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Sample records for zircon near-infrared spectroscopic

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos,; Stavros, Staggs [Livermore, CA; Michael, C [Tracy, CA

    2006-03-21

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos, Stavros [Livermore, CA; Staggs, Michael C [Tracy, CA

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  3. Near infrared spectroscopic evaluation of water in hyaline cartilage.

    PubMed

    Padalkar, M V; Spencer, R G; Pleshko, N

    2013-11-01

    In diseased conditions of cartilage such as osteoarthritis, there is typically an increase in water content from the average normal of 60-85% to greater than 90%. As cartilage has very little capability for self-repair, methods of early detection of degeneration are required, and assessment of water could prove to be a useful diagnostic method. Current assessment methods are either destructive, time consuming, or have limited sensitivity. Here, we investigated the hypotheses that non-destructive near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of articular cartilage can be used to differentiate between free and bound water, and to quantitatively assess water content. The absorbances centered at 5200 and 6890 cm(-1) were attributed to a combination of free and bound water, and to free water only, respectively. The integrated areas of both absorbance bands were found to correlate linearly with the absolute water content (R = 0.87 and 0.86) and with percent water content (R = 0.97 and 0.96) of the tissue. Partial least square models were also successfully developed and were used to predict water content, and percent free water. These data demonstrate that NIRS can be utilized to quantitatively determine water content in articular cartilage, and may aid in early detection of degenerative tissue changes in a laboratory setting, and with additional validations, possibly in a clinical setting.

  4. A NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF COOL WHITE DWARFS IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    SciT

    Kilic, Mukremin; Kowalski, Piotr M.; Von Hippel, Ted

    2009-07-15

    We present near-infrared photometric observations of 15 and spectroscopic observations of 38 cool white dwarfs (WDs). This is the largest near-infrared spectroscopic survey of cool WDs to date. Combining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry and our near-infrared data, we perform a detailed model atmosphere analysis. The spectral energy distributions of our objects are explained fairly well by model atmospheres with temperatures ranging from 6300 K down to 4200 K. Two WDs show significant absorption in the infrared, and are best explained with mixed H/He atmosphere models. Based on the up-to-date model atmosphere calculations by Kowalski and Saumon, we findmore » that the majority of the stars in our sample have hydrogen-rich atmospheres. We do not find any pure helium atmosphere WDs below 5000 K, and we find a trend of increasing hydrogen to helium ratio with decreasing temperature. These findings present an important challenge to understanding the spectral evolution of WDs.« less

  5. Real-time near-infrared spectroscopic inspection system for adulterated sesame oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sukwon; Lee, Kang-jin; Son, Jaeryong; Kim, Moon S.

    2010-04-01

    Sesame seed oil is popular and expensive in Korea and has been often mixed with other less expensive vegetable oils. The objective of this research is to develop an economical and rapid adulteration determination system for sesame seed oil mixed with other vegetable oils. A recently developed inspection system consists of a light source, a measuring unit, a spectrophotometer, fiber optics, and a data acquisition module. A near-infrared transmittance spectroscopic method was used to develop the prediction model using Partial Least Square (PLS). Sesame seed oil mixed with a range of concentrations of corn, or perilla, or soybean oil was measured in 8 mm diameter glass tubes. For the model development, a correlation coefficient value of 0.98 was observed for corn, perilla, and soybean oil mixtures with standard errors of correlation of 6.32%, 6.16%, and 5.67%, respectively. From the prediction model, the correlation coefficients of corn oil, perilla oil, and soybean oil were 0.98, 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. The Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) for corn oil, perilla oil, and soybean oil were 6.52%, 6.89% and 5.88%, respectively. The results indicated that this system can potentially be used as a rapid non-destructive adulteration analysis tool for sesame seed oil mixed with other vegetable oils.

  6. Polymer:Fullerene Bimolecular Crystals for Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zheng; Ma, Zaifei; Sánchez-Díaz, Antonio; Ullbrich, Sascha; Liu, Yuan; Siegmund, Bernhard; Mischok, Andreas; Leo, Karl; Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Li, Weiwei; Vandewal, Koen

    2017-09-01

    Spectroscopic photodetection is a powerful tool in disciplines such as medical diagnosis, industrial process monitoring, or agriculture. However, its application in novel fields, including wearable and biointegrated electronics, is hampered by the use of bulky dispersive optics. Here, solution-processed organic donor-acceptor blends are employed in a resonant optical cavity device architecture for wavelength-tunable photodetection. While conventional photodetectors respond to above-gap excitation, the cavity device exploits weak subgap absorption of intermolecular charge-transfer states of the intercalating poly[2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene] (PBTTT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bimolecular crystal. This enables a highly wavelength selective, near-infrared photoresponse with a spectral resolution down to 14 nm, as well as dark currents and detectivities comparable with commercial inorganic photodetectors. Based on this concept, a miniaturized spectrophotometer, comprising an array of narrowband cavity photodetectors, is fabricated by using a blade-coated PBTTT:PCBM thin film with a thickness gradient. As an application example, a measurement of the transmittance spectrum of water by this device is demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Near infrared photometric and optical spectroscopic study of 22 low mass star clusters embedded in nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2008-02-01

    Aims:Among the star clusters in the Galaxy, those embedded in nebulae represent the youngest group, which has only recently been explored. The analysis of a sample of 22 candidate embedded stellar systems in reflection nebulae and/or HII environments is presented. Methods: We employed optical spectroscopic observations of stars in the directions of the clusters carried out at CASLEO (Argentina) together with near infrared photometry from the 2MASS catalogue. Our analysis is based on source surface density, colour-colour diagrams and on theoretical pre-main sequence isochrones. We take into account the field star contamination by carrying out a statistical subtraction. Results: The studied objects have the characteristics of low mass systems. We derive their fundamental parameters. Most of the cluster ages are younger than 2 Myr. The studied embedded stellar systems in reflection nebulae and/or HII region complexes do not have stars of spectral types earlier than B. The total stellar masses locked in the clusters are in the range 20-220 M⊙. They are found to be gravitationally unstable and are expected to dissolve in a timescale of a few Myr. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  8. Near infrared spectroscopic imaging assessment of cartilage composition: Validation with mid infrared imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Palukuru, Uday P; Hanifi, Arash; McGoverin, Cushla M; Devlin, Sean; Lelkes, Peter I; Pleshko, Nancy

    2016-07-05

    Disease or injury to articular cartilage results in loss of extracellular matrix components which can lead to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). To better understand the process of disease development, there is a need for evaluation of changes in cartilage composition without the requirement of extensive sample preparation. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a chemical investigative technique based on molecular vibrations that is increasingly used as an assessment tool for studying cartilage composition. However, the assignment of specific molecular vibrations to absorbance bands in the NIR spectrum of cartilage, which arise from overtones and combinations of primary absorbances in the mid infrared (MIR) spectral region, has been challenging. In contrast, MIR spectroscopic assessment of cartilage is well-established, with many studies validating the assignment of specific bands present in MIR spectra to specific molecular vibrations. In the current study, NIR imaging spectroscopic data were obtained for compositional analysis of tissues that served as an in vitro model of OA. MIR spectroscopic data obtained from the identical tissue regions were used as the gold-standard for collagen and proteoglycan (PG) content. MIR spectroscopy in transmittance mode typically requires a much shorter pathlength through the sample (≤10 microns thick) compared to NIR spectroscopy (millimeters). Thus, this study first addressed the linearity of small absorbance bands in the MIR region with increasing tissue thickness, suitable for obtaining a signal in both the MIR and NIR regions. It was found that the linearity of specific, small MIR absorbance bands attributable to the collagen and PG components of cartilage (at 1336 and 856 cm(-1), respectively) are maintained through a thickness of 60 μm, which was also suitable for NIR data collection. MIR and NIR spectral data were then collected from 60 μm thick samples of cartilage degraded with chondroitinase ABC as a model

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of massive young stellar object candidates in the central molecular zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandakumar, G.; Schultheis, M.; Feldmeier-Krause, A.; Schödel, R.; Neumayer, N.; Matteucci, F.; Ryde, N.; Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Tej, A.

    2018-01-01

    Context. The central molecular zone (CMZ) is a 200 pc region around the Galactic centre. The study of star formation in the central part of the Milky Way is of great interest as it provides a template for the closest galactic nuclei. Aims: We present a spectroscopic follow-up of photometrically selected young stellar object (YSO) candidates in the CMZ of the Galactic centre. Our goal is to quantify the contamination of this YSO sample by reddened giant stars with circumstellar envelopes and to determine the star formation rate (SFR) in the CMZ. Methods: We obtained KMOS low-resolution near-infrared spectra (R 4000) between 2.0 and 2.5 μm of sources, many of which have been previously identified by mid-infrared photometric criteria as massive YSOs in the Galactic centre. Our final sample consists of 91 stars with good signal-to-noise ratio. We separated YSOs from cool late-type stars based on spectral features of CO and Brγ at 2.3 μm and 2.16 μm, respectively. We made use of spectral energy distribution (SED) model fits to the observed photometric data points from 1.25 to 24 μm to estimate approximate masses for the YSOs. Results: Using the spectroscopically identified YSOs in our sample, we confirm that existing colour-colour diagrams and colour-magnitude diagrams are unable to efficiently separate YSOs and cool late-type stars. In addition, we define a new colour-colour criterion that separates YSOs from cool late-type stars in the H-KS vs. H -[8.0] diagram. We use this new criterion to identify YSO candidates in the |l| < 1.̊5, |b| < 0.̊5, region and use model SED fits to estimate their approximate masses. By assuming an appropriate initial mass function (IMF) and extrapolating the stellar IMF down to lower masses, we determine a SFR of 0.046 ± 0.026 M⊙ yr-1 assuming an average age of 0.75 ± 0.25 Myr for the YSOs. This value is lower than estimates found using the YSO counting method in the literature. Conclusions: Our SFR estimate in the CMZ agrees

  10. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Supernova Ejecta and Supernova Dust in Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Hyun; Koo, Bon-Chul; Moon, Dae-Sik; Lee, Jae-Joon; Burton, Michael G.

    2016-06-01

    We have carried out near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of the Cassiopeia A supernova (SN) remnant. We obtained medium-resolution, JHK (0.95 - 2.46 µm) spectra around the main ejecta shell. Using a clump-finding algorithm, we identified 63 'knots' in the two-dimensional dispersed images, and derived their spectroscopic properties. We first present the result of spectral classification of the knots using Principal Component (PC) Analysis. We found that the NIR spectral characteristics of the knots can be mostly (85%) represented by three PCs composed of different sets of emission lines: (1) recombination lines of H and He together with [N I] lines, (2) forbidden lines of Si, P, and S lines, and (3) forbidden Fe lines. The distribution of the knots in the PC planes matches well with the above spectral groups, and we classified the knots into the three corresponding groups, i.e., He-rich, S-rich, and Fe-rich knots. The kinematic and chemical properties of the former two groups match well with those of Quasi-Stationary Flocculi and Fast-Moving Knots known from optical studies. The Fe-rich knots show intermediate characteristics between the former two groups, and we suggest that they are the SN ejecta material from the innermost layer of the progenitor. We also present the results of extinction measurements using the flux ratios between the two NIR [Fe II] lines at 1.257 and 1.644 µm. We have found a clear correlation between the NIR extinction and the radial velocity of ejecta knots, indicating the presence of a large amount of SN dust inside and around the main ejecta shell. In a southern part of the ejecta shell, by analyzing the NIR extinction together with far-infrared thermal dust emission, we show that there are warm (˜100 K) and cool (˜40 K) SN dust components and that the former needs to be silicate grains while the latter, which is responsible for the observed NIR extinction, could be either small (.0.01 µm) Fe or large (&0.1 µm) Si grains. We

  11. Do Infants Recognize the Arcimboldo Images as Faces? Behavioral and Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Megumi; Otsuka, Yumiko; Nakato, Emi; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2012-01-01

    Arcimboldo images induce the perception of faces when shown upright despite the fact that only nonfacial objects such as vegetables and fruits are painted. In the current study, we examined whether infants recognize a face in the Arcimboldo images by using the preferential looking technique and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In the first…

  12. A near-infrared spectroscopic survey of massive jets towards extended green objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caratti o Garatti, A.; Stecklum, B.; Linz, H.; Garcia Lopez, R.; Sanna, A.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Protostellar jets and outflows are the main outcome of the star formation process, and their analysis can provide us with major clues about the ejection and accretion history of young stellar objects (YSOs). Aims: We aim at deriving the main physical properties of massive jets from near-infrared (NIR) observations, comparing them to those of a large sample of jets from low-mass YSOs, and relating them to the main features of their driving sources. Methods: We present a NIR imaging (H2 and Ks) and low-resolution spectroscopic (0.95-2.50 μm) survey of 18 massive jets towards GLIMPSE extended green objects (EGOs), driven by intermediate- and high-mass YSOs, which have bolometric luminosities (Lbol) between 4 × 102 and 1.3 × 105 L⊙. Results: As in low-mass jets, H2 is the primary NIR coolant, detected in all the analysed flows, whereas the most important ionic tracer is [Fe ii], detected in half of the sampled jets. Our analysis indicates that the emission lines originate from shocks at high temperatures and densities. No fluorescent emission is detected along the flows, regardless of the source bolometric luminosity. On average, the physical parameters of these massive jets (i.e. visual extinction, temperature, column density, mass, and luminosity) have higher values than those measured in their low-mass counterparts. The morphology of the H2 flows is varied, mostly depending on the complex, dynamic, and inhomogeneous environment in which these massive jets form and propagate. All flows and jets in our sample are collimated, showing large precession angles. Additionally, the presence of both knots and jets suggests that the ejection process is continuous with burst episodes, as in low-mass YSOs. We compare the flow H2 luminosity with the source bolometric luminosity confirming the tight correlation between these two quantities. Five sources, however, display a lower LH2/Lbol efficiency, which might be related to YSO evolution. Most important, the

  13. Noninvasive, near infrared spectroscopic-measured muscle pH and PO2 indicate tissue perfusion for cardiac surgical patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soller, Babs R.; Idwasi, Patrick O.; Balaguer, Jorge; Levin, Steven; Simsir, Sinan A.; Vander Salm, Thomas J.; Collette, Helen; Heard, Stephen O.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether near infrared spectroscopic measurement of tissue pH and Po2 has sufficient accuracy to assess variation in tissue perfusion resulting from changes in blood pressure and metabolic demand during cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: Academic medical center. SUBJECTS: Eighteen elective cardiac surgical patients. INTERVENTION: Cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A near infrared spectroscopic fiber optic probe was placed over the hypothenar eminence. Reference Po2 and pH sensors were inserted in the abductor digiti minimi (V). Data were collected every 30 secs during surgery and for 6 hrs following cardiopulmonary bypass. Calibration equations developed from one third of the data were used with the remaining data to investigate sensitivity of the near infrared spectroscopic measurement to physiologic changes resulting from cardiopulmonary bypass. Near infrared spectroscopic and reference pH and Po2 measurements were compared for each subject using standard error of prediction. Near infrared spectroscopic pH and Po2 at baseline were compared with values during cardiopulmonary bypass just before rewarming commenced (hypotensive, hypothermic), after rewarming (hypotensive, normothermic) just before discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass, and at 6 hrs following cardiopulmonary bypass (normotensive, normothermic) using mixed-model analysis of variance. Near infrared spectroscopic pH and Po2 were well correlated with the invasive measurement of pH (R2 =.84) and Po2 (R 2 =.66) with an average standard error of prediction of 0.022 +/- 0.008 pH units and 6 +/- 3 mm Hg, respectively. The average difference between the invasive and near infrared spectroscopic measurement was near zero for both the pH and Po2 measurements. Near infrared spectroscopic Po2 significantly decreased 50% on initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass and remained depressed throughout the bypass and

  14. Near Infrared Spectroscopic Identification of Alkyl Aromatic Esters and Phenyl Ketones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelyubov, D. V.; Vazhenin, D. A.; Kudriavtsev, A. A.; Buzolina, A. Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Bands characterizing the content of carbon atoms in alkyl (7177-7205 cm-1) and phenyl structural fragments (9175-9192 cm-1) in organic molecules were revealed by studying the near infrared spectra of such compounds. The optical density at the maxima of these absorption bands was shown to depend strongly on the fraction of carbon atoms in the corresponding fragments. The developed models proved to be adequate for determining the fraction of carbon atoms in alkyl aromatic esters and phenyl ketones. The feasibility of modeling the molecular structure of alkyl aromatic esters using regression models was demonstrated for the product of the condensation of oleic acid and benzyl alcohol.

  15. Near-infrared spectroscopic study on the effects of chewing on short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Wada, Mayumi; Hoshi, Yoko; Iguchi, Yoshinobu; Kida, Ikuhiro

    2011-12-01

    Using near-infrared spectroscopy, we examined whether chewing gum improves performance in a short-term memory task - immediate recall of random eight-digit numbers - by assessing cerebral hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex. We found that the oxyhemoglobin concentration during and after chewing gum was higher than that before chewing; further, the concentration increased during the task, and this increase was reduced with chewing, although non-significantly. Chewing did not improve task performance. Therefore, chewing-induced hemodynamic responses were unrelated to the performance in short-term memory tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Detecting the highest redshift (z > 8) quasi-stellar objects in a wide, near-infrared slitless spectroscopic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Nathan; Franzetti, Paolo; Garilli, Bianca; Zamorani, Giovanni; Cimatti, Andrea; Rossetti, Emanuel

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the prospects of extending observations of high-redshift quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) from the current z˜ 7 to z > 8 by means of a very wide-area near-infrared slitless spectroscopic survey, considering as an example the planned survey with the European Space Agency's Euclid telescope (scheduled for a 2019 launch). For any QSOs at z > 8.06, the strong Lyman α line will enter the wavelength range of the Euclid Near-Infrared Spectometer and Imaging Photometer (NISP). We perform a detailed simulation of near infrared spectrometer and imaging photometer (Euclid) NISP slitless spectroscopy (with the parameters of the wide survey) in an artificial field containing QSO spectra at all redshifts up to z= 12 and to a faint limit H= 22.5. QSO spectra are represented with a template based on a Sloan Digital Sky Survey composite spectrum, with the added effects of absorption from neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium. The spectra extracted from the simulation are analysed with an automated redshift finder, and a detection rate estimated as a function of H magnitude and redshift (defined as the proportion of spectra with both correct redshift measurements and classifications). We show that, as expected, spectroscopic identification of QSOs would reach deeper limits for the redshift ranges where either ? (0.67 < z < 2.05) or Lyman α (z > 8.06) is visible. Furthermore, if photometrically selected z > 8 spectra can be re-examined and refitted to minimize the effects of spectral contamination, the QSO detection rate in the Lyman α window will be increased by an estimated ˜60 per cent and will then be better here than at any other redshift, with an effective limit H≃ 21.5. With an extrapolated rate of QSO evolution, we predict that the Euclid wide (15 000 ?) spectroscopic survey will identify and measure spectroscopic redshifts for a total of 20-35 QSOs at z > 8.06 (reduced slightly to 19-33 if we apply a small correction for missed weak-lined QSOs

  17. A near infrared spectroscopic study of the interstellar gas in the starburst core of M82

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Dan F.; Carr, John; Joy, Marshall; Gaffney, Niall

    1990-01-01

    Researchers used the McDonald Observatory Infrared Grating Spectrometer, to complete a program of spatially resolved spectroscopy of M82. The inner 300 pc of the starburst was observed with 4 inch (50 pc) resolution. Complete J, H and K band spectra with resolution 0.0035 micron (lambda/delta lambda=620 at K) were measured at the near-infrared nucleus of the galaxy. Measurements of selected spectral features including lines of FeII, HII and H2 were observed along the starburst ridge-line, so the relative distribution of the diagnostic features could be understood. This information was used to better define the extinction towards the starburst region, the excitation conditions in the gas, and to characterize the stellar populations there.

  18. Evaluating the health of compromised tissues using a near-infrared spectroscopic imaging system in clinical settings: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardi, Lorenzo; Sowa, Michael G.; Hewko, Mark D.; Schattka, Bernhard J.; Payette, Jeri R.; Hastings, Michelle; Posthumus, Trevor B.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    2003-07-01

    The present and accepted standard for determining the status of tissue relies on visual inspection of the tissue. Based on the surface appearance of the tissue, medical personnel will make an assessment of the tissue and proceed to a course of action or treatment. Visual inspection of tissue is central to many areas of clinical medicine, and remains a cornerstone of dermatology, reconstructive plastic surgery, and in the management of chronic wounds, and burn injuries. Near infrared spectroscopic imaging holds the promise of being able to monitor the dynamics of tissue physiology in real-time and detect pathology in living tissue. The continuous measurement of metabolic, physiological, or structural changes in tissue is of primary concern in many clinical and biomedical domains. A near infrared hyperspectral imaging system was constructed for the assessment of burn injuries and skin flaps or skin grafts. This device merged basic science with engineering and integrated manufacturing to develop a device suitable to detect ischemic tissue. This device has the potential of providing measures of tissue physiology, oxygen delivery and tissue hydration during patient screening, in the operating room or during therapy and post-operative/treatment monitoring. Results from a pre-clinical burn injury study will be presented.

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring during cardiopulmonary exercise testing detects anaerobic threshold.

    PubMed

    Rao, Rohit P; Danduran, Michael J; Loomba, Rohit S; Dixon, Jennifer E; Hoffman, George M

    2012-06-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides assessment of the integrative responses involving the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and skeletal muscle systems. Application of exercise testing remains limited to children who are able to understand and cooperate with the exercise protocol. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a noninvasive, continuous method to monitor regional tissue oxygenation (rSO2). Our specific aim was to predict anaerobic threshold (AT) during CPET noninvasively using two-site NIRS monitoring. Achievement of a practical noninvasive technology for estimating AT will increase the compatibility of CPET. Patients without structural or acquired heart disease were eligible for inclusion if they were ordered to undergo CPET by a cardiologist. Data from 51 subjects was analyzed. The ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) was computed on [Formula: see text] and respiratory quotient post hoc using the standard V-slope method. The inflection points of the regional rSO2 time-series were identified as the noninvasive regional NIRS AT for each of the two monitored regions (cerebral and kidney). AT calculation made using an average of kidney and brain NIRS matched the calculation made by VAT for the same patient. Two-site NIRS monitoring of visceral organs is a predictor of AT.

  20. A validated near-infrared spectroscopic method for methanol detection in biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Andrea; Bräuer, Bastian; Nieuwenkamp, Gerard; Ent, Hugo; Bremser, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel quality control is a relevant issue as biodiesel properties influence diesel engine performance and integrity. Within the European metrology research program (EMRP) ENG09 project ‘Metrology for Biofuels’, an on-line/at-site suitable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method has been developed in parallel with an improved EN14110 headspace gas chromatography (GC) analysis method for methanol in biodiesel. Both methods have been optimized for a methanol content of 0.2 mass% as this represents the maximum limit of methanol content in FAME according to EN 14214:2009. The NIRS method is based on a mobile NIR spectrometer equipped with a fiber-optic coupled probe. Due to the high volatility of methanol, a tailored air-tight adaptor was constructed to prevent methanol evaporation during measurement. The methanol content of biodiesel was determined from evaluation of NIRS spectra by partial least squares regression (PLS). Both GC analysis and NIRS exhibited a significant dependence on biodiesel feedstock. The NIRS method is applicable to a content range of 0.1% (m/m) to 0.4% (m/m) of methanol with uncertainties at around 6% relative for the different feedstocks. A direct comparison of headspace GC and NIRS for samples of FAMEs yielded that the results of both methods are fully compatible within their stated uncertainties.

  1. A near-infrared high-resolution spectroscopic survey of bulge stars - JASMINE prestudy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, T.; Gouda, N.; Kobayashi, N.; Yasui, C.; Kondo, S.; Minami, A.; Motohara, K.; Ikeda, Y.

    2006-08-01

    We are developing a new near-infrared high-resolution (R[max]= 100,000) and high-sensitive spectrograph WINERED, which is specifically customized for short NIR bands at 0.9-1.35 μm. WINERED employs the novelty in the optical system; a potable design and a warm optics without any cold stops. The planned astrometric space mission JASMINE will provide the exact positions, distances, and proper motions of the bulge stars. The missing components, the radial velocity and chemical compositions will be measured by WINERED with high accuracies (δV< 1km/s). These combined data brought by JASMINE and WINERED will certainly reveal the nature of the Galactic bulge. We plan to complete this instrument for the observation of a single object by the end of 2008 and hope to attach it to various 4-10m telescopes as a PI-type instrument. In succession, we will develop it to the design for a simultaneous multi-object spectroscopy.

  2. A portable cross-shape near-infrared spectroscopic detector for bone marrow lesions diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu; Li, Ting

    2016-02-01

    Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) is an incidence-increasing disease which seriously hazard to human health and possibly contribute to paralysis. Delayed treatment often occurred to BMLs patients due to its characteristics such as complex and diverse clinical manifestations, non-specific, easy to misdiagnosis and etc. The conventional diagnosis methods of BMLs mainly rely on bone marrow biopsy/aspiration, which are invasive, painful, high health risk, and discontinuous which disabled monitoring and during-surgery guidance. Thus we proposed to develop a noninvasive, real-time, continuous measurement, easy-operated device aimed at detecting bone marrow diseases. This device is based on near-infrared spectroscopy and the probe is designed with a cross-shape to tightly and comfortably attach human spine. Space-resolved source-detector placement and measurement algorithm are employed. Four selected wavelength were utilized here to extract BMLs-related component contents of oxy-, deoxy-hemoglobin, fat, scattering index corresponding to fibrosis. We carried out an ink experiment and one clinical measurement to verify the feasibility of our device. The potential of NIRS in BMLs clinics is revealed.

  3. Near-infrared and Mid-infrared Spectroscopic Techniques for a Fast and Nondestructive Quality Control of Thymi herba.

    PubMed

    Pezzei, Cornelia K; Schönbichler, Stefan A; Hussain, Shah; Kirchler, Christian G; Huck-Pezzei, Verena A; Popp, Michael; Krolitzek, Justine; Bonn, Günther K; Huck, Christian W

    2018-04-01

    In this study, novel near-infrared and attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopic methods coupled with multivariate data analysis were established enabling the determination of thymol, rosmarinic acid, and the antioxidant capacity of Thymi herba. A new high-performance liquid chromatography method and UV-Vis spectroscopy were applied as reference methods. Partial least squares regressions were carried out as cross and test set validations. To reduce systematic errors, different data pretreatments, such as multiplicative scatter correction, 1st derivative, or 2nd derivative, were applied on the spectra. The performances of the two infrared spectroscopic techniques were evaluated and compared. In general, attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy demonstrated a slightly better predictive power (thymol: coefficient of determination = 0.93, factors = 3, ratio of performance to deviation = 3.94; rosmarinic acid: coefficient of determination = 0.91, factors = 3, ratio of performance to deviation = 3.35, antioxidant capacity: coefficient of determination = 0.87, factors = 2, ratio of performance to deviation = 2.80; test set validation) than near-infrared spectroscopy (thymol: coefficient of determination = 0.90, factors = 6, ratio of performance to deviation = 3.10; rosmarinic acid: coefficient of determination = 0.92, factors = 6, ratio of performance to deviation = 3.61, antioxidant capacity: coefficient of determination = 0.91, factors = 6, ratio of performance to deviation = 3.42; test set validation). The capability of infrared vibrational spectroscopy as a quick and simple analytical tool to replace conventional time and chemical consuming analyses for the quality control of T. herba could be demonstrated. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. The water vapour continuum in near-infrared windows - Current understanding and prospects for its inclusion in spectroscopic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shine, Keith P.; Campargue, Alain; Mondelain, Didier; McPheat, Robert A.; Ptashnik, Igor V.; Weidmann, Damien

    2016-09-01

    Spectroscopic catalogues, such as GEISA and HITRAN, do not yet include information on the water vapour continuum that pervades visible, infrared and microwave spectral regions. This is partly because, in some spectral regions, there are rather few laboratory measurements in conditions close to those in the Earth's atmosphere; hence understanding of the characteristics of the continuum absorption is still emerging. This is particularly so in the near-infrared and visible, where there has been renewed interest and activity in recent years. In this paper we present a critical review focusing on recent laboratory measurements in two near-infrared window regions (centred on 4700 and 6300 cm-1) and include reference to the window centred on 2600 cm-1 where more measurements have been reported. The rather few available measurements, have used Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS), cavity ring down spectroscopy, optical-feedback - cavity enhanced laser spectroscopy and, in very narrow regions, calorimetric interferometry. These systems have different advantages and disadvantages. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy can measure the continuum across both these and neighbouring windows; by contrast, the cavity laser techniques are limited to fewer wavenumbers, but have a much higher inherent sensitivity. The available results present a diverse view of the characteristics of continuum absorption, with differences in continuum strength exceeding a factor of 10 in the cores of these windows. In individual windows, the temperature dependence of the water vapour self-continuum differs significantly in the few sets of measurements that allow an analysis. The available data also indicate that the temperature dependence differs significantly between different near-infrared windows. These pioneering measurements provide an impetus for further measurements. Improvements and/or extensions in existing techniques would aid progress to a full characterisation of the continuum - as an example, we

  5. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for Monitoring Water Content in Epoxy Resins and Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    PubMed Central

    Gagani, Abedin I.; Echtermeyer, Andreas T.

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring water content and predicting the water-induced drop in strength of fiber-reinforced composites are of great importance for the oil and gas and marine industries. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic methods are broadly available and often used for process and quality control in industrial applications. A benefit of using such spectroscopic methods over the conventional gravimetric analysis is the possibility to deduce the mass of an absolutely dry material and subsequently the true water content, which is an important indicator of water content-dependent properties. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient and detailed method for estimating the water content in epoxy resins and fiber-reinforced composites. In this study, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was applied to measure the water content of amine-epoxy neat resin. The method was developed and successfully extended to glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. Based on extensive measurements of neat resin and composite samples of varying water content and thickness, regression was performed, and the quantitative absorbance dependence on water content in the material was established. The mass of an absolutely dry resin was identified, and the true water content was obtained. The method was related to the Beer–Lambert law and explained in such terms. A detailed spectroscopic method for measuring water content in resins and fiber-reinforced composites was developed and described. PMID:29641451

  6. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for Monitoring Water Content in Epoxy Resins and Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

    PubMed

    Krauklis, Andrey E; Gagani, Abedin I; Echtermeyer, Andreas T

    2018-04-11

    Monitoring water content and predicting the water-induced drop in strength of fiber-reinforced composites are of great importance for the oil and gas and marine industries. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic methods are broadly available and often used for process and quality control in industrial applications. A benefit of using such spectroscopic methods over the conventional gravimetric analysis is the possibility to deduce the mass of an absolutely dry material and subsequently the true water content, which is an important indicator of water content-dependent properties. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient and detailed method for estimating the water content in epoxy resins and fiber-reinforced composites. In this study, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was applied to measure the water content of amine-epoxy neat resin. The method was developed and successfully extended to glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. Based on extensive measurements of neat resin and composite samples of varying water content and thickness, regression was performed, and the quantitative absorbance dependence on water content in the material was established. The mass of an absolutely dry resin was identified, and the true water content was obtained. The method was related to the Beer-Lambert law and explained in such terms. A detailed spectroscopic method for measuring water content in resins and fiber-reinforced composites was developed and described.

  7. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements of Calf Muscle during Walking at Simulated Reduced Gravity - Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stroud, Leah; Norcross, Jason; Gernhardt, Michael; Soller, Babs R.

    2008-01-01

    Consideration for lunar and planetary exploration space suit design can be enhanced by investigating the physiologic responses of individual muscles during locomotion in reduced gravity. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method to study the physiology of individual muscles in ambulatory subjects during reduced gravity simulations. PURPOSE: To investigate calf muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) and pH during reduced gravity walking at varying treadmill inclines and added mass conditions using NIRS. METHODS: Four male subjects aged 42.3 +/- 1.7 years (mean +/- SE) and weighing 77.9 +/- 2.4 kg walked at a moderate speed (3.2 +/- 0.2 km/h) on a treadmill at inclines of 0, 10, 20, and 30%. Unsuited subjects were attached to a partial gravity simulator which unloaded the subject to simulate body weight plus the additional weight of a space suit (121 kg) in lunar gravity (0.17G). Masses of 0, 11, 23, and 34 kg were added to the subject and then unloaded to maintain constant weight. Spectra were collected from the lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and SmO2 and pH were calculated using previously published methods (Yang et al. 2007 Optics Express ; Soller et al. 2008 J Appl Physiol). The effects of incline and added mass on SmO2 and pH were analyzed through repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: SmO2 and pH were both unchanged by added mass (p>0.05), so data from trials at the same incline were averaged. LG SmO2 decreased significantly with increasing incline (p=0.003) from 61.1 +/- 2.0% at 0% incline to 48.7 +/- 2.6% at 30% incline, while pH was unchanged by incline (p=0.12). CONCLUSION: Increasing the incline (and thus work performed) during walking causes the LG to extract more oxygen from the blood supply, presumably to support the increased metabolic cost of uphill walking. The lack of an effect of incline on pH may indicate that, while the intensity of exercise has increased, the LG has not reached a level of work above the anaerobic threshold. In these

  8. Near-infrared Spectroscopic Observations of Comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) by WINERED: CN Red-system Band Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kondo, Sohei; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Hamano, Satoshi; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Fukue, Kei; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Yasui, Chikako; Izumi, Natsuko; Mizumoto, Misaki; Otsubo, Shogo; Takenaka, Keiichi; Watase, Ayaka; Kawanishi, Takafumi; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Nakaoka, Tetsuya

    2017-08-01

    Although high-resolution spectra of the CN red-system band are considered useful in cometary sciences, e.g., in the study of isotopic ratios of carbon and nitrogen in cometary volatiles, there have been few reports to date due to the lack of high-resolution (R ≡ λ/Δλ > 20,000) spectrographs in the near-infrared region around ˜1 μm. Here, we present the high-resolution emission spectrum of the CN red-system band in comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy), acquired by the near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph WINERED mounted on the 1.3 m Araki telescope at the Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto, Japan. We applied our fluorescence excitation models for CN, based on modern spectroscopic studies, to the observed spectrum of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) to search for CN isotopologues (13C14N and 12C15N). We used a CN fluorescence excitation model involving both a “pure” fluorescence excitation model for the outer coma and a “fully collisional” fluorescence excitation model for the inner coma region. Our emission model could reproduce the observed 12C14N red-system band of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy). The derived mixing ratio between the two excitation models was 0.94(+0.02/-0.03):0.06(+0.03/-0.02), corresponding to the radius of the collision-dominant region of ˜800-1600 km from the nucleus. No isotopologues were detected. The observed spectrum is consistent, within error, with previous estimates in comets of 12C/13C (˜90) and 14N/15N (˜150).

  9. Near-infrared Spectroscopic Observations of Comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) by WINERED: CN Red-system Band Emission

    SciT

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Yasui, Chikako; Izumi, Natsuko

    Although high-resolution spectra of the CN red-system band are considered useful in cometary sciences, e.g., in the study of isotopic ratios of carbon and nitrogen in cometary volatiles, there have been few reports to date due to the lack of high-resolution ( R  ≡  λ /Δ λ  > 20,000) spectrographs in the near-infrared region around ∼1 μ m. Here, we present the high-resolution emission spectrum of the CN red-system band in comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy), acquired by the near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph WINERED mounted on the 1.3 m Araki telescope at the Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto, Japan. We applied our fluorescence excitation models for CN, based onmore » modern spectroscopic studies, to the observed spectrum of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) to search for CN isotopologues ({sup 13}C{sup 14}N and {sup 12}C{sup 15}N). We used a CN fluorescence excitation model involving both a “pure” fluorescence excitation model for the outer coma and a “fully collisional” fluorescence excitation model for the inner coma region. Our emission model could reproduce the observed {sup 12}C{sup 14}N red-system band of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy). The derived mixing ratio between the two excitation models was 0.94(+0.02/−0.03):0.06(+0.03/−0.02), corresponding to the radius of the collision-dominant region of ∼800–1600 km from the nucleus. No isotopologues were detected. The observed spectrum is consistent, within error, with previous estimates in comets of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C (∼90) and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N (∼150).« less

  10. Development of Single-Seed Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Predictions of Corn and Soybeans Constituents Using Bulk Teference Values and Mean Spectra

    Near-Infrared reflectance spectroscopic prediction models were developed for common constituents of corn and soybeans using bulk reference values and mean spectra from single-seeds. The bulk reference model and a true single-seed model for soybean protein were compared to determine how well the bul...

  11. A deep near-infrared spectroscopic survey of the Scutum-Crux arm for Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosslowe, C. K.; Crowther, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    We present a New Technology Telescope/Son-of-Isaac spectroscopic survey of infrared selected Wolf-Rayet (WR) candidates in the Scutum-Crux spiral arm (298° ≤ l ≤ 340°, |b| ≤ 0.5°. We obtained near-IR spectra of 127 candidates, revealing 17 WR stars - a ∼13 per cent success rate - of which 16 are newly identified here. The majority of the new WR stars are classified as narrow-lined WN5-7 stars, with two broad-lined WN4-6 stars and three WC6-8 stars. The new stars, with distances estimated from previous absolute magnitude calibrations, have no obvious association with the Scutum-Crux arm. Refined near-infrared (YHJK) classification criteria based on over a hundred Galactic and Magellanic Cloud WR stars, providing diagnostics for hydrogen in WN stars, plus the identification of WO stars and intermediate WN/C stars. Finally, we find that only a quarter of WR stars in the survey region are associated with star clusters and/or H II regions, with similar statistics found for luminous blue variables (LBVs) in the Milky Way. The relative isolation of evolved massive stars is discussed, together with the significance of the co-location of LBVs and WR stars in young star clusters.

  12. Brown dwarf photospheres are patchy: A Hubble space telescope near-infrared spectroscopic survey finds frequent low-level variability

    SciT

    Buenzli, Esther; Apai, Dániel; Radigan, Jacqueline

    2014-02-20

    Condensate clouds strongly impact the spectra of brown dwarfs and exoplanets. Recent discoveries of variable L/T transition dwarfs argued for patchy clouds in at least some ultracool atmospheres. This study aims to measure the frequency and level of spectral variability in brown dwarfs and to search for correlations with spectral type. We used Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 to obtain spectroscopic time series for 22 brown dwarfs of spectral types ranging from L5 to T6 at 1.1-1.7 μm for ≈40 minutes per object. Using Bayesian analysis, we find six brown dwarfs with confident (p > 95%) variability in themore » relative flux in at least one wavelength region at sub-percent precision, and five brown dwarfs with tentative (p > 68%) variability. We derive a minimum variability fraction f{sub min}=27{sub −7}{sup +11}% over all covered spectral types. The fraction of variables is equal within errors for mid-L, late-L, and mid-T spectral types; for early-T dwarfs we do not find any confident variable but the sample is too small to derive meaningful limits. For some objects, the variability occurs primarily in the flux peak in the J or H band, others are variable throughout the spectrum or only in specific absorption regions. Four sources may have broadband peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 1%. Our measurements are not sensitive to very long periods, inclinations near pole-on and rotationally symmetric heterogeneity. The detection statistics are consistent with most brown dwarf photospheres being patchy. While multiple-percent near-infrared variability may be rare and confined to the L/T transition, low-level heterogeneities are a frequent characteristic of brown dwarf atmospheres.« less

  13. New spectroscopic tools and techniques for characterizing M dwarfs and discovering their planets in the near-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrien, Ryan C.

    M dwarfs are the least massive and most common stars in the Galaxy. Due to their prevalence and long lifetimes, these diminutive stars play an outsize role in several fields of astronomical study. In particular, it is now known that they commonly host planetary systems, and may be the most common hosts of Earth-size, rocky planets in the habitable zone. A comprehensive understanding of M dwarfs is crucial for understanding the origins and conditions of their planetary systems, including their potential habitability. Such an understanding depends on methods for precisely and accurately measuring their properties. These tools have broader applicability as well, underlying the use of M dwarfs as fossils of Galactic evolution, and helping to constrain the structures and interiors of these stars. The measurement of the fundamental parameters of M dwarfs is encumbered by their spectral complexity. Unlike stars of spectral type F, G, or K that are similar to our G type Sun, whose spectra are dominated by continuum emission and atomic features, the cool atmospheres of M dwarfs are dominated by complex molecular absorption. Another challenge for studies of M dwarfs is that these stars are optically faint, emitting much of their radiation in the near-infrared (NIR). The availability and performance of NIR spectrographs have lagged behind those of optical spectrographs due to the challenges of producing low-noise, high-sensitivity NIR detector arrays, which have only recently become available. This thesis discusses two related lines of work that address these challenges, motivated by the development of the Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF), a NIR radial velocity (RV) spectrograph under development at Penn State that will search for and confirm planets around nearby M dwarfs. This work includes the development and application of new NIR spectroscopic techniques for characterizing M dwarfs, and the development and optimization of new NIR instrumentation for HPF. The first line

  14. Spectroscopic diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and random recursive partitioning ensemble techniques.

    PubMed

    Teh, Seng Khoon; Zheng, Wei; Lau, David P; Huang, Zhiwei

    2009-06-01

    In this work, we evaluated the diagnostic ability of near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy associated with the ensemble recursive partitioning algorithm based on random forests for identifying cancer from normal tissue in the larynx. A rapid-acquisition NIR Raman system was utilized for tissue Raman measurements at 785 nm excitation, and 50 human laryngeal tissue specimens (20 normal; 30 malignant tumors) were used for NIR Raman studies. The random forests method was introduced to develop effective diagnostic algorithms for classification of Raman spectra of different laryngeal tissues. High-quality Raman spectra in the range of 800-1800 cm(-1) can be acquired from laryngeal tissue within 5 seconds. Raman spectra differed significantly between normal and malignant laryngeal tissues. Classification results obtained from the random forests algorithm on tissue Raman spectra yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 88.0% and specificity of 91.4% for laryngeal malignancy identification. The random forests technique also provided variables importance that facilitates correlation of significant Raman spectral features with cancer transformation. This study shows that NIR Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with random forests algorithm has a great potential for the rapid diagnosis and detection of malignant tumors in the larynx.

  15. Book Review: Near infrared surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic study of antiretroviraly drugs hypericin and emodin in aqueous silver colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Cortés, S.; Jancura, D.; Miskovsky, P.; Bertoluzza, A.

    1997-05-01

    The near infrared surface-enhanced Raman spectra (NIR SERS) of antiretroviraly drugs hypericin and its analogs emodin and bianthrone were studied at different drug concentration, dimethylsulfoxide concentration, pH and time. The differences observed in the SERS spectra when varying some of these parameters are attributed to changes in the adsorbate coverage and orientation of these molecules on the silver colloids, and can be related to the monomeric drug concentration existing in the solution. Two different drug orientations on the metal surface can be deduced: perpendicular and planar, which can be characterized by two different SERS profiles. The drug reorientation on the surface is indicative of a change in the oligomer-monomer equilibrium in the solution, what implies that the SERS technique can be used as an indirect method to monitor the intermolecular interactions of these molecules in water. In addition the UV-visible absorption spectra of these drugs also reveals the existence of intermolecular interactions in water and the temperature dependence of these interactions.

  16. AKARI Near-infrared Spectroscopic Observations of Interstellar Ices in the Edge-on Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ishihara, Daisuke; Oyabu, Shinki; Onaka, Takashi; Shimonishi, Takashi; Suzuki, Toyoaki

    2011-04-01

    We present the spatially resolved near-infrared (2.5-5.0 μm) spectra of the edge-on starburst galaxy NGC 253 obtained with the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. Near the center of the galaxy, we clearly detect the absorption features of interstellar ices (H2O: 3.05 μm, CO2: 4.27 μm, and XCN: 4.62 μm) and the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at 3.29 μm and the hydrogen recombination line Brα at 4.05 μm. We find that the distributions of the ices differ from those of the PAH and gas. We calculate the column densities of the ices and derive the abundance ratios of N(CO2)/N(H2O) = 0.17 ± 0.05. They are similar to those obtained around the massive young stellar objects in our Galaxy (0.17 ± 0.03), although a much stronger interstellar radiation field and higher dust temperature are expected near the center of NGC 253.

  17. Indium phosphide all air-gap Fabry-Pérot filters for near-infrared spectroscopic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, A.; Butt, M. A.; Fomchenkov, S. A.; Khonina, S. N.

    2016-08-01

    Food quality can be characterized by noninvasive techniques such as spectroscopy in the Near Infrared wavelength range. For example, 930 -1450 nm wavelength range can be used to detect diseases and differentiate between meat samples. Miniaturization of such NIR spectrometers is useful for quick and mobile characterization of food samples. Spectrometers can be miniaturized, without compromising the spectral resolution, using Fabry-Pérot (FP) filters consisting of two highly reflecting mirrors with a central cavity in between. The most commonly used mirrors in the design of FP filters are Distributed Bragg Reflections (DBRs) consisting of alternating high and low refractive index material pairs, due to their high reflectivity compared to metal mirrors. However, DBRs have high reflectivity for a selected range of wavelengths known as the stopband of the DBR. This range is usually much smaller than the sensitivity range of the spectrometer detector. Therefore, a bandpass filter is usually required to restrict wavelengths outside the stopband of the FP DBRs. Such bandpass filters are difficult to design and implement. Alternatively, high index contrast materials must be can be used to broaden the stopband width of the FP DBRs. In this work, Indium phosphide all air-gap filters are proposed in conjunction with InGaAs based detectors. The designed filter has a wide stopband covering the entire InGaAs detector sensitivity range. The filter can be tuned in the 950-1450 nm with single mode operation. The designed filter can hence be used for noninvasive meat quality control.

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopic observation of the ageing process in archaeological wood using a deuterium exchange method.

    PubMed

    Tsuchikawa, Satoru; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Siesler, H W

    2005-03-01

    The ageing degradation of the fine wood structure of dry-exposed archaeological wood was investigated by Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy with the aid of a deuterium exchange method. The archaeological wood sample was taken from an old wooden temple in Japan (late 7th century), which has been designated as a UNESCO world heritage site. Comparing the analytical results with those of a modern wood sample of the same species, the ageing process of archaeological wood was clarified as a change in the state of order on a macromolecular structural level. It can be concluded from NIR spectra that the amorphous region, and partially semi-crystalline region, in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin decreased by the ageing degradation, whereas the crystalline region in cellulose was not affected by the ageing. The accessibility of the diffusant to effect H/D-exchange was monitored by an OH-related absorption band obtained from FT-NIR transmission spectroscopy and characteristically varied with the ageing process of the wood samples, the absorption bands characteristic of a specific state of order and the diffusion agent. Finally, we proposed a morphological model to describe the variation of the fine structure of the microfibrils in the cell wall with ageing degradation. The state of microfibrils changed loosely by ageing, so that elementary fibrils were arranged loosely under 5 A, whereas several elementary fibrils in the modern wood were arranged in very close proximity under 3 A to each other.

  19. A spectroscopic comparison of selected Chinese kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite--a mid-infrared and near-infrared study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hongfei; Yang, Jing; Liu, Qinfu; Zhang, Jinshan; Frost, Ray L

    2010-11-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have been compared and evaluated for differentiating kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite. Kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite are the three relative abundant minerals of the kaolin group, especially in China. In the MIR spectra, the differences are shown in the 3000-3600 cm⁻¹ between kaolinite and halloysite. It cannot obviously differentiate the kaolinite and halloysite, leaving alone kaolinite and coal bearing kaolinite. However, NIR, together with MIR, gives us the sufficient evidence to differentiate the kaolinite and halloysite, especially kaolinite and coal bearing kaolinite. There are obvious differences between kaolinite and halloysite in all range of their spectra, and they also show some difference between kaolinite and coal bearing kaolinite. Therefore, the reproducibility of measurement, signal to noise ratio and richness of qualitative information should be simultaneously considered for proper selection of a spectroscopic method for mineral analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Near-infrared diode laser based spectroscopic detection of ammonia: a comparative study of photoacoustic and direct optical absorption methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozoki, Zoltan; Mohacsi, Arpad; Szabo, Gabor; Bor, Zsolt; Erdelyi, Miklos; Chen, Weidong; Tittel, Frank K.

    2002-01-01

    A photoacoustic spectroscopic (PAS) and a direct optical absorption spectroscopic (OAS) gas sensor, both using continuous-wave room-temperature diode lasers operating at 1531.8 nm, were compared on the basis of ammonia detection. Excellent linear correlation between the detector signals of the two systems was found. Although the physical properties and the mode of operation of both sensors were significantly different, their performances were found to be remarkably similar, with a sub-ppm level minimum detectable concentration of ammonia and a fast response time in the range of a few minutes.

  1. Visible and near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of raw milk for cow health monitoring: reflectance or transmittance?

    PubMed

    Aernouts, B; Polshin, E; Lammertyn, J; Saeys, W

    2011-11-01

    The composition of produced milk has great value for the dairy farmer. It determines the economic value of the milk and provides valuable information about the metabolism of the corresponding cow. Therefore, online measurement of milk components during milking 2 or more times per day would provide knowledge about the current health and nutritional status of each cow individually. This information provides a solid basis for optimizing cow management. The potential of visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy for predicting the fat, crude protein, lactose, and urea content of raw milk online during milking was, therefore, investigated in this study. Two measurement modes (reflectance and transmittance) and different wavelength ranges for Vis/NIR spectroscopy were evaluated and their ability to measure the milk composition online was compared. The Vis/NIR reflectance measurements allowed for very accurate monitoring of the fat and crude protein content in raw milk (R(2)>0.95), but resulted in poor lactose predictions (R(2)<0.75). In contrast, Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of the milk samples gave accurate fat and crude protein predictions (R(2)>0.90) and useful lactose predictions (R(2)=0.88). Neither Vis/NIR reflectance nor transmittance spectroscopy lead to an acceptable prediction of the milk urea content. Transmittance spectroscopy can thus be used to predict the 3 major milk components, but with lower accuracy for fat and crude protein than the reflectance mode. Moreover, the small sample thickness (1mm) required for NIR transmittance measurement considerably complicates its online use. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopic investigation of water in supercritical CO2 and the effect of CaCl2

    SciT

    Wang, Zheming; Felmy, Andrew R.; Thompson, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was applied to investigate the dissolution and chemical interaction of water dissolved into supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and the influence of CaCl2 in the co-existing aqueous phase at fo empe e : 40 50 75 nd 100 C at 90 atm. Consistent with the trend of the vapor pressure of water, the solubility of pure water in scCO2 inc e ed f om 40 °C (0.32 mole%) o 100 °C (1.61 mole%). The presence of CaCl2 negatively affects the solubility of water in scCO2: at a given temperature and pressure the solubility of water decreased as themore » concentration of CaCl2 in the aqueous phase increased, following the trend of the activity of water. A 40 °C, the water concentration in scCO2 in contact with saturated CaCl2 aqueous solution was only 0.16 mole%, a drop of more than 50% as compared to pure water while that a 100 °C was 1.12 mole%, a drop of over 30% as compared to pure water, under otherwise the same conditions. Analysis of the spectral profiles suggested that water dissolved into scCO2 exists in the monomeric form under the evaluated temperature and pressure conditions, for both neat water and CaCl2 solutions. However, its rotational degrees of freedom decrease at lower temperatures due to higher fluid densities, leading to formation of weak H2O:CO2 Lewis acid-base complexes. Similarly, the nearly invariant spectral profiles of dissolved water in the presence and absence of saturated CaCl2 under the same experimental conditions was taken as evidence that CaCl2 dissolution in scCO2 was limited as the dissolved Ca2+/CaCl2 would likely be highly hydrated and would alter the overall spectra of waters in the scCO2 phase.« less

  3. Spectrum of excess partial molar absorptivity. Part II: a near infrared spectroscopic study of aqueous Na-halides.

    PubMed

    Sebe, Fumie; Nishikawa, Keiko; Koga, Yoshikata

    2012-04-07

    Our earlier thermodynamic studies suggested that F(-) and Cl(-) form hydration shells with the hydration number 14 ± 2 and 2.3 ± 0.6, respectively, and leave the bulk H(2)O away from hydration shells unperturbed. Br(-) and I(-), on the other hand, form hydrogen bonds directly with the momentarily existing hydrogen bond network of H(2)O, and retard the degree of entropy-volume cross fluctuation inherent in liquid H(2)O. The effect of the latter is stronger for I(-) than Br(-). Here we seek additional information about this qualitative difference between Cl(-) and (Br(-) and I(-)) pair by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. We analyze the ν(2) + ν(3) band of H(2)O in the range 4600-5500 cm(-1) of aqueous solutions of NaCl, NaBr and NaI, by a new approach. From observed absorbance, we calculate excess molar absorptivity, ε(E), excess over the additive contributions of solute and solvent. ε(E) thus contains information about the effect of inter-molecular interactions in the ν(2) + ν(3) spectrum. The spectrum of ε(E) shows three bands; two negative ones at 5263 and 4873 cm(-1), and the positive band at 5123 cm(-1). We then define and calculate the excess partial molar absorptivity of each salt, ε(E)(salt). From the behaviour of ε(E)(salt) we suggest that the negative band at 5263 cm(-1) represents free H(2)O without much hydrogen bonding under the influence of local electric field of ions. Furthermore, from a sudden change in the x(salt) (mole fraction of salt) dependence of ε(E)(salt), we suggest that there is an ion-pairing in x(salt) > 0.032, 0.036, and 0.04 for NaCl, NaBr and NaI respectively. The positive band of ε(E) at 5123 cm(-1) is attributed to a modestly organized hydrogen bond network of H(2)O (or liquid-likeness), and the x(salt) dependence of ε indicated a qualitative difference in the effect of Cl(-) from those of Br(-) and I(-). Namely, the values of ε(E)(salt) stay constant for Cl(-) but those for Br(-) and I(-) decrease smoothly on

  4. A Markov random field based approach to the identification of meat and bone meal in feed by near-infrared spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xunpeng; Yang, Zengling; Han, Lujia

    2014-07-01

    Contaminated meat and bone meal (MBM) in animal feedstuff has been the source of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) disease in cattle, leading to a ban in its use, so methods for its detection are essential. In this study, five pure feed and five pure MBM samples were used to prepare two sets of sample arrangements: set A for investigating the discrimination of individual feed/MBM particles and set B for larger numbers of overlapping particles. The two sets were used to test a Markov random field (MRF)-based approach. A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging system was used for data acquisition. The spatial resolution of the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic image was 25 μm × 25 μm. Each spectrum was the average of 16 scans across the wavenumber range 7,000-4,000 cm(-1), at intervals of 8 cm(-1). This study introduces an innovative approach to analyzing NIR spectroscopic images: an MRF-based approach has been developed using the iterated conditional mode (ICM) algorithm, integrating initial labeling-derived results from support vector machine discriminant analysis (SVMDA) and observation data derived from the results of principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that MBM covered by feed could be successfully recognized with an overall accuracy of 86.59% and a Kappa coefficient of 0.68. Compared with conventional methods, the MRF-based approach is capable of extracting spectral information combined with spatial information from NIR spectroscopic images. This new approach enhances the identification of MBM using NIR spectroscopic imaging.

  5. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Measurement of the Effect of Leg Dominance on Muscle Oxygen Saturation During Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Paunescu, Lelia Adelina; Pereira, Chelsea; Smith, Charles P.; Soller, Babs R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of leg dominance on the symmetry of the biomechanics during cycling remains uncertain -- asymmetries have been observed in kinematics and kinetics, while symmetries were found in muscle activation. No studies have yet investigated the symmetry of muscle metabolism during cycling. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method to investigate the metabolic responses of specific muscles during cycling. PURPOSE: To determine whether there was an effect of leg dominance on thigh muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) during incrementally loaded submaximal cycling using NIRS. METHODS: Eight right leg dominant, untrained subjects (5 men, 3 women; 31+/-2 yrs; 168.6+/-1.0 cm; 67.2+/-1.8 kg, mean +/- SE) volunteered to participate. Spectra were collected bilaterally from the vastus lateralis (VL) during supine rest and cycling. SmO2 was calculated using previously published methods. Subjects pedaled at 65 rpm while resistance to pedaling was increased in 0.5 kp increments from 0.5 kp every 3 min until the subject reached 80% of age-predicted maximal heart rate. SmO2 was averaged over 3 min for each completed stage. A two-way ANOVA was performed to test for leg differences. A priori contrasts were used to compare work levels to rest. RESULTS: VL SmO2 was not different between the dominant and non-dominant legs at rest and during exercise (p=0.57). How SmO2 changed with workload was also not different between legs (p=0.32). SmO2 at 0.5 kp (60.3+/-4.0, p=0.12) and 1.0 kp (59.5+/-4.0, p=0.10) was not different from rest (69.1+/-4.0). SmO2 at 1.5 kp (55.4 4.0, p=0.02), 2.0 kp (55.7+/-5.0, p=0.04), and 2.5 kp (43.4+/-7.9, p=0.01) was significantly lower than rest. CONCLUSION: VL SmO2 during cycling is not different between dominant and non-dominant legs and decreases with moderate workload in untrained cyclists. Assuming blood flow is directed equally to both legs, similar levels of oxygen extraction (as indicated by SmO2) suggests the metabolic load of

  6. Reference-free spectroscopic determination of fat and protein in milk in the visible and near infrared region below 1000nm using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance fiber probe.

    PubMed

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Belikova, Valeria; Galyanin, Vladislav; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Meyer, Hans

    2017-05-15

    New technique of diffuse reflectance spectroscopic analysis of milk fat and total protein content in the visible (Vis) and adjacent near infrared (NIR) region (400-995nm) has been developed and tested. Sample analysis was performed through a probe having eight 200-µm fiber channels forming a linear array. One of the end fibers was used for the illumination and other seven - for the spectroscopic detection of diffusely reflected light. One of the detection channels was used as a reference to normalize the spectra and to convert them into absorbance-equivalent units. The method has been tested experimentally using a designed sample set prepared from industrial raw milk standards with widely varying fat and protein content. To increase the modelling robustness all milk samples were measured in three different homogenization degrees. Comprehensive data analysis has shown the advantage of combining both spectral and spatial resolution in the same measurement and revealed the most relevant channels and wavelength regions. The modelling accuracy was further improved using joint variable selection and preprocessing optimization method based on the genetic algorithm. The root mean-square errors of different validation methods were below 0.10% for fat and below 0.08% for total protein content. Based on the present experimental data, it was computationally shown that the full-spectrum analysis in this method can be replaced by a sensor measurement at several specific wavelengths, for instance, using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for illumination. Two optimal sensor configurations have been suggested: with nine LEDs for the analysis of fat and seven - for protein content. Both simulated sensors exhibit nearly the same component determination accuracy as corresponding full-spectrum analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopic study of selected magnesium carbonate minerals containing ferric iron-Implications for the geosequestration of greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; Reddy, B Jagannadha; Bahfenne, Silmarilly; Graham, Jessica

    2009-04-01

    The proposal to remove greenhouse gases by pumping liquefied CO(2) several kilometres below the ground implies that many carbonate containing minerals will be formed. Among these minerals brugnatellite and coalingite are probable. Two ferric ion bearing minerals brugnatellite and coalingite with a hydrotalcite-like structure have been characterised by a combination of infrared and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The infrared spectra of the OH stretching region are characterised by OH and water stretching vibrations. Both the first and second fundamental overtones of these bands are observed in the NIR spectra in the 7030-7235 cm(-1) and 10,490-10,570 cm(-1) regions. Intense (CO(3))(2-) symmetric and antisymmetric stretching vibrations support the concept that the carbonate ion is distorted. The position of the water bending vibration indicates the water is strongly hydrogen bonded in the mineral structure. Split NIR bands at around 8675 and 11,100 cm(-1) indicate that some replacement of magnesium ions by ferrous ions in the mineral structure has occurred. Near-infrared spectroscopy is ideal for the assessment of the formation of carbonate minerals.

  8. Near infrared spectroscopic examination of charred pine wood, bark, cellulose and lignin: Implications for the quantitative determination of charcoal in soils

    Reeves, J. B.; McCarty, G.W.; Rutherford, D.W.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of charring on near infrared spectra of materials likely to be present in forest fires in order to determine the feasibility of determining charred carbon in soils. Four materials (cellulose, lignin, pine bark and pine wood) and char from these materials created by charring for various durations (1 to 168 h) and at various temperatures (200 to 450??C) were studied. Near infrared spectra and measures of acidity (total acids, carboxylic acids, lactones and phenols as determined by titration) were available for 56 different samples (Not all samples charred at all temperatures/durations). Results showed spectral changes that varied with the material, temperature and duration of charring. Examination of spectra and correlation plots indicated that changes in the constituents of the materials in question, such as loss of OH groups in carbohydrates, rather than direct determination of typical products produced by charring, such as carboxylic acids, lactones and phenols, were the basis for the spectral changes. Finally, while the spectral changes resulting from charring appeared to be relatively unique to each material, PLS calibrations for total acids, carboxylic acids, lactones and phenols were successfully created (with R2 of 0.991, 0.943, 0.931 and 0.944, respectively) indicating that there is a sufficient commonality in the changes to develop calibrations without the need for unique calibrations for each specific set of charring conditions (i.e. material, temperature and time of heating). ?? IM Publications 2007.

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of oxygen delivery to free flaps on monkeys following vascular occlusions and inhalation of pure oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fenghua; Ding, Haishu; Cai, Zhigang; Wang, Guangzhi; Zhao, Fuyun

    2002-04-01

    In recent studies, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been considered as a potentially ideal noninvasive technique for the postoperative monitoring of plastic surgery. In this study, free flaps were raised on rhesus monkeys' forearms and oxygen delivery to these flaps was monitored following vascular occlusions and inhalation of pure oxygen. Optical fibers were adopted in the probe of the oximeter so that the detection could be performed in reflectance mode. The distance between emitter and detector can be adjusted easily to achieve the best efficacy. Different and repeatable patterns of changes were measured following vascular occlusions (arterial occlusion, venous occlusion and total occlusion) on flaps. It is clear that the near-infrared spectroscopy is capable of postoperatively monitoring vascular problems in flaps. NIRS showed high sensitivity to detect the dynamic changes in flaps induced by inhalation of pure oxygen in this study. The experimental results indicated that it was potential to assess tissue viability utilizing the dynamic changes induced by a noninvasive stimulation. It may be a new assessing method that is rapid, little influenced by other factors and brings less discomfort to patients.

  10. Near-infrared-spectroscopic study on processing of sounds in the brain; a comparison between native and non-native speakers of Japanese.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Koichi; Sekimoto, Sotaro; Itoh, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions The result suggested that mother tongue Japanese and non- mother tongue Japanese differ in their pattern of brain dominance when listening to sounds from the natural world-in particular, insect sounds. These results reveal significant support for previous findings from Tsunoda (in 1970). Objectives This study concentrates on listeners who show clear evidence of a 'speech' brain vs a 'music' brain and determines which side is most active in the processing of insect sounds, using with near-infrared spectroscopy. Methods The present study uses 2-channel Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to provide a more direct measure of left- and right-brain activity while participants listen to each of three types of sounds: Japanese speech, Western violin music, or insect sounds. Data were obtained from 33 participants who showed laterality on opposite sides for Japanese speech and Western music. Results Results showed that a majority (80%) of the MJ participants exhibited dominance for insect sounds on the side that was dominant for language, while a majority (62%) of the non-MJ participants exhibited dominance for insect sounds on the side that was dominant for music.

  11. Near-infrared spectroscopic studies of the hydrogen bonding between thioacetamide and N, N-disubstituted benzamide derivatives in CCl 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young Sang; Kim, Jeongkwon; Park, Jeunghee; Yu, Jeong-A.; Yoon, Chang-Ju

    1996-11-01

    The hydrogen bonding interactions between thioacetamide (TA) and several N, N-disubstituted benzamides ( N, N-dimethylbenzamide (DMBA), N-methoxy- N-methylbenzamide (MMBA), N, N-diethyl- m-toluamide (DEMT), and N, N-diethyl-2,5-difluorobenzamide (DEDF)) have been studied using near-infrared absorption spectroscopy. Thermodynamic parameters for the interactions between TA and benzamides were determined by analyzing the νN-Has + amide II combination band of TA. The - ΔH0 values, indicating the intrinsic strength of hydrogen bonding, are -17.4, -21.6, -21.9 and -20.8 kJ mol -1 for DMBA, MMBA, DEMT and DEDF, respectively. The results show that the inductive and resonance effects of substituents appear to influence the formation of hydrogen bonds.

  12. A near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic method for the direct analysis of several fodder-related chemical components in drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; Li, Shuqi; Lin, Mengfei; Yang, Endian; Chen, Xiaoyang

    2018-05-01

    The drumstick tree has traditionally been used as foodstuff and fodder in several countries. Due to its high nutritional value and good biomass production, interest in this plant has increased in recent years. It has therefore become important to rapidly and accurately evaluate drumstick quality. In this study, we addressed the optimization of Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to analyze crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, iron (Fe), and potassium (K) in a variety of drumstick accessions (N = 111) representing different populations, cultivation programs, and climates. Partial least-squares regression with internal cross-validation was used to evaluate the models and identify possible spectral outliers. The calibration statistics for these fodder-related chemical components suggest that NIRS can predict these parameters in a wide range of drumstick types with high accuracy. The NIRS calibration models developed in this study will be useful in predicting drumstick forage quality for these five quality parameters.

  13. Association of low non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopic measurements during initial trauma resuscitation with future development of multiple organ dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nicks, Bret A; Campons, Kevin M; Bozeman, William P

    2015-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) non-invasively monitors muscle tissue oxygen saturation (StO2). It may provide a continuous noninvasive measurement to identify occult hypoperfusion, guide resuscitation, and predict the development of multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) after severe trauma. We evaluated the correlation between initial StO2 and the development of MOD in multi-trauma patients. Patients presenting to our urban, academic, Level I Trauma Center/Emergency Department and meeting standardized trauma-team activation criteria were enrolled in this prospective trial. NIRS monitoring was initiated immediately on arrival with collection of StO2 at the thenar eminence and continued up to 24 hours for those admitted to the Trauma Intensive Care Unit (TICU). Standardized resuscitation laboratory measures and clinical evaluation tools were collected. The primary outcome was the association between initial StO2 and the development of MOD within the first 24 hours based on a MOD score of 6 or greater. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed; numeric means, multivariate regression and rank sum comparisons were utilized. Clinicians were blinded from the StO2 values. Over a 14 month period, 78 patients were enrolled. Mean age was 40.9 years (SD 18.2), 84.4% were male, 76.9% had a blunt trauma mechanism and mean injury severity score (ISS) was 18.5 (SD 12.9). Of the 78 patients, 26 (33.3%) developed MOD within the first 24 hours. The MOD patients had mean initial StO2 values of 53.3 (SD 10.3), significantly lower than those of non-MOD patients 61.1 (SD 10.0); P=0.002. The mean ISS among MOD patients was 29.9 (SD 11.5), significantly higher than that of non-MODS patients, 12.1 (SD 9.1) (P<0.0001). The mean shock index (SI) among MOD patients was 0.92 (SD 0.28), also significantly higher than that of non-MODS patients, 0.73 (SD 0.19) (P=0.0007). Lactate values were not significantly different between groups. Non-invasive, continuous StO2 near-infrared spectroscopy

  14. Waves of the Future (for Mars): In-Situ Mid-infrared, Near-infrared, and Visible Spectroscopic Analysis of Antarctic Cryptoendolithic Communities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, K. P.; Calrson, R.; Sun, H.; Anderson, M.; Wynn, W.; Levy, R.

    2005-12-01

    We have analyzed both the surface expression and depth profile of cryptoendolithic microbial communities at Battleship Promontory, in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Data was collected on site with an active mid-infrared Fourier transform microspectrometer (2.6 - 15 um), a near-infrared spectrometer (0.9-1.8 um), and a visible spectrometer (0.4-1 um). The trio of instruments are connected to microscopes that yield ~1 mm2 spatial resolution on the sample and they are mounted on two perpendicular motorized stages that allow for spatial scanning over an area of ~2cm2. Here we present results on the surface expression of the subsurface microbes in these three spectral regions and we present results on the analysis of a colonized sample examined in cross section. The former case has direct application to the remote, robotic detection of life within the rocks of Mars and the later case provides fundamental insights into the geological and biological interactions that make the Antarctic cryptoendolithic ecosystems possible. Non-invasive surface detection of cyanobacterial dominated communities was possible through the observation of several distinct bands: the carbon-hydrogen stretching modes (symmetric and asymmetric) for CH, CH2, and CH3 in the regions of 3.3-3.6 um and 3.6-3.7 um; the NH2 scissoring and C=O stretch near 6.0 um; the amide I of beta-pleated structures at ~6.1 um; and the 6.4 um - 6.6 um bands of N-H in plane bend of the amide II functional group. In combination, these bands make a strong case for carbohydrates and proteins associated with life. Not surprisingly, as the integrity of the amorphous silica surface varnish improved, our ability to detected the subsurface biosignature decreased. We note, however, that by utilizing the JPL rock crusher in Antarctica, a device designed to fly on the Mars Science Laboratory mission, the mid-infrared biosignature was easily detected. In the cross-section analysis the mid-infrared data provide a depth profile

  15. Development of a near-infrared spectroscopic system for monitoring urine glucose level for the use of long-term home healthcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shinobu; Hayakawa, Yuuto; Ogawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2010-08-01

    We have been developing a new technique for measuring urine glucose concentration using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in conjunction with the Partial Least Square (PLS) method. In the previous study, we reported some results of preliminary experiments for assessing feasibility of this method using a FT-IR spectrometer. In this study, considering practicability of the system, a flow-through cell with the optical path length of 10 mm was newly introduced. Accuracy of the system was verified by the preliminary experiments using urine samples. From the results obtained, it was clearly demonstrated that the present method had a capability of predicting individual urine glucose level with reasonable accuracy (the minimum value of standard error of prediction: SEP = 22.3 mg/dl) and appeared to be a useful means for long-term home health care. However, mean value of SEP obtained by the urine samples from ten subjects was not satisfactorily low (53.7 mg/dl). For improving the accuracy, (1) mechanical stability of the optical system should be improved, (2) the method for normalizing the spectrum should be reconsidered, and (3) the number of subject should be increased.

  16. Frontal cortical oxygenation changes during gravity-induced loss of consciousness in humans: a near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Koichi; Kikukawa, Azusa; Kobayashi, Asao; Nakadate, Toshio

    2007-10-01

    Gravity (G)-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC), which is presumably caused by a reduction of cerebral blood flow resulting in a decreased oxygen supply to the brain, is a major threat to pilots of high-performance fighter aircraft. The application of cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to monitor gravity-induced cerebral oxygenation debt has generated concern over potential sources of extracranial contamination. The recently developed NIR spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS-NIRS) has been confirmed to provide frontal cortical tissue hemoglobin saturation [tissue oxygenation index (TOI)]. In this study, we monitored the TOI and the standard NIRS measured chromophore concentration changes of oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin in 141 healthy male pilots during various levels of +G(z) (head-to-foot inertial forces) exposure to identify the differences between subjects who lose consciousness and those who do not during high +G(z) exposure. Subjects were exposed to seven centrifuge profiles, with +G(z) levels from 4 to 8 G(z) and an onset rate from 0.1 to 6.0 G(z)/s. The SRS-NIRS revealed an approximately 15% decrease in the TOI in G-LOC. The present study also demonstrated the TOI to be a useful variable to evaluate the effect of the anti-G protection system. However, there was no significant difference found between conditions with and without G-LOC in subjects with terminated G exposure. Further studies that elucidate the mechanism(s) behind the wide variety of individual differences may be needed for a method of G-LOC prediction to be effectively realized.

  17. Near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of the breaking force of extended-release matrix tablets prepared by roller-compaction: influence of plasticizer levels and sintering temperature.

    PubMed

    Dave, Vivek S; Fahmy, Raafat M; Hoag, Stephen W

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the determination of the influence of sintering temperature and plasticizer levels on the breaking force of extended-release matrix tablets prepared via roller-compaction. Six formulations using theophylline as a model drug, Eudragit® RL PO or Eudragit® RS PO as a matrix former and three levels of TEC (triethyl citrate) as a plasticizer were prepared. The powder blend was roller compacted using a fixed roll-gap of 1.5 mm, feed screw speed to roller speed ratio of 5:1 and roll pressure of 4 MPa. The granules, after removing fines, were compacted into tablets on a Stokes B2 rotary tablet press at a compression force of 7 kN. The tablets were thermally treated at different temperatures (Room Temperature, 50, 75 and 100 °C) for 5 h. These tablets were scanned in reflectance mode in the wavelength range of 400-2500 nm and were evaluated for breaking force. Tablet breaking force significantly increased with increasing plasticizer levels and with increases in the sintering temperature. An increase in tablet hardness produced an upward shift (increase in absorbance) in the NIR spectra. The principle component analysis (PCA) of the spectra was able to distinguish samples with different plasticizer levels and sintering temperatures. In addition, a 9-factor partial least squares (PLS) regression model for tablets containing Eudragit® RL PO had an r(2) of 0.9797, a standard error of calibration of 0.6255 and a standard error of cross validation (SECV) of 0.7594. Similar analysis of tablets containing Eudragit® RS PO showed an r(2) of 0.9831, a standard error of calibration of 0.9711 and an SECV of 1.192.

  18. Novel, near-infrared spectroscopic, label-free, techniques to assess bone abnormalities such as Paget's disease, osteoporosis and bone fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Diana C.; Sordillo, Laura A.; Shi, Lingyan; Budansky, Yury; Sordillo, Peter P.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-02-01

    Near- infrared (NIR) light with wavelengths from 650 nm to 950 nm (known as the first NIR window) has conventionally been used as a non-invasive technique that can reach deeper penetration depths through media than light at shorter wavelengths. Recently, several novel, NIR, label-free, techniques have been developed to assess Paget's disease of bone, osteoporosis and bone microfractures. We designed a Bone Optical Analyzer (BOA) which utilizes the first window to measure changes of Hb and HbO2. Paget's disease is marked by an increase in vascularization in bones, and this device can enable easy diagnosis and more frequent monitoring of the patient's condition, without exposing him to a high cumulative dose of radiation. We have also used inverse imaging algorithms to reconstruct 2D and 3D maps of the bone's structure. This device could be used to assess diseases such as osteoporosis. Using 800 nm femtosecond excitation with two-photon (2P) microscopy, we acquired 2PM images of the periosteum and spatial frequency spectra (based on emission of collagen) from the periosteal regions. This technique can provide information on the structure of the periosteum and can detect abnormalities which may be an indication of disease. Most recently, we showed that longer NIR wavelengths in the second and third NIR windows (1100 nm-1350 nm, 1600 nm-1870 nm), could be used to image bone microfractures. Use of NIR light could allow for repeated studies in patients with diseases such as Paget's and osteoporosis quickly and non-invasively, and could impact the current management for these diseases.

  19. Improvement of near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of caffeine in roasted Arabica coffee by variable selection method of stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Li, Wei; Yin, Bin; Chen, Weizhong; Kelly, Declan P; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zheng, Kaiyi; Du, Yiping

    2013-10-01

    Coffee is the most heavily consumed beverage in the world after water, for which quality is a key consideration in commercial trade. Therefore, caffeine content which has a significant effect on the final quality of the coffee products requires to be determined fast and reliably by new analytical techniques. The main purpose of this work was to establish a powerful and practical analytical method based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometrics for quantitative determination of caffeine content in roasted Arabica coffees. Ground coffee samples within a wide range of roasted levels were analyzed by NIR, meanwhile, in which the caffeine contents were quantitative determined by the most commonly used HPLC-UV method as the reference values. Then calibration models based on chemometric analyses of the NIR spectral data and reference concentrations of coffee samples were developed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to construct the models. Furthermore, diverse spectra pretreatment and variable selection techniques were applied in order to obtain robust and reliable reduced-spectrum regression models. Comparing the respective quality of the different models constructed, the application of second derivative pretreatment and stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS) variable selection provided a notably improved regression model, with root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.375 mg/g and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.918 at PLS factor of 7. An independent test set was used to assess the model, with the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.378 mg/g, mean relative error of 1.976% and mean relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.707%. Thus, the results provided by the high-quality calibration model revealed the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy for at-line application to predict the caffeine content of unknown roasted coffee samples, thanks to the short analysis time of a few seconds and non

  20. Improvement of near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of caffeine in roasted Arabica coffee by variable selection method of stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan; Li, Wei; Yin, Bin; Chen, Weizhong; Kelly, Declan P.; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zheng, Kaiyi; Du, Yiping

    2013-10-01

    Coffee is the most heavily consumed beverage in the world after water, for which quality is a key consideration in commercial trade. Therefore, caffeine content which has a significant effect on the final quality of the coffee products requires to be determined fast and reliably by new analytical techniques. The main purpose of this work was to establish a powerful and practical analytical method based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometrics for quantitative determination of caffeine content in roasted Arabica coffees. Ground coffee samples within a wide range of roasted levels were analyzed by NIR, meanwhile, in which the caffeine contents were quantitative determined by the most commonly used HPLC-UV method as the reference values. Then calibration models based on chemometric analyses of the NIR spectral data and reference concentrations of coffee samples were developed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to construct the models. Furthermore, diverse spectra pretreatment and variable selection techniques were applied in order to obtain robust and reliable reduced-spectrum regression models. Comparing the respective quality of the different models constructed, the application of second derivative pretreatment and stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS) variable selection provided a notably improved regression model, with root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.375 mg/g and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.918 at PLS factor of 7. An independent test set was used to assess the model, with the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.378 mg/g, mean relative error of 1.976% and mean relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.707%. Thus, the results provided by the high-quality calibration model revealed the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy for at-line application to predict the caffeine content of unknown roasted coffee samples, thanks to the short analysis time of a few seconds and non

  1. Building global models for fat and total protein content in raw milk based on historical spectroscopic data in the visible and short-wave near infrared range.

    PubMed

    Melenteva, Anastasiia; Galyanin, Vladislav; Savenkova, Elena; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2016-07-15

    A large set of fresh cow milk samples collected from many suppliers over a large geographical area in Russia during a year has been analyzed by optical spectroscopy in the range 400-1100 nm in accordance with previously developed scatter-based technique. The global (i.e. resistant to seasonal, genetic, regional and other variations of the milk composition) models for fat and total protein content, which were built using partial least-squares (PLS) regression, exhibit satisfactory prediction performances enabling their practical application in the dairy. The root mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.09 and 0.10 for fat and total protein content, respectively. The issues of raw milk analysis and multivariate modelling based on the historical spectroscopic data have been considered and approaches to the creation of global models and their transfer between the instruments have been proposed. Availability of global models should significantly facilitate the dissemination of optical spectroscopic methods for the laboratory and in-line quantitative milk analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. SOAR Optical and Near-infrared Spectroscopic Survey of Newly Discovered Massive Stars in the Periphery of Galactic Massive Star Clusters I-NGC 3603

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman-Lopes, A.; Franco, G. A. P.; Sanmartim, D.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present the results of a spectroscopic study of very massive stars (VMSs) found outside the center of the massive stellar cluster NGC 3603. From the analysis of the associated Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope spectroscopic data and related optical-near-IR (NIR) photometry, we confirm the existence of several VMSs in the periphery of NGC 3603. The first group of objects (MTT58, WR42e, and RF7) is composed of three new Galactic exemplars of the OIf*/WN type, all of them with probable initial masses well above 100 {M}⊙ and estimated ages of about 1 Myr. Based on our Goodman blue-optical spectrum of another source in our sample (MTT68), we can confirm the previous finding in the NIR of the only other Galactic exemplar (besides HD 93129A) of the O2If* type known to date. Based on its position relative to a set of theoretical isochrones in a Hertzprung-Russel (H-R) diagram, we concluded that the new O2If* star could be one of the most massive (150 {M}⊙ ) and luminous (M V = -7.3) O-stars in the Galaxy. Also, another remarkable result is the discovery of a new O2v star (MTT31), which is the first exemplar of that class so far identified in the Milk Way. From its position in the H-R diagram it is found that this new star probably had an initial mass of 80 {M}⊙ , as well as an absolute magnitude of M V = -6.0, corresponding to a luminosity similar to other known O2v stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Finally, we also communicate the discovery of a new Galactic O3.5If* star (RFS8) that is quite an intriguing case. Indeed, it is located far to the south of the NGC 3603 center, in apparent isolation at a large radial projected linear distance of ˜62 pc. Its derived luminosity is similar to that of the other O3.5If* (Sh18) found in NGC 3603's innermost region, and the fact that a such high mass star is observed so isolated in the field led us to speculate that perhaps it could have been expelled from the innermost parts of the complex

  3. Near infrared leaf reflectance modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Near infrared leaf reflectance modeling using Fresnel's equation (Kumar and Silva, 1973) and Snell's Law successfully approximated the spectral curve for a 0.25-mm turgid oak leaf lying on a Halon background. Calculations were made for ten interfaces, air-wax, wax-cellulose, cellulose-water, cellulose-air, air-water, and their inverses. A water path of 0.5 mm yielded acceptable results, and it was found that assignment of more weight to those interfaces involving air versus water or cellulose, and less to those involving wax, decreased the standard deviation of the error for all wavelengths. Data suggest that the air-cell interface is not the only important contributor to the overall reflectance of a leaf. Results also argue against the assertion that the near infrared plateau is a function of cell structure within the leaf.

  4. Near infrared detection of ammonium minerals.

    Krohn, M.D.; Altaner, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Diagnostic near-infrared spectral features have been identified for minerals with ammonium (NH4+) bound in the crystal structure. Near-infrared detection of NH4-bearing minerals may provide useful information for prospecting for certain ore deposits and may provide a better understanding of the nitrogen cycle within geologic environments.-from Authors

  5. Choice and validation of a near infrared spectroscopic application for the identity control of starting materials. practical experience with the EU draft Note for Guidance on the use of near infrared spectroscopy by the pharmaceutical industry and the data to be forwarded in part II of the dossier for a marketing authorization.

    PubMed

    Vredenbregt, M J; Caspers, P W J; Hoogerbrugge, R; Barends, D M

    2003-11-01

    Recently the CPMP/CVMP sent out for consultation the draft Note for Guidance (dNfG) on the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) by the pharmaceutical industry and the data to be forwarded in part II of the dossier for a marketing authorization. We explored the practicability of this dNfG with respect to the verification of the correct identity of starting materials in a generic tablet-manufacturing site. Within the boundaries of the dNfG, a release procedure was developed for 12 substances containing structurally related compounds and substances differing only in particle size. For the method development literature data were also taken into consideration. Good results were obtained with wavelength correlation (WC), applied on raw spectra or second derivative spectra both without smoothing. The defined threshold of 0.98 for raw spectra differentiated between all molecular structures. Both methods were found to be robust over a period of 1 year. For the differentiation between the different particle sizes a subsequent second chemometric technique had to be used. Soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) with a probability level of 0.01 proved suitable. Internal and external validation I according to the dNfG showed no incorrect rejections or false acceptances. External validation II according to the dNfG was carried out with 95 potentially interfering substances from which 46 were tested experimentally. Macrogol 400 was not distinguished from macrogol 300. For the complete verification of the identity of macrogol 300 test A of the European Pharmacopoeia is needed in addition to the NIRS application. A release procedure developed with WC applied on raw spectra and SIMCA as a second method, which is different from the preferred method of the dNfG, was tested in practice with good results. We conclude that the dNfG has good practicability and that deviations from the preferred methods of the dNfG can also give good differentiation.

  6. Near infrared lasers in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Telford, William G

    2015-07-01

    Technology development in flow cytometry has closely tracked laser technology, the light source that flow cytometers almost exclusively use to excite fluorescent probes. The original flow cytometers from the 1970s and 1980s used large water-cooled lasers to produce only one or two laser lines at a time. Modern cytometers can take advantage of the revolution in solid state laser technology to use almost any laser wavelength ranging from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. Commercial cytometers can now be equipped with many small solid state lasers, providing almost any wavelength needed for cellular analysis. Flow cytometers are now equipped to analyze 20 or more fluorescent probes simultaneously, requiring multiple laser wavelengths. Instrument developers are now trying to increase this number by designing fluorescent probes that can be excited by laser wavelength at the "edges" of the visible light range, in the near ultraviolet and near-infrared region. A variety of fluorescent probes have been developed that excite with violet and long wavelength ultraviolet light; however, the near-infrared range (660-800 nm) has yet seen only exploitation in flow cytometry. Fortunately, near-infrared laser diodes and other solid state laser technologies appropriate for flow cytometry have been in existence for some time, and can be readily incorporated into flow cytometers to accelerate fluorescent probe development. The near infrared region represents one of the last "frontiers" to maximize the number of fluorescent probes that can be analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, near infrared fluorescent probes used in biomedical tracking and imaging could also be employed for flow cytometry with the correct laser wavelengths. This review describes the available technology, including lasers, fluorescent probes and detector technology optimal for near infrared signal detection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Near-infrared spectroscopic study and the Wada test for presurgical evaluation of expressive and receptive language functions in glioma patients: with a case report of dissociated language functions.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yosuke; Uzuka, Takeo; Aoki, Hiroshi; Natsumeda, Manabu; Oishi, Makoto; Fukuda, Masafumi; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2012-02-29

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has proven to be useful for the evaluation of language lateralization in healthy subjects, infants, and epileptic patients. This study for the first time investigated the expressive and receptive language functions separately, using NIRS in presurgical glioma patients. We also describe a special case with dissociated pattern of language functions. Ten glioma patients were examined. Using NIRS, the hemodynamic changes during a verb generation task or story listening task were measured in the cerebral hemisphere on either side covering the language areas. Following the NIRS study, the Wada test was performed in all the patients. The NIRS study revealed increases of oxyhemoglobin and decreases of deoxyhemoglobin in the language areas elicited by both tasks. In 9 patients, who were all right-handed, the expressive and receptive language functions were lateralized to the left hemisphere. The results of the NIRS study were completely consistent with those of the Wada test. In the remaining 1 patient with a right sided insular glioma, who was right-handed, the NIRS study revealed stronger activation of the right inferior frontal region during the verb generation task, and stronger activation of the left superior temporal region during the story listening task. This dissociated language function was validated by the Wada test and the postoperative neurological course. These results demonstrate that a NIRS study using our technique is extremely valuable for preoperative assessment of the language functions and exemplifies how a preoperative NIRS study can allow detection of unforeseen language lateralization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Built-in hyperspectral camera for smartphone in visible, near-infrared and middle-infrared lights region (second report): sensitivity improvement of Fourier-spectroscopic imaging to detect diffuse reflection lights from internal human tissues for healthcare sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Natsumi; Hosono, Satsuki; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    We proposed the snapshot-type Fourier spectroscopic imaging for smartphone that was mentioned in 1st. report in this conference. For spectroscopic components analysis, such as non-invasive blood glucose sensors, the diffuse reflection lights from internal human skins are very weak for conventional hyperspectral cameras, such as AOTF (Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter) type. Furthermore, it is well known that the spectral absorption of mid-infrared lights or Raman spectroscopy especially in long wavelength region is effective to distinguish specific biomedical components quantitatively, such as glucose concentration. But the main issue was that photon energies of middle infrared lights and light intensities of Raman scattering are extremely weak. For improving sensitivity of our spectroscopic imager, the wide-field-stop & beam-expansion method was proposed. Our line spectroscopic imager introduced a single slit for field stop on the conjugate objective plane. Obviously to increase detected light intensities, the wider slit width of the field stop makes light intensities higher, regardless of deterioration of spatial resolutions. Because our method is based on wavefront-division interferometry, it becomes problems that the wider width of single slit makes the diffraction angle narrower. This means that the narrower diameter of collimated objective beams deteriorates visibilities of interferograms. By installing the relative inclined phaseshifter onto optical Fourier transform plane of infinity corrected optical systems, the collimated half flux of objective beams derived from single-bright points on objective surface penetrate through the wedge prism and the cuboid glass respectively. These two beams interfere each other and form the infererogram as spatial fringe patterns. Thus, we installed concave-cylindrical lens between the wider slit and objective lens as a beam expander. We successfully obtained the spectroscopic characters of hemoglobin from reflected lights from

  9. Built-in hyperspectral camera for smartphone in visible, near-infrared and middle-infrared lights region (third report): spectroscopic imaging for broad-area and real-time componential analysis system against local unexpected terrorism and disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Satsuki; Kawashima, Natsumi; Wollherr, Dirk; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    The distributed networks for information collection of chemical components with high-mobility objects, such as drones or smartphones, will work effectively for investigations, clarifications and predictions against unexpected local terrorisms and disasters like localized torrential downpours. We proposed and reported the proposed spectroscopic line-imager for smartphones in this conference. In this paper, we will mention the wide-area spectroscopic-image construction by estimating 6 DOF (Degrees Of Freedom: parallel movements=x,y,z and rotational movements=θx, θy, θz) from line data to observe and analyze surrounding chemical-environments. Recently, smartphone movies, what were photographed by peoples happened to be there, had worked effectively to analyze what kinds of phenomenon had happened around there. But when a gas tank suddenly blew up, we did not recognize from visible-light RGB-color cameras what kinds of chemical gas components were polluting surrounding atmospheres. Conventionally Fourier spectroscopy had been well known as chemical components analysis in laboratory usages. But volatile gases should be analyzed promptly at accident sites. And because the humidity absorption in near and middle infrared lights has very high sensitivity, we will be able to detect humidity in the sky from wide field spectroscopic image. And also recently, 6-DOF sensors are easily utilized for estimation of position and attitude for UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicle) or smartphone. But for observing long-distance views, accuracies of angle measurements were not sufficient to merge line data because of leverage theory. Thus, by searching corresponding pixels between line spectroscopic images, we are trying to estimate 6-DOF in high accuracy.

  10. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Henan and Watsonia Family Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bus, S. J.; Binzel, R. P.; Sunshine, J.; Burbine, T. H.; McCoy, T. J.

    2002-09-01

    We present visible and near-infrared spectra for members of both the Henan and Watsonia asteroid families. These two families are known to contain asteroids belonging to the taxonomic L class based on visible wavelength spectroscopy obtained during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASSII, Bus and Binzel 2002, Icarus in press). The L-type asteroids have visible-wavelength spectra similar to those of K-types but with steeper spectral slopes shortward of 0.75 micron, becoming relatively flat longward of 0.75 micron and showing little or no concave curvature related to a 1 micron silicon absorption band. Our current study of the Henan and Watsonia families uses data obtained with SpeX, a medium-resolution near-infrared spectrograph available at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea. When combined with the SMASSII results, we find the near-infrared spectra of these asteroids contains very weak 1 micron bands but have moderately deep 2 micron bands. A possible interpretation of this anomalous spectral signature is the presence of spinel, suggested by Burbine et al. (1992, Meteoritics 27, 424) for the asteroids 387 Aquitania and 980 Anacostia, both likely members of the Watsonia family (Bus 1999, Ph.D. thesis). The work of Burbine et al. made use of combined ECAS and 52-color measurements covering the visible and near-IR wavelengths out to 2.5 microns. We can now use the high signal-to-noise data obtained with SpeX to more fully explore the mineralogy of the taxonomic L class and to search for evidence of mineralogical variations among the Henan and Watsonia asteroid family members.

  11. ARNICA, the Arcetri Near-Infrared Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisi, F.; Baffa, C.; Bilotti, V.; Bonaccini, D.; del Vecchio, C.; Gennari, S.; Hunt, L. K.; Marcucci, G.; Stanga, R.

    1996-04-01

    ARNICA (ARcetri Near-Infrared CAmera) is the imaging camera for the near-infrared bands between 1.0 and 2.5 microns that the Arcetri Observatory has designed and built for the Infrared Telescope TIRGO located at Gornergrat, Switzerland. We describe the mechanical and optical design of the camera, and report on the astronomical performance of ARNICA as measured during the commissioning runs at the TIRGO (December, 1992 to December 1993), and an observing run at the William Herschel Telescope, Canary Islands (December, 1993). System performance is defined in terms of efficiency of the camera+telescope system and camera sensitivity for extended and point-like sources. (SECTION: Astronomical Instrumentation)

  12. Near-infrared spectral methods for noninvasively measuring blood glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Sun; Kong, Deyi; Mei, Tao; Tao, Yongchun

    2004-05-01

    Determination of blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients is a frequently occurring procedure and an important tool for diabetes management. Use of noninvasive detection techniques can relieve patients from the pain of frequent finger pokes and avoid the infection of disease via blood. This thesis discusses current research and analyzes the advantages and shortages of different measurement methods, including: optical methods (Transmission, Polarimetry and scattering), then, we give emphasis to analyze the technology of near-infrared (NIR) spectra. NIR spectral range 700 nm ~2300 nm was used because of its good transparency for biological tissue and presence of glucose absorption band. In this work, we present an outline of noninvasive blood glucose measurement. A near-infrared light beam is passed through the finger, and the spectral components of the emergent beam are measured using spectroscopic techniques. The device includes light sources having the wavelengths of 600 nm - 1800 nm to illuminate the tissue. Receptors associated with the light sources for receiving light and generating a transmission signal representing the light transmitted are also provided. Once a transmission signal is received by receptors, and the high and low values from each of the signals are stored in the device. The averaged values are then analyzed to determine the glucose concentration, which is displayed on the device.

  13. Influence of earlobe thickness on near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingying; Wang, Tianpei; Li, Si; Li, Lin; Liu, Jiajia; Xu, Kexin

    2017-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy has been recognized as a potential technology for noninvasive blood glucose sensing. However, the detected spectral signal is unstable mainly because of (1) the weak light absorption of glucose itself within NIR range, (2) the influence of temperature and individual differences of biotissue. Our previous results demonstrated that the synergistic effect of both transmittance and reflectance could enhance the strength of the detection signal. In this talk, we design a set of experiments to analyze the effect of earlobe thickness on Near Infrared spectroscopic measurement by using home-made optical fiber probe within the wavelength of 1000-1600nm. Firstly, we made a MC simulation of single-layer skin model and five-layer skin model to get the diffused transmittance spectra and diffused reflectance spectra under different optaical path lengths. And then we obtain the spectra of the earlobes from different volunteers by the same way. The experimental results showed that with the increase of the thickness,the light intensity of diffused transmittance decreases, and the light intensity of diffused reflectance remaines substantially unchanged.

  14. [Near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp].

    PubMed

    Ide, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    The practical electric light bulb was invented by Thomas Alva Edison in 1879. Halogen lamp is the toughest and brightest electric light bulb. With light filter, it is used as a source of near infrared light. Super Lizer and Alphabeam are made as near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp. The light emmited by Super Lizer is linear polarized near infrared light. The wave length is from 600 to 1,600 nm and strongest at about 1,000 nm. Concerning Super Lizer, there is evidence of analgesic effects and normalization of the sympathetic nervous system. Super Lizer has four types of probes. SG type is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. B type is used for narrow area irradiation. C and D types are for broad area irradiation. The output of Alphabeam is not polarized. The wave length is from 700 to 1,600 nm and the strongest length is about 1,000nm. Standard attachment is used for spot irradiation. Small attachment is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. Wide attachment is used for broad area irradiation. The effects of Alphabeam are thought to be similar to that of Super Lizer.

  15. Study of surfaces using near infrared optical fiber spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.; Arendale, W. A.; Hughes, C.

    1995-01-01

    The measurement and control of cleanliness for critical surfaces during manufacturing and in service provides a unique challenge for fulfillment of environmentally benign operations. Of particular interest has been work performed in maintaining quality in the production of bondline surfaces in propulsion systems and the identification of possible contaminants. This work requires an in-depth study of the possible sources of contamination, methodologies to identify contaminants, discrimination between contaminants and chemical species caused by environment, and the effect of particular contaminants on the bondline integrity of the critical surfaces. This presentation will provide an introduction to the use of optical fiber spectrometry in a nondestructive measurement system for process monitoring and how it can be used to help clarify issues concerning surface chemistry. Correlation of the Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopic results with Optical Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE) and ellipsometry will also be presented.

  16. Near-infrared scintillation of liquid argon

    SciT

    Alexander, T.; Escobar, C. O.; Lippincott, W. H.

    2016-03-03

    Since the 1970s it has been known that noble gases scintillate in the near infrared (NIR) region of the spectrum (0.7more » $$\\mu$$m < $$\\lambda$$; < 1.5$$\\mu$$m). More controversial has been the question of the NIR light yield for condensed noble gases. We first present the motivation for using the NIR scintillation in liquid argon detectors, then briefly review early as well as more recent efforts and finally show encouraging preliminary results of a test performed at Fermilab.« less

  17. Comment on "A spectroscopic comparison of selected Chinese kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite--a mid-infrared and near-infrared study" and "Infrared and infrared emission spectroscopic study of typical Chinese kaolinite and halloysite" by Hongfei Cheng et al. (2010).

    PubMed

    Kloprogge, J Theo

    2015-02-05

    In two papers Cheng et al. (2010) reported in this journal on the mid-infrared, near-infrared and infrared emission spectroscopy of a halloysite from Hunan Xianrenwan, China. This halloysite contains around 8% of quartz (SiO2) and nearly 9% gibbsite (Al(OH)3). In their interpretation of the spectra these impurities were completely ignored. Careful comparison with a phase pure halloysite from Southern Belgium, synthetic gibbsite, gibbsite from Minas Gerais, and quartz show that these impurities do have a marked influence on the mid-infrared and infrared emission spectra. In the near-infrared, the effect is much less pronounced. Quartz does not show bands in this region and the gibbsite bands will be very weak. Comparison still show that the presence of gibbsite does contribute to the overall spectrum and bands that were ascribed to the halloysite alone do coincide with those of gibbsite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multilayer Black Phosphorus Near-Infrared Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chaojian; Yang, Lijun; Li, Bo; Zhang, Qihan; Li, Yuefeng; Yue, Qiuyang; Wang, Yang; Yang, Zhan; Dong, Lixin

    2018-05-23

    Black phosphorus (BP), owing to its distinguished properties, has become one of the most competitive candidates for photodetectors. However, there has been little attention paid on photo-response performance of multilayer BP nanoflakes with large layer thickness. In fact, multilayer BP nanoflakes with large layer thickness have greater potential from the fabrication viewpoint as well as due to the physical properties than single or few layer ones. In this report, the thickness-dependence of the intrinsic property of BP photodetectors in the dark was initially investigated. Then the photo-response performance (including responsivity, photo-gain, photo-switching time, noise equivalent power, and specific detectivity) of BP photodetectors with relative thicker thickness was explored under a near-infrared laser beam ( λ IR = 830 nm). Our experimental results reveal the impact of BP's thickness on the current intensity of the channel and show degenerated p-type BP is beneficial for larger current intensity. More importantly, the photo-response of our thicker BP photodetectors exhibited a larger responsivity up to 2.42 A/W than the few-layer ones and a fast response photo-switching speed (response time is ~2.5 ms) comparable to thinner BP nanoflakes was obtained, indicating BP nanoflakes with larger layer thickness are also promising for application for ultra-fast and ultra-high near-infrared photodetectors.

  19. Jupiter in blue, ultraviolet and near infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These three images of Jupiter, taken through the narrow angle camera of NASA's Cassini spacecraft from a distance of 77.6 million kilometers (48.2 million miles) on October 8, reveal more than is apparent to the naked eye through a telescope.

    The image on the left was taken through the blue filter. The one in the middle was taken in the ultraviolet. The one on the right was taken in the near infrared.

    The blue-light filter is within the part of the electromagnetic spectrum detectable by the human eye. The appearance of Jupiter in this image is, consequently, very familiar. The Great Red Spot (below and to the right of center) and the planet's well-known banded cloud lanes are obvious. The brighter bands of clouds are called zones and are probably composed of ammonia ice particles. The darker bands are called belts and are made dark by particles of unknown composition intermixed with the ammonia ice.

    Jupiter's appearance changes dramatically in the ultraviolet and near infrared images. These images are near negatives of each other and illustrate the way in which observations in different wavelength regions can reveal different physical regimes on the planet.

    All gases scatter sunlight efficiently at short wavelengths; this is why the sky appears blue on Earth. The effect is even more pronounced in the ultraviolet. The gases in Jupiter's atmosphere, above the clouds, are no different. They scatter strongly in the ultraviolet, making the deep banded cloud layers invisible in the middle image. Only the very high altitude haze appears dark against the bright background. The contrast is reversed in the near infrared, where methane gas, abundant on Jupiter but not on Earth, is strongly absorbing and therefore appears dark. Again the deep clouds are invisible, but now the high altitude haze appears relatively bright against the dark background. High altitude haze is seen over the poles and the equator.

    The Great Red Spot, prominent in all images, is

  20. Development of a new diffuse near-infrared food measuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Piao, Renguan

    2006-11-01

    Industries from agriculture to petrochemistry have found near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic analysis useful for quality control and quantitative analysis of materials and products. The general chemical, polymer chemistry, petrochemistry, agriculture, food and textile industries are currently using NIR spectroscopic methods for analysis. In this study, we developed a new sort NIR instrument for food measuring. The instrument consists of a light source, 12 filters to the prismatic part. The special part is that we use a mirror to get two beams of light. And two PbS detectors were used. One detector collected the radiation of one light beam directly and the value was set as the standard instead the standard white surface. Another light beam irradiate the sample surface, and the diffuse light was collected by another detector. The value of the two detectors was compared and the absorbency was computed. We tested the performance of the NIR instrument in determining the protein and fat content of milk powder. The calibration showed the accuracy of the instrument in practice.

  1. Near-infrared imaging spectroscopy for counterfeit drug detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Thomas; De Biasio, Martin; Leitner, Raimund

    2011-06-01

    Pharmaceutical counterfeiting is a significant issue in the healthcare community as well as for the pharmaceutical industry worldwide. The use of counterfeit medicines can result in treatment failure or even death. A rapid screening technique such as near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy could aid in the search for and identification of counterfeit drugs. This work presents a comparison of two laboratory NIR imaging systems and the chemometric analysis of the acquired spectroscopic image data. The first imaging system utilizes a NIR liquid crystal tuneable filter and is designed for the investigation of stationary objects. The second imaging system utilizes a NIR imaging spectrograph and is designed for the fast analysis of moving objects on a conveyor belt. Several drugs in form of tablets and capsules were analyzed. Spectral unmixing techniques were applied to the mixed reflectance spectra to identify constituent parts of the investigated drugs. The results show that NIR spectroscopic imaging can be used for contact-less detection and identification of a variety of counterfeit drugs.

  2. Near-infrared oxygen airglow from the Venus nightside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.; Meadows, V. S.; Allen, D. A.; Bezard, B.; Debergh, C.; Maillard, J.-P.

    1992-01-01

    Groundbased imaging and spectroscopic observations of Venus reveal intense near-infrared oxygen airglow emission from the upper atmosphere and provide new constraints on the oxygen photochemistry and dynamics near the mesopause (approximately 100 km). Atomic oxygen is produced by the Photolysis of CO2 on the dayside of Venus. These atoms are transported by the general circulation, and eventually recombine to form molecular oxygen. Because this recombination reaction is exothermic, many of these molecules are created in an excited state known as O2(delta-1). The airglow is produced as these molecules emit a photon and return to their ground state. New imaging and spectroscopic observations acquired during the summer and fall of 1991 show unexpected spatial and temporal variations in the O2(delta-1) airglow. The implications of these observations for the composition and general circulation of the upper venusian atmosphere are not yet understood but they provide important new constraints on comprehensive dynamical and chemical models of the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere of Venus.

  3. [Micro Hadamard transform near-infrared spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-hai; Muo, Xiang-xia; Guo, Yuan-jun; Wang, Wei

    2011-07-01

    A new type micro Hadamard transform (HT) near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer is proposed in the present paper. It has a MOEMS (Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems) blazed grating HT mask. It has merits of compactness, agility of dynamic mask generation and high scan speed. The structure and theory of this spectrometer are analyzed. The 63-order Hadamard-S matrix and mask are designed. The mask is dynamically generated by program of MOEMS blazed gratings. The spectrum is in agreement with that measured by Shimadzu spectrometer in experiments. It has a wavelength range between 900 and 1 700 nm, spectral resolution of 19 nm, single scan time of 2.4 s, SNR of 44.67:1, optical path of 70 mm x 130 mm, and weight under 1 kg. It can meet the requirement of real time detection and portable application.

  4. Near-Infrared Scintillation of Liquid Argon

    SciT

    Tilly, Elizabeth; Escobar, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Liquid argon is well known to scintillate in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) range which is inherently difficult to detect. There has been recent evidence to suggest that it also emits near infrared (NIR) light. If this is the case, many large-scale time projection chambers and other similar detectors will be able to maximize light collection while minimizing cost. The goal of this project is to confirm and quantify this NIR emission. In order to accomplish this, an α-source was placed in a volume of highly purified liquid argon and observed using an infrared PMT with a filter excluding light withmore » wavelength <715 nm. Performing a simple counting experiment, there were indications of NIR scintillation. Further analysis is in progress.« less

  5. Theoretical design of near - infrared organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brymora, Katarzyna; Ducasse, Laurent; Dautel, Olivier; Lartigau-Dagron, Christine; Castet, FréDéRic

    The world follows the path of digital development faster than ever before. In consequence, the Human Machine Interfaces (HMI) market is growing as well and it requires some innovations. The goal of our work is to achieve an organic Infra-Red (IR) photodetectors hitting the performance requirements for HMI applications. The quantum chemical calculations are used to guide the synthesis and technology development. In this work, in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), we consider a large variety of materials exploring small donor-acceptor-donor molecules and copolymers alternating donor and acceptor monomers. We provide a structure-property relationship in view of designing new Near-Infrared (NIR) absorbing organic molecules and polymers.

  6. Remote Observations in the Near Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavryusev, V.; Baffa, C.; Giani, E.

    We present our experiences in remote observations in Near Infrared bands operating a bidimensional instrument ARNICA. ARNICA, an infrared CCD detector operating at a telescope (TIRGO, Gornergrat, Switzerland) was controlled by an observer from Firenze, Italy. Despite the rather slow Internet link available, we were able to perform the observations in quite an acceptable way. The user interface process (a widget based X11 client) was executed locally on a Sun workstation. All processes responsible for hardware support (initialization of devices and their dynamic control and data acquisition itself) were executed remotely under DESQview/X on a PC dedicated to the control of ARNICA. The traffic was reduced to a minimum due to the truly distributed software used. In normal conditions this is just an exchange of short primitives which describe the task to be performed and of informative messages. There is also the possibility of a continuous display of the obtained images, with flexible control of display parameters.

  7. Astronomical near-infrared echelle gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Joyce, Richard R.; Liang, Ming

    2014-07-01

    High-resolution near-infrared echelle spectrographs require coarse rulings in order to match the free spectral range to the detector size. Standard near-IR detector arrays typically are 2 K x 2 K or 4 K x 4 K. Detectors of this size combined with resolutions in the range 30000 to 100000 require grating groove spacings in the range 5 to 20 lines/mm. Moderately high blaze angles are desirable to reduce instrument size. Echelle gratings with these characteristics have potential wide application in both ambient temperature and cryogenic astronomical echelle spectrographs. We discuss optical designs for spectrographs employing immersed and reflective echelle gratings. The optical designs set constraints on grating characteristics. We report on market choices for obtaining these gratings and review our experiments with custom diamond turned rulings.

  8. Detection of bottled explosives by near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Bottled liquids are not allowed through the security gate in the airport, because liquid explosives have been used by the terrorists. However, passengers have a lot of trouble if they cannot bring their own bottles. For example, a mother would like to carry her own milk in the airplane for her baby. Therefore the detection technology of liquid explosives should be developed as soon as possible. This paper shows that near infrared spectroscopy can detect bottled explosives quickly. The transmission method cannot deal with milk in the sense of liquid inspection. Here we examined the reflection method to the test of milk. The inspection method with light cannot make test for the metal can. We also use ultrasonic method to check metal can simultaneously in order to expand test targets.

  9. Evaluation of a near-infrared photomultiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    A high performance near infrared sensitive photomultiplier tube was procured and evaluated with emphasis on those characteristics affecting its use over the very large amplitude range of signals encountered by an airborne lidar intended for mapping the distribution of stratospheric aerosols. A cathode quantum efficiency of 4.3 percent at 1.06 micrometer wavelength and a background count of less than 10,000 per second were realized. It is recommended that the tube be stored and operated at a temperature near -20 C, or cooler. Performance was found acceptable for the application in both pulse counting and analog modes, but careful design, probably including dynamic gain control, will be required to effectively utilize both modes on the same lidar shot.

  10. Near-infrared noninvasive spectroscopic determination of pH

    DOEpatents

    Alam, Mary K.; Robinson, Mark R.

    1998-08-11

    Methods and apparatus for, preferably, determining noninvasively and in vitro pH in a human. The non-invasive method includes the steps of: generating light at three or more different wavelengths in the range of 1000 nm to 2500 nm; irradiating blood containing tissue; measuring the intensities of the wavelengths emerging from the blood containing tissue to obtain a set of at least three spectral intensities v. wavelengths; and determining the unknown values of pH. The determination of pH is made by using measured intensities at wavelengths that exhibit change in absorbance due to histidine titration. Histidine absorbance changes are due to titration by hydrogen ions. The determination of the unknown pH values is performed by at least one multivariate algorithm using two or more variables and at least one calibration model. The determined pH values are within the physiological ranges observed in blood containing tissue. The apparatus includes a tissue positioning device, a source, at least one detector, electronics, a microprocessor, memory, and apparatus for indicating the determined values.

  11. Near-infrared SN Ia Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avelino, Arturo; Kirshner, Robert; Mandel, Kaisey; Challis, Peter; Friedman, Andrew; RAISIN Team

    2018-01-01

    Observations of SN Ia in the near infrared (NIR) are a promising way to construct an accurate cosmic expansion history to constrain the properties of dark energy. SN Ia are more nearly standard candles in NIR than in optical bands, while dust absorption is less of a problem at NIR wavelengths. This allows us to investigate the dark energy properties in a way that is less sensitive to systematic errors due to the variations in the intrinsic brightness of SN Ia or the properties of dust in their host galaxies. In this talk, I present preliminary results from our RAISIN 1 (HST GO-13046) and RAISIN 2 (HST GO-14216) programs with the Hubble Space Telescope, where we have constructed a Hubble diagram combining optical + NIR photometric data using a sample of low and high redshift SN Ia. I will discuss our current results, challenges, and the advantage of using optical + NIR data to derive accurate cosmic distances and improve knowledge of the dark energy equation of state. This research is supported by NSF grants AST-156854 and AST-1211196.

  12. Near infrared photoimmunotherapy for lung metastases

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kazuhide; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Mitsunaga, Makoto; Choyke, Peter L.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2015-01-01

    Lung metastases are a leading cause of cancer related deaths; nonetheless current treatments are limited. Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a new cancer treatment that combines the specificity of intravenously injected antibodies that target tumors with the toxicity induced by photosensitizers activated by NIR-light. Herein, we demonstrate the efficacy of NIR-PIT in a mouse model of lung metastases. Experiments were conducted with a HER2, luciferase and GFP expressing cell line (3T3/HER2-luc-GFP). An antibody-photosensitizer conjugate (APC) consisting of trastuzumab and a phthalocyanine dye, IRDye-700DX, was synthesized. In vitro NIR-PIT-induced cytotoxicity was light dose dependent. With 3D culture, repeated NIR-PIT could eradicate entire spheroids. In vivo anti-tumor effects of NIR-PIT included significant reductions in both tumor volume (p = 0.0141 vs. APC) and bioluminescence image (BLI) (p = 0.0086 vs. APC) in the flank model, and prolonged survival (p < 0.0001). BLI demonstrated a significant reduction in lung metastases volume (p = 0.0117 vs. APC). Multiple NIR-PIT doses significantly prolonged survival in the lung metastases model (p < 0.0001). These results suggested that NIR-PIT is a potential new therapy for the local control of lung metastases. PMID:26021765

  13. Near-infrared fluorophores as biomolecular probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patonay, Gabor; Beckford, Garfield; Strekowski, Lucjan; Henary, Maged; Merid, Yonathan

    2010-02-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) fluorescence has been valuable in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. NIR probes and labels have been used for several applications, including hydrophobicity of protein binding sites, DNA sequencing, immunoassays, CE separations, etc. The NIR region (700-1100 nm) has advantages for the spectroscopist due to the inherently lower background interference from the biological matrix and the high molar absorptivities of NIR chromophores. During the studies we report here several NIR dyes were prepared to determine the role of the hydrophobicity of NIR dyes and their charge in binding to amino acids and proteins, e.g., serum albumins. We synthesized NIR dye homologs containing the same chromophore but substituents of varying hydrophobicity. Hydrophobic moieties were represented by alkyl and aryl groups. These NIR dyes of varying hydrophobicity exhibited varying degrees of H-aggregation in aqueous solution indicating that the degree of H-aggregation could be used as an indicator to predict binding characteristics to serum albumins. In order to understand what factors may be important in the binding process, spectral behavior of these varying hydrophobicity dyes were examined in the presence of amino acids. Typical dye structures that exhibit large binding constants to biomolecules were compared in order to optimize applications utilizing non-covalent interactions.

  14. Near infrared Raman spectra of Rhizoma dioscoreae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wenshuo; Chen, Rong; Chen, Guannan; Feng, Sangyuan; Li, Yongzeng; Huang, Zufang; Li, Yongsen

    2008-03-01

    A novel and compact near-infrared (NIR) Raman system is developed using 785-nm diode laser, volume-phase technology holographic system, and NIR intensified charge-coupled device (CCD). Raman spectra and first derivative spectra of Rhizoma Dioscoreae are obtained. Raman spectra of Rhizoma Dioscoreae showed three strong characteristic peaks at 477.4cm -1, 863.9cm -1, and 936.0cm -1. The major ingredients are protein, amino acid, starch, polysaccharides and so on, matched with the known basic biochemical composition of Rhizoma Dioscoreae. In the first derivative spectra of Rhizoma Dioscoreae, distinguishing characteristic peaks appeared at 467.674cm -1, 484.603cm -1, 870.37cm -1, 943.368cm -1. Contrasted with Rhizoma Dioscoreae Raman spectra, in 600cm -1 to 800cm -1, 1000cm -1 to 1400cm -1 regions, changes in Rhizoma Dioscoreae Raman first derivative spectra are represented more clearly than Rhizoma Dioscoreae Raman spectra. So Rhizoma Dioscoreae raman first derivative spectra can be an accurate supplementary analysis method to Rhizoma Dioscoreae Raman spectra.

  15. Surface plasmon resonance near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ikehata, Akifumi; Itoh, Tamitake; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2004-11-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is ill-suited to microanalysis because of its low absorptivity. We have developed a highly sensitive detection method for NIR spectroscopy based on absorption-sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The newly named SPR-NIR spectroscopy, which may open the way for NIR spectroscopy in microanalysis and surface science, is realized by an attachment of the Kretschmann configuration equipped with a mechanism for fine angular adjustment of incident light. The angular sweep of incident light enables us to make a tuning of a SPR peak for an absorption band of sample medium. From the dependences of wavelength, incident angle, and thickness of a gold film on the intensity of the SPR peak, it has been found that the absorbance can be enhanced by approximately 100 times compared with the absorbance obtained without the gold film under optimum conditions. This article reports the details of the experimental setup and the characteristics of absorption-sensitive SPR in the NIR region, together with some experimental results obtained by using it.

  16. Near-Infrared Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy for Tablet Quality Determination.

    PubMed

    Igne, Benoît; Talwar, Sameer; Feng, Hanzhou; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A

    2015-12-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has become a well-established tool for the characterization of solid oral dosage forms manufacturing processes and finished products. In this work, the utility of a traditional single-point NIR measurement was compared with that of a spatially resolved spectroscopic (SRS) measurement for the determination of tablet assay. Experimental designs were used to create samples that allowed for calibration models to be developed and tested on both instruments. Samples possessing a poor distribution of ingredients (highly heterogeneous) were prepared by under-blending constituents prior to compaction to compare the analytical capabilities of the two NIR methods. The results indicate that SRS can provide spatial information that is usually obtainable only through imaging experiments for the determination of local heterogeneity and detection of abnormal tablets that would not be detected with single-point spectroscopy, thus complementing traditional NIR measurement systems for in-line, and in real-time tablet analysis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. Electro-optic sampling of near-infrared waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiber, Sabine; Sederberg, Shawn; Schwarz, Alexander; Trubetskov, Michael; Pervak, Volodymyr; Krausz, Ferenc; Karpowicz, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    Access to the complete electric field evolution of a laser pulse is essential for attosecond science in general, and for the scrutiny and control of electron phenomena in solid-state physics specifically. Time-resolved field measurements are routine in the terahertz spectral range, using electro-optic sampling (EOS), photoconductive switches and field-induced second harmonic generation. EOS in particular features outstanding sensitivity and ease of use, making it the basis of time-resolved spectroscopic measurements for studying charge carrier dynamics and active optical devices. In this Letter, we show that careful optical filtering allows the bandwidth of this technique to be extended to wavelengths as short as 1.2 μm (230 THz) with half-cycle durations 2.3 times shorter than the sampling pulse. In a proof-of-principle application, we measure the influence of optical parametric amplification (OPA) on the electric field dynamics of a few-cycle near-infrared (NIR) pulse.

  18. LED-based near infrared sensor for cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Ageev, Vladimir; Zabarylo, Urszula; Usenov, Iskander; Schulte, Franziska; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Belikova, Valeria; Minet, Olaf; Feliksberger, E.; Meshkovsky, I.; Artyushenko, Viacheslav

    2016-03-01

    Optical spectroscopic technologies are increasingly used for cancer diagnostics. Feasibility of differentiation between malignant and healthy samples of human kidney using Fluorescence, Raman, MIR and NIR spectroscopy has been recently reported . In the present work, a simplification of NIR spectroscopy method has been studied. Traditional high-resolution NIR spectrometry was replaced by an optical sensor based on a set of light-emitting diodes at selected wavelengths as light sources and a photodiode. Two prototypes of the sensor have been developed and tested using 14 in-vitro samples of seven kidney tumor patients. Statistical evaluation of results using principal component analysis and partial least-squares discriminant analysis has been performed. Despite only partial discrimination between tumor and healthy tissue achieved by the presented new technique, the results evidence benefits of LED-based near-infrared sensing used for oncological diagnostics. Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 4 March, 2016, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 7 April, 2016. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance.

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopy for burning plasma diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Soukhanovskii, V A

    2008-10-01

    Ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS, 200-750 nm) atomic spectroscopy of neutral and ionized fuel species (H, D, T, and Li) and impurities (e.g., He, Be, C, and W) is a key element of plasma control and diagnosis on International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and future magnetically confined burning plasma experiments (BPXs). Spectroscopic diagnostic implementation and performance issues that arise in the BPX harsh nuclear environment in the UV-VIS range, e.g., degradation of first mirror reflectivity under charge-exchange atom bombardment (erosion) and impurity deposition, permanent and dynamic loss of window, and optical fiber transmission under intense neutron and gamma-ray fluxes, are either absent or not as severe in the near-infrared (NIR, 750-2000 nm) range. An initial survey of NIR diagnostic applications has been undertaken on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. It is demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy can be used for machine protection and plasma control applications, as well as contribute to plasma performance evaluation and physics studies. Emission intensity estimates demonstrate that NIR measurements are possible in the BPX plasma operating parameter range. Complications in the NIR range due to the parasitic background emissions are expected to occur at very high plasma densities, low impurity densities, and at high plasma-facing component temperatures.

  20. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy using near-infrared contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Nothdurft, R; Sarder, P; Bloch, S; Culver, J; Achilefu, S

    2012-08-01

    Although single-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is widely used to image molecular processes using a wide range of excitation wavelengths, the captured emission of this technique is confined to the visible spectrum. Here, we explore the feasibility of utilizing near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent molecular probes with emission >700 nm for FLIM of live cells. The confocal microscope is equipped with a 785 nm laser diode, a red-enhanced photomultiplier tube, and a time-correlated single photon counting card. We demonstrate that our system reports the lifetime distributions of NIR fluorescent dyes, cypate and DTTCI, in cells. In cells labelled separately or jointly with these dyes, NIR FLIM successfully distinguishes their lifetimes, providing a method to sort different cell populations. In addition, lifetime distributions of cells co-incubated with these dyes allow estimate of the dyes' relative concentrations in complex cellular microenvironments. With the heightened interest in fluorescence lifetime-based small animal imaging using NIR fluorophores, this technique further serves as a bridge between in vitro spectroscopic characterization of new fluorophore lifetimes and in vivo tissue imaging. © 2012 The Author Journal of Microscopy © 2012 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy Using Near-Infrared Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Nothdurft, Ralph; Sarder, Pinaki; Bloch, Sharon; Culver, Joseph; Achilefu, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Although single-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is widely used to image molecular processes using a wide range of excitation wavelengths, the captured emission of this technique is confined to the visible spectrum. Here, we explore the feasibility of utilizing near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent molecular probes with emission >700 nm for FLIM of live cells. The confocal microscope is equipped with a 785 nm laser diode, a red-enhanced photomultiplier tube, and a time-correlated single photon counting card. We demonstrate that our system reports the lifetime distributions of NIR fluorescent dyes, cypate and DTTCI, in cells. In cells labeled separately or jointly with these dyes, NIR FLIM successfully distinguishes their lifetimes, providing a method to sort different cell populations. In addition, lifetime distributions of cells co-incubated with these dyes allow estimate of the dyes’ relative concentrations in complex cellular microenvironments. With the heightened interest in fluorescence lifetime-based small animal imaging using NIR fluorophores, this technique further serves as a bridge between in vitro spectroscopic characterization of new fluorophore lifetimes and in vivo tissue imaging. PMID:22788550

  2. POLICAN: A near-infrared imaging polarimeter at OAGH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaraj, R.; Luna, A.; Carrasco, L.; Mayya, Y. D.; Serrano-Bernal, O.

    2017-07-01

    We present a near-infrared linear imaging polarimeter POLICAN, developed for the Cananea near-infrared camera (CANICA) at the 2.1m telescope of the Guillermo Haro Astrophysical Observatory (OAGH) located at Cananea, Sonora, México. POLICAN reaches a limiting magnitude to about 16th mag with a polarimetric accuracy of about 1% for bright sources.

  3. Near-infrared properties of quasar and Seyfert host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Kim Katris

    1994-01-01

    We present near-infrared images of nearly 100 host galaxies of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our quasar sample is comprised of the 50 quasars from the Palomar Green Bright Quasar Survey with redshifts z less than or equal to 0.3. We have restricted the redshift range to ensure adequate spatial resolution, galaxy detectability, and minimal distance-dependent effects, while still giving a large sample of objects. For lower-luminosity AGN we have chosen to image the CfA Seyfert sample. This sample is composed of 48 Seyferts, roughly equally divided among types 1, 1.5-1.9, and 2. This sample was spectroscopically selected, and, therefore, is not biased towards Seyferts with significant star formation. Taken together, these samples allow a statistical look at the continuity of host galaxy properties over a factor of 10,000 in nuclear luminosity. We find the near-infrared light to be a good tracer of luminous mass in these galaxies. The Seyferts are found in galaxies of type SO to Sc. The radio quiet quasars live in similar kinds of galaxies spanning the same range of mass centered around L(*). However, for the most luminous quasars, there is a correlation between the minimum host galaxy mass and the luminosity of the active nucleus. Radio-loud quasars are generally found in hosts more massive than an L(*) galaxy. We also detect a population of low mass host galaxies with very low luminosity Seyfert nuclei. The low luminosity quasars and the Seyferts both tend to lie in host galaxies seen preferentially face-on, which suggests there is a substantial amount of obscuration coplanar with the galaxian disk. The obscuration must be geometrically thick (thickness-to-radius approximately 1) and must cover a significant fraction of the narrow line region (r greater than 100 pc). We have examined our images for signs of perturbations that could drive fuel toward the galaxy nucleus, but there are none we can identify at a significant level. The critical element for fueling is

  4. Near-Infrared Properties of Quasar and Seyfert Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Kim Katris

    1995-01-01

    We present near-infrared images of nearly 100 host galaxies of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our quasar sample is comprised of the 50 quasars from the Palomar Green Bright Quasar Survey with redshifts z\\<= 0.3. We have restricted the redshift range to ensure adequate spatial resolution, galaxy detectability, and minimal distance-dependent effects, while still giving a large sample of objects. For lower-luminosity AGN we have chosen to image the CfA Seyfert sample. This sample is composed of 48 Seyferts, roughly equally divided among types 1, 1.5-1.9, and 2. This sample was spectroscopically selected, and, therefore, is not biased towards Seyferts with significant star formation. Taken together, these samples allow a statistical look at the continuity of host-galaxy properties over a factor of 10,000 in nuclear luminosity. We find the near-infrared light to be a good tracer of luminous mass in these galaxies. The Seyferts are found in galaxies of type S0 to Sc. The radio quiet quasars live in similar kinds of galaxies spanning the same range of mass centered around L*. However, for the most luminous quasars, there is a correlation between the minimum host-galaxy mass and the luminosity of the active nucleus. Radio-loud quasars are generally found in hosts more massive than an L* galaxy. We also detect a population of low-mass host galaxies with very low-luminosity Seyfert nuclei. The low luminosity quasars and the Seyferts both tend to lie in host galaxies seen preferentially face-on, which suggests there is a substantial amount of obscuration coplanar with the galaxian disk. The obscuration must be geometrically thick (thickness-to-radius ~1) and must cover a significant fraction of the narrow line region (r>100 pc). We have examined our images for signs of perturbations that could drive fuel toward the galaxy nucleus, but there are none we can identify at a significant level. The critical element for fueling is evidently not reflected clearly in the large scale

  5. Rare earth-doped barium gallo-germanate glasses and their near-infrared luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Pisarska, Joanna; Sołtys, Marta; Górny, Agata; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Zmojda, Jacek; Dorosz, Jan; Dorosz, Dominik; Sitarz, Maciej; Pisarski, Wojciech A

    2018-08-05

    Near-infrared luminescence properties of Nd 3+ and Ho 3+ ions in barium gallo-germanate glasses have been reported. Several spectroscopic parameters for Nd 3+ and Ho 3+ ions have been determined from the Judd-Ofelt analysis and absorption/luminescence measurements. Quite large luminescence lifetime, quantum efficiency and stimulated emission cross-section have been obtained for the main 4 F 3/2  →  4 I 11/2 (Nd 3+ ) and 5 I 7  →  5 I 8 (Ho 3+ ) laser transitions of rare earths in barium gallo-germanate glasses. It suggests that barium gallo-germanate glass is promising for near-infrared laser application at emission wavelengths 1064 nm (Nd 3+ ) and 2020 nm (Ho 3+ ). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcutaneous analyte measuring method (TAMM): a reflective, noninvasive, near-infrared blood chemistry analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Ruchti, Timothy L.

    1995-04-01

    TAMM for Transcutaneous Analyte Measuring Method is a near infrared spectroscopic technique for the noninvasive measurement of human blood chemistry. A near infrared indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) photodiode array spectrometer has been developed and tested on over 1,000 patients as a part of an SBIR program sponsored by the Naval Medical Research and Development Command. Nine (9) blood analytes have been measured and evaluated during pre-clinical testing: sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, bicarbonate, BUN, glucose, hematocrit and hemoglobin. A reflective rather than a transmissive invasive approach to measurement has been taken to avoid variations resulting from skin color and sensor positioning. The current status of the instrumentation, neural network pattern recognition algorithms and test results will be discussed.

  7. Advances in Organic Near-Infrared Materials and Emerging Applications.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ji; Qiao, Wenqiang; Wang, Zhi Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Much progress has been made in the field of research on organic near-infrared materials for potential applications in photonics, communications, energy, and biophotonics. This account mainly describes our research work on organic near-infrared materials; in particular, donor-acceptor small molecules, organometallics, and donor-acceptor polymers with the bandgaps less than 1.2 eV. The molecular designs, structure-property relationships, unique near-infrared absorption, emission and color/wavelength-changing properties, and some emerging applications are discussed. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Near-infrared light emitting device using semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciT

    Supran, Geoffrey J.S.; Song, Katherine W.; Hwang, Gyuweon

    A near-infrared light emitting device can include semiconductor nanocrystals that emit at wavelengths beyond 1 .mu.m. The semiconductor nanocrystals can include a core and an overcoating on a surface of the core.

  9. Spot fat reduction by red and near infrared LED phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sungkyoo; Park, Eal-Whan

    2018-02-01

    Low level light therapy (LLLT) using light from red and near infrared LEDs or Lasers have been reported effective as noninvasive methods for reducing spot fat. A total of 55 subjects were randomly divided into test groups and control groups for abdominal fat reduction clinical trial using red and near infrared LED phototherapy devices. Red and near infrared light with irradiance of 10 mW/cm2 were irradiated over the abdominal area to the test group for 30 minutes followed by 30 minutes of aerobic exercise, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Control group used sham devices for 30 minutes and followed by 30 minutes of aerobic exercise. It is expected that red and near infrared LED phototherapy combined with aerobic exercise would be effective and safe for abdominal fat reduction without any side effects.

  10. Near-infrared branding efficiently correlates light and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Derron; Nikić, Ivana; Brinkoetter, Mary; Knecht, Sharmon; Potz, Stephanie; Kerschensteiner, Martin; Misgeld, Thomas

    2011-06-05

    The correlation of light and electron microscopy of complex tissues remains a major challenge. Here we report near-infrared branding (NIRB), which facilitates such correlation by using a pulsed, near-infrared laser to create defined fiducial marks in three dimensions in fixed tissue. As these marks are fluorescent and can be photo-oxidized to generate electron contrast, they can guide re-identification of previously imaged structures as small as dendritic spines by electron microscopy.

  11. Emergence of two near-infrared windows for in vivo and intraoperative SERS.

    PubMed

    Lane, Lucas A; Xue, Ruiyang; Nie, Shuming

    2018-04-06

    Two clear windows in the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum are of considerable current interest for in vivo molecular imaging and spectroscopic detection. The main rationale is that near-infrared light can penetrate biological tissues such as skin and blood more efficiently than visible light because these tissues scatter and absorb less light at longer wavelengths. The first clear window, defined as light wavelengths between 650nm and 950nm, has been shown to be far superior for in vivo and intraoperative optical imaging than visible light. The second clear window, operating in the wavelength range of 1000-1700nm, has been reported to further improve detection sensitivity, spatial resolution, and tissue penetration because tissue photon scattering and background interference are further reduced at longer wavelengths. Here we discuss recent advances in developing biocompatible plasmonic nanoparticles for in vivo and intraoperative surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in both the first and second NIR windows. In particular, a new class of 'broad-band' plasmonic nanostructures is well suited for surface Raman enhancement across a broad range of wavelengths allowing a direct comparison of detection sensitivity and tissue penetration between the two NIR window. Also, optimized and encoded SERS nanoparticles are generally nontoxic and are much brighter than near-infrared quantum dots (QDs), raising new possibilities for ultrasensitive detection of microscopic tumors and image-guided precision surgery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Near infrared spectroscopy for prediction of antioxidant compounds in the honey.

    PubMed

    Escuredo, Olga; Seijo, M Carmen; Salvador, Javier; González-Martín, M Inmaculada

    2013-12-15

    The selection of antioxidant variables in honey is first time considered applying the near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic technique. A total of 60 honey samples were used to develop the calibration models using the modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression method and 15 samples were used for external validation. Calibration models on honey matrix for the estimation of phenols, flavonoids, vitamin C, antioxidant capacity (DPPH), oxidation index and copper using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been satisfactorily obtained. These models were optimised by cross-validation, and the best model was evaluated according to multiple correlation coefficient (RSQ), standard error of cross-validation (SECV), ratio performance deviation (RPD) and root mean standard error (RMSE) in the prediction set. The result of these statistics suggested that the equations developed could be used for rapid determination of antioxidant compounds in honey. This work shows that near infrared spectroscopy can be considered as rapid tool for the nondestructive measurement of antioxidant constitutes as phenols, flavonoids, vitamin C and copper and also the antioxidant capacity in the honey. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. New and Better Near-Infrared Detectors for JWST Near Infrared Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Mott, D. Brent; Wen, Yiting; Linder, Don; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Hill, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    ESA and NASA recently selected two 5 m cutoff Teledyne H2RG sensor chip assemblies (SCA) for flight on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec). These HgCdTe SCAs incorporate Teledynes improved barrier layer design that eliminates the degradation that affected earlier JWST H2RGs(Rauscher et al. 2012a). The better indium barrier, together with other design changes, has improved the performance and reliability of JWSTs SCAs. In this article, we describe the measured performance characteristics that most directly affect scientific observations including read noise, total noise, dark current, quantum efficiency (QE), and image persistence. As part of measuring QE, we measured the quantum yield as a function of photon energy,, and found that it exceeds unity for photon energies E (2.65.2) Eg, where Eg is the HgCdTe bandgap energy. This corresponds to. 2 m for NIRSpecs 5 m cutoff HgCdTe. Our measurements agree well with a previous measurement by McCullough et al. (2008) for. 1.3. For 1.3, we find a slower increase in with photon energy than McCullough et al. did. However, and as McCullough et al. note, their two state model of the yield process is not valid for large 1.

  14. Intraoperative near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of parathyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Ladurner, Roland; Sommerey, Sandra; Arabi, Nora Al; Hallfeldt, Klaus K J; Stepp, Herbert; Gallwas, Julia K S

    2017-08-01

    To identify parathyroid glands intraoperatively by exposing their autofluorescence using near-infrared light. Fluorescence imaging was carried out during minimally invasive and open parathyroid and thyroid surgery. After identification, the parathyroid glands as well as the surrounding tissue were exposed to near-infrared (NIR) light with a wavelength of 690-770 nm using a modified Karl Storz near-infrared/indocyanine green (NIR/ICG) endoscopic system. Parathyroid tissue was expected to show near-infrared autofluorescence, captured in the blue channel of the camera. Whenever possible the visual identification of parathyroid tissue was confirmed histologically. In preliminary investigations, using the original NIR/ICG endoscopic system we noticed considerable interference of light in the blue channel overlying the autofluorescence. Therefore, we modified the light source by interposing additional filters. In a second series, we investigated 35 parathyroid glands from 25 patients. Twenty-seven glands were identified correctly based on NIR autofluorescence. Regarding the extent of autofluorescence, there were no noticeable differences between parathyroid adenomas, hyperplasia and normal parathyroid glands. In contrast, thyroid tissue, lymph nodes and adipose tissue revealed no substantial autofluorescence. Parathyroid tissue is characterized by showing autofluorescence in the near-infrared spectrum. This effect can be used to distinguish parathyroid glands from other cervical tissue entities.

  15. Near infrared spectrum simulation applied to human skin for diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chen-Mu; Fang, Yi-Chin; Wang, Chih-Yu; Chiu, Pin-Chun; Wu, Guo-Ying; Zheng, Wei-Chi; Chemg, Shih-Hao

    2007-11-01

    This research proposes a new method for skin diagnose using near infrared as the light source (750nm~1300nm). Compared to UV and visible light, near infrared might penetrate relatively deep into biological soft tissue in some cases although NIR absorption property of tissue is not a constant for water, fat, and collagen etc. In the research, NIR absorption and scattering properties for skin are discussed firstly using the theory of molecule vibration from Quantum physics and Solid State Physics; secondly the practical model for various NIR absorption spectrum to skin tissue are done by optical simulation for human skin. Finally, experiments are done for further identification of proposed model for human skin and its reaction to near infrared. Results show success with identification from both theory and experiments.

  16. Application of near-infrared image processing in agricultural engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-hong; Zhang, Guo-ping; Xia, Hongxing

    2009-07-01

    Recently, with development of computer technology, the application field of near-infrared image processing becomes much wider. In this paper the technical characteristic and development of modern NIR imaging and NIR spectroscopy analysis were introduced. It is concluded application and studying of the NIR imaging processing technique in the agricultural engineering in recent years, base on the application principle and developing characteristic of near-infrared image. The NIR imaging would be very useful in the nondestructive external and internal quality inspecting of agricultural products. It is important to detect stored-grain insects by the application of near-infrared spectroscopy. Computer vision detection base on the NIR imaging would be help to manage food logistics. Application of NIR imaging promoted quality management of agricultural products. In the further application research fields of NIR image in the agricultural engineering, Some advices and prospect were put forward.

  17. Hydrogen diffusion in Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingrin, Jannick; Zhang, Peipei

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen mobility in gem quality zircon single crystals from Madagascar was investigated through H-D exchange experiments. Thin slices were annealed in a horizontal furnace flushed with a gas mixture of Ar/D2(10%) under ambient pressure between 900 ° C to 1150 ° C. FTIR analyses were performed on oriented slices before and after each annealing run. H diffusion along [100] and [010] follow the same diffusion law D = D0exp[-E /RT], with log D0 = 2.24 ± 1.57 (in m2/s) and E = 374 ± 39 kJ/mol. H diffusion along [001] follows a slightly more rapid diffusion law, with log D0 = 1.11 ± 0.22 (in m2/s) and E = 334 ± 49 kJ/mol. H diffusion in zircon has much higher activation energy and slower diffusivity than other NAMs below 1150 ° C even iron-poor garnets which are known to be among the slowest (Blanchard and Ingrin, 2004; Kurka et al. 2005). During H-D exchange zircon incorporates also deuterium. This hydration reaction involves uranium reduction as it is shown from the exchange of U5+ and U4+ characteristic bands in the near infrared region during annealing. It is the first time that a hydration reaction U5+ + OH- = U4+ + O2- + 1/2H2, is experimentally reported. The kinetics of deuterium incorporation is slightly slower than hydrogen diffusion, suggesting that the reaction is limited by hydrogen mobility. Hydrogen isotopic memory of zircon is higher than other NAMs. Zircons will be moderately retentive of H signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures. At 500 ° C, a zircon with a radius of 300 μm would retain its H isotopic signature over more than a million years. However, a zircon is unable to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism unless the grain size is large enough. Refrences Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2004) Hydrogen diffusion in Dora Maira pyrope. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 31, 593-605. Kurka, A., Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2005) Kinetics of hydrogen extraction and deuteration in

  18. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Ethynyl Radical, C2H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh T.; Hall, Gregory; Sears, Trevor

    2016-06-01

    The ethynyl radical, C_2H, is a reactive intermediate important in various combustion processes and also widely observed in the interstellar medium. In spite of extensive previous spectroscopic studies, the characterization of the near infrared transitions from the tilde{X}2Σ+ state to the mixed vibrational overtone and tilde{A}2Π states is incomplete. A strong band of C_2H at 7064 cm-1 was first observed in a neon matrix and assigned as the tilde{A}2Π(002)1 - tilde{X}2Σ+ transition by Forney et al. Subsequent theoretical work of Tarroni and Carter attributed the strong absorptions in this region to transitions terminating in two upper states, each a mixture of vibrationally excited tilde{X} states and different zero-order tilde{A}-state bending levels: a 2Σ+ symmetry combination of tilde{X}(0,20,3) and tilde{A}(0,3,0)0κ and a 2Π symmetry combination of tilde{X}(0,31,3) and tilde{A}(0,0,2)1. Transitions to them from the zero point level of the tilde{X} state are calculated to differ in energy by less than 10 cm-1 and to be within a factor of two in intensity. Diode laser transient absorption was used to record Doppler-limited spectra between 7020 and 7130 cm-1, using 193 nm photolysis of CF_3C_2H as a source of C_2H. Two interleaved, rotationally resolved bands were observed, consistent with a 2Σ - 2Σ transition at 7088 cm-1 and a 2Π - 2Σ transition at 7108 cm-1, in good accord with the Tarroni and Carter calculation. Progress on the assignment and fitting of the spectra will be reported. Acknowledgements: Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was carried out under Contract No. DE-SC0012704 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, and supported by its Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. D. Forney, M.E. Jacox, and W.E. Thompson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 170, 178 (1995). R. Tarroni and S. Carter, Mol. Phys. 102, 2167 (2004)

  19. Near-Infrared Spectra of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marion, G. H.; Hoeflich, P.; Vacca, W. D.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    We report near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of 12 'branch-normal' Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that cover the wavelength region from 0.8 to 2.5 microns. Our sample more than doubles the number of SNe Ia with published NIR spectra within 3 weeks of maximum light. The epochs of observation range from 13 days before maximum light to 18 days after maximum light. A detailed model for a Type Ia supernovae is used to identify spectral features. The Doppler shifts of lines are measured to obtain the velocity and thus the radial distribution of elements. The NIR is an extremely useful tool to probe the chemical structure in the layers of SNe Ia ejecta. This wavelength region is optimal for examining certain products of the SNe Ia explosion that may be blended or obscured in other spectral regions. We identify spectral features from Mg II, Ca II, Si II, Fe II, Co II, Ni II, and possibly Mn II. We find no indications for hydrogen, helium, or carbon in the spectra. The spectral features reveal important clues about the physical characteristics of SNe Ia. We use the features to derive upper limits for the amount of unburned matter, to identify the transition regions from explosive carbon to oxygen burning and from partial to complete silicon burning, and to estimate the level of mixing during and after the explosion. Elements synthesized in the outer layers during the explosion appear to remain in distinct layers. That provides strong evidence for the presence of a detonation phase during the explosion as it occurs in delayed detonation or merger models. Mg II velocities are found to exceed 11,000 - 15,000 km/s, depending on the individual SNe Ia. That result suggests that burning during the explosion reaches the outermost layers of the progenitor and limits the amount of unburned material to less than 10% of the mass of the progenitor. Small residuals of unburned material are predicted by delayed detonation models but are inconsistent with pure deflagration or

  20. Near-Infrared Plasmon-Assisted Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Yoshiaki; Ueno, Kosei; Kotake, Yuki; Murakoshi, Kei; Inoue, Haruo; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2012-05-17

    We report the stoichiometric evolution of oxygen via water oxidation by irradiating a plasmon-enhanced photocurrent generation system with near-infrared light (λ: 1000 nm), in which gold nanostructures were arrayed on the surface of TiO2 electrode. It is considered that multiple electron holes generated by plasmon-induced charge excitation led to the effective recovery of water oxidation after the electron transfer from gold to TiO2. The proposed system containing a gold nanostructured TiO2 electrode may be a promising artificial photosynthetic system using near-infrared light.

  1. Near-infrared face recognition utilizing open CV software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellami, Louiza; Ngo, Hau; Fowler, Chris J.; Kearney, Liam M.

    2014-06-01

    Commercially available hardware, freely available algorithms, and authors' developed software are synergized successfully to detect and recognize subjects in an environment without visible light. This project integrates three major components: an illumination device operating in near infrared (NIR) spectrum, a NIR capable camera and a software algorithm capable of performing image manipulation, facial detection and recognition. Focusing our efforts in the near infrared spectrum allows the low budget system to operate covertly while still allowing for accurate face recognition. In doing so a valuable function has been developed which presents potential benefits in future civilian and military security and surveillance operations.

  2. HAFNIAN ZIRCONS

    SciT

    von Knorring, O.; Hornung, G.

    1961-06-17

    Two hafnia zircons were examined in detail, one from Mtoko in Southern Rhodesia, containing 21% HfO/sub 2/, and the other from Karibib in South-West Africa, with 31% HfO/sub 2/. In both cases the zircons are associated with the later tantalum-rich phase of mineralization. The Mtoko zircon forms small, mauve- colored, independent crystals in the albitic zone of the pegmatite. The zircon from Karibib occurs in larger reddish-brown masses, partly intergrown with minute manganotantalite crystals and set in a matrix of lithium-bearing mica, albite, quartz and kaolinized feldspar. Some crystals show dominant pyramid faces, with a suppressed prism. Both zircons exhibitmore » an intense golden-yellow fluorescence in UV light. The zircon from Karibib was found to be only weakly radioactive. Data are given concerning various properties of the two zircons. (P.C.H.)« less

  3. A Near-Infrared Spectrometer Based on Novel Grating Light Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Huang, Shanglian; Wang, Ning; Jin, Zhu; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Weimin

    2009-01-01

    A near-infrared spectrometer based on novel MOEMS grating light modulators is proposed. The spectrum detection method that combines a grating light modulator array with a single near-infrared detector has been applied. Firstly, optics theory has been used to analyze the essential principles of the proposed spectroscopic sensor. Secondly, the grating light modulators have been designed and fabricated by micro-machining technology. Finally, the principles of this spectroscopic sensor have been validated and its key parameters have been tested by experiments. The result shows that the spectral resolution is better than 10 nm, the wavelength deviation is less than 1 nm, the deviation of the intensity of peak wavelength is no more than 0.5%, the driving voltage of grating light modulators array device is below 25 V and the response frequency of it is about 5 kHz. With low cost, satisfactory precision, portability and other advantages, the spectrometer should find potential applications in food safety and quality monitoring, pharmaceutical identification and agriculture product quality classification. PMID:22574065

  4. A near-infrared spectrometer based on novel grating light modulators.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Huang, Shanglian; Wang, Ning; Jin, Zhu; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Weimin

    2009-01-01

    A near-infrared spectrometer based on novel MOEMS grating light modulators is proposed. The spectrum detection method that combines a grating light modulator array with a single near-infrared detector has been applied. Firstly, optics theory has been used to analyze the essential principles of the proposed spectroscopic sensor. Secondly, the grating light modulators have been designed and fabricated by micro-machining technology. Finally, the principles of this spectroscopic sensor have been validated and its key parameters have been tested by experiments. The result shows that the spectral resolution is better than 10 nm, the wavelength deviation is less than 1 nm, the deviation of the intensity of peak wavelength is no more than 0.5%, the driving voltage of grating light modulators array device is below 25 V and the response frequency of it is about 5 kHz. With low cost, satisfactory precision, portability and other advantages, the spectrometer should find potential applications in food safety and quality monitoring, pharmaceutical identification and agriculture product quality classification.

  5. Near-infrared instrumentation for rapid-response astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, John Isaac

    gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the Universe's most luminous transient events. Since the discovery of GRBs was announced in 1973, efforts have been ongoing to obtain data over a broader range of the electromagnetic spectrum at the earliest possible times following the initial detection. The discovery of the theorized "afterglow'' emission in radio through X-ray bands in the late 1990s confirmed the cosmological nature of these events. At present, GRB afterglows are among the best probes of the early Universe (z ≥ 9). In addition to informing theories about GRBs themselves, observations of afterglows probe the circum-burst medium (CBM), properties of the host galaxies and the progress of cosmic reionization. To explore the early-time variability of afterglows, I have developed a generalized analysis framework which models near-infrared (NIR), optical, ultra-violet (UV) and X-ray light curves without assuming an underlying model. These fits are then used to construct the spectral energy distribution (SED) of afterglows at arbitrary times within the observed window. Physical models are then used to explore the evolution of the SED parameter space with time. I demonstrate that this framework produces evidence of the photodestruction of dust in the CBM of GRB 120119A, similar to the findings from a previous study of this afterglow. The framework is additionally applied to the afterglows of GRB 140419A and GRB 080607. In these cases the evolution of the SEDs appears consistent with the standard fireball model. Having introduced the scientific motivations for early-time observations, I introduce the Rapid Infrared Imager-Spectrometer (RIMAS). Once commissioned on the 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT), RIMAS will be used to study the afterglows of GRBs through photometric and spectroscopic observations beginning within minutes of the initial burst. The instrument will operate in the NIR, from 0.97 microm to 2.37 microm, permitting the detection of very high

  6. Global View of Earth in the Near-Infrared

    1996-02-08

    This near-infrared photograph of the Earth was taken by the Galileo spacecraft at 6:07 a.m. PST on Dec. 11, 1990, at a range of about 1.32 million miles. South America is prominent near the center. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00226

  7. Comparative hazard evaluation of near-infrared diode lasers.

    PubMed

    Marshall, W J

    1994-05-01

    Hazard evaluation methods from various laser protection standards differ when applied to extended-source, near-infrared lasers. By way of example, various hazard analyses are applied to laser training systems, which incorporate diode lasers, specifically those that assist in training military or law enforcement personnel in the proper use of weapons by simulating actual firing by the substitution of a beam of near-infrared energy for bullets. A correct hazard evaluation of these lasers is necessary since simulators are designed to be directed toward personnel during normal use. The differences among laser standards are most apparent when determining the hazard class of a laser. Hazard classification is based on a comparison of the potential exposures with the maximum permissible exposures in the 1986 and 1993 versions of the American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, Z136.1, and the accessible emission limits of the federal laser product performance standard. Necessary safety design features of a particular system depend on the hazard class. The ANSI Z136.1-1993 standard provides a simpler and more accurate hazard assessment of low-power, near-infrared, diode laser systems than the 1986 ANSI standard. Although a specific system is evaluated, the techniques described can be readily applied to other near-infrared lasers or laser training systems.

  8. Social Perception in Infancy: A Near Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Blasi, Anna; Volein, Agnes; Everdell, Nick; Elwell, Claire E.; Johnson, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    The capacity to engage and communicate in a social world is one of the defining characteristics of the human species. While the network of regions that compose the social brain have been the subject of extensive research in adults, there are limited techniques available for monitoring young infants. This study used near infrared spectroscopy to…

  9. Cotton micronaire measurements by small portable near infrared (nir) analyzers

    A key quality and processing parameter for cotton fiber is micronaire, which is a function of the fiber’s maturity and fineness. Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has previously shown the ability to measure micronaire, primarily in the laboratory and using large, research-grade laboratory NIR instru...

  10. Near-infrared transillumination photography of intraocular tumours.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Jørgen; Ulltang, Erlend; Kjersem, Bård

    2013-10-01

    To present a technique for near-infrared transillumination imaging of intraocular tumours based on the modifications of a conventional digital slit lamp camera system. The Haag-Streit Photo-Slit Lamp BX 900 (Haag-Streit AG) was used for transillumination photography by gently pressing the tip of the background illumination cable against the surface of the patient's eye. Thus the light from the flash unit was transmitted into the eye, leading to improved illumination and image resolution. The modification for near-infrared photography was done by replacing the original camera with a Canon EOS 30D (Canon Inc) converted by Advanced Camera Services Ltd. In this camera, the infrared blocking filter was exchanged for a 720 nm long-pass filter, so that the near-infrared part of the spectrum was recorded by the sensor. The technique was applied in eight patients: three with anterior choroidal melanoma, three with ciliary body melanoma and two with ocular pigment alterations. The good diagnostic quality of the photographs made it possible to evaluate the exact location and extent of the lesions in relation to pigmented intraocular landmarks such as the ora serrata and ciliary body. The photographic procedure did not lead to any complications. We recommend near-infrared transillumination photography as a supplementary diagnostic tool for the evaluation and documentation of anteriorly located intraocular tumours.

  11. Pyropheophorbide A and c(RGDyK) comodified chitosan-wrapped upconversion nanoparticle for targeted near-infrared photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aiguo; Wei, Yanchun; Wu, Baoyan; Chen, Qun; Xing, Da

    2012-06-04

    Near-infrared (NIR)-to-visible upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP) has shown promising prospects in photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a drug carrier or energy donor. In this work, a photosensitizer pyropheophorbide a (Ppa) and RGD peptide c(RGDyK) comodified chitosan-wrapped NaYF(4):Yb/Er upconversion nanoparticle UCNP-Ppa-RGD was developed for targeted near-infrared photodynamic therapy. The properties of UCNP-Ppa-RGD, such as morphology, stability, optical spectroscopy and singlet oxygen generation efficiency, were investigated. The results show that covalently linked pyropheophorbide a molecule not only is stable but also retains its spectroscopic and functional properties. In vitro studies confirm a stronger targeting specificity of UCNP-Ppa-RGD to integrin α(v)β(3)-positive U87-MG cells compared with that in the corresponding negative group. The photosensitizer-attached nanostructure exhibited low dark toxicity and high phototoxicity against cancer cells upon 980 nm laser irradiation at an appropriate dosage. These results represent the first demonstration of a highly stable and efficient photosensitizer modified upconversion nanostructure for targeted near-infrared photodynamic therapy of cancer cells. The novel UCNP-Ppa-RGD nanoparticle may provide a powerful alternative for near-infrared photodynamic therapy with an improved tumor targeting specificity.

  12. VICS82: The VISTA–CFHT Stripe 82 Near-infrared Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geach, J. E.; Lin, Y.-T.; Makler, M.; Kneib, J.-P.; Ross, N. P.; Wang, W.-H.; Hsieh, B.-C.; Leauthaud, A.; Bundy, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Comparat, J.; Caminha, G. B.; Hudelot, P.; Lin, L.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Pereira, M. E. S.; Mast, D.

    2017-07-01

    We present the VISTA–CFHT Stripe 82 (VICS82) survey: a near-infrared (J+Ks) survey covering 150 square degrees of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) equatorial Stripe 82 to an average depth of J = 21.9 AB mag and Ks = 21.4 AB mag (80% completeness limits; 5σ point-source depths are approximately 0.5 mag brighter). VICS82 contributes to the growing legacy of multiwavelength data in the Stripe 82 footprint. The addition of near-infrared photometry to the existing SDSS Stripe 82 coadd ugriz photometry reduces the scatter in stellar mass estimates to δ {log}({M}\\star )≈ 0.3 dex for galaxies with {M}\\star > {10}9 {M}ȯ at z≈ 0.5, and offers improvement compared to optical-only estimates out to z≈ 1, with stellar masses constrained within a factor of approximately 2.5. When combined with other multiwavelength imaging of the Stripe, including moderate-to-deep ultraviolet (GALEX), optical and mid-infrared (Spitzer-IRAC) coverage, as well as tens of thousands of spectroscopic redshifts, VICS82 gives access to approximately 0.5 Gpc3 of comoving volume. Some of the main science drivers of VICS82 include (a) measuring the stellar mass function of {L}\\star galaxies out to z∼ 1; (b) detecting intermediate-redshift quasars at 2≲ z≲ 3.5; (c) measuring the stellar mass function and baryon census of clusters of galaxies, and (d) performing cross-correlation experiments of cosmic microwave background lensing in the optical/near-infrared that link stellar mass to large-scale dark matter structure. Here we define and describe the survey, highlight some early science results, and present the first public data release, which includes an SDSS-matched catalog as well as the calibrated pixel data themselves.

  13. Nonlinear femtosecond near infrared laser structuring in oxide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royon, Arnaud

    Three-dimensional femtosecond laser structuring has a growing interest because of its ease of implementation and the numerous possible applications in the domain of photonic components. Structures such as waveguides, diffraction gratings, optical memories or photonic crystals can be fabricated thanks to this technique. Its use with oxide glasses is promising because of several advantages; they are resistant to flux and ageing, their chemical composition can easily be changed to fit the well-defined requirements of an application. They can already be found in Raman amplifiers, optical fibers, fiber lasers, and other devices. This thesis is based on two axes. The first axis consists in characterizing the linear and nonlinear optical properties of bulk vitreous materials in order to optimize their composition with a particular application in view. Within this context, the nonlinear optical properties, their physical origins (electronic and nuclear) as well as their characteristic response times (from a few femtoseconds to a few hundreds of picoseconds) are described within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Fused silica and several sodium-borophosphate glasses containing different concentrations in niobium oxide have been studied. Results show that the nonlinear optical properties of fused silica are mainly from electronic origin, whereas in the sodium-borophosphate glasses, the contribution from nuclear origin becomes predominant when the concentration of niobium oxide exceeds 30%. The second axis is based on the structuring of materials. Three commercially available fused silica samples presenting different fabrication conditions (therefore distinct impurity levels) and irradiated with a near infrared femtosecond laser have been studied. The laser induced defects have been identified by means of several spectroscopic techniques. They show the formation of color centers as well as a densification inside the irradiated area. Their linear refractive index and

  14. Axial diffusion barriers in near-infrared nanopillar LEDs.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Adam C; Lin, Andrew; Haddad, Michael; Huffaker, Diana L

    2014-11-12

    The growth of GaAs/GaAsP axial heterostructures is demonstrated and implemented as diffusion current barriers in nanopillar light-emitting diodes at near-infrared wavelengths. The nanopillar light-emitting diodes utilize an n-GaAs/i-InGaAs/p-GaAs axial heterostructure for current injection. Axial GaAsP segments are inserted into the n- and p-GaAs portions of the nanopillars surrounding the InGaAs emitter region, acting as diffusion barriers to provide enhanced carrier confinement. Detailed characterization of growth of the GaAsP inserts and electronic band-offset measurements are used to effectively implement the GaAsP inserts as diffusion barriers. The implementation of these barriers in nanopillar light-emitting diodes provides a 5-fold increase in output intensity, making this a promising approach to high-efficiency pillar-based emitters in the near-infrared wavelength range.

  15. Phosphonated Near-Infrared Fluorophores for Biomedical Imaging of Bone**

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Hoon; Wada, Hideyuki; Bao, Kai; Gravier, Julien; Yadav, Yogesh; Laramie, Matt; Henary, Maged; Frangioni, John V.

    2014-01-01

    The conventional method for creating targeted contrast agents is to conjugate separate targeting and fluorophore domains. In this study we report a new strategy based on incorporation of targeting moieties into the non-resonant structure of pentamethine and heptamethine indocyanines. Using the known affinity of phosphonates for bone minerals as a model system, we have synthesized two families of bifunctional molecules that target bone without the need for a traditional bisphosphonate. With peak fluorescence emission at ≈ 700 nm or ≈ 800 nm, these molecules can be used for FLARE dual-channel imaging. Longitudinal FLARE studies in mice demonstrate that phosphonated near-infrared fluorophores remain stable in bone for over 5 weeks, and histological analysis demonstrates incorporation into bone matrix. Taken together, we describe a new strategy for creating ultracompact, targeted, near-infrared fluorophores for various bioimaging applications. PMID:25139079

  16. The near-infrared continuum emission of visual reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellgren, K.

    1984-01-01

    In the past, reflection nebulae have provided an astrophysical laboratory well suited for the study of the reflection properties of interstellar dust grains at visual and ultraviolet wavelengths. The present investigation is concerned with observations which were begun with the objective to extend to near-infrared wavelengths the study of grains in reflection. Observations of three classical visual reflection nebulae were conducted in the wavelength range from 1.25 to 2.2 microns, taking into account NGC 7023, 2023, and 2068. All three nebulae were found to have similar near-infrared colors, despite widely different colors of their illuminating stars. The brightness level shown by two of the nebulae at 2.2 microns was too high to be easily accounted for on the basis of reflected light. Attention is given to a wide variety of possible emission mechanisms.

  17. Near-infrared photodetector with reduced dark current

    DOEpatents

    Klem, John F; Kim, Jin K

    2012-10-30

    A photodetector is disclosed for the detection of near-infrared light with a wavelength in the range of about 0.9-1.7 microns. The photodetector, which can be formed as either an nBp device or a pBn device on an InP substrate, includes an InGaAs light-absorbing layer, an InAlGaAs graded layer, an InAlAs or InP barrier layer, and an InGaAs contact layer. The photodetector can detect near-infrared light with or without the use of an applied reverse-bias voltage and is useful as an individual photodetector, or to form a focal plane array.

  18. TIRCAM2: The TIFR near infrared imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, M. B.; Ojha, D. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; Poojary, S. S.; Jadhav, R. B.; Meshram, G. S.; Sandimani, P. R.; Bhagat, S. B.; D'Costa, S. L. A.; Gharat, S. M.; Bakalkar, C. B.; Ninan, J. P.; Joshi, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    TIRCAM2 (TIFR near infrared imaging camera - II) is a closed cycle cooled imager that has been developed by the Infrared Astronomy Group at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research for observations in the near infrared band of 1 to 3.7 μm with existing Indian telescopes. In this paper, we describe some of the technical details of TIRCAM2 and report its observing capabilities, measured performance and limiting magnitudes with the 2-m IUCAA Girawali telescope and the 1.2-m PRL Gurushikhar telescope. The main highlight is the camera's capability of observing in the nbL (3.59 mum) band enabling our primary motivation of mapping of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) emission at 3.3 mum.

  19. Aqueous synthesis of near-infrared highly fluorescent platinum nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Fernández, Jenifer; Trapiella-Alfonso, Laura; Costa-Fernández, José M.; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    A one-step synthesis of near infrared fluorescent platinum nanoclusters (PtNCs) in aqueous medium is described. The proposed optimized procedure for PtNC synthesis is rather simple, fast and it is based on the direct metal reduction with NaBH4. Bidentated thiol ligands (lipoic acid) were selected as nanoclusters stabilizers in water media. The structural characterization revealed attractive features of the PtNCs, including small size, high water solubility, near-infrared luminescence centered at 680 nm, long-term stability and the highest quantum yield in water reported so far (47%) for PtNCs. Moreover, their stability in different pH media and an ionic strength of 0.2 M NaCl was studied and no significant changes in fluorescence emission were detected. In brief, they offer a new type of fluorescent noble metal nanoprobe with a great potential to be applied in several fields, including biolabeling and imaging experiments.

  20. Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Hutteman, Merlijn; van der Vorst, Joost R.; van de Velde, C.J.H.; Frangioni, John V.

    2013-01-01

    Paradigm shifts in surgery arise when surgeons are empowered to perform surgery faster, better, and/or less expensively. Optical imaging that exploits invisible near-infrared fluorescent light has the potential to improve cancer surgery outcomes while minimizing anesthesia time and lowering healthcare costs. Because of this, the last few years have witnessed an explosion of proof-of-concept clinical trials in the field. In this review, we introduce the concept of near-infrared fluorescence imaging for cancer surgery, review the clinical trial literature to date, outline the key issues pertaining to imaging system and contrast agent optimization, discuss limitations and leverage, and provide a framework for making the technology available for the routine care of cancer patients in the near future. PMID:23881033

  1. [Application of near infrared spectroscopy technology (NIRS) in forage field].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Bai, Shi-Qie; Yan, Jia-Jun; Gan, You-Min; Dao, Zhi-Xue

    2012-07-01

    The majority of nutrients in ruminants and other herbivores come from forages. Forage quality not only affects the growth and production efficiency of livestock, but also determines the final output and quality of livestock products. Forage quality mainly depends on nutrient concentrations and their digestibility, palatability and the level of presence of antiquality factors and mycotoxins in forage. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used in many research areas because it is a inexpensive, rapid, simple and nondestructive technique offering the potential for qualitative and quantitative analysis. The present paper briefly introduces the principle and characteristics of NIRS, detailedly expounds the application of NIRS in forage quality. In addition, other applications of near infrared spectroscopy technique in forage are also discussed, including forage breeding, identification of variety and classification by kind. This paper comprehensively reviews the status quo of application of NIRS in forage filed, in order to contribute to promoting development of NIRS in this field in China.

  2. Imperial College near infrared spectroscopy neuroimaging analysis framework.

    PubMed

    Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Leff, Daniel R; James, David R C; Darzi, Ara W; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the Imperial College near infrared spectroscopy neuroimaging analysis (ICNNA) software tool for functional near infrared spectroscopy neuroimaging data. ICNNA is a MATLAB-based object-oriented framework encompassing an application programming interface and a graphical user interface. ICNNA incorporates reconstruction based on the modified Beer-Lambert law and basic processing and data validation capabilities. Emphasis is placed on the full experiment rather than individual neuroimages as the central element of analysis. The software offers three types of analyses including classical statistical methods based on comparison of changes in relative concentrations of hemoglobin between the task and baseline periods, graph theory-based metrics of connectivity and, distinctively, an analysis approach based on manifold embedding. This paper presents the different capabilities of ICNNA in its current version.

  3. LoCuSS: the near-infrared luminosity and weak-lensing mass scaling relation of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulroy, Sarah L.; Smith, Graham P.; Haines, Chris P.; Marrone, Daniel P.; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Pereira, Maria J.; Egami, Eiichi; Babul, Arif; Finoguenov, Alexis; Martino, Rossella

    2014-10-01

    We present the first scaling relation between weak-lensing galaxy cluster mass, MWL, and near-infrared luminosity, LK. Our results are based on 17 clusters observed with wide-field instruments on Subaru, the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, the Mayall Telescope, and the MMT. We concentrate on the relation between projected 2D weak-lensing mass and spectroscopically confirmed luminosity within 1 Mpc, modelled as M_WL ∝ LK^b, obtaining a power-law slope of b=0.83^{+0.27}_{-0.24} and an intrinsic scatter of σ _{lnM_WL|LK}=10^{+8}_{-5} per cent. Intrinsic scatter of ˜10 per cent is a consistent feature of our results regardless of how we modify our approach to measuring the relationship between mass and light. For example, deprojecting the mass and measuring both quantities within r500, that is itself obtained from the lensing analysis, yields σ _{lnM_WL|LK}=10^{+7}_{-5} per cent and b=0.97^{+0.17}_{-0.17}. We also find that selecting members based on their (J - K) colours instead of spectroscopic redshifts neither increases the scatter nor modifies the slope. Overall our results indicate that near-infrared luminosity measured on scales comparable with r500 (typically 1 Mpc for our sample) is a low scatter and relatively inexpensive proxy for weak-lensing mass. Near-infrared luminosity may therefore be a useful mass proxy for cluster cosmology experiments.

  4. Cryogenic Tm: YAG Laser in the Near Infrared

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-29

    Applications Group. The focus of his work at Lincoln Laboratory has been solid-state lasers including microchip lasers , external-cavity diode lasers ...REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) < Cryogenic Tm:YAG Laser in the Near Infrared* Tso Yee Fan...Senior Member, IEEE, Juan R. Ochoa, and Patricia A. Reed Abstract- Thulium laser operation on the 3H4 - 3H6 transition at 823 nm has been demonstrated

  5. Transrectal Near-Infrared Optical Tomography for Prostate Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 31-03-2010 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3...technology of trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography for accurate, selective prostate biopsy. Prostate cancer is the most common non ...mice and recovered/homogenized for injection into the non -immune suppressed dog’s prostate gland. Under general anesthesia, ~2 cc of TVT cells

  6. ARNICA, the Arcetri near-infrared camera: Astronomical performance assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, L. K.; Lisi, F.; Testi, L.; Baffa, C.; Borelli, S.; Maiolino, R.; Moriondo, G.; Stanga, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    The Arcetri near-infrared camera ARNICA was built as a users' instrument for the Infrared Telescope at Gornergrat (TIRGO), and is based on a 256x256 NICMOS 3 detector. In this paper, we discuss ARNICA's optical and astronomical performance at the TIRGO and at the William Herschel Telescope on La Palma. Optical performance is evaluated in terms of plate scale, distortion, point spread function, and ghosting. Astronomical performance is characterized by camera efficiency, sensitivity, and spatial uniformity of the photometry.

  7. Near-infrared emission from mesoporous crystalline germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucherif, Abderraouf; Korinek, Andreas; Aimez, Vincent; Arès, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Mesoporous crystalline germanium was fabricated by bipolar electrochemical etching of Ge wafer in HF-based electrolyte. It yields uniform mesoporous germanium layers composed of high density of crystallites with an average size 5-7 nm. Subsequent extended chemical etching allows tuning of crystallites size while preserving the same chemical composition. This highly controllable nanostructure exhibits photoluminescence emission above the bulk Ge bandgap, in the near-infrared range (1095-1360nm) with strong evidence of quantum confinement within the crystallites.

  8. [Near infrared spectroscopy study on water content in turbine oil].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2013-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for determination of water content in turbine oil. Through the 57 samples of different water content in turbine oil scanned applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, with the water content in the turbine oil of 0-0.156%, different pretreatment methods such as the original spectra, first derivative spectra and differential polynomial least squares fitting algorithm Savitzky-Golay (SG), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices, accordingly water content in turbine oil was investigated. The results indicated that the original spectra with different water content in turbine oil were pretreated by the performance of first derivative + SG pretreatments, then the selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of least square support vector machine (LS-SVM). A total of 16 variables selected by SPA were employed to construct the model of SPA and least square support vector machine (SPA-LS-SVM). There is 9 as The correlation coefficient was 0.975 9 and the root of mean square error of validation set was 2.655 8 x 10(-3) using the model, and it is feasible to determine the water content in oil using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in on-line monitoring of contamination such as water content in oil.

  9. PNIC - A near infrared camera for testing focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hereld, Mark; Harper, D. A.; Pernic, R. J.; Rauscher, Bernard J.

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes the design and the performance of the Astrophysical Research Consortium prototype near-infrared camera (pNIC) designed to test focal plane arrays both on and off the telescope. Special attention is given to the detector in pNIC, the mechanical and optical designs, the electronics, and the instrument interface. Experiments performed to illustrate the most salient aspects of pNIC are described.

  10. Early caries imaging and monitoring with near-infrared light.

    PubMed

    Fried, Daniel; Featherstone, John D B; Darling, Cynthia L; Jones, Robert S; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Bühler, Christopher M

    2005-10-01

    Enamel is highly transparent in the near infrared (NIR); therefore, this region of the electromagnetic spectrum is suited ideally for the development of new optical diagnostic tools for the detection and imaging of early dental caries. This article discusses the NIR optical properties of sound and demineralized dental enamel and the potential use of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and NIR transillumination for the imaging of dental caries.

  11. GNIRS-DQS: A Gemini Near Infrared Spectrograph Distant Quasar Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Brandon; Shemmer, Ohad; Brotherton, Michael S.; Andruchow, Ileana; Boroson, Todd A.; Brandt, W. Niel; Cellone, Sergio; Ferrero, Gabriel; Gallagher, Sarah; Green, Richard F.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Lira, Paulina; Myers, Adam D.; Plotkin, Richard; Richards, Gordon T.; Runnoe, Jessie; Schneider, Donald P.; Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Willott, Chris J.; Wills, Beverley J.

    2018-06-01

    We describe an ongoing three-year Gemini survey, launched in 2017, that will obtain near-infrared spectroscopy of 416 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars between redshifts of 1.5 and 3.5 in the ~1.0-2.5 μm band. These spectra will cover critical diagnostic emission lines, such as Mg II, Hβ, and [O III], in each source. This project will more than double the existing inventory of near-infrared spectra of luminous quasars at these redshifts, including the era of fast quasar growth. Additional rest frame ultraviolet coverage of at least the C IV emission line is provided by the SDSS spectrum of each source. We will utilize the spectroscopic inventory to determine the most accurate and precise quasar black hole masses, accretion rates, and redshifts, and use the results to derive improved prescriptions for UV-based proxies for these parameters. The improved redshifts will establish velocities of quasar outflows that interact with the host galaxies, and will help constrain how imprecise distance estimates bias quasar clustering measurements. Furthermore, our measurements will facilitate a more complete understanding of how the rest-frame UV-optical spectral properties depend on redshift and luminosity, and test whether the physical properties of the quasar central engine evolve over cosmic time. We will make our data immediately available to the public, provide reduced spectra via a dedicated website, and produce a catalog of measurements and fundamental quasar properties.

  12. The Use of NASA Light-Emitting Diode Near-Infrared Technology for Biostimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whelan, Harry T.

    2002-01-01

    Studies on cells exposed to microgravity and hypergravity indicate that human cells need gravity to stimulate growth. As the gravitational force increases or decreases, the cell function responds in a linear fashion. This poses significant health risks for astronauts in long-term spaceflight. The application of light therapy with the use of NASA LEDs will significantly improve the medical care that is available to astronauts on long-term space missions. NASA LEDs stimulate the basic energy processes in the mitochondria (energy compartments) of each cell, particularly when near-infrared light is used to activate the color sensitive chemicals (chromophores, cytochrome systems) inside. Optimal LED wavelengths include 680, 730 and 880 nm and our laboratory has improved the healing of wounds in laboratory animals by using both NASA LED light and hyperbaric oxygen. Furthermore, DNA synthesis in fibroblasts and muscle cells has been quintupled using NASA LED light alone, in a single application combining 680, 730 and 880 nm each at 4 Joules per centimeter squared. Muscle and bone atrophy are well documented in astronauts, and various minor injuries occurring in space have been reported not to heal until landing on Earth. An LED blanket device may be used for the prevention of bone and muscle atrophy in astronauts. The depth of near-infrared light penetration into human tissue has been measured spectroscopically.

  13. Flame: A Flexible Data Reduction Pipeline for Near-Infrared and Optical Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belli, Sirio; Contursi, Alessandra; Davies, Richard I.

    2018-05-01

    We present flame, a pipeline for reducing spectroscopic observations obtained with multi-slit near-infrared and optical instruments. Because of its flexible design, flame can be easily applied to data obtained with a wide variety of spectrographs. The flexibility is due to a modular architecture, which allows changes and customizations to the pipeline, and relegates the instrument-specific parts to a single module. At the core of the data reduction is the transformation from observed pixel coordinates (x, y) to rectified coordinates (λ, γ). This transformation consists in the polynomial functions λ(x, y) and γ(x, y) that are derived from arc or sky emission lines and slit edge tracing, respectively. The use of 2D transformations allows one to wavelength-calibrate and rectify the data using just one interpolation step. Furthermore, the γ(x, y) transformation includes also the spatial misalignment between frames, which can be measured from a reference star observed simultaneously with the science targets. The misalignment can then be fully corrected during the rectification, without having to further resample the data. Sky subtraction can be performed via nodding and/or modeling of the sky spectrum; the combination of the two methods typically yields the best results. We illustrate the pipeline by showing examples of data reduction for a near-infrared instrument (LUCI at the Large Binocular Telescope) and an optical one (LRIS at the Keck telescope).

  14. A near-infrared SETI experiment: instrument overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Shelley A.; Werthimer, Dan; Treffers, Richard R.; Maire, Jérôme; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Stone, Remington P. S.; Drake, Frank; Meyer, Elliot; Dorval, Patrick; Siemion, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    We are designing and constructing a new SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) instrument to search for direct evidence of interstellar communications via pulsed laser signals at near-infrared wavelengths. The new instrument design builds upon our past optical SETI experiences, and is the first step toward a new, more versatile and sophisticated generation of very fast optical and near-infrared pulse search devices. We present our instrumental design by giving an overview of the opto-mechanical design, detector selection and characterization, signal processing, and integration procedure. This project makes use of near-infrared (950 - 1650 nm) discrete amplification Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) that have > 1 GHz bandwidths with low noise characteristics and moderate gain (~104). We have investigated the use of single versus multiple detectors in our instrument (see Maire et al., this conference), and have optimized the system to have both high sensitivity and low false coincidence rates. Our design is optimized for use behind a 1m telescope and includes an optical camera for acquisition and guiding. A goal is to make our instrument relatively economical and easy to duplicate. We describe our observational setup and our initial search strategies for SETI targets, and for potential interesting compact astrophysical objects.

  15. [Theragnostic approaches using gold nanorods and near infrared light].

    PubMed

    Niidome, Takuro; Shiotani, Atsushi; Akiyama, Yasuyuki; Ohga, Akira; Nose, Keisuke; Pissuwan, Dakrong; Niidome, Yasuro

    2010-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles have unique optical properties such as surface-plasmon and photothermal effects. Such properties have resulted in gold nanoparticles having several clinical applications. Gold nanorods (which are rod-shaped gold nanoparticles) show a surface plasmon band in the near-infrared region. They have therefore been proposed as contrast agents for bioimaging, or as heating devices for photothermal therapy. Polyethylene glycol-modified gold nanorods systemically administrated into mice can be detected with integrating sphere, and the stability of the gold nanorods in blood flow evaluated. After intravenous injection of gold nanorods followed by near-infrared laser irradiation, significant tumor damage triggered by the photothermal effect was observed. To deliver gold nanorods to the target tissue, thermosensitive polymer gel-coated gold nanorods were prepared. After intravenous injection of the gel-modified gold nanorods and irradiation of the tumor, a larger amount of gold was detected in the irradiated tumor than in the non-irradiated tumor. This effect is due to the hydrophobic interaction between the cellular membrane or the extracellular matrix and the gel surfaces induced by the photothermal effect. Furthermore, the photothermal effect enhanced the permeability of the stratum corneum of the skin. As a result of treatment of the skin with ovalbumin and gold nanorods followed by near-infrared light irradiation, a significant amount of protein was detected in the skin. The gold nanorods therefore showed several functions as a photothermal nanodevice for bioimaging, thermal therapy, and a drug delivery system.

  16. Near-Infrared Fluorescent Materials for Sensing of Biological Targets

    PubMed Central

    Amiot, Carrie L.; Xu, Shuping; Liang, Song; Pan, Lingyun; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) materials are promising labeling reagents for sensitive determination and imaging of biological targets. In the near-infrared region biological samples have low background fluorescence signals, providing high signal to noise ratio. Meanwhile, near-infrared radiation can penetrate into sample matrices deeply due to low light scattering. Thus, in vivo and in vitro imaging of biological samples can be achieved by employing the NIRF probes. To take full advantage of NIRF materials in the biological and biomedical field, one of the key issues is to develop intense and biocompatible NIRF probes. In this review, a number of NIRF materials are discussed including traditional NIRF dye molecules, newly developed NIRF quantum dots and single-walled carbon nanotubes, as well as rare earth metal compounds. The use of some NIRF materials in various nanostructures is illustrated. The enhancement of NIRF using metal nanostructures is covered as well. The fluorescence mechanism and bioapplications of each type of the NIRF materials are discussed in details. PMID:27879867

  17. IR CMOS: near infrared enhanced digital imaging (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralle, Martin U.; Carey, James E.; Joy, Thomas; Vineis, Chris J.; Palsule, Chintamani

    2015-08-01

    SiOnyx has demonstrated imaging at light levels below 1 mLux (moonless starlight) at video frame rates with a 720P CMOS image sensor in a compact, low latency camera. Low light imaging is enabled by the combination of enhanced quantum efficiency in the near infrared together with state of the art low noise image sensor design. The quantum efficiency enhancements are achieved by applying Black Silicon, SiOnyx's proprietary ultrafast laser semiconductor processing technology. In the near infrared, silicon's native indirect bandgap results in low absorption coefficients and long absorption lengths. The Black Silicon nanostructured layer fundamentally disrupts this paradigm by enhancing the absorption of light within a thin pixel layer making 5 microns of silicon equivalent to over 300 microns of standard silicon. This results in a demonstrate 10 fold improvements in near infrared sensitivity over incumbent imaging technology while maintaining complete compatibility with standard CMOS image sensor process flows. Applications include surveillance, nightvision, and 1064nm laser see spot. Imaging performance metrics will be discussed. Demonstrated performance characteristics: Pixel size : 5.6 and 10 um Array size: 720P/1.3Mpix Frame rate: 60 Hz Read noise: 2 ele/pixel Spectral sensitivity: 400 to 1200 nm (with 10x QE at 1064nm) Daytime imaging: color (Bayer pattern) Nighttime imaging: moonless starlight conditions 1064nm laser imaging: daytime imaging out to 2Km

  18. Controlling plasmonic properties of epitaxial thin films of indium tin oxide in the near-infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamakura, R.; Fujita, K.; Murai, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2015-06-01

    Epitaxial thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) were grown on yttria-stabilized zirconia single-crystal substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition to examine their plasmonic properties. The dielectric function of ITO was characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Through the concentration of SnO2 in the target, the carrier concentration in the films was modified, which directly leads to the tuning of the dielectric function in the near-infrared region. Variable-angle reflectance spectroscopy in the Kretschmann geometry shows the dip in the reflection spectrum of p-polarized light corresponding to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritions (SPPs) in the near-infrared region. The excitation wavelength of the SPPs was shifted with changing the dielectric functions of ITO, which is reproduced by the calculation using transfer matrix method.

  19. Near-infrared Characterization of the Atmospheres of Alien Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croll, Bryce

    In this thesis I present near-infrared detections of the thermal emission of a number of hot Jupiters and likely transit depth differences from different wavelength observations of a super-Earth. I have pioneered "Staring Mode" using the Wide-field Infrared Camera on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope to achieve the most accurate photometry to-date in the near- infrared from the ground. I also discuss avenues that should allow one to achieve even more accurate photometry in the future. Using WIRCam on CFHT my collaborators and I have detected the thermal emission of the following hot Jupiters: TrES-2b and TrES-3b in Ks-band, WASP-12b in the J, H & Ks-bands, and WASP-3b in the Ks-band on two occasions. Near- infrared detections of the thermal emission of hot Jupiters are important, because the majority of these planets' blackbodies peak in this wavelength range; near-infrared detections allow us to obtain the most model-independent constraints on these planets' atmospheric characteristics, their temperature-pressure profiles with depth and an estimate of their bolometric luminosities. With these detections we are able to answer such questions as: how efficiently these planets redistribute heat to their nightsides, if they're being inflated by tidal heating, whether there's any evidence that one of these planets is precessing, and whether another experiences extreme weather and violent storms? My collaborators and I have also observed several transits of the super-Earth GJ 1214b. We find a deeper transit depth in one of our near-infrared bands than the other. This is likely indicative of a spectral absorption feature. For the differences in the transit depth to be as large as we observed, the atmosphere of GJ 1214b must have a large scale height, low mean molecular weight and thus have a hydrogen/helium dominated atmosphere. Given that other researchers have not found similar transit depth differences, we also discuss the most likely atmospheric makeup for this

  20. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of single optically trapped biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Changan; Dinno, Mumtaz A.; Li, Yong-Qing

    2002-02-01

    We report on the development and testing of a compact laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) system. The system combines optical trapping and near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for manipulation and identification of single biological cells in solution. A low-power diode laser at 785 nm was used for both trapping and excitation for Raman spectroscopy of the suspended microscopic particles. The design of the LTRS system provides high sensitivity and permits real-time spectroscopic measurements of the biological sample. The system was calibrated by use of polystyrene microbeads and tested on living blood cells and on both living and dead yeast cells. As expected, different images and Raman spectra were observed for the different cells. The LTRS system may provide a valuable tool for the study of fundamental cellular processes and the diagnosis of cellular disorders.

  1. Near-near-infrared thermal lens spectroscopy to assess overtones and combination bands of sulfentrazone pesticide.

    PubMed

    Ventura, M; Silva, J R; Andrade, L H C; Scorza Júnior, R P; Lima, S M

    2018-01-05

    Thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS) in the near-near-infrared region was used to explore the absorptions of overtones and combination bands of sulfentrazone (SFZ) herbicide diluted in methanol. This spectroscopic region was chosen in order to guarantee that only thermal lens effect is noted during the experimental procedure. The results showed that it was possible to detect very low concentrations (~2ng/μL) of SFZ in methanol by determining its thermal diffusivity or the absorption coefficient due to the 3ν(NH)+1δ(CH) combination band. This minimum SFZ concentration is the limit observed by chromatography method. The findings demonstrated that the TLS can be used for precise and accurate assessment of pesticides in ecosystems. Besides, the 3ν(NH)+1δ(CH) combination band at 960nm can be used as a marker for SFZ in methanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Near-near-infrared thermal lens spectroscopy to assess overtones and combination bands of sulfentrazone pesticide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, M.; Silva, J. R.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Scorza Júnior, R. P.; Lima, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS) in the near-near-infrared region was used to explore the absorptions of overtones and combination bands of sulfentrazone (SFZ) herbicide diluted in methanol. This spectroscopic region was chosen in order to guarantee that only thermal lens effect is noted during the experimental procedure. The results showed that it was possible to detect very low concentrations ( 2 ng/μL) of SFZ in methanol by determining its thermal diffusivity or the absorption coefficient due to the 3ν(NH) + 1δ(CH) combination band. This minimum SFZ concentration is the limit observed by chromatography method. The findings demonstrated that the TLS can be used for precise and accurate assessment of pesticides in ecosystems. Besides, the 3ν(NH) + 1δ(CH) combination band at 960 nm can be used as a marker for SFZ in methanol.

  3. Near Infrared Luminescence Properties of Mn(5+): Ca5(PO4)3F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Valetta R.; Hoemmerich, Uwe; Loutts, George B.

    1997-01-01

    We report a spectroscopic investigation of Mn(5+) doped Ca5(PO4)(sub 3)F or FAP. Mn(5+) doped crystals have recently attracted world wide attention for potential solid-state laser applications. Following optical excitation of Mn: FAP with the 600 nm output of a Nd: YAG OPO laser system, we observed a strong near infrared luminescence centered at around 1150 nm. The room temperature luminescence decay time was measured to be approximately 635 microseconds. We attribute the infrared luminescence to the(1)E yields (3)A2 transition of tetrahedrally coordinated Mn5+ ions located in a strong crystal field environment. Absorption, luminescence and lifetime data of Mn: FAP will be presented and discussed.

  4. The Hubble Space Telescope: UV, Visible, and Near-Infrared Pursuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope continues to push the limits on world-class astrophysics. Cameras including the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the new panchromatic Wide Field Camera 3 which was installed nu last year's successful servicing mission S2N4,o{fer imaging from near-infrared through ultraviolet wavelengths. Spectroscopic studies of sources from black holes to exoplanet atmospheres are making great advances through the versatile use of STIS, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The new Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, also installed last year, is the most sensitive UV spectrograph to fly io space and is uniquely suited to address particular scientific questions on galaxy halos, the intergalactic medium, and the cosmic web. With these outstanding capabilities on HST come complex needs for laboratory astrophysics support including atomic and line identification data. I will provide an overview of Hubble's current capabilities and the scientific programs and goals that particularly benefit from the studies of laboratory astrophysics.

  5. Visible/near-infrared spectra of experimentally shocked plagioclase feldspars

    Johnson, J. R.; Horz, F.

    2003-01-01

    High shock pressures cause structural changes in plagioclase feldspars such as mechanical fracturing and disaggregation of the crystal lattice at submicron scales, the formation of diaplectic glass (maskelynite), and genuine melting. Past studies of visible/ near-infrared spectra of shocked feldspars demonstrated few spectral variations with pressure except for a decrease in the depth of the absorption feature near 1250-1300 nm and an overall decrease in reflectance. New visible/near-infrared spectra (400-2500 nm) of experimentally shocked (17-56 GPa) albite- and anorthite-rich rock powders demonstrate similar trends, including the loss of minor hydrated mineral bands near 1410, 1930, 2250, and 2350 nm. However, the most interesting new observations are increases in reflectance at intermediate pressures, followed by subsequent decreases in reflectance at higher pressures. The amount of internal scattering and overall sample reflectance is controlled by the relative proportions of micro-fractures, submicron grains, diaplectic glass, and melts formed during shock metamorphism. We interpret the observed reflectance increases at intermediate pressures to result from progressively larger proportions of submicron feldspar grains and diaplectic glass. The ensuing decreases in reflectance occur after diaplectic glass formation is complete and the proportion of genuine melt inclusions increases. The pressure regimes over which these reflectance variations occur differ between albite and anorthite, consistent with thermal infrared spectra of these samples and previous studies of shocked feldspars. These types of spectral variations associated with different peak shock pressures should be considered during interpretation and modeling of visible/near-infrared remotely sensed spectra of planetary and asteroidal surfaces.

  6. Red and near-infrared spectral reflectance of snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, H. W.; Munis, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    The spectral reflectance of snow in the range of 0.60 to 2.50 microns wavelengths was studied in a cold laboratory using natural snow and simulated preparations of snow. A white barium sulfate powder was used as the standard for comparison. The high reflectance (usually nearly 100%) of fresh natural snow in visible wavelengths declines rapidly at wavelengths longer than the visible, as the spectral absorption coefficients of ice increase. Aging snow becomes only somewhat less reflective than fresh snow in the visible region and usually retains a reflectance greater than 80%. In the near infrared, aging snow tends to become considerably less reflective than fresh snow.

  7. Near infrared photographic sky survey - A field index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossano, G. S.; Craine, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    The book presents an index of previously cataloged objects located in the fields of the northern sky included in the Steward Observatory Near Infrared Photographic Sky Survey, which was intended to be used for identification purposes in an effort to locate extremely red objects. The objects included in the index were taken from 16 catalogs of bright nebulae, dark nebulae, infrared objects, reflection nebulae, supernova remnants and other objects, and appear with their corresponding field numbers, computed field center coordinates, object name and 1950 epoch equatorial coordinates, as well as supplementary descriptive information as available. An appendix is also provided in which the center coordinates of each field are listed.

  8. Review of near-infrared methods for wound assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowa, Michael G.; Kuo, Wen-Chuan; Ko, Alex C.-T.; Armstrong, David G.

    2016-09-01

    Wound management is a challenging and costly problem that is growing in importance as people are living longer. Instrumental methods are increasingly being relied upon to provide objective measures of wound assessment to help guide management. Technologies that employ near-infrared (NIR) light form a prominent contingent among the existing and emerging technologies. We review some of these technologies. Some are already established, such as indocyanine green fluorescence angiography, while we also speculate on others that have the potential to be clinically relevant to wound monitoring and assessment. These various NIR-based technologies address clinical wound management needs along the entire healing trajectory of a wound.

  9. Near infrared fluorescence for image-guided surgery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) image-guided surgery holds great promise for improved surgical outcomes. A number of NIR image-guided surgical systems are currently in preclinical and clinical development with a few approved for limited clinical use. In order to wield the full power of NIR image-guided surgery, clinically available tissue and disease specific NIR fluorophores with high signal to background ratio are necessary. In the current review, the status of NIR image-guided surgery is discussed along with the desired chemical and biological properties of NIR fluorophores. Lastly, tissue and disease targeting strategies for NIR fluorophores are reviewed. PMID:23256079

  10. Near-infrared fluorescent proteins for multicolor in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescent proteins are in high demand for in vivo imaging. We developed four spectrally distinct fluorescent proteins, iRFP670, iRFP682, iRFP702, and iRFP720, from bacterial phytochromes. iRFPs exhibit high brightness in mammalian cells and tissues and are suitable for long-term studies. iRFP670 and iRFP720 enable two-color imaging in living cells and mice using standard approaches. Five iRFPs including previously engineered iRFP713 allow multicolor imaging in living mice with spectral unmixing. PMID:23770755

  11. JWST Near-Infrared Detectors: Latest Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Erin C.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Alexander, David; Brambora, Clifford K.; Chiao, Meng; Clemons, Brian L.; Derro, Rebecca; Engler, Chuck; Fox, Ori; Garrison, Matthew B.; hide

    2009-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope, an infrared-optimized space telescope being developed by NASA for launch in 2013, will utilize cutting-edge detector technology in its investigation of fundamental questions in astrophysics. JWST's near infrared spectrograph, NIRSpec utilizes two 2048 x 2048 HdCdTe arrays with Sidecar ASIC readout electronics developed by Teledyne to provide spectral coverage from 0.6 microns to 5 microns. We present recent test and calibration results for the NIRSpec flight arrays as well as data processing routines for noise reduction and cosmic ray rejection.

  12. Detection of bottled liquid explosives by near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hide; Miyamura, Ryu; Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    Bottled liquids are limited to be brought in the airplane, because liquid explosives have been used in some terrorist attaches recently. A bottled liquid scanner is expected to be developed. Liquid scanner using near infrared technologies is being developed by us. Many spectrum of liquids have been collected and analyzed by chemometorics in order to separate safe beverage to explosive and dangerous liquids. This bottled liquid scanner had feasibility tests in some international airport in Japan and obtained good review from security people in the airport.

  13. Near-Infrared Fluorescence-Enhanced Optical Tomography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging using near-infrared (NIR) light developed for in vivo molecular targeting and reporting of cancer provides promising opportunities for diagnostic imaging. The current state of the art of NIR fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography is reviewed in the context of the principle of fluorescence, the different measurement schemes employed, and the mathematical tools established to tomographically reconstruct the fluorescence optical properties in various tissue domains. Finally, we discuss the recent advances in forward modeling and distributed memory parallel computation to provide robust, accurate, and fast fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography. PMID:27803924

  14. Near-Infrared Fluorescence-Enhanced Optical Tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Banghe; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging using near-infrared (NIR) light developed for in vivo molecular targeting and reporting of cancer provides promising opportunities for diagnostic imaging. The current state of the art of NIR fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography is reviewed in the context of the principle of fluorescence, the different measurement schemes employed, and the mathematical tools established to tomographically reconstruct the fluorescence optical properties in various tissue domains. Finally, we discuss the recent advances in forward modeling and distributed memory parallel computation to provide robust, accurate, and fast fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography.

  15. Note: Wearable near-infrared spectroscopy imager for haired region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Atsumori, H.; Fukasaku, I.; Kumagai, Y.; Funane, T.; Maki, A.; Kasai, Y.; Ninomiya, A.

    2012-05-01

    A wearable optical topography system was developed that is based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for observing brain activity noninvasively including in regions covered by hair. An avalanche photo diode, high voltage dc-dc converter, and preamplifier were placed in an electrically shielded case to be safely mounted on the head. Rubber teeth and a glass rod were prepared to clear away hair and reach the scalp. These devices realized for the first time a wearable NIRS imager for any region of the cortex. The activity in the motor cortex during finger tapping was successfully observed.

  16. Targeted vertical cross-sectional imaging with handheld near-infrared dual axes confocal fluorescence endomicroscope

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhen; Liu, Zhongyao; Duan, Xiyu; Khondee, Supang; Joshi, Bishnu; Mandella, Michael J.; Oldham, Kenn; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Wang, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate vertical cross-sectional (XZ-plane) images of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence with a handheld dual axes confocal endomicroscope that reveals specific binding of a Cy5.5-labeled peptide to pre-malignant colonic mucosa. This view is perpendicular to the tissue surface, and is similar to that used by pathologists. The scan head is 10 mm in outer diameter (OD), and integrates a one dimensional (1-D) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) X-axis scanner and a bulky lead zirconate titanate (PZT) based Z-axis actuator. The microscope images in a raster-scanning pattern with a ±6 degrees (mechanical) scan angle at ~3 kHz in the X-axis (fast) and up to 10 Hz (0–400 μm) in the Z-axis (slow). Vertical cross-sectional fluorescence images are collected with a transverse and axial resolution of 4 and 5 μm, respectively, over a field-of-view of 800 μm (width) × 400 μm (depth). NIR vertical cross-sectional fluorescence images of fresh mouse colonic mucosa demonstrate histology-like imaging performance with this miniature instrument. PMID:23412564

  17. Targeted vertical cross-sectional imaging with handheld near-infrared dual axes confocal fluorescence endomicroscope.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhen; Liu, Zhongyao; Duan, Xiyu; Khondee, Supang; Joshi, Bishnu; Mandella, Michael J; Oldham, Kenn; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Wang, Thomas D

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate vertical cross-sectional (XZ-plane) images of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence with a handheld dual axes confocal endomicroscope that reveals specific binding of a Cy5.5-labeled peptide to pre-malignant colonic mucosa. This view is perpendicular to the tissue surface, and is similar to that used by pathologists. The scan head is 10 mm in outer diameter (OD), and integrates a one dimensional (1-D) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) X-axis scanner and a bulky lead zirconate titanate (PZT) based Z-axis actuator. The microscope images in a raster-scanning pattern with a ±6 degrees (mechanical) scan angle at ~3 kHz in the X-axis (fast) and up to 10 Hz (0-400 μm) in the Z-axis (slow). Vertical cross-sectional fluorescence images are collected with a transverse and axial resolution of 4 and 5 μm, respectively, over a field-of-view of 800 μm (width) × 400 μm (depth). NIR vertical cross-sectional fluorescence images of fresh mouse colonic mucosa demonstrate histology-like imaging performance with this miniature instrument.

  18. Subaru Near Infrared Coronagraphic Images of T Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayama, Satoshi; Tamura, Motohide; Hayashi, Masahiko; Itoh, Yoichi; Fukagawa, Misato; Suto, Hiroshi; Ishii, Miki; Murakawa, Koji; Oasa, Yumiko; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Yamashita, Takuya; Morino, Junichi; Oya, Shin; Naoi, Takahiro; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Nishikawa, Takayuki; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Usuda, Tomonori; Ando, Hiroyasu; Miyama, Shoken M.; Kaifu, Norio

    2006-04-01

    High angular resolution near-infrared (JHK) adaptive optics images of T Tau were obtained with the infrared camera Coronagraphic Imager with Adaptive Optics (CIAO) mounted on the 8.2m Subaru Telescope in 2002 and 2004. The images resolve a complex circumstellar structure around a multiple system. We resolved T Tau Sa and Sb as well as T Tau N and S. The estimated orbit of T Tau Sb indicates that it is probably bound to T Tau Sa. The K band flux of T Tau S decreased by ˜ 1.7 Jy in 2002 November compared with that in 2001 mainly because T Tau Sa became fainter. The arc-like ridge detected in our near-infrared images is consistent with what is seen at visible wavelengths, supporting the interpretation in previous studies that the arc is part of the cavity wall seen relatively pole-on. Halo emission is detected out to ˜2''from T Tau N. This may be light scattered off the common envelope surrounding the T Tauri multiple system.

  19. A robust quantitative near infrared modeling approach for blend monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Shikhar; Momose, Wataru; Katz, Jeffrey M; Hossain, Md Nayeem; Velez, Natasha; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A

    2018-01-30

    This study demonstrates a material sparing Near-Infrared modeling approach for powder blend monitoring. In this new approach, gram scale powder mixtures are subjected to compression loads to simulate the effect of scale using an Instron universal testing system. Models prepared by the new method development approach (small-scale method) and by a traditional method development (blender-scale method) were compared by simultaneously monitoring a 1kg batch size blend run. Both models demonstrated similar model performance. The small-scale method strategy significantly reduces the total resources expended to develop Near-Infrared calibration models for on-line blend monitoring. Further, this development approach does not require the actual equipment (i.e., blender) to which the method will be applied, only a similar optical interface. Thus, a robust on-line blend monitoring method can be fully developed before any large-scale blending experiment is viable, allowing the blend method to be used during scale-up and blend development trials. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber

    SciT

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Pei Ho, Chong; Institute of Microelectronics

    2014-05-19

    We experimentally demonstrate a micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber by integrating the metamaterial layer to be the out of plane movable microactuator. The metamaterial layer is electrostatically actuated by applying voltage across the suspended complementary metamaterial layer and the stationary bottom metallic reflector. Thus, the effective spacing between the metamaterial layer and bottom metal reflector is varied as a function of applied voltage. With the reduction of effective spacing between the metamaterial and reflector layers, a strong spectral blue shift in the peak absorption wavelength can be achieved. With spacing change of 300 nm, the spectral shift of 0.7 μmmore » in peak absorption wavelength was obtained for near infrared spectral region. The electro-optic switching performance of the device was characterized, and a striking switching contrast of 1500% was achieved at 2.1 μm. The reported micro-electro-mechanically tunable complementary metamaterial absorber device can potentially enable a wide range of high performance electro-optical devices, such as continuously tunable filters, modulators, and electro-optic switches that form the key components to facilitate future photonic circuit applications.« less

  1. Airborne laser systems for atmospheric sounding in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Jia, Huamin; Zammit-Mangion, David

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents new techniques for atmospheric sounding using Near Infrared (NIR) laser sources, direct detection electro-optics and passive infrared imaging systems. These techniques allow a direct determination of atmospheric extinction and, through the adoption of suitable inversion algorithms, the indirect measurement of some important natural and man-made atmospheric constituents, including Carbon Dioxide (CO2). The proposed techniques are suitable for remote sensing missions performed by using aircraft, satellites, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), parachute/gliding vehicles, Roving Surface Vehicles (RSV), or Permanent Surface Installations (PSI). The various techniques proposed offer relative advantages in different scenarios. All are based on measurements of the laser energy/power incident on target surfaces of known geometric and reflective characteristics, by means of infrared detectors and/or infrared cameras calibrated for radiance. Experimental results are presented relative to ground and flight trials performed with laser systems operating in the near infrared (NIR) at λ = 1064 nm and λ = 1550 nm. This includes ground tests performed with 10 Hz and 20 KHz PRF NIR laser systems in a variety of atmospheric conditions, and flight trials performed with a 10 Hz airborne NIR laser system installed on a TORNADO aircraft, flying up to altitudes of 22,000 ft above ground level. Future activities are planned to validate the atmospheric retrieval algorithms developed for CO2 column density measurements, with emphasis on aircraft related emissions at airports and other high air-traffic density environments.

  2. Pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laufer, Jan G.; Elwell, Clare E.; Delpy, Dave T.; Beard, Paul C.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use pulsed near infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy to determine the oxygen saturation (SO2) of a saline suspension of red blood cells in vitro. The photoacoustic measurements were made in a cuvette which formed part of a larger circuit through which the red blood cell suspension was circulated. Oxygen saturation of the red blood cell suspension was altered between 2-3% to 100% in step increments using a membrane oxygenator and at each increment an independent measurement of oxygen saturation was made using a co-oximeter. An optical parametric oscillator laser system provided nanosecond excitation pulses at a number of wavelengths in the near-infrared spectrum (740-1040nm) which were incident on the cuvette. The resulting acoustic signals were detected using a broadband (15MHz) Fabry-Perot polymer film transducer. The optical transport coefficient and amplitude were determined from the acoustic signals as a function of wavelength. These data were then used to calculate the relative concentrations of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin, using their known specific absorption coefficients and an empirically determined wavelength dependence of optical scattering over the wavelength range investigated. From this, the oxygen saturation of the suspension was derived with an accuracy of +/-5% compared to the co-oximeter SO2 measurements.

  3. Near Infrared Emission from Defects in Few-Layer Phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghaeimeibodi, Shahriar; Kim, Je-Hyung; Waks, Edo

    Atomically thin films of black phosphorus have recently received significant attention as low dimensional optical materials with a direct exciton emission whose wavelength is tunable by controlling the number of layers. In addition to this excitonic emission, recent work has revealed emission from defect states and reported new methods to manipulate them. Monolayer phosphorene exhibits emission from localized defect states at wavelengths near 920 nm. Increasing the number of layers should shift defect emission to longer wavelengths, enabling the material to span a broader spectral range. But defect emission from few-layer phosphorene has not yet been reported. Here, we demonstrate a new class of near infrared defects in few layer phosphorene. Photoluminescence measurement shows a bright emission around 1240 nm with a sublinear growth of emission intensity with linear increase of excitation intensity, confirming the defect nature of this emission. From time-resolved lifetime measurements we determine an emission lifetime of 1.2 ns, in contrast to exciton and trion lifetimes from few layer phosphorene previously reported to be in the range of a few hundred picoseconds. This work highlights the potential of bright defects of phosphorene for near infrared optoelectronic applications.

  4. Single Pixel Black Phosphorus Photodetector for Near-Infrared Imaging.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jinshui; Song, Bo; Xu, Zhihao; Cai, Le; Zhang, Suoming; Dong, Lixin; Wang, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    Infrared imaging systems have wide range of military or civil applications and 2D nanomaterials have recently emerged as potential sensing materials that may outperform conventional ones such as HgCdTe, InGaAs, and InSb. As an example, 2D black phosphorus (BP) thin film has a thickness-dependent direct bandgap with low shot noise and noncryogenic operation for visible to mid-infrared photodetection. In this paper, the use of a single-pixel photodetector made with few-layer BP thin film for near-infrared imaging applications is demonstrated. The imaging is achieved by combining the photodetector with a digital micromirror device to encode and subsequently reconstruct the image based on compressive sensing algorithm. Stationary images of a near-infrared laser spot (λ = 830 nm) with up to 64 × 64 pixels are captured using this single-pixel BP camera with 2000 times of measurements, which is only half of the total number of pixels. The imaging platform demonstrated in this work circumvents the grand challenges of scalable BP material growth for photodetector array fabrication and shows the efficacy of utilizing the outstanding performance of BP photodetector for future high-speed infrared camera applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Near-infrared dental imaging using scanning fiber endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yaxuan; Lee, Robert; Sadr, Alireza; Seibel, Eric J.

    2018-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range of 1300-1500nm has the potential to outperform or augment other dental imaging modalities such as fluorescence imaging, owing to its lower scattering coefficient in enamel and trans- parency on stains and non-cariogenic plaque. However, cameras in this wavelength range are bulky and expensive, which lead to difficulties for in-vivo use and commercialization. Thus, we have proposed a new imaging device combining the scanning fiber endoscopy (SFE) and NIR imaging technology. The NIR SFE system has the advantage of miniature size (1.6 mm), flexible shaft, video frame rate (7Hz) and expandable wide field-of-view (60 degrees). Eleven extracted human teeth with or without occlusal caries were scanned by micro-computed X-ray tomography (micro-CT) to obtain 3D micro-CT images, which serve as the standard for comparison. NIR images in reflection mode were then taken on all the occlusal surfaces, using 1310nm super luminescent diode and 1460nm laser diode respectively. Qualitative comparison was performed between near-infrared im- ages and micro-CT images. Enamel demineralization in NIR appeared as areas of increased reflectivity, and distinguished from non-carious staining at the base of occlusal fissures or developmental defects on cusps. This preliminary work presented proof for practicability of combining NIR imaging technology with SFE for reliable and noninvasive dental imaging with miniaturization and low cost.

  6. Ischemic stroke assessment with near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weiguo; Li, Pengcheng; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Hu, Bo

    1999-09-01

    Many authors have elucidated the theory about oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin absorption in near-infrared spectrum. And the theory has opened a window to measure the hemodynamic changes caused by stroke. However, no proper animal model still has established to confirm the theory. The aim of this study was to validate near-infrared cerebral topography (NCT) as a practical tool and to try to trace the focal hemodynamic changes of ischemic stroke. In the present study, middle cerebral artery occlusion model and the photosensitizer induced intracranial infarct model had been established. NCT and functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) were obtained during pre- and post-operation. The geometric shape and infarct area of NCT image was compared with the fMRI images and anatomical samples of each rat. The results of two occlusion models in different intervene factors showed the NCT for infarct focus matched well with fMRI and anatomic sample of each rats. The instrument might become a practical tool for short-term prediction of stroke and predicting the rehabilitation after stroke in real time.

  7. Length-free near infrared measurement of newborn malnutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Fatin Hamimi; Bek, Emily J.; Huvanandana, Jacqueline; Jones, Peter W.; Carberry, Angela E.; Jeffery, Heather E.; Jin, Craig T.; McEwan, Alistair L.

    2016-11-01

    Under-nutrition in neonates can cause immediate mortality, impaired cognitive development and early onset adult disease. Body fat percentage measured using air-displacement-plethysmography has been found to better indicate under-nutrition than conventional birth weight percentiles. However, air-displacement-plethysmography equipment is expensive and non-portable, so is not suited for use in developing communities where the burden is often the greatest. We proposed a new body fat measurement technique using a length-free model with near-infrared spectroscopy measurements on a single site of the body - the thigh. To remove the need for length measurement, we developed a model with five discrete wavelengths and a sex parameter. The model was developed using air-displacement-plethysmography measurements in 52 neonates within 48 hours of birth. We identified instrumentation required in a low-cost LED-based screening device and incorporated a receptor device that can increase the amount of light collected. This near-infrared method may be suitable as a low cost screening tool for detecting body fat levels and monitoring nutritional interventions for malnutrition in neonates and young children in resource-constrained communities.

  8. Patient identification using a near-infrared laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manit, Jirapong; Bremer, Christina; Schweikard, Achim; Ernst, Floris

    2017-03-01

    We propose a new biometric approach where the tissue thickness of a person's forehead is used as a biometric feature. Given that the spatial registration of two 3D laser scans of the same human face usually produces a low error value, the principle of point cloud registration and its error metric can be applied to human classification techniques. However, by only considering the spatial error, it is not possible to reliably verify a person's identity. We propose to use a novel near-infrared laser-based head tracking system to determine an additional feature, the tissue thickness, and include this in the error metric. Using MRI as a ground truth, data from the foreheads of 30 subjects was collected from which a 4D reference point cloud was created for each subject. The measurements from the near-infrared system were registered with all reference point clouds using the ICP algorithm. Afterwards, the spatial and tissue thickness errors were extracted, forming a 2D feature space. For all subjects, the lowest feature distance resulted from the registration of a measurement and the reference point cloud of the same person. The combined registration error features yielded two clusters in the feature space, one from the same subject and another from the other subjects. When only the tissue thickness error was considered, these clusters were less distinct but still present. These findings could help to raise safety standards for head and neck cancer patients and lays the foundation for a future human identification technique.

  9. Near-infrared transmittance spectroscopy for radiochemical ageing of EPDM.

    PubMed

    Lachenal, G; Stevenson, I; Celette, N

    2001-12-01

    The feasibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy as a sensitive technique to follow the influence of gamma-irradiation upon ageing of different EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) elastomers has been evaluated. Although identification is difficult, differences can be observed between the non-irradiated and irradiated materials for total integrated doses from 50 to 450 kGy using a dose rate of 1 kGy h(-1) under an oxygen flow. The decrease in intensity of bands at 7040, 4610 and 4910 cm(-1) are linked to the disappearance of additives present in the elastomer such as excess of vulcanising or antioxidant agents and occur for the lowest irradiation dose. This disappearance is confirmed by TGA (thermogravimetric analysis). The increase in band intensities assigned to the formation of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups (5100, 4860 and 4670 cm(-1)) irradiation indicates an increase in oxidation with irradiation in the presence of oxygen. No bands linked to the presence of C=C from the diene have been detected, probably owing to the low concentration in the material and the weak intensity in near-infrared region. For strong irradiation doses (450 kGy), the three formulations studied show no difference in their NIR spectra, which is confirmed by the TGA of these irradiated materials. PCA performed at 5000-4600 cm(-1) or 7090-6980 cm(-1) shows efficient discrimination.

  10. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis guided Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Volumetric estimates of fibroglandular fraction and breast density from tomosynthesis reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Michaelsen, Kelly E.; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Pogue, Brian W.; Poplack, Steven P.; Karellas, Andrew; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    A multimodality system combining a clinical prototype digital breast tomosynthesis with its imaging geometry modified to facilitate near-infrared spectroscopic imaging has been developed. The accuracy of parameters recovered from near-infrared spectroscopy is dependent on fibroglandular tissue content. Hence, in this study, volumetric estimates of fibroglandular tissue from tomosynthesis reconstructions were determined. A kernel-based fuzzy c-means algorithm was implemented to segment tomosynthesis reconstructed slices in order to estimate fibroglandular content and to provide anatomic priors for near-infrared spectroscopy. This algorithm was used to determine volumetric breast density (VBD), defined as the ratio of fibroglandular tissue volume to the total breast volume, expressed as percentage, from 62 tomosynthesis reconstructions of 34 study participants. For a subset of study participants who subsequently underwent mammography, VBD from mammography matched for subject, breast laterality and mammographic view was quantified using commercial software and statistically analyzed to determine if it differed from tomosynthesis. Summary statistics of the VBD from all study participants were compared with prior independent studies. The fibroglandular volume from tomosynthesis and mammography were not statistically different (p=0.211, paired t-test). After accounting for the compressed breast thickness, which were different between tomosynthesis and mammography, the VBD from tomosynthesis was correlated with (r =0.809, p<0.001), did not statistically differ from (p>0.99, paired t-test), and was linearly related to, the VBD from mammography. Summary statistics of the VBD from tomosynthesis were not statistically different from prior studies using high-resolution dedicated breast computed tomography. The observation of correlation and linear association in VBD between mammography and tomosynthesis suggests that breast density associated risk measures determined for

  11. The Munich Near-Infrared Cluster Survey - IV. Biases in the completeness of near-infrared imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snigula, J.; Drory, N.; Bender, R.; Botzler, C. S.; Feulner, G.; Hopp, U.

    2002-11-01

    We present the results of completeness simulations for the detection of point sources as well as redshifted elliptical and spiral galaxies in the K'-band images of the Munich Near-Infrared Cluster Survey (MUNICS). The main focus of this work is to quantify the selection effects introduced by threshold-based object detection algorithms used in deep imaging surveys. Therefore, we simulate objects obeying the well-known scaling relations between effective radius and central surface brightness, for both de Vaucouleurs and exponential profiles. The results of these simulations, while presented for the MUNICS project, are applicable in a much wider context to deep optical and near-infrared selected samples. We investigate the detection probability as well as the reliability for recovering the true total magnitude with Kron-like (adaptive) aperture photometry. The results are compared with the predictions of the visibility theory of Disney and Phillipps in terms of the detection rate and the lost-light fraction. Additionally, the effects attributable to seeing are explored. The results show a bias against detecting high-redshifted massive elliptical galaxies in comparison to disc galaxies with exponential profiles, and that the measurements of the total magnitudes for intrinsically bright elliptical galaxies are systematically too faint. Disc galaxies, in contrast, show no significant offset in the magnitude measurement of luminous objects. Finally, we present an analytic formula to predict the completeness of point sources using only basic image parameters.

  12. The Kepler and K2 Near-Infrared Transit Survey (KNITS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Knicole; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Barentsen, Geert; Cardoso, Jose Vinicius de Miranda; Vanderburg, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Kepler mission discovered a plethora of transiting exoplanets after observing a single region of the Galaxy for four years. After a second reaction wheel failed, NASA's Kepler spacecraft was repurposed as K2 to observe different fields along the ecliptic in ~80 day campaigns. To date, K2 has discovered ~130 exoplanets along with another ~400 candidates. The exoplanets that have been confirmed or validated from Kepler and K2 have been primarily subject to spectroscopic observations, high-resolution imaging, or statistical methods. However, most of these, along with all the remaining candidate exoplanets, have had no follow-up transit photometry. In addition, recent studies have shown that for single-planet systems, statistical validation alone can be unreliable and additional follow-up observations are required to reveal the true nature of the system. I will present the latest results from an ongoing program to use the 3.5-meter WIYN telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory for near-infrared transit photometry of Kepler and K2 exoplanets and candidates. Our program of high-precision, high-cadence, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared transit photometry is providing new measurements of the transit ephemerides and planetary radii as well as weeding out false positives lurking within the candidate lists. To date, 25 K2 and 5 Kepler targets have been observed with WIYN. I will also describe upcoming observations with WIYN that will take place in January 2018 as part of a campaign to observe exoplanet transits in the near-infrared simultaneously with the Kepler spacecraft during K2 Campaign 16. Our program ultimately provides a vetted sample of exoplanets that could be targeted in the future by NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and also demonstrates WIYN’s capabilities for observations of exoplanets to be discovered by NASA's all-sky Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS).Data presented herein were obtained at the WIYN Observatory from

  13. Application of miniaturized near-infrared spectroscopy for quality control of extemporaneous orodispersible films.

    PubMed

    Foo, Wen Chin; Widjaja, Effendi; Khong, Yuet Mei; Gokhale, Rajeev; Chan, Sui Yung

    2018-02-20

    Extemporaneous oral preparations are routinely compounded in the pharmacy due to a lack of suitable formulations for special populations. Such small-scale pharmacy preparations also present an avenue for individualized pharmacotherapy. Orodispersible films (ODF) have increasingly been evaluated as a suitable dosage form for extemporaneous oral preparations. Nevertheless, as with all other extemporaneous preparations, safety and quality remain a concern. Although the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) recommends analytical testing of compounded preparations for quality assurance, pharmaceutical assays are typically not routinely performed for such non-sterile pharmacy preparations, due to the complexity and high cost of conventional assay methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Spectroscopic methods including Raman, infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy have been successfully applied as quality control tools in the industry. The state-of-art benchtop spectrometers used in those studies have the advantage of superior resolution and performance, but are not suitable for use in a small-scale pharmacy setting. In this study, we investigated the application of a miniaturized near infrared (NIR) spectrometer as a quality control tool for identification and quantification of drug content in extemporaneous ODFs. Miniaturized near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is suitable for small-scale pharmacy applications in view of its small size, portability, simple user interface, rapid measurement and real-time prediction results. Nevertheless, the challenge with miniaturized NIR spectroscopy is its lower resolution compared to state-of-art benchtop equipment. We have successfully developed NIR spectroscopy calibration models for identification of ODFs containing five different drugs, and quantification of drug content in ODFs containing 2-10mg ondansetron (OND). The qualitative model for drug identification produced 100% prediction accuracy. The quantitative

  14. Optical and Near-infrared Spectra of σ Orionis Isolated Planetary-mass Objects

    SciT

    Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Ramírez, K. Peña, E-mail: mosorio@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: vbejar@iac.es, E-mail: karla.pena@uantof.cl

    We have obtained low-resolution optical (0.7–0.98 μ m) and near-infrared (1.11–1.34 μ m and 0.8–2.5 μ m) spectra of 12 isolated planetary-mass candidates ( J = 18.2–19.9 mag) of the 3 Myr σ Orionis star cluster with the aim of determining the spectroscopic properties of very young, substellar dwarfs and assembling a complete cluster mass function. We have classified our targets by visual comparison with high- and low-gravity standards and by measuring newly defined spectroscopic indices. We derived L0–L4.5 and M9–L2.5 using high- and low-gravity standards, respectively. Our targets reveal clear signposts of youth, thus corroborating their cluster membership andmore » planetary masses (6–13 M {sub Jup}). These observations complete the σ Orionis mass function by spectroscopically confirming the planetary-mass domain to a confidence level of ∼75%. The comparison of our spectra with BT-Settl solar metallicity model atmospheres yields a temperature scale of 2350–1800 K and a low surface gravity of log g ≈ 4.0 [cm s{sup −2}], as would be expected for young planetary-mass objects. We discuss the properties of the cluster’s least-massive population as a function of spectral type. We have also obtained the first optical spectrum of S Ori 70, a T dwarf in the direction of σ Orionis. Our data provide reference optical and near-infrared spectra of very young L dwarfs and a mass function that may be used as templates for future studies of low-mass substellar objects and exoplanets. The extrapolation of the σ Orionis mass function to the solar neighborhood may indicate that isolated planetary-mass objects with temperatures of ∼200–300 K and masses in the interval 6–13 M {sub Jup} may be as numerous as very low-mass stars.« less

  15. Medium-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of massive young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomohaci, R.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Lumsden, S. L.; Hoare, M. G.; Mendigutía, I.

    2017-12-01

    We present medium-resolution (R ∼ 7000) near-infrared echelle spectroscopic data for 36 massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) drawn from the Red MSX Source survey. This is the largest sample observed at this resolution at these wavelengths of MYSOs to date. The spectra are characterized mostly by emission from hydrogen recombination lines and accretion diagnostic lines. One MYSO shows photospheric H I absorption, a comparison with spectral standards indicates that the star is an A-type star with a low surface gravity, implying that the MYSOs are probably swollen, as also suggested by evolutionary calculations. An investigation of the Brγ line profiles shows that most are in pure emission, while 13 ± 5 per cent display P Cygni profiles, indicative of outflow, while less than 8 ± 4 per cent have inverse P Cygni profiles, indicative of infall. These values are comparable with investigations into the optically bright Herbig Be stars, but not with those of Herbig Ae and T Tauri stars, consistent with the notion that the more massive stars undergo accretion in a different fashion than lower mass objects that are undergoing magnetospheric accretion. Accretion luminosities and rates as derived from the Br γ line luminosities agree with results for lower mass sources, providing tentative evidence for massive star formation theories based on scaling of low-mass scenarios. We present Br γ/Br12 line profile ratios exploiting the fact that optical depth effects can be traced as a function of Doppler shift across the lines. These show that the winds of MYSOs in this sample are nearly equally split between constant, accelerating and decelerating velocity structures. There are no trends between the types of features we see and bolometric luminosities or near-infrared colours.

  16. Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence from Pr3+-doped tellurite glass with silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Pan; Zhou, Yaxun; Zhou, Minghan; Su, Xiue; Zhou, Zizhong; Yang, Gaobo

    2017-11-01

    Pr3+-doped tellurite glasses containing metallic silver NPs were synthesized by the conventional melt-quenching technique. Structural, thermal and optical properties of the synthesized glass samples were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) curves, Raman spectra, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) curves, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, UV/Vis/NIR absorption and near-infrared fluorescence emission spectra. The XRD curves confirmed the amorphous structural nature of the synthesized glasses, the Raman spectra identified the presence of different vibrational groups, the DSC curves verified the good thermal stability, and the TEM images revealed the nucleated silver NPs with average diameter about 10 nm dispersed in the glass matrix and its surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band was located at around 510 nm. Besides, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ωt (t = 2, 4, 6) and other important spectroscopic parameters like transition probability, radiative lifetime, branching ratio were calculated to evaluate the radiative properties of Pr3+ levels from the measured optical absorption spectra. It was found that Pr3+-doped tellurite glasses could emit an ultra-broadband fluorescence extending from 1250 to 1650 nm under the 488 nm excitation, and this fluorescence emission increased further with the introduction of silver NPs. The enhanced fluorescence was mainly attributed to the increased local electric field around Pr3+ induced by silver NPs. The present results demonstrate that Pr3+-Ag codoped tellurite glass is a promising candidate for the near-infrared band ultra-broadband fiber amplifiers covering the expanded low-loss communication window.

  17. The optical and near-infrared colors of galaxies, 1: The photometric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bershady, Matthew A.; Hereld, Mark; Kron, Richard G.; Koo, David C.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Majewski, Steven R.

    1994-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopic redshifts of a well defined sample of 171 field galaxies selected from three high galactic latitude fields. This data set forms the basis for subsequent studies to characterize the trends, dispersion, and evolution of rest-frame colors and image structure. A subset of 143 galaxies constitutes a magnitude-limited sample to B approx. 19.9-20.75 (depending on field), with a median redshift of 0.14, and a maximum redshift of 0.54. This subset is statistically representative in its sampling of the apparent color distribution of galaxies. Thirty six galaxies were selected to have the reddest red-optical colors in two redshift intervals between 0.2 less than z less than 0.3. Photometric passbands are similar to U, B, V, I, and K, and sample galaxy spectral energy distributions between 0.37 and 2.2 micrometers in the observed frame, or down to 0.26 micrometers in the rest frame for the most distant galaxies. B and K images of the entire sample are assembled to form the first optical and near-infrared atlas of a statistically-representative sample of field galaxies. We discuss techniques for faint field-galaxy photometry, including a working definition of a total magnitude, and a method for matching magnitudes in different passbands and different seeing conditions to ensure reliable, integrated colors. Photographic saturation, which substantially affects the brightest 12% of our sample in the optical bands, is corrected with a model employing measured plate-density distributions for each galaxy, calibrated via similar measurements for stars as a function of known saturation level. Both the relative and absolute calibration of our photometry are demonstrated.

  18. Slitless spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope Near-Infrared Camera (JWST NIRCam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Thomas P.; Chu, Laurie; Egami, Eiichi; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kelly, Douglas M.; Leisenring, Jarron; Rieke, Marcia; Robberto, Massimo; Schlawin, Everett; Stansberry, John

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope near-infrared camera (JWST NIRCam) has two 2.02 x 2.02 fields of view that are capable of either imaging or spectroscopic observations. Either of two R ~ 1500 grisms with orthogonal dispersion directions can be used for slitless spectroscopy over λ = 2.4 - 5.0 μm in each module, and shorter wavelength observations of the same fields can be obtained simultaneously. We present the latest predicted grism sensitivities, saturation limits, resolving power, and wavelength coverage values based on component measurements, instrument tests, and end-to-end modeling. Short wavelength (0.6 - 2.3 μm) imaging observations of the 2.4 - 5.0 μm spectroscopic field can be performed in one of several different filter bands, either in-focus or defocused via weak lenses internal to NIRCam. Alternatively, the possibility of 1.0 - 2.0 μm spectroscopy (simultaneously with 2.4 - 5.0 μm) using dispersed Hartmann sensors (DHSs) is being explored. The grisms, weak lenses, and DHS elements were included in NIRCam primarily for wavefront sensing purposes, but all have significant science applications. Operational considerations including subarray sizes, and data volume limits are also discussed. Finally, we describe spectral simulation tools and illustrate potential scientific uses of the grisms by presenting simulated observations of deep extragalactic fields, galactic dark clouds, and transiting exoplanets.

  19. Near infrared spectra of muscovite, Tschermak substitution, and metamorphic reaction progress: Implications for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Edward F.

    1994-07-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectra of Precambrian metagraywacke in the Black Hills, South Dakota, demonstrate that reflectance spectroscopy can be used to monitor progressive changes in mineral chemistry as a function of metamorphic grade. The wavelength of a combination Al-O-H absorption band in muscovite, measured using both laboratory and field-portable NIR spectrometers, shifts from 2217 nm in the biotite zone to 2199 nm in the sillimanite + K-feldspar zone. The band shift corresponds to an increase in the Alvi content of muscovite, determined by electron microprobe, and is thus a monitor of Al2Si-1(Fe,Mg)-1 (Tschermak) exchange. Spectroscopic measurements such as these are useful in the case of aluminum-deficient rocks, which lack metamorphic index minerals or appropriate assemblages for thermobarometric studies, and in low-grade rocks (subgarnet zone), which lack quantitative indicators of metamorphic grade and are too fine grained for petrographic or microprobe studies. More important, spectroscopic detection of mineral-chemical variations in metamorphic rocks provides petrologists with a tool to recover information on metamorphic reaction histories from high-spectral-resolution aircraft or satellite remote sensing data.

  20. Canopy near-infrared reflectance and terrestrial photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Badgley, Grayson; Field, Christopher B.; Berry, Joseph A.

    2017-01-01

    Global estimates of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) remain highly uncertain, despite decades of satellite measurements and intensive in situ monitoring. We report a new approach for quantifying the near-infrared reflectance of terrestrial vegetation (NIRV). NIRV provides a foundation for a new approach to estimate GPP that consistently untangles the confounding effects of background brightness, leaf area, and the distribution of photosynthetic capacity with depth in canopies using existing moderate spatial and spectral resolution satellite sensors. NIRV is strongly correlated with solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, a direct index of photons intercepted by chlorophyll, and with site-level and globally gridded estimates of GPP. NIRV makes it possible to use existing and future reflectance data as a starting point for accurately estimating GPP. PMID:28345046

  1. GNOSIS: an OH suppression unit for near-infrared spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, S. C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Lawrence, J. S.; Bryant, J.; Haynes, R.; Horton, A.; Lee, S.; Leon-Saval, S.; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd; Mladenoff, J.; O'Byrne, J.; Rambold, W.; Roth, M.; Trinh, C.

    2010-07-01

    GNOSIS is an OH suppression unit to be used in conjunction with existing spectrographs. The OH suppression is achieved using fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs), and will deliver the darkest near-infrared background of any ground-based instrument. Laboratory and on-sky tests demonstrate that FBGs can suppress OH lines by 30dB whilst maintaing > 90% throughput between the lines, resulting in a 4 mag decrease in the background. In the first implementation GNOSIS will feed IRIS2 on the AAT. It will consist of a seven element lenslet array, covering 1.4" on the sky, and will suppress the 103 brightest OH lines between 1.47 and 1.70 μm. Future upgrades will include J-band suppression and implementation on an 8m telescope.

  2. Neuroimaging with functional near infrared spectroscopy: From formation to interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Vega, Javier; Treviño-Palacios, Carlos G.; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is gaining momentum as a functional neuroimaging modality to investigate the cerebral hemodynamics subsequent to neural metabolism. As other neuroimaging modalities, it is neuroscience's tool to understand brain systems functions at behaviour and cognitive levels. To extract useful knowledge from functional neuroimages it is critical to understand the series of transformations applied during the process of the information retrieval and how they bound the interpretation. This process starts with the irradiation of the head tissues with infrared light to obtain the raw neuroimage and proceeds with computational and statistical analysis revealing hidden associations between pixels intensities and neural activity encoded to end up with the explanation of some particular aspect regarding brain function.To comprehend the overall process involved in fNIRS there is extensive literature addressing each individual step separately. This paper overviews the complete transformation sequence through image formation, reconstruction and analysis to provide an insight of the final functional interpretation.

  3. NIRS-SPM: statistical parametric mapping for near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tak, Sungho; Jang, Kwang Eun; Jung, Jinwook; Jang, Jaeduck; Jeong, Yong; Ye, Jong Chul

    2008-02-01

    Even though there exists a powerful statistical parametric mapping (SPM) tool for fMRI, similar public domain tools are not available for near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In this paper, we describe a new public domain statistical toolbox called NIRS-SPM for quantitative analysis of NIRS signals. Specifically, NIRS-SPM statistically analyzes the NIRS data using GLM and makes inference as the excursion probability which comes from the random field that are interpolated from the sparse measurement. In order to obtain correct inference, NIRS-SPM offers the pre-coloring and pre-whitening method for temporal correlation estimation. For simultaneous recording NIRS signal with fMRI, the spatial mapping between fMRI image and real coordinate in 3-D digitizer is estimated using Horn's algorithm. These powerful tools allows us the super-resolution localization of the brain activation which is not possible using the conventional NIRS analysis tools.

  4. Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Watching the Brain in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrivel, Angela; Hearn, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neurological sensing technique applicable to optimizing human performance in transportation operations, such as commercial aviation. Cognitive state can be determined via pattern classification of functional activations measured with fNIRS. Operational application calls for further development of algorithms and filters for dynamic artifact removal. The concept of using the frequency domain phase shift signal to tune a Kalman filter is introduced to improve the quality of fNIRS signals in realtime. Hemoglobin concentration and phase shift traces were simulated for four different types of motion artifact to demonstrate the filter. Unwanted signal was reduced by at least 43%, and the contrast of the filtered oxygenated hemoglobin signal was increased by more than 100% overall. This filtering method is a good candidate for qualifying fNIRS signals in real time without auxiliary sensors

  5. Near-Infrared Laser Adjuvant for Influenza Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Yuan, Jianping; Forbes, Benjamin; Hibert, Mathew L.; Lee, Eugene L. Q.; Whicher, Laura; Goudie, Calum; Yang, Yuan; Chen, Tao; Edelblute, Beth; Collette, Brian; Edington, Laurel; Trussler, James; Nezivar, Jean; Leblanc, Pierre; Bronson, Roderick; Tsukada, Kosuke; Suematsu, Makoto; Dover, Jeffrey; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Safe and effective immunologic adjuvants are often essential for vaccines. However, the choice of adjuvant for licensed vaccines is limited, especially for those that are administered intradermally. We show that non-tissue damaging, near-infrared (NIR) laser light given in short exposures to small areas of skin, without the use of additional chemical or biological agents, significantly increases immune responses to intradermal influenza vaccination without augmenting IgE. The NIR laser-adjuvanted vaccine confers increased protection in a murine influenza lethal challenge model as compared to unadjuvanted vaccine. We show that NIR laser treatment induces the expression of specific chemokines in the skin resulting in recruitment and activation of dendritic cells and is safe to use in both mice and humans. The NIR laser adjuvant technology provides a novel, safe, low-cost, simple-to-use, potentially broadly applicable and clinically feasible approach to enhancing vaccine efficacy as an alternative to chemical and biological adjuvants. PMID:24349390

  6. Componential distribution analysis of food using near infrared ray image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Hiroki; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Noriko; Ohba, Kimie

    2008-11-01

    The components of the food related to the "deliciousness" are usually evaluated by componential analysis. The component content and type of components in the food are determined by this analysis. However, componential analysis is not able to analyze measurements in detail, and the measurement is time consuming. We propose a method to measure the two-dimensional distribution of the component in food using a near infrared ray (IR) image. The advantage of our method is to be able to visualize the invisible components. Many components in food have characteristics such as absorption and reflection of light in the IR range. The component content is measured using subtraction between two wavelengths of near IR light. In this paper, we describe a method to measure the component of food using near IR image processing, and we show an application to visualize the saccharose in the pumpkin.

  7. Near-infrared squaraine dyes for fluorescence enhanced surface assay

    PubMed Central

    Matveeva, Evgenia G.; Terpetschnig, Ewald A.; Stevens, Megan; Patsenker, Leonid; Kolosova, Olga S.; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available, near-infrared fluorescent squaraine dyes (Seta-635 and Seta-670) were covalently bound to antibodies and employed insurface enhanced immunoassay. From fluorescence intensity and lifetime changes determined for a surface which had been coated with silver nanoparticles as well as a non-coated glass surface, both labelled compounds exhibited a 15 to 20-fold enhancement of fluorescence on the silver coated surface compared to that achieved on the non-coated surface. In addition, the fluorescence lifetime changes drastically for both labels in the case of silver-coated surfaces. The fluorescence signal enhancement obtained for the two dyes was greater than that previously recorded for Rhodamine Red-X and AlexaFluor-647 labels. PMID:20046935

  8. Recent advances in fetal near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antona, Donato; Aldrich, Clive J.; O'Brien, Patrick; Lawrence, Sally; Delpy, David T.; Wyatt, John S.

    1997-01-01

    Fetal brain injury resulting from hypoxia and ischemia during labor remains an important cause of death and long- term disability. However, little is known about fetal brain oxygenation and hemodynamics. There are currently no satisfactory clinical techniques for fetal monitoring and there remains a need for a new method to assess brain oxygenation. Fetal near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a new technique that allows noninvasive observation of changes in the cerebral concentrations of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to be made during labor. A specially designed optical probe is inserted through the dilated cervix and placed against the fetal head. It is then possible to compare changes in NIRS data with other observations of fetal conditions, such as fetal heart rate and acid-base status.

  9. Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, Gary; Boas, David A.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews diffuse optical brain imaging, a technique that employs near-infrared light to non-invasively probe the brain for changes in parameters relating to brain function. We describe the general methodology, including types of measurements and instrumentation (including the tradeoffs inherent in the various instrument components), and the basic theory required to interpret the recorded data. A brief review of diffuse optical applications is included, with an emphasis on research that has been done with psychiatric populations. Finally, we discuss some practical issues and limitations that are relevant when conducting diffuse optical experiments. We find that, while diffuse optics can provide substantial advantages to the psychiatric researcher relative to the alternative brain imaging methods, the method remains substantially underutilized in this field.

  10. Review of functional near-infrared spectroscopy in neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Mihara, Masahito; Miyai, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. We provide a brief overview of the research and clinical applications of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the neurorehabilitation field. NIRS has several potential advantages and shortcomings as a neuroimaging tool and is suitable for research application in the rehabilitation field. As one of the main applications of NIRS, we discuss its application as a monitoring tool, including investigating the neural mechanism of functional recovery after brain damage and investigating the neural mechanisms for controlling bipedal locomotion and postural balance in humans. In addition to being a monitoring tool, advances in signal processing techniques allow us to use NIRS as a therapeutic tool in this field. With a brief summary of recent studies investigating the clinical application of NIRS using motor imagery task, we discuss the possible clinical usage of NIRS in brain–computer interface and neurofeedback. PMID:27429995

  11. Canopy near-infrared reflectance and terrestrial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Badgley, Grayson; Field, Christopher B; Berry, Joseph A

    2017-03-01

    Global estimates of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) remain highly uncertain, despite decades of satellite measurements and intensive in situ monitoring. We report a new approach for quantifying the near-infrared reflectance of terrestrial vegetation (NIR V ). NIR V provides a foundation for a new approach to estimate GPP that consistently untangles the confounding effects of background brightness, leaf area, and the distribution of photosynthetic capacity with depth in canopies using existing moderate spatial and spectral resolution satellite sensors. NIR V is strongly correlated with solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, a direct index of photons intercepted by chlorophyll, and with site-level and globally gridded estimates of GPP. NIR V makes it possible to use existing and future reflectance data as a starting point for accurately estimating GPP.

  12. A Biocompatible Near-Infrared 3D Tracking System*

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Ryan S.; Shademan, Azad; Opfermann, Justin D.; Leonard, Simon; Kim, Peter C. W.; Krieger, Axel

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in soft-tissue surgery is that target tissue moves and deforms, becomes occluded by blood or other tissue, and is difficult to differentiate from surrounding tissue. We developed small biocompatible near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) markers with a novel fused plenoptic and NIR camera tracking system, enabling 3D tracking of tools and target tissue while overcoming blood and tissue occlusion in the uncontrolled, rapidly changing surgical environment. In this work, we present the tracking system and marker design and compare tracking accuracies to standard optical tracking methods using robotic experiments. At speeds of 1 mm/s, we observe tracking accuracies of 1.61 mm, degrading only to 1.71 mm when the markers are covered in blood and tissue. PMID:28129145

  13. Biocompatible Near-Infrared Three-Dimensional Tracking System.

    PubMed

    Decker, Ryan S; Shademan, Azad; Opfermann, Justin D; Leonard, Simon; Kim, Peter C W; Krieger, Axel

    2017-03-01

    A fundamental challenge in soft-tissue surgery is that target tissue moves and deforms, becomes occluded by blood or other tissue, and is difficult to differentiate from surrounding tissue. We developed small biocompatible near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) markers with a novel fused plenoptic and NIR camera tracking system, enabling three-dimensional tracking of tools and target tissue while overcoming blood and tissue occlusion in the uncontrolled, rapidly changing surgical environment. In this work, we present the tracking system and marker design and compare tracking accuracies to standard optical tracking methods using robotic experiments. At speeds of 1 mm/s, we observe tracking accuracies of 1.61 mm, degrading only to 1.71 mm when the markers are covered in blood and tissue.

  14. Near-infrared Spectroscopy in the Brewing Industry.

    PubMed

    Sileoni, Valeria; Marconi, Ombretta; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an exhaustive description of the use of Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy in the brewing industry. This technique is widely used for quality control testing of raw materials, intermediates, and finished products, as well as process monitoring during malting and brewing. In particular, most of the reviewed works focus on the assessment of barley properties, aimed at quickly selecting the best barley varieties in order to produce a high-quality malt leading to high-quality beer. Various works concerning the use of NIR in the evaluation of raw materials, such as barley, malt, hop, and yeast, are also summarized here. The implementation of NIR sensors for the control of malting and brewing processes is also highlighted, as well as the use of NIR for quality assessment of the final product.

  15. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging of atherosclerotic tissue phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Nagao, R.; Kitayabu, A.; Awazu, K.

    2013-06-01

    A method to identify vulnerable plaques that are likely to cause acute coronary events has been required. The object of this study is identifying vulnerable plaques by hyperspectral imaging in near-infrared range (NIR-HSI) for an angioscopic application. In this study, NIR-HSI of atherosclerotic tissue phantoms was demonstrated under simulated angioscopic conditions. NIR-HSI system was constructed by a NIR super continuum light and a mercury-cadmium-telluride camera. Spectral absorbance values were obtained in the wavelength range from 1150 to 2400 nm at 10 nm intervals. The hyperspectral images were constructed with spectral angle mapper algorithm. As a result, detections of the lipid area in the atherosclerotic tissue phantom under angioscopic observation conditions were achieved especially in the wavelength around 1200 nm, which corresponds to the second overtone of CH stretching vibration mode.

  16. Near-infrared observations of the variable crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Mori, K.; Shibata, S.; Tsujimoto, M.; Misawa, T.; Burrows, D.; Kawai, N.

    We present three near-infrared NIR observations of the Crab Nebula obtained with CISCO on the Subaru Telescope and Quick Infrared Camera on the University of HAWAII 88 inch Telescope The observations were performed on 2004 September 2005 February and 2005 October and were coordinated with X-ray observations obtained with the Chandra X-ray observatory within 10 days As shown in previous optical and X-ray monitoring observations outward-moving wisps and variable knots are detected also in our NIR observations The NIR variations are closely correlated with variations in the X-ray observations indicating that both variations are driven by the same physical process We discuss the origin of NIR-emitting particles based on the temporal variations as well as the spectral energy distributions of each variable component

  17. Compositional stratigraphy of crustal material from near-infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1987-01-01

    An Earth-based telescopic program to acquire near-infrared spectra of freshly exposed lunar material now contains data for 17 large impact craters with central peaks. Noritic, gabbroic, anorthositic and troctolitic rock types can be distinguished for areas within these large craters from characteristic absorptions in individual spectra of their walls and central peaks. Norites dominate the upper lunar crust while the deeper crustal zones also contain significant amounts of gabbros and anorthosites. Data for material associated with large craters indicate that not only is the lunar crust highly heterogeneous across the nearside, but that the compositional stratigraphy of the lunar crust is nonuniform. Crustal complexity should be expected for other planetary bodies, which should be studied using high spatial and spectral resolution data in and around large impact craters.

  18. Near-infrared imaging of demineralization under sealants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, Henry; Simon, Jacob C.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and transillumination imaging can be used to acquire high contrast images of early caries lesions and composite restorative materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum NIR wavelengths for imaging demineralized areas under dental sealants. Fifteen natural human premolars and molars with occlusal lesions were used in this in vitro study. Images before and after application of sealants were acquired using NIR reflectance and NIR transillumination at wavelengths of 1300, 1460, and 1500 to 1700 nm. Images were also acquired using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) for comparison. The highest contrast for NIR reflectance was at 1460 nm and 1500 to 1700 nm. These NIR wavelengths are coincident with higher water absorption. The clear Delton sealant investigated was not visible in either copolarization or cross-polarization OCT images. The wavelength region between 1500 and 1700 nm yielded the highest contrast of lesions under sealants for NIR reflectance measurements.

  19. Near-infrared imaging of demineralization under sealants.

    PubMed

    Tom, Henry; Simon, Jacob C; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and transillumination imaging can be used to acquire high contrast images of early caries lesions and composite restorative materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum NIR wavelengths for imaging demineralized areas under dental sealants. Fifteen natural human premolars and molars with occlusal lesions were used in this in vitro study. Images before and after application of sealants were acquired using NIR reflectance and NIR transillumination at wavelengths of 1300, 1460, and 1500 to 1700 nm. Images were also acquired using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) for comparison. The highest contrast for NIR reflectance was at 1460 nm and 1500 to 1700 nm. These NIR wavelengths are coincident with higher water absorption. The clear Delton sealant investigated was not visible in either copolarization or cross-polarization OCT images. The wavelength region between 1500 and 1700 nm yielded the highest contrast of lesions under sealants for NIR reflectance measurements.

  20. Analysis of silage composition by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, James B., III; Blosser, Timothy H.; Colenbrander, V. F.

    1991-02-01

    Two studies were performed to investigate the feasibility of using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) with undried silages. In the first study silages were analyzed for major components (e. g. dry matter crude protein and other forms of nitrogen fiber and in vitro digestible dry matter) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA). NIRS was found to operate satisfactorily except for some forms of nitrogen and SCFA. In study two various methods of grinding spectral regions and sample presentation were examined. Undried Wiley ground samples in a rectangular cell gave the best overall results for non-dry ice undried grinds with wavelengths between 1100 and 2498 nm. Silages scanned after drying however produced the best results. Intact samples did not perform as well as ground samples and wavelengths below 1100 nm were of little use. 2 .

  1. Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Watching the Brain in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrivel, Angela; Hearn, Tristan A.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neurological sensing technique applicable to optimizing human performance in transportation operations, such as commercial aviation. Cognitive state can be determined via pattern classification of functional activations measured with fNIRS. Operational application calls for further development of algorithms and filters for dynamic artifact removal. The concept of using the frequency domain phase shift signal to tune a Kalman filter is introduced to improve the quality of fNIRS signals in real-time. Hemoglobin concentration and phase shift traces were simulated for four different types of motion artifact to demonstrate the filter. Unwanted signal was reduced by at least 43%, and the contrast of the filtered oxygenated hemoglobin signal was increased by more than 100% overall. This filtering method is a good candidate for qualifying fNIRS signals in real time without auxiliary sensors.

  2. Preliminary status of POLICAN: A near-infrared imaging polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaraj, R.; Luna, A.; Carrasco, L.; Mayya, Y. D.

    2015-10-01

    POLICAN is a near-infrared (J, H, K) imaging polarimeter developed for the Cananea near infrared camera (CANICA) at the 2.1m telescope of the Guillermo Haro Astrophysical Observatory (OAGH) located at Cananea, Sonora, México. The camera has a 1024 x 1024 HgCdTe detector (HAWAII array) with a plate scale of 0.32 arcsec/pixel providing a field of view of 5.5 x 5.5 arcmin. POLICAN is mounted externally to CANICA for narrow-field (f/12) linear polarimetric observations. It consists of a rotating super achromatic (1-2.7μm) half waveplate and a fixed wire-grid polarizer as the analyzer. The light is modulated by setting the half waveplate at different angles (0°, 22.5°, 45°, 67.5°) and linear combinations of the Stokes parameters (I, Q and U) are obtained. Image reduction and removal of instrumental polarization consist of dark noise subtraction, polarimetric flat fielding and background sky subtraction. Polarimetric calibration is performed by observing polarization standards available in the literature. The astrometry correction is performed by matching common stars with the Two Micron All Sky Survey. POLICAN's bright and limiting magnitudes are approximately 6th and 16th magnitude, which correspond to saturation and photon noise, respectively. POLICAN currently achieves a polarimetric accuracy about 3.0% and polarization angle uncertainties within 3°. Preliminary observations of star forming regions are being carried out in order to study their magnetic field properties.

  3. Kinetics and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Organic Peroxy Radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarte, M. D.; Okumura, M.

    2016-12-01

    Organic peroxy radicals are important intermediates in atmospheric chemistry with fates that control the rate of radical propagation in an oxidation mechanism. Laboratory methods for detecting peroxy radicals are essential to measuring precise rate constants that constrain these fates. In this work, we discuss the use of near-infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy to detect organic peroxy radicals for the purpose of laboratory kinetics measurements. We focus on chlorine-substituted peroxy radicals generated in the oxidation of alkenes by chlorine, a minor tropospheric oxidant found in marine and coastal regions. Previous kinetics experiments on peroxy radicals have largely used UV absorption spectroscopy via the dissociative B-X transition. However, the spectra produced are featureless and exhibit substantial overlap; determining the concentration profile of an individual peroxy radical can be an arduous task. In our work, we probe the forbidden peroxy radical A-X transition in the near-infrared. While this approach requires overcoming small cross sections ( 10-21 cm2), the A state is bound and leads to structured absorption spectra that may be useful in constraining the kinetics of mixtures of organic peroxy radicals formed in the oxidation of complex hydrocarbons. Only a few kinetics studies utilizing the A-X transition exist in the literature and they are focused on small, unsubstituted species. This presentation explores the ability of the A-X transition to unravel the kinetics of more complex peroxy radicals in laboratory experiments using several example systems: (1) Determining rate constants for the self and cross reactions of β-chloroethylperoxy and HO2. (2) Detecting the second generation of peroxy radicals formed from alkoxy radical decomposition in the chlorine-initiated oxidation of 2-butene. (3) Observing different rates of reactivity with NO across the pool of peroxy radical isomers formed in the chlorine-initiated oxidation of isoprene.

  4. Optimal hemodynamic response model for functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Muhammad A.; Jeong, Myung Yung; Mannan, Malik M. N.

    2015-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging non-invasive brain imaging technique and measures brain activities by means of near-infrared light of 650–950 nm wavelengths. The cortical hemodynamic response (HR) differs in attributes at different brain regions and on repetition of trials, even if the experimental paradigm is kept exactly the same. Therefore, an HR model that can estimate such variations in the response is the objective of this research. The canonical hemodynamic response function (cHRF) is modeled by two Gamma functions with six unknown parameters (four of them to model the shape and other two to scale and baseline respectively). The HRF model is supposed to be a linear combination of HRF, baseline, and physiological noises (amplitudes and frequencies of physiological noises are supposed to be unknown). An objective function is developed as a square of the residuals with constraints on 12 free parameters. The formulated problem is solved by using an iterative optimization algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters in the model. Inter-subject variations in HRF and physiological noises have been estimated for better cortical functional maps. The accuracy of the algorithm has been verified using 10 real and 15 simulated data sets. Ten healthy subjects participated in the experiment and their HRF for finger-tapping tasks have been estimated and analyzed. The statistical significance of the estimated activity strength parameters has been verified by employing statistical analysis (i.e., t-value > tcritical and p-value < 0.05). PMID:26136668

  5. Optimal hemodynamic response model for functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Muhammad A; Jeong, Myung Yung; Mannan, Malik M N

    2015-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging non-invasive brain imaging technique and measures brain activities by means of near-infrared light of 650-950 nm wavelengths. The cortical hemodynamic response (HR) differs in attributes at different brain regions and on repetition of trials, even if the experimental paradigm is kept exactly the same. Therefore, an HR model that can estimate such variations in the response is the objective of this research. The canonical hemodynamic response function (cHRF) is modeled by two Gamma functions with six unknown parameters (four of them to model the shape and other two to scale and baseline respectively). The HRF model is supposed to be a linear combination of HRF, baseline, and physiological noises (amplitudes and frequencies of physiological noises are supposed to be unknown). An objective function is developed as a square of the residuals with constraints on 12 free parameters. The formulated problem is solved by using an iterative optimization algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters in the model. Inter-subject variations in HRF and physiological noises have been estimated for better cortical functional maps. The accuracy of the algorithm has been verified using 10 real and 15 simulated data sets. Ten healthy subjects participated in the experiment and their HRF for finger-tapping tasks have been estimated and analyzed. The statistical significance of the estimated activity strength parameters has been verified by employing statistical analysis (i.e., t-value > t critical and p-value < 0.05).

  6. Near-Infrared Coloring via a Contrast-Preserving Mapping Model.

    PubMed

    Chang-Hwan Son; Xiao-Ping Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Near-infrared gray images captured along with corresponding visible color images have recently proven useful for image restoration and classification. This paper introduces a new coloring method to add colors to near-infrared gray images based on a contrast-preserving mapping model. A naive coloring method directly adds the colors from the visible color image to the near-infrared gray image. However, this method results in an unrealistic image because of the discrepancies in the brightness and image structure between the captured near-infrared gray image and the visible color image. To solve the discrepancy problem, first, we present a new contrast-preserving mapping model to create a new near-infrared gray image with a similar appearance in the luminance plane to the visible color image, while preserving the contrast and details of the captured near-infrared gray image. Then, we develop a method to derive realistic colors that can be added to the newly created near-infrared gray image based on the proposed contrast-preserving mapping model. Experimental results show that the proposed new method not only preserves the local contrast and details of the captured near-infrared gray image, but also transfers the realistic colors from the visible color image to the newly created near-infrared gray image. It is also shown that the proposed near-infrared coloring can be used effectively for noise and haze removal, as well as local contrast enhancement.

  7. Variations in Near-Infrared Emissivity of Venus Surface Observed by the Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, G. L.; Roos-Serote, M.; Sugita, S.

    2004-11-01

    We evaluate the spatial variation of venusian surface emissivity at a near-infrared wavelength using multispectral images obtained by the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on board the Galileo spacecraft. The Galileo made a close flyby to Venus in February 1990. During this flyby, NIMS observed the nightside of Venus with 17 spectral channels, which includes the well-known spectral windows at 1.18, 1.74, and 2.3 μ m. The surface emissivity is evaluated at 1.18 μ m, at which thermal radiation emitted from the planetary surface could be detected. To analyze the NIMS observations, synthetic spectra have been generated by means of a line-by-line radiative transfer program which includes both scattering and absorption. We used the discrete ordinate method to calculate the spectra of vertically inhomogeneous plane-parallel atmosphere. Gas opacity is calculated based on the method of Pollack et al. (1993), though binary absorption coefficients for continuum opacity are adjusted to achieve an acceptable fit to the NIMS data. We used Mie scattering theory and a cloud model developed by Pollack et al. (1993) to determine the single scattering albedo and scattering phase function of the cloud particles. The vertical temperature profile of Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA) is used in all our calculations. The procedure of the analysis is the followings. We first made a correction for emission angle. Then, a modulation of emission by the cloud opacities is removed using simultaneously measured 1.74 and 2.3 μ m radiances. The resulting images are correlated with the topographic map of Magellan. To search for variations in surface emissivity, this cloud corrected images are divided by synthetic radiance maps that were created from the Magellan data. This work has been supported by The 21st Century COE Program of Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).

  8. Near infrared absorbing near infrared emitting highly-sensitive luminescent nanothermometer based on Nd(3+) to Yb(3+) energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Ł; Bednarkiewicz, A; Stefanski, M; Tomala, R; Hreniak, D; Strek, W

    2015-10-07

    A new type of near infrared absorbing near infrared emitting (NANE) luminescent nanothermometer is presented, with a physical background that relies on efficient Nd(3+) to Yb(3+) energy transfer under 808 nm photo-excitation. The emission spectra of LiLa0.9-xNd0.1YbxP4O12 (x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5) nanocrystals were measured in a wide 100-700 °C temperature range. The ratio between the Nd(3+) ((4)F3/2→(4)I9/2) and Yb(3+) ((2)F5/2→(2)F7/2) luminescence bands, and the thermometer sensitivity were found to be strongly dependent on the Yb(3+) concentration. These phenomenological relations were discussed in terms of the competition between three phenomena, namely (a) Nd(3+)→ Yb(3+) phonon assisted energy transfer, (b) Yb(3+)→ Nd(3+) back energy transfer and (c) energy diffusion between Yb(3+) ions. The highest sensitivity of the temperature measurement was found for x = 0.5 (LiLa0.4Nd0.1Yb0.5P4O12), which was equal to 4 × 10(-3) K(-1) at 330 K. In stark contrast to conventional approaches, the proposed phosphate host matrix allows for a high level of doping, and thus, owing to the negligible concentration quenching, the presented luminophores exhibit a high absorption cross section and bright emission. Moreover, such optical remote thermometers, whose excitation and emission wavelengths are weakly scattered or absorbed and fall into the optical transmission window of the skin, may therefore become a practical solution for biomedical applications, such as remote control of thermotherapy.

  9. Deep near-infrared survey of the Southern Sky (DENIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deul, E.

    1992-01-01

    DENIS (Deep Near-Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky) will be the first complete census of astronomical sources in the near-infrared spectral range. The challenges of this novel survey are both scientific and technical. Phenomena radiating in the near-infrared range from brown dwarfs to galaxies in the early stages of cosmological evolution, the scientific exploitation of data relevant over such a wide range requires pooling expertise from several of the leading European astronomical centers. The technical challenges of a project which will provide an order of magnitude more sources than given by the IRAS space mission, and which will involve advanced data-handling and image-processing techniques, likewise require pooling of hardware and software resources, as well as of human expertise. The DENIS project team is composed of some 40 scientists, computer specialists, and engineers located in 5 European Community countries (France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, and Spain), with important contributions from specialists in Australia, Brazil, Chile, and Hungary. DENIS will survey the entire southern sky in 3 colors, namely in the I band at a wavelength of 0.8 micron, in the 1.25 micron J band, and in the 2.15 micron K' band. The sensitivity limits will be 18th magnitude in the I band, 16th in the J band, and 14.5th in the K' band. The angular resolution achieved will be 1 arcsecond in the I band, and 3.0 arcseconds in the J and K' bands. The European Southern Observatory 1 m telescope on La Silla will be dedicated to survey use during operations expected to last four years, commencing in late 1993. DENIS aims to provide the astronomical community with complete digitized infrared images of the full southern sky and a catalogue of extracted objects, both of the best quality and in readily accessible form. This will be achieved through dedicated software packages and specialized catalogues, and with assistance from the Leiden and Paris Data Analysis Centers. The data

  10. Gratings and Random Reflectors for Near-Infrared PIN Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Bandara, Sumith; Liu, John; Ting, David

    2007-01-01

    Crossed diffraction gratings and random reflectors have been proposed as means to increase the quantum efficiencies of InGaAs/InP positive/intrinsic/ negative (PIN) diodes designed to operate as near-infrared photodetectors. The proposal is meant especially to apply to focal-plane imaging arrays of such photodetectors to be used for near-infrared imaging. A further increase in quantum efficiency near the short-wavelength limit of the near-infrared spectrum of such a photodetector array could be effected by removing the InP substrate of the array. The use of crossed diffraction gratings and random reflectors as optical devices for increasing the quantum efficiencies of quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) was discussed in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. While the optical effects of crossed gratings and random reflectors as applied to PIN photodiodes would be similar to those of crossed gratings and random reflectors as applied to QWIPs, the physical mechanisms by which these optical effects would enhance efficiency differ between the PIN-photodiode and QWIP cases: In a QWIP, the multiple-quantum-well layers are typically oriented parallel to the focal plane and therefore perpendicular or nearly perpendicular to the direction of incidence of infrared light. By virtue of the applicable quantum selection rules, light polarized parallel to the focal plane (as normally incident light is) cannot excite charge carriers and, hence, cannot be detected. A pair of crossed gratings or a random reflector scatters normally or nearly normally incident light so that a significant portion of it attains a component of polarization normal to the focal plane and, hence, can excite charge carriers. A pair of crossed gratings or a random reflector on a PIN photodiode would also scatter light into directions away from the perpendicular to the focal plane. However, in this case, the reason for redirecting light away from the perpendicular is to increase the length of the

  11. Near-infrared scattering as a dust diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saajasto, Mika; Juvela, Mika; Malinen, Johanna

    2018-06-01

    Context. Regarding the evolution of dust grains from diffuse regions of space to dense molecular cloud cores, many questions remain open. Scattering at near-infrared wavelengths, or "cloudshine", can provide information on cloud structure, dust properties, and the radiation field that is complementary to mid-infrared "coreshine" and observations of dust emission at longer wavelengths. Aims: We examine the possibility of using near-infrared scattering to constrain the local radiation field and the dust properties, the scattering and absorption efficiency, the size distribution of the grains, and the maximum grain size. Methods: We use radiative transfer modelling to examine the constraints provided by the J, H, and K bands in combination with mid-infrared surface brightness at 3.6 μm. We use spherical one-dimensional and elliptical three-dimensional cloud models to study the observable effects of different grain size distributions with varying absorption and scattering properties. As an example, we analyse observations of a molecular cloud in Taurus, TMC-1N. Results: The observed surface brightness ratios of the bands change when the dust properties are changed. However, even a change of ±10% in the surface brightness of one band changes the estimated power-law exponent of the size distribution γ by up to 30% and the estimated strength of the radiation field KISRF by up to 60%. The maximum grain size Amax and γ are always strongly anti-correlated. For example, overestimating the surface brightness by 10% changes the estimated radiation field strength by 20% and the exponent of the size distribution by 15%. The analysis of our synthetic observations indicates that the relative uncertainty of the parameter distributions are on average Amax, γ 25%, and the deviation between the estimated and correct values ΔQ < 15%. For the TMC-1N observations, a maximum grain size Amax > 1.5μm and a size distribution with γ > 4.0 have high probability. The mass weighted

  12. Titan's ground-based observations in the near-infrared.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrao, A.; Coustenis, A.; Hirtzig, M.; Lellouch, E.; Maillard, J.-P.; Rannou, P.; Gendron, E.; Drossart, P.; Combes, M.; Schmitt, B.

    We have observed Titan from 1991 to 2005 between 0.8 and 2.5 microns with the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) at the Canada France Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and the NACO adaptive optics system, at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). The CFHT dataset allows us (by applying a microphysical and radiative transfer model) to explore five methane windows at 0.94, 1.08, 1.28, 1.58 and 2 microns at different longitudes and resolutions for a disk average. We will also present a selected sample of the spectra we acquired with VLT/NACO on January 16, 2005, in the K band between 2.03 and 2.40 micron (Negrão et al., 2006b). Our spectra, taken with adaptive optics, include the Huygens landing site and surrounding dark and bright areas. A comparative study of the methane absorption coefficients currently available from different sources was also performed demonstrating the great sensitivity of surface inferences to this model parameter. Based on our results, we recommend the methane absorption coefficients produced by Boudon et al. (2006) and Irwin et al. (2006) for future studies of Titan. The analysis of the data yields information on the atmosphere and surface properties. We find our data to be compatible with mixtures of water ice and tholin but have strong indication for the presence of an additional as yet unidentified component (or components) for which we offer a spectral description. The analysis of the VLT/NACO data seem to indicate a strong decrease of Titan's surface albedo between 2.03 and 2.12 microns in the Huygens landing site area. This is compatible with the presence of ices such as CH4 and H2 O at the surface. References: Negrão, A., et al. 2006a. Titan's surface albedo variations over a Titan season from near-infrared CFHT/FTS spectra Plan. Space Sci., in press; 1 Negrão, A., et al. 2006b. 2 micron spectroscopy of Huygens probe landing site on Titan with VLT/NACO. J. Geophys. Res. Planets, in press; Boudon, V., et al., 2006. The Vibrational Levels of

  13. Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent imaging during robotic operations.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Antonio Luiz de Vasconcellos; Schraibman, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The intraoperative identification of certain anatomical structures because they are small or visually occult may be challenging. The development of minimally invasive surgery brought additional difficulties to identify these structures due to the lack of complete tactile sensitivity. A number of different forms of intraoperative mapping have been tried. Recently, the near-infrared fluorescence imaging technology with indocyanine green has been added to robotic platforms. In addition, this technology has been tested in several types of operations, and has advantages such as safety, low cost and good results. Disadvantages are linked to contrast distribution in certain clinical scenarios. The intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent imaging is new and promising addition to robotic surgery. Several reports show the utility of this technology in several different procedures. The ideal dose, time and site for dye injection are not well defined. No high quality evidence-based comparative studies and long-term follow-up outcomes have been published so far. Initial results, however, are good and safe. RESUMO A identificação intraoperatória de certas estruturas anatômicas, por seu tamanho ou por elas serem ocultas à visão, pode ser desafiadora. O desenvolvimento da cirurgia minimamente invasiva trouxe dificuldades adicionais, pela falta da sensibilidade tátil completa. Diversas formas de detecção intraoperatória destas estruturas têm sido tentadas. Recentemente, a tecnologia de fluorescência infravermelha com verde de indocianina foi associada às plataformas robóticas. Além disso, essa tecnologia tem sido testada em uma variedade de cirurgias, e suas vantagens parecem estar ligadas a baixo custo, segurança e bons resultados. As desvantagens estão associadas à má distribuição do contraste em determinados cenários. A imagem intraoperatória por fluorescência infravermelha é uma nova e promissora adição à cirurgia robótica. Diversas séries mostram

  14. Modelling of nectarine drying under near infrared - Vacuum conditions.

    PubMed

    Alaei, Behnam; Chayjan, Reza Amiri

    2015-01-01

    Drying of nectarine slices was performed to determine the thermal and physical properties in order to reduce product deterioration due to chemical reactions, facilitate storage and lower transportation costs. Because nectarine slices are sensitive to heat with long drying period, the selection of a suitable drying approach is a challenging task. Infrared-vacuum drying can be used as an appropriate method for susceptible materials with high moisture content such as nectarine slices. Modelling of nectarine slices drying was carried out in a thin layer near infraredvacuum conditions. Drying of the samples was implemented at the absolute pressures of 20, 40 and 60 kPa and drying temperatures of 50, 60 and 70°C. Drying behaviour of nectarine slices, as well as the effect of drying conditions on moisture loss trend, drying rate, effective diffusion coefficient, activation energy, shrinkage, colour and energy consumption of nectarine slices, dried in near infrared-vacuum dryer are discussed in this study. Six mathematical models were used to predict the moisture ratio of the samples in thin layer drying. The Midilli model had supremacy in prediction of nectarine slices drying behaviour. The maximum drying rates of the samples were between 0.014-0.047 gwater/gdry material·min. Effective moisture diffusivity of the samples was estimated in the ranges of 2.46·10-10 to 6.48·10-10 m2/s. Activation energy were computed between 31.28 and 35.23 kJ/mol. Minimum shrinkage (48.4%) and total colour difference (15.1) were achieved at temperature of 50°C and absolute pressure of 20 kPa. Energy consumption of the tests was estimated in the ranges of 0.129 to 0.247 kWh. Effective moisture diffusivity was increased with decrease of vacuum pressure and increase of drying temperature but effect of drying temperature on effective moisture diffusivity of nectarine slices was more than vacuum pressure. Activation energy was decreased with decrease in absolute pressure. Total colour

  15. Electric field detection of phase-locked near-infrared pulses using photoconductive antenna.

    PubMed

    Katayama, I; Akai, R; Bito, M; Matsubara, E; Ashida, M

    2013-07-15

    We have demonstrated that a photoconductive antenna gated with 5-fs ultrashort laser pulses can detect electric field transients of near-infrared pulses at least up to 180 THz. Measured sensitivity spectrum of the antenna shows a good agreement with a simple calculation, demonstrating the promising capability of the antenna to near infrared spectroscopy. Using this setup, near-infrared time-domain spectroscopy and characterization of phase controlled near-infrared pulses are demonstrated. Observed absorption spectrum of a polystyrene film and complex refractive index dispersion of a fused silica plate both agree well with those obtained by the conventional methods.

  16. Reflective coating for near-infrared immersion gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Alameda, Jennifer B.

    2012-09-01

    Achieving high reflectivity from an immersed grating facet can be challenging in the near infrared. The reflectivity of metallic coatings in common use, such as Al and Cr/Au, decrease with decreasing wavelength in the near IR. A layer of copper on ZnSe or ZnS should have a high, immersed reflectivity based on tabulated values of refractive index, but in fact performs poorly. We attribute this to a chemical reaction between the copper and the selenium or sulfur. A non-reactive intermediate layer can prevent this problem. Since reflectivity at an interface increases with increasing difference in refractive index, it is beneficial to choose an intermediate layer of low index. A further improvement is gained by adjusting the layer thickness so that reflections from the two interfaces of the intermediate layer add constructively. We sputtered 130 nm of SiO2 onto ZnSe and ZnS substrates followed by 200 nm of Cu. The copper was then coated with 5 nm of SiC as a protective capping layer. Immersed reflectivity measured shortly after coating exceeded 95% between 1500 and 1100 nm and exceeded 90% down to 850 nm. A repeat measurement after long term exposure to high humidity conditions showed no changes.

  17. FAST: A near-infrared imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbe, A.; Rotaciuc, V.; Storey, J. W. V.; Cameron, M.; Blietz, M.; Drapatz, S.; Hofmann, R.; Saemann, G.; Genzel, R.

    1993-12-01

    The near-infrared imaging spectrometer Fabry-Perot Array Spectrometer (FAST) provides a spectral resolution of 1000-2700 over a field of view of approximately 30 x 30 sq arcsec with a plate scale of 0.5-1.0 arcsec/pixel. FAST is based on a SBRC InSb 58 x 62 FPA working at 6 K, yielding a sensitivity 5(sigma), tint = 100 s, K band) of 1.1 x 10-4 erg/s (sq cm) (sr) at R = 1000. As a portable, self-contained instrument FAST has already been successfully deployed at several 2- and 4-m class telescopes. The optical and mechanical design, computer hardware and software control, as well as spectral calibration of the FPI, special treatment of the detectors, and the main data reduction steps are described. The necessity for such a dedicated system in the investigation of line-emission mechanisms in various galactic and extragalactic environments is illustrated by recently obtained results.

  18. Near-infrared Spectroscopy Of Outer Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takir, Driss; Emery, J.

    2009-09-01

    We have recently begun a spectral survey of the outer Main Belt population (3.2 AU < a < 4.6 AU), using near-infrared spectroscopy (0.8-2.5 μm). The objective of this survey is to search for signatures of H2O, organics, hydrated silicates, and/or anhydrous silicates on this group of asteroids. Studying the outer Main Belt asteroids will allow us to better understand the dynamical evolution of the Solar System and provide crucial constrains on nebular composition. Our first observing run, using the SpeX spectrograph/imager at the NASA IRTF, took place remotely form the University of Tennessee Knoxville on the nights of April 15, 16, and 17, 2009 (UT). More observing runs will be conducted this year and the beginning of next year. The initial data reduction process reveals that some of these asteroids exhibit weak and strong absorption features. We will present some of these initial spectra and results.

  19. Prediction of brain tissue temperature using near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Holper, Lisa; Mitra, Subhabrata; Bale, Gemma; Robertson, Nicola; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can provide an endogenous indicator of tissue temperature based on the temperature dependence of the water absorption spectrum. We describe a first evaluation of the calibration and prediction of brain tissue temperature obtained during hypothermia in newborn piglets (animal dataset) and rewarming in newborn infants (human dataset) based on measured body (rectal) temperature. The calibration using partial least squares regression proved to be a reliable method to predict brain tissue temperature with respect to core body temperature in the wavelength interval of 720 to 880 nm with a strong mean predictive power of R2=0.713±0.157 (animal dataset) and R2=0.798±0.087 (human dataset). In addition, we applied regression receiver operating characteristic curves for the first time to evaluate the temperature prediction, which provided an overall mean error bias between NIRS predicted brain temperature and body temperature of 0.436±0.283°C (animal dataset) and 0.162±0.149°C (human dataset). We discuss main methodological aspects, particularly the well-known aspect of over- versus underestimation between brain and body temperature, which is relevant for potential clinical applications. PMID:28630878

  20. Quantitative analysis of ice films by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keiser, Joseph T.

    1990-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in the Space Transportation System is the possibility of the ice buildup on the external fuel tank surface while it is mounted on the launch pad. During the T-2 hours (and holding) period, the frost/ice thickness on the external tank is monitored/measured. However, after the resumption of the countdown time, the tank surface can only be monitored remotely. Currently, remote sensing is done with a TV camera coupled to a thermal imaging device. This device is capable of identifying the presence of ice, especially if it is covered with a layer of frost. However, it has difficulty identifying transparent ice, and, it is not capable of determining the thickness of ice in any case. Thus, there is a need for developing a technique for measuring the thickness of frost/ice on the tank surface during this two hour period before launch. The external tank surface is flooded with sunlight (natural or simulated) before launch. It may be possible, therefore, to analyze the diffuse reflection of sunlight from the external tank to determine the presence and thickness of ice. The purpose was to investigate the feasibility of this approach. A near-infrared spectrophotometer was used to record spectra of ice. It was determined that the optimum frequencies for monitoring the ice films were 1.03 and 1.255 microns.

  1. SIMP: A Near-Infrared Proper Motion Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artigau, Étienne; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Albert, Loïc; Robert, Jasmin; Malo, Lison

    2009-02-01

    SIMP is a proper motion (PM) survey made with the Observatoire du Mont Mégantic (OMM) wide-field near-infrared camera CPAPIR at the CTIO 1.5 m and OMM 1.6 m telescopes. The SIMP observations were initiated in early 2005, are still ongoing and, to date, have covered 28% of the sky at high galactic latitudes. The PMs of the sources detected are determined by comparing their measured positions with those listed in the 2MASS point source catalog, giving a time baseline of 4 to 10 years. The 5 σ uncertainty on the relative SIMP and 2MASS astrometry is 1'', equivalent to a PM lower limit of 0.125-0.250''/yr, or a tangential velocity limit of 15-30 km/s at 25 pc. Up to the 2MASS magnitude limit (J~16.5), T dwarfs are found out to ~25 pc, while L dwarfs may be found as far as 100 pc away.

  2. Navigating surgical fluorescence cameras using near-infrared optical tracking.

    PubMed

    van Oosterom, Matthias; den Houting, David; van de Velde, Cornelis; van Leeuwen, Fijs

    2018-05-01

    Fluorescence guidance facilitates real-time intraoperative visualization of the tissue of interest. However, due to attenuation, the application of fluorescence guidance is restricted to superficial lesions. To overcome this shortcoming, we have previously applied three-dimensional surgical navigation to position the fluorescence camera in reach of the superficial fluorescent signal. Unfortunately, in open surgery, the near-infrared (NIR) optical tracking system (OTS) used for navigation also induced an interference during NIR fluorescence imaging. In an attempt to support future implementation of navigated fluorescence cameras, different aspects of this interference were characterized and solutions were sought after. Two commercial fluorescence cameras for open surgery were studied in (surgical) phantom and human tissue setups using two different NIR OTSs and one OTS simulating light-emitting diode setup. Following the outcome of these measurements, OTS settings were optimized. Measurements indicated the OTS interference was caused by: (1) spectral overlap between the OTS light and camera, (2) OTS light intensity, (3) OTS duty cycle, (4) OTS frequency, (5) fluorescence camera frequency, and (6) fluorescence camera sensitivity. By optimizing points 2 to 4, navigation of fluorescence cameras during open surgery could be facilitated. Optimization of the OTS and camera compatibility can be used to support navigated fluorescence guidance concepts. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  3. WINERED: a warm near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kondo, Sohei; Yasui, Chikako; Motohara, Kentaro; Minami, Atsushi

    2006-06-01

    We are developing a new near-infrared high-resolution (R max = 100,000) and high-sensitive spectrograph WINERED, which is specifically customized for short NIR bands at 0.9-1.35 μm. WINERED employs the following two novel approaches in the optical system: (1) portable design with a ZnSe immersion grating and (2) warm optics without any cold stops. These concepts result in several essential advantages as follows: easy to build, align, and maintain; these result in a short development time and low cost. WINERED employs a VIRGO HgCdTe 2k × 2k array by Raytheon as the detector. We are developing our own array control system that aims at a low readout noise (< 10 e -) with a readout time of about 3 sec. Our goal is to achieve a high sensitivity of R = 100,000 for a NIR spectroscopy of 15 mag and 17 mag point sources with 4 m and 10 m telescopes, respectively. We have just finalized the optical design and produced a prototype electronics, which are described in the companion papers by Yasui et al. and Kondo et al., respectively. We plan to complete this instrument by the end of 2008 and hope to attach it to various 4 to 10 m telescopes as a PI-type instrument.

  4. Motion in Jupiter's Atmospheric Vortices (Near-infrared filters)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Two frame 'movie' of a pair of vortices in Jupiter's southern hemisphere. The two frames are separated by ten hours. The right oval is rotating counterclockwise, like other anticyclonic bright vortices in Jupiter's atmosphere. The left vortex is a cyclonic (clockwise) vortex. The differences between them (their brightness, their symmetry, and their behavior) are clues to how Jupiter's atmosphere works. The frames span about fifteen degrees in latitude and longitude and are centered at 141 degrees west longitude and 36 degrees south planetocentric latitude. Both vortices are about 3500 kilometers in diameter in the north-south direction.

    The images were taken in near infrared light at 756 nanometers and show clouds that are at a pressure level of about 1 bar in Jupiter's atmosphere. North is at the top. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on May 7, 1997, at a range of 1.5 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  5. Near-infrared light-responsive dynamic wrinkle patterns.

    PubMed

    Li, Fudong; Hou, Honghao; Yin, Jie; Jiang, Xuesong

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic micro/nanopatterns provide an effective approach for on-demand tuning of surface properties to realize a smart surface. We report a simple yet versatile strategy for the fabrication of near-infrared (NIR) light-responsive dynamic wrinkles by using a carbon nanotube (CNT)-containing poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer as the substrate for the bilayer systems, with various functional polymers serving as the top stiff layers. The high photon-to-thermal energy conversion of CNT leads to the NIR-controlled thermal expansion of the elastic CNT-PDMS substrate, resulting in dynamic regulation of the applied strain (ε) of the bilayer system by the NIR on/off cycle to obtain a reversible wrinkle pattern. The switchable surface topological structures can transfer between the wrinkled state and the wrinkle-free state within tens of seconds via NIR irradiation. As a proof-of-concept application, this type of NIR-driven dynamic wrinkle pattern was used in smart displays, dynamic gratings, and light control electronics.

  6. Lightless cataract surgery using a near-infrared operating microscope.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Hyun

    2006-10-01

    To describe the near-infrared (NIR) operating microscopy (NIOM) system using the NIR wavelength as the illumination source and to evaluate the feasibility of this system for lightless cataract surgery. HenAm Kim Eye Center, Haenam-Gun, South Korea. In this noncomparative interventional case series, cataract surgery was performed in 4 patients with bilateral cataract using the NIOM system in 1 eye and conventional microscopy in the fellow eye. The primary components of the system include an optical filter, a stereoscopic camera, head-mounted displays, and a recording system. This system uses invisible NIR (wavelength 850 to 1300 nm) illumination to facilitate cataract surgery without light. The differences between the NIOM system and conventional microscopy during cataract surgery were evaluated. The NIOM system provided excellent 3-dimensional viewing in real time. The image resolution was sufficient while performing all steps of cataract surgery. Immediately postoperatively and at 10 and 30 minutes and 1 hour, the visual acuity was better in the 4 eyes in which the NIOM system was used than in the 4 eyes in which conventional microscopy was used. However, using the NIOM system required good surgical skill. Lightless cataract surgery using the NIOM system seems useful for obtaining good visual acuity immediately postoperatively. The system may also reduce the incidence of light-induced retinal toxicity and the need for mydriatic administration and be a good educational tool.

  7. Near-infrared spectroscopy of renal tissue in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosenick, Dirk; Steinkellner, Oliver; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Macdonald, Rainer; Niendorf, Thoralf; Cantow, Kathleen; Flemming, Bert; Seeliger, Erdmann

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a method to quantify hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation within the renal cortex by near-infrared spectroscopy. A fiber optic probe was used to transmit the radiation of three semiconductor lasers at 690 nm, 800 nm and 830 nm to the tissue, and to collect diffusely remitted light at source-detector separations from 1 mm to 4 mm. To derive tissue hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin the spatial dependence of the measured cw intensities was fitted by a Monte Carlo model. In this model the tissue was assumed to be homogeneous. The scaling factors between measured intensities and simulated photon flux were obtained by applying the same setup to a homogeneous semi-infinite phantom with known optical properties and by performing Monte Carlo simulations for this phantom. To accelerate the fit of the tissue optical properties a look-up table of the simulated reflected intensities was generated for the needed range of absorption and scattering coefficients. The intensities at the three wavelengths were fitted simultaneously using hemoglobin concentration, oxygen saturation, the reduced scattering coefficient at 800 nm and the scatter power coefficient as fit parameters. The method was employed to study the temporal changes of renal hemoglobin concentration and blood oxygenation on an anesthetized rat during a short period of renal ischemia induced by aortic occlusion and during subsequent reperfusion.

  8. Thermal consequences of colour and near-infrared reflectance.

    PubMed

    Stuart-Fox, Devi; Newton, Elizabeth; Clusella-Trullas, Susana

    2017-07-05

    The importance of colour for temperature regulation in animals remains controversial. Colour can affect an animal's temperature because all else being equal, dark surfaces absorb more solar energy than do light surfaces, and that energy is converted into heat. However, in reality, the relationship between colour and thermoregulation is complex and varied because it depends on environmental conditions and the physical properties, behaviour and physiology of the animal. Furthermore, the thermal effects of colour depend as much on absorptance of near-infrared ((NIR), 700-2500 nm) as visible (300-700 nm) wavelengths of direct sunlight; yet the NIR is very rarely considered or measured. The few available data on NIR reflectance in animals indicate that the visible reflectance is often a poor predictor of NIR reflectance. Adaptive variation in animal coloration (visible reflectance) reflects a compromise between multiple competing functions such as camouflage, signalling and thermoregulation. By contrast, adaptive variation in NIR reflectance should primarily reflect thermoregulatory requirements because animal visual systems are generally insensitive to NIR wavelengths. Here, we assess evidence and identify key research questions regarding the thermoregulatory function of animal coloration, and specifically consider evidence for adaptive variation in NIR reflectance.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. A Survey of Near-infrared Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamano, Satochi; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kawakita, Hideyo; Ikeda, Yuji; Kondo, Sohei; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Arai, Akira; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Yasui, Chikako; Mizumoto, Misaki; Fukue, Kei; Izumi, Natsuko; Otsubo, Shogo; Takenada, Keiichi

    2018-04-01

    We propose a study of interstellar molecules with near-infrared (NIR) high-resolution spectroscopy as a science case for the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT). In particular, we present the results obtained on-going survey of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in NIR with the newly developed NIR high-resolution spectrograph WINERED, which offers a high sensitivity in the wavelength range of 0.91-1.36 µm. Using the WINERED spectrograph attached to the 1.3-m Araki telescope in Japan, we obtained high-quality spectra of a number of early-type stars in various environments, such as diffuse interstellar clouds, dark clouds and star-forming regions, to investigate the properties of NIR DIBs and constrain their carriers. As a result, we successfully identified about 50 new NIR DIBs, where only five fairly strong DIBs had been identified previously. Also, some properties of DIBs in the NIR are discussed to constrain the carriers of DIBs.

  10. Photochemical effects in the lens from near infrared radiation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderberg, Per G.; Al-Saqry, Riyadh; Schulmeister, Karl; Gallichanin, Konstantin; Kronschläger, Martin; Yu, Zhaohua

    2009-02-01

    Conclusion: The current data are consistent with a potential photochemical effect of in vivo exposure of the crystalline lens to near infrared radiation since the onset of cataract after in just above threshold dose was at least 18 hrs delayed after the exposure. Materials and methods: The eyes of 6 weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed unilaterally in vivo to 1090 nm, 6.2 W quasi-top hat spatial distribution with a 3 mm spot on the anterior lens surface within the dilated pupil. First, four exposure time groups of rats were exposed to increasing exposure times. At 24 hrs after exposure, the difference of light scattering between the lenses from the same animal was measured. Then, based on the first experiment, four post-exposure time groups were exposed unilaterally in vivo to 8 s of 1090 nm, 6.2 W quasi-top hat spatial distribution with a 3 mm spot on the anterior lens surface within the dilated pupil. After, the intended post-exposure time, the difference of light scattering between the lenses from the same animal was measured. Results: A 3 mm spot of 6.2 W induces light scattering in the lens with exposures of at least 8 s. Further, after 8 s of 6.2 W within a 3 mm spot on the lens surface, the light scattering increase in the lens was delayed at least 18 hrs after the exposure.

  11. Assessment of hyaline cartilage matrix composition using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Palukuru, Uday P; McGoverin, Cushla M; Pleshko, Nancy

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are characteristic of injury or disease in cartilage tissue. Various imaging modalities and biochemical techniques have been used to assess the changes in cartilage tissue but lack adequate sensitivity, or in the case of biochemical techniques, result in destruction of the sample. Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy has shown promise for the study of cartilage composition. In the current study NIR spectroscopy was used to identify the contributions of individual components of cartilage in the NIR spectra by assessment of the major cartilage components, collagen and chondroitin sulfate, in pure component mixtures. The NIR spectra were obtained using homogenous pellets made by dilution with potassium bromide. A partial least squares (PLS) model was calculated to predict composition in bovine cartilage samples. Characteristic absorbance peaks between 4000 and 5000 cm(-1) could be attributed to components of cartilage, i.e. collagen and chondroitin sulfate. Prediction of the amount of collagen and chondroitin sulfate in tissues was possible within 8% (w/dw) of values obtained by gold standard biochemical assessment. These results support the use of NIR spectroscopy for in vitro and in vivo applications to assess matrix composition of cartilage tissues, especially when tissue destruction should be avoided. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Near-Infrared Neuroimaging with NinPy

    PubMed Central

    Strangman, Gary E.; Zhang, Quan; Zeffiro, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    There has been substantial recent growth in the use of non-invasive optical brain imaging in studies of human brain function in health and disease. Near-infrared neuroimaging (NIN) is one of the most promising of these techniques and, although NIN hardware continues to evolve at a rapid pace, software tools supporting optical data acquisition, image processing, statistical modeling, and visualization remain less refined. Python, a modular and computationally efficient development language, can support functional neuroimaging studies of diverse design and implementation. In particular, Python's easily readable syntax and modular architecture allow swift prototyping followed by efficient transition to stable production systems. As an introduction to our ongoing efforts to develop Python software tools for structural and functional neuroimaging, we discuss: (i) the role of non-invasive diffuse optical imaging in measuring brain function, (ii) the key computational requirements to support NIN experiments, (iii) our collection of software tools to support NIN, called NinPy, and (iv) future extensions of these tools that will allow integration of optical with other structural and functional neuroimaging data sources. Source code for the software discussed here will be made available at www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/Neural_SystemsGroup/software.html. PMID:19543449

  13. Motion in Jupiter's Atmospheric Vortices (Near-infrared filters)

    1998-03-26

    Two frame "movie" of a pair of vortices in Jupiter's southern hemisphere. The two frames are separated by ten hours. The right oval is rotating counterclockwise, like other anticyclonic bright vortices in Jupiter's atmosphere. The left vortex is a cyclonic (clockwise) vortex. The differences between them (their brightness, their symmetry, and their behavior) are clues to how Jupiter's atmosphere works. The frames span about fifteen degrees in latitude and longitude and are centered at 141 degrees west longitude and 36 degrees south planetocentric latitude. Both vortices are about 3500 kilometers in diameter in the north-south direction. The images were taken in near infrared light at 756 nanometers and show clouds that are at a pressure level of about 1 bar in Jupiter's atmosphere. North is at the top. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on May 7, 1997, at a range of 1.5 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. An animation is available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01230

  14. Screening experiments of ecstasy street samples using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sondermann, N; Kovar, K A

    1999-12-20

    Twelve different sets of confiscated ecstasy samples were analysed applying both near infrared spectroscopy in reflectance mode (1100-2500 nm) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The sets showed a large variance in composition. A calibration data set was generated based on the theory of factorial designs. It contained 221 N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA) samples, 167 N-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDE), 111 amphetamine and 106 samples without a controlled substance, which will be called placebo samples thereafter. From this data set, PLS-1 models were calculated and were successfully applied for validation of various external laboratory test sets. The transferability of these results to confiscated tablets is demonstrated here. It is shown that differentiation into placebo, amphetamine and ecstasy samples is possible. Analysis of intact tablets is practicable. However, more reliable results are obtained from pulverised samples. This is due to ill-defined production procedures. The use of mathematically pretreated spectra improves the prediction quality of all the PLS-1 models studied. It is possible to improve discrimination between MDE and MDMA with the help of a second model based on raw spectra. Alternative strategies are briefly discussed.

  15. Distributed Software for Observations in the Near Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavryusev, V.; Baffa, C.; Giani, E.

    We have developed an integrated system that performs astronomical observations in Near Infrared bands operating two-dimensional instruments at the Italian National Infrared Facility's \\htmllink{ARNICA}{http://helios.arcetri.astro.it:/home/idefix/Mosaic/ instr/arnica/arnica.html} and \\htmllink{LONGSP}{http://helios.arcetri.astro.it:/home/idefix/Mosaic/ instr/longsp/longsp.html}. This software consists of several communicating processes, generally executed across a network, as well as on a single computer. The user interface is organized as widget-based X11 client. The interprocess communication is provided by sockets and uses TCP/IP. The processes denoted for control of hardware (telescope and other instruments) should be executed currently on a PC dedicated for this task under DESQview/X, while all other components (user interface, tools for the data analysis, etc.) can also work under UNIX\\@. The hardware independent part of software is based on the Athena Widget Set and is compiled by GNU C to provide maximum portability.

  16. Fluorescence lifetime imaging with near-infrared dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Wolfgang; Shcheslavskiy, Vladislav

    2013-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) dyes are used as fluorescence markers in small-animal imaging and in diffuse optical tomography of the human brain. In these applications it is important to know whether the dyes bind to proteins or other tissue constituents, and whether their fluorescence lifetimes depend on the targets they are bound to. Unfortunately, neither the lasers nor the detectors of commonly used confocal and multiphoton laser scanning microscopes allow for excitation and detection of NIR fluorescence. We therefore upgraded existing confocal TCSPC FLIM systems with NIR lasers and NIR sensitive detectors. In multiphoton systems we used the Ti:Sa laser as a one-photon excitation source in combination with an NIR-sensitive detector in the confocal beam path. We tested a number of NIR dyes in biological tissue. Some of them showed clear lifetime changes depending on the tissue structures they are bound to. We therefore believe that NIR FLIM can deliver supplementary information on the tissue constitution and on local biochemical parameters.

  17. Near-infrared light–responsive dynamic wrinkle patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Honghao; Yin, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic micro/nanopatterns provide an effective approach for on-demand tuning of surface properties to realize a smart surface. We report a simple yet versatile strategy for the fabrication of near-infrared (NIR) light–responsive dynamic wrinkles by using a carbon nanotube (CNT)–containing poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer as the substrate for the bilayer systems, with various functional polymers serving as the top stiff layers. The high photon-to-thermal energy conversion of CNT leads to the NIR-controlled thermal expansion of the elastic CNT-PDMS substrate, resulting in dynamic regulation of the applied strain (ε) of the bilayer system by the NIR on/off cycle to obtain a reversible wrinkle pattern. The switchable surface topological structures can transfer between the wrinkled state and the wrinkle-free state within tens of seconds via NIR irradiation. As a proof-of-concept application, this type of NIR-driven dynamic wrinkle pattern was used in smart displays, dynamic gratings, and light control electronics. PMID:29740615

  18. Portable visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer for triglyceride measurements.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Kato, Yukiko Hakariya; Tsukamoto, Megumi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Sakudo, Akikazu

    2009-01-01

    An affordable and portable machine is required for the practical use of visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy. A portable fruit tester comprising a Vis-NIR spectrophotometer was modified for use in the transmittance mode and employed to quantify triglyceride levels in serum in combination with a chemometric analysis. Transmittance spectra collected in the 600- to 1100-nm region were subjected to a partial least-squares regression analysis and leave-out cross-validation to develop a chemometrics model for predicting triglyceride concentrations in serum. The model yielded a coefficient of determination in cross-validation (R2VAL) of 0.7831 with a standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 43.68 mg/dl. The detection limit of the model was 148.79 mg/dl. Furthermore, masked samples predicted by the model yielded a coefficient of determination in prediction (R2PRED) of 0.6856 with a standard error of prediction (SEP) and detection limit of 61.54 and 159.38 mg/dl, respectively. The portable Vis-NIR spectrophotometer may prove convenient for the measurement of triglyceride concentrations in serum, although before practical use there remain obstacles, which are discussed.

  19. Hyperspectral near infrared spectroscopy assessment of the brain during hypoperfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thu N.; Wu, Wen; Woldemichael, Ermias; Toronov, Vladislav; Lin, Steve

    2018-02-01

    Two-thirds of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients, who survive to hospital admission, die in the hospital from neurological injuries related to cerebral hypoperfusion. Hyperspectral near infrared spectroscopy (hNIRS) is a noninvasive technique that measures the major chromophores in the brain, such as oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin and cytochrome C oxidase ([CCO]), an intracellular marker of oxygen consumption. We have demonstrated that hNIRS is feasible and can detect changes in cerebral oxygenation and metabolism in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve insertion (TAVI) - a procedure that temporarily induces sudden hypotension and hypoperfusion that mimics cardiac arrest. Using multi-distance hNIRS, we found that while measured regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) changes resulted mainly from the extra-cerebral tissues, [CCO] changes during cardiac arrests occurred mainly in the brains of patients. We also applied the hNIRS algorithm based on the "2-layer model" to the data to measure cerebral oxygen saturation and [CCO] in patients during the procedure.

  20. Near-infrared light-responsive nanomaterials in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Vijayakumar; Selvakumar, S; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2014-09-07

    Noninvasive techniques, such as breath tests (urea breath test), blood pressure measurements using a sphygmomanometer and electrocardiography, were employed by a physician to perform classical diagnosis. The use of state-of-the-art noninvasive therapies at the organ level in modern medicine has gradually become possible. However, cancer treatment demands spatially and temporally controlled noninvasive therapy at the cell level because nonspecific toxicity often causes complicated side effects. To increase survival in cancer patients further, combination therapy and combination drugs are explored which demand high specificity to avoid combined-drug side effects. We believe that high specificity could be obtained by implementing near-infrared (NIR) light-assisted nanoparticles in photothermal therapy, chemotherapy, and photodynamic therapy. To refine this therapy and subsequently achieve high efficiency, novel nanomaterials have been designed and modified either to enhance the uptake and drug delivery to the cancer site, or control treatment to administer therapy efficiently. These modifications and developments have been demonstrated to achieve spatial and temporal control when conducting an in vivo xenograft, because the NIR light penetrated effectively the biological tissue. The nanoplatforms discussed in this review are grouped under the following subheadings: Au nanorods (NRs), Au nanoshells, other Au-related nanomaterials, graphene oxide, upconversion nanoparticles, and other related materials (including materials such as CuS, Fe3O4-related systems, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)).

  1. Near infrared spectroscopy based brain-computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranganatha, Sitaram; Hoshi, Yoko; Guan, Cuntai

    2005-04-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) provides users with an alternative output channel other than the normal output path of the brain. BCI is being given much attention recently as an alternate mode of communication and control for the disabled, such as patients suffering from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or "locked-in". BCI may also find applications in military, education and entertainment. Most of the existing BCI systems which rely on the brain's electrical activity use scalp EEG signals. The scalp EEG is an inherently noisy and non-linear signal. The signal is detrimentally affected by various artifacts such as the EOG, EMG, ECG and so forth. EEG is cumbersome to use in practice, because of the need for applying conductive gel, and the need for the subject to be immobile. There is an urgent need for a more accessible interface that uses a more direct measure of cognitive function to control an output device. The optical response of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) denoting brain activation can be used as an alternative to electrical signals, with the intention of developing a more practical and user-friendly BCI. In this paper, a new method of brain-computer interface (BCI) based on NIRS is proposed. Preliminary results of our experiments towards developing this system are reported.

  2. MIRIS observation of near-infrared diffuse Galactic light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Yosuke; Sano, Kei; Matsuura, Shuji; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Kim, Il-Jong; Seo, Hyun Jong; Han, Wonyong; Lee, DaeHee; Moon, Bongkon; Park, Wonkee; Park, Younsik; Kim, MinGyu; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuhara, Hideo; Nakagawa, Takao; Tsumura, Kohji; Shirahata, Mai; Arai, Toshiaki; Ienaka, Nobuyuki

    2018-06-01

    We report near-infrared (IR) observations of high Galactic latitude clouds to investigate diffuse Galactic light (DGL), which is starlight scattered by interstellar dust grains. The observations were performed at 1.1 and 1.6 μm with a wide-field camera instrument, the Multi-purpose Infra-Red Imaging System (MIRIS) onboard the Korean satellite STSAT-3. The DGL brightness is measured by correlating the near-IR images with a far-IR 100 μm map of interstellar dust thermal emission. The wide-field observation of DGL provides the most accurate DGL measurement achieved to-date. We also find a linear correlation between optical and near-IR DGL in the MBM32 field. To study interstellar dust properties in MBM32, we adopt recent dust models with and without μm-sized very large grains and predict the DGL spectra, taking into account the reddening effect of the interstellar radiation field. The result shows that the observed color of the near-IR DGL is closer to the model spectra without very large grains. This may imply that dust growth in the observed MBM32 field is not active owing to the low density of its interstellar medium.

  3. Near-infrared spectroscopy of primitive solar system objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, Jane; Jewitt, David; Cloutis, Edward

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained near-infrared (H and K band at lambda/Delta(lambda) is approximately 480 to 600) spectra of a sample of primitive objects including 2 Centaur objects (2060 Chiron and 5145 Pholus) and 16 P- and D-type asteroids. The spectra were obtained at the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope using the cooled grating spectrometer CGS4, and were used to search for chemically diagnostic vibrational features in these primitive objects. Pholus exhibits broad adsorption features at 2.07 and 2.27 micrometers, as well as a weak feature at 1.72 micrometers. The 1.72- and 2.27-micrometer features are similar to those seen in a laboratory tar sand sample. No distinct absorption features are found in other objects, including Chiron, which displays a spectrally neutral continuum. A comparison of the P- and D-type asteroid spectra with laboratory measurements of organic solids shows no compelling evidence for hydrocarbon overtones seen in terrestrial bituminous tar sands.

  4. NIFTE: The Near Infrared Faint-Object Telescope Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, James J.; Lange, Andrew E.; Matsumoto, T.; Eisenhardt, Peter B.; Hacking, Perry B.; Schember, Helene R.

    1994-01-01

    The high sensitivity of large format InSb arrays can be used to obtain deep images of the sky at 3-5 micrometers. In this spectral range cool or highly redshifted objects (e.g. brown dwarfs and protogalaxies) which are not visible at shorter wavelengths may be observed. Sensitivity at these wavelengths in ground-based observations is severly limited by the thermal flux from the telescope and from the earth's atmosphere. The Near Infrared Faint-Object Telescope Experiment (NIFTE), a 50 cm cooled rocket-borne telescope combined with large format, high performance InSb arrays, can reach a limiting flux less than 1 micro-Jy(1-sigma) over a large field-of-view in a single flight. In comparison, the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) will require days of observation to reach a sensitivity more than one order of magnitude worse over a similar area of the sky. The deep 3-5 micrometer images obtained by the rocket-borne telescope will assist in determining the nature of faint red objects detected by ground-based telescopes at 2 micrometers, and by ISO at wavelengths longer than 5 micrometers.

  5. In vivo near infrared (NIRS) sensor attachment using fibrin bioadhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macnab, Andrew; Pagano, Roberto; Kwon, Brian; Dumont, Guy; Shadgan, Babak

    2018-02-01

    Background: `Tisseel' (Baxter Healthcare, Deerfield, IL) is a fibrin-based sealant that is commonly used during spine surgery to augment dural repairs. We wish to intra-operatively secure a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) sensor to the dura in order to monitor the tissue hemodynamics of the underlying spinal cord. To determine if `Tisseel' sealant adversely attenuates NIR photon transmission. Methods: We investigated `Tisseel' in both an in vitro and in vivo paradigm. For in vitro testing, we used a 1 mm pathlength cuvette containing either air or `Tisseel' interposed between a NIR light source (760 and 850 nm) and a photodiode detector and compared transmittance. For in vivo testing, a continuous wave (760 and 850 nm) spatiallyresolved NIRS device was placed over the triceps muscle using either conventional skin apposition (overlying adhesive bandage) or bioadhesion with `Tisseel'. Raw optical data and tissue saturation index (TSI%) collected at rest were compared. Results: In-vitro NIR light absorption by `Tisseel' was very high, with transmittance reduced by 95% compared to air. In-vivo muscle TSI% values were 80% with conventional attachment and 20% using fibrin glue. Conclusion: The optical properties of `Tisseel' significantly attenuate NIR light during in-vitro transmittance and critically compromise photon transmission in-vivo.

  6. Peripheral nerve recruitment curve using near-infrared stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dautrebande, Marie; Doguet, Pascal; Gorza, Simon-Pierre; Delbeke, Jean; Nonclercq, Antoine

    2018-02-01

    In the context of near-infrared neurostimulation, we report on an experimental hybrid electrode allowing for simultaneous photonic or electrical neurostimulation and for electrical recording of evoked action potentials. The electrode includes three contacts and one optrode. The optrode is an opening in the cuff through which the tip of an optical fibre is held close to the epineurium. Two contacts provide action potential recording. The remaining contact, together with a remote subcutaneous electrode, is used for electric stimulation which allows periodical assessment of the viability of the nerve during the experiment. A 1470 nm light source was used to stimulate a mouse sciatic nerve. Neural action potentials were not successfully recorded because of the electrical noise so muscular activity was used to reflect the motor fibres stimulation. A recruitment curve was obtained by stimulating with photonic pulses of same power and increasing duration and recording the evoked muscular action potentials. Motor fibres can be recruited with radiant exposures between 0.05 and 0.23 J/cm2 for pulses in the 100 to 500 μs range. Successful stimulation at short duration and at a commercial wavelength is encouraging in the prospect of miniaturisation and practical applications. Motor fibres recruitment curve is a first step in an ongoing research work. Neural action potential acquisition will be improved, with aim to shed light on the mechanism of action potential initiation under photonic stimulation.

  7. Novel near infrared sensors for hybrid BCI applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almajidy, Rand K.; Le, Khang S.; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2015-07-01

    This study's goal is to develop a low cost, portable, accurate and comfortable NIRS module that can be used simultaneously with EEG in a dual modality system for brain computer interface (BCI). The sensing modules consist of electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes (at the positions Fp1, Fpz and Fp2 in the international 10-20 system) with eight custom made functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) channels, positioned on the prefrontal cortex area with two extra channels to measure and eliminate extra-cranial oxygenation. The NIRS sensors were designed to guarantee good sensor-skin contact, without causing subject discomfort, using springs to press them to the skin instead of pressing them by cap fixture. Two open source software packages were modified to carry out dual modality hybrid BCI experiments. The experimental paradigm consisted of a mental task (arithmetic task or text reading) and a resting period. Both oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes (HbO), and EEG signals showed an increase during the mental task, but the onset, period and amount of that increase depends on each modality's characteristics. The subject's degree of attention played an important role especially during online sessions. The sensors can be easily used to acquire brain signals from different cerebral cortex parts. The system serves as a simple technological test bed and will be used for stroke patient rehabilitation purposes.

  8. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Small Protonated Water Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J. Philipp; McDonald, David C., II; McCoy, Anne B.; Duncan, Michael A.

    2017-06-01

    Small protonated water clusters and their argon tagged analogues of the general formula H^{+}(H_{2}O)_{n}Ar_{m} have been generated in a pulsed electric discharge source. Clusters containing n=1-8 water molecules were mass-selected and their absorptions in the near-infrared were probed with a tunable Nd/colonYAG pumped OPA/OPA laser system in the region from 4850-7350 cm^{-1}. A doublet corresponding to overtones of the free O-H stretches of the external waters was observed around 7200 cm^{-1} that was continuously decreasing in intensity with increasing cluster size. Broad, mostly featureless absorptions were found around 5300 cm^{-1} associated with stretch/bend combinations and with the hydrogen bonded waters in the core of the clusters. Vibrational assignments were substantiated by comparison to anharmonic frequency computations via second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory.

  9. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging using organic dye nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jia; Zhang, Xiujuan; Hao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhou, Mengjiao; Lee, Chun-Sing; Chen, Xianfeng

    2014-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging in the 700-1000 nm wavelength range has been very attractive for early detection of cancers. Conventional NIR dyes often suffer from limitation of low brightness due to self-quenching, insufficient photo- and bioenvironmental stability, and small Stokes shift. Herein, we present a strategy of using small-molecule organic dye nanoparticles (ONPs) to encapsulate NIR dyes to enable efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer to obtain NIR probes with remarkably enhanced performance for in vitro and in vivo imaging. In our design, host ONPs are used as not only carriers to trap and stabilize NIR dyes, but also light-harvesting agent to transfer energy to NIR dyes to enhance their brightness. In comparison with pure NIR dyes, our organic dye nanoparticles possess almost 50-fold increased brightness, large Stokes shifts (∼250 nm) and dramatically enhanced photostability. With surface modification, these NIR-emissive organic nanoparticles have water-dispersity and size- and fluorescence- stability over pH values from 2 to 10 for almost 60 days. With these superior advantages, these NIR-emissive organic nanoparticles can be used for highly efficient folic-acid aided specific targeting in vivo and ex vivo cellular imaging. Finally, during in vivo imaging, the nanoparticles show negligible toxicity. Overall, the results clearly display a potential application of using the NIR-emissive organic nanoparticles for in vitro and in vivo imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mental fatigue detection based on the functional near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Fenggang; Yang, Hanjun; Jiang, Jin; Cao, Yong; Jiao, Xuejun

    2017-02-01

    Mental fatigue can be induced by long time mental work, mental fatigue caused worse performance and accidents. As a non-invasive technique, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) can measure blood oxygen activity in the cerebral cortex which reflect the cognitive function of brain indirectly. Aiming at investigating whether fNIRS can measure the mental fatigue and study the spatial pattern of hemodynamic response for mental fatigue, we used three sessions of verbal 2-back working memory task for a total of 120 minutes to induce mental fatigue, 15 healthy subjects were recruited and 30 channels including prefrontal cortex (PFC) and motor cortex (MC) were measured by fNIRS. The mean oxyhemoglobin feature for 20s was extracted as well as subjective fatigue level and performance. The results showed significant increase of subjected fatigue level as well as significant decrease performance from session one to three task. With the increased level of fatigue, oxyhemoglobin in PFC increase significantly and the spatial pattern of hemodynamic response in the all 30 channels varied with task duration as well. These findings indicated the potential of fNIRS measured hemodynamic as a mental fatigue indicator.

  11. Subsurface thermal coagulation of tissues using near infrared lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Hung Jack

    Noninvasive laser therapy is currently limited primarily to cosmetic dermatological applications such as skin resurfacing, hair removal, tattoo removal and treatment of vascular birthmarks. In order to expand applications of noninvasive laser therapy, deeper optical penetration of laser radiation in tissue as well as more aggressive cooling of the tissue surface is necessary. The near-infrared laser wavelength of 1075 nm was found to be the optimal laser wavelength for creation of deep subsurface thermal lesions in liver tissue, ex vivo, with contact cooling, preserving a surface tissue layer of 2 mm. Monte Carlo light transport, heat transfer, and Arrhenius integral thermal damage simulations were conducted at this wavelength, showing good agreement between experiment and simulations. Building on the initial results, our goal is to develop new noninvasive laser therapies for application in urology, specifically for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Various laser balloon probes including side-firing and diffusing fibers were designed and tested for both transvaginal and transurethral approaches to treatment. The transvaginal approach showed the highest feasibility. To further increase optical penetration depth, various types and concentrations of optical clearing agents were also explored. Three cadavers studies were performed to investigate and demonstrate the feasibility of laser treatment for SUI.

  12. DIAGNOcam--a Near Infrared Digital Imaging Transillumination (NIDIT) technology.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, Marwa; Krejci, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, clinical manifestation of carious lesions is changing: instead of dentists being confronted with wide-open cavities, more and more hidden caries are seen. For a long time, the focus of the research community was on finding a method for the detection of carious lesions without the need for radiographs. The research on Digital Imaging Fiber-Optic Transillumination (DIFOTI) has been an active domain. The scope of the present article is to describe a novel technology for caries diagnostics based on Near Infrared Digital Imaging Transillumination (NIDIT), and to give first examples of its clinical indications. In addition, the coupling of NIDIT with a head-mounted retinal image display (RID) to improve clinical workflow is presented. The novel NIDIT technology was shown to be useful as a diagnostic tool in several indications, including mainly the detection of proximal caries and, less importantly, for occlusal caries, fissures, and secondary decay around amalgam and composite restorations. The coupling of this technology with a head-mounted retinal image system allows for its very efficient implementation into daily practice.

  13. Near-infrared imaging of developmental defects in dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Hirasuna, Krista; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L

    2008-01-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and near-infrared (NIR) imaging are promising new technologies under development for monitoring early carious lesions. Fluorosis is a growing problem in the United States, and the more prevalent mild fluorosis can be visually mistaken for early enamel demineralization. Unfortunately, there is little quantitative information available regarding the differences in optical properties of sound enamel, enamel developmental defects, and caries. Thirty extracted human teeth with various degrees of suspected fluorosis were imaged using PS-OCT and NIR. An InGaAs camera and a NIR diode laser were used to measure the optical attenuation through transverse tooth sections (approximately 200 microm). A digital microradiography system was used to quantify the enamel defect severity by measurement of the relative mineral loss for comparison with optical scattering measurements. Developmental defects were clearly visible in the polarization-resolved OCT images, demonstrating that PS-OCT can be used to nondestructively measure the depth and possible severity of the defects. Enamel defects on whole teeth that could be imaged with high contrast with visible light were transparent in the NIR. This study suggests that PS-OCT and NIR methods may potentially be used as tools to assess the severity and extent of enamel defects.

  14. Prediction of brain tissue temperature using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Holper, Lisa; Mitra, Subhabrata; Bale, Gemma; Robertson, Nicola; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2017-04-01

    Broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can provide an endogenous indicator of tissue temperature based on the temperature dependence of the water absorption spectrum. We describe a first evaluation of the calibration and prediction of brain tissue temperature obtained during hypothermia in newborn piglets (animal dataset) and rewarming in newborn infants (human dataset) based on measured body (rectal) temperature. The calibration using partial least squares regression proved to be a reliable method to predict brain tissue temperature with respect to core body temperature in the wavelength interval of 720 to 880 nm with a strong mean predictive power of [Formula: see text] (animal dataset) and [Formula: see text] (human dataset). In addition, we applied regression receiver operating characteristic curves for the first time to evaluate the temperature prediction, which provided an overall mean error bias between NIRS predicted brain temperature and body temperature of [Formula: see text] (animal dataset) and [Formula: see text] (human dataset). We discuss main methodological aspects, particularly the well-known aspect of over- versus underestimation between brain and body temperature, which is relevant for potential clinical applications.

  15. Near-infrared imaging polarimetry of dusty young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, A. S.; Gledhill, T. M.; Barlow, M. J.; Lowe, K. T. E.

    2006-02-01

    We have carried out JHK polarimetric observations of 11 dusty young stars, by using the polarimeter module IRPOL2 with the near-infrared camera UIST on the 3.8-m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). Our sample targeted systems for which UKIRT-resolvable discs had been predicted by model fits to their spectral energy distributions. Our observations have confirmed the presence of extended polarized emission around TW Hya and around HD 169142. HD 150193 and HD 142666 show the largest polarization values among our sample, but no extended structure was resolved. By combining our observations with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) coronographic data from the literature, we derive the J- and H-band intrinsic polarization radial dependences of the disc of TW Hya. We find the polarizing efficiency of the disc is higher at H than at J, and we confirm that the J- and H-band percentage polarizations are reasonably constant with radius in the region between 0.9 and 1.3arcsec from the star. We find that the objects for which we have detected extended polarizations are those for which previous modelling has suggested the presence of flared discs, which are predicted to be brighter than flat discs and thus would be easier to detect polarimetrically.

  16. Variables selection methods in near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xiaobo, Zou; Jiewen, Zhao; Povey, Malcolm J W; Holmes, Mel; Hanpin, Mao

    2010-05-14

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has increasingly been adopted as an analytical tool in various fields, such as the petrochemical, pharmaceutical, environmental, clinical, agricultural, food and biomedical sectors during the past 15 years. A NIR spectrum of a sample is typically measured by modern scanning instruments at hundreds of equally spaced wavelengths. The large number of spectral variables in most data sets encountered in NIR spectral chemometrics often renders the prediction of a dependent variable unreliable. Recently, considerable effort has been directed towards developing and evaluating different procedures that objectively identify variables which contribute useful information and/or eliminate variables containing mostly noise. This review focuses on the variable selection methods in NIR spectroscopy. Selection methods include some classical approaches, such as manual approach (knowledge based selection), "Univariate" and "Sequential" selection methods; sophisticated methods such as successive projections algorithm (SPA) and uninformative variable elimination (UVE), elaborate search-based strategies such as simulated annealing (SA), artificial neural networks (ANN) and genetic algorithms (GAs) and interval base algorithms such as interval partial least squares (iPLS), windows PLS and iterative PLS. Wavelength selection with B-spline, Kalman filtering, Fisher's weights and Bayesian are also mentioned. Finally, the websites of some variable selection software and toolboxes for non-commercial use are given. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Unveiling Deeply Embedded Sources by Near-Infrared Polarimetric Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yongqiang; Ishii, Miki; Nagata, Tetsuya; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Sato, Shuji

    2000-10-01

    Near-infrared polarimetric images are presented for six molecular outflow sources: IRAS 20050+2720, IRAS 20126+4104, IRAS 20188+3928, S233, AFGL 5180, and AFGL 6366S. All the regions are found to exhibit reflection nebulae and to be associated with massive and clustered star formation. By inspecting polarimetric patterns in the nebulae, we have identified six deeply embedded sources (DESs) which illuminate circumstellar nebulosity but are not detectable in wavelengths shorter than 2 μm. While the DES in IRAS 20050 coincides with an infrared source in a previous, longer wavelength observation and the one in IRAS 20126 with a hot molecular core, the nature of the other newly discovered DESs is not known. From the compilation of the observations of DESs over a large wavelength range, we suspect that the DESs possess characteristics similar to hot molecular cores and are likely to be in the pre-ultracompact H II region phase of massive star formation.

  18. Immunosensing with Near-Infrared Plasmonic Optical Fiber Gratings.

    PubMed

    Caucheteur, Christophe; Ribaut, Clotilde; Malachovska, Viera; Wattiez, Ruddy

    2017-01-01

    Surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) optical fiber biosensors constitute a miniaturized counterpart to the bulky prism configuration and offer remote operation in very small volumes of analyte. They are a cost-effective and relatively straightforward technique to yield in situ (or even possibly in vivo) molecular detection. They are usually obtained from a gold-coated fiber segment for which the core-guided light is brought into contact with the surrounding medium, either by etching (or side-polishing) or by using grating coupling. Recently, SPR generation was achieved in gold-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs). These sensors probe the surrounding medium with near-infrared narrowband resonances, which enhances both the penetration depth of the evanescent field in the external medium and the wavelength resolution of the interrogation. They constitute the unique configuration able to probe all the fiber cladding modes individually, with high Q-factors. We use these unique spectral features in our work to sense proteins and extra-cellular membrane receptors that are both overexpressed in cancerous tissues. Impressive limit of detection (LOD) and sensitivity are reported, which paves the way for the further use of such immunosensors for cancer diagnosis.

  19. A near-Infrared SETI Experiment: Alignment and Astrometric precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duenas, Andres; Maire, Jerome; Wright, Shelley; Drake, Frank D.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Siemion, Andrew; Stone, Remington P. S.; Tallis, Melisa; Treffers, Richard R.; Werthimer, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Beginning in March 2015, a Near-InfraRed Optical SETI (NIROSETI) instrument aiming to search for fast nanosecond laser pulses, has been commissioned on the Nickel 1m-telescope at Lick Observatory. The NIROSETI instrument makes use of an optical guide camera, SONY ICX694 CCD from PointGrey, to align our selected sources into two 200µm near-infrared Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) with a field-of-view of 2.5"x2.5" each. These APD detectors operate at very fast bandwidths and are able to detect pulse widths extending down into the nanosecond range. Aligning sources onto these relatively small detectors requires characterizing the guide camera plate scale, static optical distortion solution, and relative orientation with respect to the APD detectors. We determined the guide camera plate scale as 55.9+- 2.7 milli-arcseconds/pixel and magnitude limit of 18.15mag (+1.07/-0.58) in V-band. We will present the full distortion solution of the guide camera, orientation, and our alignment method between the camera and the two APDs, and will discuss target selection within the NIROSETI observational campaign, including coordination with Breakthrough Listen.

  20. Application of a novel combination of near-infrared spectroscopy and a humidity-controlled 96-well plate to the characterization of the polymorphism of imidafenacin.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Tokuji; Mori, Hirotoshi; Otsuka, Makoto

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to apply a currently available chemometric near-infrared spectroscopy technique to the characterization of the polymorphic properties of drug candidates. The technique requires only small quantities of samples and is therefore applicable to drugs in the early stages of development. The combination of near-infrared spectroscopy and a patented 96-well plate divided into 32 individual, humidity-controlled, three-well compartments was used in the characterization of a hygroscopic drug, imidafenacin, which has two polymorphs and one pseudo-polymorph. Characterization was also conducted with powder X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. The results were compared with those from routinely used conventional analyses. Both the microanalysis and conventional analysis successfully characterised the substance (transformation and relative stability among the two polymorphs and a pseudo-polymorph) depending on the storage conditions. Near-infrared spectroscopic analyses utilizing a humidity-controlled 96-well plate required only small amounts of the sample for characterization under the various conditions of relative humidity. Near-infrared microanalysis can be applied to polymorphic studies of small quantities of a drug candidate. The results also suggest that the method will predict the behaviors of a hygroscopic candidate in solid pharmaceutical preparations at the early stages of drug development. © 2010 The Authors. JPP © 2010 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

  1. Multifunctional calcium phosphate nanoparticles for combining near-infrared fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Haedicke, Katja; Kozlova, Diana; Gräfe, Susanna; Teichgräber, Ulf; Epple, Matthias; Hilger, Ingrid

    2015-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors causes skin photosensitivity as a result of unspecific accumulation behavior of the photosensitizers. PDT of tumors was improved by calcium phosphate nanoparticles conjugated with (i) Temoporfin as a photosensitizer, (ii) the RGDfK peptide for favored tumor targeting and (iii) the fluorescent dye molecule DY682-NHS for enabling near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) optical imaging in vivo. The nanoparticles were characterized with regard to size, spectroscopic properties and uptake into CAL-27 cells. The nanoparticles had a hydrodynamic diameter of approximately 200 nm and a zeta potential of around +22mV. Their biodistribution at 24h after injection was investigated via NIRF optical imaging. After treating tumor-bearing CAL-27 mice with nanoparticle-PDT, the therapeutic efficacy was assessed by a fluorescent DY-734-annexin V probe at 2 days and 2 weeks after treatment to detect apoptosis. Additionally, the contrast agent IRDye® 800CW RGD was used to assess tumor vascularization (up to 4 weeks after PDT). After nanoparticle-PDT in mice, apoptosis in the tumor was detected after 2 days. Decreases in tumor vascularization and tumor volume were detected in the next few days. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles can be used as multifunctional tools for NIRF optical imaging, PDT and tumor targeting as they exhibited a high therapeutic efficacy, being capable of inducing apoptosis and destroying tumor vascularization. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optical mechanisms for detection of lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Edward L.; Gardner, Craig M.; Muller, James E.; Muller, Vianna J.; Salvato, Christopher V.; Lisauskas, Jennifer B.; Caplan, Jay D.

    2008-02-01

    InfraReDx has developed a spectroscopic cardiac catheter system capable of acquiring near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra from coronary arteries in vivo for identification of lipid-rich plaques of interest (LRP). The spectral data are analyzed with a chemometric model, producing a hyperspectral image (a chemogram) used to identify LRP in the interrogated region. In this paper, we describe a FT-IR microscopy system for measurement of the NIR scattering and absorption properties of healthy and diseased regions of human coronary arteries in small volumes (~10 μl). Scattering and absorption coefficients are obtained from sequential 140 um x 140 um regions of interest across the face of 500-micron thick, saline-irrigated fresh coronary artery sections. A customized FTIR microscope, measurement protocol, and inversion algorithm are used for optical property determination, and the system is calibrated using measurements of tissue-simulating phantoms having well-characterized optical properties. Tissue optical properties are co-registered with brightfield transmission images as well as with stained histologic thin sections (H&E, Movat Pentachrome, and Oil Red O) acquired from an immediately-adjacent section. The ultimate goal of these experiments is to establish a mechanistic link between the multivariate model predictions displayed on the InfraReDx chemogram and the light-tissue interactions that govern the measured NIR reflectance spectra.

  3. Prefrontal cerebral blood volume patterns while playing video games--a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Nagano, Miki; Yamashita, Yushiro; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2006-06-01

    Video game playing is an attractive form of entertainment among school-age children. Although this activity reportedly has many adverse effects on child development, these effects remain controversial. To investigate the effect of video game playing on regional cerebral blood volume, we measured cerebral hemoglobin concentrations using near-infrared spectroscopy in 12 normal volunteers consisting of six children and six adults. A Hitachi Optical Topography system was used to measure hemoglobin changes. For all subjects, the video game Donkey Kong was played on a Game Boy device. After spectroscopic probes were positioned on the scalp near the target brain regions, the participants were asked to play the game for nine periods of 15s each, with 15-s rest intervals between these task periods. Significant increases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were observed in four of the adults during video game playing. On the other hand, significant decreases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were seen in two of the children. A significant positive correlation between mean oxy-hemoglobin changes in the prefrontal region and those in the bilateral motor cortex area was seen in adults. Playing video games gave rise to dynamic changes in cerebral blood volume in both age groups, while the difference in the prefrontal oxygenation patterns suggested an age-dependent utilization of different neural circuits during video game tasks.

  4. Design of a portable near infrared system for topographic imaging of the brain in babies

    SciT

    Vaithianathan, Tharshan; Tullis, Iain D.C.; Everdell, Nicholas

    A portable topographic near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) imaging system has been developed to provide real-time temporal and spatial information about the cortical response to stimulation in unrestrained infants. The optical sensing array is lightweight, flexible, and easy to apply to infants ranging from premature babies in intensive care to children in a normal environment. The sensor pad consists of a flexible double-sided circuit board onto which are mounted multiple sources (light-emitting diodes) and multiple detectors (p-i-n photodiodes), all electrically encapsulated in silicone rubber. The control electronics are housed in a box with a medical grade isolated power supply and linked tomore » a PC fitted with a data acquisition card, the signal acquisition and analysis being performed using LABVIEW{sup TM}. The signal output is displayed as an image of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentration ([HbO{sub 2}], [Hb]) changes at a frame rate of 3 Hz. Experiments have been conducted on phantoms to determine the sensitivity of the system, and the results have been compared to theoretical simulations. The system has been tested in volunteers by imaging changes in forearm muscle oxygenation, following blood pressure cuff occlusion to obtain typical [Hb] and [HbO{sub 2}] plots.« less

  5. UNIVERSALITY OF THE NEAR-INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW BASED ON THE APOGEE SURVEY

    SciT

    Wang, Shu; Jiang, B. W., E-mail: shuwang@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn

    Whether the near-infrared (NIR) extinction law is universal has long been a debated topic. Based on the APOGEE H-band spectroscopic survey, a key project of SDSS-III, the intrinsic colors of a large number of giant stars are accurately determined from the stellar effective temperature. Taking advantage of this and using a sample of 5942 K-type giants, the NIR extinction law is carefully revisited. The color excess ratio E(J – H)/E(J – K {sub S}), representative of the NIR extinction law, shows no dependence on the color excess when E(J – K {sub S}) changes from ∼0.3 to ∼4.0, which implies amore » universal NIR extinction law from diffuse to dense regions. The constant value of E(J – H)/E(J – K {sub S}), 0.64, corresponds to a power law index of 1.95. The other two ratios, E(H – K {sub S})/E(J – K {sub S}) and E(J – H)/E(H – K {sub S}), are 0.36 and 1.78, respectively. The results are consistent with the MRN dust size distribution.« less

  6. Nebular Phase Observations of the Type Ia Supernova 2014J in the Near Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, Tiara

    2018-01-01

    Late-time spectra of SNe Ia show numerous strong emission features of iron and cobalt throughout the near infrared region. As the spectrum ages, the cobalt features fade as is expected from the decay of 56Co to 56Fe. The strong 1.6440 μm [Fe II] feature is sensitive to the central density of the white dwarf just prior to the runaway because of electron capture in the early stages of burning, hence the line profile width and evolution can be used to probe possible progenitor scenarios. The line profile is dependent on the extent of mixing during any deflagration burning in addition to asymmetries in the distribution of burning products or an off-center ignition. We present observations of SN 2014J from 300–500 days post-explosion. The data are consistent with spherical models of a MCh explosion with a deflagration-to-detonation transition, central density of 0.7×109 g/cm3, and limited mixing. An asymmetry in the line profile of the last spectrum could indicate an off-center ignition or burning products that are not centered on the kinetic center of the explosion. These and other late-time spectroscopic observations in the infrared of a significant sample of SNe Ia will provide insight into the natural variety of these objects, improving our understanding of the underlying physical processes and their usability in cosmology.

  7. Near infrared cavity enhanced absorption spectra of atmospherically relevant ether-1, 4-Dioxane.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Satheesh; Varma, Ravi

    2016-01-15

    1, 4-Dioxane (DX) is a commonly found ether in industrially polluted atmosphere. The near infrared absorption spectra of this compound has been recorded in the region 5900-8230 cm(-1) with a resolution of 0.08 cm(-1) using a novel Fourier transform incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (FT-IBBCEAS). All recorded spectra were found to contain regions that are only weakly perturbed. The possible combinations of fundamental modes and their overtone bands corresponding to selected regions in the measured spectra are tabulated. Two interesting spectral regions were identified as 5900-6400 cm(-1) and 8100-8230 cm(-1). No significant spectral interference due to presence of water vapor was observed suggesting the suitability of these spectral signatures for spectroscopic in situ detection of DX. The technique employed here is much more sensitive than standard Fourier transform spectrometer measurements on account of long effective path length achieved. Hence significant enhancement of weaker absorption lines above the noise level was observed as demonstrated by comparison with an available measurement from database. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopy for the detection and quantification of bacterial contaminations in pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Quintelas, Cristina; Mesquita, Daniela P; Lopes, João A; Ferreira, Eugénio C; Sousa, Clara

    2015-08-15

    Accurate detection and quantification of microbiological contaminations remains an issue mainly due the lack of rapid and precise analytical techniques. Standard methods are expensive and time-consuming being associated to high economic losses and public health threats. In the context of pharmaceutical industry, the development of fast analytical techniques able to overcome these limitations is crucial and spectroscopic techniques might constitute a reliable alternative. In this work we proved the ability of Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) to detect and quantify bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus epidermidis) from 10 to 10(8) CFUs/mL in sterile saline solutions (NaCl 0.9%). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) models showed that FT-NIRS was able to discriminate between sterile and contaminated solutions for all bacteria as well as to identify the contaminant bacteria. Partial least squares (PLS) models allowed bacterial quantification with limits of detection ranging from 5.1 to 9 CFU/mL for E. coli and B. subtilis, respectively. This methodology was successfully validated in three pharmaceutical preparations (contact lens solution, cough syrup and topic anti-inflammatory solution) proving that this technique possess a high potential to be routinely used for the detection and quantification of bacterial contaminations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hemodynamic measurements in deep brain tissues of humans by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Oda, Motoki; Yamaki, Etsuko; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Yamashita, Daisuke; Yoshimoto, Kenji; Homma, Shu; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    Using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS), we measured the human head in transmittance mode to obtain the optical properties, tissue oxygenation, and hemodynamics of deep brain tissues in 50 healthy adult volunteers. The right ear canal was irradiated with 3-wavelengths of pulsed light (760, 795, and 835nm), and the photons passing through the human head were collected at the left ear canal. Optical signals with sufficient intensity could be obtained from 46 of the 50 volunteers. By analyzing the temporal profiles based on the photon diffusion theory, we successfully obtained absorption coefficients for each wavelength. The levels of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2), deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb), total hemoglobin (tHb), and tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) were then determined by referring to the hemoglobin spectroscopic data. Compared with the SO2 values for the forehead measurements in reflectance mode, the SO2 values of the transmittance measurements of the human head were approximately 10% lower, and tHb values of the transmittance measurements were always lower than those of the forehead reflectance measurements. Moreover, the level of hemoglobin and the SO2 were strongly correlated between the human head measurements in transmittance mode and the forehead measurements in the reflectance mode, respectively. These results demonstrated a potential application of this TRS system in examining deep brain tissues of humans.

  10. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for assessing biochemical changes of cervical tissue associated with precarcinogenic transformation.

    PubMed

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Mo, Jianhua; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2014-11-07

    Raman spectroscopy measures the inelastically scattered light from tissue that is capable of identifying native tissue biochemical constituents and their changes associated with disease transformation. This study aims to characterize the Raman spectroscopic properties of cervical tissue associated with the multi-stage progression of cervical precarcinogenic sequence. A rapid-acquisition fiber-optic near-infrared (NIR) Raman diagnostic system was employed for tissue Raman spectral measurements at 785 nm excitation. A total of 68 Raman spectra (23 benign, 29 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 16 high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL)) were measured from 25 cervical tissue biopsy specimens, as confirmed by colposcopy-histopathology. The semi-quantitative biochemical modeling based on the major biochemicals (i.e., DNA, proteins (histone, collagen), lipid (triolein) and carbohydrates (glycogen)) in cervical tissue uncovers the stepwise accumulation of biomolecular changes associated with progressive cervical precarcinogenesis. Multi-class partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) together with leave-one tissue site-out, cross-validation yielded the diagnostic sensitivities of 95.7%, 82.8% and 81.3%; specificities of 100.0%, 92.3% and 88.5%,for discrimination among benign, LSIL and HSIL cervical tissues, respectively. This work suggests that the Raman spectral biomarkers have identified the potential to be used for monitoring the multi-stage cervical precarcinogenesis, forming the foundation of applying NIR Raman spectroscopy for the early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo at the molecular level.

  11. Photometric redshifts for weak lensing tomography from space: the role of optical and near infrared photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, F. B.; Amara, A.; Capak, P.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lahav, O.; Rhodes, J.

    2008-07-01

    We study in detail the photometric redshift requirements needed for tomographic weak gravitational lensing in order to measure accurately the dark energy equation of state. In particular, we examine how ground-based photometry (u, g, r, i, z, y) can be complemented by space-based near-infrared (near-IR) photometry (J, H), e.g. onboard the planned DUNE satellite. Using realistic photometric redshift simulations and an artificial neural network photo-z method we evaluate the figure of merit for the dark energy parameters (w0, wa). We consider a DUNE-like broad optical filter supplemented with ground-based multiband optical data from surveys like the Dark Energy Survey, Pan-STARRS and LSST. We show that the dark energy figure of merit would be improved by a factor of 1.3-1.7 if IR filters are added onboard DUNE. Furthermore we show that with IR data catastrophic photo-z outliers can be removed effectively. There is an interplay between the choice of filters, the magnitude limits and the removal of outliers. We draw attention to the dependence of the results on the galaxy formation scenarios encoded into the mock galaxies, e.g. the galaxy reddening. For example, very deep u-band data could be as effective as the IR. We also find that about 105-106 spectroscopic redshifts are needed for calibration of the full survey.

  12. Direct noninvasive observation of near infrared photobleaching of autofluorescence in human volar side fingertips in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Bin; Wright, Colin; Lewis-Clark, Eric; Shaheen, G.; Geier, Roman; Chaiken, J.

    2010-02-01

    Human transdermal in vivo spectroscopic applications for tissue analysis involving near infrared (NIR) light often must contend with broadband NIR fluorescence that, depending on what kind of spectroscopy is being employed, can degrade signal to noise ratios and dynamic range. Such NIR fluorescence, i.e. "autofluorescence" is well known to originate in blood tissues and various other endogenous materials associated with the static tissues. Results of recent experiments on human volar side fingertips in vivo are beginning to provide a relative ordering of the contributions from various sources. Preliminary results involving the variation in the bleaching effect across different individuals suggest that for 830 nm excitation well over half of the total fluorescence comes from the static tissues and remainder originates with the blood tissues, i.e. the plasma and the hematocrit. Of the NIR fluorescence associated with the static tissue, over half originates with products of well-known post-enzymatic glycation reactions, i.e. Maillard chemistry, in the skin involving glucose and other carbohydrates and skin proteins like collagen and cytosol proteins.

  13. Near infrared spectrometric technique for testing fruit quality: optimisation of regression models using genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isingizwe Nturambirwe, J. Frédéric; Perold, Willem J.; Opara, Umezuruike L.

    2016-02-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has gained extensive use in quality evaluation. It is arguably one of the most advanced spectroscopic tools in non-destructive quality testing of food stuff, from measurement to data analysis and interpretation. NIR spectral data are interpreted through means often involving multivariate statistical analysis, sometimes associated with optimisation techniques for model improvement. The objective of this research was to explore the extent to which genetic algorithms (GA) can be used to enhance model development, for predicting fruit quality. Apple fruits were used, and NIR spectra in the range from 12000 to 4000 cm-1 were acquired on both bruised and healthy tissues, with different degrees of mechanical damage. GAs were used in combination with partial least squares regression methods to develop bruise severity prediction models, and compared to PLS models developed using the full NIR spectrum. A classification model was developed, which clearly separated bruised from unbruised apple tissue. GAs helped improve prediction models by over 10%, in comparison with full spectrum-based models, as evaluated in terms of error of prediction (Root Mean Square Error of Cross-validation). PLS models to predict internal quality, such as sugar content and acidity were developed and compared to the versions optimized by genetic algorithm. Overall, the results highlighted the potential use of GA method to improve speed and accuracy of fruit quality prediction.

  14. Near infrared diffuse reflection and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for myocardial tissue characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, A. M. K.; Heinrich, D.; Olajos, J.; Andersson-Engels, S.

    1997-10-01

    In order to evaluate the potential of cardiovascular tissue characterisation using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, spectra in a previously unexplored wavelength region 0.8-2.3 μm were recorded from various pig heart tissue samples in vitro: normal myocardium (with and without endo/epicardium), aorta, fatty and fibrous heart tissue. The spectra were analysed with principal component analysis (PCA), revealing several spectroscopically characteristic features enabling tissue classification. Several of the identified spectral features could be attributed to specific tissue constituents by comparing the tissue signals with spectra obtained from water, elastin, collagen and cholesterol as well as with published data. The results obtained with the NIR spectroscopy technique in terms of its potential to classify different tissue types were compared with those from laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) using 337 nm excitation. LIF and NIR spectroscopy can in combination with PCA be used to discriminate between all previously mentioned tissue groups, apart from fatty versus fibrous tissue (LIF) and aorta versus fibrous tissue (NIR), respectively. The NIR analysis was improved by focusing the PCA to the wavelength segment 2.0-2.3 μm, resulting in successful spectral characterisation of all cardiovascular tissue groups.

  15. Design of a portable near infrared system for topographic imaging of the brain in babies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaithianathan, Tharshan; Tullis, Iain D. C.; Everdell, Nicholas; Leung, Terence; Gibson, Adam; Meek, Judith; Delpy, David T.

    2004-10-01

    A portable topographic near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) imaging system has been developed to provide real-time temporal and spatial information about the cortical response to stimulation in unrestrained infants. The optical sensing array is lightweight, flexible, and easy to apply to infants ranging from premature babies in intensive care to children in a normal environment. The sensor pad consists of a flexible double-sided circuit board onto which are mounted multiple sources (light-emitting diodes) and multiple detectors (p-i-n photodiodes), all electrically encapsulated in silicone rubber. The control electronics are housed in a box with a medical grade isolated power supply and linked to a PC fitted with a data acquisition card, the signal acquisition and analysis being performed using LABVIEW™. The signal output is displayed as an image of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentration ([HbO2], [Hb]) changes at a frame rate of 3 Hz. Experiments have been conducted on phantoms to determine the sensitivity of the system, and the results have been compared to theoretical simulations. The system has been tested in volunteers by imaging changes in forearm muscle oxygenation, following blood pressure cuff occlusion to obtain typical [Hb] and [HbO2] plots.

  16. Determination of protein-dye association by near infrared fluorescence-detected circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Meadows, F; Narayanan, N; Patonay, G

    2000-01-10

    Near-infrared (NIR) squarylium dye spectral properties were evaluated by absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence-detected circular dichroism (FDCD). Substituents of the two NN dyes differed at R(1) and R(2), located symmetrically on the chromophore. The side chains of NN525 are R(1)=hexanoic acid, R(2)=butyl sulfonate and R(1)=R(2)=ethyl for NN127. FDCD signals were first confirmed by denaturing BSA with 2-8 M urea showing a diminution of dye FDCD peaks, but no change occurred in spectral properties of the dyes in urea. This indicated that the observed cotton effects occurred by noncovalent interactions with the secondary structure of the protein. The average BSA-dye association constants found by fluorescence, absorbance, and FDCD were 1.27 x 10(6) (n=1) and 3.3 x 10(6) M(-1) (n=1) for NN127 and NN525 respectively. These values were in good agreement when calculated by the three spectroscopic methods validating the use of NIRFDCD for optical parameter calculations. These results are useful to describe NIR squarylium dye labeling of BSA.

  17. Generalized Beer-Lambert model for near-infrared light propagation in thick biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Manish; Ayyalasomayajula, Kalyan R.; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K.

    2016-07-01

    The attenuation of near-infrared (NIR) light intensity as it propagates in a turbid medium like biological tissue is described by modified the Beer-Lambert law (MBLL). The MBLL is generally used to quantify the changes in tissue chromophore concentrations for NIR spectroscopic data analysis. Even though MBLL is effective in terms of providing qualitative comparison, it suffers from its applicability across tissue types and tissue dimensions. In this work, we introduce Lambert-W function-based modeling for light propagation in biological tissues, which is a generalized version of the Beer-Lambert model. The proposed modeling provides parametrization of tissue properties, which includes two attenuation coefficients μ0 and η. We validated our model against the Monte Carlo simulation, which is the gold standard for modeling NIR light propagation in biological tissue. We included numerous human and animal tissues to validate the proposed empirical model, including an inhomogeneous adult human head model. The proposed model, which has a closed form (analytical), is first of its kind in providing accurate modeling of NIR light propagation in biological tissues.

  18. Determination of double bond conversion in dental resins by near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stansbury, J W; Dickens, S H

    2001-01-01

    This study determined the validity and practicality of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic techniques for measurement of conversion in dental resins. Conversion measurements by NIR and mid-IR were compared using two techniques: (1) The conversion of 3mm thick photopolymerized Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin specimens was determined by transmission NIR. Specimens were then ground and reanalyzed in KBr pellet form by mid-IR. (2) As further verification, thin resin films were photocured and analyzed by mid-IR. Multiple thin films were then compressed into a thick pellet for examination by NIR. Conversion values obtained by NIR and mid-IR techniques did not differ significantly. A correction for changing specimen thickness due to polymerization shrinkage was applied to NIR conversion measurements since an internal standard reference peak was not employed. Sensitivity of the NIR technique was superior to those based on the mid-IR. The nondestructive analysis of conversion in dental resins by NIR offers advantages of convenience, practical specimen dimensions and precision compared with standard mid-IR analytical procedures. Because glass is virtually transparent in the NIR spectrum, this technique has excellent potential for use with filled dental resins as well.

  19. Investigation of the composition of anabolic tablets using near infrared spectroscopy and Raman chemical imaging.

    PubMed

    Rebiere, Hervé; Ghyselinck, Céline; Lempereur, Laurent; Brenier, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The use of performance enhancing drugs is a widespread phenomenon in professional and leisure sports. A spectroscopic study was carried out on anabolic tablets labelled as 5 mg methandienone tablets provided by police departments. The analytical approach was based on a two-step methodology: a fast analysis of tablets using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to assess sample homogeneity based on their global composition, followed by Raman chemical imaging of one sample per NIR profile to obtain information on sample formulation. NIR spectroscopy assisted by a principal components analysis (PCA) enabled fast discrimination of different profiles based on the excipient formulation. Raman hyperspectral imaging and multivariate curve resolution - alternating least square (MCR-ALS) provided chemical images of the distribution of the active substance and excipients within tablets and facilitated identification of the active compounds. The combination of NIR spectroscopy and Raman chemical imaging highlighted dose-to-dose variations and succeeded in the discrimination of four different formulations out of eight similar samples of anabolic tablets. Some samples contained either methandienone or methyltestosterone whereas one sample did not contain an active substance. Other ingredients were sucrose, lactose, starch or talc. Both techniques were fast and non-destructive and therefore can be carried out as exploratory methods prior to destructive screening methods. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Near-infrared to Mid-infrared Observations of Galaxy Mergers: NGC 2782 and NGC 7727

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Wu, Ronin; Ohsawa, Ryou; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Roellig, Thomas L.

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of near-infrared-to-mid-infrared (NIR-to-MIR) imaging and NIR spectroscopic observations of two galaxy mergers, NGC 2782 (Arp 215) and NGC 7727 (Arp 222), with the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. NGC 2782 shows extended MIR emission in the eastern side of the galaxy, which corresponds to the eastern tidal tail seen in the H I 21 cm map, while NGC 7727 shows extended MIR emission in the north of the galaxy, which is similar to the plumes seen in the residual image at the K-band after subtracting a galaxy model. Both extended structures are thought to have formed in association with their merger events. They show excess emission at 7–15 μm, which can be attributed to emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), while the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) decline longward of 24 μm, suggesting that very small grains (VSGs) are deficient. These characteristics of the observed MIR SED may be explained if PAHs are formed by fragmentation of VSGs during merger events. The star formation rate is estimated from the MIR PAH emission in the eastern tail region of NGC 2782 and it is in fair agreement with those estimated from Hα and [C II] 158 μm. MIR observations are efficient for the study of dust processing and structures formed during merger events.

  1. Probing Reionization at z≥7 with HST's Near-Infrared Grisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borello Schmidt, Kasper

    2015-08-01

    The epoch of reionization, i.e. the transition of the IGM from neutral to fully ionized, is essential for our understanding of the evolution of the Universe and the formation of the first stars and galaxies. The first results at z≤ 7 suggest that the reionization happened in a patchy, rather than smooth, fashion. It is still unclear whether galaxies at z≥7 prefer a patchy reionization scenario as well. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) has obtained spectra of ten thousands of objects in and behind 10 massive galaxy clusters, including the six Hubble Frontier Fields. Coaming the Hubble grism spectroscopy from GLASS results in 100s of spectra of z≥7 galaxy candidates. Taking advantage of the lensing magnification from the foreground clusters, the GLASS spectra reaches unprecedented depths in the near-infrared with flux limits below 10-18 erg/s/cm2. This has resulted in several Lyα detections at z˜7, tight limits on the emission line fluxes for non-detections, and the equivalent width distribution of Lyα in the very earlier Universe. Taking advantage of the extensive spectroscopic samples of z≥7 galaxies from GLASS, I will show how these samples can give us and unprecedented view of the cosmic reionization at z≥7.

  2. Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy application for sea salt quality evaluation.

    PubMed

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Rangel, António O S S

    2011-10-26

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode was explored with the objective of discriminating sea salts according to their quality type (traditional salt vs "flower of salt") and geographical origin (Atlantic vs Mediterranean). Sea salts were also analyzed in terms of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), alkalinity, and sulfate concentrations to support spectroscopic results. High concentrations of Mg(2+) and K(+) characterized Atlantic samples, while a high Ca(2+) content was observed in traditional sea salts. A partial least-squares discriminant analysis model considering the 8500-7500 cm(-1) region permitted the discrimination of salts by quality types. The regions 4650-4350 and 5900-5500 cm(-1) allowed salts classification according to their geographical origin. It was possible to classify correctly 85.3 and 94.8% of the analyzed samples according to the salt type and to the geographical origin, respectively. These results demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy is a suitable and very efficient tool for sea salt quality evaluation.

  3. Polarized near-infrared autofluorescence imaging combined with near-infrared diffuse reflectance imaging for improving colonic cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xiaozhuo; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2010-11-08

    We evaluate the diagnostic feasibility of the integrated polarized near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence (AF) and NIR diffuse reflectance (DR) imaging technique developed for colonic cancer detection. A total of 48 paired colonic tissue specimens (normal vs. cancer) were measured using the integrated NIR DR (850-1100 nm) and NIR AF imaging at the 785 nm laser excitation. The results showed that NIR AF intensities of cancer tissues are significantly lower than those of normal tissues (p<0.001, paired 2-sided Student's t-test, n=48). NIR AF imaging under polarization conditions gives a higher diagnostic accuracy (of ~92-94%) compared to non-polarized NIR AF imaging or NIR DR imaging. Further, the ratio imaging of NIR DR to NIR AF with polarization provides the best diagnostic accuracy (of ~96%) among the NIR AF and NIR DR imaging techniques. This work suggests that the integrated NIR AF/DR imaging under polarization condition has the potential to improve the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  4. Near-infrared spectroscopy of newly developed PEGylated lipids.

    PubMed

    Bista, Rajan K; Bruch, Reinhard F

    2008-11-15

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used to analyze a suite of synthesized PEGylated lipids (1-3) trademarked as QuSomes. The three amphiphiles used in this study, differ in their hydrophobic chain length and contain various units of polyethylene glycol (PEG) head groups. Whilst the spectra of QuSomes show a common pattern, differences in the spectra are observed which enable the lipids to be distinguished. NIR absorption spectra of these new artificial lipids have been recorded in the spectral range of 4800-9000 cm(-1) (approximately 2100-1100 nm) by using a new miniaturized spectrometer based on micro-optical-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) technology. Three NIR spectral regions are identified, (a) the high wavenumber region between 6500 and 9000 cm(-1) attributed to the first overtone of the hydroxyl stretching and second overtone of the C-H stretching mode; (b) the 5350-5900 cm(-1) region attributed to first overtone of the C-H stretching mode; and (c) the 4800-5300 cm(-1) region attributed to the combination O-H stretching and second overtone of the C=O stretching mode. For each of these regions, the lipids show distinctive spectra which allow their identification and characterization. NIR spectroscopy is a less used technique which does have great potential for the study of lipids, particularly to examine the behaviour of nanovesicles (liposomes) formed from lipids in aqueous suspensions. The study of such lipids is important since they are used as membrane models and prominent candidate for substance and drug delivery systems.

  5. The near-infrared spectrum of ethynyl radical

    SciT

    Le, Anh T., E-mail: anhle@bnl.gov; Hall, Gregory E., E-mail: gehall@bnl.gov; Sears, Trevor J., E-mail: sears@bnl.gov, E-mail: trevor.sears@stonybrook.edu

    2016-08-21

    Transient diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been used to measure three strong vibronic bands in the near infrared spectrum of the C{sub 2}H, ethynyl, radical not previously observed in the gas phase. The radical was produced by ultraviolet excimer laser photolysis of either acetylene or (1,1,1)-trifluoropropyne in a slowly flowing sample of the precursor diluted in inert gas, and the spectral resolution was Doppler-limited. The character of the upper states was determined from the rotational and fine structure in the observed spectra and assigned by measurement of ground state rotational combination differences. The upper states include a {sup 2}Σ{sup +}more » state at 6696 cm{sup −1}, a second {sup 2}Σ{sup +} state at 7088 cm{sup −1}, and a {sup 2}Π state at 7110 cm{sup −1}. By comparison with published calculations [R. Tarroni and S. Carter, J. Chem. Phys 119, 12878 (2003); Mol. Phys. 102, 2167 (2004)], the vibronic character of these levels was also assigned. The observed states contain both X{sup 2}Σ{sup +} and A{sup 2}Π electronic characters. Several local rotational level perturbations were observed in the excited states. Kinetic measurements of the time-evolution of the ground state populations following collisional relaxation and reactive loss of the radicals formed in a hot, non-thermal, population distribution were made using some of the strong rotational lines observed. The case of C{sub 2}H may be a good place to investigate the behavior at intermediate pressures of inert colliders, where the competition between relaxation and reaction can be tuned and observed to compare with master equation models, rather than deliberately suppressed to measure thermal rate constants.« less

  6. Near-infrared (NIR) optogenetics using up-conversion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hososhima, Shoko; Yuasa, Hideya; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu

    2015-03-01

    Non-invasive remote control technologies designed to manipulate neural functions for a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of the neuronal network in the brain as well as for the therapy of neurological disorders have long been awaited. Recently, it has become possible to optically manipulate the neuronal activity using biological photo-reactive molecules such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). However, ChR2 and its relatives are mostly reactive to visible light which does not effectively penetrate through biological tissues. In contrast, near-infrared (NIR) light penetrates deep into the tissues because biological systems are almost transparent to light within this so-called `imaging window'. Here we used lanthanide nanoparticles (LNPs), which are composed of rare-earth elements, as luminous bodies to activate channelrhodopsins (ChRs) since they absorb low-energy NIR light to emit high-energy visible light (up-conversion). Neuron-glioma-hybrid ND-7/23 cells were cultured with LNP(NaYF4:Sc/Yb/Er) particles (peak emission, 543 nm) and transfected to express C1V1 (peak absorbance, 539 nm), a chimera of ChR1 and VChR1. The photocurrents were generated in response to NIR laser light (976 nm) to a level comparable to that evoked by a filtered Hg lamp (530-550 nm). NIR light pulses also evoked action potentials in the cultured neurons that expressed C1V1. It is suggested that the green luminescent light emitted from LNPs effectively activated C1V1 to generate the photocurrent. With the optimization of LNPs, acceptor photo-reactive biomolecules and optics, this system could be applied to non-invasively actuate neurons deep in the brain.

  7. Near-infrared Variability in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Thomas S.; Reipurth, Bo; Wolk, Scott J.; Vaz, Luiz Paulo; Cross, N. J. G.

    2015-10-01

    Using UKIRT on Mauna Kea, we have carried out a new near-infrared J, H, K monitoring survey of almost a square degree of the star-forming Orion Nebula Cluster with observations on 120 nights over three observing seasons, spanning a total of 894 days. We monitored ˜15,000 stars down to J≈ 20 using the WFCAM instrument, and have extracted 1203 significantly variable stars from our data. By studying variability in young stellar objects (YSOs) in the H - K, K color-magnitude diagram, we are able to distinguish between physical mechanisms of variability. Many variables show color behavior indicating either dust-extinction or disk/accretion activity, but we find that when monitored for longer periods of time, a number of stars shift between these two variability mechanisms. Further, we show that the intrinsic timescale of disk/accretion variability in young stars is longer than that of dust-extinction variability. We confirm that variability amplitude is statistically correlated with evolutionary class in all bands and colors. Our investigations of these 1203 variables have revealed 73 periodic AA Tau type variables, many large-amplitude and long-period (P\\gt 15 days) YSOs, including three stars showing widely spaced periodic brightening events consistent with circumbinary disk activity, and four new eclipsing binaries. These phenomena and others indicate the activity of long-term disk/accretion variability processes taking place in young stars. We have made the light curves and associated data for these 1203 variables available online.

  8. Fetal oxygenation measurement using wireless near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macnab, Andrew; Shadgan, Babak; Janssen, Patricia; Rurak, Dan

    2012-03-01

    Background: Fetal well-being is determined in large part by how well the placenta is able to supply oxygen and nutrients, but current technology is unable to directly measure how well a placenta functions. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) utilizes optical methods to measure tissue oxygenation. This pilot project evaluated the feasibility of NIRS for fetal monitoring through the maternal abdominal wall using a sheep model. Methods: A miniature wireless 2-wavelength NIRS device was placed on the abdominal skin over the placenta of a pregnant ewe whose fetus had been chronically catheterized to allow arterial sampling for measurement of arterial oxygen saturation. The NIRS device has 3-paired light emitting diodes and a single photodiode detector; allowing measurement of an index of tissue oxygen saturation (TSI%). Fetal limb TSI% values were compared before and during fetal breathing movements. Correlation was made during these events between arterial values and placental TSI% monitored continuously in real time. Results: Serial measurements were obtained in a single experiment. The correlation between transcutaneous NIRS derived TSI% and direct arterial oxygen saturation was very high (R2=0.86). Measures of fetal limb TSI% were declined after episodes of fetal breathing (P<0.005). Conclusions: This correlation suggests that NIRS is sensitive enough to detect changes in fetal tissue oxygenation noninvasively through the maternal abdominal wall in real-time in a sheep model. NIRS data confirmed that fetal breathing movements decrease arterial oxygen saturation in fetal lambs. If validated by further study this optical methodology could be applied as means of monitoring fetal wellbeing in humans.

  9. Io: Near-Infrared Absorptions Not Attributable to SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, J. H.; Clark, R. N.; Soderblom, L. A.; Carlson, R. W.; Kamp, L. W.; Galileo NIMS Team

    2001-11-01

    The Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) onboard the Galileo spacecraft imaged the leading side of Jupiter's satellite Io at full spectral resolution and with triple Nyquist spatial sampling during the fifteenth orbital encounter (E15). New despiking and "dejittering" algorithms have been applied to this high S/N observation (15INHRSPEC01A). Spectral absorption features not attributable to SO2 are found between 3.0-3.4 microns and near 4.65 microns. The patterns of the spatial distributions of both absorbers differ from that of the omnipresent SO2. The broad 3.0-3.4 micron absorption is most pronounced in polar regions. Preliminary work suggests that the 4.65 micron feature may be associated with an unidentified sulfate mineral, while the 3.0-3.4 micron feature may result from the presence of more than one absorbing material. Hydrogen-bearing species are likely candidates. For example, H2O ice provides a good match for the absorption near 3.2 microns, but the absorption is shifted to wavelengths longer than that in pure H2O ice. If only one absorber is present, then hydrogen bonding of small numbers of H2O molecules could perhaps account for the shift. The absorption is weak; if H20 related, optical path lengths of a fraction of a micron are indicated. Portions of this research were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  10. Visible-Near Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Data of Explosion Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, T. G.

    2005-01-01

    In a continuing study to capture a realistic terrain applicable to studies of cratering processes and landing hazards on Mars, we have obtained new high resolution visible-near infrared images of several explosion craters at the Nevada Test Site. We used the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) to obtain images in 224 spectral bands from 0.4-2.5 microns [1]. The main craters that were imaged were Sedan, Scooter, Schooner, Buggy, and Danny Boy [2]. The 390 m diameter Sedan crater, located on Yucca Flat, is the largest and freshest explosion crater on Earth that was formed under conditions similar to hypervelocity impact cratering. As such, it is effectively pristine, having been formed in 1962 as a result of the detonation of a 104 kiloton thermonuclear device, buried at the appropriate equivalent depth of burst required to make a "simple" crater [2]. Sedan was formed in alluvium of mixed lithology [3] and subsequently studied using a variety of field-based methods. Nearby secondary craters were also formed at the time and were also imaged by AVIRIS. Adjacent to Sedan and also in alluvium is Scooter, about 90 m in diameter and formed by a high-explosive event. Schooner (240 m) and Danny Boy (80 m, Fig. 1) craters were also important targets for AVIRIS as they were excavated in hard welded tuff and basaltic andesite, respectively [3, 4]. This variation in targets will allow the study of ejecta patterns, compositional modifications due to the explosions, and the role of craters as subsurface probes.

  11. Augmented microscopy with near-infrared fluorescence detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jeffrey R.; Martirosyan, Nikolay; Skoch, Jesse; Lemole, G. Michael; Anton, Rein; Romanowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence has become a frequently used intraoperative technique for image-guided surgical interventions. In procedures such as cerebral angiography, surgeons use the optical surgical microscope for the color view of the surgical field, and then switch to an electronic display for the NIR fluorescence images. However, the lack of stereoscopic, real-time, and on-site coregistration adds time and uncertainty to image-guided surgical procedures. To address these limitations, we developed the augmented microscope, whereby the electronically processed NIR fluorescence image is overlaid with the anatomical optical image in real-time within the optical path of the microscope. In vitro, the augmented microscope can detect and display indocyanine green (ICG) concentrations down to 94.5 nM, overlaid with the anatomical color image. We prepared polyacrylamide tissue phantoms with embedded polystyrene beads, yielding scattering properties similar to brain matter. In this model, 194 μM solution of ICG was detectable up to depths of 5 mm. ICG angiography was then performed in anesthetized rats. A dynamic process of ICG distribution in the vascular system overlaid with anatomical color images was observed and recorded. In summary, the augmented microscope demonstrates NIR fluorescence detection with superior real-time coregistration displayed within the ocular of the stereomicroscope. In comparison to other techniques, the augmented microscope retains full stereoscopic vision and optical controls including magnification and focus, camera capture, and multiuser access. Augmented microscopy may find application in surgeries where the use of traditional microscopes can be enhanced by contrast agents and image guided delivery of therapeutics, including oncology, neurosurgery, and ophthalmology.

  12. Near-infrared dyes for molecular probes and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patonay, Gabor; Beckford, Garfield; Strekowski, Lucjan; Henary, Maged; Kim, Jun Seok; Crow, Sidney

    2009-02-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) fluorescence has been used both as an analytical tool as molecular probes and in in vitro or in vivo imaging of individual cells and organs. The NIR region (700-1100 nm) is ideal with regard to these applications due to the inherently lower background interference and the high molar absorptivities of NIR chromophores. NIR dyes are also useful in studying binding characteristics of large biomolecules, such as proteins. Throughout these studies, different NIR dyes have been evaluated to determine factors that control binding to biomolecules, including serum albumins. Hydrophobic character of NIR dyes were increased by introducing alkyl and aryl groups, and hydrophilic moieties e.g., polyethylene glycols (PEG) were used to increase aqueous solubility. Recently, our research group introduced bis-cyanines as innovative NIR probes. Depending on their microenvironment, bis-cyanines can exist as an intramolecular dimer with the two cyanines either in a stacked form, or in a linear conformation in which the two subunits do not interact with each other. In this intramolecular H-aggregate, the chromophore has a low extinction coefficient and low fluorescence quantum yield. Upon addition of biomolecules, the H-and D- bands are decreased and the monomeric band is increased, with concomitant increase in fluorescence intensity. Introduction of specific moieties into the NIR dye molecules allows for the development of physiological molecular probes to detect pH, metal ions and other parameters. Examples of these applications include imaging and biomolecule characterizations. Water soluble dyes are expected to be excellent candidates for both in vitro and in vivo imaging of cells and organs.

  13. The near-infrared spectrum of ethynyl radical

    DOE PAGES

    Le, Anh T.; Hall, Gregory E.; Sears, Trevor J.

    2016-08-17

    We used transient diode laser absorption spectroscopy to measure three strong vibronic bands in the near infrared spectrum of the C 2H, ethynyl, radical not previously observed in the gas phase. The radical was produced by ultraviolet excimer laser photolysis of either acetylene or (1,1,1)-trifluoropropyne in a slowly flowing sample of the precursor diluted in inert gas, and the spectral resolution was Doppler-limited. The character of the upper states was determined from the rotational and fine structure in the observed spectra and assigned by measurement of ground state rotational combination differences. The upper states include a 2Σ + state atmore » 6696 cm -1, a second 2Σ + state at 7088 cm -1, and a 2Π state at 7110 cm -1. By comparison with published calculations [R. Tarroni and S. Carter, J. Chem. Phys 119, 12878 (2003); Mol. Phys. 102, 2167 (2004)], the vibronic character of these levels was also assigned. Moreover, the observed states contain both X 2Σ + and A 2Π electronic characters. Several local rotational level perturbations were observed in the excited states. Kinetic measurements of the time-evolution of the ground state populations following collisional relaxation and reactive loss of the radicals formed in a hot, non-thermal, population distribution were made using some of the strong rotational lines observed. Finally, the case of C 2H may be a good place to investigate the behavior at intermediate pressures of inert colliders, where the competition between relaxation and reaction can be tuned and observed to compare with master equation models, rather than deliberately suppressed to measure thermal rate constants.« less

  14. [Proximate analysis of straw by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)].

    PubMed

    Huang, Cai-jin; Han, Lu-jia; Liu, Xian; Yang, Zeng-ling

    2009-04-01

    Proximate analysis is one of the routine analysis procedures in utilization of straw for biomass energy use. The present paper studied the applicability of rapid proximate analysis of straw by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology, in which the authors constructed the first NIRS models to predict volatile matter and fixed carbon contents of straw. NIRS models were developed using Foss 6500 spectrometer with spectra in the range of 1,108-2,492 nm to predict the contents of moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon in the directly cut straw samples; to predict ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon in the dried milled straw samples. For the models based on directly cut straw samples, the determination coefficient of independent validation (R2v) and standard error of prediction (SEP) were 0.92% and 0.76% for moisture, 0.94% and 0.84% for ash, 0.88% and 0.82% for volatile matter, and 0.75% and 0.65% for fixed carbon, respectively. For the models based on dried milled straw samples, the determination coefficient of independent validation (R2v) and standard error of prediction (SEP) were 0.98% and 0.54% for ash, 0.95% and 0.57% for volatile matter, and 0.78% and 0.61% for fixed carbon, respectively. It was concluded that NIRS models can predict accurately as an alternative analysis method, therefore rapid and simultaneous analysis of multicomponents can be achieved by NIRS technology, decreasing the cost of proximate analysis for straw.

  15. Near Infrared Light Scattering Changes Following Acute Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Highton, David; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Tucker, Alison; Elwell, Clare; Smith, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Acute brain injury (ABI) is associated with changes in near infrared light absorption reflecting haemodynamic and metabolic status via changes in cerebral oxygenation (haemoglobin oxygenation and cytochrome-c-oxidase oxidation). Light scattering has not been comprehensively investigated following ABI and may be an important confounding factor in the assessment of chromophore concentration changes, and/or a novel non-invasive optical marker of brain tissue morphology, cytostructure, hence metabolic status. The aim of this study is to characterize light scattering following adult ABI. Time resolved spectroscopy was performed as a component of multimodal neuromonitoring in critically ill brain injured patients. The scattering coefficient (μ′s), absorption coefficient and cerebral haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) were derived by fitting the time resolved data. Cerebral infarction was subsequently defined on routine clinical imaging. In total, 21 patients with ABI were studied. Ten patients suffered a unilateral frontal infarction, and mean μ′s was lower over infarcted compared to non-infarcted cortex (injured 6.9/cm, non-injured 8.2/cm p = 0.002). SO2 did not differ significantly between the two sides (injured 69.3 %, non-injured 69.0 % p = 0.7). Cerebral infarction is associated with changes in μ′s which might be a novel marker of cerebral injury and will interfere with quantification of haemoglobin/cytochrome c oxidase concentration. Although further work combining optical and physiological analysis is required to elucidate the significance of these results, μ′s may be uniquely placed as a non-invasive biomarker of cerebral energy failure as well as gross tissue changes. PMID:26782205

  16. The first near-infrared reflectance spectrum of an exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desert, Jean-Michel

    2017-08-01

    Amongst the important results that came out in the field of exoplanetology is that clouds and hazes in exoplanet atmospheres seem to be ubiquitous. Their presence provides important information on the chemistry and composition of atmospheres, and have major impact on planets' energy budgets and evolutions. Aerosols are also important observationally because they prevent probing deeper atmospheric composition, and they have been the common interpretation in a long list of published featureless transmission spectra. However, none of these indirect detections can definitely confirm or deny the presence of aerosols; thus, we propose a program that will change our view on aerosols by looking at their reflectivity.Theoretical models and laboratory experiments have long speculated on the origins and properties of aerosols in exoplanet atmospheres. More recent studies have shown that photochemical hazes can be very reflective in the near-Infrared (NIR) for planets cooler than 900 K. We propose to tackle this revolutionizing idea by pioneering an observational program that will both test these new models and provide a novel way to study atmospheres of exoplanets.We will look for reflective hazes in the NIR with WFC3 and deliver the first geometric albedo spectrum (Ag) of an exoplanet: WASP-80b. We will measure expected reflectivity (Ag=0.5) at high level of confidence (7-Sigma), and put stringent limits on haze models. This program will provide a pathway towards the study of exoplanets around low mass-stars through their reflectivity, which is urgent since these will be the golden targets for JWST. Only HST can provide the required precision for such an experiment.

  17. Near infrared measurements of SPICAM AOTF spectrometer on Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korablev, O.; Bertaux, J. L.; Fedorova, A.; Perrier, S.; Moroz, V. I.; Rodin, A.; Stepanov, A.; Grigoriev, A.; Dimarellis, E.; Kalinnikov, Yu. K.

    The Near-Infrared channel of SPICAM, a lightweight (800 g) acousto-optical tuneable filter (AOTF) spectrometer observes the atmosphere and the surface of Mars from Mars Express orbiter. The spectrometer covers the spectral range between 1000 and 1700 nm with the resolving power λ /Δ λ superior to 1300. Signal-to noise ratio in individual Mars spectra varies from 30 to 100 and more depending on observation conditions. The total column abundance of water vapour is measured in nadir at 1380 nm simultaneously with ozone measured in the UV channel of SPICAM. Moreover, the O21Δ g emission at 1270 nm produced by photodissociation of ozone above 15-20km is systematically observed in nadir at the background of bright disk constraining (with the UV measurements of total ozone) its vertical distribution. Airmass reference is provided self-consistently from carbon dioxide measurements at 1430 and 1580 nm. At LS≈ 280 clear spectral signatures of CO2 and H2O ices has been detected at the permanent South Polar Cap (simultaneously with OMEGA and PFS findings) and above 55N. Limb measurements show that at the time when TES/MGS measurements indicate very clear atmosphere, the dust at the limb is observed up to 50-60km. We will present description of the spectrometer and its characterization, and describe the collected data, including nadir, limb and solar occultation measurements. Spectro-polarimetry capabilities of the AOTF will be discussed. This is the first experience of AOTF use in deep space, and we believe that a 800-g instrument capable to measure water vapour and much more on Mars should become a routine climate/environment tool on future missions.

  18. Implanted near-infrared spectroscopy for cardiac monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhunia, Sourav K.; Cinbis, Can

    2011-02-01

    Implanted Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) provides one of the most effective therapies for the prevention of sudden cardiac death, but also delivers some high voltage shocks inappropriately, causing morbidity and mortality. Implanted near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) may augment ICD arrhythmia detection by monitoring skeletal muscle perfusion. A two-wavelength, single-distance, continuous-wave implanted NIRS has been evaluated in-vivo. A weighted difference of the changes in attenuation at two wavelengths, across the isobestic point of the hemoglobin spectra, was taken to be the microvascular oxygenation trend indicator (O2 Index). Although the exact weight depends on the local vascular distribution and their oxygen levels, the hypothesis that a constant weight may be adequate for hemodynamic trending during short arrhythmic episodes, was tested. The sensor was implanted subcutaneously both on fresh tissue and inside scar tissue that formed around a pre-existing implant, in 3 animals each. Attenuations were recorded at 660 and 890 nm during normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and induced ventricular fibrillation (VF). The slope of the O2 Index over 10 seconds was computed for 7 NSR and 8 VF episodes in fresh and 13 NSR and 15 VF episodes in scar tissue pockets. The mean O2 Index slope was significantly different (p<0.0001) between NSR and VF rhythms for both the fresh and scar tissue pockets. Therefore implanted NIRS may be useful for preventing inappropriate detection of VF during electromagnetic interference, double counting of ECG T-wave as an R-wave, ICD lead failure, electrocardiographic aberrancy etc.

  19. PRAXIS: a near infrared spectrograph optimised for OH suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, S. C.; Bauer, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Case, S.; Content, R.; Fechner, T.; Giannone, D.; Haynes, R.; Hernandez, E.; Horton, A. J.; Klauser, U.; Lawrence, J. S.; Leon-Saval, S. G.; Lindley, E.; Löhmannsröben, H.-G.; Min, S.-S.; Pai, N.; Roth, M.; Shortridge, K.; Staszak, Nicholas F.; Tims, Julia; Xavier, Pascal; Zhelem, Ross

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric emission from OH molecules is a long standing problem for near-infrared astronomy. PRAXIS is a unique spectrograph, currently in the build-phase, which is fed by a fibre array that removes the OH background. The OH suppression is achieved with fibre Bragg gratings, which were tested successfully on the GNOSIS instrument. PRAXIS will use the same fibre Bragg gratings as GNOSIS in the first implementation, and new, less expensive and more efficient, multicore fibre Bragg gratings in the second implementation. The OH lines are suppressed by a factor of 1000, and the expected increase in the signal-to-noise in the interline regions compared to GNOSIS is a factor of 9 with the GNOSIS gratings and a factor of 17 with the new gratings. PRAXIS will enable the full exploitation of OH suppression for the first time, which was not achieved by GNOSIS due to high thermal emission, low spectrograph transmission, and detector noise. PRAXIS will have extremely low thermal emission, through the cooling of all significantly emitting parts, including the fore-optics, the fibre Bragg gratings, a long length of fibre, and a fibre slit, and an optical design that minimises leaks of thermal emission from outside the spectrograph. PRAXIS will achieve low detector noise through the use of a Hawaii-2RG detector, and a high throughput through an efficient VPH based spectrograph. The scientific aims of the instrument are to determine the absolute level of the interline continuum and to enable observations of individual objects via an IFU. PRAXIS will first be installed on the AAT, then later on an 8m class telescope.

  20. James Webb Telescope's Near Infrared Camera: Making Models, Building Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2010-10-01

    The Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout Leaders is a science education program sponsored by NASA's next large space telescope: The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The E/PO team for JWST's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam), in collaboration with the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council, has developed a long-term relationship with adult leaders from all GSUSA Councils that directly benefits troops of all ages, not only in general science education but also specifically in the astronomical and technology concepts relating to JWST. We have been training and equipping these leaders so they can in turn teach young women essential concepts in astronomy, i.e., the night sky environment. We model what astronomers do by engaging trainers in the process of scientific inquiry, and we equip them to host troop-level astronomy-related activities. It is GSUSA's goal to foster girls’ interest and creativity in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math, creating an environment that encourages their interests early in their lives while creating a safe place for girls to try and fail, and then try again and succeed. To date, we have trained over 158 leaders in 13 camps. These leaders have come from 24 states, DC, Guam, and Japan. While many of the camp activities are related to the "First Light” theme, many of the background activities relate to two of the other JWST and NIRCam themes: "Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems” and "Planetary Systems and the Origin of Life.” The latter includes our own Solar System. Our poster will highlight the Planetary Systems theme: 1. Earth and Moon: Day and Night; Rotation and Revolution. 2. Earth/Moon Comparisons. 3. Size Model: The Diameters of the Planets. 4. Macramé Planetary (Solar) Distance Model. 5.What is a Planet? 6. Planet Sorting Cards. 7. Human Orrery 8. Lookback Time in Our Daily Lives NIRCam E/PO website: http://zeus.as.arizona.edu/ dmccarthy/GSUSA

  1. Searching for Water Earths in the Near-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zugger, M. E.; Kasting, J. F.; Williams, D. M.; Kane, T. J.; Philbrick, C. R.

    2011-09-01

    Over 500 extrasolar planets (exoplanets) have now been discovered, but only a handful are small enough that they might be rocky terrestrial planets like Venus, Earth, and Mars. Recently, it has been proposed that observations of variability in scattered light (both polarized and total flux) from such terrestrial-sized exoplanets could be used to determine if they possess large surface oceans, an important indicator of potential habitability. Observing such oceans at visible wavelengths would be difficult, however, in part because of obscuration by atmospheric scattering. Here, we investigate whether observations performed in the near-infrared (NIR), where Rayleigh scattering is reduced, could improve the detectability of exoplanet oceans. We model two wavebands of the NIR which are "window regions" for an Earth-like atmosphere: 1.55-1.75 μm and 2.1-2.3 μm. Our model confirms that obscuration in these bands from Rayleigh scattering is very low, but aerosols are generally the limiting factor throughout the wavelength range for Earth-like atmospheres. As a result, observations at NIR wavelengths are significantly better at detecting oceans than those at visible wavelengths only when aerosols are very thin by Earth standards. Clouds further dilute the ocean reflection signature. Hence, other techniques, e.g., time-resolved color photometry, may be more effective in the search for liquid water on exoplanet surfaces. Observing an exo-Earth at NIR wavelengths does open the possibility of detecting water vapor or other absorbers in the atmosphere, by comparing scattered light in window regions to that in absorption bands.

  2. 7 CFR 801.7 - Reference methods and tolerances for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reference methods and tolerances for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analyzers. 801.7 Section 801.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... methods and tolerances for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analyzers. (a) Reference methods. (1) The...

  3. A near infrared luminescent metal-organic framework for temperature sensing in the physiological range.

    PubMed

    Lian, Xiusheng; Zhao, Dian; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong

    2015-12-28

    A near infrared pumped luminescent metal-organic framework thermometer Nd(0.577)Yb(0.423)BDC-F4, with near infrared fluorescence and excellent sensitivity in the physiological temperature range (293-313 K), has been first realized, and might be potentially applied for biomedical systems.

  4. Discriminating oat and groat kernels from other grains using near infrared spectroscopy

    Oat and groats can be discriminated from other grains such as barley, wheat, rye, and triticale (non-oats) using near infrared spectroscopy. The two instruments tested were the manual version of the ARS-USDA Single Kernel Near Infrared (SKNIR) and the automated QualySense QSorter Explorer high-speed...

  5. Detecting and Segregating Black Tip-Damaged Wheat Kernels Using Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Detection of individual wheat kernels with black tip symptom (BTS) and black tip damage (BTD) was demonstrated using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and silicon light-emitting-diode (LED) based instruments. The two instruments tested, a single kernel near-infrared spectroscopy instrume...

  6. Detection of cracks on tomatoes using hyperspectral near-infrared reflectance imaging system

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hyperspectral near-infrared (NIR) reflectance imaging techniques for detection of cuticle cracks on tomatoes. A hyperspectral near-infrared reflectance imaging system in the region of 1000-1700 nm was used to obtain hyperspectral reflectance ima...

  7. Reliability of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Determining Muscle Oxygen Saturation during Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Krista G.; Daigle, Karen A.; Patterson, Patricia; Cowman, Jason; Chelland, Sara; Haymes, Emily M.

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy is currently used to assess changes in the oxygen saturation of the muscle during exercise. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy in determining muscle oxygen saturation (StO[subscript 2]) in the vastus lateralis during cycling and the gastrocnemius during running…

  8. 21 CFR 882.1935 - Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. 882... Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. (a) Identification. A Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector... evaluate suspected brain hematomas. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special controls...

  9. 21 CFR 882.1935 - Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. 882... Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. (a) Identification. A Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector... evaluate suspected brain hematomas. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special controls...

  10. Near-infrared spectroscopy of candidate red supergiant stars in clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messineo, Maria; Zhu, Qingfeng; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Figer, Donald F.; Davies, Ben; Menten, Karl M.; Kudritzki, Rolf P.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie

    2014-11-01

    Context. Clear identifications of Galactic young stellar clusters farther than a few kpc from the Sun are rare, despite the large number of candidate clusters. Aims: We aim to improve the selection of candidate clusters rich in massive stars with a multiwavelength analysis of photometric Galactic data that range from optical to mid-infrared wavelengths. Methods: We present a photometric and spectroscopic analysis of five candidate stellar clusters, which were selected as overdensities with bright stars (Ks< 7 mag) in GLIMPSE and 2MASS images. Results: A total of 48 infrared spectra were obtained. The combination of photometry and spectroscopy yielded six new red supergiant stars with masses from 10 M⊙ to 15 M⊙. Two red supergiants are located at Galactic coordinates (l,b) = (16.°7, -0.°63) and at a distance of about ~3.9 kpc; four other red supergiants are members of a cluster at Galactic coordinates (l,b) = (49.°3, + 0.°72) and at a distance of ~7.0 kpc. Conclusions: Spectroscopic analysis of the brightest stars of detected overdensities and studies of interstellar extinction along their line of sights are fundamental to distinguish regions of low extinction from actual stellar clusters. The census of young star clusters containing red supergiants is incomplete; in the existing all-sky near-infrared surveys, they can be identified as overdensities of bright stars with infrared color-magnitude diagrams characterized by gaps. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO Programme 60.A-9700(E), and 089.D-0876), and on observations collected at the UKIRT telescope (programme ID H243NS).MM is currently employed by the MPIfR. Part of this work was performed at RIT (2009), at ESA (2010), and at the MPIfR.Tables 3, 4, and 6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. The enhanced and broadband near-infrared emission in Pr3+/Nd3+ co-doped tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zizhong; Zhou, Yaxun; Cheng, Pan; Zhou, Minghan; Su, Xiue; Li, Jun

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports an enhanced and broadband near-infrared fluorescence emission in the Pr3+/Nd3+ co-doped tellurite glass, which was prepared using melt-quenching technique. Under the excitation of 488 nm laser diode (LD), three near-infrared emission bands at around 0.9, 1.04 and 1.30 μm from 3P1,0 → 1G4, 1G4→3H4 and 1G4→3H5 radiative transitions respectively were observed in the Pr3+ single-doped glass, and the fluorescence intensities increased further with the introduction of Nd3+ ions, which is mainly attributed to the energy transfers from Nd3+ to Pr3+ emissions. Meanwhile, the spectral overlapping of Pr3+:1G4→3H4 and Nd3+:4F3/2 → 4I11/2 radiative transitions resulted in a broadband emission ranging from 1000 to 1100 nm, whose full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) reached about 66 nm. Additionally, the spectroscopic properties of Nd3+ and Pr3+ ions were analyzed using Judd-Ofelt theory and the thermal stability property of prepared glass was characterized by the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurement, and larger than 134 °C for the difference ΔT(=Tx -Tg) was observed, which indicates its feasibility for later fiber drawing. The enhanced fluorescence and broadband emission indicate that Pr3+/Nd3+ co-doped tellurite glass can be applied in the near-infrared band tunable lasers and broadband optical amplifiers.

  12. Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging to detect parathyroid glands in thyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Ladurner, R; Al Arabi, N; Guendogar, U; Hallfeldt, Kkj; Stepp, H; Gallwas, Jks

    2018-01-01

    Objective To identify and save parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy by displaying their autofluorescence. Methods Autofluorescence imaging was carried out during thyroidectomy with and without central lymph node dissection. After visual recognition by the surgeon, the parathyroid glands and the surrounding tissue were exposed to near-infrared light with a wavelength of 690-770 nm using a modified Karl Storz near infrared/indocyanine green endoscopic system. Parathyroid tissue was expected to show near infrared autofluorescence at 820 nm, captured in the blue channel of the camera. Results We investigated 41 parathyroid glands from 20 patients; 37 glands were identified correctly based on near-infrared autofluorescence. Neither lymph nodes nor thyroid revealed substantial autofluorescence and nor did adipose tissue. Conclusions Parathyroid tissue is characterised by showing autofluorescence in the near-infrared spectrum. This effect can be used to identify and preserve parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy.

  13. Relative performance evaluation of a custom-made near infrared reflectance instrument and two commercial instruments (Foss and ASD) in the nondestructive moisture content measurement of in-shell peanuts

    A custom made Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) spectroscope was used to determine the moisture content of in-shell peanuts of Virginia type peanuts. Peanuts were conditioned to different moisture levels between 6 and 26 % (wet basis) and samples from different moisture levels were separated into two...

  14. Excitation Mechanisms of Near-Infrared Emission Lines in LINER Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehle, Anna

    2017-01-01

    I will present high spatial resolution, integral field spectroscopic observations of the nearby LINER (low ionization nuclear emission line region) galaxy NGC 404. LINERs are found at the centers of ~1/3 of galaxies within 40 Mpc, but their physical nature is not well understood. Although NGC 404 is thought to host a intermediate mass black hole at its center, it is unclear whether accretion onto the black hole or another mechanism such as shock excitation drives its LINER emission. We use the OSIRIS near-infrared integral field spectrograph at Keck Observatory behind laser guide star adaptive optics to map the strength and kinematics of [FeII], H2, and hydrogen recombination lines in the nucleus of NGC 404. These observations have a spatial pixel sampling of 0.5 pc and span the central 30 pc of the galaxy. We find that the ionized and molecular gas show differences in their morphology and kinematics on parsec scales. In particular, there are regions with line ratios of [FeII]/Pa-β that are much higher than previously seen in spatially integrated spectra, significantly restricting the possible excitation mechanisms of the near-infrared emission lines in this source. We are also applying these analysis techniques to 10 additional nearby LINERs, a part of a larger sample of 14 sources, to understand what drives the emission lines in these active galaxies. As a part of this program, I worked on the upgrade of the detector in the OSIRIS spectrograph, which has allowed observations for this survey obtained since January 2016 to be taken with increased instrument sensitivity of a factor of ~2 at J-band wavelengths (1.2 - 1.4 microns) and ~1.6 at H- and K-band wavelengths (1.5 - 2.4 microns). I will present results from the LINER survey, the OSIRIS detector upgrade, and also touch on related work using stellar orbits around the Milky Way supermassive black hole Sgr A* to constrain the mass and distance to our own Galactic Center.

  15. Simulations of deep galaxy fields. 1: Monte Carlo simulations of optical and near-infrared counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chokshi, Arati; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Mazzei, Paola; De Zotti, Gianfranco

    1994-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of three-dimensional galaxy distributions are performed, following the 1988 prescription of Chokshi & Wright, to study the photometric properties of evolving galaxy populations in the optical and near-infrared bands to high redshifts. In this paper, the first of a series, we present our baseline model in which galaxy numbers are conserved, and in which no explicit 'starburst' population is included. We use the model in an attempt to simultaneously fit published blue and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations of deep fields. We find that our baseline models, with a formation redshift, z(sub f), of 1000, and H(sub 0) = 50, are able to reproduce the blue counts to b(sub j) = 22, independent of the value of Omega(sub 0), and also to provide a satisfactory fit to the observed blue-band redshift distributions, but for no value of Omega(sub 0) do we achieve an acceptable fit to the fainter blue counts. In the K band, we fit the number counts to the limit of the present-day surveys only for an Omega(sub 0) = 0 cosmology. We investigate the effect on the model fits of varying the cosmological parameters H(sub 0), the formation red-shift z(sub f), and the local luminosity function. Changing H(sub 0) does not improve the fits to the observations. However, reducing the epoch of a galaxy formation used in our simulations has a substantial effect. In particular, a model with z(sub f) approximately equal to 5 in a low Omega(sub 0) universe improves the fit to the faintest photometric blue data without any need to invoke a new population of galaxies, substantial merging, or a significant starburst galaxy population. For an Omega(sub 0) = 1 universe, however, reducing z(sub f) is less successful at fitting the blue-band counts and has little effect at all at K. Varying the parameters of the local luminosity function can also have a significant effect. In particular the steep low end slope of the local luminosity function of Franceschini et

  16. Visualization of Near-Infrared Spectral Data of Eros Using the Small Body Mapping Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, Rachel L.; Ernst, Carolyn

    2016-10-01

    One of the primary drivers for many missions visiting asteroids is to advance our understanding of their composition beyond what can be (and is) already measured by telescopes. Without sample return or lander missions, this task relies primarily on resolved near-infrared spectroscopic measurements. Scientific analysis using spectral data collected by point spectrometers is not as straightforward as for imaging spectrometers, where the local spatial context is immediately available. In the case of Eros and other highly non-spherical bodies, this problem becomes even more severe when trying to locate spectra that cross a mapped feature that bends over an irregularly shaped surface. Thus, it is often the case that outside of the mission teams, few from the community at large delve into these data sets, as they lack the tools necessary to incorporate the spectral information into geological analyses of the asteroids. Ultimately, we seek to make such spectral datasets, which NASA has invested significant amounts of money to obtain, more widely accessible and user-friendly. The Small Bodies Mapping Tool (SBMT) is a Java-based, interactive, three-dimensional visualization tool written and developed at APL to map and analyze features on irregularly shaped solar system bodies. The SBMT can be used to locate and then "drape" spacecraft images, spectra, and laser altimetry around the shape model of such bodies. It provides a means for rapid identification of available data in a region of interest and allows features to be mapped directly onto the shape model. The program allows the free rotation of a shape model (including any overlain data) in all directions, so that the correlation and distribution of mapped features can be easily and globally observed.We will present the results of our work on the NEAR/Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIS) data, including improvements to the calibration made by using the geometric information provided by the SBMT and improvements to the SMBT

  17. Near infrared and visible face recognition based on decision fusion of LBP and DCT features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhihua; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guodong; Xiong, Jinquan

    2018-03-01

    Visible face recognition systems, being vulnerable to illumination, expression, and pose, can not achieve robust performance in unconstrained situations. Meanwhile, near infrared face images, being light- independent, can avoid or limit the drawbacks of face recognition in visible light, but its main challenges are low resolution and signal noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, near infrared and visible fusion face recognition has become an important direction in the field of unconstrained face recognition research. In order to extract the discriminative complementary features between near infrared and visible images, in this paper, we proposed a novel near infrared and visible face fusion recognition algorithm based on DCT and LBP features. Firstly, the effective features in near-infrared face image are extracted by the low frequency part of DCT coefficients and the partition histograms of LBP operator. Secondly, the LBP features of visible-light face image are extracted to compensate for the lacking detail features of the near-infrared face image. Then, the LBP features of visible-light face image, the DCT and LBP features of near-infrared face image are sent to each classifier for labeling. Finally, decision level fusion strategy is used to obtain the final recognition result. The visible and near infrared face recognition is tested on HITSZ Lab2 visible and near infrared face database. The experiment results show that the proposed method extracts the complementary features of near-infrared and visible face images and improves the robustness of unconstrained face recognition. Especially for the circumstance of small training samples, the recognition rate of proposed method can reach 96.13%, which has improved significantly than 92.75 % of the method based on statistical feature fusion.

  18. Light shift from ultraviolet to near infrared light: Cerenkov luminescence with gold nanocluster - near infrared (AuNc-NIR) conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Su Woong; Mun, Hyoyoung; Oh, Gyungseok; Ryu, Youngjae; Kim, Min-Gon; Chung, Euiheon

    2015-03-01

    Cerenkov luminescence (CL) is generated when a charged particle moves faster than the speed of light in dielectric media. Recently CL imaging becomes an emerging technique with the use of radioisotopes. However, due to relatively weak blue light production and massive tissue attenuation, CL has not been applied widely. Therefore, we attempted to shift the CL emission to more near infrared (NIR) spectrum for better tissue penetration by using Cerenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET). Gold nanoclusters were conjugated with NIR dye molecules (AuNc-IR820 and AuNc-ICG) to be activated with ultraviolet light. We found optimal conjugate concentrations of AuNc-NIR conjugates by spectroscopy system to generate maximal photon emission. When exposed by ultraviolet light, the emission of NIR light from the conjugates were verified. In quantitative analysis, AuNc-NIR conjugates emit brighter light signal than pure AuNc. This result implies that NIR fluorescent dyes (both IR820 and ICG) can be excited by the emission from AuNc. Following the above baseline experiment, we mixed F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) radioisotope to the AuNc- NIR conjugates, to confirm NIR emission induced from Cerenkov radiation. Long pass filter was used to block Cerenkov luminescence and to collect the emission from AuNc-NIR conjugates. Instead of one long exposure imaging with CCD, we used multiple frame scheme to eliminate gamma radiation strike in each frame prior to combination. In summary, we obtained NIR emission light from AuNc-NIR conjugated dyes that is induced from CL. We plan to perform in vivo small animal imaging with these conjugates to assess better tissue penetration.

  19. Spectra Transfer Between a Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Laboratory and a Miniaturized Handheld Near-Infrared Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Uwe; Pfeifer, Frank; Hsuing, Chang; Siesler, Heinz W

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this contribution is to demonstrate the transfer of spectra that have been measured on two different laboratory Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectrometers to the format of a handheld instrument by measuring only a few samples with both spectrometer types. Thus, despite the extreme differences in spectral range and resolution, spectral data sets that have been collected and quantitative as well as qualitative calibrations that have been developed thereof, respectively, over a long period on a laboratory instrument can be conveniently transferred to the handheld system. Thus, the necessity to prepare completely new calibration samples and the effort required to develop calibration models when changing hardware platforms is minimized. The enabling procedure is based on piecewise direct standardization (PDS) and will be described for the data sets of a quantitative and a qualitative application case study. For this purpose the spectra measured on the FT-NIR laboratory spectrometers were used as "master" data and transferred to the "target" format of the handheld instrument. The quantitative test study refers to transmission spectra of three-component liquid solvent mixtures whereas the qualitative application example encompasses diffuse reflection spectra of six different current polymers. To prove the performance of the transfer procedure for quantitative applications, partial least squares (PLS-1) calibrations were developed for the individual components of the solvent mixtures with spectra transferred from the master to the target instrument and the cross-validation parameters were compared with the corresponding parameters obtained for spectra measured on the master and target instruments, respectively. To test the retention of the discrimination ability of the transferred polymer spectra sets principal component analyses (PCAs) were applied exemplarily for three of the six investigated polymers and their identification was demonstrated by

  20. Near infrared and optical spectroscopy of FSC10214+4724

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Cohen, J. G.; Armus, L.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Oke, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    New infrared and optical spectroscopic observations, obtained with the W.M. Keck Telescope, are reported for the highly luminous infrared source FSC10214+4724. The rest frame optical spectrum shows new emission lines of (NeIII, (NeV), (OI), (OII), (SII), and He(+) while the rest frame ultraviolet spectrum shows new lines of OIV+SiIV, NII, NIV, SiII, NeIV and possibly NII and (NeIII), as well as clearly showing the L alpha is self-absorbed. The emission line spectrum is most characteristic of a Seyfert 2 nucleus. The preponderance of spectroscopic evidence strengthens the case of a dust enshrouded AGN powering much or most of the observed luminosity. The various spectral lines lead to a wide range in the inferred reddening and ionization parameter for this system, suggesting that we are viewing several environments through differing extinctions.

  1. Interplay between up-regulation of cytochrome-c-oxidase and hemoglobin oxygenation induced by near-infrared laser

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinlong; Tian, Fenghua; Soni, Sagar S.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Liu, Hanli

    2016-01-01

    Photobiomodulation, also known as low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT), refers to the use of red-to-near-infrared light to stimulate cellular functions for physiological or clinical benefits. The mechanism of LLLT is assumed to rely on photon absorption by cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen for energy metabolism. In this study, we used broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure the LLLT-induced changes in CCO and hemoglobin concentrations in human forearms in vivo. Eleven healthy participants were administered with 1064-nm laser and placebo treatments on their right forearms. The spectroscopic data were analyzed and fitted with wavelength-dependent, modified Beer-Lambert Law. We found that LLLT induced significant increases of CCO concentration (Δ[CCO]) and oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO]) on the treated site as the laser energy dose accumulated over time. A strong linear interplay between Δ[CCO] and Δ[HbO] was observed for the first time during LLLT, indicating a hemodynamic response of oxygen supply and blood volume closely coupled to the up-regulation of CCO induced by photobiomodulation. These results demonstrate the tremendous potential of broadband NIRS as a non-invasive, in vivo means to study mechanisms of photobiomodulation and perform treatment evaluations of LLLT. PMID:27484673

  2. Interplay between up-regulation of cytochrome-c-oxidase and hemoglobin oxygenation induced by near-infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinlong; Tian, Fenghua; Soni, Sagar S.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Liu, Hanli

    2016-08-01

    Photobiomodulation, also known as low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT), refers to the use of red-to-near-infrared light to stimulate cellular functions for physiological or clinical benefits. The mechanism of LLLT is assumed to rely on photon absorption by cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen for energy metabolism. In this study, we used broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure the LLLT-induced changes in CCO and hemoglobin concentrations in human forearms in vivo. Eleven healthy participants were administered with 1064-nm laser and placebo treatments on their right forearms. The spectroscopic data were analyzed and fitted with wavelength-dependent, modified Beer-Lambert Law. We found that LLLT induced significant increases of CCO concentration (Δ[CCO]) and oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO]) on the treated site as the laser energy dose accumulated over time. A strong linear interplay between Δ[CCO] and Δ[HbO] was observed for the first time during LLLT, indicating a hemodynamic response of oxygen supply and blood volume closely coupled to the up-regulation of CCO induced by photobiomodulation. These results demonstrate the tremendous potential of broadband NIRS as a non-invasive, in vivo means to study mechanisms of photobiomodulation and perform treatment evaluations of LLLT.

  3. Interplay between up-regulation of cytochrome-c-oxidase and hemoglobin oxygenation induced by near-infrared laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinlong; Tian, Fenghua; Soni, Sagar S; Gonzalez-Lima, F; Liu, Hanli

    2016-08-03

    Photobiomodulation, also known as low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT), refers to the use of red-to-near-infrared light to stimulate cellular functions for physiological or clinical benefits. The mechanism of LLLT is assumed to rely on photon absorption by cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen for energy metabolism. In this study, we used broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure the LLLT-induced changes in CCO and hemoglobin concentrations in human forearms in vivo. Eleven healthy participants were administered with 1064-nm laser and placebo treatments on their right forearms. The spectroscopic data were analyzed and fitted with wavelength-dependent, modified Beer-Lambert Law. We found that LLLT induced significant increases of CCO concentration (Δ[CCO]) and oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO]) on the treated site as the laser energy dose accumulated over time. A strong linear interplay between Δ[CCO] and Δ[HbO] was observed for the first time during LLLT, indicating a hemodynamic response of oxygen supply and blood volume closely coupled to the up-regulation of CCO induced by photobiomodulation. These results demonstrate the tremendous potential of broadband NIRS as a non-invasive, in vivo means to study mechanisms of photobiomodulation and perform treatment evaluations of LLLT.

  4. In vivo comparison of near infrared lasers for skin welding.

    PubMed

    Tabakoğlu, Haşim Ozgür; Gülsoy, Murat

    2010-05-01

    The skin closure abilities of near infrared lasers and suturing were compared by histological examination and mechanical tensile tests during a 21-day healing period. One-centimeter incisions on the dorsal skin of Wistar rats were treated by one of the closing techniques: (a) soldering, using an 809 nm diode laser (0.5 W, 5 s) with 25% bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 2.5 mg/ml indocyanine green (ICG); (b) direct welding with a 980 nm diode laser (0.5 W, 5 s); (c) direct welding with a 1,070 nm fiber laser (0.5 W, 5 s); (d) suturing. Six spots (79.61 J/cm(2) for each spot) were applied through the incisions. Healing was inspected on the 1st, 4th, 7th, 14th, and 21st post-operative days. The closure index (CI), thermally altered area (TAA), granulation area (GA) and epidermal thickness (ET) were determined by histological examination. Tensile tests were performed at a 5 mm/min crosshead speed up to the first opening along the incision. Immediate superficial closure with high CI values was found for the laser-irradiated incisions at the early phase of recovery. Clear welds without thermal damage were observed for the group irradiated at 1,070 nm. For the sutured group, the incisions remained unclosed for the first day, and openings through the incision were observed. At the end of the 21-day recovery period, no differences between experimental groups were observed in terms of the CI, GA and ET values. However, the tensile strength of the groups irradiated at 980 nm and 1,070 nm was found to be higher than that of the sutured incisions. The laser welding techniques were found to be reliable in terms of immediate and mechanically strong closure compared with suturing. Of them, 1,070 nm laser welding yielded noticeably stronger bonds, with minimal scarring at the end of the 21-days of recovery.

  5. A multiwavelength frequency-domain near-infrared cerebral oximeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, C. Dean; Thayer, William S.

    1999-03-01

    This study tests a multiwavelength frequency-domain near-infrared oximeter (fdNIRS) in an in vitro model of the human brain. The model is a solid plastic structure containing a vascular network perfused with blood in which haemoglobin oxygen saturation was measured by co-oximetry, providing a standard for comparison. Plastic shells of varying thickness (0.5-2 cm), with a vascular network of their own and encircling the brain model, were also added to simulate extracranial tissues of the infant, child and adult. The fdNIRS oximeter utilizes frequency-domain technology to monitor phaseshifts at 754 nm, 785 nm and 816 nm relative to a 780 nm reference to derive through photon transport and Beer-Lambert equations. We found a linear relationship between fdNIRS and co-oximetry with excellent correlation that fitted the line of identity in all experiments ( n = 7). The bias of fdNIRS oximetry was -2% and the precision was 6%. Blood temperature and fdNIRS source-detector distance did not affect fdNIRS oximetry. Low haemoglobin concentration altered the fdNIRS versus co-oximetry line slope and intercept, producing a 15% error at the extremes of . The infant- and child-like shells overlying the brain model did not alter fdNIRS oximetry, whereas the adult-like shell yielded an error as high as 32%. In conclusion, fdNIRS accurately measures in an in vitro brain

  6. Near-infrared imaging of water in human hair.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Mariko; Hagihara, Motofumi; Yanai, Motohiro

    2013-02-01

    The water content of hair can be evaluated by weighing, the Karl Fischer method, and from electrical properties. However, these methods cannot be used to study the distribution of water in the hair. Imaging techniques are required for this purpose. In this study, a highly sensitive near-infrared (NIR) imaging system was developed for evaluating water in human hair. The results obtained from NIR imaging and conventional methods were compared. An extended indium-gallium-arsenide NIR camera (detection range: 1100-2200 nm) and diffuse illumination unit developed in our laboratory were used to obtain a NIR image of hair. A water image was obtained using a 1950-nm interference filter and polarization filter. Changes in the hair water content with relative humidity (20-95% RH) and after immersion in a 7% (w/w) sorbitol solution were measured using the NIR camera and an insulation resistance tester. The changes in the water content after treatment with two types of commercially available shampoo were also measured using the NIR camera. As the water content increased with changes in the relative humidity, the brightness of the water image decreased and the insulation resistance decreased. The brightness in the NIR image of hair treated with sorbitol solution was lower than that in the image of hair treated with water. This shows the sorbitol-treated hair contains more water than water-treated hair. The sorbitol-treated hair had a lower resistance after treatment than before, which also shows that sorbitol treatment increases the water content. With this system, we could detect a difference in the moisturizing effect between two commercially available shampoos. The highly sensitive imaging system could be used to study water in human hair. Changes in the water content of hair depended on the relative humidity and treatment with moisturizer. The results obtained using the NIR imaging system were similar to those obtained using a conventional method. Our system could detect

  7. Near-opposition martian limb-darkening: Quantification and implication for visible-near-infrared bidirectional reflectance studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grenier, Muriel; Pinet, Patrick C.

    1995-06-01

    A nearly global coverage of the martian eastern hemisphere, acquired under small phase angles and varying observational geometries conditions, has been produced from 1988 opposition by spectral (0.5-1 μm) imaging data obtained at the Pic du Midi Observatory in France. From this data set, the methodology presented here permits a systematic analysis of martian photometric behavior at a regional scale of 100-300 km in the visible and near-infrared. The quantification of limb-darkening as a function of wavelength and surface albedo gives access in martian regional properties as a function of wavelength and surface albedo and results in the production of visible and near-infrared geometric albedo maps. A linear relation between the limb darkening parameter k and geometric albedo exists in the near infrared. Based on laboratory studies, it suggests a spectral response of particulate type for the martian soil. Conversely, in the visible, the value of k parameter is 0.6 independent of albedo and is consistent with a single scattering photometric behavior in the surface layer. However, the observed change in the martian photometry from single to multiple scattering may be partially due to a large contribution of atmospheric scattering above 0.7 μm. In the absence of a multitemporal dataset analysis, it must be emphasized that the present results are a priori only pertinent to the atmospheric and surface conditions existing on Mars at the time of observation. However, this analysis may contribute to characterize some physical properties, such as surface roughness. In the near-infrared, for bright terrains, k tends to 0.8 and agrees with the presence of very fine particulate materials. Photometry of dark areas is more irregular (0.48 < k < 0.64) and might result from surface roughness heterogeneities. However, a few dark areas reveal that k anomalous values in the range 0.7-0.8 may be caused by the presence of a coating of very fine materials or duricrust. Finally, we

  8. A Near Infrared Study of Blue Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanzi, L.

    1997-09-01

    Blue Dwarf Galaxies (BDG) are objects of low luminosity (M_Vge-18) and very blue visible colors. Both the colors and the presence of narrow emission lines in their spectra are usually interpreted to result from intense episodes of star formation. The metallicity of the BDG is usually low with values in the range 10^{-2}-1~Zodot. Wolf-Rayet (WR) features are detected in many cases in the optical spectra. This is an unexpected characteristic since according to stellar evolution, the number of WR stars in a star forming region should increase with the metallicity while WR features are only rarely detected in solar metallicity galaxies. Different morphologies are found among BDG including compact elliptical, irregular, magellanic, interacting. Due to the low luminosity in most of these objects the starburst (SB) episode dominates the emitted radiation. Therefore starbursts can be studied in more detail in dwarf galaxies than in giant spiral galaxies where the presence of a quiescent stellar population is important in defining the observed characteristics. Moreover BDG are a unique laboratory to study the star formation process in low metallicity environments. We have used new imaging and spectroscopy in the near infrared to study both the star formation history and the excitation mechanism of the near infrared lines in BDG. The observations were taken with the Steward Observatory telescopes. We concentrated on 8 objects selected to be a representative but bright sample of BDG, they are: II Zw 40, He2-10, NGC 3077, NGC 4214, NGC 4449, NGC 1569, NGC 4861 and NGC 5253. The data were used to constrain a starburst model. For II Zw 40 we were able to fit the observations using a gaussian star formation rate with FWHM=5 My and a solar neiborhood IMF. The star formation episode appears to have occured about 4 Myr ago with aproximately one tenth of the total mass of the galaxy involved. Evidence for an evolved population was found in the outer parts of II Zw 40. We also studied

  9. New approach to optimize near-infrared spectra with design of experiments and determination of milk compounds as influence factors for changing milk over time.

    PubMed

    De Benedictis, Lorenzo; Huck, Christian

    2016-12-01

    The optimization of near-infrared spectroscopic parameters was realized via design of experiments. With this new approach objectivity can be integrated into conventional, rather subjective approaches. The investigated factors are layer thickness, number of scans and temperature during measurement. Response variables in the full factorial design consisted of absorption intensity, signal-to-noise ratio and reproducibility of the spectra. Optimized factorial combinations have been found to be 0.5mm layer thickness, 64 scans and 25°C ambient temperature for liquid milk measurements. Qualitative analysis of milk indicated a strong correlation of environmental factors, as well as the feeding of cattle with respect to the change in milk composition. This was illustrated with the aid of near-infrared spectroscopy and the previously optimized parameters by detection of altered fatty acids in milk, especially by the fatty acid content (number of carboxylic functions) and the fatty acid length. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict meat chemical compositions: a review].

    PubMed

    Tao, Lin-Li; Yang, Xiu-Juan; Deng, Jun-Ming; Zhang, Xi

    2013-11-01

    In contrast to conventional methods for the determination of meat chemical composition, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy enables rapid, simple, secure and simultaneous assessment of numerous meat properties. The present review focuses on the use of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict meat chemical compositions. The potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict crude protein, intramuscular fat, fatty acid, moisture, ash, myoglobin and collagen of beef, pork, chicken and lamb is reviewed. This paper discusses existing questions and reasons in the current research. According to the published results, although published results vary considerably, they suggest that near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy shows a great potential to replace the expensive and time-consuming chemical analysis of meat composition. In particular, under commercial conditions where simultaneous measurements of different chemical components are required, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy is expected to be the method of choice. The majority of studies selected feature-related wavelengths using principal components regression, developed the calibration model using partial least squares and modified partial least squares, and estimated the prediction accuracy by means of cross-validation using the same sample set previously used for the calibration. Meat fatty acid composition predicted by near-infrared spectroscopy and non-destructive prediction and visualization of chemical composition in meat using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and multivariate regression are the hot studying field now. On the other hand, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy shows great difference for predicting different attributes of meat quality which are closely related to the selection of calibration sample set, preprocessing of near-infrared spectroscopy and modeling approach. Sample preparation also has an important effect on the reliability of NIR prediction; in particular

  11. [Identification of Animal Whole Blood Based on Near Infrared Transmission Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiong; Wang, Jian; Liu, Peng-xi; Zhang, Ting-ting

    2016-01-01

    The inspection and classification for blood products are important but complicated in import-export ports or inspection and quarantine departments. For the inspection of whole blood products, open sampling can cause pollution and virulence factors in bloods samples may even endanger inspectors. Thus non-contact classification and identification methods for whole bloods of animals are needed. Spectroscopic techniques adopted in the flowcytometry need sampling blood cells during the detection; therefore they can not meet the demand of non-contact identification and classification for whole bloods of animals. Infrared absorption spectroscopy is a technique that can be used to analyze the molecular structure and chemical bonds of detected samples under the condition of non-contact. To find a feasible spectroscopic approach of non-contact detection for the species variation in whole blood samples, a near infrared transmitted spectra (NITS, 4 497.669 - 7 506.4 cm(-1)) experiment of whole blood samples of three common animals including chickens, dogs and cats has been conducted. During the experiment, the spectroscopic resolution is 5 cm(-1), and each spectrogram is an average of 5 measured spectral data. Experimental results show that all samples have a sharp absorption peak between 5 184 and 5 215 cm(-1), and a gentle absorption peak near 7 000 cm(-1). Besides, the NITS curves of different samples of same animals are similar, and only have slight differences in the whole transmittance. A correlation coefficient (CC) is induced to distinguish the differences of the three animals' whole bloods in NITS curves, and the computed CCs between NITS curves of different samples of the same animals, are greater than 0.99, whereas CCs between NITS curves of the whole bloods of different animals are from 0.509 48 to 0.916 13. Among which CCs between NITS curves of the whole bloods of chickens and cats are from 0.857 23 to 0.912 44, CCs between NITS curves of the whole bloods of

  12. Io in the near infrared: Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) results from the Galileo flybys in 1999 and 2000

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Kamp, L.W.; Doute, S.; Smythe, W.D.; Carlson, R.W.; McEwen, A.S.; Geissler, P.E.; Kieffer, S.W.; Leader, F.E.; Davies, A.G.; Barbinis, E.; Mehlman, R.; Segura, M.; Shirley, J.; Soderblom, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Galileo's Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) observed Io during the spacecraft's three flybys in October 1999, November 1999, and February 2000. The observations, which are summarized here, were used to map the detailed thermal structure of active volcanic regions and the surface distribution of SO2 and to investigate the origin of a yet unidentified compound showing an absorption feature at ???1 ??m. We present a summary of the observations and results, focusing on the distribution of thermal emission and of SO2 deposits. We find high eruption temperatures, consistent with ultramafic volcanism, at Pele. Such temperatures may be present at other hot spots, but the hottest areas may be too small for those temperatures to be detected at the spatial resolution of our observations. Loki is the site of frequent eruptions, and the low thermal emission may represent lavas cooling on the caldera's surface or the cooling crust of a lava lake. High-resolution spectral observations of Emakong caldera show thermal emission and SO2 within the same pixels, implying that patches of SO2 frost and patches of cooling lavas or sulfur flows are present within a few kilometers from one another. Thermal maps of Prometheus and Amirani show that these two hot spots are characterized by long lava flows. The thermal profiles of flows at both locations are consistent with insulated flows, with the Amirani flow field having more breakouts of fresh lava along its length. Prometheus and Amirani each show a white ring at visible wavelengths, while SO2 distribution maps show that the highest concentration of SO2 in both ring deposits lies outside the white portion. Visible measurements at high phase angles show that the white deposit around Prometheus extends into the SO2 ring. This suggests that the deposits are thin and that compositional or grain size variations may occur in the radial direction. SO2 mapping of the Chaac region shows that the interior of a caldera adjacent to Chaac has

  13. Two-photon absorption and efficient encapsulation of near-infrared-emitting CdSexTe1-x quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeremeta, Janusz; Lamch, Lukasz; Wawrzynczyk, Dominika; Wilk, Kazimiera A.; Samoc, Marek; Nyk, Marcin

    2015-07-01

    Hydrophobic CdSexTe1-x quantum dots with near infrared emission in the 700-750 nm range were synthesized by a wet chemistry technique. Their nonlinear optical properties were studied using Z-scan technique with a tunable femtosecond laser system. The peak value of the two-photon absorption cross section was found to be ∼2400 GM at 1400 nm. To demonstrate a possible way of utilizing the CdSexTe1-x quantum dots in aqueous environment we describe here a convenient method of preparation of Brij 58® micellar systems loaded with the quantum dots. The obtained nanoconstructs were characterized using optical spectroscopy, TEM and DLS. The micelles colloidal stability, and the influence of the encapsulation process on the spectroscopic properties of the quantum dots are discussed. In particular, we have observed a 60 nm blue-shift of the emission maxima upon loading quantum dots inside the micelles.

  14. Classification of Fusarium-Infected Korean Hulled Barley Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Giyoung; Mo, Changyeun; Oh, Kyoungmin; Yoo, Hyeonchae; Ham, Hyeonheui; Kim, Moon S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy equipment to nondestructively and rapidly discriminate Fusarium-infected hulled barley. Both normal hulled barley and Fusarium-infected hulled barley were scanned by using a NIR spectrometer with a wavelength range of 1175 to 2170 nm. Multiple mathematical pretreatments were applied to the reflectance spectra obtained for Fusarium discrimination and the multivariate analysis method of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used for discriminant prediction. The PLS-DA prediction model developed by applying the second-order derivative pretreatment to the reflectance spectra obtained from the side of hulled barley without crease achieved 100% accuracy in discriminating the normal hulled barley and the Fusarium-infected hulled barley. These results demonstrated the feasibility of rapid discrimination of the Fusarium-infected hulled barley by combining multivariate analysis with the NIR spectroscopic technique, which is utilized as a nondestructive detection method. PMID:28974012

  15. Near-infrared photodetectors utilizing MoS{sub 2}-based heterojunctions

    SciT

    Park, Min Ji; Min, Jung Ki; Yi, Sum-Gyun

    2015-07-28

    Near-infrared photodetectors are developed using graphene/MoS{sub 2} and WSe{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} vertical heterojunctions. These heterojunctions exhibit diode-rectifying behavior in the dark and enhanced photocurrent upon near-infrared irradiation. The photocurrent increases with increasing near-infrared power, leading to the photoresponsibility of 0.14 and 0.3 A W{sup −1} for the graphene/MoS{sub 2} and WSe{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} heterojunctions, respectively, which are much higher than the photoresponsibility reported for a multilayer MoS{sub 2} phototransistor.

  16. Upconversion fiber-optic confocal microscopy under near-infrared pumping.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Kang, Jin U; Ilev, Ilko K

    2008-03-01

    We present a simple upconversion fiber-optic confocal microscope design using a near-infrared laser for pumping of a rare-earth-doped glass powder. The nonlinear optical frequency conversion process is highly efficient with more than 2% upconversion fluorescence efficiency at a near-infrared pumping wavelength of 1.55 microm. The upconversion confocal design allows the use of conventional Si detectors and 1.55 microm near-infrared pump light. The lateral and axial resolutions of the system were equal to or better than 1.10 and 13.11 microm, respectively.

  17. Enhanced visible and near-infrared capabilities of the JET mirror-linked divertor spectroscopy system

    SciT

    Lomanowski, B. A., E-mail: b.a.lomanowski@durham.ac.uk; Sharples, R. M.; Meigs, A. G.

    2014-11-15

    The mirror-linked divertor spectroscopy diagnostic on JET has been upgraded with a new visible and near-infrared grating and filtered spectroscopy system. New capabilities include extended near-infrared coverage up to 1875 nm, capturing the hydrogen Paschen series, as well as a 2 kHz frame rate filtered imaging camera system for fast measurements of impurity (Be II) and deuterium Dα, Dβ, Dγ line emission in the outer divertor. The expanded system provides unique capabilities for studying spatially resolved divertor plasma dynamics at near-ELM resolved timescales as well as a test bed for feasibility assessment of near-infrared spectroscopy.

  18. Porphyrin Based Near Infrared-Absorbing Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Qiwen

    The conservation and transformation of energy is essential to the survival of mankind, and thus concerns every modern society. Solar energy, as an everlasting source of energy, holds one of the key solutions to some of the most urgent problems the world now faces, such as global warming and the oil crisis. Advances in technologies utilizing clean, abundant solar energy, could be the steering wheel of our societies. Solar cells, one of the major advances in converting solar energy into electricity, are now capturing people's interest all over the globe. While solar cells have been commercially available for many years, the manufacturing of solar cells is quite expensive, limiting their broad based implementation. The cost of solar cell based electricity is 15-50 cents per kilowatt hour (¢/kwh), depending on the type of solar cell, compared to 0.7 ¢/kwh for fossil fuel based electricity. Clearly, decreasing the cost of electricity from solar cells is critical for their wide spread deployment. This will require a decrease in the cost of light absorbing materials and material processing used in fabricating the cells. Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) utilize organic materials such as polymers and small molecules. These devices have the advantage of being flexible and lower cost than conventional solar cells built from inorganic semiconductors (e.g. silicon). The low cost of OPVs is tied to lower materials and fabrication costs of organic cells. However, the current power conversion efficiencies of OPVs are still below 15%, while convention crystalline Si cells have efficiencies of 20-25%. A key limitation in OPVs today is their inability to utilize the near infrared (NIR) portion of the solar spectrum. This part of the spectrum comprises nearly half of the energy in sunlight that could be used to make electricity. The first and foremost step in conversion solar energy conversion is the absorption of light, which nature has provided us optimal model of, which is

  19. The near-infrared properties of compact binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, Cynthia Suzanne

    I present H- and K-band light curves of the dwarf nova cataclysmic variable (CV), IP Peg, and the novalike CV, RW Tri, and an H-band light curve of the novalike CV, SW Sex. All three systems showed contributions from the late-type secondary star and the accretion disk, including a primary eclipse of the accretion disk by the secondary star and a secondary eclipse of the star by the disk. The ellipsoidal variations of the secondary star in IP Peg were modeled and subtracted from the data. The subtracted light curves show a pronounced double-hump variation, resembling those seen in the dwarf novae WZ Sge and AL Com. The primary eclipse was modeled using maximum entropy disk mapping techniques. The accretion disk has a flat intensity distribution and a low brightness temperature (Tbr ~= 3000-4000 K). Superimposed on the face of the disk is the bright spot, where the mass accretion stream impacts the disk; the position of the bright spot is different from the range of positions seen at visible wavelengths. The near-infrared accretion disk flux is dominated by optically thin emission. The eclipse depth is too shallow to be caused by a fully opaque accretion disk. The NIR light curves in RW Tri show a deep primary eclipse of the accretion disk, ellipsoidal variations from the secondary star, a secondary eclipse, and strong flickering in the disk flux. The depth of the secondary eclipse indicates that the accretion disk is opaque. The light curve also has a hump extending from φ = 0.1-0.9 which was successfully modeled as flux from the inner face of the secondary star when heated by a ~0.2 L Lsolar source. The radial brightness temperature profile of the outer disk is consistent with models of a disk in steady-state for a mass transfer rate of M~=5×10- 10 Msolaryr- 1 . At small disk radii, however, the brightness temperature profile is flatter than the steady-state model. The H-band light curve of SW Sex is dominated by emission from the accretion disk. As in RW Tri

  20. Characterizing infantile hemangiomas with a near-infrared spectroscopic handheld wireless device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Christopher J.; Hoi, Jennifer W.; Kim, Hyun K.; Behr, Gerald; Geller, Lauren; Antonov, Nina; Flexman, Molly; Garzon, Maria; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2015-03-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are common vascular growths that occur in 5-10% of neonates and have the potential to cause disfiguring and even life-threatening complications. Currently, no objective tool exist to monitor either progression or treatment of IH. To address this unmet clinical need, we have developed a handheld wireless device (HWD) that uses diffuse optical spectroscopy for the assessment of IH. The system employs 4 wavelengths (l=780nm, 805nm, 850nm, and 905nm) and 6 source-detector pairs with distances between 0.6 and 20 mm. Placed on the skin surface, backreflection data is obtained and a multispectral evolution algorithm is used to determine total hemoglobin concentration and tissue oxygen saturation. First results of an ongoing pilot study involving 13 patients (average enrollment age = 25 months) suggest that an increase in hypoxic stress over time can lead to the proliferation of IH. Involuting IH lesions showed an increase in tissue oxygen saturation as well as a decrease in total hemoglobin.

  1. Effects of temperature on the near-infrared spectroscopic measurement of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Byungjo; McShane, Michael J.; Rastegar, Sohi; Cote, Gerard L.

    1998-05-01

    The noninvasive monitoring of sugars, and in particular, glucose using near-IR (NIR) spectroscopy would be useful for a number of applications including regulating the nutrients in cell culture medium, monitoring on-line processes in the food industry, and in vivo monitoring for control of glucose in DIabetic patients. The focus of this research was the investigation of the temperature effects across a 10.6 to 40.4 degrees C range on Fourier filtered and unfiltered single-beam as well as absorbance glucose and water NIR spectra. It is known that the positions of water absorption bands centered at 1.923 and 2.623 micrometers depend heavily on temperature effects while the glucose bands are temperature insensitive across this range. The water absorption bands were shown to shift to lower wavelengths while the distance between these bands increased with increasing temperatures. Partial least squares (PLS) calibration models were constructed at five separate temperatures, 15.7, 20.5, 25.5, 35.6, and 40.4 degrees C. When absorbance spectra were used with reference scans taken at the same temperature and PLS models were used, no significant difference in the standard error of prediction (SEP) was noted with temperature. Using PLS calibration with single-beam spectra at one temperature showed large SEPs at the other temperatures. The use of Fourier filtered single-beam spectra reduced the SEP but still showed an increase as large temperature differences were produced and the filtered single beam approach did not reduce the SEP to the level achieved with the absorbance spectra.

  2. Visualization of children's mathematics solving process using near infrared spectroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Yasufumi; Okamoto, Naoko; Chance, Britton; Nioka, Shoko; Eda, Hideo; Maesako, Takanori

    2009-02-01

    Over the past decade, the application of results from brain science research to education research has been a controversial topic. A NIRS imaging system shows images of Hb parameters in the brain. Measurements using NIRS are safe, easy and the equipment is portable, allowing subjects to tolerate longer research periods. The purpose of this research is to examine the characteristics of Hb using NIRS at the moment of understanding. We measured Hb in the prefrontal cortex of children while they were solving mathematical problems (tangram puzzles). As a result of the experiment, we were able to classify the children into three groups based on their solution methods. Hb continually increased in a group which could not develop a problem solving strategy for the tangram puzzles. Hb declined steadily for a group which was able to develop a strategy for the tangram puzzles. Hb was steady for a certain group that had already developed a strategy before solving the problems. Our experiments showed that the brain data from NIRS enables the visualization of children's mathematical solution processes.

  3. Chemometric optimization of the robustness of the near infrared spectroscopic method in wheat quality control.

    PubMed

    Pojić, Milica; Rakić, Dušan; Lazić, Zivorad

    2015-01-01

    A chemometric approach was applied for the optimization of the robustness of the NIRS method for wheat quality control. Due to the high number of experimental (n=6) and response variables to be studied (n=7) the optimization experiment was divided into two stages: screening stage in order to evaluate which of the considered variables were significant, and optimization stage to optimize the identified factors in the previously selected experimental domain. The significant variables were identified by using fractional factorial experimental design, whilst Box-Wilson rotatable central composite design (CCRD) was run to obtain the optimal values for the significant variables. The measured responses included: moisture, protein and wet gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value and deformation energy. In order to achieve the minimal variation in responses, the optimal factor settings were found by minimizing the propagation of error (POE). The simultaneous optimization of factors was conducted by desirability function. The highest desirability of 87.63% was accomplished by setting up experimental conditions as follows: 19.9°C for sample temperature, 19.3°C for ambient temperature and 240V for instrument voltage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A near-infrared spectroscopic study of the starburst core of M82

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, D. F.; Gaffney, N.; Carr, J. S.; Joy, M.

    1990-01-01

    Near-IR spectroscopy of the M82 starburst core is presented, including complete J, H, and K band spectra with a resolution of 0.0035-micron for the inner 60 pc of the galaxy. Also, spatial profiles along the starburst ridge are presented for Br-gamma, molecular hydrogen, and forbidden Fe II line fluxes. Emission from shocked molecular hydrogen is detected from the core of M82. The distribution of features across the starburst disk are mapped to study the relationships between spectral diagnostics. The observations are used to test the appropriateness of single-beam, aggregate models for studying the physical conditions in starbursts.

  5. Arabidopsis Seed Content QTL Mapping Using High-Throughput Phenotyping: The Assets of Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jasinski, Sophie; Lécureuil, Alain; Durandet, Monique; Bernard-Moulin, Patrick; Guerche, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Seed storage compounds are of crucial importance for human diet, feed and industrial uses. In oleo-proteaginous species like rapeseed, seed oil and protein are the qualitative determinants that conferred economic value to the harvested seed. To date, although the biosynthesis pathways of oil and storage protein are rather well-known, the factors that determine how these types of reserves are partitioned in seeds have to be identified. With the aim of implementing a quantitative genetics approach, requiring phenotyping of 100s of plants, our first objective was to establish near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic (NIRS) predictive equations in order to estimate oil, protein, carbon, and nitrogen content in Arabidopsis seed with high-throughput level. Our results demonstrated that NIRS is a powerful non-destructive, high-throughput method to assess the content of these four major components studied in Arabidopsis seed. With this tool in hand, we analyzed Arabidopsis natural variation for these four components and illustrated that they all displayed a wide range of variation. Finally, NIRS was used in order to map QTL for these four traits using seeds from the Arabidopsis thaliana Ct-1 × Col-0 recombinant inbred line population. Some QTL co-localized with QTL previously identified, but others mapped to chromosomal regions never identified so far for such traits. This paper illustrates the usefulness of NIRS predictive equations to perform accurate high-throughput phenotyping of Arabidopsis seed content, opening new perspectives in gene identification following QTL mapping and genome wide association studies. PMID:27891138

  6. Near-infrared-excited confocal Raman spectroscopy advances in vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer.

    PubMed

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Ng, Joseph; Low, Jeffrey J H; Ilancheran, Arunachalam; Huang, Zhiwei

    2013-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a unique optical technique that can probe the changes of vibrational modes of biomolecules associated with tissue premalignant transformation. This study evaluates the clinical utility of confocal Raman spectroscopy over near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence (AF) spectroscopy and composite NIR AF/Raman spectroscopy for improving early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo at colposcopy. A rapid NIR Raman system coupled with a ball-lens fiber-optic confocal Raman probe was utilized for in vivo NIR AF/Raman spectral measurements of the cervix. A total of 1240 in vivo Raman spectra [normal (n=993), dysplasia (n=247)] were acquired from 84 cervical patients. Principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) together with a leave-one-patient-out, cross-validation method were used to extract the diagnostic information associated with distinctive spectroscopic modalities. The diagnostic ability of confocal Raman spectroscopy was evaluated using the PCA-LDA model developed from the significant principal components (PCs) [i.e., PC4, 0.0023%; PC5, 0.00095%; PC8, 0.00022%, (p<0.05)], representing the primary tissue Raman features (e.g., 854, 937, 1095, 1253, 1311, 1445, and 1654 cm(-1)). Confocal Raman spectroscopy coupled with PCA-LDA modeling yielded the diagnostic accuracy of 84.1% (a sensitivity of 81.0% and a specificity of 87.1%) for in vivo discrimination of dysplastic cervix. The receiver operating characteristic curves further confirmed that the best classification was achieved using confocal Raman spectroscopy compared to the composite NIR AF/Raman spectroscopy or NIR AF spectroscopy alone. This study illustrates that confocal Raman spectroscopy has great potential to improve early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo during clinical colposcopy.

  7. Chemoinformetrical evaluation of dissolution property of indomethacin tablets by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Makoto; Tanabe, Hideaki; Osaki, Kazuo; Otsuka, Kuniko; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use near-infrared spectrometry (NIR) with chemoinformetrics to predict the change of dissolution properties in indomethacin (IMC) tablets during the manufacturing process. A comparative evaluation of the dissolution properties of the tablets was performed by the diffused reflectance (DRNIR) and transmittance (TNIR) NIR spectroscopic methods. Various kinds of IMC tablets (200 mg) were obtained from a powder (20 mg of IMC, 18 mg of microcrystalline cellulose, 160 mg of lactose, and 2 mg of magnesium stearate) under various compression pressures (60-398 MPa). Dissolution tests were performed in phosphate buffer, and the time required for 75% dissolution (T75) and mean dissolution time (MDT) were calculated. DRNIR and TNIR spectra were recorded, and the both NIR spectra used to establish a calibration model for predicting the dissolution properties by principal component regression analysis (PCR). The T75 and MDT increased as the compression pressure increased, since tablet porosity decreased with increasing pressure. Intensity of the DRNIR spectra of the compressed tablets decreased as the compression pressure increased. However, the intensity of TNIR spectra increased along with the pressure. The calibration models used to evaluate the dissolution properties of tablets were established by using PCR based on both DRNIR and TNIR spectra of the tablets. The multiple correlation coefficients of the relationship between the actual and predictive T75 by the DRNIR and TNIR methods were 0.831 and 0.962, respectively. It is possible to predict the dissolution properties of pharmaceutical preparations using both DRNIR and TNIR chemoinformetric methods. The TNIR method was more accurate for predictions of the dissolution behavior of tablets than the DRNIR method. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Post-maximum Near-infrared Spectra of SN 2014J: A Search for Interaction Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, D. J.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Banerjee, D. P. K.; Marion, G. H.; Diamond, T. R.; Joshi, V.; Parrent, J. T.; Phillips, M. M.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Venkataraman, V.

    2016-05-01

    We present near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic and photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2014J. The 17 NIR spectra span epochs from +15.3 to +92.5 days after B-band maximum light, while the {{JHK}}s photometry include epochs from -10 to +71 days. These data are used to constrain the progenitor system of SN 2014J utilizing the Paβ line, following recent suggestions that this phase period and the NIR in particular are excellent for constraining the amount of swept-up hydrogen-rich material associated with a non-degenerate companion star. We find no evidence for Paβ emission lines in our post-maximum spectra, with a rough hydrogen mass limit of ≲ 0.1 M ⊙, which is consistent with previous limits in SN 2014J from late-time optical spectra of the Hα line. Nonetheless, the growing data set of high-quality NIR spectra holds the promise of very useful hydrogen constraints. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory under program GN-2014A-Q-8 (PI: Sand). Gemini is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  9. Multicomponent blood lipid analysis by means of near infrared spectroscopy, in geese.

    PubMed

    Bazar, George; Eles, Viktoria; Kovacs, Zoltan; Romvari, Robert; Szabo, Andras

    2016-08-01

    This study provides accurate near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic models on some laboratory determined clinicochemical parameters (i.e. total lipid (5.57±1.95 g/l), triglyceride (2.59±1.36 mmol/l), total cholesterol (3.81±0.68 mmol/l), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (2.45±0.58 mmol/l)) of blood serum samples of fattened geese. To increase the performance of multivariate chemometrics, samples significantly deviating from the regression models implying laboratory error were excluded from the final calibration datasets. Reference data of excluded samples having outlier spectra in principal component analysis were not marked as false. Samples deviating from the regression models but having non outlier spectra in PCA were identified as having false reference constituent values. Based on the NIR selection methods, 5% of the reference measurement data were rated as doubtful. The achieved models reached R(2) of 0.864, 0.966, 0.850, 0.793, and RMSE of 0.639 g/l, 0.232 mmol/l, 0.210 mmol/l, 0.241 mmol/l for total lipid, triglyceride, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, respectively, during independent validation. Classical analytical techniques focus on single constituents and often require chemicals, time-consuming measurements, and experienced technicians. NIR technique provides a quick, cost effective, non-hazardous alternative method for analysis of several constituents based on one single spectrum of each sample, and it also offers the possibility for looking at the laboratory reference data critically. Evaluation of reference data to identify and exclude falsely analyzed samples can provide warning feedback to the reference laboratory, especially in the case of analyses where laboratory methods are not perfectly suited to the subjected material and there is an increased chance of laboratory error. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid detection of kernel rots and mycotoxins in maize by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Berardo, Nicola; Pisacane, Vincenza; Battilani, Paola; Scandolara, Andrea; Pietri, Amedeo; Marocco, Adriano

    2005-10-19

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a practical spectroscopic procedure for the detection of organic compounds in matter. It is particularly useful because of its nondestructiveness, accuracy, rapid response, and easy operation. This work assesses the applicability of NIR for the rapid identification of micotoxigenic fungi and their toxic metabolites produced in naturally and artificially contaminated products. Two hundred and eighty maize samples were collected both from naturally contaminated maize crops grown in 16 areas in north-central Italy and from ears artificially inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides. All samples were analyzed for fungi infection, ergosterol, and fumonisin B1 content. The results obtained indicated that NIR could accurately predict the incidence of kernels infected by fungi, and by F. verticillioides in particular, as well as the quantity of ergosterol and fumonisin B1 in the meal. The statistics of the calibration and of the cross-validation for mold infection and for ergosterol and fumonisin B1 contents were significant. The best predictive ability for the percentage of global fungal infection and F. verticillioides was obtained using a calibration model utilizing maize kernels (r2 = 0.75 and SECV = 7.43) and maize meals (r2 = 0.79 and SECV = 10.95), respectively. This predictive performance was confirmed by the scatter plot of measured F. verticillioides infection versus NIR-predicted values in maize kernel samples (r2 = 0.80). The NIR methodology can be applied for monitoring mold contamination in postharvest maize, in particular F. verticilliodes and fumonisin presence, to distinguish contaminated lots from clean ones, and to avoid cross-contamination with other material during storage and may become a powerful tool for monitoring the safety of the food supply.

  11. Comparison of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy on fat to authenticate dietary history of lambs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Andueza, D; de Oliveira, L; Zawadzki, F; Prache, S

    2015-11-01

    Since consumers are showing increased interest in the origin and method of production of their food, it is important to be able to authenticate dietary history of animals by rapid and robust methods used in the ruminant products. Promising breakthroughs have been made in the use of spectroscopic methods on fat to discriminate pasture-fed and concentrate-fed lambs. However, questions remained on their discriminatory ability in more complex feeding conditions, such as concentrate-finishing after pasture-feeding. We compared the ability of visible reflectance spectroscopy (Vis RS, wavelength range: 400 to 700 nm) with that of visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis-NIR RS, wavelength range: 400 to 2500 nm) to differentiate between carcasses of lambs reared with three feeding regimes, using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) as a classification method. The sample set comprised perirenal fat of Romane male lambs fattened at pasture (P, n = 69), stall-fattened indoors on commercial concentrate and straw (S, n = 55) and finished indoors with concentrate and straw for 28 days after pasture-feeding (PS, n = 65). The overall correct classification rate was better for Vis-NIR RS than for Vis RS (99.0% v. 95.1%, P < 0.05). Vis-NIR RS allowed a correct classification rate of 98.6%, 100.0% and 98.5% for P, S and PS lambs, respectively, whereas Vis RS allowed a correct classification rate of 98.6%, 94.5% and 92.3% for P, S and PS lambs, respectively. This study suggests the likely implication of molecules absorbing light in the non-visible part of the Vis-NIR spectra (possibly fatty acids), together with carotenoid and haem pigments, in the discrimination of the three feeding regimes.

  12. Variable selection in near-infrared spectroscopy: benchmarking of feature selection methods on biodiesel data.

    PubMed

    Balabin, Roman M; Smirnov, Sergey V

    2011-04-29

    During the past several years, near-infrared (near-IR/NIR) spectroscopy has increasingly been adopted as an analytical tool in various fields from petroleum to biomedical sectors. The NIR spectrum (above 4000 cm(-1)) of a sample is typically measured by modern instruments at a few hundred of wavelengths. Recently, considerable effort has been directed towards developing procedures to identify variables (wavelengths) that contribute useful information. Variable selection (VS) or feature selection, also called frequency selection or wavelength selection, is a critical step in data analysis for vibrational spectroscopy (infrared, Raman, or NIRS). In this paper, we compare the performance of 16 different feature selection methods for the prediction of properties of biodiesel fuel, including density, viscosity, methanol content, and water concentration. The feature selection algorithms tested include stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR-step), interval partial least squares regression (iPLS), backward iPLS (BiPLS), forward iPLS (FiPLS), moving window partial least squares regression (MWPLS), (modified) changeable size moving window partial least squares (CSMWPLS/MCSMWPLSR), searching combination moving window partial least squares (SCMWPLS), successive projections algorithm (SPA), uninformative variable elimination (UVE, including UVE-SPA), simulated annealing (SA), back-propagation artificial neural networks (BP-ANN), Kohonen artificial neural network (K-ANN), and genetic algorithms (GAs, including GA-iPLS). Two linear techniques for calibration model building, namely multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares regression/projection to latent structures (PLS/PLSR), are used for the evaluation of biofuel properties. A comparison with a non-linear calibration model, artificial neural networks (ANN-MLP), is also provided. Discussion of gasoline, ethanol-gasoline (bioethanol), and diesel fuel data is presented. The results of other spectroscopic

  13. Wind diagnostics and correlations with the near-infrared excess in Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, M.; Ray, T. P.

    1998-03-01

    Intermediate dispersion spectroscopic observations of 37 Herbig Ae/Be stars reveal that the equivalent widths of their [OI]lambda 6300 and Hα emission lines, are related to their near-infrared colours in the same fashion as the T-Tauri stars. Such a correlation strongly supports the idea that the winds from Herbig Ae/Be stars arise in the same manner as those from T-Tauri stars, i.e. through accretion driven mass-loss. We also find that the [OI]lambda 6300 line luminosity correlates better with excess infrared luminosity than with stellar luminosities, again supporting the idea that Herbig Ae/Be winds are accretion driven. If one includes the lower mass analogues of the Herbig Ae/Be stars with forbidden line emission, i.e. the classical T-Tauri stars, the correlation between mass-loss rate and infrared excess spans 5 orders of magnitude in luminosity and a range of masses from 0.5Msun to approximately 10Msun. Our observations therefore extend the findings of Cohen et al. (1989) and Cabrit et al. (1990) for low mass young stars and, taken in conjunction with other evidence (Corcoran & Ray 1997), strongly support the presence of circumstellar disks around intermediate mass stars with forbidden line emission. An implication of our findings is that the same outflow model must be applicable to these Herbig Ae/Be stars and the classical T Tauri stars. Based on observations made at the La Palma Observatory, the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, and the European Southern Observatory/Max Planck Institute 2.2m Telescope.

  14. Measurement of single soybean seed attributes by near infrared technologies. A comparative study

    Four near infrared spectrophotometers, and their associated spectral collection methods, were tested and compared for measuring three soybean single seed attributes: weight (g), protein (%), and oil (%). Using partial least squares (PLS) and 4 preprocessing methods, the attribute which was significa...

  15. A near-infrared BSA coated DNA-AgNCs for cellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Mu, Wei-Yu; Yang, Rui; Robertson, Akrofi; Chen, Qiu-Yun

    2018-02-01

    Near-infrared silver nanoclusters, have potential applications in the field of biosensing and biological imaging. However, less stability of most DNA-AgNCs limits their application. To obtain stable near-infrared fluorescence DNA-AgNCs for biological imaging, a new kind of near-infrared fluorescent DNA-Ag nanoclusters was constructed using the C3A rich aptamer as a synthesis template, GAG as the enhancer. In particular, a new DNA-AgNCs-Trp@BSA was obtained based on the self-assembly of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and tryptophan loaded DNA-AgNCs by hydrophobic interaction. This self-assembly method can be used to stabilize DNAn-Ag (n = 1-3) nanoclusters. Hence, the near-infrared fluorescence DNA-AgNCs-Trp@BSA was applied in cellular imaging of HepG-2 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermal Infrared and Visible to Near-Infrared Spectral Analysis of Chert and Amorphous Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, M. L.; Hamilton, V. E.; Cady, S. L.; Knauth, P.

    2009-03-01

    We look in detail at the thermal infrared and visible to near-infrared spectra of various forms of chert and amorphous silica and compare the spectral variations between samples with variations in physical and chemical characteristics.

  17. The SO2 Cycle on Io as Seen by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doute', S.; Lopes-Gautier, R.; Carlson, R. W.; Schmitt, B.; Soderblom, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    Based on the analysis of Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) hyperspectral images of Io that leads to sulfur dioxide distribution maps, we intend to give some insights about different processes occurring throughout the SO2 cycle.

  18. Near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics analysis of complex traits in animal physiology

    Near infrared reflectance (NIR) applications have been expanding from the traditional framework of small molecule chemical purity and composition (as defined by spectral libraries) to complex system analysis and holistic exploratory approaches to questions in biochemistry, biophysics and environment...

  19. The micro-mirror technology applied to astronomy: ANIS adaptive-slit near Infrared spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgarella, Denis; Buat, Veronique; Bely, Pierre; Grange, Robert

    2018-04-01

    This paper, "The micro-mirror technology applied to astronomy: ANIS adaptive-slit near Infrared spectrograph," was presented as part of International Conference on Space Optics—ICSO 1997, held in Toulouse, France.

  20. Near-Infrared Scintillation of Liquid Argon: Recent Results Obtained with the NIR Facility at Fermilab

    SciT

    Escobar, C. O.; Rubinov, P.; Tilly, E.

    After a short review of previous attempts to observe and measure the near-infrared scintillation in liquid argon, we present new results obtained with NIR, a dedicated cryostat at the Fermilab Proton Assembly Building (PAB). The new results give confidence that the near-infrared light can be used as the much needed light signal in large liquid argon time projection chambers.11 pages,

  1. Transcranial Red and Near Infrared Light Transmission in a Cadaveric Model

    PubMed Central

    Jagdeo, Jared R.; Adams, Lauren E.; Brody, Neil I.; Siegel, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective Low level light therapy has garnered significant interest within the past decade. The exact molecular mechanisms of how red and near infrared light result in physiologic modulation are not fully understood. Heme moieties and copper within cells are red and near infrared light photoreceptors that induce the mitochondrial respiratory chain component cytochrome C oxidase, resulting in a cascade linked to cytoprotection and cellular metabolism. The copper centers in cytochrome C oxidase have a broad absorption range that peaks around 830 nm. Several in vitro and in vivo animal and human models exist that have demonstrated the benefits of red light and near infrared light for various conditions. Clinical applications for low level light therapy are varied. One study in particular demonstrated improved durable functional outcomes status post-stroke in patients treated with near infrared low level light therapy compared to sham treatment [1]. Despite previous data suggesting the beneficial effect in treating multiple conditions, including stroke, with low level light therapy, limited data exists that measures transmission in a human model. Study Design/Materials and Methods To investigate this idea, we measured the transmission of near infrared light energy, using red light for purposes of comparison, through intact cadaver soft tissue, skull bones, and brain using a commercially available LED device at 830 nm and 633 nm. Results Our results demonstrate that near infrared measurably penetrates soft tissue, bone and brain parenchyma in the formalin preserved cadaveric model, in comparison to negligible red light transmission in the same conditions. Conclusion These findings indicate that near infrared light can penetrate formalin fixed soft tissue, bone and brain and implicate that benefits observed in clinical studies are potentially related to direct action of near infrared light on neural tissue. PMID:23077622

  2. NEAR-INFRARED THERMAL EMISSION DETECTIONS OF A NUMBER OF HOT JUPITERS AND THE SYSTEMATICS OF GROUND-BASED NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    SciT

    Croll, Bryce; Albert, Loic; Lafreniere, David

    We present detections of the near-infrared thermal emission of three hot Jupiters and one brown dwarf using the Wide-field Infrared Camera (WIRCam) on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). These include Ks-band secondary eclipse detections of the hot Jupiters WASP-3b and Qatar-1b and the brown dwarf KELT-1b. We also report Y-band, K {sub CONT}-band, and two new and one reanalyzed Ks-band detections of the thermal emission of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b. We present a new reduction pipeline for CFHT/WIRCam data, which is optimized for high precision photometry. We also describe novel techniques for constraining systematic errors in ground-based near-infrared photometry, so asmore » to return reliable secondary eclipse depths and uncertainties. We discuss the noise properties of our ground-based photometry for wavelengths spanning the near-infrared (the YJHK bands), for faint and bright stars, and for the same object on several occasions. For the hot Jupiters WASP-3b and WASP-12b we demonstrate the repeatability of our eclipse depth measurements in the Ks band; we therefore place stringent limits on the systematics of ground-based, near-infrared photometry, and also rule out violent weather changes in the deep, high pressure atmospheres of these two hot Jupiters at the epochs of our observations.« less

  3. Combining Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data with near-infrared data from the ESO VISTA Hemisphere Survey

    SciT

    Banerji, M.; Jouvel, S.; Lin, H.

    2014-11-25

    We present the combination of optical data from the Science Verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) with near-infrared (NIR) data from the European Southern Observatory VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS). The deep optical detections from DES are used to extract fluxes and associated errors from the shallower VHS data. Joint seven-band (grizYJK) photometric catalogues are produced in a single 3 sq-deg dedicated camera field centred at 02h26m-04d36m where the availability of ancillary multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy allows us to test the data quality. Dual photometry increases the number of DES galaxies with measured VHS fluxes by a factor ofmore » similar to 4.5 relative to a simple catalogue level matching and results in a similar to 1.5 mag increase in the 80 per cent completeness limit of the NIR data. Almost 70 per cent of DES sources have useful NIR flux measurements in this initial catalogue. Photometric redshifts are estimated for a subset of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts and initial results, although currently limited by small number statistics, indicate that the VHS data can help reduce the photometric redshift scatter at both z < 0.5 and z > 1. We present example DES VHS colour selection criteria for high-redshift luminous red galaxies (LRGs) at z similar to 0.7 as well as luminous quasars. Using spectroscopic observations in this field we show that the additional VHS fluxes enable a cleaner selection of both populations with <10 per cent contamination from galactic stars in the case of spectroscopically confirmed quasars and <0.5 per cent contamination from galactic stars in the case of spectroscopically confirmed LRGs. The combined DES+VHS data set, which will eventually cover almost 5000 sq-deg, will therefore enable a range of new science and be ideally suited for target selection for future wide-field spectroscopic surveys.« less

  4. Near-Infrared Irradiation Increases Length of Axial Pattern Flap Survival in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Yoshichika; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Yohei; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We previously reported that near-infrared irradiation nonthermally induces long-lasting vasodilation of the subdermal plexus by causing apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. To clarify the possible application of near-infrared irradiation to prevent skin flap necrosis, we evaluated the length of axial pattern flap survival in rats by near-infrared irradiation. Methods: A bilaterally symmetric island skin flap was elevated under the panniculus carnosus on the rat dorsum. Half of the flap was subjected to near-infrared irradiation just before flap elevation with a device that simulates solar radiation, which has a specialized contact cooling apparatus to avoid thermal effects. The length of flap survival of the near-infrared irradiated side was measured 7 days after flap elevation and compared with the nonirradiated side. Results: The irradiated side showed elongation of flap survival compared with the nonirradiated side (73.3 ± 11.7 mm vs 67.3 ± 14.9 mm, respectively, P = .03). Conclusions: Near-infrared irradiation increases the survival length of axial pattern flaps in rats.

  5. Enhanced spatial near-infrared modulation of graphene-loaded perfect absorbers using plasmonic nanoslits.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yijun; Zhu, Jinfeng; Liu, Qing Huo; Lin, Timothy; Zhou, Jianyang; Ye, Longfang; Cai, Zhiping

    2015-12-14

    Modulating spatial near-infrared light for ultra-compact electro-optic devices is a critical issue in optical communication and imaging applications. To date, spatial near-infrared modulators based on graphene have been reported, but they showed limited modulation effects due to the relatively weak light-graphene interaction. In combination with graphene and metallic nanoslits, we design a kind of ultrathin near-infrared perfect absorber with enhanced spatial modulation effects and independence on a wide range of incident angles. The modulated spectral shift of central wavelength is up to 258.2 nm in the near-infrared range, which is more promising in applications than state-of-the-art devices. The modulation enhancement is attributed to the plasmonic nanoslit mode, in which the optical electric field is highly concentrated in the deep subwavelength scale and the light-graphene interaction is significantly strengthened. The physical insight is deeply revealed by a combination of equivalent circuit and electromagnetic field analysis. The design principles are not only crucial for spatial near-infrared modulators, but also provide a key guide for developing active near-infrared patch nanoantennas based on graphene.

  6. Development of a neurofeedback protocol targeting the frontal pole using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Akihide; Takizawa, Ryu; Yahata, Noriaki; Homae, Fumitaka; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Sakakibara, Eisuke; Kawasaki, Shingo; Nishimura, Yukika; Koike, Shinsuke; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2016-11-01

    Neurofeedback has been studied with the aim of controlling cerebral activity. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique used for measuring hemoglobin concentration changes in cortical surface areas with high temporal resolution. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful for neurofeedback, which requires real-time feedback of repeated brain activation measurements. However, no study has specifically targeted neurofeedback, using near-infrared spectroscopy, in the frontal pole cortex. We developed an original near-infrared spectroscopy neurofeedback system targeting the frontal pole cortex. Over a single day of testing, each healthy participant (n = 24) received either correct or incorrect (Sham) feedback from near-infrared spectroscopy signals, based on a crossover design. Under correct feedback conditions, significant activation was observed in the frontal pole cortex (P = 0.000073). Additionally, self-evaluation of control and metacognitive beliefs were associated with near-infrared spectroscopy signals (P = 0.006). The neurofeedback system developed in this study might be useful for developing control of frontal pole cortex activation. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  7. Near-infrared metallicities, radial velocities, and spectral types for 447 nearby M dwarfs

    SciT

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Charbonneau, David; Irwin, Jonathan

    We present metallicities, radial velocities, and near-infrared (NIR) spectral types for 447 M dwarfs determined from moderate resolution (R ≈ 2000) NIR spectra obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF)/SpeX. These M dwarfs are primarily targets of the MEarth Survey, a transiting planet survey searching for super Earths around mid-to-late M dwarfs within 33 pc. We present NIR spectral types for each star and new spectral templates for the IRTF in the Y, J, H, and K-bands, created using M dwarfs with near-solar metallicities. We developed two spectroscopic distance calibrations that use NIR spectral type or an index basedmore » on the curvature of the K-band continuum. Our distance calibration has a scatter of 14%. We searched 27 NIR spectral lines and 10 spectral indices for metallicity sensitive features, taking into account correlated noise in our estimates of the errors on these parameters. We calibrated our relation using 36 M dwarfs in common proper pairs with an F-, G-, or K-type star of known metallicity. We validated the physical association of these pairs using proper motions, radial velocities, and spectroscopic distance estimates. Our resulting metallicity calibration uses the sodium doublet at 2.2 μm as the sole indicator for metallicity. It has an accuracy of 0.12 dex inferred from the scatter between the metallicities of the primaries and the estimated metallicities of the secondaries. Our relation is valid for NIR spectral types from M1V to M5V and for –1.0 dex < [Fe/H] < +0.35 dex. We present a new color-color metallicity relation using J – H and J – K colors that directly relates two observables: the distance from the M dwarf main sequence and equivalent width of the sodium line at 2.2 μm. We used radial velocities of M dwarf binaries, observations at different epochs, and comparison between our measurements and precisely measured radial velocities to demonstrate a 4 km s{sup –1} accuracy.« less

  8. Strong near-infrared carbon in the Type Ia supernova iPTF13ebh

    DOE PAGES

    Hsiao, E. Y.; Burns, C. R.; Contreras, C.; ...

    2015-05-22

    We present near-infrared (NIR) time-series spectroscopy, as well as complementary ultraviolet (UV), optical, and NIR data, of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) iPTF13ebh, which was discovered within two days from the estimated time of explosion. The first NIR spectrum was taken merely 2.3 days after explosion and may be the earliest NIR spectrum yet obtained of a SN Ia. The most striking features in the spectrum are several NIR C I lines, and the C Iλ1.0693 μm line is the strongest ever observed in a SN Ia. Interestingly, no strong optical C II counterparts were found, even though themore » optical spectroscopic time series began early and is densely cadenced. Except at the very early epochs, within a few days from the time of explosion, we show that the strong NIR C I compared to the weaker optical C II appears to be general in SNe Ia. iPTF13ebh is a fast decliner with Δm15(B) = 1.79 ± 0.01, and its absolute magnitude obeys the linear part of the width-luminosity relation. It is therefore categorized as a “transitional” event, on the fast-declining end of normal SNe Ia as opposed to subluminous/91bg-like objects. iPTF13ebh shows NIR spectroscopic properties that are distinct from both the normal and subluminous/91bg-like classes, bridging the observed characteristics of the two classes. These NIR observations suggest that composition and density of the inner core are similar to that of 91bg-like events, and that it has a deep-reaching carbon burning layer that is not observed in more slowly declining SNe Ia. Furthermore, there is also a substantial difference between the explosion times inferred from the early-time light curve and the velocity evolution of the Si II λ0.6355 μm line, implying a long dark phase of ~4 days.« less

  9. Near-Infrared Mass Loss Diagnostics for Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Bouret, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Stellar wind mass loss is a key process which modifies surface abundances, luminosities, and other physical properties of hot, massive stars. Furthermore, mass loss has to be understood quantitatively in order to accurately describe and predict massive star evolution. Two urgent problems have been identified that challenge our understanding of line-driven winds, the so-called weak-wind problem and wind clumping. In both cases, mass-loss rates are drastically lower than theoretically expected (up to a factor 1001). Here we study how the expected spectroscopic capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), especially NIRSpec, could be used to significantly improve constraints on wind density structures (clumps) and deep-seated phenomena in stellar winds of massive stars, including OB, Wolf-Rayet and LBV stars. Since the IR continuum of objects with strong winds is formed in the wind, IR lines may sample different depths inside the wind than UV-optical lines and provide new information about the shape of the velocity field and clumping properties. One of the most important applications of IR line diagnostics will be the measurement of mass-loss rates in massive stars with very weak winds by means of the H I Bracket alpha line, which has been identified as one of the most promising diagnostics for this problem.

  10. Variable-temperature Fourier transform near-infrared imaging spectroscopy of the deuterium/hydrogen exchange in liquid D₂O.

    PubMed

    Unger, Miriam; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Siesler, Heinz W

    2014-01-01

    In the present publication, the deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) exchange of liquid D2O exposed to water vapor of the surrounding atmosphere has been studied by variable-temperature Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) imaging spectroscopy. Apart from the visualization of the exchange process in the time-resolved FT-NIR images, kinetic parameters and the activation energy for this D/H exchange reaction have been derived from the Arrhenius plot of the variable-temperature spectroscopic data.

  11. Near-infrared quantum dots for HER2 localization and imaging of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Sarwat B; Rouhi, Sepideh; Taniguchi, Shohei; Yang, Shi Yu; Green, Mark; Keshtgar, Mo; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-01-01

    Quantum dots are fluorescent nanoparticles with unique photophysical properties that allow them to be used as diagnostic, therapeutic, and theranostic agents, particularly in medical and surgical oncology. Near-infrared-emitting quantum dots can be visualized in deep tissues because the biological window is transparent to these wavelengths. Their small sizes and free surface reactive groups that can be conjugated to biomolecules make them ideal probes for in vivo cancer localization, targeted chemotherapy, and image-guided cancer surgery. The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2/neu) is overexpressed in 25%-30% of breast cancers. The current methods of detection for HER2 status, including immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization, are used ex vivo and cannot be used in vivo. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of near-infrared-emitting quantum dots for HER2 localization in fixed and live cancer cells as a first step prior to their in vivo application. Near-infrared-emitting quantum dots were characterized and their in vitro toxicity was established using three cancer cell lines, ie, HepG2, SK-BR-3 (HER2-overexpressing), and MCF7 (HER2-underexpressing). Mouse antihuman anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody was conjugated to the near-infrared-emitting quantum dots. In vitro toxicity studies showed biocompatibility of SK-BR-3 and MCF7 cell lines with near-infrared-emitting quantum dots at a concentration of 60 μg/mL after one hour and 24 hours of exposure. Near-infrared-emitting quantum dot antiHER2-antibody bioconjugates successfully localized HER2 receptors on SK-BR-3 cells. Near-infrared-emitting quantum dot bioconjugates can be used for rapid localization of HER2 receptors and can potentially be used for targeted therapy as well as image-guided surgery.

  12. Near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy of (136108) Haumea's multiple system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourgeot, F.; Carry, B.; Dumas, C.; Vachier, F.; Merlin, F.; Lacerda, P.; Barucci, M. A.; Berthier, J.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The transneptunian region of the solar system is populated by a wide variety of icy bodies showing great diversity in orbital behavior, size, surface color, and composition. Aims: The dwarf planet (136108) Haumea is among the largest transneptunian objects (TNOs) and is a very fast rotator (~3.9 h). This dwarf planet displays a highly elongated shape and hosts two small moons that are covered with crystalline water ice, similar to their central body. A particular region of interest is the Dark Red Spot (DRS) identified on the surface of Haumea from multiband light-curve analysis (Lacerda et al. 2008). Haumea is also known to be the largest member of the sole TNO family known to date, and an outcome of a catastrophic collision that is likely responsible for the unique characteristics of Haumea. Methods: We report here on the analysis of a new set of near-infrared Laser Guide Star assisted observations of Haumea obtained with the Integral Field Unit (IFU) Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (SINFONI) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT) Observatory. Combined with previous data published by Dumas et al. (2011), and using light-curve measurements in the optical and far infrared to associate each spectrum with its corresponding rotational phase, we were able to carry out a rotationally resolved spectroscopic study of the surface of Haumea. Results: We describe the physical characteristics of the crystalline water ice present on the surface of Haumea for both regions, in and out of the DRS, and analyze the differences obtained for each individual spectrum. The presence of crystalline water ice is confirmed over more than half of the surface of Haumea. Our measurements of the average spectral slope (1.45 ± 0.82% by 100 nm) confirm the redder characteristic of the spot region. Detailed analysis of the crystalline water-ice absorption bands do not show significant differences between the DRS and the

  13. Visible-near infrared spectroscopy as a tool to improve mapping of soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evgrafova, Alevtina; Kühnel, Anna; Bogner, Christina; Haase, Ina; Shibistova, Olga; Guggenberger, Georg; Tananaev, Nikita; Sauheitl, Leopold; Spielvogel, Sandra

    2017-04-01

    Spectroscopic measurements, which are non-destructive, precise and rapid, can be used to predict soil properties and help estimate the spatial variability of soil properties at the pedon scale. These estimations are required for quantifying soil properties with higher precision, identifying the changes in soil properties and ecosystem response to climate change as well as increasing the estimation accuracy of soil-related models. Our objectives were to (i) predict soil properties for nested samples (n = 296) using the laboratory-based visible-near infrared (vis-NIR) spectra of air-dried (<2 mm) soil samples and values of measured soil properties for gridded samples (n = 174) as calibration and validation sets; (ii) estimate the precision and predictive accuracy of an empirical spectral model using (a) our own spectral library and (b) the global spectral library; (iii) support the global spectral library with obtained vis-NIR spectral data on permafrost-affected soils. The soil samples were collected from three permafrost-affected soil profiles underlain by permafrost at various depths between 23 cm to 57.5 cm below the surface (Cryosols) and one soil profile with no presence of permafrost within the upper 100 cm layer (Cambisol) in order to characterize the spatial distribution and variability of soil properties. The gridded soil samples (n = 174) were collected using an 80 cm wide grid with a mesh size of 10 cm on both axes. In addition, 300 nested soil samples were collected using a grid of 12 cm by 12 cm (25 samples per grid) from a hole of 1 cm in a diameter with a distance from the next sample of 1 cm. Due to a small amount of available soil material (< 1.5 g), 296 nested soil samples were analyzed only using vis-NIR spectroscopy. The air-dried mineral gridded soil samples (n = 174) were sieved through a 2-mm sieve and ground with an agate mortar prior to the elemental analysis. The soil organic carbon and total nitrogen concentrations (in %) were determined

  14. Age Spread in W3 Main: Large Binocular Telescope/LUCI Near-infrared Spectroscopy of the Massive Stellar Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bik, A.; Henning, Th.; Stolte, A.; Brandner, W.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Gennaro, M.; Pasquali, A.; Rochau, B.; Beuther, H.; Ageorges, N.; Seifert, W.; Wang, Y.; Kudryavtseva, N.

    2012-01-01

    We present near-infrared multi-object spectroscopy and JHK s imaging of the massive stellar content of the Galactic star-forming region W3 Main, obtained with LUCI at the Large Binocular Telescope. We confirm 15 OB stars in W3 Main and derive spectral types between O5V and B4V from their absorption line spectra. Three massive young stellar objects are identified by their emission line spectra and near-infrared excess. The color-color diagram of the detected sources allows a detailed investigation of the slope of the near-infrared extinction law toward W3 Main. Analysis of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram suggests that the Nishiyama extinction law fits the stellar population of W3 Main best (E(J - H)/E(H - K s) = 1.76 and R_{{K_s}} = 1.44). From our spectrophotometric analysis of the massive stars and the nature of their surrounding H II regions, we derive the evolutionary sequence of W3 Main and we find evidence of an age spread of at least 2-3 Myr. While the most massive star (IRS2) is already evolved, indications for high-mass pre-main-sequence evolution are found for another star (IRS N1), deeply embedded in an ultracompact H II (UCH II) region, in line with the different evolutionary phases observed in the corresponding H II regions. We derive a stellar mass of W3 Main of (4 ± 1) × 103 M ⊙ by extrapolating from the number of OB stars using a Kroupa initial mass function and correcting for our spectroscopic incompleteness. We have detected the photospheres of OB stars from the more evolved diffuse H II region to the much younger UCH II regions, suggesting that these stars have finished their formation and cleared away their circumstellar disks very fast. Only in the hyper-compact H II region (IRS5) do the early-type stars seem to be still surrounded by circumstellar material. Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in Germany, Italy, and the United States. LBT Corporation

  15. The cosmic infrared background experiment-2 (CIBER-2) for studying the near-infrared extragalactic background light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirahata, Mai; Arai, Toshiaki; Battle, John; Bock, James; Cooray, Asantha; Enokuchi, Akito; Hristov, Viktor; Kanai, Yoshikazu; Kim, Min Gyu; Korngut, Phillip; Lanz, Alicia; Lee, Dae-Hee; Mason, Peter; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Morford, Tracy; Ohnishi, Yosuke; Park, Won-Kee; Sano, Kei; Takeyama, Norihide; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Zemcov, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We present the current status of the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment-2 (CIBER-2) project, whose goal is to make a rocket-borne measurement of the near-infrared Extragalactic Background Light (EBL), under a collaboration with U.S.A., Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. The EBL is the integrated light of all extragalactic sources of emission back to the early Universe. At near-infrared wavelengths, measurement of the EBL is a promising way to detect the diffuse light from the first collapsed structures at redshift z˜10, which are impossible to detect as individual sources. However, recently, the intra-halo light (IHL) model is advocated as the main contribution to the EBL, and our new result of the EBL fluctuation from CIBER-1 experiment is also supporting this model. In this model, EBL is contributed by accumulated light from stars in the dark halo regions of low- redshift (z<2) galaxies, those were tidally stripped by the interaction of satellite dwarf galaxies. Thus, in order to understand the origin of the EBL, both the spatial fluctuation observations with multiple wavelength bands and the absolute spectroscopic observations for the EBL are highly required. After the successful initial CIBER- 1 experiment, we are now developing a new instrument CIBER-2, which is comprised of a 28.5-cm aluminum telescope and three broad-band, wide-field imaging cameras. The three wide-field (2.3×2.3 degrees) imaging cameras use the 2K×2K HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG arrays, and cover the optical and near-infrared wavelength range of 0.5-0.9 μm, 1.0-1.4 μm and 1.5-2.0 μm, respectively. Combining a large area telescope with the high sensitivity detectors, CIBER-2 will be able to measure the spatial fluctuations in the EBL at much fainter levels than those detected in previous CIBER-1 experiment. Additionally, we will use a linear variable filter installed just above the detectors so that a measurement of the absolute spectrum of the EBL is also possible. In this paper, the scientific

  16. Development and Testing of an LED-Based Near-Infrared Sensor for Human Kidney Tumor Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Zabarylo, Urszula; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Belikova, Valeria; Ageev, Vladimir; Usenov, Iskander; Galyanin, Vladislav; Minet, Olaf; Sakharova, Tatiana; Danielyan, Georgy; Feliksberger, Elena; Artyushenko, Viacheslav

    2017-01-01

    Optical spectroscopy is increasingly used for cancer diagnostics. Tumor detection feasibility in human kidney samples using mid- and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy has been reported (Artyushenko et al., Spectral fiber sensors for cancer diagnostics in vitro. In Proceedings of the European Conference on Biomedical Optics, Munich, Germany, 21–25 June 2015). In the present work, a simplification of the NIR spectroscopic analysis for cancer diagnostics was studied. The conventional high-resolution NIR spectroscopic method of kidney tumor diagnostics was replaced by a compact optical sensing device constructively represented by a set of four light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at selected wavelengths and one detecting photodiode. Two sensor prototypes were tested using 14 in vitro clinical samples of 7 different patients. Statistical data evaluation using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) confirmed the general applicability of the LED-based sensing approach to kidney tumor detection. An additional validation of the results was performed by means of sample permutation. PMID:28825612

  17. Near infrared fluorescent chlorophyll nanoscale liposomes for sentinel lymph node mapping

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lina; Wu, Qiang; Chu, Maoquan

    2012-01-01

    Background Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping using in vivo near infrared fluorescence imaging has attracted great attention during the past few years. Here we report on the early use of poorly water-soluble chlorophyll with near infrared fluorescence extracted from the leaf of Chimonanthus salicifolius, for mouse axillary SLN mapping. Methods and results To improve the water solubility and SLN targeting of the chlorophyll, we encapsulated the chlorophyll in nanoscale liposomes. The liposome-coated chlorophyll nanocomposites obtained were spherical in shape and had an average diameter of 21.7 ± 6.0 nm. The nanocomposites dispersed well in water, and in aqueous suspension they exhibited brighter near infrared fluorescence than chlorophyll alone. After incubation of the nanocomposites with normal liver cells (QSG-7701) and macrophage cells (Ana-1) for no more than 48 hours, there was no obvious reduction in cell viability. When the nanocomposites were injected intradermally into the paw of a mouse, the axillary SLN was found to be strongly fluorescent and was easily visualized in real time without a requirement for surgery. The intensity of the near infrared fluorescence emitted by the SLN was obviously brighter than that emitted by the SLN of another mouse that had been intradermally injected with chlorophyll alone. Conclusion Our data show that the liposome-coated chlorophyll nanocomposites could have great potential for clinical SLN mapping due to their lack of toxicity, bright near infrared fluorescence, and small diameter. PMID:22787402

  18. Effect of near-infrared rays on female menstrual pain in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Min; Kim, Kye-Ha

    2017-09-01

    Most Korean women who experience menstrual pain have reported taking pain medicine and making use of complementary alternative therapies. However, because some interventions may cause side effects, more effective pain-relieving measures need to be identified. This study using a non-equivalent group design, evaluated the effects of near-infrared rays on dysmenorrhea among Korean women. The experimental group wore a near-infrared ray abdominal belt for the duration of one menstrual cycle until the end of the menstrual period, while the control group used hot packs. The level of menstrual pain, menstrual pain duration, and pain medicine use were measured. The menstrual pain, average menstrual pain duration, and use of analgesics were reduced in the near-infrared rays group. The results of this study indicate that the near-infrared ray LED belt was effective in reducing menstrual pain, menstrual pain duration compared to the use of analgesics in Korean women with dysmenorrhea. Therefore, near-infrared rays may be used to relieve menstrual pain and improve the quality of life of women with dysmenorrhea in Korea. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. A near-infrared SETI experiment: A multi-time resolution data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallis, Melisa; Maire, Jerome; Wright, Shelley; Drake, Frank D.; Duenas, Andres; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Stone, Remington P. S.; Treffers, Richard R.; Werthimer, Dan; NIROSETI

    2016-06-01

    We present new post-processing routines which are used to detect very fast optical and near-infrared pulsed signals using the latest NIROSETI (Near-Infrared Optical Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) instrument. NIROSETI was commissioned in 2015 at Lick Observatory and searches for near-infrared (0.95 to 1.65μ) nanosecond pulsed laser signals transmitted by distant civilizations. Traditional optical SETI searches rely on analysis of coincidences that occur between multiple detectors at a fixed time resolution. We present a multi-time resolution data analysis that extends our search from the 1ns to 1ms range. This new feature greatly improves the versatility of the instrument and its search parameters for near-infrared SETI. We aim to use these algorithms to assist us in our search for signals that have varying duty cycles and pulse widths. We tested the fidelity and robustness of our algorithms using both synthetic embedded pulsed signals, as well as data from a near-infrared pulsed laser installed on the instrument. Applications of NIROSETI are widespread in time domain astrophysics, especially for high time resolution transients, and astronomical objects that emit short-duration high-energy pulses such as pulsars.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in KSC's Vertical Processing Facility inspect the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) on its handling fixture. NICMOS is one of two new scientific instruments that will replace two outdated instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). NICMOS will provide HST with the capability for infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of astronomical targets. The refrigerator-sized NICMOS also is HST's first cryogenic instrument — its sensitive infrared detectors must operate at very cold temperatures of minus 355 degrees Fahrenheit or 58 degrees Kelvin. NICMOS will be installed in Hubble during STS-82, the second Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. Liftoff is targeted Feb. 11 aboard Discovery with a crew of seven.

    1997-01-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in KSC's Vertical Processing Facility inspect the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) on its handling fixture. NICMOS is one of two new scientific instruments that will replace two outdated instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). NICMOS will provide HST with the capability for infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of astronomical targets. The refrigerator-sized NICMOS also is HST's first cryogenic instrument — its sensitive infrared detectors must operate at very cold temperatures of minus 355 degrees Fahrenheit or 58 degrees Kelvin. NICMOS will be installed in Hubble during STS-82, the second Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. Liftoff is targeted Feb. 11 aboard Discovery with a crew of seven.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-82 crew members and workers at KSC's Vertical Processing Facility get a final look at the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) in its flight configuration for the STS-82 mission. The crew is participating in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT). NICMOS is one of two new scientific instruments that will replace two outdated instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). NICMOS will provide HST with the capability for infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of astronomical targets. The refrigerator-sized NICMOS also is HST's first cryogenic instrument - its sensitive infrared detectors must operate at very cold temperatures of minus 355 degrees Fahrenheit or 58 degrees Kelvin. NICMOS will be installed in Hubble during STS-82, the second Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. Liftoff is scheduled Feb. 11 aboard Discovery with a crew of seven.

    1997-01-22

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-82 crew members and workers at KSC's Vertical Processing Facility get a final look at the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) in its flight configuration for the STS-82 mission. The crew is participating in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT). NICMOS is one of two new scientific instruments that will replace two outdated instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). NICMOS will provide HST with the capability for infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of astronomical targets. The refrigerator-sized NICMOS also is HST's first cryogenic instrument - its sensitive infrared detectors must operate at very cold temperatures of minus 355 degrees Fahrenheit or 58 degrees Kelvin. NICMOS will be installed in Hubble during STS-82, the second Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. Liftoff is scheduled Feb. 11 aboard Discovery with a crew of seven.

  2. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in KSC's Vertical Processing Facility lift the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) prior to its installation in the Second Axial Carrier. NICMOS is one of two new scientific instruments that will replace two outdated instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). NICMOS will provide HST with the capability for infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of astronomical targets. The refrigerator-sized NICMOS also is HST's first cryogenic instrument — its sensitive infrared detectors must operate at very cold temperatures of minus 355 degrees Fahrenheit or 58 degrees Kelvin. NICMOS will be installed in Hubble during STS-82, the second Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. Liftoff is targeted Feb. 11 aboard Discovery with a crew of seven.

    1997-01-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in KSC's Vertical Processing Facility lift the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) prior to its installation in the Second Axial Carrier. NICMOS is one of two new scientific instruments that will replace two outdated instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). NICMOS will provide HST with the capability for infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of astronomical targets. The refrigerator-sized NICMOS also is HST's first cryogenic instrument — its sensitive infrared detectors must operate at very cold temperatures of minus 355 degrees Fahrenheit or 58 degrees Kelvin. NICMOS will be installed in Hubble during STS-82, the second Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. Liftoff is targeted Feb. 11 aboard Discovery with a crew of seven.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in KSC's Vertical Processing Facility lower the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) into the Second Axial Carrier. NICMOS is one of two new scientific instruments that will replace two outdated instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). NICMOS will provide HST with the capability for infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of astronomical targets. The refrigerator-sized NICMOS also is HST's first cryogenic instrument — its sensitive infrared detectors must operate at very cold temperatures of minus 355 degrees Fahrenheit or 58 degrees Kelvin. NICMOS will be installed in Hubble during STS-82, the second Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. Liftoff is targeted Feb. 11 aboard Discovery with a crew of seven.

    1997-01-18

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in KSC's Vertical Processing Facility lower the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) into the Second Axial Carrier. NICMOS is one of two new scientific instruments that will replace two outdated instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). NICMOS will provide HST with the capability for infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of astronomical targets. The refrigerator-sized NICMOS also is HST's first cryogenic instrument — its sensitive infrared detectors must operate at very cold temperatures of minus 355 degrees Fahrenheit or 58 degrees Kelvin. NICMOS will be installed in Hubble during STS-82, the second Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. Liftoff is targeted Feb. 11 aboard Discovery with a crew of seven.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in KSC's Vertical Processing Facility lower the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) into the Second Axial Carrier. NICMOS is one of two new scientific instruments that will replace two outdated instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). NICMOS will provide HST with the capability for infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of astronomical targets. The refrigerator-sized NICMOS is HST's first cryogenic instrument -- its sensitive infrared detectors must operate at very cold temperatures of minus 355 degrees Fahrenheit or 58 derees Kelvin. NICMOS will be installed in Hubble during STS-82, the second Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. Liftoff is targeted Feb. 11 aboard Discovery with a crew of seven.

    1997-01-16

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in KSC's Vertical Processing Facility lower the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) into the Second Axial Carrier. NICMOS is one of two new scientific instruments that will replace two outdated instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). NICMOS will provide HST with the capability for infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of astronomical targets. The refrigerator-sized NICMOS is HST's first cryogenic instrument -- its sensitive infrared detectors must operate at very cold temperatures of minus 355 degrees Fahrenheit or 58 derees Kelvin. NICMOS will be installed in Hubble during STS-82, the second Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. Liftoff is targeted Feb. 11 aboard Discovery with a crew of seven.

  5. Near-infrared Thermal Emission Detections of a Number of Hot Jupiters and the Systematics of Ground-based Near-infrared Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croll, Bryce; Albert, Loic; Jayawardhana, Ray; Cushing, Michael; Moutou, Claire; Lafreniere, David; Johnson, John Asher; Bonomo, Aldo S.; Deleuil, Magali; Fortney, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    We present detections of the near-infrared thermal emission of three hot Jupiters and one brown dwarf using the Wide-field Infrared Camera (WIRCam) on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). These include Ks-band secondary eclipse detections of the hot Jupiters WASP-3b and Qatar-1b and the brown dwarf KELT-1b. We also report Y-band, K CONT-band, and two new and one reanalyzed Ks-band detections of the thermal emission of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b. We present a new reduction pipeline for CFHT/WIRCam data, which is optimized for high precision photometry. We also describe novel techniques for constraining systematic errors in ground-based near-infrared photometry, so as to return reliable secondary eclipse depths and uncertainties. We discuss the noise properties of our ground-based photometry for wavelengths spanning the near-infrared (the YJHK bands), for faint and bright stars, and for the same object on several occasions. For the hot Jupiters WASP-3b and WASP-12b we demonstrate the repeatability of our eclipse depth measurements in the Ks band; we therefore place stringent limits on the systematics of ground-based, near-infrared photometry, and also rule out violent weather changes in the deep, high pressure atmospheres of these two hot Jupiters at the epochs of our observations. Based on observations obtained with WIRCam, a joint project of Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), Taiwan, Korea, Canada, France, at the CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  6. Ultrashort Carbon Nanotubes That Fluoresce Brightly in the Near-Infrared.

    PubMed

    Danné, Noémie; Kim, Mijin; Godin, Antoine G; Kwon, Hyejin; Gao, Zhenghong; Wu, Xiaojian; Hartmann, Nicolai F; Doorn, Stephen K; Lounis, Brahim; Wang, YuHuang; Cognet, Laurent

    2018-06-14

    The intrinsic near-infrared photoluminescence observed in long single-walled carbon nanotubes is known to be quenched in ultrashort nanotubes due to their tiny size as compared to the exciton diffusion length in these materials (>100 nm). Here, we show that intense photoluminescence can be created in ultrashort nanotubes (∼40 nm length) upon incorporation of exciton-trapping sp 3 defect sites. Using super-resolution photoluminescence imaging at <25 nm resolution, we directly show the preferential localization of excitons at the nanotube ends, which separate by less than 40 nm and behave as independent emitters. This unexpected observation opens the possibility to synthesize fluorescent ultrashort nanotubes-a goal that has been long thought impossible-for bioimaging applications, where bright near-infrared photoluminescence and small size are highly desirable, and for quantum information science, where high quality and well-controlled near-infrared single photon emitters are needed.

  7. Tissue phantom-based breast cancer detection using continuous near-infrared sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qisong; Lu, Jingyang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Women's health is seriously threatened by breast cancer. Taking advantage of efficient diagnostic instruments to identify the disease is very meaningful in prolonging life. As a cheap noninvasive radiation-free technology, Near-infrared Spectroscopy is suitable for general breast cancer examination. A discrimination method of breast cancer is presented using the deference between absorption coefficients and applied to construct a blood oxygen detection device based on Modified Lambert-Beer theory. Combined with multi-wavelength multi-path near-infrared sensing technology, the proposed method can quantitatively distinguish the normal breast from the abnormal one by measuring the absorption coefficients of breast tissue and the blood oxygen saturation. An objective judgment about the breast tumor is made according to its high absorption of near-infrared light. The phantom experiment is implemented to show the presented method is able to recognize the absorption differences between phantoms and demonstrates its feasibility in the breast tumor detection. PMID:27459672

  8. Tissue phantom-based breast cancer detection using continuous near-infrared sensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qisong; Lu, Jingyang

    2016-09-02

    Women's health is seriously threatened by breast cancer. Taking advantage of efficient diagnostic instruments to identify the disease is very meaningful in prolonging life. As a cheap noninvasive radiation-free technology, Near-infrared Spectroscopy is suitable for general breast cancer examination. A discrimination method of breast cancer is presented using the deference between absorption coefficients and applied to construct a blood oxygen detection device based on Modified Lambert-Beer theory. Combined with multi-wavelength multi-path near-infrared sensing technology, the proposed method can quantitatively distinguish the normal breast from the abnormal one by measuring the absorption coefficients of breast tissue and the blood oxygen saturation. An objective judgment about the breast tumor is made according to its high absorption of near-infrared light. The phantom experiment is implemented to show the presented method is able to recognize the absorption differences between phantoms and demonstrates its feasibility in the breast tumor detection.

  9. Combined autofluorescence and Raman spectroscopy method for skin tumor detection in visible and near infrared regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. P.; Bratchenko, I. A.; Artemyev, D. N.; Myakinin, O. O.; Khristoforova, Y. A.; Kozlov, S. V.; Moryatov, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    The combined application of Raman and autofluorescence spectroscopy in visible and near infrared regions for the analysis of malignant neoplasms of human skin was demonstrated. Ex vivo experiments were performed for 130 skin tissue samples: 28 malignant melanomas, 19 basal cell carcinomas, 15 benign tumors, 9 nevi and 59 normal tissues. Proposed method of Raman spectra analysis allows for malignant melanoma differentiating from other skin tissues with accuracy of 84% (sensitivity of 97%, specificity of 72%). Autofluorescence analysis in near infrared and visible regions helped us to increase the diagnostic accuracy by 5-10%. Registration of autofluorescence in near infrared region is realized in one optical unit with Raman spectroscopy. Thus, the proposed method of combined skin tissues study makes possible simultaneous large skin area study with autofluorescence spectra analysis and precise neoplasm type determination with Raman spectroscopy.

  10. AKARI/IRC NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRAL ATLAS OF GALACTIC PLANETARY NEBULAE

    SciT

    Ohsawa, Ryou; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki

    2016-04-15

    Near-infrared (2.5–5.0 μm) low-resolution (λ/Δλ ∼ 100) spectra of 72 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) were obtained with the Infrared Camera (IRC) in the post-helium phase. The IRC, equipped with a 1′ × 1′ window for spectroscopy of a point source, was capable of obtaining near-infrared spectra in a slit-less mode without any flux loss due to a slit. The spectra show emission features including hydrogen recombination lines and the 3.3–3.5 μm hydrocarbon features. The intensity and equivalent width of the emission features were measured by spectral fitting. We made a catalog providing unique information on the investigation of the near-infrared emission ofmore » PNe. In this paper, details of the observations and characteristics of the catalog are described.« less

  11. Comparison of spatial variability in visible and near-infrared spectral images

    Chavez, P.S.

    1992-01-01

    The visible and near-infrared bands of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and the Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) were analyzed to determine which band contained more spatial variability. It is important for applications that require spatial information, such as those dealing with mapping linear features and automatic image-to-image correlation, to know which spectral band image should be used. Statistical and visual analyses were used in the project. The amount of variance in an 11 by 11 pixel spatial filter and in the first difference at the six spacings of 1, 5, 11, 23, 47, and 95 pixels was computed for the visible and near-infrared bands. The results indicate that the near-infrared band has more spatial variability than the visible band, especially in images covering densely vegetated areas. -Author

  12. Large Magellanic Cloud Near-infrared Synoptic Survey. V. Period–Luminosity Relations of Miras

    SciT

    Yuan, Wenlong; Macri, Lucas M.; He, Shiyuan

    We study the near-infrared properties of 690 Mira candidates in the central region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, based on time-series observations at JHK{sub s}. We use densely sampled I -band observations from the OGLE project to generate template light curves in the near-infrared and derive robust mean magnitudes at those wavelengths. We obtain near-infrared Period–Luminosity relations for oxygen-rich Miras with a scatter as low as 0.12 mag at K{sub s}. We study the Period–Luminosity–Color relations and the color excesses of carbon-rich Miras, which show evidence for a substantially different reddening law.

  13. [Study on rapid determination and analysis of rocket kerosene by near infrared spectrum and chemometrics].

    PubMed

    Xia, Ben-Li; Cong, Ji-Xin; Li, Xia; Wang, Xuan-Jun

    2011-06-01

    The rocket kerosene quality properties such as density, distillation range, viscosity and iodine value were successfully measured based on their near-infrared spectrum (NIRS) and chemometrics. In the present paper, more than 70 rocket kerosene samples were determined by near infrared spectrum, the models were built using the partial least squares method within the appropriate wavelength range. The correlation coefficients (R2) of every rocket kerosene's quality properties ranged from 0.862 to 0.999. Ten unknown samples were determined with the model, and the result showed that the prediction accuracy of near infrared spectrum method accords with standard analysis requirements. The new method is well suitable for replacing the traditional standard method to rapidly determine the properties of the rocket kerosene.

  14. Confocal Retinal Imaging Using a Digital Light Projector with a Near Infrared VCSEL Source

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Matthew S.; Elsner, Ann E.

    2018-01-01

    A custom near infrared VCSEL source has been implemented in a confocal non-mydriatic retinal camera, the Digital Light Ophthalmoscope (DLO). The use of near infrared light improves patient comfort, avoids pupil constriction, penetrates the deeper retina, and does not mask visual stimuli. The DLO performs confocal imaging by synchronizing a sequence of lines displayed with a digital micromirror device to the rolling shutter exposure of a 2D CMOS camera. Real-time software adjustments enable multiply scattered light imaging, which rapidly and cost-effectively emphasizes drusen and other scattering disruptions in the deeper retina. A separate 5.1″ LCD display provides customizable visible stimuli for vision experiments with simultaneous near infrared imaging. PMID:29899586

  15. Confocal retinal imaging using a digital light projector with a near infrared VCSEL source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Matthew S.; Elsner, Ann E.

    2018-02-01

    A custom near infrared VCSEL source has been implemented in a confocal non-mydriatic retinal camera, the Digital Light Ophthalmoscope (DLO). The use of near infrared light improves patient comfort, avoids pupil constriction, penetrates the deeper retina, and does not mask visual stimuli. The DLO performs confocal imaging by synchronizing a sequence of lines displayed with a digital micromirror device to the rolling shutter exposure of a 2D CMOS camera. Real-time software adjustments enable multiply scattered light imaging, which rapidly and cost-effectively emphasizes drusen and other scattering disruptions in the deeper retina. A separate 5.1" LCD display provides customizable visible stimuli for vision experiments with simultaneous near infrared imaging.

  16. Near-infrared light absorption by brown carbon in the ambient atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, C.; Hoffer, A.; Beres, N. D.; Moosmüller, H.; Liu, C.; Green, M.; Kim, S. W.; Engelbrecht, J. P.; Gelencser, A.

    2017-12-01

    Organic aerosols have been assumed to have little-to-no absorption in the red and near-infrared spectral regions of solar radiation, even though a class of organic aerosols were shown to absorb significantly in these spectral regions. Here, we show that ambient atmospheric data from commonly-used 7-wavelength aethalometers contain evidence of abundant near-infrared light absorption by organic aerosol. This evidence comes from the absorption Ångström exponent over 880 950 nm, which often exceeds values explainable by fresh or coated black carbon, or mineral dust. This evidence is not due to an artifact from the instrument random errors or biases, either. The best explanation for these large 880/950 nm absorption Ångström exponent values in the aethalometer data is near-infrared light absorption by tar balls. Tar balls are among common particles from forest fire.

  17. Near-infrared line and continuum emission from the blue dwarf galaxy II Zw 40

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, Marshall; Lester, Daniel F.

    1988-01-01

    A multicolor analysis of new near-infrared line and continuum measurements indicates that nebular recombination emission and photospheric radiation from young blue stars produce most of the near-infrared continuum emission in the central 6 arcsec of the dwarf galaxy II Zw 40. The derived nebular recombination level is in excellent agreement with independent observations of the radio free-free continuum. It is found that evolved stars, which dominate the near-infrared emission from normal galaxies, contribute no more than 25 percent of the total 2.2 micron flux in the central region of II Zw 40. It is concluded that the total mass of the evolved stellar population in the central 400 pc of the galaxy is less than about two hundred million solar. The total mass of recently formed stars is about two million solar, and the stellar mass ratio is exceptionally large. Thus, II Zw 40 is a quintessential starburst galaxy.

  18. TESTING FOR A LARGE LOCAL VOID BY INVESTIGATING THE NEAR-INFRARED GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    SciT

    Keenan, R. C.; Wang, W.-H.; Barger, A. J.

    2012-08-01

    Recent cosmological modeling efforts have shown that a local underdensity on scales of a few hundred Mpc (out to z {approx} 0.1) could produce the apparent acceleration of the expansion of the universe observed via Type Ia supernovae. Several studies of galaxy counts in the near-infrared (NIR) have found that the local universe appears underdense by {approx}25%-50% compared with regions a few hundred Mpc distant. Galaxy counts at low redshifts sample primarily L {approx} L* galaxies. Thus, if the local universe is underdense, then the normalization of the NIR galaxy luminosity function (LF) at z > 0.1 should be highermore » than that measured for z < 0.1. Here we present a highly complete (>90%) spectroscopic sample of 1436 galaxies selected in the H band (1.6 {mu}m) to study the normalization of the NIR LF at 0.1 < z < 0.3 and address the question of whether or not we reside in a large local underdensity. Our survey sample consists of all galaxies brighter than 18th magnitude in the H band drawn from six widely separated fields at high Galactic latitudes, which cover a total of {approx}2 deg{sup 2} on the sky. We find that for the combination of our six fields, the product {phi}*L* at 0.1 < z < 0.3 is {approx}30% higher than that measured at lower redshifts. While our statistical errors in this measurement are on the {approx}10% level, we find the systematics due to cosmic variance may be larger still. We investigate the effects of cosmic variance on our measurement using the COSMOS cone mock catalogs from the Millennium Simulation and recent empirical estimates of cosmic variance. We find that our survey is subject to systematic uncertainties due to cosmic variance at the 15% level (1{sigma}), representing an improvement by a factor of {approx}2 over previous studies in this redshift range. We conclude that observations cannot yet rule out the possibility that the local universe is underdense at z < 0.1. The fields studied in this work have a large amount of

  19. Near-infrared spectra of the Martian surface: Reading between the lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.; Bell, J. F., III

    1993-01-01

    Moderate-resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectra of Mars have been widely used in studies of the Martian surface because many candidate surface materials have distinctive absorption features at these wavelengths. Recent advances in NIR detector technology and instrumentation have also encouraged studies in this spectral region. The use of moderate spectral resolution has often been justified for NIR surface observations because the spectral features produced by most surface materials are relatively broad, and easily discriminated at this resolution. In spite of this, NIR spectra of Mars are usually very difficult to interpret quantitatively. One problem is that NIR surface absorption features are often only a few percent deep, requiring observations with great signal-to-noise ratios. A more significant problem is that gases in the Martian atmosphere contribute numerous absorption features at these wavelengths. Ground-based observers must also contend with variable absorption by several gases in the Earth's atmosphere (H2O, CO2, O3, N2O, CH4, O2). The strong CO2 bands near 1.4, 1.6, 2.0, 2.7, 4.3, and 4.8 micrometers largely preclude the analysis of surface spectral features at these wavelengths. Martian atmospheric water vapor also contributes significant absorption near 1.33, 1.88, and 2.7 micrometers, but water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere poses a much larger problem to ground-based studies of these spectral regions. The third most important NIR absorber in the Martian atmosphere is CO. This gas absorbs most strongly in the relatively-transparent spectral windows near 4.6 and 2.3 micrometers. It also produces 1-10 percent absorption in the solar spectrum at these NIR wavelengths. This solar CO absorption cannot be adequately removed by dividing the Martian spectrum by that of a star, as is commonly done to calibrate ground-based spectroscopic observations, because most stars do not have identical amounts of CO absorption in their spectra. Here, we describe tow

  20. Optical and Near-Infrared Observations of SN 2013DX Associated with GRB 130702A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toy, V. L.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Butler, N. R.; Cucchiara, A.; Watson, A. M.; Bersier, D.; Perley, D. A.; Margutti, R.; Bellm, E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) light curves and optical spectra of SN 2013dx, associated with the nearby (redshift 0.145) gamma-ray burst GRB 130702A. The prompt isotropic gamma-ray energy released from GRB 130702A is measured to be E(sub gamma, iso) = 6.4(+1.3/-1.0) x 10(exp 50) erg (1 keV to 10 MeV in the rest frame), placing it intermediate between low-luminosity GRBs like GRB 980425/SN 1998bw and the broader cosmological population. We compare the observed g'r'i'z' light curves of SN 2013dx to a SN 1998bw template, finding that SN 2013dx evolves approx. 20% faster (steeper rise time), with a comparable peak luminosity. Spectroscopically, SN 2013dx resembles other broad-lined SNe Ic, both associated with (SN 2006aj and SN 1998bw) and lacking (SN 1997ef, SN 2007I, and SN 2010ah) gamma-ray emission, with photospheric velocities around peak of approx. 21,000 km/s. We construct a quasi-bolometric (g'r'z'yJ) light curve for SN 2013dx, only the fifth GRB-associated SN with extensive NIR coverage and the third with a bolometric light curve extending beyond (Delta)t > 40 days. Together with the measured photospheric velocity, we derive basic explosion parameters using simple analytic models. We infer a Ni-56 mass of M(sub Ni) = 0.37+/- 0.01 Stellar Mass, an ejecta mass of M(sub ej) = 3.1+/- 0.1 Stellar Mass, and a kinetic energy of E(sub K) = (8.2+/- 0.43) x 10(exp 51) erg (statistical uncertainties only), consistent with previous GRB-associated supernovae. When considering the ensemble population of GRB-associated supernovae, we find no correlation between the mass of synthesized Ni-56 and high-energy properties, despite clear predictions from numerical simulations that M(sub Ni) should correlate with the degree of asymmetry. On the other hand, M(sub Ni) clearly correlates with the kinetic energy of the supernova ejecta across a wide range of core-collapse events.

  1. pnCCD for photon detection from near-infrared to X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Hartmann, Robert; Herrmann, Sven; Holl, Peter; Lutz, Gerhard; Strüder, Lothar

    2006-09-01

    A pnCCD is a special type of charge-coupled device developed for spectroscopy and imaging of X-rays with high time resolution and quantum efficiency. Its most famous application is the operation on the XMM-Newton satellite, an X-ray astronomy mission that was launched by the European space agency in 1999. The excellent performance of the focal plane camera has been maintained for more than 6 years in orbit. The energy resolution in particular has shown hardly any degradation since launch. In order to satisfy the requirements of future X-ray astronomy missions as well as those of ground-based experiments, a new type of pnCCD has been developed. This ‘frame-store pnCCD’ shows an enhanced performance compared to the XMM-Newton type of pnCCD. Now, more options in device design and operation are available to tailor the detector to its respective application. Part of this concept is a programmable analog signal processor, which has been developed for the readout of the CCD signals. The electronic noise of the new detector has a value of only 2 electrons equivalent noise charge (ENC), which is less than half of the figure achieved for the XMM-Newton-type pnCCD. The energy resolution for the Mn-Kα line at 5.9 keV is approximately 130 eV FWHM. We have close to 100% quantum efficiency for both low- and high-energy photon detection (e.g. the C-K line at 277 eV, and the Ge-Kα line at 10 keV, respectively). Very high frame rates of 1000 images/s have been achieved due to the ultra-fast readout accomplished by the parallel architecture of the pnCCD and the analog signal processor. Excellent spectroscopic performance is shown even at the relatively high operating temperature of -25 °C that can be achieved by a Peltier cooler. The applications of the low-noise and fast pnCCD detector are not limited to the detection of X-rays. With an anti-reflective coating deposited on the photon entrance window, we achieve high quantum efficiency also for near-infrared and optical

  2. Intraoperative Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging using indocyanine green in colorectal carcinomatosis surgery: Proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Barabino, G; Klein, J P; Porcheron, J; Grichine, A; Coll, J-L; Cottier, M

    2016-12-01

    This study assesses the value of using Intraoperative Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging and Indocyanine green to detect colorectal carcinomatosis during oncological surgery. In colorectal carcinomatosis cancer, two of the most important prognostic factors are completeness of staging and completeness of cytoreductive surgery. Presently, intraoperative assessment of tumoral margins relies on palpation and visual inspection. The recent introduction of Near Infrared fluorescence image guidance provides new opportunities for surgical roles, particularly in cancer surgery. The study was a non-randomized, monocentric, pilot "ex vivo" blinded clinical trial validated by the ethical committee of University Hospital of Saint Etienne. Ten patients with colorectal carcinomatosis cancer scheduled for cytoreductive surgery were included. Patients received 0.25 mg/kg of Indocyanine green intravenously 24 h before surgery. A Near Infrared camera was used to detect "ex-vivo" fluorescent lesions. There was no surgical mortality. Each analysis was done blindly. In a total of 88 lesions analyzed, 58 were classified by a pathologist as cancerous and 30 as non-cancerous. Among the 58 cancerous lesions, 42 were correctly classified by the Intraoperative Near-Infrared camera (sensitivity of 72.4%). Among the 30 non-cancerous lesions, 18 were correctly classified by the Intraoperative Near-Infrared camera (specificity of 60.0%). Near Infrared fluorescence imaging is a promising technique for intraoperative tumor identification. It could help the surgeon to determine resection margins and reduce the risk of locoregional recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ the Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  3. Hierarchical Models for Type Ia Supernova Light Curves in the Optical and Near Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Kaisey; Narayan, G.; Kirshner, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    I have constructed a comprehensive statistical model for Type Ia supernova optical and near infrared light curves. Since the near infrared light curves are excellent standard candles and are less sensitive to dust extinction and reddening, the combination of near infrared and optical data better constrains the host galaxy extinction and improves the precision of distance predictions to SN Ia. A hierarchical probabilistic model coherently accounts for multiple random and uncertain effects, including photometric error, intrinsic supernova light curve variations and correlations across phase and wavelength, dust extinction and reddening, peculiar velocity dispersion and distances. An improved BayeSN MCMC code is implemented for computing probabilistic inferences for individual supernovae and the SN Ia and host galaxy dust populations. I use this hierarchical model to analyze nearby Type Ia supernovae with optical and near infared data from the PAIRITEL, CfA3, and CSP samples and the literature. Using cross-validation to test the robustness of the model predictions, I find that the rms Hubble diagram scatter of predicted distance moduli is 0.11 mag for SN with optical and near infrared data versus 0.15 mag for SN with only optical data. Accounting for the dispersion expected from random peculiar velocities, the rms intrinsic prediction error is 0.08-0.10 mag for SN with both optical and near infrared light curves. I discuss results for the inferred intrinsic correlation structures of the optical-NIR SN Ia light curves and the host galaxy dust distribution captured by the hierarchical model. The continued observation and analysis of Type Ia SN in the optical and near infrared is important for improving their utility as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  4. Optical diffuse reflectance accessory for measurements of skin tissue by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marbach, R.; Heise, H. M.

    1995-02-01

    An optimized accessory for measuring the diffuse reflectance spectra of human skin tissue in the near-infrared spectral range is presented. The device includes an on-axis ellipsoidal collecting mirror with efficient illumination optics for small sampling areas of bulky body specimens. The optical design is supported by the results of a Monte Carlo simulation study of the reflectance characteristics of skin tissue. Because the results evolved from efforts to measure blood glucose noninvasively, the main emphasis is placed on the long-wavelength near-infrared range where sufficient penetration depth for radiation into tissue is still available. The accessory is applied for in vivo diffuse reflectance measurements.

  5. Characterization of the functional near-infrared spectroscopy response to nociception in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Olbrecht, Vanessa A; Jiang, Yifei; Viola, Luigi; Walter, Charlotte M; Liu, Hanli; Kurth, Charles D

    2018-02-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy can interrogate functional optical signal changes in regional brain oxygenation and blood volume to nociception analogous to functional magnetic resonance imaging. This exploratory study aimed to characterize the near-infrared spectroscopy signals for oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin from the brain in response to nociceptive stimulation of varying intensity and duration, and after analgesic and neuromuscular paralytic in a pediatric population. We enrolled children 6 months-21 years during propofol sedation before surgery. The near-infrared spectroscopy sensor was placed on the forehead and nociception was produced from an electrical current applied to the wrist. We determined the near-infrared spectroscopy signal response to increasing current intensity and duration, and after fentanyl, sevoflurane, and neuromuscular paralytic. Heart rate and arm movement during electrical stimulation was also recorded. The near-infrared spectroscopy signals for oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin were calculated as optical density*time (area under curve). During electrical stimulation, nociception was evident: tachycardia and arm withdrawal was observed that disappeared after fentanyl and sevoflurane, whereas after paralytic, tachycardia persisted while arm withdrawal disappeared. The near-infrared spectroscopy signals for oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin increased during stimulation and decreased after stimulation; the areas under the curves were greater for stimulations 30 mA vs 15 mA (13.9 [5.6-22.2], P = .0021; 5.6 [0.8-10.5], P = .0254, and 19.8 [10.5-29.1], P = .0002 for HbO 2 , Hb, and Hb T , respectively), 50 Hz vs 1 Hz (17.2 [5.8-28.6], P = .0046; 7.5 [0.7-14.3], P = .0314, and 21.9 [4.2-39.6], P = .0177 for HbO 2 , Hb, and Hb T , respectively) and 45 seconds vs 15 seconds (16.3 [3.4-29.2], P = .0188 and 22.0 [7.5-36.5], P = .0075 for HbO 2 and Hb T , respectively); the areas under the curves were attenuated by

  6. [Rapid determination of fatty acids in soybean oils by transmission reflection-near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Song, Tao; Zhang, Feng-ping; Liu, Yao-min; Wu, Zong-wen; Suo, You-rui

    2012-08-01

    In the present research, a novel method was established for determination of five fatty acids in soybean oil by transmission reflection-near infrared spectroscopy. The optimum conditions of mathematics model of five components (C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) were studied, including the sample set selection, chemical value analysis, the detection methods and condition. Chemical value was analyzed by gas chromatography. One hundred fifty eight samples were selected, 138 for modeling set, 10 for testing set and 10 for unknown sample set. All samples were placed in sample pools and scanned by transmission reflection-near infrared spectrum after sonicleaning for 10 minute. The 1100-2500 nm spectral region was analyzed. The acquisition interval was 2 nm. Modified partial least square method was chosen for calibration mode creating. Result demonstrated that the 1-VR of five fatty acids between the reference value of the modeling sample set and the near infrared spectrum predictive value were 0.8839, 0.5830, 0.9001, 0.9776 and 0.9596, respectively. And the SECV of five fatty acids between the reference value of the modeling sample set and the near infrared spectrum predictive value were 0.42, 0.29, 0.83, 0.46 and 0.21, respectively. The standard error of the calibration (SECV) of five fatty acids between the reference value of testing sample set and the near infrared spectrum predictive value were 0.891, 0.790, 0.900, 0.976 and 0.942, respectively. It was proved that the near infrared spectrum predictive value was linear with chemical value and the mathematical model established for fatty acids of soybean oil was feasible. For validation, 10 unknown samples were selected for analysis by near infrared spectrum. The result demonstrated that the relative standard deviation between predict value and chemical value was less than 5.50%. That was to say that transmission reflection-near infrared spectroscopy had a good veracity in analysis of fatty acids of soybean oil.

  7. Near-Infrared Chromophore Functionalized Soft Actuator with Ultrafast Photoresponsive Speed and Superior Mechanical Property.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Liu, Mei-Hua; Deng, Lin-Lin; Lin, Bao-Ping; Yang, Hong

    2017-08-23

    In this Communication, we develop a two-step acyclic diene metathesis in situ polymerization/cross-linking method to synthesize uniaxially aligned main-chain liquid crystal elastomers with chemically bonded near-infrared absorbing four-alkenyl-tailed croconaine-core cross-linkers. Because of the extraordinary photothermal conversion property, such a soft actuator material can raise its local temperature from 18 to 260 °C in 8 s, and lift up burdens 5600 times heavier than its own weight, under 808 nm near-infrared irradiation.

  8. [Application of near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to the detection and identification of transgenic corn].

    PubMed

    Rui, Yu-kui; Luo, Yun-bo; Huang, Kun-lun; Wang, Wei-min; Zhang, Lu-da

    2005-10-01

    With the rapid development of the GMO, more and more GMO food has been pouring into the market. Much attention has been paid to GMO labeling under the controversy of GMO safety. Transgenic corns and their parents were scanned by continuous wave of near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy range of 12000-4000 cm(-1); the resolution was 4 cm(-1); scanning was carried out for 64 times; BP algorithm was applied for data processing. The GMO food was easily resolved. Near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is unpolluted and inexpensive compared with PCR and ELISA, so it is a very promising detection method for GMO food.

  9. [A digital micromirror device-based Hadamard transform near infrared spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Chen, Fen-Fei; Liao, Cheng-Sheng; Xu, Qian; Zeng, Li-Bo; Wu, Qiong-Shui

    2011-10-01

    A Hadamard transform near infrared spectrometer based on a digital micromirror device was constructed. The optical signal was collected by optical fiber, a grating was used for light diffraction, a digital micromirror device (DMD) was applied instead of traditional mechanical Hadamard masks for optical modulation, and an InGaAs near infrared detector was used as the optic sensor. The original spectrum was recovered by fast Hadamard transform algrithms. The advantages of the spectrometer, such as high resolution, signal-noise-ratio, stability, sensitivity and response speed were proved by experiments, which indicated that it is very suitable for oil and food-safety applications.

  10. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for the Assessment of Speech Related Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieler, A. C.; Tupak, S. V.; Fallgatter, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past years functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has substantially contributed to the understanding of language and its neural correlates. In contrast to other imaging techniques, fNIRS is well suited to study language function in healthy and psychiatric populations due to its cheap and easy application in a quiet and natural…

  11. Nondestructive estimation of tracheid length from sections of radial wood strips by near infrared spectroscopy

    Laurence R. Schimleck; P. David Jones; Gary F. Peter; F. Daniels; Alexander Clarklll

    2004-01-01

    The use of calibrated near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for predicting tracheid length of Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) wood samples is described. Ten-mm sections of 14 P. taeda radial strips were selected and NIR spectra obtained from the radial longitudinal face of each section. The fibers in these sections were characterized in terms of arithmetic and length-...

  12. High resolution scanning of radial strips cut from increment cores by near infrared spectroscopy

    P. David Jones; Laurence R. Schimleck; Chi-Leung So; Alexander III Clark; Richard F. Daniels

    2007-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy provides a rapid method for the determination of wood properties of radial strips. The spatial resolution of the NIR measurements has generally been limited to sections 10 mm wide and as a consequence the estimation of wood properties of individual rings or within rings has not been possible. Many different NIR instruments can be used...

  13. Tracheid length prediction in Pinus palustris by means of near infrared spectroscopy: the influence of age

    Brian K. Via; Todd F. Shupe; Michael Stine; Chi-Leung So; Leslie H. Groom

    2005-01-01

    The predidion of tracheid Length using near infrared (NIR) wavelengths can provide either useful or misleading calibrations depending on the context. This can happen since tracheid length is not directly related to the absorbance at any wavelength but is instead the result of a seondary correlation with some unknown chemical constituent. In this work, the effect of...

  14. Ability of near infrared spectroscopy to monitor air-dry density distribution and variation of wood

    Brian K. Via; Chi-Leung So; Todd F. Shupe; Michael Stine; Leslie H. Groom

    2005-01-01

    Process control of wood density with near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) would be useful for pulp mills that need to maximize pulp yield without compromising paper strength properties. If models developed from the absorbance at wavelengths in the NIR region could provide density histograms, fiber supply personnel could monitor chip density variation as the chips enter the...

  15. Measurement of soy contents in ground beef using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Models for determining contents of soy products in ground beef were developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Samples were prepared by mixing four kinds of soybean protein products (Arconet, toasted soy grits, Profam and textured vegetable protein (TVP)) with ground beef (content from 0%–100...

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopy used to predict soybean seed germination and vigor

    The potential of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for differentiating levels in germination, vigor, and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds was investigated. For the 243 spectral data collected using the Perten DA7200, stratified sampling was used to obtain three calibration sets consisti...

  17. Use of near infrared spectroscopy to measure the chemical and mechanical properties of solid wood

    Stephen S. Kelley; Timothy G. Rials; Rebecca Snell; Leslie H. Groom; Amie Sluiter

    2004-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (500 nm-2400 nm), coupled with multivariate analytic (MVA) statistical techniques, have been used to predict the chemical and mechanical properties of solid loblolly pine wood. The samples were selected from different radial locations and heights of three loblolly pine trees grown in Arkansas. The chemical composition and mechanical...

  18. Analysis of Total Oil and Fatty Acids Composition by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy in Edible Nuts

    Near Infrared (NIR) Reflectance spectroscopy has established itself as an important tool in quantifying water and oil present in various food materials. It is rapid and nondestructive, easier to use, and does not require processing the samples with corrosive chemicals that would render them non-edib...

  19. Photoacoustic determination of glucose concentration in whole blood by a near-infrared laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zuomin; Myllylae, Risto A.

    2001-06-01

    The near-infrared photoacoustic technique is recognized as a potential method for the non-invasive determination of human glucose, because near-infrared light can incident a few millimeters into human tissue, where it produces an acoustic wave capable of carrying information about the composition of the tissue. This paper demonstrates a photoacoustic glucose measurement in a blood sample as a step toward a non-invasive measurement. The experimental apparatus consists of a near-infrared laser diode operating with 4 micro joules pulse energy at 905 nm, a roller pump connected to a silicon plastic tube and a cuvette for circulating the blood sample. In addition, the apparatus comprises a PZT piezoelectric transducer integrated with a battery-powered preamplifier to receive the photoacoustic signal. During the experiment, a glucose solution is mixed into a human blood sample to change its concentration. Although the absorption coefficient of glucose is much smaller than that of blood in the near-infrared region, the osmotic and hydrophilic properties of glucose decrease the reduced scattering coefficient of blood caused by the dissolved glucose surrounding the blood cells. This changes the distribution of the absorbed optical energy in blood, which, in turn, produces a change in the photoacoustic signal. Our experiment demonstrates that signal amplitudes in fresh and stored blood samples in crease about 7% and 10%, respectively, when the glucose concentration reaches the upper limit of the physiological region (500 mg/dl).

  20. Brown carbon absorption in the red and near-infrared spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffer, András; Tóth, Ádám; Pósfai, Mihály; Eddy Chung, Chul; Gelencsér, András

    2017-06-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols have often been assumed to be the only light-absorbing carbonaceous particles in the red and near-infrared spectral regions of solar radiation in the atmosphere. Here we report that tar balls (a specific type of organic aerosol particles from biomass burning) do absorb red and near-infrared radiation significantly. Tar balls were produced in a laboratory experiment, and their chemical and optical properties were measured. The absorption of these particles in the range between 470 and 950 nm was measured with an aethalometer, which is widely used to measure atmospheric aerosol absorption. We find that the absorption coefficient of tar balls at 880 nm is more than 10 % of that at 470 nm. The considerable absorption of red and infrared light by tar balls also follows from their relatively low absorption Ångström coefficient (and significant mass absorption coefficient) in the spectral range between 470 and 950 nm. Our results support the previous finding that tar balls may play an important role in global warming. Due to the non-negligible absorption of tar balls in the near-infrared region, the absorption measured in the field at near-infrared wavelengths cannot solely be due to soot particles.

  1. The application of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to inorganic preservative-treated wood

    Chi-Leung So; Stan T. Lebow; Leslie H. Groom; Timothy G. Rials

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing need to find a rapid, inexpensive, and reliable method to distinguish between treated and untreated waste wood. This paper evaluates the ability of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis (MVA) to distinguish preservative types and retentions. It is demonstrated that principal component analysis (PCA) can differentiate lumber...

  2. THE VARIABLE NEAR-INFRARED COUNTERPART OF THE MICROQUASAR GRS 1758–258

    SciT

    Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.; Martí, Josep; Muñoz-Arjonilla, Álvaro J., E-mail: peter@ujaen.es, E-mail: jmarti@ujaen.es, E-mail: ajmunoz@ujaen.es

    2014-12-10

    We present a new study of the microquasar system GRS 1758–258 in the near-infrared domain based on archival observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and the NICMOS camera. In addition to confirming the near-infrared counterpart pointed out by Muñoz-Arjonilla et al., we show that this object displays significant photometric variability. From its average magnitudes, we also find that GRS 1758–258 fits well within the correlation between the optical/near-infrared and X-ray luminosity known to exist for low-mass, black-hole candidate X-ray binaries in a hard state. Moreover, the spectral energy distribution built using all radio, near-infrared, and X-ray data available closest inmore » time to the NICMOS observations can be reasonably interpreted in terms of a self-absorbed radio jet and an irradiated accretion disk model around a stellar-mass black hole. All these facts match the expected behavior of a compact binary system and strengthen our confidence in the counterpart identification.« less

  3. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy to preservative-treated wood

    Chi-Leung So; Stan T. Lebow; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Leslie H. Groom; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is now a widely-used technique in the field of forest products, especially for physical and mechanical property determinations. This technique is also ideal for the chemical analysis of wood. There has been a growing need to find a rapid, inexpensive and reliable method to distinguish between preservative-treated and untreated waste...

  4. NEAR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTO-DETECTION OF ZOSTERA JAPONICA COMMUNITIES IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near infrared color aerial photography (-1:7200) of Yaquina Bay, Oregon, flown at minus tides during summer months of 1997 was used to produce digital stereo ortho-photographs covering tidally exposed eelgrass habitat. GIS analysis coupled with GPS positioning of ground-truth da...

  5. Near infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics analysis of serum from mares exposed to the fungal mycotoxin zearalenone

    Aquaphotomics is a branch of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in which bond vibrations from organic molecules and water create unique spectral absorbance patterns to profile complex aqueous mixtures. Aquaphotomics has been shown to detect virus infected soybean plants from extracts, classify probiot...

  6. Synthesis of a Near-Infrared Emitting Squaraine Dye in an Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Patrick; Levine, Mindy

    2012-01-01

    Squaraines are a class of organic fluorophores that possess unique photophysical properties, including strong near-infrared absorption and emission. The synthesis of many squaraines involves the condensation of an electron-rich aromatic ring with squaric acid. These reactions are generally refluxed overnight in a benzene-butanol solvent mixture.…

  7. Towards a low-cost mobile subcutaneous vein detection solution using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Juric, Simon; Flis, Vojko; Debevc, Matjaz; Holzinger, Andreas; Zalik, Borut

    2014-01-01

    Excessive venipunctures are both time- and resource-consuming events, which cause anxiety, pain, and distress in patients, or can lead to severe harmful injuries. We propose a low-cost mobile health solution for subcutaneous vein detection using near-infrared spectroscopy, along with an assessment of the current state of the art in this field. The first objective of this study was to get a deeper overview of the research topic, through the initial team discussions and a detailed literature review (using both academic and grey literature). The second objective, that is, identifying the commercial systems employing near-infrared spectroscopy, was conducted using the PubMed database. The goal of the third objective was to identify and evaluate (using the IEEE Xplore database) the research efforts in the field of low-cost near-infrared imaging in general, as a basis for the conceptual model of the upcoming prototype. Although the reviewed commercial devices have demonstrated usefulness and value for peripheral veins visualization, other evaluated clinical outcomes are less conclusive. Previous studies regarding low-cost near-infrared systems demonstrated the general feasibility of developing cost-effective vein detection systems; however, their limitations are restricting their applicability to clinical practice. Finally, based on the current findings, we outline the future research direction.

  8. Visible/near-infrared spectroscopy for discrimination of HLB-infected citrus leaves from healthy leaves

    Researchers have used various hyperspectral systems, covering several areas of the electromagnetic spectrum to investigate all types of disease/plant interactions. The purpose of this research was to investigate using visible and near-infrared (400-1100nm) spectroscopy to differentiate HLB infected...

  9. Nondestructive detection of zebra chip disease in potatoes using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in the wavelength region from 900 nm to 2600 nm was evaluated as the basis for a rapid, non-destructive method for the detection of Zebra Chip disease in potatoes and the measurement of sugar concentrations in affected tubers. Using stepwise regression in conjunction...

  10. Correlation of quality measurements to visible-near infrared spectra of pasteurized egg

    A twelve week study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. Correlation of the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior egg quality) was carried out using ch...

  11. Chemometric correlation of shelf life, quality measurements, and visible-near infrared spectra of pasteurized eggs

    A twelve week study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. Correlation of the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior egg quality) was carried out using pr...

  12. Visible/near-infrared spectroscopy to predict water holding capacity in broiler breast meat

    Visible/Near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) was examined as a tool for rapidly determining water holding capacity (WHC) in broiler breast meat. Both partial least squares (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA) models were developed to relate Vis/NIRS spectra of 85 broiler breast meat sample...

  13. Near infrared observations of S 155. Evidence of induced star formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, L. K.; Lisi, F.; Felli, M.; Tofani, G.

    In order to investigate the possible existence of embedded objects of recent formation in the area of the Cepheus B - Sh2-155 interface, the authors have observed the region of the compact radio continuum source with the new near infrared camera ARNICA and the TIRGO telescope.

  14. Preliminary comparisons of portable near infrared (nir) instrumentation for laboratory measurements of cotton fiber micronaire

    Micronaire is a key quality and processing parameter for cotton fiber. A program was implemented to determine the capabilities of portable Near Infrared (NIR) instrumentation to monitor cotton fiber micronaire both in the laboratory and in/near the field. Previous evaluations on one NIR unit demon...

  15. Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer Detects Active Lava Flows at Prometheus Volcano, Io

    1999-11-04

    The active volcano Prometheus on Jupiter moon Io was imaged by NASA Galileo spacecraft during the close flyby of Io on Oct.10, 1999. The spectrometer can detect active volcanoes on Io by measuring their heat in the near-infrared wavelengths.

  16. Computer-aided design of peptide near infrared fluorescent probe for tumor diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Congying; Gu, Yueqing

    2014-09-01

    Integrin αvβ3 receptors are expressed on activated endothelial cells during neovascularization to maintain tumor growth, so they become hot research tagets in cancer diagnosis. Peptides possess several attractive features when compared to protein and small molecule, such as small size and high structural compatibility with target proteins. Efficient design of high-affinity peptide ligands to Integrin αvβ3 receptors has been an important problem. Designed peptides in silico provide a valuable and high-selectivity peptide, meanwhile decrease the time of drug screening. In this study, we design peptide which can bind with integrin αvβ3 via computer, and then synthesis near infrared fluorescent probe. The characterization of this near infrared fluorescent probe was detected by UV. To investigate the tumor cell targeting of this probe, it was labeled with visible fluorescent dye Rhodamine B (RhB) for microscopy. To evaluate the targeting capability of this near infrared fluorescent probe, mice bearing integrin αvβ3 positive tumor xenografts were used. In vitro cellular experiments indicated that this probe have a clear binding affinity to αvβ3-positive tumor cells. In vivo experiments confirmed the receptor binding specificity of this probe. The peptide of computational design can bind with integrin αvβ3. Combined peptide near-infrared fluorescent probe with imaging technology use for clinical and tumor diagnosis have a greater development in future.

  17. Prefrontal Dysfunction in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder as Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negoro, Hideki; Sawada, Masayuki; Iida, Junzo; Ota, Toyosaku; Tanaka, Shohei; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have enabled non-invasive clarification of brain functions in psychiatric disorders with measurement of hemoglobin concentrations as cerebral blood volume. Twenty medication-naive children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control…

  18. [Design of flat field holographic concave grating for near-infrared spectrophotometer].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xian-Yi; Wen, Zhi-Yu

    2008-07-01

    Near-infrared spectrum analysis can be used to determine the nature or test quantitatively some chemical compositions by detecting molecular double frequency and multiple frequency absorption. It has been used in agriculture, biology, petrifaction, foodstuff, medicament, spinning and other fields. Near-infrared spectrophotometer is the main apparatus for near-infrared spectrum analysis, and the grating is the most important part of the apparatus. Based on holographic concave grating theory and optic design software CODE V, a flat field holographic concave grating for near-infrared spectrophotometer was designed from primary structure, which relied on global optimization of the software. The contradiction between wide spectrum bound and limited spectrum extension was resolved, aberrations were reduced successfully, spectrum information was utilized fully, and the optic structure of spectrometer was highly efficient. Using CODE V software, complex high-order aberration equations need not be solved, the result can be evaluated quickly, flat field and resolving power can be kept in balance, and the work efficiency is also enhanced. A paradigm of flat field holographic concave grating is given, it works between 900 nm to 1 700 nm, the diameter of the concave grating is 25 mm, and F/ # is 1. 5. The design result was analyzed and evaluated. It was showed that if the slit source, whose width is 50 microm, is used to reconstruction, the theoretic resolution capacity is better than 6.3 nm.

  19. Silicon based near infrared photodetector using self-assembled organic crystalline nano-pillars

    SciT

    Ajiki, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yoshiharu-ajiki@ot.olympus.co.jp, E-mail: isao@i.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Kan, Tetsuo; Yahiro, Masayuki

    We propose a silicon (Si) based near-infrared photodetector using self-assembled organic crystalline nano-pillars, which were formed on an n-type Si substrate and were covered with an Au thin-film. These structures act as antennas for near-infrared light, resulting in an enhancement of the light absorption on the Au film. Because the Schottky junction is formed between the Au/n-type Si, the electron excited by the absorbed light can be detected as photocurrent. The optical measurement revealed that the nano-pillar structures enhanced the responsivity for the near-infrared light by 89 (14.5 mA/W) and 16 (0.433 mA/W) times compared with those of the photodetector without nano-pillarsmore » at the wavelengths of 1.2 and 1.3 μm, respectively. Moreover, no polarization dependency of the responsivity was observed, and the acceptable incident angle ranged from 0° to 30°. These broad responses were likely to be due to the organic nano-pillar structures' having variation in their orientation, which is advantageous for near-infrared detector uses.« less

  20. Hyperspectral near-infrared reflectance imaging for detection of defect tomatoes

    Cuticle cracks on tomatoes are potential sites of pathogenic infection that may cause deleterious consequences both to consumer health and to fresh and fresh-cut produce markets. The feasibility of a hyperspectral near-infrared imaging technique in the spectral range of 1000 nm to 1700 nm was inves...

  1. Remote Sensing of Rock Type in the Visible and Near-Infrared,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Visible and near-infrared spectra of minerals and rocks have been measured and evaluated in terms of remote sensing applications. The authors...difficult or impossible to use in a generalized remote sensing effort in which the composition of all rocks is to be mapped. Instead, this spectral

  2. Regional calibration models for predicting loblolly pine tracheid properties using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Mohamad Nabavi; Joseph Dahlen; Laurence Schimleck; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Cristian Montes

    2018-01-01

    This study developed regional calibration models for the prediction of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) tracheid properties using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. A total of 1842 pith-to-bark radial strips, aged 19–31 years, were acquired from 268 trees from 109 stands across the southeastern USA. Diffuse reflectance NIR spectra were collected at 10-mm...

  3. Comparison of near infrared spectra within broiler breast fillets deboned at different postmortem time

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used to predict texture quality of broiler breast fillets. Sampling is an important issue in NIR measurements to obtain accurate results. There are no research papers about sampling of chicken breast fillet for NIR measurement. The objective of this study wa...

  4. 21 CFR 882.1935 - Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. 882.1935 Section 882.1935 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... and the clinical training needed for the safe use of this device; (3) Appropriate analysis/testing...

  5. Near-infrared spectroscopy can reveal increases in brain activity related to animal-assisted therapy.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yuka; Ebara, Fumio; Morita, Yoshimitsu; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] Previous studies have indicated that animal-assisted therapy can promote recovery of psychological, social, and physiological function in mental disorders. This study was designed as a pilot evaluation of the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to objectively identify changes in brain activity that could mediate the effect of animal-assisted therapy. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy students (10 males and 10 females; age 19-21 years) of the Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University. Participants were shown a picture of a Tokara goat or shack (control) while prefrontal cortical oxygenated haemoglobin levels (representing neural activity) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. [Results] The prefrontal cortical near-infrared spectroscopy signal was significantly higher during viewing of the animal picture than during a rest condition or during viewing of the control picture. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that near-infrared spectroscopy can be used to objectively identify brain activity changes during human mentation regarding animals; furthermore, these preliminary results suggest the efficacy of animal-assisted therapy could be related to increased activation of the prefrontal cortex.

  6. Single-walled carbon nanotubes as near-infrared optical biosensors for life sciences and biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Jain, Astha; Homayoun, Aida; Bannister, Christopher W; Yum, Kyungsuk

    2015-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes that emit photostable near-infrared fluorescence have emerged as near-infrared optical biosensors for life sciences and biomedicine. Since the discovery of their near-infrared fluorescence, researchers have engineered single-walled carbon nanotubes to function as an optical biosensor that selectively modulates its fluorescence upon binding of target molecules. Here we review the recent advances in the single-walled carbon nanotube-based optical sensing technology for life sciences and biomedicine. We discuss the structure and optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes, the mechanisms for molecular recognition and signal transduction in single-walled carbon nanotube complexes, and the recent development of various single-walled carbon nanotube-based optical biosensors. We also discuss the opportunities and challenges to translate this emerging technology into biomedical research and clinical use, including the biological safety of single-walled carbon nanotubes. The advances in single-walled carbon nanotube-based near-infrared optical sensing technology open up a new avenue for in vitro and in vivo biosensing with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution, beneficial for many areas of life sciences and biomedicine. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Sorting in-shell walnuts using near infrared spectroscopy for improved drying efficiency and product quality

    In the current walnut drying practice, dryers comingle nuts with varying moisture contents (MC) which results in over drying of nuts with low MC and thereby decrease product quality. The objectives of this research were to investigate correlations among near infrared (NIR) spectral data and MC of fr...

  8. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for detecting Aflatoxin B1 of maize kernels

    The feasibility of detecting the Aflatoxin B1 in maize kernels inoculated with Aspergillus flavus conidia in the field was assessed using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technique. After pixel-level calibration, wavelength dependent offset, the masking method was adopted to reduce the noise and ...

  9. Near infrared-modulated propulsion of catalytic Janus polymer multilayer capsule motors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingjie; Si, Tieyan; Lin, Xiankun; He, Qiang

    2015-01-11

    The use of a near-infrared (NIR) laser for reversible modulation of a bubble-driven Janus polymer capsule motor is demonstrated. This process was mediated through illumination of the metal face of the Janus capsule motor at the critical concentration of peroxide fuel. Such an effective control of the propulsion of chemically powered microengines holds a considerable promise for diverse applications.

  10. Species authentication and geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines by near infrared spectroscopy: A review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-10-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive analytical technique, integrated with chemometrics, is a powerful process analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry and is becoming an attractive complementary technique for herbal medicine analysis. This review mainly focuses on the recent applications of NIR spectroscopy in species authentication of herbal medicines and their geographical origin discrimination.

  11. [Study of near infrared spectral preprocessing and wavelength selection methods for endometrial cancer tissue].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Ting; Xiang, Yu-Hong; Dai, Yin-Mei; Zhang, Zhuo-Yong

    2010-04-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy was applied to measure the tissue slice of endometrial tissues for collecting the spectra. A total of 154 spectra were obtained from 154 samples. The number of normal, hyperplasia, and malignant samples was 36, 60, and 58, respectively. Original near infrared spectra are composed of many variables, for example, interference information including instrument errors and physical effects such as particle size and light scatter. In order to reduce these influences, original spectra data should be performed with different spectral preprocessing methods to compress variables and extract useful information. So the methods of spectral preprocessing and wavelength selection have played an important role in near infrared spectroscopy technique. In the present paper the raw spectra were processed using various preprocessing methods including first derivative, multiplication scatter correction, Savitzky-Golay first derivative algorithm, standard normal variate, smoothing, and moving-window median. Standard deviation was used to select the optimal spectral region of 4 000-6 000 cm(-1). Then principal component analysis was used for classification. Principal component analysis results showed that three types of samples could be discriminated completely and the accuracy almost achieved 100%. This study demonstrated that near infrared spectroscopy technology and chemometrics method could be a fast, efficient, and novel means to diagnose cancer. The proposed methods would be a promising and significant diagnosis technique of early stage cancer.

  12. "ICT-not-quenching" near infrared ratiometric fluorescent detection of picric acid in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongqian; Li, Benhao; Li, Weiwei; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Shiguo; Pang, Yi

    2013-05-25

    The first "off-on" and ratiometric fluorescent method based on ICT mechanism for picric acid (PA) recognition in the near infrared region was constructed. Key advantages of the unique molecular architecture can fulfil the ratiometric response to electron-deficient featured PA which inclines to quench fluorescence of all reported sensors for PA.

  13. Abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy measurements are lower in preterm infants at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis

    Near-infrared spectroscopy is a noninvasive method of measuring local tissue oxygenation (StO[2]). Abdominal StO[2] measurements in preterm piglets are directly correlated with changes in intestinal blood flow and markedly reduced by necrotizing enterocolitis. The objectives of this study were to us...

  14. Moisture effects on the prediction performance of a single kernel near-infrared deoxynivalenol calibration

    Effect of moisture content variation on the accuracy of single kernel deoxynivalenol (DON) prediction by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was investigated. Sample moisture content (MC) considerably affected accuracy of the current NIR DON calibration by underestimating or over estimating DON at high...

  15. Radiation-Induced Transient Effects in Near Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Robert A.; Pickel, J.; Marshall, P.; Waczynski, A.; McMurray, R.; Gee, G.; Polidan, E.; Johnson, S.; McKeivey, M.; Ennico, K.; hide

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a test simulate the transient effects of cosmic ray impacts on near infrared focal plane arrays. The objectives of the test are to: 1) Characterize proton single events as function of energy and angle of incidence; 2) Measure charge spread (crosstalk) to adjacent pixels; 3) Assess transient recovery time.

  16. Towards a Low-Cost Mobile Subcutaneous Vein Detection Solution Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Flis, Vojko; Debevc, Matjaz; Holzinger, Andreas; Zalik, Borut

    2014-01-01

    Excessive venipunctures are both time- and resource-consuming events, which cause anxiety, pain, and distress in patients, or can lead to severe harmful injuries. We propose a low-cost mobile health solution for subcutaneous vein detection using near-infrared spectroscopy, along with an assessment of the current state of the art in this field. The first objective of this study was to get a deeper overview of the research topic, through the initial team discussions and a detailed literature review (using both academic and grey literature). The second objective, that is, identifying the commercial systems employing near-infrared spectroscopy, was conducted using the PubMed database. The goal of the third objective was to identify and evaluate (using the IEEE Xplore database) the research efforts in the field of low-cost near-infrared imaging in general, as a basis for the conceptual model of the upcoming prototype. Although the reviewed commercial devices have demonstrated usefulness and value for peripheral veins visualization, other evaluated clinical outcomes are less conclusive. Previous studies regarding low-cost near-infrared systems demonstrated the general feasibility of developing cost-effective vein detection systems; however, their limitations are restricting their applicability to clinical practice. Finally, based on the current findings, we outline the future research direction. PMID:24883388

  17. Penetration depth measurement of near-infrared hyperspectral imaging light for milk powder

    The increasingly common application of near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique to the analysis of food powders has led to the need for optical characterization of samples. This study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of quantifying penetration depth of NIR hyperspectral imaging ligh...

  18. Analysis of near infrared spectra for age-grading of wild populations of Anopheles gambiae

    A greater understanding of the age-structure of mosquito populations, especially malaria vectors such as Anopheles gambiae, is important for assessing the risk of infectious mosquitoes, and how vector control interventions may affect this structure. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for a...

  19. [Effect of the near infrared spectrum resolution on the nitrogen content model in green tea].

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan; Liu, Xin; Liu, Hong-Gang; Zhang, Ying-Bin; Yin, Peng

    2013-07-01

    The effect of different resolutions(2, 4, 6, 8, 16 cm(-1)) on the near infrared spectrogram and nitrogen content model for green tea was studied. Test results showed that instrument resolution could influence the spectra quality. The higher the resolution was, the richer the information would be, but the noise would increase. With lower resolution, spectrogram would be much more smooth, but get seriously distorted, and prediction accuracy would decrease at the same time. The partial least squares model was built after spectral pretreatment. When resolution was 4 cm(-1), the RMSEP value of external validation set was 0.054 6, which was obviously lower than others. The Corr. Coeff. was 0.998 2. Its prediction performance was the best and the prediction accuracy better. STDEV and RSD were 0.020 and 0.334 respectively. Resolution 4 cm(-1) for near infrared spectrometer collecting green tea samples was the optimal resolution. This research can provide a reference for parameters selection when collecting green tea spectra with near infrared spectrometer, improve the stability and prediction performance of the model and promote the application and promotion of the near infrared spectroscopy for tea.

  20. Development of near-infrared spectroscopy calibrations to measure quality characteristics in intact Brassicaceae germplasm

    Determining seed quality parameters is an integral part of cultivar improvement and germplasm screening. However, quality tests are often time cnsuming, seed destructive, and can require large seed samples. This study describes the development of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations to mea...

  1. Recent advances in the use of non-destructive near infrared spectroscopy on intact olive fruits

    The objective of this review is to illustrate the state of the art in the use of non-destructive near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for quality evaluation of intact fruit in the olive industry. First, the most recent studies regarding the application of non-destructive NIR spectroscopy methods to asse...

  2. A near-infrared spectroscopy routine for unambiguous identification of cryptic ant species

    The identification of species – of importance for most biological disciplines – is not always straightforward as cryptic species present a hurdle for traditional species discrimination. Fibre-optic near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a rapid and cheap method for a wide range of different applicatio...

  3. Soil texture and organic carbon fractions predicted from near-infrared spectroscopy and geostatistics

    Field-specific management could help achieve agricultural sustainability by increasing production and decreasing environmental impacts. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and geostatistics are relatively unexplored tools that could reduce time, labor, and costs of soil analysis. Our objective was to ...

  4. The response of visible/near infrared absorbance to wood-staining fungi

    Brian K. Via; Lori G. Eckhardt; Chi-Leung So; Todd F. Shupe; Leslie H. Groom; Michael Stine

    2006-01-01

    The influence of blue-stain fungi [Ophiostoma minus (Hedgcock) H. and P. Sydow and Leptographium serpens (Goid.) Siemaszko] on absorbance at the visible and near infrared wavelengths was investigated. Forty trees were sampled at breast height from longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). One half of each increment...

  5. Near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of hailstorm damage on olive fruit

    A rapid, robust, unbiased and inexpensive discriminant method capable of classifying olive fruit (Olea europaea L.) on the basis of the presence of hailstorm damage is economically important to the olive oil milling industry. Thus, in the present study, the feasibility of Near-Infrared (NIR) spectro...

  6. 7 CFR 801.7 - Reference methods and tolerances for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..._of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) Tolerances—(1) NIRS wheat protein analyzers. The... Method 992.23. (3) NIRS corn oil, protein, and starch analyzers. The maintenance tolerances for the NIRS... methods and tolerances for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analyzers. (a) Reference methods. (1) The...

  7. 7 CFR 801.7 - Reference methods and tolerances for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..._of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) Tolerances—(1) NIRS wheat protein analyzers. The... Method 992.23. (3) NIRS corn oil, protein, and starch analyzers. The maintenance tolerances for the NIRS... methods and tolerances for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analyzers. (a) Reference methods. (1) The...

  8. 7 CFR 801.7 - Reference methods and tolerances for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..._of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) Tolerances—(1) NIRS wheat protein analyzers. The... Method 992.23. (3) NIRS corn oil, protein, and starch analyzers. The maintenance tolerances for the NIRS... methods and tolerances for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analyzers. (a) Reference methods. (1) The...

  9. 7 CFR 801.7 - Reference methods and tolerances for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analyzers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..._of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) Tolerances—(1) NIRS wheat protein analyzers. The... Method 992.23. (3) NIRS corn oil, protein, and starch analyzers. The maintenance tolerances for the NIRS... methods and tolerances for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analyzers. (a) Reference methods. (1) The...

  10. A near-infrared SETI experiment: commissioning, data analysis, and performance results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, Jérôme; Wright, Shelley A.; Dorval, Patrick; Drake, Frank D.; Duenas, Andres; Isaacson, Howard; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Siemion, Andrew; Stone, Remington P. S.; Tallis, Melisa; Treffers, Richard R.; Werthimer, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Over the last two decades, Optical Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence experiments have been conducted to search for either continuous or pulsed visible-light laser beacons that could be used for interstellar communication or energy transmission. Near-infrared offers a compelling window for signal transmission since there is a decrease in interstellar extinction and Galactic background compared to optical wavelengths. An innovative Near-InfraRed and Optical SETI (NIROSETI) instrument has been designed and constructed to take advantage of a new generation of fast (> 1 Ghz) low-noise near-infrared avalanche photodiodes to search for nanosecond pulsed near-infrared (850 - 1650 nm) pulses. The instrument was successfully installed and commissioned at the Nickel (1m) telescope at Lick Observatory in March 2015. We will describe the overall design of the instrument with a focus on methods developed for data acquisition and reduction for near-infrared SETI. Time and height analyses of the pulses produced by the detectors are performed to search for periodicity and coincidences in the signals. We will further discuss our NIROSETI survey plans.

  11. Simulation of the fixed optical path difference of near infrared wind imaging interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Piao; Zhang, Chunmin; Yan, Tingyu; Liu, Dongdong; Li, Yanfen

    2017-02-01

    As an important part of the earth, atmosphere plays a vital role in filtering the solar radiation, adjusting the temperature and organizing the water circulation and keeping human survival. The passive atmospheric wind measurement is based on the imaging interferometer technology and Doppler effect of electromagnetic wave. By using the wind imaging interferometer to get four interferograms of airglow emission lines, the atmospheric wind velocity, temperature, pressure and emission rate can be derived. Exploring the multi-functional and integrated innovation of detecting wind temperature, wind velocity and trace gas has become a research focus in the field. In the present paper, the impact factors of the fixed optical path difference(OPD) of near infrared wind imaging interferometer(NIWII) are analyzed and the optimum value of the fixed optical path difference is simulated, yielding the optimal results of the fixed optical path difference is 20 cm in near infrared wave band (the O2(a1Δg) airglow emission at 1.27 microns). This study aims at providing theoretical basis and technical support for the detection of stratosphere near infrared wind field and giving guidance for the design and development of near infrared wind imaging interferometer.

  12. Combining Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data with near-infrared data from the ESO VISTA Hemisphere Survey

    SciT

    Banerji, M.; Jouvel, S.; Lin, H.

    2014-11-25

    We present the combination of optical data from the Science Verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) with near-infrared (NIR) data from the European Southern Observatory VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS). The deep optical detections from DES are used to extract fluxes and associated errors from the shallower VHS data. Joint seven-band ( grizYJK) photometric catalogues are produced in a single 3 sq-deg dedicated camera field centred at 02h26m-04d36m where the availability of ancillary multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy allows us to test the data quality. Dual photometry increases the number of DES galaxies with measured VHS fluxes by a factormore » of ~4.5 relative to a simple catalogue level matching and results in a ~1.5 mag increase in the 80 per cent completeness limit of the NIR data. Almost 70 per cent of DES sources have useful NIR flux measurements in this initial catalogue. Photometric redshifts are estimated for a subset of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts and initial results, although currently limited by small number statistics, indicate that the VHS data can help reduce the photometric redshift scatter at both z < 0.5 and z > 1. We present example DES+VHS colour selection criteria for high-redshift luminous red galaxies (LRGs) at z ~ 0.7 as well as luminous quasars. Using spectroscopic observations in this field we show that the additional VHS fluxes enable a cleaner selection of both populations with <10 per cent contamination from galactic stars in the case of spectroscopically confirmed quasars and <0.5 per cent contamination from galactic stars in the case of spectroscopically confirmed LRGs. The combined DES+VHS data set, which will eventually cover almost 5000 sq-deg, will therefore enable a range of new science and be ideally suited for target selection for future wide-field spectroscopic surveys.« less

  13. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging of water evaporation dynamics for early detection of incipient caries.

    PubMed

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2014-10-01

    Incipient caries is characterized as demineralization of the tooth enamel reflecting in increased porosity of enamel structure. As a result, the demineralized enamel may contain increased amount of water, and exhibit different water evaporation dynamics than the sound enamel. The objective of this paper is to assess the applicability of water evaporation dynamics of sound and demineralized enamel for detection and quantification of incipient caries using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. The time lapse of water evaporation from enamel samples with artificial and natural caries lesions of different stages was imaged by a near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system. Partial least squares regression was used to predict the water content from the acquired spectra. The water evaporation dynamics was characterized by a first order logarithmic drying model. The calculated time constants of the logarithmic drying model were used as the discriminative feature. The conducted measurements showed that demineralized enamel contains more water and exhibits significantly faster water evaporation than the sound enamel. By appropriate modelling of the water evaporation process from the enamel surface, the contrast between the sound and demineralized enamel observed in the individual near infrared spectral images can be substantially enhanced. The presented results indicate that near-infrared based prediction of water content combined with an appropriate drying model presents a strong foundation for development of novel diagnostic tools for incipient caries detection. The results of the study enhance the understanding of the water evaporation process from the sound and demineralized enamel and have significant implications for the detection of incipient caries by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Near-infrared analysis of hydrogen-bonding in glass- and rubber-state amorphous saccharide solids.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, Ken-ichi; Hiyama, Yukio; Yomota, Chikako; Kawanishi, Toru

    2009-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic analysis of noncrystalline polyols and saccharides (e.g., glycerol, sorbitol, maltitol, glucose, sucrose, maltose) was performed at different temperatures (30-80 degrees C) to elucidate the effect of glass transition on molecular interaction. Transmission NIR spectra (4,000-12,000 cm(-1)) of the liquids and cooled-melt amorphous solids showed broad absorption bands that indicate random configuration of molecules. Heating of the samples decreased an intermolecular hydrogen-bonding OH vibration band intensity (6,200-6,500 cm(-1)) with a concomitant increase in a free and intramolecular hydrogen-bonding OH group band (6,600-7,100 cm(-1)). Large reduction of the intermolecular hydrogen-bonding band intensity at temperatures above the glass transition (T(g)) of the individual solids should explain the higher molecular mobility and lower viscosity in the rubber state. Mixing of the polyols with a high T(g) saccharide (maltose) or an inorganic salt (sodium tetraborate) shifted both the glass transition and the inflection point of the hydrogen-bonding band intensity to higher temperatures. The implications of these results for pharmaceutical formulation design and process monitoring (PAT) are discussed.

  15. 1,7-Bis-(N,N-dialkylamino)perylene Bisimides: Facile Synthesis and Characterization as Near-Infrared Fluorescent Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kew-Yu; Chang, Che-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Three symmetric alkylamino-substituted perylene bisimides with different n-alkyl chain lengths (n = 6, 12, or 18), 1,7-bis-(N,N-dialkylamino)perylene bisimides (1a–1c), were synthesized under mild condition and were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and high resolution mass spectroscopy. Their optical and electrochemical properties were measured using UV-Vis and emission spectroscopic techniques as well as cyclic voltammetry (CV). These compounds show deep green color in both solution and solid state, and are highly soluble in dichloromethane and even in nonpolar solvents such as hexane. The shapes of the absorption spectra of 1a–1c in the solution and solid state were found to be almost the same, indicating that the long alkyl chains could efficiently prevent intermolecular contact and aggregation. They show a unique charge transfer emission in the near-infrared region, of which the peak wavelengths exhibit strong solvatochromism. The dipole moments of the molecules have been estimated using the Lippert–Mataga equation, and upon excitation, they show larger dipole moment changes than that of 1,7-diaminoperylene bisimide (2). Moreover, all the dyes exhibit two irreversible one-electron oxidations and two quasi-reversible one-electron reductions in dichloromethane at modest potentials. Complementary density functional theory calculations performed on these chromophores are reported in order to rationalize their electronic structure and optical properties. PMID:28788262

  16. Mid- and Near-infrared spectral properties of a sample of Swift-BAT X-ray selected AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Angel; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Malkan, Matthew A.; Ichikawa, Kohei; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Shirahata, M.; Nakagawa, Takao; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Oyabu, Shinki

    2015-08-01

    We present a comparative study of the mid- (MIR) to near-infrared (NIR) properties of a sample of X-ray selected AGNs from the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) 70-month all-sky hard X-ray (14-195 keV) survey. For a sample of 78 AGNs, including both Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 sources with black hole masses derived from 2MASS K-band magnitudes and literature, we obtain spectroscopic data from the IRC (2.5 - 5 μm) and IRS (in the 5-14 μm band) instruments onboard the Akari and Spitzer satellites, respectively. We test possible correlations between the 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features, the continuum slope and CO optical depth, as well as CO2, H2O, and amorphous silicates. Using the 3.3, 6.2 and 11.3 μm PAH emission features as a proxy for the star-formation rate (SFR) we report the AGN type and Eddington-ratio dependences of circum-nuclear star formation.

  17. Mapping polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and total toxicity equivalent soil concentrations by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Okparanma, Reuben N; Coulon, Frederic; Mayr, Thomas; Mouazen, Abdul M

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we used data from spectroscopic models based on visible and near-infrared (vis-NIR; 350-2500 nm) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to develop soil maps of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total toxicity equivalent concentrations (TTEC) of the PAH mixture. The TTEC maps were then used for hazard assessment of three petroleum release sites in the Niger Delta province of Nigeria (5.317°N, 6.467°E). As the paired t-test revealed, there were non-significant (p > 0.05) differences between soil maps of PAH and TTEC developed with chemically measured and vis-NIR-predicted data. Comparison maps of PAH showed a slight to moderate agreement between measured and predicted data (Kappa coefficient = 0.19-0.56). Using proposed generic assessment criteria, hazard assessment showed that the degree of action for site-specific risk assessment and/or remediation is similar for both measurement methods. This demonstrates that the vis-NIR method may be useful for monitoring hydrocarbon contamination in a petroleum release site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of ochratoxin A contamination in green coffee beans using Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Taradolsirithitikul, Panchita; Sirisomboon, Panmanas; Dachoupakan Sirisomboon, Cheewanun

    2017-03-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination is highly prevalent in a variety of agricultural products including the commercially important coffee bean. As such, rapid and accurate detection methods are considered necessary for the identification of OTA in green coffee beans. The goal of this research was to apply Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy to detect and classify OTA contamination in green coffee beans in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. PLSR models were generated using pretreated spectroscopic data to predict the OTA concentration. The best model displayed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.814, a standard error of prediction (SEP and bias of 1.965 µg kg -1 and 0.358 µg kg -1 , respectively. Additionally, a PLS-DA model was also generated, displaying a classification accuracy of 96.83% for a non-OTA contaminated model and 80.95% for an OTA contaminated model, with an overall classification accuracy of 88.89%. The results demonstrate that the developed model could be used for detecting OTA contamination in green coffee beans in either a quantitative or qualitative manner. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Transmission near-infrared (NIR) and photon time-of-flight (PTOF) spectroscopy in a comparative analysis of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Faisal; Abildgaard, Otto H A; Sparén, Anders; Svensson, Olof; Johansson, Jonas; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Andersen, Peter E; Khoptyar, Dmitry

    2015-03-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the application of photon time-of-flight spectroscopy (PTOFS) in the wavelength range 1050-1350 nm as a spectroscopic technique for the evaluation of the chemical composition and structural properties of pharmaceutical tablets. PTOFS is compared to transmission near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In contrast to transmission NIRS, PTOFS is capable of directly and independently determining the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the medium. Chemometric models were built on the evaluated absorption spectra for predicting tablet drug concentration. Results are compared to corresponding predictions built on transmission NIRS measurements. The predictive ability of PTOFS and transmission NIRS is comparable when models are based on uniformly distributed tablet sets. For non-uniform distribution of tablets based on particle sizes, the prediction ability of PTOFS is better than that of transmission NIRS. Analysis of reduced scattering spectra shows that PTOFS is able to characterize tablet microstructure and manufacturing process parameters. In contrast to the chemometric pseudo-variables provided by transmission NIRS, PTOFS provides physically meaningful quantities such as scattering strength and slope of particle size. The ability of PTOFS to quantify the reduced scattering spectra, together with its robustness in predicting drug content, makes it suitable for such evaluations in the pharmaceutical industry.

  20. Extended Stokes shift in fluorescent proteins: chromophore-protein interactions in a near-infrared TagRFP675 variant.

    PubMed

    Piatkevich, Kiryl D; Malashkevich, Vladimir N; Morozova, Kateryna S; Nemkovich, Nicolai A; Almo, Steven C; Verkhusha, Vladislav V

    2013-01-01

    Most GFP-like fluorescent proteins exhibit small Stokes shifts (10-45 nm) due to rigidity of the chromophore environment that excludes non-fluorescent relaxation to a ground state. An unusual near-infrared derivative of the red fluorescent protein mKate, named TagRFP675, exhibits the Stokes shift, which is 30 nm extended comparing to that of the parental protein. In physiological conditions, TagRFP675 absorbs at 598 nm and emits at 675 nm that makes it the most red-shifted protein of the GFP-like protein family. In addition, its emission maximum strongly depends on the excitation wavelength. Structures of TagRFP675 revealed the common DsRed-like chromophore, which, however, interacts with the protein matrix via an extensive network of hydrogen bonds capable of large flexibility. Based on the spectroscopic, biochemical, and structural analysis we suggest that the rearrangement of the hydrogen bond interactions between the chromophore and the protein matrix is responsible for the TagRFP675 spectral properties.