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Sample records for zirconia ceramic crowns

  1. Loading capacity of zirconia implant supported hybrid ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Nadja; Coldea, Andrea; Zitzmann, Nicola U; Fischer, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Recently a polymer infiltrated hybrid ceramic was developed, which is characterized by a low elastic modulus and therefore may be considered as potential material for implant supported single crowns. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the loading capacity of hybrid ceramic single crowns on one-piece zirconia implants with respect to the cement type. Fracture load tests were performed on standardized molar crowns milled from hybrid ceramic or feldspar ceramic, cemented to zirconia implants with either machined or etched intaglio surface using four different resin composite cements. Flexure strength, elastic modulus, indirect tensile strength and compressive strength of the cements were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA (p=0.05). The hybrid ceramic exhibited statistically significant higher fracture load values than the feldspar ceramic. Fracture load values and compressive strength values of the respective cements were correlated. Highest fracture load values were achieved with an adhesive cement (1253±148N). Etching of the intaglio surface did not improve the fracture load. Loading capacity of hybrid ceramic single crowns on one-piece zirconia implants is superior to that of feldspar ceramic. To achieve maximal loading capacity for permanent cementation of full-ceramic restorations on zirconia implants, self-adhesive or adhesive cements with a high compressive strength should be used. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. RESULTS The mean fracture strengths were as follows: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. CONCLUSION The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain. PMID:23755332

  3. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Yang, Jae-Ho; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun; Yeo, In-Sung

    2013-05-01

    All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. THE MEAN FRACTURE STRENGTHS WERE AS FOLLOWS: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain.

  4. Evaluation of marginal fit of 2 CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown systems and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crown.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyung; Park, Ji-Hee; Park, Sang-Won; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Oh, Gye-Jeong; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2015-08-01

    This study was to evaluate the marginal fit of two CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown systems compared to lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crowns. Shoulder and deep chamfer margin were formed on each acrylic resin tooth model of a maxillary first premolar. Two CAD-CAM systems (Prettau®Zirconia and ZENOSTAR®ZR translucent) and lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max®press) crowns were made (n=16). Each crown was bonded to stone dies with resin cement (Rely X Unicem). Marginal gap and absolute marginal discrepancy of crowns were measured using a light microscope equipped with a digital camera (Leica DFC295) magnified by a factor of 100. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Tukey's HSD test were conducted to analyze the significance of crown marginal fit regarding the finish line configuration and the fabrication system. The mean marginal gap of lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns (IPS e.max®press) was significantly lower than that of the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (Prettau®Zirconia) (P<.05). Both fabrication systems and finish line configurations significantly influenced the absolute marginal discrepancy (P<.05). The lithium disilicate glass ceramic crown (IPS e.max®press) had significantly smaller marginal gap than the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (Prettau®Zirconia). In terms of absolute marginal discrepancy, the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (ZENOSTAR®ZR translucent) had under-extended margin, whereas the CAD-CAM anatomic contour zirconia crown system (Prettau®Zirconia) and lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns (IPS e.max®press) had overextended margins.

  5. Zirconia-implant-supported all-ceramic crowns withstand long-term load: a pilot investigation.

    PubMed

    Kohal, Ralf-J; Klaus, Gerold; Strub, Jörg R

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this pilot investigation was to test whether zirconia implants restored with different all-ceramic crowns would fulfill the biomechanical requirements for clinical use. Therefore, all-ceramic Empress-1 and Procera crowns were cemented on zirconia implants and exposed to the artificial mouth. Afterwards, the fracture strength of the all-ceramic implant-crown systems was evaluated. Conventional titanium implants restored with porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) crowns served as controls. Sixteen titanium implants with 16 PFM crowns and 32 zirconia implants with 16 Empress-1 crowns and 16 Procera crowns each--i.e., three implant-crown groups--were used in this investigation. The titanium implants were fabricated using the ReImplant system and the zirconia implants using the Celay system. The upper left central incisor served as a model for the fabrication of the implants and the crowns. Eight samples of each group were submitted to a long-term load test in the artificial mouth (1.2 million chewing cycles). Subsequently, a fracture strength test was performed with seven of the eight crowns. The remaining eight samples of each group were not submitted to the long-term load in the artificial mouth but were fracture-tested immediately. One loaded and one unloaded sample of each group were evaluated regarding the marginal fit of the crowns. All test samples survived the exposure to the artificial mouth. Three Empress-1 crowns showed cracks in the area of the loading steatite ball. The values for the fracture load in the titanium implant-PFM crown group without artificial loading ranged between 420 and 610 N (mean: 531.4 N), between 460 and 570 N (mean: 512.9 N) in the Empress-1 crown group, and in the Procera crown group the values were between 475 and 700 N (mean: 575.7 N) when not loaded artificially. The results when the specimens were loaded artificially with 1.2 million cycles were as follows: the titanium implant-PFM crowns fractured between 440 and 950 N

  6. CAD/CAM ZIRCONIA VS. SLIP-CAST GLASS-INFILTRATED ALUMINA/ZIRCONIA ALL-CERAMIC CROWNS: 2-YEAR RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Çehreli, Murat Cavit; Kökat, Ali Murat; Akça, Kivanç

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the early clinical outcome of slip-cast glass-infiltrated Alumina/Zirconia and CAD/CAM Zirconia all-ceramic crowns. A total of 30 InCeram® Zirconia and Cercon® Zirconia crowns were fabricated and cemented with a glass ionomer cement in 20 patients. At baseline, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year recall appointments, Californian Dental Association (CDA) quality evaluation system was used to evaluate the prosthetic replacements, and plaque and gingival index scores were used to explore the periodontal outcome of the treatments. No clinical sign of marginal discoloration, persistent pain and secondary caries was detected in any of the restorations. All InCeram® Zirconia crowns survived during the 2-year period, although one nonvital tooth experienced root fracture coupled with the fracture of the veneering porcelain of the restoration. One Cercon® Zirconia restoration fractured and was replaced. According to the CDA criteria, marginal integrity was rated excellent for InCeram® Zirconia (73%) and Cercon® Zirconia (80%) restorations, respectively. Slight color mismatch rate was higher for InCeram® Zirconia restorations (66%) than Cercon® Zirconia (26%) restorations. Plaque and gingival index scores were mostly zero and almost constant over time. Time-dependent changes in plaque and gingival index scores within and between groups were statistically similar (p>0.05). This clinical study demonstrates that single-tooth InCeram® Zirconia and Cercon® Zirconia crowns have comparable early clinical outcome, both seem as acceptable treatment modalities, and most importantly, all-ceramic alumina crowns strengthened by 25% zirconia can sufficiently withstand functional load in the posterior zone. PMID:19148406

  7. Effect of the shades of background substructures on the overall color of zirconia-based all-ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Tulapornchai, Chantana; Mamani, Jatuphol; Kamchatphai, Wannaporn; Thongpun, Noparat

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the color of a background substructure on the overall color of a zirconia-based all-ceramic crown. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty one posterior zirconia crowns were made for twenty subjects. Seven premolar crowns and six molar crowns were cemented onto abutments with metal post and core in the first and second group. In the third group, eight molar crowns were cemented onto abutments with a prefabricated post and composite core build-up. The color measurements of all-ceramic crowns were made before try-in, before and after cementation. A repeated measure ANOVA was used for a statistical analysis of a color change of all-ceramic crowns at α=.05. Twenty four zirconia specimens, with different core thicknesses (0.4-1 mm) were also prepared to obtain the contrast ratio of zirconia materials after veneering. RESULTS L*, a*, and b* values of all-ceramic crowns cemented either on a metal cast post and core or on a prefabricated post did not show significant changes (P>.05). However, the slight color changes of zirconia crowns were detected and represented by ΔE*ab values, ranging from 1.2 to 3.1. The contrast ratios of zirconia specimens were 0.92-0.95 after veneering. CONCLUSION No significant differences were observed between the L*, a*, and b* values of zirconia crowns cemented either on a metal cast post and core or a prefabricated post and composite core. However, the color of a background substructure could affect the overall color of posterior zirconia restorations with clinically recommended core thickness according to ΔE*ab values. PMID:24049574

  8. Fracture strength of lithium disilicate crowns compared to polymer-infiltrated ceramic-network and zirconia reinforced lithium silicate crowns.

    PubMed

    Sieper, Kim; Wille, Sebastian; Kern, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture strength of crowns made from current CAD/CAM materials. In addition the influence of crown thickness and chewing simulation on the fracture strength was evaluated. Crowns were fabricated from lithium disilicate, zirconia reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS-ceramic) and a polymer-infiltrated ceramic-network (PICN) with an occlusal thickness of 1.0mm or 1.5mm, respectively (n=16). Crowns were cemented on composite dies. Subgroups of eight specimens were loaded with 5kg in a chewing simulator for 1,200,000 cycles with thermal cycling. Finally, all specimens were loaded until fracture in a universal testing machine. Three-way ANOVA was used to detect statistical interaction. Differences regarding the materials were tested with two-way ANOVA, following one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc Tukey's-Test. All crowns survived the chewing simulation. The material had a significant influence on the fracture resistance (p≤0.05). Lithium disilicate achieved the highest values of fracture strength in almost all groups followed by ZLS-ceramic. PICN achieved the lowest values of fracture strength. Chewing simulation increased the fracture strength of thick lithium disilicate crown significantly. Greater occlusal thickness of all crown materials resulted in higher crown fracture strength before chewing simulation. After chewing simulation occlusal thickness of lithium disilicate and PICN crowns had no significant influence on the fracture strength. All crowns revealed fracture strength above the clinically expected loading forces. Therefore the durability of the tested CAD/CAM materials seems promising also in an occlusal thickness of 1.0mm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fracture load of implant-supported zirconia all-ceramic crowns luted with various cements.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yoo, Jeong-Min; Park, Sang-Won; Yang, Hong-So

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the fracture load and failure types of implant-supported zirconia all-ceramic crowns cemented with various luting agents. The ceramic frameworks were fabricated from a presintered yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide block using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing technology, and were then veneered with feldspathic porcelain. Three luting agents were used. Composite resin cement (1,560.78 +/- 39.43 N) showed the highest mean fracture load, followed by acrylic/urethane cement (1,116.20 +/- 77.32 N) and zinc oxide eugenol cement (741.21 +/- 41.95 N) (P < .05). The types of failure varied between groups.

  10. Fracture load and failure analysis of zirconia single crowns veneered with pressed and layered ceramics after chewing simulation.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Ozcan, Mutlu; Roos, Malgorzata; Trottmann, Albert; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2011-01-01

    This study determined the fracture load of zirconia crowns veneered with four overpressed and four layered ceramics after chewing simulation. The veneered zirconia crowns were cemented and subjected to chewing cycling. Subsequently, the specimens were loaded at an angle of 45° in a Universal Testing Machine to determine the fracture load. One-way ANOVA, followed by a post-hoc Scheffé test, t-test and Weibull statistic were performed. Overpressed crowns showed significantly lower fracture load (543-577 N) compared to layered ones (805-1067 N). No statistical difference was found between the fracture loads within the overpressed group. Within the layered groups, LV (1067 N) presented significantly higher results compared to LC (805 N). The mean values of all other groups were not significantly different. Single zirconia crowns veneered with overpressed ceramics exhibited lower fracture load than those of the layered ones after chewing simulation.

  11. Chairside Fabrication of an All-Ceramic Partial Crown Using a Zirconia-Reinforced Lithium Silicate Ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Pabel, Anne-Kathrin; Rödiger, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The chairside fabrication of a monolithic partial crown using a zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) ceramic is described. The fully digitized model-free workflow in a dental practice is possible due to the use of a powder-free intraoral scanner and the computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of the restorations. The innovative ZLS material offers a singular combination of fracture strength (>370 Mpa), optimum polishing characteristics, and excellent optical properties. Therefore, this ceramic is an interesting alternative material for monolithic restorations produced in a digital workflow. PMID:27042362

  12. Influence of CAD/CAM systems and cement selection on marginal discrepancy of zirconia-based ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rus, Francisco; Suárez, María J; Rivera, Begoña; Pradíes, Guillermo

    2012-04-01

    To analyze the effect of ceramic manufacturing technique and luting cement selection on the marginal adaptation of zirconium oxide-based all-ceramic crowns. An extracted mandibular first premolar was prepared for a complete coverage restoration and subsequently duplicated 40 times in a liquid crystal polymer (LCP). All-ceramic crowns (n = 10) were fabricated on LCP models using the following systems: glass-infiltrated zirconia-toughened alumina (In-Ceram Zirconia) and yttrium cation-doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (In-Ceram YZ, Cercon, and Procera Zirconia). The restorations (n = 5) were cemented on their respective dies with glass-ionomer cement (Ketac Cem Aplicap) and resin cement (Panavia 21). The absolute marginal discrepancy of the crowns was measured before and after cementation by scanning electronic microscopy at 160 points along the circumferential margin. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA for repeated measures and for independent samples, Scheffé's multiple range post hoc test, and Student's t-test (alpha = 0.05). There were statistical differences in the mean marginal openings among the four all-ceramic systems before and after luting (P < 0.0001). The Procera restorations had the lowest pre- and post-cementation values (P < 0.0001). A significant increase in the marginal gap size caused by luting media occurred in all tested groups (P < 0.0001). Resin cement resulted in larger marginal discrepancies than glass-ionomer cement (P < 0.0001).

  13. Comparison of fracture resistance and fracture characterization of bilayered zirconia/fluorapatite and monolithic lithium disilicate all ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Altamimi, Abdulaziz M; Tripodakis, Aris Petros; Eliades, George; Hirayama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    To compare the fracture resistance between bilayered zirconia/ fluorapatite and monolithic lithium disilicate heat-pressed crowns and characterize the mode of fracture failure. Thirty crown samples were sequentially fitted on a mandibular right first molar metal replica of an ivory prepared molar tooth. The crown specimens were divided in three groups (A, B, and C; n = 10 for each group). Group A consisted of bilayered zirconia/fluorhapatite pressed-over crowns with standard design crown copings (0.7 mm uniform thickness), Group B of bilayered zirconia/fluorhapatite with anatomical design crown copings, and Group C of lithium disilicate monolithic crowns. The samples were then dynamically loaded under water for 100,000 cycles with a profile of 250 N maximum load at 1,000 N/s rate and 2.0 Hz frequency. Loading was performed with a steel ball (5 mm in diameter) coming into contact with the test crown, loading to maximum, holding for 0.2 s, unloading and lifting off 0.5 mm. The samples were then fractured under static loading, in order to determine the ultimate crown strength. Analysis of the recorded fracture load values was carried out with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey tests. Fractured specimens were examined by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The fracture loads measured were (N, means and standard deviations): Group A: 561.87 (72.63), Group B: 1,014.16 (70.18) and Group C: 1,360.63 (77.95). All mean differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Catastrophic fractures occurred in Group C, whereas mainly veneer fractures were observed in Groups A and B. In the present study, the heat-pressed monolithic lithium-disilicate crowns showed more fracture resistance than zirconia/fluorapatite pressed-over crowns. Within the bilayered groups, the anatomical zirconia coping design presented increased ceramic fracture resistance.

  14. Bending moments of zirconia and titanium implant abutments supporting all-ceramic crowns after aging.

    PubMed

    Mühlemann, Sven; Truninger, Thomas C; Stawarczyk, Bogna; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Sailer, Irena

    2014-01-01

    To test the fracture load and fracture patterns of zirconia abutments restored with all-ceramic crowns after fatigue loading, exhibiting internal and external implant-abutment connections as compared to restored and internally fixed titanium abutments. A master abutment was used for the customization of 5 groups of zirconia abutments to a similar shape (test). The groups differed according to their implant-abutment connections: one-piece internal connection (BL; Straumann Bonelevel), two-piece internal connection (RS; Nobel Biocare ReplaceSelect), external connection (B; Branemark MkIII), two-piece internal connection (SP, Straumann StandardPlus) and one-piece internal connection (A; Astra Tech AB OsseoSpeed). Titanium abutments with internal implant-abutment connection (T; Straumann Bonelevel) served as control group. In each group, 12 abutments were fabricated, mounted to the respective implants and restored with glass-ceramic crowns. All samples were embedded in acrylic holders (ISO-Norm 14801). After aging by means of thermocycling in a chewing simulator, static load was applied until failure (ISO-Norm 14801). Fracture load was analyzed by calculating the bending moments. Values of all groups were compared with one-way ANOVA followed by Scheffé post hoc test (P-value<0.05). Failure mode was analyzed descriptively. The mean bending moments were 464.9 ± 106.6 N cm (BL), 581.8 ± 172.8 N cm (RS), 556.7 ± 128.4 N cm (B), 605.4 ± 54.7 N cm (SP), 216.4 ± 90.0 N cm (A) and 1042.0 ± 86.8 N cm (T). No difference of mean bending moments was found between groups BL, RS, B and SP. Test group A exhibited significantly lower mean bending moment than the other test groups. Control group T had significantly higher bending moments than all test groups. Failure due to fracture of the abutment and/or crown occurred in the test groups. In groups BL and A, fractures were located in the internal part of the connection, whereas in groups RS and SP, a partial

  15. Biomechanical properties of polymer-infiltrated ceramic crowns on one-piece zirconia implants after long-term chewing simulation.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, Pia; Kirsten, Holger; Haak, Rainer; Olms, Constanze

    2018-05-23

    Implant and superstructure provide a complex system, which has to withstand oral conditions. Concerning the brittleness of many ceramics, fractures are a greatly feared issue. Therefore, polymer-infiltrated ceramic networks (PICNs) were developed. Because of its low Young's modulus and high elastic modulus, the PICN crown on a one-piece zirconia implant might absorb forces to prevent the system from fracturing in order to sustain oral forces. Recommendations for the material of superstructure on zirconia implants are lacking, and only one study investigates PICN crowns on these types of implants. Accordingly, this study aimed to examine PICN crowns on one-piece zirconia implants regarding bond strength and surface wear after long-term chewing simulation (CS). Twenty-five hybrid ceramic crowns (Vita Enamic, Vita Zahnfabrik) were produced using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology and adhesively bonded (RelyX™ Ultimate, 3M ESPE) to zirconia implants. Twenty of the specimens underwent simultaneous mechanical loading and thermocycling simulating a 5-year clinical situation (SD Mechatronik GmbH). Wear depth and wear volume, based on X-ray micro-computed tomography volume scans (Skyscan 1172-100-50, Bruker) before and after CS, were evaluated. All crowns were removed from the implants using a universal testing machine (Z010, Zwick GmbH&Co.KG). Subsequently, luting agent was light microscopically localized (Stemi 2000-C, Zeiss). With a scanning electron microscope (SEM, Phenom™ G2 pro, Phenom World), the area of abrasion was assessed. 1. After CS, none of the tested crowns were fractured or loosened. 2. The maximum vertical wear after CS was M = 0.31 ± 0.04 mm (mean ± standard deviation), and the surface wear was M = 0.74 ± 0.23 mm 3 . 3. The pull-off tests revealed a 1.8 times higher bond strength of the control group compared to the experimental group (t(23) = 8.69, p < 0.001). 4. Luting agent was

  16. Influence of surface treatment on the in-vitro fracture resistance of zirconia-based all-ceramic anterior crowns.

    PubMed

    Schmitter, M; Lotze, G; Bömicke, W; Rues, S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of surface treatment on the fracture resistance of zirconia-based all-ceramic anterior crowns. Sixty-four zirconia-based all-ceramic anterior crowns, veneered by use of a press-on technique, were produced. For 48 crowns intraoral adjustment was simulated (A-group), 16 crowns remained unadjusted (WA-group). The adjusted area was then treated in three ways: 1. no further surface treatment; 2. polishing, with irrigation, using polishers interspersed with diamond grit for ceramics; and 3. polishing and glaze firing. Half of the specimens were loaded until fracture in an universal testing device without artificial ageing; the other crowns underwent thermocycling and chewing simulation before ultimate-load testing. Explorative statistical analysis was performed by use of non-parametric and parametric tests. In addition, fracture-strength tests according to ISO 6872 were performed for veneer ceramic subjected to the different surface treatments. Finite element analysis was also conducted for the crowns, and surface roughness was measured. Crowns in the A-group were more sensitive to aging than crowns in the WA-group (p=0.038). Although both polishing and glaze firing slightly improved the fracture resistance of the specimens, the fracture resistance in the WA-group (initial fracture resistance (IFR): 652.0 ± 107.7N, remaining fracture resistance after aging (RFR): 560.6 ± 233.3N) was higher than the fracture resistance in the A-group (polished: IFR: 477.9 ± 108.8N, RFR: 386.0 ± 218.5N; glaze firing: IFR: 535.5 ± 128.0N, RFR: 388.6 ± 202.2N). Surface roughness without adjustment was Ra=0.1 μm; for adjustment but without further treatment it was Ra=1.4 μm; for adjustment and polishing it was Ra=0.3 μm; and for adjustment, polishing, and glazing it was Ra=0.6 μm. Stress distributions obtained by finite element analysis in combination with fracture strength tests showed that fractures most probably originated from

  17. Marginal and Internal Discrepancies of Posterior Zirconia-Based Crowns Fabricated with Three Different CAD/CAM Systems Versus Metal-Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rocio; Gonzalo, Esther; Gomez-Polo, Miguel; Suárez, María J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the marginal and internal fit of metalceramic and zirconia-based crowns. Forty standardized steel specimens were prepared to receive posterior crowns and randomly divided into four groups (n = 10): (1) metal-ceramic, (2) NobelProcera Zirconia, (3) Lava Zirconia, and (4) VITA In-Ceram YZ. All crowns were cemented with glass-ionomer agent and sectioned buccolingually. A scanning electron microscope was used for measurements. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon signed rank test (α = .05) statistical analyses were conducted. Significant differences (P < .0001) in marginal discrepancies were observed between metal-ceramic and zirconia groups. No differences were found for the axial wall fit (P = .057). Significant differences were shown among the groups in discrepancies at the occlusal cusp (P = .0012) and at the fossa (P = .0062). No differences were observed between surfaces. All zirconia groups showed better values of marginal discrepancies than the metal-ceramic group. Procera Zirconia showed the lowest gaps.

  18. Effect of air-abrasion on the retention of zirconia ceramic crowns luted with different cements before and after artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Ramez; Kern, Matthias

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of intaglio surface air-abrasion on the retention of CAD/CAM produced zirconia ceramic crowns cemented with three different types of cement. In addition the influence of artificial aging in masticatory simulator and thermocycling was tested. Extracted human premolars were prepared for all-ceramic crowns (12 degrees taper, 3 mm axial length). CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were manufactured. Half of the crowns were air-abraded with 50 microm alumina particles at 0.25 MPa, the rest was left as machined. The crowns were luted with zinc phosphate cement (Hoffmann), glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem), or composite resin (Panavia 21), subgroups were either stored for 3 days in 37 degrees water bath or stored for 150 days in 37 degrees water bath, with additional 37,500 thermal cycles (5-55 degrees) and 300,000 cycles dynamic loading with 5 kg in a masticatory simulator. Then crown retention was measured in tension at a crosshead speed of 2 mm/min using a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was performed with three-way ANOVA. Mean retention values were ranged from 2.8 to 7.1 MPa after 3 days and from 1.6 to 6.1 MPa after artificial aging. Air-abrasion significantly increased crown retention (p<0.001), while artificial aging decreased retention (p=0.017). In addition, the luting material had a significant influence on retention (p<0.001) with the adhesive luting resin providing the highest retention. The use of phosphate monomer containing composite resin on air-abraded zirconia ceramic can be recommended as most retentive luting method. Copyright 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. All-Ceramic Single Crown Restauration of Zirconia Oral Implants and Its Influence on Fracture Resistance: An Investigation in the Artificial Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Kohal, Ralf-Joachim; Kilian, Jolanta Bernadette; Stampf, Susanne; Spies, Benedikt Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the fracture resistance of one-piece zirconia oral implants with and without all-ceramic incisor crowns after long-term thermomechanical cycling. A total of 48 implants were evaluated. The groups with crowns (C, 24 samples) and without crowns (N, 24 samples) were subdivided according to the loading protocol, resulting in three groups of 8 samples each: Group “0” was not exposed to cyclic loading, whereas groups “5” and “10” were loaded with 5 and 10 million chewing cycles, respectively. This resulted in 6 different groups: C0/N0, C5/N5 and C10/N10. Subsequently, all 48 implants were statically loaded to fracture and bending moments were calculated. All implants survived the artificial aging. For the static loading the following average bending moments were calculated: C0: 326 Ncm; C5: 339 Ncm; C10: 369 Ncm; N0: 339 Ncm; N5: 398 Ncm and N10: 355 Ncm. To a certain extent, thermomechanical cycling resulted in an increase of fracture resistance which did not prove to be statistically significant. Regarding its fracture resistance, the evaluated ceramic implant system made of Y-TZP seems to be able to resist physiological chewing forces long-term. Restauration with all-ceramic single crowns showed no negative influence on fracture resistance. PMID:28788018

  20. [Influence of coping material selection and porcelain firing on marginal and internal fit of computer-aided design/computer- aided manufacturing of zirconia and titanium ceramic implant-supported crowns].

    PubMed

    Cuiling, Liu; Liyuan, Yang; Xu, Gao; Hong, Shang

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of coping material and porcelain firing on the marginal and internal fit of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of zirconia ceramic implant- and titanium ceramic implant-supported crowns. Zirconia ceramic implant (group A, n = 8) and titanium metal ceramic implant-supported crowns (group B, n = 8) were produced from copings using the CAD/CAM system. The marginal and internal gaps of the copings and crowns were measured by using a light-body silicone replica technique combined with micro-computed tomography scanning to obtain a three-dimensional image. Marginal gap (MG), horizontal marginal discrepancy (HMD), and axial wall (AW) were measured. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0. Prior to porcelain firing, the measurements for MG, HMD, and AW of copings in group A were significantly larger than those in group B (P < 0.05). After porcelain firing, the measurements for MG of crowns in group A were smaller than those in group B (P < 0.05), whereas HMD and AW showed no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). Porcelain firing significantly reduced MG (P < 0.05) in group A but significantly increased MG, HMD, and AW in group B (P < 0.05) HMD and AW were not influenced by porcelain firing in group A (P > 0.05). The marginal fits of CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic implant-supported crowns were superior to those of CAD/CAM titanium ceramic-supported crowns. The fits of both the CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic implant- and titanium ceramic implant-supported crowns were obviously influenced by porcelain firing.

  1. Esthetic and Clinical Performance of Implant-Supported All-Ceramic Crowns Made with Prefabricated or CAD/CAM Zirconia Abutments: A Randomized, Multicenter Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Wittneben, J G; Gavric, J; Belser, U C; Bornstein, M M; Joda, T; Chappuis, V; Sailer, I; Brägger, U

    2017-02-01

    Patients' esthetic expectations are increasing, and the options of the prosthetic pathways are currently evolving. The objective of this randomized multicenter clinical trial was to assess and compare the esthetic outcome and clinical performance of anterior maxillary all-ceramic implant crowns (ICs) based either on prefabricated zirconia abutments veneered with pressed ceramics or on CAD/CAM zirconia abutments veneered with hand buildup technique. The null hypothesis was that there is no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. Forty implants were inserted in sites 14 to 24 (FDI) in 40 patients in 2 centers, the Universities of Bern and Geneva, Switzerland. After final impression, 20 patients were randomized into group A, restored with a 1-piece screw-retained single crown made of a prefabricated zirconia abutment with pressed ceramic as the veneering material using the cut-back technique, or group B using an individualized CAD/CAM zirconia abutment (CARES abutment; Institut Straumann AG) with a hand buildup technique. At baseline, 6 mo, and 1 y clinical, esthetic and radiographic parameters were assessed. Group A exhibited 1 dropout patient and 1 failure, resulting in a survival rate of 94.7% after 1 y, in comparison to 100% for group B. No other complications occurred. Clinical parameters presented stable and healthy peri-implant soft tissues. Overall, no or only minimal crestal bone changes were observed with a mean DIB (distance from the implant shoulder to the first bone-to-implant contact) of -0.15 mm (group A) and 0.12 mm (group B) at 1 y. There were no significant differences at baseline, 6 mo, and 1 y for DIB values between the 2 groups. Pink esthetic score (PES) and white esthetic score (WES) values at all 3 examinations indicated stability over time for both groups and pleasing esthetic outcomes. Both implant-supported prosthetic pathways represent a valuable treatment option for the restoration of single ICs in the anterior maxilla

  2. Randomized clinical study of wear of enamel antagonists against polished monolithic zirconia crowns

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Upshaw, J.F.; Kim, M.J.; Hsu, S.M.; Abdulhameed, N.; Jenkins, R.; Neal, D.; Ren, F.; Clark, A.E.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the in vivo maximum wear of enamel opposing monolithic zirconia crowns, enamel opposing porcelain fused to metal crowns and enamel opposing enamel. Methods Thirty patients needing single crowns were randomized to receive either a monolithic zirconia or metal-ceramic crown. Two non-restored opposing teeth in the same quadrants were identified to serve as enamel controls. After cementation, quadrants were scanned for baseline data. Polyvinylsiloxane impressions were obtained and poured in white stone. Patients were recalled at six-months and one-year for re-impression. Stone models were scanned using a tabletop laserscanner to determine maximum wear. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U to determine any significant differences between the wear of enamel against zirconia and metal-ceramic crowns. Results Sixteen zirconia and 14 metal-ceramic crowns were delivered. There were no statistical differences in mean wear of crown types (p = 0.165); enamel antagonists (p = 0.235) and enamel controls (p = 0.843) after one year. Conclusion Monolithic zirconia exhibited comparable wear of enamel compared with metal-ceramic crowns and control enamel after one year. Significance This study is clinically significant because the use of polished monolithic zirconia demonstrated comparable wear of opposing enamel to metal-ceramic and enamel antagonists. PMID:29042241

  3. Fracture resistance of implant- supported monolithic crowns cemented to zirconia hybrid-abutments: zirconia-based crowns vs. lithium disilicate crowns

    PubMed Central

    Nawafleh, Noor; Öchsner, Andreas; George, Roy

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the fracture resistance under chewing simulation of implant-supported posterior restorations (crowns cemented to hybrid-abutments) made of different all-ceramic materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS Monolithic zirconia (MZr) and monolithic lithium disilicate (MLD) crowns for mandibular first molar were fabricated using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and then cemented to zirconia hybrid-abutments (Ti-based). Each group was divided into two subgroups (n=10): (A) control group, crowns were subjected to single load to fracture; (B) test group, crowns underwent chewing simulation using multiple loads for 1.2 million cycles at 1.2 Hz with simultaneous thermocycling between 5℃ and 55℃. Data was statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and a Post-Hoc test. RESULTS All tested crowns survived chewing simulation resulting in 100% survival rate. However, wear facets were observed on all the crowns at the occlusal contact point. Fracture load of monolithic lithium disilicate crowns was statistically significantly lower than that of monolithic zirconia crowns. Also, fracture load was significantly reduced in both of the all-ceramic materials after exposure to chewing simulation and thermocycling. Crowns of all test groups exhibited cohesive fracture within the monolithic crown structure only, and no abutment fractures or screw loosening were observed. CONCLUSION When supported by implants, monolithic zirconia restorations cemented to hybrid abutments withstand masticatory forces. Also, fatigue loading accompanied by simultaneous thermocycling significantly reduces the strength of both of the all-ceramic materials. Moreover, further research is needed to define potentials, limits, and long-term serviceability of the materials and hybrid abutments. PMID:29503716

  4. Two-body wear comparison of zirconia crown, gold crown, and enamel against zirconia.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min-Seok; Oh, Sang-Yeob; Cho, Sung-Am

    2015-07-01

    Full zirconia crowns have recently been used for dental restorations because of their mechanical properties. However, there is little information about their wear characteristics against enamel, gold, and full zirconia crowns. The purpose of this study was to compare the wear rate of enamel, gold crowns, and zirconia crowns against zirconia blocks using an in vitro wear test. Upper specimens were divided into three groups: 10 enamels (group 1), 10 gold crowns (group 2, Type III gold), and 10 zirconia crowns (group 3, Prettau(®)Zirkon 9H, Zirkonzahn, Italy). Each of these specimens was wear tested against a zirconia block (40×30×3mm(3)) as a lower specimen (30 total zirconia blocks). Each specimen of the groups was abraded against the zirconia block for 600 cycles at 1Hz with 15mm front-to-back movement on an abrading machine. Moreover, the load applied during the abrading test was 50N, and the test was performed in a normal saline emulsion for 10min. Three-dimensional images were taken before and after the test, and the statistical analysis was performed using the Krushal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test (p=0.05). The mean volume loss of group 1 was 0.47mm(3), while that of group 2 and group 3 was 0.01mm(3). The wear volume loss of enamels against zirconia was higher than that of gold and zirconia crowns. Moreover, according to this result, zirconia crowns are not recommended for heavy bruxers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Zirconia based dental ceramics: structure, mechanical properties, biocompatibility and applications.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Chandkiram; Joyner, Jarin; Gautam, Amarendra; Rao, Jitendra; Vajtai, Robert

    2016-12-06

    Zirconia (ZrO 2 ) based dental ceramics have been considered to be advantageous materials with adequate mechanical properties for the manufacturing of medical devices. Due to its very high compression strength of 2000 MPa, ZrO 2 can resist differing mechanical environments. During the crack propagation on the application of stress on the surface of ZrO 2 , a crystalline modification diminishes the propagation of cracks. In addition, zirconia's biocompatibility has been studied in vivo, leading to the observation of no adverse response upon the insertion of ZrO 2 samples into the bone or muscle. In vitro experimentation has exhibited the absence of mutations and good viability of cells cultured on this material leading to the use of ZrO 2 in the manufacturing of hip head prostheses. The mechanical properties of zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPDs) have proven to be superior to other ceramic/composite restorations and hence leading to their significant applications in implant supported rehabilitations. Recent developments were focused on the synthesis of zirconia based dental materials. More recently, zirconia has been introduced in prosthetic dentistry for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures in combination with computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. This systematic review covers the results of past as well as recent scientific studies on the properties of zirconia based ceramics such as their specific compositions, microstructures, mechanical strength, biocompatibility and other applications in dentistry.

  6. Influence of coping design on the cervical color of ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Paniz, Gianluca; Kang, Ki-Ho; Kim, Yongjeong; Kumagai, Naota; Hirayama, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    The replication of natural teeth, especially with single-tooth restorations, represents a challenge. Similar to metal ceramic crowns, different designs of zirconia substructures have been suggested to improve the esthetic results of zirconia ceramic crowns. The purpose of the study was to analyze the color of the cervical portion of single zirconia ceramic crowns fabricated with different zirconia coping designs. The color, measured on the CIELAB color scale, of 3 different groups of restorations (n=10) fabricated with zirconia coping (Lava) and feldspathic porcelain (Noritake Super Porcelain) was analyzed with a spectrophotometer. Conventional zirconia crowns with zirconia facial margins were compared with ceramic crowns with porcelain facial margins and either a horizontal reduction of the zirconia coping (1.0 mm reduction) or an additional vertical reduction (1.0 mm additional reduction). The 3 groups, each with a different coping extension, were examined with a 1-way ANOVA and the Fisher exact test, and the differences of the groups were evaluated by applying ΔE thresholds (α=.05). The mean color difference among all the groups was not clinically significant (ΔE<3.7). Reduced color differences were present between the 2 porcelain butt margin groups of crowns (ΔE=1.06, between group H and V). Increased differences were present between the zirconia margin group and the porcelain butt margin group (ΔE=2.54 between group C and H; ΔE=2.41 between group C and V). Lab* values were examined in all the groups of crowns to determine the clinical implications. Within the limitation of the study, no significant differences were present among the tested groups of crowns. Nevertheless, although some differences were present between the zirconia margin group and the porcelain butt margin group, reduced differences were present between the 2 different cutback designs. Copyright © 2013 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc

  7. Effect of core thickness differences on post-fatigue indentation fracture resistance of veneered zirconia crowns.

    PubMed

    Alhasanyah, Abdulrahman; Vaidyanathan, Tritala K; Flinton, Robert J

    2013-07-01

    Despite the excellent esthetics of veneered zirconia crowns, the incidence of chipping and fracture of veneer porcelain on zirconia crowns has been recognized to be higher than in metal ceramic crowns. The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of selected variations in core thickness on the post-fatigue fracture resistance of veneer porcelain on zirconia crowns. Zirconia crowns for veneering were prepared with three thickness designs of (a) uniform 0.6-mm thick core (group A), (b) extra-thick 1.7 mm occlusal core support (group B), and (c) uniform 1.2-mm thick core (group C). The copings were virtually designed and milled by the CAD/CAM technique. Metal ceramic copings (group D) with the same design as in group C were used as controls. A sample size of N = 20 was used for each group. The copings were veneered with compatible porcelain and fatigue tested under a sinusoidal loading regimen. Loading was done with a 200 N maximum force amplitude under Hertzian axial loading conditions at the center of the crowns using a spherical tungsten carbide indenter. After 100,000 fatigue cycles, the crowns were axially loaded to fracture and maximum load levels before fracture was recorded. One-way ANOVA (P < 0.05) and post hoc Tukey tests (α = 0.05) were used to determine significant differences between means. The mean fracture failure load of group B was not significantly different from that of control group D. In contrast, the mean failure loads of groups A and C were significantly lower than that of control group D. Failure patterns also indicated distinct differences in failure mode distributions. The results suggest that proper occlusal core support improves veneer chipping fracture resistance in zirconia crowns. Extra-thick occlusal core support for porcelain veneer may significantly reduce the veneer chipping and fracture of zirconia crowns. This is suggested as an important consideration in the design of copings for zirconia crowns. © 2013 by the

  8. Antagonist wear of monolithic zirconia crowns after 2 years.

    PubMed

    Lohbauer, Ulrich; Reich, Sven

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of wear on the antagonist occlusal surfaces of clinically placed monolithic zirconia premolar and molar crowns (LAVA Plus, 3M ESPE). Fourteen in situ monolithic zirconia crowns and their opposing antagonists (n = 26) are the subject of an ongoing clinical trial and have been clinically examined at baseline and after 24 months. Silicone impressions were taken and epoxy replicas produced for qualitative SEM analysis and quantitative analysis using optical profilometry. Based on the baseline replicas, the follow-up situation has been scanned and digitally matched with the initial topography in order to calculate the mean volume loss (in mm 3 ) as well as the mean maximum vertical loss (in mm) after 2 years in service. The mean volume loss for enamel antagonist contacts (n = 7) was measured to 0.361 mm 3 and the mean of the maximum vertical loss to 0.204 mm. The mean volume loss for pure ceramic contacts (n = 10) was measured to 0.333 mm 3 and the mean of the maximum vertical loss to 0.145 mm. The wear rates on enamel contacts were not significantly different from those measured on ceramic antagonists. Based on the limitations of this study, it can be concluded for the monolithic zirconia material LAVA Plus that the measured wear rates are in consensus with other in vivo studies on ceramic restorations. Further, that no significant difference was found between natural enamel antagonists and ceramic restorations as antagonists. The monolithic zirconia restorations do not seem to be affected by wear within the first 2 years. The monolithic zirconia crowns (LAVA Plus) show acceptable antagonist wear rates after 2 years in situ, regardless of natural enamel or ceramics as antagonist materials.

  9. [Fatigue damage analysis of porcelain in all-ceramic crowns].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-hong; Feng, Hai-lan; Liu, Guang-hua; Shen, Zhi-jian

    2010-02-18

    To investigate the fatigue damage mechanism of porcelain, and its relation with the microscopic defects in clinically failed all-ceramic crowns. Collecting the bilayered all-ceramic crowns failed in vivo. The fractured surfaces and occlusial surfaces of failed crowns were examined by an optical microscope followed by detailed fractography investigations using a field emission scanning electron microscope. When chemical impurities were of concern, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis was performed to examine chemical composition. A standard practice for fractography failure analysis of advanced ceramics is applied to disclose the fracture mode, and damage character. Three types of fracture features are defined as breakdown of the entire crown, and porcelain chipping-off/delamination. Alumina crowns were usually characterized by breakdown of the entire crown, while zirconia crowns by porcelain chipping-off and delamination. The fatigue damage of porcelain was classified into surface wear, cone crack, and porcelain delamination. The observed microscopic defects in this study included air bubbles and impurity particles. The multi-point occlusial contacts were recommended in all-ceramic restorations clinically. The thickness of porcelain is important for the anti-fatigue ability of porcelain. Cautions have to be taken to avoid contaminations during the veneering processes.

  10. In-vitro performance and fracture strength of thin monolithic zirconia crowns

    PubMed Central

    Weigl, Paul; Wu, Yanyun; Felber, Roland; Lauer, Hans-Christoph

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic restorations required extensive tooth preparation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate a minimally invasive preparation and thickness of monolithic zirconia crowns, which would provide sufficient mechanical endurance and strength. MATERIALS AND METHODS Crowns with thickness of 0.2 mm (group 0.2, n=32) or of 0.5 mm (group 0.5, n=32) were milled from zirconia and fixed with resin-based adhesives (groups 0.2A, 0.5A) or zinc phosphate cements (groups 0.2C, 0.5C). Half of the samples in each subgroup (n=8) underwent thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML)(TC: 5℃ and 55℃, 2×3,000 cycles, 2 min/cycle; ML: 50 N, 1.2×106 cycles), while the other samples were stored in water (37℃/24 h). Survival rates were compared (Kaplan-Maier). The specimens surviving TCML were loaded to fracture and the maximal fracture force was determined (ANOVA; Bonferroni; α=.05). The fracture mode was analyzed. RESULTS In both 0.5 groups, all crowns survived TCML, and the comparison of fracture strength among crowns with and without TCML showed no significant difference (P=.628). Four crowns in group 0.2A and all of the crowns in group 0.2C failed during TCML. The fracture strength after 24 hours of the cemented 0.2 mm-thick crowns was significantly lower than that of adhesive bonded crowns. All cemented crowns provided fracture in the crown, while about 80% of the adhesively bonded crowns fractured through crown and die. CONCLUSION 0.5 mm thick monolithic crowns possessed sufficient strength to endure physiologic performance, regardless of the type of cementation. Fracture strength of the 0.2 mm cemented crowns was too low for clinical application. PMID:29713427

  11. Survival Predictions of Ceramic Crowns Using Statistical Fracture Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Nasrin, S.; Katsube, N.; Seghi, R.R.; Rokhlin, S.I.

    2017-01-01

    This work establishes a survival probability methodology for interface-initiated fatigue failures of monolithic ceramic crowns under simulated masticatory loading. A complete 3-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis model of a minimally reduced molar crown was developed using commercially available hardware and software. Estimates of material surface flaw distributions and fatigue parameters for 3 reinforced glass-ceramics (fluormica [FM], leucite [LR], and lithium disilicate [LD]) and a dense sintered yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YZ) were obtained from the literature and incorporated into the model. Utilizing the proposed fracture mechanics–based model, crown survival probability as a function of loading cycles was obtained from simulations performed on the 4 ceramic materials utilizing identical crown geometries and loading conditions. The weaker ceramic materials (FM and LR) resulted in lower survival rates than the more recently developed higher-strength ceramic materials (LD and YZ). The simulated 10-y survival rate of crowns fabricated from YZ was only slightly better than those fabricated from LD. In addition, 2 of the model crown systems (FM and LD) were expanded to determine regional-dependent failure probabilities. This analysis predicted that the LD-based crowns were more likely to fail from fractures initiating from margin areas, whereas the FM-based crowns showed a slightly higher probability of failure from fractures initiating from the occlusal table below the contact areas. These 2 predicted fracture initiation locations have some agreement with reported fractographic analyses of failed crowns. In this model, we considered the maximum tensile stress tangential to the interfacial surface, as opposed to the more universally reported maximum principal stress, because it more directly impacts crack propagation. While the accuracy of these predictions needs to be experimentally verified, the model can provide a fundamental understanding of the

  12. Effect of cement space on the marginal fit of CAD-CAM-fabricated monolithic zirconia crowns.

    PubMed

    Kale, Ediz; Seker, Emre; Yilmaz, Burak; Özcelik, Tuncer Burak

    2016-12-01

    Monolithic zirconia crowns fabricated with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) have recently become a common practice for the restoration of posterior teeth. The marginal fit of monolithic zirconia crowns may be affected by different cement space parameters set in the CAD software. Information is scarce regarding the effect of cement space on the marginal fit of monolithic zirconia crowns fabricated with CAD-CAM technology. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of cement space on the marginal fit of CAD-CAM-fabricated monolithic zirconia crowns before cementation. Fifteen right maxillary first molar typodont teeth with standardized anatomic preparations for complete-coverage ceramic crowns were scanned with a 3-dimensional laboratory scanner. Crowns were designed 3-dimensionally using software and then milled from presintered monolithic zirconia blocks in a computer numerical control dental milling machine. The cement space was set at 25 μm around the margins for all groups, and additional cement space starting 1 mm above the finish lines of the teeth was set at 30 μm for group 25-30, 40 μm for group 25-40, and 50 μm for group 25-50 in the CAD software. A total of 120 images (3 groups, 5 crowns per group, 8 sites per crown) were measured for vertical marginal discrepancy under a stereoscopic zoom microscope and the data were statistically analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey honestly significant difference test (α=.05). The results showed that different cement space values had statistically significant effect on the mean vertical marginal discrepancy value of tested crowns (P<.001). The mean marginal discrepancy was 85 μm for group 25-30, 68 μm for group 25-40, and 53 μm for group 25-50. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that the cement space had a significant effect on the marginal fit of CAD-CAM-fabricated monolithic zirconia crowns. The

  13. Fracture performance of computer-aided manufactured zirconia and alloy crowns.

    PubMed

    Rosentritt, Martin; Behr, Michael; Thaller, Christian; Rudolph, Heike; Feilzer, Albert

    2009-09-01

    To compare the fracture resistance and fracture performance of CAD/CAM zirconia and alloy crowns. One electrophoretic deposition alumina ceramic (Wolceram, Wolceram) and 4 zirconia-based systems (ce.novation, ce.novation; Cercon, DeguDent; Digizon, Amann Girrbach; and Lava, 3M ESPE) were investigated. A porcelain-fused-to-metal method (Academy, Bego Medical) was used in either conventional casting technique or laser sintering. Sixteen crowns of each material were fabricated and veneered with glass-ceramic as recommended by the manufacturers. Crown and root dimensions were measured, and 8 crowns of each system were adhesively bonded or conventionally cemented. After the crowns were artificially aged in a simulated oral environment (1,200,000 mechanical loads with 50 N; 3,000 thermal cycles with distilled water between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C; 2 minutes per cycle), fracture resistance and fracture patterns were determined and defect sizes investigated. The fracture force varied between 1,111 N and 2,038 N for conventional cementation and between 1,181 N and 2,295 N for adhesive bonding. No significant differences were found between adhesive and conventional cementations. Fracture patterns presented mostly as a chipping of the veneering, in single cases as a fracture of the core, and in 1 case as a fracture of the tooth. Crown material and cementation do not have any significant influence on the fracture force and fracture performance of all-ceramic and metal-based crowns. Therefore, it may be concluded that adhesive bonding is not necessary for the application of high-strength ceramics.

  14. Alumina-zirconia machinable abutments for implant-supported single-tooth anterior crowns.

    PubMed

    Sadoun, M; Perelmuter, S

    1997-01-01

    Innovative materials and application techniques are constantly being developed in the ongoing search for improved restorations. This article describes a new material and the fabrication process of aesthetic machinable ceramic anterior implant abutments. The ceramic material utilized is a mixture of alumina (aluminum oxide) and ceria (cerium oxide) with partially stabilized zirconia (zirconium oxide). The initial core material is a cylinder with a 9-mm diameter and a 15-mm height, obtained by ceramic injection and presintering processes. The resultant alumina-zirconia core is porous and readily machinable. It is secured to the analog, and its design is customized by machining the abutment to suit the particular clinical circumstances. The machining is followed by glass infiltration, and the crown is finalized. The learning objective of this article is to gain a basic knowledge of the fabrication and clinical application of the custom machinable abutments.

  15. Effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Mouhat, Mathieu; Nergård, John Magnus; Lægreid, Solveig Jenssen; Kanno, Taro; Milleding, Percy; Örtengren, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The present study investigated the effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns in relation to their compressive strength. Materials and methods Four different cements were tested: zinc phosphate cement (ZPC), glass-ionomer cement (GIC), self-adhesive resin-based cement (SRC) and resin-based cement (RC). RC was used in both dual cure mode (RC-D) and chemical cure mode (RC-C). First, the compressive strength of each cement was tested according to a standard (ISO 9917-1:2004). Second, load-to-failure test was performed to analyze the crown fracture resistance. CAD/CAM-produced monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm were prepared and cemented to dies with each cement. The crown–die samples were loaded until fracture. Results The compressive strength of SRC, RC-D and RC-C was significantly higher than those of ZPC and GIC (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the fracture load of the crown between the groups. Conclusion The values achieved in the load-to-failure test suggest that monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm may have good resistance against fracture regardless of types of cements. PMID:27335900

  16. Ceramic molar crown reproducibility by digital workflow manufacturing: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ii-Do; Kim, Woong-Chul; Park, Jinyoung; Kim, Chong-Myeong; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2017-08-01

    This in vitro study aimed to analyze and compare the reproducibility of zirconia and lithium disilicate crowns manufactured by digital workflow. A typodont model with a prepped upper first molar was set in a phantom head, and a digital impression was obtained with a video intraoral scanner (CEREC Omnicam; Sirona GmbH), from which a single crown was designed and manufactured with CAD/CAM into a zirconia crown and lithium disilicate crown (n=12). Reproducibility of each crown was quantitatively retrieved by superimposing the digitized data of the crown in 3D inspection software, and differences were graphically mapped in color. Areas with large differences were analyzed with digital microscopy. Mean quadratic deviations (RMS) quantitatively obtained from each ceramic group were statistically analyzed with Student's t-test (α=.05). The RMS value of lithium disilicate crown was 29.2 (4.1) µm and 17.6 (5.5) µm on the outer and inner surfaces, respectively, whereas these values were 18.6 (2.0) µm and 20.6 (5.1) µm for the zirconia crown. Reproducibility of zirconia and lithium disilicate crowns had a statistically significant difference only on the outer surface ( P <.001). The outer surface of lithium disilicate crown showed over-contouring on the buccal surface and under-contouring on the inner occlusal surface. The outer surface of zirconia crown showed both over- and under-contouring on the buccal surface, and the inner surface showed under-contouring in the marginal areas. Restoration manufacturing by digital workflow will enhance the reproducibility of zirconia single crowns more than that of lithium disilicate single crowns.

  17. Ceramic molar crown reproducibility by digital workflow manufacturing: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chong-Myeong

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE This in vitro study aimed to analyze and compare the reproducibility of zirconia and lithium disilicate crowns manufactured by digital workflow. MATERIALS AND METHODS A typodont model with a prepped upper first molar was set in a phantom head, and a digital impression was obtained with a video intraoral scanner (CEREC Omnicam; Sirona GmbH), from which a single crown was designed and manufactured with CAD/CAM into a zirconia crown and lithium disilicate crown (n=12). Reproducibility of each crown was quantitatively retrieved by superimposing the digitized data of the crown in 3D inspection software, and differences were graphically mapped in color. Areas with large differences were analyzed with digital microscopy. Mean quadratic deviations (RMS) quantitatively obtained from each ceramic group were statistically analyzed with Student's t-test (α=.05). RESULTS The RMS value of lithium disilicate crown was 29.2 (4.1) µm and 17.6 (5.5) µm on the outer and inner surfaces, respectively, whereas these values were 18.6 (2.0) µm and 20.6 (5.1) µm for the zirconia crown. Reproducibility of zirconia and lithium disilicate crowns had a statistically significant difference only on the outer surface (P<.001). The outer surface of lithium disilicate crown showed over-contouring on the buccal surface and under-contouring on the inner occlusal surface. The outer surface of zirconia crown showed both over- and under-contouring on the buccal surface, and the inner surface showed under-contouring in the marginal areas. CONCLUSION Restoration manufacturing by digital workflow will enhance the reproducibility of zirconia single crowns more than that of lithium disilicate single crowns. PMID:28874991

  18. Failure probability of three designs of zirconia crowns

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, G. Freitas; Monteiro, E. Barbosa Carmona; Bottino, M.A.; Zhang, Y.; de Melo, R. Marques

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study utilized a 2-parameter Weibull analysis for evaluation of lifetime of fully or partially porcelain-/glaze-veneered zirconia crowns after fatigue test. Methods Sixty first molars were selected and prepared for full-coverage crowns with three different designs(n = 20): Traditional –crowns with zirconia framework covered with feldspathic porcelain; Modified– crowns partially covered with veneering porcelain; and Monolithic–full-contour zirconia crowns. All specimens were treated with a glaze layer. Specimens were subjected to mechanical cycling (100N, 3Hz) with a piston with hemispherical tip (Ø=6 mm) until the specimens failed or up to 2×106 cycles. Every 500,000 cycles intervals, the fatigue tests were interrupted, and stereomicroscopy (10 X) was used to inspect the specimens for damage. We performed Weibull analysis of interval data to calculate the number of failures in each interval. Results The types and number of failures according to the groups were: cracking (Traditional-13, Modified-6) and chipping (Traditional-4) of the feldspathic porcelain, followed by delamination (Traditional-1) at the veneer/core interface and debonding (Monollithic-2) at the cementation interface. Weibull parameters (beta, scale; and eta, shape), with a two-sided confidence interval of 95%, were: Traditional – 1.25 and 0.9 × 106cycles; Modified– 0.58 and 11.7 × 106 cycles; and Monolithic – 1.05 and 16.5 × 106 cycles. Traditional crowns showed greater susceptibility to fatigue, the Modified group presented higher propensity to early failures, and the Monolithic group showed no susceptibility to fatigue. The Modified and Monolithic groups presented the highest number of crowns with no failures after the fatigue test. Conclusions The three crown designs presented significantly different behaviors under fatigue. The Modified and the Monolithic groups presented less probability to failure after 2×106cycles. PMID:26509988

  19. Glass ceramic toughened with tetragonal zirconia

    DOEpatents

    Keefer, K.D.

    1984-02-10

    A phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic and a process for making it are disclosed. A mixture of particulate network-forming oxide, network-modifying oxide, and zirconium oxide is heated to yield a homogeneous melt, and this melt is then heat treated to precipitate an appreciable quantity of tetragonal zirconia, which is retained at ambient temperature to form a phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic. Nuclearing agents and stabilizing agents may be added to the mixture to facilitate processing and improve the ceramic's properties. Preferably, the mixture is first melted at a temperature from 1200 to 1700/sup 0/C and is then heat-treated at a temperature within the range of 800 to 1200/sup 0/C in order to precipitate tetragonal ZrO/sub 2/. The composition, as well as the length and temperature of the heat treatment, must be carefully controlled to prevent solution of the precipitated tetragonal zirconia and subsequent conversion to the monoclinic phase.

  20. Adhesive Cementation Promotes Higher Fatigue Resistance to Zirconia Crowns.

    PubMed

    Campos, F; Valandro, L F; Feitosa, S A; Kleverlaan, C J; Feilzer, A J; de Jager, N; Bottino, M A

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the cementation strategy on the fatigue resistance of zirconia crowns. The null hypothesis was that the cementation strategy would not affect the fatigue resistance of the crowns. Seventy-five simplified molar tooth crown preparations were machined in glass fiber-filled epoxy resin. Zirconia crowns were designed (thickness=0.7 mm), milled by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and sintered, as recommended. Crowns were cemented onto the resin preparations using five cementation strategies (n=15): ZP, luting with zinc phosphate cement; PN, luting with Panavia F resin cement; AL, air particle abrasion with alumina particles (125 μm) as the crown inner surface pretreatment + Panavia F; CJ, tribochemical silica coating as crown inner surface pretreatment + Panavia F; and GL, application of a thin layer of porcelain glaze followed by etching with hydrofluoric acid and silanization as crown inner surface pretreatment + Panavia F. Resin cement was activated for 30 seconds for each surface. Specimens were tested until fracture in a stepwise stress fatigue test (10,000 cycles in each step, 600 to 1400 N, frequency of 1.4 Hz). The mode of failure was analyzed by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Mantel-Cox (log rank) tests and a pairwise comparison (p<0.05) and by Weibull analysis. The CJ group had the highest load mean value for failure (1200 N), followed by the PN (1026 N), AL (1026 N), and GL (1013 N) groups, while the ZP group had the lowest mean value (706 N). Adhesively cemented groups (CJ, AL, PN, and GL) needed a higher number of cycles for failure than the group ZP did. The groups' Weibull moduli (CJ=5.9; AL=4.4; GL=3.9; PN=3.7; ZP=2.1) were different, considering the number of cycles for failure data. The predominant mode of failure was a fracture that initiated in the cement/zirconia layer. Finite element analysis showed the different

  1. Implant-supported fixed dental prostheses with CAD/CAM-fabricated porcelain crown and zirconia-based framework.

    PubMed

    Takaba, Masayuki; Tanaka, Shinpei; Ishiura, Yuichi; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Recently, fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with a hybrid structure of CAD/CAM porcelain crowns adhered to a CAD/CAM zirconia framework (PAZ) have been developed. The aim of this report was to describe the clinical application of a newly developed implant-supported FDP fabrication system, which uses PAZ, and to evaluate the outcome after a maximum application period of 36 months. Implants were placed in three patients with edentulous areas in either the maxilla or mandible. After the implant fixtures had successfully integrated with bone, gold-platinum alloy or zirconia custom abutments were first fabricated. Zirconia framework wax-up was performed on the custom abutments, and the CAD/CAM zirconia framework was prepared using the CAD/CAM system. Next, wax-up was performed on working models for porcelain crown fabrication, and CAD/CAM porcelain crowns were fabricated. The CAD/CAM zirconia frameworks and CAD/CAM porcelain crowns were bonded using adhesive resin cement, and the PAZ was cemented. Cementation of the implant superstructure improved the esthetics and masticatory efficiency in all patients. No undesirable outcomes, such as superstructure chipping, stomatognathic dysfunction, or periimplant bone resorption, were observed in any of the patients. PAZ may be a potential solution for ceramic-related clinical problems such as chipping and fracture and associated complicated repair procedures in implant-supported FDPs. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  2. Fracture resistance of a selection of full-contour all-ceramic crowns: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Zesewitz, Tim F; Knauber, Andreas W; Nothdurft, Frank P

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the fracture resistance of monolithic single crowns made from zirconia (ZI), lithium disilicate (LS2), or feldspar ceramic (FC). Five groups of crowns representing a maxillary first molar were made with the appropriate dimensions according to the manufacturer's instructions. The ZI and LS2 crowns were luted adhesively or cemented conventionally on a metal abutment tooth analog. The feldspar ceramic crowns were luted adhesively. All specimens underwent axial loading until fracture. The crowns in the ZI groups possessed the highest fracture resistance independent of the mode of fixation.

  3. [Influence of different designs and porcelain/glaze firing on the marginal and internal fit of implant-supported zirconia crowns].

    PubMed

    Cuiling, Liu; Xu, Gao; Yuping, Qi; Liyuan, Yang

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the influence of different designs and porcelain/glaze firing on the marginal and internal fit of three kinds of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia ceramic implant-supported crowns. Three groups of zirconia ceramic implant-supported crowns with different designs were produced from copings by using a Cercon CAD/CAM system (n = 8). The first two groups comprised double-layer crowns (zirconia coping + veneer) with regular (Group A) and full circumferential zirconia-collar marginal designs (Group B). The third group was composed of anatomic single-layer zirconia crowns without cores (Group C). Initially, the marginal and internal gaps of the copings and crowns were individually replicated by light-body silicon and then measured by micro-computed tomography scanning before and after porcelain/glaze firing. Five measurements were employed: vertical marginal gap (MG); horizontal marginal discrepancy (HMD); chamfer area (CA); axial wall (AW); and axial-occlusal transition area (AOT). Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS 17.0. HMD measurements in Group A were statistically higher than those in Groups B and C (P < 0.05), regardless of whether the values were obtained before or after porcelain/glaze firing. By contrast, the HIMD measurements in Groups B and C showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Moreover, no differences were noted in MG, CA, AW, and AOT among the three groups (P > 0.05). All the measurements in the three groups showed no significant change after porcelain/glaze firing (P > 0.05), except for MG in Group A, which significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The marginal fits of the double-layer crowns with full circumferential zirconia-collar and the anatomic single-layer zirconia crowns were superior to that of the double-layer crowns with regular margins. The MG of the crowns with regular margins was obviously influenced by porcelain firing.

  4. In vitro fracture resistance of three commercially available zirconia crowns for primary molars.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Janice A; Knoell, Patrick; Yu, Qingzhao; Zhang, Jian-Feng; Wang, Yapin; Zhu, Han; Beattie, Sean; Xu, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the fracture resistance of primary mandibular first molar zirconia crowns from three different manufacturers-EZ Pedo (EZP), NuSmile (NSZ), and Kinder Krowns (KK)-and compare it with the thickness of the zirconia crowns and the measured fracture resistance of preveneered stainless steel crowns (SSCs). The thickness of 20 zirconia crowns from three manufacturers were measured. The mean force required to fracture the crowns was determined. Preveneered NuSmile (NSW) SSCs were tested as a control. EZP crowns were significantly thicker in three of the six measured locations. The force required to fracture the EZP crown was significantly higher than that required for NSZ and KK. There was a positive correlation between fracture resistance and crown thickness in the mesial, distal, mesioocclusal, and distoocclusal dimensions. None of the zirconia crowns proved to be as resistant to fracture as the preveneered SSCs. Statistically significant differences were found among the forces required to fracture zirconia crowns by three different manufacturers. The increase in force correlated with crown thickness. The forces required to fracture the preveneered stainless steel crowns were greater than the forces required to fracture all manufacturers' zirconia crowns.

  5. Zirconia ceramics for excess weapons plutonium waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W. L.; Lutze, W.; Ewing, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    We synthesized a zirconia (ZrO 2)-based single-phase ceramic containing simulated excess weapons plutonium waste. ZrO 2 has large solubility for other metallic oxides. More than 20 binary systems A xO y-ZrO 2 have been reported in the literature, including PuO 2, rare-earth oxides, and oxides of metals contained in weapons plutonium wastes. We show that significant amounts of gadolinium (neutron absorber) and yttrium (additional stabilizer of the cubic modification) can be dissolved in ZrO 2, together with plutonium (simulated by Ce 4+, U 4+ or Th 4+) and impurities (e.g., Ca, Mg, Fe, Si). Sol-gel and powder methods were applied to make homogeneous, single-phase zirconia solid solutions. Pu waste impurities were completely dissolved in the solid solutions. In contrast to other phases, e.g., zirconolite and pyrochlore, zirconia is extremely radiation resistant and does not undergo amorphization. Baddeleyite (ZrO 2) is suggested as the natural analogue to study long-term radiation resistance and chemical durability of zirconia-based waste forms.

  6. Wear of primary teeth caused by opposed all-ceramic or stainless steel crowns

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Ik-Hyun; Noh, Tae-Hwan; Ju, Sung-Won; Lee, Tae-Kyoung; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Jeong, Tae-Sung

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of full-coverage all-ceramic zirconia, lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, leucite glass-ceramic, or stainless steel crowns on antagonistic primary tooth wear. MATERIALS AND METHODS There were four study groups: the stainless steel (Steel) group, the leucite glass-ceramic (Leucite) group, the lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (Lithium) group, and the monolithic zirconia (Zirconia) group. Ten flat crown specimens were prepared per group; opposing teeth were prepared using primary canines. A wear test was conducted over 100,000 chewing cycles using a dual-axis chewing simulator and a 50 N masticating force, and wear losses of antagonistic teeth and restorative materials were calculated using a three-dimensional profiling system and an electronic scale, respectively. Statistical significance was determined using One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (P<.05). RESULTS The Leucite group (2.670±1.471 mm3) showed the greatest amount of antagonist tooth wear, followed by in decreasing order by the Lithium (2.042±0.696 mm3), Zirconia (1.426±0.477 mm3), and Steel groups (0.397±0.192 mm3). Mean volume losses in the Leucite and Lithium groups were significantly greater than in the Steel group (P<.05). No significant difference was observed between mean volume losses in the Zirconia and Steel groups (P>.05). CONCLUSION Leucite glass-ceramic and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic cause more primary tooth wear than stainless steel or zirconia. PMID:26949487

  7. Glass ceramic toughened with tetragonal zirconia

    DOEpatents

    Keefer, Keith D.; Michalske, Terry A.

    1986-01-01

    A phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic and a process for making it are disclosed. A mixture of particulate network-forming oxide, network-modifying oxide, and zirconium oxide is heated to yield a homogeneous melt, and this melt is then heat-treated to precipitate an appreciable quantity of tetragonal zirconia, which is retained at ambient temperature to form a phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic. Nucleating agents and stabilizing agents may be added to the mixture to facilitate processing and improve the ceramic's properties. Preferably, the mixture is first melted at a temperature from 1200.degree. to 1700.degree. C. and is then heat-treated at a temperature within the range of 800.degree. to 1200.degree. C. in order to precipitate tetragonal ZrO.sub.2. The composition, as well as the length and temperature of the heat-treatment, must be carefully controlled to prevent solution of the precipitated tetragonal zirconia and subsequent conversion to the monoclinic phase.

  8. Micro-CT evaluation of the marginal fit of CAD/CAM all ceramic crowns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenes, Christian

    Objectives: Evaluate the marginal fit of CAD/CAM all ceramic crowns made from lithium disilicate and zirconia using two different fabrication protocols (model and model-less). METHODS: Forty anterior all ceramic restorations (20 lithium disilicate, 20 zirconia) were fabricated using a CEREC Bluecam scanner. Two different fabrication methods were used: a full digital approach and a printed model. Completed crowns were cemented and marginal gap was evaluated using Micro-CT. Each specimen was analyzed in sagittal and trans-axial orientations, allowing a 360° evaluation of the vertical and horizontal fit. RESULTS: Vertical measurements in the lingual, distal and mesial views had and estimated marginal gap from 101.9 to 133.9 microns for E-max crowns and 126.4 to 165.4 microns for zirconia. No significant differences were found between model and model-less techniques. CONCLUSION: Lithium disilicate restorations exhibited a more accurate and consistent marginal adaptation when compared to zirconia crowns. No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing model or model-less approaches.

  9. An investigation of heat transfer to the implant-bone interface when drilling through a zirconia crown attached to a titanium or zirconia abutment.

    PubMed

    Mason, Amy G; Sutton, Alan; Turkyilmaz, Ilser

    2014-11-01

    Thermal injury to the implant-bone interface may lead to bone necrosis and loss of osseointegration. This is a concern during manipulation of the implant throughout the restorative phase of treatment. The risk of heat transfer to the implant-bone interface during abutment preparation or prosthesis removal should be considered. The purpose of the study was to examine the amount of heat transferred to the implant-bone interface when a zirconia crown is drilled to access the screw channel or section a crown with a high-speed dental handpiece. Of the 64 ceramic-veneered zirconia crowns fabricated, 32 had a coping thickness of 0.5 mm and 32 had a coping thickness of 1.0 mm. The crowns were cemented on either titanium stock abutments or zirconia stock abutments. Each group was further subdivided to evaluate heat transfer when the screw channel was accessed or the crown was sectioned with a high-speed handpiece with or without irrigation. Temperature change was recorded for each specimen at the cervical and apical aspect of the implant with thermocouples and a logging thermometer. ANOVA was used to assess the statistical significance in temperature change between the test combinations, and nonparametric Mann-Whitney U tests were used to evaluate the findings. The use of irrigation during both crown removal processes yielded an average temperature increase of 3.59 ±0.35°C. Crown removal in the absence of irrigation yielded an average temperature increase of 18.76 ±3.09°C. When all parameter combinations in the presence of irrigation were evaluated, the maximum temperature change was below the threshold of thermal injury to bone. The maximum temperature change was above the threshold for thermal injury at the coronal aspect of the implant and below the threshold at the apical aspect in the absence of irrigation. Within the limitations of this investigation, the use of irrigation with a high-speed dental handpiece to remove a ceramic-veneered zirconia crown results in

  10. Effects of framework design and layering material on fracture strength of implant-supported zirconia-based molar crowns.

    PubMed

    Kamio, Shingo; Komine, Futoshi; Taguchi, Kohei; Iwasaki, Taro; Blatz, Markus B; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of framework design and layering material on the fracture strength of implant-supported zirconia-based molar crowns. Sixty-six titanium abutments (GingiHue Post) were tightened onto dental implants (Implant Lab Analog). These abutment-implant complexes were randomly divided into three groups (n = 22) according to the design of the zirconia framework (Katana), namely, uniform-thickness (UNI), anatomic (ANA), and supported anatomic (SUP) designs. The specimens in each design group were further divided into two subgroups (n = 11): zirconia-based all-ceramic restorations (ZAC group) and zirconia-based restorations with an indirect composite material (Estenia C&B) layered onto the zirconia framework (ZIC group). All crowns were cemented on implant abutments, after which the specimens were tested for fracture resistance. The data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U-test with the Bonferroni correction (α = 0.05). The following mean fracture strength values (kN) were obtained in UNI design, ANA design, and SUP design, respectively: Group ZAC, 3.78, 6.01, 6.50 and Group ZIC, 3.15, 5.65, 5.83. In both the ZAC and ZIC groups, fracture strength was significantly lower for the UNI design than the other two framework designs (P = 0.001). Fracture strength did not significantly differ (P > 0.420) between identical framework designs in the ZAC and ZIC groups. A framework design with standardized layer thickness and adequate support of veneer by zirconia frameworks, as in the ANA and SUP designs, increases fracture resistance in implant-supported zirconia-based restorations under conditions of chewing attrition. Indirect composite material and porcelain perform similarly as layering materials on zirconia frameworks. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Fractographic study of the behavior of different ceramic veneers on full coverage crowns in relation to supporting core materials

    PubMed Central

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Román-Rodriguez, Juan L.; Solá-Ruíz, María F.; Granell-Ruíz, María; Fons-Font, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To observe porcelain veneer behavior of zirconia and metal-ceramic full coverage crowns when subjected to compression testing, comparing zirconia cores to metal cores. Study Design: The porcelain fracture surfaces of 120 full coverage crowns (60 with a metal core and 60 with a zirconia core) subjected to static load (compression) testing were analyzed. Image analysis was performed using macroscopic processing with 8x and 12x enlargement. Five samples from each group were prepared and underwent scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis in order to make a fractographic study of fracture propagation in the contact area and composition analysis in the most significant areas of the specimen. Results: Statistically significant differences in fracture type (cohesive or adhesive) were found between the metal-ceramic and zirconia groups: the incidence of adhesive fracture was seen to be greater in metal-ceramic groups (92%) and cohesive fracture was more frequent in zirconium oxide groups (72%). The fracture propagation pattern was on the periphery of the contact area in the full coverage crown restorations selected for fractographic study. Conclusions: The greater frequency of cohesive fracture in restorations with zirconia cores indicates that their behavior is inadequate compared to metal-ceramic restorations and that further research is needed to improve their clinical performance. Key words:Zirconia, zirconium oxide, fractography, composition, porcelain veneers, fracture, cohesive, adhesive. PMID:24455092

  12. Fractographic features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based dental restorations fractured during clinical function.

    PubMed

    Oilo, Marit; Hardang, Anne D; Ulsund, Amanda H; Gjerdet, Nils R

    2014-06-01

    Fractures during clinical function have been reported as the major concern associated with all-ceramic dental restorations. The aim of this study was to analyze the fracture features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based restorations fractured during clinical use. Twenty-seven crowns and onlays were supplied by dentists and dental technicians with information about type of cement and time in function, if available. Fourteen lithium disilicate glass-ceramic restorations and 13 zirconia-based restorations were retrieved and analyzed. Fractographic features were examined using optical microscopy to determine crack initiation and crack propagation of the restorations. The material comprised fractured restorations from one canine, 10 incisors, four premolars, and 11 molars. One crown was not categorized because of difficulty in orientation of the fragments. The results revealed that all core and veneer fractures initiated in the cervical margin and usually from the approximal area close to the most coronally placed curvature of the margin. Three cases of occlusal chipping were found. The margin of dental all-ceramic single-tooth restorations was the area of fracture origin. The fracture features were similar for zirconia, glass-ceramic, and alumina single-tooth restorations. Design features seem to be of great importance for fracture initiation. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  13. Twenty-nine-month follow-up of a paediatric zirconia dental crown.

    PubMed

    Lopez Cazaux, Serena; Hyon, Isabelle; Prud'homme, Tony; Dajean Trutaud, Sylvie

    2017-06-14

    The aim of this paper is to present the long-term follow-up of one paediatric zirconia crown on a deciduous molar. Preformed crowns are part of the armamentarium in paediatric dentistry. In recent years, aesthetic alternatives to preformed metal crowns have been developed, first preveneered crowns and then zirconia crowns. This paper describes the restoration of a primary molar with a zirconia crown (EZ-Pedo, Loomis, California, USA) in an 8-year-old boy. In this clinical case, the protocol for the implementation and maintenance of zirconia crowns is detailed. The patient was followed up for 29 months until the natural exfoliation of his primary molar. The adaptation of the zirconia crown, the gingival health and the wear on the opposing tooth were considered. In this case, the paediatric zirconia crown allowed sustainable functional restoration while restoring a natural appearance of the tooth. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. [Preliminary evaluation of clinical effect of computer aided design and computer aided manufacture zirconia crown].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-guang; Xing, Yan-xi; Sun, Yu-chun; Zhao, Yi-jiao; Lü, Pei-jun; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate clinical effects of computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) milled zirconia crown in three aspects: aesthetic, contact wear and fracture. Sixty patients were divided into two groups.In one group, 35 full contour CAD/CAM zirconia crown were made on molars of 30 patients. The manufacturing process of zirconia crown was as follow. First, the three dimensional(3-D) data of working models, antagonist impression and check records were acquired by 3-D laser scanning Dental wings S50. Then full contour zirconia crowns, which had functional occlusal contacts with antagonistic teeth, and appropriate contact with adjacent teeth were designed with Zeno-CAD(V4.2.5.5.12919) software. ZENOSTAR Zr pure zirconia material was milled in digital controlled machine WIELAND 4030 M1.In the end, the zirconia crown were completed with the method of second sintering and polishing. After clinical try-in, the crown was cemented.In the control group, thirty gold alloy full crown were made and cemented on molars of 30 patients. According to the modified U S Public Health Service Criteria(USPHS) evaluation standard, all crowns were evaluated on the same day, at three months, half a year, one year and two years following delivery. There were three aspects we were focusing on in the evaluation: aesthetic, contact wear(restoration and antagonist), and fracture. In all the prosthesis we evaluated during the 24 months, no fracture was found. Contact wear of crowns varies according to different antagonist teeth. The zirconia crowns show privilege in aesthesis, toughness and anti-wearing.However, there is contact wear on antagonistic natural teeth. Thus it is a good choice when full zirconia crowns are indicated on two antagonistic teeth in both jaws.

  15. Effect of Different Ceramic Crown Preparations on Tooth Structure Loss: An In Vitro Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimpour, Ashkan

    Objective: To quantify and compare the amount of tooth-structure reduction following the full-coverage preparations for crown materials of porcelain-fused-to-metal, lithium disilicate glass-ceramic and yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline for three tooth morphologies. Methods: Groups of resin teeth of different morphologies were individually weighed to high precision, then prepared following the preparation guidelines. The teeth were re-weighed after preparation and the amount of structural reduction was calculated. Statistical analyses were performed to find out if there was a significant difference among the groups. Results: Amount of tooth reduction for zirconia crown preparations was the lowest and statistically different compared with the other two materials. No statistical significance was found between the amount of reduction for porcelain-fused-to-metal and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crowns. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, more tooth structure can be saved when utilizing zirconia full-coverage restorations compared with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic and porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns in maxillary central incisors, first premolars and first molars.

  16. Marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of 2 zirconia crown systems luted with glass ionomer and MDP-based cements.

    PubMed

    Sener, Isil; Turker, Begum; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and phosphate monomer-containing resin cement (MDP-RC) under 2 zirconia crown systems (Cercon and DC-Zirkon). Forty human premolars were prepared for all-ceramic zirconia crowns with a 1 mm circumferential finish line and a 1.5 mm occlusal reduction. The crowns (n = 10 per group) from each zirconia system were randomly divided into 2 groups and cemented either with GIC (Vivaglass CEM) or MDP-RC (Panavia F 2.0) cement. The cemented crowns were thermocycled 5000 times (5°-55°C). The crowns were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine dye solution for 24 hours and sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally. Specimens were examined under optical microscope (100X). Data were analyzed using Student t-test and chi-square tests (α = 0.05). Mean marginal gap values for Cercon (85 ± 11.4 μm) were significantly higher than for DC-Zircon (75.3 ± 13.2 μm) (P = 0.018). The mean cement thickness values of GIC (81.7 ± 13.9 μm) and MDP-RC (78.5 ± 12.5 μm) were not significantly different (P = 0.447). Microleakage scores did not demonstrate significant difference between GIC (P = 0.385) and MDP-RC (P = 0.631) under Cercon or DC-Zircon. Considering the cement thickness values and microleakage scores obtained, both zirconia crown systems could be cemented in combination with either GIC or MDP-RC.

  17. Zirconia crowns for rehabilitation of decayed primary incisors: an esthetic alternative.

    PubMed

    Ashima, G; Sarabjot, K Bhatia; Gauba, K; Mittal, H C

    2014-01-01

    Esthetic management of extensively decayed primary maxillary anterior teeth requiring full coronal coverage restoration is usually challenging to the pediatric dentists especially in very young children. Many esthetic options have been tried over the years each having its own advantages, disadvantages and associated technical, functional or esthetic limitations. Zirconia crowns have provided a treatment alternative to address the esthetic concerns and ease of placement of extra-coronal restorations on primary anterior teeth. The present article presents a case where grossly decayed maxillary primary incisors were restored esthetically and functionally with ready made zirconia crowns (ZIRKIZ, HASS Corp; Korea). After endodontic treatment the decayed teeth were restored with zirconia crowns. Over a 30 months period, the crowns have demonstrated good retention and esthetic results. Dealing with esthetic needs in children with extensive loss of tooth structure, using Zirconia crowns would be practical and successful. The treatment described is simple and effective and represents a promising alternative for rehabilitation of decayed primary teeth.

  18. Optical properties of pre-colored dental monolithic zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2016-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the optical properties of recently marketed pre-colored monolithic zirconia ceramics and to compare with those of veneered zirconia and lithium disilicate glass ceramics. Various shades of pre-colored monolithic zirconia, veneered zirconia, and lithium disilicate glass ceramic specimens were tested (17.0×17.0×1.5mm, n=5). CIELab color coordinates were obtained against white, black, and grey backgrounds with a spectrophotometer. Color differences of the specimen pairs were calculated by using the CIEDE2000 (ΔE 00 ) formula. The translucency parameter (TP) was derived from ΔE 00 of the specimen against a white and a black background. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the crystalline phases of monolithic zirconia specimens. Data were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA, Scheffé post hoc, and Pearson correlation testing (α=0.05). For different shades of the same ceramic brand, there were significant differences in L * , a * , b * , and TP values in most ceramic brands. With the same nominal shade (A2), statistically significant differences were observed in L * , a * , b * , and TP values among different ceramic brands and systems (P<0.001). The color differences between pre-colored monolithic zirconia and veneered zirconia or lithium disilicate glass ceramics of the corresponding nominal shades ranged beyond the acceptability threshold. Due to the high L * values and low a * and b * values, pre-colored monolithic zirconia ceramics can be used with additional staining to match neighboring restorations or natural teeth. Due to their high value and low chroma, unacceptable color mismatch with adjacent ceramic restorations might be expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Marginal and Internal Adaptation of Zirconia Crowns: A Comparative Study of Assessment Methods.

    PubMed

    Cunali, Rafael Schlögel; Saab, Rafaella Caramori; Correr, Gisele Maria; Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes da; Ornaghi, Bárbara Pick; Ritter, André V; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia

    2017-01-01

    Marginal and internal adaptation is critical for the success of indirect restorations. New imaging systems make it possible to evaluate these parameters with precision and non-destructively. This study evaluated the marginal and internal adaptation of zirconia copings fabricated with two different systems using both silicone replica and microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) assessment methods. A metal master model, representing a preparation for an all-ceramic full crown, was digitally scanned and polycrystalline zirconia copings were fabricated with either Ceramill Zi (Amann-Girrbach) or inCoris Zi (Dentslpy-Sirona), n=10. For each coping, marginal and internal gaps were evaluated by silicone replica and micro-CT assessment methods. Four assessment points of each replica cross-section and micro-CT image were evaluated using imaging software: marginal gap (MG), axial wall (AW), axio-occlusal angle (AO) and mid-occlusal wall (MO). Data were statistically analyzed by factorial ANOVA and Tukey test (a=0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the methods for MG and AW. For AO, there were significant differences between methods for Amann copings, while for Dentsply-Sirona copings similar values were observed. For MO, both methods presented statistically significant differences. A positive correlation was observed determined by the two assessment methods for MG values. In conclusion, the assessment method influenced the evaluation of marginal and internal adaptation of zirconia copings. Micro-CT showed lower marginal and internal gap values when compared to the silicone replica technique, although the difference was not always statistically significant. Marginal gap and axial wall assessment points showed the lower gap values, regardless of ceramic system and assessment method used.

  20. All-ceramic or metal-ceramic tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs)? A systematic review of the survival and complication rates. Part I: Single crowns (SCs).

    PubMed

    Sailer, Irena; Makarov, Nikolay Alexandrovich; Thoma, Daniel Stefan; Zwahlen, Marcel; Pjetursson, Bjarni Elvar

    2015-06-01

    To assess the 5-year survival of metal-ceramic and all-ceramic tooth-supported single crowns (SCs) and to describe the incidence of biological, technical and esthetic complications. Medline (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) searches (2006-2013) were performed for clinical studies focusing on tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with a mean follow-up of at least 3 years. This was complimented by an additional hand search and the inclusion of 34 studies from a previous systematic review [1,2]. Survival and complication rates were analyzed using robust Poisson's regression models to obtain summary estimates of 5-year proportions. Sixty-seven studies reporting on 4663 metal-ceramic and 9434 all-ceramic SCs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Seventeen studies reported on metal-ceramic crowns, and 54 studies reported on all-ceramic crowns. Meta-analysis of the included studies indicated an estimated survival rate of metal-ceramic SCs of 94.7% (95% CI: 94.1-96.9%) after 5 years. This was similar to the estimated 5-year survival rate of leucit or lithium-disilicate reinforced glass ceramic SCs (96.6%; 95% CI: 94.9-96.7%), of glass infiltrated alumina SCs (94.6%; 95% CI: 92.7-96%) and densely sintered alumina and zirconia SCs (96%; 95% CI: 93.8-97.5%; 92.1%; 95% CI: 82.8-95.6%). In contrast, the 5-year survival rates of feldspathic/silica-based ceramic crowns were lower (p<0.001). When the outcomes in anterior and posterior regions were compared feldspathic/silica-based ceramic and zirconia crowns exhibited significantly lower survival rates in the posterior region (p<0.0001), the other crown types performed similarly. Densely sintered zirconia SCs were more frequently lost due to veneering ceramic fractures than metal-ceramic SCs (p<0.001), and had significantly more loss of retention (p<0.001). In total higher 5 year rates of framework fracture were reported for the all-ceramic SCs than for metal-ceramic SCs. Survival

  1. Biaxial flexural strength of bilayered zirconia using various veneering ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Chantranikul, Natravee

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of one zirconia-based ceramic used with various veneering ceramics. MATERIALS AND METHODS Zirconia core material (Katana) and five veneering ceramics (Cerabien ZR; CZR, Lava Ceram; LV, Cercon Ceram Kiss; CC, IPS e.max Ceram; EM and VITA VM9; VT) were selected. Using the powder/liquid layering technique, bilayered disk specimens (diameter: 12.50 mm, thickness: 1.50 mm) were prepared to follow ISO standard 6872:2008 into five groups according to veneering ceramics as follows; Katana zirconia veneering with CZR (K/CZR), Katana zirconia veneering with LV (K/LV), Katana zirconia veneering with CC (K/CC), Katana zirconia veneering with EM (K/EM) and Katana zirconia veneering with VT (K/VT). After 20,000 thermocycling, load tests were conducted using a universal testing machine (Instron). The BFS were calculated and analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD (α=0.05). The Weibull analysis was performed for reliability of strength. The mode of fracture and fractured surface were observed by SEM. RESULTS It showed that K/CC had significantly the highest BFS, followed by K/LV. BFS of K/CZR, K/EM and K/VT were not significantly different from each other, but were significantly lower than the other two groups. Weibull distribution reported the same trend of reliability as the BFS results. CONCLUSION From the result of this study, the BFS of the bilayered zirconia/veneer composite did not only depend on the Young's modulus value of the materials. Further studies regarding interfacial strength and sintering factors are necessary to achieve the optimal strength. PMID:26576251

  2. Wear Behavior of Ceramic CAD/CAM Crowns and Natural Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Naumova, Ella A.; Schneider, Stephan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.; Piwowarczyk, Andree

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of wear behavior of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) crowns from various restorative materials and natural antagonists. Method: Full CAD/CAM crowns fabricated with nanoceramic resin (Lava Ultimate (LU)), a glass ceramic in a resin interpenetrating matrix (Vita Enamic (VE)) and a lithium silicate reinforced ceramic enriched with zirconia (Vita Suprinity (VS)) were cemented on human molars. The crown and antagonists were subjected to simulated chewing. 3D data sets, before and after the chewing simulation, were generated and matched. Occlusal surface roughness, vertical and volume loss of the crowns and antagonists were analyzed. Results: Crown roughness was significantly different between the LU and VE groups after chewing simulation. Crown vertical loss differed in all groups. The highest crown volume loss was found in the LU group, and the lowest in the VE group. Comparisons between the LU and VE groups and the LU and VS groups were significantly different. The highest antagonist volume loss was reached in the VE group, the lowest was in the LU group. Conclusion: Roughness increased after chewing simulation. LU crowns are the most natural antagonist-friendly; these were the most susceptible to vertical and volume loss. Of the tested materials, the VE crowns are the most stable regarding occlusion. PMID:28772602

  3. Fracture Strength of Monolithic All-Ceramic Crowns on Titanium Implant Abutments.

    PubMed

    Weyhrauch, Michael; Igiel, Christopher; Scheller, Herbert; Weibrich, Gernot; Lehmann, Karl Martin

    2016-01-01

    The fracture strengths of all-ceramic crowns cemented on titanium implant abutments may vary depending on crown materials and luting agents. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in fracture strength among crowns cemented on implant abutments using crowns made of seven different monolithic ceramic materials and five different luting agents. In total, 525 crowns (75 each of Vita Mark II, feldspathic ceramic [FSC]; Ivoclar Empress CAD, leucite-reinforced glass ceramic [LrGC]; Ivoclar e.max CAD, lithium disilicate [LiDS]; Vita Suprinity, presintered zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic [PSZirLS]; Vita Enamic, polymer-reinforced fine-structure feldspathic ceramic [PolyFSP], Lava Ultimate; resin nanoceramic [ResNC], Celtra Duo; fully crystallized zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate [FcZirLS]) were milled using a CAD/CAM system. The inner surfaces of the crowns were etched and silanized. Titanium implant abutments were fixed on implant analogs, and airborne-particle abrasion was used on their exterior specific adhesion surfaces (Al2O3, 50 μm). Then, the abutments were degreased and silanized. The crowns were cemented on the implant abutments using five luting agents (Multilink Implant, Variolink II, RelyX Unicem, GC FujiCEM, Panavia 2.0). After thermocycling for 5,000 cycles (5 to 55°C, 30 seconds dwell time), the crowns were subjected to fracture strength testing under static load using a universal testing machine. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance (α = .0002) and the Bonferroni correction. No significant difference among the luting agents was found using the different all-ceramic materials. Ceramic materials LiDS, PSZirLS, PolyFSP, and ResNC showed significantly higher fracture strength values compared with FSC, FcZirLS, and LrGC. The PSZirLS especially showed significantly better results. Within the limitations of this study, fracture strength was not differentially affected by the various luting agents. However

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of Dense Zirconia and Zirconia-Silica Ceramic Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Guangqing; Fan, Yuwei

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare dense zirconia-yttria (ZY), zirconia-silica (ZS) and zirconia-yttria-silica (ZYS) nanofibers as reinforcing elements for dental composites. Zirconium (IV) propoxide, yttrium nitrate hexahydrate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) were used as precursors for the preparation of zirconia, yttria, and silica sols. A small amount (1–1.5 wt%) of polyethylene oxide (PEO) was used as a carry polymer. The sols were preheated at 70 °C before electrospinning and their viscosity was measured with a viscometer at different heating time. The gel point was determined by viscosity–time (η–t) curve. The ZY, ZS and ZYS gel nanofibers were prepared using a special reactive electrospinning device under the conditions near the gel point. The as-prepared gel nanofibers had diameters between 200 and 400 nm. Dense (nonporous) ceramic nanofibers of zirconia-yttria (96/4), zirconia-silica (80/20) and zirconia-yttria-silica (76.8/3.2/20) with diameter of 100–300 nm were obtained by subsequent calcinations at different temperatures. The gel and ceramic nanofibers obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM micrograph revealed that ceramic ZY nanofibers had grained structure, while ceramic ZS and ZYS nanofibers had smooth surfaces, both showing no visible porosity under FE-SEM. Complete removal of the polymer PEO was confirmed by TGA/DSC and FT-IR. The formation of tetragonal phase of zirconia and amorphous silica was proved by XRD. In conclusion, dense zirconia-based ceramic nanofibers can be fabricated using the new reactive sol–gel electrospinning technology with minimum organic polymer additives. PMID:21133090

  5. A fractographic study of clinically retrieved zirconia-ceramic and metal-ceramic fixed dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhen; Chughtai, Asima; Sailer, Irena; Zhang, Yu

    2015-10-01

    A recent 3-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) of tooth supported three- to five-unit zirconia-ceramic and metal-ceramic posterior fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) revealed that veneer chipping and fracture in zirconia-ceramic systems occurred more frequently than those in metal-ceramic systems [1]. This study seeks to elucidate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the fracture phenomena observed in this RCT using a descriptive fractographic analysis. Vinyl-polysiloxane impressions of 12 zirconia-ceramic and 6 metal-ceramic FDPs with veneer fractures were taken from the patients at the end of a mean observation of 40.3±2.8 months. Epoxy replicas were produced from these impressions [1]. All replicas were gold coated, and inspected under the optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for descriptive fractography. Among the 12 zirconia-ceramic FDPs, 2 had small chippings, 9 had large chippings, and 1 exhibited delamination. Out of 6 metal-ceramic FDPs, 5 had small chippings and 1 had large chipping. Descriptive fractographic analysis based on SEM observations revealed that fracture initiated from the wear facet at the occlusal surface in all cases, irrespective of the type of restoration. Zirconia-ceramic and metal-ceramic FDPs all fractured from microcracks that emanated from occlusal wear facets. The relatively low fracture toughness and high residual tensile stress in porcelain veneer of zirconia restorations may contribute to the higher chipping rate and larger chip size in zirconia-ceramic FDPs relative to their metal-ceramic counterparts. The low veneer/core interfacial fracture energy of porcelain-veneered zirconia may result in the occurrence of delamination in zirconia-ceramic FDPs. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of surface treatment and cyclic loading on the durability of repaired all-ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    ATTIA, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the durability of repaired all-ceramic crowns after cyclic loading. Material and methods Eighty In-ceram zirconia crowns were fabricated to restore prepared maxillary premolars. Resin cement was used for cementation of crowns. Palatal cusps were removed to simulate fracture of veneering porcelain and divided into 4 groups (n = 20). Fracture site was treated before repair as follows: roughening with diamond bur, (DB); air abrasion using 50 µm Al2O3, (AA) and silica coating using Cojet system followed by silane application, (SC). Control group (CG) 20 specimens were left without fracture. Palatal cusps were repaired using composite resin. Specimens were stored in water bath at 37°C for one week. Ten specimens of each group were subjected to cyclic loading. Fracture load (N) was recorded for each specimen using a universal testing machine. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) test (α=.05) were used for statistical analysis. Results There was statistically significant difference between control and tested groups, (p<0.001). Post Hoc analysis with the Tukey HSD test showed that cyclic loading fatigue significantly decreased means fracture load of control and test groups as follows (CG, 950.4±62.6 / 872.3±87.4, P = 0.0004), (DB, 624.2 ±38 / 425.5± 31.7, P <.001), (AA, 711.5 ±15.5 / 490 ± 25.2, p <0.001) and (SC, 788.7 ± 18.1 / 610.2 ± 25.2, P <.001), while silica coating and silane application significantly increased fracture load of repaired crowns (p<0.05). Conclusion Repair of fractured Inceram zirconia crowns after chairside treatment of the fracture site by silica coating and silane application could improve longevity of repaired In-ceram zirconia crowns. PMID:20485932

  7. Novel fabrication method for zirconia restorations: bonding strength of machinable ceramic to zirconia with resin cements.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Soichi; Terui, Yuichi; Higuchi, Daisuke; Goto, Daisuke; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A novel method was developed to fabricate all-ceramic restorations which comprised CAD/CAM-fabricated machinable ceramic bonded to CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia framework using resin cement. The feasibility of this fabrication method was assessed in this study by investigating the bonding strength of a machinable ceramic to zirconia. A machinable ceramic was bonded to a zirconia plate using three kinds of resin cements: ResiCem (RE), Panavia (PA), and Multilink (ML). Conventional porcelain-fused-to-zirconia specimens were also prepared to serve as control. Shear bond strength test (SBT) and Schwickerath crack initiation test (SCT) were carried out. SBT revealed that PA (40.42 MPa) yielded a significantly higher bonding strength than RE (28.01 MPa) and ML (18.89 MPa). SCT revealed that the bonding strengths of test groups using resin cement were significantly higher than those of Control. Notably, the bonding strengths of RE and ML were above 25 MPa even after 10,000 times of thermal cycling -adequately meeting the ISO 9693 standard for metal-ceramic restorations. These results affirmed the feasibility of the novel fabrication method, in that a CAD/CAM-fabricated machinable ceramic is bonded to a CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia framework using a resin cement.

  8. Biomechanical three-dimensional finite element analysis of monolithic zirconia crown with different cement type

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of various cement types on the stress distribution in monolithic zirconia crowns under maximum bite force using the finite element analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The models of the prepared #46 crown (deep chamfer margin) were scanned and solid models composed of the monolithic zirconia crown, cement layer, and prepared tooth were produced using the computer-aided design technology and were subsequently translated into 3-dimensional finite element models. Four models were prepared according to different cement types (zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, glass ionomer, and resin). A load of 700 N was applied vertically on the crowns (8 loading points). Maximum principal stress was determined. RESULTS Zinc phosphate cement had a greater stress concentration in the cement layer, while polycarboxylate cement had a greater stress concentration on the distal surface of the monolithic zirconia crown and abutment tooth. Resin cement and glass ionomer cement showed similar patterns, but resin cement showed a lower stress distribution on the lingual and mesial surface of the cement layer. CONCLUSION The test results indicate that the use of different luting agents that have various elastic moduli has an impact on the stress distribution of the monolithic zirconia crowns, cement layers, and abutment tooth. Resin cement is recommended for the luting agent of the monolithic zirconia crowns. PMID:26816578

  9. Clinical outcome of double crown-retained implant overdentures with zirconia primary crowns

    PubMed Central

    Buergers, Ralf; Ziebolz, Dirk; Roediger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE This retrospective study aims at the evaluation of implant-supported overdentures (IODs) supported by ceramo-galvanic double crowns (CGDCs: zirconia primary crowns + galvano-formed secondary crown). MATERIALS AND METHODS In a private practice, 14 patients were restored with 18 IODs (mandible: 11, maxilla: 7) retained by CGDCs on 4 - 8 implants and annually evaluated for technical and/or biological failures/complications. RESULTS One of the 86 inserted implants failed during the healing period (cumulative survival rate (CSR) implants: 98.8%). During the prosthetic functional period (mean: 5.9 ± 2.2 years), 1 implant demonstrated an abutment fracture (CSR-abutments: 98.2%), and one case of peri-implantitis was detected. All IODs remained in function (CSR-denture: 100%). A total of 15 technical complications required interventions to maintain function (technical complication rate: 0.178 treatments/patients/year). CONCLUSION Considering the small sample size, the use of CGDCs for the attachment of IODs is possible without an increased risk of technical complications. However, for a final evaluation, results from a larger cohort are required. PMID:26330981

  10. Misfit and fracture load of implant-supported monolithic crowns in zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate

    PubMed Central

    GOMES, Rafael Soares; de SOUZA, Caroline Mathias Carvalho; BERGAMO, Edmara Tatiely Pedroso; BORDIN, Dimorvan; DEL BEL CURY, Altair Antoninha

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) is a ceramic that promises to have better mechanical properties than other materials with the same indications as well as improved adaptation and fracture strength. Objective In this study, marginal and internal misfit and fracture load with and without thermal-mechanical aging (TMA) of monolithic ZLS and lithium disilicate (LDS) crowns were evaluated. Material and methods Crowns were milled using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing system. Marginal gaps (MGs), absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD), axial gaps, and occlusal gaps were measured by X-ray microtomography (n=8). For fracture load testing, crowns were cemented in a universal abutment, and divided into four groups: ZLS without TMA, ZLS with TMA, LDS without TMA, and LDS with TMA (n=10). TMA groups were subjected to 10,000 thermal cycles (5-55°C) and 1,000,000 mechanical cycles (200 N, 3.8 Hz). All groups were subjected to compressive strength testing in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until failure. Student’s t-test was used to examine misfit, two-way analysis of variance was used to analyze fracture load, and Pearson’s correlation coefficients for misfit and fracture load were calculated (α=0.05). The materials were analyzed according to Weibull distribution, with 95% confidence intervals. Results Average MG (p<0.001) and AMD (p=0.003) values were greater in ZLS than in LDS crowns. TMA did not affect the fracture load of either material. However, fracture loads of ZLS crowns were lower than those of LDS crowns (p<0.001). Fracture load was moderately correlated with MG (r=-0.553) and AMD (r=-0.497). ZLS with TMA was least reliable, according to Weibull probability. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, ZLS crowns had lower fracture load values and greater marginal misfit than did LDS crowns, although these values were within acceptable limits. PMID:28678947

  11. Study on the neotype zirconia's implant coated nanometer hydroxyapatite ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. W.; Yang, D. W.

    2007-07-01

    In recent years, biologic ceramics is a popular material of implants and bioactive surface modification of dental implant became a research emphasis, which aims to improve bioactivity of implants materials and acquire firmer implants-bone interface. The zirconia ceramic has excellent mechanical properties and nanometer HA ceramics is a bioceramic well known for its bioactivity, therefore, nanometer HA ceramics coating on zirconia, allows combining the excellent mechanical properties of zirconia substrates with its bioactivity. This paper shows a new method for implant shape design and bioactive modification of dental implants surface. Zirconia's implant substrate was prepared by sintered method, central and lateral tunnels were drilled in the zirconia hollow porous cylindrical implants by laser processing. The HA powders and needle-like HA crystals were made by a wet precipitation and calcining method. Its surface was coated with nanometer HA ceramics which was used brush HA slurry and vacuum sintering. Mechanical testing results revealed that the attachment strength of nanometer HA ceramics coated zirconia samples is high. SEM and interface observation after inserted experiment indicated that calcium and phosphor content increased and symmetrically around coated implant-bone tissue interface. A significantly higher affinity index was demonstrated in vivo by histomorphometric evaluation in coated versus uncoated implants. SEM analysis demonstrated better bone adhesion to the material in coated implant at any situation. In addition, the hollow porous cylindrical implant coated with nanometer HA ceramics increase the interaction of bone and implant, the new bone induced into the surface of hollow porous cylindrical implant and through the most tunnels filled into central hole. The branch-like structure makes the implant and bone a body, which increased the contact area and decreased elastic ratio. Therefore, the macroscopical and microcosmic nested structure of

  12. Internal coating of zirconia restoration with silica-based ceramic improves bonding of resin cement to dental zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Shuzo; Nikaido, Toru; Ikeda, Masaomi; Alireza, Sadr; Miura, Hiroyuki; Tagami, Junji

    2010-01-01

    Resin bonding to zirconia ceramic cannot be established by standard methods that are utilized for conventional silica-based dental ceramics. This study was aimed to examine the tensile bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramic using a new laboratory technique. Sixty-four zirconia ceramic specimens were air-abraded using Al2O3 particles and divided into two groups; the control group with no pretreatment (Control), and the group pretreated using the internal coating technique (INT), in which the surface of the zirconia specimens were thinly coated by fusing silica-based ceramic and air-abraded in the same manner. The specimens in each group were further divided into two subgroups according to the silane coupling agents applied; a mixture of dentin primer/silane coupling agent (Clearfil SE Bond Primer/Porcelain Bond Activator) or a newly developed single-component silane coupling agent (Clearfil Ceramic Primer). After bonding with dual-cured resin cement (Panavia F 2.0), they were stored in water for 24 h and half of them were additionally subjected to thermal cycling. The tensile bond strengths were tested using a universal testing machine. ANOVAs revealed significant influence of ceramic surface pretreatment (p<0.001), silane coupling agent (p<0.001) and thermal cycling (p<0.001); the INT coating technique significantly increased the bond strengths of resin cement to zirconia ceramic, whereas thermal cycling significantly decreased the bond strengths. The use of a single-component silane coupling agent demonstrated significantly higher bond strengths than that of a mixture of dentin primer/silane coupling agent. The internal coating of zirconia dental restorations with silica-based ceramic followed by silanization may be indicated in order to achieve better bonding for the clinical success.

  13. Fracture resistance of different implant abutments supporting 
all-ceramic single crowns after aging.

    PubMed

    Stimmelmayr, Michael; Heiß, Philipp; Erdelt, Kurt; Schweiger, Josef; Beuer, Florian

    To test the mechanical properties of three different restorative materials for implant abutments supporting all-ceramic single crowns. Thirty implants with butt-joint connections were distributed into three test groups: Group A with 10 one-piece zirconia abutments, Group U with 10 titanium abutments, and Group T with 10 titanium-zirconia hybrid abutments. Monolithic zirconia single crowns were cemented and artificially aged. The crowns were loaded at a 30-degree angle in a universal testing machine until fracture or bending. Additionally, after removal of the restorations, the implant-abutment interface of the fixtures was inspected using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In Group A, the abutments failed on average at 336.78 N, in Group U at 1000.12 N, and in Group T at 1296.55 N. The mean values between Groups T and U (P = 0.009), and between Group A and Groups T and U (P < 0.001) were significantly different. The abutments in Group A failed early due to fractures of the internal parts and parts close to the implant neck. In Groups T and U, failures occurred due to bending of the implant neck. This experimental study proves that hybrid and titanium abutments have similar mechanical properties. One-piece abutments made of zirconia showed significantly lower fracture resistance.

  14. Structural and Chemical Analysis of the Zirconia-Veneering Ceramic Interface.

    PubMed

    Inokoshi, M; Yoshihara, K; Nagaoka, N; Nakanishi, M; De Munck, J; Minakuchi, S; Vanmeensel, K; Zhang, F; Yoshida, Y; Vleugels, J; Naert, I; Van Meerbeek, B

    2016-01-01

    The interfacial interaction of veneering ceramic with zirconia is still not fully understood. This study aimed to characterize morphologically and chemically the zirconia-veneering ceramic interface. Three zirconia-veneering conditions were investigated: 1) zirconia-veneering ceramic fired on sandblasted zirconia, 2) zirconia-veneering ceramic on as-sintered zirconia, and 3) alumina-veneering ceramic (lower coefficient of thermal expansion [CTE]) on as-sintered zirconia. Polished cross-sectioned ceramic-veneered zirconia specimens were examined using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (Feg-SEM). In addition, argon-ion thinned zirconia-veneering ceramic interface cross sections were examined using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) at high resolution. Finally, the zirconia-veneering ceramic interface was quantitatively analyzed for tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation and residual stress using micro-Raman spectroscopy (µRaman). Feg-SEM revealed tight interfaces for all 3 veneering conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) disclosed an approximately 1.0-µm transformed zone at sandblasted zirconia, in which distinct zirconia grains were no longer observable. Straight grain boundaries and angular grain corners were detected up to the interface of zirconia- and alumina-veneering ceramic with as-sintered zirconia. EDS mapping disclosed within the zirconia-veneering ceramic a few nanometers thick calcium/aluminum-rich layer, touching the as-sintered zirconia base, with an equally thick silicon-rich/aluminum-poor layer on top. µRaman revealed t-ZrO2-to-m-ZrO2 phase transformation and residual compressive stress at the sandblasted zirconia surface. The difference in CTE between zirconia- and the alumina-veneering ceramic resulted in residual tensile stress within the zirconia immediately adjacent to its interface with the veneering ceramic. The rather minor chemical

  15. Mechanical properties of zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E; Elnaghy, Amr M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical properties of recently introduced zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic. Two types of CAD/CAM glass-ceramics (Vita Suprinity (VS); zirconia reinforced lithium silicate and IPS e.max CAD (IC); lithium disilicate) were used. Fracture toughness, flexural strength, elastic modulus, hardness, brittleness index, and microstructures were evaluated. Data were analyzed using independent t tests. Weibull analysis of flexural strength data was also performed. VS had significantly higher fracture toughness (2.31±0.17MPam(0.5)), flexural strength (443.63±38.90MPa), elastic modulus (70.44±1.97GPa), and hardness (6.53±0.49GPa) than IC (P<0.001). On the other hand, VS glass-ceramic revealed significantly a higher brittleness index (2.84±0.26μm(-1/2)) (lower machinability) than IC glass-ceramic (P<0.05). VS demonstrated a homogeneous fine crystalline structure while, IC revealed a structure with needle-shaped fine-grained crystals embedded in a glassy matrix. The VS glass-ceramic revealed a lower probability of failure and a higher strength than IC glass-ceramic according to Weibull analysis. The VS zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic revealed higher mechanical properties compared with IC lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Bilayer Ceramic and Metal-Ceramic Crown Performance

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine; Rose, William; Oliveira, Erica; Yang, Mark; Clark, Arthur E.; Anusavice, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Analyzing the clinical performance of restorative materials is important, as there is an expectation that these materials and procedures will restore teeth and do no harm. The objective of this research study was to characterize the clinical performance of metal-ceramic crowns, core ceramic crowns, and core ceramic/veneer ceramic crowns based on 11 clinical criteria. Materials and Methods An IRB-approved, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted as a single-blind pilot study. The following three types of full crowns were fabricated: (1) metal-ceramic crown (MC) made from a Pd-Au-Ag-Sn-In alloy (Argedent 62) and a glass-ceramic veneer (IPS d.SIGN veneer); (2) non-veneered (glazed) lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crown (LDC) (IPS e.max Press core and e.max Ceram Glaze); and (3) veneered lithia disilicate glass-ceramic crown (LDC/V) with glass-ceramic veneer (IPS Empress 2 core and IPS Eris). Single-unit crowns were randomly assigned. Patients were recalled for each of 3 years and were evaluated by two calibrated clinicians. Thirty-six crowns were placed in 31 patients. A total of 12 crowns of each of the three crown types were studied. Eleven criteria were evaluated: tissue health, marginal integrity, secondary caries, proximal contact, anatomic contour, occlusion, surface texture, cracks/chips (fractures), color match, tooth sensitivity, and wear (of crowns and opposing enamel). Numerical rankings ranged from 1 to 4, with 4 being excellent, and 1 indicating a need for immediate replacement. Statistical analysis of the numerical rankings was performed using a Fisher’s exact test. Results There was no statistically significant difference between performance of the core ceramic crowns and the two veneered crowns at year 1 and year 2 (p > 0.05). All crowns were rated either as excellent or good for each of the clinical criteria; however, between years 2 and 3, gradual roughening of the occlusal surface occurred in some of the ceramic-ceramic crowns

  17. Digital evaluation of the fit of zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate crowns with a new three-dimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Moritz; Valcanaia, Andre; Neiva, Gisele; Mehl, Albert; Fasbinder, Dennis

    2017-11-30

    Several methods for the evaluation of fit of computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM)-fabricated restorations have been described. In the study, digital models were recorded with an intraoral scanning device and were measured using a new three-dimensional (3D) computer technique to evaluate restoration internal fit. The aim of the study was to evaluate the internal adaptation and fit of chairside CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic crowns fabricated with different post-milling protocols. The null hypothesis was that different post-milling protocols did not influence the fitting accuracy of zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate restorations. A master all-ceramic crown preparation was completed on a maxillary right first molar on a typodont. Twenty zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic crowns (Celtra Duo, Dentsply Sirona) were designed and milled using a chairside CAD/CAM system (CEREC Omnicam, Dentsply Sirona). The 20 crowns were randomly divided into two groups based on post-milling protocols: no manipulation after milling (Group MI) and oven fired-glazing after milling (Group FG). A 3D computer method was used to evaluate the internal adaptation of the crowns. This was based on a subtractive analysis of a digital scan of the crown preparation and a digital scan of the thickness of the cement space over the crown preparation as recorded by a polyvinylsiloxane (PVS) impression material. The preparation scan and PVS scan were matched in 3D and a 3D difference analysis was performed with a software program (OraCheck, Cyfex). Three areas of internal adaptation and fit were selected for analysis: margin (MA), axial wall (AX), and occlusal surface (OC). Statistical analysis was performed using 80% percentile and one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Scheffé test (P = .05). The closest internal adaptation of the crowns was measured at the axial wall with 102.0 ± 11.7 µm for group MI-AX and 106.3 ± 29.3 µm for group FG

  18. An overview of zirconia ceramics: basic properties and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Manicone, Paolo Francesco; Rossi Iommetti, Pierfrancesco; Raffaelli, Luca

    2007-11-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) is a ceramic material with adequate mechanical properties for manufacturing of medical devices. Zirconia stabilized with Y2O3 has the best properties for these applications. When a stress occurs on a ZrO2 surface, a crystalline modification opposes the propagation of cracks. Compression resistance of ZrO2 is about 2000 MPa. Orthopedic research led to this material being proposed for the manufacture of hip head prostheses. Prior to this, zirconia biocompatibility had been studied in vivo; no adverse responses were reported following the insertion of ZrO2 samples into bone or muscle. In vitro experimentation showed absence of mutations and good viability of cells cultured on this material. Zirconia cores for fixed partial dentures (FPD) on anterior and posterior teeth and on implants are now available. Clinical evaluation of abutments and periodontal tissue must be performed prior to their use. Zirconia opacity is very useful in adverse clinical situations, for example, for masking of dischromic abutment teeth. Radiopacity can aid evaluation during radiographic controls. Zirconia frameworks are realized by using computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. Cementation of Zr-ceramic restorations can be performed with adhesive luting. Mechanical properties of zirconium oxide FPDs have proved superior to those of other metal-free restorations. Clinical evaluations, which have been ongoing for 3 years, indicate a good success rate for zirconia FPDs. Zirconia implant abutments can also be used to improve the aesthetic outcome of implant-supported rehabilitations. Newly proposed zirconia implants seem to have good biological and mechanical properties; further studies are needed to validate their application.

  19. Influence of the preparation design and artificial aging on the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns

    PubMed Central

    Anastassova-Yoshida, Yana; Nothdurft, Frank Phillip; von See, Constantin; Pospiech, Peter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance and fracture behavior of monolithic zirconia crowns in accordance with the preparation design and aging simulation method. MATERIALS AND METHODS An upper first molar was prepared sequentially with three different preparation designs: shoulderless preparation, 0.4 mm chamfer and 0.8 mm chamfer preparation. For each preparation design, 30 monolithic zirconia crowns were fabricated. After cementation on Cr-Co alloy dies, the following artificial aging procedures were performed: (1) thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML): 5000 cycles of thermal cycling 5℃–55℃ and chewing simulation (1,200,000 cycles, 50 N); (2) Low Temperature Degradation simulation (LTD): autoclave treatment at 137℃, 2 bar for 3 hours and chewing simulation; and (3) no pre-treatment (control group). After artificial aging, the crowns were loaded until fracture. RESULTS The mean values of fracture resistance varied between 3414 N (LTD; 0.8 mm chamfer preparation) and 5712 N (control group; shoulderless preparation). Two-way ANOVA analysis showed a significantly higher fracture loads for the shoulderless preparation, whereas no difference was found between the chamfer preparations. In contrast to TCML, after LTD simulation the fracture strength of monolithic zirconia crowns decreased significantly. CONCLUSION The monolithic crowns tested in this study showed generally high fracture load values. Preparation design and LTD simulation had a significant influence on the fracture strength of monolithic zirconia crowns. PMID:26949485

  20. Influence of the preparation design and artificial aging on the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns.

    PubMed

    Mitov, Gergo; Anastassova-Yoshida, Yana; Nothdurft, Frank Phillip; von See, Constantin; Pospiech, Peter

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance and fracture behavior of monolithic zirconia crowns in accordance with the preparation design and aging simulation method. An upper first molar was prepared sequentially with three different preparation designs: shoulderless preparation, 0.4 mm chamfer and 0.8 mm chamfer preparation. For each preparation design, 30 monolithic zirconia crowns were fabricated. After cementation on Cr-Co alloy dies, the following artificial aging procedures were performed: (1) thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML): 5000 cycles of thermal cycling 5℃-55℃ and chewing simulation (1,200,000 cycles, 50 N); (2) Low Temperature Degradation simulation (LTD): autoclave treatment at 137℃, 2 bar for 3 hours and chewing simulation; and (3) no pre-treatment (control group). After artificial aging, the crowns were loaded until fracture. The mean values of fracture resistance varied between 3414 N (LTD; 0.8 mm chamfer preparation) and 5712 N (control group; shoulderless preparation). Two-way ANOVA analysis showed a significantly higher fracture loads for the shoulderless preparation, whereas no difference was found between the chamfer preparations. In contrast to TCML, after LTD simulation the fracture strength of monolithic zirconia crowns decreased significantly. The monolithic crowns tested in this study showed generally high fracture load values. Preparation design and LTD simulation had a significant influence on the fracture strength of monolithic zirconia crowns.

  1. Combining monolithic zirconia crowns, digital impressioning, and regenerative cement for a predictable restorative alternative to PFM.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Jack D

    2013-03-01

    Advances in indirect esthetic materials in recent years have provided the dental profession higher levels of strength and esthetics than ever before with products like lithium disilicate and zirconium oxide. Providing excellent fit and versatile performance, and because there is no porcelain to delaminate, chip, or fracture, monolithic zirconia crowns have the potential to outperform other layered restorations such as porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM). This review of monolithic zirconia highlights a clinical case in which all-zirconia restorations were combined with CAD/CAM technology for a successful esthetic restorative outcome.

  2. Surface roughness of zirconia for full-contour crowns after clinically simulated grinding and polishing.

    PubMed

    Hmaidouch, Rim; Müller, Wolf-Dieter; Lauer, Hans-Christoph; Weigl, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of controlled intraoral grinding and polishing on the roughness of full-contour zirconia compared to classical veneered zirconia. Thirty bar-shaped zirconia specimens were fabricated and divided into two groups (n=15). Fifteen specimens (group 1) were glazed and 15 specimens (group 2) were veneered with feldspathic ceramic and then glazed. Prior to grinding, maximum roughness depth (Rmax) values were measured using a profilometer, 5 times per specimen. Simulated clinical grinding and polishing were performed on the specimens under water coolant for 15 s and 2 N pressure. For grinding, NTI diamonds burs with grain sizes of 20 µm, 10 µm, and 7.5 µm were used sequentially. The ground surfaces were polished using NTI kits with coarse, medium and fine polishers. After each step, Rmax values were determined. Differences between groups were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The roughness of group 1 was significantly lower than that of group 2. The roughness increased significantly after coarse grinding in both groups. The results after glazing were similar to those obtained after fine grinding for non-veneered zirconia. However, fine-ground veneered zirconia had significantly higher roughness than venerred, glazed zirconia. No significant difference was found between fine-polished and glazed zirconia, but after the fine polishing of veneered zirconia, the roughness was significantly higher than after glazing. It can be concluded that for full-contour zirconia, fewer defects and lower roughness values resulted after grinding and polishing compared to veneered zirconia. After polishing zirconia, lower roughness values were achieved compared to glazing; more interesting was that the grinding of glazed zirconia using the NTI three-step system could deliver smooth surfaces comparable to untreated glazed zirconia surfaces.

  3. Surface roughness of zirconia for full-contour crowns after clinically simulated grinding and polishing

    PubMed Central

    Hmaidouch, Rim; Müller, Wolf-Dieter; Lauer, Hans-Christoph; Weigl, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of controlled intraoral grinding and polishing on the roughness of full-contour zirconia compared to classical veneered zirconia. Thirty bar-shaped zirconia specimens were fabricated and divided into two groups (n=15). Fifteen specimens (group 1) were glazed and 15 specimens (group 2) were veneered with feldspathic ceramic and then glazed. Prior to grinding, maximum roughness depth (Rmax) values were measured using a profilometer, 5 times per specimen. Simulated clinical grinding and polishing were performed on the specimens under water coolant for 15 s and 2 N pressure. For grinding, NTI diamonds burs with grain sizes of 20 µm, 10 µm, and 7.5 µm were used sequentially. The ground surfaces were polished using NTI kits with coarse, medium and fine polishers. After each step, Rmax values were determined. Differences between groups were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The roughness of group 1 was significantly lower than that of group 2. The roughness increased significantly after coarse grinding in both groups. The results after glazing were similar to those obtained after fine grinding for non-veneered zirconia. However, fine-ground veneered zirconia had significantly higher roughness than venerred, glazed zirconia. No significant difference was found between fine-polished and glazed zirconia, but after the fine polishing of veneered zirconia, the roughness was significantly higher than after glazing. It can be concluded that for full-contour zirconia, fewer defects and lower roughness values resulted after grinding and polishing compared to veneered zirconia. After polishing zirconia, lower roughness values were achieved compared to glazing; more interesting was that the grinding of glazed zirconia using the NTI three-step system could deliver smooth surfaces comparable to untreated glazed zirconia surfaces. PMID:25059249

  4. Translucency of Zirconia Ceramics before and after Artificial Aging.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Katarzyna; Meißner, Heike; Range, Ursula; Sakkas, Andreas; Boening, Klaus; Wieckiewicz, Mieszko; Konstantinidis, Ioannis

    2018-03-11

    The aging of zirconia ceramics (Y-TZP) is associated with tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation. This change in microstructure may affect the optical properties of the ceramic. This study examines the effect of aging on the translucency of different zirconia materials. 120 disc-shaped specimens were fabricated from four zirconia materials: Cercon ht white, BruxZir Solid Zirconia, Zenostar T0, Lava Plus (n = 30 per group). Accelerated aging was performed in a steam autoclave (134°C, 0.2 MPa, 5 hours). CIELab coordinates (L*, a*, b*) and luminous reflectance (Y) were measured with a spectrophotometer before and after aging. Contrast ratio (CR) and translucency parameter (TP) were calculated from the L*, a*, b*, and Y tristimulus values. The general linear model (Bonferroni adjusted) was used to compare both parameters before and after aging, as well as between the different zirconia materials (p ≤ 0.05). CR and TP differed significantly before and after aging in all groups tested. Before aging, Zenostar T showed the highest and Lava Plus showed the lowest translucency. After aging, Cercon ht and Zenostar T showed the highest and BruxZir and Lava Plus the lowest translucency. Aging reduced the translucency in all specimens tested. Furthermore, translucency differed between the zirconia brands tested. Nevertheless, the differences were below the detectability threshold of the human eye. The aging process can influence the translucency and thus the esthetic outcome of zirconia restorations; however, the changes in translucency were minimal and probably undetectable by the human eye. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. Zirconia toughened mica glass ceramics for dental restorations.

    PubMed

    Gali, Sivaranjani; K, Ravikumar; Murthy, B V S; Basu, Bikramjit

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to understand the role of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in achieving the desired spectrum of clinically relevant mechanical properties (hardness, elastic modulus, fracture toughness and brittleness index) and chemical solubility of mica glass ceramics. The glass-zirconia mixtures with varying amounts of YSZ (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20wt.%) were ball milled, compacted and sintered to obtain pellets of glass ceramic-YSZ composites. Phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction and microstructural characterization with SEM revealed the crystal morphology of the composites. Mechanical properties such as Vickers hardness, elastic modulus, indentation fracture toughness and chemical solubility were assessed. Phase analysis of sintered pellets of glass ceramic-YSZ composites revealed the characteristic peaks of fluorophlogopite (FPP) and tetragonal zirconia. Microstructural investigation showed plate and lath-like interlocking mica crystals with embedded zirconia. Vickers hardness of 9.2GPa, elastic modulus of 125GPa, indentation toughness of 3.6MPa·m 1/2 , and chemical solubility of 30μg/cm 2 (well below the permissible limit) were recorded with mica glass ceramics containing 20wt.% YSZ. An increase in hardness and toughness of the glass ceramic-YSZ composites with no compromise on their brittleness index and chemical solubility has been observed. Such spectrum of properties can be utilised for developing a machinable ceramic for low stress bearing inlays, onlays and veneers. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Fractographic analysis of clinically failed anterior all ceramic crowns].

    PubMed

    DU, Qian; Zhou, Min-bo; Zhang, Xin-ping; Zhao, Ke

    2012-04-01

    To identify the site of crack initiation and propagation path of clinically failed all ceramic crowns by fractographic analysis. Three clinically failed anterior IPS Empress II crowns and two anterior In-Ceram alumina crowns were retrieved. Fracture surfaces were examined using both optical stereo and scanning electron microscopy. Fractographic theory and fracture mechanics principles were applied to disclose the damage characteristics and fracture mode. All the crowns failed by cohesive failure within the veneer on the labial surface. Critical crack originated at the incisal contact area and propagated gingivally. Porosity was found within the veneer because of slurry preparation and the sintering of veneer powder. Cohesive failure within the veneer is the main failure mode of all ceramic crown. Veneer becomes vulnerable when flaws are present. To reduce the chances of chipping, multi-point occlusal contacts are recommended, and layering and sintering technique of veneering layer should also be improved.

  7. [All-ceramic peripheral restorations: crowns and bridges].

    PubMed

    Legros, Caroline; Vanheusden, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Over the last years, current technologies in dental ceramics are strongly improved, constantly producing new materials for the restoration of the single or plural teeth. Feldspathic porcelains fused to a cast metal substructure, the so-called "metal-ceramic crown," has been long time the gold standard; this is primarily due to their predictable long-term strength characteristics. All-ceramic systems are a focus of interest, because they offer aesthetic results that may be difficult to achieve with metal-ceramic systems. Nowadays, the new ceramics associate aesthetic and good mechanical qualities, biocompatibility, accurate marginal fit and low invasive preparations. Thanks to the diversification of all-ceram processes, materials properties and clinical situations are now the prime criteria which determine the practitioner's choice. In this article, we try to summarize different clinical concepts for peripheric all-ceram restoration, such as crowns and bridges used in a daily dental practice.

  8. Influence of implant abutment material on the color of different ceramic crown systems.

    PubMed

    Dede, Doğu Ömür; Armağanci, Arzu; Ceylan, Gözlem; Celik, Ersan; Cankaya, Soner; Yilmaz, Burak

    2016-11-01

    Ceramics are widely used for anterior restorations; however, clinical color reproduction still constitutes a challenge particularly when the ceramic crowns are used on titanium implant abutments. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of implant abutment material on the color of different ceramic material systems. Forty disks (11×1.5 mm, shade A2) were fabricated from medium-opacity (mo) and high-translucency (ht) lithium disilicate (IPS e.max) blocks, an aluminous ceramic (VITA In-Ceram Alumina), and a zirconia (Zirkonzahn) ceramic system. Disks were fabricated to represent 3 different implant abutments (zirconia, gold-palladium, and titanium) and dentin (composite resin, A2 shade) as background (11×2 mm). Disk-shaped composite resin specimens in A2 shade were fabricated to represent the cement layer. The color measurements of ceramic specimens were made on composite resin abutment materials using a spectrophotometer. CIELab color coordinates were recorded, and the color coordinates measured on composite resin background served as the control group. Color differences (ΔE 00 ) between the control and test groups were calculated. The data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and compared with the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). The ceramics system, abutment material, and their interaction were significant for ΔE 00 values (P<.001). Clinically unacceptable results (ΔE 00 >2.25) were observed for lithium disilicate ceramics on titanium abutments (2.46-2.50). The ΔE 00 values of lithium disilicate ceramics for gold-palladium and titanium abutments were significantly higher than for other groups (P<.05). The color results (ΔE 00 >2.25) of an implant-supported lithium disilicate ceramic restoration may be clinically unacceptable if it is fabricated over a titanium abutment. Zirconia may be a more suitable abutment material for implant-supported ceramic restorations. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of

  9. Effect of various intermediate ceramic layers on the interfacial stability of zirconia core and veneering ceramics.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-In; Yeo, In-Sung; Yi, Yang-Jin; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Jai-Bong; Han, Jung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of intermediate ceramics on the adhesion between the zirconia core and veneer ceramics. The polished surfaces of fully sintered Y-TZP blocks received three different treatments: (1) connector (C), (2) liner (L) or (3) wash layer (W). All the treated zirconia blocks were veneered with either (a) fluorapatite glass-ceramic (E) or (b) feldspathic porcelain (V) and divided into four groups (CE, CV, LE and WV). For the control group, the testing surfaces of metal blocks were veneered with feldspathic porcelain (VM). A half of the samples in each group (n = 21) were exposed to thermocycling, while the other half of the specimens were stored at room temperature under dry conditions. All specimens were subjected to the shear test and the failed surfaces were microscopically examined. The elemental distribution at the zirconia core/veneer interface was analyzed. The specimens in Groups CE and CV exhibited significantly greater mean bond strength values than those in Groups LE and WV, respectively (p < 0.05). However, the mean bond strengths significantly decreased in the connector groups (CE and CV) after thermal cycling (p < 0.05). The elemental analysis suggested diffusion of ceramic substances into the zirconia surface. A glass-ceramic based connector is significantly more favorable to core/veneer adhesion than the other intermediate ceramics evaluated in the study. However, thermal cycling affected the bond strength at the core/veneer interface differently according to the intermediate ceramics.

  10. The development of Zirconia and Copper toughened Alumina ceramic insert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalina Sabuan, Nur; Zolkafli, Nurfatini; Mebrahitom, A.; Azhari, Azmir; Mamat, Othman

    2018-04-01

    Ceramic cutting tools have been utilized in industry for over a century for its productivity and efficiency in machine tools and cutting tool material. However, due to the brittleness property the application has been limited. In order to manufacture high strength ceramic cutting tools, there is a need for suitable reinforcement to improve its toughness. In this case, copper (Cu) and zirconia (ZrO2) powders were added to investigate the hardness and physical properties of the developed composite insert. A uniaxial pre-forming process of the mix powder was done prior to densification by sintering at 1000 and 1300°C. The effect of the composition of the reinforcement on the hardness, density, shrinkage and microstructure of the inserts was investigated. It was found that an optimum density of 3.26 % and hardness 1385HV was obtained for composite of 10wt % zirconia and 10wt% copper at temperature 1000 °C.

  11. In vitro analysis of the fracture resistance of CAD-CAM monolithic zirconia molar crowns with different occlusal thickness.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Roberto; Triulzio, Clementina; Tricarico, Maria Gabriella; Bonadeo, Giovanni; Gherlone, Enrico Felice; Ferrari, Marco

    2016-08-01

    To compare the fracture resistance and mode of failure of CAD-CAM monolithic zirconia crowns with different occlusal thickness. Forty CAD-CAM monolithic zirconia crowns with different occlusal thickness were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups: 2.0mm (group 1), 1.5mm (group 2), 1.0mm (group 3) and 0.5mm (group 4). The restorations were cemented onto human molars with a self-adhesive resin cement. The specimens were loaded until fracture; the fracture resistance and mode of failure were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed with the one-way ANOVA followed by the Fisher׳s Exact test with Bonferroni׳s correction (p=0.05). The fracture resistance values of all the specimens exceeded the maximum physiological occlusal loads in molar regions. All the crowns showed cohesive microcracks of the zirconia core; only 1 crown with a thickness of 0.5mm was interested by a complete fracture. The occlusal thickness of CAD-CAM monolithic zirconia crowns did not influence either the fracture resistance and the mode of failure of the restorations; the occlusal thickness of CAD-CAM monolithic zirconia crowns can be reduced up to a lower bound of 0.5mm keeping a sufficient strength to withstand occlusal loads; CAD-CAM monolithic zirconia crowns showed sufficient fracture resistance to be used in molar regions, even in a thin configuration (0.5mm). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Crown color match of implant-supported zirconia and porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations: a spectrophotometric comparison].

    PubMed

    Peng, Min; Fei, Wei; Hosseini, Mandana; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the crown color match of implant-supported zirconia restorations and porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) restorations in the anterior maxillary region through spectrophotometric evaluation. Eighteen patients with 29 implant-supported single crowns in the anterior maxillary area were recruited. Eleven of the implant crowns were zirconia restorations and 18 were PFM restorations. Color matching of the implant crown with contra-lateral/ neighboring tooth at the position of body 1/3 of the crown was assessed using a spectrophotometer (SpectroShade) in CIE L* a* b* coordinates. Subjective crown color match scores were evaluated. Independent sample t test of SPSS 17.0 was used to compare the difference between zirconia restoration and PFM restoration. Spearman correlation was used to analyze the relationship between the spectrophotometric color difference and the subjective crown color match score. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the distribution of color coordinates of natural anterial teeth. The crown color of the implant-supported zirconia restorations and PFM restorations were both lighter than that of natural teeth (delta L, 4.5 +/- 3.2, 1.0 +/- 2.6). The lightness difference induced by zirconia restorations was significantly larger than that induced by PFM restorations (P=0.004). The spectrophotometric crown color difference (delta E) induced by zirconia restorations (7.0 +/- 2.8) was significantly larger than that induced by PFM restorations (4.0 +/- 1.9) (P=0.002), and both values were beyond the clinical thresholds (3.7). The spectrophotometric crown color difference induced by zirconia restorations was significantly larger than that induced by PFM restorations. However, they were indistinguishable in subjective evaluation.

  13. [The study of the colorimetric characteristics of the cobalt-chrome alloys abutments covered by four different all-ceramic crowns by using dental spectrophotometer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifan; Liu, Hongchun; Meng, Yukun; Chao, Yonglie; Liu, Changhong

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the optical data of the different sites of the cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) alloy abutments covered by four different all-ceramic crowns and the color difference between the crowns and target tab using a digital dental spectrophotometer. Ten Co-Cr alloy abutments were made and tried in four different groups of all-ceramic crowns, namely, Procera aluminia, Procera zirconia, Lava zirconia (Lava-Zir), and IPS E.max glass-ceramic lithium disilicate-reinforced monolithic. The color data of the cervical, body, and incisal sites of the samples were recorded and analyzed by dental spectrophotometer. The CIE L*, a*, b* values were again measured after veneering. The color difference between the abutments covered by all-ceramic crowns and A2 dentine shade tab was evaluated. The L* and b* values of the abutments can be increased by all of the four groups of all-ceramic copings, but a* values were decreased in most groups. A statistical difference was observed among four groups. After being veneered, the L* values of all the copings declined slightly, and the values of a*, b* increased significantly. When compared with A2 dentine shade tab, the ΔE of the crowns was below 4. Four ceramic copings were demonstrated to promote the lightness and hue of the alloy abutments effecttively. Though the colorimetric baseline of these copings was uneven, veneer porcelain can efficiently decrease the color difference between the samples and thee target.

  14. Three- to nine-year survival estimates and fracture mechanisms of zirconia- and alumina-based restorations using standardized criteria to distinguish the severity of ceramic fractures.

    PubMed

    Moráguez, Osvaldo D; Wiskott, H W Anselm; Scherrer, Susanne S

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study were set as follows: 1. To provide verifiable criteria to categorize the ceramic fractures into non-critical (i.e., amenable to polishing) or critical (i.e., in need of replacement) 2. To establish the corresponding survival rates for alumina and zirconia restorations 3. To establish the mechanism of fracture using fractography Fifty-eight patients restored with 115 alumina-/zirconia-based crowns and 26 zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) were included. Ceramic fractures were classified into four types and further subclassified into "critical" or "non-critical." Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated for "critical fractures only" and "all fractures." Intra-oral replicas were taken for fractographic analyses. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for "critical fractures only" and "all fractures" were respectively: Alumina single crowns: 90.9 and 68.3 % after 9.5 years (mean 5.71 ± 2.6 years). Zirconia single crowns: 89.4 and 80.9 % after 6.3 years (mean 3.88 ± 1.2 years). Zirconia FDPs: 68.6 % (critical fractures) and 24.6 % (all fractures) after 7.2 and 4.6 years respectively (FDP mean observation time 3.02 ± 1.4 years). No core/framework fractures were detected. Survival estimates varied significantly depending on whether "all" fractures were considered as failures or only those deemed as "critical". For all restorations, fractographic analyses of failed veneering ceramics systematically demonstrated heavy occlusal wear at the failure origin. Therefore, the relief of local contact pressures on unsupported ceramic is recommended. Occlusal contacts on mesial or distal ridges should systematically be eliminated. A classification standard for ceramic fractures into four categories with subtypes "critical" and "non-critical" provides a differentiated view of the survival of ceramic restorations.

  15. Adaptation of zirconia crowns created by conventional versus optical impression: in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Babak; Fossoyeux, InÈs; Atash, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to compare the precision of optical impression (Trios, 3Shape) versus that of conventional impression (Imprint IV, 3M-ESPE) with three different margins (shoulder, chamfer, and knife-edge) on Frasaco teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS The sample comprised of 60 zirconia half-crowns, divided into six groups according to the type of impression and margin. Scanning electron microscopy enabled us to analyze the gap between the zirconia crowns and the Frasaco teeth, using ImageJ software, based on eight reproducible and standardized measuring points. RESULTS No statistically significant difference was found between conventional impressions and optical impressions, except for two of the eight points. A statistically significant difference was observed between the three margin types; the chamfer and knife-edge finishing lines appeared to offer better adaptation results than the shoulder margin. CONCLUSION Zirconia crowns created from optical impression and those created from conventional impression present similar adaptation. While offering identical results, the former have many advantages. In view of our findings, we believe the chamfer margin should be favored. PMID:28680553

  16. [Finite element stress analysis of all-ceramic continuous crowns of the lower anterior teeth in differential shoulder thickness].

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Shao-bo; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Hong-bin; Liao, Lan; Zhu, Hong-shui

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the stress distributions under load in 3 types of all-ceramic continuous crowns of the lower anterior teeth with differential shoulder thickness. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) was used to scan the in vitro mandibular central incisors, and achieve three-dimensional finite element model of all-ceramic continuous crowns with different shoulder width by using Mimics, Abaqus software. Different load conditions were simulated based on this model to study the effect of shoulder width variation on finite element analysis of 3 kinds of different all-ceramic materials of incisors fixed continuous crowns of the mandibular. Using CBCT, Mimics10.01 software and Abaqus 6.11 software, three-dimensional finite element model of all-ceramic continuous crowns of the mandibular incisor, abutment, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone was established. Different ceramic materials and various shoulder width had minor no impact on the equivalent stress peak of periodontal membrane, as well as alveolar bone. With the same shoulder width and large area of vertical loading of 120 N, the tensile stress was the largest in In-Ceram Alumina, followed by In-Ceram Zirconia and the minimum was IPS.Empress II. Under large area loading of 120 N 45° labially, when the material was IPS.Empress II, with the shoulder width increased, the porcelain plate edge of the maximum tensile stress value increased, while the other 2 materials had no obvious change. Finite element model has good geometric similarity. In the setting range of this study, when the elastic modulus of ceramic materials is bigger, the tensile stress of the continuous crown is larger. Supported by Research Project of Department of Education, Jiangxi Province (GJJ09130).

  17. Comparison of Amount of Primary Tooth Reduction Required for Anterior and Posterior Zirconia and Stainless Steel Crowns.

    PubMed

    Clark, Larkin; Wells, Martha H; Harris, Edward F; Lou, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    To determine if aggressiveness of primary tooth preparation varied among different brands of zirconia and stainless steel (SSC) crowns. One hundred primary typodont teeth were divided into five groups (10 posterior and 10 anterior) and assigned to: Cheng Crowns (CC); EZ Pedo (EZP); Kinder Krowns (KKZ); NuSmile (NSZ); and SSC. Teeth were prepared, and assigned crowns were fitted. Teeth were weighed prior to and after preparation. Weight changes served as a surrogate measure of tooth reduction. Analysis of variance showed a significant difference in tooth reduction among brand/type for both the anterior and posterior. Tukey's honest significant difference test (HSD), when applied to anterior data, revealed that SSCs required significantly less tooth removal compared to the composite of the four zirconia brands, which showed no significant difference among them. Tukey's HSD test, applied to posterior data, revealed that CC required significantly greater removal of crown structure, while EZP, KKZ, and NSZ were statistically equivalent, and SSCs required significantly less removal. Zirconia crowns required more tooth reduction than stainless steel crowns for primary anterior and posterior teeth. Tooth reduction for anterior zirconia crowns was equivalent among brands. For posterior teeth, reduction for three brands (EZ Pedo, Kinder Krowns, NuSmile) did not differ, while Cheng Crowns required more reduction.

  18. Influence of contamination on bonding to zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Scharnberg, Michael; Wolfart, Stefan; Quaas, Anne C; Ludwig, Klaus; Adelung, Rainer; Kern, Matthias

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of contaminations and cleaning methods on bonding to dental zirconia ceramic. After saliva immersion and using silicone disclosing agent, airborne-particle abraded ceramic specimens were cleaned with isopropanol (AL), acetone (AC), 37% phosphoric acid (PA), additional airborne-particle abrasion (AA), or only with water rinsing (SS). Airborne-particle abraded specimens without contaminations (CL) were used as control group. For chemical analysis specimens of all groups were examined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Plexiglas tubes filled with composite resin were bonded to ceramic specimens using a phosphate-monomer containing composite luting resin. After 3-day water storage, tensile bond strengths (TBS) were tested. XPS analysis of group SS showed the presence of saliva and silicone (Si) contamination on the surface. The ratios of carbon/zirconium and oxygen/zirconium for groups PA and AA were comparable to those ratios obtained for group CL, indicating the removal of the organic saliva contamination. Airborne-particle abrasion and acetone completely removed Si contamination from ceramic surfaces. Isopropanol had little cleaning effect on the two contaminants. TBS (median +/- standard deviation) in MPa of the groups SS (11.6 +/- 3.1), AL (10.0 +/- 2.9), and AC (13.0 +/- 2.8) were statistically lower than those of groups PA (33.6 +/- 5.5), AA (40.1 +/- 3.6), and CL (47.0 +/- 8.1) (p < 0.001), while no differences were found in TBS between groups AA and CL (p > 0.5). Contamination significantly reduced bond strengths to zirconia ceramic. Airborne-particle abrasion was the most effective cleaning method.

  19. [Influence on mechanical properties and microstructure of nano-zirconia toughened alumina ceramics with nano-zirconia content].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Kui; Kang, Hong; Bao, Guang-Jie; Lv, Jin-Jun; Gao, Fei

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties and microstructure of nano -zirconia toughened alumina ceramics with variety of nano-zirconia content in centrifugal infiltrate casting processing of dental all-ceramic. Composite powder with different ethanol-water ratio, obtained serosity from ball milling and centrifugal infiltrate cast processing of green, then sintered at 1 450 degrees C for 8 h. The physical and mechanical properties of the sintered sample after milling and polishing were tested. Microstructures of the surface and fracture of the sintered sample were investigated by SEM. The experimental results showed that there had statistical significience (P < 0.01) on static three-point flexure strength and Vickers Hardness in three kinds of different nano-zirconia content sintered sample. Fracture toughness of 20% group was different from other two groups, while 10% group had not difference from 30% group (P < 0.05). The mechanical properties of this ceramic with 20% nano-zirconia was the best of the three, the static three-point flexure strength was (433 +/- 19) MPa and fracture toughness was (7.50 +/- 0.56) MPa x min 1/2. The intra/inter structure, fracture of intragranular and intergranular on the surface and fracture of sintered sample in microstrucre was also found. Intra/inter structure has strengthen toughness in ceramics. It has better toughness with 20% nano-zirconia, is suitable dental all-ceramic restoratives.

  20. Strength degradation and lifetime prediction of dental zirconia ceramics under cyclic normal loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanzhong; Xu, Yingqiang; He, Huiming; Zhao, Haidan; Sun, Jian; Hou, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Clinical cases show that zirconia restoration could happen fracture by accident under overloading after using a period of time. The purpose of this study is to research mechanical behavior and predict lifetime of dental zirconia ceramics under cyclic normal contact loading with experiments. Cyclic normal contact loading test and three point bending test are carried on specimens made of two brands of dental zirconia ceramic to obtain flexure strength and damage degree after different number of loading cycles. By means of damage mechanics model, damage degree under different number of contact loading cycles are calculated according to flexure strength, and verified by SEM photographs of cross section morphology of zirconia ceramics specimen phenomenologically. Relation curve of damage degree and number of cycles is fitted by polynomial fitting, then the number of loading cycles can be concluded when the specimen is complete damage. Strength degradation of two brands dental zirconia ceramics are researched in vitro, and prediction method of contact fatigue lifetime is established.

  1. Effect of metal opaquer on the final color of 3 ceramic crown types on 3 abutment configurations.

    PubMed

    Arif, Rabia; Yilmaz, Burak; Mortazavi, Aras; Ozcelik, Tuncer B; Johnston, William M

    2018-04-30

    The effect of a recently introduced metal opaquer when used to mask the color of a titanium abutment under ceramic crown systems is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the color coordinates of 3 ceramic crown types-characterized monolithic lithium disilicate (LDC) (IPS e.max; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), layered lithium disilicate (LDL) (IPS e.max; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), and layered zirconia (ZL) (H.C. Starck)-on 3 abutment configurations, nonopaqued titanium (Ti), resin opaqued titanium (Op), and zirconia (Zir). In addition, the color differences (CIEDE2000) were evaluated among the 3 crown types on 3 different abutment substrates. Ten Ti disks (10×1 mm) were fabricated with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) to represent the Ti abutments. Five Ti specimens were opaqued (Op) (whiteMetal Opaquer wMO; Blue Sky Bio), and 5 were not opaqued (Ti). Ten zirconia disks were fabricated with CAD-CAM and sintered (10×1.2 mm). Five disks were used as backings to represent Zir abutments, and 5 disks were layered with 1 mm of porcelain (B1, IPS e.Max Ceram; Ivoclar Vivadent AG) to represent layered zirconia crowns (ZL). Ten lithium disilicate plates (14×14×1.2 mm) were sectioned from CAD blocks (B1 IPS e.Max CAD; Ivoclar Vivadent AG). Five plates were layered with the same porcelain (B1, 1 mm), and 5 plates were surface characterized and glazed. An LDL crown on a Zir abutment configuration was used as the control. The 3 simulated crown types (n=5) were optically connected to each of the 3 abutment types, and the color of the 9 groups was measured using a spectroradiometer. Measured data were reported in CIELab coordinates. CIELab data were used to calculate color differences between the control and the 8 experimental groups. Color data were summarized for each group, and analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA. For pairwise comparisons, a Bonferroni correction of t tests was used, and for interpretive analysis of resulting color difference

  2. In Vitro Cell Proliferation and Mechanical Behaviors Observed in Porous Zirconia Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Wang, Xiaobei; Lin, Yuanhua; Deng, Xuliang; Li, Ming; Nan, Cewen

    2016-01-01

    Zirconia ceramics with porous structure have been prepared by solid-state reaction using yttria-stabilized zirconia and stearic acid powders. Analysis of its microstructure and phase composition revealed that a pure zirconia phase can be obtained. Our results indicated that its porosity and pore size as well as the mechanical characteristics can be tuned by changing the content of stearic acid powder. The optimal porosity and pore size of zirconia ceramic samples can be effective for the increase of surface roughness, which results in higher cell proliferation values without destroying the mechanical properties. PMID:28773341

  3. Three-year clinical evaluation of two ceramic crown systems: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Etman, Maged K; Woolford, M J

    2010-02-01

    The clinical performance and failure mechanisms of recently introduced ceramic crown systems used to restore posterior teeth have not been adequately examined. The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate and compare the clinical performance of 2 new ceramic crown systems with that of metal ceramic crowns using modified United States Public Health Services (USPHS) criteria. Ninety posterior teeth requiring crown restorations in 48 patients were randomized into 3 equal groups (n=30) for which different crown systems were used: an experimental hot-pressed glass ceramic based on a modified lithium disilicate ceramic (IPS e.max Press), an alumina-coping-based ceramic (Procera AllCeram), and a metal ceramic (Simidur S 2 veneered with IPS Classic Porcelain). The crowns were assessed over 3 years using the modified USPHS criteria. Crowns that developed visible cracks were sectioned and removed, and the surfaces were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric statistical test, followed by the Mann-Whitney test with Bonferroni correction (alpha=.05). USPHS evaluation showed that the IPS e.max Press and metal ceramic crowns experienced fewer clinical changes than Procera AllCeram. Visible roughness, wear, and deformity were noticed in occlusal contact areas of Procera AllCeram crowns. SEM images showed well defined wear facets in both ceramic crown systems. Kruskal-Wallis tests showed a significant difference (P<.05) in Alpha scores among the 3 crown systems. Mann-Whitney tests showed significant differences among groups. IPS e.max Press crowns demonstrated clinical behavior comparable to Procera AllCeram and metal ceramic crowns, but the wear resistance of this crown type was superior to the Procera AllCeram crowns, according to modified USPHS criteria.

  4. Alumina additions may improve the damage tolerance of soft machined zirconia-based ceramics.

    PubMed

    Oilo, Marit; Tvinnereim, Helene M; Gjerdet, Nils Roar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the damage tolerance of different zirconia-based materials. Bars of one hard machined and one soft machined dental zirconia and an experimental 95% zirconia 5% alumina ceramic were subjected to 100,000 stress cycles (n = 10), indented to provoke cracks on the tensile stress side (n = 10), and left untreated as controls (n = 10). The experimental material demonstrated a higher relative damage tolerance, with a 40% reduction compared to 68% for the hard machined zirconia and 84% for the soft machined zirconia.

  5. Surface modification for enhanced silanation of zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Piascik, J R; Swift, E J; Thompson, J Y; Grego, S; Stoner, B R

    2009-09-01

    The overall goal of this research was to develop a practical method to chemically modify the surface of high strength dental ceramics (i.e. zirconia) to facilitate viable, robust adhesive bonding using commercially available silanes and resin cements. Investigation focused on a novel approach to surface functionalize zirconia with a Si(x)O(y) "seed" layer that would promote chemical bonding with traditional silanes. ProCAD and ZirCAD blocks were bonded to a dimensionally similar composite block using standard techniques designed for silica-containing materials (silane and resin cement). ZirCAD blocks were treated with SiCl4 by vapor deposition under two different conditions prior to bonding. Microtensile bars were prepared and subjected to tensile forces at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze fracture surfaces and determine failure mode; either composite cohesive failure (partial or complete cohesive failure within composite) or adhesive failure (partial or complete adhesive failure). Peak stress values were analyzed using single-factor ANOVA (p<0.05). Microtensile testing results revealed that zirconia with a surface treatment of 2.6 nm Si(x)O(y) thick "seed" layer was similar in strength to the porcelain group (control). Analysis of failure modes indicated the above groups displayed higher percentages of in-composite failures. Other groups tested had lower strength values and displayed adhesive failure characteristics. Mechanical data support that utilizing a gas-phase chloro-silane pretreatment to deposit ultra-thin silica-like seed layers can improve adhesion to zirconia using traditional silanation and bonding techniques. This technology could have clinical impact on how high strength dental materials are used today.

  6. Effect of thermocycling with or without 1 year of water storage on retentive strengths of luting cements for zirconia crowns.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Vicky; Kampf, Gabriel; Stender, Elmar; Willershausen, Brita; Ernst, Claus-Peter

    2015-06-01

    Bond stability between zirconia crowns and luting cement and between cement and dentin is a main concern; however, only limited evidence is available as to its longevity. The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the retentive strengths of 7 self-adhesive cements (RelyX Unicem Aplicap, RelyX Unicem Clicker, RelyX Unicem 2 Automix, iCEM, Maxcem Elite, Bifix SE, SpeedCem), 2 adhesive cements with self-etch primers (Panavia 21, SEcure), 1 glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem), 1 resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Meron Plus), and 1 zinc phosphate cement for luting zirconia crowns (LAVA) to extracted teeth after thermocycling with or without 1 year of water storage. Two-hundred-forty extracted human molars (2 treatments; n=10 per cement) were prepared in a standardized manner. All cements were used according to the manufacturers' recommendations. The intaglios of the crowns were treated with airborne-particle abrasion. After thermocycling (×5000, 5°C/55°C) with or without 1 year of water storage, the cemented ceramic crowns were removed by using a Zwick universal testing device. Statistical analyses were done with the Wilcoxon rank sum and the 2-independent-samples Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Median retentive strengths [MPa] for specimens thermocycled only/thermocycled with 1 year of water storage were as follows: Panavia 21: 1.7/2.5, SEcure: 3.0/3.0, RelyX Unicem Aplicap: 3.1/3.4, RelyX Unicem Clicker: 4.1/4.2, RelyX Unicem 2 Automix: 3.8/3.1, iCEM: 2.3/2.7, Maxcem Elite: 3.0/3.2, Bifix SE: 1.7/1.7, SpeedCem: 1.3/1.6, Meron Plus: 3.1/2.7, Ketac Cem: 1.4/1.4, and zinc phosphate cement: 1.1/1.6. Statistically significant differences were found only among specimens thermocycled only or thermocycled with 1-year water storage (P<.001). Significant differences in retentive strengths were observed among cements after thermocycling only or thermocycling with 1 year of water storage, but not for the effect of the additional 1 year of water storage. Copyright © 2015

  7. In vitro Evaluation of the Marginal Fit and Internal Adaptation of Zirconia and Lithium Disilicate Single Crowns: Micro-CT Comparison Between Different Manufacturing Procedures.

    PubMed

    Riccitiello, Francesco; Amato, Massimo; Leone, Renato; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Sorrentino, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Prosthetic precision can be affected by several variables, such as restorative materials, manufacturing procedures, framework design, cementation techniques and aging. Marginal adaptation is critical for long-term longevity and clinical success of dental restorations. Marginal misfit may lead to cement exposure to oral fluids, resulting in microleakage and cement dissolution. As a consequence, marginal discrepancies enhance percolation of bacteria, food and oral debris, potentially causing secondary caries, endodontic inflammation and periodontal disease. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal and internal adaptation of zirconia and lithium disilicate single crowns, produced with different manufacturing procedures. Forty-five intact human maxillary premolars were prepared for single crowns by means of standardized preparations. All-ceramic crowns were fabricated with either CAD-CAM or heat-pressing procedures (CAD-CAM zirconia, CAD-CAM lithium disilicate, heat-pressed lithium disilicate) and cemented onto the teeth with a universal resin cement. Non-destructive micro-CT scanning was used to achieve the marginal and internal gaps in the coronal and sagittal planes; then, precision of fit measurements were calculated in a dedicated software and the results were statistically analyzed. The heat-pressed lithium disilicate crowns were significantly less accurate at the prosthetic margins (p<0.05) while they performed better at the occlusal surface ( p <0.05). No significant differences were noticed between CAD-CAM zirconia and lithium disilicate crowns ( p >0.05); nevertheless CAD-CAM zirconia copings presented the best marginal fit among the experimental groups. As to the thickness of the cement layer, reduced amounts of luting agent were noticed at the finishing line, whereas a thicker layer was reported at the occlusal level. Within the limitations of the present in vitro investigation, the following conclusions can be drawn: the recorded

  8. Short-Term Prospective Clinical Evaluation of Monolithic and Partially Veneered Zirconia Single Crowns.

    PubMed

    Bömicke, Wolfgang; Rammelsberg, Peter; Stober, Thomas; Schmitter, Marc

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the short-term clinical performance and esthetics of monolithic and partially (i.e., facially) veneered zirconia single crowns (MZC and PZC, respectively). Between September 2011 and June 2013, 68 participants received 90 MZCs and 72 PZCs. Clinical study documentation was performed at crown cementation (baseline), at the 6-month follow-up, and then yearly thereafter using standardized report forms. Eight participants with 14 single crowns (eight MZCs and six PZCs) dropped out during clinical follow-up. Thus, 60 participants (28 male, mean age 62.5 ± 13.1 years) fitted with 82 MZCs and 66 PZCs were analyzed in February 2016 (Kaplan-Meier survival; mean observation time for the restorations 35.1 ± 6.3 months). Descriptive statistics were calculated for participants' and dentists' esthetic ratings on a numerical rating scale from 0 to 10 (0 = unacceptable color and shape; 10 = excellent color and shape). Complications were predominantly biological in nature. One PZC was affected by minor chipping. Cumulative 3-year failure-free survival was 98.5% (standard error (SE), 1.5%) for both MZCs and PZCs. Three-year cumulative complication-free survival (success) was 93.6% (SE 2.8%) for MZCs and 95.5% (SE 2.6%) for PZCs. Three-year cumulative fracture-free survival was 100% for MZCs and 98.5% (SE 1.5%) for PZCs. Crowns of both types were awarded high esthetic scores by participants and dentists. Monolithic and partially veneered zirconia crowns can be used clinically with excellent short-term survival and success and without compromising esthetic appearance. Longer-term follow-up is, however, desirable. During the observation time, both monolithic and partially veneered zirconia crowns showed an outstanding low technical complication rate: only one minor chipping and three losses of retention were observed. Additionally, esthetics was excellent. Based on these results the clinical use of this kind of

  9. Effect of an internal coating technique on tensile bond strengths of resin cements to zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Shuzo; Nikaido, Toru; Maruoka, Rena; Zhu, Lei; Ikeda, Masaomi; Watanabe, Akihiko; Foxton, Richard M; Miura, Hiroyuki; Tagami, Junji

    2009-07-01

    This study was conducted to enhance the tensile bond strengths of resin cements to zirconia ceramics. Fifty-six zirconia ceramic specimens (Cercon Base) and twenty-eight silica-based ceramic specimens (GN-1, GN-1 Ceramic Block) were air-abraded using alumina. Thereafter, the zirconia ceramic specimens were divided into two subgroups of 28 each according to the surface pretreatment; no pretreatment (Zr); and the internal coating technique (INT). For INT, the surface of zirconia was coated by fusing silica-based ceramics (Cercon Ceram Kiss). Ceramic surfaces were conditioned with/without a silane coupling agent followed by bonding with one of two resin cements; Panavia F 2.0 (PF) and Superbond C&B (SB). After 24 hours storage in water, the tensile bond strengths were tested (n=7). For both PF and SB, silanization significantly improved the bond strength to GN-1 and INT (p<0.05). The INT coating followed by silanizaton demonstrated enhancement of bonding to zirconia ceramics.

  10. Simple Heat Treatment of Zirconia Ceramic Pre-Treated with Silane Primer to Improve Resin Bonding.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jung-Yun; Son, Jun Sik; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a strong resin bond to dental zirconia ceramic remains difficult. Previous studies have shown that the conventional application of silane does not work well with zirconia. This paper reports that a silane pre-treatment of dental zirconia ceramic combined with subsequent heat treatment has potential as an adhesive cementation protocol for improving zirconia-resin bonding. Among the various concentrations (0.1 to 16 vol%) of experimental γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPTS) primers assessed, the 1% solution was found to be the most effective in terms of the shear bond strength of the resin cement to dental zirconia ceramic. A high shear bond strength (approx. 30 MPa) was obtained when zirconia specimens were pre-treated with this primer and then heat-treated in a furnace for 60 min at 150 degrees C. Heat treatment appeared to remove the hydrophilic constituents from the silane film formed on the zirconia ceramic surface and accelerate the condensation reactions between the silanol groups of the hydrolyzed silane molecules at the zirconia/resin interface, finally making a more desirable surface for bonding with resin. This estimation was supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the silanes prepared in this study.

  11. Viscoelastic finite element analysis of residual stresses in porcelain-veneered zirconia dental crowns.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongho; Dhital, Sukirti; Zhivago, Paul; Kaizer, Marina R; Zhang, Yu

    2018-06-01

    The main problem of porcelain-veneered zirconia (PVZ) dental restorations is chipping and delamination of veneering porcelain owing to the development of deleterious residual stresses during the cooling phase of veneer firing. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effects of cooling rate, thermal contraction coefficient and elastic modulus on residual stresses developed in PVZ dental crowns using viscoelastic finite element methods (VFEM). A three-dimensional VFEM model has been developed to predict residual stresses in PVZ structures using ABAQUS finite element software and user subroutines. First, the newly established model was validated with experimentally measured residual stress profiles using Vickers indentation on flat PVZ specimens. An excellent agreement between the model prediction and experimental data was found. Then, the model was used to predict residual stresses in more complex anatomically-correct crown systems. Two PVZ crown systems with different thermal contraction coefficients and porcelain moduli were studied: VM9/Y-TZP and LAVA/Y-TZP. A sequential dual-step finite element analysis was performed: heat transfer analysis and viscoelastic stress analysis. Controlled and bench convection cooling rates were simulated by applying different convective heat transfer coefficients 1.7E-5 W/mm 2 °C (controlled cooling) and 0.6E-4 W/mm 2 °C (bench cooling) on the crown surfaces exposed to the air. Rigorous viscoelastic finite element analysis revealed that controlled cooling results in lower maximum stresses in both veneer and core layers for the two PVZ systems relative to bench cooling. Better compatibility of thermal contraction coefficients between porcelain and zirconia and a lower porcelain modulus reduce residual stresses in both layers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Study on the effect of different impression methods on the marginal fit of all-ceramic crowns].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lilin; Zeng, Liwei; Chen, Ping; Liao, Lan; Li, Shiyue; Liu, Renying

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the effect of three different impression methods on the marginal fit of all-ceramic crowns. The three methods include scanning silicone rubber impression, cast models, and direct optical impression. The polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) material of a mandibular first molar in standard model was prepared with 16 models duplicated. The all-ceramic crowns were prepared using three different impression methods. Accurate impressions were made using silicone rubber, and the cast models were obtained. The PMMA models, silicone rubber impressions, and cast models were scanned, and digital models of three groups were obtained to produce 48 zirconia all-ceramic crowns with computer aided design/computer aided manufacture. The marginal fit of these groups was measured by silicone rubber gap impression. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 17.0 software. The marginal fit of direct optical impression groups, silicone rubber impression groups, cast model groups was (69.18±9.47), (81.04±10.88), (84.42±9.96) µm. A significant difference was observed in the marginal fit of the direct optical impression groups and the other groups (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference was observed in the marginal fit of the silicone rubber impression groups and the cast model groups (P>0.05). All marginal measurement sites are clinically acceptable by the three different impression scanning methods. The silicone rubber impression scanning method can be used for all-ceramic restorations.

  13. Novel Dental Composites Reinforced with Zirconia-Silica Ceramic Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Guangqing; Fan, Yuwei; Zhang, Jian-Feng; Hagan, Joseph; Xu, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    Objective To fabricate and characterize dental composites reinforced with various amounts of zirconia-silica (ZS) or zirconia-yttria-silica (ZYS) ceramic nanofibers. Methods Control composites (70 wt% glass particle filler, no nanofibers) and experimental composites (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 wt% ZS or ZYS nanofibers replacing glass particle filler) were prepared by blending 29 wt% dental resin monomers, 70 wt% filler, and 1.0 wt% initiator, and polymerized by either heat or dental curing light. Flexural strength (FS), flexural modulus (FM), energy at break (EAB), and fracture toughness (FT) were tested after the specimens were stored in 37 °C deionized water for 24 h, 3 months, or 6 months. Degree of conversion (DC) of monomers in composites was measured using Fourier transformed near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. Fractured surfaces were observed by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The data were analyzed using ANOVA with Tukey’s Honestly Significant Differences test used for post hoc analysis. Results Reinforcement of dental composites with ZS or ZYS nanofibers (2.5% or 5.0%) can significantly increase the FS, FM and EAB of dental composites over the control. Further increase the content of ZS nanofiber (7.5%), however, decreases these properties (although they are still higher than those of the control). Addition of nanofibers did not decrease the long-term mechanical properties of these composites. All ZS reinforced composites (containing 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% ZS nanofibers) exhibit significantly higher fracture toughness than the control. The DC of the composites decreases with ZS nanofiber content. Significance Incorporation of ceramic nanofibers in dental composites can significantly improve their mechanical properties and fracture toughness and thus may extend their service life. PMID:22153326

  14. Novel dental composites reinforced with zirconia-silica ceramic nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guangqing; Fan, Yuwei; Zhang, Jian-Feng; Hagan, Joseph L; Xu, Xiaoming

    2012-04-01

    To fabricate and characterize dental composites reinforced with various amounts of zirconia-silica (ZS) or zirconia-yttria-silica (ZYS) ceramic nanofibers. Control composites (70 wt% glass particle filler, no nanofibers) and experimental composites (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 wt% ZS or ZYS nanofibers replacing glass particle filler) were prepared by blending 29 wt% dental resin monomers, 70 wt% filler, and 1.0 wt% initiator, and polymerized by either heat or dental curing light. Flexural strength (FS), flexural modulus (FM), energy at break (EAB), and fracture toughness (FT) were tested after the specimens were stored in 37°C deionized water for 24h, 3 months, or 6 months. Degree of conversion (DC) of monomers in composites was measured using Fourier transformed near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. Fractured surfaces were observed by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The data were analyzed using ANOVA with Tukey's Honestly Significant Differences test used for post hoc analysis. Reinforcement of dental composites with ZS or ZYS nanofibers (2.5% or 5.0%) can significantly increase the FS, FM and EAB of dental composites over the control. Further increase the content of ZS nanofiber (7.5%), however, decreases these properties (although they are still higher than those of the control). Addition of nanofibers did not decrease the long-term mechanical properties of these composites. All ZS reinforced composites (containing 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% ZS nanofibers) exhibit significantly higher fracture toughness than the control. The DC of the composites decreases with ZS nanofiber content. Incorporation of ceramic nanofibers in dental composites can significantly improve their mechanical properties and fracture toughness and thus may extend their service life. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Resin adhesion strengths to zirconia ceramics after primer treatment with silane coupling monomer or oligomer.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Inoue, Kazusa; Irie, Masao; Taketa, Hiroaki; Torii, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2017-09-26

    Resin bonding to zirconia ceramics is difficult to achieve using the standard methods for conventional silica-based dental ceramics, which employ silane coupling monomers as primers. The hypothesis in this study was that a silane coupling oligomer -a condensed product of silane coupling monomers- would be a more suitable primer for zirconia. To prove this hypothesis, the shear bond strengths between a composite resin and zirconia were compared after applying either a silane coupling monomer or oligomer. The shear bond strength increased after applying a non-activated ethanol solution of the silane coupling oligomer compared with that achieved when applying the monomer. Thermal treatment of the zirconia at 110°C after application of the silane coupling agents was essential to improve the shear bond strength between the composite resin cement and zirconia.

  16. The effect of multicolored machinable ceramics on the esthetics of all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Reich, Sven; Hornberger, Helga

    2002-07-01

    Computer-aided design/computer-assisted machining systems offer the possibility of fabricating restorations from one machinable ceramic block. Whether multishaded blocks improve esthetic results and are a viable alternative to individually stained ceramics has not been fully determined. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of multishaded blocks on the esthetic appearance of all-ceramic CEREC crowns and compare these crowns with single-shade and stained restorations. Ten subjects were included in this study. For each subject, 6 different crowns were milled with the use of a CEREC machine. One crown was milled from each of the following machinable ceramic materials: CEREC Vitablocs Mark II in classic colors; Vitablocs Mark II in 3D-Master colors; Vitablocs Mark II in either classic or 3D-Master colors, with additional staining; Megadenta Bloxx multishaded; Mark II experimental multilayer; and an experimental multilayer leucite ceramic. Three independent examiners assessed the esthetic appearance of crowns fabricated to match each subject's anterior tooth shade. A scale of 1 to 6 was used to score the shade match and esthetic adaptation of each crown, with 1 representing excellent characteristics and 3.5 serving as the threshold for clinical acceptability. The examiners' scores were averaged, and the mean values were analyzed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test (Pceramic. The second best results were obtained for crowns made from single-shaded Mark II 3D-Master blocks: 6 out of 10 restorations were scored below 3.5. Two of the layered materials (Mark II experimental and Bloxx) followed with 5 acceptable restorations out of 10. Within the limitations of this study, the

  17. Fracture loads of all-ceramic crowns under wet and dry fatigue conditions.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gilberto A; Caldas, Danilo; Taskonak, Burak; Yan, Jiahau; Sobrinho, Lourenco Correr; de Oliveira, Wildomar José

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that fracture loads of fatigued dental ceramic crowns are affected by testing environment and luting cement. One hundred and eighty crowns were prepared from bovine teeth using a lathe. Ceramic crowns were prepared from three types of ceramic systems: an alumina-infiltrated ceramic, a lithia-disilicate-based glass ceramic, and a leucite-reinforced ceramic. For each ceramic system, 30 crowns were cemented with a composite resin cement, and the remaining 30 with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement. For each ceramic system and cement, ten specimens were loaded to fracture without fatiguing. A second group (n = 10) was subjected to cyclic fatigue and fracture tested in a dry environment, and a third group (n = 10) was fatigued and fractured in distilled water. The results were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test. The fracture loads of ceramic crowns decreased significantly after cyclic fatigue loading (pcrowns fatigued in a wet environment were statistically lower than those in a dry environment (p < 0.05). Crowns luted with a composite resin cement showed statistically greater fracture loads than those luted with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (pceramic systems was found to be influenced by ceramic composition. Moreover, cement and fatigue condition influenced the fracture loads of the crown specimens evaluated in this study.

  18. Adhesion/cementation to zirconia and other non-silicate ceramics: Where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jeffrey Y; Stoner, Brian R.; Piascik, Jeffrey R.; Smith, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Non-silicate ceramics, especially zirconia, have become a topic of great interest in the field of prosthetic and implant dentistry. A clinical problem with use of zirconia-based components is the difficulty in achieving suitable adhesion with intended synthetic substrates or natural tissues. Traditional adhesive techniques used with silica-based ceramics do not work effectively with zirconia. Currently, several technologies are being utilized clinically to address this problem, and other approaches are under investigation. Most focus on surface modification of the inert surfaces of high strength ceramics. The ability to chemically functionalize the surface of zirconia appears to be critical in achieving adhesive bonding. This review will focus on currently available approaches as well as new advanced technologies to address this problem. PMID:21094526

  19. Porous zirconia ceramic as an alternative to dentin for in vitro dentin barriers cytotoxicity test.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meng-Long; Lin, Hong; Jiang, Ruo-Dan; Dong, Li-Min; Huang, Lin; Zheng, Gang

    2018-06-01

    This study assessed the potential of porous zirconia ceramic as an alternative to dentin via an in vitro dentin barrier cytotoxicity test. The permeability of dentin and porous zirconia ceramic was measured using a hydraulic-conductance system, and their permeability was divided into two groups: high and low. Using an in vitro dentin barrier test, the cytotoxicity of dental materials by dentin and porous zirconia ceramic was compared within the same permeability group. The L-929 cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. The mean (SD) permeability of the high and low group for dentin was 0.334 (0.0873) and 0.147 (0.0377) μl min -1  cm -2  cm H 2 O -1 and for zirconia porous ceramic was 0.336 (0.0609) and 0.146 (0.0340) μl min -1  cm -2  cm H 2 O -1 . The cell viability of experimental groups which are the low permeability group was higher than that of the high permeability group for both dentin and porous zirconia ceramic as a barrier except for Maxcem Elite ™ by porous zirconia ceramic. There was no significant difference between dentin and porous zirconia ceramic in cell viability, within either the high or low permeability group for all materials. The SD for cell viability of the porous zirconia ceramic was less than that of the dentin, across all materials within each permeability group, except for Maxcem Elite ™ in the high permeability group. Porous zirconia ceramic, having similar permeability to dentin at the same thickness, can be used as an alternative to dentin for in vitro dentin barrier cytotoxicity tests. In vitro dentin barrier cytotoxicity tests when a standardized porous zirconia ceramic was used as a barrier could be useful for assessing the potential toxicity of new dental materials applied to dentin before applying in clinical and may resolve the issue of procuring human teeth when testing proceeds.

  20. Reliability Estimation for Single-unit Ceramic Crown Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Lekesiz, H.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of a survival prediction method for the assessment of ceramic dental restorations. For this purpose, fast-fracture and fatigue reliabilities for 2 bilayer (metal ceramic alloy core veneered with fluorapatite leucite glass-ceramic, d.Sign/d.Sign-67, by Ivoclar; glass-infiltrated alumina core veneered with feldspathic porcelain, VM7/In-Ceram Alumina, by Vita) and 3 monolithic (leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic, Empress, and ProCAD, by Ivoclar; lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic, Empress 2, by Ivoclar) single posterior crown restorations were predicted, and fatigue predictions were compared with the long-term clinical data presented in the literature. Both perfectly bonded and completely debonded cases were analyzed for evaluation of the influence of the adhesive/restoration bonding quality on estimations. Material constants and stress distributions required for predictions were calculated from biaxial tests and finite element analysis, respectively. Based on the predictions, In-Ceram Alumina presents the best fast-fracture resistance, and ProCAD presents a comparable resistance for perfect bonding; however, ProCAD shows a significant reduction of resistance in case of complete debonding. Nevertheless, it is still better than Empress and comparable with Empress 2. In-Ceram Alumina and d.Sign have the highest long-term reliability, with almost 100% survivability even after 10 years. When compared with clinical failure rates reported in the literature, predictions show a promising match with clinical data, and this indicates the soundness of the settings used in the proposed predictions. PMID:25048249

  1. Defect studies of nanocrystalline zirconia powders and sintered ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čížek, Jakub; Melikhova, Oksana; Procházka, Ivan; Kuriplach, Jan; Kužel, Radomír; Brauer, Gerhard; Anwand, Wolfgang; Konstantinova, Tatyana E.; Danilenko, Igor A.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to communicate a study of defects behavior in zirconia-based nanomaterials—pressure-compacted yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanopowders with different contents of Y2O3 and ceramics obtained by sintering the YZS nanopowders. In addition, YZS single crystals were also investigated. Positron annihilation techniques including positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening with a conventional positron source and Doppler broadening experiments on a monoenergetic positron beam were involved in this study as the principal tools. These techniques were supplemented with transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction observations. In order to get better support of the experimental data interpretation, the state-of-art theoretical calculations of positron parameters were performed for the perfect ZrO2 lattice and selected defect configurations in the YSZ. Theoretical calculations have indicated that neither the oxygen vacancies nor their neutral complexes with substitutional yttrium atoms are capable of positron trapping. On the other hand, the zirconium vacancies are deep positron traps and obviously are responsible for the saturated positron trapping observed in the YSZ single crystals. In the compacted YSZ nanopowders, a majority of positrons is trapped either in the vacancylike defects situated in the negative space-charge layers along grain boundaries (τ1≈185ps) or in vacancy clusters at intersections of grain boundaries (τ2≈370ps) . The intensity ratio I2/I1 was found to be correlated with the mean grain size d as I2/I1˜d-2 . A small fraction of positrons (≈10%) form positronium in large pores (τ3≈2ns,τ4≈30ns) . A significant grain growth during sintering of the YSZ nanopowders above 1000°C was observed.

  2. [Effect of a chemical primer on the bond strength of a zirconia ceramic with self-adhesive resin cement].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Jing, Ye; Nie, Rongrong; Meng, Xiangfeng

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the bond strength and durability of a self-adhesive resin cement with a zirconia ceramic pretreated by a zirconia primer. Zirconia ceramic (Vita Inceram YZ) plates with a thickness of 2.5 mm were fired, polished, and then cleaned. Half of the polished ceramic plates were sandblasted with 50 μm alumina particles at 0.3 MPa for 20 s. The surface compound weight ratios were measured via X-ray fluorescence microscopy. The polished and sandblasted ceramic plates were directly bonded with self-adhesive resin cement (Biscem) or were pretreated by a zirconia primer (Z Primer Plus) before bonding with Biscem. The specimens of each test group were divided into two subgroups (n=10) and subjected to the shear test after 0 and 10,000 thermal cycles. The data were analyzed via three-way ANOVA. After air abrasion, 8.27% weight ratio of alumina attached to the zirconia surface. Compared with air abrasion, primer treatment more significantly improved the primary resin bond strength of the zirconia ceramic. The primary resin bond strength of the zirconia ceramic with no primer treatment was not affected by thermocycling (P>0.05). However, the primary resin bond strength of the zirconia ceramic with primer treatment was significantly decreased by thermocycling (P<0.05). Primer treatment can improve the primary resin bond strengths of zirconia ceramics. However, the bond interface of the primer is not stable and rapidly degraded during thermocycling.

  3. Durability of zirconia thermal-barrier ceramic coatings on air-cooled turbine blades in cyclic jet engine operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Jacobs, R. E.; Stecura, S.; Morse, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal barrier ceramic coatings of stabilized zirconia over a bond coat of Ni Cr Al Y were tested for durability on air cooled turbine rotor blades in a research turbojet engine. Zirconia stabilized with either yttria, magnesia, or calcia was investigated. On the basis of durability and processing cost, the yttria stabilized zirconia was considered the best of the three coatings investigated.

  4. Finite Element Analysis of IPS Empress II Ceramic Bridge Reinforced by Zirconia Bar

    PubMed Central

    Kermanshah, H.; Bitaraf, T.; Geramy, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of trenched zirconia bar on the von Mises stress distribution of IPS –Empress II core ceramics. Materials and Methods: The three-dimensional model including a three-unit bridge from the second premolar to the second molar was designed. The model was reinforced with zirconia bar (ZB), zirconia bar with vertical trench (VZB) and zirconia bar with horizontal trench (HZB) (cross sections of these bars were circular). The model without zirconia bar was designed as the control. The bridges were loaded by 200 N and 500 N on the occlusal surface at the middle of the pontic component and von Mises stresses were evaluated along a defined path. Results: In the connector area, von Mises stress in MPa were approximately identical in the specimens with ZB (at molar connector (MC): 4.75 and at premolar connector (PC): 6.40) and without ZB (MC: 5.50, PC: 6.68), and considerable differences were not recognized. Whereas, Von-Mises stress (MPa) in the specimens with horizontal trenched Zirconia bar (HZB) (MC: 3.91, PC: 2.44) and Vertical trenched Zirconia bar (VZB) (MC: 2.53, PC: 2.56) was decreased considerably. Conclusion: Embeded trenched zirconia bar could reinforce IPS-Empress II at the connector area which is a main failure region in all ceramic fixed partial dentures. PMID:23323181

  5. Finite Element Analysis of IPS Empress II Ceramic Bridge Reinforced by Zirconia Bar.

    PubMed

    Kermanshah, H; Bitaraf, T; Geramy, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of trenched zirconia bar on the von Mises stress distribution of IPS -Empress II core ceramics. The three-dimensional model including a three-unit bridge from the second premolar to the second molar was designed. The model was reinforced with zirconia bar (ZB), zirconia bar with vertical trench (VZB) and zirconia bar with horizontal trench (HZB) (cross sections of these bars were circular). The model without zirconia bar was designed as the control. The bridges were loaded by 200 N and 500 N on the occlusal surface at the middle of the pontic component and von Mises stresses were evaluated along a defined path. IN THE CONNECTOR AREA, VON MISES STRESS IN MPA WERE APPROXIMATELY IDENTICAL IN THE SPECIMENS WITH ZB (AT MOLAR CONNECTOR (MC): 4.75 and at premolar connector (PC): 6.40) and without ZB (MC: 5.50, PC: 6.68), and considerable differences were not recognized. Whereas, Von-Mises stress (MPa) in the specimens with horizontal trenched Zirconia bar (HZB) (MC: 3.91, PC: 2.44) and Vertical trenched Zirconia bar (VZB) (MC: 2.53, PC: 2.56) was decreased considerably. Embeded trenched zirconia bar could reinforce IPS-Empress II at the connector area which is a main failure region in all ceramic fixed partial dentures.

  6. Comparison of bond strengths of ceramic brackets bonded to zirconia surfaces using different zirconia primers and a universal adhesive.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jaechan; An, Sang In; Park, Jeong-Won

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the shear bond strengths of ceramic brackets bonded to zirconia surfaces using different zirconia primers and universal adhesive. Fifty zirconia blocks (15 × 15 × 10 mm, Zpex, Tosoh Corporation) were polished with 1,000 grit sand paper and air-abraded with 50 µm Al 2 O 3 for 10 seconds (40 psi). They were divided into 5 groups: control (CO), Metal/Zirconia primer (MZ, Ivoclar Vivadent), Z-PRIME Plus (ZP, Bisco), Zirconia Liner (ZL, Sun Medical), and Scotchbond Universal adhesive (SU, 3M ESPE). Transbond XT Primer (used for CO, MZ, ZP, and ZL) and Transbond XT Paste was used for bracket bonding (Gemini clear ceramic brackets, 3M Unitek). After 24 hours at 37°C storage, specimens underwent 2,000 thermocycles, and then, shear bond strengths were measured (1 mm/min). An adhesive remnant index (ARI) score was calculated. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test ( p = 0.05). Surface treatment with primers resulted in increased shear bond strength. The SU group showed the highest shear bond strength followed by the ZP, ZL, MZ, and CO groups, in that order. The median ARI scores were as follows: CO = 0, MZ = 0, ZP = 0, ZL = 0, and SU = 3 ( p < 0.05). Within this experiment, zirconia primer can increase the shear bond strength of bracket bonding. The highest shear bond strength is observed in SU group, even when no primer is used.

  7. Comparison of bond strengths of ceramic brackets bonded to zirconia surfaces using different zirconia primers and a universal adhesive

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to compare the shear bond strengths of ceramic brackets bonded to zirconia surfaces using different zirconia primers and universal adhesive. Materials and Methods Fifty zirconia blocks (15 × 15 × 10 mm, Zpex, Tosoh Corporation) were polished with 1,000 grit sand paper and air-abraded with 50 µm Al2O3 for 10 seconds (40 psi). They were divided into 5 groups: control (CO), Metal/Zirconia primer (MZ, Ivoclar Vivadent), Z-PRIME Plus (ZP, Bisco), Zirconia Liner (ZL, Sun Medical), and Scotchbond Universal adhesive (SU, 3M ESPE). Transbond XT Primer (used for CO, MZ, ZP, and ZL) and Transbond XT Paste was used for bracket bonding (Gemini clear ceramic brackets, 3M Unitek). After 24 hours at 37°C storage, specimens underwent 2,000 thermocycles, and then, shear bond strengths were measured (1 mm/min). An adhesive remnant index (ARI) score was calculated. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test (p = 0.05). Results Surface treatment with primers resulted in increased shear bond strength. The SU group showed the highest shear bond strength followed by the ZP, ZL, MZ, and CO groups, in that order. The median ARI scores were as follows: CO = 0, MZ = 0, ZP = 0, ZL = 0, and SU = 3 (p < 0.05). Conclusions Within this experiment, zirconia primer can increase the shear bond strength of bracket bonding. The highest shear bond strength is observed in SU group, even when no primer is used. PMID:29487838

  8. CAD/CAM glass ceramics for single-tooth implant crowns: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Akça, Kvanç; Cavusoglu, Yeliz; Sagirkaya, Elcin; Aybar, Buket; Cehreli, Murat Cavit

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the load distribution of CAD/CAM mono-ceramic crowns supported with single-tooth implants in functional area. A 3-dimensional numerical model of a soft tissue-level implant was constructed with cement-retained abutment to support glass ceramic machinable crown. Implant-abutment complex and the retained crown were embedded in a Ø 1.5 × 1.5 cm geometric matrix for evaluation of mechanical behavior of mono-ceramic CAD/CAM aluminosilicate and leucite glass crown materials. Laterally positioned axial load of 300 N was applied on the crowns. Resulting principal stresses in the mono-ceramic crowns were evaluated in relation to different glass ceramic materials. The highest compressive stresses were observed at the cervical region of the buccal aspect of the crowns and were 89.98 and 89.99 MPa, for aluminosilicate and leucite glass ceramics, respectively. The highest tensile stresses were observed at the collar of the lingual part of the crowns and were 24.54 and 25.39 MPa, respectively. Stresses induced upon 300 N static loading of CAD/CAM aluminosalicate and leucite glass ceramics are below the compressive strength of the materials. Impact loads may actuate the progress to end failure of mono-ceramic crowns supported by metallic implant abutments.

  9. SEM evaluation of human gingival fibroblasts growth onto CAD/CAM zirconia and veneering ceramic for zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Zizzari, Vincenzo; Borelli, Bruna; De Colli, Marianna; Tumedei, Margherita; Di Iorio, Donato; Zara, Susi; Sorrentino, Roberto; Cataldi, Amelia; Gherlone, Enrico Felice; Zarone, Fernando; Tetè, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim To evaluate the growth of Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGFs) cultured onto sample discs of CAD/CAM zirconia and veneering ceramic for zirconia by means of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis at different experimental times. Methods A total of 26 experimental discs, divided into 2 groups, were used: Group A) CAD/CAM zirconia (3Y-TZP) discs (n=13); Group B) veneering ceramic for zirconia discs (n=13). HGFs were obtained from human gingival biopsies, isolated and placed in culture plates. Subsequently, cells were seeded on experimental discs at 7,5×103/cm2 concentration and cultured for a total of 7 days. Discs were processed for SEM observation at 3h, 24h, 72h and 7 days. Results In Group A, after 3h, HGFs were adherent to the surface and showed a flattened profile. The disc surface covered by HGFs resulted to be wider in Group A than in Group B samples. At SEM observation, after 24h and 72h, differences in cell attachment were slightly noticeable between the groups, with an evident flattening of HGFs on both surfaces. All differences between Group A and group B became less significant after 7 days of culture in vitro. Conclusions SEM analysis of HGFs showed differences in terms of cell adhesion and proliferation, especially in the early hours of culture. Results showed a better adhesion and cell growth in Group A than in Group B, especially up to 72h in vitro. Differences decreased after 7 days, probably because of the rougher surface of CAD/CAM zirconia, promoting better cell adhesion, compared to the smoother surface of veneering ceramic. PMID:24611089

  10. FIB/SEM and SEM/EDS microstructural analysis of metal-ceramic and zirconia-ceramic interfaces.

    PubMed

    Massimi, F; Merlati, G; Sebastiani, M; Battaini, P; Menghini, P; Bemporad, E

    2012-01-10

    Recently introduced FIB/SEM analysis in microscopy seems to provide a high-resolution characterization of the samples by 3D (FIB) cross-sectioning and (SEM) high resolution imaging. The aim of this study was to apply the FIB/SEM and SEM/EDS analysis to the interfaces of a metal-ceramic vs. two zirconia-ceramic systems. Plate samples of three different prosthetic systems were prepared in the dental lab following the manufacturers' instructions, where metal-ceramic was the result of a ceramic veneering (porcelain-fused-to-metal) and the two zirconia-ceramic systems were produced by the dedicated CAD-CAM procedures of the zirconia cores (both with final sintering) and then veneered by layered or heat pressed ceramics. In a FIB/SEM equipment (also called DualBeam), a thin layer of platinum (1 μm) was deposited on samples surface crossing the interfaces, in order to protect them during milling. Then, increasingly deeper trenches were milled by a focused ion beam, first using a relatively higher and later using a lower ion current (from 9 nA to 0.28 nA, 30KV). Finally, FEG-SEM (5KV) micrographs (1000-50,000X) were acquired. In a SEM the analysis of the morphology and internal microstructure was performed by 13KV secondary and backscattered electrons signals (in all the samples). The compositional maps were then performed by EDS probe only in the metal-ceramic system (20kV). Despite the presence of many voids in all the ceramic layers, it was possible to identify: (1) the grain structures of the metallic and zirconia substrates, (2) the thin oxide layer at the metal-ceramic interface and its interactions with the first ceramic layer (wash technique), (3) the roughness of the two different zirconia cores and their interactions with the ceramic interface, where the presence of zirconia grains in the ceramic layer was reported in two system possibly due to sandblasting before ceramic firing.

  11. Effects of multiple firings on the microstructure of zirconia and veneering ceramics.

    PubMed

    Alkurt, Murat; Yeşil Duymus, Zeynep; Gundogdu, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effects of multiple firings on the microstructures of zirconia and two ceramics. Vita VM9 (VMZ) and Cerabien ZR (C-Z) ceramics on a zirconia framework and zirconia without veneering ceramic (WO-Z) were evaluated. Firing methods included firing two, five, and ten times (n=10). The effects of multiple firings on the surface hardness of the materials were evaluated using a Vickers hardness (HV) tester. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). After firing five and ten times, the hardness of VM-Z and C-Z increased significantly (p<0.001). The HVs of the Cerabien ZR and Vita VM9 veneering ceramics were similar (p>0.05). In the XRD analysis, zirconia had similar tetragonal (t)-monoclinic (m) phase transformations of Y-TZP after the different firing times. Clinically, multiple firings did not affect the microstructure of zirconia, but the structures of the two ceramics were affected.

  12. The fracture load and failure types of veneered anterior zirconia crowns: an analysis of normal and Weibull distribution of complete and censored data.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Ozcan, Mutlu; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Roos, Malgorzata

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the fracture load of veneered anterior zirconia crowns using normal and Weibull distribution of complete and censored data. Standardized zirconia frameworks for maxillary canines were milled using a CAD/CAM system and randomly divided into 3 groups (N=90, n=30 per group). They were veneered with three veneering ceramics, namely GC Initial ZR, Vita VM9, IPS e.max Ceram using layering technique. The crowns were cemented with glass ionomer cement on metal abutments. The specimens were then loaded to fracture (1 mm/min) in a Universal Testing Machine. The data were analyzed using classical method (normal data distribution (μ, σ); Levene test and one-way ANOVA) and according to the Weibull statistics (s, m). In addition, fracture load results were analyzed depending on complete and censored failure types (only chipping vs. total fracture together with chipping). When computed with complete data, significantly higher mean fracture loads (N) were observed for GC Initial ZR (μ=978, σ=157; s=1043, m=7.2) and VITA VM9 (μ=1074, σ=179; s=1139; m=7.8) than that of IPS e.max Ceram (μ=798, σ=174; s=859, m=5.8) (p<0.05) by classical and Weibull statistics, respectively. When the data were censored for only total fracture, IPS e.max Ceram presented the lowest fracture load for chipping with both classical distribution (μ=790, σ=160) and Weibull statistics (s=836, m=6.5). When total fracture with chipping (classical distribution) was considered as failure, IPS e.max Ceram did not show significant fracture load for total fracture (μ=1054, σ=110) compared to other groups (GC Initial ZR: μ=1039, σ=152, VITA VM9: μ=1170, σ=166). According to Weibull distributed data, VITA VM9 showed significantly higher fracture load (s=1228, m=9.4) than those of other groups. Both classical distribution and Weibull statistics for complete data yielded similar outcomes. Censored data analysis of all ceramic systems based on failure types is essential

  13. Prospective assessment of CAD/CAM zirconia abutment and lithium disilicate crown restorations: 2.4 year results.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Lyndon F; Stanford, Clark; Feine, Jocelyne; McGuire, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Single-tooth implant restorations are commonly used to replace anterior maxillary teeth. The esthetic, functional, and biologic outcomes are, in part, a function of the abutment and crown. The purpose of this clinical study was to describe the implant, abutment, and crown survival and complication rates for CAD/CAM zirconia abutment and lithium disilicate crown restorations for single-tooth implants. As part of a broader prospective investigation that enrolled and treated 141 participants comparing tissue responses at the conical interface (CI; AstraTech OsseoSpeed), flat-to-flat interface (FI; NobelSpeedy), and platform-switch interface (PS; NanoTite Certain Prevail) of single-tooth implants, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia abutments (ATLANTIS Abutment) and cemented lithium disilicate (e.max) crowns were used in the restoration of all implants. After 2.4 years in function (3 years after implant placement), the implant, abutment, and crown of 110 participants were evaluated. Technical and biologic complications were recorded. Demographic results were tabulated as percentages with mean values and standard deviations. Abutment survival was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. After 2.4 years, no abutments or crowns had been lost. Abutment complications (screw loosening, screw fracture, fracture) were absent for all 3 implant groups. Crown complications were limited to 2 crowns debonding and 1 with excess cement (2.5%). Five biological complications (4.0%) were recorded. The overall complication rate was 6.5%. CAD/CAM zirconia abutments restored with cemented lithium disilicate crowns demonstrated high survival on 3 different implant-abutment interface designs. No abutment or abutment screw fracture occurred. The technical complications observed after 2.4 years were minor and reversible. The use of CAD/CAM zirconia abutments with cemented lithium disilicate crowns is associated with high technical and biologic success at 2

  14. Effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation on bonding property of zirconia ceramics to resin cement.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yihua; Song, Xiaomeng; Chen, Yaming; Zhu, Qingping; Zhang, Wei

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether or not an erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser could improve the bonding property of zirconia ceramics to resin cement. Surface treatments can improve the bonding properties of dental ceramics. However, little is known about the effect of Er:YAG laser irradiated on zirconia ceramics. Specimens of zirconia ceramic pieces were made, and randomly divided into 11 groups according to surface treatments, including one control group (no treatment), one air abrasion group, and nine Er:YAG laser groups. The laser groups were subdivided by applying different energy intensities (100, 200, or 300 mJ) and irradiation times (5, 10, or 15 sec). After surface treatments, ceramic pieces had their surface morphology observed, and their surface roughness was measured. All specimens were bonded to resin cement. Shear bond strength was measured after the bonded specimens were stored in water for 24 h, and additionally aged by thermocycling. Statistical analyses were performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test for shear bond strength, and Dunnett's t test for surface roughness, with α=0.05. Er:YAG laser irradiation changed the morphological characteristics of zirconia ceramics. Higher energy intensities (200, 300 mJ) could roughen the ceramics, but also caused surface cracks. There were no significant differences in the bond strength between the control group and the laser groups treated with different energy intensities or irradiation times. Air abrasion with alumina particles induced highest surface roughness and shear bond strength. Er:YAG laser irradiation cannot improve the bonding property of zirconia ceramics to resin cement. Enhancing irradiation intensities and extending irradiation time have no benefit on the bond of the ceramics, and might cause material defect.

  15. Evaluation of experimental coating to improve the zirconia-veneering ceramic bond strength.

    PubMed

    Matani, Jay D; Kheur, Mohit; Jambhekar, Shantanu Subhashchandra; Bhargava, Parag; Londhe, Aditya

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) between zirconia and veneering ceramic following different surface treatments of zirconia. The efficacy of an experimental zirconia coating to improve the bond strength was also evaluated. Zirconia strips were fabricated and were divided into four groups as per their surface treatment: polished (control), airborne-particle abrasion, laser irradiation, and application of the experimental coating. The surface roughness and the residual monoclinic content were evaluated before and after the respective surface treatments. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the experimental surfaces was performed. All specimens were subjected to shear force in a universal testing machine. The SBS values were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc for groupwise comparisons. The fractured specimens were examined to observe the failure mode. The SBS (29.17 MPa) and roughness values (0.80) of the experimental coating group were the highest among the groups. The residual monoclinic content was minimal (0.32) when compared to the remaining test groups. SEM analysis revealed a homogenous surface well adhered to an undamaged zirconia base. The other test groups showed destruction of the zirconia surface. The analysis of failure following bond strength testing showed entirely cohesive failures in the veneering ceramic in all study groups. The experimental zirconia surface coating is a simple technique to increase the microroughness of the zirconia surface, and thereby improve the SBS to the veneering ceramic. It results in the least monoclinic content and produces no structural damage to the zirconia substructure. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  16. Retention of metal-ceramic crowns with contemporary dental cements.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Glen H; Lepe, Xavier; Zhang, Hai; Wataha, John C

    2009-09-01

    New types of crown and bridge cement are in use by practitioners, and independent studies are needed to assess their effectiveness. The authors conducted a study in three parts (study A, study B, and study C) and to determine how well these new cements retain metal-ceramic crowns. The authors prepared teeth with a 20-degree taper and a 4-millimeter length. They cast high-noble metal-ceramic copings, then fitted and cemented them with a force of 196 newtons. The types of cements they used were zinc phosphate, resin-modified glass ionomer, conventional resin and self-adhesive modified resin. They thermally cycled the cemented copings, then removed them. They recorded the removal force and calculated the stress of dislodgment by using the surface area of each preparation. They used a single-factor analysis of variance to analyze the data (alpha = .05). The mean stresses necessary to remove crowns, in megapascals, were 8.0 for RelyX Luting (3M ESPE, St. Paul, Minn.), 7.3 for RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE), 5.7 for Panavia F (Kuraray America, New York) and 4.0 for Fuji Plus (GC America, Alsip, Ill.) in study A; 8.1 for RelyX Luting, 2.6 for RelyX Luting Plus (3M ESPE) and 2.8 for Fuji CEM (GC America) in study B; and 4.9 for Maxcem (Kerr, Orange, Calif.), 4.0 for BisCem (Bisco, Schaumburg, Ill.), 3.7 for RelyX Unicem Clicker (3M ESPE), 2.9 for iCEM (Heraeus Kulzer, Armonk, N.Y.) and 2.3 for Fleck's Zinc Cement (Keystone Industries, Cherry Hill, N.J.) in study C. Powder-liquid versions of new cements were significantly more retentive than were paste-paste versions of the same cements. The mean value of crown removal stress for the new self-adhesive modified-resin cements varied appreciably among the four cements tested. All cements retained castings as well as or better than did zinc phosphate cement. Powder-liquid versions of cements, although less convenient to mix, may be a better clinical choice when crown retention is an issue. All cements tested will retain castings

  17. Effect of Porosity of Alumina and Zirconia Ceramics toward Pre-Osteoblast Response

    PubMed Central

    Hadjicharalambous, Chrystalleni; Prymak, Oleg; Loza, Kateryna; Buyakov, Ales; Kulkov, Sergei; Chatzinikolaidou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    It is acknowledged that cellular responses are highly affected by biomaterial porosity. The investigation of this effect is important for the development of implanted biomaterials that integrate with bone tissue. Zirconia and alumina ceramics exhibit outstanding mechanical properties and are among the most popular implant materials used in orthopedics, but few data exist regarding the effect of porosity on cellular responses to these materials. The present study investigates the effect of porosity on the attachment and proliferation of pre-osteoblastic cells on zirconia and alumina. For each composition, ceramics of three different porosities are fabricated by sintering, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. Cell proliferation is quantified, and microscopy is employed to qualitatively support the proliferation results and evaluate cell morphology. Cell adhesion and metabolic activity are found comparable among low porosity zirconia and alumina. In contrast, higher porosity favors better cell spreading on zirconia and improves growth, but does not significantly affect cell response on alumina. Between the highest porosity materials, cell response on zirconia is found superior to alumina. Results show that an average pore size of ~150 μm and ~50% porosity can be considered beneficial to cellular growth on zirconia ceramics. PMID:26579516

  18. Experimental and numerical study on the strength of all-ceramic crowns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chenglin; Zhang, Xiuyin; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2008-11-01

    Two types of sectioned tooth-like ceramic crowns (IPS Empress 2) were prepared along lingual-facial direction and the fracture process of crowns under contact load was directly monitored with the use of imaging system. The displacement filed resulted from digital image correlation indicate that the fracture mode of real crown is more complicated while the flat crown has the same rupture mode as described by other investigators. Meanwhile numerical simulation was also carried out to support the experiments. Stress distributions in individual layer and interface were presented. Results indicate that the presented experimental and numerical methods are efficient in studying the fracture mechanism of all-ceramic crowns.

  19. [Structure and properties of colored dental tetragonal zirconia stabilized by yttrium ceramics].

    PubMed

    Yi, Yuan-fu; Wang, Chen; Wen, Ning; Lin, Yong-zhao; Tian, Jie-mo

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the structure, mechanical and low temperature aging properties of colored dental zirconia ceramics. 5 graded colored dental zirconia ceramics were made by adding colorants and their combinations into a 3Y-TZP (tetragonal zirconia stabilized by 3mol% yttrium) powder, the green body were compacted at 200 MPa, pre-sinter at 1,050 degrees C and maintained for 2 h, then densely sintered at 1,500 degrees C for 2 h. Specimens were cut from each of the 5 graded colored blocks. Physical, mechanical properties as well as chemical stability were tested, microstructure were observed, crystalline phase were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), aging properties were assessed by measurement of the relative content of monoclinic phase and bending strength testing. The overall density of colored zirconia ceramics was over 99.7%, linear shrinkage was about 20%, while thermal expansion coefficient was about 11 x 10(-6) x degrees C(-1), the crystalline phase was tetragonal, bending strength was over 900 MPa which was slightly lowered than that of the uncolored zirconia, fracture toughness was slightly higher. Good chemical stability in acetic acid was observed. After aging treatment, tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation was detected up to 40%, while bending strength was not significantly degraded. The results showed that colored 3Y-TZP ceramics presented good mechanical properties even after aging treatments, and was suitable for dental clinical use.

  20. [Effect of two-step sintering method on properties of zirconia ceramic].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2008-04-01

    To study the influence of two-step sintering method on the sintering property, mechanical properties and microstructure of zirconia ceramic. The nano-size zirconia powder were compacted and divided into two groups, one group for one-step sintering method, another group for two-step sintering method. All samples sintered at different temperature. The relative density, three-bend strength, HV hardness, fracture toughness and microstructure of sintered block were investigated. Two-step sintering method influenced the sintering property and mechanical properties of zirconia ceramic. The maximal relative density was 98.49% at 900 degrees C/1,450 degrees C sintering temperature. There were significant difference of mechanical properties between one-step sintering and two-step sintering, the three-bend strength and fracture toughness declined, hardness increased at two-step sintering. The three-bend strength, HV hardness and fracture toughness reached to maximum value as 1,059.08 MPa +/- 75.24 MPa, 1,377.00 MPa +/- 16.37 MPa and 5.92 MPa x m1/2 +/- 0.37 MPa x m1/2 at 900 degrees C/1,450 degrees C sintering temperature respectively. Microscopy revealed the relationship between the porosity and shapes of grains was correlated to strength of the zirconia ceramics. Despite of the two-step sintering method influences the properties of zirconia, it also is a promising esthetic all-ceramic dental material.

  1. Mechanical behavior of single-layer ceramized zirconia abutments for dental implant prosthetic rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Melendo, Manuel; Llena-Blasco, Oriol; Bruguera, August; Llena-Blasco, Jaime; Yáñez-Vico, Rosa-María; García-Calderón, Manuel; Vaquero-Aguilar, Cristina; Velázquez-Cayón, Rocío; Gutiérrez-Pérez, José-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was undertaken to characterize the mechanical response of bare (as-received) and single-layer ceramized zirconia abutments with both internal and external connections that have been developed to enhanced aesthetic restorations. Material and Methods: Sixteen zirconia implant abutments (ZiReal Post®, Biomet 3i, USA) with internal and external connections have been analyzed. Half of the specimens were coated with a 0.5mm-thick layer of a low-fusing fluroapatite ceramic. Mechanical tests were carried out under static (constant cross-head speed of 1mm/min until fracture) and dynamic (between 100 and 400N at a frequency of 1Hz) loading conditions. The failure location was identified by electron microscopy. The removal torque of the retaining screws after testing was also evaluated. Results: The average fracture strength was above 300N for all the abutments, regardless of connection geometry and coating. In most of the cases (94%), failure occurred by abutment fracture. No significant differences were observed either in fatigue behavior and removal torque between the different abutment groups. Conclusions: Mechanical behavior of Zireal zirconia abutments is independent of the type of internal/external connection and the presence/absence of ceramic coating. This may be clinically valuable in dental rehabilitation to improve the aesthetic outcome of zirconia-based dental implant systems. Key words:Dental implant, zirconia, ceramic structure, mechanical properties. PMID:25674313

  2. In vitro evaluation of the mutagenic and carcinogenic power of high purity zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Covacci, V; Bruzzese, N; Maccauro, G; Andreassi, C; Ricci, G A; Piconi, C; Marmo, E; Burger, W; Cittadini, A

    1999-02-01

    Tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP) is a new interesting ceramic for the manufacture of medical devices. Its wide use in orthopedic and odontoiatric implants was limited till now by the high chemical and radiochemical impurities of the raw materials. Purification processes now available allow to obtain high purity ceramic grade powders suitable for TZP ceramics manufacture, even if their possible mutagenic and transforming effects are still unclear. The aim of this work is to study in vitro the mutagenic and oncogenic effects of a new zirconia ceramic stabilized by yttria (Y-TZP). This ceramic was sintered from high purity powders obtained by a process developed under a project carried out within the Brite EuRam programme. For comparison, ceramics made from unpurified zirconia powder were also tested. Fibroblasts irradiated by a linear accelerator were used as positive control. The results obtained show that Y-TZP ceramic does not elicit either mutagenic or transforming effect on C3H/10T(1/2) (10T(1/2)) cells and demonstrate that ceramic from high purity powders can be considered suitable for biomedical applications from the point of view of the effects of its radioactive impurity content.

  3. Grinding model and material removal mechanism of medical nanometer zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongkun; Li, Changhe; Jia, Dongzhou; Wang, Sheng; Li, Runze; Qi, Xiaoxiao

    2014-01-01

    Many patents have been devoted to developing medical nanometer zirconia ceramic grinding techniques that can significantly improve both workpiece surface integrity and grinding quality. Among these patents is a process for preparing ceramic dental implants with a surface for improving osseo-integration by sand abrasive finishing under a jet pressure of 1.5 bar to 8.0 bar and with a grain size of 30 µm to 250 µm. Compared with other materials, nano-zirconia ceramics exhibit unmatched biomedical performance and excellent mechanical properties as medical bone tissue and dentures. The removal mechanism of nano-zirconia materials includes brittle fracture and plastic removal. Brittle fracture involves crack formation, extension, peeling, and chipping to completely remove debris. Plastic removal is similar to chip formation in metal grinding, including rubbing, ploughing, and the formation of grinding debris. The materials are removed in shearing and chipping. During brittle fracture, the grinding-led transverse and radial extension of cracks further generate local peeling of blocks of the material. In material peeling and removal, the mechanical strength and surface quality of the workpiece are also greatly reduced because of crack extension. When grinding occurs in the plastic region, plastic removal is performed, and surface grinding does not generate grinding fissures and surface fracture, producing clinically satisfactory grinding quality. With certain grinding conditions, medical nanometer zirconia ceramics can be removed through plastic flow in ductile regime. In this study, we analyzed the critical conditions for the transfer of brittle and plastic removal in nano-zirconia ceramic grinding as well as the high-quality surface grinding of medical nanometer zirconia ceramics by ELID grinding.

  4. The Application of a Novel Ceramic Liner Improves Bonding between Zirconia and Veneering Porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee-Sung

    2017-01-01

    The adhesion of porcelain to zirconia is a key factor in the success of bilayered restorations. In this study, the efficacy of a novel experimental liner (EL) containing zirconia for improved bonding between zirconia and veneering porcelain was tested. Four ELs containing various concentrations (0, 3.0, 6.0, and 9.0 wt %) of zirconia were prepared. Testing determined the most effective EL (EL3 containing 3.0 wt % zirconia) in terms of shear bond strength value (n = 15). Three different bar-shaped zirconia/porcelain bilayer specimens were prepared for a three-point flexural strength (TPFS) test (n = 15): no-liner (NL), commercial liner (CL), and EL3. Specimens were tested for TPFS with the porcelain under tension and the maximum load was measured at the first sign of fracture. The strength data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05) as well as Weibull distribution. When compared to NL, the CL application had no effect, while the EL3 application had a significant positive effect (p < 0.001) on the flexural strength. Weibull analysis also revealed the highest shape and scale parameters for group EL3. Within the limitations of this study, the novel ceramic liner containing 3.0 wt % zirconia (EL3) significantly enhanced the zirconia/porcelain interfacial bonding. PMID:28869512

  5. [In vitro study on shear bond strength of veneering ceramics to zirconia].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoping; Zhu, Hongshui; Zeng, Liwei

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the shear bond strength between veneering ceramic and zirconia core in different all-ceramic systems. Twenty disk-shaped specimens with 8 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height for each zirconia system (Lava, Cercon, IPS e.max ZirCAD, Procera) were fabricated respectively and divided into four groups: Lava group, Cercon group, IPS e.max ZirCAD group, Procera group. For each group, 10 specimens were sintered with 1 mm corresponding veneering ceramic, while the other were sintered with 2 mm corresponding veneering ceramic respectively. The shear bond strength and fracture mode of specimens were observed and determined. The values of shear bond strength for Lava, Cercon, IPS e.max ZirCAD and Procera were (13.82 +/- 3.71), (13.24 +/- 2.09), (6.37 +/- 4.15), (5.19 +/- 5.31) MPa in the group of 1 mm thicked veneering ceramics, respectively, while the values in the group of 2mm thicked veneering ceramics were (38.77 +/- 1.69), (21.67 +/- 3.34), (12.70 +/- 4.24), (9.94 +/- 6.67) MPa. The values of Lava and Cercon groups were significantly higher than that of IPS e.max ZirCAD and Procera groups (P < 0.05). And the values of 2 mm thicked veneering ceramic group were significantly higher than that in 1 mm thicked groups (P < 0.05). Adhesive fracture between core and veneering ceramics were observed in the fracture modes of most specimens. The shear bond strength of veneering ceramic to the zirconia framework are different from the zirconia system we chose, and the thickness of veneering ceramic has a great impact on its shear bond strength.

  6. Influence of full-contour zirconia surface roughness on wear of glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Luangruangrong, Palika; Cook, N Blaine; Sabrah, Alaa H; Hara, Anderson T; Bottino, Marco C

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of full-contour (Y-TZP) zirconia surface roughness (glazed vs. as-machined) on the wear behavior of glass-ceramics. Thirty-two full contour Y-TZP (Diazir®) specimens (hereafter referred to as zirconia sliders) (ϕ = 2 mm, 1.5 mm in height) were fabricated using CAD/CAM and sintered according to the manufacturer's instructions. Zirconia sliders were embedded in brass holders using acrylic resin and then randomly assigned (n = 16) according to the surface treatment received, that is, as-machined or glazed. Glass-ceramic antagonists, Empress/EMP and e.max/EX, were cut into tabs (13 × 13 × 2 mm(3) ), wet-finished, and similarly embedded in brass holders. Two-body pin-on-disk wear testing was performed at 1.2 Hz for 25,000 cycles under a 3 kg load. Noncontact profilometry was used to measure antagonist height (μm) and volume loss (mm(3) ). Qualitative data of the zirconia testing surfaces and wear tracks were obtained using SEM. Statistics were performed using ANOVA with a significance level of 0.05. As-machined yielded significantly higher mean roughness values (Ra = 0.83 μm, Rq = 1.09 μm) than glazed zirconia (Ra = 0.53 μm, Rq = 0.78 μm). Regarding glass-ceramic antagonist loss, as-machined zirconia caused significantly less mean height and volume loss (68.4 μm, 7.6 mm(3) ) for EMP than the glazed group (84.9 μm, 9.9 mm(3) ), while no significant differences were found for EX. Moreover, EMP showed significantly lower mean height and volume loss than EX (p < 0.0001). SEM revealed differences on wear characteristics between the glass-ceramics tested. e.max wear was not affected by zirconia surface roughness; however, Empress wear was greater when opposing glazed zirconia. Overall, surface glazing on full-contour zirconia did not minimize glass-ceramic wear when compared with as-machined zirconia. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. The effect of subpressure on the bond strength of resin to zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Mei; Zhuge, Rui-Shen; Zhang, Zu-Tai; Tian, Yue-Ming; Ding, Ning

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of subpressure on the bond strength of resin to zirconia ceramic. The subpressure would create a pressure gradient which could clean out the bubbles in the adhesives or bonding interface. Twenty-eight pre-sintered zirconia discs were fabricated. Half of them were polished (group P, n = 14), and the rest were sandblasted (group S, n = 14). After sintered,the surface roughness of the zirconia discs was measured. Then, they were randomly divided into two subgroups (n = 7). The groups were named as follows: PC: P + no additional treatments; PP: P + 0.04 MPa after application of adhesives; SC: S + no additional treatments; and SP: S + 0.04 MPa after application of adhesives. Resin columns were bonded to the zirconia specimens to determine shear bond strength (SBS). The bonding interfaces were observed and the fracture modes were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed on all data. The surface roughness of group S was significantly higher than that of group P (P<0.05). The SBS values were PC = 13.48 ± 0.7 MPa, PP = 15.22 ± 0.8 MPa, SC = 17.23 ± 0.7 MPa and SP = 21.68 ± 1.4 MPa. There were significant differences among the groups (P<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the adhesives of group SP and PP were closer and denser to the zirconia ceramic than that of group PC and SC. The proportion of the mixed fracture mode significantly increased after adding subpressure (P< 0.05). Subpressure can improve the shear bond strength of resin to zirconia ceramics and increase micro-infiltration between the adhesives and the zirconia ceramics, especially on the rough surfaces.

  8. Fatigue resistance and microleakage of CAD/CAM ceramic and composite molar crowns.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Amr S; Atta, Osama; El-Mowafy, Omar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine effect of compressive cyclic loading on fatigue resistance and microleakage of monolithic CAD/CAM molar ceramic and composite crowns. Thirty-two extracted molars were prepared to receive CEREC crowns according to manufacturer's guidelines using a special paralleling device (Parallel-A-Prep). Sixteen feldspathic ceramic crowns (VITABLOCS Mark II) (VMII) and 16 resin-composite crowns (Paradigm-MZ100 blocks) (PMZ) were milled using a CEREC-3D machine. Eight crowns of each group were cemented to their respective teeth using self-etching resin cement (Panavia-F-2.0) (PAN), and eight were cemented using self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX-Unicem-Clicker) (RXU). Following storage for 1 week in water, specimens were subjected to uniaxial compressive cyclic loading in an Instron testing machine at 12 Hz for 1,000,000 cycles. Load was applied at the central fossa, and the cycle range was 60-600 N. Specimens were then subjected to microleakage testing. Data were statistically analyzed using factorial ANOVA and Post Hoc (Tukey HSD) tests. All composite crowns survived compressive cyclic loading without fracture, while three ceramic crowns from the subgroup cemented with RXU developed surface cracks at the center of occlusal surfaces, extending laterally. Microleakage scores of ceramic crowns cemented with PAN were significantly lower than those of the other three subgroups (p < 0.05). After 1,000,000 cycles of compressive cyclic loading, PMZ composite molar crowns were more fatigue-resistant than VMII ceramic crowns. Cement type had a significant effect on fatigue resistance of the ceramic crowns but not the composite ones. Microleakage scores of ceramic crowns cemented with PAN were significantly lower than those of the other subgroups (p < 0.05). © 2011 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. Survival of anterior cantilevered all-ceramic resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses made from zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Martin; Kern, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated the clinical outcome of all-ceramic resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses (RBFDPs) with a cantilevered single-retainer design made from zirconia ceramic. Forty-two anterior RBFDPs with a cantilevered single-retainer design were made from yttrium oxide-stabilized zirconium oxide ceramic. RBFDPs were inserted using Panavia 21 TC as luting agent after air-abrasion of the ceramic bonding surface. During a mean observation time of 61.8 months two debondings occurred. Both RBFDPs were rebonded using Panavia 21 TC and are still in function. A caries lesion was detected at one abutment tooth during recall and was treated with a composite filling. Therefore, the overall six-year failure-free rate according to Kaplan-Meier was 91.1%. If only debonding was defined as failure the survival rate increased to 95.2%. Since all RBFDPs are still in function the overall survival rate was 100% after six years. Cantilevered zirconia ceramic RBFDPs showed promising results within the observation period. Single-retainer resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses made from zirconia ceramic show very good mid-term clinical survival rates. They should therefore be considered as a viable treatment alternative for the replacement of single missing anterior teeth especially as compared to an implant therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of ceramic repair material on the bond strength of composite resin to zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Kirmali, Omer; Kapdan, Alper; Harorli, Osman Tolga; Barutcugil, Cagatay; Ozarslan, Mehmet Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of composite resin in five different repair systems. Sixty specimens (7 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height) of zirconia ceramic were fabricated. All specimen surfaces were prepared with a 30 µm fine diamond rotary cutting instrument with water irrigation for 10 s and dried with oil-free air. Specimens were then randomly divided into six groups for the following different intra-oral repair systems (n = 10): Group 1, control group; Group 2, Cojet system (3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany); Group 3, Cimara® System (Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany); Group 4, Z-Prime Plus System (Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, IL); Group 5, Clearfil™ System (Kuraray, Osaka, Japan); and Group 6, Z-Bond System (Danville, CA). After surface conditioning, a composite resin Grandio (Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany) was applied to the zirconia surface using a cylindrical mold (5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in length) and incrementally filled up, according to the manufacturer's instructions of each intra-oral system. Each specimen was subjected to a shear load at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until fracture. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post-hoc tests were used to analyze the bond strength values. There were significant differences between Groups 2-6 and Group 1. The highest bond strength values were obtained with Group 2 (17.26 ± 3.22) and Group 3 (17.31 ± 3.62), while the lowest values were observed with Group 1 (8.96 ± 1.62) and Group 6 (12.85 ± 3.95). All repair systems tested increased the bond strength values between zirconia and composite resin that used surface grinding with a diamond bur.

  11. [Clinical application of IPS-empress 2 pressable all-ceramic crowns].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-jun; He, Xiao-ming; Liu, Li-xia; Zhang, Chao-biao; Zhang, Min; Shen, Bei-yong

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical prosthetic effect of IPS-Empress 2 pressahie ceramic crowns. 198 teeth of 70 patients were restored with IPS-Empress 2 pressahie ceramic crowns. The patients were asked to return in one week and every half year. The clinical prosthetic effect was evaluated. Through follow-up of 3-38 months, the veneer porcelain crowns of 3 teeth were broken. 2 crowns fall off due to teeth fracture, gingivitis occurred in 2 teeth, pulpitis or periapical periodontitis occurred in 3 teeth. The shades of 3 crowns were darkening. The prosthetic effect of 185 teeth was satisfied. The rate of satisfaction was 93.4%. IPS-Empress 2 pressable all-ceramic crown has the advantages of aesthetic effect, good hiocompatihility and simple fabrication. But its strength is not enough for posterior teeth and it can not cover the deep color of non-vital teeth and metal materials.

  12. Zirconia in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Wei; Moussi, Joelle; Drury, Jeanie L; Wataha, John C

    2016-10-01

    The use of zirconia in medicine and dentistry has rapidly expanded over the past decade, driven by its advantageous physical, biological, esthetic, and corrosion properties. Zirconia orthopedic hip replacements have shown superior wear-resistance over other systems; however, risk of catastrophic fracture remains a concern. In dentistry, zirconia has been widely adopted for endosseous implants, implant abutments, and all-ceramic crowns. Because of an increasing demand for esthetically pleasing dental restorations, zirconia-based ceramic restorations have become one of the dominant restorative choices. Areas covered: This review provides an updated overview of the applications of zirconia in medicine and dentistry with a focus on dental applications. The MEDLINE electronic database (via PubMed) was searched, and relevant original and review articles from 2010 to 2016 were included. Expert commentary: Recent data suggest that zirconia performs favorably in both orthopedic and dental applications, but quality long-term clinical data remain scarce. Concerns about the effects of wear, crystalline degradation, crack propagation, and catastrophic fracture are still debated. The future of zirconia in biomedical applications will depend on the generation of these data to resolve concerns.

  13. The influences of accelerated aging on mechanical properties of veneering ceramics used for zirconia restorations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huinan; Tang, Xuehua; Dong, Zhen; Tang, Hui; Nakamura, Takashi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influences of accelerated aging on the mechanical properties of veneering ceramics used for zirconia frameworks. Five different veneering ceramics for zirconia frameworks were used. Twenty specimens were fabricated for each veneering ceramic. All specimens were divided into two groups. One was subjected to accelerated aging and the other was used as a control. Accelerated aging was performed in distilled water for 5 h at 200ºC and 2 atm. The density, open porosity, surface roughness, three-point flexural strength, and Vickers hardness were measured. The results showed that the density, open porosity, and surface roughness of all examined veneering ceramics were changed by the accelerated aging process. Accelerated aging was also found to have a positive effect on strength and a negative effect on the hardness.

  14. Translucency of zirconia-based pressable ceramics with different core and veneer thicknesses.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Il-Do; Bae, So-Yeon; Kim, Dong-Yeon; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Woong-Chul

    2016-06-01

    Little information is available on the translucency of zirconia-based pressable ceramic restorations with a pressed ceramic veneer and zirconia core in various thickness combinations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the translucency of 3 types of zirconia-based pressable ceramics for different core-veneer thickness combinations. A bilayered ceramic specimen was prepared with a pressable ceramic (IPS e.max Zirpress, Initial IQ, Rosetta UltraPress) veneer over a zirconia core (Zenostar Zr). Three groups of specimens (n=7) were formed with the following core+veneer thicknesses: 1 +0.5 mm, 0.7 +0.8 mm, and 0.5 +1 mm. To obtain consistent thickness and high translucency, all specimens were subjected to surface grinding with a grinding machine. To eliminate the effect of differences in roughness on the translucency, the surface roughness of the ground specimens was measured with a scanning profiler, and the consistency of these measured values was verified through statistical analysis. The luminous transmittance of the specimens was measured with a spectrophotometer. The effects of the pressable ceramic type and core-veneer thickness combination on transmittance were assessed using a 2-way ANOVA (α=.05). The consistency of the surface roughness among the tested specimens was confirmed using a 1-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD post hoc test (P<.05). The luminous transmittance exhibited a statistically significant dependence on both the type of pressable ceramic and the core-veneer thickness combination (P<.05). The type of pressable ceramic and core-veneer thickness combination affected the translucency of the restoration. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron-particle-based magnetorheological fluid for polishing optical glasses and ceramics.

    PubMed

    Shafrir, Shai N; Romanofsky, Henry J; Skarlinski, Michael; Wang, Mimi; Miao, Chunlin; Salzman, Sivan; Chartier, Taylor; Mici, Joni; Lambropoulos, John C; Shen, Rui; Yang, Hong; Jacobs, Stephen D

    2009-12-10

    We report on magnetorheological finishing (MRF) spotting experiments performed on glasses and ceramics using a zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron (CI)-particle-based magnetorheological (MR) fluid. The zirconia-coated magnetic CI particles were prepared via sol-gel synthesis in kilogram quantities. The coating layer was approximately 50-100 nm thick, faceted in surface structure, and well adhered. Coated particles showed long-term stability against aqueous corrosion. "Free" nanocrystalline zirconia polishing abrasives were cogenerated in the coating process, resulting in an abrasive-charged powder for MRF. A viable MR fluid was prepared simply by adding water. Spot polishing tests were performed on a variety of optical glasses and ceramics over a period of nearly three weeks with no signs of MR fluid degradation or corrosion. Stable material removal rates and smooth surfaces inside spots were obtained.

  16. Zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron-particle-based magnetorheological fluid for polishing optical glasses and ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Shafrir, Shai N.; Romanofsky, Henry J.; Skarlinski, Michael

    2009-12-10

    We report on magnetorheological finishing (MRF) spotting experiments performed on glasses and ceramics using a zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron (CI)-particle-based magnetorheological (MR) fluid. The zirconia-coated magnetic CI particles were prepared via sol-gel synthesis in kilogram quantities. The coating layer was {approx}50-100 nm thick, faceted in surface structure, and well adhered. Coated particles showed long-term stability against aqueous corrosion. ''Free'' nanocrystalline zirconia polishing abrasives were cogenerated in the coating process, resulting in an abrasive-charged powder for MRF. A viable MR fluid was prepared simply by adding water. Spot polishing tests were performed on a variety of optical glasses and ceramics over a periodmore » of nearly three weeks with no signs of MR fluid degradation or corrosion. Stable material removal rates and smooth surfaces inside spots were obtained.« less

  17. Effect of coping thickness and background type on the masking ability of a zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaian, Farhad; Taghizade, Fateme; Namdari, Mahshid

    2018-01-01

    The masking ability of zirconia ceramics as copings is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of coping thickness and background type on the masking ability of a zirconia ceramic and to determine zirconia coping thickness cut offs for masking the backgrounds investigated. Thirty zirconia disks in 3 thickness groups of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 mm were placed on 9 backgrounds to measure CIELab color attributes using a spectrophotometer. The backgrounds included A1, A2, and A3.5 shade composite resin, A3 shade zirconia, nickel-chromium alloy, nonprecious gold-colored alloy, amalgam, black, and white. ΔE values were measured to determine color differences between the specimens on the A2 shade composite resin background and the same specimens on the other backgrounds. The color change (ΔE) values were compared with threshold values for acceptability (ΔE=5.5) and perceptibility (ΔE=2.6). Repeated measures ANOVA, the Bonferroni test, and 1-sample t tests were used to analyze data (α=.05). Mean ΔE values ranged between 1.44 and 7.88. The zirconia coping thickness, the background type, and their interaction affected the CIELab and ΔE values (P<.001). To achieve ideal masking, the minimum thickness of a zirconia coping should be 0.4 mm for A1 and A3.5 shade composite resin, A3 shade zirconia, and nonprecious gold-colored alloy, 0.6 mm for amalgam, and 0.8 mm for nickel-chromium alloy. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Zirconia Ceramic Using Adhesive Primers.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Ariovaldo; Brito, Rui Barbosa; Kina, Sidney; Andrade, Oswaldo Scopin; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Carvalho, Andreia Assis; Giannini, Marcelo

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the influence of adhesive primers on the microshear bond strength of resin cements to zirconia ceramic. Fifty zirconia plates (12 mm × 5 mm × 1.5 mm thick) of a commercially available zirconium oxide ceramic (ZirCad) were sintered, sandblasted with aluminum oxide particles, and cleaned ultrasonically before bonding. The plates were randomly divided into five groups of 10. Three resin cements were selected (RelyX ARC, Multilink Automix, Clearfil SA Cement self-adhesive resin cement), along with two primers (Metal-Zirconia Primer, Alloy Primer) and one control group. The primers and resin cements were used according to manufacturers' recommendations. The control group comprised the conventional resin cement (RelyX ARC) without adhesive primer. Test cylinders (0.75 mm diameter × 1 mm high) were formed on zirconia surfaces by filling cylindrical Tygon tube molds with resin cement. The specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C, then tested for shear strength on a Shimadzu EZ Test testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. Bond strength data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Dunnett's test (5%). The bond strength means in MPa (± s.d.) were: RelyX ARC: 28.1 (6.6); Multilink Automix: 37.6 (4.5); Multilink Automix + Metal-Zirconia Primer: 55.7 (4.0); Clearfil SA Cement: 46.2 (3.3); and Clearfil SA Cement + Alloy Primer: 47.0 (4.1). Metal-Zirconia Primer increased the bond strength of Multilink Automix resin cement to zirconia, but no effect was observed for Alloy Primer using Clearfil SA Cement. RelyX ARC showed the lowest bond strength to zirconia. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. A comparison of the marginal fit of In-Ceram, IPS Empress, and Procera crowns.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, F; Chai, J; Jameson, L M; Wozniak, W T

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro marginal fit of three all-ceramic crown systems (In-Ceram, Procera, and IPS Empress) was compared. All crown systems were significantly different from each other at P = 0.05. In-Ceram exhibited the greatest marginal discrepancy (161 microns), followed by Procera (83 microns), and IPS Empress (63 microns). There were no significant differences among the various stages of the crown fabrication: core fabrication, porcelain veneering, and glazing. The facial and lingual margins exhibited significantly larger marginal discrepancies than the mesial and distal margins.

  20. [Effect of five kinds of pigments on the chromaticity of dental zirconia ceramic].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Zheng, Yuan-li; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2007-08-01

    All-ceramic dental restorations should match the colour of the natural teeth in order to fulfill aesthetic demands. The goal of this study was to evaluate the colouration of zirconia ceramic by adding five kinds of pigments. The influence of the pigments concentrations on the chromaticity were also analysed. Different concentrations of five kinds of pigments were added on zirconia powder, then compacted at 200MPa using cold isostatic pressure, sintered to 1400 degrees centigrade and hold for two hours. The chromaticity of sintered bodies were measured with chroma meter. The colours achieved by the different pigments were presented in the CIELab system. The a* value increased with the added amount of Er(2)O(3), while b* value raised with the increasing amount of CeO(2) and Pr(6)O(11). However, three pigments failed to decrease L* value and the sintered body looked too bright. The sintered bodies were brown when adding Fe(2)O(3) to zirconia. Adding MnO2 could decrease the L* value of sintered bodies significantly, but had little influence on the a* and b* value. Five kinds of colorized zirconia ceramic could cover with the chromaticity range of dental ceramic which necessitate further investigation.

  1. An harmonic smile resulted from the use of ceramic prosthesis with zirconia structure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tavarez, Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus; Goncalves, Leticia Machado; Dias, Ana Paula; Dias, Anna Claudia Pereira; Malheiros, Adriana Santos; Silva, Alice Carvalho; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho

    2014-06-01

    The rehabilitation of patients requiring an esthetic smile demands a multidisciplinary approach. This clinical report describes a treatment plan for recovery aesthetics' smile of anterior teeth using ceramic prosthesis with zirconia structure. Initially, a review of aesthetic parameters, diagnostic waxing, mock-up and provisional restorations was performed. A contextual assessment of aesthetic, proportion and shape of teeth was done to recreate a natural looking for teeth in consonance with the smile line. Subsequently, based on these parameters, fixed prostheses of the upper anterior teeth using ceramic restorations with zirconia infrastructures were performed. The use of ceramic restorations with zirconia structures associated with a careful treatment plan allows the professional to integrate esthetic and function for satisfactory clinical results. How to cite the article: Tavarez RR, Gonçalves LM, Dias AP, Dias AC, Malheiros AS, Silva AC, Bandeca MC. An harmonic smile resulted from the use of ceramic prosthesis with zirconia structure: A case report. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):90-2.

  2. An atomic-scale and high efficiency finishing method of zirconia ceramics by using magnetorheological finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hu; Guo, Meijian; Yin, Shaohui; Chen, Fengjun; Huang, Shuai; Lu, Ange; Guo, Yuanfan

    2018-06-01

    Zirconia ceramics is a valuable crucial material for fabricating functional components applied in aerospace, biology, precision machinery, military industry and other fields. However, the properties of its high brittleness and high hardness could seriously reduce its finishing efficiency and surface quality by conventional processing technology. In this work, we present a high efficiency and high-quality finishing process by using magnetorheological finishing (MRF), which employs the permanent magnetic yoke with straight air gap as excitation unit. The sub-nanoscale surface roughness and damage free surface can be obtained after magnetorheological finishing. The XRD results and SEM morphologies confirmed that the mechanical shear removal with ductile modes are the dominant material removal mechanism for the magnetorheological finishing of zirconia ceramic. With the developed experimental apparatus, the effects of workpiece speed, trough speed and work gap on material removal rate and surface roughness were systematically investigated. Zirconia ceramics finished to ultra-smooth surface with surface roughness less than Ra 1 nm was repeatedly achieved during the parametric experiments. Additionally, the highest material removal rate exceeded 1 mg/min when using diamond as an abrasive particle. Magnetorheological finishing promises to be an adaptable and efficient method for zirconia ceramics finishing.

  3. [Effect of three kinds of rare earth oxides on chromaticity and mechanical properties of zirconia ceramic].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the colouration of zirconia ceramic by adding three kinds of rare earth oxides. The influence of the pigments concentration on the mechanical properties and the microstructure was also analyzed. Added different concentrations of CeO(2), Er(2)O(3) and Pr(6)O(11) in tetragonal zirconia poly crystals stabilized with 3 mol% yttria (3Y-T2P) powder, compacted at 200 MPa using cold isostatic pressure, and sintered to 1 400 degrees C. The heating rate was 150 degrees C/h and the dwelling time was 2 hours. The chromaticity of sintered bodies was measured with chroma meter. The relative density, hardness, flexure strength and fracture toughness were investigated as well. The phase stability of the colorized and pure zirconia was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using an automated diffractometer. The microstructures of the specimens were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Several kinds of color achieved by the different pigments praseodym oxide, cerium oxide and erbium oxide were presented in the CIELab system. The a* value increased with the added amount of Er(2)O(3), while b* value rose with the increasing amount of CeO(2) and Pr(6)O(11). However, three pigments failed to decrease L* value and the sintered body appeared too bright. Adding three pigments influenced flexure strength of zirconia ceramic significantly, but had little influence on the hardness and fracture toughness. Microscopy revealed the relationship between the porosity and shapes of grains was correlated to strength of the diphase ceramics. No additional phase could be detected by XRD, except t-ZrO(2) in all colorized samples after sintering at 1 400 degrees C for 120 min. Zirconia ceramic can be colorized by CeO(2), Er(2)O(3), and Pr(6)O(11). Pigments even in a small amount influence the mechanical properties of the colorized zirconia material, which necessitates further investigation.

  4. Tribochemical Glass Ceramic Coating as a New Approach for Resin Adhesion to Zirconia.

    PubMed

    Wandscher, Vinícius Felipe; Fraga, Sara; Pozzobon, João Luiz; Soares, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck; Foletto, Edson Luiz; May, Liliana Gressler; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    To investigate the effects of a novel tribochemical silica coating technique with powders made from feldspathic ceramic and leucite-based ceramic on the bond strength of zirconia to resin cement before and after aging. Zirconia blocks were divided into 3 groups according to the material used for airborne-particle abrasion: 1) SP (control): silica-coated alumina particles; 2) FP: feldspathic ceramic powder; 3) LP: leucite glass-ceramic powder. After silanization, composite resin cylinders were cemented on the zirconia surface using a dual-curing resin cement. Prior to the shear bond strength (SBS) test, half of the samples (n = 15) were stored in distilled water for 24 h; the other half (n = 15) were submitted to aging (10,000 thermocycles of 5°C to 55°C; 150 days of water storage). The bond strength data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction analysis were performed. The initial bond strengths did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.053). However, after aging procedures, airborne-particle abrasion with feldspathic ceramic powder (FP) resulted in higher values of bond strength (p = 0.0001). SEM and EDS indicated that all the treatments promoted silica deposition on the Y-TZP surface ceramic. Airborne-particle abrasion with FP and LP induced a lower percentage of the monoclinic phase. Airborne abrasion with fine feldspathic ceramic particles is a novel tribochemical technique and appears to be suitable for improving the bond strength between zirconia and resin cements.

  5. Practice-based clinical evaluation of ceramic single crowns after at least five years.

    PubMed

    Dhima, Matilda; Paulusova, Vladimira; Carr, Alan B; Rieck, Kevin L; Lohse, Christine; Salinas, Thomas J

    2014-02-01

    Long-term practice-based clinical evaluations of various contemporary ceramic crown restorations from multiple practitioners are limited. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical performance of ceramic single crowns and to identify factors that influence their clinical performance. Ceramic single crowns that had been placed at the Mayo Clinic and in function since 2005 were identified and included in the study. The restorations were examined clinically, radiographically, and with photographs. Modified United States Public Health Services criteria were used for the clinical evaluation. The ceramic systems evaluated were bilayer and monolayer. Fifty-nine patients (41 women, 18 men) with 226 single teeth and implants restored with single ceramic crowns were identified. The mean duration from insertion date to study examination date was 6.1 years. Thirteen restorations (6%) were replaced at a mean 3.3 years after insertion date (range, 0.1-6.1 years). Estimated replacement-free survival rates (95% confidence interval [CI]; number of teeth/implants still at risk) at 5 years after insertion date were 95.1% (95% CI, 92.2-98.1; 153) and at 10 years were 92.8% (95% CI, 89.1-96.8; 8). The most common reason for replacement was fracture to the core of posterior layered ceramic crowns. The most commonly used luting agent was resin-modified ionomer cement. Most restorations exhibited clinically acceptable marginal integrity, shade, no caries recurrence, and no periapical pathology. The clinical performance of ceramic single crowns at 5 and 10 years supports their application in all areas of the mouth. With the majority of fractures to the core occurring early in the lifetime of layered ceramic posterior crowns, consideration of other monolithic ceramic systems for posterior crowns is advised. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Computer-aided fabrication of a zirconia 14-unit removable dental prosthesis: a technical report.

    PubMed

    Grösser, Julian; Sachs, Caroline; Stadelmann, Markus; Schweiger, Josef; Güthe, Jan-Frederik; Beuer, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Double crown systems with primary crowns made from zirconia are used to support removable dental prostheses (RDPs). However, the fabrication of RDPs is labor-intensive and costly. Manufacturing primary and secondary crowns from zirconia with a CAD/CAM system might simplify the fabrication protocol and reduce costs. Furthermore, only ceramic materials are used in this method, providing an RDP with the highest possible biocompatibility and greatest possible esthetics. This article describes the fabrication protocol step by step.

  7. Effect of colouring green stage zirconia on the adhesion of veneering ceramics with different thermal expansion coefficients.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Guliz; Sahin, Erdal; Vallittu, Pekka; Ozcan, Mutlu; Lassila, Lippo

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the adhesion of zirconia core ceramics with their corresponding veneering ceramics, having different thermal expansion coefficients (TECs), when zirconia ceramics were coloured at green stage. Zirconia blocks (N=240; 6 mm×7 mm×7 mm) were manufactured from two materials namely, ICE Zirconia (Group 1) and Prettau Zirconia (Group 2). In their green stage, they were randomly divided into two groups. Half of the specimens were coloured with colouring liquid (shade A2). Three different veneering ceramics with different TEC (ICE Ceramic, GC Initial Zr and IPS e.max Ceram) were fired on both coloured and non-coloured zirconia cores. Specimens of high noble alloys (Esteticor Plus) veneered with ceramic (VM 13) (n=16) acted as the control group. Core-veneer interface of the specimens were subjected to shear force in the Universal Testing Machine (0.5 mm⋅min(-1)). Neither the zirconia core material (P=0.318) nor colouring (P=0.188) significantly affected the results (three-way analysis of variance, Tukey's test). But the results were significantly affected by the veneering ceramic (P=0.000). Control group exhibited significantly higher mean bond strength values (45.7±8) MPa than all other tested groups ((27.1±4.1)-(39.7±4.7) and (27.4±5.6)-(35.9±4.7) MPa with and without colouring, respectively) (P<0.001). While in zirconia-veneer test groups, predominantly mixed type of failures were observed with the veneering ceramic covering <1/3 of the substrate surface, in the metal-ceramic group, veneering ceramic was left adhered >1/3 of the metal surface. Colouring zirconia did not impair adhesion of veneering ceramic, but veneering ceramic had a significant influence on the core-veneer adhesion. Metal-ceramic adhesion was more reliable than all zirconia-veneer ceramics tested.

  8. Impact of Gluma Desensitizer on the tensile strength of zirconia crowns bonded to dentin: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Hartmann, Leonie; Hartmann, Rahel; Roos, Malgorzata; Ender, Andreas; Ozcan, Mutlu; Sailer, Irena; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2012-02-01

    This study tested the impact of Gluma Desensitizer on the tensile strength of zirconia crowns bonded to dentin. Human teeth were prepared and randomly divided into six groups (N = 144, n = 24 per group). For each tooth, a zirconia crown was manufactured. The zirconia crowns were cemented with: (1) Panavia21 (PAN), (2) Panavia21 combined with Gluma Desensitizer (PAN-G), (3) RelyX Unicem (RXU), (4) RelyX Unicem combined with Gluma Desensitizer (RXU-G), (5) G-Cem (GCM) and (6) G-Cem combined with Gluma Desensitizer (GCM-G). The initial tensile strength was measured in half (n = 12) of each group and the other half (n = 12) subjected to a chewing machine (1.2 Mio, 49 N, 5°C/50°C). The cemented crowns were pulled in a Universal Testing Machine (1 mm/min, Zwick Z010) until failure occurred and tensile strength was calculated. Data were analyzed with one-way and two-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc Scheffé test, t test and Kaplan-Meier analysis with a Breslow-Gehan analysis test (α = 0.05). After the chewing simulation, the self-adhesive resin cements combined with Gluma Desensitizer showed significantly higher tensile strength (RXU-G, 12.8 ± 4.3 MPa; GCM-G, 13.4 ± 6.2 MPa) than PAN (7.3 ± 1.7 MPa) and PAN-G (0.9 ± 0.6). Within the groups, PAN, PAN-G and RXU resulted in significantly lower values when compared to the initial tensile strength; the values of all other test groups were stable. In this study, self-adhesive resin cements combined with Gluma Desensitizer reached better long-term stability compared to PAN and PAN-G after chewing simulation.

  9. In vitro adherence of oral streptococci to zirconia core and veneering glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Rosentritt, Martin; Behr, Michael; Bürgers, Ralf; Feilzer, Albert J; Hahnel, Sebastian

    2009-10-01

    Plaque formation on dental ceramics may cause gingival inflammation and secondary caries. This in vitro study compared the susceptibility of various dental ceramics to adhere oral streptococci, and verified the influence of substratum surface roughness and surface hydrophobicity. Three zirconia ceramic materials and three veneering glass-ceramics were investigated. Fifteen test specimens were prepared for each material, polished, and surface roughness and hydrophobicity were determined. After incubation with artificial saliva (2 h, 37 degrees C) for pellicle formation, specimens were incubated with suspensions of Streptococcus gordonii DSMZ 6777, Streptococcus mutans DSMZ 20523, Streptococcus oralis DSMZ 20627, or Streptococcus sanguinis DSMZ 20068, respectively, for 2.5 h at 37 degrees C. Adherent bacteria were quantified using a fluorescence dye for viable cell quantification (Alamar Blue/Resazurin). Statistical analysis was performed using one- and two-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test for post hoc analysis (alpha < 0.05). Surface roughness and surface hydrophobicity differed significantly among the various ceramics; protein coating hydrophilized the surfaces, and led to a homogenization of the surface hydrophobicity of the various ceramics. Before protein coating, almost similar relative fluorescence intensities indicating similar adhesion of streptococci were found for the various ceramics; more distinct differences were observed after protein coating. Correlations between surface parameters and streptococcal adhesion were poor. Within the limitations of these experiments, the findings of this in vitro study indicate only little differences between zirconia and glass ceramic with regard to streptococcal adhesion. Judging from these results, it is unlikely that exposed zirconia surfaces yield more plaque than glass ceramic surfaces in vivo. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Application of Replica Technique and SEM in Accuracy Measurement of Ceramic Crowns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifkovic, B.; Budak, I.; Todorovic, A.; Hodolic, J.; Puskar, T.; Jevremovic, D.; Vukelic, D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a comparative study of the measuring values of the marginal gap related to the ceramic crowns made by dental CAD/CAM system using the replica technique and SEM. The study was conducted using three experimental groups, which consisted of ceramic crowns manufactured by the Cerec CAD/CAM system. The scanning procedure was carried out using three specialized dental 3D digitization systems from the Cerec family - two types of extraoral optical scanning systems and an intraoral optical scanner. Measurements of the marginal gap were carried out using the replica technique and SEM. The comparison of aggregate values of the marginal gap using the replica technique showed a statistically significant difference between the systems. The measured values of marginal gaps of ceramic crowns using the replica technique were significantly lower compared to those measured by SEM. The results indicate that the choice of technique for measuring the accuracy of ceramic crowns influences the final results of investigation.

  11. An In Vivo Evaluation of the Fit of Zirconium-Oxide Based, Ceramic Single Crowns with Vertical and Horizontal Finish Line Preparations.

    PubMed

    Vigolo, Paolo; Mutinelli, Sabrina; Biscaro, Leonello; Stellini, Edoardo

    2015-12-01

    Different types of tooth preparations influence the marginal precision of zirconium-oxide based ceramic single crowns. In this in vivo study, the marginal fits of zirconium-oxide based ceramic single crowns with vertical and horizontal finish lines were compared. Forty-six teeth were chosen in eight patients indicated for extraction for implant placement. CAD/CAM technology was used for the production of 46 zirconium-oxide-based ceramic single crowns: 23 teeth were prepared with vertical finishing lines, 23 with horizontal finishing lines. One operator accomplished all clinical procedures. The zirconia crowns were cemented with glass ionomer cement. The teeth were extracted 1 month later. Marginal gaps along vertical planes were measured for each crown, using a total of four landmarks for each tooth by means of a microscope at 50× magnification. On conclusion of microscopic assessment, ESEM evaluation was completed on all specimens. The comparison of the gap between the two types of preparation was performed with a nonparametric test (two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test) with a level of significance fixed at p < 0.05. All data were analyzed with STATA12. In the group with horizontal finish line preparations, the median value of the gap was 35.45 μm (Iqr, 0.33); for the vertical finish line group, the median value of the gap was 35.44 μm (Iqr, 0.40). The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test, p = 0.0872). Within the limitations of this study, the gaps of the zirconium-oxide-based ceramic CAD/CAM crowns with vertical and horizontal finish line preparations were not different. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  12. [Study on friction and wear properties of dental zirconia ceramics processed by microwave and conventional sintering methods].

    PubMed

    Guoxin, Hu; Ying, Yang; Yuemei, Jiang; Wenjing, Xia

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the wear of an antagonist and friction and wear properties of dental zirconia ceramic that was subjected to microwave and conventional sintering methods. Ten specimens were fabricated from Lava brand zirconia and randomly assigned to microwave and conventional sintering groups. A profile tester for surface roughness was used to measure roughness of the specimens. Wear test was performed, and steatite ceramic was used as antagonist. Friction coefficient curves were recorded, and wear volume were calculated. Finally, optical microscope was used to observe the surface morphology of zirconia and steatite ceramics. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the microstructure of zirconia. Wear volumes of microwave and conventionally sintered zirconia were (6.940±1.382)×10⁻², (7.952±1.815) ×10⁻² mm³, respectively. Moreover, wear volumes of antagonist after sintering by the considered methods were (14.189±4.745)×10⁻², (15.813±3.481)×10⁻² mm³, correspondingly. Statistically significant difference was not observed in the wear resistance of zirconia and wear volume of steatite ceramic upon exposure to two kinds of sintering methods. Optical microscopy showed that ploughed surfaces were apparent in zirconia. The wear surface of steatite ceramic against had craze, accompanied by plough. Scanning electron microscopy showed that zirconia was sintered compactly when subjected to both conventional sintering and microwave methods, whereas grains of zirconia sintered by microwave alone were smaller and more uniform. Two kinds of sintering methods are successfully used to produce dental zirconia ceramics with similar friction and wear properties.
.

  13. Fabrication of Zirconia-Reinforced Lithium Silicate Ceramic Restorations Using a Complete Digital Workflow

    PubMed Central

    Rödiger, Matthias; Ziebolz, Dirk; Schmidt, Anne-Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the fabrication of monolithic all-ceramic restorations using zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) ceramics. The use of powder-free intraoral scanner, generative fabrication technology of the working model, and CAD/CAM of the restorations in the dental laboratory allows a completely digitized workflow. The newly introduced ZLS ceramics offer a unique combination of fracture strength (>420 MPa), excellent optical properties, and optimum polishing characteristics, thus making them an interesting material option for monolithic restorations in the digital workflow. PMID:26509088

  14. Resin cementation of zirconia ceramics with different bonding agents

    PubMed Central

    Tanış, Merve Çakırbay; Akay, Canan; Karakış, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sandblasting and different chemical bonding agents on shear bond strength of zirconia and conventional resin cement. In this study, 35 zirconia specimens were treated as follows: Group I: control; Group II: sandblasting; Group III: sandblasting + Monobond S; Group IV: sandblasting + Monobond Plus; Group V: sandblasting + Z-Prime Plus. The specimens in each group were bonded with conventional composite resin cement Variolink II. After cementation, specimens were stored in distilled water (at 37 °C) for 24 h and shear test was performed. The highest shear bond strength values were observed in Groups IV and V. The lowest shear bond strength values were observed in Group I. Using 10-methacryloyloxy-decyl dihydrogenphosphate monomer-containing priming agents, e.g. Monobond Plus and Z-PRIME Plus, combined with sandblasting can be an effective method for resin bonding of zirconia restorations. PMID:26019653

  15. Performance of zirconia ceramic cantilever fixed dental prostheses: 3-year results from a prospective, randomized, controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zenthöfer, Andreas; Ohlmann, Brigitte; Rammelsberg, Peter; Bömicke, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the clinical performance of ceramic cantilever fixed dental prostheses on natural teeth. The purpose of this randomized controlled pilot study was to evaluate the clinical performance of ceramic and metal ceramic cantilever fixed dental prostheses (CFDPs) after 3 years of service. Twenty-one participants were randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups. Participants in the ceramic (ZC) group (n=11) each received 1 CFDP made of yttria-stabilized, tetragonal zirconia polycrystal; the others (n=10) were fitted with a metal ceramic (MC) CFDP. All CFDPs were retained by 2 complete crown abutments and replaced 1 tooth. The clinical target variables were survival, incidence of complications, probing pocket depth (PPD), probing attachment level (PAL), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and esthetic performance as rated by the participants. The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria were used to evaluate chipping, retention, color, marginal integrity, and secondary caries. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric analyses were applied to the target variables in the 2 groups. The esthetic performance of the CFDPs was also visualized by using a pyramid comparison. The overall survival of the CFDPs was 100% in both groups. During the 3-year study, 6 clinically relevant complications requiring aftercare were observed among 5 participants (4 in the ZC group and 2 in the MC group). Changes in the PI, GI, PPD, and PAL of the abutment teeth were similar for both groups (P>.05). The participants regarded the esthetic performance of ZC-CFDPs and MC-CFDPs as satisfactory. Within the 3-year observation period, the clinical performance of MC-FDPs and ZC-FDPs was acceptable. More extensive research with larger sample sizes is encouraged, however, to confirm the evaluation of the survival of Y-TZP hand-veneered cantilever FPDs. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Color stability of CAD/CAM Zirconia ceramics following exposure to acidic and staining drinks

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Marco; Cavallo, Marco; Miegge, Matteo; Dagna, Alberto; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the color stability of CAD/CAM Zirconia ceramics following exposure to acidic drink (Coca Cola) and after exposure to staining solution (coffee). Material and Methods All the samples were immersed in different staining solutions over a 28-day test period. A colorimetric evaluation according to the CIE L*a*b* system was performed by a blind trained operator at 7, 14, 21, 28 days of the staining process. Shapiro Wilk test and Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA were applied to assess significant differences among restorative materials. Paired t-test was applied to test which CIE L*a*b* parameters significantly changed after immersion in staining solutions. Results One week immersion in acidic drink did not cause a perceivable discoloration for all restorative materials (ΔE < 3.3). Subsequent immersion in coffee affected color stability of all Zirconia samples, even if Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA found significant differences among the various restorative materials. Conclusions The ∆Es of CAD/CAM Zirconia ceramics after immersion in coffee varied among the products, but color integrity is not affected by contact with acidic drinks. Key words:CAD/CAM restorative materials, CIE Lab, Zirconia ceramics. PMID:29302281

  17. Color stability of CAD/CAM Zirconia ceramics following exposure to acidic and staining drinks.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Marco; Cavallo, Marco; Miegge, Matteo; Dagna, Alberto; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the color stability of CAD/CAM Zirconia ceramics following exposure to acidic drink (Coca Cola) and after exposure to staining solution (coffee). All the samples were immersed in different staining solutions over a 28-day test period. A colorimetric evaluation according to the CIE L*a*b* system was performed by a blind trained operator at 7, 14, 21, 28 days of the staining process. Shapiro Wilk test and Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA were applied to assess significant differences among restorative materials. Paired t-test was applied to test which CIE L*a*b* parameters significantly changed after immersion in staining solutions. One week immersion in acidic drink did not cause a perceivable discoloration for all restorative materials (ΔE < 3.3). Subsequent immersion in coffee affected color stability of all Zirconia samples, even if Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA found significant differences among the various restorative materials. The ∆Es of CAD/CAM Zirconia ceramics after immersion in coffee varied among the products, but color integrity is not affected by contact with acidic drinks. Key words: CAD/CAM restorative materials, CIE Lab, Zirconia ceramics.

  18. Silicon carbide whisker-zirconia reinforced mullite and alumina ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Becher, Paul F.; Tiegs, Terry N.

    1987-01-01

    The flexural strength and/or fracture toughness of SiC whisker-reinforced composites utilizing mullite or alumina as the matrix material for the composite are increased by the addition of zirconia in a monoclinic or tetragonal phase to the matrix. The zirconia addition also provides for a lower hot-pressing temperature and increases the flexural strength and/or fracture toughness of the SiC whisker-reinforced composites over SiC whisker-reinforced composites of the similar matrix materials reinforced with similar concentrations of SiC whiskers.

  19. Adhesion and Early Colonization of S. Mutans on Lithium Disilicate Reinforced Glass-Ceramics, Monolithic Zirconia and Dual Cure Resin Cement.

    PubMed

    Viitaniemi, L; Abdulmajeed, A; Sulaiman, T; Söderling, E; Närhi, T

    2017-12-01

    Monolithic zirconia and glass ceramics are increasingly used in implant crowns. Limited data is available on bacterial adhesion and early biofilm formation on these materials. Four different materials were investigated: (1) Lithium disilicate glass-ceramics (LDS), (2) Fully stabilized zirconia (FSZ), (3) Partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ), and (4) Dual curing cement (DCC). The materials' surfaces were characterized with spinning disc confocal microscopy and by water contact angle and surface free energy (SFE) measurements. For the adhesion tests the materials were rolled in suspensions of Streptococcus mutans. Early biofilm formation was studied on the materials and allowing the biofilms to form for 24 h. S. mutans cell counts were determined by plate culturing. ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's tests (p⟨0.05) were used for statistical evaluation. The LDS surfaces were clearly hydrophilic with the highest SFE value (p⟨0.001). For S. mutans adhesion, the ranking of the materials from lowest to highest was: LDS = FSZ ⟨ DCC ⟨ PSZ (p⟨0.05). No significant differences among the materials were noticed in biofilm formation. LDS has lower S.mutans adhesion than other materials examined in this study, but the difference was not reflected in early biofilm formation. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  20. Optical effects of different colors of artificial gingiva on ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Lin, Jin; Gil, Mindy; Da Silva, John D; Wright, Robert; Ishikawa-Nagai, Shigemi

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between gingival color and the shade of ceramic restorations has never been fully studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the optical effects of altering artificial gingival color on the ceramic crown shade in the cervical area. Thirty-one all-ceramic crowns of different shades were used in this study with six different artificial gingival colors. Using a spectrophotometer (Crystaleye(®) Olympus, Japan), we measured the shade of crowns in cervical areas with each of six different artificial gingiva. The crown color measured in the presence of pink artificial gingiva (control) was compared with the crown color with five other artificial gingiva. color difference values ΔE* were calculated and compared between the control group and test groups and the correlation of the artificial gingival color with the crown color was also assessed. Significant differences were found in the mean L* and a* values of all-ceramic crowns at the cervical regions in all six gingival color groups (p<0.001) and significant Pearson correlations were also found for the mean L* (r=0.987, p<0.001) and a* (r=0.856, p=0.03) values between the artificial gingiva and the ceramic crowns. The mean ΔE* values between the control group and each of the five other gingival groups were all significantly larger than the clinical perceptual threshold of ΔE* 1.6 (p<0.001). Different colors of artificial gingiva generated clinically detectable shade differences in the cervical region of ceramic crowns. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Wear of human enamel opposing monolithic zirconia, glass ceramic, and composite resin: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Sripetchdanond, Jeerapa; Leevailoj, Chalermpol

    2014-11-01

    Demand is increasing for ceramic and composite resin posterior restorations. However, ceramics are recognized for their high abrasiveness to opposing dental structure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the wear of enamel as opposed to dental ceramics and composite resin. Twenty-four test specimens (antagonists), 6 each of monolithic zirconia, glass ceramic, composite resin, and enamel, were prepared into cylindrical rods. Enamel specimens were prepared from 24 extracted human permanent molar teeth. Enamel specimens were abraded against each type of antagonist with a pin-on-disk wear tester under a constant load of 25 N at 20 rpm for 4800 cycles. The maximum depth of wear (Dmax), mean depth of wear (Da), and mean surface roughness (Ra) of the enamel specimens were measured with a profilometer. All data were statistically analyzed by 1-way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey test (α=.05). A paired t test was used to compare the Ra of enamel at baseline and after testing. The wear of both the enamel and antagonists was evaluated qualitatively with scanning electron microscopic images. No significant differences were found in enamel wear depth (Dmax, Da) between monolithic zirconia (2.17 ±0.80, 1.83 ±0.75 μm) and composite resin (1.70 ±0.92, 1.37 ±0.81 μm) or between glass ceramic (8.54 ±2.31, 7.32 ±2.06 μm) and enamel (10.72 ±6.31, 8.81 ±5.16 μm). Significant differences were found when the enamel wear depth caused by monolithic zirconia and composite resin was compared with that of glass ceramic and enamel (P<.001). The Ra of enamel specimens increased significantly after wear tests with monolithic zirconia, glass ceramic, and enamel (P<.05); however, no difference was found among these materials. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, monolithic zirconia and composite resin resulted in less wear depth to human enamel compared with glass ceramic and enamel. All test materials except composite resin similarly increased the enamel

  2. The effect of various primers on shear bond strength of zirconia ceramic and resin composite.

    PubMed

    Sanohkan, Sasiwimol; Kukiattrakoon, Boonlert; Larpboonphol, Narongrit; Sae-Yib, Taewalit; Jampa, Thibet; Manoppan, Satawat

    2013-11-01

    To determine the in vitro shear bond strengths (SBS) of zirconia ceramic to resin composite after various primer treatments. Forty zirconia ceramic (Zeno, Wieland Dental) specimens (10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick) were prepared, sandblasted with 50 μm alumina, and divided into four groups (n = 10). Three experimental groups were surface treated with three primers; CP (RelyX Ceramic Primer, 3M ESPE), AP (Alloy Primer, Kuraray Medical), and MP (Monobond Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent AG). One group was not treated and served as the control. All specimens were bonded to a resin composite (Filtek Supreme XT, 3M ESPE) cylinder with an adhesive system (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus Adhesive, 3M ESPE) and then stored in 100% humidity at 37°C for 24 h before SBS testing in a universal testing machine. Mean SBS (MPa) were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (α = 0.05). Group AP yielded the highest mean and standard deviation (SD) value of SBS (16.8 ± 2.5 MPa) and Group C presented the lowest mean and SD value (15.4 ± 1.6 MPa). The SBS did not differ significantly among the groups (P = 0.079). Within the limitations of this study, the SBS values between zirconia ceramic to resin composite using various primers and untreated surface were not significantly different.

  3. [Effect of nano-silica coating on bonding strength of zirconia ceramics to dentin].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian-Fang; Zheng, Hu; Han, Dong-Wei

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the effect of silica coating by sol-gel process on bonding strength of zirconia ceramics to dentin. Blocks of sintered zirconia ceramics were cut and randomly divided into 4 groups,16 slices in each group. Each group was subject to one of the 4 kinds of surface treatment (control group, sandblasting, sandblasting +silicone, sandblasting + silica coating + silicone) and then bonded to dentin with resin cement. After preservation in 37 degrees centigrade distilled water for 24 hours, the shear bonding strength of these specimens was tested and the data was analyzed with SAS6.12 software package for analysis of variance. The surface modality of the ceramics was observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The group of sandblasting+ silica coating + silicone attained the highest shear bonding strength, which was significantly different from the other groups(P=0.000);There was no significant difference between the sandblasting and sandblasting + silicone group (P=0.827), which was significantly different from the control group(P=0.001). Silica coating by sol-gel process, coupled with silicone, can significantly increase the bonding strength of zirconia ceramics to dentin.

  4. Effect of Nd: YAG laser irradiation on surface properties and bond strength of zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Liu, Suogang; Song, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Qingping; Zhang, Wei

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) laser irradiation on surface properties and bond strength of zirconia ceramics. Specimens of zirconia ceramic pieces were divided into 11 groups according to surface treatments as follows: one control group (no treatment), one air abrasion group, and nine laser groups (Nd: YAG irradiation). The laser groups were divided by applying with different output power (1, 2, or 3 W) and irradiation time (30, 60, or 90 s). Following surface treatments, the morphological characteristics of ceramic pieces was observed, and the surface roughness was measured. All specimens were bonded to resin cement. After, stored in water for 24 h and additionally aged by thermocycling, the shear bond strength was measured. Dunnett's t test and one-way ANOVA were performed as the statistical analyses for the surface roughness and the shear bond strength, respectively, with α = .05. Rougher surface of the ceramics could be obtained by laser irradiation with higher output power (2 and 3 W). However, cracks and defects were also found on material surface. The shear bond strength of laser groups was not obviously increased, and it was significantly lower than that of air abrasion group. No significant differences of the shear bond strength were found among laser groups treated with different output power or irradiation time. Nd: YAG laser irradiation cannot improve the surface properties of zirconia ceramics and cannot increase the bond strength of the ceramics. Enhancing irradiation power and extending irradiation time cannot induce higher bond strength of the ceramics and may cause material defect.

  5. Wear properties of alumina/zirconia composite ceramics for joint prostheses measured with an end-face apparatus.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yusuke; Nakata, Kenichi; Kim, Yoon-Ho; Sekino, Tohru; Niihara, Koichi; Ikeuchi, Ken

    2004-01-01

    While only alumina is applied to all-ceramic joint prostheses at present, a stronger ceramic is required to prevent fracture and chipping due to impingement and stress concentration. Zirconia could be a potential substitute for alumina because it has high strength and fracture toughness. However, the wear of zirconia/zirconia combination is too high for clinical use. Although some investigations on composite ceramics revealed that mixing of different ceramics was able to improve the mechanical properties of ceramics, there are few reports about wear properties of composite ceramics for joint prosthesis. Since acetabular cup and femoral head of artificial hip joint are finished precisely, they indicate high geometric conformity. Therefore, wear test under flat contact was carried out with an end-face wear testing apparatus for four kinds of ceramics: alumina monolith, zirconia monolith, alumina-based composite ceramic, and zirconia based composite ceramic. Mean contact pressure was 10 MPa and sliding velocity was 40 mm/s. The wear test continued for 72 hours and total sliding distance was 10 km. After the test, the wear factor was calculated. Worn surfaces were observed with a scanning electron micrograph (SEM). The results of this wear test show that the wear factors of the both composite ceramics are similarly low and their mechanical properties are much better than those of the alumina monolith and the zirconia monolith. According to these results, it is predicted that joint prostheses of the composite ceramics are safer against break down and have longer lifetime compared with alumina/alumina joint prostheses.

  6. Suitability of Secondary PEEK Telescopic Crowns on Zirconia Primary Crowns: The Influence of Fabrication Method and Taper.

    PubMed

    Merk, Susanne; Wagner, Christina; Stock, Veronika; Eichberger, Marlis; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Roos, Malgorzata; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-11-08

    This study investigates the retention load (RL) between ZrO₂ primary crowns and secondary polyetheretherketone (PEEK) crowns made by different fabrication methods with three different tapers. Standardized primary ZrO₂ crowns were fabricated with three different tapers: 0°, 1°, and 2° ( n = 10/group). Ten secondary crowns were fabricated (i) milled from breCam BioHPP blanks (PM); (ii) pressed from industrially fabricated PEEK pellets (PP) (BioHPP Pellet); or (iii) pressed from granular PEEK (PG) (BioHPP Granulat). One calibrated operator adjusted all crowns. In total, the RL of 90 secondary crowns were measured in pull-off tests at 50 mm/min, and each specimen was tested 20 times. Two- and one-way ANOVAs followed by a Scheffé's post-hoc test were used for data analysis ( p < 0.05). Within crowns with a 0° taper, the PP group showed significantly higher retention load values compared with the other groups. Among the 1° taper, the PM group presented significantly lower retention loads than the PP group. However, the pressing type had no impact on the results. Within the 2° taper, the fabrication method had no influence on the RL. Within the PM group, the 2° taper showed significantly higher retention load compared with the 1° taper. The taper with 0° was in the same range value as the 1° and 2° tapers. No impact of the taper on the retention value was observed between the PP groups. Within the PG groups, the 0° taper presented significantly lower RL than the 1° taper, whereas the 2° taper showed no differences. The fabrication method of the secondary PEEK crowns and taper angles showed no consistent effect within all tested groups.

  7. Effect of core ceramic grinding on fracture behaviour of bilayered zirconia veneering ceramic systems under two loading schemes.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yu-Tao; Tang, Tian-Yu; Swain, Michael V; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Ke

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of core ceramic grinding on the fracture behaviour of bilayered zirconia under two loading schemes. Interfacial surfaces of sandblasted zirconia disks (A) were ground with 80 (B), 120 (C) and 220 (D) grit diamond discs, respectively. Surface roughness and topographic analysis were performed using a confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM) and a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Relative monoclinic content was evaluated using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) then reevaluated after simulated veneer firing. Biaxial fracture strength (σ) and Weibull modulus (m) were calculated either with core in compression (subgroup Ac-Dc) or in tension (subgroup At-Dt). Facture surfaces were examined by SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Maximum tensile stress at fracture was estimated by finite element analysis. Statistical data analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and one-way ANOVA at a significance level of 0.05. As grit size of the diamond disc increased, zirconia surface roughness decreased (p<0.001). Thermal veneering treatment reversed the transformation of monoclinic phase observed after initial grinding. No difference in initial (p=0.519 for subgroups Ac-Dc) and final fracture strength (p=0.699 for subgroups Ac-Dc; p=0.328 for subgroups At-Dt) was found among the four groups for both loading schemes. While coarse grinding slightly increased final fracture strength reliability (m) for subgroups Ac-Dc. Two different modes of fracture were observed according to which material was on the bottom surface. Components of the liner porcelain remained on the zirconia surface after fracture for all groups. Technician grinding changed surface topography of zirconia ceramic material, but was not detrimental to the bilayered system strength after veneer application. Coarse grinding slightly improved the fracture strength reliability of the bilayered system tested with core in compression. It is

  8. Long-term Bond Strength between Layering Indirect Composite Material and Zirconia Coated with Silicabased Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Fushiki, Ryosuke; Komine, Futoshi; Honda, Junichi; Kamio, Shingo; Blatz, Markus B; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the long-term shear bond strength between an indirect composite material and a zirconia framework coated with silica-based ceramics, taking the effect of different primers into account. A total of 165 airborne-particle abraded zirconia disks were subjected to one of three pretreatments: no pretreatment (ZR-AB), airborne-particle abrasion of zirconia coated with feldspathic porcelain (ZR-PO-AB), and 9.5% hydrofluoric acid etching of zirconia coated with feldspathic porcelain (ZR-PO-HF). An indirect composite material (Estenia C&B) was then bonded to the zirconia disks after they were treated with one of the following primers: Clearfil Photo Bond (CPB), Clearfil Photo Bond with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator (CPB + Activator), Estenia Opaque Primer (EOP), Porcelain Liner M Liquid B (PLB), or no priming (CON, control group). Shear bond strength was tested after 100,000 thermocycles, and the data were analyzed using the Steel-Dwass U-test (α = 0.05). For ZR-PO-AB and ZR-PO-HF specimens, bond strength was highest in the CPB+Activator group (25.8 MPa and 22.4 MPa, respectively). Bond strengths were significantly lower for ZR-AB specimens in the CON and PLB groups and for ZR-PO-AB specimens in the CON, CPB, and EOP groups. Combined application of a hydrophobic phosphate monomer (MDP) and silane coupling agent enhanced the long-term bond strength of indirect composite material to a zirconia coated with silica-based ceramics.

  9. In vivo evaluation of zirconia ceramic in the DexAide right ventricular assist device journal bearing.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Diyar; Shalli, Shanaz; Fumoto, Hideyuki; Ootaki, Yoshio; Horai, Tetsuya; Anzai, Tomohiro; Zahr, Roula; Horvath, David J; Massiello, Alex L; Chen, Ji-Feng; Dessoffy, Raymond; Catanese, Jacquelyn; Benefit, Stephen; Golding, Leonard A R; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2010-06-01

    Zirconia is a ceramic with material properties ideal for journal bearing applications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of zirconium oxide (zirconia) as a blood journal bearing material in the DexAide right ventricular assist device. Zirconia ceramic was used instead of titanium to manufacture the DexAide stator housing without changing the stator geometry or the remaining pump hardware components. Pump hydraulic performance, journal bearing reliability, biocompatibility, and motor efficiency data of the zirconia stator were evaluated in six chronic bovine experiments for 14-91 days and compared with data from chronic experiments using the titanium stator. Pump performance data including average in vivo pump flows and speeds using a zirconia stator showed no statistically significant difference to the average values for 16 prior titanium stator in vivo studies, with the exception of a 19% reduction in power consumption. Indices of hemolysis were comparable for both stator types. Results of coagulation assays and platelet aggregation tests for the zirconia stator implants showed no device-induced increase in platelet activation. Postexplant evaluation of the zirconia journal bearing surfaces showed no biologic deposition in any of the implants. In conclusion, zirconia ceramic can be used as a hemocompatible material to improve motor efficiency while maintaining hydraulic performance in a blood journal bearing application.

  10. Effect of colouring green stage zirconia on the adhesion of veneering ceramics with different thermal expansion coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Guliz; Sahin, Erdal; Vallittu, Pekka; Özcan, Mutlu; Lassila, Lippo

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the adhesion of zirconia core ceramics with their corresponding veneering ceramics, having different thermal expansion coefficients (TECs), when zirconia ceramics were coloured at green stage. Zirconia blocks (N=240; 6 mm×7 mm×7 mm) were manufactured from two materials namely, ICE Zirconia (Group 1) and Prettau Zirconia (Group 2). In their green stage, they were randomly divided into two groups. Half of the specimens were coloured with colouring liquid (shade A2). Three different veneering ceramics with different TEC (ICE Ceramic, GC Initial Zr and IPS e.max Ceram) were fired on both coloured and non-coloured zirconia cores. Specimens of high noble alloys (Esteticor Plus) veneered with ceramic (VM 13) (n=16) acted as the control group. Core–veneer interface of the specimens were subjected to shear force in the Universal Testing Machine (0.5 mm⋅min−1). Neither the zirconia core material (P=0.318) nor colouring (P=0.188) significantly affected the results (three-way analysis of variance, Tukey's test). But the results were significantly affected by the veneering ceramic (P=0.000). Control group exhibited significantly higher mean bond strength values (45.7±8) MPa than all other tested groups ((27.1±4.1)−(39.7±4.7) and (27.4±5.6)−(35.9±4.7) MPa with and without colouring, respectively) (P<0.001). While in zirconia–veneer test groups, predominantly mixed type of failures were observed with the veneering ceramic covering <1/3 of the substrate surface, in the metal–ceramic group, veneering ceramic was left adhered >1/3 of the metal surface. Colouring zirconia did not impair adhesion of veneering ceramic, but veneering ceramic had a significant influence on the core–veneer adhesion. Metal–ceramic adhesion was more reliable than all zirconia–veneer ceramics tested. PMID:24158142

  11. Zirconia in fixed prosthesis. A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Román-Rodríguez, Juan L.; Ferreiroa, Alberto; Solá-Ruíz, María F.; Fons-Font, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Statement of problem: Evidence is limited on the efficacy of zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses. Objective: To carry out a literature review of the behavior of zirconium oxide dental restorations. Material and Methods: This literature review searched the Pubmed, Scopus, Medline and Cochrane Library databases using key search words “zirconium oxide,” “zirconia,” “non-metal restorations,” “ceramic oxides,” “veneering ceramic,” “zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses”. Both in vivo and in vitro studies into zirconia-based prosthodontic restoration behavior were included. Results: Clinical studies have revealed a high rate of fracture for porcelain-veneered zirconia-based restorations that varies between 6% and 15% over a 3- to 5-year period, while for ceramo-metallic restorations the fracture rate ranges between 4 and 10% over ten years. These results provoke uncertainty as to the long-term prognosis for this material in the oral medium. The cause of veneering porcelain fractures is unknown but hypothetically they could be associated with bond failure between the veneer material and the zirconia sub-structure. Key words:Veneering ceramic, zirconia-based ceramic restoration, crown, zirconia, tooth-supported fixed prosthesis. PMID:24596638

  12. A Comparison of Marginal Gaps of All-Ceramic Crowns Constructed from Scanned Impressions and Models.

    PubMed

    Tabesh, Raena; Dudley, James

    This study compared the marginal gaps of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM)-fabricated all-ceramic crowns constructed from scanned impressions and models and with two different occlusal reduction designs. Two typodont mandibular first molars were prepared to receive CAD/CAM-fabricated all-ceramic crowns. Both molars were prepared to ideal crown reduction, the first with anatomical occlusal reduction (AOR) and the second with completely flat occlusal reduction (FOR). Nine polyvinyl siloxane impressions (PVS) were taken, and nine stone replicas fabricated for each preparation. All impressions and stone models were scanned using a laser scanner (Planmeca Planscan, E4D technologies), and 36 lithium disilicate (IPS e.max CAD) crowns were milled. The marginal gap was measured in four locations using a light stereomicroscope. Crowns constructed from preparations with both occlusal reduction designs demonstrated similar marginal gaps (FOR = 97.98; AOR = 89.12; P = .739). However, all crowns constructed from scanned impressions presented significantly larger marginal gaps than the crowns fabricated from scanned models (impressions = 109.26; models = 77.84; P = .002). Scanning stone models produced all-ceramic crowns with significantly smaller marginal gaps than scanning impressions, irrespective of the occlusal reduction design.

  13. Clinical performance of IPS-Empress 2 ceramic crowns inserted by general dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Yasar F; Al-Omiri, Mahmoud K; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Al-Wahadni, Ahed

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of IPS-Empress 2(R) all-ceramic crowns placed by general dental practitioners. Eighty-two IPS-Empress 2 crowns placed in 64 patients (27 females and 37 males) were evaluated. These crowns had been in place for 15.2 to 57.2 months (mean 25.3 months, SD=9.3). Survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of the 82 crowns 93.9% were rated satisfactory. In terms of the integrity of the restorations, fracture was observed in three crowns and two showed a crack upon transillumination. Five crowns were rated unsatisfactory for color match; one for marginal adaptation; and none for discoloration, secondary caries, or sensitivity. IPS-Empress 2(R) is a suitable material to fabricate all-ceramic crowns; when these all-ceramic crowns were inserted by general dental practitioners, they functioned satisfactorily with low failure rates during an observation period ranging between 15.2 to 57.2 months.

  14. Tooth wear against ceramic crowns in posterior region: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hmaidouch, Rim; Weigl, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to assess tooth wear against ceramic crowns in posterior region in vitro and in vivo. An electronic PubMed search was conducted to identify studies on tooth wear against ceramic crowns in posterior region. The selected studies were analyzed in regard to type of crowns, natural antagonist, measuring protocol and outcome. From a yield of 1 000 titles, 43 articles were selected for full-text analysis; finally, no in vitro and only five in vivo studies met the inclusion criteria. As there is heterogeneity in design, used measuring method, ceramics and analysis-form, a meta-analysis was not possible. Results of these studies are very controversial which makes a scientifically valid comparison impossible. This review indicated that some all-ceramic crowns are as wear friendly as metal-ceramic crowns. Up to now, it has been impossible to associate tooth wear with any specific causal agent. The role of ceramic surface treatment that might be responsible for the changing in rate of tooth wear seems undetermined as yet through clinical trials. The literature reveals that studies on this topic are subject to a substantial amount of bias. Therefore, additional clinical studies, properly designed to diminish bias, are warranted. PMID:24136675

  15. Stress and Reliability Analysis of a Metal-Ceramic Dental Crown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anusavice, Kenneth J; Sokolowski, Todd M.; Hojjatie, Barry; Nemeth, Noel N.

    1996-01-01

    Interaction of mechanical and thermal stresses with the flaws and microcracks within the ceramic region of metal-ceramic dental crowns can result in catastrophic or delayed failure of these restorations. The objective of this study was to determine the combined influence of induced functional stresses and pre-existing flaws and microcracks on the time-dependent probability of failure of a metal-ceramic molar crown. A three-dimensional finite element model of a porcelain fused-to-metal (PFM) molar crown was developed using the ANSYS finite element program. The crown consisted of a body porcelain, opaque porcelain, and a metal substrate. The model had a 300 Newton load applied perpendicular to one cusp, a load of 30ON applied at 30 degrees from the perpendicular load case, directed toward the center, and a 600 Newton vertical load. Ceramic specimens were subjected to a biaxial flexure test and the load-to-failure of each specimen was measured. The results of the finite element stress analysis and the flexure tests were incorporated in the NASA developed CARES/LIFE program to determine the Weibull and fatigue parameters and time-dependent fracture reliability of the PFM crown. CARES/LIFE calculates the time-dependent reliability of monolithic ceramic components subjected to thermomechanical and/Or proof test loading. This program is an extension of the CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) computer program.

  16. [Effect of compaction pressure on the properties of dental machinable zirconia ceramic].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the effect of compaction pressure on the linear shrinkage, sintering property and machinability of the dental zirconia ceramic. The nano-size zirconia powder was compacted at different isostatic pressure and sintered at different temperature. The linear shrinkage of sintered body was measured and the relative density was tested using the Archimedes method. The cylindrical surface of pre-sintering blanks was traversed using a hard metal tool. Surface and edge quality were checked visually using light stereo microscopy. The sintering behaviour depended on the compaction pressure. Increasing compaction pressure led to higher sintering rate and lower sintering temperature. Increasing compaction pressure also led to decreasing linear shrinkage of the sintered bodies, from 24.54% of 50 MPa to 20.9% of 400 MPa. Compaction pressure showed only a weak influence on machinability of zirconia blanks, but the higher compaction pressure resulted in the poor surface quality. The better sintering property and machinability of dental zirconia ceramic is found for 200-300 MPa compaction pressure.

  17. Effects of Laser Treatment on the Bond Strength of Differently Sintered Zirconia Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Dede, Doğu Ömür; Yenisey, Murat; Rona, Nergiz; Öngöz Dede, Figen

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) and Erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiations on the shear bond strength (SBS) of differently sintered zirconia ceramics to resin cement. Eighty zirconia specimens were prepared, sintered in two different periods (short = Ss, long = Ls), and divided into four treatment groups (n = 10 each). These groups were (a) untreated (control), (b) Er:YAG laser irradiated with 6 W power for 5 sec, (c) CO2 laser with 2 W power for 10 sec, (d) CO2 laser with 4 W power for 10 sec. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were recorded for each of the eight groups. Eighty composite resin discs (3 × 3 mm) were fabricated and cemented with an adhesive resin cement to ceramic specimens. The SBS test was performed after specimens were stored in water for 24 h by an universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were statistically analyzed with two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey honest significant difference (HSD) test (α = 0.05). According to the ANOVA, the sintering time, surface treatments and their interaction were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Although each of the laser-irradiated groups were significantly higher than the control groups, there was no statistically significant difference among them (p > 0.05). Variation in sintering time from 2.5 to 5.0 h may have influenced the SBS of Yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) ceramics. Although CO2 and Er:YAG laser irradiation techniques may increase the SBS values of both tested zirconia ceramics, they are recommended for clinicians as an alternative pretreatment method.

  18. Influence of CAD/CAM scanning method and tooth-preparation design on the vertical misfit of zirconia crown copings.

    PubMed

    Castillo Oyagüe, Raquel; Sánchez-Jorge, María Isabel; Sánchez Turrión, Andrés

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of scanning method, finish line type and occlusal convergence angle of the teeth preparations on the vertical misfit of zirconia crown copings. 20 standardized stainless-steel master dies were machined simulating full-crown preparations. The total convergence angle was 15 degrees or 20 degrees (n=10 each). Two of the finish line types: a chamfer (CH) and a shoulder (SH) were prepared around the contour of each abutment. Over these dies, 20 structures were made by CAD/CAM (Cercon, Dentsply). An optical laser digitized the wax patterns of 10 single-unit copings (WS), and 10 abutments were direct-scanned to design the cores by computer (DS). Zirconia milled caps were luted onto the models under constant seating pressure. Vertical discrepancy was assessed by SEM. Misfit data were analyzed using ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test for multiple comparisons at alpha = 0.05. Vertical gap measurements of WS copings were significantly higher than those of DS frames (P < 0.0001). SH exhibited statistically higher discrepancies than CH when combined with a 15-degree occlusal convergence angle regardless of the scanning method (P < 0.05). The taper angle of the preparation (15 degrees vs. 20 degrees) had no effect on the marginal adaptation of chamfered samples.

  19. [The effect of notch's angle and depth on crack propagation of zirconia ceramics].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingya; Chen, Xinmin

    2012-10-01

    This paper is aimed to study the effect of notch's angle and depth on crack propagation of zirconia ceramics. We fabricated cuboid-shaped zirconia ceramics samples with the standard sizes of 4. 4 mm x 2. 2 mm x 18 mm for the experiments, divided the samples into 6 groups, and prepared notches on these samples with different angles and depth. We placed the samples with loads until they were broke, and observe the fracture curve of each sample. We then drew coordinates and described the points of the fracture curve under a microscope, and made curve fitting by the software-Origin. When the notch angle beta = 90 degrees, the crack propagation is pure type I; when beta = 60 degrees, the crack propagation is mainly type I; and when beta = 30 degrees, the crack propagation is a compound of type I and type III. With the increasing of the notch depth, the effect of notch angles on crack propagation increases. In addition, Notch angle is a very important fracture mechanics parameter for crack propagation of zirconia ceramics. With the increasing of notch depth, the impact of notch angle increases.

  20. [Comparative study of bond strength between zirconia ceramics and 4 luting cements].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hu; Zhang, Xian-Fang; Han, Dong-Wei

    2007-02-01

    To study the bonding strength of zirconia ceramics with 4 kinds of luting cement materials. Blocks of sintered zirconia ceramics were cut and randomly divided into 4 groups with 16 slices in each group. They were treated with sandblasting and bonded with 4 kinds of luting cements respectively. After preserved in 37 degrees C distilled-water for 24 hours and 30 days, the shear bonding strength of these specimens was tested and the data were analyzed by SAS6.12 software package and bond section were observed by scanning electron microscope. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the group of PanaviaF could attain the highest shear bonding strength: (34.7+/-3.44) MPa (after 24 hours), (31.5+/-3.44) MPa (after 1 month), which was significantly different from other treatment methods (P<0.01). The initial shear bonding strength of the groups of resin-reinforced glass ionomer was (15.5+/-2.71) MPa, (16.0+/-1.77) MPa (after 24 hours) but dropped markedly to (6.80+/-1.24) MPa, (3.38+/-2.32) MPa after 30 days (P<0.05). Resin luting cement containing phosphate monomer (MDP) can provide zirconia ceramics a strong and long-lasting bonding. Resin-reinforced glass ionomer can get good bonding strength too, but can't last long.

  1. Influence of different post core materials on the color of Empress 2 full ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Wang, Xin-zhi; Feng, Hai-lan

    2006-10-20

    For esthetic consideration, dentin color post core materials were normally used for all-ceramic crown restorations. However, in some cases, clinicians have to consider combining a full ceramic crown with a metal post core. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to test the esthetical possibility of applying cast metal post core in a full ceramic crown restoration. The color of full ceramic crowns on gold and Nickel-Chrome post cores was compared with the color of the same crowns on tooth colored post cores. Different try-in pastes were used to imitate the influence of a composite cementation on the color of different restorative combinations. The majority of patients could not detect any color difference less than DeltaE 1.8 between the two ceramic samples. So, DeltaE 1.8 was taken as the objective evaluative criterion for the evaluation of color matching and patients' satisfaction. When the Empress 2 crown was combined with the gold alloy post core, the color of the resulting material was similar to that of a glass fiber reinforced resin post core (DeltaE = 0.3). The gold alloy post core and the try-in paste did not show a perceptible color change in the full ceramic crowns, which indicated that the color of the crowns might not be susceptible to change between lab and clinic as well as during the process of composite cementation. Without an opaque covering the Ni-Cr post core would cause an unacceptable color effect on the crown (DeltaE = 2.0), but with opaque covering, the color effect became more clinically satisfactory (DeltaE = 1.8). It may be possible to apply a gold alloy post core in the Empress 2 full ceramic crown restoration when necessary. If a non-extractible Ni-Cr post core exists in the root canal, it might be possible to restore the tooth with an Empress 2 crown after covering the labial surface of the core with one layer of opaque resin cement.

  2. Zirconia toughened alumina ceramic foams for potential bone graft applications: fabrication, bioactivation, and cellular responses.

    PubMed

    He, X; Zhang, Y Z; Mansell, J P; Su, B

    2008-07-01

    Zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) has been regarded as the next generation orthopedic graft material due to its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Porous ZTA ceramics with good interconnectivity can potentially be used as bone grafts for load-bearing applications. In this work, three-dimensional (3D) interconnected porous ZTA ceramics were fabricated using a direct foaming method with egg white protein as binder and foaming agent. The results showed that the porous ZTA ceramics possessed a bimodal pore size distribution. Their mechanical properties were comparable to those of cancellous bone. Due to the bio-inertness of alumina and zirconia ceramics, surface bioactivation of the ZTA foams was carried out in order to improve their bioactivity. A simple NaOH soaking method was employed to change the surface chemistry of ZTA through hydroxylation. Treated samples were tested by conducting osteoblast-like cell culture in vitro. Improvement on cells response was observed and the strength of porous ZTA has not been deteriorated after the NaOH treatment. The porous 'bioactivated' ZTA ceramics produced here could be potentially used as non-degradable bone grafts for load-bearing applications.

  3. Fatigue failure load of two resin-bonded zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramics: Effect of ceramic thickness.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Jaiane Bandoli; Riquieri, Hilton; Prochnow, Catina; Guilardi, Luís Felipe; Pereira, Gabriel Kalil Rocha; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; de Melo, Renata Marques; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of ceramic thickness on the fatigue failure load of two zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) glass-ceramics, adhesively cemented to a dentin analogue material. Disc-shaped specimens were allocated into 8 groups (n=25) considering two study factors: ZLS ceramic type (Vita Suprinity - VS; and Celtra Duo - CD), and ceramic thickness (1.0; 1.5; 2.0; and 2.5mm). A trilayer assembly (ϕ=10mm; thickness=3.5mm) was designed to mimic a bonded monolithic restoration. The ceramic discs were etched, silanized and luted (Variolink N) into a dentin analogue material. Fatigue failure load was determined using the Staircase method (100,000 cycles at 20Hz; initial fatigue load ∼60% of the mean monotonic load-to-failure; step size ∼5% of the initial fatigue load). A stainless-steel piston (ϕ=40mm) applied the load into the center of the specimens submerged in water. Fractographic analysis and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) were also performed. The ceramic thickness influenced the fatigue failure load for both ZLS materials: Suprinity (716N up to 1119N); Celtra (404N up to 1126N). FEA showed that decreasing ceramic thickness led to higher stress concentration on the cementing interface. Different ZLS glass-ceramic thicknesses influenced the fatigue failure load of the bonded system (i.e. the thicker the glass ceramic is, the higher the fatigue failure load will be). Different microstructures of the ZLS glass-ceramics might affect the fatigue behavior. FEA showed that the thicker the glass ceramic is, the lower the stress concentration at the tensile surface will be. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [A ten-year clinical study of cracked teeth restored with glass ceramic crowns].

    PubMed

    Luo, X P; Yuan, Y; Shi, Y J; Qian, D D

    2016-10-09

    Objective: To evaluate the clinic performance of high strength glass ceramic crowns for the painful cracked teeth during a 10-year observation period. Methods: Forty-two posterior teeth from 36 patients were diagnosed as having a crack, biting painful and sensitivity to cold were selected in the Department of Prosthodontic, Institute and Hospital of Stomatology, Nanjing University Medical School. The lost-wax hot pressed glass ceramic crowns were bonded on the minimally invasive prepared teeth by modern adhesive technology. Patients were interviewed and went through clinic examination after one week, one month, and every six months. Results: The effectiveness of 42 glass ceramic crowns for cracked teeth was evaluated for a mean observation time over 10-year. At the first week, 29(81%) patients were free of pain, three still had sensitivity to cold and chewing pain, three still had sensitivity to cold, one had painful to cold and hot. After one month, two patients still had chewing pain, and one tooth needed endodontic treatment after six months. In 10 years, 2(5%) all ceramic crowns were broken, the other 40 restorations kept good clinical performances with a 10-year survival rate of 95%. Conclusions: The high strength glass ceramic crowns are very effective and successful in treating the cracked teeth and then keep the good mastication function and appearance.

  5. Effects of femtosecond laser and other surface treatments on the bond strength of metallic and ceramic orthodontic brackets to zirconia

    PubMed Central

    García-Sanz, Verónica; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Mendoza-Yero, Omel; Doñate-Buendía, Carlos; Montero, Javier; Albaladejo, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Femtosecond laser has been proposed as a method for conditioning zirconia surfaces to boost bond strength. However, metallic or ceramic bracket bonding to femtosecond laser-treated zirconia surfaces has not been tested. This study compared the effects of four conditioning techniques, including femtosecond laser irradiation, on shear bond strength (SBS) of metallic and ceramic brackets to zirconia.Three hundred zirconia plates were divided into five groups: 1) control (C); 2) sandblasting (APA); 3) silica coating and silane (SC); 4) femtosecond laser (FS); 5) sandblasting followed by femtosecond laser (APA+SC). A thermal imaging camera measured temperature changes in the zirconia during irradiation. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups (metallic vs ceramic brackets). SBS was evaluated using a universal testing machine. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was registered and surfaces were observed under SEM. Surface treatment and bracket type significantly affected the bracket-zirconia bond strength. SBS was significantly higher (p<0.001) for ceramic brackets in all groups (APA+FS > APA > FS > SC > control) than metallic brackets (APA+FS > FS > SC > APA > control). For metallic brackets, groups SC (5.99 ± 1.86 MPa), FS (6.72 ± 2.30 MPa) and APA+FS (7.22 ± 2.73 MPa) reported significantly higher bond strengths than other groups (p < 0.05). For ceramic brackets, the highest bond strength values were obtained in groups APA (25.01 ± 4.45 MPa), FS (23.18 ± 6.51 MPa) and APA+FS (29.22 ± 8.20 MPa).Femtosecond laser enhances bond strength of ceramic and metallic brackets to zirconia. Ceramic brackets provide significantly stronger adhesion than metallic brackets regardless of the surface treatment method. PMID:29049418

  6. Effects of femtosecond laser and other surface treatments on the bond strength of metallic and ceramic orthodontic brackets to zirconia.

    PubMed

    García-Sanz, Verónica; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Mendoza-Yero, Omel; Doñate-Buendía, Carlos; Montero, Javier; Albaladejo, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Femtosecond laser has been proposed as a method for conditioning zirconia surfaces to boost bond strength. However, metallic or ceramic bracket bonding to femtosecond laser-treated zirconia surfaces has not been tested. This study compared the effects of four conditioning techniques, including femtosecond laser irradiation, on shear bond strength (SBS) of metallic and ceramic brackets to zirconia.Three hundred zirconia plates were divided into five groups: 1) control (C); 2) sandblasting (APA); 3) silica coating and silane (SC); 4) femtosecond laser (FS); 5) sandblasting followed by femtosecond laser (APA+SC). A thermal imaging camera measured temperature changes in the zirconia during irradiation. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups (metallic vs ceramic brackets). SBS was evaluated using a universal testing machine. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was registered and surfaces were observed under SEM. Surface treatment and bracket type significantly affected the bracket-zirconia bond strength. SBS was significantly higher (p<0.001) for ceramic brackets in all groups (APA+FS > APA > FS > SC > control) than metallic brackets (APA+FS > FS > SC > APA > control). For metallic brackets, groups SC (5.99 ± 1.86 MPa), FS (6.72 ± 2.30 MPa) and APA+FS (7.22 ± 2.73 MPa) reported significantly higher bond strengths than other groups (p < 0.05). For ceramic brackets, the highest bond strength values were obtained in groups APA (25.01 ± 4.45 MPa), FS (23.18 ± 6.51 MPa) and APA+FS (29.22 ± 8.20 MPa).Femtosecond laser enhances bond strength of ceramic and metallic brackets to zirconia. Ceramic brackets provide significantly stronger adhesion than metallic brackets regardless of the surface treatment method.

  7. Effect of surface modifications on the bond strength of zirconia ceramic with resin cement resin.

    PubMed

    Hallmann, Lubica; Ulmer, Peter; Lehmann, Frank; Wille, Sebastian; Polonskyi, Oleksander; Johannes, Martina; Köbel, Stefan; Trottenberg, Thomas; Bornholdt, Sven; Haase, Fabian; Kersten, Holger; Kern, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of surface modifications on the tensile bond strength between zirconia ceramic and resin. Zirconia ceramic surfaces were treated with 150-μm abrasive alumina particles, 150-μm abrasive zirconia particles, argon-ion bombardment, gas plasma, and piranha solution (H2SO4:H2O2=3:1). In addition, slip casting surfaces were examined. Untreated surfaces were used as the control group. Tensile bond strengths (TBS) were measured after water storage for 3 days or 150 days with additional 37,500 thermal cycling for artificial aging. Statistical analyses were performed with 1-way and 3-way ANOVA, followed by comparison of means with the Tukey HSD test. After storage in distilled water for three days at 37 °C, the highest mean tensile bond strengths (TBS) were observed for zirconia ceramic surfaces abraded with 150-μm abrasive alumina particles (TBS(AAP)=37.3 MPa, TBS(CAAP)=40.4 MPa), and 150-μm abrasive zirconia particles (TBS(AZP)=34.8 MPa, TBS(CAZP)=35.8 MPa). Also a high TBS was observed for specimens treated with argon-ion bombardment (TBS(BAI)=37.8 MPa). After 150 days of storage, specimens abraded with 150-μm abrasive alumina particles and 150-μm abrasive zirconia particles revealed high TBS (TBS(AAP)=37.6 MPa, TBS(CAAP)=33.0 MPa, TBS(AZP)=22.1 MPa and TBS(CAZP)=22.8 MPa). A high TBS was observed also for specimens prepared with slip casting (TBS(SC)=30.0 MPa). A decrease of TBS was observed for control specimens (TBS(UNT)=12.5 MPa, TBS(CUNT)=9.0 MPa), specimens treated with argon-ion bombardment (TBS(BAI)=10.3 MPa) and gas plasma (TBS(GP)=11.0 MPa). A decrease of TBS was observed also for specimens treated with piranha solution (TBS(PS)=3.9 MPa, TBS(CPS)=4.1 MPa). A significant difference in TBS after three days storage was observed for specimens treated with different methods (p<0.001). Thermal cycling significantly reduced TBS for all groups (p<0.001) excluding groups: AAP(p>0.05), CAAP(p>0.05) and SC(p>0

  8. Masking ability of a zirconia ceramic on composite resin substrate shades.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaian, Farhad; Shabani, Sima; Namdari, Mahshid; Sadeghpour, Koroush

    2017-01-01

    Masking ability of a restorative material plays an important role to cover discolored tooth structure; however, this ability has not yet been well understood in zirconia-based restorations. This study assessed the masking ability of a zirconia ceramic on composite resin substrates with different shades. Ten zirconia disc specimens, with 0.5 mm thickness and 10 mm diameter, were fabricated by a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing system. A white substrate (control) and six composite resin substrates with different shades including A1, A2, A3, B2, C2, and D3 were prepared. The substrates had a cylindrical shape with 10 mm diameter and height. The specimens were placed onto the substrates for spectrophotometric evaluation. A spectrophotometer measured the L*, a*, and b* values for the specimens. ΔE values were calculated to determine the color differences between the groups and the control and then were compared with a perceptional threshold (ΔE = 2.6). Repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were used for data analysis ( P < 0.05). The mean and standard deviation of ΔE values for A1, A2, A3, B2, C2, and D3 groups were 6.78 ± 1.59, 8.13 ± 1.66, 9.81 ± 2.64, 9.61 ± 1.38, 9.59 ± 2.63, and 8.13 ± 1.89, respectively. A significant difference was found among the groups in the ΔE values ( P = 0.006). The ΔE values were more than the perceptional threshold in all the groups ( P < 0.0001). Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the tested zirconia ceramic could not thoroughly mask different shades of the composite resin substrates. Moreover, color masking of zirconia depends on the shade of substrate.

  9. [Comparative study of 4 types of luting cements on shear bond strength of Zirconia ceramics to dentin].

    PubMed

    Yin, Bao-di; Zhang, Xian-fang; Zheng, Hu; Han, Dong-wei

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the adequate luting cements for zirconia ceramics to dentin. Blocks of sintered zirconia ceramics were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 slices in each. After saliva immersion,airborne-particle abraded ceramic specimens were cleaned with phosphoric acid gel(containing 35% phosphoric acid) and then bonded to dentin with these four kinds of luting cements. After preserved in 37 degrees centigrade distilled water for 24 hours, the shear bonding strength of these specimens was tested and the data was analyzed with SPSS12.0 software package. The Multilink Automix could attain the highest shear bonding strength and the 3M RelyXTM Unicem AplicapTM could attain higher shear bonding strength, which were both significantly higher than in the Tokuso Ionomer and Shofu Polycarboxylate Cement groups(P<0.05). Total etching resin luting cement is an ideal option to the bonding of zirconia ceramics and can provide a strong bonding.

  10. Fracture rates of IPS Empress all-ceramic crowns--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Heintze, Siegward D; Rousson, Valentin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical fracture rate of crowns fabricated with the pressable, leucite-reinforced ceramic IPS Empress, and relate the results to the type of tooth restored. The database SCOPUS was searched for clinical studies involving full-coverage crowns made of IPS Empress. To assess the fracture rate of the crowns in relation to the type of restored tooth and study, Poisson regression analysis was used. Seven clinical studies were identified involving 1,487 adhesively luted crowns (mean observation time: 4.5+/-1.7 years) and 81 crowns cemented with zinc-phosphate cement (mean observation time: 1.6+/-0.8 years). Fifty-seven of the adhesively luted crowns fractured (3.8%). The majority of fractures (62%) occurred between the third and sixth year after placement. There was no significant influence regarding the test center on fracture rate, but the restored tooth type played a significant role. The hazard rate (per year) for crowns was estimated to be 5 in every 1,000 crowns for incisors, 7 in every 1,000 crowns for premolars, 12 in every 1,000 crowns for canines, and 16 in every 1,000 crowns for molars. One molar crown in the zinc-phosphate group fractured after 1.2 years. Adhesively luted IPS Empress crowns showed a low fracture rate for incisors and premolars and a somewhat higher rate for molars and canines. The sample size of the conventionally luted crowns was too small and the observation period too short to draw meaningful conclusions.

  11. The color masking ability of a zirconia ceramic on the substrates with different values.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaian, Farhad; Javadi Sharif, Mahdiye; Massoumi, Farhood; Namdari, Mahshid

    2017-01-01

    Background. The color masking ability of a restoration plays a significant role in coveringa discolored substructure; however, this optical property of zirconia ceramics has not been clearly determined yet. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the color masking ability of a zirconia ceramic on substrates with different values. Methods. Ten zirconia disk specimens,0.5 mm in thickness and 10 mm in diameter, were fabricated by a CAD/CAM system. Four substrates with different values were prepared, including: white (control), light grey, dark grey, and black. The disk specimens were placed over the substratesfor spectrophotometric measurements. A spectrophotometer measured the L * , a * , and b * color attributes of the specimens. Additionally, ΔE values were calculated to determine the color differences between each group and the control,and were then compared with the perceptional threshold of ΔE=2.6. Repeated-measures ANOVA, Bonferroni, and one-sample t-test were used to analyze data. All the tests were carried out at 0.05 level of significance. Results. The means and standard deviations of ΔE values for the three groups of light grey, dark grey and black were 9.94±2.11, 10.40±2.09, and 13.34±1.77 units, respectively.Significant differences were detected between the groups in the ΔE values (P<0.0001).The ΔE values in all the groups were more than the predetermined perceptional threshold(ΔE>2.6) (P<0.0001). Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the tested zirconia ceramic did not exhibit sufficient color masking ability to hide the grey and black substrates.

  12. Comparison of shear test methods for evaluating the bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Chae, Soyeon; Lee, Yunhee; Han, Geum-Jun; Cho, Byeong-Hoon

    2014-11-01

    This study compared the sensitivity of three shear test methods for measuring the shear bond strength (SBS) of resin cement to zirconia ceramic and evaluated the effects of surface treatment methods on the bonding. Polished zirconia ceramic (Cercon base, DeguDent) discs were randomly divided into four surface treatment groups: no treatment (C), airborne-particle abrasion (A), conditioning with Alloy primer (Kuraray Medical Co.) (P) and conditioning with Alloy primer after airborne-particle abrasion (AP). The bond strengths of the resin cement (Multilink N, Ivoclar Vivadent) to the zirconia specimens of each surface treatment group were determined by three SBS test methods: the conventional SBS test with direct filling of the mold (Ø 4 mm × 3 mm) with resin cement (Method 1), the conventional SBS test with cementation of composite cylinders (Ø 4 mm × 3 mm) using resin cement (Method 2) and the microshear bond strength (μSBS) test with cementation of composite cylinders (Ø 0.8 mm × 1 mm) using resin cement (Method 3). Both the test method and the surface treatment significantly influenced the SBS values. In Method 3, as the SBS values increased, the coefficients of variation decreased and the Weibull parameters increased. The AP groups showed the highest SBS in all of the test methods. Only in Method 3 did the P group show a higher SBS than the A group. The μSBS test was more sensitive to differentiating the effects of surface treatment methods than the conventional SBS tests. Primer conditioning was a stronger contributing factor for the resin bond to zirconia ceramic than was airborne-particle abrasion.

  13. Rugometric and microtopographic non-invasive inspection in dental-resin composites and zirconia ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Oliveras, Alicia; Costa, Manuel F. M.; Pecho, Oscar E.; Rubiño, Manuel; Pérez, María. M.

    2013-11-01

    Surface properties are essential for a complete characterization of biomaterials. In restorative dentistry, the study of the surface properties of materials meant to replace dental tissues in an irreversibly diseased tooth is important to avoid harmful changes in future treatments. We have experimentally analyzed the surface characterization parameters of two different types of dental-resin composites and pre-sintered and sintered zirconia ceramics. We studied two shades of both composite types and two sintered zirconia ceramics: colored and uncolored. Moreover, a surface treatment was applied to one specimen of each dental-resin. All the samples were submitted to rugometric and microtopographic non-invasive inspection with the MICROTOP.06.MFC laser microtopographer in order to gather meaningful statistical parameters such as the average roughness (Ra), the root-mean-square deviation (Rq), the skewness (Rsk), and the kurtosis of the surface height distribution (Rku). For a comparison of the different biomaterials, the uncertainties associated to the surface parameters were also determined. With respect to Ra and Rq, significant differences between the composite shades were found. Among the dental resins, the nanocomposite presented the highest values and, for the zirconia ceramics, the pre-sintered sample registered the lowest ones. The composite performance may have been due to cluster-formation variations. Except for the composites with the surface treatment, the sample surfaces had approximately a normal distribution of heights. The surface treatment applied to the composites increased the average roughness and moved the height distribution farther away from the normal distribution. The zirconia-sintering process resulted in higher average roughness without affecting the height distribution.

  14. Effect of abutment shade, ceramic thickness, and coping type on the final shade of zirconia all-ceramic restorations: in vitro study of color masking ability.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seon-Hee; Kim, Seok-Gyu

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of abutment shade, ceramic thickness, and coping type on the final shade of zirconia all-ceramic restorations. Three different types of disk-shaped zirconia coping specimens (Lava, Cercon, Zirkonzahn: ø10 mm × 0.4 mm) were fabricated and veneered with IPS e.max Press Ceram (shade A2), for total thicknesses of 1 and 1.5 mm. A total of sixty zirconia restoration specimens were divided into six groups based on their coping types and thicknesses. The abutment specimens (ø10 mm × 7 mm) were prepared with gold alloy, base metal (nickel-chromium) alloy, and four different shades (A1, A2, A3, A4) of composite resins. The average L*, a*, b* values of the zirconia specimens on the six abutment specimens were measured with a dental colorimeter, and the statistical significance in the effects of three variables was analyzed by using repeated measures analysis of variance (α=.05).The average shade difference (ΔE) values of the zirconia specimens between the A2 composite resin abutment and other abutments were also evaluated. The effects of zirconia specimen thickness (P<.001), abutment shade (P<.001), and type of zirconia copings (P<.003) on the final shade of the zirconia restorations were significant. The average ΔE value of Lava specimens (1 mm) between the A2 composite resin and gold alloy abutments was higher (close to the acceptability threshold of 5.5 ΔE) than th ose between the A2 composite resin and other abutments. This in-vitro study demonstrated that abutment shade, ceramic thickness, and coping type affected the resulting shade of zirconia restorations.

  15. Effect of abutment shade, ceramic thickness, and coping type on the final shade of zirconia all-ceramic restorations: in vitro study of color masking ability

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seon-Hee

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of abutment shade, ceramic thickness, and coping type on the final shade of zirconia all-ceramic restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three different types of disk-shaped zirconia coping specimens (Lava, Cercon, Zirkonzahn: ø10 mm × 0.4 mm) were fabricated and veneered with IPS e.max Press Ceram (shade A2), for total thicknesses of 1 and 1.5 mm. A total of sixty zirconia restoration specimens were divided into six groups based on their coping types and thicknesses. The abutment specimens (ø10 mm × 7 mm) were prepared with gold alloy, base metal (nickel-chromium) alloy, and four different shades (A1, A2, A3, A4) of composite resins. The average L*, a*, b* values of the zirconia specimens on the six abutment specimens were measured with a dental colorimeter, and the statistical significance in the effects of three variables was analyzed by using repeated measures analysis of variance (α=.05).The average shade difference (ΔE) values of the zirconia specimens between the A2 composite resin abutment and other abutments were also evaluated. RESULTS The effects of zirconia specimen thickness (P<.001), abutment shade (P<.001), and type of zirconia copings (P<.003) on the final shade of the zirconia restorations were significant. The average ΔE value of Lava specimens (1 mm) between the A2 composite resin and gold alloy abutments was higher (close to the acceptability threshold of 5.5 ΔE) than th ose between the A2 composite resin and other abutments. CONCLUSION This in-vitro study demonstrated that abutment shade, ceramic thickness, and coping type affected the resulting shade of zirconia restorations. PMID:26576252

  16. In vitro marginal fit of three all-ceramic crown systems.

    PubMed

    Yeo, In-Sung; Yang, Jae-Ho; Lee, Jai-Bong

    2003-11-01

    Studies on marginal discrepancies of single restorations using various systems and materials have resulted in statistical inferences that are ambiguous because of small sample sizes and limited numbers of measurements per specimen. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal adaptation of single anterior restorations made using different systems. The in vitro marginal discrepancies of 3 different all-ceramic crown systems (Celay In-Ceram, conventional In-Ceram, and IPS Empress 2 layering technique), and a control group of metal ceramic restorations were evaluated and compared by measuring the gap dimension between the crowns and the prepared tooth at the marginal opening. The crowns were made for 1 extracted maxillary central incisor prepared with a 1-mm shoulder margin and 6-degree tapered walls by milling. Thirty crowns per system were fabricated. Crown measurements were recorded with an optical microscope, with an accuracy of +/-0.1 microm, at 50 points spaced approximately 400 microm along the circumferential margin. The criterion of 120 microm was used as the maximum clinically acceptable marginal gap. Mean gap dimensions and standard deviations were calculated for marginal opening. The data were analyzed with a 1-way analysis of variance (alpha=.05). Mean gap dimensions and standard deviations at the marginal opening for the incisor crowns were 87 +/- 34 microm for control, 83 +/- 33 microm for Celay In-Ceram, 112 +/- 55 microm for conventional In-Ceram, and 46 +/- 16 microm for the IPS Empress 2 layering technique. Significant differences were found among the crown groups (P<.05). Compared with the control group, the IPS Empress 2 group had significantly smaller marginal discrepancies (P<.05), and the conventional In-Ceram group exhibited significantly greater marginal discrepancies (P<.05). There was no significant difference between the Celay In-Ceram and the control group. Within the limitations of this study, the marginal discrepancies were all

  17. Pressure induced phase transitions in ceramic compounds containing tetragonal zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, R.G.; Pfeiffer, G.; Paesler, M.A.

    Stabilized tetragonal zirconia compounds exhibit a transformation toughening process in which stress applied to the material induces a crystallographic phase transition. The phase transition is accompanied by a volume expansion in the stressed region thereby dissipating stress and increasing the fracture strength of the material. The hydrostatic component of the stress required to induce the phase transition can be investigated by the use of a high pressure technique in combination with Micro-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity of Raman lines characteristic for the crystallographic phases can be used to calculate the amount of material that has undergone the transition as a functionmore » of pressure. It was found that pressures on the order of 2-5 kBar were sufficient to produce an almost complete transition from the original tetragonal to the less dense monoclinic phase; while a further increase in pressure caused a gradual reversal of the transition back to the original tetragonal structure.« less

  18. Color related to ceramic and zirconia restorations: a review.

    PubMed

    Vichi, Alessandro; Louca, Chris; Corciolani, Gabriele; Ferrari, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The requirement to achieve natural looking restorations is one of the most challenging aspects of dentistry, and the shade matching of dental restorations with the natural dentition is a difficult task due to the complex optical characteristics of natural teeth. Dental porcelain is considered the reference material for prosthetic rehabilitation, but it is not easy to handle and aesthetic excellence is quite difficult to obtain. For these reasons, shade matching with dental porcelain is often considered to be more artistic than scientific. Shade matching is considered unpredictable due to several variables that may influence the final appearance of a restoration. In order to improve this situation, over the last decade new shade guides and instruments have been developed and the aesthetic aspects of dental porcelain have been further investigated. In this review some aspects of color selection and color reproduction have been examined. Color selection has advanced through the development of new shade guides and electronic shade taking devices, although visual assessment has still not been entirely replaced by electronic instruments. Color reproduction with dental porcelain has improved thanks to advances in the performance and knowledge of dental porcelain, but is still not easy to achieve. The difficulties of achieving good aesthetics with PFM restorations and the desire for metal free solutions have resulted in the increased use of zirconia. The unique optical properties of zirconia have introduced new opportunities for achieving superior aesthetics, however further research is required with this material. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Influence on microstructure of dental zirconia ceramics prepared by two-step sintering].

    PubMed

    Jian, Chao; Li, Ning; Wu, Zhikai; Teng, Jing; Yan, Jiazhen

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the microstructure of dental zirconia ceramics prepared by two-step sintering. Nanostructured zirconia powder was dry compacted, cold isostatic pressed, and pre-sintered. The pre-sintered discs were cut processed into samples. Conventional sintering, single-step sintering, and two-step sintering were carried out, and density and grain size of the samples were measured. Afterward, T1 and/or T2 of two-step sintering ranges were measured. Effects on microstructure of different routes, which consisted of two-step sintering and conventional sintering were discussed. The influence of T1 and/or T2 on density and grain size were analyzed as well. The range of T1 was between 1450 degrees C and 1550 degrees C, and the range of T2 was between 1250 degrees C and 1350 degrees C. Compared with conventional sintering, finer microstructure of higher density and smaller grain could be obtained by two-step sintering. Grain growth was dependent on T1, whereas density was not much related with T1. However, density was dependent on T2, and grain size was minimally influenced. Two-step sintering could ensure a sintering body with high density and small grain, which is good for optimizing the microstructure of dental zirconia ceramics.

  20. Comparison of Shade of Ceramic with Three Different Zirconia Substructures using Spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Habib, Syed Rashid; Shiddi, Ibraheem F Al

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed how changing the Zirconia (Zr) substructure affected the color samples after they have been overlaid by the same shade of veneering ceramic. Three commercial Zr materials were tested in this study: Prettau(®) Zirconia (ZirKonZahn, Italy), Cercon (Dentsply, Germany) and InCoris ZI (Sirona, Germany). For each system, 15 disk-shaped specimens (10 × 1 mm) were fabricated. Three shades of A1, A2 and A3.5 of porcelain (IPS e.MaxCeram, IvoclarVivadent, USA) were used for layering the specimens. Five specimens from each type of Zr were layered with same shade of ceramic. Color measurements were recorderd by a spectrophotometer Color-Eye(®) 7000A (X-Rite, Grand Rapids, MI). Mean values of L, a, b color coordinates and ΔE were recorded and comparisons were made. Differences in the ΔE were recorded for the same porcelain shade with different Zr substructures and affected the color of the specimens (p < 0.01, ANOVA). The maximum difference between the ΔE values for the A1, A2 and A3.5 shades with three types of Zr substructures was found to be 1.59, 1.69 and 1.45 respectively. Multiple comparisons of the ΔE with PostHoc Tukey test revealed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between the three types of Zr, except between Type 2 Zr and Type 3 Zr for the Shade A1. The mean values of L, a, b and ΔE for the Prettau(®) Zirconia substructure were found to be the least among the three types. The brand of Zr used influences the final color of the all ceramic Zr based restorations and this has clinical significance.

  1. Influence of hydrophilic pre-treatment on resin bonding to zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Noro, Akio; Kameyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Akiko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric plasma or ultraviolet (UV) treatment alters the surface characteristics of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP), increasing its hydrophilicity by reducing the contact angle against water to zero. This suggests that such treatment would increase the wettability of bonding resin. The purpose of this study was to determine how increasing the hydrophilicity of TZP through plasma irradiation, UV treatment, or application of ceramic primer affected initial bonding with resin composites. Here, the effect of each pre-treatment on the hydrophilicity of TZP surfaces was determined by evaluating change in shear bond strength. Plasma irradiation, UV, or ceramic primer pre-treatment showed no significant effect on bonding strength between TZP surfaces and resin composites. In addition, alumina blasting yielded no significant increase in bond strength. Plasma irradiation, UV treatment, or ceramic primer pre-treatment did not lead to significant increase in bond strength between TZP and resin composites.

  2. The influence of different cementation modes on the fracture resistance of feldspathic ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Groten, M; Pröbster, L

    1997-01-01

    One hundred twenty pressed feldspathic ceramic crowns were luted to 20 steel dies using six different cementation modes. Fracture resistance was tested under an angle of 45 degrees and was determined as the maximal fracture load. Crowns were tested with luting agent only (groups A and C) and after etching with hydrofluoric acid, silanating, and the application of a bonding agent (groups B, D, E, and F). The resulting means were: phosphate cement 294.3 (A) and 282.2 (B); glass-ionomer cement 217.2 (C) and 255.4 (D); resin composite 382.2 (E) and 687.6 (F). Statistical analysis revealed significantly greater fracture resistance (P < .01) of resin luted crowns. Bonding to the die almost doubled the fracture resistance. Conditioning of the inner surfaces of the crowns did not improve the fracture resistance of crowns luted using zinc phosphate or glass-ionomer cements.

  3. Shear bond strength in zirconia veneered ceramics using two different surface treatments prior veneering.

    PubMed

    Gasparić, Lana Bergman; Schauperl, Zdravko; Mehulić, Ketij

    2013-03-01

    Aim of the study was to assess the effect of different surface treatments on the shear bond strength (SBS) of the veneering ceramics to zirconia core. In a shear test the influence of grinding and sandblasting of the zirconia surface on bonding were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistical package (version 17.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and Microsoft Office Excel 2003 (Microsoft, Seattle, WA, USA). There was a significant difference between the groups considering shear bond strength (SBS) values, i.e. ground and sandblasted samples had significantly higher SBS values than only ground samples (mean difference = -190.67; df = 10, t = -6.386, p < 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that ground and sandblasted cores are superior to ground cores, allowing significantly higher surface roughness and significantly higher shear bond strength between the core and the veneering material.

  4. The Effect of Molar Axial Wall Height on CAD/CAM Ceramic Crowns With Moderate Occlusal Convergence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    CEREC e.max* CAD crowns on preparations with moderate total occlusal convergence (16 degrees). Methods: 60 recently-extracted maxillary third molars ...The Effect of Molar Axial Wall Height on CAD/CAM Ceramic Crowns With Moderate Occlusal Convergence Wyeth L. Hoopes The Effect of Molar Axial Wall... Molar Axial Wall Height on CAD/CAM Ceramic Crowns With Moderate Occlusal Convergence is appropria tely acknowledged and beyond brief excerpts, is with

  5. Marginal Vertical Discrepancies of Monolithic and Veneered Zirconia and Metal-Ceramic Three-Unit Posterior Fixed Dental Prostheses.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Suarez, Carlos; Gonzalo, Esther; Pelaez, Jesus; Serrano, Benjamin; Suarez, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the marginal fit of posterior fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) made of monolithic and veneered computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) zirconia ceramic with metal-ceramic posterior FDPs. Thirty standardized steel dies were prepared to receive posterior three-unit FDPs. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10): (1) metal-ceramic (control group), (2) veneered zirconia, and (3) monolithic zirconia. All FDPs were cemented using a glass-ionomer cement. The specimens were subjected to thermal cycling (5°C to 55°C). A scanning electron microscope (SEM) with a magnification of ×500 was used for measurements. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and paired t test. Both zirconia groups showed similar vertical marginal discrepancies, and no significant differences (P = .661) in marginal adaptation were observed among the groups. No differences were observed in either group in marginal discrepancies between surfaces or abutments. Monolithic zirconia posterior FDPs exhibit similar vertical marginal discrepancies to veneered zirconia posterior FDPs. No influence of localization measurements was observed.

  6. Mechanical reliability, fatigue strength and survival analysis of new polycrystalline translucent zirconia ceramics for monolithic restorations.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gabriel K R; Guilardi, Luís F; Dapieve, Kiara S; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Rippe, Marília P; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2018-05-23

    This study characterized the mechanical properties (static and under fatigue), the crystalline microstructure (monoclinic - m, tetragonal - t and cubic - c phase contents) and the surface topography of three yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) materials with different translucent properties, before and after aging in an autoclave (low temperature degradation). Disc-shaped specimens were produced from second generation (Katana ML/HT - high-translucent) and third generations (Katana STML - super-translucent and UTML - ultra-translucent) YSZ ceramics (Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc.), following ISO 6872-2015 guidelines for biaxial flexural strength testing (final dimensions: 15 mm in diameter and 1.2 ± 0.2 mm in thickness), and then subjected to the respective tests and analyses. ML was mainly composed of tetragonal crystals, while STML and UTML presented cubic content. Aging increased the monoclinic content for ML and did not affect STML and UTML. Topographical analysis highlights different grain sizes on the ceramic surface (UTML > STML > ML) and aging had no effect on this outcome. Weibull analysis showed the highest characteristic strength for ML both before and after aging, and statistically similar Weibull moduli for all groups. ML material also obtained the highest survival rates (ML > STML > UTML) for both fatigue strength and number of cycles to failure. All fractures originated from surface defects on the tensile side. Third generation zirconia (Katana STML and UTML) are fully stabilized materials (with tetragonal and cubic crystals), being totally inert to the autoclave aging, and presented lower mechanical properties than the second-generation zirconia (Katana ML - metastable zirconia). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fracture Resistance and Mode of Failure of Ceramic versus Titanium Implant Abutments and Single Implant-Supported Restorations.

    PubMed

    Sghaireen, Mohd G

    2015-06-01

    The material of choice for implant-supported restorations is affected by esthetic requirements and type of abutment. This study compares the fracture resistance of different types of implant abutments and implant-supported restorations and their mode of failure. Forty-five Oraltronics Pitt-Easy implants (Oraltronics Dental Implant Technology GmbH, Bremen, Germany) (4 mm diameter, 10 mm length) were embedded in clear autopolymerizing acrylic resin. The implants were randomly divided into three groups, A, B and C, of 15 implants each. In group A, titanium abutments and metal-ceramic crowns were used. In group B, zirconia ceramic abutments and In-Ceram Alumina crowns were used. In group C, zirconia ceramic abutments and IPS Empress Esthetic crowns were used. Specimens were tested to failure by applying load at 130° from horizontal plane using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Subsequently, the mode of failure of each specimen was identified. Fracture resistance was significantly different between groups (p < .05). The highest fracture loads were associated with metal-ceramic crowns supported by titanium abutments (p = .000). IPS Empress crowns supported by zirconia abutments had the lowest fracture loads (p = .000). Fracture modes of metal-ceramic crowns supported by titanium abutments included screw fracture and screw bending. Fracture of both crown and abutment was the dominant mode of failure of In-Ceram/IPS Empress crowns supported by zirconia abutments. Metal-ceramic crowns supported by titanium abutments were more resistant to fracture than In-Ceram crowns supported by zirconia abutments, which in turn were more resistant to fracture than IPS Empress crowns supported by zirconia abutments. In addition, failure modes of restorations supported by zirconia abutments were more catastrophic than those for restorations supported by titanium abutments. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline ceramics: insights from Yttria Stabilized Zirconia.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sanchita; Drazin, John W; Wang, Yongqiang; Valdez, James A; Holesinger, Terry G; Uberuaga, Blas P; Castro, Ricardo H R

    2015-01-13

    Materials for applications in hostile environments, such as nuclear reactors or radioactive waste immobilization, require extremely high resistance to radiation damage, such as resistance to amorphization or volume swelling. Nanocrystalline materials have been reported to present exceptionally high radiation-tolerance to amorphization. In principle, grain boundaries that are prevalent in nanomaterials could act as sinks for point-defects, enhancing defect recombination. In this paper we present evidence for this mechanism in nanograined Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), associated with the observation that the concentration of defects after irradiation using heavy ions (Kr(+), 400 keV) is inversely proportional to the grain size. HAADF images suggest the short migration distances in nanograined YSZ allow radiation induced interstitials to reach the grain boundaries on the irradiation time scale, leaving behind only vacancy clusters distributed within the grain. Because of the relatively low temperature of the irradiations and the fact that interstitials diffuse thermally more slowly than vacancies, this result indicates that the interstitials must reach the boundaries directly in the collision cascade, consistent with previous simulation results. Concomitant radiation-induced grain growth was observed which, as a consequence of the non-uniform implantation, caused cracking of the nano-samples induced by local stresses at the irradiated/non-irradiated interfaces.

  9. Radiation Tolerance of Nanocrystalline Ceramics: Insights from Yttria Stabilized Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Sanchita; Drazin, John W.; Wang, Yongqiang; Valdez, James A.; Holesinger, Terry G.; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Castro, Ricardo H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Materials for applications in hostile environments, such as nuclear reactors or radioactive waste immobilization, require extremely high resistance to radiation damage, such as resistance to amorphization or volume swelling. Nanocrystalline materials have been reported to present exceptionally high radiation-tolerance to amorphization. In principle, grain boundaries that are prevalent in nanomaterials could act as sinks for point-defects, enhancing defect recombination. In this paper we present evidence for this mechanism in nanograined Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), associated with the observation that the concentration of defects after irradiation using heavy ions (Kr+, 400 keV) is inversely proportional to the grain size. HAADF images suggest the short migration distances in nanograined YSZ allow radiation induced interstitials to reach the grain boundaries on the irradiation time scale, leaving behind only vacancy clusters distributed within the grain. Because of the relatively low temperature of the irradiations and the fact that interstitials diffuse thermally more slowly than vacancies, this result indicates that the interstitials must reach the boundaries directly in the collision cascade, consistent with previous simulation results. Concomitant radiation-induced grain growth was observed which, as a consequence of the non-uniform implantation, caused cracking of the nano-samples induced by local stresses at the irradiated/non-irradiated interfaces. PMID:25582769

  10. Radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline ceramics: Insights from yttria stabilized zirconia

    DOE PAGES

    Dey, Sanchita; Drazin, John W.; Wang, Yongqiang; ...

    2015-01-13

    Materials for applications in hostile environments, such as nuclear reactors or radioactive waste immobilization, require extremely high resistance to radiation damage, such as resistance to amorphization or volume swelling. Nanocrystalline materials have been reported to present exceptionally high radiation-tolerance to amorphization. In principle, grain boundaries that are prevalent in nanomaterials could act as sinks for point-defects, enhancing defect recombination. In this paper we present evidence for this mechanism in nanograined Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), associated with the observation that the concentration of defects after irradiation using heavy ions (Kr⁺, 400 keV) is inversely proportional to the grain size. HAADF imagesmore » suggest the short migration distances in nanograined YSZ allow radiation induced interstitials to reach the grain boundaries on the irradiation time scale, leaving behind only vacancy clusters distributed within the grain. Because of the relatively low temperature of the irradiations and the fact that interstitials diffuse thermally more slowly than vacancies, this result indicates that the interstitials must reach the boundaries directly in the collision cascade, consistent with previous simulation results. Concomitant radiation-induced grain growth was observed which, as a consequence of the non-uniform implantation, caused cracking of the nano-samples induced by local stresses at the irradiated/non-irradiated interfaces.« less

  11. Liquid Foam Templates Associated with the Sol-Gel Process for Production of Zirconia Ceramic Foams

    PubMed Central

    Beozzo, Cristiane Carolina; Alves-Rosa, Marinalva Aparecida; Pulcinelli, Sandra Helena; Santilli, Celso Valentim

    2013-01-01

    The unique properties of ceramic foams enable their use in a variety of applications. This work investigated the effects of different parameters on the production of zirconia ceramic foam using the sol-gel process associated with liquid foam templates. Evaluation was made of the influence of the thermal treatment temperature on the porous and crystalline characteristics of foams manufactured using different amounts of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) surfactant. A maximum pore volume, with high porosity (94%) and a bimodal pore size distribution, was observed for the ceramic foam produced with 10% SDS. Macropores, with an average size of around 30 μm, were obtained irrespective of the SDS amount, while the average size of the supermesopores increased systematically as the SDS amount was increased up to 10%, after which it decreased. X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the sample treated at 500 °C was amorphous, while crystallization into a tetragonal metastable phase occurred at 600 °C due to the presence of sulfate groups in the zirconia structure. At 800 and 1000 °C the monoclinic phase was observed, which is thermodynamically stable at these temperatures. PMID:28809254

  12. Radiation effects in cubic zirconia: A model system for ceramic oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomé, L.; Moll, S.; Sattonnay, G.; Vincent, L.; Garrido, F.; Jagielski, J.

    2009-06-01

    Ceramics are key engineering materials for electronic, space and nuclear industry. Some of them are promising matrices for the immobilization and/or transmutation of radioactive waste. Cubic zirconia is a model system for the study of radiation effects in ceramic oxides. Ion beams are very efficient tools for the simulation of the radiations produced in nuclear reactors or in storage form. In this article, we summarize the work made by combining advanced techniques (RBS/C, XRD, TEM, AFM) to study the structural modifications produced in ion-irradiated cubic zirconia single crystals. Ions with energies in the MeV-GeV range allow exploring the nuclear collision and electronic excitation regimes. At low energy, where ballistic effects dominate, the damage exhibits a peak around the ion projected range; it accumulates with a double-step process by the formation of a dislocation network. At high energy, where electronic excitations are favored, the damage profiles are rather flat up to several micrometers; the damage accumulation is monotonous (one step) and occurs through the creation and overlap of ion tracks. These results may be generalized to many nuclear ceramics.

  13. [Survival rate of IPS-Empress 2 all-ceramic crowns and bridges: three year's results].

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Doris; Gerds, Thomas; Strub, Jörg R

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this prospective clinical study was to calculate the survival rate of IPS-Empress2 crowns and fixed partial dentures (FPD) over a three-year period. In 43 patients 27 IPS-Empress2 crowns and 31 fixed partial dentures were adhesively luted. Crowns were placed on premolars and molars and FPDs were inserted in the anterior and premolar area. Abutments were prepared with a circular 1.2 mm wide shoulder. The clinical follow-up examination took place after 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months. After a mean of 38 months, the survival rate (Kaplan-Meier) of all-ceramic crowns was 100% and of the three unit FDP 72.4%. There were a total of six complete failures which occurred only with the three-unit IPS-Empress2 FPDs. Three FPDs exhibited fractures of the framework for which the manufacturer's instructions of connector-dimension was not satisfied, and one FPD exhibited an irreparable incomplete veneer fracture. Further two FPDs showed biological failures. The accuracy of fit and esthetics were clinically satisfactory. The three-year results showed the IPS-Empress2-ceramic as an adequate all-ceramic material for single crowns. The use for FPD needs further critical consideration.

  14. Selective etching of injection molded zirconia-toughened alumina: Towards osseointegrated and antibacterial ceramic implants.

    PubMed

    Flamant, Quentin; Caravaca, Carlos; Meille, Sylvain; Gremillard, Laurent; Chevalier, Jérôme; Biotteau-Deheuvels, Katia; Kuntz, Meinhard; Chandrawati, Rona; Herrmann, Inge K; Spicer, Christopher D; Stevens, Molly M; Anglada, Marc

    2016-12-01

    Due to their outstanding mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility, zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) ceramics have become the gold standard in orthopedics for the fabrication of ceramic bearing components over the last decade. However, ZTA is bioinert, which hampers its implantation in direct contact with bone. Furthermore, periprosthetic joint infections are now the leading cause of failure for joint arthroplasty prostheses. To address both issues, an improved surface design is required: a controlled micro- and nano-roughness can promote osseointegration and limit bacterial adhesion whereas surface porosity allows loading and delivery of antibacterial compounds. In this work, we developed an integrated strategy aiming to provide both osseointegrative and antibacterial properties to ZTA surfaces. The micro-topography was controlled by injection molding. Meanwhile a novel process involving the selective dissolution of zirconia (selective etching) was used to produce nano-roughness and interconnected nanoporosity. Potential utilization of the porosity for loading and delivery of antibiotic molecules was demonstrated, and the impact of selective etching on mechanical properties and hydrothermal stability was shown to be limited. The combination of injection molding and selective etching thus appears promising for fabricating a new generation of ZTA components implantable in direct contact with bone. Zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) is the current gold standard for the fabrication of orthopedic ceramic components. In the present work, we propose an innovative strategy to provide both osseointegrative and antibacterial properties to ZTA surfaces: we demonstrate that injection molding allows a flexible design of surface micro-topography and can be combined with selective etching, a novel process that induces nano-roughness and surface interconnected porosity without the need for coating, avoiding reliability issues. These surface modifications have the

  15. Periodontal response to all-ceramic crowns (IPS Empress) in general practice.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahadni, A M; Mansour, Y; Khader, Y

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the periodontal response to the presence of all-ceramic crowns (IPS Empress) in general practice patients. The convenience sample included 82 IPS Empress crowns placed in 64 patients. These crowns had been in place for an average of 16.27 (SD 9.26) months and ranged from 6.2 to 48.87 months at the time of clinical examination. Periodontal health status (as determined by dental plaque, gingival health status, periodontal pockets) was assessed around all crowned teeth and around matched contralateral teeth by one calibrated examiner. Periodontal indices utilized included the Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI) and pocket depth (PD) with calibrated probes graduated in millimetres. Plaque, gingival and PD values for crowned teeth were compared with those for control teeth using Wilcoxon signed-rank test for each clinical parameters. Chi-square was used to test the significance of the difference in their distribution between crowns and control teeth. Statistically, PI (0.35), GI (0.41) and mean PD scores (1.42) of IPS Empress crowned teeth compared less favourably with scores of the control teeth (0.27, 0.23 and 0.86 respectively). Teeth with IPS Empress crowns had poorer periodontal health and more clinically evident plaque than uncrowned teeth.

  16. Misfit and fracture load of implant-supported monolithic crowns in zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Rafael Soares; Souza, Caroline Mathias Carvalho de; Bergamo, Edmara Tatiely Pedroso; Bordin, Dimorvan; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha

    2017-01-01

    In this study, marginal and internal misfit and fracture load with and without thermal-mechanical aging (TMA) of monolithic ZLS and lithium disilicate (LDS) crowns were evaluated. Crowns were milled using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing system. Marginal gaps (MGs), absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD), axial gaps, and occlusal gaps were measured by X-ray microtomography (n=8). For fracture load testing, crowns were cemented in a universal abutment, and divided into four groups: ZLS without TMA, ZLS with TMA, LDS without TMA, and LDS with TMA (n=10). TMA groups were subjected to 10,000 thermal cycles (5-55°C) and 1,000,000 mechanical cycles (200 N, 3.8 Hz). All groups were subjected to compressive strength testing in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until failure. Student's t-test was used to examine misfit, two-way analysis of variance was used to analyze fracture load, and Pearson's correlation coefficients for misfit and fracture load were calculated (α=0.05). The materials were analyzed according to Weibull distribution, with 95% confidence intervals. Average MG (p<0.001) and AMD (p=0.003) values were greater in ZLS than in LDS crowns. TMA did not affect the fracture load of either material. However, fracture loads of ZLS crowns were lower than those of LDS crowns (p<0.001). Fracture load was moderately correlated with MG (r=-0.553) and AMD (r=-0.497). ZLS with TMA was least reliable, according to Weibull probability. Within the limitations of this study, ZLS crowns had lower fracture load values and greater marginal misfit than did LDS crowns, although these values were within acceptable limits.

  17. The effect of adhesive failure and defects on the stress distribution in all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yonggang; Xu, Yuanzhi; Su, Bo; Arola, Dwayne; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2018-05-29

    To explore the effect of adhesive failure and defects between the crown and cement on the stress distribution within all-ceramic crowns and the corresponding risk of failure. An IPS e.max crown of lithium disilicate produced by CAD/CAM for a first mandibular molar was modeled using finite element analysis based on X-ray micro-CT scanned images. Predefined debonding states and interfacial defects between the crown and cement were simulated using the model. The first principal stress distribution of the crown and cement was analyzed under a vertical occlusal load of 600 N. A concept of failure risk was proposed to evaluate the crown. Stress concentrations in the crown were identified on the occlusal surface surrounding the region of loading, beneath the area of loading and at the margin of the interior surface. Stress concentrations in the cement were also evident at the boundary of the debonded areas. The lower surface of the crown is safe to sustain the 600 N vertical load, but the top surface of the cement would undergo cohesive failure. According to the evaluation of failure risk of the crown, the conditions of highest risk corresponded to the conditions with highest percentage of cement damage. The risk of failure is not only associated with debonding between the crown and cement, but also associated with its distribution. Debonding related defects and cementing defects are more deleterious to the interfacial stress than debonding itself. The axial wall plays a critical role in maintaining the principal tensile stress of the crown at an acceptable level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of different resin cements and surface treatments on microshear bond strength of zirconia-based ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Petrauskas, Anderson; Novaes Olivieri, Karina Andrea; Pupo, Yasmine Mendes; Berger, Guilherme; Gonçalves Betiol, Ederson Áureo

    2018-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to evaluate the microshear bond strength of zirconia-based ceramics with different resin cement systems and surface treatments. Materials and Methods: Forty blocks of zirconia-based ceramic were prepared and embedded in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes with acrylic resin. After polishing, the samples were washed in an ultrasonic bath and dried in an oven for 10 min. Half of the samples were subjected to sandblasting with aluminum oxide. Blocks were divided into four groups (n = 10) in which two resin cements were used as follows: (1) RelyX™ U100 with surface-polished zirconia; (2) RelyX™ U100 with surface-blasted zirconia; (3) Multilink with surface-polished zirconia; and 4) Multilink with surface-blasted zirconia. After performing these surface treatments, translucent tubes (n = 30 per group) were placed on the zirconia specimens, and resin cement was injected into them and light cured. The PVC tubes were adapted in a universal testing machine; a stiletto blade, which was bolted to the machine, was positioned on the cementation interface. The microshear test was performed at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. Failure mode was analyzed in an optical microscope and classified as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed. Results: The null hypothesis of this study was rejected because there was a difference found between the resin cement and the surface treatment. There was a statistical difference (P < 0.005) in RelyX™ U100 with surface-blasted zirconia, in relation to the other three groups. For Multilink groups, there was no statistical difference between them. Conclusion: Self-adhesive resin cement showed a more significant tendency toward bond strength in the ceramic-based zirconium oxide grit-blasted surfaces. PMID:29674825

  19. Clinical marginal and internal fit of metal ceramic crowns fabricated with a selective laser melting technology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhuoli; Zhang, Lu; Zhu, Jingwei; Zhang, Xiuyin

    2015-06-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) technology has been introduced to fabricate dental restorations. However, the fit of these restorations still needs further study. The purpose of this in vivo investigation was to compare the marginal and internal fit of SLM metal ceramic crowns with 2 lost-wax cast metal ceramic crowns and to evaluate the influence of tooth type on the marginal and internal fit of these crowns. A total of 330 metal ceramic crowns were evaluated. The metal copings were fabricated with SLM Co-Cr, cast Au-Pt, and cast Co-Cr alloy (n=110). The marginal and internal gaps of crowns were recorded by using a replica technique. The anterior and premolar replicas were sectioned 2 times, and molar replicas were sectioned 4 times. The marginal and internal gap width of each cross section was examined by stereomicroscope at ×30 magnification. Two-way analysis of variance was performed to identify the statistical difference among the groups. The marginal fit of the SLM Co-Cr group (75.6 ±32.6 μm) was not different from the cast Au-Pt group (76.8 ±32.1 μm) (P>.05) but was better than the cast Co-Cr group (91.0 ±36.3 μm) (P<.01). No significant difference was found among the SLM Co-Cr group (127.3 ±45.8 μm), cast Au-Pt group (129.9 ±61.1 μm). and cast Co-Cr group (142.5 ±63.7 μm) (P>.05). The mean occlusal gap width of the SLM Co-Cr group (309.8 ±106.6 μm) was significantly higher than that of the cast Au-Pt group (254.6 ±109.6 μm) and the cast Co-Cr group (249.6 ±110.4 μm) (P<.005). No significant difference was found in the marginal fit among the anterior group (84.4 ±35.1 μm), the premolar group (80.6 ±26.3 μm), and the molar group (82.7 ±38.0 μm) (P>.05). Also, no significant difference was found in the axial fit among the anterior group (138.3 ±52.5 μm), the premolar group (132.9 ±50.4 μm), and the molar group (134.4 ±52.5 μm) (P>.05). The anterior group (267.6 ±110.2 μm) did not differ from the premolar group (270.2 ±112.8

  20. Fractographic analysis of anterior bilayered ceramic crowns that failed by veneer chipping.

    PubMed

    Du, Qian; Swain, Michael V; Zhao, Ke

    2014-05-01

    To fractographically analyze the reasons for the chipping of veneering porcelain in clinically failed anterior lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LDG) and glass-infi ltrated alumina (GIA) crowns. Five anterior bilayered ceramic crowns with clinical veneer chipping failure were retrieved, of which three were LDG crowns and two were GIA crowns. The fractured surfaces of the failed restorations were examined using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The principles of fractography were used to identify the location and dimensions of the critical crack and to estimate the stress at failure. All five anterior crowns failed by cohesive failure within the veneer on the labial surface. Fractography showed that the critical crack initiated at the incisal contact area and propagated gingivally. The estimated stresses at failure for veneer chipping were lower than the characteristic strength of the veneer materials. Within the limitations of this in-vivo study, the contact damage, fatigue, and processing fl aws within the veneer are important reasons leading to chipping of veneering porcelain in anterior LDG and GIA crowns.

  1. Tensile Bond Strength of So-called Universal Primers and Universal Multimode Adhesives to Zirconia and Lithium Disilicate Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Adham; Younes, Feras; Lehmann, Frank; Kern, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    To test the bond strength and durability after artificial aging of so-called universal primers and universal multimode adhesives to lithium disilicate or zirconia ceramics. A total of 240 ceramic plates, divided into two groups, were produced and conditioned: 120 acid-etched lithium disilicate plates (IPS e.max CAD) and 120 air-abraded zirconia plates (Zenostar T). Each group was divided into five subgroups (n = 24), and a universal restorative primer or multimode universal adhesive was used for each subgroup to bond plexiglas tubes filled with a composite resin to the ceramic plate. The specimens were stored in water at 37°C for 3 days without thermal cycling, or for 30 or 150 days with 7500 or 37,500 thermal cycles between 5°C and 55°C, respectively. All specimens then underwent tensile bond strength testing. Initially, all bonding systems exhibited high TBS, but some showed a significant reduction after 30 and 150 days of storage. After 3, 30, and 150 days, Monobond Plus, which contains silane and phosphate monomer, showed significantly higher bond strengths than the other universal primer and adhesive systems. The bond strength to lithium disilicate and zirconia ceramic is significantly affected by the bonding system used. Using a separate primer containg silane and phosphate monomer provides more durable bonding than do silanes incorporated in universal multimode adhesives. Only one of five so-called universal primers and adhesives provided durable bonding to lithium disilicate and zirconia ceramic.

  2. Zirconia-based dental crown to support a removable partial denture: a three-dimensional finite element analysis using contact elements and micro-CT data.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Freitas, Amilcar Chagas; Martini, Ana Paula; Sotto-Maior, Bruno Sales; Luersen, Marco Antonio; Ko, Ching Chang

    2015-01-01

    Veneer fracture is the most common complication in zirconia-based restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of a zirconia-based crown in a lower canine tooth supporting removable partial denture (RPD) prosthesis, varying the bond quality of the veneer/coping interface. Microtomography (μCT) data of an extracted left lower canine were used to build the finite element model (M) varying the core material (gold core - MAu; zirconia core - MZi) and the quality of the veneer/core interface (complete bonded - MZi; incomplete bonded - MZi-NL). The incomplete bonding condition was only applied for zirconia coping by using contact elements (Target/Contact) with 0.3 frictional coefficients. Stress fields were obtained using Ansys Workbench 10.0. The loading condition (L = 1 N) was vertically applied at the base of the RPD prosthesis metallic support towards the dental apex. Maximum principal (σmax) and von Mises equivalent (σvM) stresses were obtained. The σmax (MPa) for the bonded condition was similar between gold and zirconia cores (MAu, 0.42; MZi, 0.40). The incomplete bonded condition (MZi-NL) raised σmax in the veneer up to 800% (3.23 MPa) in contrast to the bonded condition. The peak of σvM increased up to 270% in the MZi-NL. The incomplete bond condition increasing the stress in the veneer/zirconia interface.

  3. Fracture strength and fatigue resistance of all-ceramic molar crowns manufactured with CAD/CAM technology.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Mohammed; El-Mowafy, Omar; Tam, Laura; Watson, Philip A; Finer, Yoav

    2008-07-01

    All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function, especially in the posterior area. The use of yttrium-stabilized zirconium-oxide ceramic as a substructure for all-ceramic crowns to improve fracture resistance is unproven. The aim of this study was to compare fracture strength and fatigue resistance of new zirconium-oxide and feldspathic all-ceramic crowns made with computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). An ivorine molar was prepared to receive an all-ceramic crown. Using epoxy resin, 40 replication dies were made of the prepared tooth. Twenty feldspathic all-ceramic crowns (Vita Mark II) (VMII) and 20 zirconium-oxide crown copings (In-Ceram YZ) (YZ) were made using CAD/CAM technique (CEREC-3D). The YZ copings were sintered and veneered manually with a fine-particle ceramic (VM9). All crowns were cemented to their respective dies using resin cement (Panavia F 2.0). Ten crowns in each group were subjected to compressive fatigue loading in a universal testing machine (instron). The other ten crowns from each group were loaded to fracture at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test and Fisher's exact test at alpha= 0.05. There was a significant difference between the survival rates of the two materials during the fatigue test (p < 0.001). All VMII crowns survived without any crack formation, while all YZ crowns fractured (40%) or developed cracks (60%). All the YZ crown fractures occurred within the veneering layer during the fatigue test. There was no significant difference in mean fracture load between the two materials (p= 0.268). Mean fracture loads (standard deviation) in N were: 1459 (492) for YZ crowns and 1272 (109) for VMII crowns. The performance of VMII crowns was superior to YZ crowns in the fatigue test. The premature fractures and cracks of the YZ crowns were attributed to weakness in the YZ veneer layer or in the core/veneer bond.

  4. [Influence of compaction pressure and pre-sintering temperature on the machinability of zirconia ceramic].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huil; Li, Jing; Zhang, Fuqiang; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2011-10-01

    In order to make certain the compaction pressure as well as pre-sintering temperature on the machinability of the zirconia ceramic. 3 mol nano-size 3 mol yttria partially stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) powder were compacted at different isostatic pressure and sintered at different temperature. The cylindrical surface was traversed using a hard metal tool. Surface and edge quality were checked visually using light stereo microscopy. Pre-sintering temperature had the obviously influence on the machinability of 3Y-TZP. The cutting surface was smooth, and the integrality of edge was better when the pre-sintering temperature was chosen between 800 degrees C to 900 degrees C. Compaction pressure showed only a weak influence on machinability of 3Y-TZP blanks, but the higher compaction pressure result in the poor surface quality. The best machinability of pre-sintered zirconia body was found for 800-900 degrees C pre-sintering temperature, and 200-300 MPa compaction pressure.

  5. Effect of a crown ferrule on the fracture strength of endodontically treated canines restored with fiber posts and metal-ceramic or all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Evangelinaki, Evangelia; Tortopidis, Dimitrios; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Fragou, Theodora; Gogos, Christos; Koidis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the fracture strength of endodontically treated canines restored with glass-fiber posts (GFPs) and either metal-ceramic (MC) or all-ceramic (AC) crowns in the presence or absence of 2 mm of ferrule height. Fifty human maxillary canines were endodontically treated and randomly divided into five groups of 10 specimens each. The first group remained intact (control), while the remainder were restored with GFPs and composite cores with either MC or AC crowns. Each of the AC and MC groups was equally divided between teeth with or without ferrule. Teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and loaded at a 135-degree angle to their long axis until fracture. Fracture strength was not significantly different between ferrule and no ferrule groups (P = .571), but was significantly larger for the MC groups compared with the control and AC groups (P = .009 and P = .024, respectively). A significant effect of the type of restoration was found as teeth restored with MC crowns presented significantly higher fracture strength, independently of ferrule.

  6. Design and Fabrication of Porous Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Ceramics for Hot Gas Filtration Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahini, Shayan

    Hot gas filtration has received growing attention in a variety of applications over the past few years. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a promising candidate for such an application. In this study, we fabricated disk-type porous YSZ filters using the pore forming procedure, in which poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used as the pore-forming agent. After fabricating the pellets, we characterized them to determine their potential for application as gas filters. We investigated the effect of sintering temperature, polymer particle size, and polymer-to-ceramic ratio on the porosity, pore size, gas permeability, and Vickers hardness of the sintered pellets. Furthermore, we designed two sets of experiments to investigate the robustness of the fabricated pellets--i.e., cyclic heating/cooling and high temperature exposure. This study ushers in a robust technique to fabricate such porous ceramics, which have the potential to be utilized in hot gas filtration.

  7. Effect of surface condition of dental zirconia ceramic (Denzir) on bonding.

    PubMed

    Uo, Motohiro; Sjögren, Göran; Sundh, Anders; Goto, Mitsunari; Watari, Fumio; Bergman, Maud

    2006-09-01

    Yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YPSZ) ceramics are suitable for dental and medical use because of their high fracture toughness and chemical durability. The purpose of this study was to examine the bonding behavior of a dental YPSZ ceramic, Denzir. After being subjected to various surface treatments, Denzir specimens were bonded to each other using an adhesive resin composite, glass ionomer, or zinc phosphate cement. Bonding strength was then determined by the shearing test. No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed between SiC- and Al2O3-blasted specimens. In all surface treatments, the shear bond strength significantly (p<0.05) increased in the order of adhesive resin composite cement > glass ionomer cement > zinc phosphate cement. Moreover, silanization with methacryloxy propyl trimethoxysilane slightly increased the bonding strength of the adhesive resin composite cement.

  8. Monoclinic phase transformation and mechanical durability of zirconia ceramic after fatigue and autoclave aging.

    PubMed

    Mota, Yasmine A; Cotes, Caroline; Carvalho, Rodrigo F; Machado, João P B; Leite, Fabíola P P; Souza, Rodrigo O A; Özcan, Mutlu

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of two aging procedures on the biaxial flexural strength of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia ceramics. Disc-shaped zirconia specimens and (ZE: E.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar; ZT: Zirkon Translucent, Zirkonzahn) (N = 80) (∅:12 mm; thickness:1.2 mm, ISO 6872) were prepared and randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 per group) according to the aging procedures: C: Control, no aging; M: mechanical cycling (2 × 10 6 cycles/3.8 Hz/200 N); AUT: Aging in autoclave at 134°C, 2 bar for 24 h; AUT + M: Autoclave aging followed by mechanical cycling. After aging, the transformed monoclinic zirconia (%) were evaluated using X-ray diffraction and surface roughness was measured using atomic force microscopy. The average grain size was measured by scanning electron microscopy and the specimens were submitted to biaxial flexural strength testing (1 mm/min, 1000 kgf in water). Data (MPa) were statistically analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Aging procedures significantly affected (p = 0.000) the flexural strength data but the effect of zirconia type was not significant (p = 0.657). AUT ZT (936.4 ± 120.9 b ) and AUT + M ZE (867.2 ± 49.3 b ) groups presented significantly higher values (p < 0.05) of flexural strength than those of the control groups (C ZT : 716.5 ± 185.7 a ; C ZE : 779.9 ± 114 a ) (Tukey's test). The monoclinic phase percentage (%) was higher for AUT ZE (71), AUT ZT (66), AUT + M ZE (71), and AUT + M ZM (66) compared to the C groups (ZE:0; ZT:0). Surface roughness (µm) was higher for AUT ZE (0.09), AUT ZT (0.08), AUT + M ZE (0.09 µm), and AUT + M ZT (0.09 µm) than those of other groups. Regardless of the zirconia type, autoclave aging alone or with mechanical aging increased the flexure strength but also induced higher transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic phase in both zirconia materials tested. © 2016 Wiley

  9. Evaluation of surface topography of zirconia ceramic after Er:YAG laser etching.

    PubMed

    Turp, Volkan; Akgungor, Gokhan; Sen, Deniz; Tuncelli, Betul

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser with different pulse lengths on the surface roughness of zirconia ceramic and airborne particle abrasion. Er:YAG laser treatment is expected to be an alternative surface treatment method for zirconia ceramics; however, the parameters and success of the application are not clear. One hundred and forty zirconia discs (diameter, 10 mm; thickness, 1.2 mm) were prepared by a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system according to the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were divided into 14 groups (n=10). One group was left as polished control, one group was air-particle abraded with Al2O3 particles. For the laser treatment groups, laser irradiation was applied at three different pulse energy levels (100, 200, and 300 mJ) and for each energy level at four different pulse lengths; 50, 100, 300, and 600 μs. Surface roughness was evaluated with an optical profilometer and specimens were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests (α=0.05). For the 100 and 200 mJ laser etching groups, 50 and 100 μs laser duration resulted in significantly higher surface roughness compared with air-particle abrasion (p<0.05). The difference among Ra values of 300 μs, 600 μs, and air-particle abrasion groups were not statistically significant (p>0.05). For the 300 mJ laser etching groups; there was no statistically significant difference among the Ra values of 50 μs, 100 μs, 300 μs, 600 μs, and air-particle abrasion groups (p>0.05). In order to increase surface roughness and promote better bonding to resin luting agents, Er:YAG laser etching may be an alternative to air-particle abrasion for zirconia ceramics. However, high levels of pulse energy and longer pulse length may have an adverse effect on micromechanical locking properties, because of a

  10. Effect of Three Different Core Materials on Masking Ability of a Zirconia Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaian, Farhad; Masoomi, Faeze; Namdari, Mahshid; Mahshid, Minoo

    2016-09-01

    Masking ability of a restorative material plays a role in hiding colored substructures; however, the masking ability of zirconia ceramic (ZRC) has not yet been clearly understood in zirconia-based restorations. This study evaluated the effect of three different core materials on masking ability of a ZRC. Ten zirconia disc samples, 0.5mm in thickness and 10mm in diameter, were fabricated. A white (W) substrate (control) and three substrates of nickel-chromium alloy (NCA), non-precious gold alloy (NPGA), and ZRC were prepared. The zirconia discs were placed on the four types of substrates for spectrophotometry. The L*, a*, and b* values of the specimens were measured by a spectrophotometer and color change (ΔE) values were calculated to determine color differences between the test and control groups and were then compared with the perceptual threshold. Randomized block ANOVA and Bonferroni test analyzed the data. A significance level of 0.05 was considered. The mean and standard deviation values of ΔE for NCA, NPGA, and ZRC groups were 10.26±2.43, 9.45±1.74, and 6.70±1.91 units, respectively. Significant differences were found in the ΔE values between ZRC and the other two experimental groups (NCA and NPGA; P<0.0001 and P=0.001, respectively). The ΔE values for the groups were more than the predetermined perceptual threshold. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the tested ZRC could not well mask the examined core materials.

  11. Comparison of fracture resistance of pressable metal ceramic custom implant abutment with a commercially fabricated CAD/CAM zirconia implant abutment.

    PubMed

    Protopapadaki, Maria; Monaco, Edward A; Kim, Hyeong-Il; Davis, Elaine L

    2013-11-01

    The predictable nature of the hot pressing ceramic technique has several applications, but no study was identified that evaluated its application to the fabrication of custom implant abutments. The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of an experimentally designed pressable metal ceramic custom implant abutment (PR) with that of a duplicate zirconia abutment (ZR). Two groups of narrow platform (NP) (Nobel Replace) implant abutment specimens were fabricated (n=10). The experimental abutment (PR) had a metal substructure cast with ceramic alloy (Lodestar) and veneered with leucite pressable glass ceramic (InLine PoM). Each PR abutment was individually scanned and 10 duplicate CAD/CAM ZR abutments were fabricated for the control group. Ceramic crowns (n=20) with the average dimensions of a human lateral incisor were pressed with lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max Press) and bonded on the abutments with a resin luting agent (Multilink Automix). The specimens were subjected to thermocycling, cyclic loading, and finally static loading to failure with a computer-controlled Universal Testing Machine. An independent t test (1 sided) determined whether the mean values of the fracture load differed significantly (α=.05) between the 2 groups. No specimen failed during cyclic loading. Upon static loading, the mean (SD) load to failure was significantly higher for the PR group (525.89 [143.547] N) than for the ZR group (413.70 [35.515] N) for internal connection narrow platform bone-level implants (P=.025). Failure was initiated at the screw and internal connection level for both groups. It is possible to fabricate PR abutments that are stronger than ZR abutments for Nobel Biocare internal connection NP bone-level implants. The screw and the internal connection are the weak links for both groups. Copyright © 2013 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Ceramic Density and Sintering Temperature on the Mechanical Properties of a Novel Polymer-Infiltrated Ceramic-Network Zirconia Dental Restorative (Filling) Material

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiyan

    2018-01-01

    Background Polymer-infiltrated ceramic-network (PICN) dental material is a new and practical development in orthodontics. Sintering is the process of forming a stable solid mass from a powder by heating without melting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sintering temperature on the mechanical properties of a PICN zirconia dental material. Material/Methods A dense zirconia ceramic and four PICN zirconia dental materials, with varying porosities, were sintered at three different temperatures; 12 PICN zirconia dental materials based on these porous ceramics were prepared, as well as a pure polymer. After the specimen preparation, flexural strength and elastic modulus values were measured using the three-point bending test, and fracture toughness were determined by the single-edge notched beam (SENB) method. The Vickers hardness test method was used with an indentation strength (IS) test. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the microstructure of the ceramic surface and the fracture surface. Results Mechanical properties of the PICN dental materials, including flexural strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, and hardness, were more similar to the properties of natural teeth when compared with traditional dental ceramic materials, and were affected by the density and sintering temperature. SEM showed that the porous ceramic network became cohesive and that the length of cracks in the PICN dental material was reduced. Conclusions PICN zirconia dental materials were characterized by similar mechanical properties to natural dental tissues, but further studies are required continue to improve the similarities with natural human enamel and dentin. PMID:29746449

  13. Effects of Ceramic Density and Sintering Temperature on the Mechanical Properties of a Novel Polymer-Infiltrated Ceramic-Network Zirconia Dental Restorative (Filling) Material.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyan; Sun, Jian

    2018-05-10

    BACKGROUND Polymer-infiltrated ceramic-network (PICN) dental material is a new and practical development in orthodontics. Sintering is the process of forming a stable solid mass from a powder by heating without melting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sintering temperature on the mechanical properties of a PICN zirconia dental material. MATERIAL AND METHODS A dense zirconia ceramic and four PICN zirconia dental materials, with varying porosities, were sintered at three different temperatures; 12 PICN zirconia dental materials based on these porous ceramics were prepared, as well as a pure polymer. After the specimen preparation, flexural strength and elastic modulus values were measured using the three-point bending test, and fracture toughness were determined by the single-edge notched beam (SENB) method. The Vickers hardness test method was used with an indentation strength (IS) test. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the microstructure of the ceramic surface and the fracture surface. RESULTS Mechanical properties of the PICN dental materials, including flexural strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, and hardness, were more similar to the properties of natural teeth when compared with traditional dental ceramic materials, and were affected by the density and sintering temperature. SEM showed that the porous ceramic network became cohesive and that the length of cracks in the PICN dental material was reduced. CONCLUSIONS PICN zirconia dental materials were characterized by similar mechanical properties to natural dental tissues, but further studies are required continue to improve the similarities with natural human enamel and dentin.

  14. Numerical fatigue analysis of premolars restored by CAD/CAM ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Homaei, Ehsan; Jin, Xiao-Zhuang; Pow, Edmond Ho Nang; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Tsoi, James Kit-Hon; Farhangdoost, Khalil

    2018-04-10

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the fatigue life of premolars restored with two dental ceramics, lithium disilicate (LD) and polymer infiltrated ceramic (PIC) using the numerical method and compare it with the published in vitro data. A premolar restored with full-coverage crown was digitized. The volumetric shape of tooth tissues and crowns were created in Mimics ® . They were transferred to IA-FEMesh for mesh generation and the model was analyzed with Abaqus. By combining the stress distribution results with fatigue stress-life (S-N) approach, the lifetime of restored premolars was predicted. The predicted lifetime was 1,231,318 cycles for LD with fatigue load of 1400N, while the one for PIC was 475,063 cycles with the load of 870N. The peak value of maximum principal stress occurred at the contact area (LD: 172MPa and PIC: 96MPa) and central fossa (LD: 100MPa and PIC: 64MPa) for both ceramics which were the most seen failure areas in the experiment. In the adhesive layer, the maximum shear stress was observed at the shoulder area (LD: 53.6MPa and PIC: 29MPa). The fatigue life and failure modes of all-ceramic crown determined by the numerical method seem to correlate well with the previous experimental study. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of ceramic thickness, grinding, and aging on the mechanical behavior of a polycrystalline zirconia.

    PubMed

    Prado, Rodrigo Diniz; Pereira, Gabriel Kalil Rocha; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Melo, Renata Marques de; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2017-11-06

    Monolithic restorations of Y-TZP have been recommended as a restorative alternative on prosthetic dentistry as it allows a substantial reduction of ceramic thickness, which means a greater preservation of tooth structure. However, the influence of grinding and aging when using a thinner layer of the material is unclear. This investigation aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of ceramic thickness (0.5 mm and 1.0 mm), grinding and aging (low-temperature degradation) on the mechanical behavior and surface characteristics of a full-contour Y-TZP ceramic. Y-TZP disc-shaped specimens (15 mm diameter) were manufactured with both thicknesses and randomly assigned into 4 groups considering the factors 'grinding with diamond bur' and 'aging in autoclave'. Surface topography (roughness, 3D profilometry and SEM), phase transformation, flexural strength and structural reliability (Weibull) analyses were executed. Grinding affected the surface topography, while aging did not promote any effect. An increase in m-phase content was observed after grinding and aging, although different susceptibilities were observed. Regardless of zirconia's thickness, no deleterious effect of grinding or aging on the mechanical properties was observed. Thus, in our testing assembly, reducing the thickness of the Y-TZP ceramic did not alter its response to grinding and low temperature degradation and did not impair its mechanical performance.

  16. A sputtered zirconia primer for improved thermal shock resistance of plasma sprayed ceramic turbine seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.; Sovey, J.; Allen, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    The development of plasma-sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ceramic turbine blade tip seal components is discussed. The YSZ layers are quite thick (0.040 to 0.090 in.). The service potential of seal components with such thick ceramic layers is cyclic thermal shock limited. The most usual failure mode is ceramic layer delamination at or very near the interface between the plasma sprayed YSZ layer and the NiCrAlY bondcoat. Deposition of a thin RF sputtered YSZ primer to the bondcoat prior to deposition of the thick plasma sprayed YSZ layer was found to reduce laminar cracking in cyclic thermal shock testing. The cyclic thermal shock life of one ceramic seal design was increased by a factor of 5 to 6 when the sputtered YSZ primer was incorporated. A model based on thermal response of plasma sprayed YSZ particles impinging on the bondcoat surface with and without the sputtered YSZ primer provides a basis for understanding the function of the primer.

  17. The effect of nano-structured alumina coating on resin-bond strength to zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Jevnikar, Peter; Krnel, Kristoffer; Kocjan, Andraz; Funduk, Nenad; Kosmac, Tomaz

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to functionalize the surface of yttria partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia ceramics (Y-TZP) with a nano-structured alumina coating to improve resin bonding. A total of 120 densely sintered disc-shaped specimens (15.5+/-0.03 mm in diameter and 2.6+/-0.03 mm thick) were produced from biomedical-grade TZ-3YB-E zirconia powder (Tosoh, Tokyo, Japan), randomly divided into three groups of 40 and subjected to the following surface treatments: AS - as-sintered; APA - airborne-particle abraded; POL - polished. Half of the discs in each group received an alumina coating that was fabricated by exploiting the hydrolysis of aluminium nitride (AlN) powder (groups AS-C, APA-C, POL-C). The coating was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The shear-bond strength of the self-etching composite resin (RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE, USA) was then studied for the coated and uncoated surfaces of the as-sintered, polished and airborne-particle abraded specimens before and after thermocycling (TC). The SEM/TEM analyses revealed that the application of an alumina coating to Y-TZP ceramics created a highly retentive surface for resin penetration. The coating showed good surface coverage and a uniform thickness of 240 nm. The resin-bond strength to the groups AS-C, APA-C, POL-C was significantly higher than to the groups AS, APA and POL, both before and after TC (p< or =0.05). During TC all the specimens in the POL and AS groups debonded spontaneously. In contrast, the TC did not affect the bond strength of the AS-C, POL-C and APA-C groups. A non-invasive method has been developed that significantly improves resin-bond strength to Y-TZP ceramics. After surface functionalization the bond survives thermocycling without reduction in strength. The method is relatively simple and has the potential to become an effective conditioning method for zirconia ceramics. Copyright 2010

  18. Effect of cleaning methods after reduced-pressure air abrasion on bonding to zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Attia, Ahmed; Kern, Matthias

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate in vitro the influence of different cleaning methods after low-pressure air abrasion on the bond strength of a phosphate monomer-containing luting resin to zirconia ceramic. A total of 112 zirconia ceramic disks were divided into 7 groups (n = 16). In the test groups, disks were air abraded at low pressure (L) 0.05 MPa using 50-μm alumina particles. Prior to bonding, the disks were ultrasonically (U) cleaned either in isopropanol alcohol (AC), hydrofluoric acid (HF), demineralized water (DW), or tap water (TW), or they were used without ultrasonic cleaning. Disks air abraded at a high (H) pressure of 0.25 MPa and cleaned ultrasonically in isopropanol served as positive control; original (O) milled disks used without air abrasion served as the negative control group. Plexiglas tubes filled with composite resin were bonded with the adhesive luting resin Panavia 21 to the ceramic disks. Prior to testing tensile bond strength (TBS), each main group was further subdivided into 2 subgroups (n=8) which were stored in distilled water either at 37°C for 3 days or for 30 days with 7500 thermal cycles. Statistical analyses were conducted with two- and one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's HSD test. Initial tensile bond strength (TBS) ranged from 32.6 to 42.8 MPa. After 30 days storage in water with thermocycling, TBS ranged from 21.9 to 36.3 MPa. Storage in water and thermocycling significantly decreased the TBS of test groups which were not air abraded (p = 0.05) or which were air abraded but cleaned in tap water (p = 0.002), but not the TBS of the other groups (p > 0.05). Also, the TBS of air-abraded groups were significantly higher than the TBS of the original milled (p < 0.01). Cleaning procedures did not significantly affect TBS either after 3 days or 30 days storage in water and thermocycling (p > 0.05). Air abrasion at 0.05 MPa and ultrasonic cleaning are important factors for improving bonding to zirconia ceramic.

  19. Comparison of 3D displacements of screw-retained zirconia implant crowns into implants with different internal connections with respect to screw tightening.

    PubMed

    Rebeeah, Hanadi A; Yilmaz, Burak; Seidt, Jeremy D; McGlumphy, Edwin; Clelland, Nancy; Brantley, William

    2018-01-01

    Internal conical implant-abutment connections without horizontal platforms may lead to crown displacement during screw tightening and torque application. This displacement may affect the proximal contacts and occlusion of the definitive prosthesis. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the displacement of custom screw-retained zirconia single crowns into a recently introduced internal conical seal implant-abutment connection in 3D during hand and torque driver screw tightening. Stereolithic acrylic resin models were printed using computed tomography data from a patient missing the maxillary right central incisor. Two different internal connection implant systems (both ∼11.5 mm) were placed in the edentulous site in each model using a surgical guide. Five screw-retained single zirconia computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) crowns were fabricated for each system. A pair of high-resolution digital cameras was used to record the relationship of the crown to the model. The crowns were tightened according to the manufacturers' specifications using a torque driver, and the cameras recorded their relative position again. Three-dimensional image correlation was used to measure and compare crown positions, first hand tightened and then torque driven. The displacement test was repeated 3 times for each crown. Commercial image correlation software was used to extract the data and compare the amount of displacement vertically, mesiodistally, and buccolingually. Repeated-measures ANOVA calculated the relative displacements for all 5 specimens for each implant for both crown screw hand tightening and after applied torque. A Student t test with Bonferroni correction was used for pairwise comparison of interest to determine statistical differences between the 2 implants (α=.05). The mean vertical displacements were statistically higher than the mean displacements in the mesiodistal and buccolingual directions for both implants (P<.001

  20. Effect of elasticity on stress distribution in CAD/CAM dental crowns: Glass ceramic vs. polymer-matrix composite.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yuanyuan; Griggs, Jason A

    2015-06-01

    Further investigations are required to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of newly developed polymer-matrix composite (PMC) blocks for computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) applications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of elasticity on the stress distribution in dental crowns made of glass-ceramic and PMC materials using finite element (FE) analysis. Elastic constants of two materials were determined by ultrasonic pulse velocity using an acoustic thickness gauge. Three-dimensional solid models of a full-coverage dental crown on a first mandibular molar were generated based on X-ray micro-CT scanning images. A variety of load case-material property combinations were simulated and conducted using FE analysis. The first principal stress distribution in the crown and luting agent was plotted and analyzed. The glass-ceramic crown had stress concentrations on the occlusal surface surrounding the area of loading and the cemented surface underneath the area of loading, while the PMC crown had only stress concentration on the occlusal surface. The PMC crown had lower maximum stress than the glass-ceramic crown in all load cases, but this difference was not substantial when the loading had a lateral component. Eccentric loading did not substantially increase the maximum stress in the prosthesis. Both materials are resistant to fracture with physiological occlusal load. The PMC crown had lower maximum stress than the glass-ceramic crown, but the effect of a lateral loading component was more pronounced for a PMC crown than for a glass-ceramic crown. Knowledge of the stress distribution in dental crowns with low modulus of elasticity will aid clinicians in planning treatments that include such restorations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of surface finishing on fracture load and failure mode of glass ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Mores, Rafael Tagliari; Borba, Márcia; Corazza, Pedro Henrique; Della Bona, Álvaro; Benetti, Paula

    2017-10-01

    Ceramic restorations often require adjustments using diamond rotary instruments, which damage the glazed surface. The effect of these adjustments on the fracture behavior of these restorations is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of induced surface defects on the fracture load and mode of failure of lithium disilicate-based (LDS) glass ceramic restorations. Premolar crowns were obtained from LDS computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing blocks (n=60) and glazed. The crowns were bonded to dentin analog dies and divided into 5 groups (n=12), as follows: glaze; abrasion (diamond rotary instrument 2135); abrasion and reglaze; abrasion and polishing (diamond rotary instrument 2135F, 2135 FF, and polishing devices); and polishing. The topography of the crowns was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and roughness was measured. A compressive load (0.5 mm/min) was applied by a piston to the center of the lingual cusp until fracture. The fracture load was recorded and data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). Fractured crowns were examined to determine the fracture origin. Polishing and/or reglazing resulted in lower roughness than for the abraded group (P<.05), which did not affect the fracture loads (P=.696). Catastrophic fracture with origin at the intaglio surface was the mode of failure for all the crowns. The experiment design successfully submitted the crowns to a clinical stress state, resulting in a clinically relevant failure. Reglazing or polishing were effective in reducing surface defects. Surface treatments had no effect on the immediate catastrophic failure of LDS crowns. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A randomized controlled clinical trial of 3-unit posterior zirconia-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDP) with layered or pressed veneering ceramics: 3-year results.

    PubMed

    Naenni, Nadja; Bindl, Andreas; Sax, Caroline; Hämmerle, Christoph; Sailer, Irena

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present pilot study was to test whether or not posterior zirconia-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with pressed veneering ceramic exhibit less chipping than FDPs with layered veneering ceramics. Forty patients (13 female, 27 male; mean age 54 years (range 26.1-80.7 years) in need of one maxillary or mandibular three-unit FDP in the second premolar or molar region were recruited and treated at two separate centers at the University of Zurich according to the same study protocol. The frameworks were made out of zirconia using a CAD/CAM system (Cerec Sirona, Bensheim, Germany). The patients were randomly assigned to either the test group (zirconia frameworks veneered with pressed ceramic; IPS e.max ZirPress, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein; n=20) or the control group (layered veneering ceramic; IPS e.max Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein; n=20). All FDPs were adhesively cemented and evaluated at baseline (i.e., cementation), at 6 months and at 1 and 3 years of clinical service. The survival of the reconstruction was recorded. The technical outcome was assessed using modified United States Public Health Services (USPHS) criteria. The biologic parameters analyzed at abutment teeth and analogous non-restored teeth included probing pocket depth (PPD), plaque control record (PCR), bleeding on probing (BOP), and tooth vitality (CO2). Data was descriptively analyzed and survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier statistics. 36 patients (25 female, 11 male; mean age 52.3 years) with 18 test and 18 control FDPs were examined after a mean follow-up of 36 months (95% CI: 32.6-39.1 months). Comparison of groups was done by Crosstabulation showing even distribution of the respective restored teeth amidst the groups. Survival rate was 100% for both test and control FDPs. Chipping of the veneering ceramic tended to occur more frequently in test (n=8; 40%) than in control (n=4; 20%) FDPs, albeit not significantly (p=0.3). No further

  3. Fracture Strength of Titanium based Lithium Disilicate and Zirconia Abutment Crowns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-12

    to assisting you in your future publication/presentation efforts. LINDA STEEL -GOODWIN, Col, USAF, BSC Director, Clinical Investigations & Research...The specimens were cemented to a titanium-base implant system, subjected to thermocycling and cyclic loading, and fractured in a material testing...being lost. No complications were noted with respect to the abutments and only three crowns had complications (i.e., 2 debonded, 1 excess cement

  4. Effect of in vitro aging on the flexural strength and probability to fracture of Y-TZP zirconia ceramics for all-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Siarampi, Eleni; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Andrikopoulos, Konstantinos S; Kantiranis, Nikolaos; Voyiatzis, George A; Zorba, Triantafillia; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M; Koidis, Petros

    2014-12-01

    Dental zirconia restorations should present long-term clinical survival and be in service within the oral environment for many years. However, low temperature degradation could affect their mechanical properties and survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of in vitro aging on the flexural strength of yttrium-stabilized (Y-TZP) zirconia ceramics for ceramic restorations. One hundred twenty bar-shaped specimens were prepared from two ceramics (ZENO Zr (WI) and IPS e.max(®) ZirCAD (IV)), and loaded until fracture according to ISO 6872. The specimens from each ceramic (nx=60) were divided in three groups (control, aged for 5h, aged for 10h). One-way ANOVA was used to assess statistically significant differences among flexural strength values (P<0.05). The variability of the flexural strength values was analyzed using the two-parameter Weibull distribution function, which was applied for the estimation of Weibull modulus (m) and characteristic strength (σ0). The crystalline phase polymorphs of the materials (tetragonal, t, and monoclinic, m, zirconia) were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. A slight increase of the flexural strength after 5h, and a decrease after 10h of aging, was recorded for both ceramics, however statistically significant was for the WI group (P<0.05). Both ceramics presented a t→m phase transformation, with the m-phase increasing from 4 to 5% at 5h to around 15% after 10h. The significant reduction of the flexural strength after 10h of in vitro aging, suggests high fracture probability for one of the zirconia ceramics tested. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Incidence of undetected cement on CAD/CAM monolithic zirconia crowns and customized CAD/CAM implant abutments. A prospective case series.

    PubMed

    Wasiluk, Grzegorz; Chomik, Ewa; Gehrke, Peter; Pietruska, Małgorzata; Skurska, Anna; Pietruski, Jan

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of cement residues after cementation of CAD/CAM monolithic zirconia crowns on customized CAD/CAM titanium abutments. Sixty premolars and molars were restored on Astra Tech Osseospeed TX ™ implants using single monolithic zirconia crowns fixed on two types of custom-made abutments: Atlantis ™ titanium or Atlantis ™ Gold Hue. Occlusal openings providing access to the abutment screws were designed for retrievability of the crown/abutment connection. After fixation with glass ionomer cement, the crown/abutment units were unscrewed to evaluate the presence of residual cement. Dichotomous assessment of the presence or absence of cement at the crown/abutment unit and peri-implant tissues was performed. Clinically undetected cement excess was visible on 44 of 60 restorations (73.3%). There was no interdependency between residual cement presence and implant location or diameter. However, a dependency between the presence of residual cement and the aspect of the abutment/crown connection could be noted. The majority of the residues were observed on the distal (17.9%) and mesial (15%) aspects. While on the palatal/lingual aspect, the cement was visible in 8.8%; only 3.4% of all surfaces displayed cement residues. Within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that the use of customized CAD/CAM abutments do not guarantee avoidance of subgingival cement residues after crown cementation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparative analysis of two measurement methods for marginal fit in metal-ceramic and zirconia posterior FPDs.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, Esther; Suárez, María J; Serrano, Benjamin; Lozano, José F L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two measurement methods for the external marginal fit of zirconia posterior fixed partial dentures (FPDs) fabricated using computer-aided design/manufacturing technology and metal-ceramic posterior FPDs fabricated using the conventional lost-wax technique. The null hypothesis was that there would be no differences between the measurement methods. Forty standardized steel specimens were prepared to receive posterior three-unit FPDs. Specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10): (1) metal-ceramic, (2) Procera Bridge Zirconia, (3) Lava AllCeramic System, and (4) Vita In-Ceram YZ 2000. All FPDs were luted with glass-ionomer cement (Ketac Cem EasyMix, 3M ESPE). Two measurement methods were used to analyze marginal fit: an image analysis (IA) program and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) (JEOL JSM-6400) with magnifications of 340 and 31,000, respectively. Marginal fit was measured at the same point on each abutment. Significant interaction was observed between measurement method and material (P = .0019). Therefore, the measurement method is not independent of the restoration material. Differences among groups were observed for IA (P = .0001) and SEM (P = .0013). Significant differences were observed for the Procera (P = .0050) and metal-ceramic (P = .0039) specimen groups when both measurement methods were evaluated separately. Accuracy of fit achieved by the four groups analyzed was within the range of clinical acceptance, yielding Procera Bridge Zirconia to have the best marginal fit using both measurement methods.

  7. Probability of survival of implant-supported metal ceramic and CAD/CAM resin nanoceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Bonfante, Estevam A; Suzuki, Marcelo; Lorenzoni, Fábio C; Sena, Lídia A; Hirata, Ronaldo; Bonfante, Gerson; Coelho, Paulo G

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the probability of survival and failure modes of implant-supported resin nanoceramic relative to metal-ceramic crowns. Resin nanoceramic molar crowns (LU) (Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE, USA) were milled and metal-ceramic (MC) (Co-Cr alloy, Wirobond C+, Bego, USA) with identical anatomy were fabricated (n=21). The metal coping and a burnout-resin veneer were created by CAD/CAM, using an abutment (Stealth-abutment, Bicon LLC, USA) and a milled crown from the LU group as models for porcelain hot-pressing (GC-Initial IQ-Press, GC, USA). Crowns were cemented, the implants (n=42, Bicon) embedded in acrylic-resin for mechanical testing, and subjected to single-load to fracture (SLF, n=3 each) for determination of step-stress profiles for accelerated-life testing in water (n=18 each). Weibull curves (50,000 cycles at 200N, 90% CI) were plotted. Weibull modulus (m) and characteristic strength (η) were calculated and a contour plot used (m versus η) for determining differences between groups. Fractography was performed in SEM and polarized-light microscopy. SLF mean values were 1871N (±54.03) for MC and 1748N (±50.71) for LU. Beta values were 0.11 for MC and 0.49 for LU. Weibull modulus was 9.56 and η=1038.8N for LU, and m=4.57 and η=945.42N for MC (p>0.10). Probability of survival (50,000 and 100,000 cycles at 200 and 300N) was 100% for LU and 99% for MC. Failures were cohesive within LU. In MC crowns, porcelain veneer fractures frequently extended to the supporting metal coping. Probability of survival was not different between crown materials, but failure modes differed. In load bearing regions, similar reliability should be expected for metal ceramics, known as the gold standard, and resin nanoceramic crowns over implants. Failure modes involving porcelain veneer fracture and delamination in MC crowns are less likely to be successfully repaired compared to cohesive failures in resin nanoceramic material. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials

  8. [Microwave sintering of nanometer powder of alumina and zirconia-based dental ceramics].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Fan; Lu, Dong-Mei; Wan, Qian-Bing; Jin, Yong; Zhu, Ju-Mu

    2006-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility and reliability of sintering alumina and zirconia-based all-ceramic materials through a recently introduced microwave heating technique. The variation of crystal phases, the growth of grain sizes and microstructural features of these materials were evaluated after sintering. Four different groups of powder (l00%Al2O3, 60%Al2O3+40%ZrO2, 40% Al2O3+60%ZrO2, 100% ZrO2) were respectively press-compacted to fabricate green disk samples, 5 specimen of each group were prepared. All the samples were surrounded by refractory materials for heat containment and processed at 1 600 degrees C in a domestic microwave oven (850 W, 2 450 MHz), 1 600 degrees C/5 min for heating rate, 10 min for holding time. After sintering, the phase composition and average grain size of these ceramics were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their microstructure characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the specimens were successfully sintered with the application of microwave heating system in combination with a suitable thermal insulator. No phase change was found in alumina while monoclinic-zirconia was found to be transformed to tetragonal-zirconia. A little grain size growth of Al2O3 and ZrO2 has been observed with Al2O3 24.1 nm/before and 51.8 nm/after; ZrO2 25.3 nm/before and 29.7 nm/after. The SEM photos indicated that the microwave-sintered Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramics had a uniform crystal distribution and their crystal sizes could be maintained within the range of nanometers. It is expected that in the near future microwave heating system could be a promising substitute for conventional processing methods due to its unparalled advantages, including more rapid heating rate, shortened sintering time, superfine grain size, improved microstructure and much less expensive equipment.

  9. [Evaluation of alumina effects on the mechanical property and translucency of nano-zirconia all-ceramics].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Zhao, Yong-qi; Zhang, Jing-chao; Liao, Yun-mao; Li, Wei

    2010-06-01

    To study the effects of alumina content on sintered density, mechanical property and translucency of zirconia nanocomposite all-ceramics. Specimens of zirconia nanocomposite all-ceramics were divided into five groups based on their alumina content which are 0% (control group), 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10.0% respectively. The sintered densities were measured using Archimedes' method. Specimens' bending strengths were measured with three-point bending test (ISO 6872). The visible light transmittances were measured with spectrophotometric arrangements and the fractured surfaces were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The control group of pure zirconia could be sintered to the theoretical density under pressure-less sintering condition. The bending strength was (1100.27 ± 54.82) MPa, the fracture toughness was (4.96 ± 0.35) MPa×m(1/2) and the transmittance could reach 17.03%. The sintered density and transmittance decreased as alumina content increased from 2.5% to 10%. However, the fracture toughness only increased slightly. In all four alumina groups, the additions of alumina had no significant effect on samples' bending strengths (P > 0.05). When the content of alumina was 10%, fracture toughness of specimens reached (6.13 ± 0.44) MPa×m(1/2) while samples' transmittance declined to 6.21%. SEM results showed that alumina particles had no significant effect on the grain size and distribution of tetragonal zirconia polycrystals. Additions of alumina to yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystals could influence its mechanical property and translucency. Additions of the other phase to zirconia ceramics should meet the clinical demands of strength and esthetics.

  10. Effect of CO2 and Nd:YAG Lasers on Shear Bond Strength of Resin Cement to Zirconia Ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Kasraei, Shahin; Yarmohamadi, Ebrahim; Shabani, Amanj

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Because of poor bond between resin cement and zirconia ceramics, laser surface treatments have been suggested to improve adhesion. The present study evaluated the effect of CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers on the shear bond strength (SBS) of resin cement to zirconia ceramic. Materials and Methods: Ninety zirconia disks (6×2 mm) were randomly divided into six groups of 15. In the control group, no surface treatment was used. In the test groups, laser surface treatment was accomplished using CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers, respectively (groups two and three). Composite resin disks (3×2 mm) were fabricated and cemented to zirconia disks with self-etch resin cement and stored in distilled water for 24 hours. In the test groups four-six, the samples were prepared as in groups one-three and then thermocycled and stored in distilled water for six months. The SBS tests were performed (strain rate of 0.5 mm/min). The fracture modes were observed via stereomicroscopy. Data were analyzed with one and two-way ANOVA, independent t and Tukey’s tests. Results: The SBS values of Nd:YAG group (18.95±3.46MPa) was significantly higher than that of the CO2 group (14.00±1.96MPa), but lower than that of controls (23.35±3.12MPa). After thermocycling and six months of water storage, the SBS of the untreated group (1.80±1.23 MPa) was significantly lower than that of the laser groups. In groups stored for 24 hours, 60% of the failures were adhesive; however, after thermocycling and six months of water storage, 100% of failures were adhesive. Conclusion: Bonding durability of resin cement to zirconia improved with CO2 and Nd:YAG laser surface treatment of zirconia ceramic. PMID:27148380

  11. Effect of CO2 and Nd:YAG Lasers on Shear Bond Strength of Resin Cement to Zirconia Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Kasraei, Shahin; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Yarmohamadi, Ebrahim; Shabani, Amanj

    2015-09-01

    Because of poor bond between resin cement and zirconia ceramics, laser surface treatments have been suggested to improve adhesion. The present study evaluated the effect of CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers on the shear bond strength (SBS) of resin cement to zirconia ceramic. Ninety zirconia disks (6×2 mm) were randomly divided into six groups of 15. In the control group, no surface treatment was used. In the test groups, laser surface treatment was accomplished using CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers, respectively (groups two and three). Composite resin disks (3×2 mm) were fabricated and cemented to zirconia disks with self-etch resin cement and stored in distilled water for 24 hours. In the test groups four-six, the samples were prepared as in groups one-three and then thermocycled and stored in distilled water for six months. The SBS tests were performed (strain rate of 0.5 mm/min). The fracture modes were observed via stereomicroscopy. Data were analyzed with one and two-way ANOVA, independent t and Tukey's tests. The SBS values of Nd:YAG group (18.95±3.46MPa) was significantly higher than that of the CO2 group (14.00±1.96MPa), but lower than that of controls (23.35±3.12MPa). After thermocycling and six months of water storage, the SBS of the untreated group (1.80±1.23 MPa) was significantly lower than that of the laser groups. In groups stored for 24 hours, 60% of the failures were adhesive; however, after thermocycling and six months of water storage, 100% of failures were adhesive. Bonding durability of resin cement to zirconia improved with CO2 and Nd:YAG laser surface treatment of zirconia ceramic.

  12. [Research on bond durability among different core materials and zirconia ceramic cemented by self-adhesive resin cements].

    PubMed

    Xinyu, Luo; Xiangfeng, Meng

    2017-02-01

    This research estimated shear bond durability of zirconia and different substrates cemented by two self-adhesive resin cements (Clearfil SA Luting and RelyX U100) before and after aging conditioning. Machined zirconia ceramic discs were cemented with four kinds of core material (cobalt-chromium alloy, flowable composite resin core material, packable composite resin, and dentin) with two self-adhesive resin cements (Clearfil SA Luting and RelyX U100). All specimens were divided into eight test groups, and each test group was divided into two subgroups. Each subgroup was subjected to shear test before and after 10 000 thermal cycles. All factors (core materials, cements, and thermal cycle) significantly influenced bond durability of zirconia ceramic (P<0.00 1). After 10 000 thermal cycles, significant decrease was not observed in shear bond strength of cobalt-chromium alloy luted with Clearfil SA Luting (P>0.05); observed shear bond strength was significantly higher than those of other substrates (P<0.05). Significantly higher shear bond strength was noted in Clearfil SA Luting luted with cobalt-chromium alloy, flowable composite resin core material, and packable composite resin than that of RelyX U100 (P<0.05). However, significant difference was not observed in shear bond strength of dentin luted with Clearfil SA Luting and RelyX U100 (P>0.05). Different core materials and self-adhesive resin cements can significantly affect bond durability of zirconia ceramic. 
.

  13. Deformation characteristics of the near-surface layers of zirconia ceramics implanted with aluminum ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghyngazov, S. A.; Vasiliev, I. P.; Frangulyan, T. S.; Chernyavski, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of ion treatment on the phase composition and mechanical properties of the near-surface layers of zirconium ceramic composition 97 ZrO2-3Y2O3 (mol%) was studied. Irradiation of the samples was carried out by accelerated ions of aluminum with using vacuum-arc source Mevva 5-Ru. Ion beam had the following parameters: the energy of the accelerated ions E = 78 keV, the pulse current density Ji = 4mA / cm2, current pulse duration equal τ = 250 mcs, pulse repetition frequency f = 5 Hz. Exposure doses (fluence) were 1016 и 1017 ion/cm2. The depth distribution implanted ions was studied by SIMS method. It is shown that the maximum projected range of the implanted ions is equal to 250 nm. Near-surface layers were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at fixed glancing incidence angle. It is shown that implantation of aluminum ions into the ceramics does not lead to a change in the phase composition of the near-surface layer. The influence of implanted ions on mechanical properties of ceramic near-surface layers was studied by the method of dynamic nanoindentation using small loads on the indenter P=300 mN. It is shown that in ion- implanted ceramic layer the processes of material recovery in the deformed region in the unloading mode proceeds with higher efficiency as compared with the initial material state. The deformation characteristics of samples before and after ion treatment have been determined from interpretation of the resulting P-h curves within the loading and unloading sections by the technique proposed by Oliver and Pharr. It was found that implantation of aluminum ions in the near-surface layer of zirconia ceramics increases nanohardness and reduces the Young's modulus.

  14. Influences of multiple firings and aging on surface roughness, strength and hardness of veneering ceramics for zirconia frameworks.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xuehua; Luo, Huinan; Bai, Yang; Tang, Hui; Nakamura, Takashi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of multiple firings and aging on surface roughness, strength, and hardness of veneering ceramics for zirconia frameworks. Five different veneering ceramics for zirconia frameworks were used: Vintage ZR (ZR), Cerabien ZR (CZR), VitaVM9 (VM9), Cercon ceram KISS (KISS), and IPS e.max ceram (e.max). Specimens were fired 2 or 10 times in order to accelerate aging. Surface roughness was evaluated using laser profilometry. Flexural strength and Vickers hardness were also measured. Surface topography was observed using scanning electron microscopy. After accelerated aging, the surface roughness of all specimens fired 10 times was significantly lower than that of the same specimens fired 2 times (P=0.000). Except for VM9, the flexural strength of all specimens fired 10 times was greater than that of the same specimens fired 2 times, and the differences were significant for ZR and CZR (P<0.01). The flexural strength of VM9 fired 10 times was significantly lower than that of VM9 fired 2 times (P=0.034). The Vickers hardness of ZR and VM9 fired 10 times was significantly higher than that of the same specimens fired 2 times (P<0.05), but that of KISS fired 10 times was significantly lower than that of KISS fired 2 times (P=0.000). Multiple firings had a positive effect on the surface roughness of all aged veneering ceramics used for zirconia restorations and on the strength and hardness of many aged veneering ceramics used for zirconia restorations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Towards long lasting zirconia-based composites for dental implants: Transformation induced plasticity and its consequence on ceramic reliability.

    PubMed

    Reveron, Helen; Fornabaio, Marta; Palmero, Paola; Fürderer, Tobias; Adolfsson, Erik; Lughi, Vanni; Bonifacio, Alois; Sergo, Valter; Montanaro, Laura; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2017-01-15

    Zirconia-based composites were developed through an innovative processing route able to tune compositional and microstructural features very precisely. Fully-dense ceria-stabilized zirconia ceramics (84vol% Ce-TZP) containing equiaxed alumina (8vol%Al 2 O 3 ) and elongated strontium hexa-aluminate (8vol% SrAl 12 O 19 ) second phases were obtained by conventional sintering. This work deals with the effect of the zirconia stabilization degree (CeO 2 in the range 10.0-11.5mol%) on the transformability and mechanical properties of Ce-TZP-Al 2 O 3 -SrAl 12 O 19 materials. Vickers hardness, biaxial flexural strength and Single-edge V-notched beam tests revealed a strong influence of ceria content on the mechanical properties. Composites with 11.0mol% CeO 2 or above exhibited the classical behaviour of brittle ceramics, with no apparent plasticity and very low strain to failure. On the contrary, composites with 10.5mol% CeO 2 or less showed large transformation-induced plasticity and almost no dispersion in strength data. Materials with 10.5mol% of ceria showed the highest values in terms of biaxial bending strength (up to 1.1GPa) and fracture toughness (>10MPa√m). In these ceramics, as zirconia transformation precedes failure, the Weibull modulus was exceptionally high and reached a value of 60, which is in the range typically reported for metals. The results achieved demonstrate the high potential of using these new strong, tough and stable zirconia-based composites in structural biomedical applications. Yttria-stabilized (Y-TZP) zirconia ceramics are increasingly used for developing metal-free restorations and dental implants. Despite their success related to their excellent mechanical resistance, Y-TZP can undergo Low Temperature Degradation which could be responsible for restoration damage or even worst the failure of the implant. Current research is focusing on strategies to improve the LTD resistance of Y-TZP or to develop alternative composites with better

  16. Effects of Different Surface Treatment Methods and MDP Monomer on Resin Cementation of Zirconia Ceramics an In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanış, Merve Çakırbay; Akçaboy, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Resin cements are generally preferred for cementation of zirconia ceramics. Resin bonding of zirconia ceramics cannot be done with the same methods of traditional ceramics because zirconia is a silica-free material. In recent years, many methods have been reported in the literature to provide the resin bonding of zirconia ceramics. The purpose of this in vitro study is to evaluate effects of different surface treatments and 10-metacryloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) monomer on shear bond strength between zirconia and resin cement. Methods: 120 zirconia specimens were treated as follows: Group I: sandblasting, group II: sandblasting + tribochemical silica coating + silane, group III: sandblasting + Nd:YAG (neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser. One specimen from each group was evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Specimens in each group were bonded either with conventional resin cement Variolink II or with a MDP containing resin cement Panavia F2.0. Subgroups of bonded specimens were stored in distilled water (37°C) for 24 hours or 14 days. Following water storage shear bond strength test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min in a universal test machine. Then statistical analyses were performed. Results: Highest shear bond strength values were observed in group II. No significant difference between group I and III was found when Panavia F2.0 resin cement was used. When Variolink II resin cement was used group III showed significantly higher bond strength than group I. In group I, Panavia F2.0 resin cement showed statistically higher shear bond strength than Variolink II resin cement. In group II no significant difference was found between resin cements. No significant difference was found between specimens stored in 37°C distilled water for 24 hours and 14 days. In group I surface irregularities with sharp edges and grooves were observed. In group II less roughened surface was observed with silica particles. In group

  17. Effects of Different Surface Treatment Methods and MDP Monomer on Resin Cementation of Zirconia Ceramics an In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Tanış, Merve Çakırbay; Akçaboy, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    Resin cements are generally preferred for cementation of zirconia ceramics. Resin bonding of zirconia ceramics cannot be done with the same methods of traditional ceramics because zirconia is a silica-free material. In recent years, many methods have been reported in the literature to provide the resin bonding of zirconia ceramics. The purpose of this in vitro study is to evaluate effects of different surface treatments and 10-metacryloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) monomer on shear bond strength between zirconia and resin cement. 120 zirconia specimens were treated as follows: Group I: sandblasting, group II: sandblasting + tribochemical silica coating + silane, group III: sandblasting + Nd:YAG (neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser. One specimen from each group was evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Specimens in each group were bonded either with conventional resin cement Variolink II or with a MDP containing resin cement Panavia F2.0. Subgroups of bonded specimens were stored in distilled water (37°C) for 24 hours or 14 days. Following water storage shear bond strength test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min in a universal test machine. Then statistical analyses were performed. Highest shear bond strength values were observed in group II. No significant difference between group I and III was found when Panavia F2.0 resin cement was used. When Variolink II resin cement was used group III showed significantly higher bond strength than group I. In group I, Panavia F2.0 resin cement showed statistically higher shear bond strength than Variolink II resin cement. In group II no significant difference was found between resin cements. No significant difference was found between specimens stored in 37°C distilled water for 24 hours and 14 days. In group I surface irregularities with sharp edges and grooves were observed. In group II less roughened surface was observed with silica particles. In group III surface microcracks

  18. In vitro study of fracture load and fracture pattern of ceramic crowns: a finite element and fractography analysis.

    PubMed

    Campos, Roberto Elias; Soares, Carlos José; Quagliatto, Paulo S; Soares, Paulo Vinícius; de Oliveira, Osmir Batista; Santos-Filho, Paulo Cesar Freitas; Salazar-Marocho, Susana M

    2011-08-01

    This in vitro study investigated the null hypothesis that metal-free crowns induce fracture loads and mechanical behavior similar to metal ceramic systems and to study the fracture pattern of ceramic crowns under compressive loads using finite element and fractography analyses. Six groups (n = 8) with crowns from different systems were compared: conventional metal ceramic (Noritake) (CMC); modified metal ceramic (Noritake) (MMC); lithium disilicate-reinforced ceramic (IPS Empress II) (EMP); leucite-reinforced ceramic (Cergogold) (CERG); leucite fluoride-apatite reinforced ceramic (IPS d.Sign) (SIGN); and polymer crowns (Targis) (TARG). Standardized crown preparations were performed on bovine roots containing NiCr metal dowels and resin cores. Crowns were fabricated using the ceramics listed, cemented with dual-cure resin cement, and submitted to compressive loads in a mechanical testing machine at a 0.5-mm/min crosshead speed. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests, and fractured specimens were visually inspected under a stereomicroscope (20×) to determine the type of fracture. Maximum principal stress (MPS) distributions were calculated using finite element analysis, and fracture origin and the correlation with the fracture type were determined using fractography. Mean values of fracture resistance (N) for all groups were: CMC: 1383 ± 298 (a); MMC: 1691 ± 236 (a); EMP: 657 ± 153 (b); CERG: 546 ± 149 (bc); SIGN: 443 ± 126 (c); TARG: 749 ± 113 (b). Statistical results showed significant differences among groups (p < 0.05) represented by different lowercase letters. Metal ceramic crowns presented fracture loads significantly higher than the others. Ceramic specimens presented high incidence of fractures involving either the core or the tooth, and all fractures of polymer crown specimens involved the tooth in a catastrophic way. Based on stress and fractographic analyses it was determined that fracture occurred from the occlusal to the cervical

  19. Effect of Resin Bonded Luting Agents Influencing Marginal Discrepancy in All Ceramic Complete Veneer Crowns.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Dhanraj; Sathyamoorthy, Anusha; Ranganathan, Hemalatha; Murthykumar, Karthikeyan

    2016-12-01

    Marginal discrepancy severely affects the long term success of All ceramic complete veneer crowns. The precise role of resin luting agents influencing this phenomenon needs to be explored further. To estimate and compare the marginal discrepancy in CAD/CAM processed All ceramic complete veneer crowns prior and following luting with resin bonded luting agents. Extracted human maxillary first premolars were randomly allocated into four groups of 27 samples each Viz., Group I-Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) (RelyX), Group II-Bis-GMA based dual cure resin cement (Variolink II), Group III-PMMA based resin cement (Superbond), Group IV- Urethane Dimethacrylate resin cement (Calibra). Following tooth preparation, CAD/CAM All ceramic complete veneer crowns were fabricated and sectioned and marginal discrepancy was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (TESCAN, Magnification power-1,00,000x) prior and after luting with the experimental resin cements. The vertical and horizontal discrepancy before and after cementation with Group I [270.08±103.10μm, 165.3±53.00μm and 270.86±102.70μm, 166.62±54.96μm respectively]; Group II [254.21±79.20μm, 117.75±24.29μm and 234.81±79μm, 116.89±18.22μm respectively]; Group III [272.47±86.25μm, 142.08±50.83μm and 251.82±62.69μm, 136.07±44.95μm respectively]; Group IV were [260.28±64.81μm, 116.98±17.71μm and 233.08±69.44μm, 116.58±21.13μm respectively]. ANOVA inferred a statistically significant difference between the four test specimen with regards to vertical and horizontal marginal discrepancy after cementation (F=9.092, p<0.001), (F=10.97, p<0.001). Tukey HSD Post-hoc test observed significant differences in vertical and horizontal marginal discrepancies between the resin modified glass ionomer and resin cements (p<0.05). Resin cements exhibited a greater reduction in the marginal discrepancy than the resin modified glass ionomer following luting in All ceramic complete veneer crowns. Hence

  20. Effect of Resin Bonded Luting Agents Influencing Marginal Discrepancy in All Ceramic Complete Veneer Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Sathyamoorthy, Anusha; Ranganathan, Hemalatha; Murthykumar, Karthikeyan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Marginal discrepancy severely affects the long term success of All ceramic complete veneer crowns. The precise role of resin luting agents influencing this phenomenon needs to be explored further. Aim To estimate and compare the marginal discrepancy in CAD/CAM processed All ceramic complete veneer crowns prior and following luting with resin bonded luting agents. Materials and Methods Extracted human maxillary first premolars were randomly allocated into four groups of 27 samples each Viz., Group I-Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) (RelyX), Group II-Bis-GMA based dual cure resin cement (Variolink II), Group III-PMMA based resin cement (Superbond), Group IV- Urethane Dimethacrylate resin cement (Calibra). Following tooth preparation, CAD/CAM All ceramic complete veneer crowns were fabricated and sectioned and marginal discrepancy was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (TESCAN, Magnification power-1,00,000x) prior and after luting with the experimental resin cements. Results The vertical and horizontal discrepancy before and after cementation with Group I [270.08±103.10μm, 165.3±53.00μm and 270.86±102.70μm, 166.62±54.96μm respectively]; Group II [254.21±79.20μm, 117.75±24.29μm and 234.81±79μm, 116.89±18.22μm respectively]; Group III [272.47±86.25μm, 142.08±50.83μm and 251.82±62.69μm, 136.07±44.95μm respectively]; Group IV were [260.28±64.81μm, 116.98±17.71μm and 233.08±69.44μm, 116.58±21.13μm respectively]. ANOVA inferred a statistically significant difference between the four test specimen with regards to vertical and horizontal marginal discrepancy after cementation (F=9.092, p<0.001), (F=10.97, p<0.001). Tukey HSD Post-hoc test observed significant differences in vertical and horizontal marginal discrepancies between the resin modified glass ionomer and resin cements (p<0.05). Conclusion Resin cements exhibited a greater reduction in the marginal discrepancy than the resin modified glass ionomer

  1. Fabrication of a metal-ceramic crown to fit an existing partial removable dental prosthesis using ceramic pressed to metal technique: a clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jae-Min

    2014-01-01

    Fabricating a crown to retrofit an existing abutment tooth for a partial removable dental prosthesis (PRDP) is one of the most time-consuming and labor-intensive clinical procedures. In particular, when the patient is concerned with esthetic aspects of restoration, the task of fabricating becomes more daunting. Many techniques for the fabrication of all-metallic or metal-ceramic crowns have been discussed in the literature. This article was aimed to describe a simple fabrication method in which a retrofitting crown was fabricated for a precise fit using a ceramic-pressed-to-metal system. PMID:25006389

  2. [Effect of SiO₂-ZrO₂slurry coating on surface performance of zirconia ceramic].

    PubMed

    Du, Qiao; Niu, Guangliang; Lin, Hong; Jiang, Ruodan

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of SiO₂-ZrO₂slurry coating on surface performance of zirconia ceramic. Seventy pre-sintered zirconia discs were randomly divided into seven groups with 10 discs per group. Sample discs in each group received one of the following seven different surface treatments, namely, sintered (group AS), sand blasting after sintered (group SB), coated with slurry of mole ratio of SiO₂to ZrO₂2:1 (group 2SiO₂-1ZrO₂), coated with slurry of mole ratio of SiO₂to ZrO₂1:1 (group 1SiO₂-1ZrO₂), coated with slurry of mole ratio of SiO₂to ZrO₂1:2 (group 1SiO₂-2ZrO₂), coated with slurry of mole ratio of SiO₂to ZrO₂1:3 (group 1SiO₂-3ZrO₂), coated with slurry of mole ratio of SiO₂to ZrO₂1:4 (group 1SiO₂-4ZrO₂). Profilometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze surface performance. The surface roughness of the discs in group AS was lower than those in the other groups [(0.33 ± 0.03) µm] (P < 0.05), there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) among group 2SiO₂-1ZrO₂[(3.85 ± 0.38) µm], group 1SiO₂-1ZrO₂[(3.78 ± 0.56) µm] and group 1SiO₂-2ZrO₂[(4.06 ± 0.48) µm], and no difference (P > 0.05) was observed between group 1SiO₂-3ZrO₂[(1.02 ± 0.09) µm] and group 1SiO₂-4ZrO₂[(1.53 ± 0.23) µm] either. However, surface roughness in all coating groups was higher than those in group SB [(0.86 ± 0.05) µm] (P < 0.05). According to the XRD pattern, group AS and all coating groups consisted of 100% tetragonal airconia and monoclinic zirconia was detected at surface of group SB. Contents of surface silicon of coating groups increased significantly, however, no silicon was detected at sample surface of group AS and group SB. SEM showed that zirconia grains of coating exposed since part of silicon was etched by hydrofluoric acid, a three-dimensional network of intergrain nano-spaces was created. Si

  3. Digital evaluation of absolute marginal discrepancy: A comparison of ceramic crowns fabricated with conventional and digital techniques.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shanshan; Yuan, Fusong; Luo, Xu; Yu, Zhuoren; Tang, Zhihui

    2018-04-05

    Marginal discrepancy is key to evaluating the accuracy of fixed dental prostheses. An improved method of evaluating marginal discrepancy is needed. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the absolute marginal discrepancy of ceramic crowns fabricated using conventional and digital methods with a digital method for the quantitative evaluation of absolute marginal discrepancy. The novel method was based on 3-dimensional scanning, iterative closest point registration techniques, and reverse engineering theory. Six standard tooth preparations for the right maxillary central incisor, right maxillary second premolar, right maxillary second molar, left mandibular lateral incisor, left mandibular first premolar, and left mandibular first molar were selected. Ten conventional ceramic crowns and 10 CEREC crowns were fabricated for each tooth preparation. A dental cast scanner was used to obtain 3-dimensional data of the preparations and ceramic crowns, and the data were compared with the "virtual seating" iterative closest point technique. Reverse engineering software used edge sharpening and other functional modules to extract the margins of the preparations and crowns. Finally, quantitative evaluation of the absolute marginal discrepancy of the ceramic crowns was obtained from the 2-dimensional cross-sectional straight-line distance between points on the margin of the ceramic crowns and the standard preparations based on the circumferential function module along the long axis. The absolute marginal discrepancy of the ceramic crowns fabricated using conventional methods was 115 ±15.2 μm, and 110 ±14.3 μm for those fabricated using the digital technique was. ANOVA showed no statistical difference between the 2 methods or among ceramic crowns for different teeth (P>.05). The digital quantitative evaluation method for the absolute marginal discrepancy of ceramic crowns was established. The evaluations determined that the absolute marginal discrepancies were

  4. Durability of resin cement bond to aluminium oxide and zirconia ceramics after air abrasion and laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Foxton, Richard M; Cavalcanti, Andrea N; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Pilecki, Peter; Sherriff, Martyn; Melo, Luciana; Watson, Timothy F

    2011-02-01

    The erbium laser has been introduced for cutting enamel and dentin and may have an application in the surface modification of high-strength aluminum oxide and zirconia ceramics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the durability of the bond of conventional dual-cured resin cements to Procera Al(2)O(3) and zirconium oxide ceramics after surface treatment with air abrasion and erbium laser. One hundred twenty Al(2)O(3) and 120 zirconia specimens measuring 3 × 3 × 0.7 mm(3) were divided equally into three groups, and their surfaces treated as follows: either untreated (controls), air abraded with Al(2)O(3) particles, or erbium-laser-treated at a power setting of 200 mJ. The surface of each specimen was then primed and bonded with one of two dual-cured resin cements (either SCP-100 Ceramic Primer and NAC-100 or Monobond S and Variolink II) using a 1-mm thick Tygon tube mold with a 0.75-mm internal bore diameter. After 24 hours and 6 months of water storage at 37°C, a microshear bond strength test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Surface morphology was examined using a confocal microscope, and failure modes were observed using an optical microscope. The data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier nonparametric survival analysis. In the case of zirconia, air abrasion and Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser treatment of the ceramic surface resulted in a significant reduction in the bond strengths of both resin cements after 6 months water storage; however, when the zirconia surface was left untreated, the SCP-100/NAC-100 group did not significantly reduce in bond strength. In the case of alumina, no treatment, air abrasion and Er:YAG laser treatment of the surface led to no significant reduction in the bond strengths of the three SCP-100/NAC-100 groups after 6 months water storage, whereas all three Monobond S/Variolink II groups showed a significant reduction. Er:YAG laser treatment of the zirconia surface did not result in a durable resin

  5. [Effect of sintering temperature on mechanical properties of dental zirconia toughened alumina ceramics].

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiang-Yuan; Lin, Ting-Ting; Hu, Fang-Xuan; Zheng, Rui-Bin; Fan, Fan; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of sintering temperature on mechanical properties of dental zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) ceramics prepared by gel-casting technique. The samples prepared by gel-casting were sintered at 1100, 1200, 1250, 1300 and 1400degrees centigrade for each group. The flexural strength, fracture toughness, Vickers hardness and brittleness index were obtained and microscopic morphology of each group was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 19.0 software package. The flexural strength, fracture toughness and Vickers hardness increased with the increasing sintering temperature during 1100~1400degrees centigrade. The lowest brittleness index (0.74±0.16) μm -1/2 was observed in group sintered at 1200degrees centigrade and the highest (2.76±0.14) μm -1/2 was at 1400degrees centigrade (P<0.05), while the flexural strength of these two groups was (46.89±3.24) MPa and (349.64±54.72) MPa, respectively. The ZTA dental ceramics exhibit good machinability with proper sintering temperature (1200degrees centigrade) and the strength meets the requirement of clinical application.

  6. Hygroscopic expansion of self-adhesive resin cements and the integrity of all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Magdalena; Matta, Ragai Edward; Belli, Renan; Lohbauer, Ulrich; Wichmann, Manfred; Petschelt, Anselm; Zorzin, José

    2018-04-27

    Low pH neutralization and subsequent remnant hydrophilicity can lead to hygroscopic expansion of self-adhesive resin cements (SARCs) after water storage. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of hygroscopic expansion of SARCs, used as luting and partial core build-up material, on integrity and cement gap thickness increase of all-ceramic CAD/CAM crowns. Human third molars (n=48) were prepared and anatomical all-ceramic CAD/CAM crowns were manufactured (VITABLOCS Mark II, VITA Zahnfabrik). Crowns internal surfaces were HF etched and silanized. The prepared teeth with their respective crowns were divided into 6 groups (n=8). In groups 1, 3 and 5 the coronal dentin was removed to simulate a partial core build-up. Groups 1 and 2 were luted with iCEM (Heraeus Kulzer), 3 and 4 with RelyX Unicem 2 Automix (3M), 5 and 6 with Variolink Esthetic DC (Ivoclar Vivadent). All specimens were dual cured and stored in distilled water at 37°C. Crown integrity was controlled at baseline and in regular intervals until 180 days. Cement gap thickness was measured using an optical 3D scanner (ATOS Triple scan, GOM) at baseline and after 180 days. Crown integrity was statistically analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and cement gap thickness increase using two-way ANOVA (α=0.05). After 180 days storage, crack formation was observed in all specimens of group 1 (mean survival time of 85.5 days), in one specimen of group 2 and in two specimens of group 4. Two-way ANOVA analysis revealed a statistically significant interaction between material type and build-up on cement gap size increase for iCEM. Within the limits of this study, the application of SARCs with low pH neutralization as partial build-up material under CAD/CAM crowns is not recommended for clinical use. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Zirconia in dentistry: part 2. Evidence-based clinical breakthrough.

    PubMed

    Koutayas, Spiridon Oumvertos; Vagkopoulou, Thaleia; Pelekanos, Stavros; Koidis, Petros; Strub, Jörg Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    An ideal all-ceramic restoration that conforms well and demonstrates enhanced biocompatibility, strength, fit, and esthetics has always been desirable in clinical dentistry. However, the inherent brittleness, low flexural strength, and fracture toughness of conventional glass and alumina ceramics have been the main obstacles for extensive use. The recent introduction of zirconia-based ceramics as a restorative dental material has generated considerable interest in the dental community, which has been expressed with extensive industrial, clinical, and research activity. Contemporary zirconia powder technology contributes to the fabrication of new biocompatible all-ceramic restorations with improved physical properties for a wide range of promising clinical applications. Especially with the development of computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems, high-strength zirconia frameworks can be viable for the fabrication of full and partial coverage crowns, fixed partial dentures, veneers, posts and/or cores, primary double crowns, implant abutments, and implants. Data from laboratory and clinical studies are promising regarding their performance and survival. However, clinical data are considered insufficient and the identified premature complications should guide future research. In addition, different zirconia-based dental auxiliary components (i.e., cutting burs and surgical drills, extra-coronal attachments and orthodontic brackets) can also be technologically feasible. This review aims to present and discuss zirconia manufacturing methods and their potential for successful clinical application in dentistry.

  8. CO2 and Nd:YAP laser interaction with lithium disilicate and Zirconia dental ceramics: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, Jean-Paul; Fornaini, Carlo; Brulat-Bouchard, Nathalie; Bassel Seif, Samy; Darque-Ceretti, Evelyne

    2014-04-01

    Lithium disilicate and Zirconia ceramics offer a high level of accuracy when used in prosthetic dentistry. Their bonding using different resins is highly dependent on micro-mechanical interlocking and adhesive chemical bonding. Investigation of the performances of high strength ceramics when their surface is modified for chemical and mechanical bonding is then required. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of using laser for surface treatment of different high strength CAD/CAM ceramics and thus to improve their mechanical and chemical properties. Thirty two CAD/CAM ceramic discs were divided into two different groups: lithium disilicate ceramics (IPS e.max CAD®, Ivoclar, Vivadent, Italy) and Zirconia ceramics (IPS e.max ZirCAD®, Ivoclar, Vivadent, Italy). The Laser surface treatment was performed by Carbon Dioxide laser (Dream Pulse Laser®, Daeshin Enterprise Corp., Korea) at 20 W, 25 W and 30 W CW and by Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite laser (Nd:YAP Lokki®, Lobel Medical, France) at 10 W and 30 Hz. Physical modifications of the irradiated ceramic discs were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemically analyzed by Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Surface wettability was tested using the water drop test and the crystalline structure was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The macroscopic observation showed a shinier structure in all the groups, while at the SEM observation only CO2 25 W and 30 W treated groups showed cracks and fissures. In the conditions of this study, CO2 laser and Nd:YAP laser with the parameters used create chemical and physical surface modifications of the ceramics, indicating the possibility of an improvement in adhesion of the tested ceramics.

  9. A prospective 10-year study of metal ceramic single crowns and fixed dental prosthesis retainers in private practice settings.

    PubMed

    Reitemeier, Bernd; Hänsel, Kristina; Kastner, Christian; Weber, Anke; Walter, Michael H

    2013-03-01

    Metal ceramic restorations are widely used in prosthodontics, but long-term data on their clinical performance in private practice settings based on prospective trials are sparse. This clinical trial was designed to provide realistic long-term survival rates for different outcomes related to tooth loss, crown loss, and metal ceramic defect. Ninety-five participants were provided with 190 noble metal ceramic single crowns and 138 participants with 276 fixed dental prosthesis retainer crowns on vital posterior teeth. Follow-up examinations were scheduled 2 weeks after insertion, annually up to 8 years, and after 10 years. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, Mantel-Cox logrank tests, and Cox regression analyses were conducted. Because of variations in the time of the last examinations, the maximum observation period was 12.1 years. For the primary outcome 'loss of crown or tooth', the Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 94.3% ±1.8% (standard error) at 8.0 years (last outcome event) for single crowns and 94.4% ±1.5% at 11.0 years for fixed dental prosthesis retainer crowns. The difference between the survival functions was not significant (P>.05). For the secondary outcome 'metal ceramic defect', the survival rate was 88.8% ±3.2% at 11.0 years for single crowns and 81.7% ±3.5% at 11.0 years for fixed dental prosthesis retainer crowns. In Cox regression models, the only significant covariates for the outcome event 'metal ceramic defect' were bruxism in the medical history (single crowns) and signs and symptoms of bruxism (fixed dental prosthesis retainer crowns) with hazard ratios of 3.065 (95% CI 1.063 - 8.832) and 2.554 (95% CI 1.307 - 4.992). Metal ceramic crowns provided in private practice settings show good longevity. Bruxism appears to indicate a risk for metal ceramic defects. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Post-fatigue fracture resistance of metal core crowns: press-on metal ceramic versus a conventional veneering system

    PubMed Central

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Campos-Estellés, Carlos; Labaig-Rueda, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the mechanical failure behavior and to analyze fracture characteristics of metal ceramic crowns with two veneering systems – press-on metal (PoM) ceramic versus a conventional veneering system – subjected to static compressive loading. Material and Methods Forty-six crowns were constructed and divided into two groups according to porcelain veneer manufacture. Group A: 23 metal copings with porcelain IPS-InLine veneering (conventional metal ceramic). Group B: 23 metal copings with IPS-InLine PoM veneering porcelain. After 120,000 fatigue cycles, the crowns were axially loaded to the moment of fracture with a universal testing machine. The fractured specimens were examined under optical stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscope. Results Fracture resistance values showed statistically significant differences (Student’s t-test) regarding the type of ceramic veneering technique (p=0.001): Group A (conventional metal ceramics) obtained a mean fracture resistance of 1933.17 N, and Group B 1325.74N (Press-on metal ceramics). The most common type of fracture was adhesive failure (with metal exposure) (p=0.000). Veneer porcelain fractured on the occlusal surface following a radial pattern. Conclusions Metal ceramic crowns made of IPS InLine or IPS InLine PoM ceramics with different laboratory techniques all achieved above-average values for clinical survival in the oral environment according to ISO 6872. Crowns made with IPS InLine by conventional technique resisted fracture an average of 45% more than IPS InLine PoM fabricated with the press-on technique. Key words:Mechanical failure, conventional feldspathic, pressable ceramic, chewing simulator, thermocycling, compressive testing, fracture types, scanning electron microscope. PMID:26155346

  11. Development of a clinically validated bulk failure test for ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J Robert; Rungruanganunt, Patchnee; Hunter, Ben; Vailati, Francesca

    2010-10-01

    Traditional testing of ceramic crowns creates a stress state and damage modes that differ greatly from those seen clinically. There is a need to develop and communicate an in vitro testing protocol that is clinically valid. The purpose of this study was to develop an in vitro failure test for ceramic single-unit prostheses that duplicates the failure mechanism and stress state observed in clinically failed prostheses. This article first compares characteristics of traditional load-to-failure tests of ceramic crowns with the growing body of evidence regarding failure origins and stress states at failure from the examination of clinically failed crowns, finite element analysis (FEA), and data from clinical studies. Based on this analysis, an experimental technique was systematically developed and test materials were identified to recreate key aspects of clinical failure in vitro. One potential dentin analog material (an epoxy filled with woven glass fibers; NEMA grade G10) was evaluated for elastic modulus in blunt contact and for bond strength to resin cement as compared to hydrated dentin. Two bases with different elastic moduli (nickel chrome and resin-based composite) were tested for influence on failure loads. The influence of water during storage and loading (both monotonic and cyclic) was examined. Loading piston materials (G10, aluminum, stainless steel) and piston designs were varied to eliminate Hertzian cracking and to improve performance. Testing was extended from a monolayer ceramic (leucite-filled glass) to a bilayer ceramic system (glass-infiltrated alumina). The influence of cyclic rate on mean failure loads was examined (2 Hz, 10 Hz, 20 Hz) with the extremes compared statistically (t test; α=.05). Failure loads were highly influenced by base elastic modulus (t test; P<.001). Cyclic loading while in water significantly decreased mean failure loads (1-way ANOVA; P=.003) versus wet storage/dry cycling (350 N vs. 1270 N). G10 was not significantly

  12. Developing porous ceramics on the base of zirconia oxide with thin and permeable pores by crystallization of organic additive method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamyshnaya, K. S.; Khabas, T. A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper porous ceramics on the base of ZrO2 nanopowders and micropowders has been developed by freeze-casting method. A zirconia/carbamide slurry was frozen in mold and dehydrated in CaCl2 at room temperature. This simple process enabled the formation of porous ceramics with highly aligned pores as a replica of the carbamide crystals. The samples showed higher porosity of 47.9%. In addition, these materials could be used as membrane for air cleaning.

  13. On the feasibility of the Chevron Notch Beam method to measure fracture toughness of fine-grained zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kailer, Andreas; Stephan, Marc

    2016-10-01

    The fracture toughness determination of fine-grained zirconia ceramics using the chevron notched beam method (CNB) was investigated to assess the feasibility of this method for quality assurance and material characterization. CNB tests were performed using four different yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramics under various testing modes and conditions, including displacement-controlled and load-rate-controlled four point bending to assess the influence of slow crack growth and identify most suitable test parameters. For comparison, tests using single-edge V-notch beams (SEVNB) were conducted. It was observed that the CNB method yields well-reproducible results. However, slow crack growth effects significantly affect the measured KIC values, especially when slow loading rates are used. To minimize the effect of slow crack growth, the application of high loading rates is recommended. Despite a certain effort needed for setting up a sample preparation routine, the CNB method is considered to be very useful for measuring and controlling the fracture toughness of zirconia ceramics. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Corrosion testing of zirconia, beryllia and magnesia ceramics in molten alkali metal carbonates at 900 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Valery; Bendikov, Tatyana; Feldman, Yishay; Gartsman, Konstantin; Wachtel, Ellen; Lubomirsky, Igor

    2016-01-01

    An electrochemical cell containing molten Li2CO3-Li2O at 900 °C has been proposed for the conversion of the greenhouse gas CO2 to CO for chemical energy storage. In the current work, we have examined the corrosion resistance of zirconia, beryllia and magnesia ceramics at 900 °C in the Li2CO3-Li2O and Li-Na-K carbonate eutectic mixtures to identify suitable electrically insulating materials. Conclusions regarding material stability were based on elemental analysis of the melt, primarily via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, a particularly sensitive technique. It was found that magnesia is completely stable for at least 33 h in a Li2CO3-Li2O melt, while a combined lithium titanate/lithium zirconate layer forms on the zirconia ceramic as detected by XRD. Under the same melt conditions, beryllia shows considerable leaching into solution. In a Li-Na-K carbonate eutectic mixture containing 10.2 mol% oxide at 900 °C under standard atmospheric conditions, magnesia showed no signs of degradation. Stabilization of the zirconia content of the eutectic mixture at 0.01-0.02 at% after 2 h is explained by the formation of a lithium zirconate coating on the ceramic. On the basis of these results, we conclude that only magnesia can be satisfactorily used as an insulating material in electrolysis cells containing Li2CO3-Li2O melts.

  15. [Chromatic study of all-ceramic crown--IPS Empress: difference of color by manufacturing technique and cements].

    PubMed

    Hata, Utako; Sadamitsu, Kenichiro; Yamamura, Osamu; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Fujii, Teruhisa

    2004-12-01

    In recent years,aesthetic appearance and function are called for and all-ceramic crowns are spreading. By choosing an all-ceramic crown the problem of metal ceramics is avoided. There are difficulties of color tone reproducibility of cervical margin and darkness of gingival margin. We examined IPS Empress also in various all-ceramic crowns. IPS Empress has high permeability a ceramic ingot of various color tones and excellent color tone reproducibility of natural teeth. Generally a layering technique is used for an anterior tooth and the staining technique is used for a molar. However the details are unknown We examined how differences of manufacturing method and cement affect the color tone of all ceramics clinically. Two kinds of Empress crown were fabricated for a 27 year-old woman's upper left-side central incisors:the staining technique of IPS Empress and the layering technique of IPS Empress II. Various try-in pastes(transparent opaque white white and yellow) of VariolinkII of the IPS Empress System were used for cementing. Color was measured using a spectrophotometer CMS 35FS. The L*a*b* color system was used for showing a color. The right-side central incisors on the opposite side of the same name teeth were used for comparison. We analyzed the color difference (DeltaE* ab)with a natural tooth. Consequently when it had no cement of staining technique and was tranceparent small values were obtained. It is considered that the color tone can be adjusted by color cement. It is effective to use the staining technique for an anterior tooth crown depending on the case. The crown manufactured using the layering technique is not easily influenced by cement. The crown manufactured by the staining technique tends to be influenced by cement.

  16. Impact of digital impression techniques on the adaption of ceramic partial crowns in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Oliver; Decker, Mike; Wittstock, Frank; Kuepper, Harald; Guentsch, Arndt

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the effects, digital impression procedures can have on the three-dimensional fit of ceramic partial crowns in vitro. An acrylic model of a mandibular first molar was prepared to receive a partial coverage all-ceramic crown (mesio-occlusal-distal inlay preparation with reduction of all cusps and rounded shoulder finish line of buccal wall). Digital impressions were taken using iTero (ITE), cara TRIOS (TRI), CEREC AC with Bluecam (CBC), and Lava COS (COS) systems, before restorations were designed and machined from lithium disilicate blanks. Both the preparation and the restorations were digitised using an optical reference-scanner. Data were entered into quality inspection software, which superimposed the records (best-fit-algorithm), calculated fit-discrepancies for every pixel, and colour-coded the results to aid visualisation. Furthermore, mean quadratic deviations (RMS) were computed and analysed statistically with a one-way ANOVA. Scheffé's procedure was applied for multiple comparisons (n=5, α=0.05). Mean marginal (internal) discrepancies were: ITE 90 (92) μm, TRI 128 (106) μm, CBC 146 (84) μm, and COS 109 (93) μm. Differences among impression systems were statistically significant at p<0.001 (p=0.039). Qualitatively, partial crowns were undersized especially around cusp tips or the occluso-approximal isthmus. By contrast, potential high-spots could be detected along the preparation finishline and at central occlusal boxes. Marginal and internal fit of milled lithium disilicate partial crowns depended on the employed digital impression technique. The investigated digital impression procedures demonstrated significant fit discrepancies. However, all fabricated restorations showed acceptable marginal and internal gap sizes, when considering clinically relevant thresholds reported in the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis and surface characterization of alumina-silica-zirconia nanocomposite ceramic fibres on aluminium at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak Ali, M.; Raj, V.

    2010-04-01

    Alumina-silica-zirconia nanocomposite (ASZNC) ceramic fibres were synthesized by conventional anodization route. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDAX) were used to characterize the morphology and crystalloid structure of ASZNC fibres. Current density (DC) is one of the important parameters to get the alumina-silica-zirconia nanocomposite (ASZNC) ceramic fibres by this route. Annealing of the films exhibited a drastic change in the properties due to improved crystallinity. The root mean square roughness of the sample observed from atomic force microscopic analysis is about 71.5 nm which is comparable to the average grain size of the coatings which is about 72 nm obtained from X-Ray diffraction. The results indicate that, the ASZNC fibres are arranged well in the nanostructure. The thickness of the coating increased with the anodizing time, but the coatings turned rougher and more porous. At the initial stage the growth of ceramic coating increases inwards to the metal substrate and outwards to the coating surface simultaneously. Subsequently, it mainly grows towards the metal substrate and the density of the ceramic coating increases gradually, which results in the decrease of the total thickness as anodizing time increases. This new approach of preparing ASZNC ceramic fibres may be important in applications ranging from gas sensors to various engineering materials.

  18. Dental implant customization using numerical optimization design and 3-dimensional printing fabrication of zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Chang; Lin, Deng-Huei; Jiang, Cho-Pei; Lin, Yuan-Min

    2017-05-01

    This study proposes a new methodology for dental implant customization consisting of numerical geometric optimization and 3-dimensional printing fabrication of zirconia ceramic. In the numerical modeling, exogenous factors for implant shape include the thread pitch, thread depth, maximal diameter of implant neck, and body size. Endogenous factors are bone density, cortical bone thickness, and non-osseointegration. An integration procedure, including uniform design method, Kriging interpolation and genetic algorithm, is applied to optimize the geometry of dental implants. The threshold of minimal micromotion for optimization evaluation was 100 μm. The optimized model is imported to the 3-dimensional slurry printer to fabricate the zirconia green body (powder is bonded by polymer weakly) of the implant. The sintered implant is obtained using a 2-stage sintering process. Twelve models are constructed according to uniform design method and simulated the micromotion behavior using finite element modeling. The result of uniform design models yields a set of exogenous factors that can provide the minimal micromotion (30.61 μm), as a suitable model. Kriging interpolation and genetic algorithm modified the exogenous factor of the suitable model, resulting in 27.11 μm as an optimization model. Experimental results show that the 3-dimensional slurry printer successfully fabricated the green body of the optimization model, but the accuracy of sintered part still needs to be improved. In addition, the scanning electron microscopy morphology is a stabilized t-phase microstructure, and the average compressive strength of the sintered part is 632.1 MPa. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Influence of Surface Conditioning Protocols on Reparability of CAD/CAM Zirconia-reinforced Lithium Silicate Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Al-Thagafi, Rana; Al-Zordk, Walid; Saker, Samah

    2016-01-01

    To test the effect of surface conditioning protocols on the reparability of CAD/CAM zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic compared to lithium-disilicate glass ceramic. Zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic (Vita Suprinity) and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic blocks (IPS e.max CAD) were categorized into four groups based on the surface conditioning protocol used. Group C: no treatment (control); group HF: 5% hydrofluoric acid etching for 60 s, silane (Monobond-S) application for 60 s, air drying; group HF-H: 5% HF acid etching for 60 s, application of silane for 60 s, air drying, application of Heliobond, light curing for 20 s; group CO: sandblasting with CoJet sand followed by silanization. Composite resin (Tetric EvoCeram) was built up into 4 x 6 x 3 mm blocks using teflon molds. All specimens were subjected to thermocycling (5000x, 5°C to 55°C). The microtensile bond strength test was employed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. SEM was employed for evaluation of all the debonded microbars, the failure type was categorized as either adhesive (failure at adhesive layer), cohesive (failure at ceramic or composite resin), or mixed (failure between adhesive layer and substrate). Two-way ANOVA and the Tukey's HSD post-hoc test were applied to test for significant differences in bond strength values in relation to different materials and surface pretreatment (p < 0.05). The highest microtensile repair bond strength for Vita Suprinity was reported in group CO (33.1 ± 2.4 MPa) and the lowest in group HF (27.4 ± 4.4 MPa). Regarding IPS e.max CAD, group CO showed the highest (30.5 ± 4.9 MPa) and HF the lowest microtensile bond strength (22.4 ± 5.7 MPa). Groups HF, HF-H, and CO showed statistically significant differences in terms of all ceramic types used (p < 0.05). The control group showed exclusively adhesive failures, while in HF, HF-H, and CO groups, mixed failures were predominant. Repair bond strength to zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate

  20. The Impact of Plasma Treatment of Cercon® Zirconia Ceramics on Adhesion to Resin Composite Cements and Surface Properties.

    PubMed

    Tabari, Kasra; Hosseinpour, Sepanta; Mohammad-Rahimi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, the use of ceramic base zirconia is considered in dentistry for all ceramic restorations because of its chemical stability, biocompatibility, and good compressive as well as flexural strength. However, due to its chemical stability, there is a challenge with dental bonding. Several studies have been done to improve zirconia bonding but they are not reliable. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of plasma treatment on bonding strength of zirconia. Methods: In this in vitro study, 180 zirconia discs' (thickness was 0.85-0.9 mm) surfaces were processed with plasma of oxygen, argon, air and oxygen-argon combination with 90-10 and 80-20 ratio (n=30 for each group) after being polished by sandblast. Surface modifications were assessed by measuring the contact angle, surface roughness, and topographical evaluations. Cylindrical Panavia f2 resin-cement and Diafill were used for microshear strength bond measurements. The data analysis was performed by SPSS 20.0 software and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test as the post hoc. Results: Plasma treatment in all groups significantly reduces contact angle compare with control ( P =0.001). Topographic evaluations revealed coarseness promotion occurred in all plasma treated groups which was significant when compared to control ( P <0.05), except argon plasma treated group that significantly decreased surface roughness ( P <0.05). In all treated groups, microshear bond strength increased, except oxygen treated plasma group which decreased this strength. Air and argon-oxygen combination (both groups) significantly increased microshear bond strength ( P <0.05). Conclusion: According to this research, plasmatic processing with dielectric barrier method in atmospheric pressure can increase zirconia bonding strength.

  1. [In vitro evaluation of low-temperature aging effects of Y2O3 stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals dental ceramics].

    PubMed

    Yi, Yuan-fu; Liu, Hong-chen; Wang, Chen; Tian, Jie-mo; Wen, Ning

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the influence of in vitro low-temperature degradation (LTD) treatment on the structural stability of 5 kinds of Y2O3 stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) dental ceramics. TZ-3YS powder was compacted at 200 MPa using cold isostatic pressure and pre-sintered at 1050 degrees C for 2 h forming presintered blocks. Specimens were sectioned into 15 mm x 15 mm x 1.5 mm slices from blocks of TZ-3YS, Vita In-Ceram YZ, Ivoclar, Cercon Smart, and Kavo Y-TZP presintered blocks, 18 slices for each brand, and then densely sintered. Specimens were divided into 6 groups and subjected to an accelerated aging test carried out in an autoclave in steam at 134 degrees C, 0.2 MPa, for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to identify crystal phases and relative content of monoclinic phase was calculated. Specimens for three-point bending test were fabricated using TZ-3YS ceramics according to the ISO 6872 standard and bending strength was tested before and after aging. The polished and aging specimens of TZ-3YS and Cercon Smart zirconia ceramics were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to evaluate surface microstructure. Tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation was detected for specimens of TZ-3YS, Vita In-Ceram YZ, Ivoclar, and Kavo zirconia ceramics except for Cercon Smart ceramics after aging, and the relative content of monoclinic phase was increasing with the prolonged aging time. TZ-3YS was the most affected material, Kavo took the second, and Vita and Ivoclar were similar. Aging had no significant negative effects on flexural strength of TZ-3YS with average bending strength being over 1100 MPa. The nucleation and growth of monoclinic phase were detected by AFM in surface of Cercon Smart zirconia in which monoclinic phase was not detected by XRD. The results suggest that LTD of dental Y-TZP is time dependent, but the aging test does not reduce the flexural strength of TZ-3YS. The long-term clinical serviceability of dental

  2. Failure analysis of various monolithic posterior aesthetic dental crowns using finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porojan, Liliana; Topală, Florin

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of material stiffness and load on the biomechanical performance of the monolithic full-coverage posterior aesthetic dental crowns using finite element analysis. Three restorative materials for monolithic dental crowns were selected for the study: zirconia; lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, and resin-based composite. Stresses were calculated in the crowns for all materials and in the teeth structures, under different load values. The experiments show that dental crowns made from all this new aesthetic materials processed by CAD/CAM technologies would be indicated as monolithic dental crowns for posterior areas.

  3. Effect of esthetic core shades on the final color of IPS Empress all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Azer, Shereen S; Ayash, Ghada M; Johnston, William M; Khalil, Moustafa F; Rosenstiel, Stephen F

    2006-12-01

    Clinically relevant assessment of all-ceramic crowns supported by esthetic composite resin foundations has not been evaluated with regard to color reproducibility. This in vitro study quantitatively evaluated the influence of different shades of composite resin foundations and resin cement on the final color of a leucite-reinforced all-ceramic material. A total of 128 disks were fabricated; 64 (20 x 1 mm) were made of all-ceramic material (IPS Empress) and 64 (20 x 4 mm) of 4 different shades composite resin (Tetric Ceram). The ceramic and composite resin disks were luted using 2 shades (A3 and Transparent) of resin cement (Variolink II). Color was measured using a colorimeter configured with a diffuse illumination/0-degree viewing geometry, and Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L( *)a( *)b( *) values were directly calculated. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed, and color differences (DeltaE) for the average L( *), a( *) and b( *) color parameters were calculated. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare mean values and SDs between the different color combinations (alpha=.05). The CIE L( *)a( *)b( *) color coordinate values showed no significant differences for variation in color parameters due to the effect of the different composite resin shades (P=.24) or cement shades (P=.12). The mean color difference (DeltaE) value between the groups was 0.8. Within the limitations of this study, the use of different shades for composite resin cores and resin cements presented no statistically significant effect on the final color of IPS Empress all-ceramic material.

  4. Influence of zirconia framework thickness on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic: measurement by hole-drilling.

    PubMed

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Schajer, Gary S; Vanheusden, Alain J; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2012-04-01

    Framework design is reported to influence chipping in zirconia-based restorations, which is an important cause of failure of such restorations. Residual stress profile in the veneering ceramic after the manufacturing process is an important predictive factor of the mechanical behavior of the material. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of framework thickness on the stress profile measured in zirconia-based structures. The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disc samples of 20mm diameter with a 1.5 mm thick veneering ceramic layer. Six different framework thicknesses from 0.5 mm to 3 mm were studied. Two different cooling procedures were also investigated. Compressive stresses were observed in the surface, and tensile stresses in the depth of most of the samples. The slow cooling procedure was found to promote the development of interior tensile stresses, except for the sample with a 3mm thick framework. With the tempering procedure, samples with a 1.5 mm thick framework exhibited the most favorable stress profile, while thicker and thinner frameworks exhibited respectively in surface or interior tensile stresses. The measurements performed highlight the importance of framework thickness, which determine the nature of stresses and can explain clinical failures encountered, especially with thin frameworks. The adequate ratio between veneering ceramic and zirconia is hard to define, restricting the range of indications of zirconia-based restorations until a better understanding of such a delicate veneering process is achieved. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical Marginal and Internal Adaptation of Maxillary Anterior Single All-Ceramic Crowns and 2-year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Akın, Aslı; Toksavul, Suna; Toman, Muhittin

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this randomized-controlled clinical trial were to compare marginal and internal adaptation of all-ceramic crowns fabricated with CAD/CAM and heat-pressed (HP) techniques before luting and to evaluate the clinical outcomes at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 months after luting. Fifteen CAD/CAM (CC) and 15 HP all-ceramic crowns were placed in 15 patients. A silicone replica was obtained to measure marginal and internal adaptation of each all-ceramic crown before luting, and they were sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally. Marginal and internal adaptations were measured using computerized light microscope at 40× magnification. Clinical evaluations took place at baseline (2 days after luting) and at 6, 12, and 24 months after luting. Replica scores were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U and Student's t-test (α = 0.05). Survival rate of crowns was determined using Kaplan-Meier statistical analysis. The median marginal gap for the CC group was 132.2 μm and was 130.2 μm for the HP group. The mean internal adaptation for the CC group was 220.3 ± 51.3 μm and 210.5 ± 31 μm for the HP group. There were no statistically significant differences with respect to marginal opening (Mann-Whitney U test; p = 0.95) and internal adaptation (Student's t-test; p = 0.535) between the 2 groups. Based on modified Ryge criteria, 100% of the crowns were rated satisfactory during the 2-year period. In this in vivo study, CAD/CAM and HP all-ceramic crowns exhibited similar marginal and internal adaptations. A 100% success rate was recorded for the 15 CAD/CAM and for the 15 HP all-ceramic crowns during the 2-year period. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. [Effects of different surface modifications on micro-structure and adhesion of zirconia ceramic: an in vitro study].

    PubMed

    Siwen, Li; Shishi, Li; Yanhong, Wang; Hongmei, Ma

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different mechanical-chemical surface treatments on the characteristics, microstructure, and composition of zirconia ceramics and on the zirconia-dentin adhesion. The sintered commercial zirconia blocks (IPS e.max ZirCAD) were sectioned into 126 beams (6 mm×6 mm×5 mm) and randomly assigned to seven experimental groups (n=18). The zirconia block specimens were further treated as follows: (A) untreated, as control; (B) sandblasted with 50 μm Al2O3; (C) sandblasted with 50 μm Al2O3+30 μm silica powder; (D) sandblasted with 50 μm Al2O3+30% silica-sol coating; (E) sandblasted with 110 μm Al2O3; (F) sandblasted with 110 μm Al2O3+30 μm silica powder; and (G) sandblasted with 110 μm Al2O3+30% silica-sol coating. The surface roughness (Ra) of zirconia ceramics using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) after seven surface treatments was analyzed. Seventy specimens of dentin surfaces were prepared. A dual-cure resin cement was applied into zirconia surfaces with its corresponding adhesive components to dentin. Shear bond strength (SBS) of each sample was measured using a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS 17.0 software. Ra of zirconia were significantly different compared with the control group (P<0.05). The crystalline transformation from tetragonal phase to monoclinic phase was observed after surface modification. Monoclinic volume content of the heat-treated group was highest than that in other groups. The content of element Si in the heat-treated group was higher than that in other treatment groups accompanied by a decrease in elements Zr, Y, and Hf after being treated by two silica-coating methods. Air abrasion significantly increased the micro-cracks in the ceramic surface and caused the grain boundaries to disappear. A serious shrinkage of the thin silica film can be observed after sintering procedure

  7. OCT evaluation of single ceramic crowns: comparison between conventional and chair-side CAD/CAM technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, A.; Jivanescu, A.; Zaharia, C.; Hategan, S.; Topala, F. I.; Levai, C. M.; Negrutiu, M. L.; Sinescu, C.; Duma, V.-F.; Bradu, A.; Podoleanu, A. Gh.

    2016-03-01

    Digital impressions were introduced to overcome some of the obstacles due to traditional impression materials and techniques. The aim of this in vitro study is to compare the accuracy of all ceramic crowns obtained with digital impression and CAD-CAM technology with the accuracy of those obtained with conventional impression techniques. Two groups of 10 crowns each have been considered. The digital data obtained from Group 1 have been processed and the all-ceramic crowns were milled with a CAD/CAM technology (CEREC MCX, Sirona). The all ceramic crowns in Group 2 were obtained with the classical technique of pressing (emax, Ivoclar, Vivadent). The evaluation of the marginal adaptation was performed with Time Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (TD OCT), working at a wavelength of 1300 nm. Tri-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the selected areas were obtained. Based on the findings in this study, one may conclude that the marginal accuracy of all ceramic crowns fabricated with digital impression and the CAD/CAM technique is superior to the conventional impression technique.

  8. Effect of fiber post length and abutment height on fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars prepared for zirconia crowns.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Shinya, Akikazu; Botelho, Michael George; Zheng, Zhiqiang

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture resistance, mode of fracture, and stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth prepared with three different fiber post lengths and two different abutment heights, using both experimental and finite element (FE) approaches. Forty-eight human maxillary premolars with two roots were selected and endodontically treated. The teeth were randomly distributed into six equally sized groups (n = 8) with different combinations of post lengths (7.5, 11, and 15 mm) and abutment heights (3 and 5 mm). All the teeth restored with glass fiber post (Rely X Fiber Post, 3M ESPE, USA) and a full zirconia crown. All the specimens were thermocycled and then loaded to failure at an oblique angle of 135°. Statistical analysis was performed for the effects of post length and abutment height on failure loads using ANOVA and Tukey's honestly significant difference test. In addition, corresponding FE models of a premolar restored with a glass fiber post were developed to examine mechanical responses. The factor of post length (P < 0.01) had a significant effect on failure load. The abutment height (P > 0.05) did not have a significant effect on failure load. The highest mean fracture resistance was recorded for the 15 mm post length and 5 mm abutment height test group, which was significantly more resistant to fracture than the 7.5 mm post and 5 mm abutment height group (P < 0.05). The FE analysis showed the peak compression and tension stress values of 7.5 mm post length were higher than that of 11 and 15 mm post length. The stress value of remaining tooth decreased as the post length was increased. Within the limitations of this experimental and FE analysis study, increasing the post length inside the root of endodontically treated premolar teeth restored with glass-fiber posts increase the fracture resistance to non-axial forces. Failure mode is more favorable with reduced abutment heights.

  9. Longevity of metal-ceramic crowns cemented with self-adhesive resin cement: a prospective clinical study

    PubMed

    Brondani, Lucas Pradebon; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Wandsher, Vinicius Felipe; Pereira, Gabriel Kalil; Valandro, Luis Felipe; Bergoli, César Dalmolin

    2017-04-10

    Resin cements are often used for single crown cementation due to their physical properties. Self-adhesive resin cements gained widespread due to their simplified technique compared to regular resin cement. However, there is lacking clinical evidence about the long-term behavior of this material. The aim of this prospective clinical trial was to assess the survival rates of metal-ceramic crowns cemented with self-adhesive resin cement up to six years. One hundred and twenty-nine subjects received 152 metal-ceramic crowns. The cementation procedures were standardized and performed by previously trained operators. The crowns were assessed as to primary outcome (debonding) and FDI criteria. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and descriptive analysis. Three failures occurred (debonding), resulting in a 97.6% survival rate. FDI criteria assessment resulted in scores 1 and 2 (acceptable clinical evaluation) for all surviving crowns. The use of self-adhesive resin cement is a feasible alternative for metal-ceramic crowns cementation, achieving high and adequate survival rates.

  10. Biomechanical comparison of the strength of adhesion of polymethylmethacrylate cement to zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chromium alloy components in a total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kumahashi, Nobuyuki; Uchio, Yuji; Kitamura, Nobuto; Satake, Shigeru; Iwamoto, Mikio; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the biomechanical characteristics of cement-material interfaces for the zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy femoral components used for total knee arthroplasty. In the first sub-study, we compared the strength of adhesion of the cement to flat plates, by tensile testing under dry and moistened conditions. In the second sub-study, we compared the maximum load of the cement-component complex by tensile testing. In the third sub-study, we compared the fatigue characteristics of the cement-component complex by use of a dynamic tensile testing machine. Under dry conditions, the maximum strength of adhesion to the zirconia ceramic plate was the same as that to the Co-Cr alloy plate. Under moistened conditions, however, the strength of adhesion to the zirconia ceramic plate was significantly lower (p = 0.0017) whereas the strength of adhesion to the Co-Cr alloy plate was not reduced. Maximum load for the cement-component complexes for zirconia ceramic and Co-Cr alloy was no different under both dry and moistened conditions. Fatigue testing showed that cement-zirconia adhesion was stronger than cement-Co-Cr alloy adhesion (p = 0.0161). The strength of adhesion of cement to zirconia ceramic is substantially weaker under wet conditions than under dry conditions. The mechanical properties of cement-zirconia ceramic component complexes and cement-Co-Cr alloy component complexes are equivalent.

  11. Enhancing the Bioactivity of Yttria-Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Ceramics via Grain-Boundary Activation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Jinhuan; He, Fupo; Ye, Jiandong

    2017-05-17

    Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) has been proposed as a potential dental implant because of its good biocompatibility, excellent mechanical properties, and distinctive aesthetic effect. However, Y-TZP cannot form chemical bonds with bone tissue because of its biological inertness, which affects the reliability and long-term efficacy of Y-TZP implants. In this study, to improve the bioactivity of Y-TZP ceramics while maintaining their good mechanical performance, Y-TZP was modified by grain-boundary activation via the infiltration of a bioactive glass (BG) sol into the surface layers of Y-TZP ceramics under different negative pressures (atmospheric pressure, -0.05 kPa, and -0.1 kPa), followed by gelling and sintering. The in vitro bioactivity, mechanical properties, and cell behavior of the Y-TZP with improved bioactivity were systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and Raman spectroscopy. The results of the bioactivity test conducted by immersing Y-TZP in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that a bonelike apatite layer was produced on the entire surface. The mechanical properties of the modified Y-TZP decreased as the negative pressure in the BG-infiltration process increased relative to those of the Y-TZP blank group. However, the samples infiltrated with the BG sol under -0.05 kPa and atmospheric pressure still retained good mechanical performance. The cell-culture results revealed that the bioactive surface modification of Y-TZP could promote cell adhesion and differentiation. The present work demonstrates that the bioactivity of Y-TZP can be enhanced by grain-boundary activation, and the bioactive Y-TZP is expected to be a potential candidate for use as a dental implant material.

  12. Influence of the veneer-framework interface on the mechanical behavior of ceramic veneers: a nonlinear finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Lazari, Priscilla Cardoso; Sotto-Maior, Bruno Salles; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; de Villa Camargos, Germana; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha

    2014-10-01

    The chipping of ceramic veneers is a common problem for zirconia-based restorations and is due to the weak interface between both structures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of ceramic veneers on zirconia and metal frameworks under 2 different bond-integrity conditions. The groups were created to simulate framework-veneer bond integrity with the crowns partially debonded (frictional coefficient, 0.3) or completely bonded as follows: crown with a silver-palladium framework cemented onto a natural tooth, ceramic crown with a zirconia framework cemented onto a natural tooth, crown with a silver-palladium framework cemented onto a Morse taper implant, and ceramic crown with a zirconia framework cemented onto a Morse taper implant. The test loads were 49 N applied to the palatal surface at 45 degrees to the long axis of the crown and 25.5 N applied perpendicular to the incisal edge of the crown. The maximum principal stress, shear stress, and deformation values were calculated for the ceramic veneer; and the von Mises stress was determined for the framework. Veneers with partial debonding to the framework (frictional coefficient, 0.3) had greater stress concentrations in all structures compared with the completely bonded veneers. The metal ceramic crowns experienced lower stress values than ceramic crowns in models that simulate a perfect bond between the ceramic and the framework. Frameworks cemented to a tooth exhibited greater stress values than frameworks cemented to implants, regardless of the material used. Incomplete bonding between the ceramic veneer and the prosthetic framework affects the mechanical performance of the ceramic veneer, which makes it susceptible to failure, independent of the framework material or complete crown support. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Deposition of crystalline hydroxyapatite nano-particle on zirconia ceramic: a potential solution for the poor bonding characteristic of zirconia ceramics to resin cement.

    PubMed

    Azari, Abbas; Nikzad, Sakineh; Yazdani, Arash; Atri, Faezeh; Fazel Anvari-Yazdi, Abbas

    2017-07-01

    The poor bonding strength of zirconia to different dental substrates is one of the challenging issues in restorative dentistry. Hydroxyapatite is an excellent biocompatible material with fine bonding properties. In this study, it was hypothesized that hydroxyapatite coating on zirconia would improve its bond strength. Forty-five zirconia blocks were prepared and randomly divided into three groups: hydroxyapatite coating, sandblasting, and no preparation (control). The blocks were bonded to cement and the micro-shear bond strength was measured following load application. The bond strength values were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test in 3 groups and paired comparisons were made using the Mann-Whitney U test. The failure patterns of the specimens were studied by a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope and then analyzed by the chi-square test (significance level = 0.05). Deposition of hydroxyapatite on the zirconia surface significantly improved its bond strength to the resin cement in comparison with the control specimens (p < 0.0001). Also, the bond strength was similar to the sandblasted group (p = 0.34). The sandblasted and control group only showed adhesive failure, but the hydroxyapatite coated group had mixed failures, indicating the better quality of bonding (p < 0.0001). As a final point, hydroxyapatite coating on the zirconia surface improved the bond strength quality and values.

  14. Shear Bond Strengths between Three Different Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Dental Materials and Veneering Ceramic and Their Susceptibility to Autoclave Induced Low-Temperature Degradation.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Manoti; Bhargava, Akshay; Gupta, Sharad; Gupta, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment as influencing the shear bond strength between three different commercially available zirconia core materials, namely, Upcera, Ziecon, and Cercon, layered with VITA VM9 veneering ceramic using Universal Testing Machine. The mode of failure between zirconia and ceramic was further analyzed as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed using stereomicroscope. X-ray diffraction and SEM (scanning electron microscope) analysis were done to estimate the phase transformation (m-phase fraction) and surface grain size of zirconia particles, respectively. The purpose of this study was to simulate the clinical environment by artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment so as the clinical function and nature of the bond between zirconia and veneering material as in a clinical trial of 15 years could be evaluated.

  15. The effect of luting media on the fracture resistance of a flame sprayed all-ceramic crown.

    PubMed

    Casson, A M; Glyn Jones, J C; Youngson, C C; Wood, D J

    2001-11-01

    This in vitro study investigated the effect of selected luting media on the fracture resistance of a flame-sprayed all-ceramic crown. Three groups of 10 human upper premolar teeth were prepared for crowning using a standardised technique. Flame sprayed crowns were fabricated and cemented onto the preparations using zinc phosphate (ZPC), glass polyalkenoate (GPC) or composite luting cement (CLC). During crown seating, a pressure perfusion system simulated pulpal fluid outflow equivalent to 300mm of H2O. Compressive fracture resistance was determined for each group using a Universal Testing Machine with a crosshead speed of 1mm min(-1). A group of unrestored teeth acted as a control. The fracture resistance of the groups ranked as follows: ZPC>CLC>GPC=unrestored teeth. The difference between the fracture resistance of ZPC and CLC groups and the control group was statistically significant. The mode of fracture between the luted crowns and natural crowns was markedly different. When tested in compression, a new, flame-sprayed all-ceramic crown, when luted in place using ZPC, GPC or CLC, could produce strengths comparable to or greater than natural unrestored teeth. The luting agent used significantly affected the recorded fracture loads.

  16. Clinical examination of leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic crowns (Empress) in general practice: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, G; Lantto, R; Granberg, A; Sundström, B O; Tillberg, A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate leucite reinforced-glass ceramic crowns (Empress) placed in patients who regularly visit general practices. One hundred ten Empress crowns, placed in 29 patients who visited a general practice on a regular basis, were evaluated according to the California Dental Association's (CDA) quality evaluation system. In addition, the occurrence of plaque and certain gingival conditions was evaluated. All crowns were luted with resin composite cement. The mean and median years in function for the crowns were 3.6 and 3.9 years, respectively. Based on the CDA criteria, 92% of the 110 crowns were rated "satisfactory." Eighty-six percent were given the CDA rating "excellent" for margin integrity. Fracture was registered in 6% of the 110 crowns. Of the remaining 103 crowns, the CDA rating excellent was given to 74% for anatomic form, 86% for color, and 90% for surface. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed regarding fracture rates between anterior and posterior crowns. With regard to the occurrence of plaque and bleeding on probing, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between the Empress crowns and the controls. Most of the fractured crowns had been placed on molars or premolars. Although the difference between anterior and posterior teeth was not statistically significant with respect to the fracture rates obtained, the number of fractured crowns placed on posterior teeth exceeded that of those placed on anterior teeth. The difference between the fracture rates may have clinical significance, and the risk of fracture has to be taken into consideration when placing crowns on teeth that are likely to be subjected to high stress levels.

  17. Comparison of three and four point bending evaluation of two adhesive bonding systems for glass-ceramic zirconia bi-layered ceramics.

    PubMed

    Gee, C; Weddell, J N; Swain, M V

    2017-09-01

    To quantify the adhesion of two bonding approaches of zirconia to more aesthetic glass-ceramic materials using the Schwickerath (ISO 9693-2:2016) three point bend (3PB) [1] test to determine the fracture initiation strength and strain energy release rate associated with stable crack extension with this test and the Charalamabides et al. (1989) [2] four point bend (4PB) test. Two glass-ceramic materials (VITABLOCS Triluxe forte, Vita Zahnfabrik, Germany and IPS.emax CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) were bonded to sintered zirconia (VITA InCeram YZ). The former was resin bonded using a dual-cure composite resin (Panavia F 2.0, Kuraray Medical Inc., Osaka, Japan) following etching and silane conditioning, while the IPS.emax CAD was glass bonded (IPS e.max CAD Crystall/Connect) during crystallization of the IPS.emax CAD. Specimens (30) of the appropriate dimensions were fabricated for the Schwickerath 3PB and 4PB tests. Strength values were determined from crack initiation while strain energy release rate values were determined from the minima in the force-displacement curves with the 3PB test (Schneider and Swain, 2015) [3] and for 4PB test from the plateau region of stable crack extension. Strength values for the resin and glass bonded glass ceramics to zirconia were 22.20±6.72MPa and 27.02±3.49MPa respectively. The strain energy release rates for the two methods used were very similar and for the glass bonding, (4PB) 15.14±5.06N/m (or J/m 2 ) and (3PB) 16.83±3.91N/m and resin bonding (4PB) 8.34±1.93N/m and (3PB) 8.44±2.81N/m respectively. The differences in strength and strain energy release rate for the two bonding approaches were statistically significant (p<0.05). SEM observations showed fracture occurred adhesively for the resin bonding and cohesively for the glass bonding. The present results indicate 3PB and 4PB tests have very similar values for the strain energy release rate determination. However while strength tests reveal minimal differences

  18. Retention of zirconium oxide ceramic crowns with three types of cement.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Rosario P; Johnson, Glen H; Phillips, Keith M; Raigrodski, Ariel J

    2006-08-01

    Information about the retentive strength of luting agents for zirconium oxide-based crowns is limited. It is unknown if this type of high-strength ceramic restoration requires adhesive cementation to enhance retention. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the ability of selected luting agents to retain a representative zirconium oxide ceramic crown under clinically simulated conditions. Recently extracted human molars were prepared with a flat occlusal surface, 20-degree taper, and approximately 4-mm axial length. The axial and occlusal surface areas were determined, and specimens were distributed equally by total surface area into 3 cementation groups (n=12). Zirconium oxide ceramic copings (Procera AllZirkon) with an occlusal bar to facilitate removal were fabricated using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. All copings were airborne-particle abraded with 50-mum Al(2)O(3) and then cleaned in an ultrasonic bath with isopropyl alcohol. Provisional cement was removed from the prepared teeth, followed by a pumice prophy. After trial insertion, the copings were cleaned with phosphoric acid, rinsed, dried, and dehydrated with isopropyl alcohol. They were then cemented with a seating force of 10 kg per tooth, using either a composite resin cement with adhesive agent (Panavia F 2.0 and ED Primer A & B [PAN]), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Rely X Luting [RXL]), or a self-adhesive modified composite resin (Rely X Unicem [RXU]). The cemented copings were thermal cycled at 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C for 5000 cycles with a 15 second dwell time, and then removed along the path of insertion using a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. The removal force was recorded, and the stress of dislodgement was calculated using the surface area of each preparation. A 1-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the data (alpha=.05). The nature of failure was also recorded. Mean dislodgement stresses were 5.1, 6.1, and

  19. Bulk and Interface Thermodynamics of Calcia-, and Yttria-doped Zirconia Ceramics: Nanograined Phase Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drazin, John Walter

    Calcia-, and yttria- doped zirconia powders and samples are essential systems in academia and industry due to their observed bulk polymorphism. Pure zirconia manifests as Baddeleyite, a monoclinic structured mineral with 7-fold coordination. This bulk form of zirconia has little application due to its asymmetry. Therefore dopants are added to the grain in-order to induce phase transitions to either a tetragonal or cubic polymorph with the incorporation of oxygen vacancies due to the dopant charge mis-match with the zirconia matrix. The cubic polymorph has cubic symmetry such that these samples see applications in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to the high oxygen vacancy concentrations and high ionic mobility at elevated temperatures. The tetragonal polymorph has slight asymmetry in the c-axis compared to the a-axis such that the tetragonal samples have increased fracture toughness due to an impact induced phase transformation to a cubic structure. These ceramic systems have been extensively studied in academia and used in various industries, but with the advent of nanotechnology one can wonder whether smaller grain samples will see improved characteristics similar to their bulk grain counterparts. However, there is a lack of data and knowledge of these systems in the nano grained region which provides us with an opportunity to advance the theory in these systems. The polymorphism seen in the bulk grains samples is also seen in the nano-grained samples, but at slightly distinct dopant concentrations. The current theory hypothesizes that a surface excess, gamma (J/m 2), can be added to the Gibbs Free energy equation to account for the additional free energy of the nano-grain atoms. However, these surface energies have been difficult to measure and therefore thermodynamic data on these nano-grained samples have been sparse. Therefore, in this work, I will use a well established water adsorption microcalorimetry apparatus to measure the water coverage isotherms

  20. Three-dimensional characterization and distribution of fabrication defects in bilayered lithium disilicate glass-ceramic molar crowns.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yutao; He, Zi-Hua; Dao, Li; Swain, Michael V; Zhang, Xin-Ping; Zhao, Ke

    2017-04-01

    To investigate and characterize the distribution of fabrication defects in bilayered lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LDG) crowns using micro-CT and 3D reconstruction. Ten standardized molar crowns (IPS e.max Press; Ivoclar Vivadent) were fabricated by heat-pressing on a core and subsequent manual veneering. All crowns were scanned by micro-CT and 3D reconstructed. Volume, position and sphericity of each defect was measured in every crown. Each crown was divided into four regions-central fossa (CF), occlusal fossa (OF), cusp (C) and axial wall (AW). Porosity and number density of each region were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed using Welch two sample t-test, Friedman one-way rank sum test and Nemenyi post-hoc test. The defect volume distribution type was determined based on Akaike information criterion (AIC). The core ceramic contained fewer defects (p<0.001) than the veneer layer. The size of smaller defects, which were 95% of the total, obeyed a logarithmic normal distribution. Region CF showed higher porosity (p<0.001) than the other regions. Defect number density of region CF was higher than region C (p<0.001) and region AW (p=0.029), but no difference was found between region CF and OF (p>0.05). Four of ten specimens contained the largest pores in region CF, while for the remaining six specimens the largest pore was in region OF. LDG core ceramic contained fewer defects than the veneer ceramic. LDG strength estimated from pore size was comparable to literature values. Large defects were more likely to appear at the core-veneer interface of occlusal fossa, while small defects also distributed in every region of the crowns but tended to aggregate in the central fossa region. Size distribution of small defects in veneer obeyed a logarithmic normal distribution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Three-year clinical performance of cast gold vs ceramic partial crowns.

    PubMed

    Federlin, M; Wagner, J; Männer, T; Hiller, K-A; Schmalz, G

    2007-12-01

    Cast gold partial crowns (CGPC) and partial ceramic crowns (PCC) are both accepted for restoring posterior teeth with extended lesions today. However, as esthetics in dentistry becomes increasingly important, CGPC are being progressively replaced by PCC. The aim of the present prospective split-mouth study was the comparison of the clinical performance of PCC and CGPC after 3 years of clinical service. Twenty-eight patients (11 men and 17 women) participated in the 3-year recall with a total of 56 restorations. In each patient, one CGPC (Degulor C) and one PCC (Vita Mark II ceramic/Cerec III) had been inserted at baseline. CGPC were placed using a zinc phosphate cement (Harvard); PCC were adhesively luted (Variolink II/Excite). All restorations were clinically assessed using modified US Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria at baseline, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years after insertion. Twenty-eight CGPC and 14 PCC were placed in molars, and 14 PCC were placed in premolars. Early data were reported previously under the same study design. After 3 years, the evaluation according to USPHS criteria revealed no statistically significant differences between both types of restorations with the exception of marginal adaptation and marginal discoloration: A statistically significant difference within the PCC group (baseline/3 years) was determined for the criterion marginal adaptation. For the 3-year recall period, overall failure was 0% for CGPC and 6.9% for PCC. At 3 years, PCC meet American Dental Association Acceptance Guidelines criteria for tooth-colored restorative materials for posterior teeth.

  2. Modified Y-TZP Core Design Improves All-ceramic Crown Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Silva, N.R.F.A.; Bonfante, E.A.; Rafferty, B.T.; Zavanelli, R.A.; Rekow, E.D.; Thompson, V.P.; Coelho, P.G.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that all-ceramic core-veneer system crown reliability is improved by modification of the core design. We modeled a tooth preparation by reducing the height of proximal walls by 1.5 mm and the occlusal surface by 2.0 mm. The CAD-based tooth preparation was replicated and positioned in a dental articulator for core and veneer fabrication. Standard (0.5 mm uniform thickness) and modified (2.5 mm height lingual and proximal cervical areas) core designs were produced, followed by the application of veneer porcelain for a total thickness of 1.5 mm. The crowns were cemented to 30-day-aged composite dies and were either single-load-to-failure or step-stress-accelerated fatigue-tested. Use of level probability plots showed significantly higher reliability for the modified core design group. The fatigue fracture modes were veneer chipping not exposing the core for the standard group, and exposing the veneer core interface for the modified group. PMID:21057036

  3. A Three-Year Retrospective Study on Survival of Ceramic-Veneered Zirconia (Y-TZP) Fixed Dental Prostheses Performed in Private Practices

    PubMed Central

    Norström Saarva, Veronika; Bjerkstig, Göran; Örtorp, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the three-year clinical outcome for ceramic-veneered zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Methods All patients who were treated with ceramic-veneered zirconia FDPs, in three private practices in Sweden, during the period June 2003 to April 2007 were included. Case records from 151 patients, treated with a total of 184 zirconia FDPs (692 units), were analysed for clinical data. All complications noted in the charts were registered and compared to definitions for success and survival and statistical analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and a Cox regression model. Results In total, 32 FDPs in 31 patients experienced some type of complication (17.4% of FDPs, 20.5% of patients). Core fractures occurred in two (1.1%) FDPs. Two (1.1%) FDPs or 0.6% of units showed adhesive veneer fractures. Cohesive veneer fractures occurred in 10 (5.4%) FDPs (1.6% of units). The three-year cumulative success and survival rates (CSR) were 82.3% and 95.2%, respectively. Conclusions Ceramic-veneered zirconia is a promising alternative to metal-ceramic FDPs, even in the posterior area. However, the higher survival rate of metal-ceramic FDPs should be noted and both dentists and patients must be aware of the risks of complications. PMID:28713427

  4. One-Piece Zirconia Ceramic versus Titanium Implants in the Jaw and Femur of a Sheep Model: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, A; Duncan, W J; De Silva, R K; Zafar, S

    2016-01-01

    Reports have documented titanium (Ti) hypersensitivity after dental implant treatment. Alternative materials have been suggested including zirconia (Zr) ceramics, which have shown predictable osseointegration in animal studies and appear free of immune responses. The aim of the research was to investigate the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) of one-piece Zr, compared with one-piece Ti implants, placed in the jaws and femurs of domestic sheep. Ten New Zealand mixed breed sheep were used. A One-piece prototype Ti (control) and one Zr (test) implant were placed in the mandible, and one of each implant (Ti and Zr) was placed into the femoral epicondyle of each animal. The femur implants were submerged and unloaded; the mandibular implants were placed using a one-stage transgingival protocol and were nonsubmerged. After a healing period of 12 weeks, %BIC was measured. The overall survival rate for mandibular and femur implants combined was 87.5%. %BIC was higher for Zr implants versus Ti implants in the femur (85.5%, versus 78.9%) ( p = 0.002). Zirconia implants in the mandible showed comparable %BIC to titanium implants (72.2%, versus 60.3%) ( p = 0.087). High failure rate of both Zr and Ti one-piece implants in the jaw could be attributed to the one-piece design and surface characteristics of the implant that could have influenced osseointegration. Further clinical trials are recommended to evaluate the performance of zirconia implants under loading conditions.

  5. One-Piece Zirconia Ceramic versus Titanium Implants in the Jaw and Femur of a Sheep Model: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, R. K.; Zafar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Reports have documented titanium (Ti) hypersensitivity after dental implant treatment. Alternative materials have been suggested including zirconia (Zr) ceramics, which have shown predictable osseointegration in animal studies and appear free of immune responses. The aim of the research was to investigate the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) of one-piece Zr, compared with one-piece Ti implants, placed in the jaws and femurs of domestic sheep. Ten New Zealand mixed breed sheep were used. A One-piece prototype Ti (control) and one Zr (test) implant were placed in the mandible, and one of each implant (Ti and Zr) was placed into the femoral epicondyle of each animal. The femur implants were submerged and unloaded; the mandibular implants were placed using a one-stage transgingival protocol and were nonsubmerged. After a healing period of 12 weeks, %BIC was measured. The overall survival rate for mandibular and femur implants combined was 87.5%. %BIC was higher for Zr implants versus Ti implants in the femur (85.5%, versus 78.9%) (p = 0.002). Zirconia implants in the mandible showed comparable %BIC to titanium implants (72.2%, versus 60.3%) (p = 0.087). High failure rate of both Zr and Ti one-piece implants in the jaw could be attributed to the one-piece design and surface characteristics of the implant that could have influenced osseointegration. Further clinical trials are recommended to evaluate the performance of zirconia implants under loading conditions. PMID:28058261

  6. Effects of Universal and Conventional MDP Primers on the Shear Bond Strength of Zirconia Ceramic and Nanofilled Composite Resin

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Shoale, Soodabe

    2018-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: The clinical success of ceramic depends on the quality of the bond between the zirconia and resin cement. Purpose: In the present study, the effects of universal and conventional MDP-containing primers were evaluated on the shear bond strength of zirconia ceramic and nanofilled composite resin. Materials and Method: Thirty blocks of zirconia ceramic (6mm×2mm) were prepared. Then the inner surfaces were air-abraded and divided into three groups (n= 10) as follows: untreated with primer (control group, I); All- Bond Universal (group II) and Z-Prime Plus (group III). The specimens in each group were bonded with Variolink N cement to cylinders of composite resin Z350XT. After 24 hour water storage, the shear bond strength test was performed with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1mm/ min and bond strength values (MPa) were calculated and analyzed with one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (p< 0.05). The failure mode of each specimen was evaluated under a stereomicroscope and representative specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: The mean shear bond strength values (MPa) were 7.58±1.62, 17.51±1.34 and 22.45±3.60 in groups I, II and III, respectively. These results indicated that the shear bond strength were significantly higher in groups II and III compared to the control group (p< 0.001). Chemical pre-treatment of zirconia with Z- Prime Plus revealed significantly higher bond strength than the All-Bond Universal adhesive (p< 0.002). All the failure modes were adhesive in the control group (I) and when using primer treatment, mixed failures occurred in 40% and 50% of specimens in groups II and III, respectively. Conclusion: Treatment with both primers resulted in higher bond strength values compared to the control group. The use of Z-Prime Plus treatment in combination with air-abrasion procedure resulted in the highest bond strength. PMID:29492416

  7. Effects of coronal substrates and water storage on the microhardness of a resin cement used for luting ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    de MENDONÇA, Luana Menezes; PEGORARO, Luiz Fernando; LANZA, Marcos Daniel Septímio; PEGORARO, Thiago Amadei; de CARVALHO, Ricardo Marins

    2014-01-01

    Composite resin and metallic posts are the materials most employed for reconstruction of teeth presenting partial or total destruction of crowns. Resin-based cements have been widely used for cementation of ceramic crowns. The success of cementation depends on the achievement of adequate cement curing. Objectives To evaluate the microhardness of Variolink® II (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), used for cementing ceramic crowns onto three different coronal substrate preparations (dentin, metal, and composite resin), after 7 days and 3 months of water storage. The evaluation was performed along the cement line in the cervical, medium and occlusal thirds on the buccal and lingual aspects, and on the occlusal surface. Material and Methods Thirty molars were distributed in three groups (N=10) according to the type of coronal substrate: Group D- the prepared surfaces were kept in dentin; Groups M (metal) and R (resin)- the crowns were sectioned at the level of the cementoenamel junction and restored with metallic cast posts or resin build-up cores, respectively. The crowns were fabricated in ceramic IPS e.max® Press (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and luted with Variolink II. After 7 days of water storage, 5 specimens of each group were sectioned in buccolingual direction for microhardness measurements. The other specimens (N=5) were kept stored in deionized water at 37ºC for three months, followed by sectioning and microhardness measurements. Results Data were first analyzed by three-way ANOVA that did not reveal significant differences between thirds and occlusal surface (p=0.231). Two-way ANOVA showed significant effect of substrates (p<0.001) and the Tukey test revealed that microhardness was significantly lower when crowns were cemented on resin cores and tested after 7 days of water storage (p=0.007). Conclusion The type of material employed for coronal reconstruction of preparations for prosthetic purposes may influence the cement properties

  8. Shear bond strength of a denture base acrylic resin and gingiva-colored indirect composite material to zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kubochi, Kei; Komine, Futoshi; Fushiki, Ryosuke; Yagawa, Shogo; Mori, Serina; Matsumura, Hideo

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the shear bond strengths of two gingiva-colored materials (an indirect composite material and a denture base acrylic resin) to zirconia ceramics and determine the effects of surface treatment with various priming agents. A gingiva-colored indirect composite material (CER) or denture base acrylic resin (PAL) was bonded to zirconia disks with unpriming (UP) or one of seven priming agents (n=11 each), namely, Alloy Primer (ALP), Clearfil Photo Bond (CPB), Clearfil Photo Bond with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator (CPB+Act), Metal Link (MEL), Meta Fast Bonding Liner (MFB), MR. bond (MRB), and V-Primer (VPR). Shear bond strength was determined before and after 5000 thermocycles. The data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test and Steel-Dwass test. The mean pre-/post-thermalcycling bond strengths were 1.0-14.1MPa/0.1-12.1MPa for the CER specimen and 0.9-30.2MPa/0.1-11.1MPa for the PAL specimen. For the CER specimen, the ALP, CPB, and CPB+Act groups had significantly higher bond strengths among the eight groups, at both 0 and 5000 thermocycles. For the PAL specimen, shear bond strength was significantly lower after thermalcycling in all groups tested. After 5000 thermocycles, bond strengths were significantly higher in the CPB and CPB+Act groups than in the other groups. For the PAL specimens, bond strengths were significantly lower after thermalcycling in all groups tested. The MDP functional monomer improved bonding of a gingiva-colored indirect composite material and denture base acrylic resin to zirconia ceramics. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Corrosion Testing of Zirconia, Beryllia and Magnesia Ceramics in Molten Alkali Metal Carbonates at 900°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Valery; Lubomirsky, Igor

    An electrochemical cell containing molten Li2CO3-Li2O has been proposed for the conversion of the greenhouse gas CO2 to CO, which can then either be used to power gas turbines or converted to methanol. Since efficient electrolysis takes place at 900°C, the materials which can be used in such a cell must satisfy stringent requirements. In the current work, we have examined the static corrosion resistance of zirconia, beryllia and magnesia ceramics at 900°C in the Li2CO3-Li2O mixture and in a Li-Na-K carbonate eutectic mixture with the ultimate objective of identifying suitable electrically insulating materials. Conclusions regarding material stability were based on elemental analysis of the melt, primarily via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, a particularly sensitive technique. It was found that magnesia is completely stable for at least 33 hrs in a Li2CO3-Li2O melt, while a combined lithium titanate/lithium zirconate layer forms on the zirconia ceramic as detected by XRD. Under the same melt conditions, beryllia shows considerable leaching into solution. In a Li-Na-K carbonate eutectic mixture containing 10.2 mol% oxide at 900°C under standard atmospheric conditions, magnesia showed no signs of degradation. Stabilization of the zirconia content of the eutectic mixture at 0.01-0.02 at% after 2 hrs is again explained by the formation of a lithium titanate/ lithium zirconate coating. On the basis of these results, we conclude that only magnesia can be satisfactorily used as an insulating material in electrolysis cells containing Li2CO3-Li2O melts.

  10. Laser all-ceramic crown removal and pulpal temperature--a laboratory proof-of-principle study.

    PubMed

    Rechmann, P; Buu, N C H; Rechmann, B M T; Finzen, F C

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this proof-of-principle laboratory pilot study was to evaluate the temperature increase in the pulp chamber in a worst case scenario during Er:YAG laser debonding of all-ceramic crowns. Twenty extracted molars were prepared to receive all-ceramic IPS E.max CAD full contour crowns. The crowns were bonded to the teeth with Ivoclar Multilink Automix. Times for laser debonding and temperature rise in the pulp chamber using micro-thermocouples were measured. The Er:YAG was used with 560 mJ/pulse. The irradiation was applied at a distance of 5 mm from the crown surface. Additional air-water spray for cooling was utilized. Each all-ceramic crown was successfully laser debonded with an average debonding time of 135 ± 35 s. No crown fractured, and no damage to the underlying dentin was detected. The bonding cement deteriorated, but no carbonization at the dentin/cement interface occurred. The temperature rise in the pulp chamber averaged 5.4° ± 2.2 °C. During 8 out of the 20 crown removals, the temperature rise exceeded 5.5 °C, lasting 5 to 43 s (average 18.8 ± 11.6 s). A temperature rise of 11.5 °C occurred only once, while seven times the temperature rise was limited to 6.8 ± 0.5 °C. Temperature rises above 5.5 °C occurred only when the laser was applied from one side and additional cooling from the side opposite the irradiation. Er:YAG laser energy can successfully be used to efficiently debond all-ceramic crowns from natural teeth. Temperature rises exceeding 5.5 °C only occur when an additional air/water cooling from a dental syringe is inaccurately directed. To avoid possible thermal damage and to allow further heat diffusion, clinically temperature-reduced water might be applied.

  11. Shear bond strength between an indirect composite layering material and feldspathic porcelain-coated zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Fushiki, Ryosuke; Komine, Futoshi; Blatz, Markus B; Koizuka, Mai; Taguchi, Kohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of both feldspathic porcelain coating of zirconia frameworks and priming agents on shear bond strength between an indirect composite material and zirconia frameworks. A total of 462 airborne-particle-abraded zirconia disks were divided into three groups: untreated disks (ZR-AB), airborne-particle-abraded zirconia disks coated with feldspathic porcelain, (ZR-PO-AB), and hydrofluoric acid-etched zirconia disks coated with feldspathic porcelain (ZR-PO-HF). Indirect composite (Estenia C&B) was bonded to zirconia specimens with no (CON) or one of four priming agents--Clearfil Photo Bond (CPB), Clearfil Photo Bond with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator (CPB + activator), Estenia Opaque primer, or Porcelain Liner M Liquid B (PLB)--with or without an opaque material (Estenia C&B Opaque). All specimens were tested for shear bond strength before and after 20,000 thermocycles. The Steel-Dwass test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare shear bond strength. In ZR-AB specimens, the initial bond strength of the CPB and CPB + Activator groups was significantly higher as compared with the other three groups (P < 0.05), whereas the PLB and CPB + Activator groups had the highest pre- and post-thermocycling bond strengths in ZR-PO-AB and ZR-PO-HF specimens. Among CON disks without opaque material, bond strength was significantly lower in ZR-AB specimens than in ZR-PO-AB and ZR-PO-HF specimens (P < 0.05). Feldspathic porcelain coating of a Katana zirconia framework enhanced the bond strength of Estenia C&B indirect composite to zirconia independent of surface treatment. The use of a silane coupling agent and opaque material yields durable bond strength between the indirect composite and feldspathic-porcelain-coated zirconia. The results of the present study suggest that feldspathic porcelain coating of zirconia frameworks is an effective method to obtain clinically acceptable bond strengths of a layering indirect

  12. Marginal adaptation of lithium disilicate ceramic crowns cemented with three different resin cements.

    PubMed

    Peroz, Ingrid; Mitsas, Triantafyllos; Erdelt, Kurt; Kopsahilis, Niko

    2018-04-17

    The cementation process and cementation materials have an influence on the marginal adaptation of restorations. The gap could be affected by thermal and mechanical loading (TCML). The computerized x-ray microtomography (μCT) method offers the possibility of measuring the marginal gap without destruction of the restoration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal gap (MG) and the absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD) before and after TCML. Thirty-nine human premolars were prepared for full ceramic crowns made of lithium disilicate. The crowns were cemented by three different resins-Panavia F 2.0, Variolink II, and Relyx Unicem. The MG and AMD were evaluated by μCT before and after TCML. Panavia F 2.0 had the lowest MG (before 118 μm-after TMCL 124 μm) and AMD (before 145 μm-after TMCL 154 μm), followed by Relyx Unicem (MG: before 164 μm-after TCML 155 μm; AMD: before 213 μm-after TMCL 209 μm) and Variolink II (MG: before 317 μm-after TMCL 320 μm; AMD: before 412 μm-after TMCL 406 μm). The differences were statistically significant before and after TCML. Rather than TCML, it appeared the resin cement was responsible for differences between the MG and AMD before and after TCML. μCT is an accurate technique for assessing cemented restorations. Panavia F 2.0 has the lowest MG and AMD before and after TCML. The resin material that features a three-step protocol (Variolink II) produced higher MG and AMG values than the Panavia or Relyx Unicem varieties with less or no intermediate steps at all.

  13. The bending stress distribution in bilayered and graded zirconia-based dental ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Fabris, Douglas; Souza, Júlio C.M.; Silva, Filipe S.; Fredel, Márcio; Mesquita-Guimarães, Joana; Zhang, Yu; Henriques, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biaxial flexural stresses in classic bilayered and in graded zirconia-feldspathic porcelain composites. A finite element method and an analytical model were used to simulate the piston-on-ring test and to predict the biaxial stress distributions across the thickness of the bilayer and graded zirconia-feldspathic porcelain discs. An axisymmetric model and a flexure formula of Hsueh et al. were used in the FEM and analytical analysis, respectively. Four porcelain thicknesses were tested in the bilayered discs. In graded discs, continuous and stepwise transitions from the bottom zirconia layer to the top porcelain layer were studied. The resulting stresses across the thickness, measured along the central axis of the disc, for the bilayered and graded discs were compared. In bilayered discs, the maximum tensile stress decreased while the stress mismatch (at the interface) increased with the porcelain layer thickness. The optimized balance between both variables is achieved for a porcelain thickness ratio in the range of 0.30–0.35. In graded discs, the highest tensile stresses were registered for porcelain rich interlayers (p=0.25) whereas the zirconia rich ones (p=8) yield the lowest tensile stresses. In addition, the maximum stresses in a graded structure can be tailored by altering compositional gradients. A decrease in maximum stresses with increasing values of p (a scaling exponent in the power law function) was observed. Our findings showed a good agreement between the analytical and simulated models, particularly in the tensile region of the disc. Graded zirconia-feldspathic porcelain composites exhibited a more favourable stress distribution relative to conventional bilayered systems. This fact can significantly impact the clinical performance of zirconia-feldspathic porcelain prostheses, namely reducing the fracture incidence of zirconia and the chipping and delamination of porcelain. PMID:28104926

  14. A comparison of the fabrication times of all-ceramic partial crowns: Cerec 3D vs IPS Empress.

    PubMed

    Gozdowski, S; Reich, S

    2009-01-01

    Apart from precision, the time factor plays a decisive role in the fabrication of all-ceramic dental restorations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare two all-ceramic systems with regard to the time required for the fabrication of partial crowns [MODB]. The null hypothesis tested was that the fabrication times of CAD/CAM generated partial crowns are shorter than the fabrication times of partial crowns manufactured in the laboratory. In sixteen model pairs mounted in the articulator, which corresponded to different clinical situations, tooth 36 was prepared for an all-ceramic partial crown [MODB]. With the Cerec3D method [CHAIR], the fabrication of the restoration was simulated directly on the "phantom patient". The IPS Empress system [LAB] was used forthe indirectfabrication method via an impression of the phantom patient. Both methods were used for each preparation. The adhesive luting procedure was not simulated and, therefore, not measured. The mean processing times [hh:mm:ss] were 00:35:05 (SD +/- 03:27 min) for the Cerec method and 04:17:54 (SD +/- 26:01 min) for the Empress method. The mean time on the phantom patient for process-induced activities was 11:47 minutes (SD +/- 02:08 min) for the Cerec method and 03:58 minutes (SD +/- 02:50 min) for the Empress method. Time expenditure for fabrication is only one aspect in order to assess the suitability of a restoration system. Both methods enable the dentist to provide high quality all ceramic restorations. Although the Empress method showed a time advantage of 65% during the fitting phase and occlusal grinding-in on the phantom patient in comparison to the Cerec method, the time spent during the laboratory phase has to be considered as well.

  15. Three-unit posterior zirconia-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) veneered with layered and milled (CAD-on) veneering ceramics: 1-year follow-up of a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Philipp; Bindl, Andreas; Hämmerle, Christoph; Mehl, Albert; Sailer, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial was to test posterior zirconia-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) veneered with a computer-aided design/computer- assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) lithium disilicate veneering ceramic (CAD-on) and manually layered zirconia veneering ceramic with respect to survival of the FDPs, and technical and biologic outcomes. Sixty patients in need of one posterior three-unit FDP were included. The zirconia frameworks were produced with a CAD/CAM system (Cerec inLab 3D/Cerec inEOS inLab). Thirty FDPs were veneered with a CAD/CAM lithium disilicate veneering ceramic (Cad-on) (test) and 30 were veneered with a layered zirconia veneering ceramic (control). For the clinical evaluation at baseline, 6, and 12 months, the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria were used. The biologic outcome was judged by comparing the plaque control record (PCR), bleeding on probing (BOP), and probing pocket depth (PPD). Data were statistically analyzed. Fifty-six patients were examined at a mean follow-up of 13.9 months. At the 1-year follow-up the survival rate was 100% in the test and in the control group. No significant differences of the technical outcomes occurred. Major chipping occurred in the control group (n = 3) and predominantly minor chipping in the test group (minor n = 2, major n = 1). No biologic problems or differences were found. Both types of zirconia-ceramic FDPs exhibited very good clinical outcomes without differences between groups. Chipping occurred in both types of FDPs at small amounts, yet the extension of the chippings differed. The test FDPs predominantly exhibited minor chipping, the control FDPs major chipping.

  16. Fracture load of ceramic restorations after fatigue loading.

    PubMed

    Baladhandayutham, Balasudha; Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2015-08-01

    A clinician must decide what ceramic coping and veneer material to prescribe based on the amount of tooth reduction possible and the desired esthetic outcome of the restoration. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the fracture strength of monolithic and bilayered lithium disilicate (IPS e.max) and zirconia (LAVA) crowns at clinically relevant thicknesses after load cycling. Crowns (n=8) were fabricated from 6 groups: 1.2-mm monolithic lithium disilicate, 1.5-mm monolithic lithium disilicate, 1.5-mm bilayered lithium disilicate with hand-layered veneer, 0.6 mm monolithic zirconia, 1.2-mm bilayered zirconia with hand-layered veneer, and 1.2-mm bilayered zirconia with milled veneer (dimension represents thickness at the occlusal pit). Crowns were cemented to identical milled resin dies with resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Cemented crowns were stored at 37°C for 24 hours and load cycled for 200,000 cycles at 25 N at a rate of 40 cycles/minute. The ultimate fracture load for each specimen was measured in a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with a 1-way ANOVA and Tukey honest significant difference post hoc analysis (α=.05). Mean ±SD fracture load values were 1465 ±330 N for monolithic lithium disilicate (1.2-mm thickness) and 2027 ±365 N (1.5-mm thickness) and 1732 ±315 N for bilayered hand-veneered lithium disilicate (1.5-mm thickness). Fracture loads were 1669 ±311 N for monolithic zirconia crowns (0.6mm thickness), 2625 ±300 N for zirconia milled-veneered (1.2-mm thickness), and 2655 ±590N for zirconia hand-veneered crowns (1.2mm thickness). One-way ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference among the groups (P<.01). Veneered zirconia crowns showed the highest fracture strength, 1.2-mm hand veneered zirconia was similar to that of 1.5-mm monolithic zirconia, and all other groups were not statistically different. Crowns of 1.2-mm bilayered zirconia had higher fracture loads than 0.6-mm zirconia or 1.2-mm lithium

  17. The effect of surface grinding and sandblasting on flexural strength and reliability of Y-TZP zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Kosmac, T; Oblak, C; Jevnikar, P; Funduk, N; Marion, L

    1999-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of grinding and sandblasting on the microstructure, biaxial flexural strength and reliability of two yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramics. Two Y-TZP powders were used to produce fine grained and coarse grained microstructures. Sixty discs from each material were randomly divided into six groups of ten. For each group, a different surface treatment was applied: dry grinding, wet grinding, sandblasting, dry grinding + sandblasting, sandblasting + dry grinding and a control group. Biaxial flexural strength was determined and data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's HSD test (p < 0.05). In addition, Weibull statistics was used to analyze the variability of flexural strength. The relative amount of transformed monoclinic zirconia, corresponding transformed zone depth (TZD) and the mean critical defect size Ccr were calculated. There was no difference in mean strength between the as sintered fine and coarse grained Y-TZP. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between the control group and ground fine grained material for both wet and dry grinding. Sandblasting significantly increased the strength in fine and coarse grained materials. All surface treatment procedures reduced the Weibull modulus of Y-TZP. For both materials, the highest amount of the monoclinic phase and the largest TZD was found after sandblasting. Lower amounts of the monoclinic phase were obtained after both grinding procedures, where the highest mean critical defect size Ccr was also calculated. Our results indicate that sandblasting may provide a powerful technique for strengthening Y-TZP in clinical practice. In contrast, grinding may lead to substantial strength degradation and reduced reliability of prefabricated zirconia elements, therefore, sandblasting of ground surfaces is suggested.

  18. Clinical marginal and internal adaptation of CAD/CAM milling, laser sintering, and cast metal ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Tamac, Ece; Toksavul, Suna; Toman, Muhittin

    2014-10-01

    Metal ceramic crowns are widely used in clinical practice, but comparisons of the clinical adaptation of restorations made with different processing techniques are lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical marginal and internal adaptation of metal ceramic crowns fabricated with 3 different techniques: computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) milling (CCM), direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), and traditional casting (TC). Twenty CCM, 20 DMLS, and 20 TC metal ceramic crowns were fabricated for 42 patients. Before luting the crowns, silicone replicas were obtained to measure marginal gap and internal adaptation that was evaluated at 3 regions: axial wall, axio-occlusal angle, and occlusal surface. Measurements were made with a reflected light binocular stereomicroscope at 20× magnification and analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Bonferroni post hoc test (α=.05). The mean marginal gap values were 86.64 μm for CCM, 96.23 μm for DMLS, and 75.92 μm for TC. The means at the axial wall region were 117.5 μm for the CCM group, 139.02 μm for the DMLS group, and 121.38 μm for the TC group. One-way ANOVA revealed no statistically significant differences among the groups for measurements at the marginal gap (P=.082) and the axial wall region (P=.114). The means at the axio-occlusal region were 142.1 μm for CCM, 188.12 μm for DMLS, and 140.63 μm for TC, and those at the occlusal surface region were 265.73 μm for CCM, 290.39 μm for DMLS, and 201.09 μm for TC. The mean values of group DMLS were significantly higher at the axio-occlusal region and the occlusal surface region than those of other groups (P<.05). CCM, DMLS and TC metal ceramic crowns performed similarly in terms of clinical marginal and axial wall adaptation. The cement film thickness at the occlusal region and axio-occlusal region were higher for DMLS crowns. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

  19. Effect of sandblasting, silica coating, and laser treatment on the microtensile bond strength of a dental zirconia ceramic to resin cements.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Nasrin; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Heidari, Solmaz; Khoshro, Kimia

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of laser irradiation as well as other surface treatment methods on the microtensile bond strength of a dental zirconia ceramic to the two types of resin cements. Zirconia ceramic blocks (ICE Zirkon) were sintered according to the manufacturer's instructions and duplicated in resin composites. The ceramic specimens were divided into four groups according to the following surface treatments: no surface treatment (control), sandblasting with alumina, silica coating plus silanization, and Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The specimens were divided equally and then bonded with Panavia F2.0 (self-etching resin cement) and Clearfil SA Luting (self-adhesive resin cement) to the composite blocks. The bonded ceramic-composite blocks were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 72 h, cut to prepare bar-shaped specimens with a bonding area of approximately 1 mm(2), and thermocycled for 3000 cycles between 5 and 55 °C, and the microtensile bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. The results showed that the self-adhesive resin cement used in this study did not improve the microtensile bond strength when the zirconia surface was sandblasted by alumina. The use of the Nd:YAG laser did not enhance the bond strength between the zirconia and both types of resin cements. In addition, silica coating of the zirconia surfaces plus silane application significantly improved the bond strength regardless of the type of resin cement utilized.

  20. Effect of phototherapy on shear bond strength of resin cements to zirconia ceramics: a systematic review and meta-analysis of in-vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Al-Aali, Khulud Abdulrahman

    2018-05-11

    The present study systematically reviewed the literature to investigate the effect of phototherapy on the shear bond strength (SBS) of resin cement to zirconia ceramic. electronic databases including MEDLINE (PubMed), ISI Web of Science, Scopus, ScIELO, LILACS and EMBASE until April 2018. The addressed focused question was: Does phototherapy increase the SBS of resin cement to zirconia ceramics?" A total of 8 in-vitro studies were included in the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The mean SBS for phototherapy ranged from 4.1 to 18.95 MPa while mean SBS for sandblasted zirconia-composite specimens ranged from 3.98 to 23.35 MPa in the included studies. Qualitative analysis showed 3 studies favoured application of phototherapy in significantly increasing SBS, while 4 studies indicated sandblasting showed significantly greater SBS of resin cement to zirconia ceramics. Considering the effects of phototherapy, significant heterogeneity for SBS (Q value = 136.37, p<0.0001, I 2  = 94.87%) was noticed among both the groups. The overall mean difference for SBS (SMD = -0.59, 95% CI = -1.99 to -0.80, p = 0.402) was not significant between phototherapy and sandblast (control) groups. Whether the effect of phototherapy on increasing the SBS of resin cement to zirconia ceramic is debatable. Further in-vitro studies should be performed in order to obtain strong conclusions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. [Translucency of dental zirconia ceramics sintered in conventional and microwave ovens].

    PubMed

    Yuemei, Jiang; Ying, Yang; Wenhui, Zhan; Guoxin, Hu; Qiuxia, Yang

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of microwave sintering on the translucency of zirconia and to compare these effect with those of conventional sintering. The relationship between the microstructure of specimens and translucency was investigated. A total of 10 disc-shaped specimens were fabricated from 2 commercial brands of zirconia, namely, Zenostar and Lava. Each group included 5 discs. Conventional sintering was performed according to the manufacturers' specifications. The maximum temperature for Zenostar was 1,490 °C, whereas that for Lava was 1,500 °C. The dwelling time was 2 h. The sintering temperature for microwave sintering was 1,420 °C, heating rate was 15 °C · min⁻¹, and dwelling time was 30 min. After sintering, the translucency parameter (TP) of the specimens were measured with ShadeEye NCC. The sintered density of the specimens was determined by Archimedes' method. The grain size and microstructure of the specimens were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Density and translucency slightly increased by microwave sintering, but no significant difference was found between microwave and conventional sintering (P > 0.05). Small and uniform microstructure were obtained from microwave sintering. The mean TP of Lava was significantly higher than that of Zenostar (P < 0.001). The translucency of zirconia sintered by microwave sintering is similar to that of the zirconia sintered by conventional sintering.

  2. Marginal and internal fit of CAD-CAM-fabricated composite resin and ceramic crowns scanned by 2 intraoral cameras.

    PubMed

    de Paula Silveira, Alessandra C; Chaves, Sacha B; Hilgert, Leandro A; Ribeiro, Ana Paula D

    2017-03-01

    The precision of fit of chairside computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) complete crowns is affected by digital impression and restorative material. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate by microcomputed tomography (μCT) the marginal and internal adaptation of composite resin and ceramic complete crowns fabricated with 2 different intraoral cameras and 2 restorative materials. Ten extracted human third molars received crown preparations. For each prepared molar, 2 digital impressions were made with different intraoral cameras of the CEREC system, Bluecam and Omnicam. Four groups were formed: LB (Lava Ultimate+Bluecam), EB (Emax+Bluecam), LO (Lava Ultimate+Omnicam), and EO (Emax+Omnicam). Before measuring the precision of fit, all crowns were stabilized with a silicone material. Each unit (crown + prepared tooth) was imaged with μCT, and marginal and internal discrepancies were analyzed. For the 2D analysis, 120 measurements were made of each crown for marginal adaptation, 20 for marginal discrepancy (MD), and 20 for absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD); and for internal adaptation, 40 for axial space (AS) and 40 for occlusal space (OS). After reconstructing the 3D images, the average internal space (AIS) was calculated by dividing the total volume of the internal space by the contact surface. Data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and quantile regression. Regarding marginal adaptation, no significant differences were observed among groups. For internal adaptation measured in the 2D evaluation, a significant difference was observed between LO and EO for the AS variable (Mann-Whitney test; P<.008). In assessment of AIS by the 3D reconstruction, LB presented significantly lower values than the other groups (Tukey post hoc test; P<.05). Bluecam presented lower values of AIS than Omnicam, and composite resin crowns showed less discrepancy than did ceramic crowns. The marginal adaptations assessed in all groups showed values within

  3. The effect of coloring liquid dipping time on the fracture load and color of zirconia ceramics

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The aims of the study were to evaluate the fracture load of zirconia core material after dipping in coloring liquid at different time intervals and to compare the color of dipped blocks with that of prefabricated shaded blocks. MATERIALS AND METHODS 3-unit bridge frameworks were designed digitally. Sixty frameworks were fabricated using uncolored zirconia blocks by CAD/CAM and divided into 4 groups randomly (n = 15). Group 2 (G2) was subjected to coloring liquids for 2 minutes, Group 4 (G4) for 4 minutes, and Group 6 (G6) for 6 minutes. CFS group was not subjected to any coloring procedure. After coloring, color differences between the test groups and a prefabricated shaded zirconia group (CPZ, n = 15) were evaluated by using a spectrophotometer. Fracture test was conducted immediately after shade evaluation with a Testometric test device at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/sec. Statistical analysis for evaluating color and fracture load was performed by using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test (P ≤ .05). Weibull analysis was conducted for distribution of fracture load. RESULTS There was no difference in terms of fracture load and color between CFS (1176.681 N) and G2 (985.638 N) group and between CPZ (81.340) and G2 (81.140) group, respectively. Fracture load values of G4 (779.340 N) and G6 (935.491 N) groups were statistically significantly lower than that of CFS group (P ≤ .005). The color values of G4 (79.340) and G6 (79.673) groups were statistically different than that of CPZ group (P ≤ .005). CONCLUSION Prolonged immersion of zirconia in coloring liquid not only negatively affected the fracture load of the zirconia being tested in the current study but also deteriorated the desired shade of the restoration. PMID:28243394

  4. Effect of different surface treatments on adhesion of In-Ceram Zirconia to enamel and dentin substrates.

    PubMed

    Saker, Samah; Ibrahim, Fatma; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2013-08-01

    Resin bonding of In-Ceram Zirconia (ICZ) ceramics is still a challenge, especially for minimally invasive applications. This study evaluated the adhesion of ICZ to enamel and dentin after different surface treatments of the ceramic. ICZ ceramic specimens (diameter: 6 mm; thickness: 2 mm) (N = 100) were fabricated following the manufacturer's instructions and randomly assigned to 5 groups (n = 20), according to the surface treatment methods applied. The groups were as follows: group C: no treatment; group SB: sandblasting; group SCS-S: CoJet+silane; group SCS-P: CoJet+Alloy Primer; group GE-S: glaze+ hydrofluoric acid etching (9.6%) for 60 s+silane. Each group was randomly divided into two subgroups to be bonded to either enamel or dentin (n = 10 per group) using MDP-based resin cement (Panavia F2.0). All the specimens were subjected to thermocycling (5000x, 5°C-55°C). The specimens were mounted in a universal testing machine and tensile force was applied to the ceramic/cement interface until failure occurred (1 mm/min). After evaluating all the debonded specimens under SEM, the failure types were defined as either "adhesive" with no cement left on the ceramic surface (score 0) or "mixed" with less than 1/2 of the cement left adhered to the surface with no cohesive failure of the substrate (score 1). The data were statistically evaluated using 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). The highest tensile bond strength for the enamel surfaces was obtained in group GE-S (18.1 ± 2 MPa) and the lowest in group SB (7.1 ± 1.4 MPa). Regarding dentin, group CSC-P showed the highest (12 ± 1.3 MPa) and SB the lowest tensile bond strength (5.7 ± 0.4 MPa). Groups SB, CSC-S, CSC-P, and GE-S did not show significant differences between the different surface treatments on either enamel or dentin surfaces (p < 0.05, p < 0.001, respectively). Groups CSC-P and GE-S presented similar bond strength for both the enamel and dentin substrates (p < 0.8 and p < 0.9), respectively

  5. Characterization and surface treatment effects on topography of a glass-infiltrated alumina/zirconia-reinforced ceramic.

    PubMed

    Della Bona, Alvaro; Donassollo, Tiago A; Demarco, Flávio F; Barrett, Allyson A; Mecholsky, John J

    2007-06-01

    Characterize the microstructure, composition and some physical properties of a glass-infiltrated alumina/zirconia-reinforced ceramic (IZ) and the effect of surface treatment on topography. IZ ceramic specimens were fabricated according to ISO6872 instructions and polished through 1 microm alumina abrasive. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered imaging (BSI), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and stereology. The elastic modulus (E) and Poisson's ratio (nu) were determined using ultrasonic waves, and the density (rho) using a helium pycnometer. The following ceramic surface treatments were used: AP-as-polished; HF-etching with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid for 90 s; SB-sandblasting with 25 microm aluminum oxide particles for 15s and SC-blasting with 30 microm aluminum oxide particles modified by silica (silica coating) for 15s. An optical profilometer was used to examine the surface roughness (Ra) and SEM-EDS were used to measure the amount of silica after all treatments. The IZ mean property values were as follows: rho=4.45+/-0.01 g/cm(3); nu=0.26 and E=245 GPa. Mean Ra values were similar for AP- and HF-treated IZ but significantly increased after either SC or SB treatment (pceramic. Treating IZ with either SB or SC produced greater Ra values and the SC showed a significant increase in the surface concentration of silica, which may enhance bonding to resin via silane coupling.

  6. Fracture resistance of glazed, full-contour ZLS incisor crowns.

    PubMed

    Schwindling, Franz Sebastian; Rues, Stefan; Schmitter, Marc

    2017-07-01

    To compare the failure behaviour of zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (Celtra Duo, DeguDent) with that of lithium disilicate (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) and feldspar (Mark II, VITA) ceramics. Three groups of sixteen glazed maxillary incisor crowns were produced. The inner surfaces of the crowns were etched, then luted to metal dies with self-adhesive cement. Single load-to-failure tests were performed before and after thermo-mechanical ageing. To simulate clinical conditions, the specimens were thermocycled (10,000 cycles between 6.5°C and 60°C) and underwent chewing simulation (1,200,000 cycles, F max =86N). Statistical analyses were performed by use of non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Before ageing, all the monolithic incisor crowns fractured at test forces >285N. Mean fracture loads were highest for zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (725N, SD 162N), slightly lower for lithium disilicate (701N, SD 276N), and lowest for feldspar (554N, SD 190N). The differences between the results were not statistically significant. After ageing, fracture resistance decreased for all materials except zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate. Mean fracture loads were highest for zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (766N, SD 98N) and significantly lower for both lithium disilicate (485N, SD 64N) and feldspar (372N, SD 116N). Monolithic restorations fabricated from zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate retain high fracture resistance after extensive thermo-mechanical ageing. This preclinical study suggests that cohesive failures of monolithic anterior crowns produced of these ceramics will not be a major problem in dental practice. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of imaging powder and CAD/CAM stone types on the marginal gap of zirconia crowns.

    PubMed

    Alghazzawi, Tariq F; Al-Samadani, Khalid H; Lemons, Jack; Liu, Perng-Ru; Essig, Milton E; Bartolucci, Alfred A; Janowski, Gregg M

    2015-02-01

    To compare the marginal gap using different types of die stones and titanium dies with and without powders for imaging. A melamine tooth was prepared and scanned using a laboratory 3-shape scanner to mill a polyurethane die, which was duplicated into different stones (Jade, Lean, CEREC) and titanium. Each die was sprayed with imaging powders (NP, IPS, Optispray, Vita) to form 15 groups. Ten of each combination of stone/titanium and imaging powders were used to mill crowns. A light-bodied impression material was injected into the intaglio surface of each crown and placed on the corresponding die. Each crown was removed, and the monophase material was injected to form a monophase die, which was cut into 8 sections. Digital images were captured using a stereomicroscope to measure marginal gap. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the particle size and shape of imaging powders and stones. Marginal gaps ranged from mean (standard deviation) 49.32 to 1.20 micrometers (3.97-42.41 μm). There was no statistical difference (P > .05) in the marginal gap by any combination of stone/titanium and imaging powders. All of the imaging powders had a similar size and rounded shape, whereas the surface of the stones showed different structures. When a laboratory 3-shape scanner is used, all imaging powders performed the same for scanning titanium abutments. However, there was no added value related to the use of imaging powder on die stone. It is recommended that the selection of stone for a master cast be based on the hysical properties. When a laboratory 3-shape scanner is used, the imaging powder is not required for scanning die stone. Whenever scanning titanium implant abutments, select the least expensive imaging powder. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Innovations in bonding to zirconia based ceramics: Part III. Phosphate monomer resin cements.

    PubMed

    Mirmohammadi, Hesam; Aboushelib, Moustafa N M; Salameh, Ziad; Feilzer, Albert J; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J

    2010-08-01

    To compare the bond strength values and the ranking order of three phosphate monomer containing resin cements using microtensile (microTBS) and microshear (microSBS) bond strength tests. Zirconia discs (Procera Zirconia) were bonded to resin composite discs (Filtek Z250) using three different cements (Panavia F 2.0, RelyX UniCem, and Multilink). Two bond strength tests were used to determine zirconia resin bond strength; microtensile bond strength test (microTBS) and microshear bond strength test (microSBS). Ten specimens were tested for each group (n=10). Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data (alpha=0.05). There were statistical significant differences in bond strength values and in the ranking order obtained using the two test methods. microTBS reported significant differences in bond strength values, whereas microSBS failed to detect such effect. Both Multilink and Panavia demonstrated basically cohesive failure in the resin cement while RelyX UniCem demonstrated interfacial failure. Based on the findings of this study, the data obtained using either microTBS or microSBS could not be directly compared. microTBS was more sensitive to material differences compared to microSBS which failed to detect such differences. Copyright 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Ceramic Deposition on SS430 Ferritic Steel Grown by PLD - Pulsed Laser Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid Rivai, Abu; Mardiyanto; Agusutrisno; Suharyadi, Edi

    2017-01-01

    Development of high temperature materials are one of the key issues for the deployment of advanced nuclear reactors due to higher temperature operation. One of the candidate materials for that purpose is ceramic-coated ferritic steel that one of the functions is to be a thermal barrier coating (TBC). Thin films of YSZ (Ytrria-Stabilized Zirconia) ceramic have been deposited on a SS430 ferritic steel using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) at Center For Science and Technology of Advanced Materials laboratory - National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN). The thin film was deposited with the chamber pressure range of 200-225 mTorr, the substrate temperature of 800oC, and the number of laser shots of 3×104, 6×104 and 9×104. Afterward, the samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscope (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Vickers hardness tester. The results showed that the YSZ could homogeneously and sticky deposited on the surface of the ferritic steel. The surfaces were very smoothly formed with the surface roughness was in the range of 70 nm. Furthermore, thickness, composition of Zr4+ dan Y3+, the crystallinity, and hardness property was increased with the increasing the number of the shots.

  10. Evaluation of marginal and internal gaps of metal ceramic crowns obtained from conventional impressions and casting techniques with those obtained from digital techniques.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rathika; Kumar, S Arun; Prabhu, R; Govindan, Ranjani Thillai; Tanveer, Faiz Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Accuracy in fit of cast metal restoration has always remained as one of the primary factors in determining the success of the restoration. A well-fitting restoration needs to be accurate both along its margin and with regard to its internal surface. The aim of the study is to evaluate the marginal fit of metal ceramic crowns obtained by conventional inlay casting wax pattern using conventional impression with the metal ceramic crowns obtained by computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique using direct and indirect optical scanning. This in vitro study on preformed custom-made stainless steel models with former assembly that resembles prepared tooth surfaces of standardized dimensions comprised three groups: the first group included ten samples of metal ceramic crowns fabricated with conventional technique, the second group included CAD/CAM-milled direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) crowns using indirect scanning, and the third group included DMLS crowns fabricated by direct scanning of the stainless steel model. The vertical marginal gap and the internal gap were evaluated with the stereomicroscope (Zoomstar 4); post hoc Turkey's test was used for statistical analysis. One-way analysis of variance method was used to compare the mean values. Metal ceramic crowns obtained from direct optical scanning showed the least marginal and internal gap when compared to the castings obtained from inlay casting wax and indirect optical scanning. Indirect and direct optical scanning had yielded results within clinically acceptable range.

  11. Evaluation of marginal and internal fit of ceramic and metallic crown copings using x-ray microtomography (micro-CT) technology.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Manuel Antonio; Frasca, Luis Carlos; Lopes, Ricardo; Rivaldo, Elken

    2015-08-01

    Prosthetic crown fit to the walls of the tooth preparation may vary depending on the material used for crown fabrication. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal and internal fit of crown copings fabricated from 3 different materials. The selected materials were zirconia (ZirkonZahn system, group Y-TZP), lithium disilicate (IPS e.max Press system, group LSZ), and nickel-chromium alloy (lost-wax casting, group NiCr). Five specimens of each material were seated on standard dies. An x-ray microtomography (micro-CT) device was used to obtain volumetric reconstructions of each specimen. Points for fit measurement were located in Adobe Photoshop, and measurements were obtained in the CTAn SkyScan software environment. Marginal fit was measured at 4 points and internal fit at 9 points in each coping. Mean measurements from the 3 groups were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) at the 5% significance level, and between-group differences were assessed with the Tukey range test. The nickel-chromium alloy exhibited the best marginal fit overall, comparable with zirconia and significantly different from lithium disilicate. Lithium disilicate exhibited the lowest mean values for internal fit, similar to zirconia and significantly different from the nickel-chrome alloy. The marginal and internal fit parameters of the 3 tested materials were within clinically acceptable range. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of self-adhesive resin cement bond strength to yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic (Y-TZP) using four surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Miragaya, Luciana; Maia, Luciane Cople; Sabrosa, Carlos Eduardo; de Goes, Mário Fernando; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the influence of four surface treatments on the bond strength of a self-adhesive resin cement to an yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramic material (Lava Frame zirconia). Forty plates (8 x 6 x 1 mm) of a Y-TZP ceramic restorative material were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10) according to the surface treatments: control, no treatment; airborne-particle abrasion with 50-μm Al2O3; coating with an MDP-based primer; conditioning with Rocatec System. The ceramic plates treated with each of the four methods were further divided into 2 subgroups according to the resin cement tested: RelyXTM ARC (ARC, conventional) and RelyXTM Unicem (Ucem, self-adhesive). The resin cements were put into PVC tubes (diameter 0.75 mm, 0.5 mm height) placed on the ceramic plate surfaces. After water storage at 37°C for 24 h, the specimens were submitted to a microshear bond strength (μSBS) test at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. The surface treatments significantly influenced the μSBS (p < 0.05). For the four surface treatments, UCem presented significantly higher μSBS than ARC (p < 0.05). For both resin cements, the best result was produced by the MDP-based primer: ARC 15.9 ± 5.0 MPa and UCem 36.2 ± 2.1 MPa. The highest μSBS values were presented by UCem on ceramic plates treated with the MDP-based primer (36.2 ± 2.1 MPa) and Rocatec system (37.4 ± 2.3 MPa). Irrespective of the surface treatment, the self-adhesive resin cement performed better in terms of bond strength to yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic than did conventional resin cement.

  13. Fracture load of metal-ceramic, monolithic, and bi-layered zirconia-based posterior fixed dental prostheses after thermo-mechanical cycling.

    PubMed

    López-Suárez, Carlos; Castillo-Oyagüe, Raquel; Rodríguez-Alonso, Verónica; Lynch, Christopher D; Suárez-García, María-Jesús

    2018-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the fracture load of differently fabricated 3-unit posterior fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with an intermediate pontic. Fifty sets of two stainless-steel abutments were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 10 each) depending on the material and technique used for manufacturing the FDPs: (1) Metal-ceramic (MC, control); (2) Lava Zirconia (LZ, bi-layered); (3) Lava Plus (LM, monolithic); (4) VITA In-Ceram YZ (YZ, bi-layered); and (5) IPS e-max ZirCAD (ZZ, bi-layered). After being luted to the dies, all FDPs were submitted to thermo-mechanical cycling (120,000 masticatory cycles, 50 N; plus 774 thermal cycles of 5 °C/55 °C, dwell time: 30 s). Samples were then subjected to a three-point bending test until fracture in a universal testing machine (cross-head speed: 1 mm/min). Fracture load of the veneering ceramic (VF) and total fracture load (TF) were recorded. Microstructure and failure patterns were assessed. Data was analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests (α = 0.05). MC restorations recorded higher VF and TF values than did zirconia FDPs (p = 0.0001), which showed no between-group differences. Within the bi-layered groups, TF was significantly higher than VF. LM pieces registered lower average grain size than did LZ specimens (p = 0.001). Overall, the connector was the weakest part. All of the groups tested could withstand clinical chewing forces in terms of average fracture load. Zirconia-based samples performed similarly to each other, but showed lower mean fracture load values than did metal-ceramic ones. Monolithic zirconia may be recommendable for solving the chipping problem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The strength of sintered and adhesively bonded zirconia/veneer-ceramic bilayers.

    PubMed

    Costa, Anna Karina F; Borges, Alexandre Luiz S; Fleming, Garry James P; Addison, Owen

    2014-10-01

    Recently all-ceramic restorative systems have been introduced that use CAD/CAM technology to fabricate both the Y-TZP core and veneer-ceramic layers. The aim was to identify whether the CAD/CAM approach resulted in more favourable stressing patterns in the veneer-ceramic when compared with a conventionally sintered Y-TZP core/veneer-ceramic. Nominally identical Vita VM9 veneer-ceramic disc-shaped specimens (0.7mm thickness, 12mm diameter) were fabricated. 20 specimens received a surface coating of resin-cement (Panavia 21); 20 specimens were bonded with the resin-cement to fully sintered Y-TZP (YZ Vita Inceram Vita) discs (0.27mm thickness, 12mm diameter). A final series of 20 Y-TZP core/veneer-ceramic specimens were manufactured using a conventional sintering route. Biaxial flexure strength was determined in a ball-on-ring configuration and stress at the fracture origin calculated using multilayer closed-form analytical solutions. Fractography was undertaken using scanning electron microscopy. The experimental test was simulated using Finite Element Analysis. Group mean BFS were compared using a one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests at a 95% significance level. Resin cement application resulted in significant strengthening of the veneer-ceramic and further significant strengthening of the veneer-ceramic (p<0.01) occurred following bonding to the Y-TZP core. The BFS calculated at the failure origin for conventionally sintered specimens was significantly reduced when compared with the adhesively bonded Y-TZP/veneer-ceramic. Under the test conditions employed adhesive cementation between CAD/CAM produced Y-TZP/veneer-ceramic layers appears to offer the potential to induce more favourable stress states within the veneer-ceramic when compared with conventional sintered manufacturing routes. The current investigation suggests that the stressing patterns that arise in all-ceramic restorations fabricated using CAD/CAM for both the core and veneer-ceramic layers differ

  15. Fracture toughness improvements of dental ceramic through use of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin-film coatings.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ryan N; Stoner, Brian R; Thompson, Jeffrey Y; Scattergood, Ronald O; Piascik, Jeffrey R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate strengthening mechanisms of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin film coatings as a viable method for improving fracture toughness of all-ceramic dental restorations. Bars (2mm×2mm×15mm, n=12) were cut from porcelain (ProCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) blocks and wet-polished through 1200-grit using SiC abrasive. A Vickers indenter was used to induce flaws with controlled size and geometry. Depositions were performed via radio frequency magnetron sputtering (5mT, 25°C, 30:1 Ar/O2 gas ratio) with varying powers of substrate bias. Film and flaw properties were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Flexural strength was determined by three-point bending. Fracture toughness values were calculated from flaw size and fracture strength. Data show improvements in fracture strength of up to 57% over unmodified specimens. XRD analysis shows that films deposited with higher substrate bias displayed a high %monoclinic volume fraction (19%) compared to non-biased deposited films (87%), and resulted in increased film stresses and modified YSZ microstructures. SEM analysis shows critical flaw sizes of 67±1μm leading to fracture toughness improvements of 55% over unmodified specimens. Data support surface modification of dental ceramics with YSZ thin film coatings to improve fracture toughness. Increase in construct strength was attributed to increase in compressive film stresses and modified YSZ thin film microstructures. It is believed that this surface modification may lead to significant improvements and overall reliability of all-ceramic dental restorations. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of thermal expansion mismatch on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic layered on zirconia: Measurement by hole-drilling.

    PubMed

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Najjar, Achref; Jakubowicz-Kohen, Boris D; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2015-09-01

    Mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient between core and veneering ceramic (Δα=αcore-αveneer, ppm/°C) is reported as a crucial parameter influencing veneer fractures with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal (Y-TZP) prostheses, which still constitutes a misunderstood problem. However, the common positive Δα concept remains empirical. The objective of this study is to investigate the Δα dependence of residual stress profiles in veneering ceramic layered on Y-TZP frameworks. The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disc samples of 20mm diameter with a 0.7mm thick Y-TZP framework and a 1.5mm thick veneer layer. 3 commercial and 4 experimental veneering ceramics (n=3 per group) were used to obtain different Δα varying from -1.3ppm/°C to +3.2ppm/°C, which were determined by dilatometric analyses. Veneer fractures were observed in samples with Δα≥+2.3 or ≤-0.3ppm/°C. Residual stress profiles measured in other groups showed compressive stresses in the surface, these stresses decreasing with depth and then becoming more compressive again near the interface. Small Δα variations were shown to induce significant changes in residual stress profiles. Compressive stress near the framework was found to decrease inversely to Δα. Veneer CTE close to Y-TZP (+0.2ppm/°C Δα) gived the most favorable stress profile. Yet, near the framework, Δα-induced residual stress varied inversely to predictions. This could be explained by the hypothesis of structural changes occurrence within the Y-TZP surface. Consequently, the optimum Δα value cannot be determined before understanding Y-TZP's particular behavior when veneered. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fracture resistance of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing ceramic crowns cemented on solid abutments.

    PubMed

    Stona, Deborah; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2015-07-01

    Because no information was found in the dental literature regarding the fracture resistance of all-ceramic crowns using CEREC (Sirona) computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) system on solid abutments, the authors conducted a study. Sixty synOcta (Straumann) implant replicas and regular neck solid abutments were embedded in acrylic resin and randomly assigned (n = 20 per group). Three types of ceramics were used: feldspathic, CEREC VITABLOCS Mark II (VITA); leucite, IPS Empress CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent); and lithium disilicate, IPS e.max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent). The crowns were fabricated by the CEREC CAD-CAM system. After receiving glaze, the crowns were cemented with RelyX U200 (3M ESPE) resin cement under load of 1 kilogram. For each ceramic, one-half of the specimens were subjected to the fracture resistance testing in a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 millimeter per minute, and the other half were subjected to the fractured resistance testing after 1,000,000 cyclic fatigue loading at 100 newtons. According to a 2-way analysis of variance, the interaction between the material and mechanical cycling was significant (P = .0001). According to a Tukey test (α = .05), the fracture resistance findings with or without cyclic fatigue loading were as follows, respectively: CEREC VITABLOCKS Mark II (405 N/454 N) was statistically lower than IPS Empress CAD (1169 N/1240 N) and IPS e.max CAD (1378 N/1025 N) (P < .05). The IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD did not differ statistically (P > .05). According to a t test, there was no statistical difference in the fracture resistance with and without cyclic fatigue loading for CEREC VITABLOCS Mark II and IPS Empress CAD (P > .05). For IPS e.max CAD, the fracture resistance without cyclic fatigue loading was statistically superior to that obtained with cyclic fatigue loading (P < .05). The IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD showed higher fracture resistance compared with CEREC

  18. Time-dependent fracture probability of bilayer, lithium-disilicate-based, glass-ceramic, molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation.

    PubMed

    Anusavice, Kenneth J; Jadaan, Osama M; Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine F

    2013-11-01

    Recent reports on bilayer ceramic crown prostheses suggest that fractures of the veneering ceramic represent the most common reason for prosthesis failure. The aims of this study were to test the hypotheses that: (1) an increase in core ceramic/veneer ceramic thickness ratio for a crown thickness of 1.6mm reduces the time-dependent fracture probability (Pf) of bilayer crowns with a lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic core, and (2) oblique loading, within the central fossa, increases Pf for 1.6-mm-thick crowns compared with vertical loading. Time-dependent fracture probabilities were calculated for 1.6-mm-thick, veneered lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation in the central fossa area. Time-dependent fracture probability analyses were computed by CARES/Life software and finite element analysis, using dynamic fatigue strength data for monolithic discs of a lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic core (Empress 2), and ceramic veneer (Empress 2 Veneer Ceramic). Predicted fracture probabilities (Pf) for centrally loaded 1.6-mm-thick bilayer crowns over periods of 1, 5, and 10 years are 1.2%, 2.7%, and 3.5%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 1.0 (0.8mm/0.8mm), and 2.5%, 5.1%, and 7.0%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 0.33 (0.4mm/1.2mm). CARES/Life results support the proposed crown design and load orientation hypotheses. The application of dynamic fatigue data, finite element stress analysis, and CARES/Life analysis represent an optimal approach to optimize fixed dental prosthesis designs produced from dental ceramics and to predict time-dependent fracture probabilities of ceramic-based fixed dental prostheses that can minimize the risk for clinical failures. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  19. Time-dependent fracture probability of bilayer, lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation

    PubMed Central

    Anusavice, Kenneth J.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Esquivel–Upshaw, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports on bilayer ceramic crown prostheses suggest that fractures of the veneering ceramic represent the most common reason for prosthesis failure. Objective The aims of this study were to test the hypotheses that: (1) an increase in core ceramic/veneer ceramic thickness ratio for a crown thickness of 1.6 mm reduces the time-dependent fracture probability (Pf) of bilayer crowns with a lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic core, and (2) oblique loading, within the central fossa, increases Pf for 1.6-mm-thick crowns compared with vertical loading. Materials and methods Time-dependent fracture probabilities were calculated for 1.6-mm-thick, veneered lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation in the central fossa area. Time-dependent fracture probability analyses were computed by CARES/Life software and finite element analysis, using dynamic fatigue strength data for monolithic discs of a lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic core (Empress 2), and ceramic veneer (Empress 2 Veneer Ceramic). Results Predicted fracture probabilities (Pf) for centrally-loaded 1,6-mm-thick bilayer crowns over periods of 1, 5, and 10 years are 1.2%, 2.7%, and 3.5%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 1.0 (0.8 mm/0.8 mm), and 2.5%, 5.1%, and 7.0%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 0.33 (0.4 mm/1.2 mm). Conclusion CARES/Life results support the proposed crown design and load orientation hypotheses. Significance The application of dynamic fatigue data, finite element stress analysis, and CARES/Life analysis represent an optimal approach to optimize fixed dental prosthesis designs produced from dental ceramics and to predict time-dependent fracture probabilities of ceramic-based fixed dental prostheses that can minimize the risk for clinical failures. PMID:24060349

  20. Influence of Abutment Design on Stiffness, Strength, and Failure of Implant-Supported Monolithic Resin Nano Ceramic (RNC) Crowns.

    PubMed

    Joda, Tim; Huber, Samuel; Bürki, Alexander; Zysset, Philippe; Brägger, Urs

    2015-12-01

    Recent technical development allows the digital manufacturing of monolithic reconstructions with high-performance materials. For implant-supported crowns, the fixation requires an abutment design onto which the reconstruction can be bonded. The aim of this laboratory investigation was to analyze stiffness, strength, and failure modes of implant-supported, computer-assisted design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-generated resin nano ceramic (RNC) crowns bonded to three different titanium abutments. Eighteen monolithic RNC crowns were produced and loaded in a universal testing machine under quasi-static condition according to DIN ISO 14801. With regard to the type of titanium abutment, three groups were defined: (1) prefabricated cementable standard; (2) CAD/CAM-constructed individualized; and (3) novel prefabricated bonding base. Stiffness and strength were measured and analyzed statistically with Wilcoxon rank sum test. Sections of the specimens were examined microscopically. Stiffness demonstrated high stability for all specimens loaded in the physiological loading range with means and standard deviations of 1,579 ± 120 N/mm (group A), 1,733 ± 89 N/mm (group B), and 1,704 ± 162 N/mm (group C). Mean strength of the novel prefabricated bonding base (group C) was 17% lower than of the two other groups. Plastic deformations were detectable for all implant-abutment crown connections. Monolithic implant crowns made of RNC seem to represent a feasible and stable prosthetic construction under laboratory testing conditions with strength higher than the average occlusal force, independent of the different abutment designs used in this investigation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Evaluation of the surface roughness of zirconia ceramics after different surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Kirmali, Omer; Akin, Hakan; Kapdan, Alper

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of different mechanical surface treatments of pre-sintered zirconium oxide (ZrO2) in an attempt to improve its bonding potential. One hundred and twenty IPS e-max ZirCAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) pre-sintered zirconia blocks (7 mm diameter, 3 mm height) received six different surface treatments (n = 20): Group C was untreated (control); Group E was Er:YAG laser irradiated; Group N was Nd:YAG laser irradiated; Group SB was sandblasted, Group SN was sandblasted and Nd:YAG laser irradiated; and Group SE was sandblasted and Er:YAG laser irradiated. After the surface treatments, the average surface roughness (Ra, µm) of each specimen was determined with a profilometer, then all the specimens were sintered. The surface roughness values were analysed through one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Changes in the morphological characteristics of ZrO2 were examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sintered sandblasted, Er:YAG laser treatment, sandblasted + Er:YAG laser and sandblasted + Nd:YAG laser irradiation resulted in a rougher surface than the other treatments. Nd:YAG laser irradiation alone was not effective in altering the zirconia surface morphology.

  2. Chairside Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacture All-Ceramic Crown and Endocrown Restorations: A 7-Year Survival Rate Study.

    PubMed

    Fages, Michel; Raynal, Jacques; Tramini, Paul; Cuisinier, Frédéric Jg; Durand, Jean-Cédric

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the clinical outcomes of 447 monoblock ceramic chairside computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) reconstructions over a 7-year functional period. Of these reconstructions, 212 were peripheral crowns and 235 were endocrowns. The restorations were placed between 2003 and 2008 in a total of 323 patients. They were created using a chairside CAD/CAM method and the same materials in all cases. All of the crowns were manufactured and glued during the same clinical session by the same practitioner. Data were descriptively analyzed and survival probabilities were calculated using Kaplan-Meier statistics. Of the 447 restorations, only 6 failures occurred, resulting in a success rate of 98.66%. All of the failures were the result of a partial ceramic fracture. Of the six ceramic fractures, five appeared on peripheral crowns and one on an endocrown. All fractures appeared in the first 24 months, including two in the first month. Log-rank test comparing incidence rates between crowns and endocrowns showed no significant differences (P = .08). This survival rate study reinforced the use of CAD/CAM full ceramic crowns and endocrowns on molars, showing a much more favorable survival rate for endocrowns.

  3. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 and Si-doped octacalcium phosphate composite coatings on zirconia ceramics (Y-TZP) for dental implant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Lei; Liu, Jingxiao; Shi, Fei; Jiang, Yanyan; Liu, Guishan

    2014-01-01

    In order to prevent the low temperature degradation and improve the bioactivity of zirconia ceramic implants, TiO2 and Si-doped octacalcium phosphate composite coating was prepared on zirconia substrate. The preventive effect on low temperature degradation and surface morphology of the TiO2 layer were studied. Meanwhile, the structure and property changes of the bioactive coating after doping Si were discussed. The results indicate that the dense TiO2 layer, in spite of some microcracks, inhibited the direct contact of the water vapor with the sample's surface and thus prevented the low temperature degradation of zirconia substrates. The acceleration aging test shows that the ratio of the monoclinic phase transition decreased from 10% for the original zirconia substrate to 4% for the TiO2-coated substrate. As to the Si-doped octacalcium phosphate coating prepared by biomimetic method, the main phase composition of the coating was octacalcium phosphate. The morphology of the coating was lamellar-like, and the surface was uniform and continuous with no cracks being observed. It is suggested that Si was added into the coating both through substituting for PO43- and doping as NaSiO3.

  4. Rapid, cool sintering of wet processed yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic electrolyte thin films.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Sik; Kim, Dug-Joong; Chung, Wan-Ho; Lim, Yonghyun; Kim, Hak-Sung; Kim, Young-Beom

    2017-09-29

    Here we report a photonic annealing process for yttria-stabilized zirconia films, which are one of the most well-known solid-state electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Precursor films were coated using a wet-chemical method with a simple metal-organic precursor solution and directly annealed at standard pressure and temperature by two cycles of xenon flash lamp irradiation. The residual organics were almost completely decomposed in the first pre-annealing step, and the fluorite crystalline phases and good ionic conductivity were developed during the second annealing step. These films showed properties comparable to those of thermally annealed films. This process is much faster than conventional annealing processes (e.g. halogen furnaces); a few seconds compared to tens of hours, respectively. The significance of this work includes the treatment of solid-state electrolyte oxides for SOFCs and the demonstration of the feasibility of other oxide components for solid-state energy devices.

  5. Effective Parameters in Axial Injection Suspension Plasma Spray Process of Alumina-Zirconia Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasi, F.; Medraj, M.; Dolatabadi, A.; Oberste-Berghaus, J.; Moreau, C.

    2008-12-01

    Suspension plasma spray (SPS) is a novel process for producing nano-structured coatings with metastable phases using significantly smaller particles as compared to conventional thermal spraying. Considering the complexity of the system there is an extensive need to better understand the relationship between plasma spray conditions and resulting coating microstructure and defects. In this study, an alumina/8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia was deposited by axial injection SPS process. The effects of principal deposition parameters on the microstructural features are evaluated using the Taguchi design of experiment. The microstructural features include microcracks, porosities, and deposition rate. To better understand the role of the spray parameters, in-flight particle characteristics, i.e., temperature and velocity were also measured. The role of the porosity in this multicomponent structure is studied as well. The results indicate that thermal diffusivity of the coatings, an important property for potential thermal barrier applications, is barely affected by the changes in porosity content.

  6. Indirect zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic CAD/CAM restorations: Preliminary clinical results after 12 months.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Moritz; Koller, Christina; Mehl, Albert; Hickel, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    No clinical data are available for the new computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) material zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) ceramic. This study describes preliminary clinical results for indirect ZLS CAD/CAM restorations after 12 months. Indirect restorations were fabricated, using the CEREC method and intraoral scanning (CEREC Omnicam, CEREC MCXL). Sixty-seven restorations were seated adhesively (baseline). Sixty restorations were evaluated after 12 months (follow-up), using modified FDI criteria. Two groups were established, according to ZLS restorations' post-processing procedure prior to adhesive seating: group I (three-step polishing, n = 32) and group II (fire glazing, n = 28). Statistical analysis was performed with Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon test (P < .05). The success rate of indirect ZLS CAD/CAM restorations after 12 months was 96.7%. Two restorations clinically failed as a result of bulk fracture (failure rate 3.3%). No statistically significant differences were found for baseline and follow-up criteria (Wilcoxon test, P > .05). Statistically significant differences were found for criteria surface gloss for group I and group II (Mann-Whitney U test, P < .05). This study demonstrates ZLS CAD/CAM restorations have a high clinical success rate after 12 months. A longer clinical evaluation period is necessary to draw further conclusions.

  7. Marginal and internal adaptation of ceramic crown restorations fabricated with CAD/CAM technology and the heat-press technique.

    PubMed

    Mously, Hisham A; Finkelman, Matthew; Zandparsa, Roya; Hirayama, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    The accuracy of chairside computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restorations is questionable, and the effect of the die spacer settings is not well stated in the literature. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the marginal and internal adaptation of E4D crowns fabricated with different spacer thicknesses and to compare these crowns with those fabricated with the heat-press technique. The E4D system was used to fabricate 30 crowns for the first 3 groups, with different spacer thickness settings: 30 μm, 60 μm, and 100 μm. In the fourth group, 10 lithium disilicate crowns were fabricated with the heat-press technique. The occlusal gap, axial gap, vertical marginal gap, and absolute marginal discrepancy were evaluated by x-ray microtomography. Statistical significance was assessed with the Kruskal-Wallis test (α=.05). For post hoc analyses, the Mann-Whitney U test was used alongside the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (α=.008). Within the CAD/CAM groups, the 30-μm spacer thickness resulted in the lowest median axial gap (90.04 μm), whereas the 60-μm spacer thickness resulted in the lowest median occlusal gap (152.39 μm). The median marginal gap values of the CAD/CAM-60 group (49.35 μm) and CAD/CAM-100 group (46.65 μm) were lower than those of the CAD/CAM-30 group (55.18 μm). No significant differences among the CAD/CAM groups were observed for absolute marginal discrepancy. The heat-press group had significantly different values than those of the CAD/CAM groups. The spacer thickness and fabrication technique affected the adaptation of ceramic crowns. The heat-press group yielded the best marginal and internal crown adaptation results. The 30- or 60-μm spacer settings are recommended for the E4D CAD/CAM system. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [An experimental study on the effect of different optical impression methods on marginal and internal fit of all-ceramic crowns].

    PubMed

    Tan, Fa-Bing; Wang, Lu; Fu, Gang; Wu, Shu-Hong; Jin, Ping

    2010-02-01

    To study the effect of different optical impression methods in Cerec 3D/Inlab MC XL system on marginal and internal fit of all-ceramic crowns. A right mandibular first molar in the standard model was used to prepare full crown and replicated into thirty-two plaster casts. Sixteen of them were selected randomly for bonding crown and the others were used for taking optical impression, in half of which the direct optical impression taking method were used and the others were used for the indirect method, and then eight Cerec Blocs all-ceramic crowns were manufactured respectively. The fit of all-ceramic crowns were evaluated by modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria and scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, and the data were statistically analyzed with SAS 9.1 software. The clinically acceptable rate for all marginal measurement sites was 87.5% according to USPHS criteria. There was no statistically significant difference in marginal fit between direct and indirect method group (P > 0.05). With SEM imaging, all marginal measurement sites were less than 120 microm and no statistically significant difference was found between direct and indirect method group in terms of marginal or internal fit (P > 0.05). But the direct method group showed better fit than indirect method group in terms of mesial surface, lingual surface, buccal surface and occlusal surface (P < 0.05). The distal surface's fit was worse and the obvious difference was observed between mesial surface and distal surface in direct method group (P < 0.01). Under the conditions of this study, the optical impression method had no significant effect on marginal fit of Cerec Blocs crowns, but it had certain effect on internal fit. Overall all-ceramic crowns appeared to have clinically acceptable marginal fit.

  9. Peri-implant soft tissue colour around titanium and zirconia abutments: a prospective randomized controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Cosgarea, Raluca; Gasparik, Cristina; Dudea, Diana; Culic, Bogdan; Dannewitz, Bettina; Sculean, Anton

    2015-05-01

    To objectively determine the difference in colour between the peri-implant soft tissue at titanium and zirconia abutments. Eleven patients, each with two contralaterally inserted osteointegrated dental implants, were included in this study. The implants were restored either with titanium abutments and porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns, or with zirconia abutments and ceramic crowns. Prior and after crown cementation, multi-spectral images of the peri-implant soft tissues and the gingiva of the neighbouring teeth were taken with a colorimeter. The colour parameters L*, a*, b*, c* and the colour differences ΔE were calculated. Descriptive statistics, including non-parametric tests and correlation coefficients, were used for statistical analyses of the data. Compared to the gingiva of the neighbouring teeth, the peri-implant soft tissue around titanium and zirconia (test group), showed distinguishable ΔE both before and after crown cementation. Colour differences around titanium were statistically significant different (P = 0.01) only at 1 mm prior to crown cementation compared to zirconia. Compared to the gingiva of the neighbouring teeth, statistically significant (P < 0.01) differences were found for all colour parameter, either before or after crown cementation for both abutments; more significant differences were registered for titanium abutments. Tissue thickness correlated positively with c*-values for titanium at 1 mm and 2 mm from the gingival margin. Within their limits, the present data indicate that: (i) The peri-implant soft tissue around titanium and zirconia showed colour differences when compared to the soft tissue around natural teeth, and (ii) the peri-implant soft tissue around zirconia demonstrated a better colour match to the soft tissue at natural teeth than titanium. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. In vivo biofilm formation on different dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Felicia; Grade, Sebastian; Kohorst, Philipp; Stiesch, Meike

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the formation of oral biofilm on various dental ceramics in vivo. Five different ceramic materials were included: a veneering glass- ceramic, a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, a yttrium-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP), a hot isostatically pressed (HIP) Y-TZP ceramic, and an HIP Y-TZP ceramic with 25% alumina. Test specimens were attached to individually designed acrylic appliances; five volunteers wore these appliances for 24 hours in the maxillary arch. After intraoral exposure, the samples were removed from the appliances and the adhering biofilms vitally stained. Then, the two-dimensional surface coating and thickness of the adhering biofilm were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA with the level of significance set at .05. Significant differences (P < .001) in the bacterial surface coating and in the thickness of the biofilm were found between the various ceramic materials. The lowest surface coating (19.0%) and biofilm thickness (1.9 Μm) were determined on the HIP Y-TZP ceramic; the highest mean values were identified with the lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (46.8%, 12.6 Μm). Biofilm formation on various types of dental ceramics differed significantly; in particular, zirconia exhibited low plaque accumulation. In addition to its high strength, low plaque accumulation makes zirconia a promising material for various indications (including implant abutments and telescopic crowns) that previously were met only with metal-based materials.

  11. Sol-gel dip coating of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia dental ceramic by aluminosilicate nanocomposite as a novel technique to improve the bonding of veneering porcelain.

    PubMed

    Madani, Azamsadat; Nakhaei, Mohammadreza; Karami, Parisa; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir; Salehi, Sahar; Bagheri, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of silica and aluminosilicate nanocomposite coating of zirconia-based dental ceramic by a sol-gel dip-coating technique on the bond strength of veneering porcelain to the yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) in vitro. Thirty Y-TZP blocks (10 mm ×10 mm ×3 mm) were prepared and were assigned to four experimental groups (n=10/group): C, without any further surface treatment as the control group; S, sandblasted using 110 μm alumina powder; Si, silica sol dip coating + calcination; and Si/Al, aluminosilicate sol dip coating + calcination. After preparing Y-TZP samples, a 3 mm thick layer of the recommended porcelain was fired on the coated Y-TZP surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the coating and the nature of the bonding between the coating and zirconia. To examine the zirconia-porcelain bond strength, a microtensile bond strength (μTBS) approach was chosen. FT-IR study showed the formation of silica and aluminosilicate materials. XRD pattern showed the formation of new phases consisting of Si, Al, and Zr in coated samples. SEM showed the formation of a uniform coating on Y-TZP samples. Maximum μTBS values were obtained in aluminosilicate samples, which were significantly increased compared to control and sandblasted groups (P=0.013 and P<0.001, respectively). This study showed that aluminosilicate sol-gel dip coating can be considered as a convenient, less expensive reliable method for improving the bond strength between dental Y-TZP ceramics and veneering porcelain.

  12. Long-term stability and properties of zirconia ceramics for heavy duty diesel engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, D. C.; Adams, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of commercially available transformation-toughened zirconia are measured. Behavior is related to the material microstructure and phase assemblage. The stability of the materials is assessed after long-term exposure appropriate for diesel engine application. Properties measured included flexure strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, creep, thermal shock, thermal expansion, internal friction, and thermal diffusivity. Stability is assessed by measuring the residual property after 1000 hr/1000C static exposure. Additionally static fatigue and thermal fatigue testing is performed. Both yttria-stabilized and magnesia-stabilized materials are compared and contrasted. The major limitations of these materials are short term loss of properties with increasing temperature as the metastable tetragonal phase becomes more stable. Fine grain yttria-stabilized material (TZP) is higher strength and has a more stable microstructure with respect to overaging phenomena. The long-term limitation of Y-TZP is excessive creep deformation. Magnesia-stabilized PSZ has relatively poor stability at elevated temperature. Overaging, decomposition, and/or destabilization effects are observed. The major limitation of Mg-PSZ is controlling unwanted phase changes at elevated temperature.

  13. [Study of relationship between powder-size gradation and mechanical properties of Zirconia toughened glass infiltrated nanometer-ceramic composite powder].

    PubMed

    Chai, Feng; Xu, Ling; Liao, Yun-mao; Chao, Yong-lie

    2003-07-01

    The fabrication of all-ceramic dental restorations is challenged by ceramics' relatively low flexural strength and intrinsic poor resistance to fracture. This paper aimed at investigating the relationships between powder-size gradation and mechanical properties of Zirconia toughened glass infiltrated nanometer-ceramic composite (Al(2)O(3)-nZrO(2)). Al(2)O(3)-nZrO(2) ceramics powder (W) was processed by combination methods of chemical co-precipitation and ball milling with addition of different powder-sized ZrO(2). Field-emission scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the particle size distribution and characterize the particle morphology of powders. The matrix compacts were made by slip-casting technique and sintered to 1,450 degrees C and flexural strength and the fracture toughness of them were measured. 1. The particle distribution of Al(2)O(3)-nZrO(2) ceramics powder ranges from 0.02 - 3.5 micro m and among them the superfine particles almost accounted for 20%. 2. The ceramic matrix samples with addition of nZrO(2) (W) showed much higher flexural strength (115.434 +/- 5.319) MPa and fracture toughness (2.04 +/- 0.10) MPa m(1/2) than those of pure Al(2)O(3) ceramics (62.763 +/- 7.220 MPa; 1.16 +/- 0.02 MPa m(1/2)). The particle size of additive ZrO(2) may impose influences on mechanical properties of Al(2)O(3)-nZrO(2) ceramics matrix. Good homogeneity and reasonable powder-size gradation of ceramic powder can improve the mechanical properties of material.

  14. Influence of Material Selection on the Marginal Accuracy of CAD/CAM-Fabricated Metal- and All-Ceramic Single Crown Copings

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Lea; Rinke, Sven

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the marginal accuracy of CAD/CAM-fabricated crown copings from four different materials within the same processing route. Twenty stone replicas of a metallic master die (prepared upper premolar) were scanned and divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 10) was used for a pilot test to determine the design parameters for best marginal accuracy. Group 2 (n = 10) was used to fabricate 10 specimens from the following materials with one identical CAD/CAM system (GAMMA 202, Wissner GmbH, Goettingen, Germany): A = commercially pure (cp) titanium, B = cobalt-chromium alloy, C = yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and D = leucite-reinforced glass-ceramics. Copings from group 2 were evaluated for the mean marginal gap size (MeanMG) and average maximum marginal gap size (AMaxMG) with a light microscope in the “as-machined” state. The effect of the material on the marginal accuracy was analyzed by multiple pairwise comparisons (Mann–Whitney, U-test, α = 0.05, adjusted by Bonferroni-Holmes method). MeanMG values were as follows: A: 46.92 ± 23.12 μm, B: 48.37 ± 29.72 μm, C: 68.25 ± 28.54 μm, and D: 58.73 ± 21.15 μm. The differences in the MeanMG values proved to be significant for groups A/C (p = 0.0024), A/D (p = 0.008), and B/C (p = 0.0332). AMaxMG values (A: 91.54 ± 23.39 μm, B: 96.86 ± 24.19 μm, C: 120.66 ± 32.75 μm, and D: 100.22 ± 10.83 μm) revealed no significant differences. The material had a significant impact on the marginal accuracy of CAD/CAM-fabricated copings. PMID:29765979

  15. Effect of electric arc, gas oxygen torch and induction melting techniques on the marginal accuracy of cast base-metal and noble metal-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cogolludo, Pablo; Castillo-Oyagüe, Raquel; Lynch, Christopher D; Suárez-García, María-Jesús

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the most appropriate alloy composition and melting technique by evaluating the marginal accuracy of cast metal-ceramic crowns. Seventy standardised stainless-steel abutments were prepared to receive metal-ceramic crowns and were randomly divided into four alloy groups: Group 1: palladium-gold (Pd-Au), Group 2: nickel-chromium-titanium (Ni-Cr-Ti), Group 3: nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and Group 4: titanium (Ti). Groups 1, 2 and 3 were in turn subdivided to be melted and cast using: (a) gas oxygen torch and centrifugal casting machine (TC) or (b) induction and centrifugal casting machine (IC). Group 4 was melted and cast using electric arc and vacuum/pressure machine (EV). All of the metal-ceramic crowns were luted with glass-ionomer cement. The marginal fit was measured under an optical microscope before and after cementation using image analysis software. All data was subjected to two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Duncan's multiple range test was run for post-hoc comparisons. The Student's t-test was used to investigate the influence of cementation (α=0.05). Uncemented Pd-Au/TC samples achieved the best marginal adaptation, while the worst fit corresponded to the luted Ti/EV crowns. Pd-Au/TC, Ni-Cr and Ti restorations demonstrated significantly increased misfit after cementation. The Ni-Cr-Ti alloy was the most predictable in terms of differences in misfit when either torch or induction was applied before or after cementation. Cemented titanium crowns exceeded the clinically acceptable limit of 120μm. The combination of alloy composition, melting technique, casting method and luting process influences the vertical seal of cast metal-ceramic crowns. An accurate use of the gas oxygen torch may overcome the results attained with the induction system concerning the marginal adaptation of fixed dental prostheses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dual-scan technique for the customization of zirconia computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing frameworks.

    PubMed

    Andreiuolo, Rafael Ferrone; Sabrosa, Carlos Eduardo; Dias, Katia Regina H Cervantes

    2013-09-01

    The use of bi-layered all-ceramic crowns has continuously grown since the introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia cores. Unfortunately, despite the outstanding mechanical properties of zirconia, problems related to porcelain cracking or chipping remain. One of the reasons for this is that ceramic copings are usually milled to uniform thicknesses of 0.3-0.6 mm around the whole tooth preparation. This may not provide uniform thickness or appropriate support for the veneering porcelain. To prevent these problems, the dual-scan technique demonstrates an alternative that allows the restorative team to customize zirconia CAD/CAM frameworks with adequate porcelain thickness and support in a simple manner.

  17. Effect of sandblasting on surface roughness of zirconia-based ceramics and shear bond strength of veneering porcelain.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Zhang, Zutai; Zheng, Dongxiang; Ding, Ning; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of sandblasting on the surface roughness of zirconia and the shear bond strength of the veneering porcelain. Pre-sintered zirconia plates were prepared and divided into four groups. Group A were not treated at all; group B were first sandblasted under 0.2 MPa pressure and then densely sintered; group C and D were sintered first, and then sandblasted under 0.2 MPa and 0.4 MPa pressures respectively. Surface roughness was measured and 3D roughness was reconstructed for the specimens, which were also analyzed with X-ray diffractometry. Finally after veneering porcelain sintering, shear bond tests were conducted. Sandblasting zirconia before sintering significantly increased surface roughness and the shear bond strength between zirconia and veneering porcelain (p<0.05). Sandblasting zirconia before sintering is a useful method to increase surface roughness and could successfully improve the bonding strength of veneering porcelain.

  18. Dentist Material Selection for Single-Unit Crowns: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Makhija, Sonia K.; Lawson, Nathaniel C.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Litaker, Mark S.; McClelland, Jocelyn A.; Louis, David R.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Mungia, Rahma; McCracken, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Dentists enrolled in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network completed a study questionnaire about techniques and materials used for single-unit crowns and an enrollment questionnaire about dentist/practice characteristics. The objectives were to quantify dentists’ material recommendations and test the hypothesis that dentist’s and practice’s characteristics are significantly associated with these recommendations. Methods Surveyed dentists responded to a contextual scenario asking what material they would use for a single-unit crown on an anterior and posterior tooth. Material choices included: full metal, porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM), all-zirconia, layered zirconia, lithium disilicate, leucite-reinforced ceramic, or other. Results 1,777 of 2,132 eligible dentists responded (83%). The top 3 choices for anterior crowns were lithium disilicate (54%), layered zirconia (17%), and leucite-reinforced glass ceramic (13%). There were significant differences (p<0.05) by dentist’s gender, race, years since graduation, practice type, region, practice busyness, hours worked/week, and location type. The top 3 choices for posterior crowns were all-zirconia (32%), PFM (31%), and lithium disilicate (21%). There were significant differences (p<0.05) by dentist’s gender, practice type, region, practice busyness, insurance coverage, hours worked/week, and location type. Conclusions Network dentists use a broad range of materials for single-unit crowns for anterior and posterior teeth, adopting newer materials into their practices as they become available. Material choices are significantly associated with dentist’s and practice’s characteristics. Clinical Significance Decisions for crown material may be influenced by factors unrelated to tooth and patient variables. Dentists should be cognizant of this when developing an evidence-based approach to selecting crown material. PMID:27693778

  19. Dentist material selection for single-unit crowns: Findings from the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network.

    PubMed

    Makhija, Sonia K; Lawson, Nathaniel C; Gilbert, Gregg H; Litaker, Mark S; McClelland, Jocelyn A; Louis, David R; Gordan, Valeria V; Pihlstrom, Daniel J; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Mungia, Rahma; McCracken, Michael S

    2016-12-01

    Dentists enrolled in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network completed a study questionnaire about techniques and materials used for single-unit crowns and an enrollment questionnaire about dentist/practice characteristics. The objectives were to quantify dentists' material recommendations and test the hypothesis that dentist's and practice's characteristics are significantly associated with these recommendations. Surveyed dentists responded to a contextual scenario asking what material they would use for a single-unit crown on an anterior and posterior tooth. Material choices included: full metal, porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM), all-zirconia, layered zirconia, lithium disilicate, leucite-reinforced ceramic, or other. 1777 of 2132 eligible dentists responded (83%). The top 3 choices for anterior crowns were lithium disilicate (54%), layered zirconia (17%), and leucite-reinforced glass ceramic (13%). There were significant differences (p<0.05) by dentist's gender, race, years since graduation, practice type, region, practice busyness, hours worked/week, and location type. The top 3 choices for posterior crowns were all-zirconia (32%), PFM (31%), and lithium disilicate (21%). There were significant differences (p<0.05) by dentist's gender, practice type, region, practice busyness, insurance coverage, hours worked/week, and location type. Network dentists use a broad range of materials for single-unit crowns for anterior and posterior teeth, adopting newer materials into their practices as they become available. Material choices are significantly associated with dentist's and practice's characteristics. Decisions for crown material may be influenced by factors unrelated to tooth and patient variables. Dentists should be cognizant of this when developing an evidence-based approach to selecting crown material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Standards of teeth preparations for anterior resin bonded all-ceramic crowns in private dental practice in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    AL-DWAIRI, Ziad Nawaf; AL-HIYASAT, Ahmad Saleh; ABOUD, Haitham

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To investigate if general dental practitioners (GDPs) in private practice in Jordan follow universal guidelines for preparation of anterior teeth for resin bonded all-ceramic crowns (RBCs). Material and Methods A sample (n=100) of laboratory models containing 208 tooth preparations for IPS Empress and In Ceram, featuring work from different GDPs, was obtained from 8 commercial dental laboratories. Aspects of preparations were quantified and compared with accepted criteria defined following a review of the literature and recommendations of the manufactures' guidelines. Results Subgingival margins on the buccal aspect were noticed in 36% of the preparations, 54% demonstrated overpreparation with a tendency to overprepare the teeth on the mesiodistal plane more than buccolingual plane. Twenty percent of samples presented a shoulder finish line while a chamfer margin design was noticed in 39%. Twenty-nine percent and 12% of samples had either a feathered or no clear margin design respectively. Incisal under preparation was observed in 18% of dies of each type. Only 17% of all preparations were found to follow the recommended anatomical labial preparations while 29% of the RBC preparations were found to have the recommended axial convergence angle. In total, 43% of preparations were found to have the recommended depth of the finish line. Conclusions It was found that relevant guidelines for RBC preparations were not being fully adhered to in private practice in Jordan. PMID:21710098

  1. [Influence of cobalt-chromium alloy ceramics crown on aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase of gingival crevicular fluid].

    PubMed

    Miao, Yu; Liu, Ling-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Min; Li, Li

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate the influence of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy as the material of inner crown on periodontal tissue through detecting the weight of diseased teeth and the concentration of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after Co-Cr alloy ceramics repairing. In this study, thirty cases of clinical diseased teeth were chosen from thirty patients based on patients' consent. Each tooth conformed to the inclusion criteria. All of the thirty teeth were repaired with Co-Cr alloy ceramics according to the indications. Then GCF of each diseased tooth was collected and weighed at the time of the day before prosthesis, the first and third month after repairing respectively in order to detect the concentration of AST and ALP. Furthermore, comparative analysis for different periods was performed after the data statistics. To the weight of GCF and the concentration of AST after the respective comparison of three indexes which was of different periods, numerous of each index increased in accordance with the rule of preoperation, postoperative first month, and postoperative third month (P < 0.05). To the concentration of ALP at three time points, the compared results showed that the preoperative numerous was less than that of third month after operation and there was significant difference between them (P < 0.05). To the weight of GCF and the concentration of AST and ALP, after the respective comparison of three indexes which was the diseased teeth and the contralateral teeth with the same name in the periods of pre-operation, all the differences had no statistical significance (P > 0.05), but all the differences had statistical significance in the periods of postoperative third month (P < 0.05). During the next three months after operation, GCF weight, concentration of AST and ALP of diseased teeth was gradually increased after their Co-Cr alloy ceramics crown repairing. This increase

  2. CAD-FEA modeling and analysis of different full crown monolithic restorations.

    PubMed

    Dal Piva, Amanda Maria de Oliveira; Tribst, João Paulo Mendes; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Souza, Rodrigo Othávio de Assunção E; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2018-06-19

    To investigate the influence of different materials for monolithic full posterior crowns using 3D-Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Twelve (12) 3D models of adhesively-restored teeth with different crowns according to the material and its elastic modulus were analysed: Acrylic resin, Polyetheretherketone, Composite resin, Hybrid ceramic, pressable and machinable Zirconia reinforced lithium silicate, Feldspathic, Lithium disilicate, Gold alloy, Cobalt-Chromium alloy (Co-Cr), Zirconia tetragonal partially stabilized with yttria, and Alumina. All materials were assumed to behave elastically throughout the entire deformation. Results in restoration and cementing line were obtained using maximum principal stress. In addition, maximum shear stress criteria was used for the cementing line. Restorative materials with higher elastic modulus present higher stress concentration inside the crown, mainly tensile stress on an intaglio surface. On the other hand, materials with lower elastic modulus allow stress passage for cement, increasing shear stress on this layer. Stiffer materials promote higher stress peak values. Materials with higher elastic modulus such as Co-Cr, zirconia and alumina enable higher tensile stress concentration on the crown intaglio surface and higher shear stress on the cement layer, facilitating crown debonding. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of phosphate monomer-based cement on zirconia ceramic in dry and aged conditions.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Regina; Ozcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Balducci, Ivan; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the durability of bond strength between a resin cement and aluminous ceramic submitted to various surface conditioning methods. Twenty-four blocks (5 x 5 x 4 mm(3)) of a glass-infiltrated zirconia-alumina ceramic (In-Ceram Zirconia Classic) were randomly divided into three surface treatment groups: ST1-Air-abrasion with 110-mum Al2O3 particles + silanization; ST2-Laboratory tribochemical silica coating method (110-microm Al2O3, 110-microm silica) (Rocatec) + silanization; ST3-Chairside tribochemical silica coating method (30-microm SiO(x)) (CoJet) + silanization. Each treated ceramic block was placed in its silicone mold with the treated surface exposed. The resin cement (Panavia F) was prepared and injected into the mold over the treated surface. Specimens were sectioned to achieve nontrimmed bar specimens (14 sp/block) that were randomly divided into two conditions: (a) Dry-microtensile test after sectioning; (b) Thermocycling (TC)-(6,000x, 5-55 degrees C) and water storage (150 days). Thus, six experimental groups were obtained (n = 50): Gr1-ST1 + dry; Gr2-ST1 + TC(;) Gr3-ST2 + dry; Gr4-ST2 + TC; Gr5-ST3 + dry; Gr6-ST3 + TC. After microtensile testing, the failure types were noted. ST2 (25.1 +/- 11) and ST3 (24.1 +/- 7.4) presented statistically higher bond strength (MPa) than that of ST1 (17.5 +/- 8) regardless of aging conditions (p < 0.0001). While Gr2 revealed the lowest results (13.3 +/- 6.4), the other groups (21.7 +/- 7.4-25. 9 +/- 9.1) showed statistically no significant differences (two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test, alpha = 0.05). The majority of the failures were mixed (82%) followed by adhesive failures (18%). Gr2 presented significantly higher incidence of ADHESIVE failures (54%) than those of other groups (p = 0.0001). Both laboratory and chairside silica coating plus silanization showed durable bond strength. After aging, air-abrasion with 110-microm Al(2)O(3) + silanization showed the largest decrease

  4. Marginal fit of all-ceramic crowns fabricated using two extraoral CAD/CAM systems in comparison with the conventional technique

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Fawaz

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two extraoral computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems, in comparison with conventional techniques, on the marginal fit of monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate ceramic crowns. Study design This is an in vitro interventional study. Place and duration of study The study was carried out at the Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia, from December 2015 to April 2016. Methodology A marginal gap of 60 lithium disilicate crowns was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. In total, 20 pressable lithium disilicate (IPS e.max Press [Ivoclar Vivadent]) ceramic crowns were fabricated using the conventional lost-wax technique as a control group. The experimental all-ceramic crowns were produced based on a scan stone model and milled using two extraoral CAD/CAM systems: the Cerec group was fabricated using the Cerec CAD/CAM system, and the Trios group was fabricated using Trios CAD and milled using Wieland Zenotec CAM. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Scheffe post hoc test were used for statistical comparison of the groups (α=0.05). Results The mean (±standard deviation) of the marginal gap of each group was as follows: the Control group was 91.15 (±15.35) µm, the Cerec group was 111.07 (±6.33) µm, and the Trios group was 60.17 (±11.09) µm. One-way ANOVA and the Scheffe post hoc test showed a statistically significant difference in the marginal gap between all groups. Conclusion It can be concluded from the current study that all-ceramic crowns, fabricated using the CAD/CAM system, show a marginal accuracy that is acceptable in clinical environments. The Trios CAD group displayed the smallest marginal gap. PMID:28352204

  5. Marginal fit of all-ceramic crowns fabricated using two extraoral CAD/CAM systems in comparison with the conventional technique.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Fawaz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two extraoral computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems, in comparison with conventional techniques, on the marginal fit of monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate ceramic crowns. This is an in vitro interventional study. The study was carried out at the Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia, from December 2015 to April 2016. A marginal gap of 60 lithium disilicate crowns was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. In total, 20 pressable lithium disilicate (IPS e.max Press [Ivoclar Vivadent]) ceramic crowns were fabricated using the conventional lost-wax technique as a control group. The experimental all-ceramic crowns were produced based on a scan stone model and milled using two extraoral CAD/CAM systems: the Cerec group was fabricated using the Cerec CAD/CAM system, and the Trios group was fabricated using Trios CAD and milled using Wieland Zenotec CAM. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Scheffe post hoc test were used for statistical comparison of the groups (α=0.05). The mean (±standard deviation) of the marginal gap of each group was as follows: the Control group was 91.15 (±15.35) µm, the Cerec group was 111.07 (±6.33) µm, and the Trios group was 60.17 (±11.09) µm. One-way ANOVA and the Scheffe post hoc test showed a statistically significant difference in the marginal gap between all groups. It can be concluded from the current study that all-ceramic crowns, fabricated using the CAD/CAM system, show a marginal accuracy that is acceptable in clinical environments. The Trios CAD group displayed the smallest marginal gap.

  6. Survival of resin infiltrated ceramics under influence of fatigue.

    PubMed

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Elsafi, Mohamed H

    2016-04-01

    to evaluate influence of cyclic fatigue on two resin infiltrated ceramics and three all-ceramic crowns manufactured using CAD/CAM technology. CAD/CAM anatomically shaped crowns were manufactured using two resin infiltrated ceramics (Lava Ultimate and Vita Enamic), two reinforced glass ceramic milling blocks ((IPS)Empress CAD and (IPS)e.max CAD) and a veneered zirconia core ((IPS)Zir CAD). (IPS)e.max CAD and (IPS)Zir CAD were milled into 0.5mm thick anatomically shaped core structure which received standardized press-on veneer ceramic. The manufactured crowns were cemented on standardized resin dies using a resin adhesive (Panavia F2.0). Initial fracture strength of half of the specimens was calculated using one cycle load to failure in a universal testing machine. The remaining crowns were subjected to 3.7 million chewing cycles (load range 50-200N at 3s interval) in a custom made pneumatic fatigue tester. Survival statistics were calculated and Weibull modulus was measured from fitted load-cycle-failure diagrams. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to fractographically analyze fractured surfaces. Data were analyzed using two way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc tests (α=0.05). Dynamic fatigue resulted in significant reduction (F=7.54, P<0.005) of the initial fracture strength of the tested specimens. Zirconia showed the highest deterioration percent (34% reduction in strength) followed by (IPS)Empress (32.2%), (IPS)e.max (27.1%) while Lava Ultimate and Vita Enamic showed the lowest percent of reduction in strength. The two types of resin infiltrated ceramics and (IPS)Empress demonstrated the highest percent of fracture incidences under the influence of fatigue (35-45% splitting). None of the tested veneered zirconia restorations were fractured during testing, however, chipping of the veneer ceramics was observed in 6 crowns. The lowest percent of failure was observed for (IPS)e.max crowns manifested as 3 cases of minor chipping in addition to

  7. Influence of ageing on glass and resin bonding of dental glass-ceramic veneer adhesion to zirconia: A fracture mechanics analysis and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Swain, M V; Gee, C; Li, K C

    2018-04-26

    Adhesion plays a major role in the bonding of dental materials. In this study the adhesion of two glass-ceramic systems (IPS e.max and VITABLOCS) to a zirconia sintered substrate using a glass (for IPS e.max) and resin (VITABLOCS) before and after exposure to ageing for 14 days in distilled water at 37 °C are compared using two interfacial fracture mechanics tests, the 3 point bend Schwickerath (Kosyfaki and Swain, 2014; Schneider and Swain, 2015) and 4 point bend (Charalambides et al., 1989) approaches. Both tests result in stable crack extension from which the strain energy release rate (G, N/m or J/m 2 ) can be determined. In the case of the 3 PB test the Work of Fracture was also determined. In addition, the Schwickerath test enables determination of the critical stress for the onset of cracking to occur, which forms the basis of the ISO (ISO9693-2:2016) adhesion test for porcelain ceramic adhesion to zirconia. For the aged samples there was a significant reduction in the resin-bonded strengths (Schwickerath) and strain energy release rate (both 3 and 4 PB tests), which was not evident for the glass bonded specimens. Critical examination of the force-displacement curves showed that ageing of the resin resulted in a major change in the form of the curves, which may be interpreted in terms of a reduction in the critical stress to initiate cracking and also in the development of an R-curve. The extent of the reduction in strain energy release rate following ageing was greater for the Schwickerath test than the Charalambides test. The results are discussed in terms of; the basic mechanics of these two tests, the deterioration of the resin bonding following moisture exposure and the different dimensions of the specimens. These in-vitro results raise concerns regarding resin bonding to zirconia. The present study uses a novel approach to investigate the role of ageing or environmental degradation on the adhesive bonding of two dental ceramics to zirconia

  8. Bi-layered zirconia/fluor-apatite bridges supported by ceramic dental implants: a prospective case series after thirty months of observation.

    PubMed

    Spies, Benedikt Christopher; Witkowski, Siegbert; Butz, Frank; Vach, Kirstin; Kohal, Ralf-Joachim

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the success and survival rate of all-ceramic bi-layered implant-supported three-unit fixed dental prostheses (IS-FDPs) 3 years after implant placement. Thirteen patients (seven males, six females; age: 41-78 years) received two one-piece ceramic implants (alumina-toughened zirconia) each in the region of the premolars or the first molar and were finally restored with adhesively cemented bi-layered zirconia-based IS-FDPs (3 in the maxilla, 10 in the mandible) composed of CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia frameworks pressed-over with fluor-apatite glass-ceramic ingots. At prosthetic delivery and the follow-ups after 1, 2 and 3 years, the restorations were evaluated using modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Restorations with minor veneer chippings, a small-area occlusal roughness, slightly soundable restoration margins, minimal contour deficiencies and tolerable color deviations were regarded as success. In case of more distinct defects that could, however, be repaired to a clinically acceptable level, IS-FDPs were regarded as surviving. Kaplan-Meier plots were used for the success/survival analyses. To verify an impact on subjective patients' perceptions, satisfaction was evaluated by visual analog scales (VAS). All patients were seen 3 years after implant installation. No IS-FDP had to be replaced, resulting in 100% survival after a mean observation period of 29.5 months (median: 30.7). At the 3-year follow-up, 7/13 IS-FDPs showed a veneer chipping, 13/13 an occlusal roughness and 12/13 minimal deficiencies of contour/color. Since six restorations showed a major chipping and/or a major occlusal roughness, the Kaplan-Meier success rate was 53.8%. However, patients' significantly improved perceptions of function, esthetics, sense, and speech at prosthetic delivery remained stable over time. Bi-layered zirconia/fluor-apatite IS-FDPs entirely survived the observation period but showed a high frequency of

  9. Zirconia based ceramic coating on a metal with plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akatsu, T.; Kato, T.; Shinoda, Y.; Wakai, F.

    2011-10-01

    We challenge to fabricate a thermal barrier coating (TBC) made of ZrO2 based ceramics on a Ni based single crystal superalloy with plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) by incorporating metal species from electrolyte into the coating. The PEO process is carried out on the superalloy galvanized with aluminium for 15min in Na4O7P4 solution for an oxygen barrier coating (OBC) and is followed by PEO in K2[Zr(CO3)2(OH)2] solution for TBC. We obtained the following results; (1) Monoclinic-, tetragonal-, cubic-ZrO2 crystals were detected in TBC. (2) High porosity with large pores was observed near the interface between OBC and TBC. The fine grain structure with a grain size of about 300nm was typically observed. (3) The adhesion strength between PEO coatings and substrate was evaluated to be 26.8±6.6MPa. At the adhesion strength test, PEO coatings fractured around the interface between OBC and TBC. The effect of coating structure on adhesion strength is explained through the change in spark discharge during PEO process.

  10. Modification of ceramic microfilters with colloidal zirconia to promote the adsorption of viruses from water.

    PubMed

    Wegmann, Markus; Michen, Benjamin; Luxbacher, Thomas; Fritsch, Johannes; Graule, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of modifying commercial microporous ceramic bacteria filters to promote adsorption of viruses. The internal surface of the filter medium was coated with ZrO(2) nanopowder via dip-coating and heat-treatment in order to impart a filter surface charge opposite to that of the target viruses. Streaming potential measurements revealed a shift in the isoelectric point from pH <3 to between pH 5.5 and 9, respectively. While the base filter elements generally exhibited only 75% retention with respect to MS2 bacteriophages, the modified elements achieved a 7log removal (99.99999%) of these virus-like particles. The coating process also increased the specific surface area of the filters from approximately 2m(2)/g to between 12.5 and 25.5m(2)/g, thereby also potentially increasing their adsorption capacity. The results demonstrate that, given more development effort, the chosen manufacturing process has the potential to yield effective virus filters with throughputs superior to those of current virus filtration techniques.

  11. Influence of ceramic dental crown coating substrate thickness ratio on strain energy release rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasnulhadi, K.; Daud, R.; Mat, F.; Noor, S. N. F. M.; Basaruddin, K. S.; Sulaiman, M. H.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the analysis of coating substrate thickness ratio effect on the crown coating fracture behaviour. The bi-layer material is examined under four point bending with pre-crack at the bottom of the core material by using finite element. Three different coating thickness of core/substrate was tested which is 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. The fracture parameters are analysed based on bilayer and homogenous elastic interaction. The result shows that the ratio thickness of core/veneer provided a significant effect on energy release rate.

  12. Sol–gel dip coating of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia dental ceramic by aluminosilicate nanocomposite as a novel technique to improve the bonding of veneering porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Azamsadat; Nakhaei, Mohammadreza; Karami, Parisa; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir; Salehi, Sahar; Bagheri, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of silica and aluminosilicate nanocomposite coating of zirconia-based dental ceramic by a sol–gel dip-coating technique on the bond strength of veneering porcelain to the yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) in vitro. Thirty Y-TZP blocks (10 mm ×10 mm ×3 mm) were prepared and were assigned to four experimental groups (n=10/group): C, without any further surface treatment as the control group; S, sandblasted using 110 μm alumina powder; Si, silica sol dip coating + calcination; and Si/Al, aluminosilicate sol dip coating + calcination. After preparing Y-TZP samples, a 3 mm thick layer of the recommended porcelain was fired on the coated Y-TZP surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the coating and the nature of the bonding between the coating and zirconia. To examine the zirconia–porcelain bond strength, a microtensile bond strength (μTBS) approach was chosen. FT-IR study showed the formation of silica and aluminosilicate materials. XRD pattern showed the formation of new phases consisting of Si, Al, and Zr in coated samples. SEM showed the formation of a uniform coating on Y-TZP samples. Maximum μTBS values were obtained in aluminosilicate samples, which were significantly increased compared to control and sandblasted groups (P=0.013 and P<0.001, respectively). This study showed that aluminosilicate sol–gel dip coating can be considered as a convenient, less expensive reliable method for improving the bond strength between dental Y-TZP ceramics and veneering porcelain. PMID:27478376

  13. Ceramic inlays and partial ceramic crowns: influence of remaining cusp wall thickness on the marginal integrity and enamel crack formation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Krifka, Stephanie; Anthofer, Thomas; Fritzsch, Marcus; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Schmalz, Gottfried; Federlin, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    No information is currently available about what the critical cavity wall thickness is and its influence upon 1) the marginal integrity of ceramic inlays (CI) and partial ceramic crowns (PCC) and 2) the crack formation of dental tissues. This in vitro study of CI and PCC tested the effects of different remaining cusp wall thicknesses on marginal integrity and enamel crack formation. CI (n = 25) and PCC (n = 26) preparations were performed in extracted human molars. Functional cusps of CI and PCC were adjusted to a 2.5 mm thickness; for PCC, the functional cusps were reduced to a thickness of 2.0 mm. Non-functional cusps were adjusted to wall thicknesses of 1) 1.0 mm and 2) 2.0 mm. Ceramic restorations (Vita Mark II, Cerec3 System) were fabricated and adhesively luted to the cavities with Excite/Variolink II. The specimens were exposed to thermocycling and central mechanical loading (TCML: 5000 x 5 degrees C-55 degrees C; 30 seconds/cycle; 500000 x 72.5N, 1.6Hz). Marginal integrity was assessed by evaluating a) dye penetration (fuchsin) on multiple sections after TCML and by using b) quantitative margin analysis in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after TCML. Ceramic- and tooth-luting agent interfaces (LA) were evaluated separately. Enamel cracks were documented under a reflective light microscope. The data were statistically analyzed with the Mann Whitney U-test (alpha = 0.05) and the Error Rates Method (ERM). Crack formation was analyzed with the Chi-Square-test (alpha = 0.05) and ERM. In general, the remaining cusp wall thickness, interface, cavity design and TCML had no statistically significant influence on marginal integrity for both CI and PCC (ERM). Single pairwise comparisons showed that the CI and PCC of Group 2 had a tendency towards less microleakage along the dentin/LA interface than Group 1. Cavity design and location had no statistically significant influence on crack formation, but the specimens with 1.0 mm of remaining wall

  14. Finite element analysis of heat generation from different light-polymerization sources during cementation of all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Tunc, Elif Pak

    2007-06-01

    Exothermic composite resin chemical reactions and visible light generators can produce heat during a restorative polymerization process. These thermal changes in restored teeth may cause pain and irreversible pulpitis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the temperature distribution and heat flow patterns of a crowned mandibular second premolar tooth model using 3 different light-polymerization technologies and a finite element technique. A 2-dimensional finite element model was used to simulate a clinical condition. Heat flow and thermal stress distribution in a tooth during cementation of an all-ceramic crown using 4 commercially available light-polymerization units (LPUs), each with different wavelengths (Elipar TriLight, Elipar Freelight, Apollo 95 E, and ADT 1000 PAC), were investigated. The temperature values were measured at 3, 10, 12, and 40 seconds for each light-polymerizing unit (LPU) at 6 different finite element nodes. Two-dimensional temporal and spatial distribution of the thermal stress within the tooth, including the thermal coefficients and boundary conditions of the dental materials, were obtained and evaluated. The temperature at the nodal points did not exceed 42 degrees C, which is a threshold value for tissue vitality within the recommended operating periods at the dentin and pulp surface for all LPUs, except for Elipar TriLight. In the case of Elipar TriLlight, the temperatures at the dentin and pulp surfaces were 47 degrees C and 42 degrees C, respectively. When the light-polymerization units were used according to the manufacturers' operating procedures and without prolonged operating periods, with the exception of Elipar TriLight, the investigated LPUs did not produce significant heat. However, when the operating periods were prolonged, unacceptable temperature increases were observed, especially with the high-intensity LPUs.

  15. Bonding quality of contemporary dental cements to sandblasted esthetic crown copings.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, Khalid M; Al-Qahtani, Nasser M; Al-Shehri, Abdulrahman S; Abdelmoneam, Adel M

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the shear bond strength of current luting cements to sandblasted crown-coping substrates. Specimens of nickel-chromium, pressable glass ceramic, and zirconia crown-coping substrates were sandblasted in three groups (n = 30 each) with 50 (group 1), 110 (group 2), and 250 μm (group 3) alumina particles at a pressure of 250 kPa. Cylinders of glass ionomer, universal resin, and self-adhesive resin cements were then built up on the sandblasted substrate surfaces of each group (n = 10). All bonded specimens were stressed to evaluate the cement-substrate shear bond strength. Both the mode and incidence of bond failure were also considered. No difference was noticed between all test groups in terms of cement-substrate bond strength. In comparison to self-adhesive type, the universal resin cement provided lower bond strengths to both metal and glass-ceramic substrates in group 1. The self-adhesive resin cement provided the highest bond strengths to the zirconia substrates in groups 2 and 3. The adhesive type of bond failure was common in the metal and zirconia substrates in all groups. Cement-substrate bonding quality is not affected by the size of sandblasting particles. Resin cements bond better to different coping substrates. Self-adhesive resin cement is the best choice to bond zirconia-based substrates. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Retrospective analysis of porcelain failures of metal ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures supported by 729 implants in 152 patients: patient-specific and implant-specific predictors of ceramic failure.

    PubMed

    Kinsel, Richard P; Lin, Dongming

    2009-06-01

    Porcelain fracture associated with an implant-supported, metal ceramic crown or fixed partial denture occurs at a higher rate than in tooth-supported restorations, according to the literature. Implant-specific and patient-specific causes of ceramic failure have not been fully evaluated. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the potential statistical predictors for porcelain fracture of implant-supported, metal ceramic restorations. Over a 6-month period, a consecutive series of patients having previously received implant-supported, metal ceramic fixed restorations were examined during periodic recall appointments. The number of supporting implants, number of dental units, type of restoration, date of prosthesis insertion, location in the dental arch, opposing dentition, type of occlusion, presence of parafunctional habits, use of an occlusal protective device, presence or absence of ceramic fractures, gender, and age were recorded for each patient. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach was used for the intrasubject correlated measurements analysis of categorical outcomes (presence or absence of ceramic fractures) to determine which patient- and implant-specific factors would predict porcelain fracture (alpha=.05). Data were collected from 152 patients representing 998 dental units (390 single crowns and 94 fixed partial dentures) supported by 729 implants. Porcelain fractures of 94 dental units occurred in 35 patients. The fractures were significantly (P<.05) associated with opposing implant-supported metal ceramic restorations, bruxism, and not wearing a protective occlusal device. Metal ceramic prostheses (single crown or fixed partial dentures) had approximately 7 times higher odds of porcelain fracture (odds ratio (OR)=7.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.57 to 19.37) and 13 times greater odds of a fracture requiring either repair or replacement (OR=13.95; 95% CI: 2.25 to 86.41) when in occlusion with another implant

  17. Evaluation of the onset of failure under mechanical and thermal stresses on luting agent for metal–ceramic and metal crowns by finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Agnihotri, Hema; Bhatnagar, Naresh; Rao, G. Venugopal; Jain, Veena; Parkash, Hari; Kar, Aswini Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Long-term clinical failures of cemented prosthesis depend, to a large extent, on the integrity of the luting agent. The causative factors that lead to microfracture and, hence, failure of the luting agents are the stresses acting inside the oral cavity. Therefore, the present study was designed to develop an understanding of the relationship between stresses in the tooth and the failure potential of the luting agent. Two-dimensional finite element stress analysis was performed on the mandibular second premolar. The behavior of zinc-phosphate and glass-ionomer were studied under different crowns (metal–ceramic and metal crown) and loading conditions (mechanical force of 450 N acting vertically over the occlusal surface, thermal loads of 60° and 0°C). It was observed from the study that failure threshold of the luting agent was influenced both by the elastic modulus of the luting agent and by the type of the crown. PMID:22114426

  18. Optimization of the marginal gap of all-ceramic restorations and gold crowns by ultrasound activated, suspended Al2O3 powder.

    PubMed

    Linsen, Sabine S; Wirtz, Daniela; Fischer, Carola; Koeck, Bernd

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate if the use of ultrasound activated Al203 powder improved the fit especially of all-ceramic restorations. 21 extracted teeth were prepared for 14 all-ceramic IPS Empress2 (IPS Empress2) restorations (four crowns, four partial crowns, two inlays, four veneers) and seven gold crowns (Degudent H). Each restoration was adjusted with a suspension of Al2O3 of 25 microm and 50 microm grit, respectively. The effect of the fitting adjustments was recorded with the silicone disclosing medium technique and measured at 11 points under the microscope in an interval of 0.4 mm. A significant (P < 0.001) improvement of the tight fit of all restorations by means of ultrasound activated Al2O3 powder was noticed. The approach of the restoration towards the prepared stump by the sonoerosive fitting correction was in the mean 201 +/- 60 microm in Empress2 restorations and 87 +/- 24 microm in gold crowns within a period of 10 minutes. SEM observation of the Empress2 specimens showed no microdamage after ultrasound machining.

  19. Effect of the infrastructure material on the failure behavior of prosthetic crowns.

    PubMed

    Sonza, Queli Nunes; Della Bona