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Sample records for zircon ion microprobe

  1. Zircon ion microprobe dating of high-grade rocks in Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Kroener, A.; Williams, I.S.; Compston, W.

    1987-11-01

    The high-grade gneisses of Sri Lanka display spectacular in-situ granulitization phenomena similar to those observed in southern India and of current interest for evolutionary models of the lower continental crust. The absolute ages of these rocks are poorly constrained and so, using the SHRIMP ion microprobe, the authors have analyzed small spots on zircons from upper amphibolite to granulite grade quartzitic and pelitic metasediments. Detrital grains from a metaquartzite of the Highland Group preserve premetamorphic U-Pb ages of between 3.17 and 2.4 Ga and indicate derivation of the sediment from an unidentified Archean source terrain. The Pb-loss patterns of thesemore » zircons and the other samples suggest severe disturbance at ca 1100 Ma ago, which the authors attribute to high-grade regional metamorphism. Two pelitic gneisses contain detrital zircons with ages up to 2.04 Ga and also record an approx. = 1100 Ma event that is also apparent from metamorphic rims around old cores and new zircon growth. A granite intrusive into the Highland Group granulites records an emplacement age of 1000-1100 Ma as well as metamorphic disturbance some 550 Ma ago but also contains older, crustally derived xenocrysts. Zircons from a metaquartzite xenolith within the granitoid Vijayan Complex are not older than approx. 1100 Ma; therefore the Vijayan is neither Archean in age nor acted as basement to the Highland Group, as previously proposed. The authors suggest that the Vijayan Complex formed significantly later than the Highland Group and that the two units were brought into contact through post-1.1 Ga thrusting. Although the granulitization phenomena in India and Sri Lanka are similar, the granulite event in Sri Lanka is not Archean in age but took place in the late Proterozoic.« less

  2. Thermal events documented in Hadean zircons by ion microprobe depth profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trail, Dustin; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Harrison, T. Mark

    2007-08-01

    We report the first U-Th-Pb ion microprobe depth profiles of four Hadean zircons from the Jack Hills and Mount Narryer supracrustal belts of the Narryer Gneiss Complex (NGC), Western Australia. This ultra-high spatial resolution technique probes the age and origin of sub-micron features in individual crystals that can record episodes of zircon growth. Near-surface grain dates of 2700 Ma or older are coincident with post-depositional growth/modification. Some ages may coincide with documented pre-deposition metamorphic events for the NGC and igneous emplacement at ca. 3700 Ma. Separate events that do not correlate in time with known geologic episodes prior to the preserved rock record are also present on pre-4000 Ma zircons. We find evidence for a ˜3.9 Ga event, which is coterminous within age uncertainty with one or several large basin-forming impacts (e.g. Nectaris) on the Moon attributed to the late heavy bombardment of the inner solar system.

  3. Zircon geochronology and ca. 400 Ma exhumation of Norwegian ultrahigh-pressure rocks: An ion microprobe and chemical abrasion study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Root, D.B.; Hacker, B.R.; Mattinson, J.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the formation and exhumation of the remarkable ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rocks of the Western Gneiss Region, Norway, hinges on precise determination of the time of eclogite recrystallization. We conducted detailed thermal ionization mass spectrometry, chemical abrasion analysis and sensitive high-resolution ion-microprobe analysis of zircons from four ultrahigh- and high-pressure (HP) rocks. Ion-microprobe analyses from the Flatraket eclogite yielded a broad range of apparently concordant Caledonian ages, suggesting long-term growth. In contrast, higher precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry analysis of zircon subject to combined thermal annealing and multi-step chemical abrasion yielded moderate Pb loss from the first (lowest temperature) abrasion step, possible minor Pb loss or minor growth at 400 Ma from the second step and a 407-404 Ma cluster of slightly discordant 206Pb/238U ages, most likely free from Pb loss, from the remaining abrasion steps. We interpret the latter to reflect zircon crystallization at ???405-400 Ma with minor discordance from inherited cores. Zircon crystallization occurred at eclogite-facies, possibly post-peak conditions, based on compositions of garnet inclusions in zircon as well as nearly flat HREE profiles and lack of Eu anomalies in zircon fractions subjected to chemical abrasion. These ages are significantly younger than the 425 Ma age often cited for western Norway eclogite recrystallization, implying faster rates of exhumation (>2.5-8.5 km/Myr), and coeval formation of eclogites across the UHP portion of the Western Gneiss Region. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. An ion microprobe study of individual zircon phenocrysts from voluminous post-caldera rhyolites of the Yellowstone caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, K. E.; Bindeman, I. N.; Schmitt, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    Following the formation of the Yellowstone caldera from the 640 ka supereruption of the Lava Creek Tuff (LCT), a voluminous episode of post-caldera volcanism filled the caldera with >600 km3 of low-δ18O rhyolite. Such low-δ18O signatures require remelting of 100s of km3 of hydrothermally altered (18O-depleted) rock in the shallow crust. We present a high resolution oxygen isotope and geochronology (U-Th and U-Pb) study of individual zircon crystals from seven of these voluminous post-caldera rhyolites in order to elucidate their genesis. Oxygen isotope and geochronology analyses of zircon were performed with an ion microprobe that enabled us to doubly fingerprint 25-30 µm diameter spots. Host groundmass glasses and coexisting quartz were analyzed in bulk for oxygen isotopes by laser fluorination. We find that zircons from the youngest (200-80 ka) post-caldera rhyolites have oxygen isotopic compositions that are in equilibrium with low-δ18O host groundmass glasses and quartz and are unzoned in oxygen and U-Th age. This finding is in contrast to prior work on older (500-250 ka) post-caldera rhyolites, which exhibit isotopic disequilibria and age zoning, including the presence of clearly inherited zircon cores. Average U-Th crystallization ages and δ18O zircon values for Pitchstone Plateau flow (81±7 ka, 2.8±0.2‰), West Yellowstone flow (118±8 ka, 2.8±0.1‰), Elephant Back flow (175±22 ka, 2.7±0.2‰) and Tuff of Bluff Point (176±20 ka, 2.7±0.1‰) are overlapping or nearly overlapping in age and identical in oxygen isotope composition within uncertainty (2 SE). New U-Pb geochronology and oxygen isotope data for the North Biscuit Basin flow establish that it has an age (188±33 ka) and δ18O signature (2.8±0.2‰) that is distinctive of the youngest post-caldera rhyolites. Conversely, the South Biscuit Basin flow has a heterogeneous zircon population with ages that range from 550-250 ka. In this unit, older and larger (200-400 µm) zircons have more

  5. CL-imaging and ion microprobe dating of single zircons from a high-grade rock from the Central Zone, Limpopo Belt, South Africa: Evidence for a single metamorphic event at ˜2.0 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouri, H.; Brandl, G.; Whitehouse, M.; de Waal, S.; Guiraud, M.

    2008-02-01

    The combination of ion microprobe dating and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging of zircons from a high-grade rock from the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt were used to constrain the age of metamorphic events in the area. Zircon grains extracted from an orthopyroxene-gedrite-bearing granulite were prepared for single crystal CL-imaging and ion microprobe dating. The grains display complex zoning when using SEM-based CL-imaging. A common feature in most grains is the presence of a distinct core with a broken oscillatory zoned structure, which clearly appears to be the remnant of an original grain of igneous origin. This core is overgrown by an unzoned thin rim measuring about 10-30 μm in diameter, which is considered as new zircon growth during a single metamorphic event. Selected domains of the zircon grains were analysed for U, Pb and Th isotopic composition using a CAMECA IMS 1270 ion microprobe (Nordsim facility). Most of the grains define a near-concordant cluster with some evidence of Pb loss. The most concordant ages of the cores yielded a weighted mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of 2689 ± 15 (2 σ) Ma, interpreted as the age of the protolith of an igneous origin. The unzoned overgrowths of the zircon grains yielded a considerably younger weighted mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of ˜2006.5 ± 8.0 Ma (2 σ), and these data are interpreted to reflect closely the age of the ubiquitous high-grade metamorphic event in the Central Zone. This study shows clearly, based on both the internal structure of the zircons and the data obtained by ion microprobe dating, that only a single metamorphic event is recorded by the studied 2.69 Ga old rocks, and we found no evidence of an earlier metamorphic event at ˜2.5 Ga as postulated earlier by some workers.

  6. Temporal and spatial distribution of Paleozoic metamorphism in the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge and Inner Piedmont delimited by ion microprobe U-Pb ages of metamorphic zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merschat, Arthur J.; Bream, Brendan R.; Huebner, Matthew T.; Hatcher, Robert D.; Miller, Calvin F.

    2017-01-01

    Ion microprobe U-Pb zircon rim ages from 39 samples from across the accreted terranes of the central Blue Ridge, eastward across the Inner Piedmont, delimit the timing and spatial extent of superposed metamorphism in the southern Appalachian orogen. Metamorphic zircon rims are 10–40 µm wide, mostly unzoned, and dark gray to black or bright white in cathodoluminescence, and truncate and/or embay interior oscillatory zoning. Black unzoned and rounded or ovoid-shaped metamorphic zircon morphologies also occur. Th/U values range from 0.01 to 1.4, with the majority of ratios less than 0.1. Results of 206Pb/238U ages, ±2% discordant, range from 481 to 305 Ma. Clustering within these data reveals that the Blue Ridge and Inner Piedmont terranes were affected by three tectonothermal events: (1) 462–448 Ma (Taconic); (2) 395–340 Ma (Acadian and Neoacadian); and (3) 335–322 Ma, related to the early phase of the Alleghanian orogeny. By combining zircon rim ages with metamorphic isograds and other published isotopic ages, we identify the thermal architecture of the southern Appalachian orogen: juxtaposed and superposed metamorphic domains have younger ages to the east related to the marginward addition of terranes, and these domains can serve as a proxy to delimit terrane accretion. Most 462–448 Ma ages occur in the western and central Blue Ridge and define a continuous progression from greenschist to granulite facies that identifies the intact Taconic core. The extent of 462–448 Ma metamorphism indicates that the central Blue Ridge and Tugaloo terranes were accreted to the western Blue Ridge during the Taconic orogeny. Zircon rim ages in the Inner Piedmont span almost 100 m.y., with peaks at 395–385, 376–340, and 335–322 Ma, and delimit the Acadian-Neoacadian and Alleghanian metamorphic core. The timing and distribution of metamorphism in the Inner Piedmont are consistent with the Devonian to Mississippian oblique collision of the Carolina superterrane

  7. Sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) detrital zircon geochronology provides new evidence for a hidden neoproterozoic foreland basin to the Grenville Orogen in the eastern Midwest, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santos, J.O.S.; Hartmann, L.A.; McNaughton, N.J.; Easton, R. M.; Rea, R.G.; Potter, P.E.

    2002-01-01

    A sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) was used in combination with backscattered electron (BSE) and cathodoluminescence (CL) images to determine the age of detrital zircons from sandstones in the Neoproterozoic Middle Run Formation of the eastern Midwest, United States. Eleven samples from seven drill cores of the upper part of the Middle Run Formation contain detrital zircons ranging in age from 1030 to 1982 Ma (84 analyses), with six distinctive modes at 1.96, 1.63, 1.47, 1.34, 1.15, and 1.08 Ga. This indicates that most, but not all, of the zircon at the top of the Middle Run Formation was derived from the Grenville Orogen. The youngest concordant detrital zircon yields a maximum age of 1048 ?? 22 Ma for the Middle Run Formation, indicating that the formation is younger than ca. 1026 Ma minus the added extra time needed for later uplift, denudation, thrusting, erosion, and transport to southwestern Ohio. Thus, as judged by proximity, composition, thickness, and geochronology, it is a North American equivalent to other Neoproterozoic Grenvillian-derived basins, such as the Torridon Group of Scotland and the Palmeiral Formation of South America. An alternate possibility, although much less likely in our opinion, is that it could be much younger, any time between 1048 ?? 22 Ma and the deposition of the Middle Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone at about 510 Ma, and still virtually almost all derived from rocks of the Grenville Orogen.

  8. Diachronous evolution of volcano-sedimentary basins north of the Congo craton: Insights from U Pb ion microprobe dating of zircons from the Poli, Lom and Yaoundé Groups (Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toteu, Sadrack Félix; Penaye, Joseph; Deloule, Etienne; Van Schmus, William Randall; Tchameni, Rigobert

    2006-04-01

    Ion microprobe U-Pb dating of zircons from Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary sequences in Cameroon north of the Congo craton is presented. For the Poli basin, the depositional age is constrained between 700-665 Ma; detrital sources comprise ca. 920, 830, 780 and 736 Ma magmatic zircons. In the Lom basin, the depositional age is constrained between 613 and 600 Ma, and detrital sources include Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic, late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic (1100-950 Ma), and Neoproterozoic (735, 644 and 613 Ma) zircons. The Yaoundé Group is probably younger than 625 Ma, and detrital sources include Palaeoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic zircons. The depositional age of the Mahan metavolcano-sedimentary sequence is post-820 Ma, and detrital sources include late Mesoproterozoic (1070 Ma) and early Neoproterozoic volcanic rocks (824 Ma). The following conclusions can be made from these data. (1) The three basins evolved during the Pan-African event but are significantly different in age and tectonic setting; the Poli is a pre- to syn-collisional basin developed upon, or in the vicinity of young magmatic arcs; the Lom basin is post-collisional and intracontinental and developed on old crust; the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Yaoundé Group resulted from rapid tectonic burial and subsequent collision between the Congo craton and the Adamawa-Yade block. (2) Late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic inheritance reflects the presence of magmatic event(s) of this age in west-central Africa.

  9. Trace Element Zoning and Incipient Metamictization in a Lunar Zircon: Application of Three Microprobe Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wopenka, Brigitte; Jollife, Bradley L.; Zinner, Ernst; Kremser, Daniel T.

    1996-01-01

    We have determined major (Si, Zr, Hf), minor (Al, Y, Fe, P), and trace element (Ca, Sc, Ti, Ba, REE, Th, U) concentrations and Raman spectra of a zoned, 200 microns zircon grain in lunar sample 14161,7069, a quartz monzodiorite breccia collected at the Apollo 14 site. Analyses were obtained on a thin section in situ with an ion microprobe, an electron microprobe, and a laser Raman microprobe. The zircon grain is optically zoned in birefringence, a reflection of variable (incomplete) metamictization resulting from zo- nation in U and Th concentrations. Variations in the concentrations of U and Th correlate strongly with those of other high-field-strength trace elements and with changes in Raman spectral parameters. Concentrations of U and Th range from 21 to 55 ppm and 6 to 31 ppm, respectively, and correlate with lower Raman peak intensities, wider Raman peaks, and shifted Si-O peak positions. Concentrations of heavy rare earth elements range over a factor of three to four and correlate with intensities of fluorescence peaks. Correlated variations in trace element concentrations reflect the original magmatic differentiation of the parental melt approx. 4 b.y. ago. Degradation of the zircon structure, as reflected by the observed Raman spectral parameters, has occurred in this sample over a range of alpha-decay event dose from approx. 5.2 x 10(exp 14) to 1.4 x 10(exp 15) decay events per milligram of zircon, as calculated from the U and Th concentrations. This dose is well below the approx. 10(exp 16) events per milligram cumulative dose that causes complete metamictization and indicates that laser Raman microprobe spectroscopy is an analytical technique that is very sensitive to the radiation-induced damage in zircon.

  10. Secondary ion collection and transport system for ion microprobe

    DOEpatents

    Ward, James W.; Schlanger, Herbert; McNulty, Jr., Hugh; Parker, Norman W.

    1985-01-01

    A secondary ion collection and transport system, for use with an ion microprobe, which is very compact and occupies only a small working distance, thereby enabling the primary ion beam to have a short focal length and high resolution. Ions sputtered from the target surface by the primary beam's impact are collected between two arcuate members having radii of curvature and applied voltages that cause only ions within a specified energy band to be collected. The collected ions are accelerated and focused in a transport section consisting of a plurality of spaced conductive members which are coaxial with and distributed along the desired ion path. Relatively high voltages are applied to alternate transport sections to produce accelerating electric fields sufficient to transport the ions through the section to an ion mass analyzer, while lower voltages are applied to the other transport sections to focus the ions and bring their velocity to a level compatible with the analyzing apparatus.

  11. Ion microprobe, electron microprobe and cathodoluminescence data for Allende inclusions with emphasis on plagioclase chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheon, I. D.; Steele, I. M.; Smith, J. V.; Clayton, R. N.

    1978-01-01

    Three Type B inclusions from the Allende meteorite have been analyzed. A grain-to-grain characterization of mineral chemistry and isotopic content was made possible by the use of a range of techniques, including luminescence and scanning electron microscopy and electron and ion microprobe analysis. Cathodoluminescence was used in fine-grained, optically opaque regions to distinguish between sub-micrometer phases, such as garnet and Si-rich material, subsequently identified by electron probe and scanning electron microscope analyses. Four types of luminescence patterns, due to twinning, primary sector zoning, alteration of boundaries and fractures, and shock effects, were identified in Allende plagioclase. Luminescence color exhibited a strong correlation with Mg content and provided a guide for an electron probe quantitative map of Mg and Na distributions. Ion microprobe studies of individual grains revealed large excesses of Mg-26.

  12. Late Pleistocene granodiorite beneath Crater Lake caldera, Oregon, dated by ion microprobe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Persing, H.M.; Wooden, J.L.; Ireland, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Variably melted granodiorite blocks ejected during the Holocene caldera-forming eruption of Mount Mazama were plucked from the walls of the climactic magma chamber ~15 km depth. Ion-microprobe U-Pb dating of zircons from two unmelted granodiorite blocks with SHRIMP RG (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry) gives a nominal 238U/206Pb age of 101+78-80 ka, or 174+89-115 ka when adjusted for an initial 230Th deficit. SHRIMP RG U-Th measurements on a subset of the zircons yield a 230Th/238U isochron age of 112 ?? 24 ka, considered to be the best estimate of the time of solidification of the pluton. These results suggest that the granodiorite is related to andesite and dacite of Mount Mazama and not to magmas of the climactic eruption. The unexposed granodiorite has an area of at least 28 km2. This young, shallow pluton was emplaced in virtually the same location where a similarly large magma body accumulated and powered violent explosive eruptions ~7700 yr ago, resulting in collapse of Crater Lake caldera.

  13. Ion microprobe mass analysis of lunar samples. Lunar sample program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, C. A.; Hinthorne, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Mass analyses of selected minerals, glasses and soil particles of lunar, meteoritic and terrestrial rocks have been made with the ion microprobe mass analyzer. Major, minor and trace element concentrations have been determined in situ in major and accessory mineral phases in polished rock thin sections. The Pb isotope ratios have been measured in U and Th bearing accessory minerals to yield radiometric age dates and heavy volatile elements have been sought on the surfaces of free particles from Apollo soil samples.

  14. CAMECA IMS 1300-HR3: The New Generation Ion Microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, P.; Choi, S. Y.; Renaud, L.; Saliot, P.; Larson, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    The success of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in Geo- and Cosmo-chemistry relies on its performance in terms of: 1) very high sensitivity (mandatory for high precision measurements or to achieve low detection limits); 2) a broad mass range of elemental and isotopic species, from low mass (H) to high mass (U and above); 3) in-situ analysis of any solid flat polished surface; and 4) high spatial resolution from tens of microns down to sub-micron scale. The IMS 1300-HR3 (High Reproducibility, High spatial Resolution, High mass Resolution) is the latest generation of CAMECA's large geometry magnetic sector SIMS (or ion microprobe), successor to the internationally recognized IMS 1280-HR. The 1300-HR3delivers unmatched analytical performance for a wide range of applications (stable isotopes, geochronology, trace elements, nuclear safeguards and environmental studies…) due to: • High brightness RF-plasma oxygen ion source with enhanced beam density and current stability, dramatically improving spatial resolution, data reproducibility, and throughput • Automated sample loading system with motorized sample height (Z) adjustment, significantly increasing analysis precision, ease-of-use, and productivity • UV-light microscope for enhanced optical image resolution, together with dedicated software for easy sample navigation (developed by University of Wisconsin, USA) • Low noise 1012Ω resistor Faraday cup preamplifier boards for measuring low signal intensities In addition, improvements in electronics and software have been integrated into the new instrument. In order to meet a growing demand from geochronologists, CAMECA also introduces the KLEORA, which is a fully optimized ion microprobe for advanced mineral dating derived from the IMS 1300-HR3. Instrumental developments as well as data obtained for stable isotope and U-Pb dating applications will be presented in detail.

  15. Electron Microprobe Analysis of Hf in Zircon: Suggestions for Improved Accuracy of a Difficult Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournelle, J.; Hanchar, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    It is not commonly recognized as such, but the accurate measurement of Hf in zircon is not a trivial analytical issue. This is important to assess because Hf is often used as an internal standard for trace element analyses of zircon by LA-ICPMS. The issues pertaining to accuracy revolve around: (1) whether the Hf Ma or the La line is used; (2) what accelerating voltage is applied if Zr La is also measured, and (3) what standard for Hf is used. Weidenbach, et al.'s (2004) study of the 91500 zircon demonstrated the spread (in accuracy) of possible EPMA values for six EPMA labs, 2 of which used Hf Ma, 3 used Hf La, and one used Hf Lb, and standards ranged from HfO2, a ZrO2-HfO2 compound, Hf metal, and hafnon. Weidenbach, et al., used the ID-TIMS values as the correct value (0.695 wt.% Hf.), for which not one of the EPMA labs came close to that value (3 were low and 3 were high). Those data suggest: (1) that there is a systematic underestimation error of the 0.695 wt% Hf (ID-TIMS Hf) value if Hf Ma is used; most likely an issue with the matrix correction, as the analytical lines and absorption edges of Zr La, Si Ka and Hf Ma are rather tightly packed in the electromagnetic spectrum. Mass absorption coefficients are easily in error (e.g., Donovan's determination of the MAC of Hf by Si Ka of 5061 differs from the typically used Henke value of 5449 (Donovan et al, 2002); and (2) For utilization of the Hf La line, however, the second order Zr Ka line interferes with Hf La if the accelerating voltage is greater than 17.99 keV. If this higher keV is used and differential mode PHA is applied, only a portion of the interference is removed (e.g., removal of escape peaks), causing an overestimation of Hf content. Unfortunately, it is virtually impossible to apply an interference correction in this case, as it is impossible to locate Hf-free Zr probe standard. We have examined many of the combinations used by those six EPMA labs and concluded that the optimal EPMA is done with Hf

  16. Light stable isotope analysis of meteorites by ion microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The main goal was to develop the necessary secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) techniques to use a Cameca ims-4f ion microprobe to measure light stable isotope ratios (H, C, O and S) in situ and in non-conducting mineral phases. The intended application of these techniques was the analysis of meteorite samples, although the techniques that have been developed are equally applicable to the investigation of terrestrial samples. The first year established techniques for the analysis of O isotope ratios (delta O-18 and delta O-17) in conducting mineral phases and the measurement of S isotope ratios (delta S-34) in a variety of sulphide phases. In addition, a technique was developed to measure delta S-34 values in sulphates, which are insulators. Other research undertaken in the first year resulted in SIMS techniques for the measurement of wide variety of trace elements in carbonate minerals, with the aim of understanding the nature of alteration fluids in carbonaceous chondrites. In the second year we developed techniques for analyzing O isotope ratios in nonconducting mineral phases. These methods are potentially applicable to the measurement of other light stable isotopes such as H, C and S in insulators. Also, we have further explored the analytical techniques used for the analysis of S isotopes in sulphides by analyzing troilite in a number of L and H ordinary chondrites. This was done to see if there was any systematic differences with petrological type.

  17. Single ion hit detection set-up for the Zagreb ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. W.; Karlušić, M.; Jakšić, M.

    2012-04-01

    Irradiation of materials by heavy ions accelerated in MV tandem accelerators may lead to the production of latent ion tracks in many insulators and semiconductors. If irradiation is performed in a high resolution microprobe facility, ion tracks can be ordered by submicrometer positioning precision. However, full control of the ion track positioning can only be achieved by a reliable ion hit detection system that should provide a trigger signal irrespectively of the type and thickness of the material being irradiated. The most useful process that can be utilised for this purpose is emission of secondary electrons from the sample surface that follows the ion impact. The status report of the set-up presented here is based on the use of a channel electron multiplier (CEM) detector mounted on an interchangable sample holder that is inserted into the chamber in a close geometry along with the sample to be irradiated. The set-up has been tested at the Zagreb ion microprobe for different ions and energies, as well as different geometrical arrangements. For energies of heavy ions below 1 MeV/amu, results show that efficient (100%) control of ion impact can be achieved only for ions heavier than silicon. The successful use of the set-up is demonstrated by production of ordered single ion tracks in a polycarbonate film and by monitoring fluence during ion microbeam patterning of Foturan glass.

  18. Correlated petrographic, electron microprobe, and ion microprobe studies of selected primitive and processed phase assemblages in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, Arden L.

    1993-01-01

    During the past three years we have received support to continue our research in elucidating the formation and alteration histories of selected meteoritic materials by a combination of petrographic, trace element, and isotopic analyses employing optical and scanning electron microscopes and electron and ion microprobes. The awarded research funds enabled the P.I. to attend the annual LPSC, the co-I to devote approximately 15 percent of his time to the research proposed in the grant, and partial support for a visiting summer post-doctoral fellow to conduct electron microprobe analyses of meteoritic samples in our laboratory. The research funds, along with support from the NASA Education Initiative awarded to P.I. G. Wasserburg, enabled the co-I to continue a mentoring program with inner-city minority youth. The support enabled us to achieve significant results in the five projects that we proposed (in addition to the Education Initiative), namely: studies of the accretional and post-accretional alteration and thermal histories in CV meteorites, characterization of periclase-bearing Fremdlinge in CV meteorites, characterization of Ni-Pt-Ge-Te-rich Fremdlinge in CV meteorites in an attempt to determine the constraints they place on the petrogenetic and thermal histories of their host CAI's, correlated electron and ion microprobe studies of silicate and phosphate inclusions in the Colomera meteorite in an attempt to determine the petrogenesis of the IE iron meteorites, and development of improved instrumental and correction procedures for improved accuracy of analysis of meteoritic materials with the electron microprobe. This grant supported, in part or whole, 18 publications so far by our research team, with at least three more papers anticipated. The list of these publications is included. The details of the research results are briefly summarized.

  19. Improved 206Pb/238U microprobe geochronology by the monitoring of a trace-element-related matrix effect; SHRIMP, ID-TIMS, ELA-ICP-MS and oxygen isotope documentation for a series of zircon standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, L.P.; Kamo, S.L.; Allen, C.M.; Davis, D.W.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Valley, J.W.; Mundil, R.; Campbell, I.H.; Korsch, R.J.; Williams, I.S.; Foudoulis, C.

    2004-01-01

    Precise isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) documentation is given for two new Palaeozoic zircon standards (TEMORA 2 and R33). These data, in combination with results for previously documented standards (AS3, SL13, QGNG and TEMORA 1), provide the basis for a detailed investigation of inconsistencies in 206Pb/238U ages measured by microprobe. Although these ages are normally consistent between any two standards, their relative age offsets are often different from those established by ID-TIMS. This is true for both sensitive high-resolution ion-microprobe (SHRIMP) and excimer laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ELA-ICP-MS) dating, although the age offsets are in the opposite sense for the two techniques. Various factors have been investigated for possible correlations with age bias, in an attempt to resolve why the accuracy of the method is worse than the indicated precision. Crystallographic orientation, position on the grain-mount and oxygen isotopic composition are unrelated to the bias. There are, however, striking correlations between the 206Pb/238U age offsets and P, Sm and, most particularly, Nd abundances in the zircons. Although these are not believed to be the primary cause of this apparent matrix effect, they indicate that ionisation of 206Pb/238U is influenced, at least in part, by a combination of trace elements. Nd is sufficiently representative of the controlling trace elements that it provides a quantitative means of correcting for the microprobe age bias. This approach has the potential to reduce age biases associated with different techniques, different instrumentation and different standards within and between laboratories. Crown Copyright ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. NENIMF: Northeast National Ion Microprobe Facility - A Multi-User Facility for SIMS Microanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layne, G. D.; Shimizu, N.

    2002-12-01

    The MIT-Brown-Harvard Regional Ion Microprobe Facility was one of the earliest multi-user facilities enabled by Dan Weill's Instrumentation and Facilities Program - and began with the delivery of a Cameca IMS 3f ion microprobe to MIT in 1978. The Northeast National Ion Microprobe Facility (NENIMF) is the direct descendant of this original facility. Now housed at WHOI, the facility incorporates both the original IMS 3f, and a new generation, high transmission-high resolution instrument - the Cameca IMS 1270. Purchased with support from NSF, and from a consortium of academic institutions in the Northeast (The American Museum of Natural History, Brown University, The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, MIT, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, WHOI) - this latest instrument was delivered and installed during 1996. NENIMF continues to be supported by NSF EAR I&F as a multi-user facility for geochemical research. Work at NENIMF has extended the original design strength of the IMS 1270 for microanalytical U-Pb zircon geochronology to a wide variety of novel and improved techniques for geochemical research. Isotope microanalysis for studies in volcanology and petrology is currently the largest single component of facility activity. This includes the direct measurement of Pb isotopes in melt inclusions, an application developed at NENIMF, which is making an increasingly significant contribution to our understanding of basalt petrogenesis. This same technique has also been extended to the determination of Pb isotopes in detrital feldspar grains, for the study of sedimentary provenance and tectonics of the Himalayas and other terrains. The determination of δ11B in volcanic melt inclusions has also proven to be a powerful tool in the modeling of subduction-related magmatism. The recent development of δ34S and δ37Cl determination in glasses is being applied to studies of the behavior of these volatile elements in both natural and experimental systems. Other recent undertakings

  1. In-situ measurements of U-series nuclides by electron microprobe on zircons and monazites from Gandak river sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosia, C.; Deloule, E.; France-Lanord, C.; Chabaux, F.

    2015-12-01

    Determination of sediment transfer time during transport in the alluvial plains is a critical issue to correctly understand the relationship between climate, tectonics and Earth surface evolution. The residence time of river sediments may be constrained by analyzing the U series nuclides fractionations (e.g. [1] and [2]), which are created during water rock interactions by the ejection of the daughter nuclides of the grain (α-recoil) and the preferential mobilization of nuclides in decay damaged crystal structure. However, recent studies on sediments from the Gandak river, one of the main Ganga tributary, highlighted the difficulties to obtain reproducible data on bulk sediments, due to the nuggets distribution of U-Th enriched minor minerals in the samples (Bosia et al., unpublished data). We therefore decided to analyze the U and Th isotopic systematic at a grain-scale for Himalayan sediments from the Gandak river. This has been tested by performing in situ depth profiles of 238U-234U-230Th and 232Th on zircons and monazites (50-250 μm) by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) at the CRPG, Nancy, France. The first results point the occurrence of 238U-234U-230Th disequilibria in the outermost parts of both monazite and zircon minerals with a return to the equilibrium state in the core of the grains. The relative U and Th enrichment is however slightly different depending on considered minerals, suggesting possible adsorption processes of 230-Th. Coupled to a simple model of U and Th mobility during water-mineral interactions, these data should help to constrain the origin of 238U-234U-230Th disequilibria in these minerals. Moreover, the results of the study should be relevant to discuss the potential of this approach to constrain the residence time of zircons and monazites in the Gandak alluvial plain. [1] Chabaux et al., 2012, C. R. Geoscience, 344 (11-12): 688-703; [2] Granet et al., 2007, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 261 (3-4): 389-406.

  2. Ion and laser microprobes applied to the measurement of corrosion produced hydrogen on a microscopic scale.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    Use of an ion microprobe and a laser microprobe to measure concentrations of corrosion-produced hydrogen on a microscopic scale. Hydrogen concentrations of several thousand ppm were measured by both analytical techniques below corroded and fracture surfaces of hot salt stress corroded titanium alloy specimens. This extremely high concentration compares with only about 100 ppm hydrogen determined by standard vacuum fusion chemical analyses of bulk samples. Both the ion and laser microprobes were used to measure hydrogen concentration profiles in stepped intervals to substantial depths below the original corroded and fracture surfaces. For the ion microprobe, the area of local analysis was 22 microns in diameter and for the laser microprobe, the area of local analysis was about 300 microns in diameter. The segregation of hydrogen below fracture surfaces supports a previously proposed theory that corrosion-produced hydrogen is responsible for hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement and cracking of titanium alloys. These advanced analytical techniques suggest great potential for many areas of stress corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement research, quality control, and field inspection of corrosion problems. For example, it appears possible that a contour map of hydrogen distribution at notch roots and crack tips could be quantitatively determined. Such information would be useful in substantiating current theories of stress corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement.

  3. CONCH: A Visual Basic program for interactive processing of ion-microprobe analytical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, David R.

    2006-11-01

    A Visual Basic program for flexible, interactive processing of ion-microprobe data acquired for quantitative trace element, 26Al- 26Mg, 53Mn- 53Cr, 60Fe- 60Ni and U-Th-Pb geochronology applications is described. Default but editable run-tables enable software identification of secondary ion species analyzed and for characterization of the standard used. Counts obtained for each species may be displayed in plots against analysis time and edited interactively. Count outliers can be automatically identified via a set of editable count-rejection criteria and displayed for assessment. Standard analyses are distinguished from Unknowns by matching of the analysis label with a string specified in the Set-up dialog, and processed separately. A generalized routine writes background-corrected count rates, ratios and uncertainties, plus weighted means and uncertainties for Standards and Unknowns, to a spreadsheet that may be saved as a text-delimited file. Specialized routines process trace-element concentration, 26Al- 26Mg, 53Mn- 53Cr, 60Fe- 60Ni, and Th-U disequilibrium analysis types, and U-Th-Pb isotopic data obtained for zircon, titanite, perovskite, monazite, xenotime and baddeleyite. Correction to measured Pb-isotopic, Pb/U and Pb/Th ratios for the presence of common Pb may be made using measured 204Pb counts, or the 207Pb or 208Pb counts following subtraction from these of the radiogenic component. Common-Pb corrections may be made automatically, using a (user-specified) common-Pb isotopic composition appropriate for that on the sample surface, or for that incorporated within the mineral at the time of its crystallization, depending on whether the 204Pb count rate determined for the Unknown is substantially higher than the average 204Pb count rate for all session standards. Pb/U inter-element fractionation corrections are determined using an interactive log e-log e plot of common-Pb corrected 206Pb/ 238U ratios against any nominated fractionation-sensitive species pair

  4. Ion microprobe U-Pb dating and strontium isotope analysis of biogenic apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Y.; Toyoshima, K.; Takahata, N.; Shirai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Conodonts are micro-fossils chemically composed of apatite which occurred in the body of one animal. They are guide fossils to show formation ages of sedimentary sequences with the highest resolution [1] and good samples to verify the dating method. We developed the ion microprobe U-Pb dating of apatite [2] and applied the method to a Carboniferous conodont [3] by using a SHRIMP II installed at Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Hiroshima University. Recently we have developed the NanoSIMS U-Pb dating method and successfully measured the formation ages of monazite [4] and zircon [5] at Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo. In this work we carried out the NanoSIMS U-Pb dating of biogenic apatite such as conodont. Since the spot size of NanoSIMS is smaller than SHRIMP II, it is easier to have multi-spots on the single fragment of biogenic apatite. Based on the isochron method of U-Pb system, we have calculated the formation ages. They are consistent with those in literature. In order to study the chemical evolution of ocean during the past 600 Million years, strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) of fossil marine carbonate such as coral skeletons and foraminifera tests were measured and compiled [6]. However they are not robust when the age is older than 500Ma, partly due to post-depositional histories. Apatite is more stable and more resistant to the alteration than carbonate [7]. Recently we have developed the method of NanoSIMS strontium isotopic analysis of a fish otolith, which composed of aragonite [8]. In this work we carried out the strontium isotopic analysis of biogenic apatite. The advantage of the ion microprobe technique over the TIMS (thermal ionization mass spectrometer) and MC-ICP-MS (multi-collector inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer) method is preservation of the important textural context and to provide an opportunity for other simultaneous analytical work with high spatial resolution. This is the case for

  5. U/Th dating by SHRIMP RG ion-microprobe mass spectrometry using single ion-exchange beads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Wooden, J.; Murphy, F.; Williams, Ross W.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new analytical method for U-series isotopes using the SHRIMP RG (Sensitive High mass Resolution Ion MicroProbe) mass spectrometer that utilizes the preconcentration of the U-series isotopes from a sample onto a single ion-exchange bead. Ion-microprobe mass spectrometry is capable of producing Th ionization efficiencies in excess of 2%. Analytical precision is typically better than alpha spectroscopy, but not as good as thermal ionization mass spectroscopy (TIMS) and inductively coupled plasma multicollector mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Like TIMS and ICP-MS the method allows analysis of small samples sizes, but also adds the advantage of rapidity of analysis. A major advantage of ion-microprobe analysis is that U and Th isotopes are analyzed in the same bead, simplifying the process of chemical separation. Analytical time on the instrument is ???60 min per sample, and a single instrument-loading can accommodate 15-20 samples to be analyzed in a 24-h day. An additional advantage is that the method allows multiple reanalyses of the same bead and that samples can be archived for reanalysis at a later time. Because the ion beam excavates a pit only a few ??m deep, the mount can later be repolished and reanalyzed numerous times. The method described of preconcentrating a low concentration sample onto a small conductive substrate to allow ion-microprobe mass spectrometry is potentially applicable to many other systems. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. U/Th dating by SHRIMP RG ion-microprobe mass spectrometry using single ion-exchange beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, James L.; Wooden, Joe; Murphy, Fred; Williams, Ross W.

    2005-04-01

    We present a new analytical method for U-series isotopes using the SHRIMP RG (Sensitive High mass Resolution Ion MicroProbe) mass spectrometer that utilizes the preconcentration of the U-series isotopes from a sample onto a single ion-exchange bead. Ion-microprobe mass spectrometry is capable of producing Th ionization efficiencies in excess of 2%. Analytical precision is typically better than alpha spectroscopy, but not as good as thermal ionization mass spectroscopy (TIMS) and inductively coupled plasma multicollector mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Like TIMS and ICP-MS the method allows analysis of small samples sizes, but also adds the advantage of rapidity of analysis. A major advantage of ion-microprobe analysis is that U and Th isotopes are analyzed in the same bead, simplifying the process of chemical separation. Analytical time on the instrument is ˜60 min per sample, and a single instrument-loading can accommodate 15-20 samples to be analyzed in a 24-h day. An additional advantage is that the method allows multiple reanalyses of the same bead and that samples can be archived for reanalysis at a later time. Because the ion beam excavates a pit only a few μm deep, the mount can later be repolished and reanalyzed numerous times. The method described of preconcentrating a low concentration sample onto a small conductive substrate to allow ion-microprobe mass spectrometry is potentially applicable to many other systems.

  7. Focused Heavy Ion Nuclear Microprobe facility at the University of North Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B. N.; Yang, C.; El Bouanani, M.; Duggan, J. L.; McDaniel, F. D.

    1999-10-01

    A Focused Heavy Ion Nuclear Microprobe facility has been constructed at the University of North Texas. The microprobe utilizes two separated Russian magnetic quadrupole quadruplets. The two identical magnetic quadrupole doublet lenses are separated by 2.61 meters. The lens system with ~ 80 times demagnification has the ability to focus proton, alpha particle, or heavier ions down to a spot size of ~ 1 μm. The microprobe components rest on a 7 meter steel beam support with vibration isolation. A computer provides control for the lens power supplies and also the parameters for a post-lens scanning coil to raster-scan the beam across the sample. Up to four detection channels can be used for simultaneous data acquisition under VME control. A RISC workstation is used to collect, display and analyze the data. The data is transferred via ethernet. A detailed description of the facility and data acquisition system along with preliminary testing results on TEM grids with Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and the Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection techniques will be presented.

  8. Ion microprobe measurement of strontium isotopes in calcium carbonate with application to salmon otoliths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, P.K.; Bacon, C.R.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Ingram, B.L.; Wooden, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The ion microprobe has the capability to generate high resolution, high precision isotopic measurements, but analysis of the isotopic composition of strontium, as measured by the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio, has been hindered by isobaric interferences. Here we report the first high precision measurements of 87Sr/ 86Sr by ion microprobe in calcium carbonate samples with moderate Sr concentrations. We use the high mass resolving power (7000 to 9000 M.R.P.) of the SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe in combination with its high transmission to reduce the number of interfering species while maintaining sufficiently high count rates for precise isotopic measurements. The isobaric interferences are characterized by peak modeling and repeated analyses of standards. We demonstrate that by sample-standard bracketing, 87Sr/86Sr ratios can be measured in inorganic and biogenic carbonates with Sr concentrations between 400 and 1500 ppm with ???2??? external precision (2??) for a single analysis, and subpermil external precision with repeated analyses. Explicit correction for isobaric interferences (peak-stripping) is found to be less accurate and precise than sample-standard bracketing. Spatial resolution is ???25 ??m laterally and 2 ??m deep for a single analysis, consuming on the order of 2 ng of material. The method is tested on otoliths from salmon to demonstrate its accuracy and utility. In these growth-banded aragonitic structures, one-week temporal resolution can be achieved. The analytical method should be applicable to other calcium carbonate samples with similar Sr concentrations. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The Role of the Ion Microprobe in Solid-Earth Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauri, E. H.

    2002-12-01

    Despite the early success of the electron microprobe in taking petrology to the micron scale, and the widespread use of mass spectrometers in geochemistry and geochronology, it was not until the mid-1970s that the ion microprobe came into its own as an in situ analytical tool in the Earth sciences. Despite this inauspicious beginning, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was widely advertised as a technology that would eventually eclipse thermal ion mass spectrometry (TIMS) in isotope geology. However this was not to happen. While various technical issues in SIMS such as interferences and matrix effects became increasingly clear, an appreciation grew for the complimentary abilities of SIMS and TIMS that, even with the advent of ICP-MS, continues to this day. Today the ion microprobe is capable of abundance measurements in the parts-per-billion range across nearly the entire periodic table, and SIMS stable isotope data quality is now routinely crossing the 1 per mil threshold, all at the micron scale. Much of this success is due to the existence of multi-user community facilities for SIMS research, and the substantial efforts of interested scientists to understand the fundamentals of sputtered ion formation and their application to geochemistry. Recent discoveries of evidence for the existence of ancient crust and oceans, the emergence of life on Earth, the large-scale cycling of surficial materials into the deep Earth, and illumination of fundamental high-pressure phenomena have all been made possible by SIMS, and these (and many more) discoveries owe a debt to the vision of creating and supporting multi-user community facilities for SIMS. The ion microprobe remains an expensive instrument to purchase and maintain, yet it is also exceedingly diverse in application. Major improvements in SIMS, indeed in all mass spectrometry, are visible on the near horizon. Yet the geochemical community cannot depend on commercial manufacturers alone to design and build the next

  10. Geochemical signatures and magmatic stability of terrestrial impact produced zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, Matthew M.; Harrison, T. Mark; Schmitt, Axel K.

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the role of impacts on early Earth has major implications to near surface conditions, but the apparent lack of preserved terrestrial craters > 2 Ga does not allow a direct sampling of such events. Ion microprobe U-Pb ages, REE abundances and Ti-in-zircon thermometry for impact produced zircon are reported here. These results from terrestrial impactites, ranging in age from ~ 35 Ma to ~ 2 Ga, are compared with the detrital Hadean zircon population from Western Australia. Such comparisons may provide the only terrestrial constraints on the role of impacts during the Hadean and early Archean, a time predicted to have a high bolide flux. Ti-in-zircon thermometry indicates an average of 773 °C for impact-produced zircon, ~ 100 °C higher than the average for Hadean zircon crystals. The agreement between whole-rock based zircon saturation temperatures for impactites and Ti-in-zircon thermometry (at aTiO2 = 1) implies that Ti-in-zircon thermometry record actual crystallization temperatures for impact melts. Zircon saturation modeling of Archean crustal rock compositions undergoing thermal excursions associated with the Late Heavy Bombardment predicts equally high zircon crystallization temperatures. The lack of such thermal signatures in the Hadean zircon record implies that impacts were not a dominant mechanism of producing the preserved Hadean detrital zircon record.

  11. Ion microprobe magnesium isotope analysis of plagioclase and hibonite from ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, R. W.; Bischoff, A.

    1984-01-01

    Ion and electron microprobes were used to examine Mg-26 excesses from Al-26 decay in four Al-rich objects from the type 3 ordinary hibonite clast in the Dhajala chondrite. The initial Al-26/Al-27 ratio was actually significantly lower than Al-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites. Also, no Mg-26 excesses were found in three plagioclase-bearing chondrules that were also examined. The Mg-26 excesses in the hibonite chondrites indicated a common origin for chondrites with the excesses. The implied Al-26 content in a proposed parent body could not, however, be confirmed as a widespread heat source in the early solar system.

  12. Cometary and interstellar dust grains - Analysis by ion microprobe mass spectrometry and other techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinner, Ernst

    1991-01-01

    A survey of microanalytical measurements on interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and interstellar dust grains from primitive meteorites is presented. Ion-microprobe mass spectrometry with its capability to determine isotopic compositions of many elements on a micron spatial scale has played a special role. Examples are measurements of H, N, and O isotopes and refractory trace elements in IDPs; C, N, Mg, and Si isotopes in interstellar SiC grains; and C and N isotopes and H, N, Al, and Si concentrations in interstellar graphite grains.

  13. The new confocal heavy ion microprobe beamline at ANSTO: The first microprobe resolution tests and applications for elemental imaging and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastuovic, Z.; Siegele, R.; Cohen, D. D.; Mann, M.; Ionescu, M.; Button, D.; Long, S.

    2017-08-01

    The Centre for Accelerator Science facility at ANSTO has been expanded with the new NEC 6 MV ;SIRIUS; accelerator system in 2015. In this paper we present a detailed description of the new nuclear microprobe-Confocal Heavy Ion Micro-Probe (CHIMP) together with results of the microprobe resolution testing and the elemental analysis performed on typical samples of mineral ore deposits and hyper-accumulating plants regularly measured at ANSTO. The CHIMP focusing and scanning systems are based on the OM-150 Oxford quadrupole triplet and the OM-26 separated scan-coil doublet configurations. A maximum ion rigidity of 38.9 amu-MeV was determined for the following nuclear microprobe configuration: the distance from object aperture to collimating slits of 5890 mm, the working distance of 165 mm and the lens bore diameter of 11 mm. The overall distance from the object to the image plane is 7138 mm. The CHIMP beamline has been tested with the 3 MeV H+ and 6 MeV He2+ ion beams. The settings of the object and collimating apertures have been optimized using the WinTRAX simulation code for calculation of the optimum acceptance settings in order to obtain the highest possible ion current for beam spot sizes of 1 μm and 5 μm. For optimized aperture settings of the CHIMP the beam brightness was measured to be ∼0.9 pA μm-2 mrad-2 for 3 MeV H+ ions, while the brightness of ∼0.4 pA μm-2 mrad-2 was measured for 6 MeV He2+ ions. The smallest beam sizes were achieved using a microbeam with reduced particle rate of 1000 Hz passing through the object slit apertures several micrometers wide. Under these conditions a spatial resolution of ∼0.6 μm × 1.5 μm for 3 MeV H+ and ∼1.8 μm × 1.8 μm for 6 MeV He2+ microbeams in horizontal (and vertical) dimension has been achieved. The beam sizes were verified using STIM imaging on 2000 and 1000 mesh Cu electron microscope grids.

  14. Ion microprobe mass analysis of plagioclase from 'non-mare' lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C., Jr.; Anderson, D. H.; Bradley, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    The ion microprobe was used to measure the composition and distribution of trace elements in lunar plagioclase, and these analyses are used as criteria in determining the possible origins of some nonmare lunar samples. The Apollo 16 samples with metaclastic texture and high-bulk trace-element contents contain plagioclase clasts with extremely low trace-element contents. These plagioclase inclusions represent unequilibrated relicts of anorthositic, noritic, or troctolitic rocks that have been intermixed as a rock flour into the KREEP-rich matrix of these samples. All of the plagioclase-rich inclusions which were analyzed in the KREEP-rich Apollo 14 breccias were found to be rich in trace elements. This does not seem to be consistent with the interpretation that the Apollo 14 samples represent a pre-Imbrium regolith, because such an ancient regolith should have contained many plagioclase clasts with low trace-element contents more typical of plagioclase from the pre-Imbrium crust. Ion-microprobe analyses for Ba and Sr in large plagioclase phenocrysts in 14310 and 68415 are consistent with the bulk compositions of these rocks and with the known distribution coefficients for these elements. The distribution coefficient for Li (basaltic liquid/plagioclase) was measured to be about 2.

  15. Complex Histories of Two Lunar Zircons as Evidenced by their Internal Structures and U-Pb Ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pidgeon, R. T.; Nemchin, A. A.; Meyer, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The U-Pb dating of lunar zircon by ion-microprobe provides a robust technique for investigating the timing of lunar events [1,2]. However, we have now identified two cases where the U-Pb systems in a single zircon show more than one age. These complex zircons provide new opportunities for extending our knowledge on the timing of events in the early history of the Moon.

  16. Determination of trace element mineral/liquid partition coefficients in melilite and diopside by ion and electron microprobe techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehner, S. M.; Laughlin, J. R.; Grossman, L.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    The applicability of ion microprobe (IMP) for quantitative analysis of minor elements (Sr, Y, Zr, La, Sm, and Yb) in the major phases present in natural Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) was investigated by comparing IMP results with those of an electron microprobe (EMP). Results on three trace-element-doped glasses indicated that it is not possible to obtain precise quantitative analysis by using IMP if there are large differences in SiO2 content between the standards used to derive the ion yields and the unknowns.

  17. Isotopic Composition of Oxygen in Lunar Zircons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Meyer, C.

    2005-01-01

    The recent discovery of heavy oxygen in zircons from the Jack Hills conglomerates Wilde et al. and Mojzsis et al. was interpreted as an indication of presence of liquid water on the surface of Early Earth. The distribution of ages of Jack Hills zircons and lunar zircons appears to be very similar and therefore analysis of oxygen in the lunar grains may provide a reference frame for further study of the early history of the Earth as well as give additional information regarding processes that operated on the Moon. In the present study we have analysed the oxygen isotopic composition of zircon grains from three lunar samples using the Swedish Museum of Natural History CAMECA 1270 ion microprobe. The samples were selected as likely tests for variations in lunar oxygen isotopic composition. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  18. 230Th-U dating of surficial deposits using the ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG): A microstratigraphic perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maher, K.; Wooden, J.L.; Paces, J.B.; Miller, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    We used the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe reverse-geometry (SHRIMP-RG) to date pedogenic opal using the 230Th-U system. Due to the high-spatial resolution of an ion microprobe (typically 30 ??m), regions of pure opal within a sample can be targeted and detrital material can be avoided. In addition, because the technique is non-destructive, the sample can be preserved for other types of analyses including electron microprobe or other stable isotope or trace element ion microprobe measurements. The technique is limited to material with U concentrations greater than ???50 ppm. However, the high spatial resolution, small sample requirements, and the ability to avoid detrital material make this technique a suitable technique for dating many Pleistocene deposits formed in semi-arid environments. To determine the versatility of the method, samples from several different deposits were analyzed, including silica-rich pebble coatings from pedogenic carbonate horizons, a siliceous sinter deposit, and opaline silica deposited as a spring mound. U concentrations for 30-??m-diameter spots ranged from 50 to 1000 ppm in these types of materials. The 230Th/232Th activity ratios also ranged from ???100 to 106, eliminating the need for detrital Th corrections that reduce the precision of traditional U-Th ages for many milligram- and larger-sized samples. In pedogenic material, layers of high-U opal (ca. 500 ppm) are commonly juxtaposed next to layers of calcite with much lower U concentrations (1-2 ppm). If these types of samples are not analyzed using a technique with the appropriate spatial resolution, the ages may be strongly biased towards the age of the opal. Comparison with standard TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry) measurements from separate microdrilled samples suggests that although the analytical precision of the ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG) measurements is less than TIMS, the high spatial resolution results in better accuracy in the age determination for

  19. U, Th, Pb and REE abundances and Pb 207/Pb 206 ages of individual minerals in returned lunar material by ion microprobe mass analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, C. A.; Hinthorne, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Results of ion microprobe analyses of Apollo 11, 12 and 14 material, showing that U, Th, Pb and REE are concentrated in accessory minerals such as apatite, whitlockite, zircon, baddeleyite, zirkelite, and tranquillityite. Th/U ratios are found to vary by over a factor of 40 in these minerals. K, Ba, Rb and Sr have been localized in a K rich, U and Th poor glass phase that is commonly associated with the U and Th bearing accessory minerals. Li is observed to be fairly evenly distributed between the various accessory phases. The phosphates have been found to have REE abundance patterns (normalized to the chondrite abundances) that are fairly flat, while the Zr bearing minerals have patterns that rise steeply, by factors of ten or more, from La to Gd. All the accessory minerals have large negative Eu anomalies. Radiometric age dates (Pb 207/Pb 206) of the individual U and Th bearing minerals compare favorably with the Pb 207/Pb 206 age of the bulk rocks.

  20. Ion microprobe analyses of aluminous lunar glasses - A test of the 'rock type' hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Previous soil survey investigations found that there are natural groupings of glass compositions in lunar soils and that the average major element composition of some of these groupings is the same at widely separated lunar landing sites. This led soil survey enthusiasts to promote the hypothesis that the average composition of glass groupings represents the composition of primary lunar 'rock types'. In this investigation the trace element composition of numerous aluminous glass particles was determined by the ion microprobe method as a test of the above mentioned 'rock type' hypothesis. It was found that within any grouping of aluminous lunar glasses by major element content, there is considerable scatter in the refractory trace element content. In addition, aluminous glasses grouped by major elements were found to have different average trace element contents at different sites (Apollo 15, 16 and Luna 20). This evidence argues that natural groupings in glass compositions are determined by regolith processes and may not represent the composition of primary lunar 'rock types'.

  1. Development of a High Resolution-High Sensitivity Ion Microprobe Facility for Cosmochemical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeegan, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    NASA NAGW-4112 has supported development of the CAMECA ims 1270 ion microprobe at UCLA for applications in cosmochemistry. The instrument has been brought to an operational status and techniques developed for accurate, precise microbeam analysis of oxygen isotope ratios in polished thin-sections. We made the first oxygen isotopic (delta(18)O and delta(17)O) measurements of rare mafic silicates in the most chemically primitive meteorites, the a chondrites (Leshin et al., 1997). The results have implications for both high temperature processing in the nebula and low-T aqueous alteration on the CI asteroid. We have performed measurements of oxygen isotopic compositions of magnetite and co-existing olivine from carbonaceous (Choi et al., 1997) and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (Choi et al., in press). This work has identified a significant new oxygen isotope reservoir in the early solar system: water characterized by a very high Delta(17)) value of approx. 5 % per thousand. We have determined the spatial distributions of oxygen isotopic anomalies in all major mineral phases of a type B CAI from Allende. We have also studied an unusual fractionated CAI from Leoville and made the first oxygen isotopic measurements in rare CAIs from ordinary chondrites.

  2. Oxygen isotopic composition and U-Pb discordance in zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, A.L.; Kolodny, Y.; Chamberlain, C.P.; McWilliams, M.; Schmitt, A.K.; Wooden, J.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated U-Pb discordance and oxygen isotopic composition of zircon using high-spatial resolution ??18O measurement by ion microprobe. ??18O in both concordant and discordant zircon grains provides an indication of the relationship between fluid interaction and discordance. Our results suggest that three characteristics of zircon are interrelated: (1) U-Pb systematics and concomitant age discordance, (2) ??18O and the water-rock interactions implied therein, and (3) zircon texture, as revealed by cathodoluminescence and BSE imaging. A key observation is that U-Pb-disturbed zircons are often also variably depleted in 18O, but the relationship between discordance and ??18O is not systematic. ??18O values of discordant zircons are generally lighter but irregular in their distribution. Textural differences between zircon grains can be correlated with both U-Pb discordance and ??18O. Discordant grains exhibit either a recrystallized, fractured, or strongly zoned CL texture, and are characteristic of 18O depletion. We interpret this to be a result of metamictization, leading to destruction of the zircon lattice and an increased susceptibility to lead loss. Conversely, grains that are concordant have less-expressed zoning and a smoother CL texture and are enriched in 18O. From this it is apparent that various stages of water-rock interaction, as evidenced by systematic variations in ??18O, leave their imprint on both the texture and U-Pb systematics of zircon. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Interpreting U-Pb data from primary and secondary features in lunar zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grange, M. L.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Nemchin, A. A.; Timms, N. E.; Meyer, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe primary and secondary microstructures and textural characteristics found in lunar zircon and discuss the relationships between these features and the zircon U-Pb isotopic systems and the significance of these features for understanding lunar processes. Lunar zircons can be classified according to: (i) textural relationships between zircon and surrounding minerals in the host breccias, (ii) the internal microstructures of the zircon grains as identified by optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) mapping and (iii) results of in situ ion microprobe analyses of the Th-U-Pb isotopic systems. Primary zircon can occur as part of a cogenetic mineral assemblage (lithic clast) or as an individual mineral clast and is unzoned, or has sector and/or oscillatory zoning. The age of primary zircon is obtained when multiple ion microprobe analyses across the polished surface of the grain give reproducible and essentially concordant data. A secondary set of microstructures, superimposed on primary zircon, include localised recrystallised domains, localised amorphous domains, crystal-plastic deformation, planar deformation features and fractures, and are associated with impact processes. The first two secondary microstructures often yield internally consistent and close to concordant U-Pb ages that we interpret as dating impact events. Others secondary microstructures such as planar deformation features, crystal-plastic deformation and micro-fractures can provide channels for Pb diffusion and result in partial resetting of the U-Pb isotopic systems.

  4. Rare earth element selenochemistry of immiscible liquids and zircon at Apollo 14 - An ion probe study of evolved rocks on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Crozaz, Ghislaine

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of trace-element analyses of three lunar zircons. The major-element and REE compositions were determined using electron microprobes, and a correction was made for zircon for Zr-Si-O molecular interferences in the La to Pr mass region. The three zircons were found to exhibit similar REE abundances and patterns. Results of the analyses confirm earlier studies (Hess et al., 1975; Watson, 1976; Neal and Taylor, 1989) on the partitioning behavior of trace elements in immiscible liquid-liquid pairs. The results also support the postulated importance of silicate liquid immiscibility in the differentiation of the upper mantle and crust of the moon.

  5. Ti-in-zircon thermometry: applications and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bin; Page, F. Zeb; Cavosie, Aaron J.; Fournelle, John; Kita, Noriko T.; Lackey, Jade Star; Wilde, Simon A.; Valley, John W.

    2008-08-01

    The titanium concentrations of 484 zircons with U-Pb ages of ˜1 Ma to 4.4 Ga were measured by ion microprobe. Samples come from 45 different igneous rocks (365 zircons), as well as zircon megacrysts (84) from kimberlite, Early Archean detrital zircons (32), and zircon reference materials (3). Samples were chosen to represent a large range of igneous rock compositions. Most of the zircons contain less than 20 ppm Ti. Apparent temperatures for zircon crystallization were calculated using the Ti-in-zircon thermometer (Watson et al. 2006, Contrib Mineral Petrol 151:413-433) without making corrections for reduced oxide activities (e.g., TiO2 or SiO2), or variable pressure. Average apparent Ti-in-zircon temperatures range from 500° to 850°C, and are lower than either zircon saturation temperatures (for granitic rocks) or predicted crystallization temperatures of evolved melts (˜15% melt residue for mafic rocks). Temperatures average: 653 ± 124°C (2 standard deviations, 60 zircons) for felsic to intermediate igneous rocks, 758 ± 111°C (261 zircons) for mafic rocks, and 758 ± 98°C (84 zircons) for mantle megacrysts from kimberlite. Individually, the effects of reduced a_{TiO2} or a_{SiO2}, variable pressure, deviations from Henry’s Law, and subsolidus Ti exchange are insufficient to explain the seemingly low temperatures for zircon crystallization in igneous rocks. MELTs calculations show that mafic magmas can evolve to hydrous melts with significantly lower crystallization temperature for the last 10-15% melt residue than that of the main rock. While some magmatic zircons surely form in such late hydrous melts, low apparent temperatures are found in zircons that are included within phenocrysts or glass showing that those zircons are not from evolved residue melts. Intracrystalline variability in Ti concentration, in excess of analytical precision, is observed for nearly all zircons that were analyzed more than once. However, there is no systematic change in Ti

  6. Stanford-USGS shrimp-RG ion microprobe: A new approach to determining the distribution of trace elements in coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, A.; Wooden, J.L.; Persing, H.M.; Zielinski, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of Cr and other trace metals of environmental interest in a range of widely used U.S. coals was investigated using the Stanford-USGS SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe . Using the oxygen ion source, concentrations of Cr (11 to 176 ppm), V (23 to 248 ppm), Mn (2 to 149 ppm), Ni (2 to 30 ppm), and 13 other elements were determined in illite/smectite, a group of clay minerals commonly present in coal. The results confirm previous indirect or semi-quantitative determinations indicating illite/smectite to be an important host of these metals. Calibration was achieved using doped aluminosilicate-glass synthetic standards and glasses prepared from USGS rock standards. Grains for analysis were identified optically, and confirmed by 1) precursory electron microprobe analysis and wavelength-dispersive compositional mapping, and 2) SHRIMP-RG major element data obtained concurrently with trace element results. Follow-up investigations will focus on the distribution of As and other elements that are more effectively ionized with the cesium primary beam currently being tested.

  7. Optically continuous silcrete quartz cements of the St. Peter Sandstone: High precision oxygen isotope analysis by ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Jacque L.; Fu, Bin; Kita, Noriko T.; Valley, John W.

    2007-08-01

    A detailed oxygen isotope study of detrital quartz and authigenic quartz overgrowths from shallowly buried (<1 km) quartz arenites of the St. Peter Sandstone (in SW Wisconsin) constrains temperature and fluid sources during diagenesis. Quartz overgrowths are syntaxial (optically continuous) and show complex luminescent zonation by cathodoluminescence. Detrital quartz grains were separated from 53 rocks and analyzed for oxygen isotope ratio by laser fluorination, resulting in an average δ 18O of 10.0 ± 0.2‰ (1SD, n = 109). Twelve thin sections were analyzed by CAMECA-1280 ion microprobe (6-10 μm spot size, analytical precision better than ±0.2‰, 1SD). Detrital quartz grains have an average δ 18O of 10.0 ± 1.4‰ (1SD, n = 91) identical to the data obtained by laser fluorination. The ion microprobe data reveal true variability that is otherwise lost by homogenization of powdered samples necessary for laser fluorination. Laser fluorination uses samples that are one million times larger than the ion microprobe. Whole rock (WR) samples from the 53 rocks were analyzed by laser fluorination, giving δ 18O between 9.8‰ and 16.7‰ ( n = 110). Quartz overgrowths in thin sections from 10 rocks were analyzed by ion microprobe and average δ 18O = 29.3 ± 1.0‰ (1SD, n = 161). Given the similarity, on average, of δ 18O for all detrital quartz grains and for all quartz overgrowths, samples with higher δ 18O(WR) values can be shown to have more cement. The quartz cement in the 53 rocks, calculated by mass balance, varies from <1 to 21 vol.% cement, with one outlier at 33 vol.% cement. Eolian samples have an average of 11% cement compared to marine samples, which average 4% cement. Two models for quartz cementation have been investigated: high temperature (50-110 °C) formation from ore-forming brines related to Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) mineralization and formation as silcretes at low temperature (10-30 °C). The homogeneity of δ 18O for quartz overgrowths

  8. Ion microprobe survey of the grain-scale oxygen isotope geochemistry of minerals in metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, John M.; Kitajima, Kouki; Strickland, Ariel; Valley, John W.

    2014-11-01

    The oxygen isotope compositions of calcite, diopside, dolomite, forsterite, garnet, K-feldspar, kyanite, plagioclase, quartz, and wollastonite were analyzed in suites of contact and regional metamorphic rocks using an ion microprobe. Spatial resolution was ∼10 μm. Precision, measured as the standard deviation of working standards averaged over the entire project, was 0.13-0.18‰ for three carbonate standards and 0.11-0.12‰ for two silicate standards. A total of 1176 analyses (excluding standards) were made of 73 minerals in 23 samples. Both intercrystalline and intracrystalline variability in δ18O is greater in contact than in regional metamorphic rocks. Of 27 minerals analyzed in contact metamorphosed rocks, 70% exhibit statistically significant grain-to-grain variability in δ18O over areas ⩽1.41 cm2 with the largest range in silicates and carbonates in a single sample of 7.4‰ (forsterite) and 10.6‰ (dolomite). Of 88 grains analyzed in two or more places in contact metamorphosed rocks, 32% exhibit statistically significant intracrystalline variability in δ18O with the largest range in a single silicate and carbonate grain of 3.1‰ (forsterite) and 10.1‰ (dolomite). In contrast, 44% of 45 minerals in regional metamorphic rocks exhibit significant grain-to-grain variability in δ18O over areas ⩽1.17 cm2 with the largest range in silicates and carbonates in a single sample of only 1.1‰ (plagioclase) and 0.9‰ (calcite). Only 6% of 144 grains analyzed in two or more places in regional metamorphic rocks exhibit significant intracrystalline variability in δ18O with the largest range in a single silicate and carbonate grain of only 1.5‰ (diopside) and 0.7‰ (calcite). The difference in intercrystalline and intracrystalline variability in δ18O between contact and region metamorphic rocks is explained by the longer duration and slower reaction rates of regional metamorphism rather than to differences in temperature. There is no significant

  9. Isotopic Investigations of Nebular and Parent Body Processes with a High Sensitivity Ion Microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeegan, Kevin D.

    2005-01-01

    NASA supported the development of the CAMECA ims 1270 ion microprobe at UCLA for applications in cosmochemistry. The primary investigations centered on measuring the microscopic distributions of key isotopic abundances in primitive meteoritic materials as a means of constraining the nature of important thermal and chemical processes in the solar nebula and the timescales associated with those processes. Our prior work on oxygen isotope anomalies in a wide variety of meteoritic materials had led us to a view of a spatially heterogeneous nebula, and in particular, a restricted region for CAI formation that is characterized by O-16-rich gas. Because of its production of CAIs in the energetic local environment near the protosun, the existence of a natural transport mechanism via bipolar outflows, and a general astrophysical plausibility, we were attracted to the fluctuating X-wind model which had been put forward by Frank Shu, Typhoon Lee, and colleagues. With our collaborators, we undertook a series of investigations to test the viability of this hypothesis; this work led directly to the discovery of live Be in CAIs and a clear demonstration of the existence of 160-rich condensates, which necessarily implies an O-16-rich gaseous reservoir in the nebula. Both of these observations fit well within the context of X-wind type models, i.e. formation of CAIs (or condensation of their precursors) in the reconnection ring sunward of the inner edge of the accretion disk, however much work remains to be done to test whether the physical parameters of the model can quantitatively predict not only the thermal histories of CAIs but also their radioactivity. The issue of spatial heterogeneity in the nebula, central to the X-wind model, is also at the heart of any chronology based on short-lived radioisotopes. In this work, we followed up on strong hints for presence of exireme:j: (53 day) short-lived Be-7, and have prepared a manuscript (in revision). We also measured A1-Mg

  10. Scanning ion imaging - a potent tool in SIMS U -Pb zircon geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M. J.; Fedo, C.; Kusiak, M.; Nemchin, A.

    2012-12-01

    The application of high spatial resolution (< 15-20 μm lateral) U-Pb data obtained by sec-ondary ion mass spectrometers (SIMS) coupled with textural information from scanning electron microscope (SEM) based cathodoluminescence (CL) and/or back-scattered elec-tron (BSE) characterisation, has revolutionised geochronology over the past 25 years, re-vealing complexities of crustal evolution from zoned zircons. In addition to ge-ochronology, such studies now commonly form the basis of broader investigations using O- and Hf- isotopes and trace elements obtained from the same growth zone as age, circumventing ambiguities commonly present in bulk-rock isotope studies. The choice of analytical beam diameter is often made to maximise the precision of data obtained from a given area of analysis within an identifiable growth zone. In cases where zircons yield poorly constrained internal structures in SEM, high spatial resolution spot analyses may yield uninterpretable and/or meaningless mixed ages by inadvertent sampling across regions with real age differences. Scanning ion imaging (SII) has the potential to generate accurate and precise geochrono-logical data with a spatial resolution down to ca. 2 μm, much higher than that of a normal spot analysis. SII acquisition utilises a rastered primary beam to image an area of the sample with a spatial resolution dependent on the selected primary beam diameter. On the Cameca ims1270/80 instruments, the primary beam scanning is coupled with the dynamic transfer optical system (DTOS) which deflects the secondary ions back on to the ion optical axis of the instrument regardless of where in the raster illuminated area the ions originated. This feature allows retention of a high field magnification (= high transmission) mode and the ability to operate the mass spectrometer at high mass resolution without any compromise in the quality of the peak shape. Secondary ions may be detected either in a sequential (peak hopping) mono

  11. Zircon-scale insights into the history of a Supervolcano, Bishop Tuff, Long Valley, California, with implications for the Ti-in-zircon geothermometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, M.R.; Vazquez, J.A.; Schmitt, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Zircon has the outstanding capacity to record chronological, thermal, and chemical information, including the storage history of zoned silicic magma reservoirs like the one responsible for the Bishop Tuff of eastern California, USA. Our novel ion microprobe approach reveals that Bishop zircon rims with diverse chemical characteristics surround intermediate domains with broadly similar compositions. The highest Y, REE, U, and Th concentrations tend to accompany the largest excesses in Y + REE3+:P beyond what can be explained by xenotime substitution in zircon. Apparent Ti-in-zircon temperatures of <720??C for zircon rims are distinctly lower than most of the range in eruption temperatures, as estimated from FeTi-oxide equilibria and zircon solubility at quench. While permissive of crystallization of zircon at near-solidus conditions, the low Ti-in-zircon temperatures are probably better explained by sources of inaccuracy in the temperature estimates. After apparently nucleating from different melts, zircons from across the Bishop Tuff compositional spectrum may have evolved to broadly similar chemical and thermal conditions and therefore it is possible that there was no significant thermal gradient in the magma reservoir at some stage in its evolution. There is also no compelling evidence for punctuated heat ?? chemical influxes during the intermediate stages of zircon growth. Judging by the zircon record, the main volume of the erupted magma evolved normally by secular cooling but the latest erupted portion is characterized by a reversal in chemistry that appears to indicate perfusion of the magma reservoir by-or zircon entrainment in-a less evolved melt from the one in which the zircons had previously resided. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Inter- and intra-group compositional variations in Apollo 15 pyroclastic green glass - An electron- and ion-microprobe study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbreath, K. C.; Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.; Shimizu, N.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on major- and trace-element abundance analyses of Apollo 15 pyroclastic green glasses from groups A, B, C, D, and E, carried out using electron- and ion-microprobe techniques. The diagrams depicting Sr, Zr, Ba, and Nd vs Co variations indicate the presence of a high-Co trend in groups A and D and a low-Co trend in groups B and C. Group-E glasses were found to be significantly enriched in Sr, relative to the other four glass groups. Chemical data of this study were integrated with previous data to evaluate various magmatic processes that have been proposed in the past to explain chemical variations in the lunar green glass. Results of calculations using a source mixing model suggest that the Apollo 15 green glasses represent multiple eruptive events from three chemically distinct but compositionally variable source regions.

  13. Experimental determination of the partitioning of gallium between solid iron metal and synthetic basaltic melt Electron and ion microprobe study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, M. J.; Newsom, H. E.; Reed, S. J. B.; Enright, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of Ga between solid Fe metal and synthetic basaltic melt is investigated experimentally at temperatures of 1190 and 1330 C, and over a narrow range of oxygen fugacities. Metal-silicate reversal experiments were conducted, indicating a close approach to equilibrium. The analysis of the partitioned products was performed using electron and ion microprobes. At one bar total pressure, the solid metal/silicate melt partition coefficient D(Ga) is used to evaluate metal-silicate fractionation processes in the earth, moon, and Eucrite Parent Body (EPB). It is found that the depletion of Ga abundances in the EPB is due to the extraction of Ga into a metallic core. Likewise, the depletion of Ga in the lunar mantle is consistent with the extraction of Ga into a smaller lunar core if Ga was originally present in a subchondritic concentration. The relatively high Ga abundances in the earth's mantle are discussed, with reference to several theoretical models.

  14. Li isotopes in archean zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, A.; Ushikubo, T.; Kita, N.; Cavosie, A. J.; Kozdon, R.; Valley, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    Li is a fluid mobile, moderately incompatible element with a large mass difference between its two stable isotopes. Different processes can fractionate 7Li/6Li (fluid-rock interaction, metamorphic reactions, and Li diffusion), leading to variation by over 50‰ of δ7Li for common crustal material. These large variations make δ7Li a potential tracer of continental weathering and of the fluids affecting magma sources. Here, we report δ7Li and trace elements in Archean igneous zircons from TTG and sanukitoid granitoids from the Superior Province (Canada) in order to characterize Li in Archean zircons from well-described samples. These data are compared to detrital zircons from the Jack Hills (Western Australia) for which parent rock-type is uncertain. This study aims to better understand Li substitution in zircon and to evaluate the utility of δ7Li and [Li] for Archean petrogenesis. Zircons (n=71) were analyzed for δ7Li and trace elements (Li, P, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Y, REE, U, Th) using an IMS-1280 ion microprobe. Most of the zircons display typical igneous REE patterns and zoning by CL. [Li] averages 13.1 ± 9 for TTG, 25.7 ± 19 for Sanukitoid and 31.0 ± 14 ppm for Jack Hills zircons, which are distinct from mantle-related zircons (<0.1 ppm). Values of δ7Li average 1.0 ± 4.5‰ for TTGs, 6.3 ± 4.4‰ for sanukitoids and -2.6 ± 8.8‰ for Jack Hills samples. Trace elements were analyzed from single spots in order to evaluate coupled substitutions. Atomic ratios (3Li+Y+REE)/P average 2.6, showing that Li and trivalent atoms are not charge-balanced by P, and suggesting that Li does not replace Zr, according to the xenotime substitution. However, (Y+REE)/(Li+P) atomic ratios average 1.0 ± 0.6, supporting the hypothesis that Li is interstitial and partly compensates trivalent cations. Several observations in this study suggest that [Li] is primary in the studied zircons: i) if Li is interstitial, charge-balance and slow diffusion of REE would control Li mobility

  15. Ti-in-Zircon Thermometer: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, B.; Cavosie, A. J.; Clechenko, C. C.; Fournelle, J.; Kita, N. T.; Lackey, J.; Page, F.; Wilde, S. A.; Valley, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    The titanium in zircon thermometer has been applied to 167 zircons from diverse rock types. These rocks include metamorphosed anorthosite and gabbro (1.15 Ga, intrusion age), and unmetamorphosed granitic pegmatite (0.9 Ga) from the Adirondack Highlands; metaluminous and peraluminous granites (114-90 Ma) of the Sierra Nevada Batholith; megacrysts from kimberlite pipes in southern Africa, Brazil, and Siberia; and detrital zircons (4.4-3.9 Ga) of metaconglomerate from Jack Hills, Western Australia. Titanium concentration in zircon was analysed using a CAMECA IMS-1280 ion microprobe (see Page et al., this volume). Spot analyses were correlated to U-Pb SHRIMP pits especially for Adirondack and Jack Hills zircons. The majority of zircons have Ti-content less than 10 ppm. Variability, in excess of analytical precision, within individual zircons is observed in about one-third of crystals. In general, there is no systematic change in Ti from core to rim (identified by cathodoluminescence) of zircons, or with regard to age, U content, Th/U ratio, or U-Pb age concordance for these non-metamict grains. The average temperatures for zircon crystallization in different rock suites using the experimental/empirical calibration of Watson and Harrison (W&H, 2005, Science 308:841), assuming the presence of rutile and quartz, are estimated to be: anorthosite 735±41°C (1SD, n=24; Ti = 10±5 ppm); metagabbro 714±31°C (n=19; Ti = 8±4 ppm); Adirondack pegmatite 500±16°C (n=5; Ti = 0.3±0.1 ppm); metaluminous and peraluminous granites from Sierra Nevada 681±67°C (n=53; Ti = 6±5 ppm) and 613±75°C (n=68; Ti = 3±3 ppm); kimberlite megacrysts 740±64°C (n=169; Ti = 14±13 ppm) (Page et al., this volume); and detrital zircons from Jack Hills metaconglomerate 718±63°C (n=64; Ti = 10±9 ppm). Most of the host rocks contain ilmenite or titanite suggesting that α(TiO2)>0.5, but rutile activity is unknown for megacrysts and detrital zircons. Pegmatite contains no Ti-rich minerals

  16. FUN with PANURGE - High mass resolution ion microprobe measurements of Mg in Allende inclusions. [meteoritic composition isotope analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huneke, J. C.; Armstrong, J. T.; Wassserburg, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    Isotopic ratios have been determined, at a precision level approaching that of counting statistics using beam switching, by employing PANURGE, a modified CAMECA IMS3F ion microprobe at a mass resolving power of 5000. This technique is used to determine the isotopic composition of Mg and Si and the atomic ratio of Al/Mg in minerals from the Allende inclusion WA and the Allende FUN inclusion C1. Results show enrichment in Mg-26 of up to 260 percent. Results of Mg and Al/Mg measurements on cogenetic spinel inclusion and host plagiclase crystals show Mg-Al isochrons in excellent agreement with precise mineral isochrons determined by thermal emission mass spectrometry. The measurements are found to confirm the presence of substantial excess Mg-26 in WA and its near absence in C1. Data is obtained which indicates a metamorphic reequilibrium of Mg in Allende plagioclase at least 0.6 my after WA formation. Ion probe measurements are obtained which confirm that the Mg composition in Allende C1 is highly fractionated and is uniform among pyroxene, melilite, plagioclase, spinel crystals, and spinel included in melilite and plagioclase crystals.

  17. Applications of primary and secondary inclusion assemblages for zircon petrogenesis and alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    Igneous zircon often contains abundant mineral inclusions which represent a mixture of primary phases captured during crystallization in magma and secondary phases formed either during late-stage deuteric alteration of a solidifying pluton, during later metamorphism, or during detrital transport and diagenesis in groundwater. Microstructural examination of zircon from both magmatic and metamorphic rocks reveals varying abundances of clearly secondary phases filling cracks and potentially secondary phases in contact with cracks or in disturbed regions of the host zircon. We used EDS and WDS X-ray spectroscopy to examine crack-isolated, crack-intersecting, and crack-filling phases in zircon from Phanerozoic magmatic rocks (USA, Victoria), several Grenville (Blue Ridge, VA) orthogneisses, and detrital zircons in metasediments from Jack Hills, Mt. Narryer (Western Australia) and the Nuvvuagittuq supracrustal belt (northern Quebec). Orthogneiss and detrital zircon appear to retain primary inclusion compositions away from contact with cracks or disturbed regions of zircon (as distinguished by U-Pb). Characteristic trace element patterns associated with chemical alteration of zircon match well with the apparently dominant secondary phases in metasedimentary detrital zircons and magmatic zircon subjected to deuteric alteration. Additionally, high spatial resolution Pb isotopic analyses of secondary phosphates using the CAMECA ims1290 ion microprobe reveal preservation of multiple generations of metamorphic phosphate, in some cases juxtaposed within a single inclusion on the 5-10 micron scale. Zircon can therefore in many cases preserve the compositions of its primary inclusion cargo through later metamorphism. Zircon can also preserve information about individual hydrothermal or metamorphic events during the grain's residence in the crust.

  18. Residence, resorption and recycling of zircons in Devils Kitchen rhyolite, Coso Volcanic Field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.S.; Wooden, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Zircons from the Devils Kitchen rhyolite in the Pleistocene Coso Volcanic field, California have been analyzed by in situ Pb/U ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG) and by detailed cathodoluminescence imaging. The zircons yield common-Pb-corrected and disequilibrium-corrected 206Pb/238U ages that predate a previously reported K-Ar sanidine age by up to 200 kyr, and the range of ages exhibited by the zircons is also approximately 200 kyr. Cathodoluminescence imaging indicates that zircons formed in contrasting environments. Most zircons are euhedral, and a majority of the zircons are weakly zoned, but many also have anhedral, embayed cores, with euhedral overgrowths and multiple internal surfaces that are truncated by later crystal zones. Concentrations of U and Th vary by two orders of magnitude within the zircon population, and by 10-20 times between zones within some zircon crystals, indicating that zircons were transferred between contrasting chemical environments. A zircon saturation temperature of ???750??C overlaps within error a previously reported phenocryst equilibration temperature of 740 ?? 25??C. Textures in zircons indicative of repeated dissolution and subsequent regrowth are probably caused by punctuated heating by mafic magma input into rhyolite. The overall span of ages and large variation in U and Th concentrations, combined with calculated zircon saturation temperatures and resorption times, are most compatible with crystallization in magma bodies that were emplaced piecemeal in the crust at Coso over 200 kyr prior to eruption, and that were periodically rejuvenated or melted by subsequent basaltic injections. ?? Oxford University Press 2004; all rights reserved.

  19. Ion microprobe elemental analyses of impact features on interplanetary dust experiment sensor surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Charles G.; Hunter, Jerry L.; Wortman, Jim J.; Griffis, Dieter P.

    1992-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact features from very small particles (less than 3 microns in diameter) on several of the electro-active dust sensors used in the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) were subjected to elemental analysis using an ion microscope. The same analytical techniques were applied to impact and containment features on a set of ultra-pure, highly polished single crystal germanium wafer witness plates that were mounted on tray B12. Very little unambiguously identifiable impactor debris was found in the central craters or shatter zones of small impacts in this crystalline surface. The surface contamination, ubiquitous on the surface of the Long Duration Exposure Facility, has greatly complicated data collection and interpretation from microparticle impacts on all surfaces.

  20. Ca. 400 Ma Recrystallization of Norwegian Ultrahigh-pressure Eclogites: an ion Microprobe and Chemical Abrasion Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, D. B.; Mattinson, J. M.; Hacker, B. R.; Wooden, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    Understanding the formation and exhumation of the ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rocks of western Norway hinges on precise determination of the time of eclogite recrystallization. Our study consists of SHRIMP analysis, in conjunction with CL imagery, of zircon from four UHP and high-pressure (HP) eclogites; and detailed TIMS analysis of zircon from two samples subjected to combined thermal annealing and multi-step chemical abrasion (CA). SHRIMP analyses of the Otnheim and Langenes eclogites yield Caledonian spot ages of ca. 400 Ma from zircon rims. CL imagery and Th/U ratios from the Langenes eclogite indicate formation of rims by recrystallization of inherited zircon. SHRIMP analysis of the UHP Flatraket eclogite yielded a broad range of apparently concordant Caledonian ages. CA analyses of two fractions yielded moderate Pb loss from the first (lowest T) steps; possible minor Pb loss or minor growth at 400 Ma from the second steps; and a 407-404 Ma cluster of slightly discordant 206Pb/238U ages, most likely free from Pb loss, from the remaining steps. We interpret the latter to reflect recrystallization of inherited zircon, with possible new growth, at ca. 400-395 Ma. Alternatively, the high-temperature CA steps could represent growth at 407-404 Ma, with apparent discordance due to intermediate daughter product effects. HP/UHP zircon recrystallization in the Flatraket eclogite is inferred from three lines of evidence: i) zircon occurs as inclusions in garnet, omphacite, breunnerite, dolomite, and quartz, as well as in symplectites after phengite and omphacite; ii) association of zircon with rutile implies zircon formation during HP breakdown of Zr-ilmenite; and iii) chondrite-normalized ICP-MS analyses of the CA steps reveal small Eu anomalies and shallow HREE profiles, indicating zircon recrystallization in the presence of garnet. CA analysis of the Verpeneset eclogite yielded distinctly discordant step ages from two steps comprising <90% of the sample, with 206Pb/238U

  1. An ion microprobe study of CAIs from CO3 meteorites. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, S. S.; Greenwood, R. C.; Fahey, A. J.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    When attempting to interpret the history of Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) it is often difficult to distinguish between primary features inherited from the nebula and those produced during secondary processing on the parent body. We have undertaken a systematic study of CAIs from 10 CO chondrites, believed to represent a metamorphic sequence with the goal of distinguishing primary and secondary features. ALHA 77307 (3.0), Colony (3.0), Kainsaz (3.1), Felix (3.2), ALH 82101 (3.3), Ornans (3.3), Lance (3.4), ALHA 77003 (3.5), Warrenton (3.6), and Isna (3.7) were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. We have identified 141 CAIs within these samples, and studied in detail the petrology of 34 inclusions. The primary phases in the lower petrologic types are spinel, melilite, and hibonite. Perovskite, FeS, ilmenite, anorthite, kirschsteinite, and metallic Fe are present as minor phases. Melilite becomes less abundant in higher petrologic types and was not detected in chondrites of type 3.5 and above, confirming previous reports that this mineral easily breaks down during heating. Iron, an element that would not be expected to condense at high temperatures, has a lower abundance in spinel from low-petrologic-type meteorites than those of higher grade, and CaTiO3 is replaced by FeTiO3 in meteorites of higher petrologic type. The abundance of CAIs is similar in each meteorite. Eight inclusions have been analyzed by ion probe. The results are summarized. The results obtained to date show that CAIs in CO meteorites, like those from other meteorite classes, contain Mg* and that Mg in some inclusions has been redistributed.

  2. Microanalyses of O isotopes and elemental ratios of reef building coral (Montastrea annularis) by ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabitov, R. I.; Carricart Ganivet, J. P.; Prieto, R. I.

    2012-12-01

    Our understanding of climate change and oceanographic variability through time is largely derived from knowledge of oxygen isotopes (δ18O) and elemental ratios (X/Ca) signatures in coral reefs. However, the existence of inconsistencies in isotopic composition between different coral specimens suggests that factors other than temperature and seawater composition affect isotopic and chemical records. We conducted in situ Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) analyses on the reef building coral (Montastraea annularis) from Veracuz Reef in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Coral specimen was sliced in perpendicular and parallel directions of its growth. Therefore, one of the sections exposed simultaneously grown skeletal material; another section represents a time series of continuously extended skeleton. The complex microstructure of the coral yields a few morphologically different zones (architectural elements). There are theca-wall (Th), septa (S), costa (C), exothecal (ExD) and endothecal dissepiments (EnD). Dissepiments formation in Montastraea annularis is linked to moon cycles and there are 12 or 13 ExD formed per year; meanwhile, there are 24 or 26 EnD per year (Dávalos-Dehullu et al. 2008). SIMS analyses were performed on Th, S, C, ExD, and EnD at lateral spatial resolution of ~20 μm. SIMS spot profiles with 100 and 500 μm steps were conducted on Th wall in the direction of coral growth. SIMS analyses demontrate that δ18O in Th, S, C, and ExD that grown at the same time are similar to each other within 1 sigma error. However, δ18O in EnD is isotopically heavier by 1 ‰ than those of simultaneously grown T,S, and ExD. The reverse dependence of δ18O on growth rate of corals and inorganically precipitated aragonite was reported by previous works and potentially could explain the δ18O enrichment in EnD, which grow by 35% slower than ExD (McConnaughey 1989; Dávalos-Dehullu et al. 2008; Gabitov 2012). SIMS spot profiles in the coral growth direction yielded

  3. Effect of off-center ion substitution in morphotropic lead zirconate titanate composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Mohan K.; Pavunny, Shojan P.; Instan, Alvaro A.; Scott, James F.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2017-05-01

    A detailed study of the effect of off-center donor ion (Sc3+) substitution on structural, microstructural, optical, dielectric, electrical, and ferroelectric properties of morphotropic composition of lead zirconate titanate electroceramics with the stoichiometric formula Pb0.85Sc0.10Zr0.53Ti0.47O3 (PSZT) and synthesized using a high energy solid-state reaction technique was carried out. Powder x-ray diffractometry was used to identify the stabilized tetragonal phase (space group P 4 m m ) with considerably reduced tetragonal strain, c /a = 1.005. An analysis of the thermal dependence of the Raman results indicated a smooth displacive (ferroelectric-paraelectric) phase transition as revealed by the observed disappearance of the soft modes A1 (1TO) and A1 (2TO) above 460 K. The dielectric response of Pt/PSZT/Pt metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitors was probed over a wide range of thermal excursions (85-600 K) and ac signal frequencies (102-106 Hz). Thermally activated dynamic and static conduction processes indicate hopping conduction mechanism ( Ea c t ≤ 0.015 eV) and the formation of small polarons caused by the electron and/or hole-lattice (phonon) interaction ( Ea c t ≥ 0.1 eV) at low (100-300 K) and high temperatures (300-600 K), respectively. The reduction in remnant polarization obtained is in good agreement with the largely reduced tetragonal strain observed in this sample, ( Pr ∝ √{c /a -1 } ). DC conduction is dominated by Poole-Frenkel mechanism that assumes a Coulombic attraction between detrapped electrons and positively charged stationary defect species in the polycrystalline matrix.

  4. Re-evaluation of the origin and evolution of > 4.2 Ga zircons from the Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemchin, A. A.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Whitehouse, M. J.

    2006-04-01

    New data are presented on internal structures, U-Pb systematics and oxygen isotope compositions of eight detrital zircons with ages greater than 4.2 Ga, from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt, Australia. Cathodoluminescence imaging, ion-microprobe U-Pb and oxygen isotope results show evidence for an extensive period of complex zircon growth, secondary reaction and U-Pb isotopic disturbance from 4.36 to 3.90 Ga. In addition many of the zircons have discordant U-Pb systems and excess common Pb indicating a superimposed, relatively recent, reaction between radiation damaged zircon and low temperature fluids. The significance of oxygen isotope compositions for zircons with complex internal structures and U-Pb systems is complicated by uncertainty in the origin of the grains and the unknown effect of later reactions. However, a minority of grains with sharp oscillatory zoning, uniform and concordant U-Pb systems, igneous Th-U ratios and low common Pb contents, are interpreted as undisturbed primary magmatic zircons. The oldest identified, oscillatory zoned, magmatic grain, with an age 4363 ± 20 Ma, is one of a few reported magmatic grains with this age, which is interpreted as the oldest reliable age for Hadean magmatic zircons. Mantle δ18O values are reported for these zircons. Younger oscillatory zoned zircon, including oscillatory zoned cores in complex grains, have δ18O values lower than 6.5‰, which are within the range of ion microprobe analysed δ18O values for zircons in high temperature equilibrium with the normal mantle rocks of 5.3 ± 0.6‰ (2 standard deviations). These values are also within the range of δ18O values found in lunar zircons. The absence of heavy oxygen in the grains that can be interpreted as primary magmatic zircons and the complex history over the period from 4.36 to 3.9 Ga, seen in all other Jack Hills zircons and reflected in the internal structures and U-Pb isotopic systems, questions the model for the early Earth involving long

  5. Mixture modeling of multi-component data sets with application to ion-probe zircon ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambridge, M. S.; Compston, W.

    1994-12-01

    A method is presented for detecting multiple components in a population of analytical observations for zircon and other ages. The procedure uses an approach known as mixture modeling, in order to estimate the most likely ages, proportions and number of distinct components in a given data set. Particular attention is paid to estimating errors in the estimated ages and proportions. At each stage of the procedure several alternative numerical approaches are suggested, each having their own advantages in terms of efficency and accuracy. The methodology is tested on synthetic data sets simulating two or more mixed populations of zircon ages. In this case true ages and proportions of each population are known and compare well with the results of the new procedure. Two examples are presented of its use with sets of SHRIMP U-238 - Pb-206 zircon ages from Palaeozoic rocks. A published data set for altered zircons from bentonite at Meishucun, South China, previously treated as a single-component population after screening for gross alteration effects, can be resolved into two components by the new procedure and their ages, proportions and standard errors estimated. The older component, at 530 +/- 5 Ma (2 sigma), is our best current estimate for the age of the bentonite. Mixture modeling of a data set for unaltered zircons from a tonalite elsewhere defines the magmatic U-238 - Pb-206 age at high precision (2 sigma +/- 1.5 Ma), but one-quarter of the 41 analyses detect hidden and significantly older cores.

  6. Complementary microanalysis of Zn, Mn and Fe in the chelicera of spiders and scorpions using scanning MeV-ion and electron microprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, Robert; Lefevre, Harlan; Shaffer, Michael

    1989-04-01

    Energy-loss scanning transmission ion microscopy (ELSTIM or just STIM), PIXE and electron microprobe techniques are used to investigate certain minor element accumulations in a few spiders and scorpions. STIM and PIXE are used to survey the unsectioned specimens, while electron microprobe techniques are used for higher resolution investigations of several sections of the specimens. Concentration values measured using STIM and PIXE are found to be in satisfactory agreement with those measured using electron probe microanalysis. A garden spider Araneus diadematus is found to contain high concentrations of zinc in a thin layer near the surface of its fangs (reaching 23% of dry weight), and manganese in its marginal teeth (about 5% of dry weight). A wolf spider Alopecosa kochi is found to have similar concentrations of zinc in a layer near the surface of it's fang, and concentrations of manganese reaching 1.5% in a layer beneath the zinc containing layer. A scorpion Centruroides sp. is found to contain high concentrations of iron (reaching 8%) and zinc (reaching 24%) in the tips of teeth on the cheliceral fingers, and manganese (about 5%) in the stinger. The hypothesis that these elements simply harden the cuticle does not appear to explain their segregation patterns.

  7. An ion microprobe study of the intra-crystalline behavior of REE and selected trace elements in pyroxene from mare basalts with different cooling and crystallization histories

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J.; Simon, S.B.

    1989-05-01

    To study the effects of crystallization sequence and rate on trace element zoning characteristics of pyroxenes, the authors used combined electron microprobe-ion microprobe techniques on four nearly isochemical Apollo 12 and 15 pigeonite basalts with different cooling rates and crystallization histories. Major and minor element zoning characteristics are nearly identical to those reported in the literature. All the pyroxenes have similar chondrite-normalized REE patterns: negative Eu anomalies, positive slopes as defined by Yb/Ce, and slopes of REE patterns from Ce to Sm much steeper than from Gd to Yb. These trace element zoning characteristics in pyroxene and the partitioning ofmore » trace elements between pyroxene and the melt are intimately related to the interplay among the efficiency of the crystallization process, the kinetics at the crystal-melt interface, the kinetics of plagioclase nucleation and the characteristics of the crystal chemical substitutions within both the pyroxene and the associated crystallizing phases (i.e. plagioclase).« less

  8. The Stanford-U.S. Geological Survey SHRIMP ion microprobe--a tool for micro-scale chemical and isotopic analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, Charles R.; Grove, Marty; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Coble, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Answers to many questions in Earth science require chemical analysis of minute volumes of minerals, volcanic glass, or biological materials. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is an extremely sensitive analytical method in which a 5–30 micrometer diameter "primary" beam of charged particles (ions) is focused on a region of a solid specimen to sputter secondary ions from 1–5 nanograms of the sample under high vacuum. The elemental abundances and isotopic ratios of these secondary ions are determined with a mass spectrometer. These results can be used for geochronology to determine the age of a region within a crystal thousands to billions of years old or to precisely measure trace abundances of chemical elements at concentrations as low as parts per billion. A partnership of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Stanford University School of Earth Sciences operates a large SIMS instrument, the Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe with Reverse Geometry (SHRIMP–RG) on the Stanford campus.

  9. Dating high-grade metamorphism: constraints from zircon and garnet REE compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M. J.; Platt, J. P.

    2001-12-01

    We present high spatial resolution ion microprobe REE analyses of zircon and garnet from pelitic granulite adjacent to the Ronda peridotite, Betic Cordillera, southern Spain. The zircons exhibit polyphase growth, with thick structureless (in cathodoluminescence) overgrowths over detrital cores. These overgrowths yield a U-Pb age of 21.3 +/- 0.3 Ma [1, unpublished data] which we intepret as dating an episode of zircon growth during the Alpine orogeny. REE analyses of the dated portions of these zircons reveal profound differences between cores and rims. Cores show patterns typical of magmatic zircon (steep upward slopes from La to Lu with marked positive Ce anomaly), while the overgrowths are characterised by flat or even negatively sloping HREE profiles (Gd - Lu). Garnet, which occupies ca. 30 % by volume of the rock, is the most likely phase to host the HREEs in the rock and has been the subject of further ion-microprobe REE, textural and trace element investigations. The garnets are themselves zoned, with dominant central regions that are relatively free of inclusions overgrown by inclusion-rich, more calcic rims. Inclusions of kyanite +rutile in the central regions and sillimanite +ilmenite in the rims suggests that the garnets grew during decompression, and the Ca-enrichment in the rims suggests that their growth coincided with the initiation of partial melting. The presence of rimmed zircons only in the garnet rims and the matrix further suggests that the zircons also grew during this late decompressional history. An REE traverse of the garnet from core to rim reveals marked HREE depletion in the rims relative to the cores which we suggest is consistent with the textural evidence and probably results from early garnet core growth strongly depleting the HREEs available to subsequent growth. This mechanism can also be invoked to explain depletion in the zircon rims and more closely ties their formation to this stage of garnet growth. We therefore interpret the

  10. HAFNIAN ZIRCONS

    SciTech Connect

    von Knorring, O.; Hornung, G.

    1961-06-17

    Two hafnia zircons were examined in detail, one from Mtoko in Southern Rhodesia, containing 21% HfO/sub 2/, and the other from Karibib in South-West Africa, with 31% HfO/sub 2/. In both cases the zircons are associated with the later tantalum-rich phase of mineralization. The Mtoko zircon forms small, mauve- colored, independent crystals in the albitic zone of the pegmatite. The zircon from Karibib occurs in larger reddish-brown masses, partly intergrown with minute manganotantalite crystals and set in a matrix of lithium-bearing mica, albite, quartz and kaolinized feldspar. Some crystals show dominant pyramid faces, with a suppressed prism. Both zircons exhibitmore » an intense golden-yellow fluorescence in UV light. The zircon from Karibib was found to be only weakly radioactive. Data are given concerning various properties of the two zircons. (P.C.H.)« less

  11. A petrologic and ion microprobe study of a Vigarano Type B refractory inclusion - Evolution by multiple stages of alteration and melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, Glenn J.; Davis, Andrew M.

    1993-01-01

    A Type B Ca-, Al-rich 6-m-diam inclusion (CAI) found in the Vigarano C3V chondrite was inspected using optical and scanning electron microscopies and ion microprobe analyses. It was found that the primary constituents of the CAI inclusion are (in percent), melilite (52), fassaite, (20), anorthite (18), spinel (10), and trace Fe-Ni metal. It is noted that, while many of the properties of the inclusion indicate solidification from a melt droplet, the Al-26/Mg-26 isotopic systematics and some textural relationships are incompatible with single-stage closed system crystallization of a homogeneous molten droplet, indicating that the history of this inclusion must have been more complex than melt solidification alone. Moreover, there was unusually high content of Na in melilite, suggesting that the droplet did not form by melting of pristine high-temperature nebular condensates.

  12. Migration and rearing histories of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) determined by ion microprobe Sr isotope and Sr/Ca transects of otoliths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Weber, P.K.; Larsen, K.A.; Reisenbichler, R.; Fitzpatrick, J.A.; Wooden, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Strontium isotope and Sr/Ca ratios measured in situ by ion microprobe along radial transects of otoliths of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) vary between watersheds with contrasting geology. Otoliths from ocean-type chinook from Skagit River estuary, Washington, had prehatch regions with 87Sr/86Sr ratios of ???0.709, suggesting a maternally inherited marine signature, extensive fresh water growth zones with 87Sr/86Sr ratios similar to those of the Skagit River at ???0.705, and marine-like 87Sr/86Sr ratios near their edges. Otoliths from stream-type chinook from central Idaho had prehatch 87Sr/86Sr ratios ???0.711, indicating that a maternal marine Sr isotopic signature is not preserved after the ???1000- to 1400-km migration from the Pacific Ocean. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the outer portions of otoliths from these Idaho juveniles were similar to those of their respective streams (???0.708-0.722). For Skagit juveniles, fresh water growth was marked by small decreases in otolith Sr/Ca, with increases in Sr/Ca corresponding to increases in 87Sr/86Sr with migration into salt water. Otoliths of Idaho fish had Sr/Ca radial variation patterns that record seasonal fluctuation in ambient water Sr/Ca ratios. The ion microprobe's ability to measure both 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ca ratios of otoliths at high spatial resolution in situ provides a new tool for studies of fish rearing and migration. ?? 2004 NRC Canada.

  13. Improved spatial resolution for U-series dating of opal at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA, using ion-microprobe and microdigestion methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paces, J.B.; Neymark, L.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Persing, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Two novel methods of in situ isotope analysis, ion microprobe and microdigestion, were used for 230Th/U and 234U/238U dating of finely laminated opal hemispheres formed in unsaturated felsic tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, proposed site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. Both methods allow analysis of layers as many as several orders of magnitude thinner than standard methods using total hemisphere digestion that were reported previously. Average growth rates calculated from data at this improved spatial resolution verified that opal grew at extremely slow rates over the last million years. Growth rates of 0.58 and 0.69 mm/m.y. were obtained for the outer 305 and 740 ??m of two opal hemispheres analyzed by ion microprobe, and 0.68 mm/m.y. for the outer 22 ??m of one of these same hemispheres analyzed by sequential microdigestion. These Pleistocene growth rates are 2 to 10 times slower than those calculated for older secondary calcite and silica mineral coatings deposited over the last 5 to 10 m.y. dated by the U-Pb method and may reflect differences between Miocene and Pleistocene seepage flux. The microdigestion data also imply that opal growth rates may have varied over the last 40 k.y. These data are the first indication that growth rates and associated seepage in the proposed repository horizon may correlate with changes in late Pleistocene climate, involving faster growth during wetter, cooler climates (glacial maximum), slower growth during transition climates, and no growth during the most arid climate (modern). Data collected at this refined spatial scale may lead to a better understanding of the hydrologic variability expected within the thick unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain over the time scale of interest for radioactive waste isolation. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of ion-solid interactions in zirconate pyrochlores

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Weber, William J.; Zhang, Yanwen; ...

    2015-01-31

    In this paper, an ab initio molecular dynamics method is employed to study low energy recoil events in zirconate pyrochlores (A 2Zr 2O 7, A = La, Nd and Sm). It shows that both cations and anions in Nd 2Zr 2O 7 and Sm 2Zr 2O 7 are generally more likely to be displaced than those in La 2Zr 2O 7. The damage end states mainly consist of Frenkel pair defects, and the Frenkel pair formation energies in Nd 2Zr 2O 7 and Sm 2Zr 2O 7 are lower than those in La 2Zr 2O 7. These results suggest thatmore » the order–disorder structural transition more easily occurs in Nd 2Zr 2O 7 and Sm 2Zr 2O 7 resulting in a defect-fluorite structure, which agrees well with experimental observations. Our calculations indicate that oxygen migration from 48f and 8b to 8a sites is dominant under low energy irradiation. A number of new defects, including four types of cation Frenkel pairs and six types of anion Frenkel pairs, are revealed by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The present findings may help to advance the fundamental understanding of the irradiation response behavior of zirconate pyrochlores.« less

  15. U-Pb Dating of Zircons and Phosphates in Lunar Meteorites, Acapulcoites and Angrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Q.; Zeigler, R. A.; Yin, Q. Z.; Korotev, R. L.; Joliff, B. L.; Amelin, Y.; Marti, K.; Wu, F. Y.; Li, X. H.; Li, Q. L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Zircon U-Pb geochronology has made a great contribution to the timing of magmatism in the early Solar System [1-3]. Ca phosphates are another group of common accessory minerals in meteorites with great potential for U-Pb geochronology. Compared to zircons, the lower closure temperatures of the U-Pb system for apatite and merrillite (the most common phosphates in achondrites) makes them susceptible to resetting during thermal metamorphism. The different closure temperatures of the U-Pb system for zircon and apatite provide us an opportunity to discover the evolutionary history of meteoritic parent bodies, such as the crystallization ages of magmatism, as well as later impact events and thermal metamorphism. We have developed techniques using the Cameca IMS-1280 ion microprobe to date both zircon and phosphate grains in meteorites. Here we report U-Pb dating results for zircons and phosphates from lunar meteorites Dhofar 1442 and SaU 169. To test and verify the reliability of the newly developed phosphate dating technique, two additional meteorites, Acapulco, obtained from Acapulco consortium, and angrite NWA 4590 were also selected for this study as both have precisely known phosphate U-Pb ages by TIMS [4,5]. Both meteorites are from very fast cooled parent bodies with no sign of resetting [4,5], satisfying a necessity for precise dating.

  16. Uniformly mantle-like δ18O in zircons from oceanic plagiogranites and gabbros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, Craig B.; Ushikubo, Takayuki; John, Barbara E.; Valley, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Lower ocean crust is primarily gabbroic, although 1-2% felsic igneous rocks that are referred to collectively as plagiogranites occur locally. Recent experimental evidence suggests that plagiogranite magmas can form by hydrous partial melting of gabbro triggered by seawater-derived fluids, and thus they may indicate early, high-temperature hydrothermal fluid circulation. To explore seawater-rock interaction prior to and during the genesis of plagiogranite and other late-stage magmas, oxygen-isotope ratios preserved in igneous zircon have been measured by ion microprobe. A total of 197 zircons from 43 plagiogranite, evolved gabbro, and hydrothermally altered fault rock samples have been analyzed. Samples originate primarily from drill core acquired during Ocean Drilling Program and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program operations near the Mid-Atlantic and Southwest Indian Ridges. With the exception of rare, distinctively luminescent rims, all zircons from ocean crust record remarkably uniform δ18O with an average value of 5.2 ± 0.5‰ (2SD). The average δ18O(Zrc) would be in magmatic equilibrium with unaltered MORB [δ18O(WR) ~ 5.6-5.7‰], and is consistent with the previously determined value for equilibrium with the mantle. The narrow range of measured δ18O values is predicted for zircon crystallization from variable parent melt compositions and temperatures in a closed system, and provides no indication of any interactions between altered rocks or seawater and the evolved parent melts. If plagiogranite forms by hydrous partial melting, the uniform mantle-like δ18O(Zrc) requires melting and zircon crystallization prior to significant amounts of water-rock interactions that alter the protolith δ18O. Zircons from ocean crust have been proposed as a tectonic analog for >3.9 Ga detrital zircons from the earliest (Hadean) Earth by multiple workers. However, zircons from ocean crust are readily distinguished geochemically from zircons formed in continental crustal

  17. Chemical abrasion-SIMS (CA-SIMS) U-Pb dating of zircon from the late Eocene Caetano caldera, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kathryn E.; Coble, Matthew A.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Henry, Christopher D.; Colgan, Joseph P.; John, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Zircon geochronology is a critical tool for establishing geologic ages and time scales of processes in the Earth's crust. However, for zircons compromised by open system behavior, achieving robust dates can be difficult. Chemical abrasion (CA) is a routine step prior to thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) dating of zircon to remove radiation-damaged parts of grains that may have experienced open system behavior and loss of radiogenic Pb. While this technique has been shown to improve the accuracy and precision of TIMS dating, its application to high-spatial resolution dating methods, such as secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), is relatively uncommon. In our efforts to U-Pb date zircons from the late Eocene Caetano caldera by SIMS (SHRIMP-RG: sensitive high resolution ion microprobe, reverse geometry), some grains yielded anomalously young U-Pb ages that implicated Pb-loss and motivated us to investigate with a comparative CA and non-CA dating study. We present CA and non-CA 206Pb/238U ages and trace elements determined by SHRIMP-RG for zircons from three Caetano samples (Caetano Tuff, Redrock Canyon porphyry, and a silicic ring-fracture intrusion) and for R33 and TEMORA-2 reference zircons. We find that non-CA Caetano zircons have weighted mean or bimodal U-Pb ages that are 2–4% younger than CA zircons for the same samples. CA Caetano zircons have mean U-Pb ages that are 0.4–0.6 Myr older than the 40Ar/39Ar sanidine eruption age (34.00 ± 0.03 Ma; error-weighted mean, 2σ), whereas non-CA zircons have ages that are 0.7–1.3 Myr younger. U-Pb ages do not correlate with U (~ 100–800 ppm), Th (~ 50–300 ppm) or any other measured zircon trace elements (Y, Hf, REE), and CA and non-CA Caetano zircons define identical trace element ranges. No statistically significant difference in U-Pb age is observed for CA versus non-CA R33 or TEMORA-2 zircons. Optical profiler measurements of ion microprobe pits demonstrate consistent depths of ~ 1.6

  18. Origin of northern Gondwana Cambrian sandstone revealed by detrital zircon SHRIMP dating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avigad, D.; Kolodner, K.; McWilliams, M.; Persing, H.; Weissbrod, T.

    2003-01-01

    Voluminous Paleozoic sandstone sequences were deposited in northern Africa and Arabia following an extended Neoproterozoic orogenic cycle that culminated in the assembly of Gondwana. We measured sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb ages of detrital zircons separated from several Cambrian units in the Elat area of southern Israel in order to unravel their provenance. This sandstone forms the base of the widespread siliciclastic section now exposed on the periphery of the Arabian-Nubian shield in northeastern Africa and Arabia. Most of the detrital zircons we analyzed yielded Neoproterozoic concordant ages with a marked concentration at 0.55–0.65 Ga. The most likely provenance of the Neoproterozoic detritus is the Arabian-Nubian shield; 0.55–0.65 Ga was a time of posttectonic igneous activity, rift-related volcanism, and strike-slip faulting there. Of the zircons, 30% yielded pre-Neoproterozoic ages grouped at 0.9–1.1 Ga (Kibaran), 1.65–1.85 Ga, and 2.45–2.7 Ga. The majority of the pre-Neoproterozoic zircons underwent Pb loss, possibly as a consequence of the Pan-African orogeny resetting their provenance. Rocks of the Saharan metacraton and the southern Afif terrane in Saudi Arabia (∼1000 km south of Elat) are plausible sources of these zircons. Kibaran basement rocks are currently exposed more than 3000 km south of Elat (flanking the Mozambique belt), but the shape of the detrital zircons of that age and the presence of feldspar in the host sandstone are not fully consistent with such a long-distance transport. Reworking of Neoproteorozoic glacial detritus may explain the presence of Kibaran detrital zircons in the Cambrian of Elat, but the possibility that the Arabian-Nubian shield contains Kibaran rocks (hitherto not recognized) should also be explored.

  19. Mass-spectrometric mining of Hadean zircons by automated SHRIMP multi-collector and single-collector U/Pb zircon age dating: The first 100,000 grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Peter; Lanc, Peter; Ireland, Trevor R.; Harrison, T. Mark; Foster, John J.; Bruce, Zane

    2009-09-01

    The identification and retrieval of a large population of ancient zircons (>4 Ga; Hadean) is of utmost priority if models of the early evolution of Earth are to be rigorously tested. We have developed a rapid and accurate U-Pb zircon age determination protocol utilizing a fully automated multi-collector ion microprobe, the ANU SHRIMP II, to screen and date these zircons. Unattended data acquisition relies on the calibration of a digitized sample map to the Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe (SHRIMP) sample-stage co-ordinate system. High precision positioning of individual grains can be produced through optical image processing of a specified mount location. The focal position of the mount can be optimized through a correlation between secondary-ion steering and the spot position on the target. For the Hadean zircon project, sample mounts are photographed and sample locations (normally grain centers) are determined off-line. The sample is loaded, reference points calibrated, and the target positions are then visited sequentially. In SHRIMP II multiple-collector mode, zircons are initially screened (ca. 5 s data acquisition) through their 204Pb corrected 207Pb/206Pb ratio; suitable candidates are then analyzed in a longer routine to obtain better measurement statistics, U/Pb, and concentration data. In SHRIMP I and SHRIMP RG, we have incorporated the automated analysis protocol to single-collector measurements. These routines have been used to analyze over 100,000 zircons from the Jack Hills quartzite. Of these, ca. 7%, have an age greater than 3.8 Ga, the oldest grain being 4372 +/- 6 Ma (2[sigma]), and this age is part of a group of analyses around 4350 Ma which we interpret as the age when continental crust first began to coalesce in this region. In multi-collector mode, the analytical time taken for a single mount with 400 zircons is approximately 6 h; whereas in single-collector mode, the analytical time is ca. 17 h. With this productivity, we can produce

  20. Ion microprobe analysis of {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O in authigenic and detrital quartz in the St. Peter Sandstone, Michigan Basin and Wisconsin Arch, USA: Contrasting diagenetic histories

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.M.; Valley, J.W.; Winter, B.L.

    1996-12-01

    The oxygen isotopic compositions of authigenic quartz cements in sandstones provide a monitor of the temperatures, compositions, and origins of pore-occluding fluids during diagenesis, but quartz overgrowths are too fine-grained to be amenable to conventional isotopic analysis. We have used a Cameca ims-4f ion microprobe to determine oxygen isotopic variations in authigenic and detrital quartz in four samples of the Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone from the Michigan Basin and Wisconsin Arch, midwestern USA. Ion microprobe isotopic analyses have been successfully accomplished with an internal precision of {+-}1{per_thousand} (1{sigma}) and a spatial resolution of 20-30 {mu}m at low mass resolution usingmore » a high voltage offset technique. Repeated analyses of the quartz standard demonstrate a reproducibility of close to {+-}1{per_thousand} (1 sd) in good agreement with that expected from counting statistics. Conventional and ion microprobe analyses are mutually consistent, supporting the accuracy of the ion microprobe analyses. Within-sample isotopic variations of up to 13{per_thousand} and micro-scale isotopic variations of at least 4{per_thousand} over a distance of 100 {mu}m have been measured within quartz overgrowths in a sandstone from the Wisconsin Arch. Overgrowths are uniformly higher in {delta}{sup 18}O than detrital grains, and gradients of up to 25% exist across a few microns. {sup 18}O-enriched quartz overgrowths in sandstones from the Wisconsin Arch show complex CL zonation and reflect one of two possible processes: (1) low-temperature quartz precipitation during mixing of meteoric waters with upwelling basinal fluids; (2) higher temperature quartz precipitation during episodic gravity-driven upwelling of warm basinal fluids (of comparable isotopic composition to Michigan Basin fluids) from the Illinois Basin, related to evolution of Mississippi Valley type Pb-Zn ore-forming fluids. 59 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  1. Hadean Crustal Processes Revealed from Oxygen Isotopes and U-Th-Pb Depth Profiling of Pre-4.0 Ga Detrital Zircons from Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trail, D.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Harrison, T. M.

    2005-01-01

    Because physical and chemical processes of the past are determined from analysis of a preserved geologic record, little is known about terrestrial crustal processes of the first 500 Ma during the so-called Hadean Eon. What is known from direct measurements has been derived almost exclusively from the study of greater than 4.0 Ga detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia. The geochemistry of these zircons has direct application to understanding the origin and evolution of the rocks during the Hadean because: (i) U-Th-Pb age determinations by ion microprobe suggests the presence of crust as early as 4.37 Ga, or shortly after lunar formation; (ii) high-resolution U-Th-Pb zircon depth profiles reported here reveal several episodes of zircon growth in the Hadean previously unrecognized; (iii) core regions of pre-4.0 Ga zircons with igneous compositions are enriched in O-18 and contain metaluminous and peraluminous mineral inclusions, both features indicative of S-type grainitod protoliths. Study of these ancient zircons provides a unique window into the first half billion years that permits assessment of the potential of the Hadean Earth to host an emergent biosphere.

  2. UPb ages of zircon rims: A new analytical method using the air-abrasion technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Winegarden, D.L.; Walter, M.

    1990-01-01

    We present a new technique for directly dating, by conventional techniques, the rims of zircons. Several circumstances, such as a xenocrystic or inherited component in igneous zircon and metamorphic overgrowths on igneous cores, can result in grains with physically distinct age components. Pneumatic abrasion has been previously shown by Krogh to remove overgrowths and damaged areas of zircon, leaving more resistant and isotopically less disturbed parts available for analysis. A new abrader design, which is capable of very gently grinding only tips and interfacial edges of even needle-like grains, permits easy collection of abraded material for dating. Five examples demonstrate the utility of the "dust-collecting" technique, including two studies that compare conventional, ion microprobe and abrader data. Common Pb may be strongly concentrated in the outermost zones of many zircons and this Pb is not easily removed by leaching (even in weak HF). Thus, the benefit of removing only the outermost zones (and avoiding mixing of age components) is somewhat compromised by the much higher common Pb contents which result in less precise age determinations. A very brief abrasion to remove the high common Pb zones prior to collection of material for dating is selected. ?? 1990.

  3. Proterozoic to Mesozoic evolution of North-West Africa and Peri-Gondwana microplates: Detrital zircon ages from Morocco and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzoli, Andrea; Davies, Joshua H. F. L.; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Merle, Renaud; Dal Corso, Jacopo; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Fioretti, Anna Maria; Bellieni, Giuliano; Medina, Fida; Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; McHone, Greg; Font, Eric; Bensalah, Mohamed Khalil

    2017-05-01

    The complex history of assemblage and disruption of continental plates surrounding the Atlantic Ocean is in part recorded by the distribution of detrital zircon ages entrained in continental sedimentary strata from Morocco (Central High Atlas and Argana basins) and Canada (Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick). Here we investigate detrital zircon from the latest Triassic (ca. 202 Ma) sedimentary strata directly underlying lava flows of the Central Atlantic magmatic province or interlayered within them. SHRIMP (Sensitive High-Resolution Ion MicroProbe) and LA-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) U-Pb ages for zircon range from Paleozoic to Archean with a dominant Neoproterozoic peak, and significant amounts of ca. 2 Ga zircon. These ages suggest a prevailing West African (Gondwanan) provenance at all sampling sites. Notably, the Paleoproterozoic zircon population is particularly abundant in central Morocco, north of the High Atlas chain, suggesting the presence of Eburnean-aged rocks in this part of the country, which is consistent with recent geochronologic data from outcropping rocks. Minor amounts of late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic zircon ages (ca. 1.1-0.9 Ga) in Moroccan samples are more difficult to interpret. A provenance from Avalonia or Amazonia, as proposed by previous studies is not supported by the age distributions observed here. An involvement of more distal source regions, possibly located in north-eastern Africa (Arabian Nubian Shield) would instead be possible. Paleozoic zircon ages are abundant in the Canadian sample, pointing to a significant contribution from Hercynian aged source rocks. Such a signal is nearly absent in the Moroccan samples, suggesting that zircon-bearing Hercynian granitic rocks of the Moroccan Meseta block were not yet outcropping at ca. 200 Ma. The only Moroccan samples that yield Paleozoic zircon ages are those interlayered within the CAMP lavas, suggesting an increased dismantling

  4. Changes in seasonal climate patterns from 34-4 ka in a Soreq Cave (Israel) speleothem: Sub-annual resolution by ion microprobe and CLFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orland, I. J.; Bar-Matthews, M.; Kita, N.; Ayalon, A.; Valley, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    Speleothems provide an important proxy-record of paleoclimate. Isotopic data from calcite-dominated cave formations have been used to identify changes in annual rainfall, monsoon strength, telecommunication of Northern Hemisphere climate aberrations, changes in vegetation cover, and other region-specific paleoclimate time-series over annual to millennial timescales. As more research is devoted to understanding abrupt climate change events, there is a need to develop high-temporal-resolution records from continental regions. However, in most isotopic studies, seasonality information is lost due to technical limitations. This study focuses on a speleothem from the semi-arid Eastern Mediterranean region (Soreq Cave, Israel) where prior research shows that conventional drill-sampling methods permit a temporal resolution of ~10-50 years in speleothem paleoclimate records. The WiscSIMS lab has developed analytical protocols for ion microprobe analysis that yield a precision of ~0.3‰ (2 s.d.) in δ18O from 10 μm-diameter spots, which permit multiple analyses/year in many speleothems. Orland et al. (2009, Quat. Res.) establish the methodology for the current study by identifying seasonal variability using a combination of confocal laser fluorescent microscopy (CLFM) and ion microprobe analysis in a younger (~2-1 ka) Soreq speleothem that has a consistent bright-grading-to-dark fluorescence pattern within each annual band. Further, Orland et al. define a quantitative measure of seasonality, Δ18O, that measures the difference in δ18O between bright and dark fluorescent portions of individual annual growth bands [Δ18O = δ18Odark - δ18Obright]. Smaller values of Δ18O are interpreted to be caused by dry years. The current study employs the aforementioned methods to examine seasonality trends in a sample that covers a much longer time period. We report δ18O from >1000 spots across a radial traverse of Soreq Cave sample 2N matched to imaging of annual growth bands by

  5. Broad Beam and Ion Microprobe Studies of Single-Event Upsets in High Speed 0.18micron Silicon Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors and Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Robert A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Pickel, Jim; Carts, Martin A.; Irwin, TIm; Niu, Guofu; Cressler, John; Krithivasan, Ramkumar; Fritz, Karl; Riggs, Pam

    2003-01-01

    structures and map out the spatial sensitivities using the Sandia Focused Heavy Ion Microprobe Facility s Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) technique. Combining the two data sets offers insights into the charge collection mechanisms responsible for circuit level response and provides the first insights into the SEE characteristics of this latest version of IBM s commercial SiGe process.

  6. Coolwater culmination: Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb and isotopic evidence for continental delamination in the Syringa Embayment, Salmon River suture, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, K.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Yacob, E.Y.; Unruh, D.M.; Fanning, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    During dextral oblique translation along Laurentia in western Idaho, the Blue Mountains superterrane underwent clockwise rotation and impinged into the Syringa embayment at the northern end of the Salmon River suture. Along the suture, the superterrane is juxtaposed directly against western Laurentia, making this central Cordilleran accretionary-margin segment unusually attenuated. In the embayment, limited orthogonal contraction produced a crustal wedge of oceanic rocks that delaminated Laurentian crust. The wedge is exposed through Laurentian crust in the Coolwater culmination as documented by mapping and by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe U-Pb, Sri, and ??Nd data for gneisses that lie inboard of the suture. The predominant country rock is Mesoproterozoic paragneiss overlying Laurentian basement. An overlying Neoproterozoic (or younger) paragneiss belt in the Syringa embayment establishes the form of the Cordilleran miogeocline and that the embayment is a relict of Rodinia rifting. An underlying Cretaceous paragneiss was derived from arc terranes and suture-zone orogenic welt but also from Laurentia. The Cretaceous paragneiss and an 86-Ma orthogneiss that intruded it formed the wedge of oceanic rocks that were inserted into the Laurentian margin between 98 and 73 Ma, splitting supracrustal Laurentian rocks from their basement. Crustal thickening, melting and intrusion within the wedge, and folding to form the Coolwater culmination continued until 61 Ma. The embayment formed a restraining bend at the end of the dextral transpressional suture. Clockwise rotation of the impinging superterrane and overthrusting of Laurentia that produced the crustal wedge in the Coolwater culmination are predicted by oblique collision into the Syringa embayment. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Contrasting hydrological processes of meteoric water incursion during magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposition: An oxygen isotope study by ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, Szandra; Weis, Philipp; Driesner, Thomas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2016-10-01

    Meteoric water convection has long been recognized as an efficient means to cool magmatic intrusions in the Earth's upper crust. This interplay between magmatic and hydrothermal activity thus exerts a primary control on the structure and evolution of volcanic, geothermal and ore-forming systems. Incursion of meteoric water into magmatic-hydrothermal systems has been linked to tin ore deposition in granitic plutons. In contrast, evidence from porphyry copper ore deposits suggests that crystallizing subvolcanic magma bodies are only affected by meteoric water incursion in peripheral zones and during late post-ore stages. We apply high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to analyze oxygen isotope ratios of individual growth zones in vein quartz crystals, imaged by cathodo-luminescence microscopy (SEM-CL). Existing microthermometric information from fluid inclusions enables calculation of the oxygen isotope composition of the fluid from which the quartz precipitated, constraining the relative timing of meteoric water input into these two different settings. Our results confirm that incursion of meteoric water directly contributes to cooling of shallow granitic plutons and plays a key role in concurrent tin mineralization. By contrast, data from two porphyry copper deposits suggest that downward circulating meteoric water is counteracted by up-flowing hot magmatic fluids. Our data show that porphyry copper ore deposition occurs close to a magmatic-meteoric water interface, rather than in a purely magmatic fluid plume, confirming recent hydrological modeling. On a larger scale, the expulsion of magmatic fluids against the meteoric water interface can shield plutons from rapid convective cooling, which may aid the build-up of large magma chambers required for porphyry copper ore formation.

  8. Orthopyroxene as a recorder of lunar crust evolution: An ion microprobe investigations of Mg-suite norites. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papike, J. J.; Fowler, G. W.; Shearer, C. K.

    1994-01-01

    The lunar Mg suite, which includes dunites, troctolites, and norites, could make up 20-30% of the Moon's crust down to a depth of 60 km. The remainder is largely anorthositic. This report focuses on norites because we have found that the chemical characteristics of orthopyroxene are effective recorders of their parental melt compositions. Many of the samples representing the Mg suite are small and unrepresentative. In addition, they are cumulates and thus are difficult to study by whole-rock techniques. Therefore, we decided to study these rocks by SIMS techniques to analyze a suite of trace elements in orthopyroxene. The 12 norite samples were selected from a recent compilation by Warren who attempted to select the best candidate samples from the standpoint of their pristine character. Our present database includes greater than 300 superior Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) analyses and greater than 50 scanning ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analyses for 8 Rare Earth Elements (REE), Zr, Y, and Sr. The Mg#s for the parental melts calculated from Mg#s in orthopyroxene show that most melts have Mg#s in the range of 0.36-0.60. This compares with a range of Mg#s for lunar volcanic picritic glass beads of 0.4-0.68. Therefore, although the cumulate whole-rock compositions of the Mg suite can be extremely magnesian, the calculated parental melts are not anomalously high in Mg. A chemical characteristic of the Mg-suite norites that is more difficult to explain is the high KREEP content of the calculated parental melts. The REE contents for the calculated norite parental melts have REE that match or exceed the high-K KREEP component of Warren. Therefore, mixing of a KREEP component and a picritic melt cannot, by itself, explain the high estimated REE contents of the melts parental to norites. Advanced crystallization following KREEP incorporation, especially of plagiclase, may also be required.

  9. Characteristics of zircon suitable for REE extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Hoshino, M.

    2011-12-01

    Zircons (ZrSiO4) from Naegi and Ohro granitic pegmatites, Japan and from Saigon alkaline basalt, Vietnam, were mineralogically characterized by inductively couples plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), electron-microprobe analysis (EMPA), X-ray powder diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy and leaching experiment. The powder XRD and Raman spectra analyses show that the degree of crystallinity decreases from Saigon, to Ohro and Naegi zircons. Quantitative analytical results by the EMPA indicate that the Naegi and Ohro zircon samples contain a large amount of REE2O3, while REE contents in Saigon zircon are below detection limit. The leaching experiments for the present zircons under the condition of a solvent 1M-HCl, at a room temperature to 250 °C and retention time of 30h resulted in about 100 %, 50 % and 1 % recoveries of REE from the Naegi, Ohro and Saigon zircons, respectively. Leaching experiments for the Naegi zircon under the condition of a solvent 1N-HCl, heating temperature of 50 °C, 100 °C, 150 °C and 200 °C, and retention time 30h, showed that a significant amount of REE was leached out at a temperature above 150 °C. However, the leaching experiments of the Naegi and Ohro zircons at room temperature (about 25 °C) show that REE were hard to be leached. These results indicates that both low crystallinity of zircon and higher leaching temperature are requisite for effective leaching of REE from zircon.

  10. Peninsular terrane basement ages recorded by Paleozoic and Paleoproterozoic zircon in gabbro xenoliths and andesite from Redoubt volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, Charles R.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Historically Sactive Redoubt volcano is an Aleutian arc basalt-to-dacite cone constructed upon the Jurassic–Early Tertiary Alaska–Aleutian Range batholith. The batholith intrudes the Peninsular tectonostratigraphic terrane, which is considered to have developed on oceanic basement and to have accreted to North America, possibly in Late Jurassic time. Xenoliths in Redoubt magmas have been thought to be modern cumulate gabbros and fragments of the batholith. However, new sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb ages for zircon from gabbro xenoliths from a late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposit are dominated by much older, ca. 310 Ma Pennsylvanian and ca. 1865 Ma Paleoproterozoic grains. Zircon age distributions and trace-element concentrations indicate that the ca. 310 Ma zircons date gabbroic intrusive rocks, and the ca. 1865 Ma zircons also are likely from igneous rocks in or beneath Peninsular terrane basement. The trace-element data imply that four of five Cretaceous–Paleocene zircons, and Pennsylvanian low-U, low-Th zircons in one sample, grew from metamorphic or hydrothermal fluids. Textural evidence of xenocrysts and a dominant population of ca. 1865 Ma zircon in juvenile crystal-rich andesite from the same pyroclastic deposit show that this basement has been assimilated by Redoubt magma. Equilibration temperatures and oxygen fugacities indicated by Fe-Ti–oxide minerals in the gabbros and crystal-rich andesite suggest sources near the margins of the Redoubt magmatic system, most likely in the magma accumulation and storage region currently outlined by seismicity and magma petrology at ∼4–10 km below sea level. Additionally, a partially melted gabbro from the 1990 eruption contains zircon with U-Pb ages between ca. 620 Ma and ca. 1705 Ma, as well as one zircon with a U-Th disequilibrium model age of 0 ka. The zircon ages demonstrate that Pennsylvanian, and probably Paleoproterozoic, igneous rocks exist in, or possibly beneath, Peninsular

  11. Detrital zircon ages from southern Norway - implications for the Proterozoic evolution of the southwestern Baltic Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, T.-L.; Andersen, T.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Vestin, J.

    An ion-microprobe (SIMS) U-Pb zircon dating study on four samples of Precambrian metasediments from the high-grade Bamble Sector, southern Norway, gives the first information on the timing of discrete crust-forming events in the SW part of the Baltic Shield. Recent Nd and Pb studies have indicated that the sources of the clastic metasediments in this area have crustal histories extending back to 1.7 to 2.1Ga, although there is no record of rocks older than 1.6Ga in southern Norway. The analysed metasediments are from a sequence of intercalated, centimetre to 10-metre wide units of quartzites, semi-metapelites, metapelites and mafic granulites. The zircons can be grouped in two morphological populations: (1) long prismatic; (2) rounded, often flattened. The BSE images reveal that both populations consist of oscillatory zoned, rounded and corroded cores (detrital grains of magmatic origin), surrounded by homogeneous rims (metamorphic overgrowths). The detrital zircons have 207Pb/206Pb ages between 1367 and 1939Ma, with frequency maxima in the range 1.85 to 1.70Ga and 1.60 to 1.50Ga. There is no correlation between crystal habit and age of the zircon. One resorbed, inner zircon core in a detrital grain is strongly discordant and gives a composite inner core-magmatic outer core 207Pb/206Pb age of 2383 Ma. Two discrete, unzoned zircons have 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1122 and 1133Ma, representing zircon growth during the Sveconorwegian high-grade metamorphism. Also the μm wide overgrowths, embayments in the detrital cores and apparent ``inner cores'' which represent secondary metamorphic zircon growth in deep embayments in detrital grains, are of Sveconorwegian age. The composite-detrital-metamorphic zircon analyses give generally discordant 206Pb/238U versus 207Pb/235U ratios and maximum 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1438Ma. These data demonstrate the existence of a protocrust of 1.7 to 2.0Ga in the southwestern part of the Baltic Shield, implying a break in the overall westward

  12. Characterization of flux-grown Trace-element-doped titanite using the high-mass-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazdab, F.K.

    2009-01-01

    Crystals of titanite can be readily grown under ambient pressure from a mixture of CaO, TiO2 and SiO2 in the presence of molten sodium tetraborate. The crystals produced are euhedral and prismatic, lustrous and transparent, and up to 5 mm in length. Titanite obtained by this method contains approximately 4300 ppm Na and 220 ppm B contributed from the flux. In addition to dopant-free material, titanite containing trace alkali and alkaline earth metals (K, Sr, Ba), transition metals (Sc, Cr, Ni, Y, Zr, Nb, Hf and Ta), rare-earth elements (REE), actinides (Th, U) and p-block elements (F, S, Cl, Ge, Sn and Pb) have been prepared using the same procedure. Back-scattered electron (BSE) imaging accompanied by ion-microprobe (SHRIMP-RG) analysis confirms significant incorporation of selected trace-elements at structural sites. Regardless of some zonation, the large size of the crystals and broad regions of chemical homogeneity make these crystals useful as experimental starting material, and as matrix-matched trace-element standards for a variety of microbeam analytical techniques where amorphous titanite glass, heterogeneous natural titanite or a non-titanite standard may be less than satisfactory. Trace-element-doped synthetic crystals can also provide a convenient proxy for a better understanding of trace-element incorporation in natural titanite. Comparisons with igneous, authigenic and high-temperature metasomatic titanite are examined. The use of high-mass-resolution SIMS also demonstrates the analytical challenges inherent to any in situ mass-spectrometry-based analysis of titanite, owing to the production of difficult-to-resolve molecular interferences. These interferences are dominated by Ca-Ca, Ca-Ti and Ti-Ti dimers that are significant in the mass range of 80-100, affecting all isotopes of Sr and Zr, as well as 89Y and 93Nb. Methods do exist for the evaluation of interferences by these dimers and of polyatomic interferences on the LREE.

  13. Ion microprobe δ18O analyses to calibrate slow growth rate speleothem records with regional δ18O records of precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Villar, David; Lojen, Sonja; Krklec, Kristina; Kozdon, Reinhard; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Cheng, Hai

    2018-01-01

    Paleoclimate reconstructions based on speleothems require a robust interpretation of their proxies. Detailed transfer functions of external signals to the speleothem can be obtained using models supported by monitoring data. However, the transferred signal may not be stationary due to complexity of karst processes. Therefore, robust interpretations require the calibration of speleothem records with instrumental time series lasting no less than a decade. We present the calibration of a speleothem δ18O record from Postojna Cave (Slovenia) with the regional record of δ18O composition of precipitation during the last decades. Using local meteorological data and a regional δ18O record of precipitation, we developed a model that reproduces the cave drip water δ18O signal measured during a two-year period. The model suggests that the average water mixing and transit time in the studied aquifer is 11 months. Additionally, we used an ion microprobe to study the δ18O record of the top 500 μm of a speleothem from the studied cave gallery. According to U-Th dates and 14C analyses, the uppermost section of the speleothem was formed during the last decades. The δ18O record of the top 500 μm of the speleothem has a significant correlation (r2 = 0.64; p-value <0.001) with the modelled δ18O record of cave drip water. Therefore, we confirm that the top 500 μm of the speleothem grew between the years 1984 and 2003 and that the speleothem accurately recorded the variability of the δ18O values of regional precipitation filtered by the aquifer. We show that the recorded speleothem δ18O signal is not seasonally biased and that the hydrological dynamics described during monitoring period were stationary during recent decades. This research demonstrates that speleothems with growth rates <50 μm/yr can also be used for calibration studies. Additionally, we show that the fit of measured and modelled proxy data can be used to achieve annually resolved chronologies in speleothems

  14. High resolution ion microprobe investigation of the δ18O of carbonate cements (Jurassic, Paris Basin, France): New insights and pending questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Benoit; Brigaud, Benjamin; Emmanuel, Laurent; Loreau, Jean-Paul

    2017-04-01

    The scope of this work is to investigate, at a high resolution, the oxygen isotope composition (δ18Ocarb) of diagenetic products (synsedimentary and burial calcite cements) in shallow-marine carbonates. SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) microprobe analyses were performed on thin sections from Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian Formations of the eastern Paris Basin and compared to data obtained on the same diagenetic products by conventional mass spectrometry (acid digestion). Hereby obtained, δ18O are similar, but the SIMS dataset displays a larger range of values. The isotopic zonation obtained by SIMS transects through sequences of cements filling pores, reveals an (expected) isotopic depletion from older stage synsedimentary calcites to younger stage blocky calcites and that follows the CL (cathodoluminescence) zonation. SIMS analyses however show that synsedimentary cements precipitated in intra-skeletal pores, have heavier δ18O than their inter-particle counterparts, with an offset of + 4‰V-PDB, despite similar petrographical characteristics. This difference is maintained in the δ18O of the first stages of blocky calcite cements, intra-skeletal blocky calcites showing heavier δ18O than the time equivalent and petrographically identical inter-particle calcites, with an offset of + 5‰V-PDB. These offsets are tentatively explained by the precipitation of cements under non-equilibrium conditions in intra-skeletal pores, where organic matter decay may have played a key role, acting notably on the pH. The occurrence of isolated micro-diagenetic environments, co-existing at the thin section scale, is tentatively proposed as an explanation to these small scale and high amplitude δ18O heterogeneities. These results may question the sampling strategy for future works. Microdrilling may miss the observed range of variation, but averaging the values may not necessarily lead to real misinterpretations if a critical selection of samples is performed, targeting

  15. Distribution function of random strains in an elastically anisotropic continuum and defect strengths of T m3 + impurity ions in crystals with zircon structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkin, B. Z.; Abishev, N. M.; Baibekov, E. I.; Pytalev, D. S.; Boldyrev, K. N.; Popova, M. N.; Bettinelli, M.

    2017-07-01

    We construct a distribution function of the strain-tensor components induced by point defects in an elastically anisotropic continuum, which can be used to account quantitatively for many effects observed in different branches of condensed matter physics. Parameters of the derived six-dimensional generalized Lorentz distribution are expressed through the integrals computed over the array of strains. The distribution functions for the cubic diamond and elpasolite crystals and tetragonal crystals with the zircon and scheelite structures are presented. Our theoretical approach is supported by a successful modeling of specific line shapes of singlet-doublet transitions of the T m3 + ions doped into AB O4 (A =Y , Lu; B =P , V) crystals with zircon structure, observed in high-resolution optical spectra. The values of the defect strengths of impurity T m3 + ions in the oxygen surroundings, obtained as a result of this modeling, can be used in future studies of random strains in different rare-earth oxides.

  16. The Amsterdam quintuplet nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Putte, M. J. J.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Jamieson, D. N.; Rout, B.; Szymanski, R.

    2003-09-01

    A new nuclear microprobe comprising of a quintuplet lens system is being constructed at the Ion Beam Facility of the "Vrije Universiteit" Amsterdam in collaboration with the Microanalytical Research Centre of the University of Melbourne. An overview of the Amsterdam set-up will be presented. Detailed characterisation of the individual lenses was performed with the grid shadow method using a 2000 mesh Cu grid mounted at a relative angle of 0.5° to the vertical lens line focus. The lenses were found to have very low parasitic aberrations equal or below the minimum detectable limit for the method, which was approximately 0.1% for the sextupole component and 0.2% for the octupole component. We present experimental and theoretical grid shadow patterns, showing results for all five lenses.

  17. A search for thermal excursions from ancient extraterrestrial impacts using Hadean zircon Ti-U-Th-Pb depth profiles

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Sunshine S.; Harrison, T. Mark; Schmitt, Axel K.; Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Few terrestrial localities preserve more than a trace lithic record prior to ca. 3.8 Ga greatly limiting our understanding of the first 700 Ma of Earth history, a period inferred to have included a spike in the bolide flux to the inner solar system at ca. 3.85–3.95 Ga (the Late Heavy Bombardment, LHB). An accessible record of this era may be found in Hadean detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, in the form of μm-scale epitaxial overgrowths. By comparing crystallization temperatures of pre-3.8 Ga zircon overgrowths to the archive of zircon temperature spectra, it should, in principle, be possible to identify a distinctive impact signature. We have developed Ti-U-Th-Pb ion microprobe depth profiling to obtain age and temperature information within these zircon overgrowths and undertaken a feasibility study of its possible use in identifying impact events. Of eight grains profiled in this fashion, four have overgrowths of LHB-era age. Age vs. temperature profiles reveal a period between ca. 3.85–3.95 Ga (i.e., LHB era) characterized by significantly higher temperatures (approximately 840–875 °C) than do older or younger zircons or zircon domains (approximately 630–750 °C). However, temperatures approaching 900 °C can result in Pb isotopic exchange rendering interpretation of these profiles nonunique. Coupled age-temperature depth profiling shows promise in this role, and the preliminary data we report could represent the first terrestrial evidence for impact-related heating during the LHB. PMID:22869711

  18. A search for thermal excursions from ancient extraterrestrial impacts using Hadean zircon Ti-U-Th-Pb depth profiles.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Sunshine S; Harrison, T Mark; Schmitt, Axel K; Mojzsis, Stephen J

    2012-08-21

    Few terrestrial localities preserve more than a trace lithic record prior to ca. 3.8 Ga greatly limiting our understanding of the first 700 Ma of Earth history, a period inferred to have included a spike in the bolide flux to the inner solar system at ca. 3.85-3.95 Ga (the Late Heavy Bombardment, LHB). An accessible record of this era may be found in Hadean detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, in the form of μm-scale epitaxial overgrowths. By comparing crystallization temperatures of pre-3.8 Ga zircon overgrowths to the archive of zircon temperature spectra, it should, in principle, be possible to identify a distinctive impact signature. We have developed Ti-U-Th-Pb ion microprobe depth profiling to obtain age and temperature information within these zircon overgrowths and undertaken a feasibility study of its possible use in identifying impact events. Of eight grains profiled in this fashion, four have overgrowths of LHB-era age. Age vs. temperature profiles reveal a period between ca. 3.85-3.95 Ga (i.e., LHB era) characterized by significantly higher temperatures (approximately 840-875 °C) than do older or younger zircons or zircon domains (approximately 630-750 °C). However, temperatures approaching 900 °C can result in Pb isotopic exchange rendering interpretation of these profiles nonunique. Coupled age-temperature depth profiling shows promise in this role, and the preliminary data we report could represent the first terrestrial evidence for impact-related heating during the LHB.

  19. Young cumulate complex beneath Veniaminof caldera, Aleutian arc, dated by zircon in erupted plutonic blocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Sison, T.W.; Mazdab, F.K.

    2007-01-01

    Mount Veniaminof volcano, Alaska Peninsula, provides an opportunity to relate Quaternary volcanic rocks to a coeval intrusive complex. Veniaminof erupted tholeiitic basalt through dacite in the past ???260 k.y. Gabbro, diorite, and miarolitic granodiorite blocks, ejected 3700 14C yr B.P. in the most recent caldera-forming eruption, are fragments of a shallow intrusive complex of cumulate mush and segregated vapor-saturated residual melts. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) analyses define 238U-230Th isochron ages of 17.6 ?? 2.7 ka, 5+11/-10 ka, and 10.2 ?? 4.0 ka (2??) for zircon in two granodiorites and a diorite, respectively. Sparse zircons from two gabbros give 238-230Th model ages of 36 ?? 8 ka and 26 ?? 7 ka. Zircons from granodiorite and diorite crystallized in the presence of late magmatic aqueous fluid. Although historic eruptions have been weakly explosive Strombolian fountaining and small lava effusions, the young ages of plutonic blocks, as well as late Holocene dacite pumice, are evidence that the intrusive complex remains active and that evolved magmas can segregate at shallow levels to fuel explosive eruptions. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  20. TEMORA 1: A new zircon standard for Phanerozoic U-Pb geochronology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, L.P.; Kamo, S.L.; Allen, C.M.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Davis, D.W.; Korsch, R.J.; Foudoulis, C.

    2003-01-01

    The role of the standard is critical to the derivation of reliable U-Pb zircon ages by micro-beam analysis. For maximum reliability, it is critically important that the utilised standard be homogeneous at all scales of analysis. It is equally important that the standard has been precisely and accurately dated by an independent technique. This study reports the emergence of a new zircon standard that meets those criteria, as demonstrated by Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe (SHRIMP), isotope dilution thermal ionisation mass-spectrometry (IDTIMS) and excimer laser ablation- inductively coupled plasma-mass-spectrometry (ELA-ICP-MS) documentation. The TEMORA 1 zircon standard derives from the Middledale Gabbroic Diorite, a high-level mafic stock within the Palaeozoic Lachlan Orogen of eastern Australia. Its 206Pb/238U IDTIMS age has been determined to be 416.75??0.24 Ma (95% confidence limits), based on measurement errors alone. Spike-calibration uncertainty limits the accuracy to 416.8??1.1 Ma for U-Pb intercomparisons between different laboratories that do not use a common spike. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mars Microprobe Entry Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Robert D.; Mitcheltree, Robert A.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Microprobe mission will provide the first opportunity for subsurface measurements, including water detection, near the south pole of Mars. In this paper, performance of the Microprobe aeroshell design is evaluated through development of a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) aerodynamic database and flight dynamics simulation. Numerous mission uncertainties are quantified and a Monte-Carlo analysis is performed to statistically assess mission performance. Results from this 6-DOF Monte-Carlo simulation demonstrate that, in a majority of the cases (approximately 2-sigma), the penetrator impact conditions are within current design tolerances. Several trajectories are identified in which the current set of impact requirements are not satisfied. From these cases, critical design parameters are highlighted and additional system requirements are suggested. In particular, a relatively large angle-of-attack range near peak heating is identified.

  2. Advances in Laser Microprobe (U-Th)/He Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soest, M. C.; Monteleone, B. D.; Boyce, J. W.; Hodges, K. V.

    2008-12-01

    The development of the laser microprobe (U-Th)/He dating method has the potential to overcome many of the limitations that affect conventional (U-Th)/He geochronology. Conventional single- or multi-crystal (U- Th)/He geochronology requires the use of pristine, inclusion-free, euhedral crystals. Furthermore, the ages that are obtained require corrections for the effects of zoning and alpha ejection based on an ensemble of assumptions before interpretation of their geological relevance is possible. With the utilization of microbeam techniques many of the limitations of conventional (U-Th)/He geochronology can either be eliminated by careful spot selection or accounted for by detailed depth profiling analyses of He, U and Th on the same crystal. Combined He, Th, and U depth profiling on the same crystal potentially even offers the ability to extract thermal histories from the analyzed grains. Boyce et al. (2006) first demonstrated the laser microprobe (U-Th)/He dating technique by successfully dating monazite crystals using UV laser ablation to liberate He and determined U and Th concentrations using a Cameca SX-Ultrachron microprobe. At Arizona State University, further development of the microprobe (U-Th)/He dating technique continues using an ArF Excimer laser connected to a GVI Helix Split Flight Tube noble gas mass spectrometer for He analysis and SIMS techniques for U and Th. The Durango apatite age standard has been successfully dated at 30.7 +/- 1.7 Ma (2SD). Work on dating zircons by laser ablation is currently underway, with initial results from Sri Lanka zircon at 437 +/- 14 Ma (2SD) confirmed by conventional (U-Th)/He analysis and in agreement with the published (U-Th)/He age of 443 +/- 9 Ma (2SD) for zircons from this region in Sri Lanka (Nasdala et al., 2004). The results presented here demonstrate the laser microprobe (U-Th)/He method as a powerful tool that allows application of (U- Th)/He dating to areas of research such as detrital apatite and zircon

  3. Magmatic @d^1^8O in 4400-3900 Ma detrital zircons: A record of the alteration and recycling of crust in the Early Archean [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavosie, A. J.; Valley, J. W.; Wilde, S. A.

    2005-07-01

    Ion microprobe analyses of δ 18O in 4400-3900 Ma igneous zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, provide a record of the oxygen isotope composition of magmas in the earliest Archean. We have employed a detailed analysis protocol aimed at correlating spatially related micro-volumes of zircon concordant in U/Pb age with δ 18O and internal zoning. Simultaneous analysis of 18O and 16O with dual Faraday cup detectors, combined with frequent standardization, has yielded data with improved accuracy and precision over prior studies, and resulted in a narrower range of what is interpreted as magmatic δ 18O in > 3900 Ma zircons. Preserved magmatic δ 18O values from individual zircons (Zrc) range from 5.3‰ to 7.3‰ (VSMOW), and increasingly deviate from the mantle range of 5.3 ± 0.3‰ as zircons decrease in age from 4400 to 4200 Ma. Elevated δ 18O (Zrc) values up to 6.5‰ occur as early as 4325 Ma, which suggests that evolved rocks were incorporated into magmas within ˜230 Ma of Earth's accretion. Values of magmatic δ 18O (Zrc) as high as 7.3‰ are recorded in zircons by 4200 Ma, and are common thereafter. The protoliths of the magmas these zircons crystallized in were altered by low temperature interaction with liquid water near Earth's surface. These results provide the strongest evidence yet for the existence of liquid water oceans and supracrustal rocks by approximately 4200 Ma, and possibly as early as 4325 Ma. The range of magmatic δ 18O values in the 4400-3900 Ma zircons is indistinguishable from Archean igneous zircons, suggesting similar magmatic processes occurred over the first two billion years of recorded Earth history. Zircons with sub-solidus alteration histories, identified by the presence of disturbed internal zoning patterns, record δ 18O values both below (4.6‰) and above (10.3‰) the observed range for primary magmatic zircon, and are unreliable indicators of Early Archean magma chemistry.

  4. U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology and trace-element geochemistry of coesite-bearing zircons, North-East Greenland Caledonides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClelland, W.C.; Power, S.E.; Gilotti, J.A.; Mazdab, F.K.; Wopenka, B.

    2006-01-01

    Obtaining reliable estimates for the timing of eclogite-facies metamorphism is critical to establishing models for the formation and exhumation of high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes in collisional orogens. The presence of pressure-dependent phases, such as coesite, included in metamorphic zircon is generally regarded as evidence that zircon growth occurred at UHP conditions and, ifdated, should provide the necessary timing information. We report U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) ages and trace-element SHRIMP data from coesite-bearing zircon suites formed during UHP metamorphism in the North- East Greenland Caledonides. Kyanite eclogite and quartzofeldspathic host gneiss samples from an island in J??kelbugt (78??00'N, 18??04'W) contained subspherical zircons with well-defined domains in cathodoluminescence (CL) images. The presence of coesite is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy in six zircons from four samples. Additional components of the eclogite-facies inclusion suite include kyanite, omphacite, garnet, and rutile. The trace-element signatures in core domains reflect modification of igneous protolith zircon. Rim signatures show flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) patterns that are characteristic of eclogite-facies zircon. The kyanite eclogites generally lack a Eu anomaly, whereas a negative Eu anomaly persists in all domains of the host gneiss. The 207Pb- corrected 206Pb/238U ages range from 330 to 390 Ma for the host gneiss and 330-370 Ma for the kyanite eclogite. Weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages for coesite-bearing domains vary from 364 ?? 8 Ma for the host gneiss to 350 ?? 4 Ma for kyanite eclogite. The combined U-Pb and REE data interpreted in conjunction with observed CL domains and inclusion suites suggest that (1) Caledonian metamorphic zircon formed by both new zircon growth and recrystallization, (2) UHP metamorphism occurred near the end of the Caledonian collision, and (3) the 30-50m.y. span of ages

  5. Multiple Hadean crystallization and reworking events preserved in individual Jack Hills zircon grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, Jeremy; Nemchin, Alexander; Whitehouse, Martin; Snape, Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Five Hadean (>3.9 Ga) aged zircon grains from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt have been investigated by an improved secondary ion mass spectrometry scanning ion image technique. This technique has the ability to obtain accurate and precise full U-Pb systematics on a scale <5 μm, as well as document the spatial distribution of U, Th and Pb. All five of the grains investigated here have complex cathodoluminescence patterns that correlate to different U, Th, and Pb concentration domains. The age determinations for these different chemical zones indicate multiple reworking events that are preserved in each grain and have affected the primary crystalized zircon on the scale of <10 μm, smaller than traditional ion microprobe spot analyses. These new scanning ion images and age determinations suggest that roughly half, if not all, previous analyses, including those of trace elements and various isotope systems, could have intersected several domains of unfractured zircon, thus making the interpretation of any trace element, Hf, or O isotopic data tenuous. Lastly, all of the grains analyzed here preserve at least two distinguishable 207Pb/206Pb ages. These ages are preserved in core-rim and/or complex internal textural relationships. These secondary events took place during at ca. 4.3, 4.2, 4.1, 4.0, and 3.7 Ga potentially indicating a sequence of magmatic and/or metamorphic events that recycled some volume of early crust during the Hadean and into Paleo- to Mesoarchean several times with an apparent periodicity of ca. 100 Ma.

  6. Geochemistry and Temperatures Recorded by Zircon During the Final Stages of the Youngest Toba Tuff Magma Chamber, Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaither, T.; Reid, M. R.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    The ~74 ka eruption of the Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT) in Sumatra, Indonesia, was one of the largest single volcanic eruptions in geologic history, on par with other voluminous silicic eruptions such as the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff of Yellowstone and the Bishop Tuff of Long Valley, California. We are exploring how zircon and other accessory mineral phases record compositional and thermal changes that occurred in the YTT magma, and the important clues these crystal scale records hold for magma chamber dynamics and processes that lead up to supervolcano eruptions. In this study, we report trace element (REE, U, Th, Ti, and Hf) characteristics, Ti-in-zircon crystallization temperatures, and apparent REE partition coefficients obtained for YTT zircon rims. Twenty-nine zircons from pumices with a compositional range of 70-76 wt% SiO2 were analyzed on the UCLA Cameca ims 1270 ion microprobe. The grains were mounted so that only the outermost ~1.5 microns of the crystals were analyzed. Median Zr/Hf ratios of 34 to 38 characterize zircons from the pumices; the high silica rhyolite grains have lower Zr/Hf. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are strongly LREE-depleted. Positive Ce anomalies are large (Ce/Ce* ranges up to 88) and Eu/Eu* varies by a factor of four (0.05 to 0.21). Eu/Eu*, Nd/Yb, and Th/U decrease with decreasing Zr/Hf, showing that the variation in zircon rim compositions may be related by co-precipitation of feldspar and allanite along with zircon. Titanium contents also decrease with decreasing Zr/Hf, suggesting that the chemical differences could be related to temperature changes. REE partition coefficients calculated from zircon rim compositions and pumice glass compositions give a good fit to a lattice strain model. They are also quite similar to the partition coefficients of Sano et al. (2002) which have been shown to be successful at reproducing melt compositions in other settings. Temperatures of crystallization calculated using the Ti-in-zircon

  7. Zircon ages delimit the provenance of a sand extrudite from the Botucatu Formation in the Paraná volcanic province, Iraí, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Viter M; Hartmann, Léo A; Santos, João O S; McNaughton, Neal J

    2015-09-01

    Ion microprobe age determinations of 102 detrital zircon crystals from a sand extrudite, Cretaceous Paraná volcanic province, set limits on the origin of the numerous sand layers present in this major flood basalt province. The zircon U-Pb ages reflect four main orogenic cycles: Mesoproterozoic (1155-962 Ma), latest Proterozoic-early Cambrian (808-500 Ma) and two Palaeozoic (Ordovician- 480 to 450 Ma, and Permian to Lower Triassic- 296 to 250 Ma). Two additional small concentrations are present in the Neoarchean (2.8 to 2.6 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.0 to 1.7 Ga). Zircon age peaks closely match the several pulses of igneous activity in the Precambrian Brazilian Shield and active orogeny in Argentina. A main delimitation of the origin of the sand is the absence of zircon ages from the underlying Cretaceous basalts, thus supporting an injectite origin of the sand as an extrudite that emanated from the paleoerg that constitutes the Botucatu Formation.

  8. Pan-Africa/Pan-Brazilian detrital zircons in Lower Palaeozoic schists of SW Norway - enigmatic detrital zircon U-Pb ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Udo; Bjørheim, Maren; Clark, Chris

    2013-04-01

    We present Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon age data from metasedimentary rocks (schists and quartzites) located in the town of Stavanger (SW Norway). The metasedimentary sequence is composed of schists, medium grained quartz-rich metawackes and quartzites. Quartzites and meta-quartz-wackes exhibit a mylonitic fabric with newly grown fine-grained muscovite defining the fabric. Accessory minerals are zircon, allanite, detrital apatite, monazite, ilmenite, rutile and zircon. The schists are dark and dominated by quartz and feldspar in a fine chloritic and silica-rich matrix and represent the dominant lithology of the region. While quartzites and metawackes show typical geochemical characteristics for strongly reworked rocks, the schists have very low Zr/Sc and Th/Sc ratios below 0.9 and point together with other trace element ratios (La/Sc, Ti/Zr) to the strong influence of less fractionated, mafic, sources in the detritus, possibly arc derived. U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from quartzites range between 740 to 1800 Ma. There is a defined population at 1135 and 1010 Ma tentatively correlated with the Sveconorwegian orogeny. A second population at ~1450 Ma that can be related to a tectono-magmatic event during the Earliest Mesoproterozoic, also recorded in Oslo, southern Sweden and Bornholm, mapped along the proposed southern margin of Baltica. Other detrital zircons record ages between 1586 - 1664 Ma that are not related to the latter event. The oldest U-Pb detrital zircon grain age was 1796 Ma and is potentially associated with the terminal phase of the Svecofennian orogeny. Detrital zircons from the associated schists do show a similar abundance of main age clusters but the oldest found zircons dates to 2013 Ma while the maximum depositional age could be determined by grains of Cambrian to even Ordovician ages with a large 1 sigma error, as such that we rather propose a Cambrian maximum depositional age. It is possible to speculate that

  9. Zircon oxygen isotopes reveal Ivrea-Verbano Zone source characteristics of the Sesia Valley Caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economos, R. C.; Quick, J. E.; Sinigoi, S.; de Silva, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Sesia Valley, in the Italian Alpine foothills, contains >14 km diameter caldera adjacent to and structurally shallower than the famous Ivrea-Verbano Zone deep crustal section. The caldera and its associated eruptive sequence presents opportunity to explore volcanic magmatism in light of exposed and well characterized source candidates, namely lower crustal gabbros and the mid-crustal metasedimentary Kinzigite formation. Original geochemical characteristics of volcanic units have been obscured by the effects of subsequent hydrothermal alteration. The resistance of the mineral zircon to fluid alteration makes it a prime candidate for the preservation and exploration of these geochemical signals, such as O isotopes. Lower crustal gabbros in the Ivrea-Verbano Zone have broadly monotonic whole-rock δ18O values between +8 and +9‰VSMOW (Sinigoi et al., 1994). Kinzigites preserve a much higher and more heterogeneous δ18O values, typically ranging from +10‰ up to +15‰ (Baker, 1990). Zircons from the caldera-forming rhyolitic eruption units and a pre-caldera rhyodacitic unit were analyzed by ion microprobe at UCLA for in-situ oxygen isotope ratios. External reproducibility of within-mount standard R33 grains range from 0.27 to 0.36‰. Rhyolites from the caldera-forming eruption yield a range of δ18O(zircon) values from 6.3‰ to 8.3‰. This range displays rough correlation with CL activity - CL active grains have lower δ18O(zircon) values while CL dark grains have higher δ18O(zircon) values. This variation may correlate with U contents, which are notoriously low in zircons from Ivrea-Verbano Zone gabbros. We argue that the range in O isotope values suggests zircons are a good fit for magmas influenced by gabbro and Kinzigite sources. However, these zircons do not appear to be inherited directly from either the gabbro or Kinzigite sources as their O isotope signatures are typically intermediate between the two. The pre-caldera rhyodacite sample displays a

  10. Micrometer-scale U-Pb age domains in eucrite zircons, impact re-setting, and the thermal history of the HED parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, M. D.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Bottke, W. F.; Abramov, O.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoritic zircons are rare, but some are documented to occur in asteroidal meteorites, including those of the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) achondrite clan (Rubin, A. [1997]. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 32, 231-247). The HEDs are widely considered to originate from the Asteroid 4 Vesta. Vesta and the other large main belt asteroids record an early bombardment history. To explore this record, we describe sub-micrometer distributions of trace elements (U, Th) and 235,238U-207,206Pb ages from four zircons (>7-40 μm ∅) separated from bulk samples of the brecciated eucrite Millbillillie. Ultra-high resolution (∼100 nm) ion microprobe depth profiles reveal different zircon age domains correlative to mineral chemistry and to possible impact scenarios. Our new U-Pb zircon geochronology shows that Vesta's crust solidified within a few million years of Solar System formation (4561 ± 13 Ma), in good agreement with previous work (e.g. Carlson, R.W., Lugmair, G.W. [2000]. Timescales of planetesimal formation and differentiation based on extinct and extant radioisotopes. In: Canup, R., Righter, K. (Eds.), Origin of the Earth and Moon. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 25-44). Younger zircon age domains (ca. 4530 Ma) also record crustal processes, but these are interpreted to be exogenous because they are well after the effective extinction of 26Al (t1/2 = 0.72 Myr). An origin via impact-resetting was evaluated with a suite of analytical impact models. Output shows that if a single impactor was responsible for the ca. 4530 Ma zircon ages, it had to have been ⩾10 km in diameter and at high enough velocity (>5 km s-1) to account for the thermal field required to re-set U-Pb ages. Such an impact would have penetrated at least 10 km into Vesta's crust. Later events at ca. 4200 Ma are documented in HED apatite 235,238U-207,206Pb ages (Zhou, Q. et al. [2011]. Early basaltic volcanism and Late Heavy Bombardment on Vesta: U-Pb ages of small zircons and phosphates in

  11. Micrometer-scale U–Pb age domains in eucrite zircons, impact re-setting, and the thermal history of the HED parent body

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, M.D.; Mojzsis, S.J.; Bottke, W.F.; Abramov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Meteoritic zircons are rare, but some are documented to occur in asteroidal meteorites, including those of the howardite–eucrite–diogenite (HED) achondrite clan (Rubin, A. [1997]. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 32, 231–247). The HEDs are widely considered to originate from the Asteroid 4 Vesta. Vesta and the other large main belt asteroids record an early bombardment history. To explore this record, we describe sub-micrometer distributions of trace elements (U, Th) and 235,238U–207,206Pb ages from four zircons (>7–40 μm ∅) separated from bulk samples of the brecciated eucrite Millbillillie. Ultra-high resolution (∼100 nm) ion microprobe depth profiles reveal different zircon age domains correlative to mineral chemistry and to possible impact scenarios. Our new U–Pb zircon geochronology shows that Vesta’s crust solidified within a few million years of Solar System formation (4561 ± 13 Ma), in good agreement with previous work (e.g. Carlson, R.W., Lugmair, G.W. [2000]. Timescales of planetesimal formation and differentiation based on extinct and extant radioisotopes. In: Canup, R., Righter, K. (Eds.), Origin of the Earth and Moon. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 25–44). Younger zircon age domains (ca. 4530 Ma) also record crustal processes, but these are interpreted to be exogenous because they are well after the effective extinction of 26Al (t1/2 = 0.72 Myr). An origin via impact-resetting was evaluated with a suite of analytical impact models. Output shows that if a single impactor was responsible for the ca. 4530 Ma zircon ages, it had to have been ⩾10 km in diameter and at high enough velocity (>5 km s−1) to account for the thermal field required to re-set U–Pb ages. Such an impact would have penetrated at least 10 km into Vesta’s crust. Later events at ca. 4200 Ma are documented in HED apatite 235,238U–207,206Pb ages (Zhou, Q. et al. [2011]. Early basaltic volcanism and Late Heavy Bombardment on Vesta: U–Pb ages of small

  12. GHR1 - A new Eocene natural reference material for U-Pb and Hf isotopic measurements in zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibanez-Mejia, M.; Eddy, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    We present chemical abrasion-isotope dilution-thermal ionization (CA-ID-TIMS) U-Pb zircon geochronology and solution multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) Hf isotopic data from a proposed natural zircon reference material for use during in situ analyses of U-Pb and Hf isotopic ratios. The sample, GHR1, was collected from the rapakivi intrusive phase of the Eocene Golden Horn batholith in Washington, USA. Zircons separated from this sample range up to 250-300 μm in length and have moderate aspect ratios. A weighted mean of 15 Th-corrected 206Pb/238U zircon dates from GHR1 produced at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is 48.132 ± 0.023 Ma (2σ analytical and tracer uncertainties only, MSWD=1.70) confirming that there is little or no inter-crystal age heterogeneity at the scale of a few 10 kyr. Solution MC-ICP-MS measurements of chemically purified aliquots give a 176Hf/177Hf weighted mean of 0.283050 ± 17 (2σ, n=10), corresponding to a ɛHf0 of ca. +9.3. The 2σ variability of these measurements is comparable to our reproducibility of the JMC-475 Hf isotopic standard 0.282160 ± 14 (n= 13), suggesting that GHR1 zircons are homogenous with respect to 176Hf/177Hf. In situ 206Pb/238U dates from collaborating secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP), and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) laboratories are in excellent agreement with the CA-ID-TIMS date and illustrate the reproducibility and potential value of this reference zircon. The mean values of 176Hf/177Hf measurements from two LA-ICP-MS laboratories are in agreement with the solution MC-ICP-MS value, but show slightly greater dispersion and higher (Lu+Yb)/Hf values. We attribute this discrepancy to apatite inclusions that are high in REE and may lead to greater isobaric interferences on 176Hf. These inclusions and potential isobaric interferences from REE were removed during the chemical abrasion step prior to bulk

  13. Ion and electron microprobe study of troctolites, norite, and anorthosites from Apollo 14: Evidence for urKREEP assimilation during petrogenesis of Apollo 14 Mg-suite rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, J.W.; McGee, J.J.

    1998-09-01

    Most of the Moon`s highland crust comprises Fe-rich anorthosites with calcic plagioclase compositions. Subsequent evolution of the highland crust was dominated by troctolites, anorthosites, and norites of the Mg-suite. This plutonic series is characterized by calcic plagioclase, and mafic minerals with high mg{number_sign} (=100{sup *}Mg/[Mg + Fe]). In an effort to distinguish the origin of this important lunar rock series, the authors have analyzed the REE content of primary cumulus phases in ten Mg-suite cumulates using SIMS, along with their major and minor element compositions by electron microprobe analysis. Nine of these samples have high mg{number_sign}s, consistent with their formationmore » from the most primitive parent melts of the Mg-suite. The data presented here show that Mg-suite troctolites and anorthosites preserve major and trace element characteristics acquired during their formation as igneous cumulate rocks and that these characteristics can be used to reconstruct related aspects of the parent magma composition. Data show that primitive cumulates of the Mg-suite crystallized from magmas with REE contents similar to high-K KREEP in both concentration and relative abundance. The highly enriched nature of this parent magma contrasts with its primitive major element characteristics, as pointed out by previous workers. This enigma is best explained by the mixing of residual magma ocean urKREEP melts with ultramagnesian komatiitic partial melts from the deep lunar interior. The data do not support earlier models that invoke crustal metasomatism to enrich the Mg-suite cumulates after formation, or models which call for a superKREEP parent for the troctolites and anorthosites.« less

  14. The pre-orogenic detrital zircon record of the Variscan orogeny: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Tobias; Kroner, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    To test plate-tectonic constellations in consideration of the long-term development of sedimentary transport paths, temporally and spatially highly resolved records of provenance analysis are mandatory. The interpretation of existing studies focus on small-scale areas within an orogen thereby neglecting the differing distribution of provenance data in the entire orogenic system. This study reviews a large data set of compiled geochronological data to document the development of pre-orogenic tectonic units on the example of the Variscan orogeny. Constrained by tectonic and geological models, the temporal distribution of U-Pb detrital zircon ages, used as a proxy for sedimentary provenance, shows that some minima and maxima of zircon abundance are nearly synchronous for thousands of kilometres along the orogeny. Age spectra of Precambrian to Lower Palaeozoic samples were constructed on the basis of 38729 U-Pb ages from 685 samples that were compiled from 102 publications. The age compilation combines thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS), sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses. The data was re-processed using a common age calculation and concordance filter to ensure comparability. The concordance of each zircon grain was calculated from 206Pb/238U and 207Pb/235U ages to guarantee that only concordant grains, i.e., with <10% normal and <5% reverse discordance, were included in the age compilation. In order to ignore a metamorphic overprint and hence a blur of the younger age spectra, the compilation is constrained to age data older than 400 Ma only. If a precise sample age is not documented by the author, the weighted-mean age of the youngest zircon population (n > 3) is used for the maximum age of deposition. In addition to the location of >600 samples, the precise depositional ages result in a spatially and temporally high

  15. Correlated microanalysis of zircon: Trace element, δ 18O, and U-Th-Pb isotopic constraints on the igneous origin of complex >3900 Ma detrital grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavosie, Aaron J.; Valley, John W.; Wilde, Simon A.; E. I. M. F.

    2006-11-01

    The origins of >3900 Ma detrital zircons from Western Australia are controversial, in part due to their complexity and long geologic histories. Conflicting interpretations for the genesis of these zircons propose magmatic, hydrothermal, or metamorphic origins. To test the hypothesis that these zircons preserve magmatic compositions, trace elements [rare earth elements (REE), Y, P, Th, U] were analyzed by ion microprobe from a suite of >3900 Ma zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia, and include some of the oldest detrital zircons known (4400-4300 Ma). The same ˜20 μm domains previously characterized for U/Pb age, oxygen isotope composition (δ 18O), and cathodoluminescence (CL) zoning were specifically targeted for analysis. The zircons are classified into two types based on the light-REE (LREE) composition of the domain analyzed. Zircons with Type 1 domains form the largest group (37 of 42), consisting of grains that preserve evolved REE compositions typical of igneous zircon from crustal rocks. Grains with Type 1 domains display a wide range of CL zoning patterns, yield nearly concordant U/Pb ages from 4400 to 3900 Ma, and preserve a narrow range of δ 18O values from 4.7‰ to 7.3‰ that overlap or are slightly elevated relative to mantle oxygen isotope composition. Type 1 domains are interpreted to preserve magmatic compositions. Type 2 domains occur in six zircons that contain spots with enriched light-REE (LREE) compositions, here defined as having chondrite normalized values of La N > 1 and Pr N > 10. A subset of analyses in Type 2 domains appear to result from incorporation of sub-surface mineral inclusions in the analysis volume, as evidenced by positively correlated secondary ion beam intensities for LREE, P, and Y, which are anti-correlated to Si, although not all Type 2 analyses show these features. The LREE enrichment also occurs in areas with discordant U/Pb ages and/or high Th/U ratios, and is apparently associated with past or present

  16. Heavy Isotope Composition of Oxygen in Zircon from Soil Sample 14163: Lunar Perspective of an Early Ocean on the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Meyer, C.

    2006-01-01

    Thirty oxygen analyses of a large (sub-millimetre) zircon grain from the lunar soil sample 14163 have been determined using CAMECA 1270 ion microprobe. The sample 14163 was returned form the Fra Mauro region by Apollo 14 mission. Zircon grain of 0.6-0.8 mm in size extracted from the sample was imaged using CL detector fitted to the Philips Electron Microscope in order to reveal internal structure. Oxygen isotopes have been analysed during two sessions. The first set of data was collected using the original mount where the grain was set in the resin attached to the glass slide. This resulted in the two complications: (i) standard zircon has to be analysed from the separate mount and (ii) the lunar zircon grain was rased in the holder compared to the standard. In order to investigate, if the elevated oxygen compositions observed during this session could have resulted from this difference in geometric configuration during the standard and sample analyses, the lunar zircon was extracted from the original mount, remounted with the standard chip in the new resin disk and reanalysed during the second session. All analyses made during the first session show delta O-18 values heavier than 6.0%. The second set of data has a wider spread of delta O-18 values with some values as low as 5.6%. Nevertheless, a half of observed delta O-18 values in this set is also higher than 6.0%. Slightly lighter oxygen compositions observed during the second session indicate possible dependence of measured delta O-18 values on the geometry of analysed samples. Presence of zircons with similar heavy oxygen isotope compositions on the Moon, which neither had liquid water or felic crust similar to that on the Earth nor ever developed regime similar to plate tectonics, suggests that other mechanisms can be responsible for elevated delta O-18 values in zircons. This implies that there is no support for the presence of an ocean on the surface of the early Earth and as the ocean appears to be an

  17. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is a compilation of X-ray tables and spectra recorded from various mineral matrices. Spectra were obtained using electron microprobe, equipped with LiF geared, curved crystal X-ray spectrometers, utilizing typical analytical operating conditions: 15 Kv acceleration potential, 0.02 microampere sample current as measured on a clinopyroxene standard (CP19). Tables and spectra are presented for the majority of elements, fluorine through uranium, occurring in mineral samples from lunar, meteoritic and terrestrial sources. Tables for each element contain relevant analytical information, i.e., analyzing crystal, X-ray peak, background and relative intensity information, X-ray interferences and a section containing notes on the measurement. Originally intended to cover silicates and oxide minerals the tables and spectra have been expanded to cover other mineral phases. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is intended as a spectral base to which additional spectra can be added as the analyst encounters new mineral matrices.

  18. Detrital Record of Phanerozoic Tectonics in Iran: Evidence From U-Pb Zircon Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, B. K.; Gillis, R. J.; Stockli, D. F.; Hassanzadeh, J.; Axen, G. J.; Grove, M.

    2004-12-01

    Ion-microprobe U-Pb ages of 91 detrital zircon grains supplement ongoing investigations of the tectonic history of Iran, a critical region bridging the gap between the Alpine and Himalayan orogenic belts. These data improve understanding of the distribution of continental blocks during a complex history of Late Proterozoic (Pan-African) crustal growth, Paleozoic passive-margin sedimentation, early Mesozoic collision with Eurasia, and Cenozoic collision with Arabia. U-Pb analyses of detrital zircon grains from four sandstone samples (two Lower Cambrian, one uppermost Triassic-Lower Jurassic, one Neogene) collected from the Alborz mountains of northern Iran reveal a spectrum of ages ranging from 50 to 2900 Ma. Most analyses yield concordant to moderately discordant ages. The Lower Cambrian Lalun and Barut sandstones yield age distribution peaks at approximately 550-650, 1000, and 2500 Ma, consistent with a Gondwanan source area presently to the south and west in parts of Iran and the Arabian-Nubian shield (Saudi Arabia and northwestern Africa). The uppermost Triassic-Lower Jurassic Shemshak Formation exhibits a broad range of U-Pb ages, including peaks of approximately 200-260, 330, 430, 600, and 1900 Ma, requiring a Eurasian source area presently to the north and east in the Turan plate (Turkmenistan and southwestern Asia). Neogene strata display both the youngest and oldest ages (approximately 50 and 2900 Ma) of any samples, a result of substantial sedimentary recycling of older Phanerozoic cover rocks. Because the youngest zircon ages for three of the four samples are indistinguishable from their stratigraphic (depositional) ages, these data suggest rapid exhumation and help constrain the termination age of Late Proterozoic-Early Cambrian (Pan-African) orogenesis and the timing of the Iran-Eurasia collision.

  19. Age of the Lava Creek supereruption and magma chamber assembly at Yellowstone based on 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dating of sanidine and zircon crystals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matthews, Naomi E.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    The last supereruption from the Yellowstone Plateau formed Yellowstone caldera and ejected the >1000 km3 of rhyolite that composes the Lava Creek Tuff. Tephra from the Lava Creek eruption is a key Quaternary chronostratigraphic marker, in particular for dating the deposition of mid Pleistocene glacial and pluvial deposits in western North America. To resolve the timing of eruption and crystallization history for the Lava Creek magma, we performed (1) 40Ar/39Ar dating of single sanidine crystals to delimit eruption age and (2) ion microprobe U-Pb and trace-element analyses of the crystal faces and interiors of single zircons to date the interval of zircon crystallization and characterize magmatic evolution. Sanidines from the two informal members composing Lava Creek Tuff yield a preferred 40Ar/39Ar isochron date of 631.3 ± 4.3 ka. Crystal faces on zircons from both members yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 626.5 ± 5.8 ka, and have trace element concentrations that vary with the eruptive stratigraphy. Zircon interiors yield a mean 206Pb/238U date of 659.8 ± 5.5 ka, and reveal reverse and/or oscillatory zoning of trace element concentrations, with many crystals containing high U concentration cores that likely grew from highly evolved melt. The occurrence of distal Lava Creek tephra in stratigraphic sequences marking the Marine Isotope Stage 16–15 transition supports the apparent eruption age of ∼631 ka. The combined results reveal that Lava Creek zircons record episodic heating, renewed crystallization, and an overall up-temperature evolution for Yellowstone's subvolcanic reservoir in the 103−104 year interval before eruption.

  20. Zircon U-Pb age of the Pescadero felsite: A late Cretaceous igneous event in the forearc, west-central California Coast Ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ernst, W.G.; Martens, U.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Moore, Diane E.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ~185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ?? prehnite ?? laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMPRG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefl y Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86-90 Ma. Refl ecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ~100 km to the east in the Diablo Range- San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous

  1. The 3.5 Ga granulites of the Bug polymetamorphic complex, Ukraine (U-Pb SHRIMP-II zircon data)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobach-Zhuchenko, Svetlana; Kaulina, Tatiana; Baltybaev, Shauket; Yurchenko, Anastasija; Balagansky, Victor; Skublov, Sergei; Sukach, Vitaliji

    2014-05-01

    and Cpx). Zircon U-Pb isotopic analysis was carried out using SHRIMP II ion microprobe technique at the Isotopic Centre of VSEGEI, St.-Petersburg. Six transparent grains of the (1) group form a discordia line with Concordia intercepts at 3499+/-33 Ma (and 2638+/-240 Ma (MSWD=2.3). According to internal textures and chemical composition of zircons their formation is associated with granulite metamorphism. The 207 Pb/ 206 Pb data for 11 grains from (3) group are highly variable in age from 3330+/-5 to 2356+/-7 Ma indicating isotopic disturbance. They do not form an isochrone, thus reliable determination of their age is not yet possible. Thus, the oldest granulitic event at 3499 ± 33 Ma has been identified and justified for rocks of the Bug polymetamorphic granulite complex. Recognition of this oldest granulite metamorphism proved possible due to preserved isotopic and geochemical features of zircon. The work was financially supported by program ONZ - 6.

  2. Evidence for prolonged mid-Paleozoic plutonism and ages of crustal sources in east-central Alaska from SHRIMP U-Pb dating of syn-magmatic, inherited, and detrital zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; Williams, I.S.

    2009-01-01

    Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb analyses of igneous zircons from the Lake George assemblage in the eastern Yukon-Tanana Upland (Tanacross quadrangle) indicate both Late Devonian (???370 Ma) and Early Mississippian (???350 Ma) magmatic pulses. The zircons occur in four textural variants of granitic orthogneiss from a large area of muscovite-biotite augen gneiss. Granitic orthogneiss from the nearby Fiftymile batholith, which straddles the Alaska-Yukon border, yielded a similar range in zircon U-Pb ages, suggesting that both the Fiftymile batholith and the Tanacross orthogneiss body consist of multiple intrusions. We interpret the overall tectonic setting for the Late Devonian and Early Mississippian magmatism as an extending continental margin (broad back-arc region) inboard of a northeast-dipping (present coordinates) subduction zone. New SHRIMP U-Pb ages of inherited zircon cores in the Tanacross orthogneisses and of detrital zircons from quartzite from the Jarvis belt in the Alaska Range (Mount Hayes quadrangle) include major 2.0-1.7 Ga clusters and lesser 2.7-2.3 Ga clusters, with subordinate 3.2, 1.4, and 1.1 Ga clusters in some orthogneiss samples. For the most part, these inherited and core U-Pb ages match those of basement provinces of the western Canadian Shield and indicate widespread potential sources within western Laurentia for most grain populations; these ages also match the detrital zircon reference for the northern North American miogeocline and support a correlation between the two areas.

  3. Deciphering igneous and metamorphic events in high-grade rocks of the Wilmington complex, Delaware: Morphology, cathodoluminescence and backscattered electron zoning, and SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Schenck, W.S.; Plank, M.O.; Srogi, L.A.; Fanning, C.M.; Kamo, S.L.; Bosbyshell, H.

    2006-01-01

    High-grade rocks of the Wilmington Complex, northern Delaware and adjacent Maryland and Pennsylvania, contain morphologically complex zircons that formed through both igneous and metamorphic processes during the development of an island-arc complex and suturing of the arc to Laurentia. The arc complex has been divided into several members, the protoliths of which include both intrusive and extrusive rocks. Metasedimentary rocks are interlayered with the complex and are believed to be the infrastructure upon which the arc was built. In the Wilmingto n Complex rocks, both igneous and metamorphic zircons occur as elongate and equant forms. Chemical zoning, shown by cathodoluminescence (CL), includes both concentric, oscillatory patterns, indicative of igneous origin, and patchwork and sector patterns, suggestive of metamorphic growth. Metamorphic monazites are chemically homogeneous, or show oscillatory or spotted chemical zoning in backscattered electron images. U-Pb geochronology by sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) was used to date complexly zoned zircon and monazite. All but one member of the Wilmington Complex crystallized in the Ordovician between ca. 475 and 485 Ma; these rocks were intruded by a suite of gabbro-to-granite plutonic rocks at 434 ?? Ma. Detrital zircons in metavolcanic and metasedimentary units were derived predominantly from 0.9 to 1.4 Ga (Grenvillian) basement, presumably of Laurentian origin. Amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism of the Wilmington Complex, recorded by ages of metamorphic zircon (428 ?? 4 and 432 ?? 6 Ma) and monazite (429 ?? 2 and 426 ?? 3 Ma), occurred contemporaneously with emplacement of the younger plutonic rocks. On the basis of varying CL zoning patterns and external morphologies, metamorphic zircons formed by different processes (presumably controlled by rock chemistry) at slightly different times and temperatures during prograde metamorphism. In addition, at least three other thermal episodes are

  4. Exploring for early bombardments on Earth from pre-3.85 Fa thermal effects recorded in Hadean zircons - a status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojzsis, S. J.; Abramov, O.; Harrison, T. M.; Kring, D. A.; Levison, H. F.; Trail, D.; Watson, E. B.

    2008-12-01

    We report on our progress with high-resolution ion microprobe U-Th-Pb depth profiles and Ti+REEs spot analysis which show that subsequent to their crystallization in melts under typical crustal conditions on Earth, some Hadean (pre-3.85 Ga) zircons record common age domains with unusual chemical and isotopic characteristics consistent with a high-temperature (possibly impact) origin. We have found evidence for later overprints caused by intense thermal alteration between 3.94-3.97 Ga in six of eight studied grains but no evidence for older events. These findings alert us to two fundamental things we did not know before about the probiotic potential of the Earth in the earliest solar system: (i) that the bombardment epoch did not result in complete 'Doomsday' scale destruction of the Earth's crust since the Moon-forming event at ca. 4.5 Ga; and (ii) age constraints on both sides of the ther-mally altered 3.94-3.97 Ga zircon domains are very good and so far our data show that no detectable thermal events are recorded by the zircons before ~3.97 Ga up to about 4.3 Ga. This observation is consistent with the output of new classes of dynamical models that successfully re-create the decay of impactor populations in the early solar system as recorded on the Moon and in meteorites.

  5. Post-caldera volcanism: In situ measurement of U-Pb age and oxygen isotope ratio in Pleistocene zircons from Yellowstone caldera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bindeman, I.N.; Valley, J.W.; Wooden, J.L.; Persing, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field, the site of some of the largest known silicic volcanic eruptions, is the present location of NE-migrating hotspot volcanic activity. Most volcanic rocks in the Yellowstone caldera (0.6 Ma), which formed in response to the climactic eruption of 1000 km3 of Lava Creek Tuff (LCT), have unusually low oxygen isotope ratios. Ion microprobe analysis of both U-Pb age and ??18O in zircons from these low-??18O lavas reveals evidence of complex inheritance and remelting. A majority of analyzed zircons from low-??18O lavas erupted inside the Yellowstone caldera have cores that range in age from 2.4 to 0.7 Ma, significantly older than their eruption ages (0.5-0.4 Ma). These ages and the high-??18O cores indicate that these lavas are largely derived from nearly total remelting of normal-??18O Huckleberry Ridge Tuff (HRT) and other pre-LCT volcanic rocks. A post-HRT low-??18O lava shows similar inheritance of HRT-age zircons. The recycling of volcanic rocks by shallow remelting can change the water content and eruptive potential of magma. This newly proposed mechanism of intracaldera volcanism is best studied by combining in situ analysis of oxygen and U-Pb isotope ratios of individual crystals. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. New insights into the history and origin of the southern Maya block, SE Mexico: U-Pb-SHRIMP zircon geochronology from metamorphic rocks of the Chiapas massif

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, Bodo; Iriondo, Alexander; Premo, Wayne R.; Hecht, Lutz; Schaaf, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The histories of the pre-Mesozoic landmasses in southern México and their connections with Laurentia, Gondwana, and among themselves are crucial for the understanding of the Late Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. The Permian igneous and metamorphic rocks from the Chiapas massif as part of the southern Maya block, México, were dated by U–Pb zircon geochronology employing the SHRIMP (sensitive high resolution ion microprobe) facility at Stanford University. The Chiapas massif is composed of deformed granitoids and orthogneisses with inliers of metasedimentary rocks. SHRIMP data from an anatectic orthogneiss demonstrate that the Chiapas massif was part of a Permian (∼ 272 Ma) active continental margin established on the Pacific margin of Gondwana after the Ouachita orogeny. Latest Permian (252–254 Ma) medium- to high-grade metamorphism and deformation affected the entire Chiapas massif, resulting in anatexis and intrusion of syntectonic granitoids. This unique orogenic event is interpreted as the result of compression due to flat subduction and accretionary tectonics. SHRIMP data of zircon cores from a metapelite from the NE Chiapas massif yielded a single Grenvillian source for sediments. The majority of the zircon cores from a para-amphibolite from the SE part of the massif yielded either 1.0–1.2 or 1.4–1.5 Ga sources, indicating provenance from South American Sunsás and Rondonian-San Ignacio provinces.

  7. Ceramic with zircon coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hongyu (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An article comprises a silicon-containing substrate and a zircon coating. The article can comprise a silicon carbide/silicon (SiC/Si) substrate, a zircon (ZrSiO.sub.4) intermediate coating and an external environmental/thermal barrier coating.

  8. Detrital zircon provenance from three turbidite depocenters of the Middle-Upper Triassic Songpan-Ganzi complex, central China: Record of collisional tectonics, erosional exhumation, and sediment production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weislogel, A.L.; Graham, S.A.; Chang, E.Z.; Wooden, J.L.; Gehrels, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    To test the idea that the voluminous upper Middle to Upper Triassic turbidite strata in the Songpan-Ganzi complex of central China archive a detrital record of Dabie ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terrane unroofing, we report 2080 single detrital U-Pb zircon ages by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis from 29 eastern Songpan-Ganzi complex sandstone samples. Low (<0.07) Th/U zircons, consistent with crystallization under UHP conditions, are rare in eastern Songpan-Ganzi complex zircon, and U-Pb ages of low Th/U zircons are incompatible with a Dabie terrane source. An unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean nearest-neighbor analysis of Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test results reveals that the eastern Songpan-Ganzi complex is not a single contiguous turbidite system but is instead composed of three subsidiary depocenters, each associated with distinct sediment sources. The northeastern depocenter contains zircon ages characterized by Paleozoic and bimodally distributed Precambrian zircon populations, which, together with south-to southeast-directed paleocurrent data, indicate derivation from the retro-side of the Qinling-Dabie (Q-D) collisional orogen wedge. In the central depocenter, the dominantly Paleozoic detrital zircon signature and south-to southwest-oriented paleocurrent indicators reflect a profusion of Paleozoic zircon grains. These data are interpreted to reflect an influx of material derived from erosion of Paleozoic supra-UHP rocks of the Dabie terrane in the eastern Qinling-Dabie orogen, which we speculate may have been enhanced by development of a monsoonal climate. This suggests that erosional unroofing played a significant role in the initial phase of UHP exhumation and likely influenced the petrotectonic and structural evolution of the Qinling-Dabie orogen, as evidenced by compressed Triassic isotherms/grads reported in the

  9. Application of a new Raman microprobe spectrometer to nondestructive analysis of sulfate and other ions in individual phases in fluid inclusions in minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosasco, G.J.; Roedder, E.

    1979-01-01

    Rosasco et al. (1975), reported the first successful application of laser-excited Raman spectroscopy for the identification and nondestructive partial analysis of individual solid, liquid, and gaseous phases in selected fluid inclusions. We report here the results of the application of a new instrument, based on back-scattering, that eliminates many of the previous stringent sample limitations and hence greatly expands the range of applicability of Raman spectroscopy to fluid inclusions. Fluid inclusions in many porphyry copper deposits contain 5-10 ??m 'daughter' crystals thought to be anhydrite but too small for identification by the previous Raman technique. Using the new instrument, we have verified that such daughter crystals in quartz from Bingham, Utah, are anhydrite. They may form by leakage of hydrogen causing internal autooxidation of sulfide ion. Daughter crystals were also examined in apatite (Durango, Mexico) and emerald (Muzo, Colombia). Valid analyses of sulfur species in solution in small fluid inclusions from ore deposits would be valuable, but are generally impossible by conventional methods. We present a calibration procedure for analyses for SO42- in such inclusions from Bingham, Utah (12,000 ?? 4000 ppm) and Creede, Colo. (probably < 500 ppm). A fetid Brazilian quartz, originally thought to contain liquid H2S, is shown to contain only HS- in major amounts. ?? 1979.

  10. Role of zircon in tracing crustal growth and recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compston, W.; Williams, I. S.; Armstrong, R. A.; Claoue-Long, J. C.; Kinny, P. D.; Foster, J. J.; Kroener, A.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Myers, J. S.

    Single crystal ion probe ages of zircons is discussed, which allow much better time resolution compared to other geochronological methods, although the technique is not without problems. Rocks from two areas that contain composite zircon populations, including true magmatic zircons as well as a variety of xenocrystic types are described. It is often difficult to distinguish these; xenocrystic zircons, for example, cannot always be identified on the basis of morphology alone. Additional evidence is needed before making age interpretations. Evidence is also presented of zircon growth long after the original time of crystallization, in some cases apparently at temperatures less than 300 C. The spectacular discovery of 4.1 to 4.2 Ga detrital zircons in metaquartzites from the Mount Narryer area of Western Australia is described. Similar zircons with ages as old as 4276 Ma have been found in the nearby Jack Hills area. The source areas or parent lithologies of these zircons have not yet been determined, but the author expects that they may be unrecognized or buried antecedents of the K rich Narryer gneisses. U or Th concentrations of zircon cannot be used to discriminate between felsic and mafic source rocks.

  11. Role of zircon in tracing crustal growth and recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compston, W.; Williams, I. S.; Armstrong, R. A.; Claoue-Long, J. C.; Kinny, P. D.; Foster, J. J.; Kroener, A.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Myers, J. S.

    1988-01-01

    Single crystal ion probe ages of zircons is discussed, which allow much better time resolution compared to other geochronological methods, although the technique is not without problems. Rocks from two areas that contain composite zircon populations, including true magmatic zircons as well as a variety of xenocrystic types are described. It is often difficult to distinguish these; xenocrystic zircons, for example, cannot always be identified on the basis of morphology alone. Additional evidence is needed before making age interpretations. Evidence is also presented of zircon growth long after the original time of crystallization, in some cases apparently at temperatures less than 300 C. The spectacular discovery of 4.1 to 4.2 Ga detrital zircons in metaquartzites from the Mount Narryer area of Western Australia is described. Similar zircons with ages as old as 4276 Ma have been found in the nearby Jack Hills area. The source areas or parent lithologies of these zircons have not yet been determined, but the author expects that they may be unrecognized or buried antecedents of the K rich Narryer gneisses. U or Th concentrations of zircon cannot be used to discriminate between felsic and mafic source rocks.

  12. Mn-Cr relative sensitivity factor in ferromagnesian olivines defined for SIMS measurements with a Cameca ims-1280 ion microprobe: Implications for dating secondary fayalite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Patricia M.; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Huss, Gary R.; Krot, Alexander N.

    2016-02-01

    The short-lived radionuclide 53Mn, which decays to 53Cr with a half-life of ∼3.7 Myr, is useful for sequencing objects that formed within the first 20 Myr of Solar System evolution. 53Mn-53Cr relative chronology enables aqueously formed secondary minerals such as fayalite and various carbonates in ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites to be dated, thereby providing chronological constraints on aqueous alteration processes. In situ measurements of Mn-Cr isotope systematics in fayalite by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) require consideration of the relative sensitivities of the 55Mn+ and 52Cr+ ions, for which a relative sensitivity factor [RSF = (55Mn+/52Cr+)SIMS/(55Mn/52Cr)true] is defined using appropriate standards. In the past, San Carlos olivine (Fa∼10) was commonly used for this purpose, but a growing body of evidence suggests that it is an unsuitable standard for meteoritic fayalite (Fa>90). Natural fayalite also cannot be used as a standard because it contains only trace amounts of chromium, which makes determining a true 55Mn/52Cr ratio and its degree of heterogeneity very difficult. To investigate the dependence of the Mn-Cr RSF on ferromagnesian olivine compositions, we synthesized a suite of compositionally homogeneous Mn,Cr-bearing liquidus-phase ferromagnesian olivines (Fa31-99). Manganese-chromium isotopic measurements of San Carlos olivine and synthesized ferromagnesian olivines using the University of Hawai'i Cameca ims-1280 SIMS show that the RSF for Fa10 is ∼0.9; it increases rapidly between Fa10 and Fa31 and reaches a plateau value of ∼1.5 ± 0.1 for Fa>34. The RSF is time-dependent: it increases during the measurements of olivines with fayalite content <30 and decreases during the measurements of olivines with fayalite content >50. The RSF measured on ferroan olivine (Fa>90) is influenced by pit shape, whereas the RSF measured on magnesian olivine (Fa10) is less sensitive to changes in pit shape. For these reasons, 53Mn-53Cr

  13. Comparing pre- and post-chemical abrasion ages for Miocene Peach Springs Tuff zircon from ID-TIMS and SIMS analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidzbarski, M. I.; Mundil, R.; Miller, J. S.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Miocene Peach Spring Tuff (PST) is a voluminous (>600 km3), zoned ignimbrite (trachyte to high-SiO2 rhyolite) that is exposed widely in eastern California, western Arizona, and southernmost Nevada, which was erupted from the Silver Creek caldera in the southwestern Black Mountains, AZ. PST serves as a regionally widespread marker unit and its eruption age has been determined to 18.8 to 18.9 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar methods, when corrected for systematic bias and normalized to the U-Pb system (Renne et al., 2010,). We performed ion-microprobe (SIMS) U-Pb dating of zircon from individual pumice clasts from PST to evaluate the growth history of zircon in the PST magma system. Sectioned, polished zircon from conventional epoxy mounts allows dating of internal growth domains (e.g. cores, interiors, and near-rim), whereas mounting unpolished zircon in indium and analyzing unpolished crystal faces provides a means to selectively sample the final increments of crystal growth (Reid and Coath, 2000). Combining U-Pb ages of unpolished zircon rims with near-rim interior analyses on sectioned grains yields a mean age of ca. 18.3 Ma, whereas ages of cores of sectioned crystals yield a mean of ca. 18.9 Ma. Several zircons have rim and/or core ages that are several hundred thousand years older or younger than these means (up to 1 m.y. total spread), although the uncertainties for individual SIMS ages are 2 to 5% (2 sigma uncertainty). Therefore, the distribution of ages is challenging to resolve. A modest number of the older grains are plausibly recycled antecrysts, but we suspect that the youngest zircons may have experienced Pb-loss. Failure to account for the possibility of inheritance and Pb-loss may lead to erroneous interpretations about crystallization in the PST system. In order to evaluate and mitigate the effects of Pb-loss, we employed the chemical abrasion (CA) technique of Mattinson (2005), which effectively eliminates domains in zircon that have suffered Pb-loss, and

  14. Devonian to Carboniferous collision in the Greenland Caledonides: U-Pb zircon and Sm-Nd ages of high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilotti, Jane A.; Nutman, Allen P.; Brueckner, Hannes K.

    2004-10-01

    A variety of eclogites from an east-west transect across the North-East Greenland eclogite province have been studied to establish the timing of high pressure (HP) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism in this northern segment of the Laurentian margin. Garnet + omphacite ± amphibole + whole rock Sm-Nd isochrons from a quartz eclogite, a garnet + omphacite + rutile eclogite and a partially melted zoisite eclogite in the western HP belt are 401±2, 402±9 and 414±18 Ma, respectively. Corresponding sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) 206Pb/238U ages of metamorphic zircon in the same samples are 401±7, 414±13, and 393 ±10 Ma. Metamorphic zircon domains were identified using morphology, cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging, U, Th, Th/U and trace element contents. Zircon from the quartz eclogite and the garnet + omphacite + rutile eclogite are typical of eclogite facies zircon with rounded to subhedral shapes, patchy to homogenous CL domains, low U, and very low Th and Th/U. The partially melted eclogite contains euhedral zircons with dark, sector-zoned, higher U, Th and Th/U inherited cores. Three cores give a Paleoproterozoic 207Pb/206Pb age of 1,962±27 Ma, interpreted as the age of the leucogabbroic protolith. CL images of the bright overgrowths show faint oscillatory zoning next to homogenous areas that indicate zircon growth in the presence of a HP melt and later recrystallization. Additional evidence that zircon grew during eclogite facies conditions is the lack of a Eu anomaly in the trace element data for all the samples. These results, combined with additional less precise Sm-Nd ages and our earlier work, point to a Devonian age of HP metamorphism in the western and central portions of the eclogite province. An UHP kyanite eclogite from the eastern part of the transect contains equant metamorphic zircon with homogeneous to patchy zoning in CL and HP inclusions of garnet, omphacite and kyanite. These zircons have slightly higher U, Th and Th

  15. Assessment of Alternative [U] and [Th] Zircon Standards for SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteleone, B. D.; van Soest, M. C.; Hodges, K.; Moore, G. M.; Boyce, J. W.; Hervig, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    The quality of in situ (U-Th)/He zircon dates is dependent upon the accuracy and precision of spatially distributed [U] and [Th] measurements on often complexly zoned zircon crystals. Natural zircon standards for SIMS traditionally have been used to obtain precise U-Pb ages rather than precise U and Th concentration. [U] and [Th] distributions within even the most homogeneous U-Pb age standards are not sufficient to make good microbeam standards (i.e., yield good precision: 2σ < 5%) for (U-Th)/He dates. In the absence of sufficiently homogeneous natural zircon crystals, we evaluate the use of the NIST 610 glass standard and a synthetic polycrystalline solid “zircon synrock” made by powdering and pressing natural zircon crystals at 2 GPa and 1100°C within a 13 mm piston cylinder for 24 hours. SIMS energy spectra and multiple spot analyses help assess the matrix-dependence of secondary ion emission and [U] and [Th] homogeneity of these materials. Although spot analyses on NIST 610 glass yielded spatially consistent ratios of 238U/30Si and 232Th/30Si (2σ = 2%, n = 14), comparison of energy spectra collected on glass and zircon reveal significant differences in U, UO, Th, and ThO ion intensities over the range of initial kinetic energies commonly used for trace element analyses. Computing [U] and [Th] in zircon using NIST glass yields concentrations that vary by more than 10% for [U] and [Th], depending on the initial kinetic energy and ion mass (elemental, oxide, or sum of elemental and oxide) used for the analysis. The observed effect of chemistry on secondary ion energy spectra suggests that NIST glass cannot be used as a standard for trace [U] and [Th] in zircon without a correction factor (presently unknown). Energy spectra of the zircon synrock are similar to those of natural zircon, suggesting matrix compatibility and therefore potential for accurate standardization. Spot analyses on the zircon powder pellets, however, show that adequate homogeneity of [U

  16. Detrital zircon provenance evidence for large-scale extrusion along the Altyn Tagh fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yue, Y.; Graham, S.A.; Ritts, B.D.; Wooden, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The question of whether or not the Altyn Tagh fault is a large-scale extrusion boundary is critical for understanding the role of lateral extrusion in accommodating the Indo-Asian convergence and in building the Tibetan Plateau. Oligocene conglomerate clasts in the eastern Xorkol basin are low-grade slate, phyllite, sandstone, dacite and carbonate, and associated paleocurrent indicators evince sediment derivation from the opposing side of the Altyn Tagh fault. Matching these clasts with similar basement rocks in the North Qilian and Tuolainanshan terranes requires post-Oligocene left-lateral offset of 380 ?? 60 km on the eastern segment of the Altyn Tagh fault, suggesting large-scale extrusion along the fault in the Cenozoic (Yue, Y.J., Ritts, B.D., Graham, S.A., 2001b. Initiation and long-term slip history of the Altyn Tagh fault. International Geological Review 43, 1087-1094.). In order to further define this piercing point, the detrital zircon pattern of Oligocene sandstone from the Xorkol basin and the zircon ages of basement on the southern side of the fault were established by ion microprobe dating. Characterized by strong peaks between 850 and 950 Ma and the absence of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages, the detrital zircon age pattern of the Oligocene sandstone matches the age distribution of zircon-bearing rocks of the Tuolainanshan terrane. This match requires 360 ?? 40 km of post-Oligocene left-lateral displacement on the eastern segment of the Altyn Tagh fault, supporting as well as refining the previously reported lithology-based cross-fault match. At least one of the following three extrusion scenarios must have existed to accommodate this large offset: (1) northeastward extrusion along the Altyn Tagh-Alxa-East Mongolia fault, (2) eastward extrusion along the Altyn Tagh-North Qilian-Haiyuan fault, and (3) northeastward extrusion of northern Tibet as a Himalaya-scale thrust sheet along the North Qilian-Haiyuan fault. We prefer the first scenario inasmuch as

  17. Zircon U-Pb, O, and Hf isotopic constraints on Mesozoic magmatism in the Cyclades, Aegean Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bin; Bröcker, Michael; Ireland, Trevor; Holden, Peter; Kinsley, Leslie P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the well-documented Cenozoic magmatic and metamorphic rocks of the Cyclades, Aegean Sea, Greece, the geodynamic context of older meta-igneous rocks occurring in the marble-schist sequences and mélanges of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit is as yet not fully understood. Here, we report O-Hf isotopic compositions of zircons ranging in age from ca. 320 Ma to ca. 80 Ma from metamorphic rocks exposed on the islands of Andros, Ios, Sifnos, and Syros with special emphasis on Triassic source rocks. Ion microprobe (SHRIMP II) single spot oxygen isotope analysis of pre-Cretaceous zircons from various felsic gneisses and meta-gabbros representing both the marble-schist sequences and the mélanges of the study area yielded a large range in δ18O values, varying from 2.7 ‰ to 10.1 ‰ VSMOW, with one outlier at -0.4 %. Initial ɛHf values (-12.5 to +15.7) suggest diverse sources for melts formed between Late Carboniferous to Late Cretaceous time that record derivation from mantle and reworked older continental crust. In particular, variable δ18O and ɛHf( t) values for Triassic igneous zircons suggest that magmatism of this age is more likely rift- than subduction-related. The significant crustal component in 160 Ma meta-gabbros from Andros implies that some Jurassic gabbroic rocks of the Hellenides are not part of SSZ-type (supra-subduction zone) ophiolites that are common elsewhere along the margin of the Pelagonian zone.

  18. In situ U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic studies of zircons from the Sancheong-Hadong AMCG suite, Yeongnam Massif, Korea: Implications for the petrogenesis of ∼1.86 Ga massif-type anorthosite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yuyoung; Cho, Moonsup; Yi, Keewook

    2017-05-01

    Isotopic and geochemical characteristics of Proterozoic anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite (AMCG) suite have long been used for tracing the mantle-crustal source and magmatic evolution. We analyzed Lu-Hf isotopic compositions of zircon from the Sancheong-Hadong AMCG complex, Yeongnam Massif, Korea, in order to understand tectonomagmatic evolution of the Paleoproterozoic AMCG suite occurring at the southeastern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The anorthositic rocks in this complex, associated with charnockitic and granitic gneisses, were recrystallized to eradicate magmatic features. In situ SHRIMP (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe) U-Pb analyses of zircon from a leuconorite and an oxide-bearing gabbroic dyke yielded weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1870 ± 2 Ma and 1861 ± 6 Ma, respectively. Charnockitic, granitic, and porphyroblastic gneisses yielded weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb zircon ages of 1861 ± 6 Ma, 1872 ± 6 Ma, and 1873 ± 4 Ma, respectively. These crystallization ages, together with our previous geochronological data for anorthosites (1862 ± 2 Ma), are indicative of episodic AMCG magmatism over an ∼10 Ma interval. Initial εHf(t) values of zircon analyzed from five anorthositic rocks and four felsic gneisses range from +2.1 to -6.1 and -0.3 to -5.4, respectively. Zircon Hf isotopic data in combination with available whole rock Sr-Nd isotopic data suggest that anorthositic parental magma was most likely derived from a mantle source and variably affected by crustal contamination. This crustal component is also reflected in charnockitic-granitic magmas produced primarily by the melting of lower crust. Taken together, the AMCG magmatism at 1.87-1.86 Ga in the Yeongnam Massif is most likely a late orogenic product of Paleoproterozoic NCC amalgamation tectonically linked to assembly of the Columbia supercontinent.

  19. Zircon-pyrochlore ores of Proterozoic Gremyakha-Vyrmes polyphase massif, Kola Peninsula: source and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokhtina, Natalia; Belyatsky, Boris; Antonov, Anton; Kononkova, Natalia; Lepekhina, Elena; Kogarko, Lia

    2017-04-01

    The alkaline-ultrabasic Gremyakha-Vyrmes massif occurs within the Central Kola terrane in the northern part of the Fennoscandian Shield and consists of diverse rock complexes: basic-ultrabasic rocks, foidolites, alkaline metasomatic rocks and carbonatites, alkaline granites and granosyenites. Nb-Zr ore deposit is confined to alkaline metasomatic rocks developed over foidolites. The metasomatites are represented by albitites and aegirinites occur as submeridionally orientated zones extending up to 6-8 km and several hundred meters thickness. They are mainly composed of albite and aegirine, but amphibole, annite, microcline, fluorapatite, titanite, ilmenite, pyrochlore group minerals, zircon are present [Sorokhtina et al., 2016]. Carbonatites are developed sporadically and accessory zircon but not the pyrochlore is observed only in contact zones with albitites and aegerinites. In metasomatites, zircon and pyrochlore are main rare metal minerals, which are formed at the latest stages of crystallization. Ca-dominant fluorcalcio- and hydroxycalciopyrochlores are the most abundant, whereas U-dominant pyrochlore, oxyuranobetafite, zero-valent-dominant (Ba, Sr-dominant) pyrochlore, hydro- or kenopyrochlore are rare. The pyrochlore-group minerals form heterogeneous metacrystals containing inclusions of host rock minerals, calcite, ilmenite, zircon, sulfides, and graphite. While pyrochlore is replaced by Si-rich "pyrochlore" (SiO2 is up to 18 wt.%.), cation-deficient hydrated pyrochlore, Fe-Si-Nb, U-Si-Nb, and Al-Si-Nb phases along fracture zones and margins. The early generation zircon is represented by large heterogeneous metacrystals filled with inclusions of various host rock minerals, calcite, ilmenite, thorite, thorianite and sulfides, while the late zircons are empty of inclusions. Zircons are nearly stoichiometric in composition; but intermediate zones are enriched in Pb, Y and Th, and overgrowths are enriched Hf only. According to CL and ion-microprobe analysis

  20. Peculiar Feldspar And Quartz Inclusions Within Zircons From Anorthosites, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliwa, H. A.; Dawoud, M. I.; Khalaf, I. M.; Negendank, J. F.; Itaya, T.

    2004-12-01

    Zircons from three anorthosite outcrops along Wadi Dib area, north Eastern Desert of Egypt contain abundant and conspicuous inclusions of quartz, feldspar, amphibole and apatite. These anorthosites, as (50-100m thick) layers, represent the top of mafic-ultramafic intrusions exhibiting rhythmic layering visible by reputation of melanocratic and leucocratic layers. Field and microscopic studies exhibit that these anorthosites were affected by the action of residual magmatic solutions associated with the late stage crystallization of the younger granites, which modified their mineralogical composition. They are composed totally of plagioclase with subordinate amount of clinoenstatite, augite, amphibole, biotite, K-feldspar, and quartz. Accessories are magnetite, ilmenite, apatite and zircon. The abundance and the mode of occurrence of K-feldspar, quartz, and biotite with apatite and zircon among the megacrysts suggest their formation is ascribed to the interaction with the residual solutions. The microprobe data exhibit difference between feldspar and amphiboles contained herein zircons and those as anorthosite mineral constituents. The genetic relationship between zircons and their inclusions suggests later growth of zircons than inclusions and most probably at the final stage of rock modification. Zircons are magmatic and found in the interstitial feldspar and quartz among plagioclase megacrysts in aggregates or as individual grains. The microscopic and SEM images investigation exhibit that most zircons are subhedral to euhedral equant and prismatic crystals. Most zircons have same range of crystal morphologies and internal growth structures with predominance of prism /{100/} and pyramid /{101/} and occasionally prism /{110/} and pyramid /{111/}. No evidences for poly-faceted grains, inherited cores or later overgrowths were detected. CL images distinguished zircons with visible core-rim structures and others with regular and continuous growth zones contained herein

  1. 3. 96 Ga zircons from an Archean quartzite, Beartooth Mountains, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, P.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Nutman, A.P.

    1992-04-01

    U-Pb isotopic systematics of detrital zircons incorporated in a middle Archean quartzite from the Beartooth Mountains, Montana, were investigated with the SHRIMP ion microprobe. These new data reveal an extended and previously unrecognized record of crustal evolution for the northern Wyoming province. Seventy-eight analyses of 67 grains yielded a range of {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb ages from 2.69 to 3.96 Ga. Concordant analyses from 43 separate grains defined a maximum age for the deposition of the quartzite of 3.30 Ga; other provenance ages extend to 3.96 Ga. Ages of < 3.30 Ga are generally discordant, and appear to reflect late Archeanmore » disturbance of the U-Pb system, including metamorphism at {approximately}2.8 Ga. The predominance of ages at {approximately}3.3 Ga is interpreted to represent the last major episode of crust formation prior to deposition of the quartzite. The concordant analyses of > 3.30 Ga indicate that older crustal components with ages up to 3.96 Ga, or detritus from them, were also in the provenance of this quartzite. This older age is equivalent to that of the oldest known rock from the Acasta gneisses of the Slave province and is exceeded only by the > 4.0 Ga age of detrital zircons of the Yilgarn block of Western Australia. These data support an increased probability for the survival of sialic crust created before the cessation of the late bombardment at 3.8 to 3.9 Ga.« less

  2. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb isotopic systematics of zircon from the Angel Lake orthogneiss, East Humboldt Range, Nevada: Is this really archean crust?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Premo, Wayne R.; Castineiras, Pedro; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    New SHRIMP-RG (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry) data confirm the existence of Archean components within zircon grains of a sample from the orthogneiss of Angel Lake, Nevada, United States, previously interpreted as a nappe of Archean crust. However, the combined evidence strongly suggests that this orthogneiss is a highly deformed, Late Cretaceous monzogranite derived from melting of a sedimentary source dominated by Archean detritus. Zircon grains from the same sample used previously for isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) isotopic work were analyzed using the SHRIMP-RG to better define the age and origin of the orthogneiss. Prior to analysis, imaging revealed a morphological variability and intragrain, polyphase nature of the zircon population. The SHRIMP-RG yielded 207Pb/206Pb ages between ca. 2430 and 2580 Ma (a best-fit mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 2531 ± 19 Ma; 95% confidence) from mostly rounded to subrounded zircons and zircon components (cores). In addition, several analyses from rounded to subrounded cores or grains yielded discordant 207Pb/206Pb ages between ca. 1460 and ca. 2170 Ma, consistent with known regional magmatic events. All cores of Proterozoic to latest Archean age were encased within clear, typically low Th/U (206Pb/238U ages between 72 and 91 Ma, consistent with magmatic ages from Lamoille Canyon to the south. An age of ca. 90 Ma is suggested, the younger 206Pb/238U ages resulting from Pb loss. The Cretaceous and Precambrian zircon components also have distinct trace element characteristics, indicating that these age groups are not related to the same igneous source. These results support recent geophysical interpretations and negate the contention that the Archean-Proterozoic boundary extends into the central Great Basin area. They further suggest that the world-class gold deposits along the Carlin Trend are not underlain by Archean cratonal crust, but rather by the Proterozoic Mojave

  3. Resolving the age of Wilson Creek Formation tephras and the Mono Lake excursion using high-resolution SIMS dating of allanite and zircon rims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.; Lidzbarski, M. I.

    2012-12-01

    Sediments of the Wilson Creek Formation surrounding Mono Lake preserve a high-resolution archive of glacial and pluvial responses along the eastern Sierra Nevada due to late Pleistocene climate change. An absolute chronology for the Wilson Creek stratigraphy is critical for correlating the paleoclimate record to other archives in the western U.S. and the North Atlantic region. However, multiple attempts to date the Wilson Creek stratigraphy using carbonates and interbedded rhyolitic tephras yield discordant 14C and 40Ar/39Ar results due to open-system effects, carbon reservoir uncertainties, as well as abundant xenocrysts entrained during eruption. Ion microprobe (SIMS) 238U-230Th dating of the final increments of crystallization recorded by allanite and zircon autocrysts from juvenile pyroclasts yields ages that effectively date eruption of key tephra beds and resolve age uncertainties about the Wilson Creek stratigraphy. To date the final several micrometers of crystal growth, individual allanite and zircon crystals were embedded in soft indium to allow sampling of unpolished rims. Isochron ages derived from rims on coexisting allanite and zircon (± glass) from hand-selected pumiceous pyroclasts delimit the timing of Wilson Creek sedimentation between Ashes 7 and 19 (numbering of Lajoie, 1968) to the interval between ca. 27 to ca. 62 ka. The interiors of individual allanite and zircon crystals sectioned in standard SIMS mounts yield model 238U-230Th ages that are mostly <10 k.y. older than their corresponding rim age, suggesting a relatively brief interval of allanite + zircon crystallization before eruption. A minority of allanite and zircon crystals yield rim and interior model ages of ca. 90-100 ka, and are likely to be antecrysts recycled from relatively early Mono Craters volcanism and/or intrusions. Tephra (Ash 15) erupted during the geomagnetic excursion originally designated the Mono Lake excursion yields a rim isochron age of ca. 41 ka indicating that

  4. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) Analysis and U-Pb Geochronology of the Oldest Lunar Zircon: Constraining Early Lunar Differentiation and Dating Impact-Related Deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timms, Nick; Nemchin, Alexander; Grange, Marion; Reddy, Steve; Pidgeon, Bob; Geisler, Thorsten; Meyer, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of the early moon was dominated by two processes (i) crystallization of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) and differentiation of potassium-rare earth element-phosphorous-rich residual magma reservoir referred to as KREEP, and (ii) an intense meteorite bombardment referred to as lunar cataclysm . The exact timing of these processes is disputed, and resolution relies on collection and interpretation of precise age data. This study examines the microstructure and geochronology of zircon from lunar impact breccias collected during the Apollo 17 mission. A large zircon clast within lunar breccia 72215,195 shows sector zoning in optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and Raman mapping, and indicates that it was a relict fragment of a much larger magmatic grain. Sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb analysis of the zircon shows that U and Th concentration correlate with sector zoning, with darkest CL domains corresponding with high-U and Th (approx.150 and approx.100 ppm respectively), and the brightest-CL sectors containing approx.30-50 ppm U and approx.10-20 ppm Th. This indicates that variations in optical CL and Raman properties correspond to differential accumulation of alpha-radiation damage in each sector. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping shows that the quality of electron backscatter patterns (band contrast) varies with sector zoning, with the poorest quality patterns obtained from high-U and Th, dark-CL zones. EBSD mapping also reveals a deformation microstructure that is cryptic in optical, CL and Raman imaging. Two orthogonal sets of straight discrete and gradational low-angle boundaries accommodate approx.12 misorientation across the grain. The deformation bands are parallel to the crystallographic {a}-planes of the zircon, have misorientation axes parallel to the c-axis, and are geometrically consistent with formation by dislocation creep associated with <100>{010} slip. The deformation bands are unlike

  5. Age of the Lava Creek supereruption and magma chamber assembly at Yellowstone based on 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dating of sanidine and zircon crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.; Matthews, N. E.; Calvert, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    The last supereruption from the Yellowstone Plateau formed Yellowstone caldera and ejected the >1000 km3 of rhyolite that composes the Lava Creek Tuff (LCT). Tephra from the eruption blanketed much of the western United States, and is a key Quaternary chronostratigraphic marker, in particular for dating deposition of mid-Pleistocene glacial and pluvial deposits in western North America. We performed 40Ar/39Ar dating of single sanidines to delimit eruption age, and ion microprobe U-Pb and trace-element analyses of crystal faces on single zircons to characterize magmatic evolution and date near-eruption crystallization, as well as analyses of crystal interiors to date the interval of zircon crystallization. Sanidines from the two LCT members A and B yield an 40Ar/39Ar isochron date of 631 ± 4 ka (2σ). Crystal faces on zircons from both members yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 627 ± 6 ka (2σ) and have trace element concentrations that vary with eruptive stratigraphy. Zircon interiors yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 660 ± 6 ka, and reveal reverse and/or oscillatory zoning of trace element concentrations, with many crystals containing high-U concentrations and dark cathodoluminescence (CL) cores. These crystals with high-U cores are possibly sourced from 'defrosting' of melt-impregnated margins of the growing subvolcanic reservoir. LCT sanidines mirror the variation of zircon composition within the eruptive stratigraphy, with crystals from upper LCT-A and basal LCT-B having bright-CL rims with high Ba concentrations, suggesting late crystallization after addition of less evolved silicic magma. The occurrence of distal LCT in stratigraphic sequences marking the Marine Isotope Stage 16-15 transition supports the apparent eruption age of ca. 631 ka. These results reveal that Lava Creek zircons record episodic heating, renewed crystallization, and an overall up-temperature evolution for Yellowstone's subvolcanic reservoir in the 103-104 year interval

  6. Hydrogen diffusion in Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingrin, Jannick; Zhang, Peipei

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen mobility in gem quality zircon single crystals from Madagascar was investigated through H-D exchange experiments. Thin slices were annealed in a horizontal furnace flushed with a gas mixture of Ar/D2(10%) under ambient pressure between 900 ° C to 1150 ° C. FTIR analyses were performed on oriented slices before and after each annealing run. H diffusion along [100] and [010] follow the same diffusion law D = D0exp[-E /RT], with log D0 = 2.24 ± 1.57 (in m2/s) and E = 374 ± 39 kJ/mol. H diffusion along [001] follows a slightly more rapid diffusion law, with log D0 = 1.11 ± 0.22 (in m2/s) and E = 334 ± 49 kJ/mol. H diffusion in zircon has much higher activation energy and slower diffusivity than other NAMs below 1150 ° C even iron-poor garnets which are known to be among the slowest (Blanchard and Ingrin, 2004; Kurka et al. 2005). During H-D exchange zircon incorporates also deuterium. This hydration reaction involves uranium reduction as it is shown from the exchange of U5+ and U4+ characteristic bands in the near infrared region during annealing. It is the first time that a hydration reaction U5+ + OH- = U4+ + O2- + 1/2H2, is experimentally reported. The kinetics of deuterium incorporation is slightly slower than hydrogen diffusion, suggesting that the reaction is limited by hydrogen mobility. Hydrogen isotopic memory of zircon is higher than other NAMs. Zircons will be moderately retentive of H signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures. At 500 ° C, a zircon with a radius of 300 μm would retain its H isotopic signature over more than a million years. However, a zircon is unable to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism unless the grain size is large enough. Refrences Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2004) Hydrogen diffusion in Dora Maira pyrope. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 31, 593-605. Kurka, A., Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2005) Kinetics of hydrogen extraction and deuteration in

  7. Implications of Bishop Tuff zircon U-Pb ages for rates of zircon growth and magma accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. R.; Schmitt, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    Rates of geologic processes obtained from natural studies rely on accurate geochronologic information. An important benchmark in geochronology as well as a valuable source of insights into the evolution of voluminous explosive eruptions is the >600 km3 Bishop Tuff (BT). A recently determined weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 767.1±0.9 ka for a BT zircon population [1] is indistinguishable from the recalibrated 40Ar/39Ar sanidine date of 767.4±2.2 ka [2], potentially providing a key intercalibration point between astronomical and radio-isotopic dating approaches. Consequences of these results are linear zircon growth rates of >1×10-14 cm/sec and magma accumulation rates of >200 km3/ka. In contrast, spatially selective SIMS U-Pb dating of BT zircons yielded mean pre-eruption ages of 850 ka [3], a difference that raises questions about the validity of intercalibration between U-Pb and K-Ar dating methods and the history of magma accumulation. We obtained new SIMS analyses of the BT zircons using more spatially and analytically sensitive methods and verifying our accuracy against the TIMS dated Quaternary zircon 61.308A (2.488±0.002 Ma). Analyses were performed on zircon rims and on oriented cross-sections exposed during optical interferometry-calibrated serial sectioning removing the outermost ~31 μm. Sputtering by a 100 nA ion beam versus the normally employed 10-12 nA beam resulted in enhanced radiogenic Pb yields and analytical uncertainties for Quaternary zircon approaching the U-Pb age reproducibility of the primary zircon standard (~1-2 % for AS3). Ages obtained at ~31 μm depth (representing <5% of crystal growth in most cases) average 892±26ka (MSWD=0.29), corroborating previous evidence for residence times of several tens of ka. Rim ages average 781±22 ka (MSWD=0.61), overlapping Ar/Ar determinations of eruption age and corroborating the importance of near-eruption aged zircon growth. Our results confirm the presence of BT zircon domains that predate

  8. Improved zircon iron corals for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, C.

    1992-03-01

    CIBA-GEIGY/Drakenfeld Colors is dedicated to the research and development of consistent and cost-effective ceramic stains for the whitewares industry. After identifying the trends in color for the 1990s. CIBA-GEIGY/Drakenfeld Colors initiated an extensive R D project to improve zircon ion corals for the whitewares industry. These color trends indicated a need for stronger and cleaner zircon iron corals. This paper discusses the chemistry and crystal structure of zircon iron corals. A historical review of Drakenfeld corals will also be presented. The most recent development in Drakenfeld corals will then be compared to other commercially available zircon iron corals. Taking intomore » consideration these comparisons, conclusions will be drawn suggesting the coral of choice for the 1990s.« less

  9. TEAM - Titan Exploration Atmospheric Microprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Conor; Esper, Jaime; Aslam, Shahid; Quilligan, Gerald

    2016-10-01

    The astrobiological potential of Titan's surface hydrocarbon liquids and probable interior water ocean has led to its inclusion as a destination in NASA's "Ocean Worlds" initiative, and near-term investigation of these regions is a high-level scientific goal. TEAM is a novel initiative to investigate the lake and sea environs using multiple dropsondes -scientific probes derived from an existing cubesat bus architecture (CAPE - the Cubesat Application for Planetary Exploration) developed at NASA GSFC. Each 3U probe will parachute to the surface, making atmospheric structure and composition measurements during the descent, and photographing the surface - land, shoreline and seas - in detail. TEAM probes offer a low-cost, high-return means to explore multiple areas on Titan, yielding crucial data about the condensing chemicals, haze and cloud layers, winds, and surface features of the lakes and seas. These microprobes may be included on a near-term New Frontiers class mission to the Saturn system as additional payload, bringing increased scientific return and conducting reconnaissance for future landing zones. In this presentation we describe the probe architecture, baseline payload, flight profile and the unique engineering and science data that can be returned.

  10. Oxygen diffusion in zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, E. B.; Cherniak, D. J.

    1997-05-01

    Oxygen diffusion in natural, non-metamict zircon was characterized under both dry and water-present conditions at temperatures ranging from 765°C to 1500°C. Dry experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure by encapsulating polished zircon samples with a fine powder of 18O-enriched quartz and annealing the sealed capsules in air. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels (7-70 MPa) or a piston cylinder apparatus (400-1000 MPa) on zircon samples encapsulated with both 18O-enriched quartz and 18O water. Diffusive-uptake profiles of 18O were measured in all samples with a particle accelerator, using the 18O(p, α) 15N reaction. For dry experimental conditions at 1100-1500°C, the resulting oxygen diffusivities (24 in all) are well described by: D dry (m 2/s) = 1.33 × 10 -4exp(-53920/T) There is no suggestion of diffusive anisotropy. Under wet conditions at 925°C, oxygen diffusion shows little or no dependence upon P H 2O in the range 7-1000 MPa, and is insensitive to total pressure as well. The results of 27 wet experiments at 767-1160°C and 7-1000 MPa can be described a single Arrhenius relationship: D wet (m 2/s) = 5.5 × 10 -12exp(-25280/T) The insensitivity of oxygen diffusion to P H 2O means that applications to geologic problems can be pursued knowing only whether the system of interest was 'wet' (i.e., P H 2O > 7MPa ) or 'dry'. Under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust), zircons are extremely retentive of their oxygen isotopic signatures, to the extent that δ 18O would be perturbed at the center of a 200 μm zircon only during an extraordinarily hot and protracted event (e.g., 65 Ma at 900°C). Under wet conditions, δ 18O may or may not be retained in the central regions of individual crystals, cores or overgrowth rims, depending upon the specific thermal history of the system.

  11. The Grand St Bernard-Briançonnais Nappe System and the Paleozoic Inheritance of the Western Alps Unraveled by Zircon U-Pb Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergomi, M. A.; Dal Piaz, G. V.; Malusà, M. G.; Monopoli, B.; Tunesi, A.

    2017-12-01

    The continental crust involved in the Alpine orogeny was largely shaped by Paleozoic tectono-metamorphic and igneous events during oblique collision between Gondwana and Laurussia. In order to shed light on the pre-Alpine basement puzzle disrupted and reamalgamated during the Tethyan rifting and the Alpine orogeny, we provide sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe U-Pb zircon and geochemical whole rock data from selected basement units of the Grand St Bernard-Briançonnais nappe system in the Western Alps and from the Penninic and Lower Austroalpine units in the Central Alps. Zircon U-Pb ages, ranging from 459.0 ± 2.3 Ma to 279.1 ± 1.1 Ma, provide evidence of a complex evolution along the northern margin of Gondwana including Ordovician transtension, Devonian subduction, and Carboniferous-to-Permian tectonic reorganization. Original zircon U-Pb ages of 371 ± 0.9 Ma and 369.3 ± 1.5 Ma, from calc-alkaline granitoids of the Grand Nomenon and Gneiss del Monte Canale units, provide the first compelling evidence of Late Devonian orogenic magmatism in the Alps. We propose that rocks belonging to these units were originally part of the Moldanubian domain and were displaced toward the SW by Late Carboniferous strike-slip faulting. The resulting assemblage of basement units was disrupted by Permian tectonics and by Mesozoic opening of the Alpine Tethys. Remnants of the Moldanubian domain became either part of the European paleomargin (Grand Nomenon unit) or part of the Adriatic paleomargin (Gneiss del Monte Canale unit), to be finally accreted into the Alpine orogenic wedge during the Cenozoic.

  12. Thermomagmatic evolution of Mesoproterozoic crust in the Blue Ridge of SW Virginia and NW North Carolina: Evidence from U-Pb geochronology and zircon geothermometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tollo, Richard P.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Mazdab, Frank K.; Southworth, Scott; Fanning, Mark C.

    2010-01-01

    New geologic mapping, petrology, and U-Pb geochronology indicate that Mesoproterozoic crust near Mount Rogers consists of felsic to mafic meta-igneous rocks emplaced over 260 m.y. The oldest rocks are compositionally diverse and migmatitic, whereas younger granitoids are porphyritic to porphyroclastic. Cathodoluminescence imaging indicates that zircon from four representative units preserves textural evidence of multiple episodes of growth, including domains of igneous, metamorphic, and inherited origin. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) trace-element analyses indicate that metamorphic zircon is characterized by lower Th/U, higher Yb/Gd, and lower overall rare earth element (REE) concentrations than igneous zircon. SHRIMP U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircon define three episodes of magmatism: 1327 ± 7 Ma, 1180–1155 Ma, and 1061 ± 5 Ma. Crustal recycling is recorded by inherited igneous cores of 1.33–1.29 Ga age in 1161 ± 7 Ma meta-monzogranite. Overlapping ages of igneous and metamorphic crystallization indicate that plutons of ca. 1170 and 1060 Ma age were emplaced during episodes of regional heating. Local development of hornblende + plagioclase + quartz ± clinopyroxene indicates that prograde metamorphism at 1170–1145 Ma and 1060–1020 Ma reached upper-amphibolite-facies conditions, with temperatures estimated using Ti-in-zircon geothermometry at ~740 ± 40 °C during both episodes. The chemical composition of 1327 ± 7 Ma orthogranofels from migmatite preserves the first evidence of arc-generated rocks in the Blue Ridge, indicating a subduction-related environment that may have been comparable to similar-age systems in inliers of the Northern Appalachians and the Composite Arc belt of Canada. Granitic magmatism at 1180–1155 Ma and ca. 1060 Ma near Mount Rogers was contemporaneous with anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite (AMCG) plutonism in the Northern Appalachian inliers and Canadian Grenville Province. Metamorphism at ca. 1160

  13. Etching fission tracks in zircons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naeser, C.W.

    1969-01-01

    A new technique has been developed whereby fission tracks can be etched in zircon with a solution of sodium hydroxide at 220??C. Etching time varied between 15 minutes and 5 hours. Colored zircon required less etching time than the colorless varieties.

  14. DS-2 Mars Microprobe Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H.; Kindler, A.; Deligiannis, F.; Davies, E.; Blankevoort, J.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Surampudi, S.

    1999-01-01

    In January of 1999 the NM DS-2 Mars microprobe will be launched to impact on Mars in December. The technical objectives of the missions are to demonstrate: key technologies, a passive atmospheric entry, highly integrated microelectronics which can withstand both low temperatures and high decelerations, and the capability to conduct in-situ, surface and subsurface science data acquisition. The scientific objectives are to determine if ice is present below the Martian surface, measure the local atmospheric pressure, characterize the thermal properties of the martian subsurface soil, and to estimate the vertical temperature gradient of the Martian soil. The battery requirements are 2-4 cell batteries, with voltage of 6-14 volts, capacity of 550 mAh at 80C, and 2Ah at 25C, shelf life of 2.5 years, an operating temperature of 60C and below, and the ability to withstand shock impact of 80,000 g's. The technical challenges and the approach is reviewed. The Li-SOCL2 system is reviewed, and graphs showing the current and voltage is displayed, along with the voltage over discharge time. The problems encountered during the testing were: (1) impact sensitivity, (2) cracking of the seals, and (3) delay in voltage. A new design resulted in no problems in the impact testing phase. The corrective actions for the seal problems involved: (1) pre weld fill tube, (2) an improved heat sink during case to cover weld and (3) change the seal dimensions to reduce stress. To correct the voltage delay problem the solutions involved: (1) drying the electrodes to reduce contamination by water, (2) assemblage of the cells within a week of electrode manufacture, (3) ensure electrolyte purity, and (4) provide second depassivation pulse after landing. The conclusions on further testing were that the battery can: (1) withstand anticipated shock of up to 80,000 g, (2) meet the discharge profile post shock at Mars temperatures, (3) meet the required self discharge rate and (4) meet environmental

  15. Zircon growth in shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaulina, Tatiana

    2013-04-01

    The possibility of direct dating of the deformation process is critical for understanding of orogenic belts evolution. Establishing the age of deformation by isotopic methods is indispensable in the case of uneven deformation overlapping, when later deformation inherits the structural plan of the early strains, and to distinguish them on the basis of the structural data only is impossible. A good example of zircon from the shear zones is zircon formed under the eclogite facies conditions. On the one hand, the composition of zircon speaks about its formation simultaneously to eclogitic paragenesis (Rubatto, Herman, 1999; Rubatto et al., 2003). On the other hand, geological studies show that mineral reactions of eclogitization are often held only in areas of shear deformations, which provides access of fluid to the rocks (Austrheim, 1987; Jamtveit et al., 2000; Bingen et al., 2004). Zircons from mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Tanaelv and Kolvitsa belts (Kola Peninsula, the Baltic Shield) have showed that the metamorphic zircon growth is probably controlled by the metamorphic fluid regime, as evidenced by an increase of zircon quantity with the degree of shearing. The internal structure of zircon crystals can provide an evidence of zircon growth synchronous with shearing. The studied crystals have a sector zoning and often specific "patchy" zoning (Fig. 1), which speaks about rapid change of growth conditions. Such internal structure can be compared with the "snowball" garnet structure reflecting the rotation of crystals during their growth under a shift. Rapidly changing crystallization conditions can also be associated with a small amount of fluid, where supersaturation is changing even at a constant temperature. Thus, the growth of metamorphic zircon in shear zones is more likely to occur in the fluid flow synchronous with deformation. A distinctive feature of zircons in these conditions is isometric shape and sector "patchy" zoning. The work was supported by

  16. Detrital zircon ages in Korean mid-Paleozoic meta-sandstones (Imjingang Belt and Taean Formation): Constraints on tectonic and depositional setting, source regions and possible affinity with Chinese terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seokyoung; de Jong, Koen; Yi, Keewook

    2017-08-01

    Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Th-Pb isotopic data of detrital zircons from mature, quartz-rich meta-sandstones are used to constrain possible tectonic affinities and source regions of the rhythmically layered and graded-bedded series in the Yeoncheon Complex (Imjingang Belt) and the correlative Taean Formation. These metamorphic marine turbidite sequences presently occur along the Paleoproterozoic (1.93-1.83 Ga) Gyeonggi Massif, central Korea's main high-grade metamorphic gneiss terrane. Yet, detrital zircons yielded highly similar multimodal age spectra with peaks that do not match the age repartition in these basement rocks, as late (1.9-1.8 Ga) and earliest (∼ 2.5 Ga) Paleoproterozoic detrital modes are subordinate but, in contrast, Paleozoic (440-425 Ma) and Neoproterozoic (980-920 Ma) spikes are prominent, yet the basement essentially lacks lithologies with such ages. The youngest concordant zircon ages in each sample are: 378, 394 and 423 Ma. The maturity of the meta-sandstones and the general roundness of zircons of magmatic signature, irrespective of their age, suggest that sediments underwent considerable transport from source to sink, and possibly important weathering and recycling, which may have filtered out irradiation-weakened metamorphic zircon grains. In combination with these isotopic data, presence of a low-angle ductile fault contact between the Yeoncheon Complex and the Taean Formation and the underlying mylonitized Precambrian basement implies that they are in tectonic contact and do not have a stratigraphic relationship, as often assumed. Consequently, in all likelihood, both meta-sedimentary formations: (1) are at least of early Late Devonian age, (2) received much of their detritus from distant (reworked) Silurian-Devonian and Early Neoproterozoic magmatic sources, not present in the Gyeonggi Massif, (3) and not from Paleoproterozoic crystalline rocks of this massif, or other Korean Precambrian basement terranes, and

  17. Zircon geochronology and Hf-O isotope geochemistry from granites in the Iapetus Suture Zone in Ireland and the Isle of Man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritschle, Tobias; Daly, J. Stephen; Whitehouse, Martin J.; McConnell, Brian; Buhre, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Late Caledonian syn- to post-orogenic granites located in the Iapetus Suture Zone (ISZ) in Ireland and Britain have been related to A-type subduction and possible slab breakoff [1] following the Laurentia-Avalonian collision. Lack of reliable age data (especially in Ireland) has inhibited petrogenetic investigations of these rocks. Hence, ion microprobe U-Pb and oxygen isotope analyses as well as LA-MC-ICPMS Lu-Hf isotopic measurements on zircons from Irish and Isle of Man granites have been undertaken to provide better constraints on this enigmatic episode of the Caledonian Orogeny. Four stages of Late Caledonian granitic magmatism (c. 435, 417, 410 and 394 Ma) are indicated by U-Pb dating of oscillatory-zoned magmatic zircons. The Crossdoney, Kentstown, Drogheda and Ballynamuddagh granites together with a rhyolite from Glenamaddy have yielded U-Pb concordia ages, interpreted as intrusion-ages, between 419.9 ± 4.3 Ma (Glenamaddy) and 415.8 ± 2.0 Ma (Crossdoney) with a weighted average of 417.5 ± 0.9 Ma (MSWD = 1.3). The Glenamaddy Granite - which intruded the Glenamaddy Rhyolite - yielded an age of 410 ± 2.1 Ma. In addition, the Rockabill Granite yielded a younger age of 393.9 ± 1.9 Ma, whereas the Carnsore Granite yielded an older age of 434.6 ± 1.9 Ma. Inherited zircons (487 to 453 Ma) occur in several of the granites, and are interpreted to have been derived from Ordovician arc magmatic rocks accreted within the ISZ. A younger group of c. 440 Ma inherited zircons occurs in the c. 417 Ma Crossdoney and Ballynamuddagh granites. These grains could be related to continued or renewed Silurian arc magmatism. Hf-O isotopic measurements on the dated zircon grains range between -2 and +7 ɛHfi units and 5.5 to 8.5 o δ18O. These are interpreted to indicate the contribution of juvenile mantle melts - possibly derived from the Ordovician arc - to some of the granites. Significant heterogeneities in zircon oxygen isotopes in at least four of the granites further

  18. Zircon/fluid trace element partition coefficients measured by recrystallization of Mud Tank zircon at 1.5 GPa and 800-1000 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, John C.; Peters, Timothy J.

    2018-02-01

    Hydrothermal zircon grains have trace element characteristics such as low Th/U, high U, and high rare earth element (REE) concentrations that distinguish them from magmatic, metamorphic, and altered zircon grains, but it is unclear whether these characteristics result from distinctive fluid compositions or zircon/fluid fractionation effects. New experiments aimed at measuring zircon/fluid trace element partition coefficients Dz/f involved recrystallizing natural Mud Tank zircon with low trace element concentrations in the presence of H2O, 1 m NaOH, or 1 m HCl doped with ∼1000 ppm of rare earth elements (REE), Y, U and Th and ∼500 ppm of Li, B, P, Nb, Ba, Hf, and Ta. Experiments were run for 168 h at 1.5 GPa, 800-1000 °C, and fO2 = NNO in a piston cylinder apparatus using the double capsule method. LA-ICP-MS analysis shows that run product zircon crystals have much higher trace element concentrations than in Mud Tank zircon starting material. Dz/f values were estimated from run product zircon analyses and bulk composition using mass balance. Most elements behave incompatibly, with median Dz/f being highest for Hf = 8 and lowest for B = 0.02. Addition of NaOH or HCl had little influence on Dz/f values. Dz/f for LREE are anomalously high, likely due to contamination of run product zircon with quenched solutes enriched in incompatible elements, so DLREE were estimated using lattice strain theory. Brice curves for +3 ions yield zircon/fluid DLu/DLa of ∼800-5000. A Brice curve fit to +4 ions yielded DCe4+ values. Estimated concentrations of Ce3+ and Ce4+ show that the average Ce4+/Ce3+ in zircon of 27 is much higher than in fluid of 0.02. Th and U show little fractionation, with median DTh/DU = 0.7, indicating that the low Th/U in natural hydrothermal zircon is inherited from the fluid. Natural fluid compositions estimated from measured Dz/f and published compositions of hydrothermal zircon grains from aplite and eclogite reflect the mineralogy of the host rock, e

  19. U-Pb geochronology of zircon and polygenetic titanite from the Glastonbury Complex, Connecticut, USA: An integrated SEM, EMPA, TIMS, and SHRIMP study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Wintsch, R.P.; Fanning, C.M.; Dorais, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    U-Pb ages for zircon and titanite from a granodioritic gneiss in the Glastonbury Complex, Connecticut, have been determined using both isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and the sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP). Zircons occur in three morphologic populations: (1) equant to stubby, multifaceted, colorless, (2) prismatic, dark brown, with numerous cracks, and (3) elongate, prismatic, light tan to colorless. Cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging of the three populations shows simple concentric oscillatory zoning. The zircon TIMS age [weighted average of 207Pb/206Pb ages from Group 3 grains-450.5 ?? 1.6 Ma (MSWD=1.11)] and SHRIMP age [composite of 206Pb/238 U age data from all three groups-448.2 ?? 2.7 Ma (MSWD = 1.3)], are interpreted to suggest a relatively simple crystallization history. Titanite from the granodioritic gneiss occurs as both brown and colorless varieties. Scanning electron microscope backscatter (BSE) images of brown grains show multiple cross-cutting oscillatory zones of variable brightness and dark overgrowths. Colorless grains are unzoned or contain subtle wispy or very faint oscillatory zoning. Electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) clearly distinguishes the two populations. Brown grains contain relatively high concentrations of Fe2O3, Ce2O3 (up to ~ 1.5 wt.%), Nb2O5, and Zr. Cerium concentration is positively correlated with total REE + Y concentration, which together can exceed 3.5 wt.%. Oscillatory zoning in brown titanite is correlated with variations in REE concentrations. In contrast, colorless titanite (both as discrete grains and overgrowths on brown titanite) contains lower concentrations of Y, REE, Fe2O3, and Zr, but somewhat higher Al2O3 and Nb2O5. Uranium concentrations and Th/U discriminate between brown grains (typically 200-400 ppm U; all analyses but one have Th/U between about 0.8 and 2) and colorless grains (10-60 ppm U; Th/U of 0-0.17). In contrast to the zircon U-Pb age results, SHRIMP U

  20. Protracted construction of gabbroic crust at a slow spreading ridge: Constraints from 206Pb/238U zircon ages from Atlantis Massif and IODP Hole U1309D (30°N, MAR)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimes, Craig B.; John, Barbara E.; Cheadle, Michael J.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon ages of 24 samples from oceanic crust recovered in Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole U1309D and from the surface of Atlantis Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) (30°N) document a protracted history of accretion in the footwall to an oceanic detachment fault. Ages for 18 samples of evolved Fe-Ti oxide gabbro and felsic dikes collected 40–1415 m below seafloor in U1309D yield a weighted mean of 1.20 ± 0.03 Ma (mean square of weighted deviates = 7.1). However, the ages range from 1.08 ± 0.07 Ma and 1.28 ± 0.05 Ma indicating crustal construction occurred over a minimum of 100–200 ka. The zircon ages, along with petrologic observations, indicate at least 2 major periods of intrusive activity with age peaks separated by 70 ka. The oldest ages are observed below 600 mbsf, an observation inconsistent with models requiring constant depth melt intrusion beneath a detachment fault. The data are most consistent with a “multiple sill” model whereby sills intrude at random depths below the ridge axis over a length scale greater than 1.4 km. Zircon ages from broadly spaced samples collected along the southern ridge of Atlantis Massif yield a detachment fault slip rate of 28.7 ± 6.7 mm/a and imply significant asymmetric plate spreading (up to 100% on the North American plate) for at least 200 ka during core complex formation.

  1. Constraints on the timing of Co-Cu ± Au mineralization in the Blackbird district, Idaho, using SHRIMP U-Pb ages of monazite and xenotime plus zircon ages of related Mesoproterozoic orthogneisses and metasedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Slack, John F.; Lund, Karen; Evans, Karl V.; Fanning, C. Mark; Mazdab, Frank K.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Pillers, Renee M.

    2012-01-01

    The Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, contains the largest known Co reserves in the United States. The origin of strata-hosted Co-Cu ± Au mineralization at Blackbird has been a matter of controversy for decades. In order to differentiate among possible genetic models for the deposits, including various combinations of volcanic, sedimentary, magmatic, and metamorphic processes, we used U-Pb geochronology of xenotime, monazite, and zircon to establish time constraints for ore formation. New age data reported here were obtained using sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) microanalysis of (1) detrital zircons from a sample of Mesoproterozoic siliciclastic metasedimentary country rock in the Blackbird district, (2) igneous zircons from Mesoproterozoic intrusions, and (3) xenotime and monazite from the Merle and Sunshine prospects at Blackbird. Detrital zircon from metasandstone of the biotite phyllite-schist unit has ages mostly in the range of 1900 to 1600 Ma, plus a few Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic grains. Age data for the six youngest grains form a coherent group at 1409 ± 10 Ma, regarded as the maximum age of deposition of metasedimentary country rocks of the central structural domain. Igneous zircons from nine samples of megacrystic granite, granite augen gneiss, and granodiorite augen gneiss that crop out north and east of the Blackbird district yield ages between 1383 ± 4 and 1359 ± 7 Ma. Emplacement of the Big Deer Creek megacrystic granite (1377 ± 4 Ma), structurally juxtaposed with host rocks in the Late Cretaceous ca. 5 km north of Blackbird, may have been involved in initial deposition of rare earth elements (REE) minerals and, possibly, sulfides. In situ SHRIMP ages of xenotime and monazite in Co-rich samples from the Merle and Sunshine prospects, plus backscattered electron imagery and SHRIMP analyses of trace elements, indicate a complex sequence of Mesoproterozoic and Cretaceous events. On the basis of textural relationships

  2. U-Pb zircon geochronology of plutonism in the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith, southern California: Implications for the Late Cretaceous tectonic evolution of southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Premo, Wayne R.; Morton, Douglas M.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Fanning, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing both sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) and conventional isotope dilution–thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) methods, crystallization and/or emplacement ages have been obtained for a suite of Cretaceous intermediate-composition plutonic samples collected along a roughly E-W–trending traverse through the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith. Previously noted petrologic, mineralogic, and textural differences delineated four major zonations from west to east and raised the need for detailed geochemical and isotopic work. U-Pb zircon geochronology establishes that these zonations are essentially temporally separate. Mean 206Pb/238U ages date the three older zones from west to east at 126–107 Ma, 107–98 Ma, and 98–91 Ma. Despite petrologic differences, a relatively smooth progression of magmatism is seen from west to east. A fourth zone is defined by magmatism at ca. 85 Ma, which represents emplacement of deeper-level plutons east of the Eastern Peninsular Ranges mylonite zone in an allochthonous thrust sheet in the northeastern Peninsular Ranges batholith.The age data presented here differ slightly from those presented in earlier work for similar rocks exposed across the middle and southern portions of the Peninsular Ranges batholith in that our data define a relatively smooth progression of magmatism from west to east, and that the transition from western-type to eastern-type plutonism is interpreted to have occurred at ca. 98 Ma and not at ca. 105 Ma.The progressive involvement of older crustal components in the enrichment of eastern Peninsular Ranges batholith–type magma sources is documented by the occurrence of Proterozoic zircon inheritance within samples of the eastern part of the batholith.

  3. Determination of uranium in zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuttitta, F.; Daniels, G.J.

    1959-01-01

    A routine fluorimetric procedure is described for the determination of trace amounts of uranium in zircon. It employs the direct extraction of uranyl nitrate with ethyl acetate using phosphate as a retainer for zirconium. Submicrogram amounts or uranium are separated in the presence of 100,000 times the amount of zirconium. The modified procedure has been worked out using synthetic mixtures of known composition and zircon. Results of analyses have an accuracy of 97-98% of the contained uranium and a standard deviation of less than 2.5%. ?? 1959.

  4. Analysis of biological materials using a nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulware, Stephen Juma

    The use of nuclear microprobe techniques including: Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) for elemental analysis and quantitative elemental imaging of biological samples is especially useful in biological and biomedical research because of its high sensitivity for physiologically important trace elements or toxic heavy metals. The nuclear microprobe of the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) has been used to study the enhancement in metal uptake of two different plants. The roots of corn (Zea mays) have been analyzed to study the enhancement of iron uptake by adding Fe (II) or Fe(III) of different concentrations to the germinating medium of the seeds. The Fe uptake enhancement effect produced by lacing the germinating medium with carbon nanotubes has also been investigated. The aim of this investigation is to ensure not only high crop yield but also Fe-rich food products especially from calcareous soil which covers 30% of world's agricultural land. The result will help reduce iron deficiency anemia, which has been identified as the leading nutritional disorder especially in developing countries by the World Health Organization. For the second plant, Mexican marigold (Tagetes erecta ), the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices ) for the improvement of lead phytoremediation of lead contaminated soil has been investigated. Phytoremediation provides an environmentally safe technique of removing toxic heavy metals (like lead), which can find their way into human food, from lands contaminated by human activities like mining or by natural disasters like earthquakes. The roots of Mexican marigold have been analyzed to study the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in enhancement of lead uptake from the contaminated rhizosphere.

  5. Laser Microprobe Mass Spectrometry 1: Basic Principles and Performance Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denoyer, Eric; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the historical development, performance characteristics (sample requirements, analysis time, ionization characteristics, speciation capabilities, and figures of merit), and applications of laser microprobe mass spectrometry. (JN)

  6. Low δ18O zircons from the Bruneau-Jarbidge eruptive center: a key to crustal anatexis along the track of the Yellowstone hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathey, H. E.; Nash, B. P.; Seligman, A. N.; Valley, J. W.; Kita, N.; Allen, C. M.; Campbell, I. H.; Vazquez, J. A.; Wooden, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Bruneau-Jarbidge eruptive center (BJEC) in the central Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA consists of the Cougar Point Tuff (CPT), a series of ten, high-temperature (900-1000°C) voluminous ignimbrites produced over the explosive phase of volcanism (12.8 - 10.5 Ma) and more than a dozen equally high-temperature rhyolite lava flows produced during the effusive phase (10.5 - 8 Ma). Spot analyses by ion microprobe of oxygen isotope ratios in 210 zircons demonstrate that all of the eruptive units of the BJEC are characterized by zircon δ18O values ≤ 2.5%, thus documenting the largest low δ18O silicic volcanic province known on Earth (>104 km3). There is no evidence for voluminous normal δ18O magmatism at the BJEC that precedes generation of low δ18O magmas as there is at other volcanic centers that generate low δ18O magmas such as Heise and Yellowstone. At these younger volcanic centers of the hotspot track, such low δ18O magmas represent ~45 % and ~20% respectively of total eruptive volumes. Zircons in all BJEC tuffs and lavas studied (23 units) document strong 18O depletion (median CPT δ18OZrc = 1.0 %, post-CPT lavas = 1.5%) with the third member of the CPT recording an excursion to minimum δ18O values (δ18OZrc= -1.8 %) in a supereruption > 2% lower than other voluminous low δ18O rhyolites known worldwide (δ18OWR ≤0.9 vs. 3.4%). Subsequent units of the CPT and lavas record a progressive recovery in δ18OZrc to ~2.5% over a ~ 4 m.y. interval (12 to 8 Ma). We present detailed evidence of unit-to-unit systematic patterns in O isotopic zoning in zircons (i.e. direction and magnitude of Δcore-rim), spectrum of δ18O in individual units, and zircon inheritance patterns established by re-analysis of spots for U-Th-Pb isotopes by LA-ICPMS and SHRIMP. In conjunction with mineral thermometry and magma compositions, these patterns are difficult to reconcile with the well-established model for "cannibalistic" low δ18O magma genesis at Heise and Yellowstone. We

  7. SHRIMP study of zircons from Early Archean rocks in the Minnesota River Valley: Implications for the tectonic history of the Superior Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bickford, M.E.; Wooden, J.L.; Bauer, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    Interest in Paleoarchean to early Mesoarchean crust in North America has been sparked by the recent identification of ca. 3800-3500 Ma rocks on the northern margin of the Superior craton in the Assean Lake region of northern Manitoba and the Porpoise Cove terrane in northern Quebec. It has long been known that similarly ancient gneisses are exposed on the southern margin of the Superior craton in the Minnesota River Valley and in northern Michigan, but the ages of these rocks have been poorly constrained, because methods applied in the 1960s through late 1970s were inadequate to unravel the complexities of their thermotectonic history. Rocks exposed in the Minnesota River Valley include a complex of migmatitic granitic gneisses, schistose to gneissic amphibolite, metagabbro, and paragneisses. The best-known units are the Morton Gneiss and the Montevideo Gneiss. The complex of ancient gneisses is intruded by a major younger, weakly deformed granite body, the Sacred Heart granite. Regional geophysical anomalies that extend across the Minnesota River Valley have been interpreted as defining boundaries between distinct blocks containing the various gneissic units. New sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb data from complex zircons yielded the following ages: Montevideo Gneiss near Montevideo, 3485 ?? 10 Ma, granodiorite intrusion, 3385 ?? 8 Ma; Montevideo Gneiss at Granite Falls, 3497 ?? 9 Ma, metamorphic event, 3300-3350 Ma, mafic intrusion, 3141 ?? 2 Ma, metamorphic overprint (rims), 2606 ?? 4 Ma; Morton Gneiss: 3524 ?? 9 Ma, granodiorite intrusion, 3370 ?? 8 Ma, metamorphic overprints (growth of rims), 3140 ?? 2 Ma and 2595 ?? 4 Ma; biotite-garnet paragneiss, 2619 ?? 20 Ma; and Sacred Heart granite, 2604 ?? 4 Ma. Zircons from a cordierite-bearing feldspar-biotite schist overlying the Morton Gneiss yielded well-defined age peaks at 3520, 3480, 3380, and 3140 Ma, showing detrital input from most of the older rock units; 2600 Ma rims on these zircons

  8. A study of GeV proton microprobe lens system designs with normal magnetic quadrupole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Yanxin; Jamieson, David N.; Liu, Jianli; Li, Liyi

    2017-12-01

    High energy proton irradiation has many applications to the study of radiation effects in semiconductor devices, biological tissues, proton tomography and space science. Many applications could be extended and enhanced by use of a high energy proton microprobe. However the design of a GeV proton microprobe must address significant challenges including beam collimation that minimizes ion scattering and the probe forming lens system for ions of high rigidity. Here we address the probe forming lens system design subject to several practical constraints including the use of non-superconducting normal magnetic quadrupole lenses, the ability to focus 1-5 GeV protons into 5 μm diameter microprobes and compatibility with the beam parameters of GeV proton accelerators. We show that 2, 3 and 4 lens systems of lenses with effective lengths up to 0.63 m can be employed for this purpose with a demagnification up to 58 and investigate the probe size limitations from beam brightness, lens aberrations and machining precision.

  9. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the effects of ionization and displacement damage in vertical, high voltage GaN diodes

    DOE PAGES

    Vizkelethy, G.; King, M. P.; Aktas, O.; ...

    2016-12-02

    Radiation responses of high-voltage, vertical gallium-nitride (GaN) diodes were investigated using Sandia National Laboratories’ nuclear microprobe. Effects of the ionization and the displacement damage were studied using various ion beams. We found that the devices show avalanche effect for heavy ions operated under bias well below the breakdown voltage. Here, the displacement damage experiments showed a surprising effect for moderate damage: the charge collection efficiency demonstrated an increase instead of a decrease for higher bias voltages.

  10. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the effects of ionization and displacement damage in vertical, high voltage GaN diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Vizkelethy, G.; King, M. P.; Aktas, O.

    Radiation responses of high-voltage, vertical gallium-nitride (GaN) diodes were investigated using Sandia National Laboratories’ nuclear microprobe. Effects of the ionization and the displacement damage were studied using various ion beams. We found that the devices show avalanche effect for heavy ions operated under bias well below the breakdown voltage. Here, the displacement damage experiments showed a surprising effect for moderate damage: the charge collection efficiency demonstrated an increase instead of a decrease for higher bias voltages.

  11. Elementary review of electron microprobe techniques and correction requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, R. K.

    1968-01-01

    Report contains requirements for correction of instrumented data on the chemical composition of a specimen, obtained by electron microprobe analysis. A condensed review of electron microprobe techniques is presented, including background material for obtaining X ray intensity data corrections and absorption, atomic number, and fluorescence corrections.

  12. In situ detrital zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, A.; Monteleone, B. D.; van Soest, M. C.; Hodges, K.; Hourigan, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Detrital studies of both sand and rock are relevant to many problems, ranging from the climate and tectonics feedback debate to the long-term record of orogenic evolution. When applying the conventional (U-Th)/He technique to such studies, two important issues arise. Often, only euhedral grains are permissible for analysis in order to make simple geometric corrections for α-recoil. In detrital samples, this is problematic because euhedral grains can be scarce due to mechanical abrasion during transport, and potentially introduce bias in favour of more proximally sourced grains. Second, inherent to detrital studies is the need to date many grains (>100) per sample to ensure a representative sampling of the sediment source region, thus making robust conventional detrital studies both expensive and time-consuming. UV laser microprobes can improve this by permitting careful targeting of the grain interior away from the α-ejection zone, rendering the α-recoil correction unnecessary, thus eliminating bias toward euhedral grains. In the Noble Gas, Geochemistry, and Geochronology Laboratory at ASU, apatite and zircon have been successfully dated using in situ methods. For this study, the conventional and in situ techniques are compared by dating zircons from a modern river sand that drains a small catchment in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Ladakh Batholith in NW India. This sample has a simple provenance, which allows us to demonstrate the robustness of the in situ method. Moreover, different microbeam techniques will be explored to establish the most efficient approach to obtain accurate and precise U-Th concentrations using synrock, which is our powdered, homogenized, and reconstituted zircon-rock standard. Without this, such in situ U-Th data would be difficult to obtain. 117 zircons were dated using the conventional (U-Th)/He method, revealing dates ranging from 9.70±0.35 to 106.6±3.5 Ma (2σ) with the major mode at 26 Ma. For comparison, 44 grains were dated using the in

  13. Isotopic-Geochemical Features of Zircon and Its Significance for Reconstructing the Geological History of Paleoarchean Granulites in the Ukrainian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobach-Zhuchenko, S. B.; Kaulina, T. V.; Lokhov, K. I.; Egorova, Yu. S.; Skublov, S. G.; Galankina, O. L.; Antonov, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a complex study (morphology of grains, internal texture in cathodoluminescence and backscattered electrons, microprobe analysis, Lu-Hf data) of five groups (generations) of zircon crystals differing in age and separated from the same granulite sample pertaining to the Bug River Complex of the Ukrainian Shield. The data show that the oldest zircon crystals of the first group (3.74 Ga in age) are xenogenic and initially crystallized from a granitic melt; zircon of the second group (3.66 Ga) formed from a mafic melt contaminated by felsic country rocks. The third group (3.59 Ga) is represented by zircons that formed about 100 Ma later than the second group under conditions of granulite-facies metamorphism and with the participation of fluid-saturated anatectic melt. Two Paleoproterozoic zircon groups ( 2.5 and 2.1 Ga) also formed under granulite-facies conditions; to a certain extent, their structure and composition were controlled by fluid. The geochemistry of all zircon generations provides evidence for their crystallization in the continental crust, but from the sources differing in the contribution of mantle-derived material and in oxygen fugacity.

  14. The electron microprobe as a metallographic tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, J. I.

    1974-01-01

    The electron microprobe (EMP) is shown to represent one of the most powerful techniques for the examination of the microstructure of materials. It is an electron optical instrument in which compositional and topographic information is obtained from regions smaller than 1 micron in diameter on a specimen. Photographs of compositional and topographic changes in 1-sq-mm to 20-sq-micron areas on various types of specimens can also be obtained. These photographs are strikingly similar to optical photomicrographs. Various signals measured in the EMP (X-rays, secondary electrons, backscattered electrons, etc.) are discussed, along with their resolution and the type of information they may help obtain. In addition to elemental analysis, solid state detecting and scanning techniques are reviewed. Various techniques extending the EMP instrument capabilities, such as deconvolution and soft X-ray analysis, are also described.

  15. Microprobe Analysis of Pu-Ga Standards

    DOE PAGES

    Wall, Angélique D.; Romero, Joseph P.; Schwartz, Daniel

    2017-08-04

    In order to obtain quantitative analysis using an Electron Scanning Microprobe it is essential to have a standard of known composition. Most elemental and multi-elemental standards can be easily obtained from places like Elemental Scientific or other standards organizations that are NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) traceable. It is, however, more challenging to find standards for plutonium. Past work performed in our group has typically involved using the plutonium sample to be analysed as its own standard as long as all other known components of the sample have standards to be compared to [1,2,3]. Finally, this method worksmore » well enough, but this experiment was performed in order to develop a more reliable standard for plutonium using five samples of known chemistry of a plutonium gallium mix that could then be used as the main plutonium and gallium standards for future experiments.« less

  16. Microprobe Analysis of Pu-Ga Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Angélique D.; Romero, Joseph P.; Schwartz, Daniel

    In order to obtain quantitative analysis using an Electron Scanning Microprobe it is essential to have a standard of known composition. Most elemental and multi-elemental standards can be easily obtained from places like Elemental Scientific or other standards organizations that are NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) traceable. It is, however, more challenging to find standards for plutonium. Past work performed in our group has typically involved using the plutonium sample to be analysed as its own standard as long as all other known components of the sample have standards to be compared to [1,2,3]. Finally, this method worksmore » well enough, but this experiment was performed in order to develop a more reliable standard for plutonium using five samples of known chemistry of a plutonium gallium mix that could then be used as the main plutonium and gallium standards for future experiments.« less

  17. Electron magnetic resonance investigation of gadolinium diffusion in zircon powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Biasi, R. S.; Grillo, M. L. N.

    2011-11-01

    The electron magnetic resonance (EMR) technique was used to investigate the diffusion of gadolinium in zircon (ZrSiO4) powders. The EMR absorption intensity was measured for several annealing times and three different temperatures of isothermal annealing: 1273, 1323 and 1373 K. The activation energy for diffusion, calculated from the experimental data using a theoretical model based on the Fick equation, was found to be EA=506±5 kJ mol-1. This value is close to the ones for the diffusion of Gd in UO2 and CeO2, but much larger than for the diffusion of gadolinium in a compound with the same crystal structure as zircon, YVO4. This is attributed to a difference in the relative sizes of the ions involved in the diffusion process.

  18. Detrital Zircons From the Jack Hills and Mount Narryer, Western Australia: Geochronological, Morphological, and Geochemical Evidence for Diverse >4000 Ma Source Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, J. L.; Myers, J. S.; Sylvester, P. J.; Cox, R. A.

    2004-05-01

    Detrital zircons from all major clastic units in the Jack Hills and Mount Narryer metasedimentary belts, Western Australia, were analyzed for morphology, internal zoning, inclusion mineralogy, age, and trace element concentrations (latter two obtained by laser-ablation microprobe ICPMS). The results show that zircons were derived from a wide diversity of rocks, including previously described, >4000 Ma grains that are older than any known terrestrial rocks. In three metaconglomerate samples from the western Jack Hills, 4200-3800 Ma zircons ("old grains") comprise 14% of the population, 3800-3600 Ma grains form only 2%, and 3550-3250 Ma zircons ("young grains") are dominant with a significant peak at 3380 Ma. Old and young grains are interpreted as being from similar rock types because they are indistinguishable in trace element concentrations, size (several hundred microns), morphology (subequant, typically fragmented), internal zoning (typically both oscillatory and sector), and U concentration (50-200 ppm). Many of these properties suggest an intermediate plutonic source, whereas an evolved granitic source was previously interpreted from rare-earth element and oxygen isotope data. Detrital zircons in quartzites and metaconglomerates at Mount Narryer differ significantly from zircons from the western Jack Hills. Old grains comprise only 3% (most of which are 4200-4100 Ma), 3800-3600 Ma zircons form 31%, and there are peaks at 3650, 3600, and 3500 Ma. Old and young grains have similar properties that suggest granitic sources, such as elongate prismatic morphology, oscillatory zoning, high U concentrations (100-600 ppm), and xenotime and monazite inclusions. Trace element concentrations are broadly similar to those in Jack Hills zircons, with notable exceptions being generally higher U, smaller Ce and Eu anomalies, and lower Nb/Ta. It is considered unlikely that Jack Hills zircons were derived from granitic gneisses that surround the metasedimentary belts because

  19. Trace element chemistry of zircons from oceanic crust: A method for distinguishing detrital zircon provenance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimes, Craig B.; John, Barbara E.; Kelemen, P.B.; Mazdab, F.K.; Wooden, J.L.; Cheadle, Michael J.; Hanghoj, K.; Schwartz, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present newly acquired trace element compositions for more than 300 zircon grains in 36 gabbros formed at the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic and Southwest Indian Ridges. Rare earth element patterns for zircon from modern oceanic crust completely overlap with those for zircon crystallized in continental granitoids. However, plots of U versus Yb and U/Yb versus Hf or Y discriminate zircons crystallized in oceanic crust from continental zircon, and provide a relatively robust method for distinguishing zircons from these environments. Approximately 80% of the modern ocean crust zircons are distinct from the field defined by more than 1700 continental zircons from Archean and Phanerozoic samples. These discrimination diagrams provide a new tool for fingerprinting ocean crust zircons derived from reservoirs like that of modern mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) in both modern and ancient detrital zircon populations. Hadean detrital zircons previously reported from the Acasta Gneiss, Canada, and the Narryer Gneiss terrane, Western Australia, plot in the continental granitoid field, supporting hypotheses that at least some Hadean detrital zircons crystallized in continental crust forming magmas and not from a reservoir like modern MORB. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  20. The external scanning proton microprobe of Firenze: A comprehensive description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Calusi, S.

    2007-06-01

    An external proton scanning microbeam setup is installed on the -30° line of the new 3 MV tandem accelerator in Firenze; the most relevant features of the line, such as detection setup for IBA measurements, target viewing system, beam diagnostic and transport are described here. With our facility we can work with a beam spot on sample better than 10 μm full-width half-maximum (FWHM) and an intensity of some nanoamperes. Standard beam exit windows are silicon nitride (Si 3N 4) TEM membranes, 100 nm thick and 0.5×0.5 mm 2 wide; we also successfully performed measurements using membranes 1×1 mm 2 wide, 100 nm thick, and 2×2 mm 2 wide, 200 and 500 nm thick. Exploiting the yield of Si X-rays produced by the beam in the exit window as an indirect measurement of the charge, a beam charge monitor system was implemented. The analytical capabilities of the microbeam have been extended by integrating a two-detector PIXE setup with BS and PIGE detectors; the external scanning proton microprobe in Firenze is thus a powerful instrument to fully characterize samples by ion beam analysis, through the simultaneous collection of PIXE, PIGE and BS elemental maps. Its characteristics can make it often competitive with traditional in vacuum microbeam for measurements of thick targets.

  1. Increasing the Efficiency of Electron Microprobe Measurements of Minor and Trace Elements in Rutile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, O. K.; Mattinson, C. G.; Donovan, J.; Hernández Uribe, D.; Sains, A.

    2016-12-01

    Minor and trace element contents of rutile, an accessory mineral found in numerous lithologic settings, has many applications for interpreting earth systems. While these applications vary widely, they share a need for precise and accurate elemental measurements. The electron microprobe can be used to measure rutile compositions, although long X-ray counting times are necessary to achieve acceptable precision. Continuum ("background") intensity can be estimated using the iterative Mean Atomic Number (MAN) method of Donovan and Tingle (1996), obviating the need for direct off-peak background measurements, and reducing counting times by half. For this study, several natural and synthetic rutiles were measured by electron microprobe. Data was collected once but reduced twice, using off-peak and an MAN background corrections, allowing direct comparison of the two methods without influence of other variables (counting time, analyte homogeneity, beam current, calibration standards, etc.). These measurements show that, if a "blank" correction (Donovan et al., 2011, 2016) is used, minor and trace elements of interest can be measured in rutile using the MAN background method in half the time of traditional off-peak measurements, without sacrificing accuracy or precision (Figure 1). This method has already been applied to Zr-in-rutile thermometry of ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks from the North Qaidam terrane in northwest China. Finally, secondary fluorescence of adjacent phases by continuum X-rays can lead to artificially elevated concentrations. For example, when measuring Zr, care should be taken to avoid analytical spots within 100 microns of zircon or baddeleyite crystals. References: 1) J.J. Donovan and T.N Tingle (1996) J. Microscopy, 2(1), 1-7 2) J.J. Donovan, H.A. Lowers, and B.G. Rusk (2011) Am. Mineral., 96, 274­282 3) J.J. Donovan, J.W. Singer and J.T. Armstrong (2016) Am. Mineral., 101, 1839-1853 4) G.L. Lovizotto et al. (2009) Chem. Geol., 261, 346-369

  2. Elemental Analysis of Zircon by High Mass Resolution USGS-Stanford SHRIMP-RG: Measuring and Evaluating Ti-in-zircon Temperatures and Compositional Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooden, J. L.; Mazdab, F. K.; Claiborne, L. L.; Miller, C. F.; Barth, A. P.

    2006-12-01

    fractionation rather than magmatic oxidation conditions. Zircons typically have positive Ce anomalies that rise as T falls and Hf increases. This reflects either fractionation of minerals that incorporate Ce+3 but little Ce+4, or oxidation. U and Th concentrations are typically highest in low-T zones but often show very irregular patterns with T and Hf. Molar ratios of total 3+ ions over P are mostly 1-5, suggesting charge compensation other than the xenotime substitution (Mazdab and Wooden 2006). Random analyses of zircons for T and composition are of limited use given wide variation within single zircons. Process interpretations should be based on trends observed in multiple zircons from individual samples, as many samples have characteristics distinct from general trends. Hydrothermal zircon (Hoskin 2005) is not unusual as a rim zone and may reflect a fine intergrowth of other minerals (apatite, titanite, oxides) or unusual late stage growth conditions. Ti temperatures from these zones are often unreliable, and all analyses for Ti and trace elements should include screens (i.e. F, Al, Ca, Fe) for Ti-bearing minerals and other accessories. While trace element concentrations of zircons may not be diagnostic of rock types in general, careful analyses as described above provide invaluable information about magmatic and metamorphic processes.

  3. Concordant ages for the Lava Creek Tuff from high-spatial-resolution U-Pb dating of zircon rim faces and single-crystal sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, N. E.; Vazquez, J. A.; Calvert, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    The last great explosive supereruption from the Yellowstone Plateau formed present-day Yellowstone caldera and ejected the >1000 km3 of rhyolite that composes the Lava Creek Tuff (LCT). The LCT eruption blanketed much of the western United States in ash, and consequently is a key chronostratigraphic marker bed for delimiting Quaternary uplift rates, the age of middle Pleistocene glacial and pluvial deposits, and tephra correlation in North America. Previous 40Ar/39Ar dating of the two mineralogically distinct LCT members (A & B) yield ages ranging from ca. 600 ka (Gansecki et al., 1998) to ca. 640 ka (Lanphere et al., 2002). To resolve the timing of eruption and crystallization timescale for the LCT magma, we dated both LCT members using a dual-method approach as follows: (1) ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG) U-Pb dating and trace-element characterization of the final few micrometers of zircon crystallization by analysis of unpolished rims on indium-mounted crystals, and dating of the onset of zircon crystallization by traditional analysis of sectioned crystal interiors, and (2) laser-fusion 40Ar/39Ar dating of single sanidine crystals from bulk LCT ignimbrite and pumice. The unpolished rims of zircon from LCT members A & B yield indistinguishable ages, with a mean age of 621.8 × 2.5 ka (1σ) after correction for initial 230Th disequilibrium as constrained by ion-probe analyses of LCT melt inclusions. Single sanidine crystals from LCT-B yield a mean age of 624.9 × 2.6 ka (FCT=28.17 Ma) that is indistinguishable from the zircon rim ages for both members. These results indicate that LCT members A & B erupted over a geologically brief interval, which is supported by the direct and gradational contact of their equivalent fallout in distal lacustrine deposits and a lack of field evidence for a significant time-break between the LCT A & B in proximal deposits (Christiansen, 2001), but contrasts with older Yellowstone ignimbrite (e.g., Huckleberry Ridge) that may have erupted

  4. Micron-Scale Correlations Among Ti, P, Ce, and Y in Hadean Jack Hills Zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. E.; Cavosie, A. J.; Valley, J. W.; Eiler, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    Detrital zircons and the inclusions found therein are our only mineralogical constraints on geologic events that occurred on the Hadean Earth. These zircons are commonly small (ca. <100 μm in the longest dimension) and preserve micron to sub-micron chemical zonations indicative of a dynamic petrological history. Trace elements within zircon are of particular interest because concentrations and ratios of these elements can provide information regarding chemical and physical conditions during zircon growth. In this study, we analyzed Hadean-age detrital zircons from Archean metasediment in the Jack Hills (Australia) using the Caltech Microanalysis Center Cameca NanoSIMS 50L. Trace elements analyzed included Ti, P, Ce, and Y. Ti- thermometry [1,2,3] can potentially constrain growth and/or re-equilibration temperatures of zircons; P, Ce, and Y are known to enter the zircon lattice by the coupled xenotime-type substitution mechanism: (Y, REE)3+ + P5+ = Zr4+ + Si4+ [5]. The 89Y/28Si ratio was observed to correlate with, and was used as a proxy for, cathodoluminescence (CL) banding. Growth features manifested in CL (e.g., sector, oscillatory zoning) were observed in all zircons analyzed. CL zones vary from <1 μm to several microns in width; therefore, the NanoSIMS---with a beam diameter resolved to ca. 250 nm on the sample surface when operating with an O- primary beam---is uniquely suited for this scale of analysis. Regions displaying CL banding were imaged as 20 x 20 μm areas. All elements were normalized to 28Si; 49Ti/28Si ratios were converted to [Ti] via calibration based on analyses of synthetic, high-Ti zircons (provided by B. Watson) that were independently analyzed on Caltech's JEOL JXA-8200 electron microprobe. We observe three types of relationships between trace element distribution and CL banding in the zircons imaged: 1) strong positive correlations between CL banding, P, Ce, and Ti; 2) subtle positive correlations between CL banding, P, Ce, and Ti; 3) no

  5. Wavelength dispersive analysis with the synchrotron x ray fluorescence microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, M. L.; Thorn, K. S.; Sutton, S. R.; Jones, K. W.; Bajt, S.

    1993-01-01

    A wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS) was tested on the synchrotron x ray fluorescence microprobe at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Compared to WDS spectra using an electron microprobe, the synchrotron WDS spectra have much better sensitivity and, due to the absence of bremsstrahlung radiation, lower backgrounds. The WDS spectrometer was successfully used to resolve REE L fluorescence spectra from standard glasses and transition metal K fluorescence spectra from kamacite.

  6. Detrital zircons and Earth system evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, R.

    2016-12-01

    Zircon is a mineral commonly produced in silicic magmatism. Therefore, due to its resilience and exceedingly long residence times in the continental crust, detrital zircon records can be used to track processes associated with silicic magmatism throughout Earth history. In this contribution I will address the potential role of preservational biases in zircon record, and further discuss how zircon datasets can be used to help better understand the relationship between lithospheric and Earth system evolution. I will use large compilations of zircon data to trace the composition and weatherability of the continental crust, to evaluate temporal rates of crustal recycling, and finally to track spatiotemporal variation in continental arc magmatism and volcanic CO2 outgassing throughout Earth history. These records demonstrate that secular changes in plate tectonic regimes played a prominent role in modulating conditions of the ocean+atmosphere system and long-term climate state for the last 3 billion years.

  7. Deep Space 2: The Mars Microprobe Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smrekar, Suzanne; Catling, David; Lorenz, Ralph; Magalhães, Julio; Moersch, Jeffrey; Morgan, Paul; Murray, Bruce; Presley-Holloway, Marsha; Yen, Albert; Zent, Aaron; Blaney, Diana

    The Mars Microprobe Mission will be the second of the New Millennium Program's technology development missions to planetary bodies. The mission consists of two penetrators that weigh 2.4 kg each and are being carried as a piggyback payload on the Mars Polar Lander cruise ring. The spacecraft arrive at Mars on December 3, 1999. The two identical penetrators will impact the surface at ~190 m/s and penetrate up to 0.6 m. They will land within 1 to 10 km of each other and ~50 km from the Polar Lander on the south polar layered terrain. The primary objective of the mission is to demonstrate technologies that will enable future science missions and, in particular, network science missions. A secondary goal is to acquire science data. A subsurface evolved water experiment and a thermal conductivity experiment will estimate the water content and thermal properties of the regolith. The atmospheric density, pressure, and temperature will be derived using descent deceleration data. Impact accelerometer data will be used to determine the depth of penetration, the hardness of the regolith, and the presence or absence of 10 cm scale layers.

  8. Determination of zircon/melt trace element partition coefficients from SIMS analysis of melt inclusions in zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. B.; Bodnar, R. J.; Shimizu, N.; Sinha, A. K.

    2002-09-01

    Partition coefficients ( zircon/meltD M) for rare earth elements (REE) (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Dy, Er and Yb) and other trace elements (Ba, Rb, B, Sr, Ti, Y and Nb) between zircon and melt have been calculated from secondary ion mass spectrometric (SIMS) analyses of zircon/melt inclusion pairs. The melt inclusion-mineral (MIM) technique shows that D REE increase in compatibility with increasing atomic number, similar to results of previous studies. However, D REE determined using the MIM technique are, in general, lower than previously reported values. Calculated D REE indicate that light REE with atomic numbers less than Sm are incompatible in zircon and become more incompatible with decreasing atomic number. This behavior is in contrast to most previously published results which indicate D > 1 and define a flat partitioning pattern for elements from La through Sm. The partition coefficients for the heavy REE determined using the MIM technique are lower than previously published results by factors of ≈15 to 20 but follow a similar trend. These differences are thought to reflect the effects of mineral and/or glass contaminants in samples from earlier studies which employed bulk analysis techniques. D REE determined using the MIM technique agree well with values predicted using the equations of Brice (1975), which are based on the size and elasticity of crystallographic sites. The presence of Ce 4+ in the melt results in elevated D Ce compared to neighboring REE due to the similar valence and size of Ce 4+ and Zr 4+. Predicted zircon/meltD values for Ce 4+ and Ce 3+ indicate that the Ce 4+/Ce 3+ ratios of the melt ranged from about 10 -3 to 10 -2. Partition coefficients for other trace elements determined in this study increase in compatibility in the order Ba < Rb < B < Sr < Ti < Y < Nb, with Ba, Rb, B and Sr showing incompatible behavior (D M < 1.0), and Ti, Y and Nb showing compatible behavior (D M > 1.0). The effect of partition coefficients on melt evolution during

  9. U-Pb ages and geochemistry of zircon from Proterozoic plutons of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges, Colorado, U.S.A.: Implications for crustal growth of the central Colorado province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moscati, Richard J.; Premo, Wayne R.; Dewitt, Ed; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2017-01-01

    A broad study of zircons from plutonic rocks of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges of west-central Colorado (U.S.A.) was undertaken to significantly refine the magmatic chronology and chemistry of this under-studied region of the Colorado province. This region was chosen because it lies just to the north of the suspected arc-related Gunnison-Salida volcano-plutonic terrane, which has been the subject of many recent investigations—and whose origin is still debated. Our new results provide important insights into the processes active during Proterozoic crustal evolution in this region, and they have important ramifications for broader-scope crustal evolution models for southwestern North America.Twenty-four new U-Pb ages and sequentially acquired rare-earth element (REE), U, Th, and Hf contents of zircon have been determined using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG). These zircon geochemistry data, in conjunction with whole-rock major- and trace-element data, provide important insights into zircon crystallization and melt fractionation, and they help to further constrain the tectonic environment of magma generation.Our detailed zircon and whole-rock data support the following three interpretations:(1) The Roosevelt Granite in the southern Sawatch Range was the oldest rock dated at 1,766 ± 7 Ma, and it intruded various metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Geochemistry of both whole-rock and zircon supports the contention that this granite was produced in a magmatic arc environment and, therefore, is likely an extension of the older Dubois Greenstone Belt of the Gunnison Igneous Complex (GIC) and the Needle Mountains (1,770–1,755 Ma). Rocks of the younger Cochetopa succession of the GIC, the Salida Greenstone Belt, and the Sangre de Cristo Mountains (1,740–1,725 Ma) were not found in the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges. This observation strongly suggests that the northern edge of the Gunnison-Salida arc terrane underlies the

  10. Refractory Materials of Zirconate. Part 2: Synthesis and some properties of strontium, zirconate, calcium zirconate and barium zirconate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okubo, Tsutomo; Yonemochi, Osamu; Nakamura, Kazuo; Maeda, Minoru

    1988-01-01

    Chemical compounds SrZrO3, CaZrO3, and BaZrO3 were synthesized by solid reaction and arc fusion, and their properties examined. Results were as follows: (1) in the synthesis of CaZrO3 by solid reaction, ZrO2 solid solution with cubic form was produced, which then changed into CaZrO3; (2) the BaZrO3 was a cubic form and did not show any transformation, while SrZrO3 and CaZrO3 with an orthorhombic form transformed to a cubic form at high temperature; and (3) the solubility of BaZrO3 in acid and its vaporization rate at a high temperature were greater than those of zirconates.

  11. Electron multiplier-ion detector system

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, L.A.

    1975-08-01

    This patent relates to an improved ion detector for use in mass spectrometers for pulse counting signal ions which may have a positive or a negative charge. The invention combines a novel electron multiplier with a scintillator type of ion detector. It is a high vacuum, high voltage device intended for use in ion microprobe mass spectrometers. (auth)

  12. Provenance of Carboniferous sedimentary rocks in the northern margin of Dabie Mountains, central China and the tectonic significance: constraints from trace elements, mineral chemistry and SHRIMP dating of zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Renwei; Li, Shuangying; Jin, Fuquan; Wan, Yusheng; Zhang, Shukun

    2004-04-01

    A suite of slightly metamorphosed Carboniferous sedimentary strata occurs in the northern margin of the Dabie Mountains, central China. It consists, in ascending order, of the upper Huayuanqiang Formation (C 1), the Yangshan Formation (C 1), the Daorenchong Formation (C 1-2), the most widely distributed Huyoufang Formation (C 2) and the Yangxiaozhuang Formation (C 2). The provenance of the Carboniferous sedimentary rocks is constrained by the integration of trace elements, detrital mineral chemistry and sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) dating of detrital zircons, which can help to understand the connection between the provenance and the Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Qinling-Dabie Orogen. The trace element compositions indicate that the source terrain was probably a continental island arc. Detrital tourmalines were mainly derived from aluminous and Al-poor metapelites and metapsammites, and some are sourced from Li-poor granitoids, pegmatites and aplites. Detrital garnets, found only in the uppermost Huyoufang Formation, are almandine and Mn-almandine garnets, indicating probable sources mainly from garnetiferous schists, and partly from granitoid rocks. The detrital white K-micas are muscovitic in the Huayuanqiang, Daorenchong and Huyoufang Formations, and phengitic with Si contents (p.f.u.) from 3.20 up to max. 3.47-3.53 in the uppermost Huyoufang and the Yangxiaozhuang Formations, a meta-sedimentary source. Major components in the detrital zircon age structure for the Huyoufang Formation range from 506 to 363 Ma, centering on ˜400 and ˜480 Ma, which is characteristic of the Qinling and Erlangping Groups in the Qinling and Tongbai Mountains, central China. Evidently, the major source of the Carboniferous sedimentary rocks in the northern margin of Dabie Mountains was from the southern margin of the Sino-Korean Craton represented by the Qinling and Erlangping Groups. The source area was an island-arc system during the Early Paleozoic that

  13. Observations and controls on the occurrence of inherited zircon in Concord-type granitoids, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, T.M.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Compston, W.

    1987-01-01

    U-Pb analyses of zircons separated from two Concord-type plutons near Sunapee and Dixville Notch, New Hampshire, reveal differences in the pattern and magnitude of zircon inheritance which are related to differences in melt chemistry. The Sunapee pluton contains only slightly more Zr than required to saturate the melt at the peak temperature of 700 ?? 30??C. Traces of inherited zircon in this separate are inferred to be present as small, largely resorbed grains. In contrast, the Long Mountain pluton, near Dixville Notch, contains about 240% more Zr than required to saturate the melt. Thus, more than half of the Zr existed as stable, inherited zircon crystals during the partial fusion event, consistent with the observation of substantial inheritance in all grain size fractions. Ion probe intra-grain analyses of zircon from the Long Mountain pluton indicate a complex pattern of inheritance with contributions from at least two Proterozoic terrenes and caution against simple interpretations of upper and lower intercepts of chords containing an inherited component. Ion probe analyses of zircons from the Sunapee pluton reveal clear evidence of U loss which results in incorrect apparent conventional U-Pb ages. Ages of crystallization for the Long Mountain and Sunapee pluton are ~350 and 354 ?? 5 Ma, respectively. A Sm/Nd measurement for the Long Mountain pluton yields a depleted mantle model age of 1.5 Ga, consistent with the observed inheritance pattern. In contrast, a Sm/Nd model age for the Sunapee pluton is improbably old due to minor monazite fractionation. ?? 1987.

  14. Applying the Ce-in-zircon oxygen geobarometer to diverse silicic magmatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claiborne, L. L.; Miller, C. F.

    2012-12-01

    Zircon provides information on age, temperature, and composition of the magma from which it grew. In systems such as Mount St. Helens, where zircon is not coeval with the rest of the crystal cargo, it provides the only accessible record of the extended history of the magmatic system, including cycles of intrusion, crystallization and rejuvenation beneath an active volcano (Claiborne et al., 2010). The rare earth elements, which are present in measureable quantities in zircon, provide information about the composition of the magma from which zircon grew. Unique among the generally trivalent rare earth elements, cerium can exist as either trivalent or tetravalent, depending on the oxidation state of the magma. The tetravalent ion is highly compatible in zircon, in the site that usually hosts tetravalent zirconium, and so the amount of Cerium in zircon relative (relative to what would be expected of trivalent Ce) depends the oxidation state of the magma from which it grew. Trail et al. (2011) proposed a calibration based on experimental data that uses the Ce anomaly in zircon as a direct proxy for magma oxidation (fugacity), describing the relationship between Ce in zircon and magma oxygen fugacity as ln(Ce/Ce*)D = (0.1156±0.0050)xln(fO2)+(13860±708)/T-(6.125±0.484). For systems like Mount St. Helens, where the major minerals record only events in the hundreds to thousands of years leading to eruption, (including the Fe-Ti oxides traditionally relied upon for records of oxidation state of the magmas), this presents a novel approach for understanding more extended histories of oxidation of magmas in the tens and hundreds of thousands of years of magmatism at a volcanic center. This calibration also promises to help us better constrain conditions of crystallization in intrusive portions of volcanic systems, as well as plutonic bodes. We apply this new oxygen geobarometer to natural volcanic and plutonic zircons from a variety of tectonic settings, and compare to

  15. U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Paleoproterozoic Tagragra de Tata inlier and its Neoproterozoic cover, western Anti-Atlas, Morocco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, G.J.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Benziane, F.; Yazidi, A.; Armstrong, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    New U-Pb zircon data obtained by sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) from the Tagragra de Tata inlier in the western Anti-Atlas, Morocco establish Paleoproterozoic ages for the basement schists, granites, and metadolerites, and a Neoproterozoic age for an ignimbrite of the Ouarzazate Series in the cover sequence. The age of interbedded felsic metatuff in the metasedimentary and metavolcanic sequence of the basement schists is 2072 ?? 8 Ma. This date represents: (1) the first reliable age from the metasedimentary and metavolcanic sequence; (2) the oldest reliable age for the basement of the Anti-Atlas; (3) the first date on the timing of deposition of the sediments on the northern edge of the Paleoproterozoic West African craton; (4) a lower age limit on deformation during the Eburnean orogeny; and (5) the first date obtained from the non-granitic Paleoproterozoic basement of Morocco. Ages of 2046 ?? 7 Ma (Targant granite) and 2041 ?? 6 Ma (Oudad granite) support earlier interpretations of a Paleoproterozoic Eburnean igneous event in the Anti-Atlas. The granites post-date the Eburnean D1 deformation event in the Paleoproterozoic schist sequence, and place a ???2046 Ma limit on short-lived Eburnean deformation in the area. Cross-cutting metadolerite is 2040 ?? 6 Ma; this is the first date from a metadolerite in the western Anti-Atlas. All of the dolerites in the area post-date emplacement of the two granites and the new age constrains the onset of late- or post-Eburnean extension. Ignimbrite of the Ouarzazate Series, immediately above the Paleoproterozoic basement is 565 ?? 7 Ma. This Neoproterozoic age agrees with ages of similar volcanic rocks elsewhere from the Ouarzazate Series. The date also agrees with the ages of associated hypabyssal intrusions, and marks the second and final stage of Pan-African orogenic activity in the western Anti-Atlas. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Laser-excited fluorescence of rare earth elements in fluorite: Initial observations with a laser Raman microprobe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burruss, R.C.; Ging, T.G.; Eppinger, R.G.; Samson, a.M.

    1992-01-01

    Fluorescence emission spectra of three samples of fluorite containing 226-867 ppm total rare earth elements (REE) were excited by visible and ultraviolet wavelength lines of an argon ion laser and recorded with a Raman microprobe spectrometer system. Narrow emission lines ( 0.9 for Eu2+ and 0.99 for Er3+. Detection limits for three micrometer spots are about 0.01 ppm Eu2+ and 0.07 ppm Er3+. These limits are less than chondrite abundance for Eu and Er, demonstrating the potential microprobe analytical applications of laser-excited fluorescence of REE in fluorite. However, application of this technique to common rock-forming minerals may be hampered by competition between fluorescence emission and radiationless energy transfer processes involving lattice phonons. ?? 1992.

  17. Radiation-induced disorder in compressed lanthanide zirconates.

    PubMed

    Park, Sulgiye; Tracy, Cameron L; Zhang, Fuxiang; Park, Changyong; Trautmann, Christina; Tkachev, Sergey N; Lang, Maik; Mao, Wendy L; Ewing, Rodney C

    2018-02-28

    The effects of swift heavy ion irradiation-induced disordering on the behavior of lanthanide zirconate compounds (Ln 2 Zr 2 O 7 where Ln = Sm, Er, or Nd) at high pressures are investigated. After irradiation with 2.2 GeV 197 Au ions, the initial ordered pyrochlore structure (Fd3[combining macron]m) transformed to a defect-fluorite structure (Fm3[combining macron]m) in Sm 2 Zr 2 O 7 and Nd 2 Zr 2 O 7 . For irradiated Er 2 Zr 2 O 7 , which has a defect-fluorite structure, ion irradiation induces local disordering by introducing Frenkel defects despite retention of the initial structure. When subjected to high pressures (>29 GPa) in the absence of irradiation, all of these compounds transform to a cotunnite-like (Pnma) phase, followed by sluggish amorphization with further compression. However, if these compounds are irradiated prior to compression, the high pressure cotunnite-like phase is not formed. Rather, they transform directly from their post-irradiation defect-fluorite structure to an amorphous structure upon compression (>25 GPa). Defects and disordering induced by swift heavy ion irradiation alter the transformation pathways by raising the energetic barriers for the transformation to the high pressure cotunnite-like phase, rendering it inaccessible. As a result, the high pressure stability field of the amorphous phase is expanded to lower pressures when irradiation is coupled with compression. The responses of materials in the lanthanide zirconate system to irradiation and compression, both individually and in tandem, are strongly influenced by the specific lanthanide composition, which governs the defect energetics at extreme conditions.

  18. Tracking magmatic processes through Zr/Hf ratios in rocks and Hf and Ti zoning in zircons: An example from the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowery, Claiborne L.E.; Miller, C.F.; Walker, B.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Bea, F.

    2006-01-01

    Zirconium and Hf are nearly identical geochemically, and therefore most of the crust maintains near-chondritic Zr/Hf ratios of ???35-40. By contrast, many high-silica rhyolites and granites have anomalously low Zr/Hf (15-30). As zircon is the primary reservoir for both Zr and Hf and preferentially incorporates Zr, crystallization of zircon controls Zr/ Hf, imprinting low Zr/Hf on coexisting melt. Thus, low Zr/Hf is a unique fingerprint of effective magmatic fractionation in the crust. Age and compositional zonation in zircons themselves provide a record of the thermal and compositional histories of magmatic systems. High Hf (low Zr/ Hf) in zircon zones demonstrates growth from fractionated melt, and Ti provides an estimate of temperature of crystallization (TTiZ) (Watson and Harrison, 2005). Whole-rock Zr/Hf and zircon zonation in the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada, document repeated fractionation and thermal fluctuations. Ratios of Zr/Hf are ???30-40 for cumulates and 18-30 for high-SiO2 granites. In zircons, Hf (and U) are inversely correlated with Ti, and concentrations indicate large fluctuations in melt composition and TTiZ (>100??C) for individual zircons. Such variations are consistent with field relations and ion-probe zircon geochronology that indicate a >1 million year history of repeated replenishment, fractionation, and extraction of melt from crystal mush to form the low Zr/Hf high-SiO2 zone. ?? 2006 The Mineralogical Society.

  19. An SU-8-based microprobe with a nanostructured surface enhances neuronal cell attachment and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Jin-Young; Choi, Hongsoo

    2017-12-01

    Microprobes are used to repair neuronal injury by recording electrical signals from neuronal cells around the surface of the device. Following implantation into the brain, the immune response results in formation of scar tissue around the microprobe. However, neurons must be in close proximity to the microprobe to enable signal recording. A common reason for failure of microprobes is impaired signal recording due to scar tissue, which is not related to the microprobe itself. Therefore, the device-cell interface must be improved to increase the number of neurons in contact with the surface. In this study, we developed nanostructured SU-8 microprobes to support neuronal growth. Nanostructures of 200 nm diameter and depth were applied to the surface of microprobes, and the attachment and neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells on the microprobes were evaluated. Neuronal attachment and neurite outgrowth on the nanostructured microprobes were significantly greater than those on non-nanostructured microprobes. The enhanced neuronal attachment and neurite outgrowth on the nanostructured microprobes occurred in the absence of an adhesive coating, such as poly- l-lysine, and so may be useful for implantable devices for long-term use. Therefore, nanostructured microprobes can be implanted without adhesive coating, which can cause problems in vivo over the long term.

  20. A thermal microprobe fabricated with wafer-stage processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongxia; Zhang, Yanwei; Blaser, Juliana; Sriram, T. S.; Enver, Ahsan; Marcus, R. B.

    1998-05-01

    A thermal microprobe has been designed and built for high resolution temperature sensing. The thermal sensor is a thin-film thermocouple junction at the tip of an atomic force microprobe (AFM) silicon probe needle. Only wafer-stage processing steps are used for the fabrication. For high resolution temperature sensing it is essential that the junction be confined to a short distance at the AFM tip. This confinement is achieved by a controlled photoresist coating process. Experiment prototypes have been made with an Au/Pd junction confined to within 0.5 μm of the tip, with the two metals separated elsewhere by a thin insulating oxide layer. Processing begins with double-polished, n-type, 4 in. diameter, 300-μm-thick silicon wafers. Atomically sharp probe tips are formed by a combination of dry and wet chemical etching, and oxidation sharpening. The metal layers are sputtering deposited and the cantilevers are released by a combination of KOH and dry etching. A resistively heated calibration device was made for temperature calibration of the thermal microprobe over the temperature range 25-110 °C. Over this range the thermal outputs of two microprobes are 4.5 and 5.6 μV/K and is linear. Thermal and topographical images are also obtained from a heated tungsten thin film fuse.

  1. Detrital Zircons Split Sibumasu in East Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Chung, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely accepted that Sibumasu developed as a united terrane and originated from NW Australian margin in East Gondwana. Here we report new detrital zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data from Sumatra that, in combination with literature data, challenge and refute the above long-held view. In particular, the East and West Sumatra terranes share nearly identical Precambrian to Paleozoic detrital zircon age distributions and Hf isotopes, indicating a common provenance/origin for them. The Sumatra detrital zircons exhibit a prominent population of ca. 1170-1070 Ma, indistinguishable from those of the Lhasa and West Burma terranes, with detritus most probably sourcing from western Australia. By contrast, Sibuma (Sibumasu excluding Sumatra) detrital zircons display a prevailing population of ca. 980-935 Ma, strongly resembling those of the western Qiangtang terrane, with detrital materials most likely derived from Greater India and Himalayas. Such markedly distinct detrital zircon age profiles between Sumatra and Sibuma require disparate sources/origin for them, provoking disintegration of the widely-adopted, but outdated, term Sibumasu and thus inviting a new configuration of East Gondwana in the early Paleozoic, with Sumatra and West Burma lying outboard the Lhasa terrane in the NW Australian margin and Sibuma situated in the northern Greater Indian margin. More future investigations are needed to establish the precise rifting and drifting histories of Sumatra and Sibuma, as two separated terranes, during the breakup of Gondwana.

  2. Constraints on the timing of multiple thermal events and re-equilibration recorded by high-U zircon and xenotime: Case study of pegmatite from Piława Górna (Góry Sowie Block, SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzyń, Bartosz; Sláma, Jiří; Kozub-Budzyń, Gabriela A.; Konečný, Patrik; Holický, Ivan; Rzepa, Grzegorz; Jastrzębski, Mirosław

    2018-06-01

    The application of zircon and xenotime geochronometers requires knowledge of their potential and limitations related to possible disturbance of the age record. The alteration of the intergrown zircon and xenotime in pegmatite from the Góry Sowie Block (SW Poland) was studied using the electron microprobe analysis, X-ray WDS compositional mapping, micro-Raman analysis, and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircon and xenotime, as well as the U-Th-total Pb dating of uraninite. These microanalytical techniques were applied to understand the formation mechanisms of the secondary textures related to post-magmatic processes in the zircon and xenotime intergrowth, and to constrain their timing. Textural and compositional features combined with U-Pb data indicate that the pegmatite-related crystallization of the zircon and xenotime intergrowth occurred ca. 2.09 Ga (2086 ± 35 Ma for zircon and 2093 ± 52 Ma for xenotime), followed by the re-equilibration of zircon and xenotime ca. 370 Ma (373 ± 18 Ma and 368 ± 6 Ma, respectively) during the formation of the younger pegmatite. The zircon and xenotime were most likely derived from Precambrian basement rocks and emplaced in the pegmatite as a restite. The zircon preserved textures related to diffusion-reaction processes that affected its high-U core (up to ca. 9.6 wt% UO2), which underwent further metamictization and amorphization due to self-radiation damage. The zircon rim and xenotime were affected by coupled dissolution-reprecipitation processes that resulted in patchy zoning, age disturbance and sponge-like textures. Xenotime was also partially replaced by fluorapatite or hingganite-(Y) and Y-enriched allanite-(Ce). The termination of the low-temperature alteration was constrained by the U-Th-total Pb age of the uraninite inclusions that crystallized in zircon at 281 ± 2 Ma, which is consistent with the age of 278 ± 15 Ma obtained from the youngest cluster of U-Pb ages in the re-equilibrated high-U zircon domains. This study

  3. Fission track dating of kimberlitic zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, Stephen E.; Raber, Ellen; Naeser, Charles W.

    1983-04-01

    The only reliable method for dating kimberlites at present is the lengthy and specialized hydrothermal procedure that extracts 206Pb and 238U from low-uranium zircons. This paper describes a second successful method by fission track dating of large single-crystal zircons, 1.0-1.5 cm in dimension. The use of large crystals overcomes the limitations imposed in conventional fission track analysis which utilizes crushed fragments. Low track densities, optical track dispersion, and the random orientation of polished surfaces in the etch and irradiation cycle are effectively overcome. Fission track ages of zircons from five African kimberlites are reported, from the Kimberley Pool (90.3 ± 6.5 m.y.), Orapa (87.4 ± 5.7 and 92.4 ± 6.1 m.y.), Nzega (51.1 ± 3.8 m.y.), Koffiefontein (90.0 ± 8.2 m.y.), and Val do Queve (133.4 ± 11.5 m.y.). In addition we report the first radiometric ages (707.9 ± 59.6 and 705.5 ± 61.0 m.y.) of crustal zircons from kimberlites in northwest Liberia. The fission track ages agree well with earlier age estimates. Most of the zircons examined in this study are zoned with respect to uranium but linear correlations are established (by regression analysis) between zones of variable uranium content, and within zones of constant uranium content (by analysis of variance). Concordance between the fission track method and the U/Pb technique is established and we concluded that track fading from thermal annealing has not taken place. Kimberlitic zircons dated in this study, therefore, record the time of eruption.

  4. Fission track dating of kimberlitic zircons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haggerty, S.E.; Raber, E.; Naeser, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The only reliable method for dating kimberlites at present is the lengthy and specialized hydrothermal procedure that extracts 206Pb and 238U from low-uranium zircons. This paper describes a second successful method by fission track dating of large single-crystal zircons, 1.0-1.5 cm in dimension. The use of large crystals overcomes the limitations imposed in conventional fission track analysis which utilizes crushed fragments. Low track densities, optical track dispersion, and the random orientation of polished surfaces in the etch and irradiation cycle are effectively overcome. Fission track ages of zircons from five African kimberlites are reported, from the Kimberley Pool (90.3 ?? 6.5 m.y.), Orapa (87.4 ?? 5.7 and 92.4 ?? 6.1 m.y.), Nzega (51.1 ?? 3.8 m.y.), Koffiefontein (90.0 ?? 8.2 m.y.), and Val do Queve (133.4 ?? 11.5 m.y.). In addition we report the first radiometric ages (707.9 ?? 59.6 and 705.5 ?? 61.0 m.y.) of crustal zircons from kimberlites in northwest Liberia. The fission track ages agree well with earlier age estimates. Most of the zircons examined in this study are zoned with respect to uranium but linear correlations are established (by regression analysis) between zones of variable uranium content, and within zones of constant uranium content (by analysis of variance). Concordance between the fission track method and the U/Pb technique is established and we concluded that track fading from thermal annealing has not taken place. Kimberlitic zircons dated in this study, therefore, record the time of eruption. ?? 1983.

  5. Decoding a protracted zircon geochronological record in ultrahigh temperature granulite, and persistence of partial melting in the crust, Rogaland, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Antonin T.; Bingen, Bernard; Duchene, Stephanie; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-magali; Bosse, Valerie

    2018-04-01

    This contribution evaluates the relation between protracted zircon geochronological signal and protracted crustal melting in the course of polyphase high to ultrahigh temperature (UHT; T > 900 °C) granulite facies metamorphism. New U-Pb, oxygen isotope, trace element, ion imaging and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging data in zircon are reported from five samples from Rogaland, South Norway. The data reveal that the spread of apparent age captured by zircon, between 1040 and 930 Ma, results both from open-system growth and closed-system post-crystallization disturbance. Post-crystallization disturbance is evidenced by inverse age zoning induced by solid-state recrystallization of metamict cores that received an alpha dose above 35 × 1017 α g-1. Zircon neocrystallization is documented by CL-dark domains displaying O isotope open-system behaviour. In UHT samples, O isotopic ratios are homogenous (δ18O = 8.91 ± 0.08‰), pointing to high-temperature diffusion. Scanning ion imaging of these CL-dark domains did not reveal unsupported radiogenic Pb. The continuous geochronological signal retrieved from the CL-dark zircon in UHT samples is similar to that of monazite for the two recognized metamorphic phases (M1: 1040-990 Ma; M2: 940-930 Ma). A specific zircon-forming event is identified in the orthopyroxene and UHT zone with a probability peak at ca. 975 Ma, lasting until ca. 955 Ma. Coupling U-Pb geochronology and Ti-in-zircon thermometry provides firm evidence of protracted melting lasting up to 110 My (1040-930 Ma) in the UHT zone, 85 My (ca. 1040-955 Ma) in the orthopyroxene zone and some 40 My (ca. 1040-1000 Ma) in the regional basement. These results demonstrate the persistence of melt over long timescales in the crust, punctuated by two UHT incursions.

  6. Extinct 244Pu in ancient zircons.

    PubMed

    Turner, Grenville; Harrison, T Mark; Holland, Greg; Mojzsis, Stephen J; Gilmour, Jamie

    2004-10-01

    We have found evidence, in the form of fissiogenic xenon isotopes, for in situ decay of 244Pu in individual 4.1- to 4.2-billion-year-old zircons from the Jack Hills region of Western Australia. Because of its short half-life, 82 million years, 244Pu was extinct within 600 million years of Earth's formation. Detrital zircons are the only known relics to have survived from this period, and a study of their Pu geochemistry will allow us to date ancient metamorphic events and determine the terrestrial Pu/U ratio for comparison with the solar ratio.

  7. Long-Term (4 mo) Oxygen Isotope Exchange Experiment between Zircon and Hydrothermal Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Schmitt, A. K.; Lundstrom, C.; Golledge, S.

    2013-12-01

    Knowing oxygen diffusivity in zircon has several critical applications: 1) establishing zircon stability and solubility in hot silica-saturated hydrothermal solutions; 2) deriving metamorphic and magmatic heating timescales from intra-crystal oxygen isotopic gradients; 3) assessing the survivability of oxygen isotopic signatures in Hadean zircons. We report results of a microanalytical investigation of an isotope exchange experiment using a cold-seal pressure apparatus at 850°C and 500 MPa over 4 months duration. Natural zircon, quartz and rutile were sealed with a silica-rich solution doped with 18-O, D, 7-Li and 10-B in a gold capsule. The diffusion length-scales were examined by depth profiling using time-of-flight (TOF) and high-sensitivity dynamic secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). Starting materials had distinct and homogeneous δ18O: zircon from Mesa Falls tuff of Yellowstone (+3.6‰), rutile from Karelia (-29‰), Bishop Tuff Quartz (+8.4‰), and δ18O doped water (+400‰). Starting material zircon showed invariant 18O/16O during depth profiling. After the 4 month experiment, rutile crystal surfaces displayed etching (100's of nm), while zircon exteriors lacked visible change. Quartz was completely dissolved and reprecipitated in a minor residue. Rutile developed ~2 μm long Fickian diffusion profiles largely consistent with the wet diffusion coefficients for rutile previously reported [1]. Surface U-Pb dating of zircon detected no significant Pb loss from the outermost ~300 nm of the crystal face and returned identical core-face ages. We performed δ18O depth profiling of zircon in two directions. First, forward profiles (crystal rim inwards) by dynamic SIMS (no surface treatment besides Au-coating; Cs+ beam of 20 kV impact energy) showed initially high and decreasing 18O/16O over ~130 nm; TOF-SIMS forward profiles using a 2 kV Cs+ sputter beam and 25 kV Bi3+ primary ions on uncoated zircon surfaces (cleaned for 2 min with HF) yielded

  8. X-ray microprobe of orbital alignment in strong-field ionized atoms.

    PubMed

    Young, L; Arms, D A; Dufresne, E M; Dunford, R W; Ederer, D L; Höhr, C; Kanter, E P; Krässig, B; Landahl, E C; Peterson, E R; Rudati, J; Santra, R; Southworth, S H

    2006-08-25

    We have developed a synchrotron-based, time-resolved x-ray microprobe to investigate optical strong-field processes at intermediate intensities (10(14) - 10(15) W/cm2). This quantum-state specific probe has enabled the direct observation of orbital alignment in the residual ion produced by strong-field ionization of krypton atoms via resonant, polarized x-ray absorption. We found strong alignment to persist for a period long compared to the spin-orbit coupling time scale (6.2 fs). The observed degree of alignment can be explained by models that incorporate spin-orbit coupling. The methodology is applicable to a wide range of problems.

  9. Anisotropic magnetic susceptibility of erbium and ytterbium in zircon, ZrSiO4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.N.; Briggs, Charles; Tsang, T.; Senftle, F.; Alexander, Corrine

    1977-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made for both Er- and Yb-doped (1̃03ppm) zircon single crystals with the magnetic field perpendicular and parallel to the [001] axis. Large susceptibility anisotropies were found in both cases. Our observed anisotropies of ZrSiO4: Yb indicate small populations (1̃9%) of Yb ions at the axial (tetragonal) sites, as the susceptibility of ZrSiO4: Yb would be nearly isotropic if the Yb ions only occupied the orthorhombic sites. For Er3+ in orthorhombic sites of zircon, our data indicate that the first excited state is paramagnetic with gx = 9 and gy 5̃ at 20 cm-1 above the ground state (gx 0̃, gy 1̃5). The first excited state is quite similar to the ground states observed for Er3+ in many host lattices. ?? 1977.

  10. Installation and performance of the Budapest Hamburg proton microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, I.; Kocsonya, A.; Kostka, P.; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Schrang, K.; Krüger, A.; Niecke, M.

    2005-04-01

    A new scanning proton microprobe has been installed at the 5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of the KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics. It is the energy-upgraded version of the Hamburg proton microprobe dismantled in 2001. The probe forming system includes a pair of focusing quadrupoles and an additional quadrupole pair in front of it, which is applied to increase the proton beam divergence. The average probe size at 2.5 MeV proton energy is 2.2 μm × 1.1 μm. The test results on stability and the preliminary experiments on cement corrosion and fish otoliths are also presented.

  11. A Two-Dimensional Multielectrode Microprobe for the Visual Cortex.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    used in studies of the auditory nerve (Ref 5t494-500) and studies of cortical electrical activity during seizures (Ref 6s414). Since silicon is the...Master of Science by 7> Joseph A. Tatman 2Lt USAF Graduate Electrical Engineering December 1979 Approved for public releases distribution unlimited s...designed around this microprobe to detect- the cortico- electrical C , signas, multiplex and modulate these data, and then transmit them across the

  12. Raman microprobe analysis of single ramie fiber during mercerization

    Treesearch

    Akira Isogai; Umesh P. Agarwal; Rajai H. Atalla

    2003-01-01

    The Raman microprobe technique was applied to structural analysis of single ramie fibers during mercerization. Polarized laser beam was irradiated on a ramie fiber in 0-30 % NaOD/D2O with the electric vector at 0 or 90° to the fiber axis, and Raman spectra thus obtained were studied in relation to the concentration of NaOD in D2O. Conversion of -OH to -OD in ramie...

  13. Microprobe monazite geochronology: new techniques for dating deformation and metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M.; Jercinovic, M.; Goncalves, P.; Mahan, K.

    2003-04-01

    High-resolution compositional mapping, age mapping, and precise dating of monazite on the electron microprobe are powerful additions to microstructural and petrologic analysis and important tools for tectonic studies. The in-situ nature and high spatial resolution of the technique offer an entirely new level of structurally and texturally specific geochronologic data that can be used to put absolute time constraints on P-T-D paths, constrain the rates of sedimentary, metamorphic, and deformational processes, and provide new links between metamorphism and deformation. New analytical techniques (including background modeling, sample preparation, and interference analysis) have significantly improved the precision and accuracy of the technique and new mapping and image analysis techniques have increased the efficiency and strengthened the correlation with fabrics and textures. Microprobe geochronology is particularly applicable to three persistent microstructural-microtextural problem areas: (1) constraining the chronology of metamorphic assemblages; (2) constraining the timing of deformational fabrics; and (3) interpreting other geochronological results. In addition, authigenic monazite can be used to date sedimentary basins, and detrital monazite can fingerprint sedimentary source areas, both critical for tectonic analysis. Although some monazite generations can be directly tied to metamorphism or deformation, at present, the most common constraints rely on monazite inclusion relations in porphyroblasts that, in turn, can be tied to the deformation and/or metamorphic history. Examples will be presented from deep-crustal rocks of northern Saskatchewan and from mid-crustal rocks from the southwestern USA. Microprobe monazite geochronology has been used in both regions to deconvolute overprinting deformation and metamorphic events and to clarify the interpretation of other geochronologic data. Microprobe mapping and dating are powerful companions to mass spectroscopic

  14. Sulfur in zircons: A new window into melt chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H.; Bell, E. A.; Boehnke, P.; Barboni, M.; Harrison, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    The abundance and isotopic composition of sulfur are important tools for exploring the photochemistry of the atmosphere, the thermal history of mantle and igneous rocks, and ancient metabolic processes on the early Earth. Because the oldest terrestrial samples are zircons, we developed a new in-situ procedure to analyze the sulfur content of zircons using the CAMECA ims 1290 at UCLA. We analyzed zircons from three metaluminous/I-type granites (reduced and oxidized Peninsular range and Elba), which exhibit low sulfur abundance with the average of 0.5ppm, and one peraluminous/S-type zircon (Strathbogie Range), which shows an elevated sulfur level with the average of 1.5ppm. Additionally, we found that sulfur content ranges between 0.4 and 2.3 ppm in young volcanic zircons (St. Lucia). Our analyses of zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, whose ages range between 3.4 and 4.1 Ga, show a variety of sulfur contents. Three out of the ten zircons are consistent with the sulfur contents of S-type zircons; the rest have low sulfur contents, which are similar to those of I-type zircons. The high sulfur content in some of these Jack Hills zircons can be interpreted as indicating their origin in either a S-type granite or a volcanic reservoir. We favor the former interpretation since the Ti-in-zircon temperatures of our Jack Hills zircons is lower than those of volcanic zircons. Future work will be undertaken to develop a systematic understanding of the relationship between melt volatile content, melt chemistry, and zircon sulfur content.

  15. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy losses in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-28

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. We found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a friction term results in reducedmore » damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.« less

  16. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    DOE PAGES

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-29

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. As a result, we found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a frictionmore » term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.« less

  17. Equilibrium and Disequilibrium of 230Th-238U in Zircon from the Minoan Eruption, Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, A. K.; Stockli, D. F.; Song, E. J.; Storm, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Minoan eruption (ca. 1600 BCE; 40-80 km3 dense rock equivalent) occurred after a ca. 18 ka period of dormancy followed by rapid reinvigoration through arrival of new magma from deep reservoirs colliding with evolved magmas in shallow storage. Although zoned phenocrysts indicate brief timescales ranging between years to decades for final pre-eruptive magma recharge and mixing, it remains unclear how magma accumulation vs. crystallization were balanced in the subvolcanic reservoir during the preceding inter-eruptive cycle. To directly probe magma presence over the repose interval prior to the Minoan eruption and further back in time, we reconnoitered the potential of U-Th zircon geochronology to date the crystallization of individual zircon crystals from pumice from the Minoan eruption. Zircon crystals were extracted from composite pumice samples (several kg each) from basal fall out deposits using gravity and magnetic separation. Etching in cold HF removed adherent glass and revealed the shape of crystals, which were pressed into indium metal to expose unpolished rims to the ion beam of a CAMECA IMS 1270 secondary ionization mass spectrometer. Adherent glass was ubiquitous, indicating that crystals were in contact with melt at the time of eruption. Six of 18 crystals were in 230Th/238U secular equilibrium, two crystals yielded ages of ca. 160 ka, and the remaining rims dated between eruption age and ca. 20 ka. Low Th/U of some secular equilibrium zircon suggests recycling of metamorphic basement zircon, which is also indicated by the presence of rutile in heavy mineral separates. U-Th dates also reveal recycling of zircon from Pleistocene intrusions that likely represent left-over magma from antecedent eruption cycles. We tentatively interpret the dominant zircon population with near-eruption to ca. 20 ka ages to indicate continuous melt presence underneath Santorini during the last repose interval. Distinguishing a hiatus in zircon crystallization between 20 ka

  18. Crustal Zircons from the Podiform Chromitites in Luobusa Ophiolite, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Komiya, T.; Maruyama, S.

    2004-12-01

    For the past decade, diamonds and unusual mineral asemblages were reported in podiform chromitites of the Luobusa ophiolite, southern Tibet, China (Bai 1993, Bai 2000, Yan 2001) by heavy mineral separation. These include (1) native elements, (2) alloys, (3) carbide, (4) platinium group elements (PGE) and arsenides, (5) silicates (6) oxide, (7) carbonates, (8) minerals with unusual compositons. Despite many questions as to these minerals above still remain open, these mineral inclusions would provide us the important infomation on the formation of the podiform chromitites. In this study, over 100 zircons were discovered by heavy mineral separation of podiform chromitite in Luobusa ophiolite. The discovery of accessory zircons in chromitites allowed us to date the formation of the chromitite and history of tectonic evolutions. Here we report the U-Pb age and mineral inclusions of zircons and discuss with unusually old age zircons. 20 zircon grains in chromitites from No. 1 site were analyzed. Zircons from the chromitites in Luobusa ophiolite are usually euhedral-subhedral and some are rounded. Cathodoluminescence images of these zircons indicate that some zircons have clear oscillatory zoning, whereas other zircons show apparent homogeneous overgrowth. U-Pb dating of these zircons by LA-ICP-MS yielded two different ages. One group has relatively younger age, 107-534Ma, which plots nearly on a concordia line. Another group has older age 1460-1822Ma, which plots off the concordia line. There is insignificant difference of apparent ages within a single zircon grain. For example, a zircon has 1650 Ma in the core, whereas does 1654 Ma in the rim. We identified several mineral inclusions, quartz, feldspar, mica, apatite, within both yonger and older zircons using laser-Raman spectrometry and EPMA. No high-pressure minerals or mantle minerals were identified. This means that these unusually old zircons were formed in low-pressure crustal emvironment. Where did the zircons

  19. In situ location and U-Pb dating of small zircon grains in igneous rocks using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Patrick J.; Berry, Ron F.; Meffre, Sebastien; Falloon, Trevor J.; Gemmell, J. Bruce; Friedman, Richard M.

    2011-05-01

    A new U-Pb zircon dating protocol for small (10-50 μm) zircons has been developed using an automated searching method to locate zircon grains in a polished rock mount. The scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive X ray spectrum-based automated searching method can routinely find in situ zircon grains larger than 5 μm across. A selection of these grains was ablated using a 10 μm laser spot and analyzed in an inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-QMS). The technique has lower precision (˜6% uncertainty at 95% confidence on individual spot analyses) than typical laser ablation ICP-MS (˜2%), secondary ion mass spectrometry (<1%), and isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (˜0.4%) methods. However, it is accurate and has been used successfully on fine-grained lithologies, including mafic rocks from island arcs, ocean basins, and ophiolites, which have traditionally been considered devoid of dateable zircons. This technique is particularly well suited for medium- to fine-grained mafic volcanic rocks where zircon separation is challenging and can also be used to date rocks where only small amounts of sample are available (clasts, xenoliths, dredge rocks). The most significant problem with dating small in situ zircon grains is Pb loss. In our study, many of the small zircons analyzed have high U contents, and the isotopic compositions of these grains are consistent with Pb loss resulting from internal α radiation damage. This problem is not significant in very young rocks and can be minimized in older rocks by avoiding high-U zircon grains.

  20. Super-achromatic microprobe for ultrahigh-resolution endoscopic OCT imaging at 800 nm (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wu; Alemohammad, Milad; Yu, Xiaoyun; Yu, Shaoyong; Li, Xingde

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report a super-achromatic microprobe made with fiber-optic ball lens to enable ultrahigh-resolution endoscopic OCT imaging. An axial resolution of ~2.4 µm (in air) can be achieved with a 7-fs Ti:Sapphire laser. The microprobe has minimal astigmatism which affords a high transverse resolution of ~5.6 µm. The miniaturized microprobe has an outer diameter of ~520 µm including the encasing metal guard and can be used to image small luminal organs. The performance of the ultrahigh-resolution OCT microprobe was demonstrated by imaging rat esophagus, guinea pig esophagus, and mouse rectum in vivo.

  1. Laser-Assisted Atom Probe Tomography of Deformed Minerals: A Zircon Case Study.

    PubMed

    La Fontaine, Alexandre; Piazolo, Sandra; Trimby, Patrick; Yang, Limei; Cairney, Julie M

    2017-04-01

    The application of atom probe tomography to the study of minerals is a rapidly growing area. Picosecond-pulsed, ultraviolet laser (UV-355 nm) assisted atom probe tomography has been used to analyze trace element mobility within dislocations and low-angle boundaries in plastically deformed specimens of the nonconductive mineral zircon (ZrSiO4), a key material to date the earth's geological events. Here we discuss important experimental aspects inherent in the atom probe tomography investigation of this important mineral, providing insights into the challenges in atom probe tomography characterization of minerals as a whole. We studied the influence of atom probe tomography analysis parameters on features of the mass spectra, such as the thermal tail, as well as the overall data quality. Three zircon samples with different uranium and lead content were analyzed, and particular attention was paid to ion identification in the mass spectra and detection limits of the key trace elements, lead and uranium. We also discuss the correlative use of electron backscattered diffraction in a scanning electron microscope to map the deformation in the zircon grains, and the combined use of transmission Kikuchi diffraction and focused ion beam sample preparation to assist preparation of the final atom probe tip.

  2. Implications of Late Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages of granitic intrusions cutting ophiolitic and volcanogenic rocks for the assembly of the Tauride allochthon in SE Anatolia (Helete area, Kahramanmaraş Region, SE Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurlu, Nusret; Parlak, Osman; Robertson, Alastair; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    An assemblage of NE-SW-trending, imbricate thrust slices (c. 26 km E-W long × 6.3 km N-S) of granitic rocks, basic-felsic volcanogenic rocks (Helete volcanics), ophiolitic rocks (Meydan ophiolite) and melange (Meydan melange) is exposed near the Tauride thrust front in SE Anatolia. The volcanogenic rocks were previously assumed to be Eocene because of associated Nummulitic limestones. However, ion probe U-Pb dating of zircons extracted from the intrusive granitic rocks yielded ages of 92.9 ± 2.2-83.1 ± 1.5 Ma (Cenomanian-Campanian). The Helete volcanic unit and the overlying Meydan ophiolitic rocks both are intruded by granitic rocks of similar age and composition. Structurally underlying ophiolite-related melange includes similar-aged, but fragmented granitic intrusions. Major, trace element and rare earth element analyses coupled with electron microprobe analysis of the granitic rocks show that they are metaluminus to peraluminus and calc-alkaline in composition. A magmatic arc setting is inferred from a combination of tectonomagmatic discrimination, ocean ridge granite-normalized multi-element patterns and biotite geochemistry. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data further suggest that the granitoid rocks were derived from variably mixed mantle and crustal sources. Granitic rocks cutting the intrusive rocks are inferred to have crystallized at ~5-16 km depth. The volcanogenic rocks and granitic rocks originated in a supra-subduction zone setting that was widely developed throughout SE Anatolia. Initial tectonic assembly took place during the Late Cretaceous probably related to northward subduction and accretion beneath the Tauride continent (Keban and Malatya platforms). Initial tectonic assembly was followed by exhumation and then transgression by shelf-depth Nummulitic limestones during Mid-Eocene, as documented in several key outcrops. Final emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin took place during the Early Miocene.

  3. Spatial investigation of some uranium minerals using nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valter, Anton A.; Knight, Kim B.; Eremenko, Gelij K.; Magilin, Dmitry V.; Ponomarov, Artem A.; Pisansky, Anatoly I.; Romanenko, Alexander V.; Ponomarev, Alexander G.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, several individual grains of uranium minerals—uraninite with high content of Ca, Ca-rich boltwoodite, growths of uranophane with β-uranophane, and weeksite—from different uranium deposits were studied by a scanning nuclear microprobe. Particle-induced X-ray emission technique provided by the microprobe (µ-PIXE) was carried out to obtain a concentration and 2D distribution of elements in these minerals. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) provided by a scanning electron microscope was used. The types of minerals were determined by X-ray diffraction methods. Results of this study improved the understanding of trace elemental composition of the uranium minerals depending on their origin. Obtained signatures could be linked then to the sample provenance. Such data are important for nuclear forensics to identify the ore types and even specific ore bodies, when only small samples may be available for analysis. In this study, the µ-PIXE technique was used for obtaining the 2D distribution of trace elements that are not commonly measured by SEM-EDS at the relevant concentrations. The detected levels and precisions of elements determination by µ-PIXE were also defined. Using µ-PIXE, several micro mineral inclusions such as phosphate with high level of V and Si were identified. The age of the uranium minerals was estimated due to a significant content of radiogenic Pb that provides an additional parameter for determination of the main attributive characteristics of the minerals. This work also showed that due to its high elemental sensitivity the nuclear microprobe can be a new analytical tool for creating a nuclear forensic database from the known uranium deposits and a subsequent analysis of the intercepted illicit materials.

  4. Spatial investigation of some uranium minerals using nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valter, Anton A.; Knight, Kim B.; Eremenko, Gelij K.; Magilin, Dmitry V.; Ponomarov, Artem A.; Pisansky, Anatoly I.; Romanenko, Alexander V.; Ponomarev, Alexander G.

    2018-06-01

    In this work, several individual grains of uranium minerals—uraninite with high content of Ca, Ca-rich boltwoodite, growths of uranophane with β-uranophane, and weeksite—from different uranium deposits were studied by a scanning nuclear microprobe. Particle-induced X-ray emission technique provided by the microprobe (µ-PIXE) was carried out to obtain a concentration and 2D distribution of elements in these minerals. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) provided by a scanning electron microscope was used. The types of minerals were determined by X-ray diffraction methods. Results of this study improved the understanding of trace elemental composition of the uranium minerals depending on their origin. Obtained signatures could be linked then to the sample provenance. Such data are important for nuclear forensics to identify the ore types and even specific ore bodies, when only small samples may be available for analysis. In this study, the µ-PIXE technique was used for obtaining the 2D distribution of trace elements that are not commonly measured by SEM-EDS at the relevant concentrations. The detected levels and precisions of elements determination by µ-PIXE were also defined. Using µ-PIXE, several micro mineral inclusions such as phosphate with high level of V and Si were identified. The age of the uranium minerals was estimated due to a significant content of radiogenic Pb that provides an additional parameter for determination of the main attributive characteristics of the minerals. This work also showed that due to its high elemental sensitivity the nuclear microprobe can be a new analytical tool for creating a nuclear forensic database from the known uranium deposits and a subsequent analysis of the intercepted illicit materials.

  5. Radiation Damage Study in Natural Zircon Using Neutrons Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lwin, Maung Tin Moe; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Kassim, Hasan Abu

    2011-03-30

    Changes of atomic displacements in crystalline structure of natural zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) can be studied by using neutron irradiation on the surface of zircon and compared the data from XRD measurements before and after irradiation. The results of neutron irradiation on natural zircon using Pneumatic Transfer System (PTS) at PUSPATI TRIGA Research Reactor in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency are discussed in this work. The reactor produces maximum thermal power output of 1 MWatt and the neutron flux of up to 1x10{sup 13} ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. From serial decay processes of uranium and thorium radionuclides in zircon crystalline structure, the emissionmore » of alpha particles can produce damage in terms of atomic displacements in zircon. Hence, zircon has been extensively studied as a possible candidate for immobilization of fission products and actinides.« less

  6. Elemental mapping of biological samples using a scanning proton microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, F.; Grime, G. W.

    1988-03-01

    Elemental mapping using a scanning proton microprobe (SPM) can be a powerful technique for probing trace elements in biology, allowing complex interfaces to be studied in detail, identifying contamination and artefacts present in the specimen, and in certain circumstances obtaining indirect chemical information. Examples used to illustrate the advantages of the technique include the elemental mapping of growing pollen tubes, honey bee brain section, a mouse macrophage cell, human liver section exhibiting primary biliary cirrhosis, and the attack by a mildew fungus on a pea leaf.

  7. Rapid correction of electron microprobe data for multicomponent metallic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, K. P.; Sivakumar, R.

    1973-01-01

    This paper describes an empirical relation for the correction of electron microprobe data for multicomponent metallic systems. It evaluates the empirical correction parameter, a for each element in a binary alloy system using a modification of Colby's MAGIC III computer program and outlines a simple and quick way of correcting the probe data. This technique has been tested on a number of multicomponent metallic systems and the agreement with the results using theoretical expressions is found to be excellent. Limitations and suitability of this relation are discussed and a model calculation is also presented in the Appendix.

  8. A High Resolution Microprobe Study of EETA79001 Lithology C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, Christian M.; Cohen, B. A.; Donovan, J. J.; Vicenzi, E. P.

    2010-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite EETA79001 has received substantial attention for possibly containing a component of Martian soil in its impact glass (Lithology C) [1]. The composition of Martian soil can illuminate near-surface processes such as impact gardening [2] and hydrothermal and volcanic activity [3,4]. Impact melts in meteorites represent our most direct samples of Martian regolith. We present the initial findings from a high-resolution electron microprobe study of Lithology C from Martian meteorite EETA79001. As this study develops we aim to extract details of a potential soil composition and to examine Martian surface processes using elemental ratios and correlations.

  9. Stability of Zircon and its Isotopic Ratios in High-Temperature Fluids: Long-Term (4 months) Isotope Exchange Experiment at 850 °C and 50 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindeman, Ilya N.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Hervig, Richard L.

    2018-05-01

    Stability of zircon in hydrothermal fluids and vanishingly slow rates of diffusion identify zircon as a reliable recorder of its formation conditions in recent and ancient rocks. Debate, however, persists on how rapidly oxygen and key trace elements (e.g., Li, B, Pb) diffuse when zircon is exposed to hot aqueous fluids. Here, we report results of a nano- to micrometer-scale investigation of isotopic exchange using natural zircon from Mesa Falls Tuff (Yellowstone) treated with quartz-saturated, isotopically (18O, D, 7Li, and 11B) labeled water with a nominal δ18O value of +450‰ over 4 months at 850°C and 50 MPa. Frontside (crystal rim inwards) δ18O depth profiling of zircon by magnetic sector SIMS shows initially high but decreasing 18O/16O over a 130 nm non-Fickian profile, with a decay length comparable to the signal from surficial Au coating deposited onto zircon. In contrast, backside (crystal interior outwards) depth profiling on a 2-3 µm thick wafer cut and thinned from treated zircon by focused ion beam (FIB) milling lacks any significant increase in 18O/16O during penetration of the original surface layer. Near-surface time-of-flight (TOF-SIMS) frontside profiles of uncoated zircon from 4-month and 1-day-long experiments as well as untreated zircons display similar enrichments of 18O over a distance of 20 nm. All frontside 18O profiles are here interpreted as transient surface signals from nm-thick surface enrichment or contamination unrelated to diffusion. Likewise, frontside depth profiling of H, Li, and B isotopes are similar for long- and short-duration experiments. Additionally, surface U-Pb dating of zircon from the 4-month experiment returned U-Pb ages by depth profiling with 1 µm penetration that were identical to untreated samples. Frontside and backside depth-profiling thus demonstrate that diffusive 18O enrichment in the presence of H2O is much slower than predicted from experiments in Watson and Cherniak (1997). Instead, intracrystalline

  10. Zircon crystal morphology and internal structures as a tool for constraining magma sources: Examples from northern Portugal Variscan biotite-rich granite plutons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brites Martins, Helena C.; Simões, Pedro P.; Abreu, Joana

    2014-09-01

    In northern Portugal, large volumes of granitoids were emplaced during the last stage (D3) of the Variscan orogeny and display a wide range of petrological signatures. We studied the morphologies and internal structures of zircons from syn-, late- and post-D3 granitoids. The sin-D3 granitoids include the Ucanha-Vilar, Lamego, Felgueiras, Sameiro, and Refoios do Lima plutons, the late- and post-D3 granitoids are represented by the Vieira do Minho and the Vila Pouca de Aguiar plutons, respectively. Typological investigations after Pupin (1980) along with scanning electron microprobe imaging reveal that the external morphology of zircon changes consistently with a decrease in the crystallization temperature. Zircon populations from the Refoios do Lima and the Vieira do Minho granites show gradual changes in the internal morphologies and their typologic evolution trends are consistent with their mainly crustal origin. The Sameiro, Felgueiras, Lamego and Ucanha-Vilar granites have more complex internal and external morphology and typological evolution trends that cross the domain of the calc-alkaline to the aluminous granites compatible with a mixing process. Finally, the morphological types of the Vila Pouca de Aguiar granites are found both in calc-alkaline and sub-alkaline granites and their typological evolutionary trends follow the calc-alkaline/sub-alkaline trend, suggesting crustal sources with some mantle contribution.

  11. Annealing effects on cathodoluminescence of zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Y.; Nishido, H.; Noumi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    U-Pb zircon dating (e. g., SHRIMP) is an important tool to interpret a history of the minerals at a micrometer-scale, where cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging allows us to recognize internal zones and domains with different chemical compositions and structural disorder at high spatial resolution. The CL of zircon is attributed by various types of emission centers, which are extrinsic ones such as REE impurities and intrinsic ones such as structural defects. Metamictization resulted from radiation damage to the lattice by alpha particles from the decay of U and Th mostly causes an effect on the CL features of zircon as a defect center. However, slightly radiation-damaged zircon, which is almost nondetectable by XRD, has not been characterized using CL method. In this study, annealing effects on CL of zircon has been investigated to clarify a recovery process of the damaged lattice at low radiation dose. A single crystal of zircon from Malawi was selected for CL measurements. It contains HfO2: 2.30 w.t %, U: 241 ppm and Th: 177 ppm. Two plate samples perpendicular to c and a axes were prepared for annealing experiments during 12 hours from room temperature to 1400 degree C. Color CL images were captured using a cold-cathode microscope (Luminoscope: Nuclide ELM-3R). CL spectral measurements were conducted using an SEM (JEOL: JSM-5410) combined with a grating monochromator (Oxford: Mono CL2) to measure CL spectra ranging from 300 to 800 nm in 1 nm steps with a temperature controlled stage. The dispersed CL was collected by a photoncounting method using a photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu: R2228) and converted to digital data. All CL spectra were corrected for the total instrumental response. Spectral analysis reveals an anisotropy of the CL emission bands related to intrinsic defect center in blue region, radiation-induced defect center from 500 to 700 nm, and trivalent Dy impurity center at 480 and 580 nm, but their relative intensities are almost constant. CL on the

  12. Laser microprobe and resonant laser ablation for depth profile measurements of hydrogen isotope atoms contained in graphite.

    PubMed

    Yorozu, M; Yanagida, T; Nakajyo, T; Okada, Y; Endo, A

    2001-04-20

    We measured the depth profile of hydrogen atoms in graphite by laser microprobing combined with resonant laser ablation. Deuterium-implanted graphite was employed for the measurements. The sample was ablated by a tunable laser with a wavelength corresponding to the resonant wavelength of 1S-2S of deuterium with two-photon excitation. The ablated deuterium was ionized by a 2 + 1 resonant ionization process. The ions were analyzed by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The deuterium ions were detected clearly with the resonant ablation. The detection limit was estimated to be less than 10(16) atoms/cm(3) in our experiments. We determined the depth profile by considering the etching profile and the etching rate. The depth profile agreed well with Monte Carlo simulations to within a precision of 23 mum for the center position and 4-mum precision for distributions for three different implantation depths.

  13. Elemental and Isotopic Tomography at Single-Atom-Scale in 4.0 and 2.4 Ga Zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, J. W.; Reinhard, D. A.; Snoeyenbos, D.; Lawrence, D.; Martin, I.; Kelly, T. F.; Ushikubo, T.; Strickland, A.; Cavosie, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Atom probe tomography can determine identity (mass/charge ratio) and 3-D position of individual atoms in minerals such as zircon. These data provide unique information for understanding the thermal history and mechanisms of mineral reaction and exchange, including radiation damage. Nine needle-shaped specimens ~100 nm in diameter (at the apex) were sampled from 2 zircons by FIB and analyzed with a local-electrode atom probe (LEAP), CAMECA LEAP 4000X HR. The LEAP uses pulsed-laser heating to field evaporate the tip of a zircon needle and accelerates the ions into a position-sensitive TOF-MS. With due care for complex isobaric interferences (molecules, multiple ionizations) and background correction, it is possible to individually identify up to 10E8 atoms/needle (36% detection efficiency) by mass/charge (MRP ~ 1000@ m/n=16Da) and position (X-Y-Z coordinates on 0.2 nm scale) (Kelly & Larson 2012). The 3-D distribution of Pb and Y differ at atom-scale in the 2 zircons. Zircon #1 (4007 Ma, Jack Hills, W. Australia, Cavosie 2005, Ushikubo et al. 2008, Bouvier et al. 2011) is homogeneous in Pb and Y. In contrast, incompatible elements, including Pb and Y, are concentrated in equant 5-10 nm dia. domains, spaced ~50 nm apart in zircon #2 (2438 Ma, Albion-Raft R-Grouse Ck core complex, Utah, Strickland et al. 2011). U is homogeneously distributed in both zircons. The analyzed domains suffered 4-8 x 10E15 α-decay events/mg due to U and Th decay and yet both zircons yield >97% concordant U-Pb ages by SIMS, suggesting annealing of radiation damage during the life of the zircons. The 207-Pb/206-Pb ratios for these nm-scale domains, as measured by LEAP, average 0.17 for the 2.4 Ga Zrc2 (3 needles) and 0.43 for the 4.0 Ga Zrc1 (5 needles). These ratios are less precise (±40% 2σ) due to ultra-small sample size, but are in excellent agreement with values measured by SIMS, 0.1684 and 0.4269, respectively. Thus Pb in both zircons is radiogenic. The Pb-Y-rich domains and lack of

  14. Testing the reliability of information extracted from ancient zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kielman, Ross; Whitehouse, Martin; Nemchin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Studies combining zircon U-Pb chronology, trace element distribution as well as O and Hf isotope systematics are a powerful way to gain understanding of the processes shaping Earth's evolution, especially in detrital populations where constraints from the original host are missing. Such studies of the Hadean detrital zircon population abundant in sedimentary rocks in Western Australia have involved analysis of an unusually large number of individual grains, but also highlighted potential problems with the approach, only apparent when multiple analyses are obtained from individual grains. A common feature of the Hadean as well as many early Archaean zircon populations is their apparent inhomogeneity, which reduces confidence in conclusions based on studies combining chemistry and isotopic characteristics of zircon. In order to test the reliability of information extracted from early Earth zircon, we report results from one of the first in-depth multi-method study of zircon from a relatively simple early Archean magmatic rock, used as an analogue to ancient detrital zircon. The approach involves making multiple SIMS analyses in individual grains in order to be comparable to the most advanced studies of detrital zircon populations. The investigated sample is a relatively undeformed, non-migmatitic ca. 3.8 Ga tonalite collected a few kms south of the Isua Greenstone Belt, southwest Greenland. Extracted zircon grains can be combined into three different groups based on the behavior of their U-Pb systems: (i) grains that show internally consistent and concordant ages and define an average age of 3805±15 Ma, taken to be the age of the rock, (ii) grains that are distributed close to the concordia line, but with significant variability between multiple analyses, suggesting an ancient Pb loss and (iii) grains that have multiple analyses distributed along a discordia pointing towards a zero intercept, indicating geologically recent Pb-loss. This overall behavior has

  15. (De)coupled zircon metamictization, radiation damage, and He diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, A. K.; Guenthner, W.; Reiners, P. W.; Moser, A. C.; Miller, G. H.; Refsnider, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    We develop and apply a new protocol for targeting crystals for the zircon (U-Th)/He (He) thermochronometry to maximize effective U (eU) and corresponding closure temperature variability to develop zircon He date-eU correlations observed in some datasets. Our approach exploits visual proxies for radiation damage accumulation (metamictization) during zircon selection. We show that by purposefully targeting a spectrum of zircon textures from pristine to metamict grains, it is possible to generate broad eU variation in suites of zircon from a single sample and zircon He date-eU-metamictization trends that can be exploited to resolve increasingly complex thermal histories. We present plane light photographs, eU concentration, and zircon He results from 59 individual zircons from nine crystalline rock samples. Six of the nine samples come from exposed Proterozoic granitoids on SE Baffin Island, Canada; Boulder Creek, CO; Sandia Mountains, NM; and Mecca Hills, CA. We report data from three Archean Baffin samples to compare with the Proterozoic Baffin sample date-eU-metamictization trend. In each Proterozoic sample, target zircons display a spectrum of metamictization from pristine, transparent crystals to purple-brown, translucent grains. Progressive loss of transparency and increase in discoloration consistently corresponds to an increase in eU in all samples. Individual zircon eU varies from 89-1885 ppm and, within each sample, the total eU spread is 538 ppm to 1374 ppm. For any given eU value, the Archean zircon appear comparatively more metamict than the Proterozoic Baffin grains and samples collectively define a 1681 ppm range in eU, with more restrictive intrasample eU spreads (199-1120 ppm). Proterozoic samples from Baffin, Sandia, and Front Range yield negative zircon He date-eU correlations with intrasample date ranges of 90-783 Ma. Increasing eU and younger dates correspond with increasing metamictization. In contrast, all three Proterozoic Mecca Hills samples

  16. U-Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite from Mesoproterozoic granitic gneisses of the northern Blue Ridge, Virginia and Maryland, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Burton, W.C.; Lyttle, P.T.; Nelson, A.E.; Southworth, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    Mesoproterozoic granitic gneisses comprise most of the basement of the northern Blue Ridge geologic province in Virginia and Maryland. Lithology, structure, and U-Pb geochronology have been used to subdivide the gneisses into three groups. The oldest rocks, Group 1, are layered granitic gneiss (1153 ?? 6 Ma), hornblende monzonite gneiss (1149 ?? 19 Ma), porphyroblastic granite gneiss (1144 ?? 2 Ma), coarse-grained metagranite (about 1140 Ma), and charnockite (>1145 Ma?). These gneisses contain three Proterozoic deformational fabrics. Because of complex U-Pb systematics due to extensive overgrowths on magmatic cores, zircons from hornblende monzonite gneiss were dated using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP), whereas all other ages are based on conventional U-Pb geochronology. Group 2 rocks are leucocratic and biotic varieties of Marshall Metagranite, dated at 1112??3 Ma and 1111 ?? 2 Ma respectively. Group 3 rocks are subdivided into two age groups: (1) garnetiferous metagranite (1077 ?? 4 Ma) and quartz-plagioclase gneiss (1077 ?? 4 Ma); (2) white leucocratic metagranite (1060 ?? 2 Ma), pink leucocratic metagranite (1059 ?? 2), biotite granite gneiss (1055 ?? 4 Ma), and megacrystic metagranite (1055 ?? 2 Ma). Groups 2 and 3 gneisses contain only the two younger Proterozoic deformational fabrics. Ages of monazite, seprated from seven samples, indicate growth during both igneous and metamorphic (thermal) events. However, ages obtained from individual grains may be mixtures of different age components, as suggested by backscatter electron (BSE) imaging of complexly zoned grains. Analyses of unzoned monazite (imaged by BSE and thought to contain only one age component) from porphyroblastic granite gneiss yield ages of 1070, 1060, and 1050 Ma. The range of ages of monazite (not reset to a uniform date) indicates that the Grenville granulite event at about 1035 Ma did not exceed about 750??C. Lack of evidence for 1110 Ma growth of monazite in

  17. A New age Constraint on Sturtian Glaciation: SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology of Neoproterozoic Altungol Formation in Tarim Basin, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Li, J.; Li, W.; Wang, H.

    2013-12-01

    Neoproterozoic glaciations with a wide distribution, punctuated the largely ice-free Precambrian world within tropical latitudes, interpreted as evidence record the cold paleoclimate intervals which made a Snowball Earth with the frozen ocean. More recently, Quruqtagh of Northeast Tarim Basin, Northwest China, catches the increasing eyes, not only because of its three or four Neoproterzoic glacial periods in China, but also its tectonic significance for breakup of Rodinia supercontinent. There are many Neoproterozoic glaciation strata exposures in Quruqtagh. The Nanhua System is divided into the Bayisi, Zhaobishan (absent in south aera), Altungol and Tereeken formations. Thick tillites were found in Bayisi, Tereeken and Hankalchough formations, while minor was found in Altungol Formation. After the field investigation of the south Yaerdang Mountain in the South aera, it is suggested that the Altungol Formation in the South aera differs from that the North aera. In the North, it is a set of littoral-neritic clastic facies sediment with few volcanic rocks and marine tillites in the bottom. In South Quruqtagh, it consists of 45m-thick gray-green tillites in the bottom with different size and complex components gravels, volcanic interbed near the top of tillites, overlying strata is cap dolomite of 15m thickness, with abundant drop-stones, the upper is black shales and gray to black thin-interbeded siliceous rock. The reported ages without Altungol glaciation age are all focused on the north Quruqtagh and conversely in South Quruqtagh without reported glaciation age. Based on field investigation of Nanhua System (Cryogenian) in NE Tarim Basin, we offer the first set of Sturtian glaciation age 729.4×6.6Ma, in the form of SHRIMP(sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe) U-Pb zircon age dating of volcanic interbedded near the top of Altungol Formation tillites, South Quruqtagh, which provides a new constraint on the Sturtian glaciation from global perspective. It is a

  18. Extinct Plutonium Geochemistry of Ancient Hadean Zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, G.; Gilmour, J.; Crowther, S.; Busfield, A.; Mojzsis, S.; Harrison, M.

    2005-12-01

    The abundance of 244Pu in the early solar system has important implications for r-process nucleosynthesis and models of noble gas transport within the Earth's mantle. Our recent discovery(1) of xenon isotopes from the in-situ decay of 244Pu in ancient Jack Hills zircons promises to provide a new time-sensitive window on the first 500 Ma of Earth history. We have extended this initial work by the use of resonance ioniisation mass spectrometry to analyse xenon released by stepped heating from 17 individual zircons with Pb-Pb ages in the range 3.95 to 4.18 Ga. Our immediate objectives are to determine the causes of variations in the inferred Pu/U ratios and in the longer term to determine the initial Pu/U ratio of the Earth. The Pu/U ratios calculated for individual zircons may be expected to vary as a result of igneous fractionation and also from differential loss of Pu and U fission xenon in the last 4 Ga. We have studied the effects of xenon loss by irradiating the zircons with thermal neutrons to generate xenon from 235U neutron fission in order to determine U/Xe ratios and apparent ages. 131Xe/134Xe and 132Xe/134Xe ratios can be used to calculate the relative contributions from 244Pu and 238U spontaneous fission and 235U neutron fission. The measured Pu/U ratios (back calculated to 4.56 Ga on the basis of the individual Pb-Pb ages) range from zero to 0.012. The highest ratio in our initial study was 0.008 (note that the published ratio has been revised upwards on the basis of improved decay parameters for 238U spontaneous fission). Comparison of Pb-Pb and U-Xe ages indicate varying amounts of xenon loss, over 50% in some cases. While this accounts for some of the variability in the inferred Pu/U, igneous fractionation may also play a part, and we are currently attempting to investigate this by a comparison with REE abundances. Reference: (1) Turner et al. (2004) Science, 306, 89-91.

  19. Atomistic Simulation of Displacement Cascades in Zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Corrales, Louis R.

    2002-05-06

    Low energy displacement cascades in zircon (ZrSiO4) initiated by a Zr primary knock-on atom have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations using a Coulombic model for long-range interactions, Buckingham potential for short-range interactions and Ziegler-Biersack potentials for close pair interactions. Displacements were found to occur mainly in the O sublattice, and O replacements by a ring mechanism were predominant. Clusters containing Si interstitials bridged by O interstitials, vacancy clusters and anti-site defects were found to occur. This Si-O-Si bridging is considerable in quenched liquid ZrSiO4.

  20. Zircon age-temperature-compositional spectra in plutonic rocks

    DOE PAGES

    Samperton, Kyle M.; Bell, Elizabeth A.; Barboni, Mélanie; ...

    2017-08-23

    We present that geochronology can resolve dispersed zircon dates in plutonic rocks when magma cooling time scales exceed the temporal precision of individual U-Pb analyses; such age heterogeneity may indicate protracted crystallization between the temperatures of zircon saturation (T sat) and rock solidification (T solid). Diffusive growth models predict asymmetric distributions of zircon dates and crystallization temperatures in a cooling magma, with volumetrically abundant old, hot crystallization at T sat decreasing continuously to volumetrically minor young, cold crystallization at T solid. We present integrated geochronological and geochemical data from Bergell Intrusion tonalites (Central Alps, Europe) that document zircon compositional changemore » over hundreds of thousands of years at the hand-sample scale, indicating melt compositional evolution during solidification. Ti-in-zircon thermometry, crystallization simulation using MELTS software, and U-Pb dates produce zircon mass-temperature-time distributions that are in excellent agreement with zircon growth models. In conclusion, these findings provide the first quantitative validation of longstanding expectations from zircon saturation theory by direct geochronological investigation, underscoring zircon’s capacity to quantify supersolidus cooling rates in magmas and resolve dynamic differentiation histories in the plutonic rock record.« less

  1. Zircons as a Probe of Early Luanr History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, C. A.; McKeegan, K. D.; Gilmour, J. D.; Crowther, S. A.; Talor, D. J.

    2013-09-01

    Zircons are ideal for investigating the early lunar bombardment because we can measure both U-Pb crystallization ages and fissiongenic Xe degassing ages for the same crystal. We report U-Pb, Pb-Pb and U-Xe ages for three lunar zircons.

  2. Zircons as a Probe of Early Lunar Impact History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, C. A.; McKeegan, K. D.; Gilmour, J. D.; Crowther, S. A.; Taylor, D. J.

    2013-08-01

    Zircons are ideal for investigating the early lunar bombardment because we can measure both U-Pb crystallization ages and fissiongenic Xe degassing ages for the same crystal. We report U-Pb, Pb-Pb and U-Xe ages for two lunar zircons.

  3. Zircon age-temperature-compositional spectra in plutonic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Samperton, Kyle M.; Bell, Elizabeth A.; Barboni, Mélanie

    We present that geochronology can resolve dispersed zircon dates in plutonic rocks when magma cooling time scales exceed the temporal precision of individual U-Pb analyses; such age heterogeneity may indicate protracted crystallization between the temperatures of zircon saturation (T sat) and rock solidification (T solid). Diffusive growth models predict asymmetric distributions of zircon dates and crystallization temperatures in a cooling magma, with volumetrically abundant old, hot crystallization at T sat decreasing continuously to volumetrically minor young, cold crystallization at T solid. We present integrated geochronological and geochemical data from Bergell Intrusion tonalites (Central Alps, Europe) that document zircon compositional changemore » over hundreds of thousands of years at the hand-sample scale, indicating melt compositional evolution during solidification. Ti-in-zircon thermometry, crystallization simulation using MELTS software, and U-Pb dates produce zircon mass-temperature-time distributions that are in excellent agreement with zircon growth models. In conclusion, these findings provide the first quantitative validation of longstanding expectations from zircon saturation theory by direct geochronological investigation, underscoring zircon’s capacity to quantify supersolidus cooling rates in magmas and resolve dynamic differentiation histories in the plutonic rock record.« less

  4. Nuclear microprobe imaging of gallium nitrate in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Richard; Suda, Asami; Devès, Guillaume

    2003-09-01

    Gallium nitrate is used in clinical oncology as treatment for hypercalcemia and for cancer that has spread to the bone. Its mechanism of antitumor action has not been fully elucidated yet. The knowledge of the intracellular distribution of anticancer drugs is of particular interest in oncology to better understand their cellular pharmacology. In addition, most metal-based anticancer compounds interact with endogenous trace elements in cells, altering their metabolism. The purpose of this experiment was to examine, by use of nuclear microprobe analysis, the cellular distribution of gallium and endogenous trace elements within cancer cells exposed to gallium nitrate. In a majority of cellular analyses, gallium was found homogeneously distributed in cells following the distribution of carbon. In a smaller number of cells, however, gallium appeared concentrated together with P, Ca and Fe within round structures of about 2-5 μm diameter located in the perinuclear region. These intracellular structures are typical of lysosomial material.

  5. The Oxford scanning proton microprobe: A medical diagnostic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, F.; Grime, G. W.; Takacs, J.; Vaux, D. J. T.

    1984-04-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a disease characterised by progressive destruction of small intrahepatic bile ducts, cholestasis, and high levels of copper within the liver. The Oxford 1 μm scanning proton microprobe (SPM) has been used to construct elemental maps of a 7 μm section of diseased liver at several different magnifications. The results of these investigations have shown that the copper is distributed in small deposits ( < 5 μm) at specific locations in the liver. Further there appears to be a 1:1 atomic correlation between copper and sulphur, indicating the presence of an inorganic salt or a protein with approximately equal numbers of copper and sulphur atoms.

  6. Micro Electron MicroProbe and Sample Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish; Bearman, Gregory; Douglas, Susanne; Bronikowski, Michael; Urgiles, Eduardo; Kowalczyk, Robert; Bryson, Charles

    2009-01-01

    A proposed, low-power, backpack-sized instrument, denoted the micro electron microprobe and sample analyzer (MEMSA), would serve as a means of rapidly performing high-resolution microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) of soil, dust, and rock particles in the field. The MEMSA would be similar to an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) but would be much smaller and designed specifically for field use in studying effects of geological alteration at the micrometer scale. Like an ESEM, the MEMSA could be used to examine uncoated, electrically nonconductive specimens. In addition to the difference in size, other significant differences between the MEMSA and an ESEM lie in the mode of scanning and the nature of the electron source.

  7. Elemental maps of Amoeba proteus by a scanning proton microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Minqian; Zhu, Jingde; Zhu, Jieqing; Zhou, Zheng; Huang, Zeqi; Zhou, Weiying; Cholewa, M.; Legge, G. J. F.

    1991-03-01

    Elemental maps for P, S, Cl, K, Ca and Zn of individual Amoeba proteus were obtained with the Melbourne scanning proton microprobe. The emphasis was put on the relationship of both distribution and concentration of Zn within the cell and the growth inhibitory effect of higher Zn concentrations in the culture medium. At a concentration of 0.04 mmol ZnCl 2, Amoeba growth was inhibited. But at a concentration of 0.0016 mmol, the Amoeba grew as well as a control grown without addition of Zn. We found that in the former (0.04 mmol) Zn concentrated three times more than in the latter (0.0016 mmol), and also that Zn was enriched much more in the nucleus and endoplasm (five to six times) than in other parts of the cell (two times). Future work along these lines may provide insight into the mechanism by which Zn affects the growth of Amoeba proteus and other cells.

  8. Are there impact-formed zircons in the Hadean record?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, M. M.; Lu, X.; Bell, E. A.; Schmitt, A. K.; Harrison, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    Detrital Hadean zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, show a remarkable cluster of crystallization temperatures at 680±25°C. This is particularly surprising as a simple model relating rock composition and Zr concentration predicts that a very broad spectrum of crystallization temperatures (ca. 650°C to 1000°C) with a median value of 780°C, would result from impact melting of the Earth's surface. Magmatic fractionation would tend to increase the aforementioned values. Given the predicted high rate of impacts during the Hadean, the absence of such a population in the Jack Hills zircons could signal a profound sampling problem, a hint of a history much different than previously supposed, or our lack of understanding of zircon formation due to impact related processes. We have begun to examine the latter issue by investigating the crystallization temperatures of zircons formed in melt sheets preserved in the geologic record. The Sudbury Igneous Complex, formed at 1850±3 Ma within the second largest impact crater on Earth, includes two igneous units termed the Black and Felsic Norites. Examination of zircons from each by SIMS confirms their crystallization age at 1847.3±2.2 Ma and yields Ti-in-zircon temperatures of 720°C and 750°C, respectively. This is consistent with that predicted from zircon saturation systematics. A statistical test indicates that the combined norite population is distinct from the Hadean temperature distribution. Thus the question arises: where are the Hadean zircons expected to have formed at >780°C via impact processes? Similar analysis is being pursued for zircons from the Vredefort Impact Structure, South Africa, which should provide further information on impact-formed zircon temperature spectra.

  9. Nuclear Microprobe using Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) for Hydrogen Profiling in High Temperature Protonic Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Pascal; Sayir, Ali; Berger, Marie-Helene

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between hydrogen and various high temperature protonic conductors (HTPC) has not been clearly understood due to poor densification and unreacted secondary phases. the melt-processing technique is used in producing fully dense simple SrCe(0.9)Y (0.10) O(3-delta) and complex Sr3Ca(1+x)Nb(2+x)O(9-delta) perovskites that can not be achieved by solid-state sintering. the possibilities of ion beam analysis have been investigated to quantify hydrogen distribution in HTPC perovskites subjected to water heat treatment. Nuclear microprobe technique is based on the interactions of a focused ion beam of MeV light ions (H-1, H-2, He-3, He-4,.) with the sample to be analyzed to determine local elemental concentrations at the cubic micrometer scale, the elastic recoil detection analysis technique (ERDA) has been carried out using He-4(+) microbeams and detecting the resulting recoil protons. Mappings of longitudinal sections of water treated SrCeO3 and Sr(Ca(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3 perovskites have been achieved, the water treatment strongly alters the surface of simple SrCe(0.9)Y(0.10)O(3-delta) perovskite. From Rutherford Back Scattering measurements (RBS), both Ce depletion and surface re-deposition is evidenced. the ERDA investigations on water treated Sr3Ca(1+x)Nb(2+x)O(9-delta) perovskite did not exhibit any spatial difference for the hydrogen incorporation from the surface to the centre. the amount of hydrogen incorporation for Sr3Ca(1+x)Nb(2+x)O(9-delta) was low and required further development of two less conventional techniques, ERDA in forward geometry and forward elastic diffusion H-1(p,p) H-1 with coincidence detection.

  10. New zircon (U-Th)/He and U/Pb eruption age for the Rockland tephra, western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coble, Matthew A.; Burgess, Seth; Klemetti, Erik W.

    2017-01-01

    Eruption ages of a number of prominent Quaternary volcanic deposits remain inaccurately and/or imprecisely constrained, despite their importance as regional stratigraphic markers in paleo-environment reconstruction and as evidence of climate-altering eruptions. Accurately dating volcanic deposits presents challenging analytical considerations, including poor radiogenic yield, scarcity of datable minerals, and contamination of crystal populations by magma, eruption, and transport processes. One prominent example is the Rockland tephra, which erupted from the Lassen Volcanic Center in the southern Cascade arc. Despite a range in published eruption ages from 0.40 to 0.63 Ma, the Rockland tephra is extensively used as a marker bed across the western United States. To more accurately and precisely constrain the age of the Rockland tephra-producing eruption, we report U/Pb crystallization dates from the outermost ∼2 μm of zircon crystal faces (surfaces) using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Our new weighted mean 238U/206Pb age for Rockland tephra zircon surfaces is 0.598 ± 0.013 Ma (2σ) and MSWD = 1.11 (mean square weighted deviation). As an independent test of the accuracy of this age, we obtained new (U-Th)/He dates from individual zircon grains from the Rockland tephra, which yielded a weighted mean age of 0.599 ± 0.012 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 5.13). We also obtained a (U-Th)/He age of 0.628 ± 0.014 Ma (MSWD = 1.19) for the Lava Creek Tuff member B, which was analyzed as a secondary standard to test the accuracy of the (U-Th)/He technique for Quaternary tephras, and to evaluate assumptions made in the model-age calculation. Concordance of new U/Pb and (U-Th)/He zircon ages reinforces the accuracy of our preferred Rockland tephra eruption age, and confirms that zircon surface dates sample zircon growth up to the time of eruption. We demonstrate the broad applicability of coupled U/Pb zircon-surface and single-grain zircon (U-Th)/He geochronology to

  11. Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moore, Diane E.; ,; Martens, UWE C.; Clark, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian–Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ∼185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ± prehnite ± laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe–reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefly Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86–90 Ma. Reflecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ∼100 km to the east in the Diablo Range–San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper

  12. New zircon (U-Th)/He and U/Pb eruption age for the Rockland tephra, western USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, Matthew A.; Burgess, Seth D.; Klemetti, Erik W.

    2017-09-01

    Eruption ages of a number of prominent Quaternary volcanic deposits remain inaccurately and/or imprecisely constrained, despite their importance as regional stratigraphic markers in paleo-environment reconstruction and as evidence of climate-altering eruptions. Accurately dating volcanic deposits presents challenging analytical considerations, including poor radiogenic yield, scarcity of datable minerals, and contamination of crystal populations by magma, eruption, and transport processes. One prominent example is the Rockland tephra, which erupted from the Lassen Volcanic Center in the southern Cascade arc. Despite a range in published eruption ages from 0.40 to 0.63 Ma, the Rockland tephra is extensively used as a marker bed across the western United States. To more accurately and precisely constrain the age of the Rockland tephra-producing eruption, we report U/Pb crystallization dates from the outermost ∼2 μm of zircon crystal faces (surfaces) using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Our new weighted mean 238U/206Pb age for Rockland tephra zircon surfaces is 0.598 ± 0.013 Ma (2σ) and MSWD = 1.11 (mean square weighted deviation). As an independent test of the accuracy of this age, we obtained new (U-Th)/He dates from individual zircon grains from the Rockland tephra, which yielded a weighted mean age of 0.599 ± 0.012 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 5.13). We also obtained a (U-Th)/He age of 0.628 ± 0.014 Ma (MSWD = 1.19) for the Lava Creek Tuff member B, which was analyzed as a secondary standard to test the accuracy of the (U-Th)/He technique for Quaternary tephras, and to evaluate assumptions made in the model-age calculation. Concordance of new U/Pb and (U-Th)/He zircon ages reinforces the accuracy of our preferred Rockland tephra eruption age, and confirms that zircon surface dates sample zircon growth up to the time of eruption. We demonstrate the broad applicability of coupled U/Pb zircon-surface and single-grain zircon (U-Th)/He geochronology to accurate

  13. Continental crustal history in SE Asia: Insights from zircon geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevastjanova, I.; Hall, R.; Gunawan, I.; Ferdian, F.; Decker, J.

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that SE Asia is underlain mostly by continental crust derived from Gondwana. However, there are still many uncertainties about the ages of protoliths, origin, arrival ages and history of different blocks, because much of the basement is unexposed. We have compiled previously published and new zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotope data from SE Asia. Our data set currently contains over 8400 U-Pb ages and over 600 Hf isotope analyses from sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks and work is continuing to increase its size and the area covered. Zircons range in age from 3.4 Ga to near-zero. Archean zircons (>2.5 Ga) are rare in SE Asia and significant Archean populations (particularly zircons >2.8 Ga) are found only in East Java and the Sibumasu block of the Malay Peninsula. The presence of Archean zircons strongly suggests that the East Java and Sibumasu blocks were once situated near present-day Western Australia. Detrital Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.9-1.8 Ga) zircons are abundant in many parts of SE Asia. In Sundaland (Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, West Java, Borneo) the most likely source for these zircons is the tin belt basement, but a north Australian source is more likely for eastern Indonesian samples. An early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.6-1.5 Ga) zircon population, particularly common in eastern Indonesia, is interpreted to be derived from central or northern Australia. Mesoproterozoic zircons, ca. 1.4 Ga, are common only on fragments that are now attached to or were previously part of the north Australian margin, such as the Bird's Head of New Guinea, Timor, Seram, Sulawesi and SW Borneo. Hf isotope characteristics of zircons from Seram are similar to those of zircons from eastern Australia. This supports the suggestion that Seram was part of the Australian margin. Late Meso- and early Neoproterozoic zircons (ca. 1.2-1.1 Ga, 900 Ma, and 600 Ma) are present, but not abundant, in SE Asia. Dominant Phanerozoic populations are Permian-Triassic, Cretaceous, and

  14. High-precision ID-TIMS zircon U-Pb geochronology using new 1013 Ohm resistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Quadt, A.; Buret, Y.; Large, S.; Peytcheva, I.; Trinquier, A.; Wotzlaw, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Faraday cups equipped with high gain amplifiers provide a means to measure small ion beams in static mode without the limited linear range of ion counting systems. We tested the application of newly available 1013 Ohm resistors to ID-TIMS zircon U-Pb geochronology using a range of natural and synthetic reference materials. The TritonPlus-RPQ at the Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, ETH Zurich, is equipped with five new 1013 Ohm resistors and one MasCom secondary electron multiplier, allowing to measure the 202-204-205-206-207-208Pb masses in static mode. U is measured subsequently as U-oxide (265-267-270UO2) during a second step, also in static Faraday mode. The gain calibration of the 1013 Ohm resistors was performed using the procedure of Trinquier (2014), with 144Nd-146Nd being measured using 1011 Ohm resistor and 142-143-145-148-150Nd being measured using 1013 Ohm resitors (Trinquier, 2014; Koornneef et al., 2014). Standard deviations of the noise in all five new 1013 Ohm resistors are lower than 5.0 x 10-6 over a 6 month period, with no shift occurring over this time interval. This new detector set-up was tested by analyzing natural zircon standard materials and synthetic U/Pb solutions (www.earthime.org), ranging in age from ~2 Ma to ~600 Ma. All natural zircon standards were chemically abraded (Mattinson, 2005) and all samples were spiked with the ET2535 tracer solution. U-Pb dates obtained using the static measurement routine are compared to measurements employing dynamic peak jumping routines on the MasCom multiplier. This study illustrates the benefits and current limitations of using high gain amplifiers to measure small ion beams for zircon U-Pb geochronology compared to conventional dynamic ion counting techniques. Mattinson, J.M. (2005) Chemical Geology 220:47-66; Trinquier, A. (2014) Application Note 30281; Koornneef, J. et al (2014) Analytica Chimica Acta 819:49-55.

  15. Application of a nuclear microprobe to the study of calcified tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coote, Graeme E.; Vickridge, Ian C.

    1988-03-01

    The mineral fraction of calcified tissue is largely calcium hydroxyapatite (bones and teeth) or calcium carbonate (shells and fish otoliths). Apatite has such a strong affinity for fluoride ions that the F/Ca ratio can vary markedly with position in a bone or tooth, depending on the amount of fluoride present at the time of calcification or partial recrystallization. New biological information can be obtained by introducing extra fluoride into the diet of an animal and using a microprobe later to scan sections of bones or teeth. In suitable burial sites extra fluoride is introduced after death, and the new distribution may have applications in forensic science and archaeology. Fish otoliths are also of interest since a new carbonate layer is formed each day and the distribution of trace elements may record some aspects of the fish's life history. Results from the following studies are presented: fluorine distributions in the teeth of sheep which ingested extra fluoride for known periods; distributions of calcium and fluorine in femurs of rats which drank water high in fluoride for periods from 2 to 15 weeks; calcium and fluorine distributions in artificially-prepared lesions in tooth enamel; diffusion profiles in archaeological human teeth and animal bones; patterns in the strontium/calcium ratio in sectioned otoliths of several species of fish.

  16. Zircon-Based Ceramics Composite Coating for Environmental Barrier Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, M.; Sodeoka, S.; Inoue, T.

    2008-09-01

    Studies on plasma spraying of zircon (ZrSiO4) have been carried out by the authors as one of the candidates for an environmental barrier coating (EBC) application, and had reported that substrate temperature is one of the most important factors to obtain crack-free and highly adhesive coating. In this study, several amounts of yttria were added to zircon powder, and the effect of the yttria addition on the structure and properties of the coatings were evaluated to improve the stability of the zircon coating structure at elevated temperature. The coatings obtained were composed of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), glassy silica, whereas the one prepared from monolithic zircon powder was composed of the metastable high temperature tetragonal phase of zirconia and glassy silica. After the heat treatment over 1200 °C, silica and zirconia formed zircon in all coatings. However, coatings with higher amounts of yttria exhibited lower amounts of zircon. This resulted in the less open porosity of the coating at elevated temperature. These yttria-added coatings also showed good adhesion even after the heat treatment, while monolithic zircon coating pealed off.

  17. Coordinated U-Pb geochronology, trace element, Ti-in-zircon thermometry and microstructural analysis of Apollo zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, Carolyn A.; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Moser, Desmond E.

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of a coordinated SIMS U-Pb, trace element, Ti-in-zircon thermometry, and microstructural study of 155 lunar zircons separated from Apollo 14, 15, and 17 breccia and soil samples that help resolve discrepancies between the zircon data, the lunar whole rock history and lunar magma ocean crystallization models. The majority of lunar grains are detrital fragments, some nearly 1 mm in length, of large parent crystals suggesting that they crystallized in highly enriched KREEP magmas. The zircon age distributions for all three landing sites exhibit an abundance of ages at ∼4.33 Ga, however they differ in that only Apollo 14 samples have a population of zircons with ages between 4.1 and 3.9 Ga. These younger grains comprise only 10% of all dated lunar zircons and are usually small and highly shocked making them more susceptible to Pb-loss. These observations suggest that the majority of zircons crystallized before 4.1 Ga and that KREEP magmatism had predominantly ceased by this time. We also observed that trace element analyses are easily affected by contributions from inclusions (typically injected impact melt) within SIMS analyses spots. After filtering for these effects, rare-earth element (REE) abundances of pristine zircon are consistent with one pattern characterized by a negative Eu anomaly and no positive Ce anomaly, implying that the zircons formed in a reducing environment. This inference is consistent with crystallization temperatures based on measured Ti concentrations and new estimates of oxide activities which imply temperatures ranging between 958 ± 57 and 1321 ± 100 °C, suggesting that zircon parent magmas were anhydrous. Together, the lunar zircon ages and trace elements are consistent with a ⩽300 My duration of KREEP magmatism under anhydrous, reducing conditions. We also report two granular texture zircons that contain baddeleyite cores, which both yield 207Pb-206Pb ages of 4.33 Ga. These grains are our best constraints on

  18. Coordinated U–Pb geochronology, trace element, Ti-in-zircon thermometry and microstructural analysis of Apollo zircons

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, Carolyn A.; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Moser, Desmond E.

    Here, we present the results of a coordinated SIMS U–Pb, trace element, Ti-in-zircon thermometry, and microstructural study of 155 lunar zircons separated from Apollo 14, 15, and 17 breccia and soil samples that help resolve discrepancies between the zircon data, the lunar whole rock history and lunar magma ocean crystallization models. The majority of lunar grains are detrital fragments, some nearly 1 mm in length, of large parent crystals suggesting that they crystallized in highly enriched KREEP magmas. The zircon age distributions for all three landing sites exhibit an abundance of ages at ~4.33 Ga, however they differ in thatmore » only Apollo 14 samples have a population of zircons with ages between 4.1 and 3.9 Ga. These younger grains comprise only 10% of all dated lunar zircons and are usually small and highly shocked making them more susceptible to Pb-loss. These observations suggest that the majority of zircons crystallized before 4.1 Ga and that KREEP magmatism had predominantly ceased by this time. We also observed that trace element analyses are easily affected by contributions from inclusions (typically injected impact melt) within SIMS analyses spots. After filtering for these effects, rare-earth element (REE) abundances of pristine zircon are consistent with one pattern characterized by a negative Eu anomaly and no positive Ce anomaly, implying that the zircons formed in a reducing environment. This inference is consistent with crystallization temperatures based on measured Ti concentrations and new estimates of oxide activities which imply temperatures ranging between 958 ± 57 and 1321 ± 100 °C, suggesting that zircon parent magmas were anhydrous. Together, the lunar zircon ages and trace elements are consistent with a ≤300 My duration of KREEP magmatism under anhydrous, reducing conditions. We also report two granular texture zircons that contain baddeleyite cores, which both yield 207Pb– 206Pb ages of 4.33 Ga. These grains are our best

  19. Coordinated U–Pb geochronology, trace element, Ti-in-zircon thermometry and microstructural analysis of Apollo zircons

    DOE PAGES

    Crow, Carolyn A.; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Moser, Desmond E.

    2016-12-28

    Here, we present the results of a coordinated SIMS U–Pb, trace element, Ti-in-zircon thermometry, and microstructural study of 155 lunar zircons separated from Apollo 14, 15, and 17 breccia and soil samples that help resolve discrepancies between the zircon data, the lunar whole rock history and lunar magma ocean crystallization models. The majority of lunar grains are detrital fragments, some nearly 1 mm in length, of large parent crystals suggesting that they crystallized in highly enriched KREEP magmas. The zircon age distributions for all three landing sites exhibit an abundance of ages at ~4.33 Ga, however they differ in thatmore » only Apollo 14 samples have a population of zircons with ages between 4.1 and 3.9 Ga. These younger grains comprise only 10% of all dated lunar zircons and are usually small and highly shocked making them more susceptible to Pb-loss. These observations suggest that the majority of zircons crystallized before 4.1 Ga and that KREEP magmatism had predominantly ceased by this time. We also observed that trace element analyses are easily affected by contributions from inclusions (typically injected impact melt) within SIMS analyses spots. After filtering for these effects, rare-earth element (REE) abundances of pristine zircon are consistent with one pattern characterized by a negative Eu anomaly and no positive Ce anomaly, implying that the zircons formed in a reducing environment. This inference is consistent with crystallization temperatures based on measured Ti concentrations and new estimates of oxide activities which imply temperatures ranging between 958 ± 57 and 1321 ± 100 °C, suggesting that zircon parent magmas were anhydrous. Together, the lunar zircon ages and trace elements are consistent with a ≤300 My duration of KREEP magmatism under anhydrous, reducing conditions. We also report two granular texture zircons that contain baddeleyite cores, which both yield 207Pb– 206Pb ages of 4.33 Ga. These grains are our best

  20. Hydrogen incorporation and charge balance in natural zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Hoog, J. C. M.; Lissenberg, C. J.; Brooker, R. A.; Hinton, R.; Trail, D.; Hellebrand, E.

    2014-09-01

    The water and trace element contents of natural igneous zircons were determined to constrain the mechanism of hydrogen incorporation. The low radiation-damage zircons were derived from Fe-Ti oxide gabbros from the Vema Fracture Zone (11°N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge). They contain up to 1212 ppmw H2O, 1.9 wt.% Y2O3 and 0.6 wt.% P2O5 and are generally strongly zoned. REE + Y are partially charge-balanced by P (Y, REE3+ + P5+ = Zr4+ + Si4+), but a large REE excess is present. On an atomic basis, this excess is closely approximated by the amount of H present in the zircons. We therefore conclude that H is incorporated by a charge-balance mechanism (H+ + REE3+ = Zr4+). This interpretation is consistent with FTIR data of the Vema zircons, which shows a strongly polarised main absorption band at ca. 3100 cm-1, similar to experimentally grown Lu-doped hydrous zircon. The size of this 3100 cm-1 band scales with H and REE contents. Apart from a small overlapping band at 3200 cm-1, no other absorption bands are visible, indicating that a hydrogrossular-type exchange mechanism does not appear to be operating in these zircons. Because of charge-balanced uptake of H, P and REE in zircon, the partitioning of these elements into zircon is dependent on each of their concentrations. For instance, DREEzrc/melt increases with increasing H and P contents of the melt, whereas DHzrc/melt increases with increasing REE content but decreases with increasing P content. In addition, H-P-REE systematics of sector zoning indicate kinetic effects may play an important role. Hence, using H in zircon to determine the water content of melts is problematic, and REE partitioning studies need to take into account P and H2O contents of the melt.

  1. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into intact and tape-stripped human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szikszai, Z.; Kertész, Zs.; Bodnár, E.; Major, I.; Borbíró, I.; Kiss, Á. Z.; Hunyadi, J.

    2010-06-01

    Ultrafine metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are widely used in cosmetic and health products like sunscreens. These oxides are potent UV filters and the small particle size makes the product more transparent compared to formulations containing coarser particles. In the present work the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into intact and tape-stripped human skin was investigated using nuclear microprobe techniques, such as proton induced X-ray spectroscopy and scanning transmission ion microscopy. Our results indicate that the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide, in a hydrophobic basis gel with 48 h application time, is limited to the stratum corneum layer of the intact skin. Removing the stratum corneum partially or entirely by tape-stripping did not cause the penetration of the particles into the deeper dermal layers; the zinc particles remained on the surface of the skin.

  2. The Perils of Electron Microprobe Analysis of Apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, C. E.; Essene, E. J.; Wang, K. L.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate electron microprobe analysis of apatite is problematic, especially for F and Cl, whose concentrations are essential in calculating a non-analyzable OH component. The issues include beam-induced sample damage and temporal variation of F and Cl X-rays; both effects are mainly dependent on beam current, beam spot size and apatite orientation [1]. To establish a rigorous analytical procedure, several oriented apatite samples, including the well-known Durango and Wilberforce fluorapatites, were analyzed for a large suite of elements, including oxygen. Careful X-ray spectroscopy was performed, including selection of appropriate analytical standards, background measurement positions and comparison of area peak factors. Polarized infrared spectra on oriented apatite samples were also collected for complementary information. The results show that when apatite samples are oriented with the c-axis parallel to the electron beam, there is significant nonlinear variation (an increase or decrease, depending on measurement conditions) of F and Cl X-ray intensities during analyses, and systematically higher-than-expected F apparent concentrations, despite the careful selection of electron beam conditions from a series of X-ray time scans and zero-time count rate extrapolation. On the other hand, when the electron beam is oriented perpendicular to the c-axis, with a ≤ 15 nA beam current and a ≥ 5 µm diameter defocused beam, F and Cl X-ray intensities do not vary or vary slowly and predictably with time, yielding quantitative analysis results for the Durango and Wilberforce apatites (both containing little OH) which are in good agreement with published wet chemical analyses. Furthermore, the OH and CO2 contents inferred for three other analyzed apatite samples are roughly consistent with infrared analyses. For example, for an apatite from Silver Crater Mine in Ontario, significant deficiency in the P site, as well as extra F, was inferred from microprobe analyses

  3. Localized defects in radiation-damaged zircon

    PubMed

    Rios; Malcherek; Salje; Domeneghetti

    2000-12-01

    The crystal structure of a radiation-damaged natural zircon, ZrSiO(4) (alpha-decay radiation dose is ca 1.8 x 10(18) alpha-decay events g(-1)), has been determined. The anisotropic unit-cell swelling observed in the early stages of the amorphization process (0.17% along the a axis and 0.62% along the c axis compared with the undamaged material) is a consequence of the anisotropy of the expansion of ZrO(8) polyhedra. Larger anisotropic displacement parameters were found for Zr and O atoms, indicating that the distortion produced by alpha particle-induced localized defects mainly affects the ZrO(8) unit. The overall shape of SiO(4) tetrahedra remains essentially undistorted, while Si-O bonds are found to lengthen by 0.43%.

  4. Transformations to granular zircon revealed: Twinning, reidite, and ZrO2 in shocked zircon from Meteor Crater (Arizona, USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cavosie, Aaron; Timms, Nicholas E.; Erickson, Timmons M.; Hagerty, Justin J.; Hörz, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Granular zircon in impact environments has long been recognized but remains poorly understood due to lack of experimental data to identify mechanisms involved in its genesis. Meteor Crater in Arizona (United States) contains abundant evidence of shock metamorphism, including shocked quartz, the high pressure polymorphs coesite and stishovite, diaplectic SiO2 glass, and lechatelierite (fused SiO2). Here we report the presence of granular zircon, a new shocked mineral discovery at Meteor Crater, that preserve critical orientation evidence of specific transformations that occurred during its formation at extreme impact conditions. The zircon grains occur as aggregates of sub-µm neoblasts in highly shocked Coconino Formation Sandstone (CFS) comprised of lechatelierite. Electron backscatter diffraction shows that each grain consists of multiple domains, some with boundaries disoriented by 65°, a known {112} shock-twin orientation. Other domains have crystallographic c-axes in alignment with {110} of neighboring domains, consistent with the former presence of the high pressure ZrSiO4 polymorph reidite. Additionally, nearly all zircon preserve ZrO2 + SiO2, providing evidence of partial dissociation. The genesis of CFS granular zircon started with detrital zircon that experienced shock-twinning and reidite formation from 20 to 30 GPa, ultimately yielding a phase that retained crystallographic memory; this phase subsequently recrystallized to systematically oriented zircon neoblasts, and in some areas partially dissociated to ZrO2. The lechatelierite matrix, experimentally constrained to form at >2000 °C, provided an ultra high-temperature environment for zircon dissociation (~1670 °C) and neoblast formation. The capacity of granular zircon to preserve a cumulative P-T record has not been recognized previously, and provides a new method for retrieving histories of impact-related mineral transformations in the crust at conditions far beyond which most rocks melt.

  5. Examination of Laser Microprobe Vacuum Ultraviolet Ionization Mass Spectrometry with Application to Mapping Mars Returned Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, A. S.; Berger, E. L.; Locke, D. R.; Lewis, E. K.; Moore, J. F.

    2018-04-01

    Laser microprobe of surfaces utilizing a two laser setup whereby the desorption laser threshold is lowered below ionization, and the resulting neutral plume is examined using 157nm Vacuum Ultraviolet laser light for mass spec surface mapping.

  6. Enhanced Raman Microprobe Imaging of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadjiev, V. G.; Arepalli, S.; Nikolaev, P.; Jandl, S.; Yowell, L.

    2003-01-01

    We explore Raman microprobe capabilities to visualize single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Although this technique is limited to a micron scale, we demonstrate that images of individual SWCNTs, bundles or their agglomerates can be generated by mapping Raman active elementary excitations. We measured the Raman response from carbon vibrations in SWCNTs excited by confocal scanning of a focused laser beam. Carbon vibrations reveal key characteristics of SWCNTs as nanotube diameter distribution (radial breathing modes, RBM, 100-300 cm(exp -1)), presence of defects and functional groups (D-mode, 1300-1350 cm(exp -1)), strain and oxidation states of SWCNTs, as well as metallic or semiconducting character of the tubes encoded in the lineshape of the G-modes at 1520-1600 cm(exp - 1). In addition, SWCNTs are highly anisotropic scatterers. The Raman response from a SWCNT is maximal for incident light polarization parallel to the tube axis and vanishing for perpendicular directions. We show that the SWCNT bundle shape or direction can be determined, with some limitations, from a set of Raman images taken at two orthogonal directions of the incident light polarization.

  7. Measuring localized viscoelasticity of the vitreous body using intraocular microprobes.

    PubMed

    Pokki, Juho; Ergeneman, Olgaç; Sevim, Semih; Enzmann, Volker; Torun, Hamdi; Nelson, Bradley J

    2015-10-01

    Vitrectomy is a standard ophthalmic procedure to remove the vitreous body from the eye. The biomechanics of the vitreous affects its duration (by changing the removal rate) and the mechanical forces transmitted via the vitreous on the surrounding tissues during the procedure. Biomechanical characterization of the vitreous is essential for optimizing the design and control of instruments that operate within the vitreous for improved precision, safety, and efficacy. The measurements are carried out using a magnetic microprobe inserted into the vitreous, a method known as magnetic microrheology. The location of the probe is tracked by a microscope/camera while magnetic forces are exerted wirelessly by applied magnetic fields. In this work, in vitro artificial vitreous, ex vivo human vitreous and ex vivo porcine vitreous were characterized. In addition, in vivo rabbit measurements were performed using a suturelessly injected probe. Measurements indicate that viscoelasticity parameters of the ex vivo human vitreous are an order of magnitude different from those of the ex vivo porcine vitreous. The in vivo intra-operative measurements show typical viscoelastic behavior of the vitreous with a lower compliance than the ex vivo measurements. The results of the magnetic microrheology measurements were validated with those obtained by a standard atomic force microscopy (AFM) method and in vitro artificial vitreous. This method allows minimally-invasive characterization of localized mechanical properties of the vitreous in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. A better understanding of the characteristics of the vitreous can lead to improvements in treatments concerning vitreal manipulation such as vitrectomy.

  8. Nuclear micro-probe analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ager, F. J.; Ynsa, M. D.; Domínguez-Solís, J. R.; López-Martín, M. C.; Gotor, C.; Romero, L. C.

    2003-09-01

    Phytoremediation is a cost-effective plant-based approach for remediation of soils and waters which takes advantage of the remarkable ability of some plants to concentrate elements and compounds from the environment and to metabolize various molecules in their tissues, such as toxic heavy metals and organic pollutants. Nowadays, phytoremediation technology is becoming of paramount importance when environmental decontamination is concerned, due to the emerging knowledge of its physiological and molecular mechanisms and the new biological and engineering strategies designed to optimize and improve it. In addition, the feasibility of using plants for environmental cleanup has been confirmed by many different trials around the world. Arabidopsis thaliana plants can be used for basic studies to improve the technology on phytoremediation. Making use of nuclear microscopy techniques, in this paper we study leaves of wild type and transgenic A. thaliana plants grown in a cadmium-rich environment under different conditions. Micro-PIXE, RBS and SEM analyses, performed on the scanning proton micro-probe at the CNA in Seville (Spain), prove that cadmium is preferentially sequestered in the central region of epidermal trichome and allow comparing the effects of genetic modifications.

  9. Creation of a continent recorded in zircon zoning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moser, D.E.; Bowman, J.R.; Wooden, J.; Valley, J.W.; Mazdab, F.; Kita, N.

    2008-01-01

    We have discovered a robust microcrystalline record of the early genesis of North American lithosphere preserved in the U-Pb age and oxygen isotope zoning of zircons from a lower crustal paragneiss in the Neoarchean Superior province. Detrital igneous zircon cores with ??18O values of 5.1???-7.1??? record creation of primitive to increasingly evolved crust from 2.85 ?? 0.02 Ga to 2.67 ?? 0.02 Ga. Sharp chemical unconformity between cores and higher ??18O (8.4???-10.4???) metamorphic overgrowths as old as 2.66 ?? 0.01 Ga dictates a rapid sequence of arc unroofing, burial of detrital zircons in hydrosphere-altered sediment, and transport to lower crust late in upper plate assembly. The period to 2.58 ?? 0.01 Ga included ???80 m.y. of high-temperature (???700-650 ??C), nearly continuous overgrowth events reflecting stages in maturation of the subjacent mantle root. Huronian continental rifting is recorded by the youngest zircon tip growth at 2512 ?? 8 Ma (??? 600 ??C) signaling magma intraplating and the onset of rigid plate behavior. This >150 m.y. microscopic isotope record in single crystals demonstrates the sluggish volume diffusion of U, Pb, and O in zircon throughout protracted regional metamorphism, and the consequent advances now possible in reconstructing planetary dynamics with zircon zoning. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  10. Gold in Accessory Zircon (the Kozhim Massif, Subpolar Urals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, Yuliya; Pystin, Aleksandr

    2017-12-01

    The crystals of zircon due to their resistance to external impact of various processes can reveal information about the environment of their formation and the inclusions observed of them. Zircon contains different mineral inclusions: biotite, plagioclase, quartz, apatite, etc. However, there is no information about gold inclusions in the zircons from granites of the Sudpolar Urals. The study results of the inclusions of gold in accessory zircon of the Kozhim granitic massif are presented in this paper. The studied mineral is a dark-brown translucent short-prismatic crystal containing the inclusion of gold and the allocations of quartz. According to studies, the inclusion of gold formed during the growth of zircon and it is the gold covered with a thin film of oxide gold. It was confirmed that the crystallization of the studied zircon occurred at a temperature of 800°C and above on the stage of formation of granites of Kozhim massif. The assumption is made about the additional temperature in the course of which was caused by decreasing of temperature up to 700° C and below during postmagmatic stage.

  11. Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions indicate multiple sources for Grenvillian detrital zircon deposited in western Laurentia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Amanda L.; Farmer, G. Lang; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Fedo, Christopher M.

    2015-12-01

    Combined U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data from 1.0 Ga to 1.3 Ga (Grenvillian) detrital zircon in Neoproterozoic and Cambrian siliciclastic sedimentary rocks in southwest North America, and from igneous zircon in potential Mesoproterozoic source rocks, are used to better assess the provenance of detrital zircon potentially transported across Laurentia in major river systems originating in the Grenville orogenic highlands. High-precision hafnium isotopic analyses of individual ∼1.1 Ga detrital zircon from Neoproterozoic siliciclastic sedimentary rocks in Sonora, northern Mexico, reveal that these zircons have low εHf (0) (-22 to -26) and were most likely derived from ∼1.1 Ga granitic rocks embedded in local Mojave Province Paleoproterozoic crust. In contrast, Grenvillian detrital zircons in Cambrian sedimentary rocks in Sonora, the Great Basin, and the Mojave Desert, have generally higher εHf (0) (-15 to -21) as demonstrated both by high precision solution-based, and by lower precision laser ablation, ICPMS data and were likely derived from more distal sources further to the east/southeast in Laurentia. Comparison to new and existing zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotopic data from Grenvillian crystalline rocks from the Appalachian Mountains, central and west Texas, and from Paleoproterozoic terranes throughout southwest North America reveals that zircon in Cambrian sandstones need not entirely represent detritus transported across the continent from Grenville province rocks in the vicinity of the present-day southern Appalachian Mountains. Instead, these zircons could have been derived from more proximal, high εHf (0), ∼1.1 Ga, crystalline rocks such as those exposed today in the Llano Uplift in central Texas and in the Franklin Mountains of west Texas. Regardless of the exact source(s) of the Grenvillian detrital zircon, new and existing whole-rock Nd isotopic data from Neoproterozoic to Cambrian siliciclastic sedimentary rocks in the Mojave Desert

  12. Central Antarctic provenance of Permian sandstones in Dronning Maud Land and the Karoo Basin: Integration of U Pb and TDM ages and host-rock affinity from detrital zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veevers, J. J.; Saeed, A.

    2007-12-01

    In conjugate SE Africa and Antarctica, Early Permian sandstones of the Swartrant Formation of the Ellisras Basin, Vryheid Formation of the Karoo Basin, and Amelang Plateau Formation of Dronning Maud Land (DML) were deposited after Gondwanan glaciation on a westward paleoslope. We analysed detrital zircons for U-Pb ages by a laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LAM-ICPMS) and attached age significance only to clusters of three or more overlapping analyses. We analysed Hf-isotope compositions by a multi-collector spectrometer (LAM-MC-ICPMS) and trace elements by electron microprobe (EMP) and ICPMS. These analyses indicate the rock type and source (whether crustal or juvenile mantle) of the host magma, and a "crustal" model age ( TDMC). The integrated analysis gives a more distinctive, and more easily interpreted, picture of crustal evolution in the provenance area than age data alone. Zircons from the Ellisras Basin are aged 2700-2540 Ma with minor populations about 2815 Ma and 2040 Ma, which correspond with the ages of the upslope parts of the proximal Kaapvaal Craton and Limpopo Belt. Mafic rock is the dominant host rock, and it reflects the Archean granite-greenstone terrane of the Kaapvaal Craton. The three Karoo Basin samples and the two DML samples have zircons with these common properties: (1) 1160-880 Ma, host magma mafic granitoid (< 65% SiO 2) derived from juvenile depleted mantle sources ( ɛHf positive) at 1.65 Ga and 1.35 Ga, with TDMC of 2.0-0.9 Ga; (2) 760 to 480 Ma, host magma granitoid and low-heavy rare earth element rock (?alkaline rock-carbonatite), derived from mixed crustal and juvenile depleted mantle sources ( ɛHf positive and negative) at 1.50 Ga and 1.35 Ga, with TDMC of 2.0-0.9 Ga. Together with similar detrital zircons in Triassic sandstone of SE Australia, these properties reflect those in upslope central Antarctica, indicating a provenance of ˜ 1000 Ma (Grenville) cratons embedded in 700-500 Ma (Pan

  13. San Francisco Estuary Striped Bass Migration History Determined by Electron-microprobe Analysis of Otolith Sr/Ca Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrach, D J; Phillis, C C; Weber, P K

    2004-09-17

    Habitat use has been shown to be an important factor in the bioaccumulation of contaminants in striped bass. This study examines migration in striped bass as part of a larger study investigating bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of xenobiotics to progeny in the San Francisco Estuary system. Habitat use, residence time and spawning migration over the life of females (n = 23) was studied. Female striped bass were collected between Knights Landing and Colusa on the Sacramento River during the spawning runs of 1999 and 2001. Otoliths were removed, processed and aged via otolith microstructure. Subsequently, otoliths were analyzed for strontium/calciummore » (Sr/Ca) ratio using an electron-microprobe to measure salinity exposure and to distinguish freshwater, estuary, and marine habitat use. Salinity exposure during the last year before capture was examined more closely for comparison of habitat use by the maternal parent to contaminant burden transferred to progeny. Results were selectively confirmed by ion microprobe analyses for habitat use. The Sr/Ca data demonstrate a wide range of migratory patterns. Age of initial ocean entry differs among individuals before returning to freshwater, presumably to spawn. Some fish reside in freshwater year-round, while others return to more saline habitats and make periodic migrations to freshwater. Frequency of habitat shifts and residence times differs among fish, as well as over the lifetime of individual fish. While at least one fish spent its final year in freshwater, the majority of spawning fish spent their final year in elevated salinity. However, not all fish migrated to freshwater to spawn in the previous year. Results from this investigation concerning migration history in striped bass can be combined with contaminant and histological developmental analyses to better understand the bioaccumulation of contaminants and the subsequent effects they and habitat use have on fish populations in the San Francisco Estuary

  14. Crystallization process of zircon and fergusonite during hydrothermal alteration in Nechalacho REE deposit, Thor Lake, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Murakami, H.; Kon, Y.; Tsunematsu, M.

    2012-04-01

    The core samples of two drill holes, which penetrate sub-horizontal mineralized horizons at Nechalacho REE deposit in the Proterozoic Thor Lake syenite, Canada, were studied in order to clarify magmatic and hydrothermal processes that enriched HFSE (e.g. Zr, Nb, Y and REE). Zircon is the most common REE minerals in Nechalacho REE deposit. The zircon is divided into five types as follows: Type-1 zircon occurs as single grain in phlogopite and the chondrite-normalized REE pattern is characterized by a steeply-rising slope from the LREE to the HREE with a positive Ce-anomaly and negative Eu-anomaly. This chemical characteristic is similar to that of igneous zircon. Type-2 zircon consists of HREE-rich magmatic porous core and LREE-Nb-F-rich hydrothermal rim. This type zircon is mostly included in phlogopite and fluorite, and occasionally in microcline. Type-3 zircon is characterized by euhedral to anhedral crystal, occurring in a complex intergrowth with REE fluorocarbonates. Type-3 zircons have high contents of REE, Nb and fluorine. Type-4 zircon consists of porous-core and -rim zones, but their chemical compositions are similar to each other. This type zircon is a subhedral crystal rimmed by fergusonite. Type-5 zircon is characterized by smaller, porous and subhedral to anhedral crystals. The interstices between small zircons are filled by fergusonite. Type-4 and -5 zircons show low REE and Nb contents. Occurrences of these five types of zircon are different according to the depth and degree of the alteration by hydrothermal solutions rich in F- and CO3 of the two drill holes, which permit a model for evolution of the zircon crystallization in Nechalacho REE deposit as follows: (1) type-1 (single magmatic zircon) is formed in miaskitic syenite. (2) LREE-Nb-F-rich hydrothermal zircon formed around HREE-rich magmatic zircon (type-2 zircon); (3) type-3 zircon crystallized thorough F and CO3-rich hydrothermal alteration of type-2 zircon which formed the complex

  15. Nano-Scale Structure of Twin Boundaries in Shocked Zircon from the Vredefort Impact Structure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, T. G.; Cavosie, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Shock deformation of zircon produces distinct microstructures that can be used as evidence of shock in natural samples. These deformation features include {112} twins that have been observed in naturally shocked samples from Vredefort and elsewhere [1-3]. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) has shown that these twins are polysynthetic, generally < 1µm wide and have a 65°/<110> crystallographic relation to the host zircon [2]. The structure and composition of these twin boundaries, and their effects on element mobility have not been explored previously. Here we use high-resolution TEM to investigate the nano-structure of a {112} twin in a shocked zircon crystal from the 2.0 Ga Vredefort impact structure [3]. Focused-ion-beam lift-out techniques were used to prepare a TEM foil with a 1 µm wide {112}-twin lamella. The foil was characterized by TEM imaging and electron diffraction using a FEI CM200-FEG transmission electron microscope. Selected area diffraction from the {112}-twin boundary, along a <111> zone, showed no apparent evidence of twining. However, the domain boundaries displayed weak diffraction contrast in this orientation. High-resolution images show a 50-nm wide zone of heterogeneous structural disorder and locally amorphous domains along the twin boundaries that is inferred to be a localized metamict zone. The detailed lattice structure of the interface was not discernable because of this structural disorder. Diffraction and imaging along <021> confirms that the {112}-twin composition plane is a mirror plane. The crystallographic relations observed along <110> and <021> are consistent with the 65°/<110> twin structure previously determined from EBSD [2]. Enhanced metamict disorder suggests a higher concentration of actinides along the twin boundaries and implies actinide mobility near twin boundaries. [1] Moser et al, 2011 Can J Earth Sci. [2] Erickson et al. 2013 Am Min. [3] Cavosie et al. 2015 Geol.

  16. Zircon crytallization and recycling in the magma chamber of the rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean arc)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachman, O.; Charlier, B.L.A.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to most large-volume silicic magmas in continental arcs, which are thought to evolve as open systems with significant assimilation of preexisting crust, the Kos Plateau Miff magma formed dominantly by crystal fractionation of mafic parents. Deposits from this ??? 60 km3 pyroclastic eruption (the largest known in the Aegean arc) lack xenocrystic zircons [secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb ages on zircon cores never older than 500 ka] and display Sr-Nd whole-rock isotopic ratios within the range of European mantle in an area with exposed Paleozoic and Tertiary continental crust; this evidence implies a nearly closed-system chemical differentiation. Consequently, the age range provided by zircon SIMS U-Th-Pb dating is a reliable indicator of the duration of assembly and longevity of the silicic magma body above its solidus. The age distribution from 160 ka (age of eruption by sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating; Smith et al., 1996) to ca. 500 ka combined with textural characteristics (high crystal content, corrosion of most anhydrous phenocrysts, but stability of hydrous phases) suggest (1) a protracted residence in the crust as a crystal mush and (2) rejuvenation (reduced crystallization and even partial resorption of minerals) prior to eruption probably induced by new influx of heat (and volatiles). This extended evolution chemically isolated from the surrounding crust is a likely consequence of the regional geodynamics because the thinned Aegean microplate acts as a refractory container for magmas in the dying Aegean subduction zone (continent-continent subduction). ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  17. Zircon crystallization and recycling in the magma chamber of the rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean arc)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachman, O.; Charlier, B.L.A.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to most large-volume silicic magmas in continental arcs, which are thought to evolve as open systems with significant assimilation of preexisting crust, the Kos Plateau Tuff magma formed dominantly by crystal fractionation of mafic parents. Deposits from this ~60 km3 pyroclastic eruption (the largest known in the Aegean arc) lack xenocrystic zircons [secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb ages on zircon cores never older than 500 ka] and display Sr-Nd whole-rock isotopic ratios within the range of European mantle in an area with exposed Paleozoic and Tertiary continental crust; this evidence implies a nearly closed-system chemical differentiation. Consequently, the age range provided by zircon SIMS U-Th-Pb dating is a reliable indicator of the duration of assembly and longevity of the silicic magma body above its solidus. The age distribution from 160 ka (age of eruption by sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating; Smith et al., 1996) to ca. 500 ka combined with textural characteristics (high crystal content, corrosion of most anhydrous phenocrysts, but stability of hydrous phases) suggest (1) a protracted residence in the crust as a crystal mush and (2) rejuvenation (reduced crystallization and even partial resorption of minerals) prior to eruption probably induced by new influx of heat (and volatiles). This extended evolution chemically isolated from the surrounding crust is a likely consequence of the regional geodynamics because the thinned Aegean microplate acts as a refractory container for magmas in the dying Aegean subduction zone (continent-continent subduction).

  18. In vivo monitoring of nanosphere onsite delivery using fiber optic microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Leu-Wei; Yang, Chung-Shi

    2005-02-01

    To recognize the information of ischemia-induced blood vessel permeability would be valuable to formulate the drugs for optimal local delivery, we constructed an implantable needle type fiber-optic microprobe for the monitoring of in vivo fluorescent substances in anesthetized rats. This fiber-optic microprobe was composed of coaxial optical fibers and catheterized using a thin wall tubing of stainless steel (~400 um O.D. and ~300 um I.D.). The central fiber, with 100 um core diameter and 20 um cladding, coated with a 30 um layer of gold, was surrounded by 10 fibers with 50 um cores. The central fiber carried the light from the 488 nm Argon laser to the tissue while the surrounding fibers collected the emitted fluorescence to the detector. When the fiber-optic microprobe was placed in the solutions containing various concentrations of fluorescent nanospheres (20 nm), either with or without 10% lipofundin as optical phantom, nanosphere concentration-dependent responses of the fluorescence intensity were observed. The microprobe was then implanted into the liver and the brain of anesthetized rats to monitor the in situ extravasation of pre-administered fluorescent nanospheres from vasculature following the ischemic insults. Both the hepatic and cerebral ischemic insults showed immediate increases of the extracellular 20 nm fluorescent nanospheres. The implantable fiber-optic microprobe constructed in present study provides itself as a minimally-invasive technique capable of investigating the vascular permeability for in vivo nanosphere delivery in both ischemic liver and brain.

  19. Twinning in Zircon: Not a High-Pressure Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. A.; Moser, D.; Shieh, S. R.; Barker, I.

    2017-12-01

    Microtwins in zircon are commonly found in shocked terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples and are potentially important for shock history and crater reconstruction. Twinning is easily observed with both the optical microscope and variety of electron beam techniques. Twinning as a deformation mechanism is consistent with the high strain rates generated during impact. No constitutive relationships, or even general limits on the physical conditions required for twinning in zircon are known, however. Present speculation on the critical quantity for twin formation, i.e. 10s of GPa of shock pressure (Moser et al. 2011, Timms et al., 2012), has no basis in the underlying mechanisms of twin nucleation, which are related to the motion of dislocations. This erroneous value is due to conflation of twinning sensu stricto with a phase transformation to reidite. Reidite occurs as twin-like lamellae occupying the {112} planes which are thought to be a mirror plane for twinning. We review the crystallographic theory of twinning in zircon. We then evaulate several theories on the nucleation of twins along with their necessary stresses involved. Our aim is to show that shock microtwins in zircon can be a `low pressure' shock phenomenon. This 'low pressure' hypothesis is supported by natural samples. These zircons are from the lower crust nearly 80 km from the centre of the Vredefort impact structure—the most distal zircon shock microstructures yet found in the lithosphere. Twins are present in 10% of the zircon grains greater than 50 µm in diameter. As an extensive, 'low pressure' phenomenon, twins are an easily recognized and potentially widespread record of Earth's impact history.Moser, D.E., Cupelli, C. L., Barker, I., Flowers, R. M., Mowman, J. R., Wooden, J. and Hart, R. (2011) New zircon shock phenomena and their use for dating and […] analysis of the Vredefort dome, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 48(2), 117-139.Timms, N.E., Reddy, S. M., Healy, D., Nemchin, A. A

  20. Experimental shock deformation in zircon: a transmission electron microscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, H.; Reimold, W. U.; Koeberl, C.; Hornemann, U.; Doukhan, J.-C.

    1999-06-01

    In recent years, apparently shock-induced and, thus, impact-characteristic microdeformations, in the form of planar microdeformation features and so-called strawberry (granular) texture, have been observed in zircons in rocks from confirmed impact structures and from the K/ T boundary. The nature of the planar microdeformations in this mineral is, however, still unknown, and critical information is needed regarding the shock pressure range in which these deformation effects are produced. We experimentally shock deformed two series of thin zircon (ZrSiO 4) target plates, cut perpendicular to the c-axis, at shock pressures of 20, 40, and 60 GPa. The recovered samples were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, one sample series was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Microdeformation effects observed at 20 GPa include pervasive micro-cleavage and dislocation patterns. Plastic deformation is indicated by a high density of straight dislocations in glide configuration. The dominant glide systems are <100>{010}. Micro-cleavages, induced by shear stresses during the compression stage, occur mostly in the {100} planes. The large density of dislocations at crack tips shows that plastic deformation was initiated by the micro-cracking processs. At 40 GPa, the sample was partly transformed from the zircon (z) to a scheelite (CaWO 4)-type (s) structure. Planar deformation features (PDFs) containing an amorphous phase of zircon composition are present in the not yet transformed zircon relics. The phase with scheelite structure, initiated in the {100} planes of zircon, consists of thin (0.1 to several μm) bands that crosscut the zircon matrix. The phase transformation is displacive (martensitic) and can be related by {100} z // {112} s and [001] z // <110> s. The scheelite structure phase is densely twinned, with twins in the (112) plane. The 60-GPa sample consists completely of the scheelite structure phase. Crosscutting and

  1. Applications of biotite inclusion composition to zircon provenance determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnke, Patrick; Mark Harrison, T.

    2017-09-01

    Detrital zircons are the only confirmed surviving remnants of >4.03 Ga crust while younger detrital zircons provide a parallel record of more recent crustal evolution to that preserved in crystalline rocks. Zircons often preserve inclusions that may provide clues as to the origins of out-of-context grains in the sedimentary record. Previous studies have established that inclusions of biotite in magmatic zircon are compositionally well-matched to biotite in the source rock matrix, although a direct application to ancient detrital zircons has not been made. A number of studies have documented variations in the Fe, Mg, and Al contents of magmatic biotite from different source rocks and tectonic settings, suggesting that biotite inclusions may indeed serve as provenance indicators for detrital zircons. Consistent with earlier studies, we find that the FeO*/MgO ratio of magmatic biotite from continental arcs, collisional, and within-plate settings varies with relative oxidation state as well as whole-rock FeO*/MgO, while its Al2O3/(FeO* + MgO) varies with whole-rock A/CNK (molar Al/(2 ṡ Ca + Na + K)). Biotite from oxidized metaluminous and reduced S-type granitoids can be readily distinguished from each other using FeO*/MgO and Al2O3/(FeO* + MgO), while biotite from reduced I-type and oxidized peraluminous granites may in some cases be more ambiguous. Biotite from peralkaline and reduced A-type granites are also distinguishable from all other categories by Al2O3/(FeO* + MgO) and FeO*/MgO, respectively. Biotite inclusions in Hadean zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia indicate a mixture of metaluminous and reduced S-type host rocks, while inclusions in 3.6-3.8 Ga detrital zircons from the Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt indicate more oxidized peraluminous magmas. These results highlight the diversity of felsic materials on the early Earth and suggest that biotite inclusions are applicable to zircon provenance throughout the sedimentary record.

  2. Comment on "Zircon U-Th-Pb dating using LA-ICP-MS: Simultaneous U-Pb and U-Th dating on 0.1 Ma Toya Tephra, Japan" by Hisatoshi Ito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillong, M.; Schmitt, A. K.; Bachmann, O.

    2015-04-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of eight zircon reference materials and synthetic zircon-hafnon end-members indicate that corrections for abundance sensitivity and molecular zirconium sesquioxide ions (Zr2O3+) are critical for reliable determination of 230Th abundances in zircon. Other polyatomic interferences in the mass range 223-233 amu are insignificant. When corrected for abundance sensitivity and interferences, activity ratios of (230Th)/(238U) for the zircon reference materials we used average 1.001 ± 0.010 (1σ error; mean square of weighted deviates MSWD = 1.45; n = 8). This includes the 91500 and Plešovice zircons, which were deemed unsuitable for calibration of (230Th)/(238U) by Ito (2014). Uranium series zircon ages generated by LA-ICP-MS without mitigating (e.g., by high mass resolution) or correcting for abundance sensitivity and molecular interferences on 230Th such as those presented by Ito (2014) are potentially unreliable.

  3. The Effect of Element Substitution on Ti-in-Zircon Geothermometry in Volcanic Zircons from Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. L.; Hattori, K.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the extensive application of the Ti-in-zircon geothermometer, its accuracy in natural systems remains uncertain. In order to investigate the parameters contributing to Ti in zircon, we examined zircons from dacitic eruption products of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, from the Pliocene (>2.5-2.7 Ma), 35000BP and 1991AD. All samples are unaltered and quenched from magmas at 790-825°C (Fe-Ti-oxide thermometry). Furthermore, the magma conditions of 1991 samples are well characterized: 780°C (cummingtonite rims on hornblende, Fe-Ti-oxide thermometry), 2 kbar pressure, 5.5-6.5 wt.% H2O and fO2 of NNO+1.6. Calculated zircon saturation temperatures are 760, 744 and 738°C (oldest to youngest). Zircon Ti concentrations are low (2.0-8.8 ppm), show positive covariation with U (35.6-639 ppm), Th (18.7-696 ppm), ∑REE (237-1310 ppm) and Y (247-1770 ppm), and negative covariation with Hf (7610-12000 ppm). The Ti-in-zircon geothermometer by Ferry and Watson (2007) yields mean temperatures of 690, 666 and 663°C (oldest to youngest), using TiO2 activity=0.6, SiO2 activity=1 and -40°C pressure correction. Therefore, temperatures calculated using this method are underestimated by >100°C. We suggest that elements in the Zr site impact the substitution of Ti in the Si site of zircon. Ti shows a positive covariation with Zr/Hf (37.0-57.3, r2=0.551). The ionic radius of Hf4+ is smaller than Zr4+, whereas cations like U4+, Th4+, REE3+ and Y3+ are larger. The departure from the ideal crystal configuration is evaluated using the parameter Zr/(Hf-x), whereby x=U4+, Th4+, ∑REE and Y3+. Ti contents are more strongly correlated with the parameter than Zr/Hf (r2=0.559, 0.565, 0.608, 0.616; respectively). This suggests that large cations replacing Zr strain the lattice, reducing the amount of Ti incorporated into zircon. This further suggests that ZrSiO4 activity is less than 1 in natural rocks, resulting in the systematic underestimation of Ti-in-zircon temperatures.

  4. Duration of a large Mafic intrusion and heat transfer in the lower crust: A SHRIMP U-Pb zircon Study in the Ivrea-Verbano Zone (Western Alps, Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peressini, G.; Quick, J.E.; Sinigoi, S.; Hofmann, A.W.; Fanning, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Ivrea-Verbano Zone in the western Italian Alps contains one of the world's classic examples of ponding of mantle-derived, mafic magma in the deep crust. Within it, a voluminous, composite mafic pluton, the Mafic Complex, intruded lower-crustal, high-grade paragneiss of the Kinzigite Formation during Permian-Carboniferous time, and is now exposed in cross-section as a result of Alpine uplift. The age of the intrusion is still debated because the results of geochronological studies in the last three decades on different rock types and with various dating techniques range from 250 to about 300 Ma. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon age determinations on 12 samples from several locations within the Mafic Complex were performed to better constrain the age of the igneous event. The results indicate a long history of magma emplacement and cooling, which reconciles the spread in previously published ages. The main intrusive phase took place at 288 ?? 4 Ma, causing a perturbation of the deep-crustal geotherm, which relaxed to the Sm-Nd closure temperature in garnet-free mafic rocks after about 15-20 Myr of sub-solidus cooling at c. 270 Ma. These results suggest that large, deep crustal plutons, such as those identified geophysically at depths of 10-20 km within extended continental crust (e.g. Yellowstone, Rio Grande Rift, Basin and Range) may have formed rapidly but induced a prolonged thermal perturbation. In addition, the data indicate that a significant thermal event affected the country rock of the Mafic Complex at about 310 Ma. The occurrence of an upper amphibolite- to granulite-facies thermal event in the Kinzigite Formation prior to the main intrusive phase of the Mafic Complex has been postulated by several workers, and is corroborated by other geochronological investigations. However, it remains uncertain whether this event (1) was part of a prolonged perturbation of the deep-crustal geotherm, which started long before the onset of

  5. Is Myanmar jadeitite of Jurassic age? A result from incompletely recrystallized inherited zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yui, Tzen-Fu; Fukoyama, Mayuko; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Wu, Chao-Ming; Wu, Tsai-Way; Liou, J. G.; Grove, Marty

    2013-02-01

    Zircons from two Myanmar jadeitite samples were separated for texture, mineral inclusion, U-Pb dating and trace element composition analyses. Three types of zircons, with respect to U-Pb isotope system, were recognized. Type I zircons are inherited ones, yielding an igneous protolith age of 160 ± 1 Ma; Type II zircons are metasomatic/hydrothermal ones, giving a (minimum) jadeitite formation age of 77 ± 3 Ma; and Type III zircons are incompletely recrystallized ones, with non-coherent and geologically meaningless ages from 153 to 105 Ma. These Myanmar jadeitites would therefore have formed through whole-sale metasomatic replacement processes. Compared with Type I zircons, Type II zircons show typical metasomatic/hydrothermal geochemical signatures, with low Th/U ratio (< 0.1), small Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce* = < 5) and low ΣREE content (40-115 ppm). Type III zircons, however, commonly have the above geochemical signatures straddle in between Type I and Type II zircons. It is shown that the resetting rates of various trace element compositions and U-Pb isotope system of inherited zircons are not coupled "in phase" in response to zircon recrystallization during jadeitite formation. The observed abnormally low Th/U ratio and small Ce anomaly of some Type I zircons, as well as the lack of negative Eu anomaly of all Type I zircons, should be suspected to be of secondary origin. In extreme cases, incompletely recrystallized zircons may show typical metasomatic/hydrothermal geochemical signatures, but leave U-Pb isotope system partially reset or even largely unchanged. Such zircons easily lead to incorrect age interpretation, and hence erroneous geological implication. The Myanmar jadeitites, based on the present study, might have formed during the Late Cretaceous subduction before the beginning of India-Asia continental collision at Paleocene. Previously proposed Late Jurassic ages for Myanmar jadeitites are suggested as results rooted on data retrieved from incompletely

  6. Core Community Specifications for Electron Microprobe Operating Systems: Software, Quality Control, and Data Management Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournelle, John; Carpenter, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Modem electron microprobe systems have become increasingly sophisticated. These systems utilize either UNIX or PC computer systems for measurement, automation, and data reduction. These systems have undergone major improvements in processing, storage, display, and communications, due to increased capabilities of hardware and software. Instrument specifications are typically utilized at the time of purchase and concentrate on hardware performance. The microanalysis community includes analysts, researchers, software developers, and manufacturers, who could benefit from exchange of ideas and the ultimate development of core community specifications (CCS) for hardware and software components of microprobe instrumentation and operating systems.

  7. High Pressure Behavior of Zircon at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichmann, H. J.; Rocholl, A.

    2016-12-01

    Zircon, ZrSiO4, is an ubiquitous mineral in the Earth's crust, forming under a wide range of metamorphic and igneous conditions. Its high content in certain trace elements (REE, Hf, Th, U) and due to its isotopic information, together with its chemical and physical robustness makes zircon an unique geochemical tool and geochronometer. Despite its geological importance there is a disagreement regarding the responds of zircon to elevated pressure, especially about the commencement of a pressure - induced structural phase transition. At elevated pressure zircon (I41/amd) undergoes a pressure induced phase transition to the scheelite structure (I41/a) . In the low pressure and high pressure phase, the (SiO4)4- tetrahedral units are present. However, the onset of the phase transition at room temperature is not well defined: zircon - scheelite transitions have been reported in a pressure regime ranging from 20 to 30 GPa (e.g. Ono et al., 2004). To clarify this issue, we performed Raman spectroscopy measurement up to 60 GPa on a non-metamict single crystal zircon sample (reference material 91500; Wiedenbeck et al., 1995; Wiedenbeck et al., 2004). A closer look at the external lattice modes at 201 cm-1 shows a decreasing of the wavenumbers with increasing pressure up to 21 GPa followed by a steep increase. The lattice modes at 213 and 224 cm-1 also exhibit a subtle kink in this pressure range. This pressure coincides with that one reported for the zircon - scheelite transition (van Westrenen et al., 2004). Another interesting issue is the behavior of the internal modes at higher pressures. The ν3 stretching modes at about 1000 cm-1show distinct discontinuities at 31 GPa accompanied by the emerging of new features in the Raman spectrum suggesting another, pressure triggered modification in the zircon structure. References: Ono, Funakoshi, Nakajima, Tange, and Katsura (2004) Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 147, 505-509. Van Westrenen, Frank, Hanchar, Fei, Finch, and Zha (2004

  8. At what conditions does zircon grow/dissolve during high-T metamorphism? Relating zircon textures to PT-conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Barbara E.; Regis, Daniele; Manzotti, Paola; Engi, Martin

    2015-04-01

    A key question in ziconology is when and how zircon grows during metamorphism. To shed light on zircon forming processes and the corresponding PT-conditions during high-T metamorphism a case study was undertaken. The Ivrea Zone (N-Italy) exposes a lower continental crustal section in which a continuous metamorphic field gradient from amphibolite to granulite facies is documented. This field gradient is thought to reflect protracted heating during late Paleozoic times, with a probable high-T peak in the Permian. We present first results from a primarily textural study supported by U-Pb ages, Th/U ratios and Ti-in-Zrn thermometry. Four types of zircon were identified based on their overgrowth proportions and the preservation of detrital cores. Zircon grains were thus classified as Type1 - detrital grains with no overgrowth or very narrow rims (300 Ma) and appears to reflect an early dehydration phase. Rim2b has Permian ages (median 275 Ma), is by far the most common overgrowth type, found in a wide PT-range. Its development appears related to biotite breakdown. Rim3 is texturally indicative of magmatic zircon, occurs only in diatexites. Rim4 is the latest overgrowth and is locally found at all metamorphic grades. Textural features suggest late fluid-related recrystallization of existing zircon. At lowest grade (675±35°C, 6±2 kbar) zircons show type1 only, overgrowths are too thin to clearly identify the rim type. Further upgrade (~700°C, 7 kbar) type1 and type2 dominate. Type2 zircons show rim1, rim2a and occasionally rim4. At the Mu-out isograd (750±50°C, 8.2±1.4 kbar) most zircons are of type2, now with rim2b instead of 2a, in addition to rim1 and rim4. Near and in granulite facies (to 800°C, 8±2 kbar) mostly zircon type2 and type4 are present. While rim1 gets more narrow with increasing metamorphic grade, rim2b grows significantly thicker. Occasionally rim2a and rim4 occur. Close to the Bt-out isograd (~860°C, 9.2±1.7 kbar), mostly type3 and type4 are

  9. Developing Zircon as a Probe of Planetary Impact History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    The identification of Meteor Crater in Arizona as an extraterrestrial impact by Eugene Shoemaker provided the first evidence of this geologic phenomenon and opened the door to a new field of research that has eventually lead to the identification of over ~150 terrestrial impact structures. Subsequently impacts have been evoked in the formation of the moon, delivery of volatiles and bio-precursors to early Earth, creation of habitats for the earliest life and, in more recent times, major mass extinction events. However, understanding the impact flux to the Earth-Moon system has been complicated by the constant weathering and erosion at Earth's surface and the complex nature of impactite samples such that only a hand full of terrestrial craters have been accurately and precisely dated. Currently 40Ar/39Ar step-heating analysis of impactite samples is commonly used to infer impact ages but can be problematic due to the presence of relic clasts, incomplete 40Ar outgassing or excess 40Ar, and recoil and shock effects. The work presented here attempts to develop zircon geochronology to probe planetary impact histories as an alternative to current methods and provides another tool by which to constrain the bolide flux to the Earth-Moon system. Zircon has become the premier geo-chronometer in earth science and geochemical investigation of Hadean zircon from Western Australia has challenged the long-standing, popular conception that the near-surface Hadean Earth was an uninhabitable and hellish world; Zircons may preserve environmental information regarding their formation and thus provide a rare window into conditions on early Earth. Isotopic and petrologic analyses of these ancient grains have been interpreted to suggest that early Earth was more habitable than previously envisioned, with water oceans, continental crust, and possibly even plate tectonics. The Hadean is also suspected to be a time of major planetary bombardment however identifying impact signatures within

  10. Irradiation effects in monazite-(Ce) and zircon: Raman and photoluminescence study of Au-irradiated FIB foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasdala, Lutz; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Artac, Andreas; Chanmuang N., Chutimun; Habler, Gerlinde; Lenz, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    Lamellae of 1.5 µm thickness, prepared from well-crystallised monazite-(Ce) and zircon samples using the focused-ion-beam technique, were subjected to triple irradiation with 1 MeV Au+ ions (15.6% of the respective total fluence), 4 MeV Au2+ ions (21.9%) and 10 MeV Au3+ ions (62.5%). Total irradiation fluences were varied in the range 4.5 × 1012 - 1.2 × 1014 ions/cm2. The highest fluence resulted in amorphisation of both minerals; all other irradiations (i.e. up to 4.5 × 1013 ions/cm2) resulted in moderate to severe damage. Lamellae were subjected to Raman and laser-induced photoluminescence analysis, in order to provide a means of quantifying irradiation effects using these two micro-spectroscopy techniques. Based on extensive Monte Carlo calculations and subsequent defect-density estimates, irradiation-induced spectroscopic changes are compared with those of naturally self-irradiated samples. The finding that ion irradiation of monazite-(Ce) may cause severe damage or even amorphisation, is in apparent contrast to the general observation that naturally self-irradiated monazite-(Ce) does not become metamict (i.e. irradiation-amorphised), in spite of high self-irradiation doses. This is predominantly assigned to the continuous low-temperature damage annealing undergone by this mineral; other possible causes are discussed. According to cautious estimates, monazite-(Ce) samples of Mesoproterozoic to Cretaceous ages have stored only about 1% of the total damage experienced. In contrast, damage in ion-irradiated and naturally self-irradiated zircon is on the same order; reasons for the observed slight differences are discussed. We may assess that in zircon, alpha decays create significantly less than 103 Frenkel-type defect pairs per event, which is much lower than previous estimates. Amorphisation occurs at defect densities of about 0.10 dpa (displacements per lattice atom).

  11. Dating sub-20 micron zircons in granulite-facies mafic dikes from SW Montana: a new approach using automated mineralogy and SIMS U-Pb geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, A. K.; Mahan, K. H.; Flowers, R. M.; Chamberlain, K.; Appleby, S. K.; Schmitt, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    Geochronological data is fundamental to all tectonic studies, but a major limitation for many lithologies is a paucity of sizeable zircons suitable for conventional U-Pb techniques. In particular, mafic dike swarms provide important time markers for tectonometamorphic activity in Precambrian terranes, but commonly yield little or no zircon or baddeleyite sufficient for TIMS or standard ion-probe analysis of crystal separates. We apply a new approach involving in-situ automated mineralogy and high spatial resolution Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) geochronology to a mafic dike swarm exposed in the Northern Madison Range of SW Montana. The dikes cross-cut early fabrics but are also variably deformed and metamorphosed to P-T conditions as high as 1.2 GPa and 850 C. The swarm emplacement age is inferred to be ca. 2.1 Ga based on similarities to dated dikes in the adjacent Tobacco Root Mountains. Resolving the timing of dike emplacement and high-grade metamorphism in the study area is important for understanding the extent of post-Archean modification to the northwest margin of the Wyoming craton. Identification and textural characterization of zircons were facilitated by in-situ automated mineralogical analysis, in contrast to a standard elemental X-ray mapping approach. Our technique uses an SEM-based platform coupling calibrated BSE data with X-ray data collected by multiple energy dispersive spectrometers to rapidly identify target accessory phases at high spatial resolution. Whole thin section search maps were generated in ~30 minutes at 4 µm pixel resolution. Our dike thin sections commonly contained >300 zircons in a variety of textural settings, with 80% having a short dimension <10 µm. Zircons were dated in-situ by adjusting the field aperture of the CAMECA ims1270 to preferentially collect secondary ions emitted from within the inner few microns of the ~15 µm diameter analysis pit. This allows us to analyze zircon grains with a minimum dimension as

  12. Raman study of radiation-damaged zircon under hydrostatic compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasdala, Lutz; Miletich, Ronald; Ruschel, Katja; Váczi, Tamás

    2008-12-01

    Pressure-induced changes of Raman band parameters of four natural, gem-quality zircon samples with different degrees of self-irradiation damage, and synthetic ZrSiO4 without radiation damage, have been studied under hydrostatic compression in a diamond anvil cell up to ~10 GPa. Radiation-damaged zircon shows similar up-shifts of internal SiO4 stretching modes at elevated pressures as non-damaged ZrSiO4. Only minor changes of band-widths were observed in all cases. This makes it possible to estimate the degree of radiation damage from the width of the ν3(SiO4) band of zircon inclusions in situ, almost independent from potential “fossilized pressures” or compressive strain acting on the inclusions. An application is the non-destructive analysis of gemstones such as corundum or spinel: broadened Raman bands are a reliable indicator of self-irradiation damage in zircon inclusions, whose presence allows one to exclude artificial color enhancement by high-temperature treatment of the specimen.

  13. Opening the closed box: lattice diffusion in zircon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J.; MacDonald, J.; Goodenough, K. M.; Crowley, Q.; Harley, S.; Mariani, E.

    2015-12-01

    In principle, any radiogenic parent or daughter element can diffuse through any crystalline lattice. Given improved analytic techniques and mathematical models, geochronology is beginning to take such diffusion into account in a quantitative fashion. Whilst lattice diffusion compromises simple interpretation of radiometric data, it can, when combined with spatially resolved data, provide more detailed insight into thermal histories. In regions that have experienced particularly high temperatures diffusion may become significant in minerals normally thought to be reliably closed. We have modelled Pb diffusion in zircon, building on earlier work on Ar diffusion in micas - the mathematics being basically the same. We are motivated by some challenging isotope data from zircon in the Lewisian Complex of NW Scotland (a TTG region with a long Archaean and Proterozoic history). For example we have grains with old rims and younger cores. Whilst other explanations are possible, we show how lattice diffusion of Pb is plausible, using experimental diffusion data together with estimates of ultra-high temperatures from the region. We have modified a previous model for Ar diffusion ("Diffarg") to include variations in parent isotope concentration, so we can understand the consequences of U zonation within zircon grains during prolonged thermal histories. This is also relevant to asking why Pb has apparently not diffused in zircon from other UHT regions - or has it?

  14. SU-8 microprobe with microelectrodes for monitoring electrical impedance in living tissues.

    PubMed

    Tijero, M; Gabriel, G; Caro, J; Altuna, A; Hernández, R; Villa, R; Berganzo, J; Blanco, F J; Salido, R; Fernández, L J

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents a minimally invasive needle-shaped probe capable of monitoring the electrical impedance of living tissues. This microprobe consists of a 160 microm thick SU-8 substrate containing four planar platinum (Pt) microelectrodes. We design the probe to minimize damage to the surrounding tissue and to be stiff enough to be inserted in living tissues. The proposed batch fabrication process is low cost and low time consuming. The microelectrodes obtained with this process are strongly adhered to the SU-8 substrate and their impedance does not depend on frequency variation. In vitro experiments are compared with previously developed Si and SiC based microprobes and results suggest that it is preferable to use the SU-8 based microprobes due to their flexibility and low cost. The microprobe is assembled on a flexible printed circuit FPC with a conductive glue, packaged with epoxy and wired to the external instrumentation. This flexible probe is inserted into a rat kidney without fracturing and succeeds in demonstrating the ischemia monitoring.

  15. High-speed microprobe for roughness measurements in high-aspect-ratio microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doering, Lutz; Brand, Uwe; Bütefisch, Sebastian; Ahbe, Thomas; Weimann, Thomas; Peiner, Erwin; Frank, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Cantilever-type silicon microprobes with an integrated tip and a piezoresistive signal read out have successfully proven to bridge the gap between scanning force microscopy and stylus profilometry. Roughness measurements in high-aspect-ratio microstructures (HARMS) with depths down to 5 mm and widths down to 50 µm have been demonstrated. To improve the scanning speed up to 15 mm s-1, the wear of the tip has to be reduced. The atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique with alumina (Al2O3) has been tested for this purpose. Repeated wear measurements with coated and uncoated microprobe cantilevers have been carried out on a roughness standard at a speed of 15 mm s-1. The tip shape and the wear have been measured using a new probing tip reference standard containing rectangular silicon grooves with widths from 0.3 µm to 3 µm. The penetration depth of the microprobe allows one to measure the wear of the tip as well as the tip width and the opening angle of the tip. The roughness parameters obtained on the roughness standard during wear experiments agree well with the reference values measured with a calibrated stylus instrument, nevertheless a small amount of wear still is observable. Further research is necessary in order to obtain wear resistant microprobe tips for non-destructive inspection of microstructures in industry and microform measurements, for example in injection nozzles.

  16. Characterization of Alq3 thin films by a near-field microwave microprobe.

    PubMed

    Hovsepyan, Artur; Lee, Huneung; Sargsyan, Tigran; Melikyan, Harutyun; Yoon, Youngwoon; Babajanyan, Arsen; Friedman, Barry; Lee, Kiejin

    2008-09-01

    We observed tris-8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3) thin films dependence on substrate heating temperatures by using a near-field microwave microprobe (NFMM) and by optical absorption at wavelengths between 200 and 900 nm. The changes of absorption intensity at different substrate heating temperatures are correlated to the changes in the sheet resistance of Alq3 thin films.

  17. Examination of Surveyor 3 parts with the scanning electron microscope and electron microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chodos, A. A.; Devaney, J. R.; Evens, K. C.

    1972-01-01

    Two screws and two washers, several small chips of tubing, and a fiber removed from a third screw were examined with the scanning electron microscope and the electron microprobe. The purpose of the examination was to determine the nature of the material on the surface of these samples and to search for the presence of meteoritic material.

  18. Age mapping and dating of monazite on the electron microprobe: Deconvoluting multistage tectonic histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Michael L.; Jercinovic, Michael J.; Terry, Michael P.

    1999-11-01

    High-resolution X-ray mapping and dating of monazite on the electron microprobe are powerful geochronological tools for structural, metamorphic, and tectonic analysis. X-ray maps commonly show complex Th, U, and Pb zoning that reflects monazite growth and overgrowth events. Age maps constructed from the X-ray maps simplify the zoning and highlight age domains. Microprobe dating offers a rapid, in situ method for estimating ages of mapped domains. Application of these techniques has placed new constraints on the tectonic history of three areas. In western Canada, age mapping has revealed multiphase monazite, with older cores and younger rims, included in syntectonic garnet. Microprobe ages show that tectonism occurred ca. 1.9 Ga, 700 m.y. later than mylonitization in the adjacent Snowbird tectonic zone. In New Mexico, age mapping and dating show that the dominant fabric and triple-point metamorphism occurred during a 1.4 Ga reactivation, not during the 1.7 Ga Yavapai-Mazatzal orogeny. In Norway, monazite inclusions in garnet constrain high-pressure metamorphism to ca. 405 Ma, and older cores indicate a previously unrecognized component of ca. 1.0 Ga monazite. In all three areas, microprobe dating and age mapping have provided a critical textural context for geochronologic data and a better understanding of the complex age spectra of these multistage orogenic belts.

  19. Microprobe investigation of brittle segregates in aluminum MIG and TIG welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larssen, P. A.; Miller, E. L.

    1968-01-01

    Quantitative microprobe analysis of segregated particles in aluminum MIG /Metal Inert Gas/ and TIG /Tungsten Inert Gas/ welds indicated that there were about ten different kinds of particles, corresponding to ten different intermetallic compounds. Differences between MIG and TIG welds related to the individual cooling rates of these welds.

  20. The evolution of complex type B Allende inclusion - An ion microprobe trace element study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, Glenn J.; Crozaz, Ghislaine; Lundberg, Laura L.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented of a detailed trace-element and isotopic analyses of the constituent phases in each of the major textural parts (mantle, core, and islands) of a Type B refractory inclusion, the USNM 5241 inclusion from Allende, first described by El Goresy et al. (1985). The REE data on 5241 were found to be largely consistent with a model in which the mantle and the core of 5241 formed sequentially out of a single melt by fractional crystallization. The numerical models of REE evolution in the 5241 melt, especially that of Eu, require that a significant mass of spinel-free island material was assimilated into the evolving melt during the last half of the solidification history of 5241. The trace element results pbtained thus strongly support the interpretation of El Goresy et al. (1985) that the spinel-free islands in the 5241 are trapped xenoliths.

  1. Development And Application Of The Ion Microprobe For Analysis Of Extraterrestrial Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers the work carried out under NASA Grant NAG5-4083. The research was directed toward analyses of early solar system material, of presolar grains preserved in meteorites, and toward theoretical studies of nucleosynthesis in stars related to the chemical evolution of the galaxy and the formation of the solar system. The work was carried out over the time period 15 February 1998 - 31 May 2001 and involved the participation of the following individuals: M. Busso, Visiting Associate, Professor of Astrophysics, Perugia University, Italy; B.-G. Choi, research fellow, now Associate Professor at Seoul National University, Korea; H. C. Connolly, research fellow, now at Kingsborough Community College, CUNY; R. Gallino, Visiting Associate, Professor of Astrophysics, University of Torino; Y. Guan, Smithsonian Institution; C. Hohenberg, Professor of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis; M. Heinrich, electronics and systems engineer, Caltech; W. Hsu, research fellow, Caltech; T. LaTourrette, research fellow, now at Rand Corporation; G. R. Huss, Senior Research Scientist, now at Arizona State University; N. Krestina, research fellow in geochemistry, Caltech; G. J. MacPherson, Smithsonian Institution; K. Nollett, research fellow in astrophysics; Y.-Z. Qian, Professor of Physics, University of Minnesota; G. Srinivasan, research fellow, now Research Scientist, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India.

  2. The age of unusual xenogenic zircons from Yakutian kimberlites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladykin, N. V.; Lepekhina, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    Several spindle-shaped grains of zircon, which have a small size (<0.25 mm) and a distinct purplish pink coloration were found in the crushed samples of kimberlites from the Aykhal, Komsomolskaya-Magnitnaya, Botuobinskaya (Siberian platform), and Nyurbinskaya (Yakutia) pipes and olivine lamproites of the Khani massif (West Aldan). U-Pb SHRIMP II zircon dating performed at the VSEGEI Center for Isotopic Research yielded the ages of 1870-1890 Ma for the pipes of the Western province (Aykhal and Komsomolskaya) and 2200-2750 Ma for the pipes of the eastern province (Nyurbinskaya and Botuobinskaya), which allowed us to consider these zircons to be xenogenic to kimberlites. Although these zircons resemble in their age and color those from the granulite xenoliths in the Udachnaya pipe [2], no other granulite minerals are found there. Thus, major geological events in the mantle and lower crust, which led to the formation of zircon-bearing rocks, happened at 1800-1900 Ma in the northern part of the kimberlite province, whereas in the Eastern part of the province (Nakyn field) these events were much older (2220-2700 Ma). It is known that the period of 1800-1900 Ma in the Earth’s history was accompanied by intense tectonic movements and widespread alkaline-carbonatite magmatism. This magmatism was related to plume activity responsible for overheating the large portions of the mantle to the temperatures at which some diamonds in mantle rocks would burn (northern part of the kimberlite province). In the Nakyn area, the mantle underwent few or no geological processes at that time, and perhaps for this reason this area hosts more diamondiferous kimberlites. The age of olivine lamproites from the Khani massif is 2672-2732 Ma. Thus, these are some of the world’s oldest known K-alkaline rocks.

  3. Rhyolite genesis at the Picabo Volcanic Center of the Snake River Plain: Progressive recycling of hydrothermally altered rhyolites revealed by high resolution analysis of individual zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, D.; Bindeman, I. N.; Watts, K. E.; Schmitt, A. K.; McCurry, M. O.

    2012-12-01

    The Picabo eruptive center of the Snake River Plain (SRP) produced a series of normal and low δ18O rhyolites from 10.44 Ma to 6.62 Ma, providing the first evidence of progressive recycling of hydrothermally altered rhyolites during the formation of a caldera complex. In this study we present a characterization of ignimbrites and associated lavas based on U-Pb ages and δ18O compositions of individual zircon cores measured by ion microprobe, phenocryst δ18O values measured by laser fluorination, whole rock 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd compositions, and whole rock geochemistry. Our data define rhyolite genesis at the Picabo volcanic center through time and have implications for the transition between volcanic centers. Caldera complex evolution at Picabo began with eruption of the 10.44 ± 0.27 Ma Tuff of Arbon Valley (TAV), a chemically zoned unit with a normal δ18Omelt value (8.15‰), very high 87Sr/86Sr (up to 0.734430) and very low ɛNd (-18). Eruptions continued with the ~9.1 Ma Two-and-a-Half-Mile Rhyolite (Kellogg et al., 1988), a unit significant in that it has an even lower ɛNd than the TAV and a normal δ18Omelt value (8.10‰). This low ɛNd of -23, of the Two-and-a-Half-Mile Rhyolite, reveals that greater than 40% of Archean crust was assimilated. These normal δ18O eruptions were followed by a series of lower δ18O eruptions distinguishable by Sr and Nd isotopes and whole rock chemistry. The 8.25 ± 0.26 Ma Rhyolite of West Pocatello has the lowest δ18Omelt value (3.34‰) of these eruptions, and based on nearly identical age, 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, and whole rock chemistry, we correlate it to a 1,000 m thick intracaldera tuff (present in the INEL drillcore). Along with a distinct decrease in δ18O, from the TAV to the Rhyolite of West Pocatello, there is a corresponding increase in δ18Ozircon heterogeneity from the TAV (1‰ variation) to the low δ18O units with the greatest δ18Ozircon diversity (up to 5‰). Although morphological evidence for

  4. Characterization of inclusions in terrestrial impact formed zircon: Constraining the formation conditions of Hadean zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltys, J. P.; Wielicki, M. M.; Sizemore, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the discovery and subsequent geochemical analysis of Hadean terrestrial material (e.g. detrital zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia), a dramatic paradigm shift has occurred in the hypothesized near surface conditions of the first 500 million years of Earth's evolution. From a hellish setting riddled with impactors and not fit for life to a much milder environment that may have been uniquely suitable for the origin of life. Geochemical analyses of these ancient materials have been used to suggest the presence of water at or near the surface as well as the existence of continental crust during the Hadean, both of which have been suggested as necessary for the origin of life. However, the intensity of extraterrestrial bombardment during the Hadean and the effects of such events on the origin of life remains poorly understood. Clearly, as evidenced by Phanerozoic impact events, extraterrestrial impactors have the potential to dramatically effect the environment, particularly the biosphere. Early Earth likely experienced multiple large impact events, as evidenced by the lunar record, however whether those impacts were sufficient to frustrate the origin of life remains an open question. Although multiple lines of evidence, including the inclusion population, suggest the formation of Hadean zircon from Jack Hills as crystallizing in an under-thrust environment from S-type magmas, a recent study has suggested their formation in an impact melt environment analogous to a portion of the Sudbury Igneous Complex at the Sudbury impact structure. To determine between these two formation scenarios we have under-taken an inclusion study of terrestrial impact formed zircon from four of the largest terrestrial impact structures (Sudbury, Canada; Manicouagan, Canada; Vredefort, South Africa; Morokweng, South Africa), to compare to the vast inclusion dataset that exists for Jack Hills zircon. Preliminary data suggests a different inclusion population, from Hadean zircon

  5. A novel technique for producing antibody-coated microprobes using a thiol-terminal silane and a heterobifunctional crosslinker.

    PubMed

    Routh, V H; Helke, C J

    1997-02-01

    Antibody-coated microprobes are used to measure neuropeptide release in the central nervous system. Although they are not quantitative, they provide the most precise spatial resolution of the location of in vivo release of any currently available method. Previous methods of coating antibody microprobes are difficult and time-consuming. Moreover, using these methods we were unable to produce evenly coated antibody microprobes. This paper describes a novel method for the production of antibody microprobes using thiol-terminal silanes and the heterobifunctional crosslinker, 4-(4-N-maleimidophenyl)butyric acid hydrazide HCl 1/2 dioxane (MPBH). Following silation, glass micropipettes are incubated with antibody to substance P (SP) that has been conjugated to MPBH. This method results in a dense, even coating of antibody without decreasing the biological activity of the antibody. Additionally, this method takes considerably less time than previously described methods without sacrificing the use of antibody microprobes as micropipettes. The sensitivity of the microprobes for SP is in the picomolar range, and there is a linear correlation between the log of SP concentration (M) and B/B0 (r2 = 0.98). The microprobes are stable for up to 3 weeks when stored in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer with 50 mM NaCl (pH 7.4) at 5 degrees C. Finally, insertion into the exposed spinal cord of an anesthetized rat for 15 min produces no damage to the antibody coating.

  6. The role of detrital zircons in Hadean crustal research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, Oliver; Rapp, Robert P.; Yaxley, Gregory M.

    2014-03-01

    Meso-Archean sedimentary sequences at Mt. Narryer and the Jack Hills of the Narryer Terrane in Western Australia's Yilgarn Craton contain detrital zircon grains with ages as old as 4.37 Ga, the oldest preserved terrestrial matter. These grains are rare remnants of Hadean (4.5-4.0 Ga) terrestrial crust and their survival stems from the crystallographic properties of zircon during crustal reworking: they are resistant to physical and chemical weathering. Zircons are further suitable for single grain, precise age determinations making them a unique archive of the crustal past. Only a small proportion of all detrital zircons from the Narryer Terrane show Hadean age spectra and younger overgrowth rims on all 'Hadean' grains indicate multiple recycling events. Numerous studies that applied a spectacular range of analytical tools and proxies have been undertaken to decipher the geochemical nature of these zircons' host rocks, in order to place constraints on Hadean geodynamics and the processes responsible for creating the earliest terrestrial crust. Their elemental and isotope budget and mineral inclusions have helped to develop an emerging picture of a water-rich, evolved Hadean crust. However, subsequent studies have challenged this view and it seems that each piece of new evidence indicative of an early, evolved continental crust has non-unique interpretations also permissive of mafic to ultra-mafic crust. In this review we examine these disparate interpretations and their possible implications and conclude that at least parts of the earliest terrestrial crust were hydrated. However, to date there is no conclusive evidence for preserved granitic, continental crust. The protoliths of the Hadean detrital zircons were likely acidic in nature, yet the composition of the greater terrane from which these melts were derived was probably mafic. It remains unclear if the zircons formed in a geodynamic environment that includes Hadean subduction. We suspect that the Hadean

  7. Record of Hybridization Preserved in Zircon, Aztec Wash Pluton, NV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, S. A.; Miller, C. F.; Claiborne, L. L.; Wooden, J. L.; Mazdab, F. K.

    2007-12-01

    The mid-Miocene Aztec Wash pluton comprises a smaller granite zone and a larger, highly heterogeneous zone in which evidence for interaction between basaltic and granitic magmas is ubiquitous. Granitic rocks in both zones show textural and compositional evidence for crystal accumulation and melt fractionation. In the heterogeneous zone, basalts have chilled, crenulate margins against granitic rocks, and there is widespread evidence for mechanical contamination of each lithology (coarse resorbed alkali feldspar in fine-grained mafic rock; mafic enclaves in granite). "Grey rocks" of intermediate composition are exposed on dm to 100's of m-scale as enclaves, pods, and initially subhorizontal sheets. They are variable texturally, but most are dominantly fine- grained and equigranular. Textures of grey rocks are consistent with rapid solidification from melt-rich magma, and, in combination with isotopic compositions intermediate between felsic and mafic rocks of the pluton, suggest an origin by near-complete homogenization of a hybrid melt (Bleick et al. 2005; Ericksen 2005). The elemental chemistry of zircon preserves information about the evolving magmatic environment in which it was hosted (Claiborne et al., 2006). Owing to its slow dissolution rate, it has the potential to survive periods of undersaturation with only partial resorption. Thus, it may record drastic shifts in T and melt chemistry that would accompany mafic-felsic hybridization. We are investigating zircon zoning patterns by cathodoluminescence (CL) and elemental compositions by SHRIMP-RG to evaluate the record of processes that they preserve. Temperatures of zircon growth are estimated using Ti-in-zircon thermometry (Watson et al. 2006), assuming a(TiO2) of ca. 0.7 (sphene +/-ilmenite are ubiquitous). Zircons from the granite zone yield estimated T's of 700-860 C, whereas those from grey rocks range from 710- 910 C. While both granite and grey zircon populations show dramatic T variations among and

  8. Zircon and baddeleyite from the economic ultramafic-mafic Noril'sk-1 intrusion (Russia): Hf-isotope constraints on source composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malitch, K. N.; Belousova, E. A.; Badanina, I. Yu.; Griffin, W. L.

    2012-04-01

    of the Noril'sk-1 intrusion, which served as the favorable factor for accumulation of ores of unique scales and concentrations, To test this hypothesis, in situ Hf-isotope data were collected on the dated spots within single zircon grains. The analysis used a New Wave LUV213 laser-ablation microprobe attached to a Nu plasma MC-ICP-MS at GEMOC (Griffin et al. 2002). Hf-isotope results grouped on the basis of lithology show notable differences. Zircons from the unmineralized 'layered rock sequence' (e.g., olivine-free gabbro, olivine-bearing gabbro and olivine gabbro) are characterized by the most 'radiogenic' initial 176Hf/177Hf and some of ɛHf values close to those of the Depleted Mantle. Irrespective of zircon population most radiogenic Hf-isotope compositions are typical for olivine-free gabbro (mean ɛHf 7.3 ± 1.1 for sample N1-4), olivine-bearing gabbro (9.2 ± 3.8, sample N1-5) and olivine gabbro (8.3 ± 2.0, sample N1-6). In contrast, zircons from the leucogabbro that encloses the low-sulphide horizon (N1-3), and plagiowehrlite (N1-7) and taxitic-textured rocks (N1-8 and N1-9) with disseminated sulphide ores have less radiogenic Hf-isotope values (e.g., mean ɛHf6.2 ± 1.4, 5.9 ± 2.3, 6.4 ± 1.2 and 4.9±1.4, respectively). The least radiogenic values (ɛHffrom -2.9 to +2.3, mean ɛHf = 0.1 ± 1.9) are recorded in gabbro-diorite from the upper part of intrusion. The baddeleyite from olivine-free gabbro has the narrowest range of ɛHf values (e.g. 6.8-8.4), with a mean of ɛHfof 7.6 ± 0.8, closely matching that of zircon (mean ɛHf= 7.3 ± 1.1). Zircons from the leucogabbro that hosts the low-sulphide horizon (N1-3), and ultramafic and taxitic-textured lithologies with disseminated sulphide ores (N1-7, N1-8 and N1-9) have less radiogenic ɛHf values than those in barren lithologies. The Hf-isotope data for zircons from ore-bearing rocks thus suggest that the Noril'sk magmas represent mixing between a juvenile source equivalent to the Depleted Mantle and a

  9. Zircon U-Pb dating of eclogite from the Qiangtang terrane, north-central Tibet: a case of metamorphic zircon with magmatic geochemical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Qing-guo; Jahn, Bor-ming; Li, Xian-hua; Zhang, Ru-yuan; Li, Qiu-li; Yang, Ya-nan; Wang, Jun; Liu, Tong; Hu, Pei-yuan; Tang, Suo-han

    2017-06-01

    Zircon is probably the most important mineral used in the dating formation of high-pressure (HP) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks. The origin of zircon, i.e., magmatic or metamorphic, is commonly assessed by its external morphology, internal structure, mineral inclusions, Th/U ratios and trace element composition. In this study, we present an unusual case of metamorphic zircon from the Qiangtang eclogite, north-central Tibet. The zircon grains contain numerous eclogite-facies mineral inclusions, including omphacite, phengite, garnet and rutile; hence, they are clearly of metamorphic origin. However, they display features similar to common magmatic zircon, including euhedral crystal habit, high Th/U ratios and enriched heavy rare earth elements pattern. We suggest that these zircon grains formed from a different reservoir from that for garnet where no trace elements was present and trace element equilibrium between zircon and garnet was achieved. U-Pb dating of zircon gave an age of 232-237 Ma for the eclogite, and that of rutile yielded a slightly younger age of ca. 217 Ma. These ages are consistent with the reported Lu-Hf mineral isochron and phengite Ar-Ar ages. The zircon U-Pb and mineral Lu-Hf isochron ages are interpreted as the time of the peak eclogite-facies metamorphism, whereas the rutile U-Pb and phengite Ar-Ar ages represent the time of exhumation to the middle crust. Thus, the distinction between metamorphic and magmatic zircons cannot be made using only Th/U ratios and heavy REE compositions for HP-UHP metamorphic rocks of oceanic derivation.

  10. Differential lead retention in zircons: implications for nuclear waste containment.

    PubMed

    Gentry, R V; Sworski, T J; McKown, H S; Smith, D H; Eby, R E; Christie, W H

    1982-04-16

    An innovative ultrasensitive technique was used for lead isotopic analysis of individual zircons extracted from granite core samples at depths of 960, 2170, 2900, 3930, and 4310 meters. The results show that lead, a relatively mobile element compared to the nuclear waste-related actinides uranium and thorium, has been highly retained at elevated temperatures (105 degrees to 313 degrees C) under conditions relevant to the burial of synthetic rock waste containers in deep granite holes.

  11. Differing responses of zircon, chevkinite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce) and fergusonite-(Y) to hydrothermal alteration: Evidence from the Keivy alkaline province, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Ray; Bagiński, Bogusław; Zozulya, Dmitry

    2017-09-01

    A quartzolite from the Rova occurrence, Keivy alkali granite province, Kola Peninsula, Russia, is used to examine the differing responses of certain rare-metal minerals during interaction with hydrothermal fluids. The minerals are two silicates [chevkinite-(Ce) and zircon], a phosphate [monazite-(Ce)] and an oxide [fergusonite-(Y)]. Textural evidence is taken to show that the dominant alteration mechanism was interface-coupled dissolution-reprecipitation. Zircon was the most pervasively altered, possibly by broadening of cleavage planes or fractures; the other minerals were altered mainly on their rims and along cracks. The importance of cracks in promoting fluid access is stressed. The compositional effects of the alteration of each phase are documented. The hydrothermal fluids carried few ligands capable of transporting significant amounts of rare-earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE) and actinides; alteration is inferred to have been promoted by mildly alkaline, Ca-bearing fluids. Expansion cracks emanating from fergusonite-(Y) are filled with unidentified material containing up to 35 wt% UO2 and 25 wt% REE2O3, indicating late-stage, short-distance mobility of these elements. Electron microprobe chemical dating of monazite yielded an age of 1665 ± 22 Ma, much younger than the formation age of the Keivy province (2.65-2.67 Ga) but comparable to that of the Svecofennian metamorphic event which affected the area (1.9-1.7 Ga) or during fluid-thermal activation of the region during rapakivi granite magmatism (1.66-1.56 Ga). Dates for altered monazite range from 2592 ± 244 Ma to 773 ± 88 Ma and reflect disturbance of the U-Th-Pb system during alteration.

  12. Microprobe studies of microtomed particles of white druse salts in shergottite EETA 79001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The white druse material in Antarctic shergottite EETA 79001 has attracted much attention as a possible sample fo Martian aqueous deposits. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to determine trace element analyses of small particles of this material obtained by handpicking of likely grains from broken surfaces of the meteorite. Electron microprobe work was attempted on grain areas as large as 150x120 microns. Backscattered electron images show considerable variations in brightness, and botryoidal structures were observed. Microprobe analyses showed considerable variability both within single particles and between different particles. Microtomed surfaces of small selected particles were shown to be very useful in obtaining information on the texture and composition of rare lithologies like the white druse of EETA 79001. This material is clearly heterogeneous on all distance scales, so a large number of further analyses will be required to characterize it.

  13. Microprobe array with low impedance electrodes and highly flexible polyimide cables for acute neural recording.

    PubMed

    Kisban, S; Herwik, S; Seidl, K; Rubehn, B; Jezzini, A; Umiltà, M A; Fogassi, L; Stieglitz, T; Paul, O; Ruther, P

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a novel type of silicon-based microprobes with linear, two and three dimensional (3D) distribution of their recording sites. The microprobes comprise either single shafts, combs with multiple shafts or 3D arrays combining two combs with 9, 36 or 72 recording sites, respectively. The electrical interconnection of the probes is achieved through highly flexible polyimide ribbon cables attached using the MicroFlex Technology which allows a connection part of small lateral dimensions. For an improved handling, probes can be secured by a protecting canula. Low-impedance electrodes are achieved by the deposition of platinum black. First in vivo experiments proved the capability to record single action potentials in the motor cortex from electrodes close to the tip as well as body electrodes along the shaft.

  14. Determination of nitrogen in coal macerals using electron microprobe technique-experimental procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Gurba, L.W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses nitrogen determination with the Cameca SX50 electron microprobe using PCO as an analyzing crystal. A set of conditions using differing accelerating voltages, beam currents, beam sizes, and counting times were tested to determine parameters that would give the most reliable nitrogen determination. The results suggest that, for the instrumentation used, 10 kV, current 20 nA, and a counting time of 20 s provides the most reliable nitrogen determination, with a much lower detection limit than the typical concentration of this element in coal. The study demonstrates that the electron microprobe technique can be used to determine the nitrogen content of coal macerals successfully and accurately. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative analysis of domain texture in polycrystalline barium titanate by polarized Raman microprobe spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakashita, Tatsuo; Chazono, Hirokazu; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2007-12-01

    A quantitative determination of domain distribution in polycrystalline barium titanate (BaTiO3, henceforth BT) ceramics has been pursued with the aid of a microprobe polarized Raman spectrometer. The crystallographic texture and domain orientation distribution of BT ceramics, which switched upon applying stress according to ferroelasticity principles, were determined from the relative intensity of selected phonon modes, taking into consideration a theoretical analysis of the angular dependence of phonon mode intensity for the tetragonal BT phase. Furthermore, the angular dependence of Raman intensity measured in polycrystalline BT depended on the statistical distribution of domain angles in the laser microprobe, which was explicitly taken into account in this work for obtaining a quantitative analysis of domain orientation for in-plane textured BT polycrystalline materials.

  16. Method of producing high purity zirconia powder from zircon powder

    SciTech Connect

    Funahashi, T.; Uchimura, R.; Oguchi, Y.

    A method is described of producing a zirconia powder from zirconia containing SiO/sub 2/, comprising the steps of: preparing a raw material mixture comprising the zircon powder containing the SiO/sub 2/ and a powdery carbon-containing material such that the mole ratio of C, which is contained in the carbon-containing material and does not gasify at temperatures below 100/sup 0/C. in a nonoxidizing atmosphere, to SiO/sub 2/ contained in the zircon powder is in the range from 0.4 to 2.0; and subjecting the raw material mixture to a desiliconizing heat treatment in a nonoxidizing atmosphere of which the presence is notmore » higher than 0.6 atm, the desiliconizing heat treatment being a combination of a first-stage heat treatment which is performed at a temperature in the range from 1200/sup 0/ to 1550/sup 0/C. for separating silica from the zircon powder and a second-stage heat treatment which is performed at a higher temperature in the range from above 1550/sup 0/C. to 2000/sup 0/C. for completely converting silica in the mixture under heat treatment into gaseous SiO and dissipating the gaseous SiO, wherein the raw material mixture is subjected to the desiliconizing heat treatment in the form of at least one lump whose bulk density is in the range from 0.7 to 2.0.« less

  17. Zircon Supported Copper Catalysts for the Steam Reforming of Methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiastri, M.; Fendy, Marsih, I. N.

    2008-03-01

    Steam reforming of methanol (SRM) is known as one of the most favorable catalytic processes for producing hydrogen. Current research on zirconia, ZrO2 supported copper catalyst revealed that CuO/ZrO2 as an active catalyst for the SRM. Zircon, ZrSiO4 is available from the by-product of tin mining. In the work presented here, the catalytic properties of CuO/ZrSiO4 with various copper oxide compositions ranging from 2.70% (catalyst I), 4.12% (catalyst II), and 7.12%-mass (catalyst III), synthesized by an incipient wetness impregnation technique, were investigated to methanol conversion, selectivity towards CO formation, and effect of ZnO addition (7.83%CuO/8.01%ZnO/ZrSiO4 = catalyst V). The catalytic activity was obtained using a fixed bed reactor and the zircon supported catalyst activity was compared to those of CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst (catalyst IV) and commercial Kujang LTSC catalyst. An X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis was done to identify the abundant phases of the catalysts. The catalysts topography and particle diameter were measured with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and composition of the catalysts was measured by SEM-EDX, scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive using X-ray analysis. The results of this research provide information on the possibility of using zircon (ZrSiO4) as solid support for SRM catalysts.

  18. Zircon Age Distributions Provide Magma Fluxes in the Earth's Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricchi, L.; Simpson, G.; Schaltegger, U.

    2014-12-01

    Magma fluxes control the growth of continents, the frequency and magnitude of volcanic eruptions and are important for the genesis of magmatic ore deposits. A significant part of the magma produced in the Earth's mantle solidifies at depth and this limits our capability of determining magma fluxes, which, in turn, compromises our ability to establish a link between global heat transfer and large-scale geological processes. Using thermal modelling in combination with high precision zircon dating we show that populations of zircon ages provide an accurate mean to retrieve magma fluxes. The characteristics of zircon age populations vary significantly and systematically as function of the flux and total volume of magma accumulated at depth. This new approach provides results that are identical to independent determinations of magma fluxes and volumes of magmatic systems. The analysis of existing age population datasets by our method highlights that porphyry-type deposits, plutons and large eruptions each require magma input over different timescales at characteristic average fluxes.

  19. Petrology of Zircon-Bearing Diogenite Northwest Africa 10666

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, T. B.; Jeffcoat, C. R.; Righter, M.; Berger, E. L.; Lapen, T. J.; Irving, A. J.; Kuehner, S. M.; Fujihara, G.

    2017-01-01

    The howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites are a group of achondrites thought to be derived from the asteroid 4 Vesta, though there is active debate as to whether all diogenites are part of the HED suite. Petrologic investigation of the HED meteorite group provides a means of understanding early planetary differentiation processes and early evolution of planets in our solar system. Diogenites are predominantly coarse grained ortho-pyroxenites with some samples containing appreciable amounts of clinopyroxene, olivine, chromite, and plagioclase. Accessory metal, troilite, and apatite are common. Many diogenites are brecciated, however, there are few poorly to unbrecciated samples. Diogenites are important because they may represent the lower crust of 4 Vesta. Although Mg isotope data indicates that the sources of diogenites are ancient, their crystallization ages are difficult to constrain due to their protracted thermal histories. The limited chronologic data for diogenites also limits the ability to test petrogenetic connections with eucrites and even parent body. A reliable and high closure-temperature isotope system, such as U-Pb in zircon, is needed to address the timing of diogenite igneous crystallization. Description of the textures and mineralogy of diogenites are essential to their classification and understanding their formation, in particular, whether all phases are petrogenetically related. Here, we present detailed petrographic data from a rare zircon-bearing feldspathic diogenite, Northwest Africa (NWA) 10666 and provide textural evidence for igneous crystallization of the zircon.

  20. Point defects in crystalline zircon (zirconium silicate), ZrSiO4: electron paramagnetic resonance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennant, W. C.; Claridge, R. F. C.; Walsby, C. J.; Lees, N. S.

    This article outlines the present state of knowledge of paramagnetic defects in crystalline zircon as obtained mainly, but not exclusively, from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies in crystalline zircon (zirconium silicate, ZrSiO4). The emphasis is on single-crystal studies where, in principle, unambiguous analysis is possible. Firstly, the crystallography of zircon is presented. Secondly, the relationships between available crystal-site symmetries and the symmetries of observed paramagnetic species in zircon, and how these observations lead to unambiguous assignments of point-group symmetries for particular paramagnetic species are detailed. Next, spin-Hamiltonian (SH) analysis is discussed with emphasis on the symmetry relationships that necessarily exist amongst the Laue classes of the crystal sites in zircon, the paramagnetic species occupying those sites and the SH itself. The final sections of the article then survey the results of EPR studies on zircon over the period 1960-2002.

  1. DSMC Simulations of Blunt Body Flows for Mars Entries: Mars Pathfinder and Mars Microprobe Capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, James N.; Wilmoth, Richard G.; Price, Joseph M.

    1997-01-01

    The hypersonic transitional flow aerodynamics of the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Microprobe capsules are simulated with the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Calculations of axial, normal, and static pitching coefficients were obtained over an angle of attack range comparable to actual flight requirements. Comparisons are made with modified Newtonian and free-molecular-flow calculations. Aerothermal results were also obtained for zero incidence entry conditions.

  2. Lateral diffusion study of the Pt-Al system using the NAC nuclear microprobe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waal, H.; Pretorius, R.

    1999-10-01

    In this study a nuclear microprobe (NMP) was used to analyse phase formation during reaction in Pt-Al lateral diffusion couples. Phase identification was done by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. These results were compared with phase formation during conventional thin film Pt-Al interactions. The co-existence of multiple phases in lateral diffusion couples is discussed with reference to the effective heat of formation (EHF) model.

  3. Scanning proton microprobe applied to analysis of individual aerosol particles from Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerab, Fábio; Artaxo, Paulo; Swietlicki, Erik; Pallon, Jan

    1998-03-01

    The development of the Scanning Proton Microprobe (SPM) offers a new possibility for individual aerosol particle studies. The SPM joins Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) elemental analysis qualities with micrometric spatial resolution. In this work the Lund University SPM facility was used for elemental characterization of individual aerosol particles emitted to the atmosphere in the Brazilian Amazon Basin, during gold mining activities by the so-called "gold shops".

  4. The study of voids in the AuAl thin-film system using the nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waal, H. S.; Pretorius, R.; Prozesky, V. M.; Churms, C. L.

    1997-07-01

    A Nuclear Microprobe (NMP) was used to study void formation in thin film gold-aluminium systems. Microprobe Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (μRBS) was utilised to effectively obtain a three-dimensional picture of the void structure on the scale of a few nanometers in the depth dimension and a few microns in the in-plane dimension. This study illustrates the usefulness of the NMP in the study of materials and specifically thin-film structures.

  5. Evaluating the utility of detrital thermochronometric studies: detrital laser ablation (U-Th)/He dating and conventional bedrock zircon (U-Th)/He analyses from the eastern Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, A.; Hodges, K. V.; Van Soest, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    Recent applications of the newly developed `laser ablation double dating' (LADD) technique, an integrated laser microprobe U/Pb and (U-Th)/He dating method, have showcased the potential utility of LADD for detrital thermochronologic studies. However, detrital thermochronologic techniques rely on confidence that detrital data adequately represent the full range of bedrock cooling ages within a catchment. To test this primary assumption, we compare (U-Th)/He zircon ages from age-elevation transects to LADD (U-Th)/He zircon ages from modern fluvial detritus collected at the range front in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California. Terminated by a normal fault escarpment, the small, steep catchments along the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada batholith are apropos locations for comparing the ability of detrital data to deduce the exhumation history of a source terrain with standard age-elevation transects. Additionally, the exhumation of the Sierra Nevada batholith is also intriguing, as past evaluations of the post-emplacement exhumation history of the range have yielded discrepant results. Thus far, analyses from the southern extent of the eastern Sierra Nevada show narrow ranges of cooling ages consistent with simple, relatively rapid exhumation. Ongoing analyses will expand the dataset such that we can fully compare bedrock and detrital age ranges as well as characterize the exhumation history of the range with a thermochronometer that has not been used to date the batholith.

  6. The Mars Microprobe Mission: Advanced Micro-Avionics for Exploration Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blue, Randel

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Microprobe Mission is the second spacecraft developed as part of the New Millennium Program deep space missions. The objective of the Microprobe Project is to demonstrate the applicability of key technologies for future planetary missions by developing two probes for deployment on Mars. The probes are designed with a single stage entry, descent, and landing system and impact the Martian surface at speeds of approximately 200 meters per second. The microprobes are composed of two main sections, a forebody section that penetrates to a depth below the Martian surface of 0.5 to 2 meters, and an aftbody section that remains on the surface. Each probe system consists of a number of advanced technology components developed specifically for this mission. These include a non-erosive aeroshell for entry into. the atmosphere, a set of low temperature batteries to supply probe power, an advanced microcontroller to execute the mission sequence, collect the science data, and react to possible system fault conditions, a telecommunications subsystem implemented on a set of custom integrated circuits, and instruments designed to provide science measurements from above and below the Martian surface. All of the electronic components have been designed and fabricated to withstand the severe impact shock environment and to operate correctly at predicted temperatures below -100 C.

  7. A microprobe for parallel optical and electrical recordings from single neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    LeChasseur, Yoan; Dufour, Suzie; Lavertu, Guillaume; Bories, Cyril; Deschênes, Martin; Vallée, Réal; De Koninck, Yves

    2011-04-01

    Recording electrical activity from identified neurons in intact tissue is key to understanding their role in information processing. Recent fluorescence labeling techniques have opened new possibilities to combine electrophysiological recording with optical detection of individual neurons deep in brain tissue. For this purpose we developed dual-core fiberoptics-based microprobes, with an optical core to locally excite and collect fluorescence, and an electrolyte-filled hollow core for extracellular single unit electrophysiology. This design provides microprobes with tips < 10 μm, enabling analyses with single-cell optical resolution. We demonstrate combined electrical and optical detection of single fluorescent neurons in rats and mice. We combined electrical recordings and optical Ca²(+) measurements from single thalamic relay neurons in rats, and achieved detection and activation of single channelrhodopsin-expressing neurons in Thy1::ChR2-YFP transgenic mice. The microprobe expands possibilities for in vivo electrophysiological recording, providing parallel access to single-cell optical monitoring and control.

  8. Trace elemental analysis of bituminuos coals using the Heidelberg proton microprobe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, J.R.; Kneis, H.; Martin, B.; Nobiling, R.; Traxel, K.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Trace elements in coal can occur as components of either the organic constituents (macerals) or the inorganic constituents (minerals). Studies of the concentrations and distribution of the trace elements are vital to understanding the geochemical millieu in which the coal was formed and in evaluating the attempts to recover rare but technologically valuable metals. In addition, information on the trace element concentrations is important in predicting the environmental impact of burning particular coals, as many countries move toward greater utilization of coal reserves for energy production. Traditionally, the optical and the electron microscopes and more recently the electron microprobe have been used in studying the components of coal. The proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) microprobe offers a new complementary approach with an order of magnitude or more better minimum detection limit. We present the first measurements with a PIXE microprobe of the trace element concentrations of bituminous coal samples. Elemental analyses of the coal macerals-vitrinite, exinite, and inertinite-are discussed for three coal samples from the Eastern U.S.A., three samples from the Western U.S.A., and one sample from the Peoples Republic of China. ?? 1981.

  9. An Integrated Analytical Approach to Obtaining Reliable U-Pb and Hf Isotopic Data from Complex (>3.9 to 3.3 Ga) Zircon from the Acasta Gneiss Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A.; Bowring, S. A.; Vervoort, J. D.; Fisher, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Acasta Gneiss Complex (AGC) of northwestern Canada preserves some of Earth's oldest granitic crust (>4.03 Ga) and thereby contains important insight into crust forming processes on the early Earth. In general, rocks of the AGC have undergone a complex history of metamorphism and deformation (Archean and Paleoproterozoic)1,2, and, as a consequence, the zircons retain a complex history including inheritance, magmatic and metamorphic overgrowths, recrystallization, and multi-stage Pb loss. Previously published Hf isotopic data on zircons show within sample variability in excess of analytical uncertainty2,3,4. In order to assess the meaning and significance of this apparent isotopic variability, we are using two different methods to obtain coupled U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic data in zircon from a suite of rocks ranging in age from ca. > 3.9 Ga to 3.3 Ga. To obtain these data from the same volume of zircon, our approach involves: 1) split stream LA-ICPMS for U-Pb and Lu-Hf; 2) mechanical isolation of zircon domains for chemical abrasion and ID-TIMS U-Pb analyses and solution ICPMS for Lu-Hf recovered from U-Pb ion exchange chromatography. The deconvolution of complex histories requires this integrated approach and permits us to take advantage of both high spatial resolution and highest precision measurements to ultimately decipher the age and isotopic composition of discrete domains of multi-phase zircon. We demonstrate our approach with both relatively simple and complex grain populations in an attempt to understand within and between grain heterogeneity. The samples with the simplest zircon systematics have increasingly negative ɛHf from oldest to youngest, consistent with involvement of 4.0 Ga or older crust in later generations; also, none of our samples have been derived solely from strongly depleted sources. The presence of intra-zircon variability within samples from the AGC reflects a complex history of magmatic additions requiring melting/assimilation of older

  10. Contrasting Granite Metallogeny through the Zircon Record: A Case Study from Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Nicholas J; Hawkesworth, Chris J; Robb, Laurence J; Whitehouse, Martin J; Roberts, Nick M W; Kirkland, Christopher L; Evans, Noreen J

    2017-04-07

    Granitoid-hosted mineral deposits are major global sources of a number of economically important metals. The fundamental controls on magma metal fertility are tectonic setting, the nature of source rocks, and magma differentiation. A clearer understanding of these petrogenetic processes has been forged through the accessory mineral zircon, which has considerable potential in metallogenic studies. We present an integrated zircon isotope (U-Pb, Lu-Hf, O) and trace element dataset from the paired Cu-Au (copper) and Sn-W (tin) magmatic belts in Myanmar. Copper arc zircons have juvenile εHf (+7.6 to +11.5) and mantle-like δ 18 O (5.2-5.5‰), whereas tin belt zircons have low εHf (-7 to -13) and heavier δ 18 O (6.2-7.7‰). Variations in zircon Hf and U/Yb reaffirm that tin belt magmas contain greater crustal contributions than copper arc rocks. Links between whole-rock Rb/Sr and zircon Eu/Eu* highlight that the latter can monitor magma fractionation in these systems. Zircon Ce/Ce* and Eu/Eu* are sensitive to redox and fractionation respectively, and here are used to evaluate zircon sensitivity to the metallogenic affinity of their host rock. Critical contents of Sn in granitic magmas, which may be required for the development of economic tin deposits, are marked by zircon Eu/Eu* values of ca. ≤0.08.

  11. Paragneiss zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, western China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Zhang, J.X.; Bird, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    In the southeastern part of the North Qaidam terrane, near Dulan, paragneiss hosts minor peridotite and UHP eclogite. Zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry of three paragneiss samples (located within a ???3 km transect) indicates that eclogite-facies metamorphism resulted in variable degrees of zircon growth and recrystallization in the three samples. Inherited zircon core age groups at 1.8 and 2.5 Ga suggest that the protoliths of these rocks may have received sediments from the Yangtze or North China cratons. Mineral inclusions, depletion in HREE, and absence of negative Eu anomalies indicate that zircon U-Pb ages of 431 ?? 5 Ma and 426 ?? 4 Ma reflect eclogite-facies zircon growth in two of the samples. Ti-in-zircon thermometry results are tightly grouped at ???660 and ???600 ??C, respectively. Inclusions of metamorphic minerals, scarcity of inherited cores, and lack of isotopic or trace element inheritance demonstrate that significant new metamorphic zircon growth must have occurred. In contrast, zircon in the third sample is dominated by inherited grains, and rims show isotopic and trace element inheritance, suggesting solid-state recrystallization of detrital zircon with only minor new growth. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Direct-Write Laser Grayscale Lithography for Multilayer Lead Zirconate Titanate Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Robert R; Jordan, Delaney M; Smith, Gabriel L; Polcawich, Ronald G; Bedair, Sarah S; Potrepka, Daniel M

    2018-05-01

    Direct-write laser grayscale lithography has been used to facilitate a single-step patterning technique for multilayer lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films. A 2.55- -thick photoresist was patterned with a direct-write laser. The intensity of the laser was varied to create both tiered and sloped structures that are subsequently transferred into multilayer PZT(52/48) stacks using a single Ar ion-mill etch. Traditional processing requires a separate photolithography step and an ion mill etch for each layer of the substrate, which can be costly and time consuming. The novel process allows access to buried electrode layers in the multilayer stack in a single photolithography step. The grayscale process was demonstrated on three 150-mm diameter Si substrates configured with a 0.5- -thick SiO 2 elastic layer, a base electrode of Pt/TiO 2 , and a stack of four PZT(52/48) thin films of either 0.25- thickness per layer or 0.50- thickness per layer, and using either Pt or IrO 2 electrodes above and below each layer. Stacked capacitor structures were patterned and results will be reported on the ferroelectric and electromechanical properties using various wiring configurations and compared to comparable single layer PZT configurations.

  13. Mechanisms of strain accommodation in plastically-deformed zircon under simple shear deformation conditions during amphibolite-facies metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Klötzli, Urs; Wheeler, John; Habler, Gerlinde

    2018-02-01

    This study documents the strain accommodation mechanisms in zircon under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions in simple shear. Microstructural data from undeformed, fractured and crystal-plastically deformed zircon crystals are described in the context of the host shear zone, and evaluated in the light of zircon elastic anisotropy. Our work challenges the existing model of zircon evolution and shows previously undescribed rheological characteristics for this important accessory mineral. Crystal-plastically deformed zircon grains have axis oriented parallel to the foliation plane, with the majority of deformed grains having axis parallel to the lineation. Zircon accommodates strain by a network of stepped low-angle boundaries, formed by switching between tilt dislocations with the slip systems <100>{010} and < 1 bar 10>{110} and rotation axis [001], twist dislocations with the rotation axis [001], and tilt dislocations with the slip system <100>{001} and rotation axis [010]. The slip system < 1 bar 10>{110} is newly described for zircon. Most misorientation axes in plastically-deformed zircon grains are parallel to the XY plane of the sample and have [001] crystallographic direction. Such behaviour of strained zircon lattice is caused by elastic anisotropy that has a direct geometric control on the rheology, deformation mechanisms and dominant slip systems in zircon. Young's modulus and P wave velocity have highest values parallel to zircon [001] axis, indicating that zircon is elastically strong along this direction. Poisson ratio and Shear modulus demonstrate that zircon is also most resistant to shearing along [001]. Thus, [001] axis is the most common rotation axis in zircon. The described zircon behaviour is important to take into account during structural and geochronological investigations of (poly)metamorphic terrains. Geometry of dislocations in zircon may help reconstructing the geometry of the host shear zone(s), large-scale stresses in the

  14. What can zircon ages from the Jack Hills detrital zircon suite really tell us about Hadean geodynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, Martin; Nemchin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    As the only direct sample of the Hadean Earth, detrital zircon grains from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, have been the subject of intense investigation over the almost three decades since their discovery. A wide variety of geochemical and isotopic analyses of these grains, as well as their mineral inclusions, have been used variously to support two fundamentally different models for Hadean geodynamics: (i) Some form of (not necessarily modern-style) plate recycling generating felsic (continental-type?) crust at the boundaries [1, 2], or conversely (ii) the persistence of a long-lived, stagnant basaltic lid within which magmatism occurred as a result of internal temperature perturbations and/or impacts [3, 4], a model also generally consistent with a wide range of observations from post-Hadean geochemical reservoirs. Despite the considerable time and resources expended, the majority of these studies uncritically accept the individual U-Pb zircon ages, even though their veracity is key to many of the interpretations [5, 6]. We report here the results of an in-depth evaluation of all published (and new) U-Pb ages from the Jack Hills zircon suite in order to define age populations that can be used with a high degree of confidence in geodynamic interpretations. A notable problem in the interpretation of U-Pb data from ancient zircon grains (including those as young as the Neoarchean) is that disturbance of the systematics even several 100 Ma after crystallization causes data to spread along the concordia curve without becoming discernably discordant within the relatively large error bounds associated with U/Pb ages from in situ dating methods (e.g. SIMS). While 207Pb/206Pb ages are typically more precise, individually they provide no means to detect Pb-loss-induced younging. However, if two or preferably more analyses have been made in the same zircon growth zone, a reasonable evaluation of the possibility of Pb-loss can be made. In the available Jack Hills zircon

  15. Bone growth and bone development in the presence of implants or after induced leg-lengthening studied using the Oxford Scanning Proton Microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pålsgård, Eva; Johansson, Carina; Li, Gang; Grime, Geoff W.; Triffitt, J. T.

    1997-07-01

    To respond to varying environmental demands the bone tissue in the body is under continual reconstruction throughout life. It is known that metallic elements are important for maintaining normal bone structure, but their roles are not well understood. More information about the effects of metal excess or deficiency is needed to help in the development of metallic bone implants and to improve the treatment of bone fractures and defects. The Oxford Scanning Proton Microprobe (SPM) is being applied in two studies involving metal ions in bone: (1) bone regrowth and bonding to titanium bone implants may be influenced by diffusion of Ti ions into the bone. We are using microPIXE to determine the metal ion content of bone developing in contact with implants of pure Nb, Ti and Ti alloys. (2) Bone lengthening as a surgical procedure is induced by fracturing the bone and allowing it to heal with a small gap between the fractured ends created by the use of external fixators. The gap can be slowly increased during the healing process to stimulate the production of new bone. The enzymes and other constituents of the developing bone need certain metals for their function. Using experimental animals we have studied the concentrations of the metals and whether a deficiency of trace metals limits the optimum rate of bone lengthening.

  16. Empirical constraints on the effects of radiation damage on helium diffusion in zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Alyssa J.; Hodges, Kip V.; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we empirically evaluate the impact of radiation damage on zircon (U-Th)/He closure temperatures for a suite of zircon crystals from the slowly cooled McClure Mountain syenite of south-central Colorado, USA. We present new zircon, titanite, and apatite conventional (U-Th)/He dates, zircon laser ablation (U-Th)/He and U-Pb dates, and zircon Raman spectra for crystals from the syenite. Titanite and apatite (U-Th)/He dates range from 447 to 523 Ma and 88.0 to 138.9 Ma, respectively, and display no clear correlation between (U-Th)/He date and effective uranium concentration. Conventional zircon (U-Th)/He dates range from 230.3 to 474 Ma, while laser ablation zircon (U-Th)/He dates show even greater dispersion, ranging from 5.31 to 520 Ma. Dates from both zircon (U-Th)/He datasets decrease with increasing alpha dose, indicating that most of the dispersion can be attributed to radiation damage. Alpha dose values for the dated zircon crystals range from effectively zero to 2.15 × 1019 α /g, spanning the complete damage spectrum. We use an independently constrained thermal model to empirically assign a closure temperature to each dated zircon grain. If we assume that this thermal model is robust, the zircon radiation damage accumulation and annealing model of Guenthner et al. (2013) does not accurately predict closure temperatures for many of the analyzed zircon crystals. Raman maps of the zircons dated by laser ablation document complex radiation damage zoning, sometimes revealing crystalline zones in grains with alpha dose values suggestive of amorphous material. Such zoning likely resulted in heterogeneous intra-crystalline helium diffusion and may help explain some of the discrepancies between our empirical findings and the Guenthner et al. (2013) model predictions. Because U-Th zoning is a common feature in zircon, radiation damage zoning is likely to be a concern for most ancient, slowly cooled zircon (U-Th)/He datasets. Whenever possible, multiple

  17. Deformation-related microstructures in magmatic zircon and implications for diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Steven Michael; Timms, Nicholas E.; Hamilton, Patrick Joseph; Smyth, Helen R.

    2009-02-01

    An undeformed glomeroporphyritic andesite from the Sunda Arc of Java, Indonesia, contains zoned plagioclase and amphibole glomerocrysts in a fine-grained groundmass and records a complex history of adcumulate formation and subsequent magmatic disaggregation. A suite of xenocrystic zircon records Proterozoic and Archaean dates whilst a discrete population of zoned, euhedral, igneous zircon yields a SHRIMP U-Pb crystallisation age of 9.3 ± 0.2 Ma. Quantitative microstructural analysis of zircon by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) shows no deformation in the inherited xenocrysts, but intragrain orientation variations of up to 30° in 80% of the young zircon population. These variations are typically accommodated by both progressive crystallographic bending and discrete low angle boundaries that overprint compositional growth zoning. Dispersion of crystallographic orientations are dominantly by rotation about an axis parallel to the zircon c-axis [001], which is coincident with the dominant orientation of misorientation axes of adjacent analysis points in EBSD maps. Less common <100> misorientation axes account for minor components of crystallographic dispersion. These observations are consistent with zircon deformation by dislocation creep and the formation of tilt and twist boundaries associated with the operation of <001>{100} and <100>{010} slip systems. The restriction of deformation microstructures to large glomerocrysts and the young magmatic zircon population, and the absence of deformation within the host igneous rock and inherited zircon grains, indicate that zircon deformation took place within a low-melt fraction (<5% melt), mid-lower crustal cumulate prior to fragmentation during magmatic disaggregation and entrainment of xenocrystic zircons during magmatic decompression. Tectonic stresses within the compressional Sunda Arc at the time of magmatism are considered to be the probable driver for low-strain deformation of the cumulate in the late

  18. U-Pb Dating of Unabraded Detrital Zircon Metamorphic Rims in the Nanaimo Basin, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, M. P.; Guest, B.; Matthews, W.

    2016-12-01

    Thin metamorphic rims on detrital zircons from the Nanaimo Basin in SW British Columbia offer a unique opportunity to further constrain the source of these zircons, helping to resolve the long standing Baja BC controversy. Here we present an analytical approach for dating thin zircon rims and use it to show that zircons from the Nanaimo Basin are most likely derived from metamorphic rocks in southern California. Conventional in-situ laser ablation sample preparation typically requires mounting and polishing zircon grains to expose their core. However, in order to date these thin metamorphic zircon rims a depth-profiling approach on unabraded grains was employed. Zircon grains from the Upper Cretaceous Geoffrey, Spray, and Gabriola formations of the Nanaimo Group exposed on Denman and Hornby Islands (British Columbia) were sorted into five groups based on morphology. The zircons were then mounted on tape along with several grains of a well-characterised zircon reference material to validate the uncertainty of the method. The zircons were then imaged using a Zygo Zescope optical profilometer in order to correct for grain-to-grain variations in elevation relative to mounting medium and ensure consistent laser focus. Backscatter electron images (BSE) were used to further characterised the grains and optimize the location of laser ablation targets. Zircons were ablated using a Resonetics 193 nm excimer laser and uranium and lead isotopic ratios were measured using an Agilent 7700 quadrupole mass spectrometer. A low frequency laser repetition rate extended the data collection period on relatively thin zircon rims. Our results show that metamorphic zircon growth occurred in two main phases at 100 Ma and 77 Ma suggesting two sources of detrital zircons with differing metamorphic histories were present in the catchment area. The timing of metamorphism of the source area for the Nanaimo basin is inconsistent with derivation from sources in the Rocky Mountains (Lemhi sub

  19. Hf isotope compositions In detrital zircons as a new tool for provenance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Y. J.; Münker, C.; Mezger, K.

    2003-04-01

    Identifying the provenance of continental sediments is a major issue in palaeo-tectonic studies, providing important information for paleogeographic reconstructions. Isotope studies, e.g. those of whole rock Sm-Nd or detrital zircon U-Pb dating, have widely been used for this purpose. Here we assess the potential of combined Lu-Hf data and U-Pb ages determined on the same single detrital zircons as a new tool for provenance studies. Due to the low Lu/Hf ratios in zircons the Hf isotope composition of a zircon changes insignificantly after its crystallization. Thus each particular grain preserves information on the Hf-siotpe composition of its source and the age of this source. Provided that both the U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope systems have not been disturbed, this information can be used to constrain the sources of each individual zircon. In order to demonstrate the capability of Hf isotope studies on detrital zircons for provenance studies, we obtained combined U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotope data for zircons from the Cambrian Junction Formation in New Zealand. The Junction Formation was deposited on the (present) SE margin of Gondwana near the Australian continent and consists of turbidites, siltstones and conglomerates [1]. Typical continent derived Paleozoic sediments in SE Gondwana generally show characteristic age maxima at 500-600 Ma, 1000-1200 Ma (Grenvillian) and additional older peaks (early Proterozoic to Archean) [2]. We focused on two groups of detrital zircons with Grenvillian and Proterozoic to Late Archean ages. The initial ɛHf values for these zircons range from 0.7 to -15.5 for the Grenvillian and from -5.2 to -14.1 for the Proterozoic/Archean zircons. Corresponding two stage Hf model ages range from ca. 1500 to 2500 Ma for the Grenvillian and from ca. 3200 to 3600 Ma for the Proterozoic/Archean zircons. Furthermore it can be shown that the Grenvillian zircons must have been derived from recycled Grenvillian provinces. Comparison of these Hf model ages

  20. Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushikubo, Takayuki; Kita, Noriko T.; Cavosie, Aaron J.; Wilde, Simon A.; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Valley, John W.

    2008-08-01

    In situ Li analyses of 4348 to 3362 Ma detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia by SIMS reveal that the Li abundances (typically 10 to 60 ppm) are commonly over 10,000 times higher than in zircons crystallized from mantle-derived magmas and in mantle-derived zircon megacrysts (typically < 2 ppb). High Li concentrations in zircons (10 to 250 ppm) have also been found in igneous zircons from three continental parent rocks: granites, Li-rich pegmatites, and migmatites in pelitic metasediment. The substitution of trivalent cations (REEs and Y) in zircon correlates with Li + 1 and P + 5 , suggesting that an interstitial site for Li, as well as the xenotime substitution for P, provides charge balance for REEs. Li is thus fixed in the zircon structure by coupled substitutions, and diffusive changes in [Li] composition are rate-limited by slow diffusion of REEs. The Jack Hills zircons also have fractionated lithium isotope ratios ( δ7Li = - 19 to + 13‰) about five times more variable than those recorded in primitive ocean floor basalts (2 to 8‰), but similar to continental crust and its weathering products. Values of δ7Li below - 10‰ are found in zircons that formed as early as 4300 Ma. The high Li compositions indicate that primitive magmas were not the source of Jack Hills zircons and the fractionated values of δ7Li suggest that highly weathered regolith was sampled by these early Archean magmas. These new Li data provide evidence that the parent magmas of ancient zircons from Jack Hills incorporated materials from the surface of the Earth that interacted at low temperature with liquid water. These data support the hypothesis that continental-type crust and oceans existed by 4300 Ma, within 250 million years of the formation of Earth and the low values of δ7Li suggest that weathering was extensive in the early Archean.

  1. Trace element determination of zircons from adakites and granitoids: implications for petrogenetic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. W.; Chu, M. F.; Chung, S. L.; Iizuka, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Zircon has long been proposed as a time capsule of crustal formation. Concerning of its high capacity of lithophile elements, the dramatic change of crustal chemical composition in late Archean, i.e. from TTG suites to granitoids, may be recorded in zircon remnants. In this study, major- and trace element contents of zircons from adakites, a modern analogue of TTG suites, in southern Tibet were determined by EPMA and LA-ICPMS, respectively, and compared with those in Gangdese granitoids and Sumatra high/low ΣREE granitoids in order to examine the hypothesis. The REE patterns of zircons in this study show little inter-sample discrepancy though there is significant difference in whole-rock HREE contents between adakites and granitoids. Since none of geochemical feature, including REE contents, of zircons correlates with SiO2 content or ASI of corresponding host rocks, fractional crystallization shows insignificant impact on the compositional variation in zircons. In addition to the influence of lattice strain and charge balance requirements, zircons in these rock samples are proposed to crystallize from the magma mush, so they record the composition with least composition difference, not that of the bulk melt. More specifically, the pre-/co-existing mineral phases, e.g. apatite, play a critical role in preferentially taking the LREE and MREE from melt, and eliminating the HREE depletion in residual melt and thus zircons of Gangdese adakites. With the aim of objectively identifying geochemical discriminants of zircons from adakites and granitoids, statistical analysis was used and then 8 parameters were selected, i.e. Ti, V, Yb, Hf, Sc/Yb, U/Yb, Eu/Eu*, ΣHREE. Despite the zircon populations of adakites- and granitoids-origins overlapping in any bivariate plot, the linear combination of discriminants provides a potential way to distinguish zircons from these two groups.

  2. Evidence of extinct 244Pu in ancient terrestrial zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, T. M.; Turner, G.; Holland, G.; Gilmour, J. D.; Mojzsis, S. J.

    2003-04-01

    The Pu/U ratio of the early Earth is an important parameter in models of mantle evolution based on noble gas isotopes. Current estimates assume the Earth accreted with a chondritic Pu/U and are based on analyses of the chondrite St Severin and the achondrite Angra dos Reis. These estimates are poorly constrained, ranging from 0.004 to 0.008. On account of its short, 82 Ma, half-life, 244Pu was essentially extinct 3,900 Ma ago, and consequently there exists no reliable measurement of Pu/U for the Earth. The discovery of zircons dating from the period when 244Pu was "live" offers the first opportunity to measure the former terrestrial abundance of 244Pu directly. Xenon isotopes are produced by spontaneous fission and, in principle, are readily distinguishable from those produced by 238U-fission (e.g. 131Xe/136Xe = 0.24 and 0.08 respectively). However the expected levels of fission xenon in individual zircons, weighing 1 - 2 μg and containing 100 - 200 ppm U, are below, or at best comparable to, the Xe blank levels (˜10-15 ccSTP) typical of conventional noble gas mass spectrometers. In order to analyse these minute amounts of xenon we have made use of a uniquely sensitive instrument, developed in Manchester, based on the principle of laser resonance ionisation. RELAX (Refrigerator Enhanced Laser Analyser for Xenon) is capable of analysing samples of only a few thousand atoms, some two orders of magnitude smaller than conventional mass spectrometers. We have carried out preliminary analyses of 4 individual 4,150 Ma zircons and one 3,600 Ma zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia, and obtained five clear fission spectra. All but one were essentially free from significant atmospheric blank (the average 130Xe blank was 3× 10-18 ccSTP, i.e. 80 atoms). The spectra of the older zircons clearly demonstrated the presence of varying amounts of 244Pu fission xenon. The highest 131Xe/136Xe, 0.136 ± 0.003, corresponds to an initial Pu/U ratio of 0.0057. The lower ratios

  3. Geology, zircon geochronology, and petrogenesis of Sabalan volcano (northwestern Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalamghash, J.; Mousavi, S. Z.; Hassanzadeh, J.; Schmitt, A. K.

    2016-11-01

    Sabalan Volcano (NW Iran) is an isolated voluminous (4821 m elevation; > 800 km2) composite volcano that is located within the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. Its edifice was assembled by recurrent eruptions of trachyandesite and dacite magma falling into a relatively restricted compositional range (56-67% SiO2) with high-K calc-alkaline and adakitic trace element (Sr/Y) signatures. Previous K-Ar dating suggested protracted eruptive activity between 5.6 and 1.4 Ma, and a two stage evolution which resulted in the construction of the Paleo- and Neo-Sabalan edifices, respectively. The presence of a topographic moat surrounding Neo-Sabalan and volcanic breccias with locally intense hydrothermal alteration are indicative of intermittent caldera collapse of the central part of Paleo-Sabalan. Volcanic debris-flow and debris-avalanche deposits indicate earlier episodes of volcanic edifice collapse during the Paleo-Sabalan stage. In the Neo-Sabalan stage, three dacitic domes extruded to form the summits of Sabalan (Soltan, Heram, and Kasra). Ignimbrites and minor pumice fall-out deposits are exposed in strongly dissected drainages that in part have breached the caldera depression. Lavas and pyroclastic rocks are varyingly porphyritic with Paleo-Sabalan rocks being trachyandesites carrying abundant phenocrysts (plagioclase + amphibole + pyroxene + biotite). The Neo-Sabalan rocks are slightly more evolved and include dacitic compositions with phenocrysts of plagioclase + amphibole ± alkali-feldspar ± quartz. All Sabalan rock types share a common accessory assemblage (oxides + apatite + zircon). High spatial resolution and sensitivity U-Pb geochronology using Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry yielded two clusters of zircon ages which range from 4.5 to 1.3 Ma and 545 to 149 ka, respectively (all ages are averages of multiple determinations per sample). U-Th zircon geochronology for selected Neo-Sabalan rocks agrees with the U-Pb ages, with the youngest zircon rims dating

  4. Photoluminescence properties of non-stoichiometric strontium zirconate powder phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarý, V.; Boháček, P.; Mihóková, E.; Havlák, L.; Trunda, B.; Nikl, M.

    2013-03-01

    Excitation and emission spectra and decay kinetics of non-stoichiometric strontium zirconate powder phosphor were measured in the 8-500 K temperature interval. Phenomenological model was applied to extract quantitative parameters of the excited state levels and nonradiative quenching pathways related to the luminescence centre. Delayed recombination integrals measurement was employed to investigate the occurrence of thermally induced ionization of the excited state of the emission centre. The nature of the emission centre itself is suggested. Suitability for phosphor and scintillation application is discussed.

  5. Electric tunable behavior of sputtered lead barium zirconate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lin-Jung; Wu, Jenn-Ming; Huang, Hsin-Erh; Bor, Hui-Yun

    2007-02-01

    Lead barium zirconate (PBZ) films were grown on Pt /Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by rf-magnetron sputtering. The sputtered PBZ films possess pure perovskite phase, uniform microstructure, and excellent tunable behaviors. The tunability and loss tangent of sputtered PBZ films depend greatly on the oxygen mixing ratio (OMR). The optimal dielectric tunable behavior occurs in the PBZ films sputtered at 10% OMR. The sputtered PBZ film (10% OMR) possesses a value of figure of merit of 60, promising for frequency-agile applications. Bulk acoustic waves induced by electromechanical coupling occur at 2.72GHz, which is useful in fabricating filters and related devices in the microwave range.

  6. Laser-Raman microprobe identification of inclusions in capsules associated with silicone gel breast implants.

    PubMed

    Centeno, J A; Mullick, F G; Panos, R G; Miller, F W; Valenzuela-Espinoza, A

    1999-07-01

    Raman spectroscopy (the analysis of scattered photons after excitation with a monochromatic light source) provides a nondestructive method for identifying organic and inorganic materials on the basis of the molecule's characteristic spectrum of vibrational frequencies. Although the technique has been predominantly applied in sciences other than pathology, the recent advent of high-quality microscope optics coupled to optical Raman spectrometers (a variation known as a Raman microprobe) rendered this technique amenable to applications in human pathology. In the Raman microprobe, a laser beam is focused on a spot approximately 1 microm in diameter on the surface of the sample, e.g., tissue, and the scattered light is collected and analyzed. In this investigation, we used the Raman microprobe for the identification of foreign materials in breast implant capsular tissues. The characteristic silicone group frequencies associated with the silicon-oxygen stretch, the silicone-carbon stretch, the silicon-methyl and the methyl carbon-hydrogen stretch frequencies were used to identify polydimethylsiloxane and to define chemical differences among the various other implant-related inclusions. All of the inclusions were positively identified in a series of 44 capsules from silicone gel-filled implants: polydimethylsiloxane was found in 44 of 44 capsules surrounding silicone gel-filled implants; polyurethane was seen in 4 of 4 capsules around polyurethane foam-coated gel-filled implants; 4 of 4 capsules enveloping Dacron patch gel-filled implants revealed Dacron; and talc was identified in 8 of these 44 capsules. Raman microspectroscopy provides a rapid, accurate, and sensitive method for identifying inclusions associated with silicone and other implant materials in tissue.

  7. Provenance studies by fission-track dating of zircon-etching and counting procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naeser, N.D.; Zeitler, P.K.; Naeser, C.W.; Cerveny, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    In sedimentary rocks that have not been heated to high enough temperatures to anneal fission tracks in zircon (greater than ≈ 160°C), fission-track ages of individual detrital zircon grains provide valuable information about the source rocks eroded to form the sediments. The success of such studies depends, however, on the degree to which the ages determined from the detrital suite accurately portray the range of grain ages that are present in the suite. This in turn depends to a large extent on using counting and, in particular, etching procedures that permit proper sampling of grains with a wide range of age and uranium concentrations. Results are reported here of an experimental study of a ‘detrital’ zircon suite manufactured from several zircon populations of known age. This study suggests that multiple etches are required when a complete spectrum of ages in a zircon suite is desired.

  8. Provenance studies by fission-track dating of zircon-etching and counting procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naeser, Nancy D.; Zeitler, Peter K.; Naeser, Charles W.; Cerveny, Philip F.

    1987-01-01

    In sedimentary rocks that have not been heated to high enough temperatures to anneal fission tracks in zircon (greater than approximately equals 160 degree C), fission-track ages of individual detrital zircon grains provide valuable information about the source rocks eroded to form the sediments. The success of such studies depends, however, on the degree to which the ages determined from the detrital suite accurately portray the range of grain ages that are present in the suite. This in turn depends to a large extent on using counting and, in particular, etching procedures that permit proper sampling of grains with a wide range of age and uranium concentrations. Results are reported here of an experimental study of a 'detrital' zircon suite manufactured from several zircon populations of known age. This study suggests that multiple etches are required when a complete spectrum of ages in a zircon suite is desired.

  9. Detrital Zircon Geochronology of Cretaceous and Paleogene Strata Across the South-Central Alaskan Convergent Margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight; Haeussler, Peter J.; O'Sullivan, Paul; Friedman, Rich; Till, Alison; Bradley, Dan; Trop, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Ages of detrital zircons are reported from ten samples of Lower Cretaceous to Paleogene metasandstones and sandstones from the Chugach Mountains, Talkeetna Mountains, and western Alaska Range of south-central Alaska. Zircon ages are also reported from three igneous clasts from two conglomerates. The results bear on the regional geology, stratigraphy, tectonics, and mineral resource potential of the southern Alaska convergent margin. Chugach Mountains - The first detrital zircon data are reported here from the two main components of the Chugach accretionary complex - the inboard McHugh Complex and the outboard Valdez Group. Detrital zircons from sandstone and two conglomerate clasts of diorite were dated from the McHugh Complex near Anchorage. This now stands as the youngest known part of the McHugh Complex, with an inferred Turonian (Late Cretaceous) depositional age no older than 91-93 Ma. The zircon population has probability density peaks at 93 and 104 Ma and a smattering of Early Cretaceous and Jurassic grains, with nothing older than 191 Ma. The two diorite clasts yielded Jurassic U-Pb zircon ages of 179 and 181 Ma. Together, these findings suggest a Mesozoic arc as primary zircon source, the closest and most likely candidate being the Wrangellia composite terrane. The detrital zircon sample from the Valdez Group contains zircons as young as 69 and 77 Ma, consistent with the previously assigned Maastrichtian to Campanian (Late Cretaceous) depositional age. The zircon population has peaks at 78, 91, 148, and 163 Ma, minor peaks at 129, 177, 330, and 352 Ma, and no concordant zircons older than Devonian. A granite clast from a Valdez Group conglomerate yielded a Triassic U-Pb zircon age of 221 Ma. Like the McHugh Complex, the Valdez Group appears to have been derived almost entirely from Mesozoic arc sources, but a few Precambrian zircons are also present. Talkeetna Mountains - Detrital zircons ages were obtained from southernmost metasedimentary rocks of the

  10. A Further Investigation of the Exceptional Zircon Aggregate in Lunar Thin Section 73235,82

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pidgeon, R. T.; Nemchin, a. A.; Meyer, C.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Smith et al. described an exceptional zircon assemblage in thin section 82 from lunar breccia 73235 which, in transmitted light, resembles a cluster of pomegranate seeds, situated in a clast dominated by bytownite (Fig.1). They reported that high-contrast back-scattered electron (BSE) images of the zircon assemblage clearly show an overgrowth around most of the crystals. Most significantly these authors reported that the age of the rims of ca 4.18Ga is 120 million years younger than age of the interiors, dated at ca 4.31Ga. Smith et al. concluded that ca 4.31 billion years ago a relatively large (500+micron) zircon crystallized within a clast of Ca rich plagioclase. The zircon was fractured into numerous smaller crystals and was subsequently overgrown by a second generation of zircon at approximately 4.18Ga.

  11. Electron microprobe evaluation of terrestrial basalts for whole-rock K-Ar dating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankinen, E.A.; Brent, Dalrymple G.

    1972-01-01

    Four basalt samples for whole-rock K-Ar dating were analyzed with an electron microprobe to locate potassium concentrations. Highest concentrations of potassium were found in those mineral phases which were the last to crystallize. The two reliable samples had potassium concentrated in fine-grained interstitial feldspar and along grain boundaries of earlier formed plagioclase crystals. The two unreliable samples had potassium concentrated in the glassy matrix, demonstrating the ineffectiveness of basaltic glass as a retainer of radiogenic argon. In selecting basalt samples for whole-rock K-Ar dating, particular emphasis should be placed on determining the nature and condition of the fine-grained interstitial phases. ?? 1972.

  12. $ANBA; a rapid, combined data acquisition and correction program for the SEMQ electron microprobe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, James J.

    1983-01-01

    $ANBA is a program developed for rapid data acquisition and correction on an automated SEMQ electron microprobe. The program provides increased analytical speed and reduced disk read/write operations compared with the manufacturer's software, resulting in a doubling of analytical throughput. In addition, the program provides enhanced analytical features such as averaging, rapid and compact data storage, and on-line plotting. The program is described with design philosophy, flow charts, variable names, a complete program listing, and system requirements. A complete operating example and notes to assist in running the program are included.

  13. Quantitative simultaneous multi-element microprobe analysis using combined wavelength and energy dispersive systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, L. S.; Doan, A. S., Jr.; Wood, F. M., Jr.; Bredekamp, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    A combined WDS-EDS system obviates the severe X-ray peak overlap problems encountered with Na, Mg, Al and Si common to pure EDS systems. By application of easily measured empirical correction factors for pulse pile-up and peak overlaps which are normally observed in the analysis of silicate minerals, the accuracy of analysis is comparable with that expected for WDS electron microprobe analyses. The continuum backgrounds are subtracted for the spectra by a spline fitting technique based on integrated intensities between the peaks. The preprocessed data are then reduced to chemical analyses by existing data reduction programs.

  14. Tracing source terranes using U-Pb-Hf isotopic analysis of detrital zircons: provenance of the Orhanlar Unit of the Palaeotethyan Karakaya subduction-accretion complex, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaömer, Timur; Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Robertson, Alastair; Gerdes, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Sandstones of the Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic Karakaya Complex are interpreted to have accumulated along an active continental margin related to northward subduction of Palaeotethys. The age of deposition and provenance of the sandstones are currently being determined using radiometric dating of detrital zircons, coupled with dating of potential source terranes. Our previous work shows that the U-Pb-Hf isotopic characteristics of the sandstones of all but one of the main tectonostratigraphic units of the Karakaya Complex are compatible with a provenance that was dominated by Triassic and Permo-Carboniferous magmatic arc-type rocks, together with a minor contribution from Lower to Mid-Devonian igneous rocks (Ustaömer et al. 2015). However, one of the tectono-stratigraphic units, the Orhanlar Unit, which occurs in a structurally high position, differs in sedimentary facies and composition from the other units of the Karakaya Complex. Here, we report new isotopic age data for the sandstones of the Orhanlar Unit and also from an extensive, associated tectonic slice of continental metamorphic rocks (part of the regional Sakarya Terrane). Our main aim is to assess the provenance of the Orhanlar Unit sandstones in relation to the tectonic development of the Karakaya Complex as a whole. The Orhanlar Unit is composed of shales, sandstone turbidites and debris-flow deposits, which include blocks of Devonian radiolarian chert and Carboniferous and Permian neritic limestones. The sandstones are dominated by rock fragments, principally volcanic and plutonic rocks of basic-to-intermediate composition, metamorphic rocks and chert, together with common quartz, feldspar and mica. This modal composition contrasts significantly with the dominantly arkosic composition of the other Karakaya Complex sandstones. The detrital zircons were dated by the U-Pb method, coupled with determination of Lu-Hf isotopic compositions using a laser ablation microprobe attached to a multicollector

  15. Paleomagnetism of Hadean and Archean Detrital Zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, B. P.; Lima, E. A.; Alexander, E.; Bell, E. A.; Boehnke, P.; Wielicki, M. M.; Harrison, M.; Fu, R. R.; Kehayias, P.; Glenn, D. R.; Walsworth, R. L.; Araujo, J. F. D.; Einsle, J. F.; Harrison, R.; Trail, D.; Watson, E. B.

    2016-12-01

    Determining the history of Earth's dynamo prior to the oldest known well-preserved rock record is one of the ultimate challenges in the field of paleomagnetism. The dynamo's early history has major implications for the evolution of the core, the initiation of plate tectonics, the physics of magnetic field generation, and the habitability of the early Earth. The only known minerals that might retain paleomagnetic records from well before 3.5 billion years ago (Ga) are detrital zircon crystals found in sedimentary rocks in Western Australia. Ranging up to 4.38 Ga in age, they are the oldest known terrestrial minerals. Tarduno et al. (2015) argued that detrital zircons contain records of an active dynamo dating back to 4.2 Ga. However, it has not been demonstrated that the zircons have escaped remagnetization during the intervening time since their formation (Weiss et al. 2016). Therefore, the age of magnetization in the Jack Hills zircons and the existence of a dynamo prior to 3.5 Ga have yet to be established. To address this issue, we have been studying the magnetism and thermal and aqueous alteration histories of single Archean and Hadean Jack Hills zircon crystals. Peak unblocking temperatures combined with electron backscatter diffraction indicate that the zircons contain inclusions of magnetite and hematite. Electron microscopy, X-ray tomography, and quantum diamond magnetometry indicate that much of the iron oxides in the zircons are associated with cracks and are therefore likely secondary. However, our newly developed Li-in-zircon geospeedometry technique shows for the first time that a small fraction of Hadean zircons retain sharp gradients in Li concentration (see figure), indicating they likely have never heated above the magnetite Curie temperature since their formation at >4 Ga. We describe thermal demagnetization and Thellier-Thellier paleointensity studies of these zircons and implications for the existence of a Hadean dynamo.

  16. Determinations of rare earth element abundance and U-Pb age of zircons using multispot laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Takaomi D; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Kon, Yoshiaki; Hirata, Takafumi

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a new calibration technique for multielement determination and U-Pb dating of zircon samples using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled with galvanometric optics. With the galvanometric optics, laser ablation of two or more sample materials could be achieved in very short time intervals (~10 ms). The resulting sample aerosols released from different ablation pits or different solid samples were mixed and homogenized within the sample cell and then transported into the ICP ion source. Multiple spot laser ablation enables spiking of analytes or internal standard elements directly into the solid samples, and therefore the standard addition calibration method can be applied for the determination of trace elements in solid samples. In this study, we have measured the rare earth element (REE) abundances of two zircon samples (Nancy 91500 and Prešovice) based on the standard addition technique, using a direct spiking of analytes through a multispot laser ablation of the glass standard material (NIST SRM612). The resulting REE abundance data show good agreement with previously reported values within analytical uncertainties achieved in this study (10% for most elements). Our experiments demonstrated that nonspectroscopic interferences on 14 REEs could be significantly reduced by the standard addition technique employed here. Another advantage of galvanometric devices is the accumulation of sample aerosol released from multiple spots. In this study we have measured the U-Pb age of a zircon sample (LMR) using an accumulation of sample aerosols released from 10 separate ablation pits of low diameters (~8 μm). The resulting (238)U-(206)Pb age data for the LMR zircons was 369 ± 64 Ma, which is in good agreement with previously reported age data (367.6 ± 1.5 Ma). (1) The data obtained here clearly demonstrate that the multiple spot laser ablation-ICPMS technique can become a powerful approach for elemental and isotopic

  17. Proton trapping in yttrium-doped barium zirconate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Blanc, Frédéric; Okuyama, Yuji; Buannic, Lucienne; Lucio-Vega, Juan C.; Grey, Clare P.; Haile, Sossina M.

    2013-07-01

    The environmental benefits of fuel cells have been increasingly appreciated in recent years. Among candidate electrolytes for solid-oxide fuel cells, yttrium-doped barium zirconate has garnered attention because of its high proton conductivity, particularly in the intermediate-temperature region targeted for cost-effective solid-oxide fuel cell operation, and its excellent chemical stability. However, fundamental questions surrounding the defect chemistry and macroscopic proton transport mechanism of this material remain, especially in regard to the possible role of proton trapping. Here we show, through a combined thermogravimetric and a.c. impedance study, that macroscopic proton transport in yttrium-doped barium zirconate is limited by proton-dopant association (proton trapping). Protons must overcome the association energy, 29 kJ mol-1, as well as the general activation energy, 16 kJ mol-1, to achieve long-range transport. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies show the presence of two types of proton environment above room temperature, reflecting differences in proton-dopant configurations. This insight motivates efforts to identify suitable alternative dopants with reduced association energies as a route to higher conductivities.

  18. Proton trapping in yttrium-doped barium zirconate.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Blanc, Frédéric; Okuyama, Yuji; Buannic, Lucienne; Lucio-Vega, Juan C; Grey, Clare P; Haile, Sossina M

    2013-07-01

    The environmental benefits of fuel cells have been increasingly appreciated in recent years. Among candidate electrolytes for solid-oxide fuel cells, yttrium-doped barium zirconate has garnered attention because of its high proton conductivity, particularly in the intermediate-temperature region targeted for cost-effective solid-oxide fuel cell operation, and its excellent chemical stability. However, fundamental questions surrounding the defect chemistry and macroscopic proton transport mechanism of this material remain, especially in regard to the possible role of proton trapping. Here we show, through a combined thermogravimetric and a.c. impedance study, that macroscopic proton transport in yttrium-doped barium zirconate is limited by proton-dopant association (proton trapping). Protons must overcome the association energy, 29 kJ mol(-1), as well as the general activation energy, 16 kJ mol(-1), to achieve long-range transport. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies show the presence of two types of proton environment above room temperature, reflecting differences in proton-dopant configurations. This insight motivates efforts to identify suitable alternative dopants with reduced association energies as a route to higher conductivities.

  19. Zircons reveal magma fluxes in the Earth's crust.

    PubMed

    Caricchi, Luca; Simpson, Guy; Schaltegger, Urs

    2014-07-24

    Magma fluxes regulate the planetary thermal budget, the growth of continents and the frequency and magnitude of volcanic eruptions, and play a part in the genesis and size of magmatic ore deposits. However, because a large fraction of the magma produced on the Earth does not erupt at the surface, determinations of magma fluxes are rare and this compromises our ability to establish a link between global heat transfer and large-scale geological processes. Here we show that age distributions of zircons, a mineral often present in crustal magmatic rocks, in combination with thermal modelling, provide an accurate means of retrieving magma fluxes. The characteristics of zircon age populations vary significantly and systematically as a function of the flux and total volume of magma accumulated in the Earth's crust. Our approach produces results that are consistent with independent determinations of magma fluxes and volumes of magmatic systems. Analysis of existing age population data sets using our method suggests that porphyry-type deposits, plutons and large eruptions each require magma input over different timescales at different characteristic average fluxes. We anticipate that more extensive and complete magma flux data sets will serve to clarify the control that the global heat flux exerts on the frequency of geological events such as volcanic eruptions, and to determine the main factors controlling the distribution of resources on our planet.

  20. Air abrasion experiments in U-Pb dating of zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldich, S.S.; Fischer, L.B.

    1986-01-01

    Air abrasion of zircon grains can remove metamict material that has lost radiogenic Pb and zircon overgrowths that were added during younger events and thereby improve the precision of the age measurements and permit closer estimates of the original age. Age discordance that resulted from a single disturbance of the U-Pb isotopic decay systems, as had been demonstrated by T.E. Krogh, can be considerably reduced, and, under favorable conditions, the ages brought into concordancy. Two or more events complicate the U-Pb systematics, but a series of abrasion experiments can be helpful in deciphering the geologic history and in arriving at a useful interpretation of the probable times of origin and disturbances. In east-central Minnesota, U.S.A., Penokean tonalite gneiss is dated at 1869 ?? 5 Ma, and sheared granite gneiss is shown to have been a high-level granite intrusion at 1982 ?? 5 Ma in the McGrath Gneiss precursor. Tonalite gneiss and a mafic granodiorite in the Rainy Lake area, Ontario, Canada, are dated at 2736 ?? 16 and 2682 ?? 4 Ma, respectively. The tonalitic phase of the Morton Gneiss, southwestern Minnesota, is dated at 3662 ?? 42 Ma. ?? 1986.

  1. Magma evolution as seen through zircon geochemistry: an example from the Southern Adamello Batholith, N. Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broderick, C.; Schaltegger, U.; Gerdes, A.; Frick, D.; Guenther, D.; Brack, P.

    2012-04-01

    Zircon is an ubiquitous accessory mineral often used for U-Pb geochronology but is also an important recorder of geochemical information. The trace element and isotopic characteristics of zircon yield potential for tracking changes in an evolving magma through time. With recent advances in U-Pb zircon geochronology, 10-100 ka to Ma timescales are observed for incremental pluton construction (Michel et al., 2008, Schaltegger et al., 2009). In observed 100 ka timescales of zircon crystallization, can zircon record the processes that produce trace element variations in a magma? This study focuses on the Val Fredda Complex (VFC) in the southern tip of the 43 to 33 Ma Adamello batholith, N. Italy. The VFC displays complex relationships among mafic melts that were injected into solidifying felsic magmas. Single zircon crystals were dated using CA-ID-TIMS. With permil uncertainties on 206Pb/238U zircon dates, zircons reveal complexities within single populations. The mafic units crystallized potential autocrystic zircons over a duration of 100 - 150ka, whereas the felsic units record up to 200ka of zircon crystallization. In order to understand these complex zircon populations, we analyzed Hf isotopes and trace elements, on the same volume of zircon used for U-Pb dating, following the TIMS-TEA method (Schoene et al., 2010). This detailed zircon study will allow us to look at how magmas are evolving with time. Hf isotopes of VFC mafic zircons reveal distinct ɛHf values between the three mafic units and their ɛHf values remain consistent through time, whereas the VFC felsic units record more complexity in their ɛHf values. We observe changes such as increasing and slight decreases in ɛHf with time which suggest different processes are occurring to produce the different felsic units. Trace element ratios in zircon reveal differences which allow us to make distinctions between felsic and mafic units (e.g. Th/U, (Lu/Gd)N, REEs). The VFC records 200 ka of zircon

  2. PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS OF TRACE-ELEMENT VARIATIONS IN VITRINITES IN THE SAME AND DIFFERENT COAL BEDS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minkin, J.A.; Chao, E.C.T.; Blank, Herma; Dulong, F.T.

    1987-01-01

    The PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission) microprobe can be used for nondestructive, in-situ analyses of areas as small as those analyzed by the electron microprobe, and has a sensitivity of detection as much as two orders of magnitude better than the electron microprobe. Preliminary studies demonstrated that PIXE provides a capability for quantitative determination of elemental concentrations in individual coal maceral grains with a detection limit of 1-10 ppm for most elements analyzed. Encouraged by the earlier results, we carried out the analyses reported below to examine trace element variations laterally (over a km range) as well as vertically (cm to m) in the I and J coal beds in the Upper Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale in central Utah, and to compare the data with the data from two samples of eastern coals of Pennsylvanian age.

  3. Investigating the Early Carbon Cycle Using Carbonaceous Inclusions and Dissolved Carbon in Detrital Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, E. A.; Boehnke, P.; Harrison, M.; Mao, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Because the terrestrial rock record extends only to ~4 Ga and older materials thus far identified are limited to detrital zircons, information about volatile abundances and cycles on early Earth is limited. Carbon, for instance, plays an important role not only in the modern biosphere but also in deep recycling of materials between the crust and mantle. We are investigating the record of carbon abundance and origin in Hadean zircons from Jack Hills (W. Australia) using two main approaches. First, carbon may partition into the zircon structure at trace levels during crystallization from a magma, and better understanding of this partitioning behavior will allow for zircon's use as a monitor of magmatic carbon contents. We have measured carbon abundances in zircon from a variety of igneous rocks (gabbro; I-, A-, and S-type granitoids) via SIMS and found that although abundances are typically low (average raw 12C/30Si ~ 1x10-6), S-type granite zircons can reach a factor of 1000 over this background. Around 10% of Hadean zircons investigated show similar enrichments, consistent with other evidence for the derivation of many Jack Hills zircons from S-type granitoids and with the establishment of modern-level carbon abundances in the crust by ca. 4.2 Ga. Diamond and graphite inclusions reported in the Jack Hills zircons by previous studies proved to be contamination by polishing debris, leaving the true abundance of these materials in the population uncertain. On a second front, we have identified and investigated primary carbonaceous inclusions in these zircons. From a population of over 10,000 Jack Hills zircons, we identified one concordant 4.10±0.01 Ga zircon that contains primary graphite inclusions (so interpreted due to their enclosure in a crack-free zircon host as shown by transmission X-ray microscopy and their crystal habit). Their δ13CPDB of -24±5‰ is consistent with a biogenic origin and, in the absence of a likely inorganic mechanism to produce such a

  4. Fast probing of glucose and fructose in plant tissues via plasmonic affinity sandwich assay with molecularly-imprinted extraction microprobes.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Pir; Liu, Jia; Xing, Rongrong; Wen, Yanrong; Wang, Yijia; Liu, Zhen

    2017-12-01

    Determination of specific target compounds in agriculture food and natural plant products is essential for many purposes; however, it is often challenging due to the complexity of the sample matrices. Herein we present a new approach called plasmonic affinity sandwich assay for the facile and rapid probing of glucose and fructose in plant tissues. The approach mainly relies on molecularly imprinted plasmonic extraction microprobes, which were prepared on gold-coated acupuncture needles via boronate affinity controllable oriented surface imprinting with the target monosaccharide as the template molecules. An extraction microprobe was inserted into plant tissues under investigation, which allowed for the specific extraction of glucose or fructose from the tissues. The glucose or fructose molecules extracted on the microprobe were labeled with boronic acid-functionalized Raman-active silver nanoparticles, and thus affinity sandwich complexes were formed on the microprobes. After excess Raman nanotags were washed away, the microprobe was subjected to Raman detection. Upon being irradiated with a laser beam, surface plasmon on the gold-coated microprobes was generated, which further produced plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering of the silver-based nanotags and thereby provided sensitive detection. Apple fruits, which contain abundant glucose and fructose, were used as a model of plant tissues. The approach exhibited high specificity, good sensitivity (limit of detection, 1 μg mL -1 ), and fast speed (the whole procedure required only 20 min). The spatial distribution profiles of glucose and fructose within an apple were investigated by the developed approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Electron Microprobe Analyses of Lithic Fragments and Their Minerals from Luna 20 Fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, G. H.; Hlava, P. F.; Green, J. A.; Moore, R. B.; Moreland, G.; Dowty, E.; Prinz, M.; Keil, K.; Nehru, C. E.; Bunch, T. E.

    1973-01-01

    The bulk analyses (determined with the broad beam electron microprobe technique) of lithic fragments are given in weight percentages and are arranged according to the rock classification. Within each rock group the analyses are arranged in order of increasing FeO content. Thin section and lithic fragment numbers are given at the top of each column of analysis and correspond to the numbers recorded on photo mosaics on file in the Institute of Meteoritics. CIPW molecular norms are given for each analysis. Electron microprobe mineral analyses (given in oxide weight percentages), structural formulae and molecular end member values are presented for plagioclase, olivine, pyroxene and K-feldspar. The minerals are selected mostly from lithic fragments that were also analyzed for bulk composition. Within each mineral group the analyses are presented according to the section number and lithic fragment number. Within each lithic fragment the mineral analyses are arranged as follows: Plagioclase in order of increasing CaO; olivine and pyroexene in order of increasing FeO; and K-feldspar in order of increasing K2O. The mineral grains are identified at the top of each column of analysis by grain number and lithic fragment number.

  6. Development of Ultra Low Temperature, Impact Resistant Lithium Battery for the Mars Microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H.; Deligiannis, F.; Davies, E.; Ratnakumar, Bugga V.; Surampudi, S.; Russel, P. G.; Reddy, T. B.

    1998-01-01

    The requirements of the power source for the Mars Microprobe, to be backpacked on the Mars 98 Spacecraft, are fairly demanding, with survivability to a shock of the order of 80,000 g combined with an operational requirement at -80 C. Development of a suitable power system, based on primary lithium-thionyl chloride is underway for the last eighteen months, together with Yardney Technical Products Inc., Pawcatuck, CT. The battery consists of 4 cells of 2 Ah capacity at 25 C, of which at least 25 % would be available at -80 C, at a moderate rate of C/20. Each probe contains two batteries and two such probes will be deployed. The selected cell is designed around an approximate 1/2 "D" cells, with flat plate electrodes. Significant improvements to the conventional Li-SOCl2 cell include: (a) use of tetrachlorogallate salt instead of aluminate for improved low temperature performance and reduced voltage delay, (b) optimization of the salt concentration, and (c) modification of the cell design to develop shock resistance to 80,000 g. We report here results from our several electrical performance tests, mission simulation tests, microcalorimetry and AC impedance studies, and Air gun tests. The cells have successfully gone through mission-enabling survivability and performance tests for the Mars Microprobe penetrator.

  7. Study of the toughening mechanisms in bone and biomimetic hydroxyapatite materials using Raman microprobe spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Sakakura, Seiji

    2003-05-01

    A Raman microprobe spectroscopy characterization of microscopic fracture mechanisms is presented for a natural hydroxyapatite material (cortical bovine femur) and two synthetic hydroxyapatite-based materials with biomimetic structures-a hydroxyapatite skeleton interpenetrated with a metallic (silver) or a polymeric (nylon-6) phase. In both the natural and synthetic materials, a conspicuous amount of toughening arose from a microscopic crack-bridging mechanism operated by elasto-plastic stretching of unbroken second-phase ligaments along the crack wake. This mechanism led to a rising R-curve behavior. An additional micromechanism, responsible for stress relaxation at the crack tip, was recognized in the natural bone material and was partly mimicked in the hydroxyapatite/silver composite. This crack-tip mechanism conspicuously enhanced the cortical bone material resistance to fracture initiation. A piezo-spectroscopic technique, based on a microprobe measurement of 980 cm(-1) Raman line of hydroxyapatite, enabled us to quantitatively assess in situ the microscopic stress fields developed during fracture both at the crack tip and along the crack wake. Using the Raman piezo-spectroscopy technique, toughening mechanisms were assessed quantitatively and rationally related to the macroscopic fracture characteristics of hydroxyapatite-based materials. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Reply to Comment on "Zircon U-Th-Pb dating using LA-ICP-MS: Simultaneous U-Pb and U-Th dating on the 0.1 Ma Toya Tephra, Japan"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hisatoshi

    2015-04-01

    Guillong et al. (2015) mentioned that corrections for abundance sensitivity for 232Th and molecular zirconium sesquioxide ions (Zr2O3+) are critical for reliable determination of 230Th abundances in zircon for LA-ICP-MS analyses. There is no denying that more rigorous treatments are necessary to obtain more reliable ages than those in Ito (2014). However, as shown in Fig. 2 in Guillong et al. (2015), the uncorrected (230Th)/(238U) for reference zircons except for Mud Tank are only 5-20% higher than unity. Since U abundance of Toya Tephra zircons that have U-Pb ages < 1 Ma is in-between that of FCT and Plesovice, the overestimation of 230Th by both abundance sensitivity and molecular interferences is expected to be 5-20% for the Toya Tephra. Moreover Ito (2014) obtained U-Th ages of the Toya Tephra by comparison with Fish Canyon Tuff (FCT) data. Because both the FCT and the Toya Tephra have similar trends of overestimation of 230Th, the effect of overestimation of 230Th to cause overestimation of U-Th age should be cancelled out or negligible. Therefore the pivotal conclusion in Ito (2014) that simultaneous U-Pb and U-Th dating using LA-ICP-MS is possible and useful for Quaternary zircons holds true.

  9. Response of zircon to melting and metamorphism in deep arc crust, Fiordland (New Zealand): implications for zircon inheritance in cordilleran granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Shrema; Kemp, A. I. S.; Collins, W. J.

    2018-04-01

    The Cretaceous Mount Daniel Complex (MDC) in northern Fiordland, New Zealand was emplaced as a 50 m-thick dyke and sheet complex into an active shear zone at the base of a Cordilleran magmatic arc. It was emplaced below the 20-25 km-thick, 125.3 ± 1.3 Ma old Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (WFO) and is characterized by metre-scale sheets of sodic, low and high Sr/Y diorites and granites. 119.3 ± 1.2 Ma old, pre-MDC lattice dykes and 117.4 ± 3.1 Ma late-MDC lattice dykes constrain the age of the MDC itself. Most dykes were isoclinally folded as they intruded, but crystallised within this deep-crustal, magma-transfer zone as the terrain cooled and was buried from 25 to 50 km (9-14 kbar), based on published P-T estimated from the surrounding country rocks. Zircon grains formed under these magmatic/granulite facies metamorphic conditions were initially characterized by conservatively assigning zircons with oscillatory zoning as igneous and featureless rims as metamorphic, representing 54% of the analysed grains. Further petrological assignment involved additional parameters such as age, morphology, Th/U ratios, REE patterns and Ti-in-zircon temperature estimates. Using this integrative approach, assignment of analysed grains to metamorphic or igneous groupings improved to 98%. A striking feature of the MDC is that only 2% of all igneous zircon grains reflect emplacement, so that the zircon cargo was almost entirely inherited, even in dioritic magmas. Metamorphic zircons of MDC show a cooler temperature range of 740-640 °C, reflects the moderate ambient temperature of the lower crust during MDC emplacement. The MDC also provides a cautionary tale: in the absence of robust field and microstructural relations, the igneous-zoned zircon population at 122.1 ± 1.3 Ma, derived mostly from inherited zircons of the WFO, would be meaningless in terms of actual magmatic emplacement age of MDC, where the latter is further obscured by younger (ca. 114 Ma) metamorphic overgrowths

  10. Electron microprobe study of lunar and planetary zoned plagioclase feldspars: An analytical and experimental study of zoning in plagioclase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. K.; Lofgren, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    Natural and experimentally grown zoned plagioclase feldspars were examined by electron microprobe. The analyses revealed discontinuous, sector, and oscillary chemical zoning superimposed on continuous normal or reverse zoning trends. Postulated mechanisms for the origin of zoning are based on either physical changes external to the magma (P, T, H2O saturation) or kinetic changes internal to the magma (diffusion, supersaturation, growth rate). Comparison of microprobe data on natural zoned plagioclase with zoned plagioclase grown in controlled experiments show that it may be possible to distinguish zonal development resulting from physio-chemical changes to the bulk magma from local kinetic control on the growth of individual crystals.

  11. Zircon solubility and of Zr species in subduction zone fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, M.; Schmidt, C.; Rickers, K.; Pascarelli, S.; Manning, C. E.; Stechern, A.

    2009-12-01

    The geochemical signature of igneous rocks at convergent plate margins is thought to result from complex melt formation processes involving aqueous solutions derived from dehydration of the subducted slab. In these processes, the depletion of high-field-strength elements (HFSE) may be controlled by the presence of accessory phases such as zircon and rutile, which can strongly fractionate these elements; however, the stability and solubility of these phases depends strongly on the fluid composition, including concentration and stoichiometry of Na-Al silicate components. Here we present new data on the influence of the fluid composition on zircon solubility as well as data on the Zr complexation in these fluids at P&T. Experiments were conducted using a modified hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC). Zr contents at P&T were determined using SR-µXRF spectra. Zr K-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectra were acquired to investigate the Zr complexation in-situ at P&T. A grain of synthetic crystalline zircon was equilibrated with an aqueous fluid containing Na2Si2O5 or Na2Si2O5 + Al2O3 components. XAFS and SR-µXRF spectra were taken at the dispersive beamline ID24 of the ESRF, Grenoble, France. Some additional SR-µXRF spectra were taken at HASYLAB, Hamburg, beamline L. The observed Zr concentrations in fluids containing 7-33 wt% Na2Si2O5 and variable Al contents were between 75 and 720 ppm at 500 to 750°C and ~300 MPa to ~700 MPa. These values match expected solubilities calculated from linear interpolation of the maximum solubility in pure H2O (from the detection limit) and the solubility in the most alkaline high-silica melts reported by Ellison and Hess (1986, CMP, 94, 343). The high Zr solubility in sodium silicate-bearing solutions signifies that aqueous fluids with alkali silicates offer an efficient mechanism for HFSE transport. This can be explained by complexation of HFSE with Si, Na, and perhaps also Al, via formation of polymerized solutes

  12. First Archean Zircons Found in Oceanic Crustal Rocks of Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Wiedenbeck, M.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2016-12-01

    A fragment of continental crust has been postulated to underlie the young plume-related lavas of the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius, on both the basis of inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness) and the recovery of Proterozoic zircons (660-1971 Ma) from basaltic beach sands (Torsvik et al., Nature Geosci. 6, 227, 2013). We recovered 13 zircon grains from a trachyte associated with the Older Series basalts (9.0-4.7 Ma) of Mauritius, the second youngest member of a hot-spot track extending from the active plume site of Réunion. Extreme care was taken to avoid contamination during sample processing. Ten of the 13 grains are featureless, with no internal structures, and SIMS analyses (Cameca 1280-HR instrument) yield 49 spots with Miocene U-Pb systematics and a mean age of 5.7 ± 0.2 Ma (1 sd), constraining the magmatic crystallization age of the trachyte. Three grains with partially resorbed magmatic zoning, partial metamictization and mineral inclusions (quartz, K-feldspar, monazite) show uniquely mid- to late-Archean systematics: 20 spot analyses give concordant to near-concordant ages of 3030 ± 5 Ma to 2766 ± 13 Ma. This suggests that during ascent, the trachytic magmas incorporated silicic continental crustal material that preserves a record of several hundred m.y. of Archean evolution. This is consistent with Sr-Nd isotope systematics of the Mauritian trachytes, which can be modelled as having been contaminated with 0.4-3.5% of ancient granitoid crustal components. Our new age results, combined with the Proterozoic ages of zircons recovered from Mauritian beach sands, are best correlated with continental crust of east-central Madagascar, presently 700 km west of Mauritius, where Archean gneisses and Neoproterozoic intrusive rocks are juxtaposed such that a 2000 km2 area could correspond to a fragment of continent presently underlying Mauritius. This, and other continental fragments formed during Gondwana break-up, may be scattered across the

  13. New insights into Arctic paleogeography and tectonics from U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, E.L.; Toro, J.; Gehrels, G.; Amato, J.M.; Prokopiev, A.; Tuchkova, M.I.; Akinin, V.V.; Dumitru, T.A.; Moore, Thomas E.; Cecile, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    To test existing models for the formation of the Amerasian Basin, detrital zircon suites from 12 samples of Triassic sandstone from the circum-Arctic region were dated by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The northern Verkhoyansk (NE Russia) has Permo-Carboniferous (265-320 Ma) and Cambro-Silurian (410-505 Ma) zircon populations derived via river systems from the active Baikal Mountain region along the southern Siberian craton. Chukotka, Wrangel Island (Russia), and the Lisburne Hills (western Alaska) also have Permo-Carboniferous (280-330 Ma) and late Precambrian-Silurian (420-580 Ma) zircons in addition to Permo-Triassic (235-265 Ma), Devonian (340-390 Ma), and late Precambrian (1000-1300 Ma) zircons. These ages suggest at least partial derivation from the Taimyr, Siberian Trap, and/ or east Urals regions of Arctic Russia. The northerly derived Ivishak Formation (Sadlerochit Mountains, Alaska) and Pat Bay Formation (Sverdrup Basin, Canada) are dominated by Cambrian-latest Precambrian (500-600 Ma) and 445-490 Ma zircons. Permo-Carboniferous and Permo-Triassic zircons are absent. The Bjorne Formation (Sverdrup Basin), derived from the south, differs from other samples studied with mostly 1130-1240 Ma and older Precambrian zircons in addition to 430-470 Ma zircons. The most popular tectonic model for the origin of the Amerasian Basin involves counterclockwise rotation of the Arctic Alaska-Chukotka microplate away from the Canadian Arctic margin. The detrital zircon data suggest that the Chukotka part of the microplate originated closer to the Taimyr and Verkhoyansk, east of the Polar Urals of Russia, and not from the Canadian Arctic. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Effect of α-damage on fission-track annealing in zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasuya, Masao; Naeser, Charles W.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal stability of confined fission-track lengths in four zircon samples having different spontaneous track densities (i.e., different amounts of ??-damage) has been studied by one-hour isochronal annealing experiments. The thermal stability of spontaneous track lengths is independent of initial spontaneous track density. The thermal stability of induced track lengths in pre-annealed zircon, however, is significantly higher than that of spontaneous track lengths. The results indicate that the presence of ??-damage lowers the thermal stability of fission-tracks in zircon.

  15. The effect of α-damage on fission-track annealing in zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasuya, M.; Naeser, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal stability of confined fission-track lengths in four zircon samples having different spontaneous track densities (i.e. different amounts of ??-damage) has been studied by one hour isochronal annealing experiments. The thermal stability of spontaneous track lengths is independent of initial spontaneous track density. The thermal stability of induced track lengths in pre-annealed zircon, however, is significantly higher than that of spontaneous track lengths. The results indicate that the presence of ??-damage lowers the thermal stability of fission-tracks in zircon. ?? 1988.

  16. Impact-shocked zircons: discovery of shock-induced textures reflecting increasing degrees of shock metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohor, B.F.; Betterton, W.J.; Krogh, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    Textural effects specifically characteristic of shock metamorphism in zircons from impact environments have not been reported previously. However, planar deformation features (PDF) due to shock metamorphism are well documented in quartz and other mineral grains from these same environments. An etching technique was developed that allows SEM visualization of PDF and other probable shock-induced textural features, such as granular (polycrystalline) texture, in zircons from a variety of impact shock environments. These textural features in shocked zircons from K/T boundary distal ejecta form a series related to increasing degrees of shock that should correlate with proportionate resetting of the UPb isotopic system. ?? 1993.

  17. Trace-element record in zircons during exhumation from UHP conditions, North-East Greenland Caledonides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClelland, W.C.; Gilotti, J.A.; Mazdab, F.K.; Wooden, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Coesite-bearing zircon formed at ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) conditions share general characteristics of eclogite-facies zircon with trace-element signatures characterized by depleted heavy rare earth elements (HREE), lack of an Eu anomaly, and low Th/ U ratios. Trace-element signatures of zircons from the Caledonian UHP terrane in North-East Greenland were used to examine the possible changes in signature with age during exhumation. Collection and interpretation of age and trace-element analyses of zircon from three samples of quartzofeldspathic gneiss and two leucocratic intrusions were guided by core vs. rim zoning patterns as imaged by cathodoluminesence. Change from igneous to eclogite-facies metamorphic trace-element signature in protolith zircon is characterized by gradual depletion of HREE, whereas newly formed metamorphic rims have flat HREE patterns and REE concentrations that are distinct from the recrystallized inherited cores. The signature associated with eclogite-facies metamorphic zircon is observed in coesite-bearing zircon formed at 358 ?? 4 Ma, metamorphic rims formed at 348 ?? 5 Ma during the initial stages of exhumation, and metamorphic rims formed at 337 ?? 5 Ma. Zircons from a garnet-bearing granite emplaced in the neck of an eclogite boudin and a leucocratic dike that cross-cuts amphibolite-facies structural fabrics have steeply sloping HREE patterns, variably developed negative Eu anomalies, and low Th/U ratios. The granite records initial decompression melting and exhumation at 347 ?? 2 Ma and later zircon rim growth at 329 ?? 5. The leucocratic dike was likely emplaced at amphibolite-facies conditions at 330 ?? 2 Ma, but records additional growth of compositionally similar zircon at 321 ??2 Ma. The difference between the trace-element signature of metamorphic zircon in the gneisses and in part coeval leucocratic intrusions indicates that the zircon signature varies as a function of lithology and context, thus enhancing its ability to aid in

  18. Impact-shocked zircons: Discovery of shock-induced textures reflecting increasing degrees of shock metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohor, B. F.; Betterton, W. J.; Krogh, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    Textural effects specifically characteristic of shock metamorphism in zircons from impact environments have not been reported previously. However, planar deformation features (PDF) due to shock metamorphism are well documented in quartz and other mineral grains from these same environments. An etching technique was developed that allows scanning electron microscope (SEM) visualization of PDF and other probable shock-induced textural features, such as granular (polycrystalline) texture, in zircons from a variety of impact shock environments. These textural features in shocked zircons from K/T boundary distal ejecta form a series related to increasing degrees of shock that should correlate with proportionate resetting of the U-Pb isotopic system.

  19. Ferroelectric devices using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Young Hun; Shokri Kojori, Hossein; Kim, Sung Jin

    2016-02-01

    We successfully demonstrate the synthesis of lead zirconate titanate nanoparticles (PZT NPs) and a ferroelectric device using the synthesized PZT NPs. The crystalline structure and the size of the nanocrystals are studied using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. We observe <100 nm of PZT NPs and this result matches dynamic light scattering measurements. A solution-based low-temperature process is used to fabricate PZT NP-based devices on an indium tin oxide substrate. The fabricated ferroelectric devices are characterized using various optical and electrical measurements and we verify ferroelectric properties including ferroelectric hysteresis and the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect. Our approach enables low-temperature solution-based processes that could be used for various applications. To the best of our knowledge, this low-temperature solution processed ferroelectric device using PZT NPs is the first successful demonstration of its kind.

  20. Alpine Palaeogeography: new constraints from detrital zircon geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galster, Federico; Stockli, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Schardt's (1898) discovery of the "allochtony" of the Préalpes Médianes and its exotic character, provided Alpine geologist with a first picture of Alpine palaeogeography: a Middle Jurassic sea divided in two branches by the rise of an emerged island. Later on, Schardt's island had been recognized at the scale of the Alpine belt and took the name of Briançonnais "geoanticline". In many Alpine palaeogeographic reconstructions, the Briançonnais and its exotic character have played a crucial role (e.g. Stampfli 1993; Manatschal et al., 2006;). In particular some of them explained the exotic character of the Briançonnais facies by proposing a pre-Cretaceous position located far from the Helvetic domain. In this view, the Briançonnais terrain was related to the Iberian plate and entered the Central Alpine system only after a Lower Cretaceous eastward drift associated with anticlockwise rotation of Iberia, opening of the northern Atlantic and closure of the Vardar ocean. In the Central Alps, the remnants of the northern Jurassic margin of the Alpine Tethys (sensu Stampfli) are contained in the Helvetic (s.l.) and Lower Penninic units. The basements and original substrate of these nappes are exposed in the crystalline external massifs and in the gneissic Lepontine dome. The highest, more internal, gneissic units within this dome are the Monte Leone, the Maggia and the Adula nappe. Theses units, as well as the autochthonous basement of the European margin, are characterized by large "Variscan" granitoids with ages between 290 and 330 Ma. The "ophiolite-bearing" units thrust on top of the Adula nappe are composed of Cretaceous and younger sedimentary rocks, with thin soles of Triassic and Jurassic strata. In addition to Variscan, Cambro-Ordovician and Proterozoic ages, detrital zircons in these soles show a peak at 260-280 Ma accompanied by a cluster of ca. 230 Ma zircons, similarly to what is observed in the Schams and Préalpes Médianes nappes (Briançonnais s

  1. Ferroelectric devices using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Paik, Young Hun; Kojori, Hossein Shokri; Kim, Sung Jin

    2016-02-19

    We successfully demonstrate the synthesis of lead zirconate titanate nanoparticles (PZT NPs) and a ferroelectric device using the synthesized PZT NPs. The crystalline structure and the size of the nanocrystals are studied using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. We observe <100 nm of PZT NPs and this result matches dynamic light scattering measurements. A solution-based low-temperature process is used to fabricate PZT NP-based devices on an indium tin oxide substrate. The fabricated ferroelectric devices are characterized using various optical and electrical measurements and we verify ferroelectric properties including ferroelectric hysteresis and the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect. Our approach enables low-temperature solution-based processes that could be used for various applications. To the best of our knowledge, this low-temperature solution processed ferroelectric device using PZT NPs is the first successful demonstration of its kind.

  2. Volatility in the lunar crust: Trace element analyses of lunar minerals by PIXE proton microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Griffin, W. L.; Ryan, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    In situ determination of mineral compositions using microbeam techniques can characterize magma compositions through mineral-melt partitioning, and be used to investigate fine-grained or rare phases which cannot be extracted for analysis. Abundances of Fe, Mn, Sr, Ga, Zr, Y, Nb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Se, and Sb were determined for various mineral phases in a small number of lunar highlands rocks using the PIXE proton microprobe. Sr/Ga ratios of plagioclase and Mn/Zn ratios of mafic silicates show that the ferroan anorthosites and Mg-suite cumulates are depleted in volatile lithophile elements to about the same degree compared with chondrites and the Earth. This links the entire lunar crust to common processes or source compositions. In contrast, secondary sulfides in Descartes breccia clasts are enriched in chalcophile elements such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Se, and Sb, and represent a potential resource in the lunar highlands.

  3. Electron microprobe analyses of Ca, S, Mg and P distribution in incisors of Spacelab-3 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, G. D.; Simmons, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of Ca, S, Mg and P was mapped within the incisors of Spacelab-3 rats using an electron microprobe. The data indicate that Flight rats maintained in orbit for 7 days have significantly higher Ca/Mg ratios in dentin due to both higher Ca and lower Mg content than in dentin of ground-based Controls. There is no statistical difference in distribution of either P or S within Fligth animals and Controls, but there is clear indication that, for P at least, the reason is the greater variability of the Control data. These results are consistent with those obtained on a previous NASA/COSMOS flight of 18.5 days duration, although they are not pronounced. The results further suggest that continuously growing rat incisors provide useful records of the effects of weightlessness on Ca metabolism.

  4. Scanning Auger Microprobe and atomic absorption studies of lunar volcanic volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirlin, E. H.; Housley, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    Results on lunar volatile transport processes have been obtained by studying green and brown glass droplets, orange and black core tube samples and the surface sample 74241 with the Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM) and by Flameless Atomic Absorption Analysis (FLAA). SAM analyses show that the most dominant volatiles in the top few atomic layers of droplets are Zn and S, confirming that the surface Zn and S are good indicators of pyroclastic origin, and they are not entirely present as ZnS. In addition, FLAA thermal release profiles show that almost all the Zn and Cd are on grain surfaces, indicating that Zn and Cd were completely outgassed from lava fountain products during the volcanic eruption, were recondensed during or after the eruptions, and are thus present as surface coating.

  5. Hg diffusion in books of XVIII and XIX centuries by synchrotron microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessanha, S.; Carvalho, M. L.; Manso, M.; Guilherme, A.; Marques, A. F.; Perez, C. A.

    2009-08-01

    The pigment vermilion (HgS) was used to color the fore edge, tail and head of books. Dissemination and quantification of Hg present in the ink used to color books from XVIII and XIX centuries are reported. Mercury is a very toxic element for the human body, therefore it is extremely important to know whether Hg tends to disseminate throughout the paper or stays confined to the borders of the books with less danger for readers. Synchrotron X-ray microprobe was used to evaluate Hg dissemination from the border to the centre of the paper sheet. The diffusion pattern of Hg was compared with the results obtained by a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and mean quantitative calculations were obtained by a stationary X-ray fluorescence system with triaxial geometry. The results showed high concentrations of Hg in the external regions, but no diffusion was observed for the inner parts of the paper.

  6. Shock Condition Forensics and Cryptic Phase Transformations from Crystallographic Orientation Relationships in Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timms, N. E.; Erickson, T. M.; Cavosie, A. J.; Pearce, M. A.; Reddy, S. M.; Zanetti, M.; Tohver, E.; Schmieder, M.; Nemchin, A. A.; Wittmann, A.

    2016-08-01

    We present an approach to constrain pressure and temperature conditions during impact events involving identification of cryptic histories of phase transformations from orientation relationships in shocked zircon, linked to new P-T phase diagrams.

  7. Zircon from historic eruptions in Iceland: reconstructing storage and evolution of silicic magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carley, Tamara L.; Miller, Calvin F.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Barth, Andrew P.

    2011-10-01

    Zoning patterns, U-Th disequilibria ages, and elemental compositions of zircon from eruptions of Askja (1875 AD), Hekla (1158 AD), Öræfajökull (1362 AD) and Torfajökull (1477 AD, 871 AD, 3100 BP, 7500 BP) provide insights into the complex, extended, histories of silicic magmatic systems in Iceland. Zircon compositions, which are correlated with proximity to the main axial rift, are distinct from those of mid-ocean ridge environments and fall at the low-Hf edge of the range of continental zircon. Morphology, zoning patterns, compositions, and U-Th ages all indicate growth and storage in subvolcanic silicic mushes or recently solidified rock at temperatures above the solidus but lower than that of the erupting magma. The eruptive products were likely ascending magmas that entrained a zircon "cargo" that formed thousands to tens of thousands of years prior to the eruptions.

  8. Doubly curved mica diffractors and their applications to x-ray microprobe fluorescence and microanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zewu

    This thesis describes the experimental work in the fabrication of doubly-curved mica diffractors and their applications in monochromatic microprobe x-ray fluorescence analysis and wavelength dispersive spectrometry. Three-dimension focusing of x-rays can be achieved by diffraction from a doubly-curved diffractor. A Johann point-focusing mica diffractor was fabricated for focusing the Cu Kα1 radiation and characterized by using a microfocus x-ray source. The intensity of the focused beam was measured to be 1.01 × 108 photons/s at the focal spot. The spot size of the focused beam was measured by the knife edge scan method. A Cu Kα1 focal spot of 43 μm x 68 μm has been obtained. Monochromatic microprobe x-ray fluorescence (MMXRF) analysis was performed by using the focused Cu Kα1 radiation. The microfocus x-ray source was operated at 30 kV and 0.1 mA. MMXRF spectra of bulk specimens of GaAs, Si, ZnSe, Mg and 40 μm thick Muscovite were recorded with a Si(Li) energy dispersive detector. Exceptional high signal-to-background ratios were observed. Due to the low background, detection limits as low as 1.6 ppm were predicted for a measurement time of 500 s for bulk specimens. The detector background was determined by recording a spectrum from an Fe55 source and was found to be a significant contribution to the total observed background. A wavelength dispersive spectrometer was designed and constructed for the use in a JEOL transmission electron microscope. A logarithmic spiral of revolution diffractor was fabricated and used explored for measurement of Ca concentration in the TEM. Bench tests were carried out by using the microfocus x-ray source. Preliminary data of tests in the TEM indicated that the spectrometer may give better performance than EDS systems previously used.

  9. Fabrication of wear-resistant silicon microprobe tips for high-speed surface roughness scanning devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Yu, Feng; Doering, Lutz; Völlmeke, Stefan; Brand, Uwe; Bakin, Andrey; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2015-05-01

    Silicon microprobe tips are fabricated and integrated with piezoresistive cantilever sensors for high-speed surface roughness scanning systems. The fabrication steps of the high-aspect-ratio silicon microprobe tips were started with photolithography and wet etching of potassium hydroxide (KOH) resulting in crystal-dependent micropyramids. Subsequently, thin conformal wear-resistant layer coating of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) was demonstrated on the backside of the piezoresistive cantilever free end using atomic layer deposition (ALD) method in a binary reaction sequence with a low thermal process and precursors of trimethyl aluminum and water. The deposited Al2O3 layer had a thickness of 14 nm. The captured atomic force microscopy (AFM) image exhibits a root mean square deviation of 0.65 nm confirming the deposited Al2O3 surface quality. Furthermore, vacuum-evaporated 30-nm/200-nm-thick Au/Cr layers were patterned by lift-off and served as an etch mask for Al2O3 wet etching and in ICP cryogenic dry etching. By using SF6/O2 plasma during inductively coupled plasma (ICP) cryogenic dry etching, micropillar tips were obtained. From the preliminary friction and wear data, the developed silicon cantilever sensor has been successfully used in 100 fast measurements of 5- mm-long standard artifact surface with a speed of 15 mm/s and forces of 60-100 μN. Moreover, the results yielded by the fabricated silicon cantilever sensor are in very good agreement with those of calibrated profilometer. These tactile sensors are targeted for use in high-aspect-ratio microform metrology.

  10. Ancient xenocrystic zircon in young volcanic rocks of the southern Lesser Antilles island arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Williams, Ian S.; Arculus, Richard; Kröner, Alfred; García-Casco, Antonio; Lázaro, Concepción; Buhre, Stephan; Wong, Jean; Geng, Helen; Echeverría, Carlos Morales; Jeffries, Teresa; Xie, Hangqian; Mertz-Kraus, Regina

    2017-10-01

    The Lesser Antilles arc is one of the best global examples in which to examine the effects of the involvement of subducted sediment and crustal assimilation in the generation of arc crust. Most of the zircon recovered in our study of igneous and volcaniclastic rocks from Grenada and Carriacou (part of the Grenadines chain) is younger than 2 Ma. Within some late Paleogene to Neogene ( 34-0.2 Ma) lavas and volcaniclastic sediments however, there are Paleozoic to Paleoarchean ( 250-3469 Ma) xenocrysts, and Late Jurassic to Precambrian zircon ( 158-2667 Ma) are found in beach and river sands. The trace element characteristics of zircon clearly differentiate between different types of magmas generated in the southern Lesser Antilles through time. The zircon population from the younger arc (Miocene, 22-19 Ma, to Present) has minor negative Eu anomalies, well-defined positive Ce anomalies, and a marked enrichment in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), consistent with crystallization from very oxidized magmas in which Eu2 + was in low abundance. In contrast, zircon from the older arc (Eocene to mid-Oligocene, 30-28 Ma) has two different REE patterns: 1) slight enrichment in the light (L)REE, small to absent Ce anomalies, and negative Eu anomalies and 2) enriched High (H)REE, positive Ce anomalies and negative Eu anomalies (a similar pattern is observed in the xenocrystic zircon population). The combination of positive Ce and negative Eu anomalies in the zircon population of the older arc indicates crystallization from magmas that were variably, but considerably less oxidized than those of the younger arc. All the igneous zircon has positive εHf(t), reflecting derivation from a predominantly juvenile mantle source. However, the εHf(t) values vary significantly within samples, reflecting considerable Hf isotopic heterogeneity in the source. The presence of xenocrystic zircon in the southern Lesser Antilles is evidence for the assimilation of intra-arc crustal sediments and

  11. Do Jack Hills Detrital Zircons Contain Records of the Early Geodynamo?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, B. P.; Maloof, A. C.; Tailby, N. D.; Ramezani, J.; Fu, R. R.; Glenn, D. R.; Kehayias, P.; Walsworth, R. L.; Hanus, V.; Trail, D.; Watson, E. B.; Harrison, T. M.; Bowring, S. A.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Swanson-Hysell, N.; Coe, R. S.; Einsle, J. F.; Harrison, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    It is unknown when Earth's dynamo magnetic field originated. With crystallization ages ranging from 3.0-4.38 Ga, detrital zircon crystals found in the Jack Hills of Western Australia might preserve a record of the missing first billion years of Earth's magnetic field history. Recently, Tarduno et al. (2015) argued that magnetization in Jack Hills zircons provides evidence for a substantial geomagnetic field dating back to their U/Pb formation ages (3.3 and 4.2 Ga). However, the identification of such ancient field records requires establishing that the zircons have avoided remagnetization since their formation. At a minimum, it should be demonstrated that they have not been remagnetized since being deposited at ~3.0 Ga. To establish the timing and intensity of the metamorphic and alteration events experienced by the zircon, we conducted 12 paleomagnetic field tests in combination with U-Pb geochronology on their host rocks (see Weiss et al. 2015, EPSL). Our data show that the Hadean zircon-bearing rocks and surrounding region have been pervasively remagnetized, with the final major overprinting likely from emplacement of the Warakurna large igneous province at 1.1 Ga (see Figure). Even if some Jack Hills zircons do record a pre-depositional magnetization, they still could have been remagnetized sometime during the 1.4 Gy between their crystallization and their deposition. First, the temperatures capable of remagnetizing magnetite inclusions are well below those that could reset a U-Pb date or result in significant discordance. Therefore, thermal events capable of completely remagnetizing Jack Hills zircons could be undetected by the techniques reported by Tarduno at al. (2015). Second, the zircons' magnetization might be dominated by secondary ferromagnetic inclusions or contamination. To address the latter possibility, we are conducting electron microscopy, x-ray tomography, and magnetic field mapping on the zircons. Our initial quantum diamond magnetometry high

  12. Geochronological study of zircons from continental crust rocks in the Frido Unit (southern Apennines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurita, Salvatore; Prosser, Giacomo; Rizzo, Giovanna; Langone, Antonio; Tiepolo, Massimo; Laurita, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Zircon crystals have been separated from gneisses and metagranitoids of the Pollino area (southern Apennines) in order to unravel the origin of these crustal slices within the ophiolite-bearing Frido Unit. The morphology of the zircon has been investigated by SEM, and the internal structure was revealed by cathodoluminescence. Data obtained by U/Pb dating have been used to deduce the age and significance of the different crystallization stages of zircon, connected to the evolutionary stages of the continental crust (Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic). Zircons in gneisses are characterized by inherited cores of magmatic origin, bordered by metamorphic rims. Inherited zircons generally show Paleoproterozoic to Ordovician ages, indicating the provenance of the sedimentary protolith from different sources. The exclusive presence of Late Neoproterozoic zircon cores in leucocratic gneisses may suggest a different magmatic source possibly connected to Pan-African events. Late Carboniferous-Early Permian ages are found mainly in zircon rims of metamorphic origin. These are similar to the emplacement ages of protolith of the metagranites in the middle crust portion. Late Carboniferous-Early Permian metamorphism and magmatism testify the extensional collapse of the Hercynian belt, recorded in European, particularly, in the Corsica-Sardinia block and in Calabria. Late Permian-Triassic ages have been detected in zircon rims from gneisses and metagranitoids. These younger ages appear related to deformation and emplacement of albite-quartz veins in both lithologies, and are related to an extensional episode predating the Middle Triassic to Middle Jurassic rifting in the Tethyan domain, followed by Middle to Late Jurassic spreading.

  13. Lithofacies control in detrital zircon provenance studies: Insights from the Cretaceous Methow basin, southern Canadian Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraaff-Surpless, K.; Mahoney, J.B.; Wooden, J.L.; McWilliams, M.O.

    2003-01-01

    High-frequency sampling for detrital zircon analysis can provide a detailed record of fine-scale basin evolution by revealing the temporal and spatial variability of detrital zircon ages within clastic sedimentary successions. This investigation employed detailed sampling of two sedimentary successions in the Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin of the southern Canadian Cordillera to characterize the heterogeneity of detrital zircon signatures within single lithofacies and assess the applicability of detrital zircon analysis in distinguishing fine-scale provenance changes not apparent in lithologic analysis of the strata. The Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin contains two distinct stratigraphic sequences of middle Albian to Santonian clastic sedimentary rocks: submarine-fan deposits of the Harts Pass Formation/Jackass Mountain Group and fluvial deposits of the Winthrop Formation. Although both stratigraphic sequences displayed consistent ranges in detrital zircon ages on a broad scale, detailed sampling within each succession revealed heterogeneity in the detrital zircon age distributions that was systematic and predictable in the turbidite succession but unpredictable in the fluvial succession. These results suggest that a high-density sampling approach permits interpretation of finescale changes within a lithologically uniform turbiditic sedimentary succession, but heterogeneity within fluvial systems may be too large and unpredictable to permit accurate fine-scale characterization of the evolution of source regions. The robust composite detrital zircon age signature developed for these two successions permits comparison of the Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin age signature with known plutonic source-rock ages from major plutonic belts throughout the Cretaceous North American margin. The Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin detrital zircon age signature matches best with source regions in the southern Canadian Cordillera, requiring that the basin developed in close proximity to the

  14. Zircon ages in granulite facies rocks: decoupling from geochemistry above 850 °C?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Barbara E.; Regis, Daniele; Engi, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Granulite facies rocks frequently show a large spread in their zircon ages, the interpretation of which raises questions: Has the isotopic system been disturbed? By what process(es) and conditions did the alteration occur? Can the dates be regarded as real ages, reflecting several growth episodes? Furthermore, under some circumstances of (ultra-)high-temperature metamorphism, decoupling of zircon U-Pb dates from their trace element geochemistry has been reported. Understanding these processes is crucial to help interpret such dates in the context of the P-T history. Our study presents evidence for decoupling in zircon from the highest grade metapelites (> 850 °C) taken along a continuous high-temperature metamorphic field gradient in the Ivrea Zone (NW Italy). These rocks represent a well-characterised segment of Permian lower continental crust with a protracted high-temperature history. Cathodoluminescence images reveal that zircons in the mid-amphibolite facies preserve mainly detrital cores with narrow overgrowths. In the upper amphibolite and granulite facies, preserved detrital cores decrease and metamorphic zircon increases in quantity. Across all samples we document a sequence of four rim generations based on textures. U-Pb dates, Th/U ratios and Ti-in-zircon concentrations show an essentially continuous evolution with increasing metamorphic grade, except in the samples from the granulite facies, which display significant scatter in age and chemistry. We associate the observed decoupling of zircon systematics in high-grade non-metamict zircon with disturbance processes related to differences in behaviour of non-formula elements (i.e. Pb, Th, U, Ti) at high-temperature conditions, notably differences in compatibility within the crystal structure.

  15. Detrital zircon geochronology of quartzose metasedimentary rocks from parautochthonous North America, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; Jones, James V.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mortensen, James K.

    2017-01-01

    We report eight new U-Pb detrital zircon ages for quartzose metasedimentary rocks from four lithotectonic units of parautochthonous North America in east-central Alaska: the Healy schist, Keevy Peak Formation, and Sheep Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist in the northern Alaska Range, and the Butte assemblage in the northwestern Yukon-Tanana Upland. Excepting 1 of 3 samples from the Healy schist, all have dominant detrital zircon populations of 1.9–1.8 Ga and a subordinate population of 2.7–2.6 Ga. Three zircons from Totatlanika Schist yield the youngest age of ca. 780 Ma. The anomalous Healy schist sample has abundant 1.6–0.9 Ga detrital zircon, as well as populations at 2.0–1.8 Ga and 2.7–2.5 Ga that overlap the ages from the rest of our samples; it has a minimum age population of ca. 1007 Ma.Detrital zircon age populations from all but the anomalous sample are statistically similar to those from (1) other peri-Laurentian units in east-central Alaska; (2) the Snowcap assemblage in Yukon, basement of the allochthonous Yukon-Tanana terrane; (3) Neoproterozoic to Ordovician Laurentian passive margin strata in southern British Columbia, Canada; and (4) Proterozoic Laurentian Sequence C strata of northwestern Canada. Recycling of zircon from the Paleoproterozoic Great Bear magmatic zone in the Wopmay orogen and its Archean precursors could explain both the Precambrian zircon populations and arc trace element signatures of our samples. Zircon from the anomalous Healy schist sample resembles that in Nation River Formation and Adams Argillite in eastern Alaska, suggesting recycling of detritus in those units.

  16. Late Pleistocene granodiorite source for recycled zircon and phenocrysts in rhyodacite lava at Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    Rhyodacite tephra and three lavas erupted ???27 ka, interpreted to be early leaks from the climactic magma chamber of Mount Mazama, contain ubiquitous resorbed crystals (antecrysts) that were recycled from young granodiorite and related plutonic rocks of the same magmatic system. The shallow composite pluton is represented by blocks ejected in the 7.7-ka climactic eruption that formed Crater Lake caldera. Plagioclase crystals in both rhyodacite and granodiorites commonly have cores with crystallographically oriented Fe-oxide needles exsolved at subsolidus conditions. At least 80% of plagioclase crystals in the rhyodacite are antecrysts derived from plutonic rocks. Other crystals in the rhyodacite, notably zircon, also were recycled. SIMS 238U- 230Th dating indicates that zircons in 4 granodiorite blocks crystallized at various times between ???20 ka and ???300 ka with concentrations of analyses near 50-70, ???110, and ???200 ka that correspond to periods of dacitic volcanism dated by K- Ar. U-Th ages of zircon from a rhyodacite sample yield similar results. No analyzed zircons from the granodiorite or rhyodacite are pre-Quaternary. Zircon minimum ages in blocks from different locations around the caldera reflect ages of nearby volcanic vents and may map the distribution of intrusions within a composite pluton. Survival of zircon in zircon-undersaturated hydrous magma and of Fe-oxide needles in plagioclase suggests that little time elapsed from entrainment of antecrysts to the ???27-ka eruption of the rhyodacite. The ???27-ka rhyodacite is an example of young silicic magma that preserved unstable antecrysts from a known source early during growth of a large high-level magma chamber. In contrast, the voluminous 7.7-ka climactic rhyodacite pumice is virtually lacking in zircon, indicating dissolution of any granodioritic debris in the intervening period. Mineralogical evidence of assimilation may be destroyed in hot, vigorously growing silicic magma bodies such as

  17. Early Paleozoic tectonic reconstruction of Iran: Tales from detrital zircon geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Li, Xian-Hua; Griffin, William L.; Stern, Robert J.; Thomsen, Tonny B.; Meinhold, Guido; Aharipour, Reza; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we use detrital zircons to probe the Early Paleozoic history of NE Iran and evaluate the link between sediment sources and Gondwanan pre-Cadomian, Cadomian and younger events. U-Pb zircon ages and Hf isotopic compositions are reported for detrital zircons from Ordovician and Early Devonian sedimentary rocks from NE Iran. These clastic rocks are dominated by zircons with major age populations at 2.5 Ga, 0.8-0.6 Ga, 0.5 Ga and 0.5-0.4 Ga as well as a minor broad peak at 1.0 Ga. The source of 2.5 Ga detrital zircons is enigmatic; they may have been supplied from the Saharan Metacraton (or West African Craton) to the southwest or Afghanistan-Tarim to the east. The detrital zircons with age populations at 0.8-0.6 Ga probably originated from Cryogenian-Ediacaran juvenile igneous rocks of the Arabian-Nubian Shield; this inference is supported by their juvenile Hf isotopes, although some negative εHf (t) values suggest that other sources (such as the West African Craton) were also involved. The age peak at ca 0.5 Ga correlates with Cadomian magmatism reported from Iranian basement and elsewhere in north Gondwana. The variable εHf (t) values of Cadomian detrital zircons, resembling the εHf (t) values of zircons in magmatic Cadomian rocks from Iran and Taurides (Turkey), suggest an Andean-type margin and the involvement of reworked older crust in the generation of the magmatic rocks. The youngest age population at 0.5-0.4 Ga is interpreted to represent Gondwana rifting and the opening of Paleotethys, which probably started in Late Cambrian-Ordovician time. A combination of U-Pb dating and Hf-isotope data from Iran, Turkey and North Gondwana confirms that Iran and Turkey were parts of Gondwana at least until late Paleozoic time.

  18. Do Hf isotopes in magmatic zircons represent those of their host rocks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Cai, Yue; Goldstein, Steven L.; Yang, Tao

    2018-04-01

    Lu-Hf isotopic system in zircon is a powerful and widely used geochemical tracer in studying petrogenesis of magmatic rocks and crustal evolution, assuming that zircon Hf isotopes can represent initial Hf isotopes of their parental whole rock. However, this assumption may not always be valid. Disequilibrium partial melting of continental crust would preferentially melt out non-zircon minerals with high time-integrated Lu/Hf ratios and generate partial melts with Hf isotope compositions that are more radiogenic than those of its magma source. Dissolution experiments (with hotplate, bomb and sintering procedures) of zircon-bearing samples demonstrate this disequilibrium effect where partial dissolution yielded variable and more radiogenic Hf isotope compositions than fully dissolved samples. A case study from the Neoproterozoic Jiuling batholith in southern China shows that about half of the investigated samples show decoupled Hf isotopes between zircons and the bulk rocks. This decoupling could reflect complex and prolonged magmatic processes, such as crustal assimilation, magma mixing, and disequilibrium melting, which are consistent with the wide temperature spectrum from ∼630 °C to ∼900 °C by Ti-in-zircon thermometer. We suggest that magmatic zircons may only record the Hf isotopic composition of their surrounding melt during crystallization and it is uncertain whether their Hf isotopic compositions can represent the primary Hf isotopic compositions of the bulk magmas. In this regard, using zircon Hf isotopic compositions to trace crustal evolution may be biased since most of these could be originally from disequilibrium partial melts.

  19. The first discovery of Hadean zircon in garnet granulites from the Sutam River (Aldan Shield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhovskii, M. Z.; Kuz'min, M. I.; Bayanova, T. B.; Lyalina, L. M.; Makrygina, V. A.; Shcherbakova, T. F.

    2017-09-01

    For the first time in Russia, a Hadean zircon grain with an age of 3.94 Ga (ID-TIMS) has been discovered in high-aluminous garnet granulites of the Aldan Shield among the U-Pb zircons with an age from 1.92 Ga. In this connection, the problems of its parental source, the petrogenesis of granulites that captured this zircon, and the mechanism of occurrence of these deep rocks in the upper horizons of the crust have been solved. The comparison of the geochemistry of garnet granulites and the middle crust has shown that the granulites are enriched in the entire range of rare-earth elements (except for the Eu minimum), as well as in Al2O3, U, and Th and are depleted in the most mobile elements (Na, Ca, Sr). In the upper part of the allitic weathering zone of the middle crust, which formed under conditions of arid climate, this zircon grain was originated from the weathered granites from the middle crust. In the latter case, they were empleced discretely in the upper granite-gneiss crust under high pressure conditions (the rutile age is 1.83-1.82 Ga). The zircon with an age of 3.94 Ga is comparable to the Hadean zircons from orthogneisses of the Acasta region (Canadian Shield, 4.03-3.94 Ga).

  20. Zircon evidence for incorporation of terrigenous sediments into the magma source of continental basalts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zheng; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu

    2018-01-09

    Crustal components may be incorporated into continental basalts by either shallow contamination or deep mixing. While the former proceeds at crustal depths with common preservation of refractory minerals, the latter occurs at mantle depths with rare survival of relict minerals. Discrimination between the two mechanisms has great bearing to subcontinental mantle geochemistry. Here we report the occurrence of relict zircons in Cenozoic continental basalts from eastern China. A combined study of zircon U-Pb ages and geochemistry indicates that detrital zircons were carried by terrigenous sediments into a subcontinental subduction zone, where the zircon were transferred by fluids into the magma sources of continental basalts. The basalts were sampled from three petrotectonic units with distinct differences in their magmatic and metamorphic ages, making the crustal contamination discernible. The terrigenous sediments were carried by the subducting oceanic crust into the asthenospheric mantle, producing both soluble and insoluble materials at the slab-mantle interface. These materials were served as metasomatic agents to react with the overlying mantle wedge peridotite, generating a kind of ultramafic metasomatites that contain the relict zircons. Therefore, the occurrence of relict zircons in continental basalts indicates that this refractory mineral can survive extreme temperature-pressure conditions in the asthenospheric mantle.

  1. Experimental evidence for use of aluminum in zircon as a new tracer to distinguish peraluminous and metaluminous melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Trail, D.

    2017-12-01

    Aluminum (Al) is the third most abundant rock-forming element in Earth's crust. It also substitutes into the zircon lattice as trace impurity. For zircons that lack parent rock information, e.g. Hadean zircon (>4.0 Ga), Al in zircon could be a potentially useful tool to investigate the formation and evolution of the parental magma. Aluminum saturation index (ASI; molar ratio of Al2O3/(CaO+Na2O+K2O)) is widely used to distinguish peraluminous rocks (ASI>1) from metaluminous rocks (ASI<1). We grew zircons in piston cylinder from granitic melts, with different ASI values but same temperature, pressure and water content. Synthetic zircons with variable sizes, as large as 20 µm, were observed under SEM and analyzed using LA-ICP-MS. Our analyses reveal that the Al content of zircons that crystalized from a peraluminous melt (ASI=1.25) is, on average, one magnitude higher than crystals from peralkaline melt (ASI=0.5), e.g., 100s of ppm, vs. 10s of ppm. This indicates that aluminum solubility in zircon is related to the ASI value of parental melt. This experimental result agrees with studies of natural zircons, where Al contents of peraluminous zircons ( 10 ppm) are an order of magnitude higher than zircons from metaluminous rocks ( 1.3 ppm) (Trail et al., 2017). We suggest that melts with ASI>1 can result in an elevated alumina activity, which leads to zircons with elevated Al contents. The notably higher Al concentration in experimental zircons (10s to 100s ppm), compared with natural zircons (1 to 10 ppm), could be explained by the much higher crystallization temperature, e.g., >1100°C vs. <900°C. Both field and experimental studies support the notion that a relationship exists between the Al content in zircon and the melt ASI value. This conclusion has several meaningful applications: 1) it may be used to infer source rock characteristics of Hadean zircons, and to shed light on the formation and evolution of the earliest crust; 2) it may provide additional

  2. Finding the "true" age: ways to read high-precision U-Pb zircon dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaltegger, U.; Schoene, B.; Ovtcharova, M.; Sell, B. K.; Broderick, C. A.; Wotzlaw, J.

    2011-12-01

    Refined U-Pb dating techniques, applying an empirical chemical abrasion treatment prior to analysis [1], and using a precisely calibrated double isotope Pb, U EARTHTIME tracer solution, have led to an unprecedented <0.1% precision and accuracy of obtained 206Pb/238U dates of single zircon crystals or fragments. Results very often range over 10e4 to 10e6 years and cannot be treated as statistically singular age populations. The interpretation of precise zircon U-Pb ages is biased by two problems: (A) Post-crystallization Pb loss from decay damaged areas is considered to be mitigated by applying chemical abrasion techniques. The success of such treatment can, however, not be assumed a priori. The following examples demonstrate that youngest zircons are not biased by lead loss but represent close-to-youngest zircon growth: (i) coincidence of youngest zircon dates with co-magmatic titanite in tonalite; (ii) coincidence with statistically equivalent clusters of 206Pb/238U dates from zircon in residual melts of cogenetic mafic magmas; (iii) youngest zircons in ash beds of sedimentary sequences do not violate the stratigraphic superposition, whereas conventional statistical interpretation (mean or median values) does; (iv) results of published inter-laboratory cross-calibration tests using chemical abrasion on natural zircon crystals of the same sample arrive at the same 206Pb/238U result within <0.1% (e.g., [2]); (v) Youngest crystals coincide in age with the astronomical age of hosting cyclic sediments. Residual lead loss may, however, still be identified in the case of single, significantly younger dates (>3 sigma), and are common in many pre-Triassic and hydrothermally altered rocks. (B) Pre-eruptive/pre-intrusive growth is found to be the main reason for scattered zircon ages in igneous rocks. Zircons crystallizing from the final magma batch are called autocrystic [3]. Autocrystic growth will happen in a moving or stagnant magma shortly before or after the

  3. Zircon Messengers Reveal the Age and History of Great Basin Crust, Kern Mountains, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlieb, E. S.; Miller, E. L.; Wooden, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Results of SHRIMP-RG analyses of complexly zoned zircons from muscovite-bearing granitic rocks exposed in the Kerns Mountains of East-Central Nevada constrain the timing, duration, and loci of zircon growth within the interior of the U.S. Cordillera during Late Cretaceous through Eocene time. The Kern Mountains are an exhumed block of greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphosed miogeoclinal rocks that were pervasively intruded by the Late Cretaceous Tungstonia granite pluton and the Eocene Skinner Canyon and Uvada plutons (Best et al., 1974). Euhedral zircons separated from a coarse-grained (2-3 cm) muscovite-bearing phase of the Tungstonia pluton exhibit complex cathodeluminescence (CL) zonation. Sub-angular to sub-rounded cores with highly variable CL are overgrown by oscillatory-zoned zircon which in turn is rimmed by dark CL zircon (U>5000 ppm). A weighted mean Pb/U age of 70.2±0.9 Ma (n=20, MSWD=2.5) obtained from the oscillatory-zoned zircon coincides with the end of Cretaceous peak metamorphism at shallow crustal levels. Pb/U ages from core zones (n=18) predominantly are 0.9-1.4 Ga (n=11; 7 of which <15% discordant) or 2.4-2.7 Ga (n=5; 1 of which <15% discordant), consistent with ages of detrital zircons within the Late Proterozoic McCoy Creek Group exposed in adjacent ranges. A previously undated muscovite-bearing dike in Skinner Canyon yielded a texturally complex population of subhedral zircon grains. CL imaging of these grains reveals fragmental, ghost-like cores surrounded by irregularly shaped overgrowth zones with diffuse boundaries which are rimmed by oscillatory-zoned zircon. Both oscillatory zoned and gradational rim areas (n=32) yielded Late Cretaceous to Eocene ages. Twelve spots define the age of intrusion at 41.7±0.3 Ma (MSWD=1.8), consistent with the local onset of Eocene magmatism. An older period of zircon growth from ~75-45 Ma, coincident with the proposed duration of the Laramide shallow slab, is defined by zircon with flat to

  4. Detrital zircon study along the Tsangpo River, SE Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; Chung, S.; Liu, D.; O'Reilly, S. Y.; Chu, M.; Ji, J.; Song, B.; Pearson, N. J.

    2004-12-01

    The interactions among tectonic uplift, river erosion and alluvial deposition are fundamental processes that shape the landscape of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen since its creation from early Cenozoic time. To better understand these processes around the eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, we conducted a study by systematic sampling riverbank sediments along the Tsangpo River, SE Tibet. Detrital zircons separated from the sediments were subjected to U-Pb dating by the SHRIMP II at the Beijing SHRIMP Center and then in-situ measurements of Hf isotope ratios using LA-MC-ICPMS at GEMOC. These results, together with U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data that we recently obtained for the Transhimalayan plutonic and surrounding basement rocks, allow a more quantitative examination of the provenance or protosource areas for the river sediments. Consequently, the percentage inputs from these source areas can be estimated. Our study indicates that, before the Tsangpo River flows into the Namche Barwa Syntaxis of the eastern Himalayas where the River forms a 180° Big Bend gorge and crosscuts the Himalayan sequences, the Gangdese batholith that crops out just north of the River appear to be an overwhelming source accounting for ˜50 % of the bank sediments. The Tethyan Himalayan sequences south of the River are the second important source, with an input of ˜25 %. The proportion of sediment supply changes after the River enters the Big Bend gorge and turns to south: ˜25 % of detrital zircons are derived from the Greater Himalayas so that the input from the Tethyan Himalayas decreases (< 10 %) despite those from the Gangdese batholith remains high ( ˜40 %). Comparing with the sediment budget of the Brahmaputra River in the downstream based on literature Sr, Nd and Os isotope information, which suggests dominant ( ˜90-60 %) but subordinate ( ˜10-40 %) contributions by the (Greater and Lesser) Himalayan and Tibetan (including Tethyan Himalayan) rocks, respectively, the change is interpreted

  5. Triassic deposits of the Chukotka Arctic continental margin (sedimentary implications and detrital zircon data)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchkova, Marianna; Sokolov, Sergey; Verzhbitsky, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Triassic clastic deposits of Chukotka are represented by rhythmic intercalation of sandstones, siltstones and mudstones. During the Triassic, sedimentation was represented by continental slope progradation. Detrital zircons from Triassic sedimentary rocks were collected for constrain its paleogeographic links to source terranes. Zircons populations from three Chukotka's samples are very similar, and youngest zircon ages show peaks at 236-255 Ma (Miller et al., 2006). Lower Triassic sandstones from the Chaun subterrane do not contain the young population 235-265 Ma that is characteristic of the Upper Triassic rocks from the Anyui subterrane and Wrangel Island. The young zircon population is missing also from the coeval Sadlerochit Group (Alaska) and Blind Fiord Formation of the Sverdrup basin (Miller et al., 2006; Omma et al., 2011). Our data of Triassic sandstones of Wrangel island demonstrate detrital zircons ages dominated by Middle Triassic (227-245 Ma), Carboniferous (309-332 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic (1808-2500 Ma) ages. The new data on Chukotka show that populations of detrital zircons from Chukotka, the Sverdrup basin, and Alaska, the Sadlerochit Mountains included, demonstrate greater similarity than it was previously thought. Consequently, it may be assumed that they originate from a single source situated in the north. The data on zircon age of gabbro-dolerite magmatism in eastern Chukotka (252 Ma. Ledneva et al., 2011) and K-Ar ages obtained for sills and small intrusive bodies (Geodynamics…, 2006) in Lower Triassic deposits allow the local provenance. The presence of products of synchronous magmatism and shallow-water facies in the Lower Triassic sequences confirm this assumption. At the same time, coeval zircons appear only in the Upper Triassic strata. It is conceivable that the young zircon population originates from intrusive, not volcanic rocks, which were subjected to erosion only in the Late Triassic. In our opinion, the assumption of the local

  6. Paleozoic and Paleoproterozoic Zircon in Igneous Xenoliths Assimilated at Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, C. R.; Vazquez, J. A.; Wooden, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Historically active Redoubt Volcano is a basalt-to-dacite cone constructed upon the Jurassic-early Tertiary Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith. New SHRIMP-RG U-Pb age and trace-element concentration results for zircons from gabbroic xenoliths and crystal-rich andesitic mush from a late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposit indicate that ~310 Ma and ~1865 Ma igneous rocks underlie Redoubt at depth. Two gabbros have sharply terminated prismatic zircons that yield ages of ~310 Ma. Zircons from a crystal mush sample are overwhelmingly ~1865 Ma and appear rounded due to incomplete dissolution. Binary plots of element concentrations or ratios show clustering of data for ~310-Ma grains and markedly coherent trends for ~1865-Ma grains; e.g., ~310-Ma grains have higher Eu/Eu* than most of the ~1865-Ma grains, the majority of which form a narrow band of decreasing Eu/Eu* with increasing Hf content which suggests that ~1865-Ma zircons come from igneous source rocks. It is very unlikely that detrital zircons from a metasedimentary rock would have this level of homogeneity in age and composition. One gabbro contains abundant ~1865 Ma igneous zircons, ~300-310 Ma fluid-precipitated zircons characterized by very low U and Th concentrations and Th/U ratios, and uncommon ~100 Ma zircons. We propose that (1) ~310 Ma gabbro xenoliths from Redoubt Volcano belong to the same family of plutons dated by Aleinikoff et al. (USGS Circular 1016, 1988) and Gardner et al. (Geology, 1988) located ≥500 km to the northeast in basement rocks of the Wrangellia and Alexander terranes and (2) ~1865 Ma zircons are inherited from igneous rock, potentially from a continental fragment that possibly correlates with the Fort Simpson terrane or Great Bear magmatic zone of the Wopmay Orogen of northwestern Laurentia. Possibly, elements of these Paleoproterozoic terranes intersected the Paleozoic North American continental margin where they may have formed a component of the basement to the Wrangellia

  7. Recovering the primary geochemistry of Jack Hills zircons through quantitative estimates of chemical alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T. Mark

    2016-10-01

    Despite the robust nature of zircon in most crustal and surface environments, chemical alteration, especially associated with radiation damaged regions, can affect its geochemistry. This consideration is especially important when drawing inferences from the detrital record where the original rock context is missing. Typically, alteration is qualitatively diagnosed through inspection of zircon REE patterns and the style of zoning shown by cathodoluminescence imaging, since fluid-mediated alteration often causes a flat, high LREE pattern. Due to the much lower abundance of LREE in zircon relative both to other crustal materials and to the other REE, disturbance to the LREE pattern is the most likely first sign of disruption to zircon trace element contents. Using a database of 378 (148 new) trace element and 801 (201 new) oxygen isotope measurements on zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia, we propose a quantitative framework for assessing chemical contamination and exchange with fluids in this population. The Light Rare Earth Element Index is scaled on the relative abundance of light to middle REE, or LREE-I = (Dy/Nd) + (Dy/Sm). LREE-I values vary systematically with other known contaminants (e.g., Fe, P) more faithfully than other suggested proxies for zircon alteration (Sm/La, various absolute concentrations of LREEs) and can be used to distinguish primary compositions when textural evidence for alteration is ambiguous. We find that zircon oxygen isotopes do not vary systematically with placement on or off cracks or with degree of LREE-related chemical alteration, suggesting an essentially primary signature. By omitting zircons affected by LREE-related alteration or contamination by mineral inclusions, we present the best estimate for the primary igneous geochemistry of the Jack Hills zircons. This approach increases the available dataset by allowing for discrimination of on-crack analyses (and analyses with ambiguous or no information on spot placement or

  8. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors based on lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-Peng

    2001-12-01

    In this thesis, modeling, fabrication and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometers based on piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films are investigated. Three different types of structures, cantilever beam, trampoline, and annular diaphragm, are studied. It demonstrates the high-performance, miniaturate, mass-production-compatible, and potentially circuitry-integratable piezoelectric-type PZT MEMS devices. Theoretical models of the cantilever-beam and trampoline accelerometers are derived via structural dynamics and the constitutive equations of piezoelectricity. The time-dependent transverse vibration equations, mode shapes, resonant frequencies, and sensitivities of the accelerometers are calculated through the models. Optimization of the silicon and PZT thickness is achieved with considering the effects of the structural dynamics, the material properties, and manufacturability for different accelerometer specifications. This work is the first demonstration of the fabrication of bulk-micromachined accelerometers combining a deep-trench reactive ion etching (DRIE) release strategy and thick piezoelectric PZT films deposited using a sol-gel method. Processing challenges which are overcome included materials compatibility, metallization, processing of thick layers, double-side processing, deep-trench silicon etching, post-etch cleaning and process integration. In addition, the processed PZT films are characterized by dielectric, ferroelectric (polarization electric-field hysteresis), and piezoelectric measurements and no adverse effects are found. Dynamic frequency response and impedance resonance measurements are performed to ascertain the performance of the MEMS accelerometers. The results show high sensitivities and broad frequency ranges of the piezoelectric-type PZT MEMS accelerometers; the sensitivities range from 0.1 to 7.6 pC/g for resonant frequencies ranging from 44.3 kHz to 3.7 kHz. The sensitivities were compared to

  9. New Capabilities in the Analysis of Sub-micrometer Regions in Geological Materials with the Field Emission Electron Microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, J. T.; McSwiggen, P.; Nielsen, C.

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative electron microprobe analysis has revolutionized two-dimensional elemental analysis of Earth materials at the micrometer-scale. Newly available commercial field emission (FE-) source instruments represent significant technological advances in quantitative measurement with high spatial resolution at sub-micrometer scale - helping to bridge the gap between conventional microprobe and AEM analyses. Their performance specifications suggest the ability to extend routine quantitative analyses from ~3-5 micrometer diameter areas down to 1-2 micrometer diameter at beam energies of 15 keV; and, with care, down to 200-500 nm diameter at reduced beam energies. . In order to determine whether the level of performance suggested by the specifications is realistic, we spent a week doing analyses at the newly installed JEOL JXA-8530F field emission microprobe at Arizona State University, using a series of samples that are currently being studied in various projects at CIW. These samples included: 1) high-pressure experiment run product containing intergrowths of sub-micrometer grains of metal, sulfide, Fe-Mg-perovskite, and ferropericlase; 2) a thin section of the Ivankinsky basalt, part of the Siberian flood basalt sequence containing complex sub-micrometer intergrowths of magnetite, titanomagnetite, ilmenite, titanite and rutile; 3) a polished section of the Giroux pallasite, being studied for element partitioning, that we used as an analogue to test the capabilities for zonation and diffusion determination; and 4) a polished section of the Semarkona ordinary chondrite containing chondules comprised of highly zoned and rimmed olivines and pyroxenes in a complex mesostasis of sub-micrometer pyroxenes and glass. The results of these analyses that we will present confirmed our optimism regarding the new analytical capabilities of a field emission microprobe. We were able, at reduced voltages, to accurately analyze the major and minor element composition of intergrowth

  10. Physically based DC lifetime model for lead zirconate titanate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garten, Lauren M.; Hagiwara, Manabu; Ko, Song Won; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2017-09-01

    Accurate lifetime predictions for Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films are critical for a number of applications, but current reliability models are not consistent with the resistance degradation mechanisms in lead zirconate titanate. In this work, the reliability and lifetime of chemical solution deposited (CSD) and sputtered Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films are characterized using highly accelerated lifetime testing (HALT) and leakage current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Temperature dependent HALT results and impedance spectroscopy show activation energies of approximately 1.2 eV for the CSD films and 0.6 eV for the sputtered films. The voltage dependent HALT results are consistent with previous reports, but do not clearly indicate what causes device failure. To understand more about the underlying physical mechanisms leading to degradation, the I-V data are fit to known conduction mechanisms, with Schottky emission having the best-fit and realistic extracted material parameters. Using the Schottky emission equation as a base, a unique model is developed to predict the lifetime under highly accelerated testing conditions based on the physical mechanisms of degradation.

  11. The incorporation of plutonium in lanthanum zirconate pyrochlore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Daniel J.; Zhang, Yingjie; Middleburgh, Simon C.; Conradson, Steven D.; Triani, Gerry; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Vance, Eric R.

    2013-11-01

    The incorporation of plutonium (Pu) within lanthanum zirconate pyrochlore was investigated using air, argon, and N2-3.5%H2 sintering atmospheres together with Ca2+ and Sr2+ incorporation for charge compensation. The samples have been characterised in the first instance by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The results show Pu can be exchanged for La3+ on the A-site with and without charge compensation and for Zr4+ on the B-site. DRS measurements were made over the wavenumber range of 4000-19,000 cm-1 and the Pu in all air- and argon-sintered samples was found to be present as Pu4+ while that in samples sintered in N2-3.5%H2 was present as Pu3+. The Pu valence was confirmed for three of the samples using X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (XANES). Pu valences >4+ were not observed in any of the samples.

  12. New Insights on the Recrystallization and New Growth of Extensively Radiation-damaged Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanchar, J. M.; Schmitz, M. D.; Wirth, R.

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 10 grams of cm-sized nearly metamict zircon crystals from the Saranac Prospect in the Bancroft District of Ontario were combined by breaking into small pieces and then ground under ethanol to a fine powder with an agate mortar and pestle in order to make enough homogeneously mixed material for multiple powder X-Ray and diffraction scans, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) measurements, and chemical abrasion isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-TIMS). While these large zircon crystals ground to a powder have a larger surface area and not in the same physical state (i.e., brown and metamict) as what is typically analyzed in single zircon CA-ID-TIMS U-Pb analysis (clear euhedral grains), the physical and chemical changes that occur during the heat treatment used in CA-TIMS are thought to be similar processes. Aliquots of the ground zircon powder were annealed in situ using a Pt furnace in a powder diffractometer during which time simultaneous powder diffraction patterns were acquired starting at 25°C, at elevated temperature (from 500°C to 1400°C) at selected time intervals, and then again at 25°C. The powder X-ray diffraction results indicate that below ~900°C the recrystallization of the zircon powder commences but is incomplete, even after 36 hours, with diffuse low intensity diffraction peaks. At 1150°C the zircon powder shows significant recrystallization. At 1150°C, the recrystallization is essentially complete in less than one hour. Before heating the zircon powder samples consisted of clear, transparent to brown, translucent, complexly zoned fragments. After heating at 900°C the zircon powder retained a smaller percentage of clear or brown complexly zoned fragments, while the majority of material had transformed to oscillatory or irregularly zoned, dominantly white opaque microcrystalline fragments. The clear fragments were hypothesized to be preexisting original crystalline zircon, the brown

  13. Detrital zircon provenance of Mesoproterozoic to Cambrian arenites in the Western United States and Northwestern Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John H.; Gehrels, G.E.; Barth, A.P.; Link, P.K.; Christie-Blick, N.; Wrucke, C.T.

    2001-01-01

    U-Pb isotopic dating of detrital zircon from supracrustal Proterozoic and Cambrian arenites from the western United States and northern Mexico reveal three main age groups, 1.90 to 1.62 Ga, 1.45 to 1.40 Ga, and 1.2 to 1.0 Ga. Small amounts of zircons with ages of 3.1 to 2.5 Ga, 1.57 Ga, 1.32 Ga, 1.26 Ga, 0.7 Ga, and 0.5 Ga are also present. Detrital zircons ranging in age from 1.90 to 1.62 Ga and from 1.45 to 1.40 Ga are considered to have been derived from Proterozoic crystalline basement rocks of these known ages, and probably in part from reworked Proterozoic supracrustal sedimentary rocks, of the western United States. The 1.2 to 1.0 Ga detrital zircon ages from California, Arizona, and Sonora are characterized by distinct spikes (1.11 Ga, in particular) in the age-probability plots. These spikes are interpreted to indicate the influx of zircon from major silicic volcanic fields. Igneous rocks such as the Pikes Peak Granite (1.093 Ga) of Colorado, and the Aibo Granite (1.110 Ga) of Sonora, Mexico, may represent the deeply eroded roots of such volcanic fields. Samples from farther north along the Cordilleran margin that contain abundant 1.2-1.0 Ga detrital zircons do not show spikes in the age distribution, but rather ages spread out across the entire 1.2-1.0 Ga range. These age spectra resemble those for detrital zircons from the Grenville province, which is considered their source. Less common detrital zircons had a variety of sources. Zircons ranging in age from 3.36 to 2.31 Ga were apparently derived from inland parts of the North American continent from Wyoming to Canada. Zircons of about 1.577 Ga are highly unusual and may have had an exotic source; they may have come from Australia and been deposited in North America when Australia and North America were juxtaposed as part of the hypothetical Rodinian supercontinent. Detrital zircon of ??1.320 Ga apparently had the same source as that for tuff (1.320 Ga) in the Pioneer Shale of the Apache Group in Arizona

  14. Magmatic oxygen fugacity estimated using zircon-melt partitioning of cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, Duane J.; Brenan, James M.

    2016-11-01

    Using a newly-calibrated relation for cerium redox equilibria in silicate melts (Smythe and Brenan, 2015), and an internally-consistent model for zircon-melt partitioning of Ce, we provide a method to estimate the prevailing redox conditions during crystallization of zircon-saturated magmas. With this approach, oxygen fugacities were calculated for samples from the Bishop tuff (USA), Toba tuff (Indonesia) and the Nain plutonic suite (Canada), which typically agree with independent estimates within one log unit or better. With the success of reproducing the fO2 of well-constrained igneous systems, we have applied our Ce-in-zircon oxygen barometer to estimating the redox state of Earth's earliest magmas. Using the composition of the Jack Hills Hadean zircons, combined with estimates of their parental magma composition, we determined the fO2 during zircon crystallization to be between FMQ -1.0 to +2.5 (where FMQ is the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer). Of the parental magmas considered, Archean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) compositions yield zircon-melt partitioning most similar to well-constrained modern suites (e.g., Sano et al., 2002). Although broadly consistent with previous redox estimates from the Jack Hills zircons, our results provide a more precise determination of fO2, narrowing the range for Hadean parental magmas by more than 8 orders of magnitude. Results suggest that relatively oxidized magmatic source regions, similar in oxidation state to that of 3.5 Ga komatiite suites, existed by ∼4.4 Ga.

  15. Detrital zircon geochronology and provenance of the Chubut Group in the northeast of Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Edgardo L.; Astini, Ricardo A.; Belousova, Elena; Guler, M. Verónica; Gehrels, George

    2015-11-01

    The Chubut Group constitutes the most widespread sedimentary unit in NE Patagonia, characterized by variable-energy fluvial deposits. U-Pb analysis of detrital zircons from two sections of the Chubut Group constraint the age of the oldest sedimentary rocks in the northeast of the Somuncurá - Cañadón Asfalto Basin. In the Cañadón Williams area, at San Jorge section, 20 km NW of Telsen locality, dating of 56 detrital zircons from a medium to coarse sandstone indicated a maximum depositional age of 109 ± 1 Ma (n = 4). These sandstones were interpreted to represent shallow channels, associated with a lacustrine system. In the Telsen locality, a laser ablation analysis of 115 detrital zircons from a medium to coarse-grained sandstone, from fluvial channel facies, yielded a maximum depositional age of ca. 106 ± 1 Ma (n = 8). Both ages are consistent with volcanic events of the Barremian to Albian age in the central Patagonian Andes Region. Cathodoluminescence images of zircons from the San Jorge sample suggest an igneous origin, which is further supported by Th/U values above 0.5 in most of the grains. The distribution of the statistical modes of the main age populations of detrital zircons for the two samples [182, 185 and 189 Ma for Telsen sample (T2S) and 181 ± 1 Ma for San Jorge sample (SJS)] matches the age of the volcanic Marifil Formation. The rocks of the Marifil Formation of these ages are exposed NE to SE of the study area. The abundance of zircons of similar Jurassic ages (n = 52 for SJS and n = 105 for T2S) and the external morphology of the zircons in the sample SJS, implies a close proximity of the source area. Suggestion that the Marifil Formation was the main provenance source is also supported by northeast-southeasterly paleocurrents measured at the San Jorge and Telsen sections.

  16. Zircon and monazite response to prograde metamorphism in the Reynolds Range, central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Williams, Ian S.; Buick, Ian S.

    2001-01-01

    We report an extensive field-based study of zircon and monazite in the metamorphic sequence of the Reynolds Range (central Australia), where greenschist- to granulite-facies metamorphism is recorded over a continuous crustal section. Detailed cathodoluminescence and back-scattered electron imaging, supported by SHRIMP U-Pb dating, has revealed the different behaviours of zircon and monazite during metamorphism. Monazite first recorded regional metamorphic ages (1576 ± 5 Ma), at amphibolite-facies grade, at ˜600 °C. Abundant monazite yielding similar ages (1557 ± 2 to 1585 ± 3 Ma) is found at granulite-facies conditions in both partial melt segregations and restites. New zircon growth occurred between 1562 ± 4 and 1587 ± 4 Ma, but, in contrast to monazite, is only recorded in granulite-facies rocks where melt was present (≥700 °C). New zircon appears to form at the expense of pre-existing detrital and inherited cores, which are partly resorbed. The amount of metamorphic growth in both accessory minerals increases with temperature and metamorphic grade. However, new zircon growth is influenced by rock composition and driven by partial melting, factors that appear to have little effect on the formation of metamorphic monazite. The growth of these accessory phases in response to metamorphism extends over the 30 Ma period of melt crystallisation (1557-1587 Ma) in a stable high geothermal regime. Rare earth element patterns of zircon overgrowths in leucosome and restite indicate that, during the protracted metamorphism, melt-restite equilibrium was reached. Even in the extreme conditions of long-lasting high temperature (750-800 °C) metamorphism, Pb inheritance is widely preserved in the detrital zircon cores. A trace of inheritance is found in monazite, indicating that the closure temperature of the U-Pb system in relatively large monazite crystals can exceed 750-800 °C.

  17. The evolution of high-alumina basalts of the Klyuchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, based on microprobe analyses of mineral inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozerov, Alexei Y.

    2000-01-01

    The origin of calc-alkaline high-alumina basalts (HAB) of the Klyuchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka, was examined using electron microprobe analyses of phenocrysts and mineral phases included in the phenocrysts. Continuous trends on major-element variation diagrams suggest the HAB were derived from high-magnesia basalt (HMB) by fractional crystallization. Phenocrysts in the HAB are strongly zoned: olivine (Mg# 91-64), clinopyroxene (Wo 45-38En 40-51Fs 5-20) and chrome—spinel/magnetite inclusions in them (Cr 2O 3 45-0 wt.%, TiO 2 0.5-11%). Microprobe analyses of minerals included in the phenocrysts provide additional constraints on the mineral crystallization trends in the HAB. Fe/Mg partitioning data, when applied to the phenocrysts cores, show they crystallized from a HMB. The similarity of phenocryst core compositions in HAB with those in HMB strongly suggests a genetic relationship between the two magma types.

  18. The elemental move characteristic of nickel-based alloy in molten salt corrosion by using nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Qiantao; Liu, Ke; Gao, Jie; Li, Xiaolin; Shen, Hao; Li, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Nickel-based alloys as candidate materials for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR), need to be used under high temperature in molten salt environment. In order to ensure the safety of the reactor running, it is necessary to study the elemental move characteristic of nickel-based alloys in the high temperature molten salts. In this work, the scanning nuclear microprobe at Fudan University was applied to study the elemental move. The Nickel-based alloy samples were corroded by molten salt at different temperatures. The element concentrations in the Nickel-based alloys samples were determined by the scanning nuclear microprobe. Micro-PIXE results showed that the element concentrations changed from the interior to the exterior of the alloy samples after the corrosion.

  19. Asymmetric Distribution of Metals in the Xenopus Laevis Oocyte: a Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Microprobe Study

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, B.F.Gh.; Belak, Z.R.; Ignatyev, K.

    2009-06-04

    The asymmetric distribution of many components of the Xenopus oocyte, including RNA, proteins, and pigment, provides a framework for cellular specialization during development. During maturation, Xenopus oocytes also acquire metals needed for development, but apart from zinc, little is known about their distribution. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe was used to map iron, copper, and zinc and the metalloid selenium in a whole oocyte. Iron, zinc, and copper were asymmetrically distributed in the cytoplasm, while selenium and copper were more abundant in the nucleus. A zone of high copper and zinc was seen in the animal pole cytoplasm. Iron was alsomore » concentrated in the animal pole but did not colocalize with zinc, copper, or pigment accumulations. This asymmetry of metal deposition may be important for normal development. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe will be a useful tool to examine how metals accumulate and redistribute during fertilization and embryonic development.« less

  20. Asymmetri Distribution of Metals in the Xenopus Laevis Oocyte: a Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Microprobe Study

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, B.F.G.; Belak, Z.R.; Ignatyev, K.

    2009-04-29

    The asymmetric distribution of many components of the Xenopus oocyte, including RNA, proteins, and pigment, provides a framework for cellular specialization during development. During maturation, Xenopus oocytes also acquire metals needed for development, but apart from zinc, little is known about their distribution. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe was used to map iron, copper, and zinc and the metalloid selenium in a whole oocyte. Iron, zinc, and copper were asymmetrically distributed in the cytoplasm, while selenium and copper were more abundant in the nucleus. A zone of high copper and zinc was seen in the animal pole cytoplasm. Iron was alsomore » concentrated in the animal pole but did not colocalize with zinc, copper, or pigment accumulations. This asymmetry of metal deposition may be important for normal development. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe will be a useful tool to examine how metals accumulate and redistribute during fertilization and embryonic development.« less

  1. Late magmatic stage of the zoned Caleu pluton (Central Chile): insights from zircon crystallization conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, P. G.; Parada, M.; Gutierrez, F. J.; Chang-Qiang, M.; Jianwei, L.; Yuanyuan, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Caleu pluton consists of three N-S elongated lithological zones: Gabbro-Diorite Zone (GDZ), Tonalite Zone (TZ) and Granodiorite Zone (GZ); western, middle and eastern portions of the pluton, respectively. The zones are thought to be previously differentiated in a common, isotopically depleted (Sr-Nd), subjacent magma reservoir at a 4 kbar equivalent depth. The emplacement should have occurred at the climax of the Cretaceous rifting. We present preliminary results of U238/Pb206 zircon geochronology; zircon saturation, Tsat(Zrn), and crystallization temperatures (Ti-in-Zrn); as well as relative oxidation states at time of crystallization, based on: (i) the sluggish REE and HFSE subsolidus diffusivities in zircon; (ii) the behavior of Ti4+↔Si4+ and Ce4+↔Zr4+ isovalent replacement, in addition to a constrained TiO2 activity in almost all typical crustal rocks; and (iii) relative oxidation states at time of crystallization, respectively. The latter are obtained by interpolation of the partition coefficients of trivalent (REE) and tetravalent (HFSE) curves in Onuma diagrams for each zircon, and then estimating relative Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ratios. Results obtained from 4 samples (a total of 77 zircon grains) collected from the three mentioned lithological zones indicate U/Pb ages of approximately 99.5 ±1.5 Ma, 96.8 ±0.6 Ma, and 94.4 +2.2 -0.8 Ma; and Ti-in Zrn ranges of ca. 720-870°C, ca. 680-820°C and ca. 750-840°C, for the GDZ, TZ and GZ samples, respectively. On the other hand Tsat(Zrn) of ca. 750-780°C in the TZ, and ca. 830-890°C in the GZ, were obtained. As expected saturation temperatures are similar or higher than Ti-in-Zrn obtained in zircon grains of TZ and GZ, respectively. Cathodoluminiscence images in zircon suggest a magmatic origin, due to absence of complex zoning patterns and fairly well conserved morphologies. Exceptionally the GDZ sample zircons show evidence of inheritance, indicating a xenocrystic and/or antecrystic origin. A relative Ce

  2. Chemical-abrasion SIMS dating of zircon from the Eocene Caetano caldera, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, J.; Watts, K. E.; John, D. A.; Henry, C. D.; Coble, M. A.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Eocene Caetano caldera in northern Nevada formed during eruption of ~1100 km3 of crystal-rich rhyolite. Miocene extension cut the caldera into a set of fault blocks that expose minor pre-caldera volcanic rocks, two units of intracaldera Caetano Tuff up to 4 km thick, ash-flow tuff feeder dikes and ring-fracture intrusions, caldera collapse breccias, and post-collapse resurgent intrusions. Single-crystal 40Ar/39Ar sanidine dates on all parts of the caldera system overlap, yielding a 34.01 ± 0.05 Ma (n=17, Fish Canyon sanidine = 28.201 Ma) age for the eruption. 40Ar/39Ar dating also documents several preceding episodes of magmatism: 35.69 ± 0.06 Ma (sanidine, n =13) rhyolite dikes in the nearby Cortez gold district, 35.21 ± 0.18 Ma (plagioclase, n=1) andesite lava underlying Caetano Tuff, and a 38.90 ± 0.11 Ma (biotite, n=1), dacite dike in the northeastern caldera wall. Extensive U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircon from both the Cortez dikes and all phases of the Caetano system suggests continuous magmatism from 40-34 Ma. However, all samples contain at least some—sometimes many—zircons with U-Pb ages younger than the 34.0 Ma argon age. To determine if anomalously young zircon ages are due to Pb-loss, we analyzed representative samples of the upper Caetano Tuff and the Redrock Canyon resurgent pluton with and without chemical abrasion to mitigate Pb-loss. Bulk zircon separates were annealed at 850°C for 48 hours, then chemically abraded with 10:1 HF/HNO3 vapor in a Parr bomb at 225°C for 8 hours, based on protocols outlined by Mattinson (2005). Both treated and untreated zircons from the same sample were mounted in epoxy and polished to their midsections, then imaged on the SEM using BSE and CL. The SHRIMP-RG at Stanford University was used to determine U-Pb ages and trace element concentrations in single spots for ~25 to 30 individual zircons per sample, using a round-robin procedure and two zircon age standards (R33 and 080) to monitor external precision

  3. Rock-magnetic properties of single zircon crystals sampled from the Tanzawa tonalitic pluton, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Shinji; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Okada, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Masao; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Maruyama, Shigenori

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on the rock-magnetic properties of single zircon crystals, which are essential for future work establishing the reliable paleointensity method using single zircon crystals. Zircon crystals used in this study were sampled from the Nakagawa River, which crosses the Tanzawa tonalitic pluton in central Japan. Rock-magnetic measurements were conducted on 1037 grains of zircons, but many of these measurements are below the limits of the sensitivity of the magnetometers employed. Isothermal remanent magnetizations (IRMs) of 876 zircon crystal are below the practical resolution of this study; we infer that these crystals contain no or only minute quantities of ferromagnetic minerals. The other zircon crystals contain enough magnetic minerals to be measured in the DC SQUID magnetometer. For 81 zircon crystals, IRM intensities ( M IRM) are larger than 4 × 10-12 Am2, while natural remanent magnetization (NRM) intensities ( M NRM) are below 4 × 10-12 Am2, indicating that these crystals are inappropriate for the paleomagnetic study. For the samples that had values of M NRM ≥ 4 × 10-12 Am2 and M IRM ≥ 4 × 10-12 Am2 (80 zircons), combining the rock-magnetic parameter, we proposed the sample-selection criteria for future study of paleointensity experiments using single zircon crystals. In the case that the samples had high coercivity ( B c) values (>10 mT) or high M NRM/ M IRM values (>~0.1), main remanence carriers are probably pyrrhotite and these samples are inappropriate for the paleointensity study. In the case that the samples had low B c values (<10 mT) and low M NRM/ M IRM values (<~0.1), main remanence carriers seem to be nearly pure magnetite with pseudo-single-domain grain sizes, and these samples are expected to appropriate for the paleointensity study. Total thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) acquisition experiments were also carried out for 12 samples satisfying the above criteria. The TRM intensity was comparable with that of NRM, and a

  4. Looking through the Zircon Kaleidoscope: Durations, Rates, and Fluxes in Silicic Magmatic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaltegger, U.; Wotzlaw, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    The crystallization rate of zircon in a cooling magma depends on the cooling rate through the saturation interval in addition to compositional and kinetic factors. Repeated influx of hot magma over 10-20 ka leads to short-amplitude temperature oscillations, which are recorded by resorption/crystallization cycles of zircon. Plotting the number of dated zircons versus their high-precision U-Pb date results in curves that qualitatively relate to the evolution of magma temperature over time [1], [2]. The trace elemental, O and Hf isotopic composition of zircon gives indications about the degree of magma homogenization and thermal evolution. Zircons from systems with small volumes and magma fluxes record non-systematic chemical and Hf isotopic heterogeneity, suggesting crystallization in non-homogenized ephemeral magma batches. Such systems typically lead to small, mid-upper crustal plutons [3]. Zircons from large-volume crystal-poor rhyolites record initial heterogeneities and rapid amalgamation of smaller magma batches over 10 ka [4], while zircons from monotonous intermediates record magma evolution over several 100 ka with coherent fractionation trends suggesting homogenization and a coherent thermal evolution [2]. In both cases, volumes and flux rates were sufficient to produce large volumes of eruptible magma on very contrasting time scales. Zircon is therefore recording cyclic crystallization-rejuvenation processes during temperature fluctuations in intermediate to upper crustal magma reservoirs but may not relate to the physical pluton emplacement or eruption. We can quantify volumes, rates of magma influx, rates of cooling and crystallization, and the degree of convective homogenization from zircon data, and infer reservoir assembly and eruption trigger mechanisms. These parameters largely control the evolution of long-lived, low-flux silicic magmatic system typical for mid-to-upper crustal plutons, monotonous intermediates are characterized by intermediate

  5. Histological changes induced by CO2 laser microprobe specially designed for root canal sterilization: in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Kesler, G; Koren, R; Kesler, A; Hay, N; Gal, R

    1998-10-01

    Until now, no suitable delivery fiber has existed for CO2 laser endodontic radiation in the apical region, where it is most difficult to eliminate the pulp tissue using conventional methods. To overcome this problem, we have designed a microprobe that reaches closer to the apex, distributing the energy density to a smaller area of the root canal and thus favorably increasing the thermal effects. A CO2 laser microprobe coupled onto a special hand piece was attached to the delivery fiber of a Sharplan 15-F CO2 laser. The study was conducted on 30 vital maxillary or mandibulary, central, lateral, or premolar teeth destined for extraction due to periodontal problems. Twenty were experimentally treated with pulsed CO2 laser delivered by this newly developed fiber after conventional root canal preparation. Temperature measured at three points on the root surface during laser treatment did not exceed 38 degrees C. Ten teeth represented the control group, in which only root canal preparation was performed in the conventional method. Histological examination of the laser-treated teeth showed coagulation necrosis and vacuolization of the remaining pulp tissue in the root canal periphery. Primary and secondary dentin appeared normal in all cases treated with 15-F CO2 laser. Gram stain and bacteriologic examination revealed complete sterilization. These results demonstrate the unique capabilities of this special microprobe in sterilization of the root canal, with no thermal damage to the surrounding tissue. The combination of classical root canal preparation with CO2 laser irradiation using this special microprobe before closing the canal can drastically change the quality of root canal fillings.

  6. The x ray microprobe determination of chromium oxidation state in olivine from lunar basalt and kimberlitic diamonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, S. R.; Bajt, S.; Rivers, M. L.; Smith, J. V.

    1993-01-01

    The synchrotron x-ray microprobe is being used to obtain oxidation state information on planetary materials with high spatial resolution. Initial results on chromium in olivine from various sources including laboratory experiments, lunar basalt, and kimberlitic diamonds are reported. The lunar olivine was dominated by Cr(2+) whereas the diamond inclusions had Cr(2+/Cr(3+) ratios up to about 0.3. The simpliest interpretation is that the terrestrial olivine crystallized in a more oxidizing environment than the lunar olivine.

  7. Ion Microprobe Measurements of Comet Dust and Implications for Models of Oxygen Isotope Heterogeneity in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snead, C. J.; McKeegan, K. D.; Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.

    2017-01-01

    The oxygen isotopic compositions of anhydrous minerals in carbonaceous chondrites reflect mixing between a O-16-rich and O-17, O18-rich reservoir. The UV photodissociation of CO (i.e. selfshielding) has been proposed as a mass-independent mechanism for producing these isotopically distinct reservoirs. Self-shielding models predict the composition for the CO gas reservoir to be O-16-rich, and that the accreting primordial dust was in isotopic equilibrium with the gaseous reservoir [1, 2]. Self-shielding also predicts that cometary water, presumed to represent the O-17, O-18-rich reservoir, should be enriched in O-17 and O-18, with compositions of 200 -1000per mille, and that the interaction with this O-17, O-18-rich H2O reservoir altered the compositions of the primordial dust toward planetary values. The bulk composition of the solar nebula, which may be an approximation to the 16O-rich gaseous reservoir, has been constrained by the Genesis results [3]. However, material representing the O-17, O-18-rich end-member is rare [4], and dust representing the original accreting primordial dust has been challenging to conclusively identify in current collections. Anhydrous dust from comets, which accreted in the distal cold regions of the nebula at temperatures below approximately 30K, may provide the best opportunity to measure the oxygen isotope composition of primordial dust. Chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) have been suggested as having cometary origins [5]; however, until direct comparisons with dust from a known comet parent body were made, link between CP-IDPs and comets remained circumstantial. Oxygen isotope analyses of particles from comet 81P/Wild 2 collected by NASA's Stardust mission have revealed surprising similarities to minerals in carbonaceous chondrites which have been interpreted as evidence for large scale radial migration of dust components from the inner solar nebula to the accretion regions of Jupiter- family comets [6]. These studies have been largely focused on the coarse-grained terminal particles extracted from aerogel collectors; hypervelocity capture into aerogel resulted in fine-grained material that was melted and intimately mixed with the SiO2 capture medium. Hypervelocity impacts into Al foils surrounding the aerogel tiles produced impact craters that captured material from the impactor without significant oxygen contamination, allowing for analysis of both the coarse and fine-grained components of the Wild 2 dust. To date, no particles with definitive hydrated mineralogy have been observed in Stardust samples, though this may be a result of alteration due to hypervelocity capture. High-carbon hydrated CS-IDPs have been suggested as resulting from the aqueous alteration of CP-IDPs [7], and may retain evidence for interaction with O-17, O-18-enriched "cometary" water predicted by CO self-shielding. Here we present results of oxygen isotope measurements of twelve Stardust foil craters and four C-rich hydrated IDPs [8, 9], and discuss implications for models of oxygen isotope heterogeneity in the early solar system.

  8. A study of processing parameters in thermal-sprayed alumina and zircon mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Khor, K. A.

    2002-06-01

    A method of plasma spraying of alumina and zircon mixtures to form ZrO2-mullite composites has been proposed and developed. The feedstock is prepared by a combination of