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Sample records for zirconia polycrystals y-tzp

  1. [Evaluation of the effect of modified wet particle erosion on bond strength between 3Y-TZP zirconia framework and veneering porcelain].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Zhu, Jia; Liu, Hon-Guang; Zhu, Hong-Shui

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of bond strength between 3mol% yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconium polycrystal (3Y-TZP) zirconia framework after modified wet particle erosion and veneering porcelain. A total of 174 [8 mm× 8 mm× 3 mm (±0.02)] specimens were prepared and then randomly divided into different groups according to different particle size, sandblasting pressure, sandblasting time through conventional sandblasting (experimental groups); specimens in the control group were not sandblasted. The bond strength between 3Y-TZP zirconia framework and veneering porcelain was measured using a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS17.0 software package. The bond strength of specimens treated by two methods-conventional sandblasting and modified wet particle erosion under the same condition (150 μm, 0.6 MPa, 30 s) were acquired, while the surface was analyzed microscopically before the specimens were veneered with the veneering ceramic under scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The bond strength of conventional sandblasting group under the condition (110 μm, 0.4 MPa,30 s) was maximal, and significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05). The bond strength of modified wet particle erosion group was significantly higher than the conventional sandblasting group and control group (P<0.01); SEM showed that the surface of specimen with modified wet particle erosion was homogeneously rough; the surface specimen with conventional sandblasting was heterogeneously rough, some microcracks were seen in some areas. Sandblasting can slightly enhance the bond strength between 3Y-TZP zirconia framework and veneering porcelain, modified wet particle erosion is recommended for 3Y-TZP zirconia framework surface treatment.

  2. Microbial adhesion on novel yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) implant surfaces with nitrogen-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H:N) coatings.

    PubMed

    Schienle, Stefanie; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Kohal, Ralf Joachim; Bernsmann, Falk; Adolfsson, Erik; Montanaro, Laura; Palmero, Paola; Fürderer, Tobias; Chevalier, Jérôme; Hellwig, Elmar; Karygianni, Lamprini

    2016-09-01

    Biomaterial surfaces are at high risk for initial microbial colonization, persistence, and concomitant infection. The rationale of this study was to assess the initial adhesion on novel implant surfaces of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans upon incubation. The tested samples were 3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) samples with nitrogen-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H:N) coating (A) and 3Y-TZP samples coated with ceria-stabilized zirconia-based (Ce-TZP) composite and a-C:H:N (B). Uncoated 3Y-TZP samples (C) and bovine enamel slabs (BES) served as controls. Once the surface was characterized, the adherent microorganisms were quantified by estimating the colony-forming units (CFUs). Microbial vitality was assessed by live/dead staining, and microbial-biomaterial surface topography was visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Overall, A and B presented the lowest CFU values for all microorganisms, while C sheltered significantly less E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans than BES. Compared to the controls, B demonstrated the lowest vitality values for E. coli (54.12 %) and C. albicans (67.99 %). Interestingly, A (29.24 %) exhibited higher eradication rates for S. aureus than B (13.95 %). Within the limitations of this study, a-C:H:N-coated 3Y-TZP surfaces tended to harbor less initially adherent microorganisms and selectively interfered with their vitality. This could enable further investigation of the new multi-functional zirconia surfaces to confirm their favorable antimicrobial properties in vivo.

  3. Influence of surface treatment of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal with hot isostatic pressing on cyclic fatigue strength.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Toshihiko; Homma, Shinya; Sekine, Hideshi; Sasaki, Hodaka; Yajima, Yasutomo; Yoshinari, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Hot isostatic pressing processed yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (HIP Y-TZP) has the potential for application to implants due to its high mechanical performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of surface treatment of HIP Y-TZP on cyclic fatigue strength. HIP Y-TZP specimens were subjected to different surface treatments. Biaxial flexural strength was determined by both static and cyclic fatigue testing. In the cyclic fatigue test, the load was applied at a frequency of 10 Hz for 10(6) cycles in distilled water at 37°C. The surface morphology, roughness, and crystal phase of the surfaces were also evaluated. The cyclic fatigue strength (888 MPa) of HIP Y-TZP with sandblasting and acid-etching was more than twice that of Y-TZP as specified in ISO 13356 for surgical implants (320 MPa), indicating the clinical potential of this material.

  4. [Effects of colorants on yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals powder].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yanchun; Wang, Ru

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of Fe2O3 and CeO2 as colorants on yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia poly-crystals (Y-TZP) powder. The spray granulation slurry of colored zirconia was prepared with different concentrations of Fe2O3 (0.15%) and CeO2 (4%), which were added in Y-TZP. Zirconia powder was made by spray granulation. The powder specimens were divided into three groups: uncolored zirconia, Fe2O3 (0.15%) zirconia, and CeO2 (4%) zirconia. The particle morphologies of the powder specimens were measured with a laser particle size analyzer and an optical microscope. The differences in D50 among the three groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Group Fe2O3 showed a significant difference from groups CeO2 and uncolored zirconia (P<0.05). Group uncolored zirconia showed no significant difference from group CeO2 (P>0.05). Mostly spherical powder was observed in the three groups. Fe2O3 as a colorant can affect particles, whereas CeO2 has no effect.

  5. The effect of surface grinding and sandblasting on flexural strength and reliability of Y-TZP zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Kosmac, T; Oblak, C; Jevnikar, P; Funduk, N; Marion, L

    1999-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of grinding and sandblasting on the microstructure, biaxial flexural strength and reliability of two yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramics. Two Y-TZP powders were used to produce fine grained and coarse grained microstructures. Sixty discs from each material were randomly divided into six groups of ten. For each group, a different surface treatment was applied: dry grinding, wet grinding, sandblasting, dry grinding + sandblasting, sandblasting + dry grinding and a control group. Biaxial flexural strength was determined and data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's HSD test (p < 0.05). In addition, Weibull statistics was used to analyze the variability of flexural strength. The relative amount of transformed monoclinic zirconia, corresponding transformed zone depth (TZD) and the mean critical defect size Ccr were calculated. There was no difference in mean strength between the as sintered fine and coarse grained Y-TZP. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between the control group and ground fine grained material for both wet and dry grinding. Sandblasting significantly increased the strength in fine and coarse grained materials. All surface treatment procedures reduced the Weibull modulus of Y-TZP. For both materials, the highest amount of the monoclinic phase and the largest TZD was found after sandblasting. Lower amounts of the monoclinic phase were obtained after both grinding procedures, where the highest mean critical defect size Ccr was also calculated. Our results indicate that sandblasting may provide a powerful technique for strengthening Y-TZP in clinical practice. In contrast, grinding may lead to substantial strength degradation and reduced reliability of prefabricated zirconia elements, therefore, sandblasting of ground surfaces is suggested.

  6. Characterization of a Y-TZP Zirconia material for gas gun experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Michael; Millett, Jeremy; Whiteman, Glenn; Collinson, Mark; Ferguson, James

    2017-06-01

    A number of shots were carried out on the AWE single stage gas gun with Het-V diagnostics to determine the shock Hugoniot of a commercial Y-TZP Zirconia ceramic material (ρ 6.05 g/cc). Zirconia ceramic has a higher density and acoustic impedance than alumina, this allows for higher shock pressures to be achieved in impact velocity limited scenarios where conductive materials are not suitable. For example, when using electromagnetic particle velocity gauge diagnostics. The grade examined here was highly reflective to 1550 nm wavelengths, which negated the need for window materials when taking free surface velocity measurements. The shock Hugoniot was determined to be linear up to 13.4 GPa with the form Us = 5.82 + 2.20Up and the HEL was in the range of 7-9 GPa. Additionally data from lateral gauge shots examining the failure behavior of the material are reported on. ©British Crown Owned Copyright 2017/AWE

  7. Cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of Zirconia (Y-TZP) posts with various dental cements.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyeongsoon; Ko, Hyunjung; Kim, Miri

    2016-08-01

    Endodontically treated teeth with insufficient tooth structure are often restored with esthetic restorations. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and biological effects of yttria partially stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) blocks in combination with several dental cements. Pairs of zirconia cylinders with medium alone or cemented with three types of dental cement including RelyX U200 (3M ESPE), FujiCEM 2 (GC), and Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray) were incubated in medium for 14 days. The cytotoxicity of each supernatant was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays on L929 fibroblasts and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA were evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and IL-6 protein was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The MTT assays showed that MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were more susceptible to dental cements than L929 fibroblasts. The resin based dental cements increased IL-6 expression in L929 cells, but reduced IL-6 expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Zirconia alone or blocks cemented with dental cement showed acceptable biocompatibilities. The results showed resin-modified glass-ionomer based cement less produced inflammatory cytokines than other self-adhesive resin-based cements. Furthermore, osteoblasts were more susceptible than fibroblasts to the biological effects of dental cement.

  8. Cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of Zirconia (Y-TZP) posts with various dental cements

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyeongsoon; Ko, Hyunjung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Endodontically treated teeth with insufficient tooth structure are often restored with esthetic restorations. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and biological effects of yttria partially stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) blocks in combination with several dental cements. Materials and Methods Pairs of zirconia cylinders with medium alone or cemented with three types of dental cement including RelyX U200 (3M ESPE), FujiCEM 2 (GC), and Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray) were incubated in medium for 14 days. The cytotoxicity of each supernatant was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays on L929 fibroblasts and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA were evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and IL-6 protein was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The MTT assays showed that MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were more susceptible to dental cements than L929 fibroblasts. The resin based dental cements increased IL-6 expression in L929 cells, but reduced IL-6 expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Conclusions Zirconia alone or blocks cemented with dental cement showed acceptable biocompatibilities. The results showed resin-modified glass-ionomer based cement less produced inflammatory cytokines than other self-adhesive resin-based cements. Furthermore, osteoblasts were more susceptible than fibroblasts to the biological effects of dental cement. PMID:27508157

  9. Micropatterned Silica Films with Nanohydroxyapatite for Y-TZP Implants.

    PubMed

    Miranda, R B P; Grenho, L; Carvalho, A; Fernandes, M H; Monteiro, F J; Cesar, P F

    2018-03-01

    This investigation aimed at developing micropatterned silica thin films (MSTFs) containing nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA) microaggregates that were not completely covered by silica so that they could directly interact with the surrounding cells. The objectives were 1) to evaluate the effect of the presence of 2 films (MSTF with or without nano-HA addition) on the characteristic strength (σ 0 ) and Weibull modulus ( m) of a yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) and 2) to evaluate the effect of these 2 films, as applied onto the Y-TZP surface, on the morphology, orientation, and proliferation of MG63 cells. Sol-gel process and soft lithography were used to apply the MSTF onto the Y-TZP specimens. Three experimental groups were produced: Y-TZP, Y-TZP + MSTF, and Y-TZP + MSTF + sprayed nano-HA. All surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and tested for 4-point flexural strength ( n = 30) in water at 37 °C. Weibull analysis was used to determine m and σ 0 (maximum likelihood method). In vitro biological behavior was performed with human osteoblast-like cells (MG63). Y-TZP was successfully coated with MSFT and MSFT + nano-HA. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs indicated that the microaggregates of nano-HA were not entirely covered by the silica. There was no statistically significant difference among the experimental groups for σ 0 and m. In the groups containing the films, the cells were elongated and aligned along the lines. The MSFT + nano-HA group showed significantly higher cell metabolic activity than that obtained for the Y-TZP group at day 7. This investigation was successful in producing an MSTF containing nano-HA microaggregates that remained exposed to the environment. The developed films did not jeopardize the structural reliability of a commercial Y-TZP, as confirmed by the Weibull statistics. The MG63 cells seeded over the films became elongated and aligned along the

  10. [Mechanical property of tooth-like yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal by adding rare earth oxide].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Fuqiang; Gao, Jianhua

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of mechanical property of tooth-like yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) by adding rare earth oxide as colorants. Six kinds of tooth-like Y-TZP were made by introducing internal coloration technology. The colorants included rare earth oxide (Pr6O11, CeO2, Er2O3) and transition element oxide (MnO2). Mechanical properties (flexural strength, vickers hardness and fracture toughness) were tested. Microstructure was examined by scanning electron microscope(SEM), and the fracture model was analyzed. The range of flexural strength of the six kinds of tooth-like Y-TZP were (792 +/- 20)-(960 +/- 17) MPa, the fracture toughness were (4.72 +/- 0.31)-(5.64 +/- 0.38) MPam(1/2), and the vickers hardness were (1332 +/- 19)-(1380 +/- 17) MPa. SEM observation on the cross section of the six kinds of sintered composites showed a relatively dense polycrystal structure, and the fracture models was mixed type. Tooth-like Y-TZP is acquired with better mechanical properties (fracture toughness and vickers hardness) by adding rare earth oxide as colorants. It is available for clinical application.

  11. Y-TZP zirconia regeneration firing: Microstructural and crystallographic changes after grinding.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Daniel Patrick Obelenis; Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi; Antonio, Selma Gutierrez; Hatanaka, Gabriel Rodrigues; Candido, Lucas Miguel; Pinelli, Ligia Antunes Pereira

    2017-07-26

    This study evaluated microstructural and crystallographic phase changes after grinding (G) and regeneration firing/anneling (R) of Y-TZP ceramics. Thirty five bars (Lava TM and Ice Zirkon) were divided: Y-TZP pre-sintered, control (C), regeneration firing (R), dry grinding (DG), dry grinding+regeneration firing (DGR), wet grinding (WG) and wet grinding+regeneration firing (WGR). Grinding was conducted using a diamond bur and annealing at 1,000°C. The microstructure was analyzed by SEM and the crystalline phases by X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD showed that pre-sintered specimens contained tetragonal and monoclinic phases, while groups C and R showed tetragonal, cubic and monoclinic phases. After grinding, the cubic phase was eliminated in all groups. Annealing (DGR and WGR) resulted in only tetragonal phase. SEM showed semi-circular cracks after grinding and homogenization of particles after annealing. After grinding, surfaces show tetragonal and monoclinic phases and R can be assumed to be necessary prior to porcelain layering when grinding is performed.

  12. Pulsewidth dependence of laser-induced periodic surface structure formed on yttria-stabilized zirconia polycrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakehata, Masayuki; Yashiro, Hidehiko; Oyane, Ayako; Ito, Atsuo; Torizuka, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    Three-mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) is a fine engineering ceramic that offers high fracture resistance and flexural strength. Thus, it is often applied in mechanical components and medical implants. The surface roughness can be controlled to improve the device characters in some applications. Ultrashort pulse lasers can form laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on 3Y-TZP, which have never been investigated in detail. Therefore, this paper reports the formation and characteristics of LIPSS formed on 3Y-TZP, focusing on the pulsewidth dependence. The LIPSS was formed by a Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification system, which generates 810 nmcentered 80-fs pulses at a 570 Hz repetition rate. The measured ablation threshold peak fluence was ~1.5 J/cm2 and the LIPSS was formed at the peak fluence of 2.7-7.7 J/cm2. For linearly polarized pulses, the lines of the LIPSS were oriented parallel to the polarization direction, and their period was comparable to or larger than the center wavelength of the laser. These characteristics differ from the reported characteristics of LIPSS on metals and dielectrics. The pulsewidth dependence of the ablation and LIPSS was investigated for different pulsewidths and signs of chirp. Under the investigated fluence condition, the LIPSS period increased with increasing pulsewidth for both signs of chirp. Similar pulsewidth dependencies were observed for circularly polarized pulses.

  13. [The effect of firing times on the chroma of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal by adding rare-earth oxides].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Huang, Hui; Gui, Lin-hua

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the firing times affect the chroma of zirconia by adding rare-earth oxides. Six kinds (S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6) of tooth-like yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) were available by introducing internal colorating technology, the color were gauged with ShadeEye NCC chromatometry instrument, and one-way ANOVA was used to analysis the color of each kind of tooth-like zirconia after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 times firing individually. After 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 times firing respectively, the chromatic aberration ranged between 0.10-1.47 merely. The luminosity of three kinds (S1, S2, S6) of tooth-like zirconia were decreased (P < 0.05), the luminosity of the other three kinds (S3, S4, S5) of tooth-like zirconia were not obviously changed (P > 0.05), as for the hue and chroma, no significant differences were found (P > 0.05). There are no significant influence on the color of tooth-like Y-TZP after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 times firing respectively, the chroma of yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal by adding rare-earth oxides are with high stability.

  14. Residual stress profiles in veneering ceramic on Y-TZP, alumina and ZTA frameworks: measurement by hole-drilling.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, K A; Sadoun, M J; Cesar, P F; Mainjot, A K

    2014-02-01

    The residual stress profile developed within the veneering ceramic during the manufacturing process is an important predicting factor in chipping failures, which constitute a well-known problem with yttria-tetragonal-zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) based restorations. The objectives of this study are to measure and to compare the residual stress profile in the veneering ceramic layered on three different polycrystalline ceramic framework materials: Y-TZP, alumina polycrystal (AL) and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA). The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disk samples of 19 mm diameter with a 0.7 mm thick Y-TZP, AL or ZTA framework and a 1.5mm thick layer of the corresponding veneering ceramic. The AL samples exhibited increasing compressive stresses with depth, while compressive stresses switching into interior tensile stresses were measured in Y-TZP samples. ZTA samples exhibited compressive stress at the ceramic surface, decreasing with depth up to 0.6mm from the surface, and then becoming compressive again near the framework. Y-TZP samples exhibited a less favorable stress profile than those of AL and ZTA samples. Results support the hypothesis of the occurrence of structural changes within the Y-TZP surface in contact with the veneering ceramic to explain the presence of tensile stresses. Even if the presence of Y-TZP in the alumina matrix seems to negatively affect the residual stress profiles in ZTA samples in comparison with AL samples, the registered profiles remain positive in terms of veneer fracture resistance. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Veneer Ceramic to Y-TZP Bonding: Comparison of Different Surface Treatments.

    PubMed

    Kirmali, Omer; Kapdan, Alper; Kustarci, Alper; Er, Kursat

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various surface-treatment techniques for enhancing the bond strength between veneering ceramic and yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP). Pre-sintered Y-TZP specimens were divided into eight groups (n = 10) according to the surface-treatment technique used: (a) untreated (control); (b) air abrasion with aluminum oxide particles; (c) erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation at different energy intensities (1 to 6 W). All specimens were then sintered and veneered with veneering ceramic according to the manufacturer's instructions. The obtained zirconia-ceramic specimens were immersed in 37°C distilled water for 24 hours before a shear bond strength test using a universal testing device at a 1 mm/min crosshead speed. The average values were calculated. After debonding, the Y-TZP surfaces were examined under a stereomicroscope to determine their fracture pattern, and the surface topography was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy after surface treatments. The bond strength ranged from 13.24 to 20.54 MPa. All surface treatments increased the bond strength between the veneering ceramic and Y-TZP; however, the value for the 6 W irradiation group was significantly different from the values for other groups (p ˂ 0.05). The present study's findings showed that higher energy densities were needed for the laser irradiation to improve the bond strength between the veneering ceramic and zirconia. Y-TZP is commonly used as a core material in fixed restorations. The bond strength between zirconia and the veneering ceramic can be affected by various surface treatments. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  16. Characterization of three commercial Y-TZP ceramics produced for their high-translucency, high-strength and high-surface area.

    PubMed

    Tong, Hui; Tanaka, Carina B; Kaizer, Marina R; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Developing yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) with high strength and translucency could significantly widen the clinical indications of monolithic zirconia restorations. This study investigates the mechanical and optical properties of three Y-TZP ceramics: High-Translucency, High-Strength and High-Surface Area. The four-point bending strengths (mean ± standard error) for the three Y-TZP ceramics ( n = 10) were 990 ± 39, 1416 ± 33 and 1076 ± 32 MPa for High-Translucency, High-Strength and High-Surface Area, respectively. The fracture toughness values (mean ± standard error) for the three zirconias ( n = 10) were 3.24 ± 0.10, 3.63 ± 0.12 and 3.21 ± 0.14 MPa m 1/2 for High-Translucency, High-Strength and High-Surface Area, respectively. Both strength and toughness values of High-Strength zirconia were significantly higher than High-Surface Area and High-Translucency zirconias. Translucency parameter values of High-Translucency zirconia were considerably higher than High-Strength and High-Surface Area zirconias. However, all three zirconias became essentially opaque when their thickness reached 1 mm or greater. Our findings suggest that there exists a delicate balance between mechanical and optical properties of the current commercial Y-TZP ceramics.

  17. Effects of whitening dentifrice on yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal surfaces after simulating brushing.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira; Gimenes Olbera, Amanda Caroline; Candido, Lucas Miguel; Miotto, Larissa Natiele; Antonio, Selma Gutierrez; Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi

    2017-01-01

    The changes that occur after brushing yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) are unknown. These changes may favor the retention of microorganisms and chemisorption of water, impairing its longevity. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of a whitening dentifrice on Y-TZP surfaces after simulating 10 years of brushing. Seventy-two bar-shaped specimens (20×4×1.2 mm) were divided into 4 groups: storage in distilled water (SW, control), brushing with distilled water (BW), brushing with dentifrice (BD), and brushing with whitening dentifrice (BWD). Brushing was conducted using a linear brushing machine (878400 cycles, 0.98 N, soft toothbrush). The mean roughness (Ra) was analyzed with a profilometer and the superficial topography with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at baseline and after treatment. Crystalline phases were characterized using x-ray diffraction. Baseline and posttreatment Ra were analyzed using the 1-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD multiple comparison test; the paired t test was used for intragroup comparison (all α=.05). The Ra (μm) means (before/after treatment) were SW 0.28/0.28; BW 0.32/0.31; BD 0.28/0.36; BWD 0.30/0.20. No statistically significant difference was found for Ra at baseline (P=.108) than for posttreatment results (P<.001); the BD group had higher Ra values when compared with baseline (P=.019); the BWD group had the lowest values (P<.001). The BD surfaces showed pronounced scratches and detachment of the surface, while BWD showed smoother surfaces; similar crystallographic results among groups were observed. Brushing Y-TZP with conventional dentifrice increased roughness, while brushing with whitening dentifrice reduced roughness. Neither dentifrice changed the crystallographic phases after brushing. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Interface compatibility between tooth-like yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal by adding rare-earth oxide and Vita VM9 veneering porcelain].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Fu-qiang; He, Fan

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the interface compatibility between tooth-like yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal(Y-TZP) by adding rare-earth oxide and Vita VM9 veneering porcelain. Six kinds(S1,S2,S3,S4,S5,S6) of tooth-like yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal were made by introducing internal colorating technology to detect the thermal shock resistance and interface bonding strength with Vita VM9 Bsaedentin. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS6.12 software package. There was no gap between the layers via hot shocking test.The shear bonding strength between Y-TZP and VitaVM9 was higher and the value was (36.03±3.82) to (37.98±4.89) MPa. By adding rare-earth oxide to yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal ,better compatibility between the layer (TZP and Vita VM9) can be formed which is of better interface integrate and available for clinical applications.

  19. Evaluation of self-adhesive resin cement bond strength to yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic (Y-TZP) using four surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Miragaya, Luciana; Maia, Luciane Cople; Sabrosa, Carlos Eduardo; de Goes, Mário Fernando; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the influence of four surface treatments on the bond strength of a self-adhesive resin cement to an yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramic material (Lava Frame zirconia). Forty plates (8 x 6 x 1 mm) of a Y-TZP ceramic restorative material were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10) according to the surface treatments: control, no treatment; airborne-particle abrasion with 50-μm Al2O3; coating with an MDP-based primer; conditioning with Rocatec System. The ceramic plates treated with each of the four methods were further divided into 2 subgroups according to the resin cement tested: RelyXTM ARC (ARC, conventional) and RelyXTM Unicem (Ucem, self-adhesive). The resin cements were put into PVC tubes (diameter 0.75 mm, 0.5 mm height) placed on the ceramic plate surfaces. After water storage at 37°C for 24 h, the specimens were submitted to a microshear bond strength (μSBS) test at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. The surface treatments significantly influenced the μSBS (p < 0.05). For the four surface treatments, UCem presented significantly higher μSBS than ARC (p < 0.05). For both resin cements, the best result was produced by the MDP-based primer: ARC 15.9 ± 5.0 MPa and UCem 36.2 ± 2.1 MPa. The highest μSBS values were presented by UCem on ceramic plates treated with the MDP-based primer (36.2 ± 2.1 MPa) and Rocatec system (37.4 ± 2.3 MPa). Irrespective of the surface treatment, the self-adhesive resin cement performed better in terms of bond strength to yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic than did conventional resin cement.

  20. [In vitro evaluation of low-temperature aging effects of Y2O3 stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals dental ceramics].

    PubMed

    Yi, Yuan-fu; Liu, Hong-chen; Wang, Chen; Tian, Jie-mo; Wen, Ning

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the influence of in vitro low-temperature degradation (LTD) treatment on the structural stability of 5 kinds of Y2O3 stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) dental ceramics. TZ-3YS powder was compacted at 200 MPa using cold isostatic pressure and pre-sintered at 1050 degrees C for 2 h forming presintered blocks. Specimens were sectioned into 15 mm x 15 mm x 1.5 mm slices from blocks of TZ-3YS, Vita In-Ceram YZ, Ivoclar, Cercon Smart, and Kavo Y-TZP presintered blocks, 18 slices for each brand, and then densely sintered. Specimens were divided into 6 groups and subjected to an accelerated aging test carried out in an autoclave in steam at 134 degrees C, 0.2 MPa, for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to identify crystal phases and relative content of monoclinic phase was calculated. Specimens for three-point bending test were fabricated using TZ-3YS ceramics according to the ISO 6872 standard and bending strength was tested before and after aging. The polished and aging specimens of TZ-3YS and Cercon Smart zirconia ceramics were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to evaluate surface microstructure. Tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation was detected for specimens of TZ-3YS, Vita In-Ceram YZ, Ivoclar, and Kavo zirconia ceramics except for Cercon Smart ceramics after aging, and the relative content of monoclinic phase was increasing with the prolonged aging time. TZ-3YS was the most affected material, Kavo took the second, and Vita and Ivoclar were similar. Aging had no significant negative effects on flexural strength of TZ-3YS with average bending strength being over 1100 MPa. The nucleation and growth of monoclinic phase were detected by AFM in surface of Cercon Smart zirconia in which monoclinic phase was not detected by XRD. The results suggest that LTD of dental Y-TZP is time dependent, but the aging test does not reduce the flexural strength of TZ-3YS. The long-term clinical serviceability of dental

  1. Shear Bond Strength of Al2O3 Sandblasted Y-TZP Ceramic to the Orthodontic Metal Bracket

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Seon Mi; Lee, Min Ho; Bae, Tae Sung

    2017-01-01

    As the proportion of adult orthodontic treatment increases, mainly for aesthetic reasons, orthodontic brackets are directly attached to yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) restorations. This, study analyzed the shear bond strength (SBS) between various surface treated Y-TZP and orthodontic metal brackets. The Y-TZP specimens were conditioned by 110 μm Al2O3 sandblasting, or sandblasting followed by coating with one of the primers (silane, MDP, or an MDP-containing silane primer). After surface treatment, the orthodontic metal bracket was bonded to the specimen using a resin cement, and then 24 h storage in water and thermal cycling (5000 cycles, 5–55 °C), SBS was measured. Surface roughness was analyzed for surface morphology, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed for characterization of the chemical bond between the Y-TZP and the MDP-based primers (MDP, MDP containing silane primer). It was found that after surface treatment, the surface roughness of all groups increased. The groups treated with 110 μm Al2O3 sandblasting and MDP, or MDP-containing silane primer showed the highest SBS values, at 11.92 ± 1.51 MPa and 13.36 ± 2.31 MPa, respectively. The SBS values significantly decreased in all the groups after thermal cycling. Results from XPS analysis demonstrated the presence of chemical bonds between Y-TZP and MDP. Thus, the application of MDP-based primers after Al2O3 sandblasting enhances the resin bond strength between Y-TZP and the orthodontic metal bracket. However, bonding durability of all the surface-treated groups decreased after thermal cycling. PMID:28772508

  2. Effect of in vitro aging on the flexural strength and probability to fracture of Y-TZP zirconia ceramics for all-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Siarampi, Eleni; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Andrikopoulos, Konstantinos S; Kantiranis, Nikolaos; Voyiatzis, George A; Zorba, Triantafillia; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M; Koidis, Petros

    2014-12-01

    Dental zirconia restorations should present long-term clinical survival and be in service within the oral environment for many years. However, low temperature degradation could affect their mechanical properties and survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of in vitro aging on the flexural strength of yttrium-stabilized (Y-TZP) zirconia ceramics for ceramic restorations. One hundred twenty bar-shaped specimens were prepared from two ceramics (ZENO Zr (WI) and IPS e.max(®) ZirCAD (IV)), and loaded until fracture according to ISO 6872. The specimens from each ceramic (nx=60) were divided in three groups (control, aged for 5h, aged for 10h). One-way ANOVA was used to assess statistically significant differences among flexural strength values (P<0.05). The variability of the flexural strength values was analyzed using the two-parameter Weibull distribution function, which was applied for the estimation of Weibull modulus (m) and characteristic strength (σ0). The crystalline phase polymorphs of the materials (tetragonal, t, and monoclinic, m, zirconia) were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. A slight increase of the flexural strength after 5h, and a decrease after 10h of aging, was recorded for both ceramics, however statistically significant was for the WI group (P<0.05). Both ceramics presented a t→m phase transformation, with the m-phase increasing from 4 to 5% at 5h to around 15% after 10h. The significant reduction of the flexural strength after 10h of in vitro aging, suggests high fracture probability for one of the zirconia ceramics tested. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of continuous application of MDP-containing primer and luting resin cement on bond strength to tribochemical silica-coated Y-TZP.

    PubMed

    Lim, Myung-Jin; Yu, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2018-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of continuous application of 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-containing primer and luting resin cement on bond strength to tribochemical silica-coated yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP). Forty bovine teeth and Y-TZP specimens were prepared. The dentin specimens were embedded in molds, with one side of the dentin exposed for cementation with the zirconia specimen. The Y-TZP specimen was prepared in the form of a cylinder with a diameter of 3 mm and a height of 10 mm. The bonding surface of the Y-TZP specimen was sandblasted with silica-coated aluminium oxide particles. The forty tribochemical silica-coated Y-TZP specimens were cemented to the bovine dentin (4 groups; n = 10) with either an MDP-free primer or an MDP-containing primer and either an MDP-free resin cement or an MDP-containing resin cement. After a shear bond strength (SBS) test, the data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test (α = 0.05). The group with MDP-free primer and resin cement showed significantly lower SBS values than the MDP-containing groups ( p < 0.05). Among the MDP-containing groups, the group with MDP-containing primer and resin cement showed significantly higher SBS values than the other groups ( p < 0.05). The combination of MDP-containing primer and luting cement following tribochemical silica coating to Y-TZP was the best choice among the alternatives tested in this study.

  4. Effect of low-temperature degradation on the mechanical and microstructural properties of tooth-colored 3Y-TZP ceramics.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Harada, A; Ono, M; Shibasaki, H; Kanno, T; Niwano, Y; Adolfsson, E; Milleding, P; Örtengren, U

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of low-temperature degradation (LTD) induced by autoclaving on the mechanical and microstructural properties of tooth-colored 3 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP). In total, 162 disc-shaped 3Y-TZP specimens were prepared. Two-thirds of the specimens were shaded by either the infiltration or powder mixing methods while the remaining specimens were used without coloring. The specimens were autoclaved at 134 °C for 0, 10, and 100 h to induce LTD (n=18 for each group). Chemical compositions were analyzed with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Biaxial flexural strength was measured using a piston-on-three-ball test. The surface fraction and penetration depth of the monoclinic phase were examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The tooth-colored 3Y-TZP specimens contained Fe2O3 and Er2O3 (infiltration technique), and Fe2O3 (powder mixing method) at concentrations of<0.5 wt%. The tooth-colored 3Y-TZP had higher strength than the non-colored material after 100 h of autoclaving. In terms of surface fraction and penetration depth, the generation of monoclinic phase was significantly lower in the tooth-colored 3Y-TZP than in the non-colored material. The tooth-colored 3Y-TZP possessed equivalent biaxial flexural strength to that of the non-colored material and higher resistance to LTD regardless of the coloring technique (infiltration technique or powder mixing method) when the coloring pigments were contained at concentrations used in the present study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New nano-sized Al2O3-BN coating 3Y-TZP ceramic composites for CAD/CAM-produced all-ceramic dental restorations. Part I. Fabrication of powders.

    PubMed

    Yang, Se Fei; Yang, Li Qiang; Jin, Zhi Hao; Guo, Tian Wen; Wang, Lei; Liu, Hong Chen

    2009-06-01

    Partially sintered 3 mol % yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconium dioxide (ZrO(2), zirconia) polycrystal (3Y-TZP) ceramics are used in dental posterior restorations with computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. High strength is acquired after sintering, but shape distortion of preshaped compacts during their sintering is inevitable. The aim of this study is to fabricate new machinable ceramic composites with strong mechanical properties that are fit for all-ceramic dental restorations. Aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3))-coated 3Y-TZP powders were first prepared by the heterogeneous precipitation method starting with 3Y-TZP, Al(NO(3))(3) . 9H(2)O, and ammonia, then amorphous boron nitride (BN) was produced and the as-received composite powders were coated via in situ reaction with boric acid and urea. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze the status of Al(2)O(3)-BN on the surface of the 3Y-TZP particles. TEM micrographs show an abundance of Al(2)O(3) particles and amorphous BN appearing uniformly on the surface of the 3Y-TZP particles after the coating process. The size of the Al(2)O(3) particles is about 20 nm. The XRD pattern shows clearly the peak of amorphous BN among the peaks of ZrO(2).

  6. [Effect of Al₂O₃ sandblasting on the bond strength between 3mol% yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconium polycrystal zirconia framework and veneering porcelain].

    PubMed

    Qiang, Zeng; Ning, Li; Yanan, Zhou; Jiazhen, Yan; Wenbo, Liu

    2015-12-01

    The effect of sandblasting on the bond strength between 3mol% yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconium polycrystal (3Y-TZP) zirconia framework and veneering porcelain was evaluated. A total of 21 specimens [(25 ± 1) mm x (3 ± 0.1) mmx (0.5 ± 0.05) mm] were prepared according to ISO 9693. The specimens were then randomly divided into 3 groups. Sandblasting was performed on 2 meshes of Al₂O₃ particles: group A with mesh 110 and group B with mesh 80. Group C, which was not sandblasted, was the control group. The surface roughness of the zirconia framework, as well as the bond strength between 3Y-TZP zirconia framework and veneering porcelain, was measured. The interface microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and elemental distribution was detected by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Surface roughness values were (1.272 ± 0.149) μm for group A, (0.622 ± 0.113) μm for group B, and (0.221 ± 0.065) μm for group C. Statistical significance were found among groups (P < 0.05). The bond strength values were (28.21 ± 1.52) MPa for group A, (27.71 ± 1.27) MPa for group B, and (24.87 ± 3.84) MPa for group C. Statistical significance was found between group A and group C (P < 0.05), whereas the other groups had no statistical significance (P > 0.05). Interface adhesion failure was the primary performance. SEM images showed the close interface bonding, and EDS showed that the interface had no obvious element penetration. Al₂O₃ sandblasting can slightly enhance the bond strength between zirconia framework and veneering porcelain.

  7. Characterization of Conventional and High-Translucency Y-TZP Dental Ceramics Submitted to Air Abrasion.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Guimarães, Renato Bastos; Noronha-Filho, Jaime Dutra; Botelho, Glauco Dos Santos; Guimarães, José Guilherme Antunes; Silva, Eduardo Moreira da

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of air-abrasion on t®m phase transformation, roughness, topography and the elemental composition of three Y-TZP (Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal) dental ceramics: two conventional (Lava Frame and IPS ZirCad) and one with high-translucency (Lava Plus). Plates obtained from sintered blocks of each ceramic were divided into four groups: AS (as-sintered); 30 (air-abrasion with 30 mm Si-coated Al2O3 particles); 50 (air-abrasion with 50 mm Al2O3 particles) and 150 (air-abrasion with 150 mm Al2O3 particles). After the treatments, the plates were submitted to X-ray diffractometry; 3-D profilometry and SEM/EDS. The AS surfaces were composed of Zr and t phases. All treatments produced t®m phase transformation in the ceramics. The diameter of air-abrasion particles influenced the roughness (150>50>30>AS) and the topography. SEM analysis showed that the three treatments produced groove-shaped microretentions on the ceramic surfaces, which increased with the diameter of air-abrasion particles. EDS showed a decrease in Zr content along with the emergence of O and Al elements after air-abrasion. Presence of Si was also detected on the plates air-abraded with 30 mm Si-coated Al2O3 particles. It was concluded that irrespective of the type and diameter of the particles, air-abrasion produced t®m phase transformation, increased the roughness and changed the elemental composition of the three Y-TZP dental ceramics. Lava Plus also behaved similarly to the conventional Y-TZP ceramics, indicating that this high translucency ceramic could be more suitable to build monolithic ceramic restorations in the aesthetic restorative dentistry field.

  8. Comparative study of flexural strength test methods on CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongxiang; Han, Jianmin; Lin, Hong; An, Linan

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, fractures are the main cause of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) 3 mol%-yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) all-ceramic dental restorations failure because of repetitive occlusal loading. The goal of this work is to study the effect of test methods and specimen’s size on the flexural strength of five ceramic products. Both bi-axial flexure test (BI) and uni-axial flexure tests (UNI), including three-point flexure test (3PF) and four-point flexure test (4PF), are used in this study. For all five products, the flexural strength is as follows: BI > 3PF > 4PF. Furthermore, specimens with smaller size (3PF-s) have higher values than the bigger ones (3PF). The difference between BI and UNI resulted from the edge flaws in ceramic specimens. The relationship between different UNI (including 3PF-s, 3PF and 4PF) can be explained according to Weibull statistical fracture theory. BI is recommended to evaluate the flexural strength of CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics. PMID:26816646

  9. Effects of core-to-dentin thickness ratio on the biaxial flexural strength, reliability, and fracture mode of bilayered materials of zirconia core (Y-TZP) and veneer indirect composite resins.

    PubMed

    Su, Naichuan; Liao, Yunmao; Zhang, Hai; Yue, Li; Lu, Xiaowen; Shen, Jiefei; Wang, Hang

    2017-01-01

    Indirect composite resins (ICR) are promising alternatives as veneering materials for zirconia frameworks. The effects of core-to-dentin thickness ratio (C/Dtr) on the mechanical property of bilayered veneer ICR/yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) core disks have not been previously studied. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the effects of C/Dtr on the biaxial flexural strength, reliability, and fracture mode of bilayered veneer ICR/ Y-TZP core disks. A total of 180 bilayered 0.6-mm-thick composite resin disks in core material and C/Dtr of 2:1, 1:1, and 1:2 were tested with either core material placed up or placed down for piston-on-3-ball biaxial flexural strength. The mean biaxial flexural strength, Weibull modulus, and fracture mode were measured to evaluate the variation trend of the biaxial flexural strength, reliability, and fracture mode of the bilayered disks with various C/Dtr. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests were used to evaluate the variation tendency of fracture mode with the C/Dtr or material placed down during testing (α=.05). Light microscopy was used to identify the fracture mode. The mean biaxial flexural strength and reliability improved with the increase in C/Dtr when specimens were tested with the core material either up and down, and depended on the materials that were placed down during testing. The rates of delamination, Hertzian cone cracks, subcritical radial cracks, and number of fracture fragments partially depended on the C/Dtr and the materials that were placed down during testing. The biaxial flexural strength, reliability, and fracture mode in bilayered structures of Y-TZP core and veneer ICR depend on both the C/Dtr and the material that was placed down during testing. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dipentaerythritol penta-acrylate phosphate - an alternative phosphate ester monomer for bonding of methacrylates to zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Tay, Franklin R.; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Qian, Mengke; Zhang, Huaiqin; Tian, Fucong; Xie, Haifeng

    2016-12-01

    The present work examined the effects of dipentaerythritol penta-acrylate phosphate (PENTA) as an alternative phosphate ester monomer for bonding of methacrylate-based resins to yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) and further investigated the potential bonding mechanism involved. Shear bond strength testing was performed to evaluate the efficacy of experimental PENTA-containing primers (5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 wt% PENTA in acetone) in improving resin-Y-TZP bond strength. Bonding without the use of a PENTA-containing served as the negative control, and a Methacryloyloxidecyl dihydrogenphosphate(MDP)-containing primer was used as the positive control. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to investigate the potential existence of chemical affinity between PENTA and Y-TZP. Shear bond strengths were significant higher in the 15 and 20 wt% PENTA groups. The ICP-MS, XPS and FTIR data indicated that the P content on the Y-TZP surface increased as the concentration of PENTA increased in the experimental primers, via the formation of Zr-O-P bond. Taken together, the results attest that PENTA improves resin bonding of Y-TZP through chemical reaction with Y-TZP. Increasing the concentration of PENTA augments its binding affinity but not its bonding efficacy with zirconia.

  11. Effect of TiN Addition on 3Y-TZP Ceramics with Emphasis on Making EDM-Able Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravifar, Mahnoosh; Mirkazemi, Seyyed Mohammad; Taheri, Mahdiar; Golestanifard, Farhad

    2018-05-01

    In this study, to produce electrically conductive ceramics, rapid hot press (RHP) sintering of 3 mol.% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) and 3Y-TZP/TiN composites with TiN amounts of 25, 35, and 45 vol.% was performed at 1300, 1350, and 1400 °C. Interestingly, the toughness and hardness were improved in the presence of TiN up to 35 vol.% and maximum fracture toughness and hardness of 5.40 ± 0.05 MPa m1/2 and 14.50 ± 0.06 GPa, respectively, were obtained. However, the bending strength was decreased which could be attributed to the rather weak interfaces of nitride and oxide phases. Regarding the zirconia matrix, the effect of grain size on fracture toughness of the samples has been studied using x-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis. It was also found that electrical resistivity decreased to the value of 6.88 × 10-6 Ω m at 45 vol.% of TiN. It seems the TiN grains form a network to impose conductivity on the ZrO2 body; however, below 35 vol.% TiN, due to lack of percolation effect, this conductivity could not be maintained according to FESEM studies. Finally, electrically conductive samples were successfully machined by electrical discharge machining (EDM).

  12. A Three-Year Retrospective Study on Survival of Ceramic-Veneered Zirconia (Y-TZP) Fixed Dental Prostheses Performed in Private Practices

    PubMed Central

    Norström Saarva, Veronika; Bjerkstig, Göran; Örtorp, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the three-year clinical outcome for ceramic-veneered zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Methods All patients who were treated with ceramic-veneered zirconia FDPs, in three private practices in Sweden, during the period June 2003 to April 2007 were included. Case records from 151 patients, treated with a total of 184 zirconia FDPs (692 units), were analysed for clinical data. All complications noted in the charts were registered and compared to definitions for success and survival and statistical analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and a Cox regression model. Results In total, 32 FDPs in 31 patients experienced some type of complication (17.4% of FDPs, 20.5% of patients). Core fractures occurred in two (1.1%) FDPs. Two (1.1%) FDPs or 0.6% of units showed adhesive veneer fractures. Cohesive veneer fractures occurred in 10 (5.4%) FDPs (1.6% of units). The three-year cumulative success and survival rates (CSR) were 82.3% and 95.2%, respectively. Conclusions Ceramic-veneered zirconia is a promising alternative to metal-ceramic FDPs, even in the posterior area. However, the higher survival rate of metal-ceramic FDPs should be noted and both dentists and patients must be aware of the risks of complications. PMID:28713427

  13. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 and Si-doped octacalcium phosphate composite coatings on zirconia ceramics (Y-TZP) for dental implant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Lei; Liu, Jingxiao; Shi, Fei; Jiang, Yanyan; Liu, Guishan

    2014-01-01

    In order to prevent the low temperature degradation and improve the bioactivity of zirconia ceramic implants, TiO2 and Si-doped octacalcium phosphate composite coating was prepared on zirconia substrate. The preventive effect on low temperature degradation and surface morphology of the TiO2 layer were studied. Meanwhile, the structure and property changes of the bioactive coating after doping Si were discussed. The results indicate that the dense TiO2 layer, in spite of some microcracks, inhibited the direct contact of the water vapor with the sample's surface and thus prevented the low temperature degradation of zirconia substrates. The acceleration aging test shows that the ratio of the monoclinic phase transition decreased from 10% for the original zirconia substrate to 4% for the TiO2-coated substrate. As to the Si-doped octacalcium phosphate coating prepared by biomimetic method, the main phase composition of the coating was octacalcium phosphate. The morphology of the coating was lamellar-like, and the surface was uniform and continuous with no cracks being observed. It is suggested that Si was added into the coating both through substituting for PO43- and doping as NaSiO3.

  14. Phase transformation of dental zirconia following artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Thomas J; Lawson, Nathaniel C; Janowski, Gregg M; Burgess, John O

    2015-10-01

    Low-temperature degradation (LTD) of yttria-stabilized zirconia can produce increased surface roughness with a concomitant decrease in strength. This study determined the effectiveness of artificial aging (prolonged boiling/autoclaving) to induce LTD of Y-TZP (yttria-tetragonal zirconia-polycrystals) and used artificial aging for transformation depth progression analyses. The null hypothesis is aging techniques tested produce the same amount of transformation, transformation is not time/temperature dependent and LTD causes a constant transformation throughout the Y-TZP samples. Dental-grade Y-TZP samples were randomly divided into nine subgroups (n = 5): as received, 3.5 and 7 day boiling, 1 bar autoclave (1, 3, 5 h), and 2 bar autoclave (1, 3, 5 h). A 4-h boil treatment (n = 2) was performed post-experiment for completion of data. Transformation was measured using traditional X-ray diffraction and low-angle X-ray diffraction. The fraction of t → m transformation increased with aging time. The 3.5 day boil and 2 bar 5 h autoclave produced similar transformation results, while the 7 day boiling treatment revealed the greatest transformation. The surface layer of the aged specimen underwent the most transformation while all samples displayed decreasing transformation with depth. Surface transformation was evident, which can lead to rougher surfaces and increased wear of opposing dentition/materials. Therefore, wear studies addressing LTD of Y-TZP are needed utilizing accelerated aging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Sol-gel dip coating of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia dental ceramic by aluminosilicate nanocomposite as a novel technique to improve the bonding of veneering porcelain.

    PubMed

    Madani, Azamsadat; Nakhaei, Mohammadreza; Karami, Parisa; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir; Salehi, Sahar; Bagheri, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of silica and aluminosilicate nanocomposite coating of zirconia-based dental ceramic by a sol-gel dip-coating technique on the bond strength of veneering porcelain to the yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) in vitro. Thirty Y-TZP blocks (10 mm ×10 mm ×3 mm) were prepared and were assigned to four experimental groups (n=10/group): C, without any further surface treatment as the control group; S, sandblasted using 110 μm alumina powder; Si, silica sol dip coating + calcination; and Si/Al, aluminosilicate sol dip coating + calcination. After preparing Y-TZP samples, a 3 mm thick layer of the recommended porcelain was fired on the coated Y-TZP surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the coating and the nature of the bonding between the coating and zirconia. To examine the zirconia-porcelain bond strength, a microtensile bond strength (μTBS) approach was chosen. FT-IR study showed the formation of silica and aluminosilicate materials. XRD pattern showed the formation of new phases consisting of Si, Al, and Zr in coated samples. SEM showed the formation of a uniform coating on Y-TZP samples. Maximum μTBS values were obtained in aluminosilicate samples, which were significantly increased compared to control and sandblasted groups (P=0.013 and P<0.001, respectively). This study showed that aluminosilicate sol-gel dip coating can be considered as a convenient, less expensive reliable method for improving the bond strength between dental Y-TZP ceramics and veneering porcelain.

  16. Influence of core design, production technique, and material selection on fracture behavior of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal fixed dental prostheses produced using different multilayer techniques: split-file, over-pressing, and manually built-up veneers.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Deyar Jallal Hadi; Linderoth, Ewa H; Wennerberg, Ann; Vult Von Steyern, Per

    2016-01-01

    To investigate and compare the fracture strength and fracture mode in eleven groups of currently, the most commonly used multilayer three-unit all-ceramic yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with respect to the choice of core material, veneering material area, manufacturing technique, design of connectors, and radii of curvature of FDP cores. A total of 110 three-unit Y-TZP FDP cores with one intermediate pontic were made. The FDP cores in groups 1-7 were made with a split-file design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain, computer-aided design-on veneers, and over-pressed veneers. Groups 8-11 consisted of FDPs with a state-of-the-art design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain. All the FDP cores were subjected to simulated aging and finally loaded to fracture. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the core designs, but not between the different types of Y-TZP materials. The split-file designs with VITABLOCS(®) (1,806±165 N) and e.max(®) ZirPress (1,854±115 N) and the state-of-the-art design with VITA VM(®) 9 (1,849±150 N) demonstrated the highest mean fracture values. The shape of a split-file designed all-ceramic reconstruction calls for a different dimension protocol, compared to traditionally shaped ones, as the split-file design leads to sharp approximal indentations acting as fractural impressions, thus decreasing the overall strength. The design of a framework is a crucial factor for the load bearing capacity of an all-ceramic FDP. The state-of-the-art design is preferable since the split-file designed cores call for a cross-sectional connector area at least 42% larger, to have the same load bearing capacity as the state-of-the-art designed cores. All veneering materials and techniques tested in the study, split-file, over-press, built-up porcelains, and glass-ceramics are, with a great safety margin, sufficient for clinical use both anteriorly and posteriorly. Analysis of

  17. Sol–gel dip coating of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia dental ceramic by aluminosilicate nanocomposite as a novel technique to improve the bonding of veneering porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Azamsadat; Nakhaei, Mohammadreza; Karami, Parisa; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir; Salehi, Sahar; Bagheri, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of silica and aluminosilicate nanocomposite coating of zirconia-based dental ceramic by a sol–gel dip-coating technique on the bond strength of veneering porcelain to the yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) in vitro. Thirty Y-TZP blocks (10 mm ×10 mm ×3 mm) were prepared and were assigned to four experimental groups (n=10/group): C, without any further surface treatment as the control group; S, sandblasted using 110 μm alumina powder; Si, silica sol dip coating + calcination; and Si/Al, aluminosilicate sol dip coating + calcination. After preparing Y-TZP samples, a 3 mm thick layer of the recommended porcelain was fired on the coated Y-TZP surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the coating and the nature of the bonding between the coating and zirconia. To examine the zirconia–porcelain bond strength, a microtensile bond strength (μTBS) approach was chosen. FT-IR study showed the formation of silica and aluminosilicate materials. XRD pattern showed the formation of new phases consisting of Si, Al, and Zr in coated samples. SEM showed the formation of a uniform coating on Y-TZP samples. Maximum μTBS values were obtained in aluminosilicate samples, which were significantly increased compared to control and sandblasted groups (P=0.013 and P<0.001, respectively). This study showed that aluminosilicate sol–gel dip coating can be considered as a convenient, less expensive reliable method for improving the bond strength between dental Y-TZP ceramics and veneering porcelain. PMID:27478376

  18. Zirconia dental implants degradation by confocal Raman microspectroscopy: analytical simulation and experiments

    PubMed Central

    Djaker, Nadia; Wulfman, Claudine; Sadoun, Michaël; Lamy de la Chapelle, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Subsurface hydrothermal degradation of yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP) is presented. Evaluation of low temperature degradation (LTD) phase transformation induced by aging in 3Y-TZP is experimentally studied by Raman confocal microspectroscopy. A non-linear distribution of monoclinic volume fraction is determined in depth by using different pinhole sizes. A theoretical simulation is proposed based on the convolution of the excitation intensity profile and the Beer-Lambert law (optical properties of zirconia) to compare between experiment and theory. The calculated theoretical degradation curves matche closely to the experimental ones. Surface transformation (V0) and transformation factor in depth (T) are obtained by comparing simulation and experience for each sample with nondestructive optical sectioning. PMID:23667788

  19. Strength, toughness and aging stability of highly-translucent Y-TZP ceramics for dental restorations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Inokoshi, Masanao; Batuk, Maria; Hadermann, Joke; Naert, Ignace; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Vleugels, Jef

    2016-12-01

    The aim was to evaluate the optical properties, mechanical properties and aging stability of yttria-stabilized zirconia with different compositions, highlighting the influence of the alumina addition, Y 2 O 3 content and La 2 O 3 doping on the translucency. Five different Y-TZP zirconia powders (3 commercially available and 2 experimentally modified) were sintered under the same conditions and characterized by X-ray diffraction with Rietveld analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Translucency (n=6/group) was measured with a color meter, allowing to calculate the translucency parameter (TP) and the contrast ratio (CR). Mechanical properties were appraised with four-point bending strength (n=10), single edge V-notched beam (SEVNB) fracture toughness (n=8) and Vickers hardness (n=10). The aging stability was evaluated by measuring the tetragonal to monoclinic transformation (n=3) after accelerated hydrothermal aging in steam at 134°C, and the transformation curves were fitted by the Mehl-Avrami-Johnson (MAJ) equation. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's HSD test (α=0.05). Lowering the alumina content below 0.25wt.% avoided the formation of alumina particles and therefore increased the translucency of 3Y-TZP ceramics, but the hydrothermal aging stability was reduced. A higher yttria content (5mol%) introduced about 50% cubic zirconia phase and gave rise to the most translucent and aging-resistant Y-TZP ceramics, but the fracture toughness and strength were considerably sacrificed. 0.2mol% La 2 O 3 doping of 3Y-TZP tailored the grain boundary chemistry and significantly improved the aging resistance and translucency. Although the translucency improvement by La 2 O 3 doping was less effective than for introducing a substantial amount of cubic zirconia, this strategy was able to maintain the mechanical properties of typical 3Y-TZP ceramics. Three different approaches were compared to improve the translucency of 3Y-TZP ceramics. Copyright

  20. Failure modes of Y-TZP abutments with external hex implant-abutment connection determined by fractographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Basílio, Mariana de Almeida; Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Rizkalla, Amin Sami; Santos Junior, Gildo Coelho; Arioli Filho, João Neudenir

    2016-07-01

    Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) was introduced as ceramic implant abutments due to its excellent mechanical properties. However, the damage patterns for Y-TZP abutments are limited in the literature. Fractographic analyses can provide insights as to the failure origin and related mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to analyze fractured Y-TZP abutments to establish fractographic patterns and then possible reasons for failure. Thirty two prefabricated Y-TZP abutments on external hex implants were retrieved from a single-load-to failure test according to the ISO 14801. Fractographic analyses were conducted under polarized-light estereo and scanning electro microscopy. The predominant fracture pattern was abutment fracture at the connecting region. Classic fractographic features such as arrest lines, hackle, and twist hackle established that failure started where Y-TZP abutments were in contact with the retention screw edges. The abutment screw design and the loading point were the reasons for localized stress concentration and fracture patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of thermal expansion mismatch on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic layered on zirconia: Measurement by hole-drilling.

    PubMed

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Najjar, Achref; Jakubowicz-Kohen, Boris D; Sadoun, Michaël J

    2015-09-01

    Mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient between core and veneering ceramic (Δα=αcore-αveneer, ppm/°C) is reported as a crucial parameter influencing veneer fractures with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal (Y-TZP) prostheses, which still constitutes a misunderstood problem. However, the common positive Δα concept remains empirical. The objective of this study is to investigate the Δα dependence of residual stress profiles in veneering ceramic layered on Y-TZP frameworks. The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disc samples of 20mm diameter with a 0.7mm thick Y-TZP framework and a 1.5mm thick veneer layer. 3 commercial and 4 experimental veneering ceramics (n=3 per group) were used to obtain different Δα varying from -1.3ppm/°C to +3.2ppm/°C, which were determined by dilatometric analyses. Veneer fractures were observed in samples with Δα≥+2.3 or ≤-0.3ppm/°C. Residual stress profiles measured in other groups showed compressive stresses in the surface, these stresses decreasing with depth and then becoming more compressive again near the interface. Small Δα variations were shown to induce significant changes in residual stress profiles. Compressive stress near the framework was found to decrease inversely to Δα. Veneer CTE close to Y-TZP (+0.2ppm/°C Δα) gived the most favorable stress profile. Yet, near the framework, Δα-induced residual stress varied inversely to predictions. This could be explained by the hypothesis of structural changes occurrence within the Y-TZP surface. Consequently, the optimum Δα value cannot be determined before understanding Y-TZP's particular behavior when veneered. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adhesion mechanisms at the interface between Y-TZP and veneering ceramic with and without modifier.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Carlo; Tucci, Antonella; Esposito, Leonardo; Scotti, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the mechanism of action at the interface between a commercially available Y-TZP and its veneering ceramic after final firing. Particular attention was paid, from a microstructural point of view, to evaluating the effects of different surface treatments carried out on the zirconia. In total, 32 specimens of presintered zirconia Y-TZP (LavaFrame, 3M ESPE, Germany) were cut with a low-speed diamond blade. The specimens were divided in two major groups, for testing after fracture or after mirror finishing, and were sintered following the manufacturer's instructions. Each major group was then randomly divided into four subgroups, according to using or not using the dedicated framework modifier, with or without a preliminary silica coating (CoJet, 3M ESPE). A suitable veneering ceramic was used for each group (Lava Ceram Overlay Porcelain, 3M ESPE). A detailed microstructural study of the interfaces of the zirconia-veneering ceramic was performed using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer to evaluate chemical variation at the interfaces. When the framework modifier was not applied on the Y-TZP surface, microdetachments, porosities, and openings in the ceramic layer were observed at the interlayers. A degree of diffusion of different elements through the interfaces from both the zirconia and veneering layers was detected. Application of the framework modifier can increase the wettability of the zirconia surfaces, allowing a continuous contact with the veneering layer. The micro-analysis performed showed the presence of a reaction area at the interface between the different materials. the increase of the wettability of the zirconia surface could improve the adhesion at interface with the veneering ceramic and reduce the clinical failure as chipping or delamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of tensile retention of Y-TZP crowns after long-term aging: effect of the core substrate and crown surface conditioning.

    PubMed

    Amaral, R; Rippe, M; Oliveira, B G; Cesar, P F; Bottino, M A; Valandro, L F

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the core substrate type (dentin and composite resin) on the retention of crowns made of yttrium oxide stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP), submitted to three inner surface conditionings. For this purpose, 72 freshly extracted molars were embedded in acrylic resin, perpendicular to the long axis, and prepared for full crowns: 36 specimens had crown preparations in dentin; the remaining 36 teeth had the crowns removed, and crown preparations were reconstructed with composite resin plus fiber posts with dimensions identical to the prepared dentin. The preparations were impressed using addition silicone, and 72 Y-TZP copings for the tensile test were produced. Cementation was performed with a dual-cured cement containing phosphate monomers. For cementation, the crown preparation (dentin or resin) was conditioned with the adhesive system, and the ceramic was subjected to one of three surface treatments: isopropyl alcohol, tribochemical silica coating, or thin low-fusing glassy porcelain layer application plus silanization. After 24 hours, all specimens were submitted to thermocycling (6000 cycles) and placed in a special tensile testing device in a universal testing machine to determine failure loads. The failure modes of all samples were analyzed under a stereomicroscope. Two-way analysis of variance showed that the surface treatment and substrate type (α=0.05) affected the tensile retention results. The dentin substrate presented the highest tensile retention values, regardless of the surface treatment. When the substrate was resin, the tribochemical silica coating and low-fusing glaze application plus silanization groups showed the higher retention values.

  4. Preparation and Optical Properties of Infrared Transparent 3Y-TZP Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanfeng; Mao, Xiaojian; Peng, Ya-Pei; Jiang, Benxue; Fan, Jintai; Xu, Yangyang; Zhang, Long; Zhao, Jingtai

    2017-04-07

    In the present study, a tough tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) material was developed for use in high-speed infrared windows and domes. The influence of the preparation procedure and the microstructure on the material's optical properties was evaluated by SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy. It was revealed that a high transmittance up to 77% in the three- to five-micrometer IR region could be obtained when the sample was pre-sintered at 1225 °C and subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1275 °C for two hours. The infrared transmittance and emittance at elevated temperature were also examined. The in-line transmittance remained stable as the temperature increased to 427 °C, with degradation being observed only near the infrared cutoff edge. Additionally, the emittance property of 3Y-TZP ceramic at high temperature was found to be superior to those of sapphire and spinel. Overall, the results indicate that Y-TZP ceramic is a potential candidate for high-speed infrared windows and domes.

  5. Preparation and Optical Properties of Infrared Transparent 3Y-TZP Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuanfeng; Mao, Xiaojian; Peng, Ya-Pei; Jiang, Benxue; Fan, Jintai; Xu, Yangyang; Zhang, Long; Zhao, Jingtai

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, a tough tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) material was developed for use in high-speed infrared windows and domes. The influence of the preparation procedure and the microstructure on the material’s optical properties was evaluated by SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy. It was revealed that a high transmittance up to 77% in the three- to five-micrometer IR region could be obtained when the sample was pre-sintered at 1225 °C and subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1275 °C for two hours. The infrared transmittance and emittance at elevated temperature were also examined. The in-line transmittance remained stable as the temperature increased to 427 °C, with degradation being observed only near the infrared cutoff edge. Additionally, the emittance property of 3Y-TZP ceramic at high temperature was found to be superior to those of sapphire and spinel. Overall, the results indicate that Y-TZP ceramic is a potential candidate for high-speed infrared windows and domes. PMID:28772753

  6. Influence of firing time and framework thickness on veneered Y-TZP discs curvature.

    PubMed

    Jakubowicz-Kohen, Boris D; Sadoun, Michaël J; Douillard, Thierry; Mainjot, Amélie K

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the curvature of very thinly, veneered Y-TZP discs of different framework thicknesses submitted to different firing times. Fifteen 20-mm-wide Y-TZP discs were produced in three different thicknesses: 0.75, 1, 1.5mm. One disc from each group was left unveneered while the others were layered with a 0.1mm veneering ceramic layer. All discs underwent five firing cycles for a total cumulative firing time of 30 min, 1, 2, 5 and 10h at 900°C. The curvature profile was measured using a profilometer after the veneering process and after each firing cycle respectively. A fitted curve was then used to estimate the, curvature radius. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) measurements were taken on veneering, ceramic and Y-TZP beam samples that underwent the same firing schedule. Those data were used to calculate the curvature generated by CTE variations over firing time. All bilayered samples exhibited a curvature that increased over firing time inversely to framework thickness. However non-veneered samples did not exhibit any curvature modification. The results of the present study reveal that even a very thin veneer layer (0.1mm) can induce a significant curvature of Y-TZP discs. The dilatometric results showed that Tg and CTE, variations are not sufficient to explain this curvature. A chemical-induced zirconia volume, augmentation located at the framework sub-surface near the interface could explain the sample, curvature and its increase with firing time. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of a Diamond Ground Y-TZP and Reversion of the Tetragonal to Monoclinic Transformation.

    PubMed

    Candido, L M; Fais, Lmg; Ferreira, E B; Antonio, S G; Pinelli, Lap

    To characterize the surface of an yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramic after diamond grinding in terms of its crystalline phase, morphology, mean roughness (Ra), and wettability as well as to determine a thermal treatment to reverse the resulting tetragonal to monoclinic (t-m) transformation. Y-TZP specimens were distributed into different groups according to the actions (or no action) of grinding and irrigation. Grinding was accomplished using a diamond stone at a low speed. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, goniometry, and profilometry. In situ high-temperature XRD was used to determine an annealing temperature to reverse the t-m transformation. Ra was submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Dunn test (α=0.05). The volume fraction of the monoclinic phase and contact angle were submitted to one-way analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey test (α=0.05). Monoclinic zirconia was observed on the surface of samples after dry and wet grinding with a diamond stone. The volume fraction of the monoclinic phase was smaller on the dry ground samples (3.6%±0.3%) than on the wet ground samples (5.6%±0.3%). High-temperature XRD showed reversion of the t-m phase transformation, which started at 700°C and completed at 800°C in a conventional oven. Grinding with a diamond stone partially transformed the crystalline phase on the surface of a Y-TZP ceramic from tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia while simultaneously increasing the surface roughness and wettability. The t-m transformation could be reversed by heat treatment at 800°C or 900°C for 60 minutes or 1000°C for 30 minutes.

  8. Evaluation of tensile retention of Y-TZP crowns cemented on resin composite cores: effect of the cement and Y-TZP surface conditioning.

    PubMed

    Rippe, M P; Amaral, R; Oliveira, F S; Cesar, P F; Scotti, R; Valandro, L F; Bottino, M A

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the cement type (adhesive resin, self-adhesive, glass ionomer, and zinc phosphate) on the retention of crowns made of yttria-stabilized polycrystalline tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP). Therefore, 108 freshly extracted molars were embedded in acrylic resin, perpendicular to their long axis, and prepared for full crowns: the crown preparations were removed and reconstructed using composite resin plus fiber posts with dimensions identical to the prepared dentin. The preparations were impressed using addition silicone, and Y-TZP copings were produced, which presented a special setup for the tensile testing. Cementation was performed with two adhesive resin cements (Multilink Automix, Ivoclar-Vivadent; RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), one self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100, 3M ESPE), one glass ionomer based cement (RelyX Luting, 3M ESPE), and one zinc phosphate cement (Cimento de Zinco, SS White, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). For the resin cement groups, the inner surfaces of the crowns were subjected to three surface treatments: cleaning with isopropyl alcohol, tribochemical silica coating, or application of a thin low-fusing glass porcelain layer plus silanization. After 24 hours, all groups were subjected to thermocycling (6000 cycles) and included in a special device for tensile testing in a universal testing machine to test the retention of the infrastructure. After testing, the failure modes of all samples were analyzed under a stereomicroscope. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the surface treatment and cement type (α=0.05) affected the tensile retention results. The Multilink cement presented the highest tensile retention values, but that result was not statistically different from RelyX ARC. The surface treatment was statistically relevant only for the Multilink cement. The cement choice was shown to be more important than the crown surface treatment for cementation of a Y-TZP crown to a composite resin substrate.

  9. [Preparation and chromaticity properties of colored dental 3Y-TZP ceramics].

    PubMed

    Yi, Yuan-fu; Wang, Chen; Tian, Jie-mo; Liu, Hong-chen; Wen, Ning

    2008-10-01

    To obtain and investigate the chromaticity properties of colored dental 3Y-TZP ceramics with different colorant combinations. Colorant combinations were mixed with TZ-3Y-S powder, then the mixtures were compacted at 200 MPa using cold isostatic pressure, densely sintered at 1500 degrees C for 2 h forming 5 graded colored dental zirconia ceramics. Specimen were sectioned into 10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm and 10 mm x l0 mmx 1 mm slices from the sintered blocks. Color measurement was performed under black background using spectrophotometer. The chromaticity properties were compared with that of the VITA In-Ceram YZ shade guide. Five colored dental zirconia ceramics were obtained. The lightness decreased gradually, and the chroma value increased gradually. The color differences of the two thickness specimens were little. The parameters of the color space were L*: 67.76-77.78; a*: -2.19-3.80; b*: 12.13-25.01, which was similar with that of the VITA In-Ceram YZ shade guide, while the lowest value of lightness was relatively higher than that of the VITA In-Ceram YZ shade guide. Colored 3Y-TZP dental ceramics are suitable for clinical use. There is a need to develop more darkness shaded zirconia dental ceramics.

  10. Cyclic fatigue resistance of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals with hot isostatic press processing.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Taku; Sato, Toru; Yoshinari, Masao

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of surface roughness and cyclic loading on fatigue resistance in Y-TZP subjected to hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Fifty Y-TZP cylinders 3.0 mm in diameter were divided into Group A (polished by centerless method; TZP-CP) or Group B (blasted and acid-etched: TZP-SB150E). Twenty five cp-titanium cylinders (Ti-SB150E) were used as a control. Static and cyclic tests were carried out according to ISO 14801. The cyclic fatigue test was performed in distilled water at 37°C. Surface morphology and roughness as well as crystal phase on the surfaces were also evaluated. Fracture force under the static test was 1,765N (TZP-CP), 1,220N (TZP-SB150E), and 850 N (yield force, Ti-SB150E). Fracture values under the cyclic test decreased to approximately 70% of those under the static tests. These results indicate that HIPed Y-TZP with a 3.0-mm diameter has sufficient durability for application to dental implants.

  11. Bonding of TRIP-Steel/Al2O3-(3Y)-TZP Composites and (3Y)-TZP Ceramic by a Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Miriyev, Aslan; Grützner, Steffen; Krüger, Lutz; Kalabukhov, Sergey; Frage, Nachum

    2016-01-01

    A combination of the high damage tolerance of TRIP-steel and the extremely low thermal conductivity of partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) can provide controlled thermal-mechanical properties to sandwich-shaped composite specimens comprising these materials. Sintering the (TRIP-steel-PSZ)/PSZ sandwich in a single step is very difficult due to differences in the sintering temperature and densification kinetics of the composite and the ceramic powders. In the present study, we successfully applied a two-step approach involving separate SPS consolidation of pure (3Y)-TZP and composites containing 20 vol % TRIP-steel, 40 vol % Al2O3 and 40 vol % (3Y)-TZP ceramic phase, and subsequent diffusion joining of both sintered components in an SPS apparatus. The microstructure and properties of the sintered and bonded specimens were characterized. No defects at the interface between the TZP and the composite after joining in the 1050–1150 °C temperature range were observed. Only limited grain growth occurred during joining, while crystallite size, hardness, shear strength and the fraction of the monoclinic phase in the TZP ceramic virtually did not change. The slight increase of the TZP layer’s fracture toughness with the joining temperature was attributed to the effect of grain size on transformation toughening. PMID:28773680

  12. [Effects of three types of veneering porcelain on bending strength of KAVO(TM) Y-TZP/porcelain bilayered structure].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting-ting; Yi, Yuan-fu; Shao, Long-quan; Tian, Jie-mo; Hou, Kang-lin; Zhang, Wei-wei; Wen, Ning; Deng, Bin

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the effect of three types of veneering porcelain on the bending strength of KAVO Y-TZP/porcelain layered structure. KAVO zirconia ceramics were used as the substructure. To form Y-TZP/porcelain bilayered structure, a leucite-based veneering porcelain was fired on the zirconia substructures by slip-casting technique with dentin washbake, and two nano-fluorapatite-based veneering porcelains were fired on the zirconia substructures by either slip-casting or pressed-on technique with or without liner coverage. The bending strength was tested according to ISO 6872 standard, and the veneered surfaces of the fracture samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For covering KAVO zirconia core material, the conventional veneering slurry-porcelain combined with liner or wash firing had significant higher bending strength than pressed-on porcelain. SEM showed that the main failure type at the interface was adhesive failure. Thin layer sintering using washbake program or liner on KAVO zirconia surface increases the surface wettability, and this procedure may be indispensable when veneering on the surface of dental zirconia.

  13. Y-TZP ceramic processing from coprecipitated powders: a comparative study with three commercial dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Dolores R R; Bottino, Marco C; Ozcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Amaral, Regina; Ussui, Valter; Bressiani, Ana H A

    2008-12-01

    (1) To synthesize 3mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) powders via coprecipitation route, (2) to obtain zirconia ceramic specimens, analyze surface characteristics, and mechanical properties, and (3) to compare the processed material with three reinforced dental ceramics. A coprecipitation route was used to synthesize a 3mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic processed by uniaxial compaction and pressureless sintering. Commercially available alumina or alumina/zirconia ceramics, namely Procera AllCeram (PA), In-Ceram Zirconia Block (CAZ) and In-Ceram Zirconia (IZ) were chosen for comparison. All specimens (6mmx5mmx5mm) were polished and ultrasonically cleaned. Qualitative phase analysis was performed by XRD and apparent densities were measured on the basis of Archimedes principle. Ceramics were also characterized using SEM, TEM and EDS. The hardness measurements were made employing Vickers hardness test. Fracture toughness (K(IC)) was calculated. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). ANOVA revealed that the Vickers hardness (p<0.0001) and fracture toughness (p<0.0001) were affected by the ceramic materials composition. It was confirmed that the PA ceramic was constituted of a rhombohedral alumina matrix, so-called alpha-alumina. Both CAZ and IZ ceramics presented tetragonal zirconia and alpha-alumina mixture of phases. The SEM/EDS analysis confirmed the presence of aluminum in PA ceramic. In the IZ and CAZ ceramics aluminum, zirconium and cerium in grains involved by a second phase containing aluminum, silicon and lanthanum were identified. PA showed significantly higher mean Vickers hardness values (H(V)) (18.4+/-0.5GPa) compared to vitreous CAZ (10.3+/-0.2GPa) and IZ (10.6+/-0.4GPa) ceramics. Experimental Y-TZP showed significantly lower results than that of the other monophased ceramic (PA) (p<0.05) but it showed significantly higher fracture toughness (6.0+/-0.2MPam(1/2)) values when compared to the

  14. [Effect of pigmentation on the strength of dental Y-TZP/porcelain bilayered structure].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting-ting; Yi, Yuan-fu; Shao, Long-quan; Liu, Hong-chen; Tian, Jie-mo; Hou, Kang-lin; Zhang, Wei-wei; Wen, Ning; Deng, Bin

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the effect of two methods of pigmentation on the flexural strength of dental Y-TZP/porcelain layered structure. KaVo zirconia substructures were pigmented by dipping presintered blocks in the coloring solution VITA LL1 and LL5, and colored TZ-3YS zirconia substructures were fabricated by adding pigments before isostatic pressing. The colors No.1 and No.5 were used for the test. The specimens were made in monolithic or bilayered forms, and the flexural strength was tested. XRD and SEM with EDX were used to analyze the characteristics of the surface structure. In KaVo group, no significant differences were found in the flexural strength between white and LL1 and LL5 colored monoclinic materials, nor in bilayered structures. While in TZ-3YS group, significant differences were noted in the flexural strength between color No.5 white and color No.1 monoclinic materials, but not between the latter two subgroups. The flexural strength was significantly lowered by veneering with porcelain in both zirconia groups, and similar findings were observed with the monoclinic materials. Only the tetragonal phase was detected in both of the zirconia groups. Pigmentation has no apparent effects on the bonding strength between the veneering porcelain and zirconia. Both coloring methods are appropriate when the concentration of the pigments is under deliberate control.

  15. In vitro evaluation of the mutagenic and carcinogenic power of high purity zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Covacci, V; Bruzzese, N; Maccauro, G; Andreassi, C; Ricci, G A; Piconi, C; Marmo, E; Burger, W; Cittadini, A

    1999-02-01

    Tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP) is a new interesting ceramic for the manufacture of medical devices. Its wide use in orthopedic and odontoiatric implants was limited till now by the high chemical and radiochemical impurities of the raw materials. Purification processes now available allow to obtain high purity ceramic grade powders suitable for TZP ceramics manufacture, even if their possible mutagenic and transforming effects are still unclear. The aim of this work is to study in vitro the mutagenic and oncogenic effects of a new zirconia ceramic stabilized by yttria (Y-TZP). This ceramic was sintered from high purity powders obtained by a process developed under a project carried out within the Brite EuRam programme. For comparison, ceramics made from unpurified zirconia powder were also tested. Fibroblasts irradiated by a linear accelerator were used as positive control. The results obtained show that Y-TZP ceramic does not elicit either mutagenic or transforming effect on C3H/10T(1/2) (10T(1/2)) cells and demonstrate that ceramic from high purity powders can be considered suitable for biomedical applications from the point of view of the effects of its radioactive impurity content.

  16. Enhancing the Bioactivity of Yttria-Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Ceramics via Grain-Boundary Activation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Jinhuan; He, Fupo; Ye, Jiandong

    2017-05-17

    Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) has been proposed as a potential dental implant because of its good biocompatibility, excellent mechanical properties, and distinctive aesthetic effect. However, Y-TZP cannot form chemical bonds with bone tissue because of its biological inertness, which affects the reliability and long-term efficacy of Y-TZP implants. In this study, to improve the bioactivity of Y-TZP ceramics while maintaining their good mechanical performance, Y-TZP was modified by grain-boundary activation via the infiltration of a bioactive glass (BG) sol into the surface layers of Y-TZP ceramics under different negative pressures (atmospheric pressure, -0.05 kPa, and -0.1 kPa), followed by gelling and sintering. The in vitro bioactivity, mechanical properties, and cell behavior of the Y-TZP with improved bioactivity were systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and Raman spectroscopy. The results of the bioactivity test conducted by immersing Y-TZP in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that a bonelike apatite layer was produced on the entire surface. The mechanical properties of the modified Y-TZP decreased as the negative pressure in the BG-infiltration process increased relative to those of the Y-TZP blank group. However, the samples infiltrated with the BG sol under -0.05 kPa and atmospheric pressure still retained good mechanical performance. The cell-culture results revealed that the bioactive surface modification of Y-TZP could promote cell adhesion and differentiation. The present work demonstrates that the bioactivity of Y-TZP can be enhanced by grain-boundary activation, and the bioactive Y-TZP is expected to be a potential candidate for use as a dental implant material.

  17. Zirconia changes after grinding and regeneration firing.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Gabriel R; Polli, Gabriela S; Fais, Laiza M G; Reis, José Maurício Dos S N; Pinelli, Lígia A P

    2017-07-01

    Despite improvements in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) systems, grinding during either laboratory procedures or clinical adjustments is often needed to modify the shape of 3 mol(%) yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) restorations. However, the best way to achieve adjustment is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microstructural and crystallographic phase changes, flexural strength, and Weibull modulus of a 3Y-TZP zirconia after grinding with or without water cooling and regeneration firing. Ninety-six bar-shaped specimens were obtained and divided as follows: as-sintered, control; as-sintered with regeneration firing; grinding without water cooling; grinding and regeneration firing with water cooling; and grinding and regeneration firing. Grinding (0.3 mm) was performed with a 150-μm diamond rotary instrument in a high-speed handpiece. For regeneration firing, the specimens were annealed at 1000°C for 30 minutes. The crystalline phases were evaluated by using x-ray powder diffraction. A 4-point bending test was conducted (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min). The Weibull modulus was used to analyze strength reliability. The microstructure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Data from the flexural strength test were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (α=.05). Tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation was identified in the ground specimens; R regeneration firing groups showed only the tetragonal phase. The median flexural strength of as-sintered specimens was 642.0; 699.3 MPa for as-sintered specimens with regeneration firing; 770.1 MPa for grinding and water-cooled specimens; 727.3 MPa for specimens produced using water-cooled grinding and regeneration firing; 859.9 MPa for those produced by grinding; and 764.6 for those produced by grinding and regeneration firing; with statistically higher values for the ground groups. The regenerative firing did not affect the flexural

  18. Thermal analysis of 3-mol%-yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia powder doped with copper oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Seidensticker, J.R.; Mayo, M.J.

    Thermal analysis was performed upon 3-mol%-yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3Y-TZP) which had been doped with CuO using an aqueous adsorption technique. Cyclic differential thermal analysis (DTA) scans indicated that the CuO present on the powder surfaces first transforms to Cu{sub 2}O and then melts. The molten Cu{sub 2}O then reacts with yttria at the powder surfaces to form a new phase containing Y, Cu, and O. Because Y takes time to diffuse to the particle surfaces, the apparent melting point of this new phase appears at higher temperatures in initial DTA scans than in subsequent scans. Vaporization of the moltenmore » copper-oxide-rich phase at the temperatures studied causes a gradual shift in composition from Y{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 5} to the less copper-rich Y{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase. The presence of the Y{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase in CuO-doped 3Y-TZP allows for previous sintering and superplasticity results to be explained.« less

  19. The effect of air-abrasion and heat treatment on the fracture behavior of Y-TZP.

    PubMed

    Passos, Sheila P; Linke, Bernie; Major, Paul W; Nychka, John A

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated how the flexural strength and fracture behavior of a zirconia-based ceramic (Y-TZP) were affected by pre- and post-sintering mechanical and thermal treatments. Treatments included sandblasting with different particle size and type (30μm SiO2; 50 and 110μm Al2O3) and thermal conditioning. Two hundred bar-shaped specimens of pre-sintered Y-TZP ceramic (Lava Frame, 3M) were prepared (specimen dimensions: 25mm length×4mm width×0.7mm thickness) and divided into three groups (before sintering, after sintering and after sintering with heating treatment). The before sintering group specimens were airborne-particle abraded prior to dense sintering. Specimens from the after sintering group were airborne-particle abraded after sintering. The after sintering with heating treatment group specimens were submitted to a heating procedure after airborne-particle abrasion. The controls were the specimens that were sintered and not treated with any conditioning procedures. The specimens from all experimental conditions were analyzed by SEM, CLSM and XRD. All specimens were tested in four-point bending. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Post Hoc tests (α=0.05). A Weibull analysis was used to analyze the strength reliability. Sandblasting pre-sintered zirconia before sintering significantly decreased the flexural strength, except when the smallest blasting particles were used (30μm SiO2). Phase transformation (t-m) was observed after sandblasting and reverse transformation (m-t) was observed after heating. Sandblasting with 30μm SiO2 and 50μm Al2O3 allowed lower phase transformation. However, 30mm SiO2 presented better reliability. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stability of Nanocrystalline Spark Plasma Sintered 3Y-TZP

    PubMed Central

    Chintapalli, Ravikiran; Mestra, Alvaro; García Marro, Fernando; Yan, Haixue; Reece, Michael; Anglada, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Spark plasma sintered 3Y-TZP has been investigated with respect to hydrothermal ageing and grinding. The sintering was performed between the temperatures of 1,100 and 1,600 °C for a soaking time of 5 minutes and the resulting materials were obtained with grain sizes between 65 to 800 nm and relative densities between 88.5 to 98.8%. Experiments on hydrothermal ageing in water vapour at 131 °C, 2 bars during 60 hours shows that phase stability is retained, elastic modulus and hardness of near surface region measured by nanoindentation does not change in fine grain (<200 nm) materials, in spite of porosity. In ground specimens, very small amount of transformation was found for all grain sizes studied.

  1. Can low-fusing glass application affect the marginal misfit and bond strength of Y-TZP crowns?

    PubMed

    Antunes, Monize Carelli Felipe; Miranda, Jean Soares; Carvalho, Ronaldo Luís Almeida de; Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado de; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; Assunção E Souza, Rodrigo Othávio de; Leite, Fabíola Pessôa Pereira

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the marginal misfit and retentive strength between Y-TZP crowns and an epoxy resin. Forty (40) epoxy resin (G10) abutments (height: 5mm, conicity: 60, finish line: large chamfer) with equal dimensions were milled and included in polyurethane to simulate the periodontal ligament. Next, 40 Y-TZP crowns (thickness: 1mm) were milled (Cerec in Lab) and randomly divided into four groups (n=10) according to the surface treatment: GS(glaze spray), GP(glaze powder/liquid), P(zirconia primer) and RS(tribochemical silica coating). The conditioned surfaces were cemented with dual self-adhesive cement, light cured and submitted to thermomechanical cycling (2x106, 100N, 4Hz, 5°/55°C). Marginal misfit was analyzed by a stereomicroscope and SEM. Retentive strength test was performed (1mm/min) until crown debonding. Glaze layer thickness was also performed to GS and GP groups. Marginal misfit data were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis and Dunn tests; one-way ANOVA and Tukey (5%) analyzed the tensile strength data. The marginal misfit of the GS (48.6±19.9μm) and GP (65.4±42.5μm) were statistically lower than the RS (96±62.9μm) and P (156±113.3μm) (p=0.001). The retentive strength of the GP (470.5±104.1N) and GS (416.8±170.2N) were similar to the P (342.1±109.7N), but statistically higher than those of the RS (208.9±110N). The GS and GP glaze layer was 11.64μm and 9.73μm respectively. Thus, glaze application promoted lower marginal discrepancy and higher retentive strength values than conventional techniques.

  2. Pilot evaluation of four experimental conditioning treatments to improve the bond strength between resin cement and Y-TZP ceramic.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Carlo; Cardelli, Paolo; Scotti, Roberto; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2011-02-01

    This study evaluated the bond strength between resin cement and Y-TZP ceramic (Yttrium-stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystalline) submitted to different surface conditionings. Fifty Y-TZP ceramic discs (Ø= 10 mm) were allocated into five groups: Gr1 (control)-no conditioning; Gr2-tribochemical silica coating (30-μm SiO(2)) before sintering; Gr3-air abrasion with 50-μm Al(2)O(3) before sintering; Gr4-air abrasion with 110-μ Al(2)O(3) before sintering; Gr5 - air abrasion with 50-μm Al(2)O(3) after sintering. After specimen preparation, cylinders of composite resin were prepared and immediately cemented onto the ceramic. A shear test was performed. One-way ANOVA indicated a statistically significant difference among the groups (p= 0.0019). The mean shear bond strengths (MPa) were: Gr1 = 4.7 ± 0.8,(b) Gr2 = 4.6 ± 0.9,(b) Gr3 = 6.4 ± 1.0,(a) Gr4 = 6.5 ± 1.8,(a) Gr5 = 6 ± 1.3(ab) (same superscript letter indicates statistical similarity). Adhesive fracture between the ceramic and resin cement was the most common failure. No complete cohesive fracture at the ceramic or composite cylinders was noted. Within the limitations of this study, additional surface treatment with air abrasion before and after sintering provided a significant increase in bond strength. Tribochemical silica coating before sintering was not effective as a surface treatment. © 2011 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. Effect of grinding and aging on subcritical crack growth of a Y-TZP ceramic.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Marina; Weitzel, Isabela Sandim Souza Leite; Silvestri, Tais; Guilardi, Luis Felipe; Pereira, Gabriel Kalil Rocha; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate slow crack growth (SCG) behavior of a zirconia ceramic after grinding and simulated aging with low-temperature degradation (LTD). Complementary analysis of hardness, surface topography, crystalline phase transformation, and roughness were also measured. Disc-shaped specimens (15 mm Ø × 1.2 mm thick, n = 42) of a full-contour Y-TZP ceramic (Zirlux FC, Amherst) were manufactured according to ISO:6872-2008, and then divided into: Ctrl - as-sintered condition; Ctrl LTD - as-sintered after aging in autoclave (134°C, 2 bar, 20 h); G - ground with coarse diamond bur (grit size 181 μm); G LTD - ground and aged. The SCG parameters were measured by a dynamic biaxial flexural test, which determines the tensile stress versus stress rate under four different rates: 100, 10, 1 and 0.1 MPa/s. LTD led to m-phase content increase, as well as grinding (m-phase content: Ctrl - 0%; G - 12.3%; G LTD - 59.9%; Ctrl LTD - 81%). Surface topography and roughness analyses showed that grinding created an irregular surface (increased roughness) and aging did not promote any relevant surface change. There was no statistical difference on surface hardness among different conditions. The control group presented the lowest strength values in all tested rates. Regarding SCG, ground conditions were less susceptible to SCG, delaying its occurrence. Aging (LTD) caused an increase in SCG susceptibility for the as-sintered condition (i.e. G < G LTD < Ctrl < Ctrl LTD).

  4. Grinding With Diamond Burs and Hydrothermal Aging of a Y-TZP Material: Effect on the Material Surface Characteristics and Bacterial Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Dam; Pereira, Gkr; Kantorski, K Z; Exterkate, Ram; Kleverlaan, C J; Valandro, L F; Zanatta, F B

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of grinding with diamond burs and low-temperature aging on the material surface characteristics and bacteria adhesion on a yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) surface. Y-TZP specimens were made from presintered blocks, sintered as recommended by the manufacturer, and assigned into six groups according to two factors-grinding (three levels: as sintered, grinding with extra-fine diamond bur [25-μm grit], and grinding with coarse diamond bur [181-μm grit]) and hydrothermal aging-to promote low-temperature degradation (two levels: presence/absence). Phase transformation (X-ray diffractometer), surface roughness, micromorphological patterns (atomic force microscopy), and contact angle (goniometer) were analyzed. Bacterial adhesion (colony-forming units [CFU]/biofilm) was quantified using an in vitro polymicrobial biofilm model. Both the surface treatment and hydrothermal aging promoted an increase in m-phase content. Roughness values increased as a function of increasing bur grit sizes. Grinding with a coarse diamond bur resulted in significantly lower values of contact angle (p<0.05) when compared with the extra-fine and control groups, while there were no differences (p<0.05) after hydrothermal aging simulation. The CFU/biofilm results showed that neither the surface treatment nor hydrothermal aging simulation significantly affected the bacteria adherence (p>0.05). Grinding with diamond burs and hydrothermal aging modified the Y-TZP surface properties; however, these properties had no effect on the amount of bacteria adhesion on the material surface.

  5. Lost mold-rapid infiltration forming: Strength control in mesoscale 3Y-TZP ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolino, Nicholas E.

    The strength of nanoparticulate enabled microdevices and components is directly related to the interfacial control between particles and the flaws introduced as these particles come together to form the device or component. One new application for micro-scale or meso-scale (10's microm to 100's microm) devices is surgical instruments designed to enter the body, perform a host of surgeries within the body cavity, and be extracted with no external incisions to the patient. This new concept in surgery, called natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), requires smaller and more functional surgical tools. Conventional processing routes do not exist for making these instruments with the desired size, topology, precision, and strength. A process, called lost mold-rapid infiltration forming (LM-RIF), was developed to satisfy this need. A tetragonally stabilized zirconia polycrystalline material (3Y-TZP) is a candidate material for this process and application because of its high strength, chemical stability, high elastic modulus, and reasonably high toughness for a ceramic. Modern technical ceramics, like Y-TZP, are predicated on dense, fine grained microstructures and functional mesoscale devices must also adhere to this standard. Colloid and interfacial chemistry was used to disperse and concentrate the Y-TZP nanoparticles through a very steep, yet localized, potential energy barrier against the van der Waals attractive force. The interparticle interaction energies were modeled and compared to rheological data on the suspension. At high concentrations, the suspension was pseudoplastic, which is evidence that a structure was formed within the suspension that could be disrupted by a shearing force. The LM-RIF process exploits this rheological behavior to fill mold cavities created by photolithography. The premise of the LM-RIF process is to process the particulate material into a dense ceramic body while the unsintered mesoscale parts are supported en masse

  6. Grain-Boundary Engineering for Aging and Slow-Crack-Growth Resistant Zirconia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, F; Chevalier, J; Olagnon, C; Batuk, M; Hadermann, J; Van Meerbeek, B; Vleugels, J

    2017-07-01

    Ceramic materials are prone to slow crack growth, resulting in strength degradation over time. Although yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramics have higher crack resistance than other dental ceramics, their aging susceptibility threatens their long-term performance in aqueous environments such as the oral cavity. Unfortunately, increasing the aging resistance of Y-TZP ceramics normally reduces their crack resistance. Our recently conducted systematic study of doping 3Y-TZP with various trivalent cations revealed that lanthanum oxide (La 2 O 3 ) and aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) have the most potent effect to retard the aging kinetics of 3Y-TZP. In this study, the crack-propagation behavior of La 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 co-doped 3Y-TZP ceramics was investigated by double-torsion methods. The grain boundaries were examined using scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (STEM-EDS). Correlating these analytic data with hydrothermal aging studies using different doping systems, a strategy to strongly bind the segregated dopant cations with the oxygen vacancies at the zirconia-grain boundary was found to improve effectively the aging resistance of Y-TZP ceramics without affecting the resistance to crack propagation.

  7. The influence of Y-TZP surface treatment on topography and ceramic/resin cement interfacial fracture toughness.

    PubMed

    Paes, P N G; Bastian, F L; Jardim, P M

    2017-09-01

    Consider the efficacy of glass infiltration etching (SIE) treatment as a procedure to modify the zirconia surface resulting in higher interfacial fracture toughness. Y-TZP was subjected to 5 different surface treatments conditions consisting of no treatment (G1), SIE followed by hydrofluoric acid treatment (G2), heat treated at 750°C (G3), hydrofluoric acid treated (G4) and airborne-particle abrasion with alumina particles (G5). The effect of surface treatment on roughness was evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy providing three different parameters: R a , R sk and surface area variation. The ceramic/resin cement interface was analyzed by Fracture Mechanics K I test with failure mode determined by fractographic analysis. Weibull's analysis was also performed to evaluate the structural integrity of the adhesion zone. G2 and G4 specimens showed very similar, and high R a values but different surface area variation (33% for G2 and 13% for G4) and they presented the highest fracture toughness (K IC ). Weibull's analysis showed G2 (SIE) tendency to exhibit higher K IC values than the other groups but with more data scatter and a higher early failure probability than G4 specimens. Selective glass infiltration etching surface treatment was effective in modifying the zirconia surface roughness, increasing the bonding area and hence the mechanical imbrications at the zirconia/resin cement interface resulting in higher fracture toughness (K IC ) values with higher K IC values obtained when failure probability above 20% was expected (Weibull's distribution) among all the experimental groups. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Retention Load Values of Telescopic Crowns Made of Y-TZP and CoCr with Y-TZP Secondary Crowns: Impact of Different Taper Angles

    PubMed Central

    Merk, Susanne; Wagner, Christina; Stock, Veronika; Schmidlin, Patrick R.; Roos, Malgorzata; Eichberger, Marlis; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine and compare the retention load values (RL) of different telescopic crown assemblies (Y-TZP and CoCr primary crowns with electroformed and Y-TZP secondary crowns each) with three different taper angles (0°, 1° and 2°). Thirty Y-TZP primary crowns with electroformed gold copings (Z/G group) and Y-TZP secondary crowns (Z/Z group) and 30 CoCr primary crowns with electroformed gold copings (C/G group) and Y-TZP secondary crowns (C/Z group), each with taper angles of 0°, 1° and 2°, were fabricated, respectively. With the exception of the electroformed gold copings, all specimens were Computer-Aided-Design/Computer-Aided-Manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-milled, then sintered and afterwards manually adapted. In order to stabilize the gold copings, they were fixed in a tertiary structure. The secondary crowns were constructed with a hook, which ensured self-alignment with an upper chain. Afterwards, 20 pull-off test cycles were performed in a universal testing machine under artificial saliva and after weighing the secondary crowns with a 5 kg object for 20 s. Data were analyzed by one-way and two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). C/Z with 1° showed higher (p = 0.009) RL than 0° and 2° tapers. C/G at 1° also showed higher (p = 0.001) RL than at tapers of 0° and 2°. Z/G and C/G at 0° showed lower RL than Z/Z and C/Z (p < 0.001). Primary crowns had no impact on the 0° group. Z/G showed lower RL as compared to C/Z within the 1° group (p = 0.007) and Z/Z in the 2° group (p = 0.006). The primary crown material had no influence on RL. Electroformed copings showed lower RL. Further investigations for 1° as well as for the long-term performance after thermomechanical aging are necessary. PMID:28773477

  9. Effect of Grinding and Resintering on the Fatigue Limit and Surface Characterization of a Y-TZP Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Polli, Gabriela Scatimburgo; Hatanaka, Gabriel Rodrigues; Abi-Rached, Filipe de Oliveira; Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira; Góes, Márcio de Sousa; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Reis, José Maurício Dos Santos Nunes

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of grinding protocols and resintering on flexural fatigue limit and surface characterization of LavaTM Y-TZP. Bar-shaped specimens (20×4.0×1.2 mm, n=40; 20×4.0×1.5 mm, n=80) were obtained. Half of the thinner specimens (1.2 mm) constituted the as-sintered group (AS), while the thicker ones (1.5 mm) were ground with diamond burs under irrigation (WG) or not (G). The other half of thinner and half of ground specimens were resintered (1000 ºC, 30 min), forming the groups ASR, WGR and GR. Fatigue limit (500,000 cycles, 10 Hz) was evaluated by staircase method in a 4-point flexural fixture. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Surface topography (n=3) and fracture area (n=3) were evaluated by SEM. X-ray diffraction data (n=1) was analyzed by Rietveld refinement. ANOVA revealed significant differences (p<0.001) for the grinding protocol, resintering and their interaction. Grinding increased the fatigue limit of non-resintered groups. There was no significant difference among the resintered groups. Resintering significantly increased the fatigue limit of the AS group only. Both protocols created evident grooves on zirconia surface. The failures initiated at the tensile side of all specimens. The percentages (wt%) of monoclinic phase were AS (8.6), ASR (1.2), G (1.8), GR (0.0), WG (8.2), WGR (0.0) before, and AS (7.4), ASR (6.5), G (3.2), GR (0.2), WG (4.6), WGR (1.1) after cyclic loading. Grinding increased the fatigue limit of non-resintered Y-TZP and formed evident grooves on its surface. Resintering provided significant increase in the fatigue limit of as-sintered specimens. In general, grinding and resintering decreased or zeroed the monoclinic phase.

  10. Influence of nano-structured alumina coating on shear bond strength between Y-TZP ceramic and various dual-cured resin cements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Choi, Jung-Yun; Seo, Jae-Min

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of nano-structured alumina surface coating on shear bond strength between Y-TZP ceramic and various dual-cured resin cements. A total of 90 disk-shaped zirconia specimens (HASS CO., Gangneung, Korea) were divided into three groups by surface treatment method: (1) airborne particle abrasion, (2) tribochemicalsilica coating, and (3) nano-structured alumina coating. Each group was categorized into three subgroups of ten specimens and bonded with three different types of dual-cured resin cements. After thermocycling, shear bond strength was measured and failure modes were observed through FE-SEM. Two-way ANOVA and the Tukey's HSD test were performed to determine the effects of surface treatment method and type of cement on bond strength ( P <.05). To confirm the correlation of surface treatment and failure mode, the Chi-square test was used. Groups treated with the nanostructured alumina coating showed significantly higher shear bond strength compared to other groups treated with airborne particle abrasion or tribochemical silica coating. Clearfil SA Luting showed a significantly higher shear bond strength compared to RelyX ARC and RelyX Unicem. The cohesive failure mode was observed to be dominant in the groups treated with nano-structured alumina coating, while the adhesive failure mode was prevalent in the groups treated with either airborne particle abrasion or tribochemical silica coating. Nano-structured alumina coating is an effective zirconia surface treatment method for enhancing the bond strength between Y-TZP ceramic and various dual-cured resin cements.

  11. Incorporation of TiO2 nanotubes in a polycrystalline zirconia: Synthesis of nanotubes, surface characterization, and bond strength.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Angélica Feltrin; Sandes de Lucena, Fernanda; Sanches Borges, Ana Flávia; Lisboa-Filho, Paulo Noronha; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2018-04-05

    Despite numerous advantages such as high strength, the bond of yttria-stabilized zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) to tooth structure requires improvement. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the incorporation of TiO 2 nanotubes into zirconia surfaces and the bond strength of resin cement to the modified ceramic. TiO 2 nanotubes were produced by alkaline synthesis, mixed with isopropyl alcohol (50 wt%) and applied on presintered zirconia disks. The ceramics were sintered, and the surfaces were characterized by confocal laser microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. For bond strength, the following 6 groups (n=16) were evaluated: without TiO 2 and Single Bond Universal; with TiO 2 nanotubes and Single Bond Universal; without TiO 2 nanotubes and Z-prime; with TiO 2 nanotubes and Z-prime; without TiO 2 and Signum Zirconia Bond; with TiO 2 and Signum Zirconia Bond. After sintering, resin cement cylinders, diameter of 1.40 mm and 1 mm in height, were prepared and polymerized for 20 seconds. Specimens were stored in water at 37°C for 30 days and submitted to a shear test. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey honest significant difference (α=.05) tests. EDS analysis confirmed that nanoagglomerates were composed of TiO 2 . The shear bond strength showed statistically significant differences among bonding agents (P<.001). No significant differences were found with the application of nanotubes, regardless of the group analyzed (P=.682). The interaction among the bonding agent factors and addition of nanotubes was significant (P=.025). Nanotubes can be incorporated into zirconia surfaces. However, this incorporation did not improve bond strength. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. On the bulk degradation of yttria-stabilized nanocrystalline zirconia dental implant abutments: an electron backscatter diffraction study.

    PubMed

    Ocelík, V; Schepke, U; Rasoul, H Haji; Cune, M S; De Hosson, J Th M

    2017-08-01

    Degradation of yttria-stabilized zirconia dental implants abutments due to the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation was studied in detail by microstructural characterization using Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD). The amount and distribution of the monoclinic phase, the grain-size distribution and crystallographic orientations between tetragonal and monoclinic crystals in 3 mol.% yttria-stabilized polycrystalline zirconia (3Y-TZP) were determined in two different types of nano-crystalline dental abutments, even for grains smaller than 400 nm. An important and novel conclusion is that no substantial bulk degradation of 3Y-TZP dental implant abutments was detected after 1 year of clinical use.

  13. Highly-translucent, strong and aging-resistant 3Y-TZP ceramics for dental restoration by grain boundary segregation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Vanmeensel, Kim; Batuk, Maria; Hadermann, Joke; Inokoshi, Masanao; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Naert, Ignace; Vleugels, Jef

    2015-04-01

    Latest trends in dental restorative ceramics involve the development of full-contour 3Y-TZP ceramics which can avoid chipping of veneering porcelains. Among the challenges are the low translucency and the hydrothermal stability of 3Y-TZP ceramics. In this work, different trivalent oxides (Al2O3, Sc2O3, Nd2O3 and La2O3) were selected to dope 3Y-TZP ceramics. Results show that dopant segregation was a key factor to design hydrothermally stable and high-translucent 3Y-TZP ceramics and the cation dopant radius could be used as a controlling parameter. A large trivalent dopant, oversized as compared to Zr(4+), exhibiting strong segregation at the ZrO2 grain boundary was preferred. The introduction of 0.2 mol% La2O3 in conventional 0.1-0.25 wt.% Al2O3-doped 3Y-TZP resulted in an excellent combination of high translucency and superior hydrothermal stability, while retaining excellent mechanical properties. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-time aging in 3 mol.% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals at human body temperature.

    PubMed

    Keuper, Melanie; Berthold, Christoph; Nickel, Klaus Georg

    2014-02-01

    We present new findings on the low-temperature degradation of yttria-stabilized zirconia at 37°C over several years and at high and low partial pressures of water. With the aid of focused ion beam cross-section confirmation studies we are able to show an extensive linear, continuous degradation without retardation, even at low temperatures and low water pressures. The characteristic layer growth and its inferred rate constant imply a lifetime of tens of years under simple tension and open the possibility of studying the longevity of these ceramics more rigorously. In addition, we show reproducibility complications of accelerated aging tests by the use of different autoclaves and possible implications for standardized procedures. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ageing kinetics and strength of airborne-particle abraded 3Y-TZP ceramics.

    PubMed

    Cotič, Jasna; Jevnikar, Peter; Kocjan, Andraž

    2017-07-01

    The combined effects of alumina airborne-particle abrasion and prolonged in vitro ageing on the flexural strength of 3Y-TZP ceramic have been studied. The aim was to identify the different effects on the surface and subsurface regions that govern the performance of this popular bioceramic known for its susceptibility to low-temperature degradation (LTD). As-sintered or airborne-particle abraded 3Y-TZP discs were subjected to ageing at 134°C for up to 480h. Biaxial flexural strength was measured and the relative amount of monoclinic phase determined using X-ray diffraction. The transformed zone depth (TZD) was observed on cross-sections with scanning electron microscopy coupled with a focused ion beam. Segmented linear regression was used to analyze the flexural strength and TZD as functions of the ageing time. A two-step linear ageing kinetics was detected in airborne-particle abraded specimens, reflecting the different microstructures through which the LTD proceeds into the bulk. A 10μm thick altered zone under the abraded surface was involved in both the surface strengthening and the increased ageing resistance. When the zone was annihilated by the LTD, the strength of the ceramic specimens and the speed of LTD returned to the values measured before abrasion. Even at prolonged ageing times, the strength of abraded groups was not lower than that of as-sintered groups. Both the ageing kinetics and the flexural strength were prominently affected by airborne-particle abrasion, which altered the subsurface microstructure and phase composition. Airborne-particle abrasion was not harmful to the 3Y-TZP ceramics' stability. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. FEA and microstructure characterization of a one-piece Y-TZP abutment.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Lucas Hian; Ribeiro, Sebastião; Borges, Alexandre Luís Souto; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Tango, Rubens Nisie

    2014-11-01

    The most important drawback of dental implant/abutment assemblies is the need for a fixing screw. This study aimed to develop an esthetic one-piece Y-TZP abutment to suppress the use of the screw. Material characterization was performed using a bar-shaped specimen obtained by slip-casting to validate the method prior to prototype abutment fabrication by the same process. The mechanical behavior of the prototype abutment was verified and compared with a conventional abutment by finite element analysis (FEA). The abutment was evaluated by micro-CT analysis and its density was measured. FEA showed stress concentration at the first thread pitch during installation and in the cervical region during oblique loading for both abutments. However, stress concentration was observed at the base of the screw head and stem in the conventional abutment. The relative density for the fabricated abutment was 95.68%. Micro-CT analysis revealed the presence of elongated cracks with sharp edges over the surface and porosity in the central region. In the light of these findings, the behavior of a one-piece abutment is expected to be better than that of the conventional model. New studies should be conducted to clarify the performance and longevity of this one-piece Y-TZP abutment. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adsorption as a method of doping 3-mol%-yttria-stabilized zirconia powder with copper oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Seidensticker, J.R.; Mayo, M.J.; Osseo-Asare, K.

    The adsorption behavior of Cu[sup 2+] on 3-mol%-yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (3Y-TZP) powder was studied. There is a window of pH values (10 < pH < 11) where adsorption may be used as a method of doping 3Y-TZP with Cu[sup 2+]. The maximum mole percent of the CuO additions is determined by the specific surface area of the 3Y-TZP powder; a powder with a specific surface area of 16.1 m[sup 2]/g is limited to about 1 mol% CuO. Compacts made from powders doped with CuO using this method exhibited an enhancement in superplasticity comparable to that observed in other studiesmore » using samples doped with CuO by attrition milling.« less

  18. Effect of titania content and biomimetic coating on the mechanical properties of the Y-TZP/TiO2 composite.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ranulfo Benedito de Paula; Miranda, Walter Gomes; Lazar, Dolores Ribeiro Ricci; Ussui, Valter; Marchi, Juliana; Cesar, Paulo Francisco

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effect of titania addition (0, 10 and 30mol%) on the microstructure, relative density, Young's modulus (E), Poisson's ratio (υ), mechanical properties (flexural strength, σ f , and Weibull modulus, m) of a Y-TZP/TiO 2 composite. The effect of the presence of a biomimetic coating on the microstructure and mechanical properties was also evaluated. Y-TZP (3mol% of yttria) and Y-TZP/TiO 2 composite (10 or 30mol% of titania) were synthesized by co-precipitation. The powders were pressed and sintered at 1400°C/2h. The surfaces, with and without biomimetic coating, were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The relative density was measured by the Archimedes' principle. E and υ were measured by ultrasonic pulse-echo method. For the mechanical properties the specimens (n=30 for each group) were tested in a universal testing machine. Titania addition increased the grain size of the composite and caused a significant decrease in the flexural strength (in MPa, control 815.4 a ; T10 455.7 b and T30 336.0 c ), E (in GPa, control 213.4 a ; T10 155.8 b and T30 134.0 c ) and relative density (control 99.0% a ; T10 94.4% c and T30 96.3% b ) of the Y-TZP/TiO 2 composite. The presence of 30% titania caused substantial increase in m and υ. Biomimetic coating did not affect the mechanical properties of the composite. The Y-TZP/TiO 2 composite coated with a layer of CaP has great potential to be used as implant material. Although addition of titania affected the properties of the composite, the application of a biomimetic coating did not jeopardize its reliability. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing the feasibility of yttria-stabilized zirconia in novel designs as mandibular anterior fixed lingual retention following orthodontic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Matthew

    The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) in fixed lingual retention as an alternative to stainless steel. Exploratory Y-TZP specimens were milled to establish design parameters. Next, specimens were milled according to ASTM standard C1161-13 and subjected to four-point flexural test to determine materials properties. Finite Element (FE) Analysis was employed to evaluate nine novel cross-sectional designs and compared to stainless steel wire. Each design was analyzed under the loading conditions to determine von Mises and bond stress. The most promising design was fabricated to assess accuracy and precision of current CAD/CAM milling technology. The superior design had a 1.0 x 0.5 mm semi-elliptical cross section and was shown to be fabricated reliably. Overall, the milling indicated a maximum percent standard deviation of 9.3 and maximum percent error of 13.5 with a cost of $30 per specimen. Y-TZP can be reliably milled to dimensions comparable to currently available metallic retainer wires. Further research is necessary to determine the success of bonding protocol and clinical longevity of Y-TZP fixed retainers. Advanced technology is necessary to connect the intraoral scan to an aesthetic and patient-specific Y-TZP fixed retainer.

  20. Effects of artificial aging conditions on yttria-stabilized zirconia implant abutments.

    PubMed

    Basílio, Mariana de Almeida; Cardoso, Kátia Vieira; Antonio, Selma Gutierrez; Rizkalla, Amin Sami; Santos Junior, Gildo Coelho; Arioli Filho, João Neudenir

    2016-08-01

    Most ceramic abutments are fabricated from yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP). However, Y-TZP undergoes hydrothermal degradation, a process that is not well understood. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the effects of artificial aging conditions on the fracture load, phase stability, and surface microstructure of a Y-TZP abutment. Thirty-two prefabricated Y-TZP abutments were screwed and tightened down to external hexagon implants and divided into 4 groups (n = 8): C, control; MC, mechanical cycling (1×10(6) cycles; 10 Hz); AUT, autoclaving (134°C; 5 hours; 0.2 MPa); and TC, thermal cycling (10(4) cycles; 5°/55°C). A single-load-to-fracture test was performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min to assess the assembly's resistance to fracture (ISO Norm 14801). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was applied to observe and quantify the tetragonal-monoclinic (t-m) phase transformation. Representative abutments were examined with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the surface characteristics of the abutments. Load-to-fracture test results (N) were compared by ANOVA and Tukey test (α=.05). XRD measurements revealed the monoclinic phase in some abutments after each aging condition. All the aging conditions reduced the fracture load significantly (P<.001). Mechanical cycling reduced the fracture load more than autoclaving (P=.034). No differences were found in the process of surface degradation among the groups; however, the SEM detected grinding-induced surface flaws and microcracks. The resistance to fracture and the phase stability of Y-TZP implant abutments were susceptible to hydrothermal and mechanical conditions. The surface microstructure of Y-TZP abutments did not change after aging conditions. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Deposition of Crystalline Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles on Y-TZP Ceramic: A Potential Solution to Enhance Bonding Characteristics of Y-TZP Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Azari, Abbas; Nikzad Jamnani, Sakineh; Yazdani, Arash; Atri, Faezeh; Rasaie, Vania; Fazel Anvari Yazdi, Abbas

    2017-03-01

    Many advantages have been attributed to dental zirconia ceramics in terms of mechanical and physical properties; however, the bonding ability of this material to dental structure and/or veneering ceramics has always been a matter of concern. On the other hand, hydroxyapatite (HA) shows excellent biocompatibility and good bonding ability to tooth structure, with mechanically unstable and brittle characteristics, that make it clinically unacceptable for use in high stress bearing areas. The main purpose of this study was to introduce two simple yet practical methods to deposit the crystalline HA nanoparticles on zirconia ceramics. zirconia blocks were treated with HA via two different deposition methods namely thermal coating and air abrasion. Specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In both groups, the deposition techniques used were successfully accomplished, while the substrate showed no structural change. However, thermal coating group showed a uniform deposition of crystalline HA but in air abrasion method, there were dispersed thin islands of HA. Thermal coating method has the potential to significantly alter the surface characteristics of zirconia. The simple yet practical nature of the proposed method may be able to shift the bonding paradigm of dental zirconia ceramics. This latter subject needs to be addressed in future investigations.

  2. On the interfacial fracture of porcelain/zirconia and graded zirconia dental structures.

    PubMed

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J-W; Mieleszko, Adam J; Chu, Stephen J; Zhang, Yu

    2014-08-01

    Porcelain fused to zirconia (PFZ) restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry. However, their susceptibility to fracture remains a practical problem. The failure of PFZ prostheses often involves crack initiation and growth in the porcelain, which may be followed by fracture along the porcelain/zirconia (P/Z) interface. In this work, we characterized the process of fracture in two PFZ systems, as well as a newly developed graded glass-zirconia structure with emphases placed on resistance to interfacial cracking. Thin porcelain layers were fused onto Y-TZP plates with or without the presence of a glass binder. The specimens were loaded in a four-point-bending fixture with the thin porcelain veneer in tension, simulating the lower portion of the connectors and marginal areas of a fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) during occlusal loading. The evolution of damage was observed by a video camera. The fracture was characterized by unstable growth of cracks perpendicular to the P/Z interface (channel cracks) in the porcelain layer, which was followed by stable cracking along the P/Z interface. The interfacial fracture energy GC was determined by a finite-element analysis taking into account stress-shielding effects due to the presence of adjacent channel cracks. The resulting GC was considerably less than commonly reported values for similar systems. Fracture in the graded Y-TZP samples occurred via a single channel crack at a much greater stress than for PFZ. No delamination between the residual glass layer and graded zirconia occurred in any of the tests. Combined with its enhanced resistance to edge chipping and good esthetic quality, graded Y-TZP emerges as a viable material concept for dental restorations. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Five-year clinical evaluation of zirconia-based bridges in patients in UK general dental practices.

    PubMed

    Burke, F J T; Crisp, R J; Cowan, A J; Lamb, J; Thompson, O; Tulloch, N

    2013-11-01

    This study reported the results at 5 years of fixed-fixed all-ceramic bridges, constructed in a yttria oxide stabilized tetragonal zirconium oxide polycrystal (Y-TZP) substructure, placed in adult patients in UK general dental practices. Four UK general dental practitioners recruited patients who required fixed bridgework and, after obtaining informed written consent, appropriate clinical and radiographic assessments were completed. The teeth were prepared and bridges constructed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Each bridge was reviewed annually within 3 months of the anniversary of its placement by a calibrated examiner, together with the clinician who had placed the restoration, using modified USPHS criteria. Of the 41 bridges originally placed, 33 bridges were examined at 5 years. All Y-TZP frameworks were intact and no bridge retainers had debonded. Eight chipping fractures in the veneering ceramic were noted over the 5-year period. In five cases the patients were unaware of these and these cases were polished. Of the remaining three cases, in one a repair was attempted but was unsuccessful, but the bridge remained in satisfactory service. However, in the case involving a chipping fracture of the mesial-incisal angle of a central incisor, it was considered that replacement of the bridge was necessary. 97% (n=32) of the 33 Lava Y-TZP fixed-fixed bridges, evaluated in patients attending UK general dental practices, were found to be performing satisfactorily. The use of Y-TZP frameworks holds promise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of ceramic thickness, grinding, and aging on the mechanical behavior of a polycrystalline zirconia.

    PubMed

    Prado, Rodrigo Diniz; Pereira, Gabriel Kalil Rocha; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Melo, Renata Marques de; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2017-11-06

    Monolithic restorations of Y-TZP have been recommended as a restorative alternative on prosthetic dentistry as it allows a substantial reduction of ceramic thickness, which means a greater preservation of tooth structure. However, the influence of grinding and aging when using a thinner layer of the material is unclear. This investigation aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of ceramic thickness (0.5 mm and 1.0 mm), grinding and aging (low-temperature degradation) on the mechanical behavior and surface characteristics of a full-contour Y-TZP ceramic. Y-TZP disc-shaped specimens (15 mm diameter) were manufactured with both thicknesses and randomly assigned into 4 groups considering the factors 'grinding with diamond bur' and 'aging in autoclave'. Surface topography (roughness, 3D profilometry and SEM), phase transformation, flexural strength and structural reliability (Weibull) analyses were executed. Grinding affected the surface topography, while aging did not promote any effect. An increase in m-phase content was observed after grinding and aging, although different susceptibilities were observed. Regardless of zirconia's thickness, no deleterious effect of grinding or aging on the mechanical properties was observed. Thus, in our testing assembly, reducing the thickness of the Y-TZP ceramic did not alter its response to grinding and low temperature degradation and did not impair its mechanical performance.

  5. Effect of Grinding and Multi-Stimuli Aging on the Fatigue Strength of a Y-TZP Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Tais; Pereira, Gabriel Kalil Rocha; Guilardi, Luis Felipe; Rippe, Marilia Pivetta; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of grinding and multi-stimuli aging on the fatigue strength, surface topography and the phase transformation of Y-TZP ceramic. Discs were manufactured according to ISO-6872:2008 for biaxial flexure testing (diameter: 15 mm; thickness: 1.2 mm) and randomly assigned considering two factors "grinding" and "aging": C- control (as-sintered); CA- control + aging; G- ground; GA- ground + aging. Grinding was carried out with coarse diamond burs under water-cooling. Aging protocols consisted of: autoclave (134°C, 2 bars pressure, 20 hours), followed by storage for 365 days (samples were kept untouched at room temperature), and by mechanical cycling (106 cycles by 20 Hz under a load of 50% from the biaxial flexure monotonic tests). Flexural fatigue strengths (20,000 cycles; 6 Hz) were determined under sinusoidal cyclic loading using staircase approach. Additionally, surface topography analysis by FE-SEM and phase transformation analysis by X-ray Diffractometry were performed. Dixon and Mood methodology was used to analyze the fatigue strength data. Grinding promotes alterations of topographical pattern, while aging apparently did not alter it. Grinding triggered t-m phase transformation without impacting the fatigue strength of the Y-TZP ceramic; and aging promoted an intense t-m transformation that resulted in a toughening mechanism leading to higher fatigue strength for as-sintered condition, and a tendency of increase for ground condition (C < CA; G = GA). It concludes that grinding and aging procedures did not affect deleteriously the fatigue strength of the evaluated Y-TZP ceramic, although, it promotes surface topography alterations, except to aging, and t-m phase transformation.

  6. Mechanical behavior of a Y-TZP ceramic for monolithic restorations: effect of grinding and low-temperature aging.

    PubMed

    Pereira, G K R; Silvestri, T; Camargo, R; Rippe, M P; Amaral, M; Kleverlaan, C J; Valandro, L F

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of grinding with diamond burs and low-temperature aging on the mechanical behavior (biaxial flexural strength and structural reliability), surface topography, and phase transformation of a Y-TZP ceramic for monolithic dental restorations. Disc-shaped specimens (Zirlux FC, Ivoclar Vivadent) were manufactured according to ISO 6872 (2008) and divided in accordance with two factors: "grinding - 3 levels" and "LTD - 2 levels". Grinding was performed using a contra-angle handpiece under constant water-cooling with different grit-sizes (extra-fine and coarse diamond burs). LTD was simulated in an autoclave at 134°C, under a pressure of 2 bar, over a period of 20h. Surface topography analysis showed an increase in roughness based on surface treatment grit-size (Coarse>Xfine>Ctrl), LTD did not influence roughness values. Both grinding and LTD promoted an increase in the amount of m-phase, although different susceptibilities to degradation were observed. According to existing literature the increase of m-phase content is a direct indicative of Y-TZP degradation. Weibull analysis showed an increase in characteristic strength after grinding (Coarse=Xfine>Ctrl), while for LTD, distinct effects were observed (CtrlY-TZP ceramic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of grinding on the mechanical behavior of Y-TZP ceramics: A systematic review and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Pereira, G K R; Fraga, S; Montagner, A F; Soares, F Z M; Kleverlaan, C J; Valandro, L F

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to assess the effect of grinding on the mechanical properties, structural stability and superficial characteristics of Y-TZP ceramics. The MEDLINE via PubMed and Web of Science (ISI - Web of Knowledge) electronic databases were searched with included peer-reviewed publications in English language and with no publication year limit. From 342 potentially eligible studies, 73 were selected for full-text analysis, 30 were included in the systematic review with 20 considered in the meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently selected the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias. Statistical analyses were performed using RevMan 5.1, with random effects model, at a significance level of 0.05. A descriptive analysis considering phase transformation, Y-TZP grain size, Vickers hardness, residual stress and aging of all included studies were executed. Four outcomes were considered in the meta-analyses (factor: grinding x as-sintered) in global and subgroups analyses (grinding tool, grit-size and cooling) for flexural strength and roughness (Ra) data. A significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in the global analysis for strength, favoring as-sintered; subgroup analyses revealed that different parameters lead to different effects on strength. In the global analysis for roughness, a significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between conditions, favoring grinding; subgroup analyses revealed that different parameters also lead to different effects on roughness. High heterogeneity was found in some comparisons. Generally grinding promotes decrease in strength and increase in roughness of Y-TZP ceramics. However, the use of a grinding tool that allows greater accuracy of the movement (i.e. contra angle hand-pieces coupled to slowspeed turbines), small grit size (<50μm) and the use of plenty coolant seem to be the main factors to decrease the defect introduction and allow the occurrence of the

  8. A new silica-infiltrated Y-TZP obtained by the sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Campos, T M B; Ramos, N C; Machado, J P B; Bottino, M A; Souza, R O A; Melo, R M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate silica infiltration into dental zirconia (VITA In-Ceram 2000 YZ, Vita Zahnfabrik) and its effects on zirconia's surface characteristics, structural homogeneity and bonding to a resin cement. Infiltration was performed by immersion of the pre-sintered zirconia specimens in silica sols for five days (ZIn). Negative (pure zirconia specimens, ZCon-) and positive controls (specimens kept in water for 5 days, ZCon+) were also performed. After sintering, the groups were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), grazing angle X-ray diffraction (DRXR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurements, optical profilometry, biaxial flexural test and shear bonding test. Weibull analysis was used to determine the Weibull modulus (m) and characteristic strength (σ0) of all groups. There were no major changes in strength for the infiltrated group, and homogeneity (m) was also increased. A layer of ZrSiO4 was formed on the surface. The bond strength to resin cement was improved after zirconia infiltration, acid conditioning and the use of an MDP primer. The sol-gel method is an efficient and simple method to increase the homogeneity of zirconia. Infiltration also improved bonding to resin cement. The performance of a zirconia infiltrated by silica gel improved in at least two ways: structural homogeneity and bonding to resin cement. The infiltration is simple to perform and can be easily managed in a prosthesis laboratory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Influence of compaction pressure and pre-sintering temperature on the machinability of zirconia ceramic].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huil; Li, Jing; Zhang, Fuqiang; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2011-10-01

    In order to make certain the compaction pressure as well as pre-sintering temperature on the machinability of the zirconia ceramic. 3 mol nano-size 3 mol yttria partially stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) powder were compacted at different isostatic pressure and sintered at different temperature. The cylindrical surface was traversed using a hard metal tool. Surface and edge quality were checked visually using light stereo microscopy. Pre-sintering temperature had the obviously influence on the machinability of 3Y-TZP. The cutting surface was smooth, and the integrality of edge was better when the pre-sintering temperature was chosen between 800 degrees C to 900 degrees C. Compaction pressure showed only a weak influence on machinability of 3Y-TZP blanks, but the higher compaction pressure result in the poor surface quality. The best machinability of pre-sintered zirconia body was found for 800-900 degrees C pre-sintering temperature, and 200-300 MPa compaction pressure.

  10. Performance of zirconia ceramic cantilever fixed dental prostheses: 3-year results from a prospective, randomized, controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zenthöfer, Andreas; Ohlmann, Brigitte; Rammelsberg, Peter; Bömicke, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the clinical performance of ceramic cantilever fixed dental prostheses on natural teeth. The purpose of this randomized controlled pilot study was to evaluate the clinical performance of ceramic and metal ceramic cantilever fixed dental prostheses (CFDPs) after 3 years of service. Twenty-one participants were randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups. Participants in the ceramic (ZC) group (n=11) each received 1 CFDP made of yttria-stabilized, tetragonal zirconia polycrystal; the others (n=10) were fitted with a metal ceramic (MC) CFDP. All CFDPs were retained by 2 complete crown abutments and replaced 1 tooth. The clinical target variables were survival, incidence of complications, probing pocket depth (PPD), probing attachment level (PAL), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and esthetic performance as rated by the participants. The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria were used to evaluate chipping, retention, color, marginal integrity, and secondary caries. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric analyses were applied to the target variables in the 2 groups. The esthetic performance of the CFDPs was also visualized by using a pyramid comparison. The overall survival of the CFDPs was 100% in both groups. During the 3-year study, 6 clinically relevant complications requiring aftercare were observed among 5 participants (4 in the ZC group and 2 in the MC group). Changes in the PI, GI, PPD, and PAL of the abutment teeth were similar for both groups (P>.05). The participants regarded the esthetic performance of ZC-CFDPs and MC-CFDPs as satisfactory. Within the 3-year observation period, the clinical performance of MC-FDPs and ZC-FDPs was acceptable. More extensive research with larger sample sizes is encouraged, however, to confirm the evaluation of the survival of Y-TZP hand-veneered cantilever FPDs. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of the tribological behaviour of Y-TZP in tea and coffee under micro-abrasion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, S.; Stack, M. M.

    2013-10-01

    The micro-abrasion of Y-TZP, a candidate dental restorative material, was investigated in a range of caffeine-containing solutions which included tea and coffee. Additions of sugar and milk were used to test the effects of viscosity and pH on the wear rate. The results indicated a significant increase in wear rate in the various solutions, with some correlation between wear rate and increases in viscosity and this was linked to enhance particle entrainment in the more viscous solutions. The generally lower wear rate in tea compared to coffee was associated with a longer ageing period in this solution before uniform wear was observed. Micro-abrasion maps were used to characterize the differences in performance for the material in the environments studied.

  12. Effect of grinding with diamond-disc and -bur on the mechanical behavior of a Y-TZP ceramic.

    PubMed

    Pereira, G K R; Amaral, M; Simoneti, R; Rocha, G C; Cesar, P F; Valandro, L F

    2014-09-01

    This study compared the effects of grinding on the surface micromorphology, phase transformation (t→m), biaxial flexural strength and structural reliability (Weibull analysis) of a Y-TZP (Lava) ceramic using diamond-discs and -burs. 170 discs (15×1.2mm) were produced and divided into 5 groups: without treatment (Ctrl, as-sintered), and ground with 4 different systems: extra-fine (25µm, Xfine) and coarse diamond-bur (181µm, Coarse), 600-grit (25µm, D600) and 120-grit diamond-disc (160µm, D120). Grinding with burs was performed using a contra-angle handpiece (T2-Revo R170, Sirona), while for discs (Allied) a Polishing Machine (Ecomet, Buehler) was employed, both under water-cooling. Micromorphological analysis showed distinct patterns generated by grinding with discs and burs, independent of grit size. There was no statistical difference for characteristic strength values (MPa) between smaller grit sizes (D600 - 1050.08 and Xfine - 1171.33), although they presented higher values compared to Ctrl (917.58). For bigger grit sizes, a significant difference was observed (Coarse - 1136.32>D120 - 727.47). Weibull Modules were statistically similar between the tested groups. Within the limits of this study, from a micromorphological point-of-view, the treatments performed did not generate similar effects, so from a methodological point-of-view, diamond-discs should not be employed to simulate clinical abrasion performed with diamond-burs on Y-TZP ceramics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of different surface treatments on the hydrothermal degradation of a 3Y-TZP ceramic for dental implants.

    PubMed

    Cattani-Lorente, M; Scherrer, S S; Durual, S; Sanon, C; Douillard, T; Gremillard, L; Chevalier, J; Wiskott, A

    2014-10-01

    Implant surface modifications are intended to enhance bone integration. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different surface treatments on the resistance to hydrothermal degradation, hardness and elastic modulus of a 3Y-TZP ceramic used for dental implants. Samples grouped according to their surface morphologies (AS, as-sintered; C, coated; P, dry-polished; R, roughened; PA, polished and annealed; RA, roughened and annealed) were subjected to accelerated hydrothermal degradation (LTD) by exposure to water steam (134°C, 2bars) for 100h. The t-m phase transformation was quantified by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXDR) and by combined focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). Elastic modulus and hardness before- and after prolonged aging (100h) were assessed by nanoindentation. AS and C specimens presented a better resistance to hydrothermal degradation than P and R samples. After prolonged aging, the depth of the monoclinic transformed layer ranged from 11μm to 14μm. Hydrothermal degradation led to a significant decrease of elastic modulus and hardness. Surface treatments affected the resistance to hydrothermal degradation of the 3Y-TZP ceramic. Dry mechanical surface modifications should be avoided since a high t-m transformation rate associated to the initial monoclinic content was observed. Annealing was useful to reverse the initial t-m transformation, but did not improve the resistance to hydrothermal degradation. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Adhesive Cementation Strategies on the Bonding of Y-TZP to Human Dentin.

    PubMed

    Alves, Mll; Campos, F; Bergoli, C D; Bottino, M A; Özcan, M; Souza, Roa

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different adhesive strategies on the adhesion of zirconia to dentin using conventional and self-adhesive cements and their corresponding adhesive resins. The occlusal parts of human molars (N=80) were sectioned, exposing the dentin. The teeth and zirconia cylinders (N=80) (diameter=3.4 mm; height=4 mm) were randomly divided into eight groups according to the factors "surface conditioning" and "cement type" (n=10 per group). One conventional cement (CC: RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE) and one self-adhesive cement (SA: RelyX U200, 3M ESPE) and their corresponding adhesive resin (for CC, Adper Single Bond Plus; for SA, Scotchbond Universal Adhesive-SU) were applied on dentin. Zirconia specimens were conditioned either using chairside (CJ: CoJet, 30 μm, 2.5 bar, four seconds), laboratory silica coating (RC: Rocatec, 110 μm, 2.5 bar, four seconds), or universal primer (Single Bond Universal-UP). Nonconditioned groups for both cements acted as the control (C). Specimens were stored in water (37°C, 30 days) and subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) testing (1 mm/min). Data (MPa) were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and a Tukey test (α=0.05). While surface conditioning significantly affected the SBS values (p=0.0001) (Czirconia to dentin compared to the control group, regardless of the type of resin cement used.

  15. Effect of intra-oral aging on t→m phase transformation, microstructure, and mechanical properties of Y-TZP dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Miragaya, Luciana Meireles; Guimarães, Renato Bastos; Souza, Rodrigo Othávio de Assunção E; Santos Botelho, Glauco Dos; Antunes Guimarães, José Guilherme; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of intra-oral aging on the tetragonal-to-monoclinic (t→m) phase transformation of two Y-TZP dental ceramics - Lava Frame (Frame) and Lava Plus (Plus) - and determine the impact of this response on their microstructures and mechanical properties: flexural strength, Young's modulus, microhardness and fracture toughness. Standardized ceramic specimens were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). After the baseline analysis, the specimens were attached to personalized intra-oral resin appliances and exposed to the oral cavity of 20 subjects for 60 days and then analyzed again. Specimens produced for mechanical properties evaluation were also analyzed before and after the 60-day intra-oral aging. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD's post hoc test (α=0.05). Weibull analysis was used to evaluate the strength reliability. Both Y-TZP ceramics suffered t→m phase transformation after 60-day intra-oral aging (Plus=4.7%/Frame=7.7%). SEM and AFM analyses showed dislodgement of ZrO 2 grains and a significant increase in roughness after intra-oral aging for both ceramics. Both Y-TZP ceramics suffered a decrease on flexural strength, Young's modulus and fracture toughness after intra-oral aging (p<0.05). Only Plus presented a decrease of microhardness after intra-oral aging (p<0.05). Intra-oral aging for 60 days produced t→m phase transformation, changed the microstructure and decreased the mechanical properties of two Y-TZP dental ceramics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Structure and properties of colored dental tetragonal zirconia stabilized by yttrium ceramics].

    PubMed

    Yi, Yuan-fu; Wang, Chen; Wen, Ning; Lin, Yong-zhao; Tian, Jie-mo

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the structure, mechanical and low temperature aging properties of colored dental zirconia ceramics. 5 graded colored dental zirconia ceramics were made by adding colorants and their combinations into a 3Y-TZP (tetragonal zirconia stabilized by 3mol% yttrium) powder, the green body were compacted at 200 MPa, pre-sinter at 1,050 degrees C and maintained for 2 h, then densely sintered at 1,500 degrees C for 2 h. Specimens were cut from each of the 5 graded colored blocks. Physical, mechanical properties as well as chemical stability were tested, microstructure were observed, crystalline phase were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), aging properties were assessed by measurement of the relative content of monoclinic phase and bending strength testing. The overall density of colored zirconia ceramics was over 99.7%, linear shrinkage was about 20%, while thermal expansion coefficient was about 11 x 10(-6) x degrees C(-1), the crystalline phase was tetragonal, bending strength was over 900 MPa which was slightly lowered than that of the uncolored zirconia, fracture toughness was slightly higher. Good chemical stability in acetic acid was observed. After aging treatment, tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation was detected up to 40%, while bending strength was not significantly degraded. The results showed that colored 3Y-TZP ceramics presented good mechanical properties even after aging treatments, and was suitable for dental clinical use.

  17. Degradation resistance of 3Y-TZP ceramics sintered using spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintapalli, R.; Marro, F. G.; Valle, J. A.; Yan, H.; Reece, M. J.; Anglada, M.

    2009-09-01

    Commercially available tetragonal zirconia powder doped with 3 mol% of yttria has been sintered using spark plasma sintering (SPS) and has been investigated for its resistance to hydrothermal degradation. Samples were sintered at 1100, 1150, 1175 and 1600 °C at constant pressure of 100 MPa and soaking for 5 minutes, and the grain sizes obtained were 65, 90, 120 and 800 nm, respectively. Samples sintered conventionally with a grain size of 300 nm were also compared with samples sintered using SPS. Finely polished samples were subjected to artificial degradation at 131 °C for 60 hours in vapour in auto clave under a pressure of 2 bars. The XRD studies show no phase transformation in samples with low density and small grain size (<200 nm), but significant phase transformation is seen in dense samples with larger grain size (>300 nm). Results are discussed in terms of present theories of hydrothermal degradation.

  18. Concerns of Hydrothermal Degradation in CAD/CAM Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J.-W.; Covel, N.S.; Guess, P.C.; Rekow, E.D.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry; however, their susceptibility to hydrothermal degradation remains elusive. We hypothesized that CAD/CAM machining and subsequent surface treatments, i.e., grinding and/or grit-blasting, have marked effects on the hydrothermal degradation behavior of Y-TZP. CAD/CAM-machined Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thick), both with and without subsequent grinding with various grit sizes or grit-blasting with airborne alumina particles, were subjected to accelerated aging tests in a steam autoclave. Results showed that the CAD/CAM-machined surfaces initially exhibited superior hydrothermal degradation resistance, but deteriorated at a faster rate upon prolonged autoclave treatment compared with ground and grit-blasted surfaces. The accelerated hydrothermal degradation of CAD/CAM surfaces is attributed to the CAD/CAM machining damage and the absence of surface compressive stresses in the fully sintered material. Clinical relevance for surface treatments of zirconia frameworks in terms of hydrothermal and structural stabilities is addressed. PMID:19966039

  19. CAD/CAM machining Vs pre-sintering in-lab fabrication techniques of Y-TZP ceramic specimens: Effects on their mechanical fatigue behavior.

    PubMed

    Zucuni, C P; Guilardi, L F; Fraga, S; May, L G; Pereira, G K R; Valandro, L F

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different pre-sintering fabrication processing techniques of Y-TZP ceramic (CAD/CAM Vs. in-lab), considering surface characteristics and mechanical performance outcomes. Pre-sintered discs of Y-TZP ceramic (IPS e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) were produced using different pre-sintering fabrication processing techniques: Machined- milling with a CAD/CAM system; Polished- fabrication using a cutting device followed by polishing (600 and 1200 SiC papers); Xfine- fabrication using a cutting machine followed by grinding with extra-fine diamond bur (grit size 30 μm); Fine- fabrication using a cutting machine followed by grinding with fine diamond bur (grit size 46 μm); SiC- fabrication using a cutting machine followed by grinding with 220 SiC paper. Afterwards, the discs were sintered and submitted to roughness (n=35), surface topography (n=2), phase transformation (n=2), biaxial flexural strength (n=20), and biaxial flexural fatigue strength (fatigue limit) (n=15) analyses. No monoclinic-phase content was observed in all processing techniques. It can be observed that obtaining a surface with similar characteristics to CAD/CAM milling is essential for the observation of similar mechanical performance. On this sense, grinding with fine diamond bur before sintering (Fine group) was the best mimic protocol in comparison to the CAD/CAM milling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of the Conditioning Method for Pre-Sintered Zirconia on the Shear Bond Strength of Bilayered Porcelain/Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Spintzyk, Sebastian; Yamaguchi, Kikue; Sawada, Tomofumi; Schille, Christine; Schweizer, Ernst; Ozeki, Masahiko; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the bond strength of veneering porcelain with an experimental conditioner-coated zirconia. Pre-sintered Y-TZP specimens (n = 44) were divided in two groups based on conditioning type. After sintering, all sample surfaces were sandblasted and layered with veneering porcelain. Additionally, half of the specimens in each group underwent thermal cycling (10,000 cycles, 5–55 °C), and all shear bond strengths were measured. After testing, the failure mode of each fractured specimen was determined. Differences were tested by parametric and Fisher’s exact tests (α = 0.05). The differences in bond strength were not statistically significant. Adhesive fractures were dominantly observed for the non-thermal cycled specimens. After thermal cycling, the conditioner-coated group showed cohesive and mixed fractures (p = 0.0021), whereas the uncoated group showed more adhesive fractures (p = 0.0021). Conditioning of the pre-sintered Y-TZP did not change the shear bond strength of the veneering porcelain, but did improve the failure mode after thermal cycling. PMID:28773885

  1. Towards long lasting zirconia-based composites for dental implants: Transformation induced plasticity and its consequence on ceramic reliability.

    PubMed

    Reveron, Helen; Fornabaio, Marta; Palmero, Paola; Fürderer, Tobias; Adolfsson, Erik; Lughi, Vanni; Bonifacio, Alois; Sergo, Valter; Montanaro, Laura; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2017-01-15

    Zirconia-based composites were developed through an innovative processing route able to tune compositional and microstructural features very precisely. Fully-dense ceria-stabilized zirconia ceramics (84vol% Ce-TZP) containing equiaxed alumina (8vol%Al 2 O 3 ) and elongated strontium hexa-aluminate (8vol% SrAl 12 O 19 ) second phases were obtained by conventional sintering. This work deals with the effect of the zirconia stabilization degree (CeO 2 in the range 10.0-11.5mol%) on the transformability and mechanical properties of Ce-TZP-Al 2 O 3 -SrAl 12 O 19 materials. Vickers hardness, biaxial flexural strength and Single-edge V-notched beam tests revealed a strong influence of ceria content on the mechanical properties. Composites with 11.0mol% CeO 2 or above exhibited the classical behaviour of brittle ceramics, with no apparent plasticity and very low strain to failure. On the contrary, composites with 10.5mol% CeO 2 or less showed large transformation-induced plasticity and almost no dispersion in strength data. Materials with 10.5mol% of ceria showed the highest values in terms of biaxial bending strength (up to 1.1GPa) and fracture toughness (>10MPa√m). In these ceramics, as zirconia transformation precedes failure, the Weibull modulus was exceptionally high and reached a value of 60, which is in the range typically reported for metals. The results achieved demonstrate the high potential of using these new strong, tough and stable zirconia-based composites in structural biomedical applications. Yttria-stabilized (Y-TZP) zirconia ceramics are increasingly used for developing metal-free restorations and dental implants. Despite their success related to their excellent mechanical resistance, Y-TZP can undergo Low Temperature Degradation which could be responsible for restoration damage or even worst the failure of the implant. Current research is focusing on strategies to improve the LTD resistance of Y-TZP or to develop alternative composites with better

  2. The Effects of Spark-Plasma Sintering (SPS) on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of BaTiO3/3Y-TZP Composites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Cui, Bencang; Wang, Huining; Lin, Yuanhua; Deng, Xuliang; Li, Ming; Nan, Cewen

    2016-01-01

    Composite ceramics BaTiO3/3Y-TZP containing 0 mol %, 3 mol %, 5 mol %, 7 mol %, and 10 mol % BaTiO3 have been prepared by conventional sintering and spark-plasma sintering (SPS), respectively. Analysis of the XRD patterns and Raman spectra reveal that the phase composition of t-ZrO2, m-ZrO2, and BaTiO3 has been obtained. Our results indicate that SPS can be effective for the decrease in grain size and porosity compared with conventional sintering, which results in a lower concentration of m-ZrO2 and residual stress. Therefore, the fracture toughness is enhanced by the BaTiO3 phase through the SPS technique, while the behavior was impaired by the piezoelectric second phase through conventional sintering. PMID:28773445

  3. To Evaluate Effect of Airborne Particle Abrasion using Different Abrasives Particles and Compare Two Commercial Available Zirconia on Flexural Strength on Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Hari A; Pasha, Naveed; Hilal, Mohammed; Amarnath, G S; Kundapur, Vinaya; Anand, M; Singh, Sumeet

    2017-06-01

    The popularity of ceramic restorations can be attributed to its life-like appearance, durability and biocompatibility and therefore ceramic restorations have been widely used for anterior and posterior teeth. Ceramic restorations have esthetic and biocompatible advantages but low fracture resistance. Since it has high flexural strength and fracture resistance, yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) is the dental material most commonly used for the core of ceramic crowns and fixed dental prosthesis. In spite of improved mechanical properties, acceptable marginal adaptation and biocompatibility the whitish opacity of zirconia is an obvious esthetic disadvantage. The zirconia framework is often veneered with conventional feldspathic porcelain to achieve a natural appearance. However it is difficult to achieve sufficient bond strength between zirconia and the veneering material. Achieving sufficient bond strength between the veneering ceramic and the zirconia core is a major challenge in the long term clinical success of veneered zirconia restorations. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the fracture strength of the two commercially available Zirconia namely Ceramill and ZR-White (AMANNGIRRBACH and UPCERA) respectively. Two commercially available pre-sinteredyttrium stabilized Zirconia blanks (ZR-White and Ceramill) from AMANNGIRRBACH and UPCERA respectively are used to produce the disc shaped specimens of size (15.2 ± 0.03 mm in diameter and 1.2 ± 0.03 mm thick) from each Zirconia blank. All disc shaped specimens are heated at 1200°C in a furnace for 2 hours to form homogenous tetragonal ZrO 2 . The dimensions of the specimens are measured with a digital caliper (aerospace). The thickness and diameter of each specimen are calculated as the means of 3 measurements made at random sites. 80 discs from each Zirconia blank are divided into ten groups of 8 specimens each. Heat treatment after

  4. To Evaluate Effect of Airborne Particle Abrasion using Different Abrasives Particles and Compare Two Commercial Available Zirconia on Flexural Strength on Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Hari A.; Pasha, Naveed; Hilal, Mohammed; Amarnath, G. S.; Kundapur, Vinaya; Anand, M; Singh, Sumeet

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective: The popularity of ceramic restorations can be attributed to its life-like appearance, durability and biocompatibility and therefore ceramic restorations have been widely used for anterior and posterior teeth. Ceramic restorations have esthetic and biocompatible advantages but low fracture resistance. Since it has high flexural strength and fracture resistance, yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) is the dental material most commonly used for the core of ceramic crowns and fixed dental prosthesis. In spite of improved mechanical properties, acceptable marginal adaptation and biocompatibility the whitish opacity of zirconia is an obvious esthetic disadvantage. The zirconia framework is often veneered with conventional feldspathic porcelain to achieve a natural appearance. However it is difficult to achieve sufficient bond strength between zirconia and the veneering material. Achieving sufficient bond strength between the veneering ceramic and the zirconia core is a major challenge in the long term clinical success of veneered zirconia restorations. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the fracture strength of the two commercially available Zirconia namely Ceramill and ZR-White (AMANNGIRRBACH and UPCERA) respectively. Method: Two commercially available pre-sinteredyttrium stabilized Zirconia blanks (ZR-White and Ceramill) from AMANNGIRRBACH and UPCERA respectively are used to produce the disc shaped specimens of size (15.2 ± 0.03 mm in diameter and 1.2 ± 0.03 mm thick) from each Zirconia blank. All disc shaped specimens are heated at 1200°C in a furnace for 2 hours to form homogenous tetragonal ZrO2. The dimensions of the specimens are measured with a digital caliper (aerospace). The thickness and diameter of each specimen are calculated as the means of 3 measurements made at random sites. 80 discs from each Zirconia blank are divided into ten groups of 8

  5. Influence of full-contour zirconia surface roughness on wear of glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Luangruangrong, Palika; Cook, N Blaine; Sabrah, Alaa H; Hara, Anderson T; Bottino, Marco C

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of full-contour (Y-TZP) zirconia surface roughness (glazed vs. as-machined) on the wear behavior of glass-ceramics. Thirty-two full contour Y-TZP (Diazir®) specimens (hereafter referred to as zirconia sliders) (ϕ = 2 mm, 1.5 mm in height) were fabricated using CAD/CAM and sintered according to the manufacturer's instructions. Zirconia sliders were embedded in brass holders using acrylic resin and then randomly assigned (n = 16) according to the surface treatment received, that is, as-machined or glazed. Glass-ceramic antagonists, Empress/EMP and e.max/EX, were cut into tabs (13 × 13 × 2 mm(3) ), wet-finished, and similarly embedded in brass holders. Two-body pin-on-disk wear testing was performed at 1.2 Hz for 25,000 cycles under a 3 kg load. Noncontact profilometry was used to measure antagonist height (μm) and volume loss (mm(3) ). Qualitative data of the zirconia testing surfaces and wear tracks were obtained using SEM. Statistics were performed using ANOVA with a significance level of 0.05. As-machined yielded significantly higher mean roughness values (Ra = 0.83 μm, Rq = 1.09 μm) than glazed zirconia (Ra = 0.53 μm, Rq = 0.78 μm). Regarding glass-ceramic antagonist loss, as-machined zirconia caused significantly less mean height and volume loss (68.4 μm, 7.6 mm(3) ) for EMP than the glazed group (84.9 μm, 9.9 mm(3) ), while no significant differences were found for EX. Moreover, EMP showed significantly lower mean height and volume loss than EX (p < 0.0001). SEM revealed differences on wear characteristics between the glass-ceramics tested. e.max wear was not affected by zirconia surface roughness; however, Empress wear was greater when opposing glazed zirconia. Overall, surface glazing on full-contour zirconia did not minimize glass-ceramic wear when compared with as-machined zirconia. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. Impact of laboratory treatment with coloring and fluorescent liquids on the optical properties of zirconia before and after accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Rafael, Caroline Freitas; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Fredel, Marcio; Magini, Ricardo de Souza; Liebermann, Anja; Maziero Volpato, Cláudia Angela

    2018-03-15

    Laboratory procedures, such as dipping in coloring and fluorescent liquids, can be used to improve the optical properties of zirconia. However, information is lacking on the effect of these liquids. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the color differences and degree of fluorescence of zirconia (3Y-TZP) treated with coloring and fluorescent liquids before and after an accelerated aging protocol. Forty disk-shaped specimens of 3Y-TZP were fabricated by milling and separated according to the laboratory treatment performed: white zirconia (control group); zirconia treated with coloring liquid (A2 group); zirconia treated with fluorescent liquid (fluorescent group); and zirconia treated with both liquids (A2 fluorescent group). The L*a*b* coordinates before aging (T 0 ) were obtained with a spectrophotometer, and the degree of fluorescence was measured. The disks were subjected to accelerated aging for 1 hour (T 1 ) and 5 hours (T 2 ). Measurements were made before and after each time interval. Color differences (ΔE 00 ) were calculated using the CIEDE2000 formula and analyzed by 2-way ANOVA. Lightness (ΔL'), chroma (ΔC'), and hue differences (ΔH') were analyzed by multivariate ANOVA. Degrees of fluorescence were obtained as percentages and were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA. Multiple comparisons were performed by the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). Color differences were observed when 3Y-TZP disks were treated with coloring (7.91 ΔE 00 ), with fluorescent liquid (5.81 ΔE 00 ), and with both liquids (5.52 ΔE 00 ). Accelerated aging resulted in color differences in the T 2 A2 group (6.74 ΔE 00 ) and at both times evaluated in the fluorescent group (T 1 =8.59 ΔE 00 and T 2 =8.47 ΔE 00 ) (P<.001). In the A2 fluorescent group, the degree of fluorescence was not influenced significantly (P>.05). The use of fluorescent liquid influenced the degree of fluorescence in the fluorescent group (T 0 =20%). Significant differences in color, lightness, chroma, and hue

  7. Pyrite-uranium polycrystal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, A.G.

    1956-01-01

    A texture was observed in a sample of ore in 'Which pyrite and uraninite occurred as thin alternate layers paralleling crystal faces of a pyrite nucleus. This texture could be formed either by replacement or by syntaxis. Although syntactic growth forming polyerystals of two chemically dissimilar minerals has not been previously described, this explanation fits the observed data better than the explanation offered by replacement. It is proposed, therefore, that this occurrence is an example of a polycrystal of uraninite and pyrite and that the mechanism of formation is syntaxis.

  8. Translucency of Zirconia Ceramics before and after Artificial Aging.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Katarzyna; Meißner, Heike; Range, Ursula; Sakkas, Andreas; Boening, Klaus; Wieckiewicz, Mieszko; Konstantinidis, Ioannis

    2018-03-11

    The aging of zirconia ceramics (Y-TZP) is associated with tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation. This change in microstructure may affect the optical properties of the ceramic. This study examines the effect of aging on the translucency of different zirconia materials. 120 disc-shaped specimens were fabricated from four zirconia materials: Cercon ht white, BruxZir Solid Zirconia, Zenostar T0, Lava Plus (n = 30 per group). Accelerated aging was performed in a steam autoclave (134°C, 0.2 MPa, 5 hours). CIELab coordinates (L*, a*, b*) and luminous reflectance (Y) were measured with a spectrophotometer before and after aging. Contrast ratio (CR) and translucency parameter (TP) were calculated from the L*, a*, b*, and Y tristimulus values. The general linear model (Bonferroni adjusted) was used to compare both parameters before and after aging, as well as between the different zirconia materials (p ≤ 0.05). CR and TP differed significantly before and after aging in all groups tested. Before aging, Zenostar T showed the highest and Lava Plus showed the lowest translucency. After aging, Cercon ht and Zenostar T showed the highest and BruxZir and Lava Plus the lowest translucency. Aging reduced the translucency in all specimens tested. Furthermore, translucency differed between the zirconia brands tested. Nevertheless, the differences were below the detectability threshold of the human eye. The aging process can influence the translucency and thus the esthetic outcome of zirconia restorations; however, the changes in translucency were minimal and probably undetectable by the human eye. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. The effect of nano-structured alumina coating on resin-bond strength to zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Jevnikar, Peter; Krnel, Kristoffer; Kocjan, Andraz; Funduk, Nenad; Kosmac, Tomaz

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to functionalize the surface of yttria partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia ceramics (Y-TZP) with a nano-structured alumina coating to improve resin bonding. A total of 120 densely sintered disc-shaped specimens (15.5+/-0.03 mm in diameter and 2.6+/-0.03 mm thick) were produced from biomedical-grade TZ-3YB-E zirconia powder (Tosoh, Tokyo, Japan), randomly divided into three groups of 40 and subjected to the following surface treatments: AS - as-sintered; APA - airborne-particle abraded; POL - polished. Half of the discs in each group received an alumina coating that was fabricated by exploiting the hydrolysis of aluminium nitride (AlN) powder (groups AS-C, APA-C, POL-C). The coating was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The shear-bond strength of the self-etching composite resin (RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE, USA) was then studied for the coated and uncoated surfaces of the as-sintered, polished and airborne-particle abraded specimens before and after thermocycling (TC). The SEM/TEM analyses revealed that the application of an alumina coating to Y-TZP ceramics created a highly retentive surface for resin penetration. The coating showed good surface coverage and a uniform thickness of 240 nm. The resin-bond strength to the groups AS-C, APA-C, POL-C was significantly higher than to the groups AS, APA and POL, both before and after TC (p< or =0.05). During TC all the specimens in the POL and AS groups debonded spontaneously. In contrast, the TC did not affect the bond strength of the AS-C, POL-C and APA-C groups. A non-invasive method has been developed that significantly improves resin-bond strength to Y-TZP ceramics. After surface functionalization the bond survives thermocycling without reduction in strength. The method is relatively simple and has the potential to become an effective conditioning method for zirconia ceramics. Copyright 2010

  10. Effects of multiple firings on the microstructure of zirconia and veneering ceramics.

    PubMed

    Alkurt, Murat; Yeşil Duymus, Zeynep; Gundogdu, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effects of multiple firings on the microstructures of zirconia and two ceramics. Vita VM9 (VMZ) and Cerabien ZR (C-Z) ceramics on a zirconia framework and zirconia without veneering ceramic (WO-Z) were evaluated. Firing methods included firing two, five, and ten times (n=10). The effects of multiple firings on the surface hardness of the materials were evaluated using a Vickers hardness (HV) tester. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). After firing five and ten times, the hardness of VM-Z and C-Z increased significantly (p<0.001). The HVs of the Cerabien ZR and Vita VM9 veneering ceramics were similar (p>0.05). In the XRD analysis, zirconia had similar tetragonal (t)-monoclinic (m) phase transformations of Y-TZP after the different firing times. Clinically, multiple firings did not affect the microstructure of zirconia, but the structures of the two ceramics were affected.

  11. SEM evaluation of human gingival fibroblasts growth onto CAD/CAM zirconia and veneering ceramic for zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Zizzari, Vincenzo; Borelli, Bruna; De Colli, Marianna; Tumedei, Margherita; Di Iorio, Donato; Zara, Susi; Sorrentino, Roberto; Cataldi, Amelia; Gherlone, Enrico Felice; Zarone, Fernando; Tetè, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim To evaluate the growth of Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGFs) cultured onto sample discs of CAD/CAM zirconia and veneering ceramic for zirconia by means of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis at different experimental times. Methods A total of 26 experimental discs, divided into 2 groups, were used: Group A) CAD/CAM zirconia (3Y-TZP) discs (n=13); Group B) veneering ceramic for zirconia discs (n=13). HGFs were obtained from human gingival biopsies, isolated and placed in culture plates. Subsequently, cells were seeded on experimental discs at 7,5×103/cm2 concentration and cultured for a total of 7 days. Discs were processed for SEM observation at 3h, 24h, 72h and 7 days. Results In Group A, after 3h, HGFs were adherent to the surface and showed a flattened profile. The disc surface covered by HGFs resulted to be wider in Group A than in Group B samples. At SEM observation, after 24h and 72h, differences in cell attachment were slightly noticeable between the groups, with an evident flattening of HGFs on both surfaces. All differences between Group A and group B became less significant after 7 days of culture in vitro. Conclusions SEM analysis of HGFs showed differences in terms of cell adhesion and proliferation, especially in the early hours of culture. Results showed a better adhesion and cell growth in Group A than in Group B, especially up to 72h in vitro. Differences decreased after 7 days, probably because of the rougher surface of CAD/CAM zirconia, promoting better cell adhesion, compared to the smoother surface of veneering ceramic. PMID:24611089

  12. Viscoelastic finite element analysis of residual stresses in porcelain-veneered zirconia dental crowns.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongho; Dhital, Sukirti; Zhivago, Paul; Kaizer, Marina R; Zhang, Yu

    2018-06-01

    The main problem of porcelain-veneered zirconia (PVZ) dental restorations is chipping and delamination of veneering porcelain owing to the development of deleterious residual stresses during the cooling phase of veneer firing. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effects of cooling rate, thermal contraction coefficient and elastic modulus on residual stresses developed in PVZ dental crowns using viscoelastic finite element methods (VFEM). A three-dimensional VFEM model has been developed to predict residual stresses in PVZ structures using ABAQUS finite element software and user subroutines. First, the newly established model was validated with experimentally measured residual stress profiles using Vickers indentation on flat PVZ specimens. An excellent agreement between the model prediction and experimental data was found. Then, the model was used to predict residual stresses in more complex anatomically-correct crown systems. Two PVZ crown systems with different thermal contraction coefficients and porcelain moduli were studied: VM9/Y-TZP and LAVA/Y-TZP. A sequential dual-step finite element analysis was performed: heat transfer analysis and viscoelastic stress analysis. Controlled and bench convection cooling rates were simulated by applying different convective heat transfer coefficients 1.7E-5 W/mm 2 °C (controlled cooling) and 0.6E-4 W/mm 2 °C (bench cooling) on the crown surfaces exposed to the air. Rigorous viscoelastic finite element analysis revealed that controlled cooling results in lower maximum stresses in both veneer and core layers for the two PVZ systems relative to bench cooling. Better compatibility of thermal contraction coefficients between porcelain and zirconia and a lower porcelain modulus reduce residual stresses in both layers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of various intermediate ceramic layers on the interfacial stability of zirconia core and veneering ceramics.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-In; Yeo, In-Sung; Yi, Yang-Jin; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Jai-Bong; Han, Jung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of intermediate ceramics on the adhesion between the zirconia core and veneer ceramics. The polished surfaces of fully sintered Y-TZP blocks received three different treatments: (1) connector (C), (2) liner (L) or (3) wash layer (W). All the treated zirconia blocks were veneered with either (a) fluorapatite glass-ceramic (E) or (b) feldspathic porcelain (V) and divided into four groups (CE, CV, LE and WV). For the control group, the testing surfaces of metal blocks were veneered with feldspathic porcelain (VM). A half of the samples in each group (n = 21) were exposed to thermocycling, while the other half of the specimens were stored at room temperature under dry conditions. All specimens were subjected to the shear test and the failed surfaces were microscopically examined. The elemental distribution at the zirconia core/veneer interface was analyzed. The specimens in Groups CE and CV exhibited significantly greater mean bond strength values than those in Groups LE and WV, respectively (p < 0.05). However, the mean bond strengths significantly decreased in the connector groups (CE and CV) after thermal cycling (p < 0.05). The elemental analysis suggested diffusion of ceramic substances into the zirconia surface. A glass-ceramic based connector is significantly more favorable to core/veneer adhesion than the other intermediate ceramics evaluated in the study. However, thermal cycling affected the bond strength at the core/veneer interface differently according to the intermediate ceramics.

  14. Surface crystalline phases and nanoindentation hardness of explanted zirconia femoral heads.

    PubMed

    Catledge, Shane A; Cook, Monique; Vohra, Yogesh K; Santos, Erick M; McClenny, Michelle D; David Moore, K

    2003-10-01

    One new and nine explanted zirconia femoral heads were studied using glancing angle X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation hardness techniques. All starting zirconia implants consisted only of tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (TZP). For comparison, one explanted alumina femoral head was also studied. Evidence for a surface tetragonal-to-monoclinic zirconia phase transformation was observed in some implants, the extent of which was varied for different in-service conditions. A strong correlation was found between increasing transformation to the monoclinic phase and decreasing surface hardness. Microscopic investigations of some of the explanted femoral heads revealed ultra high molecular weight polyethylene and metallic transfer wear debris.

  15. Accelerated aging characteristics of three yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline dental materials.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Brian D; deGroot, Dirk A; Mancl, Lloyd A; Raigrodski, Ariel J

    2012-10-01

    Concerns have been expressed about the effect of aging on the mechanical properties of zirconia. The purpose of this study was to assess the accelerated aging characteristics of 3 commercially available yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) materials by exposing specimens to hydrothermal treatments at 134°C, 0.2 MPa and 180°C, 1.0 MPa in steam. Thin bars of Y-TZP from 3 manufacturers, Lava, Zirkonzahn, and Zirprime, n=30 for each brand (22 × 3 × 0.2 mm), were cut and ground from blocks and sintered according to the manufacturer's specifications. Control specimens (n=10) for each brand were evaluated in the as-received condition. Experimental specimens were artificially aged at standard autoclave sterilization conditions,134°C at 0.2 MPa (n=5 per group at 50, 100, 150, and 200 hours) and standard industrial ceramic aging conditions, 180°C at 1.0 MPa (n=5 per group at 8, 16, 24, 28, and 48 hours). Tetragonal to monoclinic transformation was measured by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) for all groups. Flexural strength was measured in 4-point bending (ASTM1161-B) for all groups. Fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed as a function of aging time. The statistical comparisons were based on the log value and 2-way ANOVA with heteroscedasticity-consistent standard errors used to compare mean strength among conditions (α=.05). After 200 hours at 134°C and 0.2 MPa, flexural strength (SD) decreased significantly from 1156 (87.6) MPa to 829.5 (71) MPa for Lava; 1406 (243) MPa to 882.7 (91) MPa for Zirkonzahn; and 1126 (92.4) MPa to 976 (36.4) MPa for Zirprime with P<.001 for all 3 comparisons. After 200 hours at 134°C and 0.2 MPa, some tetragonal crystals transformed to the monoclinic phase. The relative XRD peak intensity of the monoclinic to tetragonal crystal phases increased from 0.07 to 1.82 for Lava, from 0.06 to 2.43 for Zirkonzahn, and from 0.05 to 0.53 for Zirprime. After 28 hours at 180

  16. Fatigue limit of monolithic Y-TZP three-unit-fixed dental prostheses: Effect of grinding at the gingival zone of the connector.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Marina; Villefort, Regina F; Melo, Renata Marques; Pereira, Gabriel K R; Zhang, Yu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2017-08-01

    To determine the fatigue limits of three-unit monolithic zirconia fixed dental prosthesis (FDPs) before and after grinding of the gingival areas of connectors with diamond burs. FDPs were milled from pre-sintered blocks of zirconia simulating the absence of the first mandibular molar. Half of the specimens were subjected to grinding, simulating clinical adjustment, and all of them were subjected to glazing procedure. Additional specimens were manufactured for roughness analysis. FDPs were adhesively cemented onto glass-fiber reinforced epoxy resin abutments. Fatigue limits and standard deviations were obtained using a staircase fatigue method (n=20, 100,000 loading cycles/5Hz). The initial test load was 70% of the mean load-to-fracture (n=3) and load increments were 5% of the initial test load for both the control and ground specimens. Data were compared by Student's T-test (α≤0.05). Both the control and ground groups exhibited similar values of load-to-fracture and fatigue limits. Neither the surface treatments nor ageing affected the surface roughness of the specimens. The damage induced by grinding with fine-grit diamond bur in the gingival area of the connectors did not decrease the fatigue limit of the three-unit monolithic zirconia FDP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fatigue limits of monolithic Y-TZP three-unit-fixed dental prostheses: effect of grinding at the gingival zone of the connector

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Marina; Rocha, Regina FV; Melo, Renata Marques; Pereira, Gabriel KR; Zhang, Yu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the fatigue limits of three-unit monolithic zirconia FDPs before and after grinding of the gingival areas of connectors with diamond burs. Material and Methods FDPs were milled from pre-sintered blocks of zirconia simulating the absence of the first mandibular molar. Half of the specimens were subjected to grinding, simulating clinical adjustment, and all of them were subjected to glazing procedure. Additional specimens were manufactured for roughness analysis. FDPs were adhesively cemented onto glass-fiber reinforced epoxy resin abutments. Fatigue limits and standard deviations were obtained using a staircase fatigue method (n = 20, 100,000 loading cycles/5 Hz). The initial test load was 70% of the mean load-to-fracture (n = 3) and load increments were 5% of the initial test load for both the control and ground specimens. Data were compared by Student’s T-test (α ≤ 0.05). Results Both the control and ground groups exhibited similar values of load-to-fracture and fatigue limits. Neither the surface treatments nor ageing affected the surface roughness of the specimens. Conclusions The damage induced by grinding with fine-grit diamond bur in the gingival area of the connectors did not decrease the fatigue limit of the three-unit monolithic zirconia FDP. PMID:28494273

  18. 3D-printing zirconia implants; a dream or a reality? An in-vitro study evaluating the dimensional accuracy, surface topography and mechanical properties of printed zirconia implant and discs.

    PubMed

    Osman, Reham B; van der Veen, Albert J; Huiberts, Dennis; Wismeijer, Daniel; Alharbi, Nawal

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dimensional accuracy, surface topography of a custom designed, 3D-printed zirconia dental implant and the mechanical properties of printed zirconia discs. A custom designed implant was 3D-printed in zirconia using digital light processing technique (DLP). The dimensional accuracy was assessed using the digital-subtraction technique. The mechanical properties were evaluated using biaxial flexure strength test. Three different build angles were adopted to print the specimens for the mechanical test; 0°(Vertical), 45° (Oblique) and 90°(Horizontal) angles. The surface topography, crystallographic phase structure and surface roughness were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM), X-ray diffractometer and confocal microscopy respectively. The printed implant was dimensionally accurate with a root mean square (RMSE) value of 0.1mm. The Weibull analysis revealed a statistically significant higher characteristic strength (1006.6MPa) of 0° printed specimens compared to the other two groups and no significant difference between 45° (892.2MPa) and 90° (866.7MPa) build angles. SEM analysis revealed cracks, micro-porosities and interconnected pores ranging in size from 196nm to 3.3µm. The mean Ra (arithmetic mean roughness) value of 1.59µm (±0.41) and Rq (root mean squared roughness) value of 1.94µm (±0.47) was found. A crystallographic phase of primarily tetragonal zirconia typical of sintered Yttria tetragonal stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) was detected. DLP prove to be efficient for printing customized zirconia dental implants with sufficient dimensional accuracy. The mechanical properties showed flexure strength close to those of conventionally produced ceramics. Optimization of the 3D-printing process parameters is still needed to improve the microstructure of the printed objects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fabrication and Microstructure of Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Zirconia by Room Temperature Spray Process.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong Seok; Chae, Hak Cheol; Lee, Jong Kook

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings were fabricated on zirconia substrates by a room temperature spray process and were investigated with regards to their microstructure, composition and dissolution in water. An initial hydroxyapatite powder was prepared by heat treatment of bovine-bone derived powder at 1100 °C for 2 h, while dense zirconia substrates were fabricated by pressing 3Y-TZP powder and sintering it at 1350 °C for 2 h. Room temperature spray coating was performed using a slit nozzle in a low pressure-chamber with a controlled coating time. The phase composition of the resultant hydroxyapatite coatings was similar to that of the starting powder, however, the grain size of the hydroxyapatite particles was reduced to about 100 nm due to their formation by particle impaction and fracture. All areas of the coating had a similar morphology, consisting of reticulated structure with a high surface roughness. The hydroxyapatite coating layer exhibited biostability in a stimulated body fluid, with no severe dissolution being observed during in vitro experimentation.

  20. The Effect of Sintering Time on the Marginal Fit of Zirconia Copings.

    PubMed

    Khaledi, Amir Ali Reza; Vojdani, Mahroo; Farzin, Mitra; Pirouzi, Sudabeh; Orandi, Sepideh

    2018-01-03

    This study analyzed the effect of different sintering times on the marginal adaptation of zirconia ceramic copings. Thirty copings of pre-sintered 3Y-TZP blanks were milled and subsequently sintered in a special furnace for three different durations (n = 10 per group). The sintering time was 1 hour, 15 minutes for IPS e.max ZirCAD, 4 hours 20 minutes for Speed ZrO 2, and 7 hours 20 minutes for the conventional ZrO 2 group. The marginal gaps of specimens were measured at 18 spots on the master die by employing a digital microscope. One-way ANOVA test compared the mean differences among the 3 groups (α = 0.05). The mean values for the marginal gap of the IPS e.max ZirCAD, Speed ZrO 2 , and conventional ZrO 2 groups were 41.06 ± 14.03, 43.03 ± 11.67, and 39.88 ± 15.23 μm, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference among the groups regarding the marginal gap. Different sintering times did not alter the marginal fit of the zirconia copings. The mean values of the marginal gap were within the clinically acceptable level for all three groups. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  1. Effects of two grading techniques of zirconia material on the fatigue limit of full-contour 3-unit fixed dental prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Villefort, Regina Furbino; Amaral, Marina; Pereira, Gabriel Kalil Rocha; Campos, Tiago Moreira Bastos; Zhang, Yu; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; de Melo, Renata Marques

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effects of two grading zirconia techniques on the fatigue limit of 3-unit fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Methods Presintered blocks of 3Y-TZP were milled to obtain sixty-nine 3-unit FDPs, which were divided into three groups (n = 23). The control group (CTL) was sintered and glazed following manufacturer’s instructuctions. The two experimental groups presintered FDPs received a surface silica/glass infiltration treatment before the sintering process. Silica sol-gel group (SSG) was graded by the sol-gel processing route, while the glass-zirconia-glass group (GZG) was graded by an enameling technique. Graded groups did not receive a glaze layer after sintering. All FDPs were then luted with a dual-curing resin cement on composite abutments, embedded in polyurethane and stored in water for five days. The initial load of the fatigue test was calculated based on the results of the monotonic testing applied on three specimens of each group. To determine the fatigue limit, 20 samples of each group were subjected to staircase testing (100,000 cycles/5 Hz). Results The fatigue limits (in Newtons) were CTL = 1607.27, SSG = 1824.31, and GZG = 2006.57, and the Dixon and Mood test indicated statistically significant differences among groups (95% confidence interval). Significance The infiltration of silica and glass on bulk zirconia, by two different grading methods, increased the fatigue limits of monolithic zirconia FDPs. PMID:28118929

  2. Effect of different grinding burs on the physical properties of zirconia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Grinding with less stress on 3Y-TZP through proper selection of methods and instruments can lead to a long-term success of prosthesis. The purpose of this study was to compare the phase transformation and physical properties after zirconia surface grinding with 3 different grinding burs. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty disc-shaped zirconia specimens were fabricated. Each Ten specimens were ground with AllCeramic SuperMax (NTI, Kahla, Germany), Dura-Green DIA (Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan), and Dura-Green (Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan). Ten specimens were not ground and used as a control group. After the specimen grinding, XRD analysis, surface roughness test, FE-SEM imaging, and biaxial flexural strength test were performed. RESULTS After surface grinding, small amount of monoclinic phase in all experimental groups was observed. The phase change was higher in specimens, which were ground with Dura-Green DIA and AllCeramic SuperMax burs. The roughness of surfaces increased in specimens, which were ground with Dura-Green DIA and AllCeramic SuperMax burs than control groups and ground with Dura-Green. All experimental groups showed lower flexural strength than control group, but there was no statistically significant difference between control group and ground with Dura-Green DIA and AllCeramic SuperMax burs. The specimens, which were ground with Dura- Green showed the lowest strength. CONCLUSION The use of dedicated zirconia-specific grinding burs such as Dura-Green DIA and AllCeramic SuperMax burs decreases the grinding time and did not significantly affect the flexural strength of zirconia, and therefore, they may be recommended. However, a fine polishing process should be accompanied to reduce the surface roughness after grinding. PMID:27141258

  3. Effect of different grinding burs on the physical properties of zirconia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Rok; Choe, Han-Cheol; Heo, Yu-Ri; Lee, Jang-Jae; Son, Mee-Kyoung

    2016-04-01

    Grinding with less stress on 3Y-TZP through proper selection of methods and instruments can lead to a long-term success of prosthesis. The purpose of this study was to compare the phase transformation and physical properties after zirconia surface grinding with 3 different grinding burs. Forty disc-shaped zirconia specimens were fabricated. Each Ten specimens were ground with AllCeramic SuperMax (NTI, Kahla, Germany), Dura-Green DIA (Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan), and Dura-Green (Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan). Ten specimens were not ground and used as a control group. After the specimen grinding, XRD analysis, surface roughness test, FE-SEM imaging, and biaxial flexural strength test were performed. After surface grinding, small amount of monoclinic phase in all experimental groups was observed. The phase change was higher in specimens, which were ground with Dura-Green DIA and AllCeramic SuperMax burs. The roughness of surfaces increased in specimens, which were ground with Dura-Green DIA and AllCeramic SuperMax burs than control groups and ground with Dura-Green. All experimental groups showed lower flexural strength than control group, but there was no statistically significant difference between control group and ground with Dura-Green DIA and AllCeramic SuperMax burs. The specimens, which were ground with Dura- Green showed the lowest strength. The use of dedicated zirconia-specific grinding burs such as Dura-Green DIA and AllCeramic SuperMax burs decreases the grinding time and did not significantly affect the flexural strength of zirconia, and therefore, they may be recommended. However, a fine polishing process should be accompanied to reduce the surface roughness after grinding.

  4. Effects of Laser Treatment on the Bond Strength of Differently Sintered Zirconia Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Dede, Doğu Ömür; Yenisey, Murat; Rona, Nergiz; Öngöz Dede, Figen

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) and Erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiations on the shear bond strength (SBS) of differently sintered zirconia ceramics to resin cement. Eighty zirconia specimens were prepared, sintered in two different periods (short = Ss, long = Ls), and divided into four treatment groups (n = 10 each). These groups were (a) untreated (control), (b) Er:YAG laser irradiated with 6 W power for 5 sec, (c) CO2 laser with 2 W power for 10 sec, (d) CO2 laser with 4 W power for 10 sec. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were recorded for each of the eight groups. Eighty composite resin discs (3 × 3 mm) were fabricated and cemented with an adhesive resin cement to ceramic specimens. The SBS test was performed after specimens were stored in water for 24 h by an universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were statistically analyzed with two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey honest significant difference (HSD) test (α = 0.05). According to the ANOVA, the sintering time, surface treatments and their interaction were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Although each of the laser-irradiated groups were significantly higher than the control groups, there was no statistically significant difference among them (p > 0.05). Variation in sintering time from 2.5 to 5.0 h may have influenced the SBS of Yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) ceramics. Although CO2 and Er:YAG laser irradiation techniques may increase the SBS values of both tested zirconia ceramics, they are recommended for clinicians as an alternative pretreatment method.

  5. Tribochemical Glass Ceramic Coating as a New Approach for Resin Adhesion to Zirconia.

    PubMed

    Wandscher, Vinícius Felipe; Fraga, Sara; Pozzobon, João Luiz; Soares, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck; Foletto, Edson Luiz; May, Liliana Gressler; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    To investigate the effects of a novel tribochemical silica coating technique with powders made from feldspathic ceramic and leucite-based ceramic on the bond strength of zirconia to resin cement before and after aging. Zirconia blocks were divided into 3 groups according to the material used for airborne-particle abrasion: 1) SP (control): silica-coated alumina particles; 2) FP: feldspathic ceramic powder; 3) LP: leucite glass-ceramic powder. After silanization, composite resin cylinders were cemented on the zirconia surface using a dual-curing resin cement. Prior to the shear bond strength (SBS) test, half of the samples (n = 15) were stored in distilled water for 24 h; the other half (n = 15) were submitted to aging (10,000 thermocycles of 5°C to 55°C; 150 days of water storage). The bond strength data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction analysis were performed. The initial bond strengths did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.053). However, after aging procedures, airborne-particle abrasion with feldspathic ceramic powder (FP) resulted in higher values of bond strength (p = 0.0001). SEM and EDS indicated that all the treatments promoted silica deposition on the Y-TZP surface ceramic. Airborne-particle abrasion with FP and LP induced a lower percentage of the monoclinic phase. Airborne abrasion with fine feldspathic ceramic particles is a novel tribochemical technique and appears to be suitable for improving the bond strength between zirconia and resin cements.

  6. Orientational anisotropy and interfacial transport in polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, M. M.; Rickman, J. M.; Harmer, M. P.; Chan, H. M.

    2016-04-01

    Interfacial diffusion is governed to a large degree by geometric parameters that are determined by crystallographic orientation. In this study, we assess the impact of orientational anisotropy on mass transport at internal interfaces, focusing on the role of preferred crystallographic orientation (i.e., texture) on mass diffusion in a polycrystal. More specifically, we perform both numerical and analytical studies of steady-state diffusion for polycrystals having various grain-orientation distributions. By relating grain misorientation to grain-boundary energies and, via the Borisov relation, to the diffusivity, we link microstructure variability to kinetics. Our aim is to correlate shape features of the orientation distribution, such as the location and shapes of peaks, with the calculated effective diffusivity. Finally, we discuss the role of crystallographic constraints, such as those associated with grain junctions, in determining the effective diffusivity of a polycrystal.

  7. Stability of the bond between two resin cements and an yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic after six months of aging in water.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Eduardo M; Miragaya, Luciana; Sabrosa, Carlos Eduardo; Maia, Lucianne C

    2014-09-01

    The behavior of the luting cement and the cementation protocol are essential in the clinical success of ceramic restorations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond stability of 2 resin cements and a yttria-stabilized tetragonal polycrystalline zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramic submitted to 2 surface treatments. Sixty plates of a Y-TZP ceramic were assigned to 3 groups according to the surface treatments: control, as sintered surface; methacryloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP), coated with an MDP-based primer, and tribochemical silica-coating (TSC), coated with tribochemical silica. The plates of each group were further divided into 2 subgroups according to the resin cement as follows: RelyX adhesive resin cement (conventional) and RelyX Unicem (self-adhesive). Cylinders of resin cements (∅=0.75 mm × 0.5 mm in height) were built up on the ceramic surfaces, and the plates stored in distilled water at 37°C for either 24 hours or 6 months before being submitted to a microshear bond strength test. The data were submitted to 3-way ANOVA and the Tukey honestly significant difference test (α=.05). Three-way ANOVA showed statistical significance for the 3 independent factors: resin cement, surface treatment, and period of water immersion (P<.001). Unicem presented the highest microshear bond strength after 24 hours (MDP, 37.4 ±2.3 and TSC, 36.2 ±2.1 MPa). Except for RelyX adhesive resin cement applied on ceramic surfaces treated with TSC, the microshear bond strength of all the other groups decreased after 6 months of aging in water. The microshear bond strength decreased most in the control groups (-81.5% for ARC and -93.1% for Unicem). In the group treated with TSC, the microshear bond strength for Unicem decreased by 54.8% and in that treated with MDP-based primer by -42.5%. In the group treated with MDP-based primer, the microshear bond strength for RelyX ARC decreased by -52.8%. Irrespective of surface treatments, self-adhesive resin cement was

  8. Phase Stabilization of Zirconia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-30

    preparing stabilized zirconia pursuant to this disclosure, an insoluble alumina powder is mixed with zirconia powder using a liquid dispersant, such...in a drying oven or a furnace. When mixing the alumina and zirconia powders , it is not necessary to have zirconia in any particular phase to achieve...phase stabilization, as disclosed herein. When mixed with alumina powder, zirconia powder can be in cubic, tetragonal or 20 monoclinic phases

  9. In vitro assessment of cutting efficiency and durability of zirconia removal diamond rotary instruments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Soo; Bae, Ji-Hyeon; Yun, Mi-Jung; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-06-01

    Recently, zirconia removal diamond rotary instruments have become commercially available for efficient cutting of zirconia. However, research of cutting efficiency and the cutting characteristics of zirconia removal diamond rotary instruments is limited. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess and compare the cutting efficiency, durability, and diamond rotary instrument wear pattern of zirconia diamond removal rotary instruments with those of conventional diamond rotary instruments. In addition, the surface characteristics of the cut zirconia were assessed. Block specimens of 3 mol% yttrium cation-doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystal were machined 10 times for 1 minute each using a high-speed handpiece with 6 types of diamond rotary instrument from 2 manufacturers at a constant force of 2 N (n=5). An electronic scale was used to measure the lost weight after each cut in order to evaluate the cutting efficiency. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate diamond rotary instrument wear patterns and machined zirconia block surface characteristics. Data were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Mann-Whitney U test (α=.05). Zirconia removal fine grit diamond rotary instruments showed cutting efficiency that was reduced compared with conventional fine grit diamond rotary instruments. Diamond grit fracture was the most dominant diamond rotary instrument wear pattern in all groups. All machined zirconia surfaces were primarily subjected to plastic deformation, which is evidence of ductile cutting. Zirconia blocks machined with zirconia removal fine grit diamond rotary instruments showed the least incidence of surface flaws. Although zirconia removal diamond rotary instruments did not show improved cutting efficiency compared with conventional diamond rotary instruments, the machined zirconia surface showed smoother furrows of plastic deformation and fewer surface flaws. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council

  10. Long-term stability and properties of zirconia ceramics for heavy duty diesel engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, D. C.; Adams, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of commercially available transformation-toughened zirconia are measured. Behavior is related to the material microstructure and phase assemblage. The stability of the materials is assessed after long-term exposure appropriate for diesel engine application. Properties measured included flexure strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, creep, thermal shock, thermal expansion, internal friction, and thermal diffusivity. Stability is assessed by measuring the residual property after 1000 hr/1000C static exposure. Additionally static fatigue and thermal fatigue testing is performed. Both yttria-stabilized and magnesia-stabilized materials are compared and contrasted. The major limitations of these materials are short term loss of properties with increasing temperature as the metastable tetragonal phase becomes more stable. Fine grain yttria-stabilized material (TZP) is higher strength and has a more stable microstructure with respect to overaging phenomena. The long-term limitation of Y-TZP is excessive creep deformation. Magnesia-stabilized PSZ has relatively poor stability at elevated temperature. Overaging, decomposition, and/or destabilization effects are observed. The major limitation of Mg-PSZ is controlling unwanted phase changes at elevated temperature.

  11. Averaging of elastic constants for polycrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Blaschke, Daniel N.

    2017-10-13

    Many materials of interest are polycrystals, i.e., aggregates of single crystals. Randomly distributed orientations of single crystals lead to macroscopically isotropic properties. Here in this paper, we briefly review strategies of calculating effective isotropic second and third order elastic constants from the single crystal ones. Our main emphasis is on single crystals of cubic symmetry. Specifically, the averaging of third order elastic constants has not been particularly successful in the past, and discrepancies have often been attributed to texturing of polycrystals as well as to uncertainties in the measurement of elastic constants of both poly and single crystals. While thismore » may well be true, we also point out here shortcomings in the theoretical averaging framework.« less

  12. Graded structures for damage resistant and aesthetic all-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Kim, Jae-Won

    2009-06-01

    Clinical studies revealed several performance deficiencies with alumina- and zirconia-based all-ceramic restorations: fracture; poor aesthetic properties of ceramic cores (particularly zirconia cores); and difficulty in achieving a strong ceramic-resin-based cement bond. We aim to address these issues by developing a functionally graded glass/zirconia/glass (G/Z/G) structure with improved damage resistance, aesthetics, and cementation properties. Using a glass powder composition developed in our laboratory and a commercial fine zirconia powder, we have successfully fabricated functionally graded G/Z/G structures. The microstructures of G/Z/G were examined utilizing a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystalline phases present in G/Z/G were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Young's modulus and hardness of G/Z/G were derived from nanoindentations. Critical loads for cementation radial fracture in G/Z/G plates (20mmx20mm, 1.5 or 0.4mm thick) bonded to polycarbonate substrates were determined by loading with a spherical indenter. Parallel studies were conducted on homogeneous yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) controls. The G/Z/G structure consists of an outer surface aesthetic glass layer, a graded glass-Y-TZP layer, and a dense Y-TZP interior. The Young's modulus and hardness increase from surface to interior following power-law relations. For G/Z/G plates of 1.5 and 0.4mm thick, critical loads for cementation radial fracture were 1990+/-107N (mean+/-S.D., n=6) and 227+/-20N (mean+/-S.D., n=6), respectively, which were approximately 30 and 50% higher than those for their monolithic Y-TZP counterparts (1388+/-90N for 1.5mm and 113+/-10N for 0.4mm thick; mean+/-S.D., n=6 for each thickness). A 1-sample t-test revealed significant difference (p<0.001) in critical loads for radial fracture of G/Z/G and homogeneous Y-TZP for both specimen thicknesses. Our results indicate that functionally graded G/Z/G structures exhibit improved damage

  13. The relationship between milling a new silica-doped zirconia and its resistance to low-temperature degradation (LTD): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Usami, Hirofumi; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Nishida, Hisataka; Tang, Xuehua; Wakabayashi, Kazumichi; Sekino, Tohru; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2012-02-03

    The aim of this study was to determine the machinability of new silica-doped Y-TZP by CAD/CAM and the resistance to low temperature degradation of the milled sample by comparing with a commercial HIP type Y-TZP material. The copings could be milled from silica-doped Y-TZP blocks without chipping, and there was no significant difference between the two types of Y-TZP materials in either the marginal or the inner gap between the abutment and the coping. After aging, the monoclinic content in the commercial Y-TZP copings increased from 25% before testing to 65%, while that of silica-doped Y-TZP copings slightly increased from 23% to 30%. The silica-doped Y-TZP copings did not have any significant difference in fracture load in a comparison between the control group and the aging group, while the commercial Y-TZP copings had a significantly lower fracture load for the aging group than for the control group.

  14. Single crystal to polycrystal neutron transmission simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Dessieux, Luc Lucius; Stoica, Alexandru Dan; Bingham, Philip R.

    A collection of routines for calculation of the total cross section that determines the attenuation of neutrons by crystalline solids is presented. The total cross section is calculated semi-empirically as a function of crystal structure, neutron energy, temperature, and crystal orientation. The semi-empirical formula includes the contribution of parasitic Bragg scattering to the total cross section using both the crystal’s mosaic spread value and its orientation with respect to the neutron beam direction as parameters. These routines allow users to enter a distribution of crystal orientations for calculation of total cross sections of user defined powder or pseudo powder distributions,more » which enables simulation of non-uniformities such as texture and strain. In conclusion, the spectra for neutron transmission simulations in the neutron thermal energy range (2 meV–100 meV) are presented for single crystal and polycrystal samples and compared to measurements.« less

  15. Single crystal to polycrystal neutron transmission simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Dessieux, Luc Lucius; Stoica, Alexandru Dan; Bingham, Philip R.

    2018-02-02

    A collection of routines for calculation of the total cross section that determines the attenuation of neutrons by crystalline solids is presented. The total cross section is calculated semi-empirically as a function of crystal structure, neutron energy, temperature, and crystal orientation. The semi-empirical formula includes the contribution of parasitic Bragg scattering to the total cross section using both the crystal’s mosaic spread value and its orientation with respect to the neutron beam direction as parameters. These routines allow users to enter a distribution of crystal orientations for calculation of total cross sections of user defined powder or pseudo powder distributions,more » which enables simulation of non-uniformities such as texture and strain. In conclusion, the spectra for neutron transmission simulations in the neutron thermal energy range (2 meV–100 meV) are presented for single crystal and polycrystal samples and compared to measurements.« less

  16. Effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of zirconia to three resin cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadjoo, Nisa

    Statement of problem: There are no standard guidelines for material selection to obtain acceptable bonding to high-strength zirconium oxide ceramic. Studies suggest resin cements in combination with MDP-containing primer is a reasonable choice, however, the other cements cannot be rejected and need further investigation. Objective: The purpose of this in vitro study was the evaluation of the shear bond strength of three composite resin cements to zirconia ceramic after using different surface conditioning methods. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty sintered Y-TZP ceramic (IPS e.max ZirCAD) squares (8 x 8 x 4 mm) were embedded in acrylic molds, then divided into three groups (n=40) based on the type of cement used. Within each group, the specimens were divided into four subgroups (n=10) and treated as follows: (1) Air abrasion with 50microm aluminum oxide (Al2O 3) particles (ALO); (2) Air abrasion + Scotchbond Universal adhesive (SBU); (3) Air abrasion + Monobond Plus (MBP); (4) Air abrasion + Z-Prime Plus (ZPP). Composite cylinders were used as carriers to bond to conditioned ceramic using (1) RelyX Ultimate adhesive resin cement (RX); (2) Panavia SA self-adhesive resin cement (PSA); (3) Calibra esthetic cement (CAL). The bonded specimens were submerged in distilled water and subjected to 24-hour incubation period at 37°C. All specimens were stressed in shear at a constant crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. The bond strength values (MPa), means and standard deviations were calculated and data were analyzed using analysis of variance with Fisher's PLSD multiple comparison test at the 0.05 level of significance. The nature of failure was recorded. Results: The two-way ANOVA showed Panavia SA to have the highest strength at 44.3 +/- 16.9 MPa (p<0.05). The combination of Scotchbond Universal surface treatment with Panavia SA cement showed statistically higher bond strength (p=0.0054). The highest bond

  17. Phase Field Modeling of Directional Fracture in Anisotropic Polycrystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    include [35–37]. The phase field description of fracture should be con- trasted with continuum damage mechanics descriptions such as [38,39] that do not...ARL-RP-0518 ● FEBRUARY 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Phase Field Modeling of Directional Fracture in Anisotropic Polycrystals...0518 ● FEBRUARY 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Phase Field Modeling of Directional Fracture in Anisotropic Polycrystals by JD Clayton

  18. Evaluation of the adaptation of zirconia-based fixed partial dentures using micro-CT technology.

    PubMed

    Borba, Márcia; Miranda, Walter Gomes; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Griggs, Jason Allan; Bona, Alvaro Della

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to measure the marginal and internal fit of zirconia-based all-ceramic three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) (Y-TZP - LAVA, 3M-ESPE), using a novel methodology based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technology. Stainless steel models of prepared abutments were fabricated to design FPDs. Ten frameworks were produced with 9 mm2 connector cross-sections using a LAVATM CAD-CAM system. All FPDs were veneered with a compatible porcelain. Each FPD was seated on the original model and scanned using micro-CT. Files were processed using NRecon and CTAn software. Adobe Photoshop and Image J software were used to analyze the cross-sectional images. Five measuring points were selected, as follows: MG - marginal gap; CA - chamfer area; AW - axial wall; AOT - axio-occlusal transition area; OA - occlusal area. Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis and Tukey's post hoc test (α= 0.05). There were significant differences for the gap width between the measurement points evaluated. MG showed the smallest median gap width (42 µm). OA had the highest median gap dimension (125 µm), followed by the AOT point (105 µm). CA and AW gap width values were statistically similar, 66 and 65 µm respectively. Thus, it was possible to conclude that different levels of adaptation were observed within the FPD, at the different measuring points. In addition, the micro-CT technology seems to be a reliable tool to evaluate the fit of dental restorations.

  19. Zirconia in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Wei; Moussi, Joelle; Drury, Jeanie L; Wataha, John C

    2016-10-01

    The use of zirconia in medicine and dentistry has rapidly expanded over the past decade, driven by its advantageous physical, biological, esthetic, and corrosion properties. Zirconia orthopedic hip replacements have shown superior wear-resistance over other systems; however, risk of catastrophic fracture remains a concern. In dentistry, zirconia has been widely adopted for endosseous implants, implant abutments, and all-ceramic crowns. Because of an increasing demand for esthetically pleasing dental restorations, zirconia-based ceramic restorations have become one of the dominant restorative choices. Areas covered: This review provides an updated overview of the applications of zirconia in medicine and dentistry with a focus on dental applications. The MEDLINE electronic database (via PubMed) was searched, and relevant original and review articles from 2010 to 2016 were included. Expert commentary: Recent data suggest that zirconia performs favorably in both orthopedic and dental applications, but quality long-term clinical data remain scarce. Concerns about the effects of wear, crystalline degradation, crack propagation, and catastrophic fracture are still debated. The future of zirconia in biomedical applications will depend on the generation of these data to resolve concerns.

  20. All-Ceramic Single Crown Restauration of Zirconia Oral Implants and Its Influence on Fracture Resistance: An Investigation in the Artificial Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Kohal, Ralf-Joachim; Kilian, Jolanta Bernadette; Stampf, Susanne; Spies, Benedikt Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the fracture resistance of one-piece zirconia oral implants with and without all-ceramic incisor crowns after long-term thermomechanical cycling. A total of 48 implants were evaluated. The groups with crowns (C, 24 samples) and without crowns (N, 24 samples) were subdivided according to the loading protocol, resulting in three groups of 8 samples each: Group “0” was not exposed to cyclic loading, whereas groups “5” and “10” were loaded with 5 and 10 million chewing cycles, respectively. This resulted in 6 different groups: C0/N0, C5/N5 and C10/N10. Subsequently, all 48 implants were statically loaded to fracture and bending moments were calculated. All implants survived the artificial aging. For the static loading the following average bending moments were calculated: C0: 326 Ncm; C5: 339 Ncm; C10: 369 Ncm; N0: 339 Ncm; N5: 398 Ncm and N10: 355 Ncm. To a certain extent, thermomechanical cycling resulted in an increase of fracture resistance which did not prove to be statistically significant. Regarding its fracture resistance, the evaluated ceramic implant system made of Y-TZP seems to be able to resist physiological chewing forces long-term. Restauration with all-ceramic single crowns showed no negative influence on fracture resistance. PMID:28788018

  1. [Effects of different surface modifications on micro-structure and adhesion of zirconia ceramic: an in vitro study].

    PubMed

    Siwen, Li; Shishi, Li; Yanhong, Wang; Hongmei, Ma

    2017-02-01

    . This process induced cracks and the film to strip away slightly from the surfaces of Y-TZP substrate. The SBS values from large to small were F and G groups, C and D groups, B and E groups (P<0.05), and control group (P<0.05). Alumina sandblasting, silica powder abrasion, and silica-sol coating affect the surface morphology, structure, and composition of the tooth. This effect can also achieve the improved micro-mechanical interlocking or chemical bonding and finally increase the bond strength between zirconia and tooth. Alumina sandblasting followed by silica coating is an effective technique to increase the bonding strength between the zirconia ceramic and dentin.
.

  2. [Evaluation of alumina effects on the mechanical property and translucency of nano-zirconia all-ceramics].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Zhao, Yong-qi; Zhang, Jing-chao; Liao, Yun-mao; Li, Wei

    2010-06-01

    To study the effects of alumina content on sintered density, mechanical property and translucency of zirconia nanocomposite all-ceramics. Specimens of zirconia nanocomposite all-ceramics were divided into five groups based on their alumina content which are 0% (control group), 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10.0% respectively. The sintered densities were measured using Archimedes' method. Specimens' bending strengths were measured with three-point bending test (ISO 6872). The visible light transmittances were measured with spectrophotometric arrangements and the fractured surfaces were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The control group of pure zirconia could be sintered to the theoretical density under pressure-less sintering condition. The bending strength was (1100.27 ± 54.82) MPa, the fracture toughness was (4.96 ± 0.35) MPa×m(1/2) and the transmittance could reach 17.03%. The sintered density and transmittance decreased as alumina content increased from 2.5% to 10%. However, the fracture toughness only increased slightly. In all four alumina groups, the additions of alumina had no significant effect on samples' bending strengths (P > 0.05). When the content of alumina was 10%, fracture toughness of specimens reached (6.13 ± 0.44) MPa×m(1/2) while samples' transmittance declined to 6.21%. SEM results showed that alumina particles had no significant effect on the grain size and distribution of tetragonal zirconia polycrystals. Additions of alumina to yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystals could influence its mechanical property and translucency. Additions of the other phase to zirconia ceramics should meet the clinical demands of strength and esthetics.

  3. Post-hot isostatic pressing: a healing treatment for process related defects and laboratory grinding damage of dental zirconia?

    PubMed

    Scherrer, S S; Cattani-Lorente, M; Yoon, S; Karvonen, L; Pokrant, S; Rothbrust, F; Kuebler, J

    2013-09-01

    Processing parameters (powder granulation, compaction, debinding, greenbody shaping, sintering) and post-sinter rough, even fine grinding are influencing the final mechanical properties of 3Y-TZP. The hypothesis of this study was that post-sinter hot isostatic pressing (post-HIP) would be beneficial for improving reliability and strength of both sintered and coarse ground sintered zirconia by closing or reducing surface and/or small volume defects. 75 sintered bars of an experimental 3Y-TZP (3mm×4mm×45mm) with chamfered edges and 15μm diamond surface finish were provided by the manufacturer (Ivoclar Vivadent) and randomly distributed in five groups of N=15 each. G1 served as control (as received); G2 was post-HIPed at 1400°C and G3 at 1350°C, both using a pressure of 195MPa in Ar for 1h; G4 was coarse ground with 120μm diamond disk grain size; G5 was ground 120μm and post-HIPed at 1350°C at 195MPa, 1h in Ar. The specimens were fractured in air in 4 point-bending. Weibull characteristic strength (σ0) in MPa, m parameter (reliability) and confidence intervals (CI) at 90% confidence level are reported. Identification of the critical flaw was performed by SEM on the fractured surface of all specimens and XRD performed in all groups. G1: σ0=973 (932-1016), m=10.6 (7.45-15.1); G2: σ0=930 (871-995), m=6.9 (4.87-9.9); G3: σ0=898 (848-952), m=7.94 (5.6-11.4); G4: σ0=921 (857-991), m=6.35 (4.48-9.11); G5: σ0=881 (847-918), m=11.4 (8.03-16.3). G5 had a significantly lower σ0 than G1. No significant differences were seen in the reliability (m) among the groups. Fractography revealed critical intrinsic subsurface flaws of 10-60μm present in all groups resulting from the processing parameters. No "healing" (i.e. closing of defects by densification) resulted after post-HIP. Grinding sintered zirconia with 120μm diamond disks induced radial cracks of 10-20μm and an important pseudo-cubic phase transformation (56wt%) that was not completely removed after post

  4. Initial Bacterial Adhesion on Different Yttria-Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Implant Surfaces in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Karygianni, Lamprini; Jähnig, Andrea; Schienle, Stefanie; Bernsmann, Falk; Adolfsson, Erik; Kohal, Ralf J.; Chevalier, Jérôme; Hellwig, Elmar; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion to implant biomaterials constitutes a virulence factor leading to biofilm formation, infection and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to examine the initial bacterial adhesion on different implant materials in vitro. Four implant biomaterials were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans for 2 h: 3 mol % yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal surface (B1a), B1a with zirconium oxide (ZrO2) coating (B2a), B1a with zirconia-based composite coating (B1b) and B1a with zirconia-based composite and ZrO2 coatings (B2b). Bovine enamel slabs (BES) served as control. The adherent microorganisms were quantified and visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); DAPI and live/dead staining. The lowest bacterial count of E. faecalis was detected on BES and the highest on B1a. The fewest vital C. albicans strains (42.22%) were detected on B2a surfaces, while most E. faecalis and S. aureus strains (approximately 80%) were vital overall. Compared to BES; coated and uncoated zirconia substrata exhibited no anti-adhesive properties. Further improvement of the material surface characteristics is essential. PMID:28788415

  5. Initial Bacterial Adhesion on Different Yttria-Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Implant Surfaces in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Karygianni, Lamprini; Jähnig, Andrea; Schienle, Stefanie; Bernsmann, Falk; Adolfsson, Erik; Kohal, Ralf J; Chevalier, Jérôme; Hellwig, Elmar; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2013-12-04

    Bacterial adhesion to implant biomaterials constitutes a virulence factor leading to biofilm formation, infection and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to examine the initial bacterial adhesion on different implant materials in vitro . Four implant biomaterials were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis , Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans for 2 h: 3 mol % yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal surface (B1a), B1a with zirconium oxide (ZrO₂) coating (B2a), B1a with zirconia-based composite coating (B1b) and B1a with zirconia-based composite and ZrO₂ coatings (B2b). Bovine enamel slabs (BES) served as control. The adherent microorganisms were quantified and visualized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); DAPI and live/dead staining. The lowest bacterial count of E. faecalis was detected on BES and the highest on B1a. The fewest vital C. albicans strains (42.22%) were detected on B2a surfaces, while most E. faecalis and S. aureus strains (approximately 80%) were vital overall. Compared to BES; coated and uncoated zirconia substrata exhibited no anti-adhesive properties. Further improvement of the material surface characteristics is essential.

  6. Evaluation of translucency of monolithic zirconia and framework zirconia materials

    PubMed Central

    Tuncel, İlkin; Üşümez, Aslıhan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The opacity of zirconia is an esthetic disadvantage that hinders achieving natural and shade-matched restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the translucency of non-colored and colored framework zirconia and monolithic zirconia. MATERIALS AND METHODS The three groups tested were: non-colored framework zirconia, colored framework zirconia with the A3 shade according to Vita Classic Scale, and monolithic zirconia (n=5). The specimens were fabricated in the dimensions of 15×12×0.5 mm. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the contrast ratio, which is indicative of translucency. Three measurements were made to obtain the contrast ratios of the materials over a white background (L*w) and a black background (L*b). The data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. One specimen from each group was chosen for scanning electron microscope analysis. The determined areas of the SEM images were divided by the number of grains in order to calculate the mean grain size. RESULTS Statistically significant differences were observed among all groups (P<.05). Non-colored zirconia had the highest translucency with a contrast ratio of 0.75, while monolithic zirconia had the lowest translucency with a contrast ratio of 0.8. The mean grain sizes of the non-colored, colored, and monolithic zirconia were 233, 256, and 361 nm, respectively. CONCLUSION The translucency of the zirconia was affected by the coloring procedure and the grain size. Although monolithic zirconia may not be the best esthetic material for the anterior region, it may serve as an alternative in the posterior region for the bilayered zirconia restorations. PMID:27350851

  7. Densification of Zirconia with Borates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-24

    solid electrolytes for fuel cell and oxygen sensor applications.1 ’ 2 The sintering temperatures for commercial quality stabilized zirconia powders are...in the temperature range 1450-1500C). A few studies were also made using a much coarser particle size (- 1-2 pm ave.) cubic stabilized zirconia ... powder , "Zircoa B" [Zirconia Corp. of America]. The additives used as sintering aids were reagent grade horic anhydride, calcium metaborate and calcium

  8. The strength of sintered and adhesively bonded zirconia/veneer-ceramic bilayers.

    PubMed

    Costa, Anna Karina F; Borges, Alexandre Luiz S; Fleming, Garry James P; Addison, Owen

    2014-10-01

    Recently all-ceramic restorative systems have been introduced that use CAD/CAM technology to fabricate both the Y-TZP core and veneer-ceramic layers. The aim was to identify whether the CAD/CAM approach resulted in more favourable stressing patterns in the veneer-ceramic when compared with a conventionally sintered Y-TZP core/veneer-ceramic. Nominally identical Vita VM9 veneer-ceramic disc-shaped specimens (0.7mm thickness, 12mm diameter) were fabricated. 20 specimens received a surface coating of resin-cement (Panavia 21); 20 specimens were bonded with the resin-cement to fully sintered Y-TZP (YZ Vita Inceram Vita) discs (0.27mm thickness, 12mm diameter). A final series of 20 Y-TZP core/veneer-ceramic specimens were manufactured using a conventional sintering route. Biaxial flexure strength was determined in a ball-on-ring configuration and stress at the fracture origin calculated using multilayer closed-form analytical solutions. Fractography was undertaken using scanning electron microscopy. The experimental test was simulated using Finite Element Analysis. Group mean BFS were compared using a one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests at a 95% significance level. Resin cement application resulted in significant strengthening of the veneer-ceramic and further significant strengthening of the veneer-ceramic (p<0.01) occurred following bonding to the Y-TZP core. The BFS calculated at the failure origin for conventionally sintered specimens was significantly reduced when compared with the adhesively bonded Y-TZP/veneer-ceramic. Under the test conditions employed adhesive cementation between CAD/CAM produced Y-TZP/veneer-ceramic layers appears to offer the potential to induce more favourable stress states within the veneer-ceramic when compared with conventional sintered manufacturing routes. The current investigation suggests that the stressing patterns that arise in all-ceramic restorations fabricated using CAD/CAM for both the core and veneer-ceramic layers differ

  9. Effects of Laser Power Level on Microstructural Properties and Phase Composition of Laser-Clad Fluorapatite/Zirconia Composite Coatings on Ti6Al4V Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Chi-Sheng; Liu, Cheng-Wei; Kuo, Tsung-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the most commonly used materials for the coating of bioceramic titanium (Ti) alloys. However, HA has poor mechanical properties and a low bonding strength. Accordingly, the present study replaces HA with a composite coating material consisting of fluorapatite (FA) and 20 wt % yttria (3 mol %) stabilized zirconia (ZrO2, 3Y-TZP). The FA/ZrO2 coatings are deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates using a Nd:YAG laser cladding system with laser powers and travel speeds of 400 W/200 mm/min, 800 W/400 mm/min, and 1200 W/600 mm/min, respectively. The experimental results show that a significant inter-diffusion of the alloying elements occurs between the coating layer (CL) and the transition layer (TL). Consequently, a strong metallurgical bond is formed between them. During the cladding process, the ZrO2 is completely decomposed, while the FA is partially decomposed. As a result, the CLs of all the specimens consist mainly of FA, Ca4(PO4)2O (TTCP), CaF2, CaZrO3, CaTiO3 and monoclinic phase ZrO2 (m-ZrO2), together with a small amount of θ-Al2O3. As the laser power is increased, CaO, CaCO3 and trace amounts of tetragonal phase ZrO2 (t-ZrO2) also appear. As the laser power increases from 400 to 800 W, the CL hardness also increases as a result of microstructural refinement and densification. However, at the highest laser power of 1200 W, the CL hardness reduces significantly due to the formation of large amounts of relatively soft CaO and CaCO3 phase. PMID:28773503

  10. Effects of Laser Power Level on Microstructural Properties and Phase Composition of Laser-Clad Fluorapatite/Zirconia Composite Coatings on Ti6Al4V Substrates.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chi-Sheng; Liu, Cheng-Wei; Kuo, Tsung-Yuan

    2016-05-17

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the most commonly used materials for the coating of bioceramic titanium (Ti) alloys. However, HA has poor mechanical properties and a low bonding strength. Accordingly, the present study replaces HA with a composite coating material consisting of fluorapatite (FA) and 20 wt % yttria (3 mol %) stabilized zirconia (ZrO₂, 3Y-TZP). The FA/ZrO₂ coatings are deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates using a Nd:YAG laser cladding system with laser powers and travel speeds of 400 W/200 mm/min, 800 W/400 mm/min, and 1200 W/600 mm/min, respectively. The experimental results show that a significant inter-diffusion of the alloying elements occurs between the coating layer (CL) and the transition layer (TL). Consequently, a strong metallurgical bond is formed between them. During the cladding process, the ZrO₂ is completely decomposed, while the FA is partially decomposed. As a result, the CLs of all the specimens consist mainly of FA, Ca₄(PO₄)₂O (TTCP), CaF₂, CaZrO₃, CaTiO₃ and monoclinic phase ZrO₂ (m-ZrO₂), together with a small amount of θ-Al₂O₃. As the laser power is increased, CaO, CaCO₃ and trace amounts of tetragonal phase ZrO₂ (t-ZrO₂) also appear. As the laser power increases from 400 to 800 W, the CL hardness also increases as a result of microstructural refinement and densification. However, at the highest laser power of 1200 W, the CL hardness reduces significantly due to the formation of large amounts of relatively soft CaO and CaCO₃ phase.

  11. Phonon anharmonicity of monoclinic zirconia and yttrium-stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chen W.; Smith, Hillary L.; Lan, Tian

    2015-04-13

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on monoclinic zirconia (ZrO 2) and 8 mol% yttrium-stabilized zirconia were performed at temperatures from 300 to 1373 ωK. We reported temperature-dependent phonon densities of states (DOS) and Raman spectra obtained at elevated temperatures. First-principles lattice dynamics calculations with density functional theory gave total and partial phonon DOS curves and mode Grüneisen parameters. These mode Grüneisen parameters were used to predict the experimental temperature dependence of the phonon DOS with partial success. However, substantial anharmonicity was found at elevated temperatures, especially for phonon modes dominated by the motions of oxygen atoms. Yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was somewhatmore » more anharmonic and had a broader phonon spectrum at low temperatures, owing in part to defects in its structure. YSZ also has a larger vibrational entropy than monoclinic zirconia.« less

  12. Influence of CAD/CAM systems and cement selection on marginal discrepancy of zirconia-based ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rus, Francisco; Suárez, María J; Rivera, Begoña; Pradíes, Guillermo

    2012-04-01

    To analyze the effect of ceramic manufacturing technique and luting cement selection on the marginal adaptation of zirconium oxide-based all-ceramic crowns. An extracted mandibular first premolar was prepared for a complete coverage restoration and subsequently duplicated 40 times in a liquid crystal polymer (LCP). All-ceramic crowns (n = 10) were fabricated on LCP models using the following systems: glass-infiltrated zirconia-toughened alumina (In-Ceram Zirconia) and yttrium cation-doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (In-Ceram YZ, Cercon, and Procera Zirconia). The restorations (n = 5) were cemented on their respective dies with glass-ionomer cement (Ketac Cem Aplicap) and resin cement (Panavia 21). The absolute marginal discrepancy of the crowns was measured before and after cementation by scanning electronic microscopy at 160 points along the circumferential margin. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA for repeated measures and for independent samples, Scheffé's multiple range post hoc test, and Student's t-test (alpha = 0.05). There were statistical differences in the mean marginal openings among the four all-ceramic systems before and after luting (P < 0.0001). The Procera restorations had the lowest pre- and post-cementation values (P < 0.0001). A significant increase in the marginal gap size caused by luting media occurred in all tested groups (P < 0.0001). Resin cement resulted in larger marginal discrepancies than glass-ionomer cement (P < 0.0001).

  13. Effective potentials in nonlinear polycrystals and quadrature formulae.

    PubMed

    Michel, Jean-Claude; Suquet, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a family of estimates for effective potentials in nonlinear polycrystals. Noting that these potentials are given as averages, several quadrature formulae are investigated to express these integrals of nonlinear functions of local fields in terms of the moments of these fields. Two of these quadrature formulae reduce to known schemes, including a recent proposition (Ponte Castañeda 2015 Proc. R. Soc. A 471 , 20150665 (doi:10.1098/rspa.2015.0665)) obtained by completely different means. Other formulae are also reviewed that make use of statistical information on the fields beyond their first and second moments. These quadrature formulae are applied to the estimation of effective potentials in polycrystals governed by two potentials, by means of a reduced-order model proposed by the authors (non-uniform transformation field analysis). It is shown how the quadrature formulae improve on the tangent second-order approximation in porous crystals at high stress triaxiality. It is found that, in order to retrieve a satisfactory accuracy for highly nonlinear porous crystals under high stress triaxiality, a quadrature formula of higher order is required.

  14. Effective potentials in nonlinear polycrystals and quadrature formulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Jean-Claude; Suquet, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a family of estimates for effective potentials in nonlinear polycrystals. Noting that these potentials are given as averages, several quadrature formulae are investigated to express these integrals of nonlinear functions of local fields in terms of the moments of these fields. Two of these quadrature formulae reduce to known schemes, including a recent proposition (Ponte Castañeda 2015 Proc. R. Soc. A 471, 20150665 (doi:10.1098/rspa.2015.0665)) obtained by completely different means. Other formulae are also reviewed that make use of statistical information on the fields beyond their first and second moments. These quadrature formulae are applied to the estimation of effective potentials in polycrystals governed by two potentials, by means of a reduced-order model proposed by the authors (non-uniform transformation field analysis). It is shown how the quadrature formulae improve on the tangent second-order approximation in porous crystals at high stress triaxiality. It is found that, in order to retrieve a satisfactory accuracy for highly nonlinear porous crystals under high stress triaxiality, a quadrature formula of higher order is required.

  15. In situ nucleophilic substitutional growth of methylammonium lead iodide polycrystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Acik, Muge; Alam, Todd M.; Guo, Fangmin

    2017-01-01

    Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbIx) perovskites are organic-inorganic semiconductors that serve as the light-harvesting component of the photovoltaics, and are desirable with their long diffusion length yielding power conversion efficiencies of ≥22%. Conventional techniques grow perovskites by spin coating precursors on an oxide or a polymer substrate followed by annealing, however, use of high boiling point solvents and high temperatures hinder device stability and performance. Through a one-step, acid-catalyzed nucleophilic-substitutional crystal growth in polar protic solvents, we show evidence for the substrate- and annealing- free production of MAPbIx polycrystals that are metallic-lead-free with negligibly small amount of PbI2 precipitation (<10%). Onmore » the basis of this chemical composition, we have devised an in situ growth of highly air (upto ~1.5 months) and thermally-stable (≤300°C), tetragonal-phased, variable-sized polycrystals (~100 nm-10 μm) amendable for large-area deposition, and ultimately, large-scale manufacturing. This method is encouraging for stable optoelectronic devices, and leads to energy-efficient and low-cost processing.« less

  16. Influence of hydrophilic pre-treatment on resin bonding to zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Noro, Akio; Kameyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Akiko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric plasma or ultraviolet (UV) treatment alters the surface characteristics of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP), increasing its hydrophilicity by reducing the contact angle against water to zero. This suggests that such treatment would increase the wettability of bonding resin. The purpose of this study was to determine how increasing the hydrophilicity of TZP through plasma irradiation, UV treatment, or application of ceramic primer affected initial bonding with resin composites. Here, the effect of each pre-treatment on the hydrophilicity of TZP surfaces was determined by evaluating change in shear bond strength. Plasma irradiation, UV, or ceramic primer pre-treatment showed no significant effect on bonding strength between TZP surfaces and resin composites. In addition, alumina blasting yielded no significant increase in bond strength. Plasma irradiation, UV treatment, or ceramic primer pre-treatment did not lead to significant increase in bond strength between TZP and resin composites.

  17. Mapping stress in polycrystals with sub-10 nm spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Polop, C; Vasco, E; Perrino, A P; Garcia, R

    2017-09-28

    From aircraft to electronic devices, and even in Formula One cars, stress is the main cause of degraded material performance and mechanical failure in applications incorporating thin films and coatings. Over the last two decades, the scientific community has searched for the mechanisms responsible for stress generation in films, with no consensus in sight. The main difficulty is that most current models of stress generation, while atomistic in nature, are based on macroscopic measurements. Here, we demonstrate a novel method for mapping the stress at the surface of polycrystals with sub-10 nm spatial resolution. This method consists of transforming elastic modulus maps measured by atomic force microscopy techniques into stress maps via the local stress-stiffening effect. The validity of this approach is supported by finite element modeling simulations. Our study reveals a strongly heterogeneous distribution of intrinsic stress in polycrystalline Au films, with gradients as high as 100 MPa nm -1 near the grain boundaries. Consequently, our study discloses the limited capacity of macroscopic stress assessments and standard tests to discriminate among models, and the great potential of nanometer-scale stress mapping.

  18. A polycrystal plasticity model of strain localization in irradiated iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Nathan R.; Arsenlis, Athanasios; Marian, Jaime

    2013-02-01

    At low to intermediate homologous temperatures, the degradation of structural materials performance in nuclear environments is associated with high number densities of nanometric defects produced in irradiation cascades. In polycrystalline ferritic materials, self-interstitial dislocations loops are a principal signature of irradiation damage, leading to a mechanical response characterized by increased yield strengths, decreased total strain to failure, and decreased work hardening as compared to the unirradiated behavior. Above a critical defect concentration, the material deforms by plastic flow localization, giving rise to strain softening in terms of the engineering stress-strain response. Flow localization manifests itself in the form of defect-depleted crystallographic channels, through which all dislocation activity is concentrated. In this paper, we describe the formulation of a crystal plasticity model for pure Fe embedded in a finite element polycrystal simulator and present results of uniaxial tensile deformation tests up to 10% strain. We use a tensorial damage descriptor variable to capture the evolution of the irradiation damage loop subpopulation during deformation. The model is parameterized with detailed dislocation dynamics simulations of tensile tests up to 1.5% deformation of systems containing various initial densities of irradiation defects. The coarse-grained simulations are shown to capture the essential details of the experimental stress response observed in ferritic alloys and steels. Our methodology provides an effective linkage between the defect scale, of the order of one nanometer, and the continuum scale involving multiple grain orientations.

  19. Comparing olivine single crystal and polycrystal rheology: evidence for supplementary accommodation mechanisms at grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollinger, C.; Merkel, S.; Raterron, P.; Castelnau, O.; Detrez, F.

    2013-12-01

    Rheology in the Earth's upper-mantle is mostly constrained by the plastic properties of olivine. Over recent years, several groups have been carrying out deformation experiments on single crystals and polycrystals of olivine at upper mantle pressure (P) and temperature (T). Yet, the rheology of olivine at mantle conditions is still not well constrained. We carried out deformation experiments on San Carlos olivine polycrystals, at P and T ranging from 3 to 8 GPa and 1373 to 1673 K, respectively, and at strain rates ranging from 10-6 to 10-4 s-1, using the D-DIA apparatus installed at the NSLS X17B2 beamline (NY, USA). The deformation rates of the polycrystals are compared to those of single crystals oriented along the soft orientations [110]c, [011]c, [101]c which activate the easiest slip systems (Raterron et al., 2012). This comparison suggests that, in olivine polycrystals deforming in the dislocation creep regime, other relaxation mechanisms need to be considered to account for the observed polycrystal strain rates. This highlights the importance of supplementary mechanisms, such as those occurring at grain boundaries, to properly model olivine aggregates plasticity.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous zirconia and aluminated mesoporous zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Elizabeth Sun

    Synthesis of mesoporous zirconia has been performed by slowly hydrolyzing zirconium propoxide in the presence of anionic surfactants: namely, dodecyl phosphate or sulfate (P12 and Sf12) and hexadecyl sulfonate (So16) The zirconia. outgassed at 140--150°C has T-plot surface areas higher than 400 M2/g. This outgassing does not remove the surfactant. After calcination in air at 500°C and combustion of the surfactant, the mesoporous volume is reduced by a factor of about 2, whereas the pore wall material crystallizes in the tetragonal phase. The high-resolution electron microscopic study reveals the presence of a disorganized network of polygonal pores structure. It is suggested that the chemistry of the hydrolysis solution is instrumental in determining the pore structure. A schematic model in which the surfactant is a scaffold component is suggested in order to explain these results and the fixation of PO4, or SO4 in the walls may help to preserve the porous structure. It is very different from the templating mechanism. From the density obtained from phase transition temperature, and from the mesoporous volume (N2 adsorption), the thickness of the wall can be calculated as well as the pseudo-length of the pores. From the thickness, the T-plot area can be recalculated and agrees well with the measured T-plot surface area for the sample calcined at 500°C. Around 900°C, the walls become thicker and crystallizes into monoclinic zirconia without pore structure. In order to try to modify, the acidity of the mesoporous sulfated and oxo-phosphated zirconia, they were doped with aluminum. The sulfated zirconia only has a coating layer of amorphous alumina, while the phosphated zirconia has aluminum in the lattice and the alumina coat. A maximum ratio of Al/Zr ˜ 0.04 can be reached in the lattice. The introduction of aluminum into the lattice prevents the crystallization of the oxo-phosphate at 900°C, and helps to preserve the surface area and porosity of the sulfated

  1. Alumina-Reinforced Zirconia Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2003-01-01

    Alumina-reinforced zirconia composites, used as electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells, were fabricated by hot pressing 10 mol percent yttria-stabilized zirconia (10-YSZ) reinforced with two different forms of alumina particulates and platelets each containing 0 to 30 mol percent alumina. Major mechanical and physical properties of both particulate and platelet composites including flexure strength, fracture toughness, slow crack growth, elastic modulus, density, Vickers microhardness, thermal conductivity, and microstructures were determined as a function of alumina content either at 25 C or at both 25 and 1000 C. Flexure strength and fracture toughness at 1000 C were maximized with 30 particulate and 30 mol percent platelet composites, respectively, while resistance to slow crack growth at 1000 C in air was greater for 30 mol percent platelet composite than for 30 mol percent particulate composites.

  2. Zirconia-molybdenum disilicide composites

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    Compositions of matter comprised of molybdenum disilicide and zirconium oxide in one of three forms: pure, partially stabilized, or fully stabilized and methods of making the compositions. The stabilized zirconia is crystallographically stabilized by mixing it with yttrium oxide, calcium oxide, cerium oxide, or magnesium oxide and it may be partially stabilized or fully stabilized depending on the amount of stabilizing agent in the mixture.

  3. Improving bioactivity of inert bioceramics by a novel Mg-incorporated solution treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehestani, Mahdi; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Adolfsson, Erik; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2017-12-01

    Zirconia/alumina ceramics possess outstanding mechanical properties for dental and orthopedic applications, but due to their poor surface bioactivities they exhibit a weak bone-bonding ability. This work proposes an effective 30-min solution treatment which could successfully induce formation of bone-like apatite on the surface of 3Y-TZP and a ternary composite composed of yttria-stabilized zirconia, ceria-stabilized zirconia, and alumina (35 vol% 3Y-TZP + 35 vol% 12Ce-TZP + 30 vol% Al2O3) after 3 weeks immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). XRD was used for phase identification in the ceramic materials. The influence of solution treatment on the surface chemistry and its role on apatite formation were investigated via SEM, EDS and XPS. In vitro apatite-forming ability for the solution-treated and untreated samples of the composite and individual substrates of 3Y-TZP, 12Ce-TZP, and Al2O3 was evaluated by immersion in SBF. Apatite crystals were formed only on 3Y-TZP and composite substrates, implying that it is mainly the 3Y-TZP constituent that contributes to the bioactivity of the composite. Further, it was found from the XPS analysis that the zirconia material with higher phase stability (12Ce-TZP) produced less Zrsbnd OH functional groups on its surface after solution treatment which accounts for its weaker bioactivity compared to 3Y-TZP.

  4. Zirconia in fixed prosthesis. A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Román-Rodríguez, Juan L.; Ferreiroa, Alberto; Solá-Ruíz, María F.; Fons-Font, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Statement of problem: Evidence is limited on the efficacy of zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses. Objective: To carry out a literature review of the behavior of zirconium oxide dental restorations. Material and Methods: This literature review searched the Pubmed, Scopus, Medline and Cochrane Library databases using key search words “zirconium oxide,” “zirconia,” “non-metal restorations,” “ceramic oxides,” “veneering ceramic,” “zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses”. Both in vivo and in vitro studies into zirconia-based prosthodontic restoration behavior were included. Results: Clinical studies have revealed a high rate of fracture for porcelain-veneered zirconia-based restorations that varies between 6% and 15% over a 3- to 5-year period, while for ceramo-metallic restorations the fracture rate ranges between 4 and 10% over ten years. These results provoke uncertainty as to the long-term prognosis for this material in the oral medium. The cause of veneering porcelain fractures is unknown but hypothetically they could be associated with bond failure between the veneer material and the zirconia sub-structure. Key words:Veneering ceramic, zirconia-based ceramic restoration, crown, zirconia, tooth-supported fixed prosthesis. PMID:24596638

  5. Mesoscale Modeling of Nonlinear Elasticity and Fracture in Ceramic Polycrystals Under Dynamic Shear and Compression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    investigation of heterogeneous microplasticity in ceramics deformed under high confining stresses. Mech. Mater. 37, 95–112. Zhang, K., Wu, M., Feng, R., 2005b...Simulation of microplasticity -induced deformation in uniaxially strained ceramics by 3-D Voronoi polycrystal modeling. Int. J. Plasticity 21, 801–834

  6. Computational study of textured ferroelectric polycrystals: Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of template-matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jie E.; Yan, Yongke; Priya, Shashank; Wang, Yu U.

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative relationships between processing, microstructure, and properties in textured ferroelectric polycrystals and the underlying responsible mechanisms are investigated by phase field modeling and computer simulation. This study focuses on three important aspects of textured ferroelectric ceramics: (i) grain microstructure evolution during templated grain growth processing, (ii) crystallographic texture development as a function of volume fraction and seed size of the templates, and (iii) dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the obtained template-matrix composites of textured polycrystals. Findings on the third aspect are presented here, while an accompanying paper of this work reports findings on the first two aspects. In this paper, the competing effects of crystallographic texture and template seed volume fraction on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric polycrystals are investigated. The phase field model of ferroelectric composites consisting of template seeds embedded in matrix grains is developed to simulate domain evolution, polarization-electric field (P-E), and strain-electric field (ɛ-E) hysteresis loops. The coercive field, remnant polarization, dielectric permittivity, piezoelectric coefficient, and dissipation factor are studied as a function of grain texture and template seed volume fraction. It is found that, while crystallographic texture significantly improves the polycrystal properties towards those of single crystals, a higher volume fraction of template seeds tends to decrease the electromechanical properties, thus canceling the advantage of ferroelectric polycrystals textured by templated grain growth processing. This competing detrimental effect is shown to arise from the composite effect, where the template phase possesses material properties inferior to the matrix phase, causing mechanical clamping and charge accumulation at inter-phase interfaces between matrix and template inclusions. The computational

  7. Synthesis of zirconia monoliths for chromatographic separations.

    PubMed

    Randon, Jérôme; Huguet, Samuel; Piram, Anne; Puy, Guillaume; Demesmay, Claire; Rocca, Jean-Louis

    2006-03-17

    The aim of this work is to join the advantages of two different kinds of stationary phases: monolithic columns and zirconia-based supports. On the one hand, silica monolithic columns allow a higher efficiency with a lower back-pressure than traditional packed columns. On the other hand, chromatographic stationary phases based on zirconia have a higher thermal and chemical stability and specific surface properties. Combining these advantages, a zirconia monolith with a macroporous framework could be a real improvement in separation sciences. Two main strategies can be used in order to obtain a zirconia surface on a monolithic skeleton: coating or direct synthesis. The coverage by a zirconia layer of the surface of a silica-based monolith can be performed using the chemical properties of the silanol surface groups. We realized this coverage using zirconium alkoxide and we further grafted n-dodecyl groups using phosphate derivatives. Any loss of efficiency was observed and fast separations have been achieved. The main advance reported in this paper is related to the preparation of zirconia monoliths by a sol-gel process starting from zirconium alkoxide. The synthesis parameters (hydrolysis ratio, porogen type, precursor concentration, drying step, etc.) were defined in order to produce a macroporous zirconia monoliths usable in separation techniques. We produced various homogeneous structures: zirconia rod 2 cm long with a diameter of 2.3 mm, and zirconia monolith inside fused silica capillaries with a 75 microm I.D. These monoliths have a skeleton size of 2 microm and have an average through pore size of 6 microm. Several separations have been reported.

  8. Two-body wear comparison of zirconia crown, gold crown, and enamel against zirconia.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min-Seok; Oh, Sang-Yeob; Cho, Sung-Am

    2015-07-01

    Full zirconia crowns have recently been used for dental restorations because of their mechanical properties. However, there is little information about their wear characteristics against enamel, gold, and full zirconia crowns. The purpose of this study was to compare the wear rate of enamel, gold crowns, and zirconia crowns against zirconia blocks using an in vitro wear test. Upper specimens were divided into three groups: 10 enamels (group 1), 10 gold crowns (group 2, Type III gold), and 10 zirconia crowns (group 3, Prettau(®)Zirkon 9H, Zirkonzahn, Italy). Each of these specimens was wear tested against a zirconia block (40×30×3mm(3)) as a lower specimen (30 total zirconia blocks). Each specimen of the groups was abraded against the zirconia block for 600 cycles at 1Hz with 15mm front-to-back movement on an abrading machine. Moreover, the load applied during the abrading test was 50N, and the test was performed in a normal saline emulsion for 10min. Three-dimensional images were taken before and after the test, and the statistical analysis was performed using the Krushal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test (p=0.05). The mean volume loss of group 1 was 0.47mm(3), while that of group 2 and group 3 was 0.01mm(3). The wear volume loss of enamels against zirconia was higher than that of gold and zirconia crowns. Moreover, according to this result, zirconia crowns are not recommended for heavy bruxers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On the interfacial fracture resistance of resin-bonded zirconia and glass-infiltrated graded zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Herzl; Kaizer, Marina; Chughtai, Asima; Tong, Hui; Tanaka, Carina; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective A major limiting factor for the widespread use of zirconia in prosthetic dentistry is its poor resin-cement bonding capabilities. We show that this deficiency can be overcome by infiltrating the zirconia cementation surface with glass. Current methods for assessing the fracture resistance of resin-ceramic bonds are marred by uneven stress distribution at the interface, which may result in erroneous interfacial fracture resistance values. We have applied a wedge-loaded double-cantilever-beam testing approach to accurately measure the interfacial fracture resistance of adhesively bonded zirconia-based restorative materials. Methods The interfacial fracture energy GC was determined for adhesively bonded zirconia, graded zirconia and feldspathic ceramic bars. The bonding surfaces were subjected to sandblasting or acid etching treatments. Baseline GC was measured for bonded specimens subjected to 7 days hydration at 37 °C. Long-term GC was determined for specimens exposed to 20,000 thermal cycles between 5 and 55 °C followed by 2-month aging at 37 °C in water. The test data were interpreted with the aid of a 2D finite element fracture analysis. Results The baseline and long-term GC for graded zirconia was 2–3 and 8 times that for zirconia, respectively. More significantly, both the baseline and long-term GC of graded zirconia were similar to those for feldspathic ceramic. Significance The interfacial fracture energy of feldspathic ceramic and graded zirconia was controlled by the fracture energy of the resin cement while that of zirconia by the interface. GC for the graded zirconia was as large as for feldspathic ceramic, making it an attractive material for use in dentistry. PMID:26365987

  10. A review of engineered zirconia surfaces in biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ling; Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Alao, Abdur-Rasheed; Song, Xiao-Fei; Abduo, Jaafar; Zhang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Zirconia is widely used for load-bearing functional structures in medicine and dentistry. The quality of engineered zirconia surfaces determines not only the fracture and fatigue behaviour but also the low temperature degradation (ageing sensitivity), bacterial colonization and bonding strength of zirconia devices. This paper reviews the current manufacturing techniques for fabrication of zirconia surfaces in biomedical applications, particularly, in tooth and joint replacements, and influences of the zirconia surface quality on their functional behaviours. It discusses emerging manufacturing techniques and challenges for fabrication of zirconia surfaces in biomedical applications. PMID:29130030

  11. Mesoporous silica templated zirconia nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballem, Mohamed A.; Córdoba, José M.; Odén, Magnus

    2011-07-01

    Nanoparticles of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) were synthesized by infiltration of a zirconia precursor (ZrOCl2·8H2O) into a SBA-15 mesoporous silica mold using a wet-impregnation technique. X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy show formation of stable ZrO2 nanoparticles inside the silica pores after a thermal treatment at 550 °C. Subsequent leaching out of the silica template by NaOH resulted in well-dispersed ZrO2 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4 nm. The formed single crystal nanoparticles are faceted with 110 surfaces termination suggesting it to be the preferred growth orientation. A growth model of these nanoparticles is also suggested.

  12. Zirconia in dental implantology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Apratim, Abhishek; Eachempati, Prashanti; Krishnappa Salian, Kiran Kumar; Singh, Vijendra; Chhabra, Saurabh; Shah, Sanket

    2015-01-01

    Background: Titanium has been the most popular material of choice for dental implantology over the past few decades. Its properties have been found to be most suitable for the success of implant treatment. But recently, zirconia is slowly emerging as one of the materials which might replace the gold standard of dental implant, i.e., titanium. Materials and Methods: Literature was searched to retrieve information about zirconia dental implant and studies were critically analyzed. PubMed database was searched for information about zirconia dental implant regarding mechanical properties, osseointegration, surface roughness, biocompatibility, and soft tissue health around it. The literature search was limited to English language articles published from 1975 to 2015. Results: A total of 45 papers met the inclusion criteria for this review, among the relevant search in the database. Conclusion: Literature search showed that some of the properties of zirconia seem to be suitable for making it an ideal dental implant, such as biocompatibility, osseointegration, favourable soft tissue response and aesthetics due to light transmission and its color. At the same time, some studies also point out its drawbacks. It was also found that most of the studies on zirconia dental implants are short-term studies and there is a need for more long-term clinical trials to prove that zirconia is worth enough to replace titanium as a biomaterial in dental implantology. PMID:26236672

  13. Nanosilica coating for bonding improvements to zirconia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Chen, Gang; Xie, Haifeng; Dai, Wenyong; Zhang, Feimin

    2013-01-01

    Resin bonding to zirconia cannot be established from standard methods that are currently utilized in conventional silica-based dental ceramics. The solution-gelatin (sol-gel) process is a well developed silica-coating technique used to modify the surface of nonsilica-based ceramics. Here, we use this technique to improve resin bonding to zirconia, which we compared to zirconia surfaces treated with alumina sandblasting and tribochemical silica coating. We used the shear bond strength test to examine the effect of the various coatings on the short-term resin bonding of zirconia. Furthermore, we employed field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to characterize the zirconia surfaces. Water-mist spraying was used to evaluate the durability of the coatings. To evaluate the biological safety of the experimental sol-gel silica coating, we conducted an in vitro Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames mutagenicity test), cytotoxicity tests, and in vivo oral mucous membrane irritation tests. When compared to the conventional tribochemical silica coating, the experimental sol-gel silica coating provided the same shear bond strength, higher silicon contents, and better durability. Moreover, we observed no apparent mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, or irritation in this study. Therefore, the sol-gel technique represents a promising method for producing silica coatings on zirconia.

  14. Nanosilica coating for bonding improvements to zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Chen, Gang; Xie, Haifeng; Dai, Wenyong; Zhang, Feimin

    2013-01-01

    Resin bonding to zirconia cannot be established from standard methods that are currently utilized in conventional silica-based dental ceramics. The solution–gelatin (sol–gel) process is a well developed silica-coating technique used to modify the surface of nonsilica-based ceramics. Here, we use this technique to improve resin bonding to zirconia, which we compared to zirconia surfaces treated with alumina sandblasting and tribochemical silica coating. We used the shear bond strength test to examine the effect of the various coatings on the short-term resin bonding of zirconia. Furthermore, we employed field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to characterize the zirconia surfaces. Water–mist spraying was used to evaluate the durability of the coatings. To evaluate the biological safety of the experimental sol–gel silica coating, we conducted an in vitro Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames mutagenicity test), cytotoxicity tests, and in vivo oral mucous membrane irritation tests. When compared to the conventional tribochemical silica coating, the experimental sol–gel silica coating provided the same shear bond strength, higher silicon contents, and better durability. Moreover, we observed no apparent mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, or irritation in this study. Therefore, the sol–gel technique represents a promising method for producing silica coatings on zirconia. PMID:24179333

  15. Relaxation of the residual defect structure in deformed polycrystals under ultrasonic action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murzaev, R. T.; Bachurin, D. V.; Nazarov, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    Using numerical computer simulation, the behavior of disordered dislocation systems under the action of monochromatic standing sound wave has been investigated in the grain of the model two-dimensional polycrystal containing nonequilibrium grain boundaries. It has been found that the presence of grain boundaries markedly affects the behavior of dislocations. The relaxation process and changes in the level of internal stresses caused by the rearrangement of the dislocation structure due to the ultrasonic action have been studied.

  16. A generalized self-consistent polycrystal model for the yield strength of nanocrystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, B.; Weng, G. J.

    2004-05-01

    Inspired by recent molecular dynamic simulations of nanocrystalline solids, a generalized self-consistent polycrystal model is proposed to study the transition of yield strength of polycrystalline metals as the grain size decreases from the traditional coarse grain to the nanometer scale. These atomic simulations revealed that a significant portion of atoms resides in the grain boundaries and the plastic flow of the grain-boundary region is responsible for the unique characteristics displayed by such materials. The proposed model takes each oriented grain and its immediate grain boundary to form a pair, which in turn is embedded in the infinite effective medium with a property representing the orientational average of all these pairs. We make use of the linear comparison composite to determine the nonlinear behavior of the nanocrystalline polycrystal through the concept of secant moduli. To this end an auxiliary problem of Christensen and Lo (J. Mech. Phys. Solids 27 (1979) 315) superimposed on the eigenstrain field of Luo and Weng (Mech. Mater. 6 (1987) 347) is first considered, and then the nonlinear elastoplastic polycrystal problem is addressed. The plastic flow of each grain is calculated from its crystallographic slips, but the plastic behavior of the grain-boundary phase is modeled as that of an amorphous material. The calculated yield stress for Cu is found to follow the classic Hall-Petch relation initially, but as the gain size decreases it begins to depart from it. The yield strength eventually attains a maximum at a critical grain size and then the Hall-Petch slope turns negative in the nano-range. It is also found that, when the Hall-Petch relation is observed, the plastic behavior of the polycrystal is governed by crystallographic slips in the grains, but when the slope is negative it is governed by the grain boundaries. During the transition both grains and grain boundaries contribute competitively.

  17. Improved bounds on the energy-minimizing strains in martensitic polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peigney, Michaël

    2016-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the theoretical prediction of the energy-minimizing (or recoverable) strains in martensitic polycrystals, considering a nonlinear elasticity model of phase transformation at finite strains. The main results are some rigorous upper bounds on the set of energy-minimizing strains. Those bounds depend on the polycrystalline texture through the volume fractions of the different orientations. The simplest form of the bounds presented is obtained by combining recent results for single crystals with a homogenization approach proposed previously for martensitic polycrystals. However, the polycrystalline bound delivered by that procedure may fail to recover the monocrystalline bound in the homogeneous limit, as is demonstrated in this paper by considering an example related to tetragonal martensite. This motivates the development of a more detailed analysis, leading to improved polycrystalline bounds that are notably consistent with results for single crystals in the homogeneous limit. A two-orientation polycrystal of tetragonal martensite is studied as an illustration. In that case, analytical expressions of the upper bounds are derived and the results are compared with lower bounds obtained by considering laminate textures.

  18. Change in surface properties of zirconia and initial attachment of osteoblastlike cells with hydrophilic treatment.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroaki; Saito, Kensuke; Kokubun, Katsutoshi; Sasaki, Hodaka; Yoshinari, Masao

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize change in surface properties of tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (TZP) after hydrophilic treatment, and to determine the effect of such changes on initial attachment of osteoblast-like cells. Roughened surfaces were produced by alumina-blasting and acid-etching. Hydrophilic treatment comprised application of immediately after blasting and acid-etching (Blast/Etch), oxygen plasma (O2-Plasma), ultraviolet light (UV). Specimens stored in air were used as a control. The water contact angle was determined and surface analysis was performed using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Blast/Etch, O2-Plasma and UV specimens showed superhydrophilicity, and these hydrophilic treatments to TZP elicited a marked decrease in carbon content and an increase in hydroxyl groups. Hydrophilic treatments enhanced initial attachment of osteoblast-like cells and a change in cell morphologies. These results indicate that Blast/Etch, O2-Plasma, or UV treatment has potential in the creation and maintenance of superhydrophilic surfaces and enhancing initial attachment of osteoblast-like cells.

  19. Novel Cranial Implants of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia as Acoustic Windows for Ultrasonic Brain Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Mario I; Penilla, Elias H; Leija, Lorenzo; Vera, Arturo; Garay, Javier E; Aguilar, Guillermo

    2017-11-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound can induce changes in tissues by means of thermal and nonthermal effects. It is proposed for treatment of some brain pathologies such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's diseases, and cancer. However, cranium highly absorbs ultrasound reducing transmission efficiency. There are clinical applications of transcranial focused ultrasound and implantable ultrasound transducers proposed to address this problem. In this paper, biocompatible materials are proposed for replacing part of the cranium (cranial implants) based on low porosity polycrystalline 8 mol% yttria-stabilized-zirconia (8YSZ) ceramics as acoustic windows for brain therapy. In order to assess the viability of 8YSZ implants to effectively transmit ultrasound, various 8YSZ ceramics with different porosity are tested; their acoustic properties are measured; and the results are validated using finite element models simulating wave propagation to brain tissue through 8YSZ windows. The ultrasound attenuation is found to be linearly dependent on ceramics' porosity. Results for the nearly pore-free case indicate that 8YSZ is highly effective in transmitting ultrasound, with overall maximum transmission efficiency of ≈81%, compared to near total absorption of cranial bone. These results suggest that 8YSZ polycrystals could be suitable acoustic windows for ultrasound brain therapy at 1 MHz. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Osteoblastic cell response to spark plasma-sintered zirconia/titanium cermets.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Garcia, Elisa; Guillem-Marti, Jordi; Gutierrez-Gonzalez, Carlos F; Fernandez, Adolfo; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Lopez-Esteban, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic/metal composites, cermets, arise from the idea to combine the dissimilar properties in the pure materials. This work aims to study the biocompatibility of new micro-nanostructured 3 Y-TZP/Ti materials with 25, 50 and 75 vol.% Ti, which have been successfully obtained by spark slasma sintering technology, as well as to correlate their surface properties (roughness, wettability and chemical composition) with the osteoblastic cell response. All samples had isotropic and slightly waved microstructure, with sub-micrometric average roughness. Composites with 75 vol.% Ti had the highest surface hydrophilicity. Surface chemical composition of the cermets correlated well with the relative amounts used for their fabrication. A cell viability rate over 80% dismissed any cytotoxicity risk due to manufacturing. Cell adhesion and early differentiation were significantly enhanced on materials containing the nanostructured 3 Y-TZP phase. Proliferation and differentiation of SaOS-2 were significantly improved in their late-stage on the composite with 75 vol.% Ti that, from the osseointegration standpoint, is presented as an excellent biomaterial for bone replacement. Thus, spark plasma sintering is consolidated as a suitable technology for manufacturing nanostructured biomaterials with enhanced bioactivity. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Molybdenum disilicide composites reinforced with zirconia and silicon carbide

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1995-01-17

    Compositions are disclosed consisting essentially of molybdenum disilicide, silicon carbide, and a zirconium oxide component. The silicon carbide used in the compositions is in whisker or powder form. The zirconium oxide component is pure zirconia or partially stabilized zirconia or fully stabilized zirconia.

  2. Oxygen separation from air using zirconia solid electrolyte membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suitor, J. W.; Marner, W. J.; Schroeder, J. E.; Losey, R. W.; Ferrall, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    Air separation using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane is a possible alternative source of oxygen. The process of zirconia oxygen separation is reviewed, and an oxygen plant concept using such separation is described. Potential cell designs, stack designs, and testing procedures are examined. Fabrication of the materials used in a zirconia module as well as distribution plate design and fabrication are examined.

  3. Molybdenum disilicide composites reinforced with zirconia and silicon carbide

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.

    1995-01-01

    Compositions consisting essentially of molybdenum disilicide, silicon carbide, and a zirconium oxide component. The silicon carbide used in the compositions is in whisker or powder form. The zirconium oxide component is pure zirconia or partially stabilized zirconia or fully stabilized zirconia.

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of Dense Zirconia and Zirconia-Silica Ceramic Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Guangqing; Fan, Yuwei

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare dense zirconia-yttria (ZY), zirconia-silica (ZS) and zirconia-yttria-silica (ZYS) nanofibers as reinforcing elements for dental composites. Zirconium (IV) propoxide, yttrium nitrate hexahydrate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) were used as precursors for the preparation of zirconia, yttria, and silica sols. A small amount (1–1.5 wt%) of polyethylene oxide (PEO) was used as a carry polymer. The sols were preheated at 70 °C before electrospinning and their viscosity was measured with a viscometer at different heating time. The gel point was determined by viscosity–time (η–t) curve. The ZY, ZS and ZYS gel nanofibers were prepared using a special reactive electrospinning device under the conditions near the gel point. The as-prepared gel nanofibers had diameters between 200 and 400 nm. Dense (nonporous) ceramic nanofibers of zirconia-yttria (96/4), zirconia-silica (80/20) and zirconia-yttria-silica (76.8/3.2/20) with diameter of 100–300 nm were obtained by subsequent calcinations at different temperatures. The gel and ceramic nanofibers obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM micrograph revealed that ceramic ZY nanofibers had grained structure, while ceramic ZS and ZYS nanofibers had smooth surfaces, both showing no visible porosity under FE-SEM. Complete removal of the polymer PEO was confirmed by TGA/DSC and FT-IR. The formation of tetragonal phase of zirconia and amorphous silica was proved by XRD. In conclusion, dense zirconia-based ceramic nanofibers can be fabricated using the new reactive sol–gel electrospinning technology with minimum organic polymer additives. PMID:21133090

  5. Creep of plasma sprayed zirconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, R. F.; Logan, W. R.; Adams, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings with three different porosities and different initial particle sizes were deformed in compression at initial loads of 1000, 2000, and 3500 psi and temperatures of 1100 C, 1250 C, and 1400 C. The coatings were stabilized with lime, magnesia, and two different concentrations of yttria. Creep began as soon as the load was applied and continued at a constantly decreasing rate until the load was removed. Temperature and stabilization had a pronounced effect on creep rate. The creep rate for 20% Y2O3-80% ZrO2 was 1/3 to 1/2 that of 8% Y2O3-92% ZrO2. Both magnesia and calcia stabilized ZrO2 crept at a rate 5 to 10 times that of the 20% Y2O3 material. A near proportionality between creep rate and applied stress was observed. The rate controlling process appeared to be thermally activated, with an activation energy of approximately 100 cal/gm mole K. Creep deformation was due to cracking and particle sliding.

  6. Clinical prospective evaluation of zirconia-based three-unit posterior fixed dental prostheses: Up-to ten-year results.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Alexis; Bindl, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Only a few studies exist, which assess the clinical long-term behavior of all-ceramic FDPs in the posterior region. The aim of the present prospective clinical study was to evaluate the clinical performance of posterior three-unit FDPs manufactured from Y-TZP after a service period up to 10 years. 55 patients received 59 three-unit FDPs in the posterior region of the maxilla or mandible. Abutment teeth were prepared and full-arch impressions were taken. Definitive casts were fabricated and optically scanned. Frameworks were fabricated with computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) technology. Y-TZP frameworks were veneered and adhesively luted to the abutment teeth. Baseline and follow-up examinations (service time: ≥ 48 months) were recorded by applying modified United States Public Health Services (USPHS) rating criteria. Cumulative survival rate was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier. Percentage of biological and technical complication was calculated. Fifty-three patients with 57 FDPs attended the last follow-up visit and a mean observation period of the remaining was 6.3 ± 1.9 years was calculated. Biological complications occurred in 17.5%, technical complications in 28% of the FDPs. The 10-year cumulative survival rate amounted 85.0%. Three FDPs failed to survive, two due to a root fracture of the abutment tooth and one due to secondary caries. Three-unit FDPs made from Y-TZP, veneered with ceramic offer a treatment option with a high rate of chipping. However, the manufacturing processes nowadays are modified in order to avoid this complication. The results of the present investigation suggest that three-unit Y-TZP posterior FDPs may are a possible treatment option. However, a high rate of chipping can be expected. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Processing of Alumina-Toughened Zirconia Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2003-01-01

    Dense and crack-free 10-mol%-yttria-stabilized zirconia (10YSZ)-alumina composites, containing 0 to 30 mol% of alumina, have been fabricated by hot pressing. Release of pressure before onset of cooling was crucial in obtaining crack-free material. Hot pressing at 1600 C resulted in the formation of ZrC by reaction of zirconia with grafoil. However, no such reaction was observed at 1500 C. Cubic zirconia and -alumina were the only phases detected from x-ray diffraction indicating no chemical reaction between the composite constituents during hot pressing. Microstructure of the composites was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Density and elastic modulus of the composites followed the rule-of-mixtures. Addition of alumina to 10YSZ resulted in lighter, stronger, and stiffer composites by decreasing density and increasing strength and elastic modulus.

  8. Innovations in bonding to zirconia-based materials: Part I.

    PubMed

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Matinlinna, Jukka P; Salameh, Ziad; Ounsi, Hani

    2008-09-01

    Establishing a reliable bond to zirconia-based materials has proven to be difficult which is the major limitation against fabricating adhesive zirconia restorations. This bond could be improved using novel selective infiltration etching conditioning in combination with engineered zirconia primers. Aim of the work was to evaluate resin-to-zirconia bond strength using selective infiltration etching and novel silane-based zirconia primers. Zirconia discs (Procera Zirconia) received selective infiltration etching surface treatment followed by coating with either of five especially engineered experimental zirconia primers. Pre-aged resin-composite discs (Tetric Ivo Ceram) were bonded to the treated surface using an MDP-containing resin-composite (Panavia F 2.0). The bilayered specimens were cut into microbars and the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) was evaluated. 'As-sintered' zirconia discs served as a control (alpha=0.05). The broken microbars were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The combination of selective infiltration etching with experimental zirconia primers significantly improved (F=3805, P<0.0001) the MTBS values (41+/-5.8 MPa) compared to the 'as-sintered' surface using the same primers which demonstrated spontaneous failure and very low bond strength values (2.6+/-3.1 MPa). SEM analysis revealed that selective infiltration etching surface treatment resulted in a nano-retentive surface where the zirconia primers were able to penetrate and interlock which explained the higher MTBS values observed for the treated specimens.

  9. Zirconia-Polyurethane Aneurysm Clip.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Sang; Cho, Kyung-Il; Kim, Jeong Eun; Jang, Tae-Sik; Ha, Eun Jin; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Son, Young-Je; Choi, Seung Hong; Lee, Seunghyun; Kim, Chong-Chan; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2018-03-27

    Susceptibility artifacts from metal clips in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging present an obstacle to evaluating the status of clipped aneurysms, parent arteries and adjacent brain parenchyma. We aimed to develop MR-compatible aneurysm clips. Considering the mechanical and biological properties, and MR compatibility of candidate materials, a prototype clip with a zirconia body and a polyurethane head spring (ZC, straight, 9-mm long) was developed. The closing forces, opening width of blades, and in vitro and in vivo artifact volumes in 3 tesla MR imaging were compared among the prototype and commercial metal clips such as a Yasargil ® clip (YC, curved type, 8.3-mm long) and a Sugita ® clip (SC, straight type, 10-mm long). An in vivo animal study was performed with a canine venous pouch aneurysm model. The closing forces (N) at 1 and 8 mm from the blade tip were 2.09 and 3.77 in YC, 1.85 and 3.04 in SC, and 2.05 and 4.60 in ZC. The maximum opening widths (mm) was 6.8, 9.0, and 3.0 in YC, SC, and ZC, respectively. The in vitro artifact volumes of YC, SC and ZC in time-of-flight MR imaging were 26.9, 29.7 and 1.9 times larger than the respective real volumes. The in vivo artifact volumes of YC, SC, and ZC were respectively 21.4, 29.4, and 2.6 times larger than real ones. ZC showed the smallest susceptibility artifacts and satisfactory closing forces. However, the narrow opening width of the blades was a weak point. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Variational method of determining effective moduli of polycrystals with tetragonal symmetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meister, R.; Peselnick, L.

    1966-01-01

    Variational principles have been applied to aggregates of randomly oriented pure-phase polycrystals having tetragonal symmetry. The bounds of the effective elastic moduli obtained in this way show a substantial improvement over the bounds obtained by means of the Voigt and Reuss assumptions. The Hill average is found to be a good approximation in most cases when compared to the bounds found from the variational method. The new bounds reduce in their limits to the Voigt and Reuss values. ?? 1966 The American Institute of Physics.

  11. Variational method of determining effective moduli of polycrystals: (A) hexagonal symmetry, (B) trigonal symmetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peselnick, L.; Meister, R.

    1965-01-01

    Variational principles of anisotropic elasticity have been applied to aggregates of randomly oriented pure-phase polycrystals having hexagonal symmetry and trigonal symmetry. The bounds of the effective elastic moduli obtained in this way show a considerable improvement over the bounds obtained by means of the Voigt and Reuss assumptions. The Hill average is found to be in most cases a good approximation when compared to the bounds found from the variational method. The new bounds reduce in their limits to the Voigt and Reuss values. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  12. A numerical investigation of the crystallographic texture effect on the surface roughening in aluminum polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanova, V.; Balokhonov, R.; Batukhtina, E.; Zinovieva, O.; Bezmozgiy, I.

    2015-10-01

    The results of a numerical analysis of the mesoscale surface roughening in a polycrystalline aluminum alloy exposed to uniaxial tension are presented. A 3D finite-element model taking an explicit account of grain structure is developed. The model describes a constitutive behavior of the material on the grain scale, using anisotropic elasticity and crystal plasticity theory. The effects of the grain shape and texture on the deformation-induced roughening are investigated. Calculation results have shown that surface roughness is much higher and develops at the highest rate in a polycrystal with equiaxed grains where both the micro- and mesoscale surface displacements are observed.

  13. Using glass-graded zirconia to increase delamination growth resistance in porcelain/zirconia dental structures.

    PubMed

    Chai, Herzl; Mieleszko, Adam J; Chu, Stephen J; Zhang, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Porcelain fused to zirconia (PFZ) restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry. However, their tendency to delaminate along the P/Z interface remains a practical problem so that assessing and improving the interfacial strength are important design aspects. This work examines the effect of modifying the zirconia veneering surface with an in-house felspathic glass on the interfacial fracture resistance of fused P/Z. Three material systems are studied: porcelain fused to zirconia (control) and porcelain fused to glass-graded zirconia with and without the presence of a glass interlayer. The specimens were loaded in a four-point-bend fixture with the porcelain veneer in tension. The evolution of damage is followed with the aid of a video camera. The interfacial fracture energy G C was determined with the aid of a FEA, taking into account the stress shielding effects due to the presence of adjacent channel cracks. Similarly to a previous study on PFZ specimens, the fracture sequence consisted of unstable growth of channel cracks in the veneer followed by stable cracking along the P/Z interface. However, the value of GC for the graded zirconia was approximately 3 times that of the control zirconia, which is due to the good adhesion between porcelain and the glass network structure on the zirconia surface. Combined with its improved bonding to resin-based cements, increased resistance to surface damage and good esthetic quality, graded zirconia emerges as a viable material concept for dental restorations. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved Zirconia Oxygen-Separation Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, John V.; Zwissler, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Cell structure distributes feed gas more evenly for more efficent oxygen production. Multilayer cell structure containing passages, channels, tubes, and pores help distribute pressure evenly over zirconia electrolytic membrane. Resulting more uniform pressure distribution expected to improve efficiency of oxygen production.

  15. [Measurement of chromaticity of five hued zirconia].

    PubMed

    Wen, Ning; Shao, Long-quan; Yi, Yuan-fu; Deng, Bin; Liu, Hong-chen

    2009-05-01

    To determine the chroma value of sintered IL1-IL5 zirconia materials in comparison with the Vita In-Ceram YZ color shade. Five types of shading dental zirconia ceramics with color gradient were prepared by adding Fe2O3, CeO2, and Bi2O3 to the zirconia powder, and their chroma values were determined using a spectrophotometer and the color difference was calculated. The chroma value ranges were L: 67.76-77.78, a: -2.19-3.80, and b: 12.13-25.01. Slight deltaE was found between IL1 and LL1, IL2 and LL2, and IL3 and LL3. The deltaE between IL4 and LL4 could be compensated by veneering porcelain, whereas deltaL between IL5 and LL5 could not be compensated in this manner. Shading dental zirconia ceramics can be prepared by addition of metal oxides with color similar to the Vita In-Ceram YZ color shades to match that of the veneering porcelain in clinical practice.

  16. Impedance spectroscopy of reduced monoclinic zirconia.

    PubMed

    Eder, Dominik; Kramer, Reinhard

    2006-10-14

    Zirconia doped with low-valent cations (e.g. Y3+ or Ca2+) exhibits an exceptionally high ionic conductivity, making them ideal candidates for various electrochemical applications including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and oxygen sensors. It is nevertheless important to study the undoped, monoclinic ZrO2 as a model system to construct a comprehensive picture of the electrical behaviour. In pure zirconia a residual number of anion vacancies remains because of contaminants in the material as well as the thermodynamic disorder equilibrium, but electronic conduction may also contribute to the observed conductivity. Reduction of zirconia in hydrogen leads to the adsorption of hydrogen and to the formation of oxygen vacancies, with their concentration affected by various parameters (e.g. reduction temperature and time, surface area, and water vapour pressure). However, there is still little known about the reactivities of defect species and their effect on the ionic and electronic conduction. Thus, we applied electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to investigate the electric performance of pure monoclinic zirconia with different surface areas in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. A novel equivalent circuit model including parallel ionic and electronic conduction has previously been developed for titania and is used herein to decouple the conduction processes. The concentration of defects and their formation energies were measured using volumetric oxygen titration and temperature programmed oxidation/desorption.

  17. Zirconia ceramics for excess weapons plutonium waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W. L.; Lutze, W.; Ewing, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    We synthesized a zirconia (ZrO 2)-based single-phase ceramic containing simulated excess weapons plutonium waste. ZrO 2 has large solubility for other metallic oxides. More than 20 binary systems A xO y-ZrO 2 have been reported in the literature, including PuO 2, rare-earth oxides, and oxides of metals contained in weapons plutonium wastes. We show that significant amounts of gadolinium (neutron absorber) and yttrium (additional stabilizer of the cubic modification) can be dissolved in ZrO 2, together with plutonium (simulated by Ce 4+, U 4+ or Th 4+) and impurities (e.g., Ca, Mg, Fe, Si). Sol-gel and powder methods were applied to make homogeneous, single-phase zirconia solid solutions. Pu waste impurities were completely dissolved in the solid solutions. In contrast to other phases, e.g., zirconolite and pyrochlore, zirconia is extremely radiation resistant and does not undergo amorphization. Baddeleyite (ZrO 2) is suggested as the natural analogue to study long-term radiation resistance and chemical durability of zirconia-based waste forms.

  18. Random polycrystals of grains containing cracks: Model ofquasistatic elastic behavior for fractured systems

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, James G.; Grechka, Vladimir

    2006-07-08

    A model study on fractured systems was performed using aconcept that treats isotropic cracked systems as ensembles of crackedgrains by analogy to isotropic polycrystalline elastic media. Theapproach has two advantages: (a) Averaging performed is ensembleaveraging, thus avoiding the criticism legitimately leveled at mosteffective medium theories of quasistatic elastic behavior for crackedmedia based on volume concentrations of inclusions. Since crack effectsare largely independent of the volume they occupy in the composite, sucha non-volume-based method offers an appealingly simple modelingalternative. (b) The second advantage is that both polycrystals andfractured media are stiffer than might otherwise be expected, due tonatural bridging effects ofmore » the strong components. These same effectshave also often been interpreted as crack-crack screening inhigh-crack-density fractured media, but there is no inherent conflictbetween these two interpretations of this phenomenon. Results of thestudy are somewhat mixed. The spread in elastic constants observed in aset of numerical experiments is found to be very comparable to the spreadin values contained between the Reuss and Voigt bounds for thepolycrystal model. However, computed Hashin-Shtrikman bounds are much tootight to be in agreement with the numerical data, showing thatpolycrystals of cracked grains tend to violate some implicit assumptionsof the Hashin-Shtrikman bounding approach. However, the self-consistentestimates obtained for the random polycrystal model are nevertheless verygood estimators of the observed average behavior.« less

  19. Diffuse-interface polycrystal plasticity: expressing grain boundaries as geometrically necessary dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Admal, Nikhil Chandra; Po, Giacomo; Marian, Jaime

    2017-12-01

    The standard way of modeling plasticity in polycrystals is by using the crystal plasticity model for single crystals in each grain, and imposing suitable traction and slip boundary conditions across grain boundaries. In this fashion, the system is modeled as a collection of boundary-value problems with matching boundary conditions. In this paper, we develop a diffuse-interface crystal plasticity model for polycrystalline materials that results in a single boundary-value problem with a single crystal as the reference configuration. Using a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into lattice and plastic parts, i.e. F( X,t)= F L( X,t) F P( X,t), an initial stress-free polycrystal is constructed by imposing F L to be a piecewise constant rotation field R 0( X), and F P= R 0( X)T, thereby having F( X,0)= I, and zero elastic strain. This model serves as a precursor to higher order crystal plasticity models with grain boundary energy and evolution.

  20. Numerical implementation of non-local polycrystal plasticity using fast Fourier transforms

    DOE PAGES

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Needleman, Alan

    2016-03-28

    Here, we present the numerical implementation of a non-local polycrystal plasticity theory using the FFT-based formulation of Suquet and co-workers. Gurtin (2002) non-local formulation, with geometry changes neglected, has been incorporated in the EVP-FFT algorithm of Lebensohn et al. (2012). Numerical procedures for the accurate estimation of higher order derivatives of micromechanical fields, required for feedback into single crystal constitutive relations, are identified and applied. A simple case of a periodic laminate made of two fcc crystals with different plastic properties is first used to assess the soundness and numerical stability of the proposed algorithm and to study the influencemore » of different model parameters on the predictions of the non-local model. Different behaviors at grain boundaries are explored, and the one consistent with the micro-clamped condition gives the most pronounced size effect. The formulation is applied next to 3-D fcc polycrystals, illustrating the possibilities offered by the proposed numerical scheme to analyze the mechanical response of polycrystalline aggregates in three dimensions accounting for size dependence arising from plastic strain gradients with reasonable computing times.« less

  1. Numerical implementation of non-local polycrystal plasticity using fast Fourier transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Needleman, Alan

    Here, we present the numerical implementation of a non-local polycrystal plasticity theory using the FFT-based formulation of Suquet and co-workers. Gurtin (2002) non-local formulation, with geometry changes neglected, has been incorporated in the EVP-FFT algorithm of Lebensohn et al. (2012). Numerical procedures for the accurate estimation of higher order derivatives of micromechanical fields, required for feedback into single crystal constitutive relations, are identified and applied. A simple case of a periodic laminate made of two fcc crystals with different plastic properties is first used to assess the soundness and numerical stability of the proposed algorithm and to study the influencemore » of different model parameters on the predictions of the non-local model. Different behaviors at grain boundaries are explored, and the one consistent with the micro-clamped condition gives the most pronounced size effect. The formulation is applied next to 3-D fcc polycrystals, illustrating the possibilities offered by the proposed numerical scheme to analyze the mechanical response of polycrystalline aggregates in three dimensions accounting for size dependence arising from plastic strain gradients with reasonable computing times.« less

  2. A multi-scale homogenization model for fine-grained porous viscoplastic polycrystals: II - Applications to FCC and HCP materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dawei; Ponte Castañeda, P.

    2018-06-01

    In Part I of this work (Song and Ponte Castañeda, 2018a), a new homogenization model was developed for the macroscopic behavior of three-scale porous polycrystals consisting of random distributions of large pores in a fine-grained polycrystalline matrix. In this second part, the model is used to investigate both the instantaneous effective behavior and the finite-strain macroscopic response of porous FCC and HCP polycrystals for axisymmetric loading conditions. The stress triaxiality and Lode parameter are found to have significant effects on the evolution of the substructure, which in turn have important implications for the overall hardening/softening behavior of the porous polycrystal. The intrinsic effect of the texture evolution of the polycrystalline matrix is inferred by appropriate comparisons with corresponding results for porous isotropic materials, and found to be significant, especially at low triaxialities. In particular, the predictions of the model identify, for the first time, two disparate regimes for the macroscopic response of porous polycrystals: a porosity-controlled regime at high triaxialities, and a texture-controlled regime at low triaxialities. The transition between these two regimes is found to be quite sharp, taking place between triaxialities of 1 and 2.

  3. Single Crystal Growth of Zirconia Utilizing a Skull Melting Technique,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    23 REFERENCES 24 Illustrations 1. Cutaway View of Skull Crucible 11 2. Section View of Skull Crucible 11 3. Stabilized Zirconia Powder Being Added to...E. R., (1968) J. Cryst. Growth, 2:243. 11 ... . . l l&I. .. . .:. . . N ’ - . . . . . . i . . . . . . . . .: P Figure 3. Stabilized Zirconia Powder Figure...colorless. The zirconia powder used in these experiments was obtained from N. L. Industries, Inc. Samples of the powder with 25 weight percent Y 2 0 3

  4. Effects of cementation surface modifications on fracture resistance of zirconia.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Ramanathan; Kosmac, Tomaz; Della Bona, Alvaro; Yin, Ling; Zhang, Yu

    2015-04-01

    To examine the effects of glass infiltration (GI) and alumina coating (AC) on the indentation flexural load and four-point bending strength of monolithic zirconia. Plate-shaped (12 mm × 12 mm × 1.0 mm or 1.5 or 2.0 mm) and bar-shaped (4 mm × 3 mm × 25 mm) monolithic zirconia specimens were fabricated. In addition to monolithic zirconia (group Z), zirconia monoliths were glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their tensile surfaces to form groups ZGI and ZAC, respectively. They were also glass-infiltrated on their upper surfaces, and glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their lower (tensile) surfaces to make groups ZGI2 and ZAC2, respectively. For comparison, porcelain-veneered zirconia (group PVZ) and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (group LiDi) specimens were also fabricated. The plate-shaped specimens were cemented onto a restorative composite base for Hertzian indentation using a tungsten carbide spherical indenter with a radius of 3.2mm. Critical loads for indentation flexural fracture at the zirconia cementation surface were measured. Strengths of bar-shaped specimens were evaluated in four-point bending. Glass infiltration on zirconia tensile surfaces increased indentation flexural loads by 32% in Hertzian contact and flexural strength by 24% in four-point bending. Alumina coating showed no significant effect on resistance to flexural damage of zirconia. Monolithic zirconia outperformed porcelain-veneered zirconia and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramics in terms of both indentation flexural load and flexural strength. While both alumina coating and glass infiltration can be used to effectively modify the cementation surface of zirconia, glass infiltration can further increase the flexural fracture resistance of zirconia. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of cementation surface modifications on fracture resistance of zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, Ramanathan; Kosmac, Tomaz; Bona, Alvaro Della; Yin, Ling; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effects of glass infiltration (GI) and alumina coating (AC) on the indentation flexural load and four-point bending strength of monolithic zirconia. Methods Plate-shaped (12 mm × 12 mm × 1.0 mm or 1.5 mm or 2.0 mm) and bar-shaped (4 mm × 3 mm × 25 mm) monolithic zirconia specimens were fabricated. In addition to monolithic zirconia (group Z), zirconia monoliths were glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their tensile surfaces to form groups ZGI and ZAC, respectively. They were also glass-infiltrated on their upper surfaces, and glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their lower (tensile) surfaces to make groups ZGI2 and ZAC2, respectively. For comparison, porcelain-veneered zirconia (group PVZ) and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (group LiDi) specimens were also fabricated. The plate-shaped specimens were cemented onto a restorative composite base for Hertzian indentation using a tungsten carbide spherical indenter with a radius of 3.2 mm. Critical loads for indentation flexural fracture at the zirconia cementation surface were measured. Strengths of bar-shaped specimens were evaluated in four-point bending. Results Glass infiltration on zirconia tensile surfaces increased indentation flexural loads by 32% in Hertzian contact and flexural strength by 24% in four-point bending. Alumina coating showed no significant effect on resistance to flexural damage of zirconia. Monolithic zirconia outperformed porcelain-veneered zirconia and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramics in terms of both indentation flexural load and flexural strength. Significance While both alumina coating and glass infiltration can be used to effectively modify the cementation surface of zirconia, glass infiltration can further increase the flexural fracture resistance of zirconia. PMID:25687628

  6. Novel fabrication method for zirconia restorations: bonding strength of machinable ceramic to zirconia with resin cements.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Soichi; Terui, Yuichi; Higuchi, Daisuke; Goto, Daisuke; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A novel method was developed to fabricate all-ceramic restorations which comprised CAD/CAM-fabricated machinable ceramic bonded to CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia framework using resin cement. The feasibility of this fabrication method was assessed in this study by investigating the bonding strength of a machinable ceramic to zirconia. A machinable ceramic was bonded to a zirconia plate using three kinds of resin cements: ResiCem (RE), Panavia (PA), and Multilink (ML). Conventional porcelain-fused-to-zirconia specimens were also prepared to serve as control. Shear bond strength test (SBT) and Schwickerath crack initiation test (SCT) were carried out. SBT revealed that PA (40.42 MPa) yielded a significantly higher bonding strength than RE (28.01 MPa) and ML (18.89 MPa). SCT revealed that the bonding strengths of test groups using resin cement were significantly higher than those of Control. Notably, the bonding strengths of RE and ML were above 25 MPa even after 10,000 times of thermal cycling -adequately meeting the ISO 9693 standard for metal-ceramic restorations. These results affirmed the feasibility of the novel fabrication method, in that a CAD/CAM-fabricated machinable ceramic is bonded to a CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia framework using a resin cement.

  7. Multilayered thermal insulation formed of zirconia bonded layers of zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, Jr., George E.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.

    1988-01-01

    A multilayered thermal insulating composite is formed of a first layer of zirconia-bonded zirconia fibers for utilization near the hot phase or surface of a furnace or the like. A second layer of zirconia-bonded metal oxide fibers is attached to the zirconia fiber layer by a transition layer formed of intermingled zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers. The thermal insulation is fabricated by vacuum molding with the layers being sequentially applied from aqueous solutions containing the fibers to a configured mandrel. A portion of the solution containing the fibers forming the first layer is intermixed with the solution containing the fibers of the second layer for forming the layer of mixed fibers. The two layers of fibers joined together by the transition layer are saturated with a solution of zirconium oxynitrate which provides a zirconia matrix for the composite when the fibers are sintered together at their nexi.

  8. Multilayered thermal insulation formed of zirconia bonded layers of zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1988-09-13

    A multilayered thermal insulating composite is formed of a first layer of zirconia-bonded zirconia fibers for utilization near the hot phase or surface of a furnace or the like. A second layer of zirconia-bonded metal oxide fibers is attached to the zirconia fiber layer by a transition layer formed of intermingled zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers. The thermal insulation is fabricated by vacuum molding with the layers being sequentially applied from aqueous solutions containing the fibers to a configured mandrel. A portion of the solution containing the fibers forming the first layer is intermixed with the solution containing the fibers of the second layer for forming the layer of mixed fibers. The two layers of fibers joined together by the transition layer are saturated with a solution of zirconium oxynitrate which provides a zirconia matrix for the composite when the fibers are sintered together at their nexi.

  9. Overview of zirconia with respect to gas turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Phase relationships and the mechanical properties of zirconia are examined as well as the thermal conductivity, deformation, diffusion, and chemical reactivity of this refractory material. Observations from the literature particular to plasma-sprayed material and implications for gas turbine engine applications are discussed. The literature review indicates that Mg-PSZ (partially stabilized zirconia) and Ca-PSZ are unsuitable for advanced gas turbine applications; a thorough characterization of the microstructure of plasma-sprayed zirconia is needed. Transformation-toughened zirconia may be suitable for use in monolithic components.

  10. Research on surface modification of nano-zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Zhang, Cun-Lin; Yang, Xiao-Yi

    2005-02-01

    The mechanisms about the aggregation and dispersibility of nano-zirconia were analyzed in detail. And nano-zirconia powders which were surface-modified with silane coupling reagent WD70 were prepared in order to disperse homogeneously in ethanol in this investigation. The grain size and grain phase of nano-zirconia were obtained by XRD. Research and characterization on the structure and surface characteristic of surface-modified nano-zirconia were achieved by XPS, TG-DSC, TEM and FT-IR. The results given by FT-IR and XPS showed WD70 was jointed on the surface of nano-zirconia through both physical adsorption and chemical binding after the de-methanol reaction between the methoxyl groups of WD70 and the hydroxy groups on the surface of nano-zirconia. And the corresponding model of surface-modified nano-zirconia was given. The images provided by TEM presented intuitionistic effect of surface modification on the dispersibility of nano-zirconia in ethanol. And TG-DSC analysis ascertained the amount of WD70 that was jointed on the surface of nano-zirconia and the amount was about 6.21 percent.

  11. Calculations of single crystal elastic constants for yttria partially stabilised zirconia from powder diffraction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunt, A. J. G.; Xie, M. Y.; Baimpas, N.; Zhang, S. Y.; Kabra, S.; Kelleher, J.; Neo, T. K.; Korsunsky, A. M.

    2014-08-01

    Yttria Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) is a tough, phase-transforming ceramic that finds use in a wide range of commercial applications from dental prostheses to thermal barrier coatings. Micromechanical modelling of phase transformation can deliver reliable predictions in terms of the influence of temperature and stress. However, models must rely on the accurate knowledge of single crystal elastic stiffness constants. Some techniques for elastic stiffness determination are well-established. The most popular of these involve exploiting frequency shifts and phase velocities of acoustic waves. However, the application of these techniques to YSZ can be problematic due to the micro-twinning observed in larger crystals. Here, we propose an alternative approach based on selective elastic strain sampling (e.g., by diffraction) of grain ensembles sharing certain orientation, and the prediction of the same quantities by polycrystalline modelling, for example, the Reuss or Voigt average. The inverse problem arises consisting of adjusting the single crystal stiffness matrix to match the polycrystal predictions to observations. In the present model-matching study, we sought to determine the single crystal stiffness matrix of tetragonal YSZ using the results of time-of-flight neutron diffraction obtained from an in situ compression experiment and Finite Element modelling of the deformation of polycrystalline tetragonal YSZ. The best match between the model predictions and observations was obtained for the optimized stiffness values of C11 = 451, C33 = 302, C44 = 39, C66 = 82, C12 = 240, and C13 = 50 (units: GPa). Considering the significant amount of scatter in the published literature data, our result appears reasonably consistent.

  12. Calculations of single crystal elastic constants for yttria partially stabilised zirconia from powder diffraction data

    SciTech Connect

    Lunt, A. J. G., E-mail: alexander.lunt@eng.ox.ac.uk; Xie, M. Y.; Baimpas, N.

    2014-08-07

    Yttria Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) is a tough, phase-transforming ceramic that finds use in a wide range of commercial applications from dental prostheses to thermal barrier coatings. Micromechanical modelling of phase transformation can deliver reliable predictions in terms of the influence of temperature and stress. However, models must rely on the accurate knowledge of single crystal elastic stiffness constants. Some techniques for elastic stiffness determination are well-established. The most popular of these involve exploiting frequency shifts and phase velocities of acoustic waves. However, the application of these techniques to YSZ can be problematic due to the micro-twinning observed in larger crystals.more » Here, we propose an alternative approach based on selective elastic strain sampling (e.g., by diffraction) of grain ensembles sharing certain orientation, and the prediction of the same quantities by polycrystalline modelling, for example, the Reuss or Voigt average. The inverse problem arises consisting of adjusting the single crystal stiffness matrix to match the polycrystal predictions to observations. In the present model-matching study, we sought to determine the single crystal stiffness matrix of tetragonal YSZ using the results of time-of-flight neutron diffraction obtained from an in situ compression experiment and Finite Element modelling of the deformation of polycrystalline tetragonal YSZ. The best match between the model predictions and observations was obtained for the optimized stiffness values of C11 = 451, C33 = 302, C44 = 39, C66 = 82, C12 = 240, and C13 = 50 (units: GPa). Considering the significant amount of scatter in the published literature data, our result appears reasonably consistent.« less

  13. Glass ceramic toughened with tetragonal zirconia

    DOEpatents

    Keefer, K.D.

    1984-02-10

    A phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic and a process for making it are disclosed. A mixture of particulate network-forming oxide, network-modifying oxide, and zirconium oxide is heated to yield a homogeneous melt, and this melt is then heat treated to precipitate an appreciable quantity of tetragonal zirconia, which is retained at ambient temperature to form a phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic. Nuclearing agents and stabilizing agents may be added to the mixture to facilitate processing and improve the ceramic's properties. Preferably, the mixture is first melted at a temperature from 1200 to 1700/sup 0/C and is then heat-treated at a temperature within the range of 800 to 1200/sup 0/C in order to precipitate tetragonal ZrO/sub 2/. The composition, as well as the length and temperature of the heat treatment, must be carefully controlled to prevent solution of the precipitated tetragonal zirconia and subsequent conversion to the monoclinic phase.

  14. Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of Cu2ZnSnS4 bulk poly-crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levcenko, S.; Hajdeu-Chicarosh, E.; Garcia-Llamas, E.; Caballero, R.; Serna, R.; Bodnar, I. V.; Victorov, I. A.; Guc, M.; Merino, J. M.; Pérez-Rodriguez, A.; Arushanov, E.; León, M.

    2018-04-01

    The linear optical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 bulk poly-crystals have been investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the range of 1.2-4.6 eV at room temperature. The characteristic features identified in the optical spectra are explained by using the Adachi analytical model for the interband transitions at the corresponding critical points in the Brillouin zone. The experimental data have been modeled over the entire spectral range taking into account the lowest E0 transition near the fundamental absorption edge and E1A and E1B higher energy interband transitions. In addition, the spectral dependences of the refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient, and normal-incidence reflectivity values have been accurately determined and are provided since they are essential data for the design of Cu2ZnSnS4 based optoelectronic devices.

  15. Mechanical behaviour near grain boundaries of He-implanted UO2 ceramic polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, M.; Castelier, É.; Palancher, H.; Bornert, M.; Caré, S.; Micha, J.-S.

    2017-01-01

    For studying the micromechanical behaviour of UO2 and characterising the intergranular interaction, polycrystals are implanted with helium ions, inducing strains in a thin surface layer. Laue X-ray micro-diffraction is used to measure the strain field in this implanted layer with a spatial resolution of about 1 μm. It allows a 2D mapping of the strain field in a dozen of grains. These measurements show that the induced strain depends mainly on the crystal orientation, and can be evaluated by a semi-analytical mechanical model. A mechanical interaction of the neighbouring grains has also been evidenced near the grain boundaries, which has been well reproduced by a finite element model. This interaction is shown to increase with the implantation energy (i.e. the implantation depth): it can be neglected at low implantation energy (60 keV), but not at higher energy (500 keV).

  16. The Development of Directional Decohesion Finite Elements for Multiscale Failure Analysis of Metallic Polycrystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saether, Erik; Glaessgen, Edward H.

    2009-01-01

    Atomistic simulations of intergranular fracture have indicated that grain-scale crack growth in polycrystalline metals can be direction dependent. At these material length scales, the atomic environment greatly influences the nature of intergranular crack propagation, through either brittle or ductile mechanisms, that are a function of adjacent grain orientation and direction of crack propagation. Methods have been developed to obtain cohesive zone models (CZM) directly from molecular dynamics simulations. These CZMs may be incorporated into decohesion finite element formulations to simulate fracture at larger length scales. A new directional decohesion element is presented that calculates the direction of Mode I opening and incorporates a material criterion for dislocation emission based on the local crystallographic environment to automatically select the CZM that best represents crack growth. The simulation of fracture in 2-D and 3-D aluminum polycrystals is used to illustrate the effect of parameterized CZMs and the effectiveness of directional decohesion finite elements.

  17. Modelling the viscoplastic behavior and the heterogeneous intracrystalline deformation of columnar ice polycrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A; Montagnat, Maurine; Mansuy, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    A full-field formulation based on Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) has been adapted and used to predict the micromechanical fields that develop in columnar Ih ice polycrystals deforming in compression by dislocation creep. The predicted intragranular mechanical fields are in qualitative good agreement with experimental observations, in particular those involving the formation of shear and kink bands. These localization bands are associated with the large internal stresses that develop during creep in such anisotropic material, and their location, intensity, morphology and extension are found to depend strongly on the crystallographic orientation of the grains and on their interaction with neighbor crystals.more » The predictions of the model are also discussed in relation with the deformation of columnar sea and lake ice, and with the mechanical behavior of granular ice of glaciers and polar ice sheets, as well.« less

  18. Assessment and comparison of retention of zirconia copings luted with different cements onto zirconia and titanium abutments: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Neelima Sreekumar; Kumar, G. P. Surendra; Jnanadev, K. R.; Satish Babu, C. L.; Shetty, Shilpa

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess and compare the retention of zirconia copings luted with different luting agents onto zirconia and titanium abutments. Materials and Methods: Titanium and zirconia abutments were torqued at 35 N/cm onto implant analogs. The samples were divided into two groups: Group A consisted of four titanium abutments and 32 zirconia copings and Group B consisted of four zirconia abutments and 32 zirconia copings and four luting agents were used. The cemented copings were subjected to tensile dislodgement forces and subjected to ANOVA test. Results: Zirconia abutments recorded a higher mean force compared to titanium. Among the luting agents, resin cement recorded the highest mean force followed by zinc phosphate, glass ionomer, and noneugenol zinc oxide cement, respectively. Conclusion: Highest mean retention was recorded for zirconia implant abutments compared to titanium abutments when luted with zirconia copings. PMID:27141162

  19. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline mesoporous zirconia using supercritical drying.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Beena; Sidhpuria, Kalpesh; Shaik, Basha; Jasra, Raksh Vir

    2006-06-01

    Synthesis of nano-crystalline zirconia aerogel was done by sol-gel technique and supercritical drying using n-propanol solvent at and above supercritical temperature (235-280 degrees C) and pressure (48-52 bar) of n-propanol. Zirconia xerogel samples have also been prepared by conventional thermal drying method to compare with the super critically dried samples. Crystalline phase, crystallite size, surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution were determined for all the samples in detail to understand the effect of gel drying methods on these properties. Supercritical drying of zirconia gel was observed to give thermally stable, nano-crystalline, tetragonal zirconia aerogels having high specific surface area and porosity with narrow and uniform pore size distribution as compared to thermally dried zirconia. With supercritical drying, zirconia samples show the formation of only mesopores whereas in thermally dried samples, substantial amount of micropores are observed along with mesopores. The samples prepared using supercritical drying yield nano-crystalline zirconia with smaller crystallite size (4-6 nm) as compared to higher crystallite size (13-20 nm) observed with thermally dried zirconia.

  20. Internal Nano Voids in Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) Powder

    PubMed Central

    Barad, Chen; Shekel, Gal; Shandalov, Michael; Hayun, Hagay; Kimmel, Giora; Shamir, Dror; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2017-01-01

    Porous yttria-stabilised zirconia ceramics have been gaining popularity throughout the years in various fields, such as energy, environment, medicine, etc. Although yttria-stabilised zirconia is a well-studied material, voided yttria-stabilised zirconia powder particles have not been demonstrated yet, and might play an important role in future technology developments. A sol-gel synthesis accompanied by a freeze-drying process is currently being proposed as a method of obtaining sponge-like nano morphology of embedded faceted voids inside yttria-stabilised zirconia particles. The results rely on a freeze-drying stage as an effective and simple method for generating nano-voided yttria-stabilised zirconia particles without the use of template-assisted additives. PMID:29258227

  1. Internal Nano Voids in Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) Powder.

    PubMed

    Barad, Chen; Shekel, Gal; Shandalov, Michael; Hayun, Hagay; Kimmel, Giora; Shamir, Dror; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2017-12-18

    Porous yttria-stabilised zirconia ceramics have been gaining popularity throughout the years in various fields, such as energy, environment, medicine, etc. Although yttria-stabilised zirconia is a well-studied material, voided yttria-stabilised zirconia powder particles have not been demonstrated yet, and might play an important role in future technology developments. A sol-gel synthesis accompanied by a freeze-drying process is currently being proposed as a method of obtaining sponge-like nano morphology of embedded faceted voids inside yttria-stabilised zirconia particles. The results rely on a freeze-drying stage as an effective and simple method for generating nano-voided yttria-stabilised zirconia particles without the use of template-assisted additives.

  2. Thermal conductivity of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Beecher, S. C.; Nagaraj, B. A.; Moore, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBC's is of primary importance. Physical vapor description (PVD) and plasma spraying (PS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The PS coatings were applied with either standard power or hollow sphere particles. The hollow sphere particles yielded a lower density and lower thermal conductivity coating. The thermal conductivity of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia, before and after thermal aging, will be compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increase upon being exposed to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. Sintering of the as fabricated plasma sprayed lamellar structure is observed by scanning electron microscopy of coatings isothermally heat treated at temperatures greater than 1100 C. During this sintering process the planar porosity between lamella is converted to a series of small spherical pores. The change in pore morphology is the primary reason for the observed increase in thermal conductivity. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, preliminary results suggest that they have a higher thermal conductivity than PS coatings, both before and after thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for partially stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia have been found to be less than for fully stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia coatings. The high temperature thermal diffusivity data indicates that if these coatings reach a temperature above

  3. Thermal conductivity of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Beecher, S. C.; Nagaraj, B. A.; Moore, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBC's is of primary importance. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma spraying (PS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The PS coatings were applied with either standard powder or hollow sphere particles. The hollow sphere particles yielded a lower density and lower thermal conductivity coating. The thermal conductivity of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia, before and after thermal aging, will be compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposed to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. Sintering of the as-fabricated plasma sprayed lamellar structure is observed by scanning electron microscopy of coatings isothermally heat treated at temperatures greater than 1100 C. During this sintering process the planar porosity between lamella is converted to a series of small spherical pores. The change in pore morphology is the primary reason for the observed increase in thermal conductivity. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, preliminary results suggest that they have a higher thermal conductivity than PS coatings, both before and after thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for partially stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia have been found to be less than for fully stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia coatings. The high temperature thermal diffusivity data indicate that if these coatings reach a temperature above 1100 C

  4. Evolution of the characteristics of Parametric X-ray Radiation from textured polycrystals under different observation angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V. I.; Eliseyev, A. N.; Irribarra, E.; Kishin, I. A.; Klyuev, A. S.; Kubankin, A. S.; Nazhmudinov, R. M.; Zhukova, P. N.

    2018-02-01

    The Parametric X-Ray radiation (PXR) spectra and yield dependencies on the orientation angle are measured during the interaction of 7 MeV electrons with a tungsten textured polycrystalline foil for different observation angles. The effects of PXR spectral density increase and PXR yield orientation dependence broadening in the backward direction is shown experimentally for the first time. The experimental results are compared with PXR kinematical theories for both mosaic crystals and polycrystals.

  5. An Analytical Finite-Strain Parameterization for Texture Evolution in Deformed Olivine Polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribe, N. M.; Castelnau, O.

    2017-12-01

    Current methods for calculating the evolution of flow-induced seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle describe crystal preferred orientation (CPO) using ensembles of 103-104 individual grains, and are too computationally expensive to be used in three-dimensional time-dependent convection models. We propose a much faster method based on the hypothesis that CPO of olivine polycrystals is a unique function of the finite strain. Our goal is then to determine how the CPO depends on the ratios r12 and r23 of the axes of the finite strain ellipsoid and on the two independent ratios p12 and p23 of the strengths (critical resolved shear stresses) of the three independent slip systems of olivine. To do this, we introduce a new analytical representation of olivine CPO in terms of three `structured basis functions' (SBFs) Fs(g, r12, r23) (s = 1, 2, 3), where g is the set of three Eulerian angles that describe the orientation of a crystal lattice relative to an external reference frame. Each SBF represents the virtual CPO that would be produced by the action of only one of the slip systems of olivine, and can be determined analytically to within an unknown time-dependent amplitude. The amplitudes are then determined by fitting the SBFs to the predictions of the second-order self-consistent (SOSC) model of Ponte-Castaneda (2002). To implement the SBF representation, we express the orientation distribution function (ODF) f(g) of the polycrystal approximately as a linear superposition of SBFs with weighting coefficients Cs. Substituting the superposition into the general evolution equation for the ODF and minimizing the residual error, we find that the weighting coefficients Cs(t) satisfy coupled evolution equations of the form αisCs + βisCs + γs = 0 where the coefficients αis, βis and γs can be calculated in advance from the expressions for the SBFs. These equations are solved numerically for different values of p12 and p23, yielding numerical values of Cs(r12, r23, p12, p23

  6. Osteogenic Responses to Zirconia with Hydroxyapatite Coating by Aerosol Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Y.; Hong, J.; Ryoo, H.; Kim, D.; Park, J.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we found that osteogenic responses to zirconia co-doped with niobium oxide (Nb2O5) or tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) are comparable with responses to titanium, which is widely used as a dental implant material. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro osteogenic potential of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated zirconia by an aerosol deposition method for improved osseointegration. Surface analysis by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction proved that a thin as-deposited HA film on zirconia showed a shallow, regular, crater-like surface. Deposition of dense and uniform HA films was measured by SEM, and the contact angle test demonstrated improved wettability of the HA-coated surface. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast attachment did not differ notably between the titanium and zirconia surfaces; however, cells on the HA-coated zirconia exhibited a lower proliferation than those on the uncoated zirconia late in the culture. Nevertheless, ALP, alizarin red S staining, and bone marker gene expression analysis indicated good osteogenic responses on HA-coated zirconia. Our results suggest that HA-coating by aerosol deposition improves the quality of surface modification and is favorable to osteogenesis. PMID:25586588

  7. An overview of zirconia ceramics: basic properties and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Manicone, Paolo Francesco; Rossi Iommetti, Pierfrancesco; Raffaelli, Luca

    2007-11-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) is a ceramic material with adequate mechanical properties for manufacturing of medical devices. Zirconia stabilized with Y2O3 has the best properties for these applications. When a stress occurs on a ZrO2 surface, a crystalline modification opposes the propagation of cracks. Compression resistance of ZrO2 is about 2000 MPa. Orthopedic research led to this material being proposed for the manufacture of hip head prostheses. Prior to this, zirconia biocompatibility had been studied in vivo; no adverse responses were reported following the insertion of ZrO2 samples into bone or muscle. In vitro experimentation showed absence of mutations and good viability of cells cultured on this material. Zirconia cores for fixed partial dentures (FPD) on anterior and posterior teeth and on implants are now available. Clinical evaluation of abutments and periodontal tissue must be performed prior to their use. Zirconia opacity is very useful in adverse clinical situations, for example, for masking of dischromic abutment teeth. Radiopacity can aid evaluation during radiographic controls. Zirconia frameworks are realized by using computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. Cementation of Zr-ceramic restorations can be performed with adhesive luting. Mechanical properties of zirconium oxide FPDs have proved superior to those of other metal-free restorations. Clinical evaluations, which have been ongoing for 3 years, indicate a good success rate for zirconia FPDs. Zirconia implant abutments can also be used to improve the aesthetic outcome of implant-supported rehabilitations. Newly proposed zirconia implants seem to have good biological and mechanical properties; further studies are needed to validate their application.

  8. Glass ceramic toughened with tetragonal zirconia

    DOEpatents

    Keefer, Keith D.; Michalske, Terry A.

    1986-01-01

    A phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic and a process for making it are disclosed. A mixture of particulate network-forming oxide, network-modifying oxide, and zirconium oxide is heated to yield a homogeneous melt, and this melt is then heat-treated to precipitate an appreciable quantity of tetragonal zirconia, which is retained at ambient temperature to form a phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic. Nucleating agents and stabilizing agents may be added to the mixture to facilitate processing and improve the ceramic's properties. Preferably, the mixture is first melted at a temperature from 1200.degree. to 1700.degree. C. and is then heat-treated at a temperature within the range of 800.degree. to 1200.degree. C. in order to precipitate tetragonal ZrO.sub.2. The composition, as well as the length and temperature of the heat-treatment, must be carefully controlled to prevent solution of the precipitated tetragonal zirconia and subsequent conversion to the monoclinic phase.

  9. From Zirconium Nanograins to Zirconia Nanoneedles

    PubMed Central

    Zalnezhad, E.; Hamouda, A. M. S.; Jaworski, J.; Do Kim, Young

    2016-01-01

    Combinations of three simple techniques were utilized to gradually form zirconia nanoneedles from zirconium nanograins. First, a physical vapor deposition magnetron sputtering technique was used to deposit pure zirconium nanograins on top of a substrate. Second, an anodic oxidation was applied to fabricate zirconia nanotubular arrays. Finally, heat treatment was used at different annealing temperatures in order to change the structure and morphology from nanotubes to nanowires and subsequently to nanoneedles in the presence of argon gas. The size of the pure zirconium nanograins was estimated to be approximately 200–300 nm. ZrO2 nanotubular arrays with diameters of 70–120 nm were obtained. Both tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO2 were observed after annealing at 450 °C and 650 °C. Only a few tetragonal peaks appeared at 850 °C, while monoclinic ZrO2 was obtained at 900 °C and 950 °C. In assessing the biocompatibility of the ZrO2 surface, the human cell line MDA-MB-231 was found to attach and proliferate well on surfaces annealed at 850 °C and 450 °C; however, the amorphous ZrO2 surface, which was not heat treated, did not permit extensive cell growth, presumably due to remaining fluoride. PMID:27623486

  10. Simulation of fatigue damage in ferroelectric polycrystals under mechanical/electrical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozinov, S.; Kuna, M.

    2018-07-01

    The reliability of smart-structures made of ferroelectric ceramics is essentially reduced by the formation of cracks under the action of external electrical and/or mechanical loading. In the current research a numerical model for low-cycle fatigue in ferroelectric mesostructures is proposed. In the finite element simulations a combination of two user element routines is utilized. The first one is used to model a micromechanical ferroelectric domain switching behavior inside the grains. The second one is used to simulate fatigue damage of grain boundaries by a cohesive zone model (EMCCZM) based on an electromechanical cyclic traction-separation law (TSL). For numerical simulations a scanning electron microscope image of the ceramic's grain structure was digitalized and meshed. The response of this mesostructure to cyclic electrical or mechanical loading is systematically analyzed. As a result of the simulations, the distribution of electric potential, field, displacement and polarization as well as mechanical stresses and deformations inside the grains are obtained. At the grain boundaries, the formation and evolution of damage are analyzed until final failure and induced degradation of electric permittivity. It is found that the proposed model correctly mimics polycrystalline behavior during poling processes and progressive damage under cyclic electromechanical loading. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first model and numerical analysis of ferroelectric polycrystals taking into account both domain reorientation and cohesive modeling of intergranular fracture. It can help to understand failure mechanisms taking place in ferroelectrics during fatigue processes.

  11. On rate-dependent polycrystal deformation: the temperature sensitivity of cold dwell fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Cuddihy, M. A.; Dunne, F. P. E.

    2015-01-01

    A temperature and rate-dependent crystal plasticity framework has been used to examine the temperature sensitivity of stress relaxation, creep and load shedding in model Ti-6Al polycrystal behaviour under dwell fatigue conditions. A temperature close to 120°C is found to lead to the strongest stress redistribution and load shedding, resulting from the coupling between crystallographic slip rate and slip system dislocation hardening. For temperatures in excess of about 230°C, grain-level load shedding from soft to hard grains diminishes because of the more rapid stress relaxation, leading ultimately to the diminution of the load shedding and hence, it is argued, the elimination of the dwell debit. Under conditions of cyclic stress dwell, at temperatures between 20°C and 230°C for which load shedding occurs, the rate-dependent accumulation of local slip by ratcheting is shown to lead to the progressive cycle-by-cycle redistribution of stress from soft to hard grains. This phenomenon is termed cyclic load shedding since it also depends on the material's creep response, but develops over and above the well-known dwell load shedding, thus providing an additional rationale for the incubation of facet nucleation. PMID:26528078

  12. Very sensitive α-Al2O3:C polycrystals for thermoluminescent dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Fontainha, Críssia Carem Paiva; Alves, Neriene; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; de Faria, Luiz Oliveira

    2018-05-07

    New materials have been widely investigated for ionizing radiation dosimetry for medical procedures. Carbon-doped alumina (α-Al 2 O 3 :C) have been reported to be excellent thermoluminescent (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) radiation dosimeters. In the present study, we have synthetized nano and micro-sized α-Al 2 O 3 :C polycrystals, doped with different percentages of carbon atoms aiming to compare their efficiency as TL dosimeters. The dosimetric characteristics for X ray and gamma fields were investigated. Samples doped with different amounts of carbon atoms were sintered under different atmosphere conditions, at temperatures ranging from 1300 °C to 1750 °C. Among the investigated samples, the micro-sized alumina doped with 0.01% of carbon and sintered at 1700 °C under reducing atmosphere, has presented a very high TL output. The main TL peak is centered at 250 °C and has a linear behavior with photon dose in the dose range of 0.02-to-5000 mGy, with correlation coefficient very close to one (0.99991). Samples produced by using nanosized alumina have shown much lower TL output when compared to the samples with microsized alumina. The micro-sized alumina obtained by the methodology used in this work is a suitable candidate to be explored for application in X and Gamma radiation dosimetry. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Analysis of reversed torsion of FCC metals using polycrystal plasticity models

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Xiao Qian; Wang, Huamiao; Wu, Pei Dong; ...

    2015-06-19

    Large strain behavior of FCC polycrystals during reversed torsion are investigated through the special purpose finite element based on the classical Taylor model and the elastic-viscoplastic self-consistent (EVPSC) model with various Self-Consistent Schemes (SCSs). It is found that the response of both the fixed-end and free-end torsion is very sensitive to the constitutive models. The models are assessed through comparing their predictions to the corresponding experiments in terms of the stress and strain curves, the Swift effect and texture evolution. It is demonstrated that none of the models examined can precisely predict all the experimental results. However, more careful observationmore » reveals that, among the models considered, the tangent model gives the worst overall performance. As a result, it is also demonstrated that the intensity of residual texture during reverse twisting is dependent on the amounts of pre-shear strain during forward twisting and the model used.« less

  14. Subgrain Rotation Recrystallization During Shearing: Insights From Full-Field Numerical Simulations of Halite Polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Rivas, E.; Griera, A.; Llorens, M.-G.; Bons, P. D.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Piazolo, S.

    2017-11-01

    We present, for the first time, results of full-field numerical simulations of subgrain rotation recrystallization of halite polycrystals during simple shear deformation. The series of simulations show how microstructures are controlled by the competition between (i) grain size reduction by creep by dislocation glide and (ii) intracrystalline recovery encompassing subgrain coarsening by coalescence through rotation and alignment of the lattices of neighboring subgrains. A strong grain size reduction develops in models without intracrystalline recovery, as a result of the formation of high-angle grain boundaries when local misorientations exceed 15°. The activation of subgrain coarsening associated with recovery decreases the stored strain energy and results in grains with low intracrystalline heterogeneities. However, this type of recrystallization does not significantly modify crystal preferred orientations. Lattice orientation and grain boundary maps reveal that this full-field modeling approach is able to successfully reproduce the evolution of dry halite microstructures from laboratory deformation experiments, thus opening new opportunities in this field of research. We demonstrate how the mean subgrain boundary misorientations can be used to estimate the strain accommodated by dislocation glide using a universal scaling exponent of about 2/3, as predicted by theoretical models. In addition, this strain gauge can be potentially applied to estimate the intensity of intracrystalline recovery, associated with temperature, using quantitative crystallographic analyses in areas with strain gradients.

  15. Polycrystal-Plasticity Simulation of Roping in AA 6xxx Automotive Sheet Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engler, O.; Schäfer, C.; Brinkman, H.-J.

    The occurrence of roping in AA 6xxx series sheet for car body applications is caused by the collective deformation of band-like clusters of grains with similar crystallographic orientation. In this study large-scale orientation maps obtained by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) are input into a visco-plastic self-consistent polycrystal-plasticity model to analyze the strain anisotropy caused by the topographic arrangement of the recrystallization texture orientations and, in turn, the occurrence of roping. At variance to earlier studies, the measurements were carried out in the short transverse section of the sheets so as to get information on distribution and morphology of orientation clusters through the sheet thickness. Then, narrow bands in the EBSD maps aligned parallel to the ridges on the sheet surface are considered, and the variation in macroscopic strain response from band to band is determined. For a given deformation of the sample these simulations yield quantitative information on the level of roping of Al-alloy sheet for car body applications.

  16. Modified Y-TZP Core Design Improves All-ceramic Crown Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Silva, N.R.F.A.; Bonfante, E.A.; Rafferty, B.T.; Zavanelli, R.A.; Rekow, E.D.; Thompson, V.P.; Coelho, P.G.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that all-ceramic core-veneer system crown reliability is improved by modification of the core design. We modeled a tooth preparation by reducing the height of proximal walls by 1.5 mm and the occlusal surface by 2.0 mm. The CAD-based tooth preparation was replicated and positioned in a dental articulator for core and veneer fabrication. Standard (0.5 mm uniform thickness) and modified (2.5 mm height lingual and proximal cervical areas) core designs were produced, followed by the application of veneer porcelain for a total thickness of 1.5 mm. The crowns were cemented to 30-day-aged composite dies and were either single-load-to-failure or step-stress-accelerated fatigue-tested. Use of level probability plots showed significantly higher reliability for the modified core design group. The fatigue fracture modes were veneer chipping not exposing the core for the standard group, and exposing the veneer core interface for the modified group. PMID:21057036

  17. Synthesis and thermal stability of zirconia and yttria-stabilized zirconia microspheres.

    PubMed

    Leib, Elisabeth W; Vainio, Ulla; Pasquarelli, Robert M; Kus, Jonas; Czaschke, Christian; Walter, Nils; Janssen, Rolf; Müller, Martin; Schreyer, Andreas; Weller, Horst; Vossmeyer, Tobias

    2015-06-15

    Zirconia microparticles produced by sol-gel synthesis have great potential for photonic applications. To this end, identifying synthetic methods that yield reproducible control over size uniformity is important. Phase transformations during thermal cycling can disintegrate the particles. Therefore, understanding the parameters driving these transformations is essential for enabling high-temperature applications. Particle morphology is expected to influence particle processability and stability. Yttria-doping should improve the thermal stability of the particles, as it does in bulk zirconia. Zirconia and YSZ particles were synthesized by improved sol-gel approaches using fatty acid stabilizers. The particles were heated to 1500 °C, and structural and morphological changes were monitored by SEM, ex situ XRD and high-energy in situ XRD. Zirconia particles (0.4-4.3 μm in diameter, 5-10% standard deviation) synthesized according to the modified sol-gel approaches yielded significantly improved monodispersities. As-synthesized amorphous particles transformed to the tetragonal phase at ∼450 °C with a volume decrease of up to ∼75% and then to monoclinic after heating from ∼650 to 850 °C. Submicron particles disintegrated at ∼850 °C and microparticles at ∼1200 °C due to grain growth. In situ XRD revealed that the transition from the amorphous to tetragonal phase was accompanied by relief in microstrain and the transition from tetragonal to monoclinic was correlated with the tetragonal grain size. Early crystallization and smaller initial grain sizes, which depend on the precursors used for particle synthesis, coincided with higher stability. Yttria-doping reduced grain growth, stabilized the tetragonal phase, and significantly improved the thermal stability of the particles. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Numerical modeling of the fracture process in a three-unit all-ceramic fixed partial denture.

    PubMed

    Kou, Wen; Kou, Shaoquan; Liu, Hongyuan; Sjögren, Göran

    2007-08-01

    The main objectives were to examine the fracture mechanism and process of a ceramic fixed partial denture (FPD) framework under simulated mechanical loading using a recently developed numerical modeling code, the R-T(2D) code, and also to evaluate the suitability of R-T(2D) code as a tool for this purpose. Using the recently developed R-T(2D) code the fracture mechanism and process of a 3U yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal ceramic (Y-TZP) FPD framework was simulated under static loading. In addition, the fracture pattern obtained using the numerical simulation was compared with the fracture pattern obtained in a previous laboratory test. The result revealed that the framework fracture pattern obtained using the numerical simulation agreed with that observed in a previous laboratory test. Quasi-photoelastic stress fringe pattern and acoustic emission showed that the fracture mechanism was tensile failure and that the crack started at the lower boundary of the framework. The fracture process could be followed both in step-by-step and step-in-step. Based on the findings in the current study, the R-T(2D) code seems suitable for use as a complement to other tests and clinical observations in studying stress distribution, fracture mechanism and fracture processes in ceramic FPD frameworks.

  19. Comparison of Conventional Methods and Laser-Assisted Rapid Prototyping for Manufacturing Fixed Dental Prostheses: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Pompa, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Stefano; De Angelis, Francesca; Cristalli, Maria Paola; Annibali, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether there are differences in marginal fit between laser-fusion and conventional techniques to produce fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). A master steel die with 2 abutments was produced to receive a posterior 4-unit FDPs and single copings. These experimental models were divided into three groups (n = 20/group) manufactured: group 1, Ni-Cr alloy, with a lost-wax casting technique; group 2, Co-Cr alloy, with selective laser melting (SLM); and group 3, yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP), with a milling system. All specimens were cut along the longitudinal axis and their adaptation was measured at the marginal and shoulder areas on the right and left sides of each abutment. Measurements were made using a stereomicroscope (×60 magnification) and a scanning electron microscope (×800 magnification). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni post hoc test, with a significance cutoff of 5%. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between group 3 and the other groups. The marginal opening was smallest with Co-Cr alloy substructures, while the shoulder opening was smallest with Ni-Cr alloy substructures. Within the limitations of this study, the marginal fit of an FDP is better with rapid prototyping (RP) via SLM than conventional manufacturing systems.

  20. Non-Thermal Atmospheric Plasma: Can it Be Taken as a Common Solution for the Surface Treatment of Dental Materials?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emre, Seker; Mehmet, Ali Kilicarslan; Serdar, Polat; Emre, Ozkir; Suat, Pat

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the surface roughness and wetting properties of various dental prosthetic materials after different durations of non-thermal atmospheric plasma (NTAP) treatment. One hundred and sixty discs of titanium (Ti) (n:40), cobalt chromium (Co-Cr) (n:40), yttrium stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) (n:40) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) (n:40) materials were machined and smoothed with silicon carbide papers. The surface roughness was evaluated in a control group and in groups with different plasma exposure times [1-3-5 s]. The average surface roughness (Ra) and contact angle (CA) measurements were recorded via an atomic force microscope (AFM) and tensiometer, respectively. Surface changes were examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey HSD test α=0.05). According to the results, the NTAP surface treatment significantly affected the roughness and wettability properties (P < 0.05). SEM images reveal that more grooves were present in the NTAP groups. With an increase in the NTAP application time, an apparent increment was observed for Ra, except in the PMMA group, and a remarkable reduction in CA was observed in all groups. It is concluded that the NTAP technology could enhance the roughening and wetting performance of various dental materials. supported by the Department of Scientific Research, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Turkey (No. 201441045)

  1. Comparison of Conventional Methods and Laser-Assisted Rapid Prototyping for Manufacturing Fixed Dental Prostheses: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Pompa, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Stefano; De Angelis, Francesca; Cristalli, Maria Paola; Annibali, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether there are differences in marginal fit between laser-fusion and conventional techniques to produce fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). A master steel die with 2 abutments was produced to receive a posterior 4-unit FDPs and single copings. These experimental models were divided into three groups (n = 20/group) manufactured: group 1, Ni-Cr alloy, with a lost-wax casting technique; group 2, Co-Cr alloy, with selective laser melting (SLM); and group 3, yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP), with a milling system. All specimens were cut along the longitudinal axis and their adaptation was measured at the marginal and shoulder areas on the right and left sides of each abutment. Measurements were made using a stereomicroscope (×60 magnification) and a scanning electron microscope (×800 magnification). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni post hoc test, with a significance cutoff of 5%. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between group 3 and the other groups. The marginal opening was smallest with Co-Cr alloy substructures, while the shoulder opening was smallest with Ni-Cr alloy substructures. Within the limitations of this study, the marginal fit of an FDP is better with rapid prototyping (RP) via SLM than conventional manufacturing systems. PMID:26576419

  2. Zirconia coating stabilized super-iron alkaline cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xingwen; Licht, Stuart

    A low-level zirconia coating significantly stabilizes high energy alkaline super-iron cathodes, and improves the energy storage capacity of super-iron batteries. Zirconia coating is derived from ZrCl 4 in an organic medium through the conversion of ZrCl 4 to ZrO 2. In alkaline battery system, ZrO 2 provides an intact shield for the cathode materials and the hydroxide shuttle through the coating sustains alkaline cathode redox chemistry. Most super-iron cathodes are solid-state stable, such as K 2FeO 4 and Cs 2FeO 4, but tend to be passivated in alkaline electrolyte due to the formation of Fe(III) over layer. Zirconia coating effectively enhances the stability of these super-iron cathodes. However, for solid-state unstable super-iron cathode (e.g. BaFeO 4), only a little stabilization effect of zirconia coating is observed.

  3. Bonding effectiveness to different chemically pre-treated dental zirconia.

    PubMed

    Inokoshi, Masanao; Poitevin, André; De Munck, Jan; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different chemical pre-treatments on the bond durability to dental zirconia. Fully sintered IPS e.max ZirCAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) blocks were subjected to tribochemical silica sandblasting (CoJet, 3M ESPE). The zirconia samples were additionally pre-treated using one of four zirconia primers/adhesives (Clearfil Ceramic Primer, Kuraray Noritake; Monobond Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent; Scotchbond Universal, 3M ESPE; Z-PRIME Plus, Bisco). Finally, two identically pre-treated zirconia blocks were bonded together using composite cement (RelyX Ultimate, 3M ESPE). The specimens were trimmed at the interface to a cylindrical hourglass and stored in distilled water (7 days, 37 °C), after which they were randomly tested as is or subjected to mechanical ageing involving cyclic tensile stress (10 N, 10 Hz, 10,000 cycles). Subsequently, the micro-tensile bond strength was determined, and SEM fractographic analysis performed. Weibull analysis revealed the highest Weibull scale and shape parameters for the 'Clearfil Ceramic Primer/mechanical ageing' combination. Chemical pre-treatment of CoJet (3M ESPE) sandblasted zirconia using Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) and Monobond Plus (Ivoclar Vivadent) revealed a significantly higher bond strength than when Scotchbond Universal (3M ESPE) and Z-PRIME Plus (Bisco) were used. After ageing, Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) revealed the most stable bond durability. Combined mechanical/chemical pre-treatment, the latter with either Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) or Monobond Plus (Ivoclar Vivadent), resulted in the most durable bond to zirconia. As a standard procedure to durably bond zirconia to tooth tissue, the application of a combined 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate/silane ceramic primer to zirconia is clinically highly recommended.

  4. Biaxial flexural strength of bilayered zirconia using various veneering ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Chantranikul, Natravee

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of one zirconia-based ceramic used with various veneering ceramics. MATERIALS AND METHODS Zirconia core material (Katana) and five veneering ceramics (Cerabien ZR; CZR, Lava Ceram; LV, Cercon Ceram Kiss; CC, IPS e.max Ceram; EM and VITA VM9; VT) were selected. Using the powder/liquid layering technique, bilayered disk specimens (diameter: 12.50 mm, thickness: 1.50 mm) were prepared to follow ISO standard 6872:2008 into five groups according to veneering ceramics as follows; Katana zirconia veneering with CZR (K/CZR), Katana zirconia veneering with LV (K/LV), Katana zirconia veneering with CC (K/CC), Katana zirconia veneering with EM (K/EM) and Katana zirconia veneering with VT (K/VT). After 20,000 thermocycling, load tests were conducted using a universal testing machine (Instron). The BFS were calculated and analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD (α=0.05). The Weibull analysis was performed for reliability of strength. The mode of fracture and fractured surface were observed by SEM. RESULTS It showed that K/CC had significantly the highest BFS, followed by K/LV. BFS of K/CZR, K/EM and K/VT were not significantly different from each other, but were significantly lower than the other two groups. Weibull distribution reported the same trend of reliability as the BFS results. CONCLUSION From the result of this study, the BFS of the bilayered zirconia/veneer composite did not only depend on the Young's modulus value of the materials. Further studies regarding interfacial strength and sintering factors are necessary to achieve the optimal strength. PMID:26576251

  5. Optical properties of pre-colored dental monolithic zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2016-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the optical properties of recently marketed pre-colored monolithic zirconia ceramics and to compare with those of veneered zirconia and lithium disilicate glass ceramics. Various shades of pre-colored monolithic zirconia, veneered zirconia, and lithium disilicate glass ceramic specimens were tested (17.0×17.0×1.5mm, n=5). CIELab color coordinates were obtained against white, black, and grey backgrounds with a spectrophotometer. Color differences of the specimen pairs were calculated by using the CIEDE2000 (ΔE 00 ) formula. The translucency parameter (TP) was derived from ΔE 00 of the specimen against a white and a black background. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the crystalline phases of monolithic zirconia specimens. Data were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA, Scheffé post hoc, and Pearson correlation testing (α=0.05). For different shades of the same ceramic brand, there were significant differences in L * , a * , b * , and TP values in most ceramic brands. With the same nominal shade (A2), statistically significant differences were observed in L * , a * , b * , and TP values among different ceramic brands and systems (P<0.001). The color differences between pre-colored monolithic zirconia and veneered zirconia or lithium disilicate glass ceramics of the corresponding nominal shades ranged beyond the acceptability threshold. Due to the high L * values and low a * and b * values, pre-colored monolithic zirconia ceramics can be used with additional staining to match neighboring restorations or natural teeth. Due to their high value and low chroma, unacceptable color mismatch with adjacent ceramic restorations might be expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural and Chemical Analysis of the Zirconia-Veneering Ceramic Interface.

    PubMed

    Inokoshi, M; Yoshihara, K; Nagaoka, N; Nakanishi, M; De Munck, J; Minakuchi, S; Vanmeensel, K; Zhang, F; Yoshida, Y; Vleugels, J; Naert, I; Van Meerbeek, B

    2016-01-01

    The interfacial interaction of veneering ceramic with zirconia is still not fully understood. This study aimed to characterize morphologically and chemically the zirconia-veneering ceramic interface. Three zirconia-veneering conditions were investigated: 1) zirconia-veneering ceramic fired on sandblasted zirconia, 2) zirconia-veneering ceramic on as-sintered zirconia, and 3) alumina-veneering ceramic (lower coefficient of thermal expansion [CTE]) on as-sintered zirconia. Polished cross-sectioned ceramic-veneered zirconia specimens were examined using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (Feg-SEM). In addition, argon-ion thinned zirconia-veneering ceramic interface cross sections were examined using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) at high resolution. Finally, the zirconia-veneering ceramic interface was quantitatively analyzed for tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation and residual stress using micro-Raman spectroscopy (µRaman). Feg-SEM revealed tight interfaces for all 3 veneering conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) disclosed an approximately 1.0-µm transformed zone at sandblasted zirconia, in which distinct zirconia grains were no longer observable. Straight grain boundaries and angular grain corners were detected up to the interface of zirconia- and alumina-veneering ceramic with as-sintered zirconia. EDS mapping disclosed within the zirconia-veneering ceramic a few nanometers thick calcium/aluminum-rich layer, touching the as-sintered zirconia base, with an equally thick silicon-rich/aluminum-poor layer on top. µRaman revealed t-ZrO2-to-m-ZrO2 phase transformation and residual compressive stress at the sandblasted zirconia surface. The difference in CTE between zirconia- and the alumina-veneering ceramic resulted in residual tensile stress within the zirconia immediately adjacent to its interface with the veneering ceramic. The rather minor chemical

  7. Properties of zirconia after plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, V. P.; Kulkov, S. N.

    2017-09-01

    The influence of high-frequency plasma treatment on the properties of zirconia powder is shown in the work. The powder was produced by a plasma-chemical method. The powders had a foamy form with the size of agglomerates of 5-10 μm and crystallites of 20-50 nm. The powders were treated by the pulse plasma unit with dielectric barrier discharge generator. It was shown that the plasma processing changes the acidity of water-powder suspensions from 8.1 to 4.3 pH, which signifies the powders' wettability improvement. It was revealed that more intensive mixing using ultrasound influences the acidity level, reducing it in comparison with mixing by paddle-type agitator. It was shown that these changes of surface properties have relaxation by 4% per day and extrapolation of this dependence shows that the powder will have initial properties after 400 hours storage at room conditions.

  8. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl2ṡ8H2O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

  9. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K.

    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl{sub 2}⋅8H{sub 2}O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with themore » theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.« less

  10. Chemical interaction mechanism of 10-MDP with zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Noriyuki; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Feitosa, Victor Pinheiro; Tamada, Yoshiyuki; Irie, Masao; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Hayakawa, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the functional monomer 10-methacryloyloxy-decyl-dihydrogen-phosphate (10-MDP) was documented to chemically bond to zirconia ceramics. However, little research has been conducted to unravel the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to assess the chemical interaction and to demonstrate the mechanisms of coordination between 10-MDP and zirconium oxide using 1H and 31P magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and two dimensional (2D) 1H → 31P heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) NMR. In addition, shear bond-strength (SBS) tests were conducted to determine the effect of 10-MDP concentration on the bonding effectiveness to zirconia. These SBS tests revealed a 10-MDP concentration-dependent SBS with a minimum of 1-ppb 10-MDP needed. 31P-NMR revealed that one P-OH non-deprotonated of the PO3H2 group from 10-MDP chemically bonded strongly to zirconia. 1H-31P HETCOR NMR indicated that the 10-MDP monomer can be adsorbed onto the zirconia particles by hydrogen bonding between the P=O and Zr-OH groups or via ionic interactions between partially positive Zr and deprotonated 10-MDP (P-O−). The combination of 1H NMR and 2D 1H-31P HETCOR NMR enabled to describe the different chemical states of the 10-MDP bonds with zirconia; they not only revealed ionic but also hydrogen bonding between 10-MDP and zirconia. PMID:28358121

  11. Zirconia based dental ceramics: structure, mechanical properties, biocompatibility and applications.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Chandkiram; Joyner, Jarin; Gautam, Amarendra; Rao, Jitendra; Vajtai, Robert

    2016-12-06

    Zirconia (ZrO 2 ) based dental ceramics have been considered to be advantageous materials with adequate mechanical properties for the manufacturing of medical devices. Due to its very high compression strength of 2000 MPa, ZrO 2 can resist differing mechanical environments. During the crack propagation on the application of stress on the surface of ZrO 2 , a crystalline modification diminishes the propagation of cracks. In addition, zirconia's biocompatibility has been studied in vivo, leading to the observation of no adverse response upon the insertion of ZrO 2 samples into the bone or muscle. In vitro experimentation has exhibited the absence of mutations and good viability of cells cultured on this material leading to the use of ZrO 2 in the manufacturing of hip head prostheses. The mechanical properties of zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPDs) have proven to be superior to other ceramic/composite restorations and hence leading to their significant applications in implant supported rehabilitations. Recent developments were focused on the synthesis of zirconia based dental materials. More recently, zirconia has been introduced in prosthetic dentistry for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures in combination with computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. This systematic review covers the results of past as well as recent scientific studies on the properties of zirconia based ceramics such as their specific compositions, microstructures, mechanical strength, biocompatibility and other applications in dentistry.

  12. Failure analysis of fractured dental zirconia implants.

    PubMed

    Gahlert, M; Burtscher, D; Grunert, I; Kniha, H; Steinhauser, E

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was the macroscopic and microscopic failure analysis of fractured zirconia dental implants. Thirteen fractured one-piece zirconia implants (Z-Look3) out of 170 inserted implants with an average in situ period of 36.75±5.34 months (range from 20 to 56 months, median 38 months) were prepared for macroscopic and microscopic (scanning electron microscopy [SEM]) failure analysis. These 170 implants were inserted in 79 patients. The patient histories were compared with fracture incidences to identify the reasons for the failure of the implants. Twelve of these fractured implants had a diameter of 3.25 mm and one implant had a diameter of 4 mm. All fractured implants were located in the anterior side of the maxilla and mandibula. The patient with the fracture of the 4 mm diameter implant was adversely affected by strong bruxism. By failure analysis (SEM), it could be demonstrated that in all cases, mechanical overloading caused the fracture of the implants. Inhomogeneities and internal defects of the ceramic material could be excluded, but notches and scratches due to sandblasting of the surface led to local stress concentrations that led to the mentioned mechanical overloading by bending loads. The present study identified a fracture rate of nearly 10% within a follow-up period of 36.75 months after prosthetic loading. Ninety-two per cent of the fractured implants were so-called diameter reduced implants (diameter 3.25 mm). These diameter reduced implants cannot be recommended for further clinical use. Improvement of the ceramic material and modification of the implant geometry has to be carried out to reduce the failure rate of small-sized ceramic implants. Nevertheless, due to the lack of appropriate laboratory testing, only clinical studies will demonstrate clearly whether and how far the failure rate can be reduced. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Light transmittance of zirconia as a function of thickness and microhardness of resin cements under different thicknesses of zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem; Kaya, Bekir M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare microhardness of resin cements under different thicknesses of zirconia and the light transmittance of zirconia as a function of thickness. Study design: A total of 126 disc-shaped specimens (2 mm in height and 5 mm in diameter) were prepared from dual-cured resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Panavia F and Clearfil SA cement). Photoactivation was performed by using quartz tungsten halogen and light emitting diode light curing units under different thicknesses of zirconia. Then the specimens (n=7/per group) were stored in dry conditions in total dark at 37°C for 24 h. The Vicker’s hardness test was performed on the resin cement layer with a microhardness tester. Statistical significance was determined using multifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) (alpha=.05). Light transmittance of different thicknesses of zirconia (0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 mm) was measured using a hand-held radiometer (Demetron, Kerr). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test (alpha=.05). Results: ANOVA revealed that resin cement and light curing unit had significant effects on microhardness (p < 0.001). Additionally, greater zirconia thickness resulted in lower transmittance. There was no correlation between the amount of light transmitted and microhardness of dual-cured resin cements (r = 0.073, p = 0.295). Conclusion: Although different zirconia thicknesses might result in insufficient light transmission, dual-cured resin cements under zirconia restorations could have adequate microhardness. Key words:Zirconia, microhardness, light transmittance, resin cement. PMID:23385497

  14. A multi-scale homogenization model for fine-grained porous viscoplastic polycrystals: I - Finite-strain theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dawei; Ponte Castañeda, P.

    2018-06-01

    We make use of the recently developed iterated second-order homogenization method to obtain finite-strain constitutive models for the macroscopic response of porous polycrystals consisting of large pores randomly distributed in a fine-grained polycrystalline matrix. The porous polycrystal is modeled as a three-scale composite, where the grains are described by single-crystal viscoplasticity and the pores are assumed to be large compared to the grain size. The method makes use of a linear comparison composite (LCC) with the same substructure as the actual nonlinear composite, but whose local properties are chosen optimally via a suitably designed variational statement. In turn, the effective properties of the resulting three-scale LCC are determined by means of a sequential homogenization procedure, utilizing the self-consistent estimates for the effective behavior of the polycrystalline matrix, and the Willis estimates for the effective behavior of the porous composite. The iterated homogenization procedure allows for a more accurate characterization of the properties of the matrix by means of a finer "discretization" of the properties of the LCC to obtain improved estimates, especially at low porosities, high nonlinearties and high triaxialities. In addition, consistent homogenization estimates for the average strain rate and spin fields in the pores and grains are used to develop evolution laws for the substructural variables, including the porosity, pore shape and orientation, as well as the "crystallographic" and "morphological" textures of the underlying matrix. In Part II of this work has appeared in Song and Ponte Castañeda (2018b), the model will be used to generate estimates for both the instantaneous effective response and the evolution of the microstructure for porous FCC and HCP polycrystals under various loading conditions.

  15. In vivo biofilm formation on different dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Felicia; Grade, Sebastian; Kohorst, Philipp; Stiesch, Meike

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the formation of oral biofilm on various dental ceramics in vivo. Five different ceramic materials were included: a veneering glass- ceramic, a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, a yttrium-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP), a hot isostatically pressed (HIP) Y-TZP ceramic, and an HIP Y-TZP ceramic with 25% alumina. Test specimens were attached to individually designed acrylic appliances; five volunteers wore these appliances for 24 hours in the maxillary arch. After intraoral exposure, the samples were removed from the appliances and the adhering biofilms vitally stained. Then, the two-dimensional surface coating and thickness of the adhering biofilm were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA with the level of significance set at .05. Significant differences (P < .001) in the bacterial surface coating and in the thickness of the biofilm were found between the various ceramic materials. The lowest surface coating (19.0%) and biofilm thickness (1.9 Μm) were determined on the HIP Y-TZP ceramic; the highest mean values were identified with the lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (46.8%, 12.6 Μm). Biofilm formation on various types of dental ceramics differed significantly; in particular, zirconia exhibited low plaque accumulation. In addition to its high strength, low plaque accumulation makes zirconia a promising material for various indications (including implant abutments and telescopic crowns) that previously were met only with metal-based materials.

  16. The Effect of Zirconia in Hydroxyapatite on Staphylococcus epidermidis Growth.

    PubMed

    Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Sunarintyas, Siti; Tontowi, Alva Edy

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used and developed as the material for bone substitute in medical applications. The addition of zirconia is needed to improve the strength of hydroxyapatite as the bone substitute. One of the drawbacks in the use of biomedical materials is the occurrence of biomaterial-centred infections. The recent method of limiting the presence of microorganism on biomaterials is by providing biomaterial-bound metal-containing compositions. In this case, S. epidermidis is the most common infectious organism in biomedical-centred infection. Objective. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of zirconia concentrations in hydroxyapatite on the growth of S. epidermidis. Methods and Materials. The subjects of this study were twenty hydroxyapatite discs, divided into four groups in which one was the control and the other three were the treatment groups. Zirconia powder with the concentrations of 20%, 30%, and 40% was added into the three different treatment groups. Scanning electron microscope analysis was performed according to the hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-zirconia specimens. All discs were immersed into S. epidermidis culture for 24 hours and later on they were soaked into a medium of PBS. The cultured medium was spread on mannitol salt agar. After incubation for 24 hours at 37°C , the number of colonies was measured with colony counter. Data obtained were analyzed using the ANOVA followed by the pairwise comparison. Result. The statistical analysis showed that different concentrations of zirconia powder significantly influenced the number of S. epidermidis colony (P < 0.05) . Conclusion. The addition of zirconia into hydroxyapatite affected the growth of S. epidermidis. Hydroxyapatite with 20% zirconia proved to be an effective concentration to inhibit the growth of S. epidermidis colony.

  17. Bioactive and Thermally Compatible Glass Coating on Zirconia Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Kirsten, A.; Hausmann, A.; Weber, M.; Fischer, J.

    2015-01-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58·10–6 K–1) than that of the zirconia (11.67·10–6 K–1). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants. PMID:25421839

  18. The Effect of Zirconia in Hydroxyapatite on Staphylococcus epidermidis Growth

    PubMed Central

    Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Sunarintyas, Siti; Tontowi, Alva Edy

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used and developed as the material for bone substitute in medical applications. The addition of zirconia is needed to improve the strength of hydroxyapatite as the bone substitute. One of the drawbacks in the use of biomedical materials is the occurrence of biomaterial-centred infections. The recent method of limiting the presence of microorganism on biomaterials is by providing biomaterial-bound metal-containing compositions. In this case, S. epidermidis is the most common infectious organism in biomedical-centred infection. Objective. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of zirconia concentrations in hydroxyapatite on the growth of S. epidermidis. Methods and Materials. The subjects of this study were twenty hydroxyapatite discs, divided into four groups in which one was the control and the other three were the treatment groups. Zirconia powder with the concentrations of 20%, 30%, and 40% was added into the three different treatment groups. Scanning electron microscope analysis was performed according to the hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-zirconia specimens. All discs were immersed into S. epidermidis culture for 24 hours and later on they were soaked into a medium of PBS. The cultured medium was spread on mannitol salt agar. After incubation for 24 hours at 37°C , the number of colonies was measured with colony counter. Data obtained were analyzed using the ANOVA followed by the pairwise comparison. Result. The statistical analysis showed that different concentrations of zirconia powder significantly influenced the number of S. epidermidis colony (P < 0.05) . Conclusion. The addition of zirconia into hydroxyapatite affected the growth of S. epidermidis. Hydroxyapatite with 20% zirconia proved to be an effective concentration to inhibit the growth of S. epidermidis colony. PMID:22919390

  19. Bioactive and thermally compatible glass coating on zirconia dental implants.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, A; Hausmann, A; Weber, M; Fischer, J; Fischer, H

    2015-02-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58 · 10(-6) K(-1)) than that of the zirconia (11.67 · 10(-6) K(-1)). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants. © International & American Associations for Dental

  20. Shear bond strength between resin cement and colored zirconia made with metal chlorides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ga-Hyun; Park, Sang-Won; Lee, Kwangmin; Oh, Gye-Jeong; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2015-06-01

    Although the application of zirconia in esthetic prostheses has increased, the shear bond strength (SBS) between colored zirconia and resin cement has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the SBS between resin cement and colored zirconia made with metal chlorides. Sixty-four zirconia specimens were divided into 2 groups: one in which the specimens were bonded with resin cement, including 4-META (4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride), and one in which the specimens were bonded with resin cement (SEcure, Sun Medical) after being processed with zirconia primer (Zirconia Liner), including 4-META. Each group was then divided into 4 subgroups depending on the coloring liquid. The subgroups were noncolored (control), commercial coloring liquid VITA In-Ceram 2000 YZ LL1, aqueous chromium chloride solution 0.1 wt%, and aqueous molybdenum chloride solution 0.1 wt%. Composite resin cylinders (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) were fabricated and bonded to the surface of the zirconia specimen with resin cement (SEcure). All specimens were stored in 37°C distilled water for 24 hours, and the SBS was measured with a universal testing machine. All data were analyzed statistically with 2-way ANOVA and tested post hoc with the Tukey test (α=.05). Significant differences were observed among the SBS values of the colored zirconia depending on the coloring liquid (P<.001) and whether they were processed with zirconia primer (P<.001). The SBS between colored zirconia and resin cement was significantly higher than that of noncolored zirconia and resin cement in groups processed with zirconia primer (P<.05). Colored zirconia immersed in aqueous molybdenum chloride solution showed a significantly higher SBS. Coloring liquid enhanced the SBS between resin cement and zirconia processed with zirconia primer. In particular, colored zirconia immersed in aqueous molybdenum chloride solution showed the highest SBS. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of

  1. Energetics of zirconia stabilized by cation and nitrogen substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodetsky, Irina

    Tetragonal and cubic zirconia are used in advanced structural ceramics, fuel cells, oxygen sensors, nuclear waste ceramics and many other applications. These zirconia phases are stabilized at room temperature (relative to monoclinic phase for pure zirconia) by cation and nitrogen substitution. This work is aimed at a better understanding of the mechanisms of stabilization of the high-temperature zirconia. phases. Experimental data are produced on the energetics of zirconia stabilized by yttria and calcia, energetics of nitrogen-oxygen substitution in zirconia and cation doped zirconia, and energetics of x-ray amorphous zirconia. obtained by low-temperature synthesis. High-temperature oxide melt solution enables direct measurement of enthalpies of formation of these refractory oxides. The enthalpy of the monoclinic to cubic phase transition of zirconia is DeltaHm-c = 12.2 +/- 1.2 kJ/mol. For cubic phases of YSZ at low yttria contents, a straight line DeltaH f,YSZ = -(52.4 +/- 3.6)x + (12.2 +/- 1.2) approximates the enthalpy of formation as a function of the yttria content, x (0. 1 < x < 0.3). Use of the quadratic fit DeltaHf,YSZ = 126.36 x 2 - 81.29 x + 12.37 (0.1 ≲ x ≲ 0.53) indicates that yttria stabilizes the cubic phase in enthalpy at low dopant content and destabilizes the cubic phase as yttria content increases. Positive entropy of mixing in YSZ and small enthalpy of long range ordering in 0.47ZrO2-0.53YO1.5, DeltaHord = -2.4 +/- 3.0 kJ/mol, indicate presence of short range ordering in YSZ. The enthalpy of formation of calcia stabilized zirconia as a function of calcia content x, is approximated as DeltaHf,c = (-91.4 +/- 3.8) x + (13.5 +/- 1.7) kJ/mol. The enthalpy of oxygen-nitrogen substitution, DeltaHO-N, in zirconium oxynitrides is a linear function of nitrogen content. DeltaH O-N ˜ -500 kJ/mol N is for Ca (Y)-Zr-N-O and Zr-N-O oxynitrides and DeltaHO-N ˜ -950 kJ/mol N is for Mg-Zr-N-O oxynitrides. X-ray amorphous zirconia is 58.6 +/- 3.3 kJ/mol less

  2. CAD/CAM ZIRCONIA VS. SLIP-CAST GLASS-INFILTRATED ALUMINA/ZIRCONIA ALL-CERAMIC CROWNS: 2-YEAR RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Çehreli, Murat Cavit; Kökat, Ali Murat; Akça, Kivanç

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the early clinical outcome of slip-cast glass-infiltrated Alumina/Zirconia and CAD/CAM Zirconia all-ceramic crowns. A total of 30 InCeram® Zirconia and Cercon® Zirconia crowns were fabricated and cemented with a glass ionomer cement in 20 patients. At baseline, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year recall appointments, Californian Dental Association (CDA) quality evaluation system was used to evaluate the prosthetic replacements, and plaque and gingival index scores were used to explore the periodontal outcome of the treatments. No clinical sign of marginal discoloration, persistent pain and secondary caries was detected in any of the restorations. All InCeram® Zirconia crowns survived during the 2-year period, although one nonvital tooth experienced root fracture coupled with the fracture of the veneering porcelain of the restoration. One Cercon® Zirconia restoration fractured and was replaced. According to the CDA criteria, marginal integrity was rated excellent for InCeram® Zirconia (73%) and Cercon® Zirconia (80%) restorations, respectively. Slight color mismatch rate was higher for InCeram® Zirconia restorations (66%) than Cercon® Zirconia (26%) restorations. Plaque and gingival index scores were mostly zero and almost constant over time. Time-dependent changes in plaque and gingival index scores within and between groups were statistically similar (p>0.05). This clinical study demonstrates that single-tooth InCeram® Zirconia and Cercon® Zirconia crowns have comparable early clinical outcome, both seem as acceptable treatment modalities, and most importantly, all-ceramic alumina crowns strengthened by 25% zirconia can sufficiently withstand functional load in the posterior zone. PMID:19148406

  3. High-temperature zirconia insulation and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Lewis, J. Jr.

    The present invention is directed to a highly pure, partially stabilized, fibrous zirconia composite for use as thermal insulation in environments where temperatures up to about 2,000/sup 0/C are utilized. The composite of the present invention is fabricated into any suitable configuration such as a cone, cylinder dome or the like by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of partially stabilized zirconia fibers into a desired configuration on a suitably shaped mandrel. The molded fibers are infiltrated with zirconyl nitrate and the resulting structure is then dried to form a rigid structure which may be removed and placed in a furnace. The structure is then heated in air to a temperature of about 600/sup 0/C for driving off the nitrate from the structure and for oxidizing the zirconyl ion to zirconia. Thereafter, the structure is heated to about 950/sup 0/ to 1,250/sup 0/C to fuse the zirconia fibers at their nexi in a matrix of zirconia. The composite produced by the present invention is self-supporting and can be readily machined to desired final dimensions. Additional heating to about 1800/sup 0/ to 2000/sup 0/C further improves structural rigidity.

  4. Zirconia in dentistry: part 2. Evidence-based clinical breakthrough.

    PubMed

    Koutayas, Spiridon Oumvertos; Vagkopoulou, Thaleia; Pelekanos, Stavros; Koidis, Petros; Strub, Jörg Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    An ideal all-ceramic restoration that conforms well and demonstrates enhanced biocompatibility, strength, fit, and esthetics has always been desirable in clinical dentistry. However, the inherent brittleness, low flexural strength, and fracture toughness of conventional glass and alumina ceramics have been the main obstacles for extensive use. The recent introduction of zirconia-based ceramics as a restorative dental material has generated considerable interest in the dental community, which has been expressed with extensive industrial, clinical, and research activity. Contemporary zirconia powder technology contributes to the fabrication of new biocompatible all-ceramic restorations with improved physical properties for a wide range of promising clinical applications. Especially with the development of computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems, high-strength zirconia frameworks can be viable for the fabrication of full and partial coverage crowns, fixed partial dentures, veneers, posts and/or cores, primary double crowns, implant abutments, and implants. Data from laboratory and clinical studies are promising regarding their performance and survival. However, clinical data are considered insufficient and the identified premature complications should guide future research. In addition, different zirconia-based dental auxiliary components (i.e., cutting burs and surgical drills, extra-coronal attachments and orthodontic brackets) can also be technologically feasible. This review aims to present and discuss zirconia manufacturing methods and their potential for successful clinical application in dentistry.

  5. Multinuclear NMR study of silica fiberglass modified with zirconia.

    PubMed

    Lapina, O B; Khabibulin, D F; Terskikh, V V

    2011-01-01

    Silica fiberglass textiles are emerging as uniquely suited supports in catalysis, which offer unprecedented flexibility in designing advanced catalytic systems for chemical and auto industries. During manufacturing fiberglass materials are often modified with additives of various nature to improve glass properties. Glass network formers, such as zirconia and alumina, are known to provide the glass fibers with higher strength and to slow down undesirable devitrification processes. In this work multinuclear (1)H, (23)Na, (29)Si, and (91)Zr NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize the effect of zirconia on the molecular-level fiberglass structure. (29)Si NMR results help in understanding why zirconia-modified fiberglass is more stable towards devitrification comparing with pure silica glass. Internal void spaces formed in zirconia-silica glass fibers after acidic leaching correlate with sodium and water distributions in the starting bulk glass as probed by (23)Na and (1)H NMR. These voids spaces are important for stabilization of catalytically active species in the supported catalysts. Potentials of high-field (91)Zr NMR spectroscopy to study zirconia-containing glasses and similarly disordered systems are illustrated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High-temperature zirconia insulation and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Lewis, J. Jr.

    1988-05-10

    The present invention is directed to a highly pure, partially stabilized, fibrous zirconia composite for use as thermal insulation in environments where temperatures up to about 2,000 C are utilized. The composite of the present invention is fabricated into any suitable configuration such as a cone, cylinder, dome or the like by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of partially stabilized zirconia fibers into a desired configuration on a suitably shaped mandrel. The molded fibers are infiltrated with zirconyl nitrate and the resulting structure is then dried to form a rigid structure which may be removed and placed in a furnace. The structure is then heated in air to a temperature of about 600 C for driving off the nitrate from the structure and for oxidizing the zirconyl ion to zirconia. Thereafter, the structure is heated to about 950 to 1,250 C to fuse the zirconia fibers at their nexi in a matrix of zirconia. The composite produced by the present invention is self-supporting and can be readily machined to desired final dimensions. Additional heating to about 1,800 to 2,000 C further improves structural rigidity.

  7. High-temperature zirconia insulation and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, Jr., George E.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Lewis, Jr., John

    1988-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a highly pure, partially stabilized, fibrous zirconia composite for use as thermal insulation in environments where temperatures up to about 2000.degree. C. are utilized. The composite of the present invention is fabricated into any suitable configuration such as a cone, cylinder, dome or the like by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of partially stabilized zirconia fibers into a desired configuration on a suitably shaped mandrel. The molded fibers are infiltrated with zirconyl nitrate and the resulting structure is then dried to form a rigid structure which may be removed and placed in a furnace. The structure is then heated in air to a temperature of about 600.degree. C. for driving off the nitrate from the structure and for oxidizing the zirconyl ion to zirconia. Thereafter, the structure is heated to about 950.degree. to 1,250.degree. C. to fuse the zirconia fibers at their nexi in a matrix of zirconia. The composite produced by the present invention is self-supporting and can be readily machined to desired final dimensions. Additional heating to about 1800.degree. to 2000.degree. C. further improves structural rigidity.

  8. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia.

    PubMed

    Sari, Fatih; Secilmis, Asli; Simsek, Irfan; Ozsevik, Semih

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia.

  9. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia. PMID:27555895

  10. [Influence on mechanical properties and microstructure of nano-zirconia toughened alumina ceramics with nano-zirconia content].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Kui; Kang, Hong; Bao, Guang-Jie; Lv, Jin-Jun; Gao, Fei

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties and microstructure of nano -zirconia toughened alumina ceramics with variety of nano-zirconia content in centrifugal infiltrate casting processing of dental all-ceramic. Composite powder with different ethanol-water ratio, obtained serosity from ball milling and centrifugal infiltrate cast processing of green, then sintered at 1 450 degrees C for 8 h. The physical and mechanical properties of the sintered sample after milling and polishing were tested. Microstructures of the surface and fracture of the sintered sample were investigated by SEM. The experimental results showed that there had statistical significience (P < 0.01) on static three-point flexure strength and Vickers Hardness in three kinds of different nano-zirconia content sintered sample. Fracture toughness of 20% group was different from other two groups, while 10% group had not difference from 30% group (P < 0.05). The mechanical properties of this ceramic with 20% nano-zirconia was the best of the three, the static three-point flexure strength was (433 +/- 19) MPa and fracture toughness was (7.50 +/- 0.56) MPa x min 1/2. The intra/inter structure, fracture of intragranular and intergranular on the surface and fracture of sintered sample in microstrucre was also found. Intra/inter structure has strengthen toughness in ceramics. It has better toughness with 20% nano-zirconia, is suitable dental all-ceramic restoratives.

  11. Improvements to Zirconia Thick-Film Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskell, William C.; Brett, Daniel J. L.; Brandon, Nigel P.

    2013-06-01

    Thick-film zirconia gas sensors are normally screen-printed onto a planar substrate. A sandwich of electrode-electrolyte-electrode is fired at a temperature sufficient to instigate sintering of the zirconia electrolyte. The resulting porous zirconia film acts as both the electrolyte and as the diffusion barrier through which oxygen diffuses. The high sintering temperature results in de-activation of the electrodes so that sensors must be operated at around 800 °C for measurements in the percentage range of oxygen concentration. This work shows that the use of cobalt oxide as a sintering aid allows reduction of the sensor operating temperature by 100-200 °C with clear benefits. Furthermore, an interesting and new technique is presented for the investigation of the influence of dopants and of the through-porosity of ionically-conducting materials.

  12. Resin cementation of zirconia ceramics with different bonding agents

    PubMed Central

    Tanış, Merve Çakırbay; Akay, Canan; Karakış, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sandblasting and different chemical bonding agents on shear bond strength of zirconia and conventional resin cement. In this study, 35 zirconia specimens were treated as follows: Group I: control; Group II: sandblasting; Group III: sandblasting + Monobond S; Group IV: sandblasting + Monobond Plus; Group V: sandblasting + Z-Prime Plus. The specimens in each group were bonded with conventional composite resin cement Variolink II. After cementation, specimens were stored in distilled water (at 37 °C) for 24 h and shear test was performed. The highest shear bond strength values were observed in Groups IV and V. The lowest shear bond strength values were observed in Group I. Using 10-methacryloyloxy-decyl dihydrogenphosphate monomer-containing priming agents, e.g. Monobond Plus and Z-PRIME Plus, combined with sandblasting can be an effective method for resin bonding of zirconia restorations. PMID:26019653

  13. Study of Laser Drilled Hole Quality of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Surendra K.; Dubey, Avanish K.; Pant, Piyush; Upadhyay, B. N.; Choubey, A.

    2017-09-01

    The Yttria Stabilized Zirconia ceramic is extensively used in aerospace, automotives, medical and microelectronics industries. These applications demand manufacturing of different macro and micro features with close tolerances in this material. To make miniature holes with accurate dimensions in advanced ceramics such as Yttria Stabilized Zirconia is very difficult due to its tailored attributes such as high toughness, hardness, strength, resistance to wear, corrosion and temperature. Due to inherent characteristics of laser drilling, researchers are working to fulfill the requirement of creation of micro holes in advanced ceramics. The present research investigates the laser drilling of 2 mm thick Yttria Stabilized Zirconia with the aim to achieve good micro holes with reduced geometrical inaccuracies and improved hole quality. The results show that multiple quality response comprising hole circularity, hole taper and recast layer thickness has been improved at optimally selected process parameters.

  14. Thermodynamic properties of some metal oxide-zirconia systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1989-01-01

    Metal oxide-zirconia systems are a potential class of materials for use as structural materials at temperatures above 1900 K. These materials must have no destructive phase changes and low vapor pressures. Both alkaline earth oxide (MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO)-zirconia and some rare earth oxide (Y2O3, Sc2O3, La2O3, CeO2, Sm2O3, Gd2O3, Yb2O3, Dy2O3, Ho2O3, and Er2O3)-zirconia system are examined. For each system, the phase diagram is discussed and the vapor pressure for each vapor species is calculated via a free energy minimization procedure. The available thermodynamic literature on each system is also surveyed. Some of the systems look promising for high temperature structural materials.

  15. Alumina additions may improve the damage tolerance of soft machined zirconia-based ceramics.

    PubMed

    Oilo, Marit; Tvinnereim, Helene M; Gjerdet, Nils Roar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the damage tolerance of different zirconia-based materials. Bars of one hard machined and one soft machined dental zirconia and an experimental 95% zirconia 5% alumina ceramic were subjected to 100,000 stress cycles (n = 10), indented to provoke cracks on the tensile stress side (n = 10), and left untreated as controls (n = 10). The experimental material demonstrated a higher relative damage tolerance, with a 40% reduction compared to 68% for the hard machined zirconia and 84% for the soft machined zirconia.

  16. Study on the neotype zirconia's implant coated nanometer hydroxyapatite ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. W.; Yang, D. W.

    2007-07-01

    In recent years, biologic ceramics is a popular material of implants and bioactive surface modification of dental implant became a research emphasis, which aims to improve bioactivity of implants materials and acquire firmer implants-bone interface. The zirconia ceramic has excellent mechanical properties and nanometer HA ceramics is a bioceramic well known for its bioactivity, therefore, nanometer HA ceramics coating on zirconia, allows combining the excellent mechanical properties of zirconia substrates with its bioactivity. This paper shows a new method for implant shape design and bioactive modification of dental implants surface. Zirconia's implant substrate was prepared by sintered method, central and lateral tunnels were drilled in the zirconia hollow porous cylindrical implants by laser processing. The HA powders and needle-like HA crystals were made by a wet precipitation and calcining method. Its surface was coated with nanometer HA ceramics which was used brush HA slurry and vacuum sintering. Mechanical testing results revealed that the attachment strength of nanometer HA ceramics coated zirconia samples is high. SEM and interface observation after inserted experiment indicated that calcium and phosphor content increased and symmetrically around coated implant-bone tissue interface. A significantly higher affinity index was demonstrated in vivo by histomorphometric evaluation in coated versus uncoated implants. SEM analysis demonstrated better bone adhesion to the material in coated implant at any situation. In addition, the hollow porous cylindrical implant coated with nanometer HA ceramics increase the interaction of bone and implant, the new bone induced into the surface of hollow porous cylindrical implant and through the most tunnels filled into central hole. The branch-like structure makes the implant and bone a body, which increased the contact area and decreased elastic ratio. Therefore, the macroscopical and microcosmic nested structure of

  17. Silicon carbide whisker-zirconia reinforced mullite and alumina ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Becher, Paul F.; Tiegs, Terry N.

    1987-01-01

    The flexural strength and/or fracture toughness of SiC whisker-reinforced composites utilizing mullite or alumina as the matrix material for the composite are increased by the addition of zirconia in a monoclinic or tetragonal phase to the matrix. The zirconia addition also provides for a lower hot-pressing temperature and increases the flexural strength and/or fracture toughness of the SiC whisker-reinforced composites over SiC whisker-reinforced composites of the similar matrix materials reinforced with similar concentrations of SiC whiskers.

  18. pH control of the structure, composition, and catalytic activity of sulfated zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir K.; Baranchikov, Alexander Ye.; Kopitsa, Gennady P.; Lermontov, Sergey A.; Yurkova, Lyudmila L.; Gubanova, Nadezhda N.; Ivanova, Olga S.; Lermontov, Anatoly S.; Rumyantseva, Marina N.; Vasilyeva, Larisa P.; Sharp, Melissa; Pranzas, P. Klaus; Tretyakov, Yuri D.

    2013-02-01

    We report a detailed study of structural and chemical transformations of amorphous hydrous zirconia into sulfated zirconia-based superacid catalysts. Precipitation pH is shown to be the key factor governing structure, composition and properties of amorphous sulfated zirconia gels and nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia. Increase in precipitation pH leads to substantial increase of surface fractal dimension (up to ˜2.7) of amorphous sulfated zirconia gels, and consequently to increase in specific surface area (up to ˜80 m2/g) and simultaneously to decrease in sulfate content and total acidity of zirconia catalysts. Complete conversion of hexene-1 over as synthesized sulfated zirconia catalysts was observed even under ambient conditions.

  19. Comparison of bond strengths of ceramic brackets bonded to zirconia surfaces using different zirconia primers and a universal adhesive.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jaechan; An, Sang In; Park, Jeong-Won

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the shear bond strengths of ceramic brackets bonded to zirconia surfaces using different zirconia primers and universal adhesive. Fifty zirconia blocks (15 × 15 × 10 mm, Zpex, Tosoh Corporation) were polished with 1,000 grit sand paper and air-abraded with 50 µm Al 2 O 3 for 10 seconds (40 psi). They were divided into 5 groups: control (CO), Metal/Zirconia primer (MZ, Ivoclar Vivadent), Z-PRIME Plus (ZP, Bisco), Zirconia Liner (ZL, Sun Medical), and Scotchbond Universal adhesive (SU, 3M ESPE). Transbond XT Primer (used for CO, MZ, ZP, and ZL) and Transbond XT Paste was used for bracket bonding (Gemini clear ceramic brackets, 3M Unitek). After 24 hours at 37°C storage, specimens underwent 2,000 thermocycles, and then, shear bond strengths were measured (1 mm/min). An adhesive remnant index (ARI) score was calculated. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test ( p = 0.05). Surface treatment with primers resulted in increased shear bond strength. The SU group showed the highest shear bond strength followed by the ZP, ZL, MZ, and CO groups, in that order. The median ARI scores were as follows: CO = 0, MZ = 0, ZP = 0, ZL = 0, and SU = 3 ( p < 0.05). Within this experiment, zirconia primer can increase the shear bond strength of bracket bonding. The highest shear bond strength is observed in SU group, even when no primer is used.

  20. Comparison of bond strengths of ceramic brackets bonded to zirconia surfaces using different zirconia primers and a universal adhesive

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to compare the shear bond strengths of ceramic brackets bonded to zirconia surfaces using different zirconia primers and universal adhesive. Materials and Methods Fifty zirconia blocks (15 × 15 × 10 mm, Zpex, Tosoh Corporation) were polished with 1,000 grit sand paper and air-abraded with 50 µm Al2O3 for 10 seconds (40 psi). They were divided into 5 groups: control (CO), Metal/Zirconia primer (MZ, Ivoclar Vivadent), Z-PRIME Plus (ZP, Bisco), Zirconia Liner (ZL, Sun Medical), and Scotchbond Universal adhesive (SU, 3M ESPE). Transbond XT Primer (used for CO, MZ, ZP, and ZL) and Transbond XT Paste was used for bracket bonding (Gemini clear ceramic brackets, 3M Unitek). After 24 hours at 37°C storage, specimens underwent 2,000 thermocycles, and then, shear bond strengths were measured (1 mm/min). An adhesive remnant index (ARI) score was calculated. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test (p = 0.05). Results Surface treatment with primers resulted in increased shear bond strength. The SU group showed the highest shear bond strength followed by the ZP, ZL, MZ, and CO groups, in that order. The median ARI scores were as follows: CO = 0, MZ = 0, ZP = 0, ZL = 0, and SU = 3 (p < 0.05). Conclusions Within this experiment, zirconia primer can increase the shear bond strength of bracket bonding. The highest shear bond strength is observed in SU group, even when no primer is used. PMID:29487838

  1. Internal coating of zirconia restoration with silica-based ceramic improves bonding of resin cement to dental zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Shuzo; Nikaido, Toru; Ikeda, Masaomi; Alireza, Sadr; Miura, Hiroyuki; Tagami, Junji

    2010-01-01

    Resin bonding to zirconia ceramic cannot be established by standard methods that are utilized for conventional silica-based dental ceramics. This study was aimed to examine the tensile bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramic using a new laboratory technique. Sixty-four zirconia ceramic specimens were air-abraded using Al2O3 particles and divided into two groups; the control group with no pretreatment (Control), and the group pretreated using the internal coating technique (INT), in which the surface of the zirconia specimens were thinly coated by fusing silica-based ceramic and air-abraded in the same manner. The specimens in each group were further divided into two subgroups according to the silane coupling agents applied; a mixture of dentin primer/silane coupling agent (Clearfil SE Bond Primer/Porcelain Bond Activator) or a newly developed single-component silane coupling agent (Clearfil Ceramic Primer). After bonding with dual-cured resin cement (Panavia F 2.0), they were stored in water for 24 h and half of them were additionally subjected to thermal cycling. The tensile bond strengths were tested using a universal testing machine. ANOVAs revealed significant influence of ceramic surface pretreatment (p<0.001), silane coupling agent (p<0.001) and thermal cycling (p<0.001); the INT coating technique significantly increased the bond strengths of resin cement to zirconia ceramic, whereas thermal cycling significantly decreased the bond strengths. The use of a single-component silane coupling agent demonstrated significantly higher bond strengths than that of a mixture of dentin primer/silane coupling agent. The internal coating of zirconia dental restorations with silica-based ceramic followed by silanization may be indicated in order to achieve better bonding for the clinical success.

  2. Load-bearing capacity of all-ceramic posterior inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Djamila; Wolfart, Stefan; Ludwig, Klaus; Kern, Matthias

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the quasi-static load-bearing capacity of all-ceramic resin-bonded three-unit inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses (IRFDPs) made from computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-manufactured yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) frameworks with two different connector dimensions, with and without fatigue loading. Twelve IRFDPs each were made with connector dimensions 3 x 3 mm(2) (width x height) (control group) and 3 x 2 mm(2) (test group). Inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses were adhesively cemented on identical metal-models using composite resin cement. Subgroups of six specimens each were fatigued with maximal 1,200,000 loading cycles in a chewing simulator with a weight load of 25 kg and a load frequency of 1.5 Hz. The load-bearing capacity was tested in a universal testing machine for IRFDPs without fatigue loading and for IRFDPs that had not already fractured during fatigue loading. During fatigue testing one IRFDP (17%) of the test group failed. Under both loading conditions, IRFDPs of the control group exhibited statistically significantly higher load-bearing capacities than the test group. Fatigue loading reduced the load-bearing capacity in both groups. Considering the maximum chewing forces in the molar region, it seems possible to use zirconia ceramic as a core material for IRFDPs with a minimum connector dimension of 9 mm(2). A further reduction of the connector dimensions to 6 mm(2) results in a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity.

  3. Loading capacity of zirconia implant supported hybrid ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Nadja; Coldea, Andrea; Zitzmann, Nicola U; Fischer, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Recently a polymer infiltrated hybrid ceramic was developed, which is characterized by a low elastic modulus and therefore may be considered as potential material for implant supported single crowns. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the loading capacity of hybrid ceramic single crowns on one-piece zirconia implants with respect to the cement type. Fracture load tests were performed on standardized molar crowns milled from hybrid ceramic or feldspar ceramic, cemented to zirconia implants with either machined or etched intaglio surface using four different resin composite cements. Flexure strength, elastic modulus, indirect tensile strength and compressive strength of the cements were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA (p=0.05). The hybrid ceramic exhibited statistically significant higher fracture load values than the feldspar ceramic. Fracture load values and compressive strength values of the respective cements were correlated. Highest fracture load values were achieved with an adhesive cement (1253±148N). Etching of the intaglio surface did not improve the fracture load. Loading capacity of hybrid ceramic single crowns on one-piece zirconia implants is superior to that of feldspar ceramic. To achieve maximal loading capacity for permanent cementation of full-ceramic restorations on zirconia implants, self-adhesive or adhesive cements with a high compressive strength should be used. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dehydration and crystallization kinetics of zirconia-yttria gels

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, S.; Muraleedharan, R.V.; Roy, S.K.

    1995-02-01

    Zirconia and zirconia-yttria gels containing 4 and 8 mol% yttria were obtained by coprecipitation and drying at 373 K. The dehydration and crystallization behavior of the dried gels was studied by DSC, TG, and XRD. The gels undergo elimination of water over a wide temperature range of 373--673 K. The peak temperature of the endotherm corresponding to dehydration and the kinetic constants for the process were not influenced by the yttria content of the gel. The enthalpy of dehydration observed was in good agreement with the heat of vaporization data. The dehydration was followed by a sharp exothermic crystallization process.more » The peak temperature of the exotherm and the activation energy of the process increased with an increase in yttria content, while the enthalpy of crystallization showed a decrease. The ``glow effect`` reduced with increasing yttria content. Pure zirconia crystallizes in the tetragonal form while the zirconia containing 4 and 8 mol% yttria appears to crystallize in the cubic form.« less

  5. Enhanced structural stability of nanoporous zirconia under irradiation of He

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tengfei; Huang, Xuejun; Wang, Chenxu

    2012-01-01

    This work reports a greatly enhanced tolerance for He irradiation-induced swelling in nanocrystalline zirconia film with interconnected nanoporous structure (hereinafter referred as to NC-C). Compared to bulk yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and another nanocrystalline zirconia film only with discrete nano voids (hereinafter referred as to NC-V), the NC-C film reveals good tolerance for irradiation of high-fluence He. No appreciable surface blistering can be found even at the highest fluence of 6 1017 cm2 in NCC film. From TEM analysis of as-irradiated samples, the enhanced tolerance for volume swelling in NCC film is attributed to the enhanced diffusion mechanism of deposited Hemore » via widely distributed nano channels. Furthermore, the growth of grain size is quite small for both nanocrystalline zirconia films after irradiation, which is ascribed to the decreasing of area of grain boundary due to loose structure and low energy of primary knock-on atoms for He ions.« less

  6. Fracture resistance and reliability of new zirconia posts.

    PubMed

    Oblak, Cedomir; Jevnikar, Peter; Kosmac, Tomaz; Funduk, Nenad; Marion, Ljubo

    2004-04-01

    The radicular portion of zirconia endodontic posts often need to be reshaped to achieve a definitive form and may be airborne-particle abraded to improve adhesion during luting. Therefore, the surface of the tetragonal zirconia ceramics may be transformed and damaged, influencing the mechanical properties of the material. This study compared the fracture resistance of prefabricated zirconia posts with a new retentive post-head after different surface treatments. Experimental zirconia posts of 2 different diameters, 1.3 mm and 1.5 mm, were produced from commercially available zirconia powder. A cylindro-conical outline form was used for the root portion of the system and a post-head with 3 retentive rings was designed. Sixty posts of each diameter were divided into 3 groups (n=20). Group 1 was ground with a coarse grit diamond bur; Group 2 was airborne-particle abraded with 110-microm fused alumina particles, and Group 3 was left as-received (controls). Posts were luted into the root-shaped artificial canals with the Clearfil adhesive system and Panavia 21 adhesive resin luting agent. The posts were loaded in a universal testing machine at an inclination of 45 degrees with the constant cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. The fracture load (N) necessary to cause post fracture was recorded, and the statistical significance of differences among groups was analyzed with 1-way ANOVA followed by the Fischer LSD test (alpha=.05). The variability was analyzed using Weibull statistics. Load to fracture values of all zirconia posts depended primarily on post diameter. Mean fracture loads (SD) in Newtons were 518.4 (+/-101.3), 993.6 (+/-224.1), and 622.7 (+/-110.3) for Groups 1 through 3, respectively, for thicker posts, and 385.9 (+/-110.3), 627.0 (+/-115.1), and 451.2 (+/-81.4) for Groups 1 through 3, respectively, for thinner posts. Airborne-particle-abraded posts exhibited significantly higher resistance to fracture (P<.05) than those in the other 2 groups for diameters 1.3 mm

  7. Scandia-and-Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia for Thermal Barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mess, Derek

    2003-01-01

    yttria in suitable proportions has shown promise of being a superior thermal- barrier coating (TBC) material, relative to zirconia stabilized with yttria only. More specifically, a range of compositions in the zirconia/scandia/yttria material system has been found to afford increased resistance to deleterious phase transformations at temperatures high enough to cause deterioration of yttria-stabilized zirconia. Yttria-stabilized zirconia TBCs have been applied to metallic substrates in gas turbine and jet engines to protect the substrates against high operating temperatures. These coatings have porous and microcracked structures, which can accommodate strains induced by thermal-expansion mismatch and thermal shock. The longevity of such a coating depends upon yttria as a stabilizing additive that helps to maintain the zirconia in an yttria-rich, socalled non-transformable tetragonal crystallographic phase, thus preventing transformation to the monoclinic phase with an associated deleterious volume change. However, at a temperature greater than about 1,200 C, there is sufficient atomic mobility that the equilibrium, transformable zirconia phase is formed. Upon subsequent cooling, this phase transforms to the monoclinic phase, with an associated volume change that adversely affects the integrity of the coating. Recently, scandia was identified as a stabilizer that could be used instead of, or in addition to, yttria. Of particular interest are scandia-and-yttria-stabilized zirconia (SYSZ) compositions of about 6 mole percent scandia and 1 mole percent yttria, which have been found to exhibit remarkable phase stability at a temperature of 1,400 C in simple aging tests. Unfortunately, scandia is expensive, so that the problem becomes one of determining whether there are compositions with smaller proportions of scandia that afford the required high-temperature stability. In an attempt to solve this problem, experiments were performed on specimens made with reduced

  8. Sulfation of ceria-zirconia model automotive emissions control catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Alan Edwin

    Cerium-zirconium mixed metal oxides are used in automotive emissions control catalysts to regulate the partial pressure of oxygen near the catalyst surface. The near surface oxygen partial pressure is regulated through transfer of atomic oxygen from the ceria-zirconia solid matrix to the platinum group metals to form metal oxides capable of oxidizing carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. Although the addition of zirconium in the cubic lattice of ceria increases the oxygen storage capacity and thermal stability of the ceria matrix, the cerium-zirconium oxide system remains particularly susceptible to deactivation from sulfur compounds. While the overall effect of sulfur on these systems is understood (partially irreversible deactivation), the fundamental and molecular interaction of sulfur with ceria-zirconia remains a challenging problem. Ceria-zirconia metal oxide solid solutions have been prepared through co-precipitation with nitrate precursors. The prepared powders were calcined and subsequently formed into planer wafers and characterized for chemical and physical attributes. The prepared samples were subsequently exposed to a sulfur dioxide based environment and characterized with spectroscopic techniques to characterize the extent of sulfation and the nature of surface sulfur species. The extent of sulfation of the model ceria-zirconia systems was characterized with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) prior to and after treatment in a microreactor. Strong dependencies were observed between the atomic ratio of ceria to zirconia and the extent of sulfation. In addition, the partial pressure of sulfur dioxide during treatments also correlated to the extent of sulfation, while temperature only slightly effected the extent of sulfation. The AES data suggests the gas phase sulfur dioxide preferentially chemisorbs on surface ceria atoms and the extent of sulfation is heavily dependent on sulfur dioxide concentrations and only slightly dependent on catalyst

  9. Surface roughness of zirconia for full-contour crowns after clinically simulated grinding and polishing.

    PubMed

    Hmaidouch, Rim; Müller, Wolf-Dieter; Lauer, Hans-Christoph; Weigl, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of controlled intraoral grinding and polishing on the roughness of full-contour zirconia compared to classical veneered zirconia. Thirty bar-shaped zirconia specimens were fabricated and divided into two groups (n=15). Fifteen specimens (group 1) were glazed and 15 specimens (group 2) were veneered with feldspathic ceramic and then glazed. Prior to grinding, maximum roughness depth (Rmax) values were measured using a profilometer, 5 times per specimen. Simulated clinical grinding and polishing were performed on the specimens under water coolant for 15 s and 2 N pressure. For grinding, NTI diamonds burs with grain sizes of 20 µm, 10 µm, and 7.5 µm were used sequentially. The ground surfaces were polished using NTI kits with coarse, medium and fine polishers. After each step, Rmax values were determined. Differences between groups were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The roughness of group 1 was significantly lower than that of group 2. The roughness increased significantly after coarse grinding in both groups. The results after glazing were similar to those obtained after fine grinding for non-veneered zirconia. However, fine-ground veneered zirconia had significantly higher roughness than venerred, glazed zirconia. No significant difference was found between fine-polished and glazed zirconia, but after the fine polishing of veneered zirconia, the roughness was significantly higher than after glazing. It can be concluded that for full-contour zirconia, fewer defects and lower roughness values resulted after grinding and polishing compared to veneered zirconia. After polishing zirconia, lower roughness values were achieved compared to glazing; more interesting was that the grinding of glazed zirconia using the NTI three-step system could deliver smooth surfaces comparable to untreated glazed zirconia surfaces.

  10. Surface roughness of zirconia for full-contour crowns after clinically simulated grinding and polishing

    PubMed Central

    Hmaidouch, Rim; Müller, Wolf-Dieter; Lauer, Hans-Christoph; Weigl, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of controlled intraoral grinding and polishing on the roughness of full-contour zirconia compared to classical veneered zirconia. Thirty bar-shaped zirconia specimens were fabricated and divided into two groups (n=15). Fifteen specimens (group 1) were glazed and 15 specimens (group 2) were veneered with feldspathic ceramic and then glazed. Prior to grinding, maximum roughness depth (Rmax) values were measured using a profilometer, 5 times per specimen. Simulated clinical grinding and polishing were performed on the specimens under water coolant for 15 s and 2 N pressure. For grinding, NTI diamonds burs with grain sizes of 20 µm, 10 µm, and 7.5 µm were used sequentially. The ground surfaces were polished using NTI kits with coarse, medium and fine polishers. After each step, Rmax values were determined. Differences between groups were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The roughness of group 1 was significantly lower than that of group 2. The roughness increased significantly after coarse grinding in both groups. The results after glazing were similar to those obtained after fine grinding for non-veneered zirconia. However, fine-ground veneered zirconia had significantly higher roughness than venerred, glazed zirconia. No significant difference was found between fine-polished and glazed zirconia, but after the fine polishing of veneered zirconia, the roughness was significantly higher than after glazing. It can be concluded that for full-contour zirconia, fewer defects and lower roughness values resulted after grinding and polishing compared to veneered zirconia. After polishing zirconia, lower roughness values were achieved compared to glazing; more interesting was that the grinding of glazed zirconia using the NTI three-step system could deliver smooth surfaces comparable to untreated glazed zirconia surfaces. PMID:25059249

  11. Comparison of peri-implant bone formation around injection-molded and machined surface zirconia implants in rabbit tibiae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong-Kyun; Woo, Kyung mi; Shon, Won-Jun; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Cha, Seunghee; Park, Young-Seok

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare osseointegration and surface characteristics of zirconia implants made by the powder injection molding (PIM) technique and made by the conventional milling procedure in rabbit tibiae. Surface characteristics of 2 types of implant were evaluated. Sixteeen rabbits received 2 types of external hex implants with similar geometry, machined zirconia implants and PIM zirconia implants, in the tibiae. Removal torque tests and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The roughness of PIM zirconia implants was higher than that of machined zirconia implants. The PIM zirconia implants exhibited significantly higher bone-implant contact and removal torque values than the machined zirconia implants (P < 0.001). The osseointegration of the PIM zirconia implant is promising, and PIM, using the roughened mold etching technique, can produce substantially rough surfaces on zirconia implants. PMID:26235717

  12. Shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to zirconia: Effect of surface treatment by CNC-milling and composite layer deposition on zirconia.

    PubMed

    Santos, R L P; Silva, F S; Nascimento, R M; Souza, J C M; Motta, F V; Carvalho, O; Henriques, B

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of veneering feldspathic porcelain to zirconia substrates modified by CNC-milling process or by coating zirconia with a composite interlayer. Four types of zirconia-porcelain interface configurations were tested: RZ - porcelain bonded to rough zirconia substrate (n=16); PZ - porcelain bonded to zirconia substrate with surface holes (n=16); RZI - application of a composite interlayer between the veneering porcelain and the rough zirconia substrate (n=16); PZI - application of a composite interlayer between the porcelain and the zirconia substrate treated by CNC-milling (n=16). The composite interlayer was composed of zirconia particles reinforced porcelain (30%, vol%). The mechanical properties of the ceramic composite have been determined. The shear bond strength test was performed at 0.5mm/min using a universal testing machine. The interfaces of fractured and untested specimens were examined by FEG-SEM/EDS. Data was analyzed with Shapiro-Wilk test to test the assumption of normality. The one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD multiple comparison test was used to compare shear bond strength results (α=0.05). The shear bond strength of PZ (100±15MPa) and RZI (96±11MPa) specimens were higher than that recorded for RZ (control group) specimens (89±15MPa), although not significantly (p>0.05). The highest shear bond strength values were recorded for PZI specimens (138±19MPa), yielding a significant improvement of 55% relative to RZ specimens (p<0.05). This study shows that it is possible to highly enhance the zirconia-porcelain bond strength - even by ~55% - by combining surface holes in zirconia frameworks and the application of a proper ceramic composite interlayer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In Vitro Cell Proliferation and Mechanical Behaviors Observed in Porous Zirconia Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Wang, Xiaobei; Lin, Yuanhua; Deng, Xuliang; Li, Ming; Nan, Cewen

    2016-01-01

    Zirconia ceramics with porous structure have been prepared by solid-state reaction using yttria-stabilized zirconia and stearic acid powders. Analysis of its microstructure and phase composition revealed that a pure zirconia phase can be obtained. Our results indicated that its porosity and pore size as well as the mechanical characteristics can be tuned by changing the content of stearic acid powder. The optimal porosity and pore size of zirconia ceramic samples can be effective for the increase of surface roughness, which results in higher cell proliferation values without destroying the mechanical properties. PMID:28773341

  14. Innovations in bonding to zirconia-based materials. Part II: Focusing on chemical interactions.

    PubMed

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Mirmohamadi, Hesam; Matinlinna, Jukka P; Kukk, Edwin; Ounsi, Hani F; Salameh, Ziad

    2009-08-01

    The zirconia-resin bond strength was enhanced using novel engineered zirconia primers in combination with selective infiltration etching as a surface pre-treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of artificial aging on the chemical stability of the established bond and to understand the activation mechanism of the used primers. Selective infiltration etched zirconia discs (Procera; NobelBiocare) were coated with one of four novel engineered zirconia primers containing reactive monomers and were bonded to resin-composite discs (Panavia F2.0). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was carried out to examine the chemical activation of zirconia primers from mixing time and up to 60min. The bilayered specimens were cut into microbars (1mm(2) in cross-section area) and zirconia-resin microtensile bond strength (MTBS) was evaluated immediately and after 90 days of water storage at 37 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the fracture surface. There was a significant drop in MTBS values after 90 days of water storage for all tested zirconia primers from ca. 28-41MPa to ca. 15-18MPa after completion of artificial aging. SEM revealed increase in percentage of interfacial failure after water storage. FTIR spectra suggested adequate activation of the experimental zirconia primers within 1h of mixing time. The novel engineered zirconia primers produced initially high bond strength values which were significantly reduced after water storage. Long-term bond stability requires developing more stable primers.

  15. Large dielectric constant in zirconia polypyrrole hybrid nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Dey, Ashis; De, S K

    2007-06-01

    Zirconia nanoparticles have been synthesized by a novel two-reverse emulsion technique and combined with polypyrrole (PPY) to form ZrO2-PPY nanocomposites. Complex impedance and dielectric permittivity of ZrO2-PPY nanocomposite have been investigated as a function of frequency and temperature for different compositions. The composite samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The composites reveal ordered semiconducting behaviour. Polypyrrole is the major component in electrical transport process of the samples. A very large dielectric constant of about 12,000 at room temperature has been observed. The colossal dielectric constant is mainly dominated by interfacial polarization due to Maxwell-Wagner relaxation effect. Two completely separate groups of dielectric relaxation have been observed. The low frequency dielectric relaxation arises from surface defect states of zirconia nanoparticles. The broad peak at high frequency is due to Maxwell-Wagner type polarization.

  16. A novel method for the synthesis of zirconia powder

    SciTech Connect

    Bohe, A.E.; Pasquevich, D.M.

    A novel method for the synthesis of zirconia powder is presented in this paper. The formation of fine particles of zirconia takes place when metallic zirconium and hematite are heated in the presence of gaseous chlorine. The overall process, which can be described by the following reaction: 3 Zr(s) + 2 Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(s) {r_arrow} 3 ZrO{sub 2}(s) + 4 Fe(s), occurs by a mass-transport mechanism through the vapor phase between 723 and 1223 K. The vapor-mass transport among the solid species takes place by means of zirconium and iron chlorides. The fundamentals of synthesis are discussed on the basismore » of a detailed thermodynamic analysis of reactions involved in the process, as well as by a characterization of the solid phases formed at various temperatures at XRD and SEM examinations.« less

  17. In-vitro bioactivity of zirconia doped borosilicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Samudrala, Rajkumar; Azeem, P. Abdul, E-mail: rk.satyaswaroop@gmail.com, E-mail: drazeem2002@yahoo.com

    2015-06-24

    Glass composition 31B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20SiO{sub 2}-24.5Na{sub 2}O-(24.5-x) CaO-xZrO{sub 2} x=1,2,3,4,5 were prepared by melt-quenching Technique. The formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of glasses after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) was explored through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses. In this report, we observed that hydroxyapatite formation for 5days of immersion time. Also observed that with increasing the immersion time up to 15days, higher amount of hydroxyapatite layer formation on the surface of glasses. The varying composition of zirconia in glass samples influences shown by XRD, FTIR studies. The present results indicate that,more » in-vitro bioactivity of glasses decreased with increasing zirconia incorporation.« less

  18. Templated electrochemical deposition of zirconia thin films on "recordable CDs.".

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua-Zhong; Rowe, Aaron W; Waugh, Damien M

    2002-11-15

    In this paper, we describe a practical method of using gold films constructed from recordable compact disks (CD-Rs) as simple, inexpensive, and micropatterned conductive substrates for the fabrication of inorganic material microstructures. Extending from their application for the fabrication of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) reported recently, bare and SAM-modified CD-R gold substrates have been used for template-directed electrodeposition of zirconia (ZrO2) thin films (i.e., the controlled formation of zirconia thin films on the different areas of the prefabricated, micrometer mountain-valley CD-R gold substrate surfaces). The present results demonstrate that the variation of the functional groups of the selected SAMs combined with electrodynamic control can be very successful to "customize" the formation and microstructure of functional inorganic thin films, which hold promise for modern technological applications.

  19. The development of Zirconia and Copper toughened Alumina ceramic insert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalina Sabuan, Nur; Zolkafli, Nurfatini; Mebrahitom, A.; Azhari, Azmir; Mamat, Othman

    2018-04-01

    Ceramic cutting tools have been utilized in industry for over a century for its productivity and efficiency in machine tools and cutting tool material. However, due to the brittleness property the application has been limited. In order to manufacture high strength ceramic cutting tools, there is a need for suitable reinforcement to improve its toughness. In this case, copper (Cu) and zirconia (ZrO2) powders were added to investigate the hardness and physical properties of the developed composite insert. A uniaxial pre-forming process of the mix powder was done prior to densification by sintering at 1000 and 1300°C. The effect of the composition of the reinforcement on the hardness, density, shrinkage and microstructure of the inserts was investigated. It was found that an optimum density of 3.26 % and hardness 1385HV was obtained for composite of 10wt % zirconia and 10wt% copper at temperature 1000 °C.

  20. Fabrication of composite films containing zirconia and cationic polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xin; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2004-03-30

    Composite films were prepared by electrophoretic deposition of poly(ethylenimine) or poly(allylamine hydrochloride) combined with cathodic precipitation of zirconia. Films of up to several micrometers thick were obtained on Ni, Pt, stainless-steel, graphite, and carbon-felt substrates. When the concentration of polyelectrolytes in solutions and the deposition time were varied, the amount of the deposited material and its composition can be varied. The electrochemical intercalation of yttria-stabilized zirconia particles into the composite films has been demonstrated. Obtained results pave the way for the electrodeposition of other polymer-ceramic composites. The deposits were studied by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The mechanisms of deposition are discussed.

  1. Zirconia toughened mica glass ceramics for dental restorations.

    PubMed

    Gali, Sivaranjani; K, Ravikumar; Murthy, B V S; Basu, Bikramjit

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to understand the role of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in achieving the desired spectrum of clinically relevant mechanical properties (hardness, elastic modulus, fracture toughness and brittleness index) and chemical solubility of mica glass ceramics. The glass-zirconia mixtures with varying amounts of YSZ (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20wt.%) were ball milled, compacted and sintered to obtain pellets of glass ceramic-YSZ composites. Phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction and microstructural characterization with SEM revealed the crystal morphology of the composites. Mechanical properties such as Vickers hardness, elastic modulus, indentation fracture toughness and chemical solubility were assessed. Phase analysis of sintered pellets of glass ceramic-YSZ composites revealed the characteristic peaks of fluorophlogopite (FPP) and tetragonal zirconia. Microstructural investigation showed plate and lath-like interlocking mica crystals with embedded zirconia. Vickers hardness of 9.2GPa, elastic modulus of 125GPa, indentation toughness of 3.6MPa·m 1/2 , and chemical solubility of 30μg/cm 2 (well below the permissible limit) were recorded with mica glass ceramics containing 20wt.% YSZ. An increase in hardness and toughness of the glass ceramic-YSZ composites with no compromise on their brittleness index and chemical solubility has been observed. Such spectrum of properties can be utilised for developing a machinable ceramic for low stress bearing inlays, onlays and veneers. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Surface modification for enhanced silanation of zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Piascik, J R; Swift, E J; Thompson, J Y; Grego, S; Stoner, B R

    2009-09-01

    The overall goal of this research was to develop a practical method to chemically modify the surface of high strength dental ceramics (i.e. zirconia) to facilitate viable, robust adhesive bonding using commercially available silanes and resin cements. Investigation focused on a novel approach to surface functionalize zirconia with a Si(x)O(y) "seed" layer that would promote chemical bonding with traditional silanes. ProCAD and ZirCAD blocks were bonded to a dimensionally similar composite block using standard techniques designed for silica-containing materials (silane and resin cement). ZirCAD blocks were treated with SiCl4 by vapor deposition under two different conditions prior to bonding. Microtensile bars were prepared and subjected to tensile forces at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze fracture surfaces and determine failure mode; either composite cohesive failure (partial or complete cohesive failure within composite) or adhesive failure (partial or complete adhesive failure). Peak stress values were analyzed using single-factor ANOVA (p<0.05). Microtensile testing results revealed that zirconia with a surface treatment of 2.6 nm Si(x)O(y) thick "seed" layer was similar in strength to the porcelain group (control). Analysis of failure modes indicated the above groups displayed higher percentages of in-composite failures. Other groups tested had lower strength values and displayed adhesive failure characteristics. Mechanical data support that utilizing a gas-phase chloro-silane pretreatment to deposit ultra-thin silica-like seed layers can improve adhesion to zirconia using traditional silanation and bonding techniques. This technology could have clinical impact on how high strength dental materials are used today.

  3. Oxygen production using solid-state zirconia electrolyte technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suitor, Jerry W.; Clark, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    High purity oxygen is required for a number of scientific, medical, and industrial applications. Traditionally, these needs have been met by cryogenic distillation or pressure swing adsorption systems designed to separate oxygen from air. Oxygen separation from air via solid-state zirconia electrolyte technology offers an alternative to these methods. The technology has several advantages over the traditional methods, including reliability, compactness, quiet operation, high purity output, and low power consumption.

  4. Photoluminescent spectroscopy measurements in nanocrystalline praseodymium doped zirconia powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Brito, F.; Murrieta S, H.; Hernández A, J.; Camarillo, E.; García-Hipólito, M.; Martínez-Martínez, R.; Álvarez-Fragoso, O.; Falcony, C.

    2006-05-01

    Praseodymium doped zirconia powder (ZrO2: (0.53 at%) Pr3+) was prepared by a co-precipitation technique and annealed in air at a temperature Ta = 950 °C. The x-ray diffraction pattern shows a nanocrystalline structure composed of 29.6% monoclinic and 70.4% cubic-tetragonal phases. Medium infrared and Raman analysis confirms the monoclinic/cubic-tetragonal crystalline structure and proves the absence of praseodymium aggregates in the material. Photoluminescent spectroscopy over excitations of 457.9 and 514.9 nm (at 20 K), shows two emission spectra composed of many narrow peaks in the visible-near infrared region (VIS-NIR) of the electromagnetic spectrum, associated with 4f inter-level electronic transitions in praseodymium ions incorporated in the zirconia. Excitation and emission spectra show the different mechanisms of the direct and non-direct excitation of the dopant ion (Pr3+), and the preferential relaxation of the material by charge transfer from the host (zirconia) to the 4f5d band and the 4f inter-level of the dopant ion (Pr3+). No evidence of energy transfer from the host to the dopant was observed.

  5. Novel Zirconia Surface Treatments for Enhanced Osseointegration: Laboratory Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ewais, Ola H.; Al Abbassy, Fayza; Ghoneim, Mona M.; Aboushelib, Moustafa N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate three novel surface treatments intended to improve osseointegration of zirconia implants: selective infiltration etching treatment (SIE), fusion sputtering (FS), and low pressure particle abrasion (LPPA). The effects of surface treatments on roughness, topography, hardness, and porosity of implants were also assessed. Materials and Methods. 45 zirconia discs (19 mm in diameter × 3 mm in thickness) received 3 different surface treatments: selective infiltration etching, low pressure particle abrasion with 30 µm alumina, and fusion sputtering while nontreated surface served as control. Surface roughness was evaluated quantitatively using profilometery, porosity was evaluated using mercury prosimetry, and Vickers microhardness was used to assess surface hardness. Surface topography was analyzed using scanning and atomic force microscopy (α = 0.05). Results. There were significant differences between all groups regarding surface roughness (F = 1678, P < 0.001), porosity (F = 3278, P < 0.001), and hardness (F = 1106.158, P < 0.001). Scanning and atomic force microscopy revealed a nanoporous surface characteristic of SIE, and FS resulted in the creation of surface microbeads, while LPPA resulted in limited abrasion of the surface. Conclusion. Within the limitations of the study, changes in surface characteristics and topography of zirconia implants have been observed after different surface treatment approaches. Thus possibilities for enhanced osseointegration could be additionally offered. PMID:25349610

  6. Mechanical properties of zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E; Elnaghy, Amr M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical properties of recently introduced zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic. Two types of CAD/CAM glass-ceramics (Vita Suprinity (VS); zirconia reinforced lithium silicate and IPS e.max CAD (IC); lithium disilicate) were used. Fracture toughness, flexural strength, elastic modulus, hardness, brittleness index, and microstructures were evaluated. Data were analyzed using independent t tests. Weibull analysis of flexural strength data was also performed. VS had significantly higher fracture toughness (2.31±0.17MPam(0.5)), flexural strength (443.63±38.90MPa), elastic modulus (70.44±1.97GPa), and hardness (6.53±0.49GPa) than IC (P<0.001). On the other hand, VS glass-ceramic revealed significantly a higher brittleness index (2.84±0.26μm(-1/2)) (lower machinability) than IC glass-ceramic (P<0.05). VS demonstrated a homogeneous fine crystalline structure while, IC revealed a structure with needle-shaped fine-grained crystals embedded in a glassy matrix. The VS glass-ceramic revealed a lower probability of failure and a higher strength than IC glass-ceramic according to Weibull analysis. The VS zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic revealed higher mechanical properties compared with IC lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity of sulphated zirconia nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mftah, Ae; Alhassan, Fatah H; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Webster, Thomas J; Sh-eldin, Mohammed; Rasedee, Abdullah; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Rashid, Shah Samiur

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle sulphated zirconia with Brønsted acidic sites were prepared here by an impregnation reaction followed by calcination at 600°C for 3 hours. The characterization was completed using X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunner-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the anticancer and antimicrobial effects were investigated for the first time. This study showed for the first time that the exposure of cancer cells to sulphated zirconia nanoparticles (3.9–1,000 μg/mL for 24 hours) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth, as determined by (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Similar promising results were observed for reducing bacteria functions. In this manner, this study demonstrated that sulphated zirconia nanoparticles with Brønsted acidic sites should be further studied for a wide range of anticancer and antibacterial applications. PMID:25632233

  8. Effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Mouhat, Mathieu; Nergård, John Magnus; Lægreid, Solveig Jenssen; Kanno, Taro; Milleding, Percy; Örtengren, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The present study investigated the effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns in relation to their compressive strength. Materials and methods Four different cements were tested: zinc phosphate cement (ZPC), glass-ionomer cement (GIC), self-adhesive resin-based cement (SRC) and resin-based cement (RC). RC was used in both dual cure mode (RC-D) and chemical cure mode (RC-C). First, the compressive strength of each cement was tested according to a standard (ISO 9917-1:2004). Second, load-to-failure test was performed to analyze the crown fracture resistance. CAD/CAM-produced monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm were prepared and cemented to dies with each cement. The crown–die samples were loaded until fracture. Results The compressive strength of SRC, RC-D and RC-C was significantly higher than those of ZPC and GIC (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the fracture load of the crown between the groups. Conclusion The values achieved in the load-to-failure test suggest that monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm may have good resistance against fracture regardless of types of cements. PMID:27335900

  9. Crystallization stabilization mechanism of yttria-doped zirconia by hydrothermal treatment of mechanical mixtures of zirconia xerogel and crystalline yttria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agli, G.; Mascolo, G.; Mascolo, M. C.; Pagliuca, C.

    2005-06-01

    Mechanical mixtures of zirconia xerogel and crystalline Y 2O 3 were hydrothermally treated by microwave and traditional route, respectively. Some mixtures were used either as powders form or as cylindrical compacts isostatically pressed at 150 MPa. The microwave-hydrothermal treatments were performed at 110, 150 and 200 °C for reaction times up to 2 h, whereas the traditional hydrothermal treatments were performed at 110 °C at increasing reaction times up to 7 days. All the treatments were performed in the presence of diluted (0.2 M) or concentrated (2.0 M) solution of (K 2CO 3+KOH) mineralizer. The crystallization-stabilization mechanism of synthesized Y-based zirconia powders and the reaction times for the full crystallization at the low temperature of hydrothermal treatments are discussed.

  10. Elaboration of Alumina-Zirconia Composites: Role of the Zirconia Content on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Naglieri, Valentina; Palmero, Paola; Montanaro, Laura; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Alumina-zirconia (AZ) composites are attractive structural materials, which combine the high hardness and Young’s modulus of the alumina matrix with additional toughening effects, due to the zirconia dispersion. In this study, AZ composites containing different amounts of zirconia (in the range 5–20 vol %) were prepared by a wet chemical method, consisting on the surface coating of alumina powders by mixing them with zirconium salt aqueous solutions. After spray-drying, powders were calcined at 600 °C for 1 h. Green bodies were then prepared by two methods: uniaxial pressing of spray-dried granules and slip casting of slurries, obtained by re-dispersing the spray dried granulates. After pressureless sintering at 1500 °C for 1 h, the slip cast samples gave rise to fully dense materials, characterized by a quite homogeneous distribution of ZrO2 grains in the alumina matrix. The microstructure, phase composition, tetragonal to monoclinic transformation behavior and mechanical properties were investigated and are here discussed as a function of the ZrO2 content. The material containing 10 vol % ZrO2 presented a relevant hardness and exhibited the maximum value of KI0, mainly imputable to the t → m transformation at the crack tip. PMID:28809262

  11. Durability of zirconia thermal-barrier ceramic coatings on air-cooled turbine blades in cyclic jet engine operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Jacobs, R. E.; Stecura, S.; Morse, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal barrier ceramic coatings of stabilized zirconia over a bond coat of Ni Cr Al Y were tested for durability on air cooled turbine rotor blades in a research turbojet engine. Zirconia stabilized with either yttria, magnesia, or calcia was investigated. On the basis of durability and processing cost, the yttria stabilized zirconia was considered the best of the three coatings investigated.

  12. Tetragonal zirconia quantum dots in silica matrix prepared by a modified sol-gel protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Surbhi; Rani, Saruchi; Kumar, Sushil

    2018-05-01

    Tetragonal zirconia quantum dots (t-ZrO2 QDs) in silica matrix with different compositions ( x)ZrO2-(100 - x)SiO2 were fabricated by a modified sol-gel protocol. Acetylacetone was added as a chelating agent to zirconium propoxide to avoid precipitation. The powders as well as thin films were given thermal treatment at 650, 875 and 1100 °C for 4 h. The silica matrix remained amorphous after thermal treatment and acted as an inert support for zirconia quantum dots. The tetragonal zirconia embedded in silica matrix transformed into monoclinic form due to thermal treatment ≥ 1100 °C. The stability of tetragonal phase of zirconia is found to enhance with increase in silica content. A homogenous dispersion of t-ZrO2 QDs in silica matrix was indicated by the mapping of Zr, Si and O elements obtained from scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analyser. The transmission electron images confirmed the formation of tetragonal zirconia quantum dots embedded in silica. The optical band gap of zirconia QDs (3.65-5.58 eV) was found to increase with increase in zirconia content in silica. The red shift of PL emission has been exhibited with increase in zirconia content in silica.

  13. Adsorption of dispersants on zirconia powder in tape-casting slip compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, V.L. II

    This paper reports the determination of adsorption isotherms for menhaden fish oil and glycerol trioleate on doped zirconia powder in solvents composed of 70% methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and 30% ethanol. In order to approach tape-casting zirconia on a sound technical basis, the correspondence of slip viscosities and tape sintered densities to the adsorption isotherms was studied.

  14. Finite Element Analysis of IPS Empress II Ceramic Bridge Reinforced by Zirconia Bar

    PubMed Central

    Kermanshah, H.; Bitaraf, T.; Geramy, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of trenched zirconia bar on the von Mises stress distribution of IPS –Empress II core ceramics. Materials and Methods: The three-dimensional model including a three-unit bridge from the second premolar to the second molar was designed. The model was reinforced with zirconia bar (ZB), zirconia bar with vertical trench (VZB) and zirconia bar with horizontal trench (HZB) (cross sections of these bars were circular). The model without zirconia bar was designed as the control. The bridges were loaded by 200 N and 500 N on the occlusal surface at the middle of the pontic component and von Mises stresses were evaluated along a defined path. Results: In the connector area, von Mises stress in MPa were approximately identical in the specimens with ZB (at molar connector (MC): 4.75 and at premolar connector (PC): 6.40) and without ZB (MC: 5.50, PC: 6.68), and considerable differences were not recognized. Whereas, Von-Mises stress (MPa) in the specimens with horizontal trenched Zirconia bar (HZB) (MC: 3.91, PC: 2.44) and Vertical trenched Zirconia bar (VZB) (MC: 2.53, PC: 2.56) was decreased considerably. Conclusion: Embeded trenched zirconia bar could reinforce IPS-Empress II at the connector area which is a main failure region in all ceramic fixed partial dentures. PMID:23323181

  15. Finite Element Analysis of IPS Empress II Ceramic Bridge Reinforced by Zirconia Bar.

    PubMed

    Kermanshah, H; Bitaraf, T; Geramy, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of trenched zirconia bar on the von Mises stress distribution of IPS -Empress II core ceramics. The three-dimensional model including a three-unit bridge from the second premolar to the second molar was designed. The model was reinforced with zirconia bar (ZB), zirconia bar with vertical trench (VZB) and zirconia bar with horizontal trench (HZB) (cross sections of these bars were circular). The model without zirconia bar was designed as the control. The bridges were loaded by 200 N and 500 N on the occlusal surface at the middle of the pontic component and von Mises stresses were evaluated along a defined path. IN THE CONNECTOR AREA, VON MISES STRESS IN MPA WERE APPROXIMATELY IDENTICAL IN THE SPECIMENS WITH ZB (AT MOLAR CONNECTOR (MC): 4.75 and at premolar connector (PC): 6.40) and without ZB (MC: 5.50, PC: 6.68), and considerable differences were not recognized. Whereas, Von-Mises stress (MPa) in the specimens with horizontal trenched Zirconia bar (HZB) (MC: 3.91, PC: 2.44) and Vertical trenched Zirconia bar (VZB) (MC: 2.53, PC: 2.56) was decreased considerably. Embeded trenched zirconia bar could reinforce IPS-Empress II at the connector area which is a main failure region in all ceramic fixed partial dentures.

  16. The Application of a Novel Ceramic Liner Improves Bonding between Zirconia and Veneering Porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee-Sung

    2017-01-01

    The adhesion of porcelain to zirconia is a key factor in the success of bilayered restorations. In this study, the efficacy of a novel experimental liner (EL) containing zirconia for improved bonding between zirconia and veneering porcelain was tested. Four ELs containing various concentrations (0, 3.0, 6.0, and 9.0 wt %) of zirconia were prepared. Testing determined the most effective EL (EL3 containing 3.0 wt % zirconia) in terms of shear bond strength value (n = 15). Three different bar-shaped zirconia/porcelain bilayer specimens were prepared for a three-point flexural strength (TPFS) test (n = 15): no-liner (NL), commercial liner (CL), and EL3. Specimens were tested for TPFS with the porcelain under tension and the maximum load was measured at the first sign of fracture. The strength data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05) as well as Weibull distribution. When compared to NL, the CL application had no effect, while the EL3 application had a significant positive effect (p < 0.001) on the flexural strength. Weibull analysis also revealed the highest shape and scale parameters for group EL3. Within the limitations of this study, the novel ceramic liner containing 3.0 wt % zirconia (EL3) significantly enhanced the zirconia/porcelain interfacial bonding. PMID:28869512

  17. Simple Heat Treatment of Zirconia Ceramic Pre-Treated with Silane Primer to Improve Resin Bonding.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jung-Yun; Son, Jun Sik; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a strong resin bond to dental zirconia ceramic remains difficult. Previous studies have shown that the conventional application of silane does not work well with zirconia. This paper reports that a silane pre-treatment of dental zirconia ceramic combined with subsequent heat treatment has potential as an adhesive cementation protocol for improving zirconia-resin bonding. Among the various concentrations (0.1 to 16 vol%) of experimental γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPTS) primers assessed, the 1% solution was found to be the most effective in terms of the shear bond strength of the resin cement to dental zirconia ceramic. A high shear bond strength (approx. 30 MPa) was obtained when zirconia specimens were pre-treated with this primer and then heat-treated in a furnace for 60 min at 150 degrees C. Heat treatment appeared to remove the hydrophilic constituents from the silane film formed on the zirconia ceramic surface and accelerate the condensation reactions between the silanol groups of the hydrolyzed silane molecules at the zirconia/resin interface, finally making a more desirable surface for bonding with resin. This estimation was supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the silanes prepared in this study.

  18. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. RESULTS The mean fracture strengths were as follows: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. CONCLUSION The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain. PMID:23755332

  19. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Yang, Jae-Ho; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun; Yeo, In-Sung

    2013-05-01

    All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. THE MEAN FRACTURE STRENGTHS WERE AS FOLLOWS: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain.

  20. Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suitor, J. W.; Clark, D. J.; Losey, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation.

  1. Strength degradation and lifetime prediction of dental zirconia ceramics under cyclic normal loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanzhong; Xu, Yingqiang; He, Huiming; Zhao, Haidan; Sun, Jian; Hou, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Clinical cases show that zirconia restoration could happen fracture by accident under overloading after using a period of time. The purpose of this study is to research mechanical behavior and predict lifetime of dental zirconia ceramics under cyclic normal contact loading with experiments. Cyclic normal contact loading test and three point bending test are carried on specimens made of two brands of dental zirconia ceramic to obtain flexure strength and damage degree after different number of loading cycles. By means of damage mechanics model, damage degree under different number of contact loading cycles are calculated according to flexure strength, and verified by SEM photographs of cross section morphology of zirconia ceramics specimen phenomenologically. Relation curve of damage degree and number of cycles is fitted by polynomial fitting, then the number of loading cycles can be concluded when the specimen is complete damage. Strength degradation of two brands dental zirconia ceramics are researched in vitro, and prediction method of contact fatigue lifetime is established.

  2. A sol-powder coating technique for fabrication of yttria stabilised zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Wattanasiriwech, Darunee; Wattanasiriwech, Suthee; Stevens, Ron

    Yttria stabilised zirconia has been prepared using a simple sol-powder coating technique. The polymeric yttria sol, which was prepared using 1,3 propanediol as a network modifier, was homogeneously mixed with nanocrystalline zirconia powder and it showed a dual function: as a binder which promoted densification and a phase modifier which stabilised zirconia in the tetragonal and cubic phases. Thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction revealed that the polymeric yttria sol which decomposed at low temperature into yttrium oxide could change the m {sup {yields}} t phase transformation behaviour of the zirconia, possibly due to the small particle size and very highmore » surface area of both yttria and zirconia particles allowing rapid alloying. The sintered samples exhibited three crystalline phases: monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic, in which cubic and tetragonal are the major phases. The weight fractions of the individual phases present in the selected specimens were determined using quantitative Rietveld analysis.« less

  3. Effect of nanoparticles dispersion on viscoelastic properties of epoxy–zirconia polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sushil Kumar; Kumar, Abhishek; Jain, Anuj

    2018-03-01

    In the present work zirconia-nanoparticles were dispersed in epoxy matrix to form epoxy-zirconia polymer nanocomposites using ultrasonication and viscoelastic properties of nanocomposites were investigated. For the same spherical zirconia-nanoparticles (45 nm) were dispersed in weight fraction of 2, 4, 6 and 8 % to reinforce the epoxy. DMA results show the significant enhancement in viscoelastic properties with the dispersion of zirconia nanoparticles in the epoxy matrix. The value of storage modulus and glass transition temperature increases from 179 MPa (pristine) to 225 MPa (6 wt.% ZrO2) and 61 °C (pristine) to 70 °C (6 wt.% ZrO2) respectively with the dispersion of zirconia nanoparticles in the epoxy.

  4. Effect of nanoparticles dispersion on viscoelastic properties of epoxy-zirconia polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sushil Kumar; Kumar, Abhishek; Jain, Anuj

    2018-03-01

    In the present work zirconia-nanoparticles were dispersed in epoxy matrix to form epoxy-zirconia polymer nanocomposites using ultrasonication and viscoelastic properties of nanocomposites were investigated. For the same spherical zirconia-nanoparticles (45 nm) were dispersed in weight fraction of 2, 4, 6 and 8 % to reinforce the epoxy. DMA results show the significant enhancement in viscoelastic properties with the dispersion of zirconia nanoparticles in the epoxy matrix. The value of storage modulus and glass transition temperature increases from 179 MPa (pristine) to 225 MPa (6 wt.% ZrO2) and 61 °C (pristine) to 70 °C (6 wt.% ZrO2) respectively with the dispersion of zirconia nanoparticles in the epoxy.

  5. Synthesis of Mesoporous Nanocrystalline Zirconia by Surfactant-Assisted Hydrothermal Approach.

    PubMed

    Nath, Soumav; Biswas, Ashik; Kour, Prachi P; Sarma, Loka S; Sur, Ujjal Kumar; Ankamwar, Balaprasad G

    2018-08-01

    In this paper, we have reported the chemical synthesis of thermally stable mesoporous nanocrystalline zirconia with high surface area using a surfactant-assisted hydrothermal approach. We have employed different type of surfactants such as CTAB, SDS and Triton X-100 in our synthesis. The synthesized nanocrystalline zirconia multistructures exhibit various morphologies such as rod, mortar-pestle with different particle sizes. We have characterized the zirconia multistructures by X-ray diffraction study, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Attenuated total refection infrared spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The thermal stability of as synthesized zirconia multistructures was studied by thermo gravimetric analysis, which shows the high thermal stability of nanocrystalline zirconia around 900 °C temperature.

  6. Resin adhesion strengths to zirconia ceramics after primer treatment with silane coupling monomer or oligomer.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Inoue, Kazusa; Irie, Masao; Taketa, Hiroaki; Torii, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2017-09-26

    Resin bonding to zirconia ceramics is difficult to achieve using the standard methods for conventional silica-based dental ceramics, which employ silane coupling monomers as primers. The hypothesis in this study was that a silane coupling oligomer -a condensed product of silane coupling monomers- would be a more suitable primer for zirconia. To prove this hypothesis, the shear bond strengths between a composite resin and zirconia were compared after applying either a silane coupling monomer or oligomer. The shear bond strength increased after applying a non-activated ethanol solution of the silane coupling oligomer compared with that achieved when applying the monomer. Thermal treatment of the zirconia at 110°C after application of the silane coupling agents was essential to improve the shear bond strength between the composite resin cement and zirconia.

  7. Graded structures for damage resistant and aesthetic all-ceramic restorations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Kim, Jae-Won

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Clinical studies revealed several performance deficiencies with alumina- and zirconia-based all-ceramic restorations: fracture; poor aesthetic properties of ceramic cores (particularly zirconia cores); and difficulty in achieving a strong ceramic–resin-based cement bond. We aim to address these issues by developing a functionally graded glass/zirconia/glass (G/Z/G) structure with improved damage resistance, aesthetics, and cementation properties. Methods Using a glass powder composition developed in our laboratory and a commercial fine zirconia powder, we have successfully fabricated functionally graded G/Z/G structures. The microstructures of G/Z/G were examined utilizing a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystalline phases present in G/Z/G were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Young’s modulus and hardness of G/Z/G were derived from nanoindentations. Critical loads for cementation radial fracture in G/Z/G plates (20×20 mm2, 1.5 or 0.4 mm thick) bonded to polycarbonate substrates were determined by loading with a spherical indenter. Parallel studies were conducted on homogeneous Y-TZP controls. Results The G/Z/G structure consists of an outer surface aesthetic glass layer, a graded glass-Y-TZP layer, and a dense Y-TZP interior. The Young’s modulus and hardness increase from surface to interior following power-law relations. For G/Z/G plates of 1.5 and 0.4 mm thick, critical loads for cementation radial fracture were 1990±107 N (mean±SD, n = 6) and 227±20 N (mean±SD, n = 6) respectively, which were ~30% and 50% higher than those for their monolithic Y-TZP counterparts (1388±90 N for 1.5 mm and 113±10 N for 0.4 mm thick; mean±SD, n = 6 for each thickness). A 1-sample t-test revealed significant difference (p < 0.001) in critical loads for radial fracture of G/Z/G and homogeneous Y-TZP for both specimen thicknesses. Significance Our results indicate that functionally graded G/Z/G structures exhibit improved damage resistance

  8. Evaluation of participants' perception and taste thresholds with a zirconia palatal plate.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takeshi; Takano, Tomofumi; Tasaka, Akinori; Ueda, Takayuki; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2016-10-01

    Zirconia and cobalt-chromium can withstand a similar degree of loading. Therefore, using a zirconia base for removable dentures could allow the thickness of the palatal area to be reduced similarly to metal base dentures. We hypothesized that zirconia palatal plate for removable dentures provides a high level of participants' perception without influencing taste thresholds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the participants' perception and taste thresholds of zirconia palatal plate. Palatal plates fabricated using acrylic resin, zirconia, and cobalt-chromium alloy were inserted into healthy individuals. Taste thresholds were investigated using the whole-mouth gustatory test, and participants' perception was evaluated using the 100-mm visual analog scale to assess the ease of pronunciation, ease of swallowing, sensation of temperature, metallic taste, sensation of foreign body, subjective sensory about weight, adhesiveness of chewing gum, and general satisfaction. For the taste thresholds, no significant differences were noted in sweet, salty, sour, bitter, or umami tastes among participants wearing no plate, or the resin, zirconia, and metal plates. Speech was easier and foreign body sensation was lower with the zirconia plate than with the resin plate. Evaluation of the adhesiveness of chewing gum showed that chewing gum does not readily adhere to the zirconia plate in comparison with the metal plate. The comprehensive participants' perception of the zirconia plate was evaluated as being superior to the resin plate. A zirconia palatal plate provides a high level of participants' perception without influencing taste thresholds. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Failure probability of three designs of zirconia crowns

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, G. Freitas; Monteiro, E. Barbosa Carmona; Bottino, M.A.; Zhang, Y.; de Melo, R. Marques

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study utilized a 2-parameter Weibull analysis for evaluation of lifetime of fully or partially porcelain-/glaze-veneered zirconia crowns after fatigue test. Methods Sixty first molars were selected and prepared for full-coverage crowns with three different designs(n = 20): Traditional –crowns with zirconia framework covered with feldspathic porcelain; Modified– crowns partially covered with veneering porcelain; and Monolithic–full-contour zirconia crowns. All specimens were treated with a glaze layer. Specimens were subjected to mechanical cycling (100N, 3Hz) with a piston with hemispherical tip (Ø=6 mm) until the specimens failed or up to 2×106 cycles. Every 500,000 cycles intervals, the fatigue tests were interrupted, and stereomicroscopy (10 X) was used to inspect the specimens for damage. We performed Weibull analysis of interval data to calculate the number of failures in each interval. Results The types and number of failures according to the groups were: cracking (Traditional-13, Modified-6) and chipping (Traditional-4) of the feldspathic porcelain, followed by delamination (Traditional-1) at the veneer/core interface and debonding (Monollithic-2) at the cementation interface. Weibull parameters (beta, scale; and eta, shape), with a two-sided confidence interval of 95%, were: Traditional – 1.25 and 0.9 × 106cycles; Modified– 0.58 and 11.7 × 106 cycles; and Monolithic – 1.05 and 16.5 × 106 cycles. Traditional crowns showed greater susceptibility to fatigue, the Modified group presented higher propensity to early failures, and the Monolithic group showed no susceptibility to fatigue. The Modified and Monolithic groups presented the highest number of crowns with no failures after the fatigue test. Conclusions The three crown designs presented significantly different behaviors under fatigue. The Modified and the Monolithic groups presented less probability to failure after 2×106cycles. PMID:26509988

  10. Relative Translucency of a Multilayered Ultratranslucent Zirconia Material.

    PubMed

    Shamseddine, Loubna; Majzoub, Zeina

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the translucency parameter (TP) of ultratranslucent multilayered (UTML) zirconia according to thickness and layer level. Rectangles of UTML zirconia with four layers [dentin layer (DEL), first transitional layer (FTL), second transitional layer (STL), and enamel layer (ENL)] and four different thicknesses (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1 mm) were milled from blanks. Digital images were taken in a dark studio against white and black backgrounds under simulated daylight illumination and international commission on illumination (CIE) Lab* color values recorded using Photoshop Creative Cloud software. The TP was computed and compared according to thickness and layer level using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni post hoc analysis for multiple comparisons. Significance was set at p < 0.05. In each thickness, TP values were similar between any two layers. The significant effect of thickness on the TP was observed only in the first two layers. In the DEL, translucency was significantly greater at 0.4 mm than all other thicknesses. In the FTL, differences were significant between 0.4 and 0.8 mm and between 0.4 and 1 mm. The investigated zirconia does not seem to show gradational changes in relative translucency from dentin to enamel levels regardless of the thickness used. Thickness affected the TP only in the first two layers with better translu-cency at 0.4 mm. Since relative translucency does not seem to be significantly different between layers, clinicians can modify the apicocoronal positioning of the UTML layers within the restoration according to the desired Chroma without any implications on the clinically perceived translucency. While the thickness of 0.4 mm may be suggested for anterior esthetic veneers because of its higher translucency, the other thicknesses of 0.6 to 1 mm can be used to mask colored abutments in full contour restorations.

  11. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOEpatents

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Huang, Y.Y.

    1998-07-28

    Methods are disclosed for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physical sorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics. 17 figs.

  12. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOEpatents

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H.; Huang, Yin-Yan

    1998-01-01

    Methods for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physisorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics.

  13. Stability of yttria-stabilized zirconia during pyroprocessing tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Lee, Jeong; Lee, Sung-Jai; Kim, Sung-Wook; Jeon, Sang-Chae; Cho, Soo Haeng; Oh, Seung Chul; Jeon, Min Ku; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kang, Hyun Woo; Hur, Jin-Mok

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the feasibility of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was investigated for use as a ceramic material, which can be commonly used for both electrolytic reduction and electrorefining. First, the stability of YSZ in salts for electrolytic reduction and electrorefining was examined. Then, its stability was demonstrated by a series of pyroprocessing tests, such as electrolytic reduction, LiCl distillation, electrorefining, and LiClsbnd KCl distillation, using a single stainless steel wire mesh basket containing fuel and YSZ. A single basket was used by its transportation from one test to subsequent tests without the requirements for unloading.

  14. Phase analysis of plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, N. R.; Berndt, C. C.; Herman, H.

    1983-01-01

    Phase analysis of plasma-sprayed 8 wt pct-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings and powders was carried out by X-ray diffraction. Step scanning was used for increased peak resolution. Plasma spraying of the YSZ powder into water or onto a steel substrate to form a coating reduced the cubic and monoclinic phases with a simultaneous increase in the tetragonal phase. Heat treatment of the coating at 1150 C for 10 h in an Ar atmosphere increased the amount of cubic and monoclinic phases. The implications of these transformations on coating performance and integrity are discussed.

  15. Zirconium nitride precipitation in nominally pure yttria-stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Garcia, D.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.

    Nominally pure yttria-stabilized zirconia alloys are shown to contain unexpectedly large amounts of dissolved nitrogen. Its presence in the lattice was detected through the observation of large precipitates in alloys with three different concentrations of yttria deformed in compression in argon in the temperature range 1,600--1,800 C. Electron diffraction, EDS and PEELS analyses, and Moire imaging were used to identify the precipitates as ZrN. The possible origin of the nitrogen, its likely effects on properties, and the role of annealing atmosphere are briefly discussed.

  16. Aqueous-Phase Acetic Acid Ketonization over Monoclinic Zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Qiuxia; Lopez-Ruiz, Juan A.; Cooper, Alan R.

    The effect of aqueous phase on the acetic acid ketonization over monoclinic zirconia has been investigated using first-principles based density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To capture the aqueous phase chemistry over the solid zirconia catalyst surface, the aqueous phase is represented by 111 explicit water molecules with a liquid water density of 0.93 g/cm3 and the monoclinic zirconia is modeled by the most stable surface structure . The dynamic nature of aqueous phase/ interface was studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation, indicating that nearly half of the surface Zr sites are occupied by either adsorbed water molecules or hydroxylmore » groups at 550 K. DFT calculations show that the adsorption process of acetic acid from the liquid water phase to the surface is nearly thermodynamically neutral with a Gibbs free energy of -2.3 kJ/mol although the adsorption strength of acetic acid on the surface in aqueous phase is much stronger than in vapor phase. Therefore it is expected that the adsorption of acetic acid will dramatically affects aqueous phase ketonization reactivity over the monoclinic zirconia catalyst. Using the same ketonization mechanism via the β-keto acid intermediate, we have compared acetic acid ketonization to acetone in both vapor and aqueous phases. Our DFT calculation results show although the rate-determining step of the β-keto acid formation via the C-C coupling is not pronouncedly affected, the presence of liquid water molecules will dramatically affect dehydrogenation and hydrogenation steps via proton transfer mechanism. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE)’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute. Computing time and advanced catalyst characterization use was granted by a user proposal at the William R. Wiley

  17. Adhesive Cementation Promotes Higher Fatigue Resistance to Zirconia Crowns.

    PubMed

    Campos, F; Valandro, L F; Feitosa, S A; Kleverlaan, C J; Feilzer, A J; de Jager, N; Bottino, M A

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the cementation strategy on the fatigue resistance of zirconia crowns. The null hypothesis was that the cementation strategy would not affect the fatigue resistance of the crowns. Seventy-five simplified molar tooth crown preparations were machined in glass fiber-filled epoxy resin. Zirconia crowns were designed (thickness=0.7 mm), milled by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and sintered, as recommended. Crowns were cemented onto the resin preparations using five cementation strategies (n=15): ZP, luting with zinc phosphate cement; PN, luting with Panavia F resin cement; AL, air particle abrasion with alumina particles (125 μm) as the crown inner surface pretreatment + Panavia F; CJ, tribochemical silica coating as crown inner surface pretreatment + Panavia F; and GL, application of a thin layer of porcelain glaze followed by etching with hydrofluoric acid and silanization as crown inner surface pretreatment + Panavia F. Resin cement was activated for 30 seconds for each surface. Specimens were tested until fracture in a stepwise stress fatigue test (10,000 cycles in each step, 600 to 1400 N, frequency of 1.4 Hz). The mode of failure was analyzed by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Mantel-Cox (log rank) tests and a pairwise comparison (p<0.05) and by Weibull analysis. The CJ group had the highest load mean value for failure (1200 N), followed by the PN (1026 N), AL (1026 N), and GL (1013 N) groups, while the ZP group had the lowest mean value (706 N). Adhesively cemented groups (CJ, AL, PN, and GL) needed a higher number of cycles for failure than the group ZP did. The groups' Weibull moduli (CJ=5.9; AL=4.4; GL=3.9; PN=3.7; ZP=2.1) were different, considering the number of cycles for failure data. The predominant mode of failure was a fracture that initiated in the cement/zirconia layer. Finite element analysis showed the different

  18. Thermal Conductivity of Alumina-Toughened Zirconia Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2003-01-01

    10-mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (10YSZ)-alumina composites containing 0 to 30 mol% alumina were fabricated by hot pressing at 1500 C in vacuum. Thermal conductivity of the composites, determined at various temperatures using a steady-state laser heat flux technique, increased with increase in alumina content. Composites containing 0, 5, and 10-mol% alumina did not show any change in thermal conductivity with temperature. However, those containing 20 and 30-mol% alumina showed a decrease in thermal conductivity with increase in temperature. The measured values of thermal conductivity were in good agreement with those calculated from simple rule of mixtures.

  19. Elevated Temperature Effects on the Plastic Anisotropy of an Extruded Mg-4 Wt Pct Li Alloy: Experiments and Polycrystal Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risse, Marcel; Lentz, Martin; Fahrenson, Christoph; Reimers, Walter; Knezevic, Marko; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we study the deformation behavior of Mg-4 wt pct Li in uniaxial tension as a function of temperature and loading direction. Standard tensile tests were performed at temperatures in the range of 293 K (20 °C) ≤ T ≤ 473 K (200 °C) and in two in-plane directions: the extrusion and the transverse. We find that while the in-plane plastic anisotropy (PA) decreases with temperature, the anisotropy in failure strain and texture development increases. To uncover the temperature dependence in the critical stresses for slip and in the amounts of slip and twinning systems mediating deformation, we employ the elastic-plastic self-consistent polycrystal plasticity model with a thermally activated dislocation density based hardening law for activating slip with individual crystals. We demonstrate that the model, with a single set of intrinsic material parameters, achieves good agreement with the stress-strain curves, deformation textures, and intragranular misorientation axis analysis for all test directions and temperatures. With the model, we show that at all temperatures the in-plane tensile behavior is driven primarily by < a rangle slip and both < {c + a} rangle slip and twinning play a minor role. The analysis explains that the in-plane PA decreases and failure strains increase with temperature as a result of a significant reduction in the activation stress for pyramidal < {c + a} rangle slip, which effectively promotes strain accommodation from multiple types of < a rangle and < {c + a} rangle slip. The results also show that because of the strong initial texture, in-plane texture development is anisotropic since prismatic slip dominates the deformation in one test, although it is not the easiest slip mode, and basal slip in the other. These findings reveal the relationship between the temperature-sensitive thresholds needed to activate crystallographic slip and the development of texture and macroscopic PA.

  20. Evaluation of a conditioning method to improve core-veneer bond strength of zirconia restorations.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jili; Wang, Hang; Liao, Yunmao; Liang, Xing

    2012-06-01

    The high strength and fracture toughness of zirconia have supported its extensive application in esthetic dentistry. However, the fracturing of veneering porcelains remains one of the primary causes of failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, with shear bond strength testing, the effect of a simple and novel surface conditioning method on the core-veneer bond strength of a zirconia ceramic system. The shear bond strength of a zirconia core ceramic to the corresponding veneering porcelain was tested by the Schmitz-Schulmeyer method. Thirty zirconia core specimens (10 × 5 × 5 mm) were layered with a veneering porcelain (5 × 3 × 3 mm). Three different surface conditioning methods were evaluated: polishing with up to 1200 grit silicon carbide paper under water cooling, airborne-particle abrasion with 110 μm alumina particles, and modification with zirconia powder coating before sintering. A metal ceramic system was used as a control group. All specimens were subjected to shear force in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The shear bond strength values were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc pairwise comparisons (α=.05). The fractured specimens were examined with a scanning electron microscope to observe the failure mode. The mean (SD) shear bond strength values in MPa were 47.02 (6.4) for modified zirconia, 36.66 (8.6) for polished zirconia, 39.14 (6.5) for airborne-particle-abraded zirconia, and 46.12 (7.1) for the control group. The mean bond strength of the control (P=.028) and modified zirconia groups (P=.014) was significantly higher than that of the polished zirconia group. The airborne-particle-abraded group was not significantly different from any other group. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation showed that cohesive fracture in the veneering porcelain was the predominant failure mode of modified zirconia, while the other groups principally fractured at the interface. Modifying the zirconia surface

  1. Osseointegration of zirconia implants: an SEM observation of the bone-implant interface.

    PubMed

    Depprich, Rita; Zipprich, Holger; Ommerborn, Michelle; Mahn, Eduardo; Lammers, Lydia; Handschel, Jörg; Naujoks, Christian; Wiesmann, Hans-Peter; Kübler, Norbert R; Meyer, Ulrich

    2008-11-06

    The successful use of zirconia ceramics in orthopedic surgery led to a demand for dental zirconium-based implant systems. Because of its excellent biomechanical characteristics, biocompatibility, and bright tooth-like color, zirconia (zirconium dioxide, ZrO2) has the potential to become a substitute for titanium as dental implant material. The present study aimed at investigating the osseointegration of zirconia implants with modified ablative surface at an ultrastructural level. A total of 24 zirconia implants with modified ablative surfaces and 24 titanium implants all of similar shape and surface structure were inserted into the tibia of 12 Göttinger minipigs. Block biopsies were harvested 1 week, 4 weeks or 12 weeks (four animals each) after surgery. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed at the bone implant interface. Remarkable bone attachment was already seen after 1 week which increased further to intimate bone contact after 4 weeks, observed on both zirconia and titanium implant surfaces. After 12 weeks, osseointegration without interposition of an interfacial layer was detected. At the ultrastructural level, there was no obvious difference between the osseointegration of zirconia implants with modified ablative surfaces and titanium implants with a similar surface topography. The results of this study indicate similar osseointegration of zirconia and titanium implants at the ultrastructural level.

  2. Sintering behavior and mechanical properties of zirconia compacts fabricated by uniaxial press forming.

    PubMed

    Oh, Gye-Jeong; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Lee, Kwang-Min; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Park, Sang-Won

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the linear sintering behavior of presintered zirconia blocks of various densities. The mechanical properties of the resulting sintered zirconia blocks were then analyzed. Three experimental groups of dental zirconia blocks, with a different presintering density each, were designed in the present study. Kavo Everest® ZS blanks (Kavo, Biberach, Germany) were used as a control group. The experimental group blocks were fabricated from commercial yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia powder (KZ-3YF (SD) Type A, KCM. Corporation, Nagoya, Japan). The biaxial flexural strengths, microhardnesses, and microstructures of the sintered blocks were then investigated. The linear sintering shrinkages of blocks were calculated and compared. Despite their different presintered densities, the sintered blocks of the control and experimental groups showed similar mechanical properties. However, the sintered block had different linear sintering shrinkage rate depending on the density of the presintered block. As the density of the presintered block increased, the linear sintering shrinkage decreased. In the experimental blocks, the three sectioned pieces of each block showed the different linear shrinkage depending on the area. The tops of the experimental blocks showed the lowest linear sintering shrinkage, whereas the bottoms of the experimental blocks showed the highest linear sintering shrinkage. Within the limitations of this study, the density difference of the presintered zirconia block did not affect the mechanical properties of the sintered zirconia block, but affected the linear sintering shrinkage of the zirconia block.

  3. Sintering behavior and mechanical properties of zirconia compacts fabricated by uniaxial press forming

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Gye-Jeong; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Lee, Kwang-Min; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare the linear sintering behavior of presintered zirconia blocks of various densities. The mechanical properties of the resulting sintered zirconia blocks were then analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three experimental groups of dental zirconia blocks, with a different presintering density each, were designed in the present study. Kavo Everest® ZS blanks (Kavo, Biberach, Germany) were used as a control group. The experimental group blocks were fabricated from commercial yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia powder (KZ-3YF (SD) Type A, KCM. Corporation, Nagoya, Japan). The biaxial flexural strengths, microhardnesses, and microstructures of the sintered blocks were then investigated. The linear sintering shrinkages of blocks were calculated and compared. RESULTS Despite their different presintered densities, the sintered blocks of the control and experimental groups showed similar mechanical properties. However, the sintered block had different linear sintering shrinkage rate depending on the density of the presintered block. As the density of the presintered block increased, the linear sintering shrinkage decreased. In the experimental blocks, the three sectioned pieces of each block showed the different linear shrinkage depending on the area. The tops of the experimental blocks showed the lowest linear sintering shrinkage, whereas the bottoms of the experimental blocks showed the highest linear sintering shrinkage. CONCLUSION Within the limitations of this study, the density difference of the presintered zirconia block did not affect the mechanical properties of the sintered zirconia block, but affected the linear sintering shrinkage of the zirconia block. PMID:21165274

  4. Surface Modification of Zirconia Substrate by Calcium Phosphate Particles Using Sol-Gel Method.

    PubMed

    Jin, So Dam; Um, Sang Cheol; Lee, Jong Kook

    2015-08-01

    Surface modification with a biphasic composition of hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) was performed on a zirconia substrate using a sol-gel method. An initial calcium phosphate sol was prepared by mixing a solution of Ca(NO3)2 · 4H20 and (C2H5O)3P(O), while both porous and dense zirconia were used as substrates. The sol-gel coating was performed using a spin coater. The coated porous zirconia substrate was re-sintered at 1350 °C 2 h, while coated dense zirconia substrate was heat-treated at 750 °C 1 h. The microstructure of the resultant HA/TCP coatings was found to be dependent on the type of zirconia substrate used. With porous zirconia as a starting substrate, numerous isolated calcium phosphate particles (TCP and HA) were uniformly dispersed on the surface, and the particle size and covered area were dependent on the viscosity of the calcium phosphate sol. Conversely, when dense zirconia was used as a starting substrate, a thick film of nano-sized HA particles was obtained after heat treatment, however, substantial agglomeration and cracking was also observed.

  5. A fractographic study of clinically retrieved zirconia-ceramic and metal-ceramic fixed dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhen; Chughtai, Asima; Sailer, Irena; Zhang, Yu

    2015-10-01

    A recent 3-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) of tooth supported three- to five-unit zirconia-ceramic and metal-ceramic posterior fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) revealed that veneer chipping and fracture in zirconia-ceramic systems occurred more frequently than those in metal-ceramic systems [1]. This study seeks to elucidate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the fracture phenomena observed in this RCT using a descriptive fractographic analysis. Vinyl-polysiloxane impressions of 12 zirconia-ceramic and 6 metal-ceramic FDPs with veneer fractures were taken from the patients at the end of a mean observation of 40.3±2.8 months. Epoxy replicas were produced from these impressions [1]. All replicas were gold coated, and inspected under the optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for descriptive fractography. Among the 12 zirconia-ceramic FDPs, 2 had small chippings, 9 had large chippings, and 1 exhibited delamination. Out of 6 metal-ceramic FDPs, 5 had small chippings and 1 had large chipping. Descriptive fractographic analysis based on SEM observations revealed that fracture initiated from the wear facet at the occlusal surface in all cases, irrespective of the type of restoration. Zirconia-ceramic and metal-ceramic FDPs all fractured from microcracks that emanated from occlusal wear facets. The relatively low fracture toughness and high residual tensile stress in porcelain veneer of zirconia restorations may contribute to the higher chipping rate and larger chip size in zirconia-ceramic FDPs relative to their metal-ceramic counterparts. The low veneer/core interfacial fracture energy of porcelain-veneered zirconia may result in the occurrence of delamination in zirconia-ceramic FDPs. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of experimental coating to improve the zirconia-veneering ceramic bond strength.

    PubMed

    Matani, Jay D; Kheur, Mohit; Jambhekar, Shantanu Subhashchandra; Bhargava, Parag; Londhe, Aditya

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) between zirconia and veneering ceramic following different surface treatments of zirconia. The efficacy of an experimental zirconia coating to improve the bond strength was also evaluated. Zirconia strips were fabricated and were divided into four groups as per their surface treatment: polished (control), airborne-particle abrasion, laser irradiation, and application of the experimental coating. The surface roughness and the residual monoclinic content were evaluated before and after the respective surface treatments. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the experimental surfaces was performed. All specimens were subjected to shear force in a universal testing machine. The SBS values were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc for groupwise comparisons. The fractured specimens were examined to observe the failure mode. The SBS (29.17 MPa) and roughness values (0.80) of the experimental coating group were the highest among the groups. The residual monoclinic content was minimal (0.32) when compared to the remaining test groups. SEM analysis revealed a homogenous surface well adhered to an undamaged zirconia base. The other test groups showed destruction of the zirconia surface. The analysis of failure following bond strength testing showed entirely cohesive failures in the veneering ceramic in all study groups. The experimental zirconia surface coating is a simple technique to increase the microroughness of the zirconia surface, and thereby improve the SBS to the veneering ceramic. It results in the least monoclinic content and produces no structural damage to the zirconia substructure. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. 3D-characterization of the veneer-zirconia interface using FIB nano-tomography.

    PubMed

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Douillard, Thierry; Gremillard, Laurent; Sadoun, Michaël J; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2013-02-01

    The phenomena occurring during zirconia frameworks veneering process are not yet fully understood. In particular the study of zirconia behavior at the interface with the veneer remains a challenge. However this interface has been reported to act on residual stress in the veneering ceramic, which plays a significant role in clinical failures such as chipping. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the veneer-zirconia interface using a recent 3D-analysis tool and to confront these observations to residual stress measurements in the veneering ceramic. Two cross-sectioned bilayered disc samples (veneer on zirconia), exhibiting different residual stress profiles in the veneering ceramic, were investigated using 2D and 3D imaging (respectively Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Focused Ion Beam nanotomography (FIB-nt), associated with chemical analysis by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The observations did not reveal any structural change in the bulk of zirconia layer of both samples. However the presence of structural alterations and sub-surface microcracks were highlighted in the first micrometer of zirconia surface, exclusively for the sample exhibiting interior tensile stress in the veneering ceramic. No interdiffusion phenomena were observed. FIB nanotomography was proven to be a powerful technique to study the veneer-zirconia interface. The determination of the origin and the nature of zirconia alterations need to be further studied. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that zirconia surface property changes could be involved in the development of tensile stress in the veneering ceramic, increasing the risk of chipping. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Method of producing high purity zirconia powder from zircon powder

    SciTech Connect

    Funahashi, T.; Uchimura, R.; Oguchi, Y.

    A method is described of producing a zirconia powder from zirconia containing SiO/sub 2/, comprising the steps of: preparing a raw material mixture comprising the zircon powder containing the SiO/sub 2/ and a powdery carbon-containing material such that the mole ratio of C, which is contained in the carbon-containing material and does not gasify at temperatures below 100/sup 0/C. in a nonoxidizing atmosphere, to SiO/sub 2/ contained in the zircon powder is in the range from 0.4 to 2.0; and subjecting the raw material mixture to a desiliconizing heat treatment in a nonoxidizing atmosphere of which the presence is notmore » higher than 0.6 atm, the desiliconizing heat treatment being a combination of a first-stage heat treatment which is performed at a temperature in the range from 1200/sup 0/ to 1550/sup 0/C. for separating silica from the zircon powder and a second-stage heat treatment which is performed at a higher temperature in the range from above 1550/sup 0/C. to 2000/sup 0/C. for completely converting silica in the mixture under heat treatment into gaseous SiO and dissipating the gaseous SiO, wherein the raw material mixture is subjected to the desiliconizing heat treatment in the form of at least one lump whose bulk density is in the range from 0.7 to 2.0.« less

  9. Zirconia and its allotropes; A Quantum Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokisaari, Andrea; Benali, Anouar; Shin, Hyeondeok; Luo, Ye; Lopez Bezanilla, Alejandro; Ratcliff, Laura; Littlewood, Peter; Heinonen, Olle

    With a high strength and stability at elevated temperatures, Zirconia (zirconium dioxide) is one of the best corrosion-resistant and refractive materials used in metallurgy, and is used in structural ceramics, catalytic converters, oxygen sensors, nuclear industry, and in chemically passivating surfaces. The wide range of applications of ZrO2 has motivated a large number of electronic structures studies of its known allotropes (monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic). Density Functional Theory has been successful at reproducing some of the fundamental properties of some of the allotropes, but these results remain dependent on the specific combination of exchange-correlation functional and type of pseudopotentials, making any type of structural prediction or defect analysis uncertain. Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) is a many-body quantum theory solving explicitly the electronic correlations, allowing reproducing and predicting materials properties with a limited number of controlled approximations. In this study, we use QMC to revisit the energetic stability of Zirconia's allotropes and compare our results with those obtained from density functional theory.

  10. Investigation of hydrogen interaction with defects in zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikhova, O.; Kuriplach, J.; Čížek, J.; Procházka, I.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.

    2010-04-01

    Defect studies of a ZrO2 + 9 mol. % Y2O3 single crystal were performed in this work using a high resolution positron lifetime spectroscopy combined with slow positron implantation spectroscopy. In order to elucidate the nature of positron trapping sites observed experimentally, the structural relaxations of several types of vacancy-like defects in zirconia were performed and positron characteristics for them were calculated. Relaxed atomic configurations of studied defects were obtained by means of ab initio pseudopotential method within the supercell approach. Theoretical calculations indicated that neither oxygen vacancies nor their neutral complexes with substitute yttrium atoms are capable of positron trapping. On the other hand, zirconium vacancies are deep positron traps and are most probably responsible for the saturated positron trapping observed in yttria stabilized zirconia single crystals. However, the calculated positron lifetime for zirconium vacancy is apparently longer than the experimental value corresponding to a single-component spectrum measured for the cubic ZrO2 + 9 mol. % Y2O3 single crystal. It was demonstrated that this effect can be explained by hydrogen trapped in zirconium vacancies. On the basis of structure relaxations, we found that zirconium vacancy - hydrogen complexes represent deep positron traps with the calculated lifetime close to the experimental one. In zirconium vacancy - hydrogen complexes the hydrogen atom forms an O-H bond with one of the nearest neighbour oxygen atoms. The calculated bond length is close to 1 Å.

  11. Ionic liquid-templated preparation of mesoporous silica embedded with nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Antony J.; Pujari, Ajit A.; Costanzo, Lorenzo; Masters, Anthony F.; Maschmeyer, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    A series of mesoporous silicas impregnated with nanocrystalline sulphated zirconia was prepared by a sol-gel process using an ionic liquid-templated route. The physicochemical properties of the mesoporous sulphated zirconia materials were studied using characterisation techniques such as inductively coupled optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Analysis of the new silicas indicates isomorphous substitution of silicon with zirconium and reveals the presence of extremely small (< 10 nm) polydispersed zirconia nanoparticles in the materials with zirconium loadings from 27.77 to 41.4 wt.%.

  12. Ionic liquid-templated preparation of mesoporous silica embedded with nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A series of mesoporous silicas impregnated with nanocrystalline sulphated zirconia was prepared by a sol-gel process using an ionic liquid-templated route. The physicochemical properties of the mesoporous sulphated zirconia materials were studied using characterisation techniques such as inductively coupled optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Analysis of the new silicas indicates isomorphous substitution of silicon with zirconium and reveals the presence of extremely small (< 10 nm) polydispersed zirconia nanoparticles in the materials with zirconium loadings from 27.77 to 41.4 wt.%. PMID:21711725

  13. Electrodeposition of thin yttria-stabilized zirconia layers using glow-discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogumi, Zempachi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Tsuji, Yoichiro; Takehara, Zen-ichiro

    1992-08-01

    A novel process for preparation of thin yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layers was developed. This process differs from other vapor-phase deposition methods in that a dc bias circuit, separate from the plasma-generation circuit, is used for the electrodeposition process. The YSZ layer was electrodeposited from ZrCl4 and YCl3 on a nonporous calcia-stabilized zirconia substrate. Scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and x-ray-diffraction measurements confirmed the electrodeposition of a smooth, pinhole-free yttria-stabilized zirconia film of about 3 μm thickness.

  14. Experimental research on the relationship between fit accuracy and fracture resistance of zirconia abutments.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xinxin; Wei, Huasha; Wang, Dashan; Han, Yan; Deng, Jing; Wang, Yongliang; Wang, Junjun; Yang, Jianjun

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the correlation between fit accuracy and fracture resistance of zirconia abutments, as well as its feasibility for clinical applications. Twenty self-made zirconia abutments were tested with 30 Osstem GSII implants. First, 10 Osstem GSII implants were cut into two parts along the long axis and assembled with the zirconia abutments. The microgaps between the implants and the zirconia abutments were measured under a scanning electron microscope. Second, the zirconia abutments were assembled with 20 un-cut implants and photographed before and after being fixed with a central screw of 30-Ncm torque. The dental films were measured by Digora for Windows 2.6 software. Then the fracture resistance of zirconia abutments was measured using the universal testing machine at 90°. All results were analyzed using SPSS13.0 software. The average internal-hexagon microgaps between the implants and zirconia abutments were 19.38±1.34μm. The average Morse taper microgap in the implant-abutment interface was 17.55±1.68μm. The dental film showed that the Morse taper gap in the implant-abutment interface disappeared after being fixed with a central screw of 30-Ncm torque, and the average moving distance of the zirconia abutments to the implants was 0.19±0.02mm. The average fracture resistance of zirconia abutments was 282.93±17.28N. The internal-hexagon microgap between the implants and zirconia abutments was negatively related to the fracture resistance of the abutments (r1=-0.97, p<0.01). The Morse taper microgap in the implant-abutment interface was negatively related to the fracture resistance of the abutments (r2=-0.84, p<0.01). The microgap between implant and abutment was negatively related to the fracture resistance of the abutment, while the internal-hexagon microgap has better correlation than the Morse taper microgap. The closure of microgap is helpful to improve the fracture resistance of zirconia abutments. The fracture

  15. Effect of high intensity ultrasound on the mesostructure of hydrated zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopitsa, G. P.; Baranchikov, A. E.; Ivanova, O. S.; Yapryntsev, A. D.; Grigoriev, S. V.; Pranzas, P. Klaus; Ivanov, V. K.

    2012-02-01

    We report structural changes in amorphous hydrated zirconia caused by high intensity ultrasonic treatment studied by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was established that sonication affects the mesostructure of ZrO2×xH2O gels (i.e. decreases their homogeneity, increases surface fractal dimension and the size of monomer particles). Ultrasound induced structural changes in hydrated zirconia governs its thermal behaviour, namely decreases the rate of tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia phase transition.

  16. Combining monolithic zirconia crowns, digital impressioning, and regenerative cement for a predictable restorative alternative to PFM.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Jack D

    2013-03-01

    Advances in indirect esthetic materials in recent years have provided the dental profession higher levels of strength and esthetics than ever before with products like lithium disilicate and zirconium oxide. Providing excellent fit and versatile performance, and because there is no porcelain to delaminate, chip, or fracture, monolithic zirconia crowns have the potential to outperform other layered restorations such as porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM). This review of monolithic zirconia highlights a clinical case in which all-zirconia restorations were combined with CAD/CAM technology for a successful esthetic restorative outcome.

  17. The competing effects of slip and twinning on the deformation of Hadfield manganese steel single and polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, Ibrahim

    2000-10-01

    Hadfield steel is well known for its high strain hardening. However, the mechanism of high strain hardening is still not completely understood. There is a striking paucity of single crystal studies that would allow a superior understanding of the fundamental deformation mechanisms by circumventing the complications associated with grain boundaries. With this need, the present study is aimed at studying Hadfield steel in single and polycrystalline forms. For this purpose, the stress-strain behavior of Hadfield steel (Fe, 12.3% Mn, 1.0 C, in wt.%) single crystals studied for selected orientations ([001], [1¯11], [1¯23], [1¯44] and [1¯5 10]), and for different interstitial contents under tension and compression in the temperature range of 113 K to 293 K. The effect of twinning, slip and stacking faults was revealed in terms of the critical stress levels, and the strain-hardening coefficients. Based on the experimental observations, a model is presented that predicts the orientation, stress direction and solid solution content effects on the critical stress for initiating twinning. Nitrogen was also added to Hadfield steel. Nitrogen was not only proven to be a more effective strengthening agent than carbon in Hadfield steel but also it served as a better trigger for twinning. Stress-strain responses of Hadfield steel were modeled using a viscoplastic self consistent approach. A unique hardening formulation was proposed in the constitutive model incorporating length scales associated with spacing between twin lamellae and grain boundaries. The responses of single crystals and polycrystals with different grain sizes were captured closely with the model. Based on simulations, it was possible to explain unequivocally the upward curvature in stress-strain curves of Hadfield steel. A similar study on the 316L stainless steel single crystals indicated that the addition of nitrogen lead austenitic stainless steel to exhibit deformation mechanisms, orientation and

  18. Deposition of crystalline hydroxyapatite nano-particle on zirconia ceramic: a potential solution for the poor bonding characteristic of zirconia ceramics to resin cement.

    PubMed

    Azari, Abbas; Nikzad, Sakineh; Yazdani, Arash; Atri, Faezeh; Fazel Anvari-Yazdi, Abbas

    2017-07-01

    The poor bonding strength of zirconia to different dental substrates is one of the challenging issues in restorative dentistry. Hydroxyapatite is an excellent biocompatible material with fine bonding properties. In this study, it was hypothesized that hydroxyapatite coating on zirconia would improve its bond strength. Forty-five zirconia blocks were prepared and randomly divided into three groups: hydroxyapatite coating, sandblasting, and no preparation (control). The blocks were bonded to cement and the micro-shear bond strength was measured following load application. The bond strength values were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test in 3 groups and paired comparisons were made using the Mann-Whitney U test. The failure patterns of the specimens were studied by a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope and then analyzed by the chi-square test (significance level = 0.05). Deposition of hydroxyapatite on the zirconia surface significantly improved its bond strength to the resin cement in comparison with the control specimens (p < 0.0001). Also, the bond strength was similar to the sandblasted group (p = 0.34). The sandblasted and control group only showed adhesive failure, but the hydroxyapatite coated group had mixed failures, indicating the better quality of bonding (p < 0.0001). As a final point, hydroxyapatite coating on the zirconia surface improved the bond strength quality and values.

  19. Metal Adatoms and Clusters on Ultrathin Zirconia Films

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nucleation and growth of transition metals on zirconia has been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Since STM requires electrical conductivity, ultrathin ZrO2 films grown by oxidation of Pt3Zr(0001) and Pd3Zr(0001) were used as model systems. DFT studies were performed for single metal adatoms on supported ZrO2 films as well as the (1̅11) surface of monoclinic ZrO2. STM shows decreasing cluster size, indicative of increasing metal–oxide interaction, in the sequence Ag < Pd ≈ Au < Ni ≈ Fe. Ag and Pd nucleate mostly at steps and domain boundaries of ZrO2/Pt3Zr(0001) and form three-dimensional clusters. Deposition of low coverages of Ni and Fe at room temperature leads to a high density of few-atom clusters on the oxide terraces. Weak bonding of Ag to the oxide is demonstrated by removing Ag clusters with the STM tip. DFT calculations for single adatoms show that the metal–oxide interaction strength increases in the sequence Ag < Au < Pd < Ni on monoclinic ZrO2, and Ag ≈ Au < Pd < Ni on the supported ultrathin ZrO2 film. With the exception of Au, metal nucleation and growth on ultrathin zirconia films follow the usual rules: More reactive (more electropositive) metals result in a higher cluster density and wet the surface more strongly than more noble metals. These bind mainly to the oxygen anions of the oxide. Au is an exception because it can bind strongly to the Zr cations. Au diffusion may be impeded by changing its charge state between −1 and +1. We discuss differences between the supported ultrathin zirconia films and the surfaces of bulk ZrO2, such as the possibility of charge transfer to the substrate of the films. Due to their large in-plane lattice constant and the variety of adsorption sites, ZrO2{111} surfaces are more reactive than many other oxygen-terminated oxide surfaces. PMID:27213024

  20. Zirconia crowns for rehabilitation of decayed primary incisors: an esthetic alternative.

    PubMed

    Ashima, G; Sarabjot, K Bhatia; Gauba, K; Mittal, H C

    2014-01-01

    Esthetic management of extensively decayed primary maxillary anterior teeth requiring full coronal coverage restoration is usually challenging to the pediatric dentists especially in very young children. Many esthetic options have been tried over the years each having its own advantages, disadvantages and associated technical, functional or esthetic limitations. Zirconia crowns have provided a treatment alternative to address the esthetic concerns and ease of placement of extra-coronal restorations on primary anterior teeth. The present article presents a case where grossly decayed maxillary primary incisors were restored esthetically and functionally with ready made zirconia crowns (ZIRKIZ, HASS Corp; Korea). After endodontic treatment the decayed teeth were restored with zirconia crowns. Over a 30 months period, the crowns have demonstrated good retention and esthetic results. Dealing with esthetic needs in children with extensive loss of tooth structure, using Zirconia crowns would be practical and successful. The treatment described is simple and effective and represents a promising alternative for rehabilitation of decayed primary teeth.

  1. Plasmachemical synthesis of nanopowders of yttria and zirconia from dispersed water-salt-organic mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, Ivan; Karengin, Alexander; Shamanin, Igor; Alyukov, Evgeny; Gusev, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    Article represents results on theoretical and experimental research of yttria and zirconia plasmachemical synthesis in air plasma from water-salt-organic mixtures "yttrium nitrate-water-acetone" and "zirconyl nitrate-water-acetone". On the basis of thermotechnical calculations the influence of organic component on lower heat value and adiabatic combustion temperature of water-salt-organic mixtures as well as compositions of mixtures providing their energy-efficient plasma treatment were determined. The calculations found the influence of mass fraction and temperature of air plasma supporting gas on the composition of plasma treatment products. It was determined the conditions providing yttria and zirconia plasmachemical synthesis in air plasma. During experiments it was b eing carried out the plasmachemical synthesis of yttria and zirconia powders in air plasma flow from water -salt-organic mixtures. Analysis of the results for obtained powders (scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, BET analysis) confirm nanostructure of yttria and zirconia.

  2. Properties of zirconia-toughened-alumina prepared via powder processing and colloidal processing routes.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, A; Alsebaie, A M; Olabi, A G; Prescott, T

    2009-01-15

    Alumina-zirconia composites were prepared by two routes: powder processing, and colloidal processing. Unstabilised zirconia powder was added to alumina in 5 wt%, 10 wt% and 20 wt% quantities. For the colloidal method, zirconium(IV) propoxide solution was added to alumina powder, also in 5 wt%, 10 wt% and 20 wt% quantities. Additions of glacial acetic acid were needed to form stable suspensions. Suspension stability was verified by pH measurements and sedimentation testing. For the powder processed samples Vickers hardness decreased indefinitely with increasing ZrO(2) additions, but for colloidal samples the hardness at first decreased but then increased again above >10 wt% ZrO(2). Elastic modulus (E) values decreased with ZrO(2) additions. However, samples containing 20 wt% zirconia prepared via a colloidal method exhibited a much higher modulus than the powder processed equivalent. This was due to the homogeneous dispersion of zirconia yielding a sample which was less prone to microcracking.

  3. Atomistic modeling of La 3+ doping segregation effect on nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Shenli; Sha, Haoyan; Castro, Ricardo H. R.; ...

    2018-01-01

    The effect of La 3+ doping on the structure and ionic conductivity change in nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was studied using a combination of Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations.

  4. Adhesion/cementation to zirconia and other non-silicate ceramics: Where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jeffrey Y; Stoner, Brian R.; Piascik, Jeffrey R.; Smith, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Non-silicate ceramics, especially zirconia, have become a topic of great interest in the field of prosthetic and implant dentistry. A clinical problem with use of zirconia-based components is the difficulty in achieving suitable adhesion with intended synthetic substrates or natural tissues. Traditional adhesive techniques used with silica-based ceramics do not work effectively with zirconia. Currently, several technologies are being utilized clinically to address this problem, and other approaches are under investigation. Most focus on surface modification of the inert surfaces of high strength ceramics. The ability to chemically functionalize the surface of zirconia appears to be critical in achieving adhesive bonding. This review will focus on currently available approaches as well as new advanced technologies to address this problem. PMID:21094526

  5. Investigations on composition and morphology of electrochemical alumina and alumina yttria stabilised zirconia deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hajjaji, S.; Manov, S.; Roy, J.; Aigouy, T.; Ben Bachir, A.; Aries, L.

    2001-08-01

    Conversion coatings modified by deposits of electrolytic alumina added or not with yttria and/or zirconia, have been studied which are well known for their resistance to chemical attack and high temperature. Conversion coating, characterised by a particular morphology and strong interfacial adhesion with the substrate, facilitate the electrochemical deposition of ceramic layers and enhance their adhesion to the substrate. Zirconia-alumina coating behaviour at 1000°C is similar to that of alumina coating; from 800°C, the chromium diffuses from the stainless steel through the electrolytic refractory coating up to the external interface, provokes discontinuities and can modify its protective character. Yttrium stabilises the cubic and the tetragonal form of the zirconia; so, during cooling, the phase transformation near 1000°C of tetragonal zirconia to monoclinic form cannot take place.

  6. Shear bond strength between an indirect composite layering material and feldspathic porcelain-coated zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Fushiki, Ryosuke; Komine, Futoshi; Blatz, Markus B; Koizuka, Mai; Taguchi, Kohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of both feldspathic porcelain coating of zirconia frameworks and priming agents on shear bond strength between an indirect composite material and zirconia frameworks. A total of 462 airborne-particle-abraded zirconia disks were divided into three groups: untreated disks (ZR-AB), airborne-particle-abraded zirconia disks coated with feldspathic porcelain, (ZR-PO-AB), and hydrofluoric acid-etched zirconia disks coated with feldspathic porcelain (ZR-PO-HF). Indirect composite (Estenia C&B) was bonded to zirconia specimens with no (CON) or one of four priming agents--Clearfil Photo Bond (CPB), Clearfil Photo Bond with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator (CPB + activator), Estenia Opaque primer, or Porcelain Liner M Liquid B (PLB)--with or without an opaque material (Estenia C&B Opaque). All specimens were tested for shear bond strength before and after 20,000 thermocycles. The Steel-Dwass test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare shear bond strength. In ZR-AB specimens, the initial bond strength of the CPB and CPB + Activator groups was significantly higher as compared with the other three groups (P < 0.05), whereas the PLB and CPB + Activator groups had the highest pre- and post-thermocycling bond strengths in ZR-PO-AB and ZR-PO-HF specimens. Among CON disks without opaque material, bond strength was significantly lower in ZR-AB specimens than in ZR-PO-AB and ZR-PO-HF specimens (P < 0.05). Feldspathic porcelain coating of a Katana zirconia framework enhanced the bond strength of Estenia C&B indirect composite to zirconia independent of surface treatment. The use of a silane coupling agent and opaque material yields durable bond strength between the indirect composite and feldspathic-porcelain-coated zirconia. The results of the present study suggest that feldspathic porcelain coating of zirconia frameworks is an effective method to obtain clinically acceptable bond strengths of a layering indirect

  7. Fracture loads and failure modes of customized and non-customized zirconia abutments.

    PubMed

    Moris, Izabela Cristina Maurício; Chen, Yung-Chung; Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Fok, Alex Sui-Lun; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira

    2018-05-05

    This study aimed to evaluate the fracture load and pattern of customized and non-customized zirconia abutments with Morse-taper connection. 18 implants were divided into 3 groups according to the abutments used: Zr - with non-customized zirconia abutments; Zrc - with customized zirconia abutments; and Ti - with titanium abutments. To test their load capacity, a universal test machine with a 500-kgf load cell and a 0.5-mm/min speed were used. After, one implant-abutment assembly from each group was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). For fractographic analysis, the specimens were transversely sectioned above the threads of the abutment screw in order to examine their fracture surfaces using SEM. A significant difference was noted between the groups (Zr=573.7±11.66N, Zrc=768.0±8.72N and Ti=659.1±7.70N). Also, the zirconia abutments fractured while the titanium abutments deformed plastically. Zrc presented fracture loads significantly higher than Zr (p=0.009). All the zirconia abutments fractured below the implant platform, starting from the area of contact between the abutment and implant and propagating to the internal surface of the abutment. All the zirconia abutments presented complete cleavage in the mechanical test. Fractography detected differences in the position and pattern of fracture between the two groups with zirconia abutments, probably because of the different diameters in the transmucosal region. Customization of zirconia abutments did not affect their fracture loads, which were comparable to that of titanium and much higher than the maximum physiological limit for the anterior region of the maxilla. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fracture resistance of inter-joined zirconia abutment of dental implant system with injection molding technique.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Ke; Liu, Guangyuan; Wang, Dashan

    2013-11-01

    Zirconia powder in nanometers can be fabricated into inter-joined abutment of dental implant system with the injection shaping technique. This study was to detect the resistance of inter-joined zirconia abutment with different angle loading for clinical applications. The inter-joined abutments were shaped with the technique of injection of zirconia powder in nanometers. Sixty Osstem GSII 5 × 10 mm implants were used with 30 zirconia abutments and 30 Osstem GSII titanium abutments for fixation using 40 N torque force. The loading applications included 90°, 30°, and 0° formed by the long axis of abutments and pressure head of universal test machine. The fracture resistances of zirconia and titanium abutments were documented and analyzed. The inter-joined zirconia abutments were assembled to the Osstem GSII implants successfully. In the 90° loading mode, the fracture resistance of zirconia abutment group and titanium abutment group were 301.5 ± 15.4 N and 736.4 ± 120.1 N, respectively. And those in the 30° groups were 434.7 ± 36.1 N and 1073.1 ± 74 N, correspondingly. Significant difference in the two groups was found using t-test and Wilcoxon test. No damage on the abutments of the two groups but S-shaped bending on the implants was found when the 0° loading was 1300-2000 N. Through the assembly of Zirconia abutments and implants, all the components presented sufficient resistance acquired for the clinical application under loadings with different angle. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Morphology of zirconia particles exposed to D.C. arc plasma jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, Isidor

    1987-01-01

    Zirconia particles were sprayed into water with an arc plasma gun in order to determine the effect of various gun operating parameters on their morphology. The collected particles were examined by XRD and SEM techniques. A correlation was established between the content of spherical (molten) particles and the operating parameters by visual inspection and regression analysis. It was determined that the composition of the arc gas and the power input were the predominant parameters that affected the melting of zirconia particles.

  10. [Preliminary evaluation of clinical effect of computer aided design and computer aided manufacture zirconia crown].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-guang; Xing, Yan-xi; Sun, Yu-chun; Zhao, Yi-jiao; Lü, Pei-jun; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate clinical effects of computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) milled zirconia crown in three aspects: aesthetic, contact wear and fracture. Sixty patients were divided into two groups.In one group, 35 full contour CAD/CAM zirconia crown were made on molars of 30 patients. The manufacturing process of zirconia crown was as follow. First, the three dimensional(3-D) data of working models, antagonist impression and check records were acquired by 3-D laser scanning Dental wings S50. Then full contour zirconia crowns, which had functional occlusal contacts with antagonistic teeth, and appropriate contact with adjacent teeth were designed with Zeno-CAD(V4.2.5.5.12919) software. ZENOSTAR Zr pure zirconia material was milled in digital controlled machine WIELAND 4030 M1.In the end, the zirconia crown were completed with the method of second sintering and polishing. After clinical try-in, the crown was cemented.In the control group, thirty gold alloy full crown were made and cemented on molars of 30 patients. According to the modified U S Public Health Service Criteria(USPHS) evaluation standard, all crowns were evaluated on the same day, at three months, half a year, one year and two years following delivery. There were three aspects we were focusing on in the evaluation: aesthetic, contact wear(restoration and antagonist), and fracture. In all the prosthesis we evaluated during the 24 months, no fracture was found. Contact wear of crowns varies according to different antagonist teeth. The zirconia crowns show privilege in aesthesis, toughness and anti-wearing.However, there is contact wear on antagonistic natural teeth. Thus it is a good choice when full zirconia crowns are indicated on two antagonistic teeth in both jaws.

  11. Effect of coping thickness and background type on the masking ability of a zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaian, Farhad; Taghizade, Fateme; Namdari, Mahshid

    2018-01-01

    The masking ability of zirconia ceramics as copings is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of coping thickness and background type on the masking ability of a zirconia ceramic and to determine zirconia coping thickness cut offs for masking the backgrounds investigated. Thirty zirconia disks in 3 thickness groups of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 mm were placed on 9 backgrounds to measure CIELab color attributes using a spectrophotometer. The backgrounds included A1, A2, and A3.5 shade composite resin, A3 shade zirconia, nickel-chromium alloy, nonprecious gold-colored alloy, amalgam, black, and white. ΔE values were measured to determine color differences between the specimens on the A2 shade composite resin background and the same specimens on the other backgrounds. The color change (ΔE) values were compared with threshold values for acceptability (ΔE=5.5) and perceptibility (ΔE=2.6). Repeated measures ANOVA, the Bonferroni test, and 1-sample t tests were used to analyze data (α=.05). Mean ΔE values ranged between 1.44 and 7.88. The zirconia coping thickness, the background type, and their interaction affected the CIELab and ΔE values (P<.001). To achieve ideal masking, the minimum thickness of a zirconia coping should be 0.4 mm for A1 and A3.5 shade composite resin, A3 shade zirconia, and nonprecious gold-colored alloy, 0.6 mm for amalgam, and 0.8 mm for nickel-chromium alloy. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Zirconia Ceramic Using Adhesive Primers.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Ariovaldo; Brito, Rui Barbosa; Kina, Sidney; Andrade, Oswaldo Scopin; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Carvalho, Andreia Assis; Giannini, Marcelo

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the influence of adhesive primers on the microshear bond strength of resin cements to zirconia ceramic. Fifty zirconia plates (12 mm × 5 mm × 1.5 mm thick) of a commercially available zirconium oxide ceramic (ZirCad) were sintered, sandblasted with aluminum oxide particles, and cleaned ultrasonically before bonding. The plates were randomly divided into five groups of 10. Three resin cements were selected (RelyX ARC, Multilink Automix, Clearfil SA Cement self-adhesive resin cement), along with two primers (Metal-Zirconia Primer, Alloy Primer) and one control group. The primers and resin cements were used according to manufacturers' recommendations. The control group comprised the conventional resin cement (RelyX ARC) without adhesive primer. Test cylinders (0.75 mm diameter × 1 mm high) were formed on zirconia surfaces by filling cylindrical Tygon tube molds with resin cement. The specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C, then tested for shear strength on a Shimadzu EZ Test testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. Bond strength data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Dunnett's test (5%). The bond strength means in MPa (± s.d.) were: RelyX ARC: 28.1 (6.6); Multilink Automix: 37.6 (4.5); Multilink Automix + Metal-Zirconia Primer: 55.7 (4.0); Clearfil SA Cement: 46.2 (3.3); and Clearfil SA Cement + Alloy Primer: 47.0 (4.1). Metal-Zirconia Primer increased the bond strength of Multilink Automix resin cement to zirconia, but no effect was observed for Alloy Primer using Clearfil SA Cement. RelyX ARC showed the lowest bond strength to zirconia. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  13. Iron on mixed zirconia-titania substrate Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Paul N.; Nordquist, Andrew F.; Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1986-01-01

    A Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising iron co-deposited with or deposited on particles comprising a mixture of zirconia and titania, preferably formed by co-precipitation of compounds convertible to zirconia and titania, such as zirconium and titanium alkoxide. The invention also comprises the method of making this catalyst and an improved Fischer-Tropsch reaction process in which the catalyst is utilized.

  14. F-T process using an iron on mixed zirconia-titania supported catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Paul N.; Nordquist, Andrew F.; Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    A Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising iron co-deposited with or deposited on particles comprising a mixture of zirconia and titania, preferably formed by co-precipitation of compounds convertible to zirconia and titania, such as zirconium and titanium alkoxide. The invention also comprises the method of making this catalyst and an improved Fischer-Tropsch reaction process in which the catalyst is utilized.

  15. Computer-aided fabrication of a zirconia 14-unit removable dental prosthesis: a technical report.

    PubMed

    Grösser, Julian; Sachs, Caroline; Stadelmann, Markus; Schweiger, Josef; Güthe, Jan-Frederik; Beuer, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Double crown systems with primary crowns made from zirconia are used to support removable dental prostheses (RDPs). However, the fabrication of RDPs is labor-intensive and costly. Manufacturing primary and secondary crowns from zirconia with a CAD/CAM system might simplify the fabrication protocol and reduce costs. Furthermore, only ceramic materials are used in this method, providing an RDP with the highest possible biocompatibility and greatest possible esthetics. This article describes the fabrication protocol step by step.

  16. Bonding of Resin Cement to Zirconia with High Pressure Primer Coating

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-jie; Jiao, Kai; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Wei; Shen, Li-juan; Fang, Ming; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiang; Tay, Franklin R.; Chen, Ji-hua

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of air-drying pressure during ceramic primer coating on zirconia/resin bonding and the surface characteristics of the primed zirconia. Methods Two ceramic primers (Clearfil Ceramic Primer, CCP, Kuraray Medical Inc. and Z-Prime Plus, ZPP, Bisco Inc.) were applied on the surface of air-abraded zirconia (Katana zirconia, Noritake) and dried at 4 different air pressures (0.1–0.4 MPa). The primed zirconia ceramic specimens were bonded with a resin-based luting agent (SA Luting Cement, Kuraray). Micro-shear bond strengths of the bonded specimens were tested after 3 days of water storage or 5,000× thermocycling (n = 12). Failure modes of the fractured specimens were examined with scanning electron miscopy. The effects of air pressure on the thickness of the primer layers and the surface roughness (Sa) of primed zirconia were evaluated using spectroscopic ellipsometry (n = 6), optical profilometry and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) (n = 6), respectively. Results Clearfil Ceramic Primer air-dried at 0.3 and 0.4 MPa, yielding significantly higher µSBS than gentle air-drying subgroups (p<0.05). Compared to vigorous drying conditions, Z-Prime Plus air-dried at 0.2 MPa exhibited significantly higher µSBS (p<0.05). Increasing air-drying pressure reduced the film thickness for both primers. Profilometry measurements and ESEM showed rougher surfaces in the high pressure subgroups of CCP and intermediate pressure subgroup of ZPP. Conclusion Air-drying pressure influences resin/zirconia bond strength and durability significantly. Higher air-drying pressure (0.3-0.4 MPa) for CCP and intermediate pressure (0.2 MPa) for ZPP are recommended to produce strong, durable bonds between resin cement and zirconia ceramics. PMID:24992678

  17. Grain boundary crystallography in polycrystalline yttria-stabilised cubic zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kini, Maya K.

    2018-07-01

    Properties of grain boundaries such as grain boundary energy, mobility and diffusion are reported to depend strongly on their crystallography. While studies on ceramic bicrystals with low Σ misorientations have shown highly ordered structures and low energies, studies on dense polycrystalline ceramics often show the significance of grain boundary planes. In the present study, grain boundary plane distributions were studied for yttria-stabilised cubic zirconia with varying grain sizes using Electron Back Scattered Diffraction technique combined with a stereological approach. Despite nearly isotropic grain boundary plane distributions, a highly anisotropic grain boundary character distribution is observed for specific misorientations. Certain low-energy symmetric tilts such as Σ3 and Σ11 are found to occur with high frequencies across the grain size range studied, leading to an inverse correlation between GB energy and frequency of occurrence, consistent with other ceramics studied in literature.

  18. Pressure induced phase transitions in ceramic compounds containing tetragonal zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, R.G.; Pfeiffer, G.; Paesler, M.A.

    Stabilized tetragonal zirconia compounds exhibit a transformation toughening process in which stress applied to the material induces a crystallographic phase transition. The phase transition is accompanied by a volume expansion in the stressed region thereby dissipating stress and increasing the fracture strength of the material. The hydrostatic component of the stress required to induce the phase transition can be investigated by the use of a high pressure technique in combination with Micro-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity of Raman lines characteristic for the crystallographic phases can be used to calculate the amount of material that has undergone the transition as a functionmore » of pressure. It was found that pressures on the order of 2-5 kBar were sufficient to produce an almost complete transition from the original tetragonal to the less dense monoclinic phase; while a further increase in pressure caused a gradual reversal of the transition back to the original tetragonal structure.« less

  19. Thermal Conductivity of Alumina-reinforced Zirconia Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    2005-01-01

    10-mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (10SZ) - alumina composites containing 0-30 mol% alumina were fabricated by hot pressing at 1500 C in vacuum. Thermal conductivity was determined at various temperatures using a steady-state laser heat flux technique. Thermal conductivity of the composites increased with increase in alumina content. Composites containing 0, 5, and 10-mol% alumina did not show any change in thermal conductivity with temperature. However, those containing 20 and 30-mol% alumina showed a decrease in thermal conductivity with increase in temperature. The measured values of thermal conductivity were in good agreement with those calculated from the Maxwell-Eucken model where one phase is uniformly dispersed within a second major continuous phase.

  20. Long-Term Effects on Graphene Supercapacitors of Using a Zirconia Bowl and Zirconia Balls for Ball-Mill mixing of Active Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dae-Hoon; Kim, Jin-Young; Kahng, Yung Ho; Cho, Hoonsung; Kim, Eung-Sam

    2018-04-01

    Improving the energy storage performance of supercapacitor electrodes based on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is one of the main subjects in this research field. However, when a zirconia bowl and zirconia balls were used for ball-mill mixing of the active materials for RGO supercapacitors, the energy storage performance deteriorated over time. Our study revealed that the source of the problem was the inclusion of zirconia bits from abrasion of the bowl and the balls during the ballmill mixing, which increased during a period of 1 year. We probed two solutions to this problem: 1) hydrofluoric (HF) acid treatment of the RGO supercapacitors and 2) use of a tempered steel bowl and tempered steel balls for the mixing. For both cases, the energy storage performance was restored to near the initial level, showing a specific capacitance ( C sp ) of 200 F/g. Our results should lead to progress in research on RGO supercapacitors.

  1. Dual jaw treatment of edentulism using implant-supported monolithic zirconia fixed prostheses.

    PubMed

    Altarawneh, Sandra; Limmer, Bryan; Reside, Glenn J; Cooper, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes restoration of the edentulous maxilla and mandible with implant supported fixed prostheses using monolithic zirconia, where the incisal edges and occluding surfaces were made of monolithic zirconia. Edentulism is a debilitating condition that can be treated with either a removable or fixed dental prosthesis. The most common type of implant-supported fixed prosthesis is the metal acrylic (hybrid), with ceramo-metal prostheses being used less commonly in complete edentulism. However, both of these prostheses designs are associated with reported complications of screw loosening or fracture and chipping of acrylic resin and porcelain. Monolithic zirconia implant-supported fixed prostheses have the potential for reduction of such complications. In this case, the CAD/CAM concept was utilized in fabrication of maxillary and mandibular screw-retained implant-supported fixed prostheses using monolithic zirconia. Proper treatment planning and execution coupled with utilizing advanced technologies contributes to highly esthetic results. However, long-term studies are required to guarantee a satisfactory long-term outcome of this modality of treatment. This case report describes the clinical and technical procedures involved in fabrication of maxillary and mandibular implant-supported fixed prostheses using monolithic zirconia as a treatment of edentulism, and proposes the possible advantages associated with using monolithic zirconia in eliminating dissimilar interfaces in such prostheses that are accountable for the most commonly occurring technical complication for these prostheses being chipping and fracture of the veneering material. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Randomized clinical study of wear of enamel antagonists against polished monolithic zirconia crowns

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Upshaw, J.F.; Kim, M.J.; Hsu, S.M.; Abdulhameed, N.; Jenkins, R.; Neal, D.; Ren, F.; Clark, A.E.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the in vivo maximum wear of enamel opposing monolithic zirconia crowns, enamel opposing porcelain fused to metal crowns and enamel opposing enamel. Methods Thirty patients needing single crowns were randomized to receive either a monolithic zirconia or metal-ceramic crown. Two non-restored opposing teeth in the same quadrants were identified to serve as enamel controls. After cementation, quadrants were scanned for baseline data. Polyvinylsiloxane impressions were obtained and poured in white stone. Patients were recalled at six-months and one-year for re-impression. Stone models were scanned using a tabletop laserscanner to determine maximum wear. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U to determine any significant differences between the wear of enamel against zirconia and metal-ceramic crowns. Results Sixteen zirconia and 14 metal-ceramic crowns were delivered. There were no statistical differences in mean wear of crown types (p = 0.165); enamel antagonists (p = 0.235) and enamel controls (p = 0.843) after one year. Conclusion Monolithic zirconia exhibited comparable wear of enamel compared with metal-ceramic crowns and control enamel after one year. Significance This study is clinically significant because the use of polished monolithic zirconia demonstrated comparable wear of opposing enamel to metal-ceramic and enamel antagonists. PMID:29042241

  3. Effect of Polishing Systems on Surface Roughness and Topography of Monolithic Zirconia.

    PubMed

    Goo, C L; Yap, Auj; Tan, Kbc; Fawzy, A S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different chairside polishing systems on the surface roughness and topography of monolithic zirconia. Thirty-five monolithic zirconia specimens (Lava PLUS, 3M ESPE) were fabricated and divided into five groups of seven and polished with the following: Group 1 (WZ)-Dura white stone followed by Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 2 (SZ)-Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 3 (CE)-Ceramiste porcelain polishers; Group 4 (CM)-Ceramaster porcelain polishers; and Group 5 (KZ)-Komet ZR zirconia polishers. All specimens were ground with a fine-grit diamond bur prior to polishing procedures to simulate clinical finishing. Baseline and post-polishing profilometric readings were recorded and delta Ra values (difference in mean surface roughness before and after polishing) were computed and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe post hoc test (p<0.05). Representative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the ground but unpolished and polished specimens were acquired. Delta Ra values ranged from 0.146 for CE to 0.400 for KZ. Delta Ra values for KZ, WZ, and SZ were significantly greater than for CE. Significant differences in delta Ra values were also observed between KZ and CM. The SEM images obtained were consistent with the profilometric findings. Diamond-impregnated polishing systems were more effective than silica carbide-impregnated ones in reducing the surface roughness of ground monolithic zirconia.

  4. The effect of plasma on shear bond strength between resin cement and colored zirconia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE To investigate the effect of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) treatment on shear bond strength (SBS) between resin cement and colored zirconia made with metal chlorides. MATERIALS AND METHODS 60 zirconia specimens were divided into 3 groups using coloring liquid. Each group was divided again into 2 sub-groups using plasma treatment; the experimental group was treated with plasma, and the control group was untreated. The sub-groups were: N (non-colored), C (0.1 wt% aqueous chromium chloride solution), M (0.1 wt% aqueous molybdenum chloride solution), NP (non-colored with plasma), CP (0.1 wt% aqueous chromium chloride solution with plasma), and MP (0.1 wt% aqueous molybdenum chloride solution with plasma). Composite resin cylinders were bonded to zirconia specimens with MDP-based resin cement, and SBS was measured using a universal testing machine. All data was analyzed statistically using a 2-way ANOVA test and a Tukey test. RESULTS SBS significantly increased when specimens were treated with NTAPP regardless of coloring (P<.001). Colored zirconia containing molybdenum showed the highest value of SBS, regardless of NTAPP. The molybdenum group showed the highest SBS, whereas the chromium group showed the lowest. CONCLUSION NTAPP may increase the SBS of colored zirconia and resin cement. The NTAPP effect on SBS is not influenced by the presence of zirconia coloring. PMID:28435621

  5. Reactions of yttria-stabilized zirconia with oxides and sulfates of various elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1978-01-01

    The reactions between partially stabilized zirconia, containing 8 weight-percent yttria, and oxides and sulfates of various elements were studied at 1200, 1300, and 1400 C for times to 800, 400, and 200 hours, respectively. These oxides and sulfates represent impurities and additives potentially present in gas turbine fuels or impurities in the turbine combustion air as well as the elements of the substrate alloys in contact with zirconia. Based on the results, these compounds can be classified in four groups: (1) compounds which did not react with zirconia (Na2SO4, K2SO4, Cr2O3, Al2O3 and NiO); (2) compounds that reached completely with both zirconia phases (CaO, BaO, and BaSO4); (3) compounds that reacted preferentially with monoclinic zirconia (Na2O, K2O, CoO, Fe2O3, MgO, SiO2, and ZnO); and (4) compounds that reacted preferentially with cubic zirconia (V2O5, P2O5).

  6. In vitro fracture resistance of three commercially available zirconia crowns for primary molars.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Janice A; Knoell, Patrick; Yu, Qingzhao; Zhang, Jian-Feng; Wang, Yapin; Zhu, Han; Beattie, Sean; Xu, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the fracture resistance of primary mandibular first molar zirconia crowns from three different manufacturers-EZ Pedo (EZP), NuSmile (NSZ), and Kinder Krowns (KK)-and compare it with the thickness of the zirconia crowns and the measured fracture resistance of preveneered stainless steel crowns (SSCs). The thickness of 20 zirconia crowns from three manufacturers were measured. The mean force required to fracture the crowns was determined. Preveneered NuSmile (NSW) SSCs were tested as a control. EZP crowns were significantly thicker in three of the six measured locations. The force required to fracture the EZP crown was significantly higher than that required for NSZ and KK. There was a positive correlation between fracture resistance and crown thickness in the mesial, distal, mesioocclusal, and distoocclusal dimensions. None of the zirconia crowns proved to be as resistant to fracture as the preveneered SSCs. Statistically significant differences were found among the forces required to fracture zirconia crowns by three different manufacturers. The increase in force correlated with crown thickness. The forces required to fracture the preveneered stainless steel crowns were greater than the forces required to fracture all manufacturers' zirconia crowns.

  7. Twenty-nine-month follow-up of a paediatric zirconia dental crown.

    PubMed

    Lopez Cazaux, Serena; Hyon, Isabelle; Prud'homme, Tony; Dajean Trutaud, Sylvie

    2017-06-14

    The aim of this paper is to present the long-term follow-up of one paediatric zirconia crown on a deciduous molar. Preformed crowns are part of the armamentarium in paediatric dentistry. In recent years, aesthetic alternatives to preformed metal crowns have been developed, first preveneered crowns and then zirconia crowns. This paper describes the restoration of a primary molar with a zirconia crown (EZ-Pedo, Loomis, California, USA) in an 8-year-old boy. In this clinical case, the protocol for the implementation and maintenance of zirconia crowns is detailed. The patient was followed up for 29 months until the natural exfoliation of his primary molar. The adaptation of the zirconia crown, the gingival health and the wear on the opposing tooth were considered. In this case, the paediatric zirconia crown allowed sustainable functional restoration while restoring a natural appearance of the tooth. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. [Application of plasma sprayed zirconia coating in dental implant: study in implant].

    PubMed

    Huang, Z F; Wang, Z F; Li, C H; Hao, D; Lan, J

    2018-04-09

    Objective: To investigate the osseointegration of a novel coating-plasma-sprayed zirconia in dental implant. Methods: Zirconia coating on non-thread titanium implant was prepared using plasma spraying, the implant surface morphology, surface roughness and wettability were measured. In vivo , zirconia coated implants were inserted in rabbit tibia and animals were respectively sacrificed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after implantation. The bond strength between implant and bone was measured by push-out test. The osseointegration was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro CT and histological analyses. Quantified parameters including removal torque, and bone-implant contact (BIC) percentage were calculated. Results: The surface roughness (1.6 µm) and wettability (54.6°) of zirconia coated implant was more suitable than those of titanium implant (0.6 µm and 74.4°) for osseointegration. At 12 weeks, the push-out value of zirconia coated implant and titanium implant were (64.9±3.0) and (50.4±2.9) N, and BIC value of these two groups were (54.7±3.6)% and (41.5±3.6)%. All these differences had statistical significance. Conclusions: The surface characters of zirconia coated implant were more suitable for osseointegration and present better osseointegration than smooth titanium implant in vivo , especially at early stage.

  9. Optical and structural properties of colloidal zirconia nanoparticles prepared by arc discharge in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peymani forooshani, Reza; Poursalehi, Reza; Yourdkhani, Amin

    2018-01-01

    Zirconia is one of the important ceramic materials with unique properties such as high melting point, high ionic conductivity, high mechanical properties and low thermal conductivity. Therefore, zirconia is one of the useful materials in refractories, thermal barriers, cutting tools, oxygen sensors electrolytes, catalysis, catalyst supports and solid oxide fuel cells. Recently, direct current (DC) arc discharge is extensively employed to synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures in liquid environments. The aim of this work is the synthesis of colloidal zirconia nanoparticles by DC arc discharge method in water as a medium. Arc discharge was ignited between two pure zirconium electrodes in water. Optical and structural properties of prepared colloidal nanoparticles were investigated. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and UV-visible spectroscopy, were employed for characterization of particle size, morphology, crystal structure and optical properties, respectively. SEM images demonstrate that the nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average size lower than 38 nm. The XRD patterns of the nanoparticles were consistent with tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia crystal structures. The optical transmission spectra of the colloidal solution show optical characteristic of zirconia nanoparticles as a wide band gap semiconductor with no absorption peak in visible wavelength with the considerable amount of oxygen deficiency. Oxidation of colloidal nanoparticles in water could be explained via reaction with either dissociated oxygen from water in hot plasma region or with dissolved oxygen in water. The results provide a simple and flexible method for preparation of zirconia nanoparticles with a capability of mass production without environmental footprints.

  10. Effect of Porosity of Alumina and Zirconia Ceramics toward Pre-Osteoblast Response

    PubMed Central

    Hadjicharalambous, Chrystalleni; Prymak, Oleg; Loza, Kateryna; Buyakov, Ales; Kulkov, Sergei; Chatzinikolaidou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    It is acknowledged that cellular responses are highly affected by biomaterial porosity. The investigation of this effect is important for the development of implanted biomaterials that integrate with bone tissue. Zirconia and alumina ceramics exhibit outstanding mechanical properties and are among the most popular implant materials used in orthopedics, but few data exist regarding the effect of porosity on cellular responses to these materials. The present study investigates the effect of porosity on the attachment and proliferation of pre-osteoblastic cells on zirconia and alumina. For each composition, ceramics of three different porosities are fabricated by sintering, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. Cell proliferation is quantified, and microscopy is employed to qualitatively support the proliferation results and evaluate cell morphology. Cell adhesion and metabolic activity are found comparable among low porosity zirconia and alumina. In contrast, higher porosity favors better cell spreading on zirconia and improves growth, but does not significantly affect cell response on alumina. Between the highest porosity materials, cell response on zirconia is found superior to alumina. Results show that an average pore size of ~150 μm and ~50% porosity can be considered beneficial to cellular growth on zirconia ceramics. PMID:26579516

  11. Defect studies of nanocrystalline zirconia powders and sintered ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čížek, Jakub; Melikhova, Oksana; Procházka, Ivan; Kuriplach, Jan; Kužel, Radomír; Brauer, Gerhard; Anwand, Wolfgang; Konstantinova, Tatyana E.; Danilenko, Igor A.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to communicate a study of defects behavior in zirconia-based nanomaterials—pressure-compacted yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanopowders with different contents of Y2O3 and ceramics obtained by sintering the YZS nanopowders. In addition, YZS single crystals were also investigated. Positron annihilation techniques including positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening with a conventional positron source and Doppler broadening experiments on a monoenergetic positron beam were involved in this study as the principal tools. These techniques were supplemented with transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction observations. In order to get better support of the experimental data interpretation, the state-of-art theoretical calculations of positron parameters were performed for the perfect ZrO2 lattice and selected defect configurations in the YSZ. Theoretical calculations have indicated that neither the oxygen vacancies nor their neutral complexes with substitutional yttrium atoms are capable of positron trapping. On the other hand, the zirconium vacancies are deep positron traps and obviously are responsible for the saturated positron trapping observed in the YSZ single crystals. In the compacted YSZ nanopowders, a majority of positrons is trapped either in the vacancylike defects situated in the negative space-charge layers along grain boundaries (τ1≈185ps) or in vacancy clusters at intersections of grain boundaries (τ2≈370ps) . The intensity ratio I2/I1 was found to be correlated with the mean grain size d as I2/I1˜d-2 . A small fraction of positrons (≈10%) form positronium in large pores (τ3≈2ns,τ4≈30ns) . A significant grain growth during sintering of the YSZ nanopowders above 1000°C was observed.

  12. Influence of contamination on bonding to zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Scharnberg, Michael; Wolfart, Stefan; Quaas, Anne C; Ludwig, Klaus; Adelung, Rainer; Kern, Matthias

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of contaminations and cleaning methods on bonding to dental zirconia ceramic. After saliva immersion and using silicone disclosing agent, airborne-particle abraded ceramic specimens were cleaned with isopropanol (AL), acetone (AC), 37% phosphoric acid (PA), additional airborne-particle abrasion (AA), or only with water rinsing (SS). Airborne-particle abraded specimens without contaminations (CL) were used as control group. For chemical analysis specimens of all groups were examined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Plexiglas tubes filled with composite resin were bonded to ceramic specimens using a phosphate-monomer containing composite luting resin. After 3-day water storage, tensile bond strengths (TBS) were tested. XPS analysis of group SS showed the presence of saliva and silicone (Si) contamination on the surface. The ratios of carbon/zirconium and oxygen/zirconium for groups PA and AA were comparable to those ratios obtained for group CL, indicating the removal of the organic saliva contamination. Airborne-particle abrasion and acetone completely removed Si contamination from ceramic surfaces. Isopropanol had little cleaning effect on the two contaminants. TBS (median +/- standard deviation) in MPa of the groups SS (11.6 +/- 3.1), AL (10.0 +/- 2.9), and AC (13.0 +/- 2.8) were statistically lower than those of groups PA (33.6 +/- 5.5), AA (40.1 +/- 3.6), and CL (47.0 +/- 8.1) (p < 0.001), while no differences were found in TBS between groups AA and CL (p > 0.5). Contamination significantly reduced bond strengths to zirconia ceramic. Airborne-particle abrasion was the most effective cleaning method.

  13. Subsurface segregation of yttria in yttria stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ridder, M.; van Welzenis, R. G.; van der Gon, A. W. Denier; Brongersma, H. H.; Wulff, S.; Chu, W.-F.; Weppner, W.

    2002-09-01

    The segregation behavior in 3 and 10 mol % polycrystalline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), calcined at temperatures ranging from 300 to 1600 degC, is characterized using low-energy ion scattering (LEIS). In order to be able to separate the Y and Zr LEIS signals, YSZ samples have been prepared using isotopically enriched 94ZrO2 instead of natural zirconia. The samples are made via a special precipitation method at a low temperature. The segregation to the outermost surface layer is dominated by impurities. The increased impurity levels are restricted to this first layer, which underlines the importance of the use of LEIS for this study. For temperatures of 1000 degC and higher, the oxides of the impurities Na, Si, and Ca even cover the surface completely. The performance of a device like the solid oxide fuel cell which has an YSZ electrolyte and a working temperature around 1000 degC, will, therefore, be strongly hampered by these impurities. The reduction of impurities, to prevent accumulation at the surface, will only be effective if the total impurity bulk concentration can be reduced below the 10 ppm level. Due to the presence of the impurities, yttria cannot accumulate in the outermost layer. It does so, in contrast to the general belief, in the subsurface layer and to much higher concentrations than the values reported previously. The difference in the interfacial free energies of Y2O3 and ZrO2 is determined to be -21plus-or-minus3 kJ/mol.

  14. Novel Dental Composites Reinforced with Zirconia-Silica Ceramic Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Guangqing; Fan, Yuwei; Zhang, Jian-Feng; Hagan, Joseph; Xu, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    Objective To fabricate and characterize dental composites reinforced with various amounts of zirconia-silica (ZS) or zirconia-yttria-silica (ZYS) ceramic nanofibers. Methods Control composites (70 wt% glass particle filler, no nanofibers) and experimental composites (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 wt% ZS or ZYS nanofibers replacing glass particle filler) were prepared by blending 29 wt% dental resin monomers, 70 wt% filler, and 1.0 wt% initiator, and polymerized by either heat or dental curing light. Flexural strength (FS), flexural modulus (FM), energy at break (EAB), and fracture toughness (FT) were tested after the specimens were stored in 37 °C deionized water for 24 h, 3 months, or 6 months. Degree of conversion (DC) of monomers in composites was measured using Fourier transformed near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. Fractured surfaces were observed by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The data were analyzed using ANOVA with Tukey’s Honestly Significant Differences test used for post hoc analysis. Results Reinforcement of dental composites with ZS or ZYS nanofibers (2.5% or 5.0%) can significantly increase the FS, FM and EAB of dental composites over the control. Further increase the content of ZS nanofiber (7.5%), however, decreases these properties (although they are still higher than those of the control). Addition of nanofibers did not decrease the long-term mechanical properties of these composites. All ZS reinforced composites (containing 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% ZS nanofibers) exhibit significantly higher fracture toughness than the control. The DC of the composites decreases with ZS nanofiber content. Significance Incorporation of ceramic nanofibers in dental composites can significantly improve their mechanical properties and fracture toughness and thus may extend their service life. PMID:22153326

  15. Color related to ceramic and zirconia restorations: a review.

    PubMed

    Vichi, Alessandro; Louca, Chris; Corciolani, Gabriele; Ferrari, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The requirement to achieve natural looking restorations is one of the most challenging aspects of dentistry, and the shade matching of dental restorations with the natural dentition is a difficult task due to the complex optical characteristics of natural teeth. Dental porcelain is considered the reference material for prosthetic rehabilitation, but it is not easy to handle and aesthetic excellence is quite difficult to obtain. For these reasons, shade matching with dental porcelain is often considered to be more artistic than scientific. Shade matching is considered unpredictable due to several variables that may influence the final appearance of a restoration. In order to improve this situation, over the last decade new shade guides and instruments have been developed and the aesthetic aspects of dental porcelain have been further investigated. In this review some aspects of color selection and color reproduction have been examined. Color selection has advanced through the development of new shade guides and electronic shade taking devices, although visual assessment has still not been entirely replaced by electronic instruments. Color reproduction with dental porcelain has improved thanks to advances in the performance and knowledge of dental porcelain, but is still not easy to achieve. The difficulties of achieving good aesthetics with PFM restorations and the desire for metal free solutions have resulted in the increased use of zirconia. The unique optical properties of zirconia have introduced new opportunities for achieving superior aesthetics, however further research is required with this material. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel dental composites reinforced with zirconia-silica ceramic nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guangqing; Fan, Yuwei; Zhang, Jian-Feng; Hagan, Joseph L; Xu, Xiaoming

    2012-04-01

    To fabricate and characterize dental composites reinforced with various amounts of zirconia-silica (ZS) or zirconia-yttria-silica (ZYS) ceramic nanofibers. Control composites (70 wt% glass particle filler, no nanofibers) and experimental composites (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 wt% ZS or ZYS nanofibers replacing glass particle filler) were prepared by blending 29 wt% dental resin monomers, 70 wt% filler, and 1.0 wt% initiator, and polymerized by either heat or dental curing light. Flexural strength (FS), flexural modulus (FM), energy at break (EAB), and fracture toughness (FT) were tested after the specimens were stored in 37°C deionized water for 24h, 3 months, or 6 months. Degree of conversion (DC) of monomers in composites was measured using Fourier transformed near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. Fractured surfaces were observed by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The data were analyzed using ANOVA with Tukey's Honestly Significant Differences test used for post hoc analysis. Reinforcement of dental composites with ZS or ZYS nanofibers (2.5% or 5.0%) can significantly increase the FS, FM and EAB of dental composites over the control. Further increase the content of ZS nanofiber (7.5%), however, decreases these properties (although they are still higher than those of the control). Addition of nanofibers did not decrease the long-term mechanical properties of these composites. All ZS reinforced composites (containing 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% ZS nanofibers) exhibit significantly higher fracture toughness than the control. The DC of the composites decreases with ZS nanofiber content. Incorporation of ceramic nanofibers in dental composites can significantly improve their mechanical properties and fracture toughness and thus may extend their service life. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Marginal and internal fits of fixed dental prostheses zirconia retainers.

    PubMed

    Beuer, Florian; Aggstaller, Hans; Edelhoff, Daniel; Gernet, Wolfgang; Sorensen, John

    2009-01-01

    CAM (computer-aided manufacturing) and CAD (computer-aided design)/CAM systems facilitate the use of zirconia substructure materials for all-ceramic fixed partial dentures. This in vitro study compared the precision of fit of frameworks milled from semi-sintered zirconia blocks that were designed and machined with two CAD/CAM and one CAM system. Three-unit posterior fixed dental prostheses (FDP) (n=10) were fabricated for standardized dies by: a milling center CAD/CAM system (Etkon), a laboratory CAD/CAM system (Cerec InLab), and a laboratory CAM system (Cercon). After adaptation by a dental technician, the FDP were cemented on definitive dies, embedded and sectioned. The marginal and internal fits were measured under an optical microscope at 50x magnification. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare data (alpha=0.05). The mean (S.D.) for the marginal fit and internal fit adaptation were: 29.1 microm (14.0) and 62.7 microm (18.9) for the milling center system, 56.6 microm (19.6) and 73.5 microm (20.6) for the laboratory CAD/CAM system, and 81.4 microm (20.3) and 119.2 microm (37.5) for the laboratory CAM system. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences between systems for marginal fit (P<0.001) and internal fit (P<0.001). All systems showed marginal gaps below 120 microm and were therefore considered clinically acceptable. The CAD/CAM systems were more precise than the CAM system.

  18. PREFACE: Polycrystal Modelling with Experimental Integration: A Symposium Honoring Carlos Tomé (San Diego, CA, USA, February 27-March 3 2011) Polycrystal Modelling with Experimental Integration: A Symposium Honoring Carlos Tomé (San Diego, CA, USA, February 27-March 3 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.

    2012-03-01

    This special issue contains selected contributions from invited speakers to the 'Polycrystal Modelling with Experimental Integration: A Symposium Honoring Carlos Tomé', held as part of the 2011 TMS Annual Meeting and Exhibition, that took place on February 27-March 3, 2011 in San Diego, CA, USA. This symposium honored the remarkable contributions of Dr Carlos N Tomé to the field of mechanical behavior of polycrystalline materials, on the occasion of his 60th birthday. Throughout his career, Dr Tomé has pioneered the theoretical and numerical development of models of polycrystal mechanical behavior, with emphasis on the role played by texture and microstructure on the anisotropic behavior of engineering materials. His many contributions have been critical in establishing a strong connection between models and experiments, and in bridging different scales in the pursuit of robust multiscale models with experimental integration. Among his achievements, the numerical codes that Dr Tomé and co-workers have developed are extensively used in the materials science and engineering community as predictive tools for parameter identification, interpretation of experiments, and multiscale calculations in academia, national laboratories and industry. The symposium brought together materials scientists and engineers to address current theoretical, computational and experimental issues related to microstructure-property relationships in polycrystalline materials deforming in different regimes, including the effects of single crystal anisotropy, texture and microstructure evolution. Synergetic studies, involving different crystal plasticity-based models, including multiscale implementations of the latter, and measurements of global and local textures, internal strains, dislocation structures, twinning, phase distribution, etc, were discussed in more than 90 presentations. The papers in this issue are representative of the different length-scales, materials, and experimental and

  19. In-situ Preparation of Polymer-Coated Zirconia Nanoparticles by Decomposition of Zirconium-Tert-Butoxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    coated under conditions C are slightly yellow coloured. The zirconia powders collected at position 1 is white. Table I: Plasma parameters of the...pulsed) 99 1 39 40 2,5 2,5 379 400D. 2000 1000 - 20 0 40 4 140 20 [°1 Figure 2: XRD diffractrogram of zirconia powder coated with polymer Zirconia...wave nunter [crn"] Figure 3: FTIR spectra of plasma treated zirconia powders collected at position 2 (coated) prepared under A) continuous plasma B

  20. Fabrication and Performance of Zirconia Electrolysis Cells for Cabon Dioxide Reduction for Mars In Situ Resource Utilization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, N. Q.; Chung, B. W.; Doshi, R.; Lear, G. R.; Montgomery, K.; Ong, E. T.

    1999-01-01

    Use of the Martian atmosphere (95% CO2) to produce oxygen (for propellant and life support) can significantly lower the required launch mass and dramatically reduce the total cost for Mars missions. Zirconia electrolysis cells are one of the technologies being considered for oxygen generation from carbon dioxide in Mars In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) production plants. The attractive features of the zirconia cell for this application include simple operation and lightweight, low volume system. A zirconia electrolysis cell is an all-solid state device, based on oxygen-ion conducting zirconia electrolytes, that electrochemically reduces carbon dioxide to oxygen and carbon monoxide. The cell consists of two porous electrodes (the anode and cathode) separated by a dense zirconia electrolyte. Typical zirconia cells contain an electrolyte layer which is 200 to 400 micrometer thick. The electrical conductivity requirement for the electrolyte necessitates an operating temperature of 9000 to 10000C. Recently, the fabrication of zirconia cells by the tape calendering has been evaluated. This fabrication process provides a simple means of making cells having very thin electrolytes (5 to 30 micrometers). Thin zirconia electrolytes reduce cell ohmic losses, permitting efficient operation at lower temperatures (8000C or below). Thus, tape-calendered cells provides not only the potential of low temperature operation but also the flexibility in operating temperatures. This paper describes the fabrication of zirconia cells by the tape calendering method and discusses the performance results obtained to date.

  1. [Effect of a chemical primer on the bond strength of a zirconia ceramic with self-adhesive resin cement].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Jing, Ye; Nie, Rongrong; Meng, Xiangfeng

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the bond strength and durability of a self-adhesive resin cement with a zirconia ceramic pretreated by a zirconia primer. Zirconia ceramic (Vita Inceram YZ) plates with a thickness of 2.5 mm were fired, polished, and then cleaned. Half of the polished ceramic plates were sandblasted with 50 μm alumina particles at 0.3 MPa for 20 s. The surface compound weight ratios were measured via X-ray fluorescence microscopy. The polished and sandblasted ceramic plates were directly bonded with self-adhesive resin cement (Biscem) or were pretreated by a zirconia primer (Z Primer Plus) before bonding with Biscem. The specimens of each test group were divided into two subgroups (n=10) and subjected to the shear test after 0 and 10,000 thermal cycles. The data were analyzed via three-way ANOVA. After air abrasion, 8.27% weight ratio of alumina attached to the zirconia surface. Compared with air abrasion, primer treatment more significantly improved the primary resin bond strength of the zirconia ceramic. The primary resin bond strength of the zirconia ceramic with no primer treatment was not affected by thermocycling (P>0.05). However, the primary resin bond strength of the zirconia ceramic with primer treatment was significantly decreased by thermocycling (P<0.05). Primer treatment can improve the primary resin bond strengths of zirconia ceramics. However, the bond interface of the primer is not stable and rapidly degraded during thermocycling.

  2. Porous zirconia ceramic as an alternative to dentin for in vitro dentin barriers cytotoxicity test.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meng-Long; Lin, Hong; Jiang, Ruo-Dan; Dong, Li-Min; Huang, Lin; Zheng, Gang

    2018-06-01

    This study assessed the potential of porous zirconia ceramic as an alternative to dentin via an in vitro dentin barrier cytotoxicity test. The permeability of dentin and porous zirconia ceramic was measured using a hydraulic-conductance system, and their permeability was divided into two groups: high and low. Using an in vitro dentin barrier test, the cytotoxicity of dental materials by dentin and porous zirconia ceramic was compared within the same permeability group. The L-929 cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. The mean (SD) permeability of the high and low group for dentin was 0.334 (0.0873) and 0.147 (0.0377) μl min -1  cm -2  cm H 2 O -1 and for zirconia porous ceramic was 0.336 (0.0609) and 0.146 (0.0340) μl min -1  cm -2  cm H 2 O -1 . The cell viability of experimental groups which are the low permeability group was higher than that of the high permeability group for both dentin and porous zirconia ceramic as a barrier except for Maxcem Elite ™ by porous zirconia ceramic. There was no significant difference between dentin and porous zirconia ceramic in cell viability, within either the high or low permeability group for all materials. The SD for cell viability of the porous zirconia ceramic was less than that of the dentin, across all materials within each permeability group, except for Maxcem Elite ™ in the high permeability group. Porous zirconia ceramic, having similar permeability to dentin at the same thickness, can be used as an alternative to dentin for in vitro dentin barrier cytotoxicity tests. In vitro dentin barrier cytotoxicity tests when a standardized porous zirconia ceramic was used as a barrier could be useful for assessing the potential toxicity of new dental materials applied to dentin before applying in clinical and may resolve the issue of procuring human teeth when testing proceeds.

  3. A comparison of fit of CNC-milled titanium and zirconia frameworks to implants.

    PubMed

    Abduo, Jaafar; Lyons, Karl; Waddell, Neil; Bennani, Vincent; Swain, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Computer numeric controlled (CNC) milling was proven to be predictable method to fabricate accurately fitting implant titanium frameworks. However, no data are available regarding the fit of CNC-milled implant zirconia frameworks. To compare the precision of fit of implant frameworks milled from titanium and zirconia and relate it to peri-implant strain development after framework fixation. A partially edentulous epoxy resin models received two Branemark implants in the areas of the lower left second premolar and second molar. From this model, 10 identical frameworks were fabricated by mean of CNC milling. Half of them were made from titanium and the other half from zirconia. Strain gauges were mounted close to the implants to qualitatively and quantitatively assess strain development as a result of framework fitting. In addition, the fit of the framework implant interface was measured using an optical microscope, when only one screw was tightened (passive fit) and when all screws were tightened (vertical fit). The data was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. All frameworks produced measurable amounts of peri-implant strain. The zirconia frameworks produced significantly less strain than titanium. Combining the qualitative and quantitative information indicates that the implants were under vertical displacement rather than horizontal. The vertical fit was similar for zirconia (3.7 µm) and titanium (3.6 µm) frameworks; however, the zirconia frameworks exhibited a significantly finer passive fit (5.5 µm) than titanium frameworks (13.6 µm). CNC milling produced zirconia and titanium frameworks with high accuracy. The difference between the two materials in terms of fit is expected to be of minimal clinical significance. The strain developed around the implants was more related to the framework fit rather than framework material. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Comparison of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets using various zirconia primers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jin-Seok; Hwang, Chung-Ju

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded to zirconia surfaces using three different zirconia primers and one silane primer, and subjected to thermocycling. We designed 10 experimental groups following the surface treatment and thermocycling. The surface was treated with one of the following method: no-primer (NP), Porcelain Conditioner (PC), Z-PRIME Plus (ZP), Monobond Plus (MP) and Zirconia Liner Premium (ZL) (n=20). Then each group was subdivided to non-thermocycled and thermocycled groups (NPT, PC, ZPT, MPT, ZLT) (n=10). Orthodontic brackets were bonded to the specimens using Transbond™ XT Paste and light cured for 15 s at 1,100 mW/cm(2). The SBS was measured at a 1 mm/min crosshead speed. The failure mode was assessed by examination with a stereomicroscope and the amount of bonding resin remaining on the zirconia surface was scored using the modified adhesive remnant index (ARI). The SBS of all experimental groups decreased after thermocycling. Before thermocycling, the SBS was ZL, ZP ≥ MP ≥ PC > NP but after thermocycling, the SBS was ZLT ≥ MPT ≥ ZPT > PCT = NPT (p > 0.05). For the ARI score, both of the groups lacking primer (NP and NPT) displayed adhesive failure modes, but the groups with zirconia primers (ZP, ZPT, MP, MPT, ZL, and ZLT) were associated with mixed failure modes. Surface treatment with a zirconia primer increases the SBS relative to no-primer or silane primer application between orthodontic brackets and zirconia prostheses.

  5. Effects of porcelain thickness on the flexural strength and crack propagation in a bilayered zirconia system.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Viviane Maria Gonçalves de; Pereira, Sarina Maciel Braga; Bressiani, Eduardo; Valera, Márcia Carneiro; Bottino, Marco Antônio; Zhang, Yu; Melo, Renata Marques de

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of porcelain (VM9, VITA Zahnfabrik, Germany) thickness on the flexural strength and crack propagation in bilayered zirconia systems (YZ, VITA Zahnfabrik, Germany). Thirty zirconia bars (20.0x4.0x1.0 mm) and six zirconia blocks (12.0x7.5x1.2 mm) were prepared and veneered with porcelain with different thickness: 1 mm, 2 mm, or 3 mm. The bars of each experimental group (n=10) were subjected to four-point flexural strength testing. In each ceramic block, a Vickers indentation was created under a load of 10 kgf for 10 seconds, for the propagation of cracks. The results of flexural strength were evaluated by One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test, with a significance level of 5%. The factor "thickness of the porcelain" was statistically significant (p=0.001) and the l-mm group presented the highest values of flexural strength. The cracks were predominant among the bending specimens with 1 and 2 mm of porcelain, and catastrophic failures were found in 50% of 3-mm-thick porcelain. After the indentation of blocks, the most severe defects were observed in blocks with 3-mm-thick porcelain. The smallest (1 mm) thickness of porcelain on the zirconia infrastructure presented higher values of flexural strength. Better resistance to defect propagation was observed near the porcelain/ zirconia interface for all groups. Higher flexural strength was found for a thinner porcelain layer in a bilayered zirconia system. The damage caused by a Vickers indentation near and far the interface with the zirconia shows that the stress profiles are different.

  6. Effects of porcelain thickness on the flexural strength and crack propagation in a bilayered zirconia system

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo, Viviane Maria Gonçalves; Pereira, Sarina Maciel Braga; Bressiani, Eduardo; Valera, Márcia Carneiro; Bottino, Marco Antônio; Zhang, Yu; de Melo, Renata Marques

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study evaluated the influence of porcelain (VM9, VITA Zahnfabrik, Germany) thickness on the flexural strength and crack propagation in bilayered zirconia systems (YZ, VITA Zahnfabrik, Germany). Material and Methods: Thirty zirconia bars (20.0x4.0x1.0 mm) and six zirconia blocks (12.0x7.5x1.2 mm) were prepared and veneered with porcelain with different thickness: 1 mm, 2 mm, or 3 mm. The bars of each experimental group (n=10) were subjected to four-point flexural strength testing. In each ceramic block, a Vickers indentation was created under a load of 10 kgf for 10 seconds, for the propagation of cracks. Results: The results of flexural strength were evaluated by One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test, with a significance level of 5%. The factor “thickness of the porcelain” was statistically significant (p=0.001) and the l-mm group presented the highest values of flexural strength. The cracks were predominant among the bending specimens with 1 and 2 mm of porcelain, and catastrophic failures were found in 50% of 3-mm-thick porcelain. After the indentation of blocks, the most severe defects were observed in blocks with 3-mm-thick porcelain. Conclusion: The smallest (1 mm) thickness of porcelain on the zirconia infrastructure presented higher values of flexural strength. Better resistance to defect propagation was observed near the porcelain/ zirconia interface for all groups. Higher flexural strength was found for a thinner porcelain layer in a bilayered zirconia system. The damage caused by a Vickers indentation near and far the interface with the zirconia shows that the stress profiles are different. PMID:29069155

  7. The effect of subpressure on the bond strength of resin to zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Mei; Zhuge, Rui-Shen; Zhang, Zu-Tai; Tian, Yue-Ming; Ding, Ning

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of subpressure on the bond strength of resin to zirconia ceramic. The subpressure would create a pressure gradient which could clean out the bubbles in the adhesives or bonding interface. Twenty-eight pre-sintered zirconia discs were fabricated. Half of them were polished (group P, n = 14), and the rest were sandblasted (group S, n = 14). After sintered,the surface roughness of the zirconia discs was measured. Then, they were randomly divided into two subgroups (n = 7). The groups were named as follows: PC: P + no additional treatments; PP: P + 0.04 MPa after application of adhesives; SC: S + no additional treatments; and SP: S + 0.04 MPa after application of adhesives. Resin columns were bonded to the zirconia specimens to determine shear bond strength (SBS). The bonding interfaces were observed and the fracture modes were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed on all data. The surface roughness of group S was significantly higher than that of group P (P<0.05). The SBS values were PC = 13.48 ± 0.7 MPa, PP = 15.22 ± 0.8 MPa, SC = 17.23 ± 0.7 MPa and SP = 21.68 ± 1.4 MPa. There were significant differences among the groups (P<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the adhesives of group SP and PP were closer and denser to the zirconia ceramic than that of group PC and SC. The proportion of the mixed fracture mode significantly increased after adding subpressure (P< 0.05). Subpressure can improve the shear bond strength of resin to zirconia ceramics and increase micro-infiltration between the adhesives and the zirconia ceramics, especially on the rough surfaces.

  8. Alkaline nanoparticle coatings improve resin bonding of 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate-conditioned zirconia.

    PubMed

    Qian, Mengke; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Huaiqin; Xie, Haifeng

    Creating an alkaline environment prior to 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate (MDP) conditioning improves the resin bonding of zirconia. The present study evaluated the effects of four alkaline coatings with different water solubilities and pH values on resin bonding of MDP-conditioned zirconia. Two alkaline nanoparticle coatings were studied in particular. Thermodynamics calculations were performed to evaluate the strengths of MDP-tetragonal phase zirconia chemical bonds at different pH values. Zirconia surfaces with and without alkaline coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; alkaline coatings included NaOH, Ca(OH) 2 , nano-MgO, and nano-Zr(OH) 4 . A shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed to evaluate the effects of the four alkaline coatings on bonding; the alkaline coatings were applied to the surfaces prior to conditioning the zirconia with MDP-containing primers. Gibbs free energies of the MDP-tetragonal zirconia crystal model coordination reaction in different pH environments were -583.892 (NaOH), -569.048 [Ca(OH) 2 ], -547.393 (MgO), and -530.279 kJ/mol [Zr(OH) 4 ]. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the alkaline coatings improved bonding in the following order: NaOH > Ca(OH) 2 > MgO > Zr(OH) 4 . Statistical analysis of SBS tests showed a different result. SBSs were significantly different in groups that had different alkaline coatings, but it was not influenced by different primers. All four alkaline coatings increased SBS compared to control groups. Of the four coatings, nano-Zr(OH) 4 and -MgO showed higher SBS. Therefore, preparing nano-Zr(OH) 4 or -MgO coatings prior to conditioning with MDP-containing primers may potentially improve resin bonding of zirconia in the clinic.

  9. Zirconia Dental Implants: Investigation of Clinical Parameters, Patient Satisfaction, and Microbial Contamination.

    PubMed

    Holländer, Jens; Lorenz, Jonas; Stübinger, Stefan; Hölscher, Werner; Heidemann, Detlef; Ghanaati, Shahram; Sader, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, dental implants made from zirconia have been further developed and are considered a reliable treatment method for replacing missing teeth. The aim of this study was to analyze dental implants made from zirconia regarding their clinical performance compared with natural teeth (control). One hundred six zirconia implants in 38 adults were analyzed in a clinical study after 1 year of loading. The plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD), probing attachment level (PAL), and creeping or recession (CR/REC) of the gingiva were detected and compared with natural control teeth (CT). Furthermore, the papilla index (PAP), Periotest values (PTV), microbial colonization of the implant/dental sulcus fluid, and patient satisfaction were assessed. The survival rate was 100%. No statistical significance was observed between implants and teeth regarding BOP, PPD, and PAL. A statistical significance was detected regarding PI and CR/REC with significantly less plaque accumulation and recession in the study group. Mean PAP was 1.76 ± 0.55, whereas the mean PTV was -1.31 ± 2.24 (range from -5 to +6). A non-statistically significant higher colonization of periodontitis/peri-implantitis bacteria was observed in the implant group. The questionnaire showed that the majority of the patients were satisfied with the overall treatment. One-piece zirconia dental implants exhibited similar clinical results (BOP, PPD, and PAL) compared with natural teeth in regard to adhesion of plaque (PI) and creeping attachment (CR/REC); zirconia implants performed even better. The favorable results for PAL and CR/REC reflect the comparable low affinity of zirconia for plaque adhesion. Patient satisfaction indicated a high level of acceptance for zirconia implants. However, a long-term follow-up is needed to support these findings.

  10. The bending stress distribution in bilayered and graded zirconia-based dental ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Fabris, Douglas; Souza, Júlio C.M.; Silva, Filipe S.; Fredel, Márcio; Mesquita-Guimarães, Joana; Zhang, Yu; Henriques, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biaxial flexural stresses in classic bilayered and in graded zirconia-feldspathic porcelain composites. A finite element method and an analytical model were used to simulate the piston-on-ring test and to predict the biaxial stress distributions across the thickness of the bilayer and graded zirconia-feldspathic porcelain discs. An axisymmetric model and a flexure formula of Hsueh et al. were used in the FEM and analytical analysis, respectively. Four porcelain thicknesses were tested in the bilayered discs. In graded discs, continuous and stepwise transitions from the bottom zirconia layer to the top porcelain layer were studied. The resulting stresses across the thickness, measured along the central axis of the disc, for the bilayered and graded discs were compared. In bilayered discs, the maximum tensile stress decreased while the stress mismatch (at the interface) increased with the porcelain layer thickness. The optimized balance between both variables is achieved for a porcelain thickness ratio in the range of 0.30–0.35. In graded discs, the highest tensile stresses were registered for porcelain rich interlayers (p=0.25) whereas the zirconia rich ones (p=8) yield the lowest tensile stresses. In addition, the maximum stresses in a graded structure can be tailored by altering compositional gradients. A decrease in maximum stresses with increasing values of p (a scaling exponent in the power law function) was observed. Our findings showed a good agreement between the analytical and simulated models, particularly in the tensile region of the disc. Graded zirconia-feldspathic porcelain composites exhibited a more favourable stress distribution relative to conventional bilayered systems. This fact can significantly impact the clinical performance of zirconia-feldspathic porcelain prostheses, namely reducing the fracture incidence of zirconia and the chipping and delamination of porcelain. PMID:28104926

  11. Alkaline nanoparticle coatings improve resin bonding of 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate-conditioned zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Mengke; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Huaiqin; Xie, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Creating an alkaline environment prior to 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate (MDP) conditioning improves the resin bonding of zirconia. The present study evaluated the effects of four alkaline coatings with different water solubilities and pH values on resin bonding of MDP-conditioned zirconia. Two alkaline nanoparticle coatings were studied in particular. Thermodynamics calculations were performed to evaluate the strengths of MDP-tetragonal phase zirconia chemical bonds at different pH values. Zirconia surfaces with and without alkaline coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; alkaline coatings included NaOH, Ca(OH)2, nano-MgO, and nano-Zr(OH)4. A shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed to evaluate the effects of the four alkaline coatings on bonding; the alkaline coatings were applied to the surfaces prior to conditioning the zirconia with MDP-containing primers. Gibbs free energies of the MDP-tetragonal zirconia crystal model coordination reaction in different pH environments were −583.892 (NaOH), −569.048 [Ca(OH)2], −547.393 (MgO), and −530.279 kJ/mol [Zr(OH)4]. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the alkaline coatings improved bonding in the following order: NaOH > Ca(OH)2 > MgO > Zr(OH)4. Statistical analysis of SBS tests showed a different result. SBSs were significantly different in groups that had different alkaline coatings, but it was not influenced by different primers. All four alkaline coatings increased SBS compared to control groups. Of the four coatings, nano-Zr(OH)4 and -MgO showed higher SBS. Therefore, preparing nano-Zr(OH)4 or -MgO coatings prior to conditioning with MDP-containing primers may potentially improve resin bonding of zirconia in the clinic. PMID:27785013

  12. Microstructural characteristics of plasma sprayed nanostructured partially stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Rogerio Soares

    Thermal barrier coatings have been extensively applied in the aerospace industry in turbines and rocket engines as an insulation system. Partially stabilized zirconia, due to its high thermal stability and low thermal conductivity at high temperatures has been traditionally employed as the ceramic element of the thermal barrier coating system. Different approaches have been taken in order to improve the performance of these coatings. Nanostructured materials are promising an interesting future in the beginning of the 21st century. Due to its enhanced strain to failure and superplasticity new applications may be accomplished or the limits of materials utilization may be placed at higher levels. Single nanostructured particles can not be thermal sprayed by conventional thermal spray equipment. Due to its low mass, they would be deviated to the periphery of the thermal spray jet. To overcome this characteristic, single nanostructured particles were successively agglomerated into large microscopic particles, with particle size distribution similar to the conventional feedstocks for thermal spray equipment. Agglomerated nanostructured particles of partially stabilized zirconia were plasma sprayed in air with different spray parameters. According to traditional thermal spray procedure, the feedstock has to be melted in the thermal spray jet in order to achieve the necessary conditions for adhesion and cohesion on the substrate. Due to the nature of the nanostructured particles, a new step has to be taken in the thermal spray processing; particle melting has to be avoided in order to preserve the feedstock nanostructure in the coating overall microstructure. In this work, the adhesion/cohesion system of nanostructured coatings is investigated and clarified. A percentage of molten particles will retain and hold the non-molten agglomerated nanostructured particles in the coating overall microstructure. Controlling the spray parameters it was possible to produce coatings

  13. Influence of cleaning methods on resin bonding to saliva-contaminated zirconia.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keiichi

    2018-02-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different cleaning methods on the shear bond strengths of 2 resin cements to saliva-contaminated zirconia. After saliva contamination, alumina-blasted zirconia specimens were cleaned with 1 of 5 methods of water-rinsing (SA), K-etchant GEL phosphoric acid (PA), Ivoclean (IC), AD Gel (ADG), or additional alumina-blasting (AB). Alumina-blasted zirconia without saliva contamination was used as control group (Cont). Composite cylinders were bonded to the zirconia with 1 of 2 dual-cured resin cements. The bond strengths were measured by shear testing after 24 hours (TC0) and after thermal cycling at 4°C-60°C (TC10 000) and specimen surfaces were evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Data were statistically analyzed using 3-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (α = 0.05). There were no significant differences in the bond strengths of 2 resin cements between the Cont ADG, and AB groups before and after TCs (P > .05). SA, PA, and IC groups did not exhibit durable resin bonding to zirconia. XPS showed that carbon and nitrogen increased in the SA group in comparison to the Cont group. The concentration of carbon in other 4 groups returned to the concentration range of the Cont group; however, nitrogen was not detected in the only AB group. Saliva contamination significantly reduced the bond strength of 2 resin cements to zirconia. Additional AB or cleaning with ADG resulted in effective cleaning of saliva contamination and preserved resin cement bond strength to zirconia. Saliva contamination occurs during clinical procedures for adjustment of zirconia ceramic restorations in the oral environment. AD Gel application is effective for removing saliva contaminants on the alumina-blasted zirconia surface beforehand by the dental laboratory instead of additional AB since AD Gel application and AB had a similar effect on the removal of organic components of saliva. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals

  14. Optical properties and light irradiance of monolithic zirconia at variable thicknesses.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Taiseer A; Abdulmajeed, Aous A; Donovan, Terrence E; Ritter, André V; Vallittu, Pekka K; Närhi, Timo O; Lassila, Lippo V

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) estimate the effect of polishing on the surface gloss of monolithic zirconia, (2) measure and compare the translucency of monolithic zirconia at variable thicknesses, and (3) determine the effect of zirconia thickness on irradiance and total irradiant energy. Four monolithic partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) brands; Prettau® (PRT, Zirkonzahn), Bruxzir® (BRX, Glidewell), Zenostar® (ZEN, Wieland), Katana® (KAT, Noritake), and one fully stabilized zirconia (FSZ); Prettau Anterior® (PRTA, Zirkonzahn) were used to fabricate specimens (n=5/subgroup) with different thicknesses (0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, and 2.0mm). Zirconia core material ICE® Zircon (ICE, Zirkonzahn) was used as a control. Surface gloss and translucency were evaluated using a reflection spectrophotometer. Irradiance and total irradiant energy transmitted through each specimen was quantified using MARC® Resin Calibrator. All specimens were then subjected to a standardized polishing method and the surface gloss, translucency, irradiance, and total irradiant energy measurements were repeated. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's tests (p<0.05). Surface gloss was significantly affected by polishing (p<0.05), regardless of brand and thickness. Translucency values ranged from 5.65 to 20.40 before polishing and 5.10 to 19.95 after polishing. The ranking from least to highest translucent (after polish) was: BRX=ICE=PRTzirconia and the amount was brand dependent (p<0.05). Brand selection, thickness, and polishing of monolithic zirconia can affect the ultimate clinical outcome of the optical properties of zirconia restorations. FSZ is relatively more polishable and translucent than PSZ. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental

  15. [Effect of two-step sintering method on properties of zirconia ceramic].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2008-04-01

    To study the influence of two-step sintering method on the sintering property, mechanical properties and microstructure of zirconia ceramic. The nano-size zirconia powder were compacted and divided into two groups, one group for one-step sintering method, another group for two-step sintering method. All samples sintered at different temperature. The relative density, three-bend strength, HV hardness, fracture toughness and microstructure of sintered block were investigated. Two-step sintering method influenced the sintering property and mechanical properties of zirconia ceramic. The maximal relative density was 98.49% at 900 degrees C/1,450 degrees C sintering temperature. There were significant difference of mechanical properties between one-step sintering and two-step sintering, the three-bend strength and fracture toughness declined, hardness increased at two-step sintering. The three-bend strength, HV hardness and fracture toughness reached to maximum value as 1,059.08 MPa +/- 75.24 MPa, 1,377.00 MPa +/- 16.37 MPa and 5.92 MPa x m1/2 +/- 0.37 MPa x m1/2 at 900 degrees C/1,450 degrees C sintering temperature respectively. Microscopy revealed the relationship between the porosity and shapes of grains was correlated to strength of the zirconia ceramics. Despite of the two-step sintering method influences the properties of zirconia, it also is a promising esthetic all-ceramic dental material.

  16. Photoluminescent emission of Pr 3+ ions in different zirconia crystalline forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Brito, F.; Alejo-Armenta, C.; García-Hipólito, M.; Camarillo, E.; Hernández A, J.; Murrieta S, H.; Falcony, C.

    2008-08-01

    Polycrystalline praseodymium doped-zirconia powders were synthesized by crystallization of a saturated solution and annealed in air at T a = 950 °C. Monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic crystalline phases of zirconia were obtained. EDS studies showed homogeneous chemical composition over all the powders particles and chemical elemental contents in good agreement with the incorporation of Pr 3+ ion in Zr 4+ sites. XRD patterns showed stabilization of tetragonal and cubic phases at 1.28 and 2.87 at.% of Pr 3+ doping concentrations, respectively. Both unit cells expand when Pr 3+ content increases. All samples showed a crystallite size lower than 27 nm. Diffuse reflectance studies exhibited the presence of the 4f5d absorption band of Pr 3+, and absorption peaks in 440-610 nm region associated with 4f inter-level electronic transitions in Pr 3+ ion. Low temperature (20 K) photo-luminescent spectroscopic measurements over excitation of 488 nm for praseodymium doped zirconia, showed multiple emission peaks in the 520-900 nm range of the electromagnetic spectrum, associated with typical 4f inter-level electronic transition in Pr 3+. Incorporation of Pr 3+ in more than one zirconia crystalline phase and the incorporation in cubic C 2 sites, were observed. Zirconia powders presented significant differences in its emission spectra as a function of the type of crystalline phase compounds.

  17. Effect of an internal coating technique on tensile bond strengths of resin cements to zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Shuzo; Nikaido, Toru; Maruoka, Rena; Zhu, Lei; Ikeda, Masaomi; Watanabe, Akihiko; Foxton, Richard M; Miura, Hiroyuki; Tagami, Junji

    2009-07-01

    This study was conducted to enhance the tensile bond strengths of resin cements to zirconia ceramics. Fifty-six zirconia ceramic specimens (Cercon Base) and twenty-eight silica-based ceramic specimens (GN-1, GN-1 Ceramic Block) were air-abraded using alumina. Thereafter, the zirconia ceramic specimens were divided into two subgroups of 28 each according to the surface pretreatment; no pretreatment (Zr); and the internal coating technique (INT). For INT, the surface of zirconia was coated by fusing silica-based ceramics (Cercon Ceram Kiss). Ceramic surfaces were conditioned with/without a silane coupling agent followed by bonding with one of two resin cements; Panavia F 2.0 (PF) and Superbond C&B (SB). After 24 hours storage in water, the tensile bond strengths were tested (n=7). For both PF and SB, silanization significantly improved the bond strength to GN-1 and INT (p<0.05). The INT coating followed by silanizaton demonstrated enhancement of bonding to zirconia ceramics.

  18. Physico-mechanical and morphological features of zirconia substituted hydroxyapatite nano crystals

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, S. F.; El-dek, S. I.; Ahmed, M. K.

    2017-01-01

    Zirconia doped Hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocrystals [Ca10(PO4)6−x(ZrO2)x(OH)2]; (0 ≤ x ≤ 1 step 0.2) were synthesized using simple low cost facile method. The crystalline phases were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystallinity percentage decreased with increasing zirconia content for the as-synthesized samples. The existence of zirconia as secondary phase on the grain boundaries; as observed from scanning electron micrographs (FESEM); resulted in negative values of microstrain. The crystallite size was computed and the results showed that it increased with increasing annealing temperature. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) assured the thermal stability of the nano crystals over the temperature from room up to 1200 °C depending on the zirconia content. The corrosion rate was found to decrease around 25 times with increasing zirconia content from x = 0.0 to 1.0. Microhardness displayed both compositional and temperature dependence. For the sample (x = 0.6), annealed at 1200 °C, the former increased up to 1.2 times its original value (x = 0.0). PMID:28256557

  19. The effect of silica-coating by sol-gel process on resin-zirconia bonding.

    PubMed

    Lung, Christie Ying Kei; Kukk, Edwin; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka

    2013-01-01

    The effect of silica-coating by sol-gel process on the bond strength of resin composite to zirconia was evaluated and compared against the sandblasting method. Four groups of zirconia samples were silica-coated by sol-gel process under varied reagent ratios of ethanol, water, ammonia and tetraethyl orthosilicate and for different deposition times. One control group of zirconia samples were treated with sandblasting. Within each of these five groups, one subgroup of samples was kept in dry storage while another subgroup was aged by thermocycling for 6,000 times. Besides shear bond testing, the surface topography and surface elemental composition of silica-coated zirconia samples were also examined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Comparison of silica coating methods revealed significant differences in bond strength among the Dry groups (p<0.001) and Thermocycled groups (p<0.001). Comparison of sol-gel deposition times also revealed significant differences in bond strength among the Dry groups (p<0.01) and Thermocycled groups (p<0.001). Highest bond strengths were obtained after 141-h deposition: Dry (7.97±3.72 MPa); Thermocycled (2.33±0.79 MPa). It was concluded that silica-coating of zirconia by sol-gel process resulted in weaker resin bonding than by sandblasting.

  20. Surface fluorination of zirconia: adhesive bond strength comparison to commercial primers.

    PubMed

    Piascik, Jeffrey R; Swift, Edward J; Braswell, Krista; Stoner, Brian R

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated contact angle and shear bond strength of three commercial zirconia primers and compared them to a recently developed fluorination pre-treatment. Earlier investigations reported that plasma fluorinated zirconia modifies the chemical bonding structure creating a more reactive surface. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (LAVA, 3M ESPE) plates were highly polished using 3μm diamond paste (R(a) ∼200nm) prior to pretreatments. After primer and fluorination treatment, contact angles were measured to quantify surface hydrophobicity before and after ethanol clean. Additionally, simple shear bond tests were performed to measure the adhesion strength to a composite resin. Plasma fluorination produced the lowest contact angle (7.8°) and the highest shear bond strength (37.3MPa) suggesting this pretreatment facilitates a more "chemically" active surface for adhesive bonding. It is hypothesized that plasma fluorination increase hydroxylation at the surface, making it more reactive, thus allowing for covalent bonding between zirconia surface and resin cement. A strong correlation was observed between contact angle and adhesion strength for all specimens; a relationship which may help understand the frequency and modes of failures, clinically. It is also believed that this surface treatment can increase long-term viability of zirconia restorations over other adhesive techniques. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanical behavior of single-layer ceramized zirconia abutments for dental implant prosthetic rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Melendo, Manuel; Llena-Blasco, Oriol; Bruguera, August; Llena-Blasco, Jaime; Yáñez-Vico, Rosa-María; García-Calderón, Manuel; Vaquero-Aguilar, Cristina; Velázquez-Cayón, Rocío; Gutiérrez-Pérez, José-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was undertaken to characterize the mechanical response of bare (as-received) and single-layer ceramized zirconia abutments with both internal and external connections that have been developed to enhanced aesthetic restorations. Material and Methods: Sixteen zirconia implant abutments (ZiReal Post®, Biomet 3i, USA) with internal and external connections have been analyzed. Half of the specimens were coated with a 0.5mm-thick layer of a low-fusing fluroapatite ceramic. Mechanical tests were carried out under static (constant cross-head speed of 1mm/min until fracture) and dynamic (between 100 and 400N at a frequency of 1Hz) loading conditions. The failure location was identified by electron microscopy. The removal torque of the retaining screws after testing was also evaluated. Results: The average fracture strength was above 300N for all the abutments, regardless of connection geometry and coating. In most of the cases (94%), failure occurred by abutment fracture. No significant differences were observed either in fatigue behavior and removal torque between the different abutment groups. Conclusions: Mechanical behavior of Zireal zirconia abutments is independent of the type of internal/external connection and the presence/absence of ceramic coating. This may be clinically valuable in dental rehabilitation to improve the aesthetic outcome of zirconia-based dental implant systems. Key words:Dental implant, zirconia, ceramic structure, mechanical properties. PMID:25674313

  2. Magnesium-containing mixed coatings on zirconia for dental implants: mechanical characterization and in vitro behavior.

    PubMed

    Pardun, Karoline; Treccani, Laura; Volkmann, Eike; Streckbein, Philipp; Heiss, Christian; Gerlach, Juergen W; Maendl, Stephan; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2015-07-01

    An important challenge in the field of dental and orthopedic implantology is the preparation of implant coatings with bioactive functions that feature a high mechanical stability and at the same time mimic structural and compositional properties of native bone for a better bone ingrowth. This study investigates the influence of magnesium addition to zirconia-calcium phosphate coatings. The mixed coatings were prepared with varying additions of either magnesium oxide or magnesium fluoride to yttria-stabilized zirconia and hydroxyapatite. The coatings were deposited on zirconia discs and screw implants by wet powder spraying. Microstructure studies confirm a porous coating with similar roughness and firm adhesion not hampered by the coating composition. The coating morphology, mechanical flexural strength and calcium dissolution showed a magnesium content-dependent effect. Moreover, the in vitro results obtained with human osteoblasts reveal an improved biological performance caused by the presence of Mg(2+) ions. The magnesium-containing coatings exhibited better cell proliferation and differentiation in comparison to pure zirconia-calcium phosphate coatings. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that magnesium addition increases the bioactivity potential of zirconia-calcium phosphate coatings and is thus a highly suitable candidate for bone implant coatings. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Biomechanical three-dimensional finite element analysis of monolithic zirconia crown with different cement type

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of various cement types on the stress distribution in monolithic zirconia crowns under maximum bite force using the finite element analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The models of the prepared #46 crown (deep chamfer margin) were scanned and solid models composed of the monolithic zirconia crown, cement layer, and prepared tooth were produced using the computer-aided design technology and were subsequently translated into 3-dimensional finite element models. Four models were prepared according to different cement types (zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, glass ionomer, and resin). A load of 700 N was applied vertically on the crowns (8 loading points). Maximum principal stress was determined. RESULTS Zinc phosphate cement had a greater stress concentration in the cement layer, while polycarboxylate cement had a greater stress concentration on the distal surface of the monolithic zirconia crown and abutment tooth. Resin cement and glass ionomer cement showed similar patterns, but resin cement showed a lower stress distribution on the lingual and mesial surface of the cement layer. CONCLUSION The test results indicate that the use of different luting agents that have various elastic moduli has an impact on the stress distribution of the monolithic zirconia crowns, cement layers, and abutment tooth. Resin cement is recommended for the luting agent of the monolithic zirconia crowns. PMID:26816578

  4. Adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts on zirconia films prepared by cathodic arc deposition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shailin; Sun, Junying; Xu, Ying; Qian, Shi; Wang, Bing; Liu, Fei; Liu, Xuanyong

    2013-01-01

    Zirconia films were prepared on titanium by cathodic arc deposition technique. The surface topography and element composition of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Osteoblast-like MG63 cells were cultured on the surface of the zirconia films in vitro, and cell behaviour was investigated, with titanium as control. The results obtained from scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies showed that the MG63 cells on ZrO2 films spread better than those on Ti. The CCK8 assay indicated that the zirconia films promoted the proliferation of MG63 cells. The results of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity test and the expression of osteogenic marker genes, such as ALP, collagen I and osteocalcin, demonstrated that the differentiation of MG63 cells might be enhanced by zirconia films. In addition, the zirconia films possibly regulated osteoclastogenic gene expression by stimulating the expression of osteoprotegerin and reducing the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand. The present work suggests that the ZrO2 film is worth further consideration for orthopedic implant applications.

  5. In vivo evaluation of zirconia ceramic in the DexAide right ventricular assist device journal bearing.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Diyar; Shalli, Shanaz; Fumoto, Hideyuki; Ootaki, Yoshio; Horai, Tetsuya; Anzai, Tomohiro; Zahr, Roula; Horvath, David J; Massiello, Alex L; Chen, Ji-Feng; Dessoffy, Raymond; Catanese, Jacquelyn; Benefit, Stephen; Golding, Leonard A R; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2010-06-01

    Zirconia is a ceramic with material properties ideal for journal bearing applications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of zirconium oxide (zirconia) as a blood journal bearing material in the DexAide right ventricular assist device. Zirconia ceramic was used instead of titanium to manufacture the DexAide stator housing without changing the stator geometry or the remaining pump hardware components. Pump hydraulic performance, journal bearing reliability, biocompatibility, and motor efficiency data of the zirconia stator were evaluated in six chronic bovine experiments for 14-91 days and compared with data from chronic experiments using the titanium stator. Pump performance data including average in vivo pump flows and speeds using a zirconia stator showed no statistically significant difference to the average values for 16 prior titanium stator in vivo studies, with the exception of a 19% reduction in power consumption. Indices of hemolysis were comparable for both stator types. Results of coagulation assays and platelet aggregation tests for the zirconia stator implants showed no device-induced increase in platelet activation. Postexplant evaluation of the zirconia journal bearing surfaces showed no biologic deposition in any of the implants. In conclusion, zirconia ceramic can be used as a hemocompatible material to improve motor efficiency while maintaining hydraulic performance in a blood journal bearing application.

  6. Radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline ceramics: insights from Yttria Stabilized Zirconia.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sanchita; Drazin, John W; Wang, Yongqiang; Valdez, James A; Holesinger, Terry G; Uberuaga, Blas P; Castro, Ricardo H R

    2015-01-13

    Materials for applications in hostile environments, such as nuclear reactors or radioactive waste immobilization, require extremely high resistance to radiation damage, such as resistance to amorphization or volume swelling. Nanocrystalline materials have been reported to present exceptionally high radiation-tolerance to amorphization. In principle, grain boundaries that are prevalent in nanomaterials could act as sinks for point-defects, enhancing defect recombination. In this paper we present evidence for this mechanism in nanograined Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), associated with the observation that the concentration of defects after irradiation using heavy ions (Kr(+), 400 keV) is inversely proportional to the grain size. HAADF images suggest the short migration distances in nanograined YSZ allow radiation induced interstitials to reach the grain boundaries on the irradiation time scale, leaving behind only vacancy clusters distributed within the grain. Because of the relatively low temperature of the irradiations and the fact that interstitials diffuse thermally more slowly than vacancies, this result indicates that the interstitials must reach the boundaries directly in the collision cascade, consistent with previous simulation results. Concomitant radiation-induced grain growth was observed which, as a consequence of the non-uniform implantation, caused cracking of the nano-samples induced by local stresses at the irradiated/non-irradiated interfaces.

  7. Radiation Tolerance of Nanocrystalline Ceramics: Insights from Yttria Stabilized Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Sanchita; Drazin, John W.; Wang, Yongqiang; Valdez, James A.; Holesinger, Terry G.; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Castro, Ricardo H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Materials for applications in hostile environments, such as nuclear reactors or radioactive waste immobilization, require extremely high resistance to radiation damage, such as resistance to amorphization or volume swelling. Nanocrystalline materials have been reported to present exceptionally high radiation-tolerance to amorphization. In principle, grain boundaries that are prevalent in nanomaterials could act as sinks for point-defects, enhancing defect recombination. In this paper we present evidence for this mechanism in nanograined Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), associated with the observation that the concentration of defects after irradiation using heavy ions (Kr+, 400 keV) is inversely proportional to the grain size. HAADF images suggest the short migration distances in nanograined YSZ allow radiation induced interstitials to reach the grain boundaries on the irradiation time scale, leaving behind only vacancy clusters distributed within the grain. Because of the relatively low temperature of the irradiations and the fact that interstitials diffuse thermally more slowly than vacancies, this result indicates that the interstitials must reach the boundaries directly in the collision cascade, consistent with previous simulation results. Concomitant radiation-induced grain growth was observed which, as a consequence of the non-uniform implantation, caused cracking of the nano-samples induced by local stresses at the irradiated/non-irradiated interfaces. PMID:25582769

  8. Yttria stabilized zirconia transparent films prepared by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hisanori; Hirai, Toshio

    1989-04-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) transparent films were prepared on quartz glass substrates at the temperature of 1375 K under atmospheric pressure using ZrCl 4, YCl 3 and O 2 gases as source materials. The growth rate of the film thickness was 1.5 to 2.0 μm/h. Cubic YSZ films were obtained at the value of x between 20 to 60, where x is defined by x( wt%) = YCl3×100/( YCl3+ ZrCl4). The lattice parameter of the cubic YSZ increased from 5.14 to 5.19 Å with the increase of x. Transparent films were obtained at the interval where the x value was between 20 to 45. The (100) plane of YSZ is oriented parallel to the surface of the substrate. For transparent film obtained at x = 29 (1.5 μm in thickness) the optical transmittance was 50-70% in the wavelength range of 250-800 nm.

  9. Studies of the air plasma spraying of zirconia powder

    SciTech Connect

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Wilson, G.C.; Crawmer, D.E.

    As part of an investigation of the dynamics that occur in the air plasma spray process, an experimental and analytical study has been accomplished for the deposition of yttria-stabilized zirconia powder using argon-hydrogen and argon-helium working gases. Numerical models of the plasma dynamics and the related plasma-particle interaction are presented. The analytical studies were conducted to determine the parameter space for the empirical studies. Experiments were then conducted using a Box statistical design-of-experiment approach. A substantial range of plasma processing conditions and their effect on the resultant coating is presented. The coatings were characterized by hardness tests and optical metallographymore » (i.e., image analysis). Coating qualities are discussed with respect to hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure. Attributes of the coatings are correlated with the changes in operating parameters. An optimized coating design predicted by the SDE analysis and verified by the calculations is also presented.« less

  10. Zirconia-alumina-nanodiamond composites with gemological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Luis A.; Montes-Morán, Miguel A.; Peretyagin, Pavel Y.; Vladimirov, Yuriy G.; Okunkova, Anna; Moya, José S.; Torrecillas, Ramón

    2014-02-01

    Nanodiamonds have excellent mechanical and optical properties with a wide range of potential applications as a filler material for nanocomposites. Here, we present a new family of zirconia-alumina-nanodiamond composites using two main processing routes: (1) a colloidal method, and (2) power mixing homogenization. Composites with detonation nanodiamonds quantities ranging within 0.3-5 vol.% followed by a pulsed electrical current sintering at a temperature range from 1,200 to 1,500 °C have been analyzed, and a significant enhancement in mechanical properties, i.e., indentation hardness (16.17 GPa), fracture toughness (15.5 MPa m1/2), and bending strength (1,600 MPa), could be observed. To support these excellent properties, TEM, color, reflectivity, and Raman spectroscopy measurements were also carried out. The microstructure of the composites is very homogeneous with average grain sizes between 200 and 500 nm depending on the processing temperature. Two morphologies are present: (a) intergranular dispersion of alumina grains and nanodiamonds distributed along the grain boundaries of the ZrO2 matrix, and (b) intragranular nano-dispersion of ZrO2 particles with sizes 20-80 nm located inside the alumina grains. In the present article, we show, for the first time in the scientific literature, a continuous palette of gray color gradation of new ceramic materials of metalized colors (white index L* 98-40) for gemological applications.

  11. Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol over Ceria-Zirconia Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Schimming, Sarah M; LaMont, Onaje D; König, Michael; Rogers, Allyson K; D'Amico, Andrew D; Yung, Matthew M; Sievers, Carsten

    2015-06-22

    The hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol is investigated over bulk ceria and ceria-zirconia catalysts with different elemental compositions. The reactions are performed in a flow reactor at 1 atm and 275-400 °C. The primary products are phenol and catechol, whereas cresol and benzene are formed as secondary products. No products with hydrogenated rings are formed. The highest conversion of guaiacol is achieved over a catalyst containing 60 mol % CeO2 and 40 mol % ZrO2 . Pseudo-first-order activation energies of 97-114 kJ mol(-1) are observed over the mixed metal oxide catalysts. None of the catalysts show significant deactivation during 72 h on stream. The important physicochemical properties of the catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction, titration of oxygen vacancies, and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia. On the basis of these experimental results, the reasons for the observed reactivity trends are identified. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Microscopic observation of laser glazed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morks, M. F.; Berndt, C. C.; Durandet, Y.; Brandt, M.; Wang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are frequently used as insulation system for hot components in gas-turbine, combustors and power plant industries. The corrosive gases which come from combustion of low grade fuels can penetrate into the TBCs and reach the metallic components and bond coat and cause hot corrosion and erosion damage. Glazing the top coat by laser beam is advanced approach to seal TBCs surface. The laser beam has the advantage of forming a dense thin layer composed of micrograins. Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating was glazed with Nd-YAG laser at different operating conditions. The surface morphologies, before and after laser treatment, were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Laser beam assisted the densification of the surface by remelting a thin layer of the exposed surface. The laser glazing converted the rough surface of TBCs into smooth micron-size grains with size of 2-9 μm and narrow grain boundaries. The glazed surfaces showed higher Vickers hardness compared to as-sprayed coatings. The results revealed that the hardness increases as the grain size decreases.

  13. Electrical conductivity enhancement in heterogeneously doped scandia-stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varanasi, Chakrapani; Juneja, Chetan; Chen, Christina; Kumar, Binod

    Composites of 6 mol% scandia-stabilized zirconia materials (6ScSZ) and nanosize Al 2O 3 powder (0-30 wt.%) were prepared and characterized for electrical conductivity by the ac impedance method at various temperatures ranging from 300 to 950 °C. All the composites characterized showed improved conductivity at higher temperatures compared to the undoped ScSZ. An average conductivity of 0.12 S cm -1 was measured at 850 °C for 6ScSZ + 30 wt.% Al 2O 3 composite samples, an increase in conductivity up to 20% compared to the undoped 6ScSZ specimen at this temperature. Microstructural evaluation using scanning electron microscopy revealed that the ScSZ grain size was relatively unchanged up to 10 wt.% of Al 2O 3 additions. However, the grain size was reduced in samples with higher (20 and 30 wt.%) additions of Al 2O 3. Small grain size, reduced quantity of the 6ScSZ material (only 70%), and improved conductivity makes these ScSZ + 30 wt.% Al 2O 3 composites very attractive as electrolyte materials in view of their collective mechanical and electrical properties and cost requirements. The observed increase in conductivity values with the additions of an insulating Al 2O 3 phase is explained in light of the space charge regions at the 6ScSZ-Al 2O 3 grain boundaries.

  14. Production of bioadditives from glycerol esterification over zirconia supported heteropolyacids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shanhui; Zhu, Yulei; Gao, Xiaoqing; Mo, Tao; Zhu, Yifeng; Li, Yongwang

    2013-02-01

    The synthesis of bioadditives for biofuels from glycerol esterification with acetic acid was performed over zirconia supported heteropolyacids catalysts using H(4)SiW(12)O(40) (HSiW), H(3)PW(12)O(40) (HPW) and H(3)PMo(12)O(40) (HPMo) as active compounds. The as-prepared catalysts were characterized by N(2)-physisorption, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, NH(3)-TPD, FTIR of pyridine adsorption and H(2)O-TPD. Among the catalysts tested, HSiW/ZrO(2) achieved the best catalytic performance owing to the better combination of surface Brønsted acid sites and hydrothermal stability. A 93.6% combined selectivity of glyceryl diacetate and glyceryl triacetate with complete glycerol conversion was obtained at 120°C and 4h of reaction time in the presence of HSiW/ZrO(2). This catalyst also presented consistent activity for four consecutive reaction cycles, while HPW/ZrO(2) and HPMo/ZrO(2) exhibited distinct deactivation after reusability tests. In addition, HSiW/ZrO(2) can be resistant to the impurities present in bulk glycerol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline ceramics: Insights from yttria stabilized zirconia

    DOE PAGES

    Dey, Sanchita; Drazin, John W.; Wang, Yongqiang; ...

    2015-01-13

    Materials for applications in hostile environments, such as nuclear reactors or radioactive waste immobilization, require extremely high resistance to radiation damage, such as resistance to amorphization or volume swelling. Nanocrystalline materials have been reported to present exceptionally high radiation-tolerance to amorphization. In principle, grain boundaries that are prevalent in nanomaterials could act as sinks for point-defects, enhancing defect recombination. In this paper we present evidence for this mechanism in nanograined Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), associated with the observation that the concentration of defects after irradiation using heavy ions (Kr⁺, 400 keV) is inversely proportional to the grain size. HAADF imagesmore » suggest the short migration distances in nanograined YSZ allow radiation induced interstitials to reach the grain boundaries on the irradiation time scale, leaving behind only vacancy clusters distributed within the grain. Because of the relatively low temperature of the irradiations and the fact that interstitials diffuse thermally more slowly than vacancies, this result indicates that the interstitials must reach the boundaries directly in the collision cascade, consistent with previous simulation results. Concomitant radiation-induced grain growth was observed which, as a consequence of the non-uniform implantation, caused cracking of the nano-samples induced by local stresses at the irradiated/non-irradiated interfaces.« less

  16. High-temperature zirconia microthruster with an integrated flow sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekholm, Ville; Persson, Anders; Palmer, Kristoffer; Ericson, Fredric; Thornell, Greger

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and characterization of a ceramic, heated cold-gas microthruster device made with silicon tools and high temperature co-fired ceramic processing. The device contains two opposing thrusters, each with an integrated calorimetric propellant flow sensor and a heater in the stagnation chamber of the nozzle. The exhaust from a thruster was photographed using schlieren imaging to study its behavior and search for leaks. The heater elements were tested under a cyclic thermal load and to the maximum power before failure. The nozzle heater was shown to improve the efficiency of the thruster by 6.9%, from a specific impulse of 66 to 71 s, as calculated from a decrease of the flow rate through the nozzle of 13%, from 44.9 to 39.2 sccm. The sensitivity of the integrated flow sensor was measured to 0.15 mΩ sccm-1 in the region of 0-15 sccm and to 0.04 mΩ sccm-1 above 20 sccm, with a zero-flow sensitivity of 0.27 mΩ sccm-1. The choice of yttria-stabilized zirconia as a material for the devices makes them robust and capable of surviving temperatures locally exceeding 1000 °C.

  17. Silver nanoparticle-doped zirconia capillaries for enhanced bacterial filtration.

    PubMed

    Wehling, Julia; Köser, Jan; Lindner, Patrick; Lüder, Christian; Beutel, Sascha; Kroll, Stephen; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2015-03-01

    Membrane clogging and biofilm formation are the most serious problems during water filtration. Silver nanoparticle (Agnano) coatings on filtration membranes can prevent bacterial adhesion and the initiation of biofilm formation. In this study, Agnano are immobilized via direct reduction on porous zirconia capillary membranes to generate a nanocomposite material combining the advantages of ceramics being chemically, thermally and mechanically stable with nanosilver, an efficient broadband bactericide for water decontamination. The filtration of bacterial suspensions of the fecal contaminant Escherichia coli reveals highly efficient bacterial retention capacities of the capillaries of 8 log reduction values, fulfilling the requirements on safe drinking water according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Maximum bacterial loading capacities of the capillary membranes are determined to be 3×10(9)bacterialcells/750mm(2) capillary surface until back flushing is recommendable. The immobilized Agnano remain accessible and exhibit strong bactericidal properties by killing retained bacteria up to maximum bacterial loads of 6×10(8)bacterialcells/750mm(2) capillary surface and the regenerated membranes regain filtration efficiencies of 95-100%. Silver release is moderate as only 0.8% of the initial silver loading is leached during a three-day filtration experiment leading to average silver contaminant levels of 100μg/L. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of sandblasting on surface roughness of zirconia-based ceramics and shear bond strength of veneering porcelain.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Zhang, Zutai; Zheng, Dongxiang; Ding, Ning; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of sandblasting on the surface roughness of zirconia and the shear bond strength of the veneering porcelain. Pre-sintered zirconia plates were prepared and divided into four groups. Group A were not treated at all; group B were first sandblasted under 0.2 MPa pressure and then densely sintered; group C and D were sintered first, and then sandblasted under 0.2 MPa and 0.4 MPa pressures respectively. Surface roughness was measured and 3D roughness was reconstructed for the specimens, which were also analyzed with X-ray diffractometry. Finally after veneering porcelain sintering, shear bond tests were conducted. Sandblasting zirconia before sintering significantly increased surface roughness and the shear bond strength between zirconia and veneering porcelain (p<0.05). Sandblasting zirconia before sintering is a useful method to increase surface roughness and could successfully improve the bonding strength of veneering porcelain.

  19. [Effects of surface treatment and adhesive application on shear bond strength between zirconia and enamel].

    PubMed

    Li, Yinghui; Wu, Buling; Sun, Fengyang

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of sandblasting and different orthodontic adhesives on shear bond strength between zirconia and enamel. Zirconia ceramic samples were designed and manufactured for 40 extracted human maxillary first premolars with CAD/CAM system. The samples were randomized into 4 groups for surface treatment with sandblasting and non-treated with adhesives of 3M Transbond XT or Jingjin dental enamel bonding resin. After 24 h of bonded fixation, the shear bond strengths were measured by universal mechanical testing machine and analyzed with factorial variance analysis. The shear bond strength was significantly higher in sandblasting group than in untreated group (P<0.05) and comparable between the two groups with the adhesives of Transbond XT and dental enamel bonding resin (P>0.05). The shear bond strength between zirconia and enamel is sufficient after sandblasting regardless of the application of either adhesive.

  20. Immediate, non-submerged, root-analogue zirconia implant in single tooth replacement.

    PubMed

    Pirker, W; Kocher, A

    2008-03-01

    This report demonstrates the successful clinical use of a modified root-analogue zirconia implant for immediate single tooth replacement. A right maxillary premolar was removed and a custom-made, root-analogue, roughened zirconia implant with macro-retentions in the interdental space was fabricated and placed into the extraction socket 4 days later. Four months after root implantation a composite crown was cemented. No complications occurred during the healing period. An excellent esthetic and functional result was achieved with the composite crown. No clinically noticeable bone resorption or soft-tissue recession was observed at 26 months follow up. Significant modifications such as macro-retentions seem to indicate that primary stability and excellent osseointegration of immediate root-analogue zirconia implants can be achieved, while preventing unesthetic bone resorption. The macro-retentions must be limited to the interdental space to avoid fracture of the thin buccal cortex. This successful case warrants further clinical research in well controlled trials.

  1. Synthesis of zirconia (ZrO2) nanowires via chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, M. K.; Park, S. J.; Choi, D. J.

    2017-02-01

    Monoclinic zirconia nanowires were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using ZrCl4 powder as a starting material at 1200 °C and 760 Torr. Graphite was employed as a substrate, and an Au thin film was pre-deposited on the graphite as a catalyst. The zirconia nanostructure morphology was observed through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Based on X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy data, the resulting crystal structure was found to be single crystalline monoclinic zirconia. The homogeneous distributions of Zr, O and Au were studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping, and there was no metal droplet at the nanowire tips despite the use of an Au metal catalyst. This result is apart from that of conventional metal catalyzed nanowires.

  2. Aqueous Combustion Synthesis and Characterization of Nanosized Tetragonal Zirconia Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, B. S. B.; Mal, Indrajit; Tewari, Shanideep; Das, Karabi; Das, Siddhartha

    2007-08-01

    Nanocrystalline zirconia powder has been synthesized by an aqueous combustion synthesis route using glycine as fuel and nitrate as oxidizer. The powders have been prepared by using different glycine to zirconyl nitrate molar ratios (G/N). The powders produced with different G/N ratios have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the parameters resulting from powder with attractive properties. The theoretical combustion temperature (T ad ) has been calculated for different G/N ratios, and it is correlated with powder characteristics. An attempt is also made to explain the stability of tetragonal zirconia on the basis of extrinsic factors such as the morphology of nanocrystallites. Nanocrystalline metastable tetragonal zirconia (˜25 nm) powder (TZ) with disc-shaped morphology has been produced with a weak agglomeration in fuel deficient mixtures.

  3. Effect of surface treatments on the bond strengths of facing composite resins to zirconia copings.

    PubMed

    Tsumita, M; Kokubo, Y; Kano, T

    2012-09-01

    The present study evaluated and compared the bond strength between zirconia and facing composite resin using different surface conditioning methods before and after thermocycling. Four primers, three opaque resins, and two facing composite resins were used, and 10 surface treatment procedures were conducted. The bond strength was measured before and after 4,000 cycles of thermocycling. The mean values of each group were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The bond strengths of facing composite resins to zirconia after various treatments varied depending on the primers, opaque resins, body resins, and thermocycling. The application of primers and opaque resins to the zirconia surface after sandblasting is expected to yield strong bond strength of the facing composite resin (Estenia CG&B) even after thermocycling.

  4. A Critical Review of Dental Implant Materials with an Emphasis on Titanium versus Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Reham B.; Swain, Michael V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the current publication is to provide a comprehensive literature review on the topic of dental implant materials. The following paper focuses on conventional titanium implants and more recently introduced and increasingly popular zirconia implants. Major subtopics include the material science and the clinical considerations involving both implant materials and the influence of their physical properties on the treatment outcome. Titanium remains the gold standard for the fabrication of oral implants, even though sensitivity does occur, though its clinical relevance is not yet clear. Zirconia implants may prove to be promising in the future; however, further in vitro and well-designed in vivo clinical studies are needed before such a recommendation can be made. Special considerations and technical experience are needed when dealing with zirconia implants to minimize the incidence of mechanical failure. PMID:28787980

  5. Zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron-particle-based magnetorheological fluid for polishing optical glasses and ceramics.

    PubMed

    Shafrir, Shai N; Romanofsky, Henry J; Skarlinski, Michael; Wang, Mimi; Miao, Chunlin; Salzman, Sivan; Chartier, Taylor; Mici, Joni; Lambropoulos, John C; Shen, Rui; Yang, Hong; Jacobs, Stephen D

    2009-12-10

    We report on magnetorheological finishing (MRF) spotting experiments performed on glasses and ceramics using a zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron (CI)-particle-based magnetorheological (MR) fluid. The zirconia-coated magnetic CI particles were prepared via sol-gel synthesis in kilogram quantities. The coating layer was approximately 50-100 nm thick, faceted in surface structure, and well adhered. Coated particles showed long-term stability against aqueous corrosion. "Free" nanocrystalline zirconia polishing abrasives were cogenerated in the coating process, resulting in an abrasive-charged powder for MRF. A viable MR fluid was prepared simply by adding water. Spot polishing tests were performed on a variety of optical glasses and ceramics over a period of nearly three weeks with no signs of MR fluid degradation or corrosion. Stable material removal rates and smooth surfaces inside spots were obtained.

  6. Zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron-particle-based magnetorheological fluid for polishing optical glasses and ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Shafrir, Shai N.; Romanofsky, Henry J.; Skarlinski, Michael

    2009-12-10

    We report on magnetorheological finishing (MRF) spotting experiments performed on glasses and ceramics using a zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron (CI)-particle-based magnetorheological (MR) fluid. The zirconia-coated magnetic CI particles were prepared via sol-gel synthesis in kilogram quantities. The coating layer was {approx}50-100 nm thick, faceted in surface structure, and well adhered. Coated particles showed long-term stability against aqueous corrosion. ''Free'' nanocrystalline zirconia polishing abrasives were cogenerated in the coating process, resulting in an abrasive-charged powder for MRF. A viable MR fluid was prepared simply by adding water. Spot polishing tests were performed on a variety of optical glasses and ceramics over a periodmore » of nearly three weeks with no signs of MR fluid degradation or corrosion. Stable material removal rates and smooth surfaces inside spots were obtained.« less

  7. Positron annihilation studies of zirconia doped with metal cations of different valence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochazka, I.; Cizek, J.; Melikhova, O.; Konstantinova, T. E.; Danilenko, I. A.; Yashchishyn, I. A.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.

    2013-06-01

    New results obtained by applying positron annihilation spectroscopy to the investigation of zirconia-based nanomaterials doped with metal cations of different valence are reported. The slow-positron implantation spectroscopy combined with Doppler broadening measurements was employed to study the sintering of pressure-compacted nanopowders of tetragonal yttria-stabilised zirconia (t-YSZ) and t-YSZ with chromia additive. Positronium (Ps) formation in t-YSZ was proven by detecting 3γ-annihilations of ortho-Ps and was found to gradually decrease with increasing sintering temperature. A subsurface layer with enhanced 3γ-annihilations, compared to the deeper regions, could be identified. Addition of chromia was found to inhibit Ps formation. In addition, first results of positron lifetime measurements on nanopowders of zirconia phase-stabilised with MgO and CeO2 are presented.

  8. The Chemical Composition and Structure of Supported Sulfated Zirconia with Regulated Size Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazhevskiy, V. V.; Shmachkova, V. P.; Kotsarenko, N. S.; Kochubey, D. I.; Vedrine, J. C.

    2007-02-01

    A set of model skeletal isomerization catalysts — sulfated zirconia nanoparticles of controlled thickness anchored on different supports — was prepared using colloidal solutions of Zr salt on titania as support. The nanoparticles of zirconia (1-5 nm) are epitaxially connected to the support surface, with S/Zr ratio equals to 1.3-1.5. It was shown by EXAFS that nanoparticles of non-stoichiometric zirconium sulfate Zr(SO4)1+x, where x<0.5, are formed on the support surface. Its structure looks like half-period shifted counterdirected chains built-up by zirconium atoms linked by triangle pyramids of sulfate groups. Considering catalytic data of skeletal n-butane isomerisation at 150°C, one can suggest that these species behave as the active component of sulfated zirconia. They are formed in subsurface layers as zirconium hydroxide undergoes sulfation followed by thermal treatment.

  9. Microstructure, crystallization and shape memory behavior of titania and yttria co-doped zirconia

    DOE PAGES

    Zeng, Xiao Mei; Du, Zehui; Schuh, Christopher A.; ...

    2015-12-17

    Small volume zirconia ceramics with few or no grain boundaries have been demonstrated recently to exhibit the shape memory effect. To explore the shape memory properties of yttria doped zirconia (YDZ), it is desirable to develop large, microscale grains, instead of submicron grains that result from typical processing of YDZ. In this paper, we have successfully produced single crystal micro-pillars from microscale grains encouraged by the addition of titania during processing. Titania has been doped into YDZ ceramics and its effect on the grain growth, crystallization and microscale elemental distribution of the ceramics have been systematically studied. With 5 mol%more » titania doping, the grain size can be increased up to ~4 μm, while retaining a large quantity of the desired tetragonal phase of zirconia. Finally, micro-pillars machined from tetragonal grains exhibit the expected shape memory effects where pillars made from titania-free YDZ would not.« less

  10. [Study on friction and wear properties of dental zirconia ceramics processed by microwave and conventional sintering methods].

    PubMed

    Guoxin, Hu; Ying, Yang; Yuemei, Jiang; Wenjing, Xia

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the wear of an antagonist and friction and wear properties of dental zirconia ceramic that was subjected to microwave and conventional sintering methods. Ten specimens were fabricated from Lava brand zirconia and randomly assigned to microwave and conventional sintering groups. A profile tester for surface roughness was used to measure roughness of the specimens. Wear test was performed, and steatite ceramic was used as antagonist. Friction coefficient curves were recorded, and wear volume were calculated. Finally, optical microscope was used to observe the surface morphology of zirconia and steatite ceramics. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the microstructure of zirconia. Wear volumes of microwave and conventionally sintered zirconia were (6.940±1.382)×10⁻², (7.952±1.815) ×10⁻² mm³, respectively. Moreover, wear volumes of antagonist after sintering by the considered methods were (14.189±4.745)×10⁻², (15.813±3.481)×10⁻² mm³, correspondingly. Statistically significant difference was not observed in the wear resistance of zirconia and wear volume of steatite ceramic upon exposure to two kinds of sintering methods. Optical microscopy showed that ploughed surfaces were apparent in zirconia. The wear surface of steatite ceramic against had craze, accompanied by plough. Scanning electron microscopy showed that zirconia was sintered compactly when subjected to both conventional sintering and microwave methods, whereas grains of zirconia sintered by microwave alone were smaller and more uniform. Two kinds of sintering methods are successfully used to produce dental zirconia ceramics with similar friction and wear properties.
.

  11. Grinding model and material removal mechanism of medical nanometer zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongkun; Li, Changhe; Jia, Dongzhou; Wang, Sheng; Li, Runze; Qi, Xiaoxiao

    2014-01-01

    Many patents have been devoted to developing medical nanometer zirconia ceramic grinding techniques that can significantly improve both workpiece surface integrity and grinding quality. Among these patents is a process for preparing ceramic dental implants with a surface for improving osseo-integration by sand abrasive finishing under a jet pressure of 1.5 bar to 8.0 bar and with a grain size of 30 µm to 250 µm. Compared with other materials, nano-zirconia ceramics exhibit unmatched biomedical performance and excellent mechanical properties as medical bone tissue and dentures. The removal mechanism of nano-zirconia materials includes brittle fracture and plastic removal. Brittle fracture involves crack formation, extension, peeling, and chipping to completely remove debris. Plastic removal is similar to chip formation in metal grinding, including rubbing, ploughing, and the formation of grinding debris. The materials are removed in shearing and chipping. During brittle fracture, the grinding-led transverse and radial extension of cracks further generate local peeling of blocks of the material. In material peeling and removal, the mechanical strength and surface quality of the workpiece are also greatly reduced because of crack extension. When grinding occurs in the plastic region, plastic removal is performed, and surface grinding does not generate grinding fissures and surface fracture, producing clinically satisfactory grinding quality. With certain grinding conditions, medical nanometer zirconia ceramics can be removed through plastic flow in ductile regime. In this study, we analyzed the critical conditions for the transfer of brittle and plastic removal in nano-zirconia ceramic grinding as well as the high-quality surface grinding of medical nanometer zirconia ceramics by ELID grinding.

  12. Comparison of mechanical and biological properties of zirconia and titanium alloy orthodontic micro-implants.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hae Won; Park, Young Seok; Chung, Shin Hye; Jung, Min Ho; Moon, Won; Rhee, Sang Hoon

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the initial stability as insertion and removal torque and the clinical applicability of novel orthodontic zirconia micro-implants made using a powder injection molding (PIM) technique with those parameters in conventional titanium micro-implants. Sixty zirconia and 60 titanium micro-implants of similar design (diameter, 1.6 mm; length, 8.0 mm) were inserted perpendicularly in solid polyurethane foam with varying densities of 20 pounds per cubic foot (pcf), 30 pcf, and 40 pcf. Primary stability was measured as maximum insertion torque (MIT) and maximum removal torque (MRT). To investigate clinical applicability, compressive and tensile forces were recorded at 0.01, 0.02, and 0.03 mm displacement of the implants at angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, and 40°. The biocompatibility of zirconia micro-implants was assessed via an experimental animal study. There were no statistically significant differences between zirconia micro-implants and titanium alloy implants with regard to MIT, MRT, or the amount of movement in the angulated lateral displacement test. As angulation increased, the mean compressive and tensile forces required to displace both types of micro-implants increased substantially at all distances. The average bone-to-implant contact ratio of prototype zirconia micro-implants was 56.88 ± 6.72%. Zirconia micro-implants showed initial stability and clinical applicability for diverse orthodontic treatments comparable to that of titanium micro-implants under compressive and tensile forces.

  13. [Effect of three kinds of rare earth oxides on chromaticity and mechanical properties of zirconia ceramic].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the colouration of zirconia ceramic by adding three kinds of rare earth oxides. The influence of the pigments concentration on the mechanical properties and the microstructure was also analyzed. Added different concentrations of CeO(2), Er(2)O(3) and Pr(6)O(11) in tetragonal zirconia poly crystals stabilized with 3 mol% yttria (3Y-T2P) powder, compacted at 200 MPa using cold isostatic pressure, and sintered to 1 400 degrees C. The heating rate was 150 degrees C/h and the dwelling time was 2 hours. The chromaticity of sintered bodies was measured with chroma meter. The relative density, hardness, flexure strength and fracture toughness were investigated as well. The phase stability of the colorized and pure zirconia was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using an automated diffractometer. The microstructures of the specimens were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Several kinds of color achieved by the different pigments praseodym oxide, cerium oxide and erbium oxide were presented in the CIELab system. The a* value increased with the added amount of Er(2)O(3), while b* value rose with the increasing amount of CeO(2) and Pr(6)O(11). However, three pigments failed to decrease L* value and the sintered body appeared too bright. Adding three pigments influenced flexure strength of zirconia ceramic significantly, but had little influence on the hardness and fracture toughness. Microscopy revealed the relationship between the porosity and shapes of grains was correlated to strength of the diphase ceramics. No additional phase could be detected by XRD, except t-ZrO(2) in all colorized samples after sintering at 1 400 degrees C for 120 min. Zirconia ceramic can be colorized by CeO(2), Er(2)O(3), and Pr(6)O(11). Pigments even in a small amount influence the mechanical properties of the colorized zirconia material, which necessitates further investigation.

  14. Evaluation of porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composites for repair of lumbar vertebra defect in dogs.

    PubMed

    Shao, Rong-Xue; Quan, Ren-Fu; Huang, Xiao-Long; Wang, Tuo; Xie, Shang-Ju; Gao, Huan-Huan; Wei, Xi-Cheng; Yang, Di-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of porous gradient composites with hydroxyapatite/zirconia and autologous iliac in repair of lumbar vertebra body defects in dogs. (1) New porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composites were prepared using foam immersion, gradient compound and high temperature sintering; (2) A total of 18 adult beagle dogs, aged five to eight months and weighted 10-13 kg, were randomly assigned into two subgroups, which were implanted with new porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composites (subgroup A in 12) or autologous iliac bone (subgroup B in 6); (3) The post-operative data were analyzed and compared between the subgroups to repair the vertebral body defect by roentgenoscopy, morphology and biomechanics. The porosity of new porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composites is at 25 poles per inch, and the size of pores is at between 150 and 300 µm. The post-operative roentgenoscopy displayed that new-bone formation is increased gradually, and the interface between composites and host-bone becomes became blur, and the new-bone around the composites were integrated into host-bone at 24 weeks postoperatively in subgroup A. As to subgroup B, the resorption and restructure were found at six weeks after the surgery, and the graft-bone and host-bone have been integrated completely without obvious boundary at 24 weeks postoperatively. Histomorphologic study showed that the amount of bone within pores of the porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composites increased continuously with a prolonged implantation time, and that partial composites were degradated and replaced by new-bone trabeculae. There was no significant difference between subgroups (P > 0.05) in the ultimate compressive strengths. New porous gradient hydroxyapatite/zirconia composites can promote the repair of bony defect, and induce bone tissue to ingrow into the pores, which may be applied widely to the treatment of bony defect in the future. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Epoxy Composites Containing Zirconia-Impregnated Halloysite Nanotubes with Different Loadings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suhyun; Kim, Moon Il; Shon, Minyoung; Seo, Bongkuk; Lim, Choongsun

    2018-09-01

    Epoxy resins are widely used in various industrial fields due to their low cost, good workability, heat resistance, and good mechanical strength. However, they suffer from brittleness, an issue that must be addressed for further applications. To solve this problem, additional fillers are needed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of the resins; zirconia is one such filler. However, it has been reported that aggregation may occur in the epoxy composites as the amount of zirconia increases, preventing enhancement of the mechanical strength of the epoxy composites. Herein, to reduce the aggregation, zirconia was well dispersed on halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), which have high thermal and mechanical strength, by a conventional wet impregnation method. The HNTs were impregnated with zirconia at different loadings using zirconyl chloride octahydrate as a precursor. The mechanical and thermal strengths of the epoxy composites with these fillers were investigated. The zirconia-impregnated HNTs (Zr/HNT) were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and tunneling electron microscopy (TEM). The hardening conditions of the epoxy composites were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal strength of the epoxy composites was studied by thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and micro-calorimetry and the mechanical strength of the epoxy composites (flexural strength and tensile strength) was studied by using a universal testing machine (UTM). The mechanical and thermal strengths of the epoxy composites with Zr/HNT were improved compared to those of the epoxy composite with HNT, and also increased as the zirconia loading on HNT increased.

  16. Long-term Bond Strength between Layering Indirect Composite Material and Zirconia Coated with Silicabased Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Fushiki, Ryosuke; Komine, Futoshi; Honda, Junichi; Kamio, Shingo; Blatz, Markus B; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the long-term shear bond strength between an indirect composite material and a zirconia framework coated with silica-based ceramics, taking the effect of different primers into account. A total of 165 airborne-particle abraded zirconia disks were subjected to one of three pretreatments: no pretreatment (ZR-AB), airborne-particle abrasion of zirconia coated with feldspathic porcelain (ZR-PO-AB), and 9.5% hydrofluoric acid etching of zirconia coated with feldspathic porcelain (ZR-PO-HF). An indirect composite material (Estenia C&B) was then bonded to the zirconia disks after they were treated with one of the following primers: Clearfil Photo Bond (CPB), Clearfil Photo Bond with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator (CPB + Activator), Estenia Opaque Primer (EOP), Porcelain Liner M Liquid B (PLB), or no priming (CON, control group). Shear bond strength was tested after 100,000 thermocycles, and the data were analyzed using the Steel-Dwass U-test (α = 0.05). For ZR-PO-AB and ZR-PO-HF specimens, bond strength was highest in the CPB+Activator group (25.8 MPa and 22.4 MPa, respectively). Bond strengths were significantly lower for ZR-AB specimens in the CON and PLB groups and for ZR-PO-AB specimens in the CON, CPB, and EOP groups. Combined application of a hydrophobic phosphate monomer (MDP) and silane coupling agent enhanced the long-term bond strength of indirect composite material to a zirconia coated with silica-based ceramics.

  17. Comparison of edge chipping resistance of PFM and veneered zirconia specimens

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Janet B.; Sundar, Veeraraghavan; Parry, Edward E.; Quinn, George D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the chipping resistance of veneered zirconia specimens and compare it to the chipping resistance of porcelain fused to metal (PFM) specimens. Methods Veneered zirconia and PFM bar specimens were prepared in clinically relevant thicknesses. The specimen edges were chipped with different magnitude forces, producing chips of various sizes. The range of sizes included small chips that did not penetrate all the way through the veneers to the substrates, and also chips that were very large and reached the zirconia or metal substrates. The relationship between force magnitude and chip size (edge distance) was graphed. The resulting curves were compared for the veneered zirconia and PFM specimens. Knoop hardness vs. force graphs for the veneers and substrates were also obtained. Results The zirconia and PFM veneer chipping data followed a power law (coefficient of determination, R2 > 0.93) as expected from the literature. The curves overlapped within the combined data scatter, indicating similar resistance to chipping. The chips made in both types of specimens detached and did not penetrate into the substrate when they reached the veneer/substrate intersections. The hardness–load curves for the veneers and substrates all exhibited an indentation size effect (ISE) at low loads. The Knoop hardness values with uncertainties of ±one standard deviation at 4 N loads for the metal, zirconia, and the metal and zirconia veneers are: (2.02 ± 0.08, 12.01 ± 0.39, 4.24 ± 0.16 and 4.36 ± 0.02 GPa), respectively, with no statistically significant difference between the veneers (Tukey pairwise comparison at 0.95 family confidence). Significance This work indicates that a similar resistance to chipping might be expected for veneered zirconia and PFM restorations, in spite of the large difference in substrate hardness. Differences in susceptibility to chip spalling were not detected, but the chips in both specimen types detached off the sides in a similar

  18. Tailoring the Microstructure of Sol–Gel Derived Hydroxyapatite/Zirconia Nanocrystalline Composites

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tailor the microstructure of hydroxyapatite/zirconia nanocrystalline composites by optimizing processing parameters, namely, introducing an atmosphere of water vapor during sintering in order to control the thermal stability of hydroxyapatite, and a modified sol–gel process that yields to an excellent intergranular distribution of zirconia phase dispersed intergranularly within the hydroxyapatite matrix. In terms of mechanical behavior, SEM images of fissure deflection and the presence of monoclinic ZrO2 content on cracked surface indicate that both toughening mechanisms, stress-induced tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation and deflection, are active for toughness enhancement. PMID:24764458

  19. Hydrodynamic and Chemical Modeling of a Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor for Zirconia Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, T.; Gavillet, J.; Czerwiec, T.; Ablitzer, D.; Michel, H.

    1997-09-01

    Zirconia is deposited on cylindrical substrates by flowing post-discharge enhanced chemical vapor deposition. In this paper, a two dimensional hydrodynamic and chemical modeling of the reactor is described for given plasma characteristics. It helps in determining rate constants of the synthesis reaction of zirconia in gas phase and on the substrate which is ZrCl4 hydrolysis. Calculated deposition rate profiles are obtained by modeling under various conditions and fits with a satisfying accuracy the experimental results. The role of transport processes and the mixing conditions of excited gases with remaining ones are studied. Gas phase reaction influence on the growth rate is also discussed.

  20. Fuel electrode containing pre-sintered nickel/zirconia for a solid oxide fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Vora, Shailesh D.

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell structure (2) is provided, having a pre-sintered nickel-zirconia fuel electrode (6) and an air electrode (4), with a ceramic electrolyte (5) disposed between the electrodes, where the pre-sintered fuel electrode (6) contains particles selected from the group consisting of nickel oxide, cobalt and cerium dioxide particles and mixtures thereof, and titanium dioxide particles, within a matrix of yttria-stabilized zirconia and spaced-apart filamentary nickel strings having a chain structure, and where the fuel electrode can be sintered to provide an active solid oxide fuel cell.

  1. Fracture resistance of zirconia-based implant abutments after artificial long-term aging.

    PubMed

    Alsahhaf, Abdulaziz; Spies, Benedikt Christopher; Vach, Kirstin; Kohal, Ralf-Joachim

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the survival rate, fracture strength, bending moments, loading to fracture and fracture modes of different designs of zirconia abutments after dynamic loading with thermocycling, and compare these values to titanium abutments. A total of 80 abutment samples were divided into 5 test groups of 16 samples in each group. The study included the following groups, "Group 1" CAD/CAM produced all-zirconia abutments, "Group 2" titanium abutments, "Group 3" zirconia-abutments adhesively luted to a titanium base, "Group 4" prefabricated all-zirconia abutments and "Group 5" zirconia-abutments glass soldered to a titanium base. Half the number of samples in each group was exposed to 1.2 million loading cycles (5-years simulation) in the chewing simulator. The samples that survived the artificial aging were later tested for fracture strength in a universal testing machine. The remaining 8 samples of the group were directly tested for fracture strength. All samples exposed to the 5-years artificial aging survived except of six samples in one group (Group 1). The surviving samples were later fracture tested in the universal testing machine. The bending moments (Ncm) values were as follow: Exposed groups: "Group 1" 94.5Ncm; "Group 2" 599.2Ncm; "Group 3" 477.5Ncm; "Group 4" 314.4Ncm; "Group 5" 509.4Ncm. Non-exposed groups: "Group 1" 269.3Ncm; "Group 2" 474.2Ncm; "Group 3" 377.6Ncm; "Group 4" 265.4Ncm; "Group 5" 372.4Ncm. Except in Group 1, the values were higher in the exposed groups, although, statistically there was no difference (p>0.05). The one-piece ZrO2-abutment group (Group 1 and Group 4) exhibited lower values, while the two-piece ZrO2-abutment groups (Group 3 and Group 5) showed similar values and fracture modes like the titanium abutment group. The titanium abutment group showed the highest values of bending moments among all groups. The implant-abutment connection area appeared to influence the bending moment value and the fracture mode of the tested

  2. Sol-gel derived bioactive coating on zirconia: Effect on flexural strength and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shahramian, Khalil; Leminen, Heidi; Meretoja, Ville; Linderbäck, Paula; Kangasniemi, Ilkka; Lassila, Lippo; Abdulmajeed, Aous; Närhi, Timo

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sol-gel derived bioactive coatings on the biaxial flexural strength and fibroblast proliferation of zirconia, aimed to be used as an implant abutment material. Yttrium stabilized zirconia disc-shaped specimens were cut, ground, sintered, and finally cleansed ultrasonically in each of acetone and ethanol for 5 minutes. Three experimental groups (n = 15) were fabricated, zirconia with sol-gel derived titania (TiO 2 ) coating, zirconia with sol-gel derived zirconia (ZrO 2 ) coating, and non-coated zirconia as a control. The surfaces of the specimens were analyzed through images taken using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and a non-contact tapping mode atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to record the surface topography and roughness of the coated specimens. Biaxial flexural strength values were determined using the piston-on-three ball technique. Human gingival fibroblast proliferation on the surface of the specimens was evaluated using AlamarBlue assay™. Data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. Additionally, the biaxial flexural strength data was also statistically analyzed with the Weibull distribution. The biaxial flexural strength of zirconia specimens was unaffected (p > 0.05). Weibull modulus of TiO 2 coated and ZrO 2 coated groups (5.7 and 5.4, respectively) were lower than the control (8.0). Specimens coated with ZrO 2 showed significantly lower fibroblast proliferation compared to other groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, sol-gel derived coatings have no influence on the flexural strength of zirconia. ZrO 2 coated specimens showed significantly lower cell proliferation after 12 days than TiO 2 coated or non-coated control. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2401-2407, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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