, and the Pb binding and specific surface area of these oxides were characterized. Growth of SS-1 in the defined medium with pyruvate as a carbon and energy source required the addition of vitamin B12. Complete oxidation of Mn(II) within 60 h required the addition of ≥0.1 μM FeSO4. Pb adsorption isotherms were determined for the biogenic Mn oxides (and associated cells with their extracellular polymer) and compared to the Pb adsorption isotherms of cells and exopolymer alone, as well as to abiotic Mn oxides. The Pb adsorption to cells and exopolymer with biogenic Mn oxides (0.8 mmol of Mn per g) at pH 6.0 and 25°C was 2 orders of magnitude greater than the Pb adsorption to cells and exopolymer alone (on a dry weight basis). The Pb adsorption to the biogenic Mn oxide was two to five times greater than the Pb adsorption to a chemically precipitated abiotic Mn oxide and several orders of magnitude greater than the Pb adsorption to two commercially available crystalline MnO2 minerals. The N2 Brunauer-Emmet-Teller specific surface areas of the biogenic Mn oxide and fresh Mn oxide precipitate (224 and 58 m2/g, respectively) were significantly greater than those of the commercial Mn oxide minerals (0.048 and 4.7 m2/g). The Pb adsorption capacity of the biogenic Mn oxide also exceeded that of a chemically precipitated colloidal hydrous Fe oxide under similar solution conditions. These results show that amorphous biogenic Mn oxides similar to those produced by SS-1 may play a significant role in the control of trace metal phase distribution in aquatic systems. PMID:9872777

  9. Studying Different Binding and Intracellular Delivery Efficiency of ssDNA Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Their Effects on LC3-Related Autophagy in Renal Mesangial Cells via miRNA-382.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guobao; Zhao, Tingting; Wang, Leyu; Hu, Bianxiang; Darabi, Ali; Lin, Jiansheng; Xing, Malcolm M Q; Qiu, Xiaozhong

    2015-11-25

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been used to deliver single-stranded (ssDNA). ssDNA in oligonucleotide can act as an inhibitor of microRNA to regulate cellular functions. However, these ssDNA are difficult to bind carbon nanotubes with low transferring efficiency to cells. To this end, we designed ssDNA with regulatory and functional units to form ssDNA-SWCNT hybrids to study their binding effects and transferring efficiency. The functional unit on ssDNA mimics the inhibitor (MI) of miRNA-382, which plays a crucial role in the progress of many diseases such as renal interstitial fibrosis. After verification of overexpression of miRNA-382 in a coculture system, we designed oligonucleotide sequences (GCG)5-MI, (TAT)5-MI, and N23-MI as regulatory units added to the 5'-terminal end of the functional DNA fragment, respectively. These regulatory units lead to different secondary structures and thus exhibit different affinity ability to SWCNTs, and finally decide their deliver efficacy to cells. Autophagy, apoptosis and necrosis were observed in renal mesangial cells.

  10. Structural characterization of sputter-deposited SS304+x aluminum (x = 0, 4, 7 and 10 wt.%) coatings and mechanically milled titanium, zirconium and hafnium powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelam, Uma Maheswara Rao

    Study of the metastable phases obtained by non-equilibrium processing techniques has come a long way during the past five decades. New metastable phases have often given new perspectives to the research on synthesis of novel materials systems. Metastable materials produced by two non-equilibrium processing methods were studied for this dissertation---304-type austenitic stainless steel (SS304 or Fe-18Cr-8Ni)+aluminum coatings produced by plasma enhanced magnetron sputter-deposition (PEMS) and nanocrystalline Ti, Zr and Hf powders processed by mechanical milling (MM). The objective of the study was to understand the crystallographic and microstructural aspects of these materials. Four SS304+Al coatings with a nominal Al percentages of 0, 4, 7 and 10 wt.% in the coatings were deposited on an SS304 substrate by PEMS using SS304 and Al targets. The as-deposited coatings were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and three-dimensional atom probe microscopy (3DAP). Surface morphology and chemical analysis were studied by SEM. Phase identification was carried out by XRD and TEM. The microstructural features of all the coatings, as observed in the TEM, consisted of columnar grains with the columnar grain width (a measure of grain size) increasing with an increase in the Al content. The coatings had grains with average grain sizes of about 100, 290, 320 and 980 nm, respectively for 0, 4, 7 and 10 wt.% Al. The observed grain structures and increase in grain size were related to substrate temperature during deposition. XRD results indicated that the Al-free coating consisted of the non-equilibrium ferrite and sigma phases. In the 4Al, 7Al and 10Al coatings, equilibrium ferrite and B2 phases were observed but no sigma phase was found. In 10Al coating, we were able to demonstrate experimentally using 3DAP studies that NiAl phase formation is preferred over the FeAl phase at nano scale. During

  11. First report of the presence of L1014S Knockdown-resistance mutation in Anopheles gambiae s.s and Anopheles coluzzii from Togo, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Djègbè, Innocent; Akoton, Romaric; Tchigossou, Genevieve; Ahadji-Dabla, Koffi Mensah; Atoyebi, Seun Michael; Adéoti, Razack; Zeukeng, Francis; Ketoh, Guillaume Koffivi; Djouaka, Rousseau

    2018-01-01

    Background: To optimize the success of insecticide-based malaria control intervention, knowledge of the distribution of Anopheles gambiae species and insecticide resistance mechanisms is necessary. This paper reported an updated data on pyrethroids/DDT resistance in the An. gambiae s.l population from Togo.  Methods: From December 2013 to April 2015, females of indoor-resting An. gambiae s.l were captured in three locations belonging to three different ecological zones. Resistance to DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was screened in F1 progeny of collected mosquitoes using WHO susceptibility tests. The identification of species of An. gambiae complex and the detection of kdr and ace.1 R allele were carried out using DNA-based molecular techniques. Results: An. gambiae from Kovié and Nangbéto were highly resistant to DDT and permethrin with mortalities rate ranging from 0.83% to 1.58% for DDT and zero to 8.54% for permethrin. Mosquitoes collected in Nangbéto displayed 81.53% mortality with deltamethrin. An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s were found in sympatry in Nangbéto and Mango . The allelic frequency of L1014F was high, ranging from 66 to 100% in both An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s . For the first time we detected the L1014S allele in both An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. from Togo at the frequency ranging from 5% to 13% in all the sites. The kdr N1575Y was present at various frequencies in both species ranging from 10% to 45%. Both An. gambiae s.s. and An. coluzzii shared the ace1 R mutation in all investigated sites with allelic frequency ranging from 4% to 16%. Conclusion: These results showed that multiple mutations are involved in insecticides resistance in An. gambiae populations from Togo including the kdr L1014F, L1014S, and N1575Y and ace.1 R G119S mutations.

  12. Hypothalamic expression of KiSS-1 system and gonadotropin-releasing effects of kisspeptin in different reproductive states of the female Rat.

    PubMed

    Roa, J; Vigo, E; Castellano, J M; Navarro, V M; Fernández-Fernández, R; Casanueva, F F; Dieguez, C; Aguilar, E; Pinilla, L; Tena-Sempere, M

    2006-06-01

    Kisspeptins, products of the KiSS-1 gene with ability to bind G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54), have been recently identified as major gatekeepers of reproductive function with ability to potently activate the GnRH/LH axis. Yet, despite the diversity of functional states of the female gonadotropic axis, pharmacological characterization of this effect has been mostly conducted in pubertal animals or adult male rodents, whereas similar studies have not been thoroughly conducted in the adult female. In this work, we evaluated maximal LH and FSH secretory responses to kisspeptin-10, as well as changes in sensitivity and hypothalamic expression of KiSS-1 and GPR54 genes, in different physiological and experimental models in the adult female rat. Kisspeptin-10 (1 nmol, intracerebroventricular) was able to elicit robust LH bursts at all phases of the estrous cycle, with maximal responses at estrus; yet, in diestrus LH, responses to kisspeptin were detected at doses as low as 0.1 pmol. In contrast, high doses of kisspeptin only stimulated FSH secretion at diestrus. Removal of ovarian sex steroids did not blunt the ability of kisspeptin to further elicit stimulated LH and FSH secretion, but restoration of maximal responses required replacement with estradiol and progesterone. Finally, despite suppressed basal levels, LH and FSH secretory responses to kisspeptin were preserved in pregnant and lactating females, although the magnitude of LH bursts and the sensitivity to kisspeptin were much higher in pregnant dams. Interestingly, hypothalamic KiSS-1 gene expression significantly increased during pregnancy, whereas GPR54 mRNA levels remained unaltered. In summary, our current data document for the first time the changes in hypothalamic expression of KiSS-1 system and the gonadotropic effects (maximal responses and sensitivity) of kisspeptin in different functional states of the female reproductive axis. The present data may pose interesting implications in light of the

  13. First report of the presence of L1014S Knockdown-resistance mutation in Anopheles gambiae s.s and Anopheles coluzzii from Togo, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Djègbè, Innocent; Akoton, Romaric; Tchigossou, Genevieve; Ahadji-Dabla, Koffi Mensah; Atoyebi, Seun Michael; Adéoti, Razack; Zeukeng, Francis; Ketoh, Guillaume Koffivi; Djouaka, Rousseau

    2018-01-01

    Background: To optimize the success of insecticide-based malaria control intervention, knowledge of the distribution of Anopheles gambiae species and insecticide resistance mechanisms is necessary. This paper reported an updated data on pyrethroids/DDT resistance in the An. gambiae s.l population from Togo.  Methods: From December 2013 to April 2015, females of indoor-resting An. gambiae s.l were captured in three locations belonging to three different ecological zones. Resistance to DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was screened in F1 progeny of collected mosquitoes using WHO susceptibility tests. The identification of species of An. gambiae complex and the detection of kdr and ace.1 R allele were carried out using DNA-based molecular techniques. Results: An. gambiae from Kovié and Nangbéto were highly resistant to DDT and permethrin with mortalities rate ranging from 0.83% to 1.58% for DDT and zero to 8.54% for permethrin. Mosquitoes collected in Nangbéto displayed 81.53% mortality with deltamethrin. An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s were found in sympatry in Nangbéto and Mango . The allelic frequency of L1014F was high, ranging from 66 to 100% in both An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. For the first time we detected the L1014S allele in both An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. from Togo at the frequency ranging from 5% to 13% in all the sites. The kdr N1575Y was present at various frequencies in both species ranging from 10% to 45%. Both An. gambiae s.s. and An. coluzzii shared the ace1 R mutation in all investigated sites with allelic frequency ranging from 4% to 16%. Conclusion: These results showed that multiple mutations are involved in insecticides resistance in An. gambiae populations from Togo including the kdr L1014F, L1014S, and N1575Y and ace.1 R G119S mutations. PMID:29707654

  14. Local mechanical properties of Alloy 82/182 dissimilar weld joint between SA508 Gr.1a and F316 SS at RT and 320C

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Kim, Jin Weon

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the variations of local mechanical and microstructural properties in dissimilar metal weld joints consisting of the SA508 Gr.1a ferritic steel, Alloy 82/182 filler metal, and F316 austenitic stainless steel. Flat or round tensile specimens and transmission electron microscopy disks were taken from the base metals, welds, and heat-affected zones (HAZ) of the joints and tested at room temperature (RT) and/or at 320 C. The tensile test results indicated that the mechanical property was relatively uniform within each material zone, but varied considerably between different zones. Further, significant variations were observed both in the austenitic HAZ of F316more » SS and in the ferritic HAZ of SA508 Gr.1a. The yield stress (YS) of the weld metal was under-matched with respect to the HAZs of SA508 Gr.1a and F316 SS by 0.78 to 0.92, although the YS was over-matched with respect to both base metals. The minimum ductility occurred in the HAZ of SA508 Gr.1 at both test temperatures. The plastic instability stress also varied considerably in the weld joints, with minimum values occurring in the SA508 Gr.1a base metal at RT and in the HAZ of F316 SS at 320 C, suggesting that the probability of ductile failure caused by a unstable deformation at the Alloy 82/182 buttering layer is low. Within the HAZ of SA508 Gr.1a, the gradient of the YS and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) was significant, primarily because of the different microstructures produced by the phase transformation during the welding process. The increment of YS was unexpectedly high in the HAZ of F316 SS, which was explained by the strain hardening induced by a strain mismatch between the weldment and the base metal. This was confirmed by the transmission electron micrographs showing high dislocation density in the HAZ.« less

  15. Age-dependent oxidation of extracellular cysteine/cystine redox state (Eh(Cys/CySS)) in mouse lung fibroblasts is mediated by a decline in Slc7a11 expression.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuxuan; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D; Burke, Tom J; Otero, Javier; Roman, Jesse; Watson, Walter H

    2018-04-01

    Aging is associated with progressive oxidation of the extracellular environment. The redox state of human plasma, defined by the concentrations of cysteine (Cys) and cystine (CySS), becomes more oxidized as we age. Recently, we showed that fibroblasts isolated from the lungs of young and old mice retain this differential phenotype; old cells produce and maintain a more oxidizing extracellular redox potential (E h (Cys/CySS)) than young cells. Microarray analysis identified down-regulation of Slc7a11, the light subunit of the CySS/glutamate transporter, as a potential mediator of age-related oxidation in these cells. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanistic link between Slc7a11 expression and extracellular E h (Cys/CySS). Sulforaphane treatment or overexpression of Slc7a11 was used to increase Slc7a11 in lung fibroblasts from old mice, and sulfasalazine treatment or siRNA-mediated knock down was used to decrease Slc7a11 in young fibroblasts. Slc7a11 mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR, Slc7a11 activity was determined by measuring the rate of glutamate release, Cys, CySS, glutathione (GSH) and its disulfide (GSSG) were measured by HPLC, and E h (Cys/CySS) was calculated from the Nernst equation. The results showed that both E h (Cys/CySS) and E h (GSH/GSSG) were more oxidized in the conditioned media of old cells than in young cells. Up-regulation of Slc7a11 via overexpression or sulforaphane treatment restored extracellular E h (Cys/CySS) in cultures of old cells, whereas down-regulation reproduced the oxidizing E h (Cys/CySS) in young cells. Only sulforaphane treatment was able to increase total GSH and restore E h (GSH/GSSG), whereas overexpression, knock down and sulfasalazine had no effect on these parameters. In addition, inhibition of GSH synthesis with buthionine sulfoximine had no effect on the ability of cells to restore their extracellular redox potential in response to an oxidative challenge. In conclusion, our study

  16. G-quadruplex and G-rich sequence stimulate Pif1p-catalyzed downstream duplex DNA unwinding through reducing waiting time at ss/dsDNA junction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Wu, Wen-Qiang; Liu, Na-Nv; Duan, Xiao-Lei; Li, Ming; Dou, Shuo-Xing; Hou, Xi-Miao; Xi, Xu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Alternative DNA structures that deviate from B-form double-stranded DNA such as G-quadruplex (G4) DNA can be formed by G-rich sequences that are widely distributed throughout the human genome. We have previously shown that Pif1p not only unfolds G4, but also unwinds the downstream duplex DNA in a G4-stimulated manner. In the present study, we further characterized the G4-stimulated duplex DNA unwinding phenomenon by means of single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer. It was found that Pif1p did not unwind the partial duplex DNA immediately after unfolding the upstream G4 structure, but rather, it would dwell at the ss/dsDNA junction with a ‘waiting time’. Further studies revealed that the waiting time was in fact related to a protein dimerization process that was sensitive to ssDNA sequence and would become rapid if the sequence is G-rich. Furthermore, we identified that the G-rich sequence, as the G4 structure, equally stimulates duplex DNA unwinding. The present work sheds new light on the molecular mechanism by which G4-unwinding helicase Pif1p resolves physiological G4/duplex DNA structures in cells. PMID:27471032

  17. The outer-membrane export signal of Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a conserved C-terminal β-sandwich domain

    PubMed Central

    de Diego, Iñaki; Ksiazek, Miroslaw; Mizgalska, Danuta; Koneru, Lahari; Golik, Przemyslaw; Szmigielski, Borys; Nowak, Magdalena; Nowakowska, Zuzanna; Potempa, Barbara; Houston, John A.; Enghild, Jan J.; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Gao, Jinlong; Kwan, Ann H.; Trewhella, Jill; Dubin, Grzegorz; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In the recently characterized Type IX Secretion System (T9SS), the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) in secreted proteins functions as an outer membrane translocation signal for export of virulence factors to the cell surface in the Gram-negative Bacteroidetes phylum. In the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, the CTD is cleaved off by PorU sortase in a sequence-independent manner, and anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) is attached to many translocated proteins, thus anchoring them to the bacterial surface. Here, we solved the atomic structure of the CTD of gingipain B (RgpB) from P. gingivalis, alone and together with a preceding immunoglobulin-superfamily domain (IgSF). The CTD was found to possess a typical Ig-like fold encompassing seven antiparallel β-strands organized in two β-sheets, packed into a β-sandwich structure that can spontaneously dimerise through C-terminal strand swapping. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed no fixed orientation of the CTD with respect to the IgSF. By introducing insertion or substitution of residues within the inter-domain linker in the native protein, we were able to show that despite the region being unstructured, it nevertheless is resistant to general proteolysis. These data suggest structural motifs located in the two adjacent Ig-like domains dictate the processing of CTDs by the T9SS secretion pathway. PMID:27005013

  18. Serodiagnosis of sporotrichosis infection in cats by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a specific antigen, SsCBF, and crude exoantigens.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila Maria; Bernardes-Engemann, Andréa Reis; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Dias, Maria Adelaide Galvão; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2011-01-27

    The main objective of this study is to standardize an ELISA for the diagnosis of feline sporotrichosis. Sporothrix schenckii is the etiological agent of human and animal sporotrichosis. Cats may act as reservoirs for S. schenckii and can transmit the infection to humans by a bite or scratch. There are few methods for the serological diagnosis of fungal diseases in animals. In this paper, an ELISA test for the diagnosis of cat sporotrichosis is proposed, which detects S. schenckii-specific antibodies in feline sera. Two different kinds of antigens were used: "SsCBF", a specific molecule from S. schenckii that consists of a Con A-binding fraction derived from a peptido-rhamnomannan component of the cell wall, and a S. schenckii crude exoantigen preparation. The ELISA was developed, optimized, and evaluated using sera from 30 cats with proven sporotrichosis (by culture isolation); 22 sera from healthy feral cats from a zoonosis center were used as negative controls. SsCBF showed 90% sensitivity and 96% specificity in ELISA; while crude exoantigens demonstrated 96% sensitivity and 98% specificity. The ELISA assay described here would be a valuable screening tool for the detection of specific S. schenckii antibodies in cats with sporotrichosis. The assay is inexpensive, quick to perform, easy to interpret, and permits the diagnosis of feline sporotrichosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of water-soluble thiourea-formaldehyde (WTF) resin for stabilization/solidification (S/S) of heavy metal contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Liu, She-Jiang; Jiang, Jia-Yu; Wang, Shen; Guo, Yu-Peng; Ding, Hui

    2018-03-15

    Stabilization/Solidification (S/S) can be regarded as necessary for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. There is, however, solid agent is not very convenient to use. Water-soluble thiourea-formaldehyde (WTF) is a novel chelating agent, which has more practical applications. The process of WTF resin for S/S process of heavy metal contaminated soils was studied. Laboratory-prepared slurries, made of field soils spiked with Cd 2+ and Cr 6+ were treated with WTF resin. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) showed that with 2 wt% WTF, in the neutral condition of soil after treatment for 7 d, the leaching concentrations of Cd 2+ and Cr 6+ in contaminated soil were decreased by 80.3% and 92.6% respectively. Moreover, Tessier sequence extraction procedure showed WTF resin reduced the leaching concentration by transforming heavy metal from exchange form to organic form. The structure of WTF is obtained according to elemental analysis result and reaction mechanism. Through analysis of the infrared spectrogram of WTF and WTF heavy mental chelating precipitation, WTF can form stable chelate with heavy mental through coordination. The significant groups are hydroxyl, nitrogen and sulphur function groups in WTF mainly. Toxicology test revealed that the WTF resin is nontoxic to microorganism in the soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Geometric & radiometric vignetting associated with a 72-facet, off-axis, polygon mirror for swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everson, Michael; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Dobre, George

    2017-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has a broad range of applications in 2D and volumetric imaging of micron scale structures typically used on inaccessible objects such as the retina of the eye. This report focuses on Swept Source OCT (SS-OCT), favoured for its faster scanning speeds and therefore faster data acquisition (highly favourable when imaging live patients). SS-OCT relies on the scanning of a narrow laser line at speeds typically in excess of 100 kHz. We have employed ZemaxTM ray tracing software to simulate one method of splitting the spectrum of a broadband, near-infrared source, into its component wavelengths by reflecting the spectrum from an off-axis, 72-facet polygon mirror at a frequency of 48 kHz. We specifically addressed the geometric and radiometric vignetting associated with the reflected spectrum off an individual mirrored facet and how this may impose limitations to the incident beam size and hence lead to a loss in the power available from the source. It was found that for certain configurations up to 44% of the light was lost at the edges of the spectrum due to both radiometric and geometric vignetting, which may result in an effective swept range of <50 nm from an initial bandwidth of 100 nm. Our simulations account for real refractive errors and losses in the beam caused by lens aberrations, and produce a model of the sampling function of wavelength against time.

  1. PRP19 Transforms into a Sensor of RPA-ssDNA after DNA Damage and Drives ATR Activation via a Ubiquitin-Mediated Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Maréchal, Alexandre; Wu, Ching-Shyi; Yazinski, Stephanie A.; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Liu, Shizhou; Jiménez, Amanda E.; Jin, Jianping; Zou, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Summary PRP19 is a ubiquitin ligase involved in pre-mRNA splicing and the DNA damage response (DDR). While the role for PRP19 in splicing is well characterized, its role in the DDR remains elusive. Through a proteomic screen for proteins that interact with RPA-coated single-stranded DNA (RPA-ssDNA), we identified PRP19 as a sensor of DNA damage. PRP19 binds RPA directly and localizes to DNA damage sites via RPA, promoting RPA ubiquitylation in a DNA damage-induced manner. PRP19 facilitates the accumulation of ATRIP, the regulatory partner of the ATR kinase, at DNA damage sites. Depletion of PRP19 compromised the phosphorylation of ATR substrates, the recovery of stalled replication forks, and the progression of replication forks on damaged DNA. Importantly, PRP19 mutants that cannot bind RPA or function as an E3 ligase failed to support the ATR response, revealing that PRP19 drives ATR activation by acting as an RPA-ssDNA-sensing ubiquitin ligase during the DDR. PMID:24332808

  2. PRP19 transforms into a sensor of RPA-ssDNA after DNA damage and drives ATR activation via a ubiquitin-mediated circuitry.

    PubMed

    Maréchal, Alexandre; Li, Ju-Mei; Ji, Xiao Ye; Wu, Ching-Shyi; Yazinski, Stephanie A; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Liu, Shizhou; Jiménez, Amanda E; Jin, Jianping; Zou, Lee

    2014-01-23

    PRP19 is a ubiquitin ligase involved in pre-mRNA splicing and the DNA damage response (DDR). Although the role for PRP19 in splicing is well characterized, its role in the DDR remains elusive. Through a proteomic screen for proteins that interact with RPA-coated single-stranded DNA (RPA-ssDNA), we identified PRP19 as a sensor of DNA damage. PRP19 directly binds RPA and localizes to DNA damage sites via RPA, promoting RPA ubiquitylation in a DNA-damage-induced manner. PRP19 facilitates the accumulation of ATRIP, the regulatory partner of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase, at DNA damage sites. Depletion of PRP19 compromised the phosphorylation of ATR substrates, recovery of stalled replication forks, and progression of replication forks on damaged DNA. Importantly, PRP19 mutants that cannot bind RPA or function as an E3 ligase failed to support the ATR response, revealing that PRP19 drives ATR activation by acting as an RPA-ssDNA-sensing ubiquitin ligase during the DDR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 3D-FE Modeling of 316 SS under Strain-Controlled Fatigue Loading and CFD Simulation of PWR Surge Line

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Barua, Bipul; Listwan, Joseph

    In financial year 2017, we are focusing on developing a mechanistic fatigue model of surge line pipes for pressurized water reactors (PWRs). To that end, we plan to perform the following tasks: (1) conduct stress- and strain-controlled fatigue testing of surge-line base metal such as 316 stainless steel (SS) under constant, variable, and random fatigue loading, (2) develop cyclic plasticity material models of 316 SS, (3) develop one-dimensional (1D) analytical or closed-form model to validate the material models and to understand the mechanics associated with 316 SS cyclic hardening and/or softening, (4) develop three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models withmore » implementation of evolutionary cyclic plasticity, and (5) develop computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for thermal stratification, thermal-mechanical stress, and fatigue of example reactor components, such as a PWR surge line under plant heat-up, cool-down, and normal operation with/without grid-load-following. This semi-annual progress report presents the work completed on the above tasks for a 316 SS laboratory-scale specimen subjected to strain-controlled cyclic loading with constant, variable, and random amplitude. This is the first time that the accurate 3D-FE modeling of the specimen for its entire fatigue life, including the hardening and softening behavior, has been achieved. We anticipate that this work will pave the way for the development of a fully mechanistic-computer model that can be used for fatigue evaluation of safety-critical metallic components, which are traditionally evaluated by heavy reliance on time-consuming and costly test-based approaches. This basic research will not only help the nuclear reactor industry for fatigue evaluation of reactor components in a cost effective and less time-consuming way, but will also help other safety-related industries, such as aerospace, which is heavily dependent on test-based approaches, where a single full-scale fatigue test can

  4. Single-molecule FRET studies of the cooperative and non-cooperative binding kinetics of the bacteriophage T4 single-stranded DNA binding protein (gp32) to ssDNA lattices at replication fork junctions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonbae; Gillies, John P.; Jose, Davis; Israels, Brett A.; von Hippel, Peter H.; Marcus, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Gene 32 protein (gp32) is the single-stranded (ss) DNA binding protein of the bacteriophage T4. It binds transiently and cooperatively to ssDNA sequences exposed during the DNA replication process and regulates the interactions of the other sub-assemblies of the replication complex during the replication cycle. We here use single-molecule FRET techniques to build on previous thermodynamic studies of gp32 binding to initiate studies of the dynamics of the isolated and cooperative binding of gp32 molecules within the replication complex. DNA primer/template (p/t) constructs are used as models to determine the effects of ssDNA lattice length, gp32 concentration, salt concentration, binding cooperativity and binding polarity at p/t junctions. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and transition density plots (TDPs) are used to characterize the dynamics of the multi-step assembly pathway of gp32 at p/t junctions of differing polarity, and show that isolated gp32 molecules bind to their ssDNA targets weakly and dissociate quickly, while cooperatively bound dimeric or trimeric clusters of gp32 bind much more tightly, can ‘slide’ on ssDNA sequences, and exhibit binding dynamics that depend on p/t junction polarities. The potential relationships of these binding dynamics to interactions with other components of the T4 DNA replication complex are discussed. PMID:27694621

  5. Usefulness of free-breathing readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (RESOLVE) for detection of malignant liver tumors: comparison with single-shot echo-planar imaging (SS-EPI).

    PubMed

    Tokoro, Hirokazu; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Ohya, Ayumi; Ueda, Kazuhiko; Shiobara, Aya; Kitou, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Hitoshi; Kadoya, Masumi

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to clarify the usefulness of free-breathing readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (RESOLVE), which is multi-shot echo-planar imaging based on a 2D-navigator-based reacquisition technique, for detecting malignant liver tumor. In 77 patients with malignant liver tumors, free-breathing RESOLVE and respiratory-triggered single-shot echo-planar imaging (SS-EPI) at 3-T MR unit were performed. We set a scan time up to approximately 5 min (300s) before examination, measured actual scan time and assessed (1) susceptibility and (2) motion artifacts in the right and left liver lobes (3, no artifact; 1, marked), and (3) detectability of malignant liver tumors (3, good; 1, poor) using a 3-point scale. The median actual scan time of RESOLVE/SS-EPI was 365/423s. The median scores of each factor in RESOLVE/SS-EPI were as following in this order: (1) 3/2 (right lobe); 3/3 (left lobe), (2) 2/3 (right lobe); 1/2 (left lobe), and (3) 3/3, respectively. Significant differences were noted between RESOLVE and SS-EPI in all evaluated factors (P<0.05) except for susceptibility of left lobe and detectability of the lesions. Despite the effect of motion artifacts, RESOLVE provides a comparable detectability of the lesion and the advantage of reducing scanning time compared with SS-EPI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Meeting the complex needs of urban youth and their families through the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program: The “real world” meets evidence-informed care

    PubMed Central

    Small, Latoya; Jackson, Jerrold; Gopalan, Geetha; McKay, Mary McKernan

    2014-01-01

    Youth living in poverty face compounding familial and environmental challenges in utilizing effective community mental health services. They have ongoing stressors that increase their dropout rate in mental health service use. Difficulties also exist in staying engaged in services when they are involved with the child welfare system. This study examines the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program, developed across four broad conceptual categories related to parenting skills and family processes that form a multiple family group service delivery approach. A total of 321 families were enrolled in this randomized intervention study, assigned to either the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program or standard care services. Caregivers and their children randomly assigned to the experimental condition received a 16 week multiple family group intervention through their respective outpatient community mental health clinic. Data was collected at baseline, midtest (8 weeks), posttest (16 weeks), and 6 month follow-up. Major findings include high engagement in the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program, compared to standard services. Although child welfare status is not related to attendance, family stress and parental depression are also related to participant engagement in this multiple family group intervention. Involvement in the 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program resulted in improved effects for child behaviors. Lastly, no evidence of moderation effects on family stress, child welfare involvement, or parental needs were found. The 4Rs 2Ss Family Strengthening Program appeared able to engage families with more complex “real world” needs. PMID:26523115

  7. Short- and Long-Term Effects of CBT-I in Groups for School-Age Children Suffering From Chronic Insomnia: The KiSS-Program.

    PubMed

    Schlarb, Angelika A; Bihlmaier, Isabel; Velten-Schurian, Kerstin; Poets, Christian F; Hautzinger, Martin

    2018-01-01

    This intervention study evaluates the short- and long-term effects of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in groups for school-age children and their parents, named the KiSS-program. CBT-I was implemented in three sessions for children and three sessions for parents. All in all, 112 children with chronic childhood insomnia were randomly assigned to a wait-list (WL) control or treatment condition. According to subjective measures as well as objective wrist actigraphy, children in the CBT-I condition reported greater improvements in sleep behavior immediately after the treatment compared to the WL group. Improvements in sleep behavior after CBT-I persisted over the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up assessments. The present study is the first randomized controlled trial that provides evidence for the long-term effectiveness of CBT-I in treating school-age children with chronic insomnia.

  8. Combining metric episodes with semantic event concepts within the Symbolic and Sub-Symbolic Robotics Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Troy D.; McGhee, S.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the ongoing development of a robotic control architecture that inspired by computational cognitive architectures from the discipline of cognitive psychology. The Symbolic and Sub-Symbolic Robotics Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS) combines symbolic and sub-symbolic representations of knowledge into a unified control architecture. The new architecture leverages previous work in cognitive architectures, specifically the development of the Adaptive Character of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) and Soar. This paper details current work on learning from episodes or events. The use of episodic memory as a learning mechanism has, until recently, been largely ignored by computational cognitive architectures. This paper details work on metric level episodic memory streams and methods for translating episodes into abstract schemas. The presentation will include research on learning through novelty and self generated feedback mechanisms for autonomous systems.

  9. The effect of inhibitor sodium nitrate on pitting corrosion of dissimilar material weldment joint of stainless steel AISI 304 and mild steel SS 400

    SciTech Connect

    Hilca, B. R., E-mail: bangkithilca@yahoo.com; Triyono, E-mail: triyonomesin@uns.ac.id

    This study experimentally evaluated the effect of Sodium Nitrate inhibitor (NaNO{sub 3}) of 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% on NaCl 3.5% toward pitting corrosion of dissimilar metal welding joint between stainless steel AISI 304 and mild steel SS 400. Electrochemical corrosion was tested using potentiodynamic polarization. Further the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) conducted to analyze the specimen. Chemical composition analysis used Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS). The highest efficiency of sodium nitrate for ER 308 attained 63.8% and 64.89%for ER 309L. The specimen surface which observed through SEM showed decrease of pitting corrosion respectively with the addition of sodium nitrate contentmore » as inhibitor.« less

  10. High activity and stability of codon-optimized phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from Photobacterium profundum SS9 at low temperatures and its application for in vitro production of oxaloacetate.