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Sample records for zirconia toughened alumina

  1. Processing of Alumina-Toughened Zirconia Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2003-01-01

    Dense and crack-free 10-mol%-yttria-stabilized zirconia (10YSZ)-alumina composites, containing 0 to 30 mol% of alumina, have been fabricated by hot pressing. Release of pressure before onset of cooling was crucial in obtaining crack-free material. Hot pressing at 1600 C resulted in the formation of ZrC by reaction of zirconia with grafoil. However, no such reaction was observed at 1500 C. Cubic zirconia and -alumina were the only phases detected from x-ray diffraction indicating no chemical reaction between the composite constituents during hot pressing. Microstructure of the composites was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Density and elastic modulus of the composites followed the rule-of-mixtures. Addition of alumina to 10YSZ resulted in lighter, stronger, and stiffer composites by decreasing density and increasing strength and elastic modulus.

  2. Thermal Conductivity of Alumina-Toughened Zirconia Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2003-01-01

    10-mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (10YSZ)-alumina composites containing 0 to 30 mol% alumina were fabricated by hot pressing at 1500 C in vacuum. Thermal conductivity of the composites, determined at various temperatures using a steady-state laser heat flux technique, increased with increase in alumina content. Composites containing 0, 5, and 10-mol% alumina did not show any change in thermal conductivity with temperature. However, those containing 20 and 30-mol% alumina showed a decrease in thermal conductivity with increase in temperature. The measured values of thermal conductivity were in good agreement with those calculated from simple rule of mixtures.

  3. Zirconia toughened SiC whisker reinforced alumina composites small business innovation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loutfy, R. O.; Stuffle, K. L.; Withers, J. C.; Lee, C. T.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this phase 1 project was to develop a ceramic composite with superior fracture toughness and high strength, based on combining two toughness inducing materials: zirconia for transformation toughening and SiC whiskers for reinforcement, in a controlled microstructure alumina matrix. The controlled matrix microstructure is obtained by controlling the nucleation frequency of the alumina gel with seeds (submicron alpha-alumina). The results demonstrate the technical feasibility of producing superior binary composites (Al2O3-ZrO2) and tertiary composites (Al2O3-ZrO2-SiC). Thirty-two composites were prepared, consolidated, and fracture toughness tested. Statistical analysis of the results showed that: (1) the SiC type is the key statistically significant factor for increased toughness; (2) sol-gel processing with a-alumina seed had a statistically significant effect on increasing toughness of the binary and tertiary composites compared to the corresponding mixed powder processing; and (3) ZrO2 content within the range investigated had a minor effect. Binary composites with an average critical fracture toughness of 6.6MPam sup 1/2, were obtained. Tertiary composites with critical fracture toughness in the range of 9.3 to 10.1 MPam sup 1/2 were obtained. Results indicate that these composites are superior to zirconia toughened alumina and SiC whisker reinforced alumina ceramic composites produced by conventional techniques with similar composition from published data.

  4. The development of Zirconia and Copper toughened Alumina ceramic insert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalina Sabuan, Nur; Zolkafli, Nurfatini; Mebrahitom, A.; Azhari, Azmir; Mamat, Othman

    2018-04-01

    Ceramic cutting tools have been utilized in industry for over a century for its productivity and efficiency in machine tools and cutting tool material. However, due to the brittleness property the application has been limited. In order to manufacture high strength ceramic cutting tools, there is a need for suitable reinforcement to improve its toughness. In this case, copper (Cu) and zirconia (ZrO2) powders were added to investigate the hardness and physical properties of the developed composite insert. A uniaxial pre-forming process of the mix powder was done prior to densification by sintering at 1000 and 1300°C. The effect of the composition of the reinforcement on the hardness, density, shrinkage and microstructure of the inserts was investigated. It was found that an optimum density of 3.26 % and hardness 1385HV was obtained for composite of 10wt % zirconia and 10wt% copper at temperature 1000 °C.

  5. Selective etching of injection molded zirconia-toughened alumina: Towards osseointegrated and antibacterial ceramic implants.

    PubMed

    Flamant, Quentin; Caravaca, Carlos; Meille, Sylvain; Gremillard, Laurent; Chevalier, Jérôme; Biotteau-Deheuvels, Katia; Kuntz, Meinhard; Chandrawati, Rona; Herrmann, Inge K; Spicer, Christopher D; Stevens, Molly M; Anglada, Marc

    2016-12-01

    Due to their outstanding mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility, zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) ceramics have become the gold standard in orthopedics for the fabrication of ceramic bearing components over the last decade. However, ZTA is bioinert, which hampers its implantation in direct contact with bone. Furthermore, periprosthetic joint infections are now the leading cause of failure for joint arthroplasty prostheses. To address both issues, an improved surface design is required: a controlled micro- and nano-roughness can promote osseointegration and limit bacterial adhesion whereas surface porosity allows loading and delivery of antibacterial compounds. In this work, we developed an integrated strategy aiming to provide both osseointegrative and antibacterial properties to ZTA surfaces. The micro-topography was controlled by injection molding. Meanwhile a novel process involving the selective dissolution of zirconia (selective etching) was used to produce nano-roughness and interconnected nanoporosity. Potential utilization of the porosity for loading and delivery of antibiotic molecules was demonstrated, and the impact of selective etching on mechanical properties and hydrothermal stability was shown to be limited. The combination of injection molding and selective etching thus appears promising for fabricating a new generation of ZTA components implantable in direct contact with bone. Zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) is the current gold standard for the fabrication of orthopedic ceramic components. In the present work, we propose an innovative strategy to provide both osseointegrative and antibacterial properties to ZTA surfaces: we demonstrate that injection molding allows a flexible design of surface micro-topography and can be combined with selective etching, a novel process that induces nano-roughness and surface interconnected porosity without the need for coating, avoiding reliability issues. These surface modifications have the

  6. [Influence on mechanical properties and microstructure of nano-zirconia toughened alumina ceramics with nano-zirconia content].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Kui; Kang, Hong; Bao, Guang-Jie; Lv, Jin-Jun; Gao, Fei

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties and microstructure of nano -zirconia toughened alumina ceramics with variety of nano-zirconia content in centrifugal infiltrate casting processing of dental all-ceramic. Composite powder with different ethanol-water ratio, obtained serosity from ball milling and centrifugal infiltrate cast processing of green, then sintered at 1 450 degrees C for 8 h. The physical and mechanical properties of the sintered sample after milling and polishing were tested. Microstructures of the surface and fracture of the sintered sample were investigated by SEM. The experimental results showed that there had statistical significience (P < 0.01) on static three-point flexure strength and Vickers Hardness in three kinds of different nano-zirconia content sintered sample. Fracture toughness of 20% group was different from other two groups, while 10% group had not difference from 30% group (P < 0.05). The mechanical properties of this ceramic with 20% nano-zirconia was the best of the three, the static three-point flexure strength was (433 +/- 19) MPa and fracture toughness was (7.50 +/- 0.56) MPa x min 1/2. The intra/inter structure, fracture of intragranular and intergranular on the surface and fracture of sintered sample in microstrucre was also found. Intra/inter structure has strengthen toughness in ceramics. It has better toughness with 20% nano-zirconia, is suitable dental all-ceramic restoratives.

  7. Zirconia toughened alumina ceramic foams for potential bone graft applications: fabrication, bioactivation, and cellular responses.

    PubMed

    He, X; Zhang, Y Z; Mansell, J P; Su, B

    2008-07-01

    Zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) has been regarded as the next generation orthopedic graft material due to its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Porous ZTA ceramics with good interconnectivity can potentially be used as bone grafts for load-bearing applications. In this work, three-dimensional (3D) interconnected porous ZTA ceramics were fabricated using a direct foaming method with egg white protein as binder and foaming agent. The results showed that the porous ZTA ceramics possessed a bimodal pore size distribution. Their mechanical properties were comparable to those of cancellous bone. Due to the bio-inertness of alumina and zirconia ceramics, surface bioactivation of the ZTA foams was carried out in order to improve their bioactivity. A simple NaOH soaking method was employed to change the surface chemistry of ZTA through hydroxylation. Treated samples were tested by conducting osteoblast-like cell culture in vitro. Improvement on cells response was observed and the strength of porous ZTA has not been deteriorated after the NaOH treatment. The porous 'bioactivated' ZTA ceramics produced here could be potentially used as non-degradable bone grafts for load-bearing applications.

  8. [Effect of sintering temperature on mechanical properties of dental zirconia toughened alumina ceramics].

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiang-Yuan; Lin, Ting-Ting; Hu, Fang-Xuan; Zheng, Rui-Bin; Fan, Fan; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of sintering temperature on mechanical properties of dental zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) ceramics prepared by gel-casting technique. The samples prepared by gel-casting were sintered at 1100, 1200, 1250, 1300 and 1400degrees centigrade for each group. The flexural strength, fracture toughness, Vickers hardness and brittleness index were obtained and microscopic morphology of each group was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 19.0 software package. The flexural strength, fracture toughness and Vickers hardness increased with the increasing sintering temperature during 1100~1400degrees centigrade. The lowest brittleness index (0.74±0.16) μm -1/2 was observed in group sintered at 1200degrees centigrade and the highest (2.76±0.14) μm -1/2 was at 1400degrees centigrade (P<0.05), while the flexural strength of these two groups was (46.89±3.24) MPa and (349.64±54.72) MPa, respectively. The ZTA dental ceramics exhibit good machinability with proper sintering temperature (1200degrees centigrade) and the strength meets the requirement of clinical application.

  9. Comparison of heat generated by alumina-toughened zirconia and stainless steel burs for implant placement.

    PubMed

    Pires, Luis Fernando S; Tandler, Bernard; Bissada, Nabil; Duarte, Sillas

    2012-01-01

    In current practice, two types of burs are typically used: stainless steel (SS) and alumina-toughened zirconia (ATZ). The present study evaluated the durability of these two burs in relation to osteotomy creation for implant placement. In addition, the effects of the two types of burs on a bone model were examined. SS and ATZ burs were compared under controlled conditions in a swine rib osteotomy. The heat generated and time necessary for perforation were measured and analyzed with repeated-measures one-way analysis of variance. The burs and bone samples were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. New ATZ and SS burs showed greater bone disruption compared to burs that had been used 80 times. Brand new burs of either material showed small manufacturing defects, which increased in number with use. No clinically or statistically significant differences were found between burs with respect to temperature and time for perforation. SS and ATZ burs can be used several times for implant site preparation under controlled conditions without reaching a temperature that is harmful to the bone. Both burs wear under repeated use, but not to an excessive degree. The duller burs produced smoother perforations than did the new ones.

  10. Properties of zirconia-toughened-alumina prepared via powder processing and colloidal processing routes.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, A; Alsebaie, A M; Olabi, A G; Prescott, T

    2009-01-15

    Alumina-zirconia composites were prepared by two routes: powder processing, and colloidal processing. Unstabilised zirconia powder was added to alumina in 5 wt%, 10 wt% and 20 wt% quantities. For the colloidal method, zirconium(IV) propoxide solution was added to alumina powder, also in 5 wt%, 10 wt% and 20 wt% quantities. Additions of glacial acetic acid were needed to form stable suspensions. Suspension stability was verified by pH measurements and sedimentation testing. For the powder processed samples Vickers hardness decreased indefinitely with increasing ZrO(2) additions, but for colloidal samples the hardness at first decreased but then increased again above >10 wt% ZrO(2). Elastic modulus (E) values decreased with ZrO(2) additions. However, samples containing 20 wt% zirconia prepared via a colloidal method exhibited a much higher modulus than the powder processed equivalent. This was due to the homogeneous dispersion of zirconia yielding a sample which was less prone to microcracking.

  11. Characterization of the Sol-Gel Transition for Zirconia-Toughened Alumina Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeti, I.; Karikari, E.; Chen, J.

    1998-01-01

    High purity ZTA ceramic powders with and without yttria were produced using metal alkoxide precursors. ZTA ceramic powders with varying volume percents of zirconia were prepared (7, 15, and 22%). Aluminum tri-sec butoxide, zirconium propoxide, and yttrium isopropoxide were the reagents used. Synthesis conditions were varied to control the hydrolysis and the aging conditions for the sol to gel transition. FTIR analysis and theological characterization were used to follow the structural evolution during the sol to gel transition. The greater extent of hydrolysis and the build-up of structure measured from viscoelastic properties were consistent. Heat treatment was conducted to produce submicron grain fully crystalline ZTA ceramic powders. In all experimental cases a-alumina and tetragonal zirconia phases were confirmed even in the absence of yttria.

  12. Femtosecond laser microstructured Alumina toughened Zirconia: A new strategy to improve osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Angela; Cangueiro, Liliana; Oliveira, Vítor; Vilar, Rui; Fernandes, Maria H.; Monteiro, Fernando J.

    2018-03-01

    The use of topographic patterns has been a continuously growing area of research for tissue engineering and it is widely accepted that the surface topography of biomaterials can influence and modulate the initial biological response. Ultrafast lasers are extremely powerful tools to machine and pattern the surface of a wide range of biomaterials, however, only few work has been performed on ceramics with the intent of biomedical applications, and the biological characterization of these structured materials is scarce. In this work, relevance is given to the biological performance of such materials. A femtosecond laser ablation technique was used to modify Alumina toughened Zirconia (ATZ) surface topography, developing surfaces structured at the micro and nanoscale levels (μATZ), in a controlled and reproducible manner. Materials characterization was performed before and after laser treatment, and both materials were compared in terms of osteogenic response of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured under basal conditions, expecting that the micro/nanofeatures will improve the biological response of cells. Cells metabolic activity and proliferation increased with the culture time and surface microtopography modulated cells alignment and guided proliferation. The modified surface, displayed significantly higher expression of osteogenic transcription factors and genes and, additionally, the formation of a mineralized extracellular matrix, when compared to the control surface, i.e. unmodified ATZ.

  13. In Vitro versus In Vivo Phase Instability of Zirconia-Toughened Alumina Femoral Heads: A Critical Comparative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Affatato, Saverio; Rondinella, Alfredo; Yorifuji, Makiko; Marin, Elia; Zhu, Wenliang; McEntire, Bryan; Bal, Sonny B.; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2017-01-01

    A clear discrepancy between predicted in vitro and actual in vivo surface phase stability of BIOLOX®delta zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) femoral heads has been demonstrated by several independent research groups. Data from retrievals challenge the validity of the standard method currently utilized in evaluating surface stability and raise a series of important questions: (1) Why do in vitro hydrothermal aging treatments conspicuously fail to model actual results from the in vivo environment? (2) What is the preponderant microscopic phenomenon triggering the accelerated transformation in vivo? (3) Ultimately, what revisions of the current in vitro standard are needed in order to obtain consistent predictions of ZTA transformation kinetics in vivo? Reported in this paper is a new in toto method for visualizing the surface stability of femoral heads. It is based on CAD-assisted Raman spectroscopy to quantitatively assess the phase transformation observed in ZTA retrievals. Using a series of independent analytical probes, an evaluation of the microscopic mechanisms responsible for the polymorphic transformation is also provided. An outline is given of the possible ways in which the current hydrothermal simulation standard for artificial joints can be improved in an attempt to reduce the gap between in vitro simulation and reality. PMID:28772828

  14. [Influence of MgO and TiO2 on mechanical properties of zirconia toughened alumina ceramics formed by gel-casting technique].

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-Qian; Wang, Wei; Du, Ruo-Xi; Zhang, Da-Feng; Liu, Chuan-Tong; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of mechanical properties and sintering performance by adding 5% weight percentage aids to nano-compound zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) ceramics. Micrometer Al2O3 and nanometer ZrO2 (quality ratio 4:1) were used to get 55% volume percentage slurry. Magnesium oxide and titanium oxide were taken as aids which were 5% weight percentage of the Al2O3 and ZrO2 powder. Five groups (number 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 group) were divided according to different proportion of aids. After gel-casting, the porcelain pieces were sintered at 1150, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1450, 1500, 1600 degrees C for 2 hours. Static three-point flexure strength, line shrinkage, relative density were measured and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe section. Number 1 (MgO 1%, TiO2 4%) group had the highest bending strength. It was (401.78+/-19.50) MPa after sintering at 1600 degrees C for 2 hours and was higher than 0 group (380.64+/-44.50) MPa. Bending strength became lower than 0 group when MgO was more than 2% or more than that weight percentage of ZTA powder. When MgO content was higher than 2% or more than that weight percentage, there was no difference in relative density raising rate between each sintering assistants groups. When the sintering temperature was higher than 1200 degrees C, all groups showed obvious line-shrinkage and the groups which contained sintering assistants were all was higher than 0 group. Adding MgO and TiO2 aids from 1% to 4% weight percentage of ZTA will promote fritting and increase ZTA nano-compound ceramics mechanical properties. Adding 2% MgO aids or more than that weight percent will has no obvious help to increase the relative density raising rate of ZTA nano-compound ceramics and will degrade the mechanical properties of ZTA nano-compound ceramics.

  15. Glass ceramic toughened with tetragonal zirconia

    DOEpatents

    Keefer, K.D.

    1984-02-10

    A phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic and a process for making it are disclosed. A mixture of particulate network-forming oxide, network-modifying oxide, and zirconium oxide is heated to yield a homogeneous melt, and this melt is then heat treated to precipitate an appreciable quantity of tetragonal zirconia, which is retained at ambient temperature to form a phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic. Nuclearing agents and stabilizing agents may be added to the mixture to facilitate processing and improve the ceramic's properties. Preferably, the mixture is first melted at a temperature from 1200 to 1700/sup 0/C and is then heat-treated at a temperature within the range of 800 to 1200/sup 0/C in order to precipitate tetragonal ZrO/sub 2/. The composition, as well as the length and temperature of the heat treatment, must be carefully controlled to prevent solution of the precipitated tetragonal zirconia and subsequent conversion to the monoclinic phase.

  16. Glass ceramic toughened with tetragonal zirconia

    DOEpatents

    Keefer, Keith D.; Michalske, Terry A.

    1986-01-01

    A phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic and a process for making it are disclosed. A mixture of particulate network-forming oxide, network-modifying oxide, and zirconium oxide is heated to yield a homogeneous melt, and this melt is then heat-treated to precipitate an appreciable quantity of tetragonal zirconia, which is retained at ambient temperature to form a phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic. Nucleating agents and stabilizing agents may be added to the mixture to facilitate processing and improve the ceramic's properties. Preferably, the mixture is first melted at a temperature from 1200.degree. to 1700.degree. C. and is then heat-treated at a temperature within the range of 800.degree. to 1200.degree. C. in order to precipitate tetragonal ZrO.sub.2. The composition, as well as the length and temperature of the heat-treatment, must be carefully controlled to prevent solution of the precipitated tetragonal zirconia and subsequent conversion to the monoclinic phase.

  17. Alumina-Reinforced Zirconia Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2003-01-01

    Alumina-reinforced zirconia composites, used as electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells, were fabricated by hot pressing 10 mol percent yttria-stabilized zirconia (10-YSZ) reinforced with two different forms of alumina particulates and platelets each containing 0 to 30 mol percent alumina. Major mechanical and physical properties of both particulate and platelet composites including flexure strength, fracture toughness, slow crack growth, elastic modulus, density, Vickers microhardness, thermal conductivity, and microstructures were determined as a function of alumina content either at 25 C or at both 25 and 1000 C. Flexure strength and fracture toughness at 1000 C were maximized with 30 particulate and 30 mol percent platelet composites, respectively, while resistance to slow crack growth at 1000 C in air was greater for 30 mol percent platelet composite than for 30 mol percent particulate composites.

  18. Elaboration of Alumina-Zirconia Composites: Role of the Zirconia Content on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Naglieri, Valentina; Palmero, Paola; Montanaro, Laura; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Alumina-zirconia (AZ) composites are attractive structural materials, which combine the high hardness and Young’s modulus of the alumina matrix with additional toughening effects, due to the zirconia dispersion. In this study, AZ composites containing different amounts of zirconia (in the range 5–20 vol %) were prepared by a wet chemical method, consisting on the surface coating of alumina powders by mixing them with zirconium salt aqueous solutions. After spray-drying, powders were calcined at 600 °C for 1 h. Green bodies were then prepared by two methods: uniaxial pressing of spray-dried granules and slip casting of slurries, obtained by re-dispersing the spray dried granulates. After pressureless sintering at 1500 °C for 1 h, the slip cast samples gave rise to fully dense materials, characterized by a quite homogeneous distribution of ZrO2 grains in the alumina matrix. The microstructure, phase composition, tetragonal to monoclinic transformation behavior and mechanical properties were investigated and are here discussed as a function of the ZrO2 content. The material containing 10 vol % ZrO2 presented a relevant hardness and exhibited the maximum value of KI0, mainly imputable to the t → m transformation at the crack tip. PMID:28809262

  19. Chemically Derived Dense Alumina-Zirconia Composites for Improved Mechanical and Wear Erosion Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As a result of this funded project high purity Zirconia-Toughened Alumina (ZTA) ceramic powders with and without yttria were produced using metal alkoxide precursors. ZTA ceramic powders with varying volume percents of zirconia were prepared (7, 15, and 22%). Aluminum tri-sec butoxide, zirconium propoxide, and yttrium isopropoxide were the reagents used. Synthesis conditions were varied to control the hydrolysis and the aging conditions for the sol to gel transition. FTIR analysis and rheological characterization were used to follow the structural evolution during the sol to gel transition. The greater extent of hydrolysis and the build-up of structure measured from viscoelastic properties were consistent. Heat treatment was conducted to produce submicron grain fully crystalline ZTA ceramic powders. This improved materials should have enhanced properties such strength, toughness, and wear resistance for advanced structural applications, for example engine components in high technology aerospace applications.

  20. Investigations on composition and morphology of electrochemical alumina and alumina yttria stabilised zirconia deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hajjaji, S.; Manov, S.; Roy, J.; Aigouy, T.; Ben Bachir, A.; Aries, L.

    2001-08-01

    Conversion coatings modified by deposits of electrolytic alumina added or not with yttria and/or zirconia, have been studied which are well known for their resistance to chemical attack and high temperature. Conversion coating, characterised by a particular morphology and strong interfacial adhesion with the substrate, facilitate the electrochemical deposition of ceramic layers and enhance their adhesion to the substrate. Zirconia-alumina coating behaviour at 1000°C is similar to that of alumina coating; from 800°C, the chromium diffuses from the stainless steel through the electrolytic refractory coating up to the external interface, provokes discontinuities and can modify its protective character. Yttrium stabilises the cubic and the tetragonal form of the zirconia; so, during cooling, the phase transformation near 1000°C of tetragonal zirconia to monoclinic form cannot take place.

  1. Thermal Conductivity of Alumina-reinforced Zirconia Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    2005-01-01

    10-mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (10SZ) - alumina composites containing 0-30 mol% alumina were fabricated by hot pressing at 1500 C in vacuum. Thermal conductivity was determined at various temperatures using a steady-state laser heat flux technique. Thermal conductivity of the composites increased with increase in alumina content. Composites containing 0, 5, and 10-mol% alumina did not show any change in thermal conductivity with temperature. However, those containing 20 and 30-mol% alumina showed a decrease in thermal conductivity with increase in temperature. The measured values of thermal conductivity were in good agreement with those calculated from the Maxwell-Eucken model where one phase is uniformly dispersed within a second major continuous phase.

  2. Zirconia toughened mica glass ceramics for dental restorations.

    PubMed

    Gali, Sivaranjani; K, Ravikumar; Murthy, B V S; Basu, Bikramjit

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to understand the role of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in achieving the desired spectrum of clinically relevant mechanical properties (hardness, elastic modulus, fracture toughness and brittleness index) and chemical solubility of mica glass ceramics. The glass-zirconia mixtures with varying amounts of YSZ (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20wt.%) were ball milled, compacted and sintered to obtain pellets of glass ceramic-YSZ composites. Phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction and microstructural characterization with SEM revealed the crystal morphology of the composites. Mechanical properties such as Vickers hardness, elastic modulus, indentation fracture toughness and chemical solubility were assessed. Phase analysis of sintered pellets of glass ceramic-YSZ composites revealed the characteristic peaks of fluorophlogopite (FPP) and tetragonal zirconia. Microstructural investigation showed plate and lath-like interlocking mica crystals with embedded zirconia. Vickers hardness of 9.2GPa, elastic modulus of 125GPa, indentation toughness of 3.6MPa·m 1/2 , and chemical solubility of 30μg/cm 2 (well below the permissible limit) were recorded with mica glass ceramics containing 20wt.% YSZ. An increase in hardness and toughness of the glass ceramic-YSZ composites with no compromise on their brittleness index and chemical solubility has been observed. Such spectrum of properties can be utilised for developing a machinable ceramic for low stress bearing inlays, onlays and veneers. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Silicon carbide whisker-zirconia reinforced mullite and alumina ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Becher, Paul F.; Tiegs, Terry N.

    1987-01-01

    The flexural strength and/or fracture toughness of SiC whisker-reinforced composites utilizing mullite or alumina as the matrix material for the composite are increased by the addition of zirconia in a monoclinic or tetragonal phase to the matrix. The zirconia addition also provides for a lower hot-pressing temperature and increases the flexural strength and/or fracture toughness of the SiC whisker-reinforced composites over SiC whisker-reinforced composites of the similar matrix materials reinforced with similar concentrations of SiC whiskers.

  4. Characterization of microwave assisted sintered graphene toughened alumina (GTA) nano composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandana, K. I. Vishnu; Suman, K. N. S.; Viswabaskaran, V.

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present work is to characterize different mechanical properties of a nano composite made out of a combination of nano alumina and nano graphene. The nano powders of alumina and Graphene were mixed using High Energy Ball Mill and weight ratio of Al:G-C was maintained in the range of 0 to 2wt%. The prepared alumoorganic nano Composite Powders were compacted by Uniaxial Pellet Press and Graphene Toughened alumina (GTA) based composites were sintered in inert atmosphere at 1600°C using Hybrid Microwave Furnace. XRD and SEM studies are conducted on these specimens. Density and hardness tests are also performed on these specimens. In addition, wear and fracture toughness tests will also be carried out. In order to strengthen the experimental observations obtained, theoretical interpretation will be given to enhance the present work.

  5. Zirconia-alumina-nanodiamond composites with gemological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Luis A.; Montes-Morán, Miguel A.; Peretyagin, Pavel Y.; Vladimirov, Yuriy G.; Okunkova, Anna; Moya, José S.; Torrecillas, Ramón

    2014-02-01

    Nanodiamonds have excellent mechanical and optical properties with a wide range of potential applications as a filler material for nanocomposites. Here, we present a new family of zirconia-alumina-nanodiamond composites using two main processing routes: (1) a colloidal method, and (2) power mixing homogenization. Composites with detonation nanodiamonds quantities ranging within 0.3-5 vol.% followed by a pulsed electrical current sintering at a temperature range from 1,200 to 1,500 °C have been analyzed, and a significant enhancement in mechanical properties, i.e., indentation hardness (16.17 GPa), fracture toughness (15.5 MPa m1/2), and bending strength (1,600 MPa), could be observed. To support these excellent properties, TEM, color, reflectivity, and Raman spectroscopy measurements were also carried out. The microstructure of the composites is very homogeneous with average grain sizes between 200 and 500 nm depending on the processing temperature. Two morphologies are present: (a) intergranular dispersion of alumina grains and nanodiamonds distributed along the grain boundaries of the ZrO2 matrix, and (b) intragranular nano-dispersion of ZrO2 particles with sizes 20-80 nm located inside the alumina grains. In the present article, we show, for the first time in the scientific literature, a continuous palette of gray color gradation of new ceramic materials of metalized colors (white index L* 98-40) for gemological applications.

  6. Alumina additions may improve the damage tolerance of soft machined zirconia-based ceramics.

    PubMed

    Oilo, Marit; Tvinnereim, Helene M; Gjerdet, Nils Roar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the damage tolerance of different zirconia-based materials. Bars of one hard machined and one soft machined dental zirconia and an experimental 95% zirconia 5% alumina ceramic were subjected to 100,000 stress cycles (n = 10), indented to provoke cracks on the tensile stress side (n = 10), and left untreated as controls (n = 10). The experimental material demonstrated a higher relative damage tolerance, with a 40% reduction compared to 68% for the hard machined zirconia and 84% for the soft machined zirconia.

  7. Effect of Porosity of Alumina and Zirconia Ceramics toward Pre-Osteoblast Response

    PubMed Central

    Hadjicharalambous, Chrystalleni; Prymak, Oleg; Loza, Kateryna; Buyakov, Ales; Kulkov, Sergei; Chatzinikolaidou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    It is acknowledged that cellular responses are highly affected by biomaterial porosity. The investigation of this effect is important for the development of implanted biomaterials that integrate with bone tissue. Zirconia and alumina ceramics exhibit outstanding mechanical properties and are among the most popular implant materials used in orthopedics, but few data exist regarding the effect of porosity on cellular responses to these materials. The present study investigates the effect of porosity on the attachment and proliferation of pre-osteoblastic cells on zirconia and alumina. For each composition, ceramics of three different porosities are fabricated by sintering, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. Cell proliferation is quantified, and microscopy is employed to qualitatively support the proliferation results and evaluate cell morphology. Cell adhesion and metabolic activity are found comparable among low porosity zirconia and alumina. In contrast, higher porosity favors better cell spreading on zirconia and improves growth, but does not significantly affect cell response on alumina. Between the highest porosity materials, cell response on zirconia is found superior to alumina. Results show that an average pore size of ~150 μm and ~50% porosity can be considered beneficial to cellular growth on zirconia ceramics. PMID:26579516

  8. Effects of Variable Aspect-Ratio Inclusions on the Electrical Impedance of an Alumina Zirconia Composite at Intermediate Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2010-01-01

    A series of alumina-yttria-stabilized zirconia composites containing either a high aspect ratio (5 and 30 mol%) hexagonal platelet alumina or an alumina low aspect ratio (5 and 30 mol%) spherical particulate was used to determine the effect of the aspect ratio on the temperature-dependent impedance of the composite material. The highest impedance across the temperature range of 373 to 1073 K is attributed to the grain boundary of the hexagonal platelet second phase in this alumina zirconia composite.

  9. Processing and Mechanical Properties of Various Zirconia/Alumina Composites for Fuel Cell Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2002-01-01

    Various electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells were fabricated by hot pressing 10 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (10-YSZ) reinforced with two different forms of alumina, particulates and platelets, each containing 0 to 30 mol% alumina. Flexure strength and fracture toughness of both particulate and platelet composites at ambient temperature increased with increasing alumina content, reaching a maximum at 30 mot% alumina. For a given alumina content, strength of particulate composites was greater than that of platelet composites, whereas, the difference in fracture toughness between the two composite systems was negligible. No virtual difference in elastic modulus and density was observed for a given alumina content between particulate and platelet composites. Thermal cycling up to 10 cycles between 200 to 1000 C did not show any effect on strength degradation of the 30 mol% platelet composites, indicative of negligible influence of CTE mismatches between YSZ matrix and alumina grains.

  10. Effect of acidity on the citrate-nitrate combustion synthesis of alumina-zirconia composite powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandradass, J.; Kim, Ki Hyeon

    2009-12-01

    Alumina-zirconia composite powders were produced by sol-gel autocombustion. 20 wt.% ZrO2-Al2O3 mixture precursor solutions were chelated by citric acid ions at different pH. DTA analysis shows sluggish decomposition at low pH, whereas there was rapid decomposition at high pH = 9. XRD patterns of the calcined powders showed that well crystallized powder with 100 % tetragonal phase and α-alumina phase is produced when pH = 0.58 (without ammonia addition). TEM characterization of composite powders revealed homogenous distribution of nanosized zirconia particles in the alumina matrix. FTIR analysis shows peaks at 590 cm-1 and 454 cm-1, which are identified as the characteristic absorption bands of Zr-O and Al-O.

  11. CAD/CAM ZIRCONIA VS. SLIP-CAST GLASS-INFILTRATED ALUMINA/ZIRCONIA ALL-CERAMIC CROWNS: 2-YEAR RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Çehreli, Murat Cavit; Kökat, Ali Murat; Akça, Kivanç

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the early clinical outcome of slip-cast glass-infiltrated Alumina/Zirconia and CAD/CAM Zirconia all-ceramic crowns. A total of 30 InCeram® Zirconia and Cercon® Zirconia crowns were fabricated and cemented with a glass ionomer cement in 20 patients. At baseline, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year recall appointments, Californian Dental Association (CDA) quality evaluation system was used to evaluate the prosthetic replacements, and plaque and gingival index scores were used to explore the periodontal outcome of the treatments. No clinical sign of marginal discoloration, persistent pain and secondary caries was detected in any of the restorations. All InCeram® Zirconia crowns survived during the 2-year period, although one nonvital tooth experienced root fracture coupled with the fracture of the veneering porcelain of the restoration. One Cercon® Zirconia restoration fractured and was replaced. According to the CDA criteria, marginal integrity was rated excellent for InCeram® Zirconia (73%) and Cercon® Zirconia (80%) restorations, respectively. Slight color mismatch rate was higher for InCeram® Zirconia restorations (66%) than Cercon® Zirconia (26%) restorations. Plaque and gingival index scores were mostly zero and almost constant over time. Time-dependent changes in plaque and gingival index scores within and between groups were statistically similar (p>0.05). This clinical study demonstrates that single-tooth InCeram® Zirconia and Cercon® Zirconia crowns have comparable early clinical outcome, both seem as acceptable treatment modalities, and most importantly, all-ceramic alumina crowns strengthened by 25% zirconia can sufficiently withstand functional load in the posterior zone. PMID:19148406

  12. Alumina-zirconia machinable abutments for implant-supported single-tooth anterior crowns.

    PubMed

    Sadoun, M; Perelmuter, S

    1997-01-01

    Innovative materials and application techniques are constantly being developed in the ongoing search for improved restorations. This article describes a new material and the fabrication process of aesthetic machinable ceramic anterior implant abutments. The ceramic material utilized is a mixture of alumina (aluminum oxide) and ceria (cerium oxide) with partially stabilized zirconia (zirconium oxide). The initial core material is a cylinder with a 9-mm diameter and a 15-mm height, obtained by ceramic injection and presintering processes. The resultant alumina-zirconia core is porous and readily machinable. It is secured to the analog, and its design is customized by machining the abutment to suit the particular clinical circumstances. The machining is followed by glass infiltration, and the crown is finalized. The learning objective of this article is to gain a basic knowledge of the fabrication and clinical application of the custom machinable abutments.

  13. Strength, Fracture Toughness, and Slow Crack Growth of Zirconia/alumina Composites at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2003-01-01

    Various electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells were fabricated by hot pressing 10 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (10-YSZ) reinforced with two different forms of alumina particulates and platelets each containing 0 to 30 mol% alumina. Flexure strength and fracture toughness of platelet composites were determined as a function of alumina content at 1000 C in air and compared with those of particulate composites determined previously. In general, elevated-temperature strength and fracture toughness of both composite systems increased with increasing alumina content. For a given alumina content, flexure strength of particulate composites was greater than that of platelet composites at higher alumina contents (greater than or equal to 20 mol%), whereas, fracture toughness was greater in platelet composites than in particulate composites, regardless of alumina content. The results of slow crack growth (SCG) testing, determined at 1000 C via dynamic fatigue testing for three different composites including 0 mol% (10-YSZ matrix), 30 mol % particulate and 30 mol% platelet composites, showed that susceptibility to SCG was greatest with SCG parameter n = 6 to 8 for both 0 and 30 mol% particulate composites and was least with n = 33 for the 30 mol% platelet composite.

  14. Influence of nano alumina coating on the flexural bond strength between zirconia and resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Mumcu, Emre; Şen, Murat

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this in vitro study is to examine the effects of a nano-structured alumina coating on the adhesion between resin cements and zirconia ceramics using a four-point bending test. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 pairs of zirconium bar specimens were prepared with dimensions of 25 mm × 2 mm × 5 mm and cementation surfaces of 5 mm × 2 mm. The samples were divided into 5 groups of 20 pairs each. The groups are as follows: Group I (C) – Control with no surface modification, Group II (APA) – airborne-particle-abrasion with 110 µm high-purity aluminum oxide (Al2O3) particles, Group III (ROC) – airborne-particle-abrasion with 110 µm silica modified aluminum oxide (Al2O3 + SiO2) particles, Group IV (TCS) – tribochemical silica coated with Al2O3 particles, and Group V (AlC) – nano alumina coating. The surface modifications were assessed on two samples selected from each group by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The samples were cemented with two different self-adhesive resin cements. The bending bond strength was evaluated by mechanical testing. RESULTS According to the ANOVA results, surface treatments, different cement types, and their interactions were statistically significant (P<.05). The highest flexural bond strengths were obtained in nanostructured alumina coated zirconia surfaces (50.4 MPa) and the lowest values were obtained in the control group (12.00 MPa), both of which were cemented using a self-adhesive resin cement. CONCLUSION The surface modifications tested in the current study affected the surface roughness and flexural bond strength of zirconia. The nano alumina coating method significantly increased the flexural bond strength of zirconia ceramics. PMID:29503713

  15. [Evaluation of alumina effects on the mechanical property and translucency of nano-zirconia all-ceramics].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Zhao, Yong-qi; Zhang, Jing-chao; Liao, Yun-mao; Li, Wei

    2010-06-01

    To study the effects of alumina content on sintered density, mechanical property and translucency of zirconia nanocomposite all-ceramics. Specimens of zirconia nanocomposite all-ceramics were divided into five groups based on their alumina content which are 0% (control group), 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10.0% respectively. The sintered densities were measured using Archimedes' method. Specimens' bending strengths were measured with three-point bending test (ISO 6872). The visible light transmittances were measured with spectrophotometric arrangements and the fractured surfaces were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The control group of pure zirconia could be sintered to the theoretical density under pressure-less sintering condition. The bending strength was (1100.27 ± 54.82) MPa, the fracture toughness was (4.96 ± 0.35) MPa×m(1/2) and the transmittance could reach 17.03%. The sintered density and transmittance decreased as alumina content increased from 2.5% to 10%. However, the fracture toughness only increased slightly. In all four alumina groups, the additions of alumina had no significant effect on samples' bending strengths (P > 0.05). When the content of alumina was 10%, fracture toughness of specimens reached (6.13 ± 0.44) MPa×m(1/2) while samples' transmittance declined to 6.21%. SEM results showed that alumina particles had no significant effect on the grain size and distribution of tetragonal zirconia polycrystals. Additions of alumina to yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystals could influence its mechanical property and translucency. Additions of the other phase to zirconia ceramics should meet the clinical demands of strength and esthetics.

  16. Nano-scale topography of bearing surface in advanced alumina/zirconia hip joint before and after severe exposure in water vapor environment.

    PubMed

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Saito, Takuma; Padeletti, Giuseppina; Cossari, Pierluigi; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a surface morphology assessment with nanometer scale resolution on femoral heads made of an advanced zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) composite. Femoral heads were characterized to a degree of statistical accuracy in the as-received state and after exposures up to 100 h in severe vapor-moist environment. Surface screening was made using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Scanning was systematically repeated on portions of surface as large as several tens of micrometers, randomly selected on the head surface, to achieve sufficient statistical reliability without lowering the nanometer-scale spatial resolution of the roughness measurement. No significant difference was found in the recorded values of surface roughness after environmental exposure (at 134 degrees C, under 2 bar), which was always comparable to that of the as-received head. Surface roughness safely lay <10 nm after environmental exposures up to 100 h, which corresponded to an exposure time in vivo of several human lifetimes (i.e., according to an experimentally derived thermal activation energy). In addition, the roughness results were significantly (about one order of magnitude) lower as compared to those recorded on femoral heads made of monolithic zirconia tested under the same conditions. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Wear properties of alumina/zirconia composite ceramics for joint prostheses measured with an end-face apparatus.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yusuke; Nakata, Kenichi; Kim, Yoon-Ho; Sekino, Tohru; Niihara, Koichi; Ikeuchi, Ken

    2004-01-01

    While only alumina is applied to all-ceramic joint prostheses at present, a stronger ceramic is required to prevent fracture and chipping due to impingement and stress concentration. Zirconia could be a potential substitute for alumina because it has high strength and fracture toughness. However, the wear of zirconia/zirconia combination is too high for clinical use. Although some investigations on composite ceramics revealed that mixing of different ceramics was able to improve the mechanical properties of ceramics, there are few reports about wear properties of composite ceramics for joint prosthesis. Since acetabular cup and femoral head of artificial hip joint are finished precisely, they indicate high geometric conformity. Therefore, wear test under flat contact was carried out with an end-face wear testing apparatus for four kinds of ceramics: alumina monolith, zirconia monolith, alumina-based composite ceramic, and zirconia based composite ceramic. Mean contact pressure was 10 MPa and sliding velocity was 40 mm/s. The wear test continued for 72 hours and total sliding distance was 10 km. After the test, the wear factor was calculated. Worn surfaces were observed with a scanning electron micrograph (SEM). The results of this wear test show that the wear factors of the both composite ceramics are similarly low and their mechanical properties are much better than those of the alumina monolith and the zirconia monolith. According to these results, it is predicted that joint prostheses of the composite ceramics are safer against break down and have longer lifetime compared with alumina/alumina joint prostheses.

  18. Optimization of the parameters for obtaining zirconia-alumina coatings, made by flame spraying from results of numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, M.; Vargas, F.; Peña, G.

    2017-12-01

    The K-Sommerfeld values (K) and the melting percentage (% F) obtained by numerical simulation using the Jets et Poudres software were used to find the projection parameters of zirconia-alumina coatings by thermal spraying flame, in order to obtain coatings with good morphological and structural properties to be used as thermal insulation. The experimental results show the relationship between the Sommerfeld parameter and the porosity of the zirconia-alumina coatings. It is found that the lowest porosity is obtained when the K-Sommerfeld value is close to 45 with an oxidant flame, on the contrary, when superoxidant flames are used K values are close 52, which improve wear resistance.

  19. Properties-Adjustable Alumina-Zirconia Nanolaminate Dielectric Fabricated by Spin-Coating.

    PubMed

    Peng, Junbiao; Wei, Jinglin; Zhu, Zhennan; Ning, Honglong; Cai, Wei; Lu, Kuankuan; Yao, Rihui; Tao, Hong; Zheng, Yanqiong; Lu, Xubing

    2017-11-29

    In this paper, an alumina-zirconia (Al₂O₃-ZrO₂) nanolaminate dielectric was fabricated by spin-coating and the performance was investigated. It was found that the properties of the dielectric can be adjusted by changing the content of Al₂O₃/ZrO₂ in nanolaminates: when the content of Al₂O₃ was higher than 50%, the properties of nanolaminates, such as the optical energy gap, dielectric strength (V ds ), capacitance density, and relative permittivity were relatively stable, while the change of these properties became larger when the content of Al₂O₃ was less than 50%. With the content of ZrO₂ varying from 50% to 100%, the variation of these properties was up to 0.482 eV, 2.12 MV/cm, 135.35 nF/cm², and 11.64, respectively. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the dielectric strength of nanolaminates were influenced significantly by the number (n) of bilayers. Every increment of one Al₂O₃-ZrO 2 bilayer will enhance the dielectric strength by around 0.39 MV/cm (V ds ≈ 0.86 + 0.39n). This could be contributed to the amorphous alumina which interrupted the grain boundaries of zirconia.

  20. The effect of nano-structured alumina coating on resin-bond strength to zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Jevnikar, Peter; Krnel, Kristoffer; Kocjan, Andraz; Funduk, Nenad; Kosmac, Tomaz

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to functionalize the surface of yttria partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia ceramics (Y-TZP) with a nano-structured alumina coating to improve resin bonding. A total of 120 densely sintered disc-shaped specimens (15.5+/-0.03 mm in diameter and 2.6+/-0.03 mm thick) were produced from biomedical-grade TZ-3YB-E zirconia powder (Tosoh, Tokyo, Japan), randomly divided into three groups of 40 and subjected to the following surface treatments: AS - as-sintered; APA - airborne-particle abraded; POL - polished. Half of the discs in each group received an alumina coating that was fabricated by exploiting the hydrolysis of aluminium nitride (AlN) powder (groups AS-C, APA-C, POL-C). The coating was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The shear-bond strength of the self-etching composite resin (RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE, USA) was then studied for the coated and uncoated surfaces of the as-sintered, polished and airborne-particle abraded specimens before and after thermocycling (TC). The SEM/TEM analyses revealed that the application of an alumina coating to Y-TZP ceramics created a highly retentive surface for resin penetration. The coating showed good surface coverage and a uniform thickness of 240 nm. The resin-bond strength to the groups AS-C, APA-C, POL-C was significantly higher than to the groups AS, APA and POL, both before and after TC (p< or =0.05). During TC all the specimens in the POL and AS groups debonded spontaneously. In contrast, the TC did not affect the bond strength of the AS-C, POL-C and APA-C groups. A non-invasive method has been developed that significantly improves resin-bond strength to Y-TZP ceramics. After surface functionalization the bond survives thermocycling without reduction in strength. The method is relatively simple and has the potential to become an effective conditioning method for zirconia ceramics. Copyright 2010

  1. Effective Parameters in Axial Injection Suspension Plasma Spray Process of Alumina-Zirconia Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasi, F.; Medraj, M.; Dolatabadi, A.; Oberste-Berghaus, J.; Moreau, C.

    2008-12-01

    Suspension plasma spray (SPS) is a novel process for producing nano-structured coatings with metastable phases using significantly smaller particles as compared to conventional thermal spraying. Considering the complexity of the system there is an extensive need to better understand the relationship between plasma spray conditions and resulting coating microstructure and defects. In this study, an alumina/8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia was deposited by axial injection SPS process. The effects of principal deposition parameters on the microstructural features are evaluated using the Taguchi design of experiment. The microstructural features include microcracks, porosities, and deposition rate. To better understand the role of the spray parameters, in-flight particle characteristics, i.e., temperature and velocity were also measured. The role of the porosity in this multicomponent structure is studied as well. The results indicate that thermal diffusivity of the coatings, an important property for potential thermal barrier applications, is barely affected by the changes in porosity content.

  2. [Microwave sintering of nanometer powder of alumina and zirconia-based dental ceramics].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Fan; Lu, Dong-Mei; Wan, Qian-Bing; Jin, Yong; Zhu, Ju-Mu

    2006-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility and reliability of sintering alumina and zirconia-based all-ceramic materials through a recently introduced microwave heating technique. The variation of crystal phases, the growth of grain sizes and microstructural features of these materials were evaluated after sintering. Four different groups of powder (l00%Al2O3, 60%Al2O3+40%ZrO2, 40% Al2O3+60%ZrO2, 100% ZrO2) were respectively press-compacted to fabricate green disk samples, 5 specimen of each group were prepared. All the samples were surrounded by refractory materials for heat containment and processed at 1 600 degrees C in a domestic microwave oven (850 W, 2 450 MHz), 1 600 degrees C/5 min for heating rate, 10 min for holding time. After sintering, the phase composition and average grain size of these ceramics were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their microstructure characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the specimens were successfully sintered with the application of microwave heating system in combination with a suitable thermal insulator. No phase change was found in alumina while monoclinic-zirconia was found to be transformed to tetragonal-zirconia. A little grain size growth of Al2O3 and ZrO2 has been observed with Al2O3 24.1 nm/before and 51.8 nm/after; ZrO2 25.3 nm/before and 29.7 nm/after. The SEM photos indicated that the microwave-sintered Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramics had a uniform crystal distribution and their crystal sizes could be maintained within the range of nanometers. It is expected that in the near future microwave heating system could be a promising substitute for conventional processing methods due to its unparalled advantages, including more rapid heating rate, shortened sintering time, superfine grain size, improved microstructure and much less expensive equipment.

  3. Effect of composition and calcination temperature of ceria-zirconia-alumina mixed oxides on catalytic performances of ethanol conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuklina, S. G.; Maslenkova, S. A.; Pylinina, A. I.; Podzorova, L. I.; Ilyicheva, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of preparation method, phase composition and calcination temperature of the (Ce-TZP) - Al2O3 mixed oxides on their structural features and catalytic performance in ethanol conversion. Ceria-zirconia-alumina mixed oxides with different (Ce+Zr)/Al atomic ratios were prepared via sol-gel method. Catalytic activity and selectivity were investigated for ethanol conversion to acetaldehyde, ethylene and diethyl ether.

  4. Effect of Zirconia and Alumina Fillers on the Microstructure and Mechanical Strength of Dental Glass Ionomer Cements

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Júlio C. M.; Silva, Joel B.; Aladim, Andrea; Carvalho, Oscar; Nascimento, Rubens M.; Silva, Filipe S.; Martinelli, Antonio E.; Henriques, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glass-ionomer cements perform a protective effect on the dentin-pulp complex considering the F ions release and chemical bonding to the dental structures. On the other hand, those materials have poor physic-mechanical properties in comparison with the restorative resin composite. The main aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of zirconia and/or alumina fillers on the microstructure and strength of a resin modified glass-ionomer cement after thermal cycling. Methods: An in vitro experimental study was carried out on 9 groups (n = 10) of cylindrical samples (6 x 4 mm) made from resin modified glass-ionomer (Vitremer, 3M, USA) with different contents of alumina and/or zirconia fillers. A nano-hybrid resin composite was tested as a control group. Samples were mechanically characterized by axial compressive tests and electron scanning microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry (EDS), before and after thermal cycling. Thermal cycling procedures were performed at 3000, 6000 and 10000 cycles in Fusayama´s artificial saliva at 5 and 60 oC. Results: An improvement of compressive strength was noticed on glass-ionomer reinforced with alumina fillers in comparison with the commercial glass ionomer. SEM images revealed the morphology and distribution of alumina or zirconia in the microstructure of glass-ionomers. Also, defects such as cracks and pores were detected on the glass-ionomer cements. The materials tested were not affected by thermal cycling in artificial saliva. Conclusion: Addition of inorganic particles at nano-scale such as alumina can increase the mechanical properties of glass-ionomer cements. However, the presence of cracks and pores present in glass-ionomer can negatively affect the mechanical properties of the material because they are areas of stress concentration. PMID:27053969

  5. Phase Stabilization of Zirconia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-30

    preparing stabilized zirconia pursuant to this disclosure, an insoluble alumina powder is mixed with zirconia powder using a liquid dispersant, such...in a drying oven or a furnace. When mixing the alumina and zirconia powders , it is not necessary to have zirconia in any particular phase to achieve...phase stabilization, as disclosed herein. When mixed with alumina powder, zirconia powder can be in cubic, tetragonal or 20 monoclinic phases

  6. Transformation toughened ceramics for the heavy duty diesel engine technology program, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musikant, S.; Samanta, S. C.; Architetto, P.; Feingold, E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an insulating structural ceramic for application in a heavy duty adiabatic diesel engine. The approach is to employ transformation toughening (TT) by additions of zirconia-hafnia solid solution (ZHSS). The feasibility of using ZHSS as a toughening agent in mullite and alumina has been demonstrated in Phase 1 of this work. Based on Phase 1 results, a decision was made to concentrate the Phase 2 effort on process optimization of the TT mullite. A strong factor in that decision was the low thermal conductivity and high thermal shock resistance of the mullite. Results of the Phase 2 effort indicate that optimum toughening of mullite by additions of ZHSS is difficult to achieve due to apparent sensitivity to morphology. The 48 ksi room temperature modulus-of-rupture (MOR) achieved in selected specimens is approximately 50% of the original strength target. The MOR deteriorated to 34 ksi at 800 C.

  7. Synthesis and surface characterization of alumina-silica-zirconia nanocomposite ceramic fibres on aluminium at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak Ali, M.; Raj, V.

    2010-04-01

    Alumina-silica-zirconia nanocomposite (ASZNC) ceramic fibres were synthesized by conventional anodization route. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDAX) were used to characterize the morphology and crystalloid structure of ASZNC fibres. Current density (DC) is one of the important parameters to get the alumina-silica-zirconia nanocomposite (ASZNC) ceramic fibres by this route. Annealing of the films exhibited a drastic change in the properties due to improved crystallinity. The root mean square roughness of the sample observed from atomic force microscopic analysis is about 71.5 nm which is comparable to the average grain size of the coatings which is about 72 nm obtained from X-Ray diffraction. The results indicate that, the ASZNC fibres are arranged well in the nanostructure. The thickness of the coating increased with the anodizing time, but the coatings turned rougher and more porous. At the initial stage the growth of ceramic coating increases inwards to the metal substrate and outwards to the coating surface simultaneously. Subsequently, it mainly grows towards the metal substrate and the density of the ceramic coating increases gradually, which results in the decrease of the total thickness as anodizing time increases. This new approach of preparing ASZNC ceramic fibres may be important in applications ranging from gas sensors to various engineering materials.

  8. An In Vitro Evaluation of Alumina, Zirconia, and Lithium Disilicate Surface Roughness Caused by Two Scaling Instruments.

    PubMed

    Vigolo, Paolo; Buzzo, Ottavia; Buzzo, Maurizio; Mutinelli, Sabrina

    2017-02-01

    Plaque control is crucial for the prevention of inflammatory periodontal disease. Hand scaling instruments have been shown to be efficient for the removal of plaque; however, routine periodontal prophylactic procedures may modify the surface profile of restorative materials. The purpose of this study was to assess in vitro the changes in roughness of alumina, zirconia, and lithium disilicate surfaces treated by two hand scaling instruments. Forty-eight alumina specimens, 48 zirconia specimens, and 48 lithium disilicate specimens, were selected. All specimens were divided into three groups of 16 each; one group for each material was considered the control group and no scaling procedures were performed; the second group of each material was exposed to scaling with steel curettes simulating standard clinical conditions; the third group of each material was exposed to scaling with titanium curettes. After scaling, the surface roughness of the specimens was evaluated with a profilometer. First, a statistical test was carried out to evaluate the difference in surface roughness before the scaling procedure of the three materials was effected (Kruskal-Wallis test). Subsequently, the effect of curette material (steel and titanium) on roughness difference and roughness ratio was analyzed throughout the entire sample and within each material group, and a nonparametric test for dependent values was conducted (Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Finally, the roughness ratios of the three material groups were compared by means of a Kruskal-Wallis test and a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Upon completion of profilometric evaluation, representative specimens from each group were prepared for SEM evaluation to evaluate the effects of the two scaling systems on the different surfaces qualitatively. After scaling procedure, the roughness profile value increased in all disks. Classifying the full sample according to curette used, the roughness of the disks treated with a steel curette reached a

  9. [Study of relationship between powder-size gradation and mechanical properties of Zirconia toughened glass infiltrated nanometer-ceramic composite powder].

    PubMed

    Chai, Feng; Xu, Ling; Liao, Yun-mao; Chao, Yong-lie

    2003-07-01

    The fabrication of all-ceramic dental restorations is challenged by ceramics' relatively low flexural strength and intrinsic poor resistance to fracture. This paper aimed at investigating the relationships between powder-size gradation and mechanical properties of Zirconia toughened glass infiltrated nanometer-ceramic composite (Al(2)O(3)-nZrO(2)). Al(2)O(3)-nZrO(2) ceramics powder (W) was processed by combination methods of chemical co-precipitation and ball milling with addition of different powder-sized ZrO(2). Field-emission scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the particle size distribution and characterize the particle morphology of powders. The matrix compacts were made by slip-casting technique and sintered to 1,450 degrees C and flexural strength and the fracture toughness of them were measured. 1. The particle distribution of Al(2)O(3)-nZrO(2) ceramics powder ranges from 0.02 - 3.5 micro m and among them the superfine particles almost accounted for 20%. 2. The ceramic matrix samples with addition of nZrO(2) (W) showed much higher flexural strength (115.434 +/- 5.319) MPa and fracture toughness (2.04 +/- 0.10) MPa m(1/2) than those of pure Al(2)O(3) ceramics (62.763 +/- 7.220 MPa; 1.16 +/- 0.02 MPa m(1/2)). The particle size of additive ZrO(2) may impose influences on mechanical properties of Al(2)O(3)-nZrO(2) ceramics matrix. Good homogeneity and reasonable powder-size gradation of ceramic powder can improve the mechanical properties of material.

  10. Three- to nine-year survival estimates and fracture mechanisms of zirconia- and alumina-based restorations using standardized criteria to distinguish the severity of ceramic fractures.

    PubMed

    Moráguez, Osvaldo D; Wiskott, H W Anselm; Scherrer, Susanne S

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study were set as follows: 1. To provide verifiable criteria to categorize the ceramic fractures into non-critical (i.e., amenable to polishing) or critical (i.e., in need of replacement) 2. To establish the corresponding survival rates for alumina and zirconia restorations 3. To establish the mechanism of fracture using fractography Fifty-eight patients restored with 115 alumina-/zirconia-based crowns and 26 zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) were included. Ceramic fractures were classified into four types and further subclassified into "critical" or "non-critical." Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated for "critical fractures only" and "all fractures." Intra-oral replicas were taken for fractographic analyses. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for "critical fractures only" and "all fractures" were respectively: Alumina single crowns: 90.9 and 68.3 % after 9.5 years (mean 5.71 ± 2.6 years). Zirconia single crowns: 89.4 and 80.9 % after 6.3 years (mean 3.88 ± 1.2 years). Zirconia FDPs: 68.6 % (critical fractures) and 24.6 % (all fractures) after 7.2 and 4.6 years respectively (FDP mean observation time 3.02 ± 1.4 years). No core/framework fractures were detected. Survival estimates varied significantly depending on whether "all" fractures were considered as failures or only those deemed as "critical". For all restorations, fractographic analyses of failed veneering ceramics systematically demonstrated heavy occlusal wear at the failure origin. Therefore, the relief of local contact pressures on unsupported ceramic is recommended. Occlusal contacts on mesial or distal ridges should systematically be eliminated. A classification standard for ceramic fractures into four categories with subtypes "critical" and "non-critical" provides a differentiated view of the survival of ceramic restorations.

  11. Characterization and surface treatment effects on topography of a glass-infiltrated alumina/zirconia-reinforced ceramic.

    PubMed

    Della Bona, Alvaro; Donassollo, Tiago A; Demarco, Flávio F; Barrett, Allyson A; Mecholsky, John J

    2007-06-01

    Characterize the microstructure, composition and some physical properties of a glass-infiltrated alumina/zirconia-reinforced ceramic (IZ) and the effect of surface treatment on topography. IZ ceramic specimens were fabricated according to ISO6872 instructions and polished through 1 microm alumina abrasive. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered imaging (BSI), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and stereology. The elastic modulus (E) and Poisson's ratio (nu) were determined using ultrasonic waves, and the density (rho) using a helium pycnometer. The following ceramic surface treatments were used: AP-as-polished; HF-etching with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid for 90 s; SB-sandblasting with 25 microm aluminum oxide particles for 15s and SC-blasting with 30 microm aluminum oxide particles modified by silica (silica coating) for 15s. An optical profilometer was used to examine the surface roughness (Ra) and SEM-EDS were used to measure the amount of silica after all treatments. The IZ mean property values were as follows: rho=4.45+/-0.01 g/cm(3); nu=0.26 and E=245 GPa. Mean Ra values were similar for AP- and HF-treated IZ but significantly increased after either SC or SB treatment (p

  12. Projection parameters for zirconia-alumina-ceria coatings made by flame spraying from results of numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, L.; Ferrer, M.; Vargas, F.; Peña, G.

    2017-12-01

    A numerical simulation was performed with the software Jets et Poudres, the results let choose the parameters to deposit zirconia-alumina-ceria coatings of different composition on substrates of red clay, by thermal spraying with the oxyacetylene flame to obtain homogeneous coatings with good adhesion to the substrate. The effect of the projection distance (7, 10 and 12cm) between the substrate and the torch, the fusion percentage of particles and the K-Sommerfeld number was determined. This number is dimensionless and is affected by the projection distance and by the chemical composition of the particles. For a projection distance of 9cm, the fusion percentage of the particles varies between 83.8% and 100%, and the K-Sommerfeld number between 47.3 and 50 for the different compounds. This makes possible to obtain uniform coatings with good wettability, therefore, good adhesion to the substrate, while for the distance of 7cm the fusion percentage varies between 22% and 38%, due to the short time of the particles in the flame which causes low adhesion, when the projection distance is 12cm the particles do not have sufficient kinetic energy to reach the substrate and therefore the coating is not deposited.

  13. Effects of grain size and humidity on fretting wear in fine-grained alumina, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiC, and zirconia

    SciT

    Krell, A.; Klaffke, D.

    Friction and wear of sintered alumina with grain sizes between 0.4 and 3 {micro}m were measured in comparison with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiC composites and with tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} (3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The dependence on the grain boundary toughness and residual microstresses is investigated, and a hierarchical order of influencing parameters is observed. In air, reduced alumina grain sizes improve the micromechanical stability of the grain boundaries and the hardness, and reduced wear is governed by microplastic deformation, with few pullout events. Humidity and water slightly reduce the friction of all of the investigated ceramics. In water, this effectmore » reduces the wear of coarser alumina microstructures. The wear of aluminas and of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiC composite is similar; it is lower than observed in zirconia, where extended surface cracking occurs at grain sizes as small as 0.3 {micro}m.« less

  14. Investigation of Mixed-Type Craters and the Role of Bifluoride Additives to Produce Zirconia-Toughened Alumina-Based PEO Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ur Rehman, Zeeshan; Shin, Seong Hun; Ahmad, Tanveer; Koo, Bon Heun

    2018-05-01

    Al2O3-ZrO2 composite ceramic coatings were prepared on Al6061 aluminum alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation in Na3PO4-K2ZrF6-Na2SiF6-based alkaline electrolyte. Optimum processing time for the coating formation was found to be 50 min. Cross section and surface morphology of the coatings were analyzed using scanning electron microscope. From the phase and elemental composition analysis, the presence of m-ZrO2 and t-ZrO2 phases was confirmed. It was further observed that the peak intensities of t-ZrO2 and α-Al2O3 phases increased with processing time, which was attributed to the enhanced crystallinity caused by the efficient sintering conditions. Corrosion properties were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization test in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The results showed high improvement in corrosion rate with minimum recorded value 0.25 mmy (mm/year) and corrosion current 0.15 × 10-6 A/cm2.

  15. New mechanism for toughening ceramic materials. Final report, 15 March 1989-15 July 1993

    SciT

    Cutler, R.A.; Virkar, A.V.; Cross, L.E.

    Ferroelastic toughening was identified as a viable mechanism for toughening ceramics. Domain structure and domain switching was identified by x-ray diffraction, transmission optical microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy in zirconia, lead zirconate titanate and gadolinium molybdata. Switching in compression was observed at stresses greater than 600 MPa and at 400 MPa in tension for polycrystalline t'-zirconia. Domain switching contributes to toughness, as evidenced by data for monoclinic zirconia, t'-zirconia, PZT and GMO. The magnitude of toughening varied between 0.6 MPa.ml/2 for GMO to 2-6 MPa-ml/2 for zirconia. Polycrystalline monoclinic and t'-zirconias, which showed no transformation toughening, had similar toughness valuesmore » as Y-TZP which exhibits transformation. Coarse-grained monoclinic and tetragonal (t') zirconia samples could be cooled to room temperature for mechanical property evaluation since fine domain size, not grain size, controlled transformation for t'-zirconia and minimized stress for m-ZrO2. LnAlO3, LnNbO4, and LnCrO3 were among the materials identified as high temperature ferroelastics.« less

  16. New Mechanism for Toughening Ceramic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    Ferroelastic toughening, twinning, domain switching 1 17. 340.TY Q .Al MD0 .I SOWL&Nrv CLO.ASS1RC M SIS . W CASSWCAMlS 9: j"hTAfCm Of AMTLACT OF AD...crystal (Cubefaces orthogonal to (IM()) on the basis of the pseudocubic si mmetry X-ray diffraction traces using CuKa radiation were obtained show ing...Metastable Te- observed on ground or fracture surfaces of single crystals an- tragonal Zirconia Crystals." J. MAter Si . 18. 2619-28 (1983) ’T. C. Yuan

  17. Influence of CAD/CAM systems and cement selection on marginal discrepancy of zirconia-based ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rus, Francisco; Suárez, María J; Rivera, Begoña; Pradíes, Guillermo

    2012-04-01

    To analyze the effect of ceramic manufacturing technique and luting cement selection on the marginal adaptation of zirconium oxide-based all-ceramic crowns. An extracted mandibular first premolar was prepared for a complete coverage restoration and subsequently duplicated 40 times in a liquid crystal polymer (LCP). All-ceramic crowns (n = 10) were fabricated on LCP models using the following systems: glass-infiltrated zirconia-toughened alumina (In-Ceram Zirconia) and yttrium cation-doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (In-Ceram YZ, Cercon, and Procera Zirconia). The restorations (n = 5) were cemented on their respective dies with glass-ionomer cement (Ketac Cem Aplicap) and resin cement (Panavia 21). The absolute marginal discrepancy of the crowns was measured before and after cementation by scanning electronic microscopy at 160 points along the circumferential margin. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA for repeated measures and for independent samples, Scheffé's multiple range post hoc test, and Student's t-test (alpha = 0.05). There were statistical differences in the mean marginal openings among the four all-ceramic systems before and after luting (P < 0.0001). The Procera restorations had the lowest pre- and post-cementation values (P < 0.0001). A significant increase in the marginal gap size caused by luting media occurred in all tested groups (P < 0.0001). Resin cement resulted in larger marginal discrepancies than glass-ionomer cement (P < 0.0001).

  18. Overview of zirconia with respect to gas turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Phase relationships and the mechanical properties of zirconia are examined as well as the thermal conductivity, deformation, diffusion, and chemical reactivity of this refractory material. Observations from the literature particular to plasma-sprayed material and implications for gas turbine engine applications are discussed. The literature review indicates that Mg-PSZ (partially stabilized zirconia) and Ca-PSZ are unsuitable for advanced gas turbine applications; a thorough characterization of the microstructure of plasma-sprayed zirconia is needed. Transformation-toughened zirconia may be suitable for use in monolithic components.

  19. Nanotubular Toughening Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Working, Dennis C. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Conventional toughening agents are typically rubbery materials or small molecular weight molecules, which mostly sacrifice the intrinsic properties of a matrix such as modulus, strength, and thermal stability as side effects. On the other hand, high modulus inclusions tend to reinforce elastic modulus very efficiently, but not the strength very well. For example, mechanical reinforcement with inorganic inclusions often degrades the composite toughness, encountering a frequent catastrophic brittle failure triggered by minute chips and cracks. Thus, toughening generally conflicts with mechanical reinforcement. Carbon nanotubes have been used as efficient reinforcing agents in various applications due to their combination of extraordinary mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Moreover, nanotubes can elongate more than 20% without yielding or breaking, and absorb significant amounts of energy during deformation, which enables them to also be an efficient toughening agent, as well as excellent reinforcing inclusion. Accordingly, an improved toughening method is provided by incorporating nanotubular inclusions into a host matrix, such as thermoset and thermoplastic polymers or ceramics without detrimental effects on the intrinsic physical properties of the matrix.

  20. Nanotubular Toughening Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Working, Dennis C. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Conventional toughening agents are typically rubbery materials or small molecular weight molecules, which mostly sacrifice the intrinsic properties of a matrix such as modulus, strength, and thermal stability as side effects. On the other hand, high modulus inclusions tend to reinforce elastic modulus very efficiently, but not the strength very well. For example, mechanical reinforcement with inorganic inclusions often degrades the composite toughness, encountering a frequent catastrophic brittle failure triggered by minute chips and cracks. Thus, toughening generally conflicts with mechanical reinforcement. Carbon nanotubes have been used as efficient reinforcing agents in various applications due to their combination of extraordinary mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Moreover, nanotubes can elongate more than 20% without yielding or breaking, and absorb significant amounts of energy during deformation, which enables them to also be an efficient toughening agent, as well as excellent reinforcing inclusion. Accordingly, an improved toughening method is provided by incorporating nanotubular inclusions into a host matrix, such as thermoset and thermoplastic polymers or ceramics without detrimental effects on the matrix's intrinsic physical properties.

  1. Effects of cementation surface modifications on fracture resistance of zirconia.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Ramanathan; Kosmac, Tomaz; Della Bona, Alvaro; Yin, Ling; Zhang, Yu

    2015-04-01

    To examine the effects of glass infiltration (GI) and alumina coating (AC) on the indentation flexural load and four-point bending strength of monolithic zirconia. Plate-shaped (12 mm × 12 mm × 1.0 mm or 1.5 or 2.0 mm) and bar-shaped (4 mm × 3 mm × 25 mm) monolithic zirconia specimens were fabricated. In addition to monolithic zirconia (group Z), zirconia monoliths were glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their tensile surfaces to form groups ZGI and ZAC, respectively. They were also glass-infiltrated on their upper surfaces, and glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their lower (tensile) surfaces to make groups ZGI2 and ZAC2, respectively. For comparison, porcelain-veneered zirconia (group PVZ) and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (group LiDi) specimens were also fabricated. The plate-shaped specimens were cemented onto a restorative composite base for Hertzian indentation using a tungsten carbide spherical indenter with a radius of 3.2mm. Critical loads for indentation flexural fracture at the zirconia cementation surface were measured. Strengths of bar-shaped specimens were evaluated in four-point bending. Glass infiltration on zirconia tensile surfaces increased indentation flexural loads by 32% in Hertzian contact and flexural strength by 24% in four-point bending. Alumina coating showed no significant effect on resistance to flexural damage of zirconia. Monolithic zirconia outperformed porcelain-veneered zirconia and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramics in terms of both indentation flexural load and flexural strength. While both alumina coating and glass infiltration can be used to effectively modify the cementation surface of zirconia, glass infiltration can further increase the flexural fracture resistance of zirconia. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of cementation surface modifications on fracture resistance of zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, Ramanathan; Kosmac, Tomaz; Bona, Alvaro Della; Yin, Ling; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effects of glass infiltration (GI) and alumina coating (AC) on the indentation flexural load and four-point bending strength of monolithic zirconia. Methods Plate-shaped (12 mm × 12 mm × 1.0 mm or 1.5 mm or 2.0 mm) and bar-shaped (4 mm × 3 mm × 25 mm) monolithic zirconia specimens were fabricated. In addition to monolithic zirconia (group Z), zirconia monoliths were glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their tensile surfaces to form groups ZGI and ZAC, respectively. They were also glass-infiltrated on their upper surfaces, and glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their lower (tensile) surfaces to make groups ZGI2 and ZAC2, respectively. For comparison, porcelain-veneered zirconia (group PVZ) and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (group LiDi) specimens were also fabricated. The plate-shaped specimens were cemented onto a restorative composite base for Hertzian indentation using a tungsten carbide spherical indenter with a radius of 3.2 mm. Critical loads for indentation flexural fracture at the zirconia cementation surface were measured. Strengths of bar-shaped specimens were evaluated in four-point bending. Results Glass infiltration on zirconia tensile surfaces increased indentation flexural loads by 32% in Hertzian contact and flexural strength by 24% in four-point bending. Alumina coating showed no significant effect on resistance to flexural damage of zirconia. Monolithic zirconia outperformed porcelain-veneered zirconia and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramics in terms of both indentation flexural load and flexural strength. Significance While both alumina coating and glass infiltration can be used to effectively modify the cementation surface of zirconia, glass infiltration can further increase the flexural fracture resistance of zirconia. PMID:25687628

  3. Elastomer toughened polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A rubber-toughened addition-type polyimide composition is disclosed which has excellent high temperature bonding characteristics in the fully cured state, and improved peel strength and adhesive fracture resistance physical property characteristics. The process for making the improved adhesive involves preparing the rubber containing amic acid prepolymer by chemically reacting an amine-terminated elastomer and an aromatic diamine with an aromatic dianhydride with which a reactive chain stopper anhydride was mixed, and utilizing solvent or mixture of solvents for the reaction.

  4. Residual stress profiles in veneering ceramic on Y-TZP, alumina and ZTA frameworks: measurement by hole-drilling.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, K A; Sadoun, M J; Cesar, P F; Mainjot, A K

    2014-02-01

    The residual stress profile developed within the veneering ceramic during the manufacturing process is an important predicting factor in chipping failures, which constitute a well-known problem with yttria-tetragonal-zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) based restorations. The objectives of this study are to measure and to compare the residual stress profile in the veneering ceramic layered on three different polycrystalline ceramic framework materials: Y-TZP, alumina polycrystal (AL) and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA). The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disk samples of 19 mm diameter with a 0.7 mm thick Y-TZP, AL or ZTA framework and a 1.5mm thick layer of the corresponding veneering ceramic. The AL samples exhibited increasing compressive stresses with depth, while compressive stresses switching into interior tensile stresses were measured in Y-TZP samples. ZTA samples exhibited compressive stress at the ceramic surface, decreasing with depth up to 0.6mm from the surface, and then becoming compressive again near the framework. Y-TZP samples exhibited a less favorable stress profile than those of AL and ZTA samples. Results support the hypothesis of the occurrence of structural changes within the Y-TZP surface in contact with the veneering ceramic to explain the presence of tensile stresses. Even if the presence of Y-TZP in the alumina matrix seems to negatively affect the residual stress profiles in ZTA samples in comparison with AL samples, the registered profiles remain positive in terms of veneer fracture resistance. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An analytical approach for the calculation of stress-intensity factors in transformation-toughened ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, W. H.

    1990-12-01

    Stress-induced transformation toughening in Zirconia-containing ceramics is described analytically by means of a quantitative model: A Griffith crack which interacts with a transformed, circular Zirconia inclusion. Due to its volume expansion, a ZrO2-particle compresses its flanks, whereas a particle in front of the crack opens the flanks such that the crack will be attracted and finally absorbed. Erdogan's integral equation technique is applied to calculate the dislocation functions and the stress-intensity-factors which correspond to these situations. In order to derive analytical expressions, the elastic constants of the inclusion and the matrix are assumed to be equal.

  6. Structural and Chemical Analysis of the Zirconia-Veneering Ceramic Interface.

    PubMed

    Inokoshi, M; Yoshihara, K; Nagaoka, N; Nakanishi, M; De Munck, J; Minakuchi, S; Vanmeensel, K; Zhang, F; Yoshida, Y; Vleugels, J; Naert, I; Van Meerbeek, B

    2016-01-01

    The interfacial interaction of veneering ceramic with zirconia is still not fully understood. This study aimed to characterize morphologically and chemically the zirconia-veneering ceramic interface. Three zirconia-veneering conditions were investigated: 1) zirconia-veneering ceramic fired on sandblasted zirconia, 2) zirconia-veneering ceramic on as-sintered zirconia, and 3) alumina-veneering ceramic (lower coefficient of thermal expansion [CTE]) on as-sintered zirconia. Polished cross-sectioned ceramic-veneered zirconia specimens were examined using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (Feg-SEM). In addition, argon-ion thinned zirconia-veneering ceramic interface cross sections were examined using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) at high resolution. Finally, the zirconia-veneering ceramic interface was quantitatively analyzed for tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation and residual stress using micro-Raman spectroscopy (µRaman). Feg-SEM revealed tight interfaces for all 3 veneering conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) disclosed an approximately 1.0-µm transformed zone at sandblasted zirconia, in which distinct zirconia grains were no longer observable. Straight grain boundaries and angular grain corners were detected up to the interface of zirconia- and alumina-veneering ceramic with as-sintered zirconia. EDS mapping disclosed within the zirconia-veneering ceramic a few nanometers thick calcium/aluminum-rich layer, touching the as-sintered zirconia base, with an equally thick silicon-rich/aluminum-poor layer on top. µRaman revealed t-ZrO2-to-m-ZrO2 phase transformation and residual compressive stress at the sandblasted zirconia surface. The difference in CTE between zirconia- and the alumina-veneering ceramic resulted in residual tensile stress within the zirconia immediately adjacent to its interface with the veneering ceramic. The rather minor chemical

  7. Effect of Time and Temperature on Transformation Toughened Zirconias.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    room temperature. High temperature mechanical tests performed vere stress rupture and stepped temperature stress rupture. The results of the tests...tetragonal precipitates will spontaneously transform to the monoclinic phae due to the lattice mismatch stress if they become larger than about 0.2 on, with...specimens, including fast fracture and fracture toughness testing. High temper- ture testing consisting of stress rupture and stepped temperature stress

  8. A Novel Approach to Developing Biomimetic ("Nacre-Like") Metal-Compliant-Phase (Nickel-Alumina) Ceramics through Coextrusion.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Ryan P; Gludovatz, Bernd; Watts, Jeremy; Tomsia, Antoni P; Hilmas, Gregory E; Ritchie, Robert O

    2016-12-01

    Bioinspired "brick-and-mortar" alumina ceramics containing a nickel compliant phase are synthesized by coextrusion of alumina and nickel oxide. Results show that these structures are coarser yet exhibit exceptional resistance-curve behavior with a fracture toughness three or more times higher than that of alumina, consistent with significant extrinsic toughening, from crack bridging and "brick" pull-out, in the image of natural nacre. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Nanosilica coating for bonding improvements to zirconia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Chen, Gang; Xie, Haifeng; Dai, Wenyong; Zhang, Feimin

    2013-01-01

    Resin bonding to zirconia cannot be established from standard methods that are currently utilized in conventional silica-based dental ceramics. The solution-gelatin (sol-gel) process is a well developed silica-coating technique used to modify the surface of nonsilica-based ceramics. Here, we use this technique to improve resin bonding to zirconia, which we compared to zirconia surfaces treated with alumina sandblasting and tribochemical silica coating. We used the shear bond strength test to examine the effect of the various coatings on the short-term resin bonding of zirconia. Furthermore, we employed field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to characterize the zirconia surfaces. Water-mist spraying was used to evaluate the durability of the coatings. To evaluate the biological safety of the experimental sol-gel silica coating, we conducted an in vitro Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames mutagenicity test), cytotoxicity tests, and in vivo oral mucous membrane irritation tests. When compared to the conventional tribochemical silica coating, the experimental sol-gel silica coating provided the same shear bond strength, higher silicon contents, and better durability. Moreover, we observed no apparent mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, or irritation in this study. Therefore, the sol-gel technique represents a promising method for producing silica coatings on zirconia.

  10. Nanosilica coating for bonding improvements to zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Chen, Gang; Xie, Haifeng; Dai, Wenyong; Zhang, Feimin

    2013-01-01

    Resin bonding to zirconia cannot be established from standard methods that are currently utilized in conventional silica-based dental ceramics. The solution–gelatin (sol–gel) process is a well developed silica-coating technique used to modify the surface of nonsilica-based ceramics. Here, we use this technique to improve resin bonding to zirconia, which we compared to zirconia surfaces treated with alumina sandblasting and tribochemical silica coating. We used the shear bond strength test to examine the effect of the various coatings on the short-term resin bonding of zirconia. Furthermore, we employed field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to characterize the zirconia surfaces. Water–mist spraying was used to evaluate the durability of the coatings. To evaluate the biological safety of the experimental sol–gel silica coating, we conducted an in vitro Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames mutagenicity test), cytotoxicity tests, and in vivo oral mucous membrane irritation tests. When compared to the conventional tribochemical silica coating, the experimental sol–gel silica coating provided the same shear bond strength, higher silicon contents, and better durability. Moreover, we observed no apparent mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, or irritation in this study. Therefore, the sol–gel technique represents a promising method for producing silica coatings on zirconia. PMID:24179333

  11. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous zirconia and aluminated mesoporous zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Elizabeth Sun

    Synthesis of mesoporous zirconia has been performed by slowly hydrolyzing zirconium propoxide in the presence of anionic surfactants: namely, dodecyl phosphate or sulfate (P12 and Sf12) and hexadecyl sulfonate (So16) The zirconia. outgassed at 140--150°C has T-plot surface areas higher than 400 M2/g. This outgassing does not remove the surfactant. After calcination in air at 500°C and combustion of the surfactant, the mesoporous volume is reduced by a factor of about 2, whereas the pore wall material crystallizes in the tetragonal phase. The high-resolution electron microscopic study reveals the presence of a disorganized network of polygonal pores structure. It is suggested that the chemistry of the hydrolysis solution is instrumental in determining the pore structure. A schematic model in which the surfactant is a scaffold component is suggested in order to explain these results and the fixation of PO4, or SO4 in the walls may help to preserve the porous structure. It is very different from the templating mechanism. From the density obtained from phase transition temperature, and from the mesoporous volume (N2 adsorption), the thickness of the wall can be calculated as well as the pseudo-length of the pores. From the thickness, the T-plot area can be recalculated and agrees well with the measured T-plot surface area for the sample calcined at 500°C. Around 900°C, the walls become thicker and crystallizes into monoclinic zirconia without pore structure. In order to try to modify, the acidity of the mesoporous sulfated and oxo-phosphated zirconia, they were doped with aluminum. The sulfated zirconia only has a coating layer of amorphous alumina, while the phosphated zirconia has aluminum in the lattice and the alumina coat. A maximum ratio of Al/Zr ˜ 0.04 can be reached in the lattice. The introduction of aluminum into the lattice prevents the crystallization of the oxo-phosphate at 900°C, and helps to preserve the surface area and porosity of the sulfated

  12. Surface crystalline phases and nanoindentation hardness of explanted zirconia femoral heads.

    PubMed

    Catledge, Shane A; Cook, Monique; Vohra, Yogesh K; Santos, Erick M; McClenny, Michelle D; David Moore, K

    2003-10-01

    One new and nine explanted zirconia femoral heads were studied using glancing angle X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation hardness techniques. All starting zirconia implants consisted only of tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (TZP). For comparison, one explanted alumina femoral head was also studied. Evidence for a surface tetragonal-to-monoclinic zirconia phase transformation was observed in some implants, the extent of which was varied for different in-service conditions. A strong correlation was found between increasing transformation to the monoclinic phase and decreasing surface hardness. Microscopic investigations of some of the explanted femoral heads revealed ultra high molecular weight polyethylene and metallic transfer wear debris.

  13. Toughening Mechanisms in Nanolayered MAX Phase Ceramics—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinhua; Bei, Guoping

    2017-01-01

    Advanced engineering and functional ceramics are sensitive to damage cracks, which delay the wide applications of these materials in various fields. Ceramic composites with enhanced fracture toughness may trigger a paradigm for design and application of the brittle components. This paper reviews the toughening mechanisms for the nanolayered MAX phase ceramics. The main toughening mechanisms for these ternary compounds were controlled by particle toughening, phase-transformation toughening and fiber-reinforced toughening, as well as texture toughening. Based on the various toughening mechanisms in MAX phase, models of SiC particles and fibers toughening Ti3SiC2 are established to predict and explain the toughening mechanisms. The modeling work provides insights and guidance to fabricate MAX phase-related composites with optimized microstructures in order to achieve the desired mechanical properties required for harsh application environments. PMID:28772723

  14. Tailoring the Microstructure of Sol–Gel Derived Hydroxyapatite/Zirconia Nanocrystalline Composites

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tailor the microstructure of hydroxyapatite/zirconia nanocrystalline composites by optimizing processing parameters, namely, introducing an atmosphere of water vapor during sintering in order to control the thermal stability of hydroxyapatite, and a modified sol–gel process that yields to an excellent intergranular distribution of zirconia phase dispersed intergranularly within the hydroxyapatite matrix. In terms of mechanical behavior, SEM images of fissure deflection and the presence of monoclinic ZrO2 content on cracked surface indicate that both toughening mechanisms, stress-induced tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation and deflection, are active for toughness enhancement. PMID:24764458

  15. Bi-layered zirconia/fluor-apatite bridges supported by ceramic dental implants: a prospective case series after thirty months of observation.

    PubMed

    Spies, Benedikt Christopher; Witkowski, Siegbert; Butz, Frank; Vach, Kirstin; Kohal, Ralf-Joachim

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the success and survival rate of all-ceramic bi-layered implant-supported three-unit fixed dental prostheses (IS-FDPs) 3 years after implant placement. Thirteen patients (seven males, six females; age: 41-78 years) received two one-piece ceramic implants (alumina-toughened zirconia) each in the region of the premolars or the first molar and were finally restored with adhesively cemented bi-layered zirconia-based IS-FDPs (3 in the maxilla, 10 in the mandible) composed of CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia frameworks pressed-over with fluor-apatite glass-ceramic ingots. At prosthetic delivery and the follow-ups after 1, 2 and 3 years, the restorations were evaluated using modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Restorations with minor veneer chippings, a small-area occlusal roughness, slightly soundable restoration margins, minimal contour deficiencies and tolerable color deviations were regarded as success. In case of more distinct defects that could, however, be repaired to a clinically acceptable level, IS-FDPs were regarded as surviving. Kaplan-Meier plots were used for the success/survival analyses. To verify an impact on subjective patients' perceptions, satisfaction was evaluated by visual analog scales (VAS). All patients were seen 3 years after implant installation. No IS-FDP had to be replaced, resulting in 100% survival after a mean observation period of 29.5 months (median: 30.7). At the 3-year follow-up, 7/13 IS-FDPs showed a veneer chipping, 13/13 an occlusal roughness and 12/13 minimal deficiencies of contour/color. Since six restorations showed a major chipping and/or a major occlusal roughness, the Kaplan-Meier success rate was 53.8%. However, patients' significantly improved perceptions of function, esthetics, sense, and speech at prosthetic delivery remained stable over time. Bi-layered zirconia/fluor-apatite IS-FDPs entirely survived the observation period but showed a high frequency of

  16. Standard tests for toughened resin composites, revised edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Several toughened resin systems are evaluated to achieve commonality for certain kinds of tests used to characterize toughened resin composites. Specifications for five tests were standardized; these test standards are described.

  17. [Effect of a chemical primer on the bond strength of a zirconia ceramic with self-adhesive resin cement].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Jing, Ye; Nie, Rongrong; Meng, Xiangfeng

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the bond strength and durability of a self-adhesive resin cement with a zirconia ceramic pretreated by a zirconia primer. Zirconia ceramic (Vita Inceram YZ) plates with a thickness of 2.5 mm were fired, polished, and then cleaned. Half of the polished ceramic plates were sandblasted with 50 μm alumina particles at 0.3 MPa for 20 s. The surface compound weight ratios were measured via X-ray fluorescence microscopy. The polished and sandblasted ceramic plates were directly bonded with self-adhesive resin cement (Biscem) or were pretreated by a zirconia primer (Z Primer Plus) before bonding with Biscem. The specimens of each test group were divided into two subgroups (n=10) and subjected to the shear test after 0 and 10,000 thermal cycles. The data were analyzed via three-way ANOVA. After air abrasion, 8.27% weight ratio of alumina attached to the zirconia surface. Compared with air abrasion, primer treatment more significantly improved the primary resin bond strength of the zirconia ceramic. The primary resin bond strength of the zirconia ceramic with no primer treatment was not affected by thermocycling (P>0.05). However, the primary resin bond strength of the zirconia ceramic with primer treatment was significantly decreased by thermocycling (P<0.05). Primer treatment can improve the primary resin bond strengths of zirconia ceramics. However, the bond interface of the primer is not stable and rapidly degraded during thermocycling.

  18. Interlayer toughening of fiber composite flywheel rotors

    DOEpatents

    Groves, Scott E.; Deteresa, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    An interlayer toughening mechanism to mitigate the growth of damage in fiber composite flywheel rotors for long application. The interlayer toughening mechanism may comprise one or more tough layers composed of high-elongation fibers, high-strength fibers arranged in a woven pattern at a range from 0.degree. to 90.degree. to the rotor axis and bound by a ductile matrix material which adheres to and is compatible with the materials used for the bulk of the rotor. The number and spacing of the tough interlayers is a function of the design requirements and expected lifetime of the rotor. The mechanism has particular application in uninterruptable power supplies, electrical power grid reservoirs, and compulsators for electric guns, as well as electromechanical batteries for vehicles.

  19. Interlayer toughening of fiber composite flywheel rotors

    DOEpatents

    Groves, S.E.; Deteresa, S.J.

    1998-07-14

    An interlayer toughening mechanism is described to mitigate the growth of damage in fiber composite flywheel rotors for long application. The interlayer toughening mechanism may comprise one or more tough layers composed of high-elongation fibers, high-strength fibers arranged in a woven pattern at a range from 0{degree} to 90{degree} to the rotor axis and bound by a ductile matrix material which adheres to and is compatible with the materials used for the bulk of the rotor. The number and spacing of the tough interlayers is a function of the design requirements and expected lifetime of the rotor. The mechanism has particular application in uninterruptable power supplies, electrical power grid reservoirs, and compulsators for electric guns, as well as electromechanical batteries for vehicles. 2 figs.

  20. Zirconia in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Wei; Moussi, Joelle; Drury, Jeanie L; Wataha, John C

    2016-10-01

    The use of zirconia in medicine and dentistry has rapidly expanded over the past decade, driven by its advantageous physical, biological, esthetic, and corrosion properties. Zirconia orthopedic hip replacements have shown superior wear-resistance over other systems; however, risk of catastrophic fracture remains a concern. In dentistry, zirconia has been widely adopted for endosseous implants, implant abutments, and all-ceramic crowns. Because of an increasing demand for esthetically pleasing dental restorations, zirconia-based ceramic restorations have become one of the dominant restorative choices. Areas covered: This review provides an updated overview of the applications of zirconia in medicine and dentistry with a focus on dental applications. The MEDLINE electronic database (via PubMed) was searched, and relevant original and review articles from 2010 to 2016 were included. Expert commentary: Recent data suggest that zirconia performs favorably in both orthopedic and dental applications, but quality long-term clinical data remain scarce. Concerns about the effects of wear, crystalline degradation, crack propagation, and catastrophic fracture are still debated. The future of zirconia in biomedical applications will depend on the generation of these data to resolve concerns.

  1. Properties of five toughened matrix composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J.; Dow, Marvin B.

    1992-01-01

    The use of toughened matrix composite materials offers an attractive solution to the problem of poor damage tolerance associated with advanced composite materials. In this study, the unidirectional laminate strengths and moduli, notched (open-hole) and unnotched tension and compression properties of quasi-isotropic laminates, and compression-after-impact strengths of five carbon fiber/toughened matrix composites, IM7/E7T1-2, IM7/X1845, G40-800X/5255-3, IM7/5255-3, and IM7/5260 have been evaluated. The compression-after-impact (CAI) strengths were determined primarily by impacting quasi-isotropic laminates with the NASA Langley air gun. A few CAI tests were also made with a drop-weight impactor. For a given impact energy, compression after impact strengths were determined to be dependent on impactor velocity. Properties and strengths for the five materials tested are compared with NASA data on other toughened matrix materials (IM7/8551-7, IM6/1808I, IM7/F655, and T800/F3900). This investigation found that all five materials were stronger and more impact damage tolerant than more brittle carbon/epoxy composite materials currently used in aircraft structures.

  2. Toughening by crack bridging in heterogeneous ceramics

    SciT

    Curtin, W.A.

    1995-05-01

    The toughening of a ceramic by crack bridging is considered, including the heterogeneity caused simply by spatial randomness in the bridge locations. The growth of a single planar crack is investigated numerically by representing the microstructure as an array of discrete springs with heterogeneity in the mechanical properties of each spring. The stresses on each microstructural element are determined, for arbitrary configurations of spring properties and heterogeneity, using a lattice Green function technique. For toughening by (heterogeneous) crack bridging for both elastic and Dugdale bridging mechanisms, the following key physical results are found: (1) growing cracks avoid regions which aremore » efficiently bridged, and do not propagate as self-similar penny cracks; (2) crack growth thus proceeds at lower applied stresses in a heterogeneous material than in an ordered material; (3) very little toughening is evident for moderate amounts of crack growth in many cases; and (4) a different R-curve is found for every particular spatial distribution of bridging elements. These results show that material reliability is determined by both the flaw distribution and the ``toughness`` distribution, or local environment, around each flaw. These results also demonstrate that the ``microstructural`` parameters derived from fitting an R-curve to a continuum model may not have an immediate relationship to the actual microstructure; the parameters are ``effective`` parameters that absorb the effects of the heterogeneity. The conceptual issues illuminated by these conclusions must be fully understood and appreciated to further develop microstructure-property relationships in ceramic materials.« less

  3. Zirconia in dentistry: part 2. Evidence-based clinical breakthrough.

    PubMed

    Koutayas, Spiridon Oumvertos; Vagkopoulou, Thaleia; Pelekanos, Stavros; Koidis, Petros; Strub, Jörg Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    An ideal all-ceramic restoration that conforms well and demonstrates enhanced biocompatibility, strength, fit, and esthetics has always been desirable in clinical dentistry. However, the inherent brittleness, low flexural strength, and fracture toughness of conventional glass and alumina ceramics have been the main obstacles for extensive use. The recent introduction of zirconia-based ceramics as a restorative dental material has generated considerable interest in the dental community, which has been expressed with extensive industrial, clinical, and research activity. Contemporary zirconia powder technology contributes to the fabrication of new biocompatible all-ceramic restorations with improved physical properties for a wide range of promising clinical applications. Especially with the development of computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems, high-strength zirconia frameworks can be viable for the fabrication of full and partial coverage crowns, fixed partial dentures, veneers, posts and/or cores, primary double crowns, implant abutments, and implants. Data from laboratory and clinical studies are promising regarding their performance and survival. However, clinical data are considered insufficient and the identified premature complications should guide future research. In addition, different zirconia-based dental auxiliary components (i.e., cutting burs and surgical drills, extra-coronal attachments and orthodontic brackets) can also be technologically feasible. This review aims to present and discuss zirconia manufacturing methods and their potential for successful clinical application in dentistry.

  4. Multinuclear NMR study of silica fiberglass modified with zirconia.

    PubMed

    Lapina, O B; Khabibulin, D F; Terskikh, V V

    2011-01-01

    Silica fiberglass textiles are emerging as uniquely suited supports in catalysis, which offer unprecedented flexibility in designing advanced catalytic systems for chemical and auto industries. During manufacturing fiberglass materials are often modified with additives of various nature to improve glass properties. Glass network formers, such as zirconia and alumina, are known to provide the glass fibers with higher strength and to slow down undesirable devitrification processes. In this work multinuclear (1)H, (23)Na, (29)Si, and (91)Zr NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize the effect of zirconia on the molecular-level fiberglass structure. (29)Si NMR results help in understanding why zirconia-modified fiberglass is more stable towards devitrification comparing with pure silica glass. Internal void spaces formed in zirconia-silica glass fibers after acidic leaching correlate with sodium and water distributions in the starting bulk glass as probed by (23)Na and (1)H NMR. These voids spaces are important for stabilization of catalytically active species in the supported catalysts. Potentials of high-field (91)Zr NMR spectroscopy to study zirconia-containing glasses and similarly disordered systems are illustrated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Phase field modeling of tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation in zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamivand, Mahmood

    Zirconia based ceramics are strong, hard, inert, and smooth, with low thermal conductivity and good biocompatibility. Such properties made zirconia ceramics an ideal material for different applications form thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) to biomedicine applications like femoral implants and dental bridges. However, this unusual versatility of excellent properties would be mediated by the metastable tetragonal (or cubic) transformation to the stable monoclinic phase after a certain exposure at service temperatures. This transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic, known as LTD (low temperature degradation) in biomedical application, proceeds by propagation of martensite, which corresponds to transformation twinning. As such, tetragonal to monoclinic transformation is highly sensitive to mechanical and chemomechanical stresses. It is known in fact that this transformation is the source of the fracture toughening in stabilized zirconia as it occurs at the stress concentration regions ahead of the crack tip. This dissertation is an attempt to provide a kinetic-based model for tetragonal to monoclinic transformation in zirconia. We used the phase field technique to capture the temporal and spatial evolution of monoclinic phase. In addition to morphological patterns, we were able to calculate the developed internal stresses during tetragonal to monoclinic transformation. The model was started form the two dimensional single crystal then was expanded to the two dimensional polycrystalline and finally to the three dimensional single crystal. The model is able to predict the most physical properties associated with tetragonal to monoclinic transformation in zirconia including: morphological patterns, transformation toughening, shape memory effect, pseudoelasticity, surface uplift, and variants impingement. The model was benched marked with several experimental works. The good agreements between simulation results and experimental data, make the model a reliable tool for

  6. Dispersed metal-toughened ceramics and ceramic brazing

    SciT

    Moorhead, A.J.; Tiegs, T.N.; Lauf, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    An alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) based material that contains approximately 1 vol % finely dispersed platinum or chromium was developed for use in high temperature thermal-shock resistant electrical insulators. The work at ORNL is divided into two areas: (1) development of DMT ceramics; and (2) development of brazing filler metals suitable for making ceramic-to-ceramic and ceramic-to-metal brazements. The DMT ceramics and brazements are intended for service at elevated temperatures and at high stress levels in the dirty environments of advanced heat engines. The development and characterization of DMT ceramics includes processing (powder preparation, densification and heat treatment) and detailed measurementmore » of mechanical and physical properties (strength, fracture toughness, and thermal conductivity). The brazing work includes: (1) the formulation and melting of small quantities of experimental brazing filler metals; (2) evaluation of the wetting and bonding behavior of these filler metals on Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, partially stabilized zirconia and ..cap alpha..-SiC in a sessile drop apparatus; and (3) determine the short-term strength and fracture toughness of brazements.« less

  7. Novel Translucent and Strong Submicron Alumina Ceramics for Dental Restorations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, M; Sun, Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y

    2018-03-01

    An ideal ceramic restorative material should possess excellent aesthetic and mechanical properties. We hypothesize that the high translucency and strength of polycrystalline ceramics can be achieved through microstructural tailoring. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the superior optical and mechanical properties of a new class of submicron grain-sized alumina ceramics relative to the current state-of-the-art dental ceramic materials. The translucency, the in-line transmission ( T IT ) in particular, of these submicron alumina ceramics has been examined with the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye light-scattering model. The theoretical predictions related very well with the measured T IT values. The translucency parameter ( TP) and contrast ratio ( CR) of the newly developed aluminas were measured with a reflectance spectrophotometer on a black-and-white background. For comparison, the T IT , TP, and CR values for a variety of dental ceramics, mostly measured in-house but also cited from the literature, were included. The flexural strength of the aluminas was determined with the 4-point bending test. Our findings have shown that for polycrystalline alumina ceramics, an average grain size <1 µm coupled with a porosity level <0.7% could yield translucency values ( T IT , TP, CR) similar to those of the commercial high-translucency porcelains. These values are far superior to the high-translucency lithium disilicate glass-ceramic and zirconias, including the most translucent cubic-containing zirconias. The strength of these submicron grain-sized aluminas was significantly higher than that of the cubic-containing zirconia (e.g., Zpex Smile) and lithia-based glass-ceramics (e.g., IPS e.max CAD HT). A coarse-grained alumina could also reach a translucency level comparable to that of dental porcelain. However, the relatively low strength of this material has limited its clinical indications to structurally less demanding applications, such as orthodontic brackets. With a combined

  8. Influence of cleaning methods on resin bonding to saliva-contaminated zirconia.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keiichi

    2018-02-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different cleaning methods on the shear bond strengths of 2 resin cements to saliva-contaminated zirconia. After saliva contamination, alumina-blasted zirconia specimens were cleaned with 1 of 5 methods of water-rinsing (SA), K-etchant GEL phosphoric acid (PA), Ivoclean (IC), AD Gel (ADG), or additional alumina-blasting (AB). Alumina-blasted zirconia without saliva contamination was used as control group (Cont). Composite cylinders were bonded to the zirconia with 1 of 2 dual-cured resin cements. The bond strengths were measured by shear testing after 24 hours (TC0) and after thermal cycling at 4°C-60°C (TC10 000) and specimen surfaces were evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Data were statistically analyzed using 3-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (α = 0.05). There were no significant differences in the bond strengths of 2 resin cements between the Cont ADG, and AB groups before and after TCs (P > .05). SA, PA, and IC groups did not exhibit durable resin bonding to zirconia. XPS showed that carbon and nitrogen increased in the SA group in comparison to the Cont group. The concentration of carbon in other 4 groups returned to the concentration range of the Cont group; however, nitrogen was not detected in the only AB group. Saliva contamination significantly reduced the bond strength of 2 resin cements to zirconia. Additional AB or cleaning with ADG resulted in effective cleaning of saliva contamination and preserved resin cement bond strength to zirconia. Saliva contamination occurs during clinical procedures for adjustment of zirconia ceramic restorations in the oral environment. AD Gel application is effective for removing saliva contaminants on the alumina-blasted zirconia surface beforehand by the dental laboratory instead of additional AB since AD Gel application and AB had a similar effect on the removal of organic components of saliva. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals

  9. Pressure induced phase transitions in ceramic compounds containing tetragonal zirconia

    SciT

    Sparks, R.G.; Pfeiffer, G.; Paesler, M.A.

    Stabilized tetragonal zirconia compounds exhibit a transformation toughening process in which stress applied to the material induces a crystallographic phase transition. The phase transition is accompanied by a volume expansion in the stressed region thereby dissipating stress and increasing the fracture strength of the material. The hydrostatic component of the stress required to induce the phase transition can be investigated by the use of a high pressure technique in combination with Micro-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity of Raman lines characteristic for the crystallographic phases can be used to calculate the amount of material that has undergone the transition as a functionmore » of pressure. It was found that pressures on the order of 2-5 kBar were sufficient to produce an almost complete transition from the original tetragonal to the less dense monoclinic phase; while a further increase in pressure caused a gradual reversal of the transition back to the original tetragonal structure.« less

  10. Influence of atmospheric pressure low-temperature plasma treatment on the shear bond strength between zirconia and resin cement.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuki; Okawa, Takahisa; Fukumoto, Takahiro; Tsurumi, Akiko; Tatsuta, Mitsuhiro; Fujii, Takamasa; Tanaka, Junko; Tanaka, Masahiro

    2016-10-01

    Zirconia exhibits excellent strength and high biocompatibility in technological applications and it is has therefore been investigated for clinical applications and research. Before setting prostheses, a crown prosthesis inner surface is sandblasted with alumina to remove contaminants and form small cavities. This alumina sandblasting causes stress-induced phase transition of zirconia. Atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma has been applied in the dental industry, particularly for adhesives, as a surface treatment to activate the surface energy and remove contaminants. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma treatment on the shear bond strength between zirconia and adhesive resin cement. The surface treatment method was classified into three groups: untreated (Cont group), alumina sandblast treatment (Sb group), and atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma treatment (Ps group). Adhesive resin cement was applied to stainless steel and bonded to zirconia. Shear adhesion tests were performed after complete hardening of the cement. Multiple comparisons were performed using a one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni method. X-ray diffractometry was used to examine the change in zirconia crystal structure. Statistically significant differences were noted between the control and Sb groups and between the control and Ps groups. In contrast, no statistically significant differences were noted for the Ps and Sb bond strength. Atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma treatment did not affect the zirconia crystal structure. Atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma treatment improves the bonding strength of adhesive resin cement as effectively as alumina sandblasting, and does not alter the zirconia crystal structure. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interlaminar Toughening of Fiber Reinforced Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Dakai

    Modification in the resin-rich region between plies, also known as the interlaminar region, was investigated to increase the toughness of laminate composites structures. To achieve suitable modifications, the complexities of the physical and chemical processes during the resin curing procedure must be studied. This includes analyses of the interactions among the co-dependent microstructure, process parameters, and material responses. This dissertation seeks to investigate these interactions via a series of experimental and numerical analyses of the geometric- and temperature-based effects on locally interleaving toughening methods and further interlaminar synergistic toughening without interleaf. Two major weaknesses in composite materials are the brittle resin-rich interlaminar region which forms between the fiber plies after resin infusion, and the ply dropoff region which introduces stress concentration under loads. To address these weaknesses and increase the delamination resistance of the composite specimens, a dual bonding process was explored to alleviate the dropoff effect and toughen the interlaminar region. Hot melt bonding was investigated by applying clamping pressure to ductile thermoplastic interleaf and fiber fabric at an elevated temperature, while diffusion bonding between thermoplastic interleaf and thermoset resin is performed during the resin infusion. This method increased the fracture energy level and thus delamination resistance in the interlaminar region because of deep interleaf penetration into fiber bundles which helped confining crack propagation in the toughened area. The diffusion and precipitation between thermosets and thermoplastics also improved the delamination resistance by forming a semi-interpenetration networks. This phenomenon was investigated in concoctions of low-concentration polystyrene additive modified epoxy system, which facilitates diffusion and precipitation without increasing the viscosity of the system

  12. Porous Alumina Films with Width-Controllable Alumina Stripes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Porous alumina films had been fabricated by anodizing from aluminum films after an electropolishing procedure. Alumina stripes without pores can be distinguished on the surface of the porous alumina films. The width of the alumina stripes increases proportionally with the anodizing voltage. And the pores tend to be initiated close to the alumina stripes. These phenomena can be ascribed to the electric field distribution in the alumina barrier layer caused by the geometric structure of the aluminum surface. PMID:21170406

  13. Bauxite and alumina

    Bray, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    The article provides information on bauxite and alumina mining. U.S. states like Alabama, Arkansas and Georgia produced small amounts of bauxite and bauxitic clays for nonmetallurgical uses. Total metallurgical-grade bauxite imports in 2008 is cited. The leading suppliers of bauxite to the U.S. are Jamaica, Guinea and Brazil. The estimated domestic production of alumina in 2008 is mentioned. It also discusses consumption and prices of both bauxite and alumina.

  14. Durability of feldspathic veneering ceramic on glass-infiltrated alumina ceramics after long-term thermocycling.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, A M M; Ozcan, M; Souza, R O A; Kojima, A N; Nishioka, R S; Kimpara, E T; Bottino, M A

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the bond strength durability of a feldspathic veneering ceramic to glass-infiltrated reinforced ceramics in dry and aged conditions. Disc shaped (thickness: 4 mm, diameter: 4 mm) of glass-infiltrated alumina (In-Ceram Alumina) and glass-infiltrated alumina reinforced by zirconia (In-Ceram Zirconia) core ceramic specimens (N=48, N=12 per groups) were constructed according to the manufacturers' recommendations. Veneering ceramic (VITA VM7) was fired onto the core ceramics using a mold. The core-veneering ceramic assemblies were randomly divided into two conditions and tested either immediately after specimen preparation (Dry) or following 30000 thermocycling (5-55 ºC±1; dwell time: 30 seconds). Shear bond strength test was performed in a universal testing machine (cross-head speed: 1 mm/min). Failure modes were analyzed using optical microscope (x20). The bond strength data (MPa) were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05). Thermocycling did not decrease the bond strength results for both In-Ceram Alumina (30.6±8.2 MPa; P=0.2053) and In-Ceram zirconia (32.6±9 MPa; P=0.3987) core ceramic-feldspathic veneering ceramic combinations when compared to non-aged conditions (28.1±6.4 MPa, 29.7±7.3 MPa, respectively). There were also no significant differences between adhesion of the veneering ceramic to either In-Ceram Alumina or In-Ceram Zirconia ceramics (P=0.3289). Failure types were predominantly a mixture of adhesive failure between the veneering and the core ceramic together with cohesive fracture of the veneering ceramic. Long-term thermocycling aging conditions did not impair the adhesion of the veneering ceramic to the glass-infiltrated alumina core ceramics tested.

  15. Toughening mechanisms in bioinspired multilayered materials.

    PubMed

    Askarinejad, Sina; Rahbar, Nima

    2015-01-06

    Outstanding mechanical properties of biological multilayered materials are strongly influenced by nanoscale features in their structure. In this study, mechanical behaviour and toughening mechanisms of abalone nacre-inspired multilayered materials are explored. In nacre's structure, the organic matrix, pillars and the roughness of the aragonite platelets play important roles in its overall mechanical performance. A micromechanical model for multilayered biological materials is proposed to simulate their mechanical deformation and toughening mechanisms. The fundamental hypothesis of the model is the inclusion of nanoscale pillars with near theoretical strength (σth ~ E/30). It is also assumed that pillars and asperities confine the organic matrix to the proximity of the platelets, and, hence, increase their stiffness, since it has been previously shown that the organic matrix behaves more stiffly in the proximity of mineral platelets. The modelling results are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data for abalone nacre. The results demonstrate that the aragonite platelets, pillars and organic matrix synergistically affect the stiffness of nacre, and the pillars significantly contribute to the mechanical performance of nacre. It is also shown that the roughness induced interactions between the organic matrix and aragonite platelet, represented in the model by asperity elements, play a key role in strength and toughness of abalone nacre. The highly nonlinear behaviour of the proposed multilayered material is the result of distributed deformation in the nacre-like structure due to the existence of nano-asperities and nanopillars with near theoretical strength. Finally, tensile toughness is studied as a function of the components in the microstructure of nacre.

  16. Toughening mechanisms in bioinspired multilayered materials

    PubMed Central

    Askarinejad, Sina; Rahbar, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Outstanding mechanical properties of biological multilayered materials are strongly influenced by nanoscale features in their structure. In this study, mechanical behaviour and toughening mechanisms of abalone nacre-inspired multilayered materials are explored. In nacre's structure, the organic matrix, pillars and the roughness of the aragonite platelets play important roles in its overall mechanical performance. A micromechanical model for multilayered biological materials is proposed to simulate their mechanical deformation and toughening mechanisms. The fundamental hypothesis of the model is the inclusion of nanoscale pillars with near theoretical strength (σth ~ E/30). It is also assumed that pillars and asperities confine the organic matrix to the proximity of the platelets, and, hence, increase their stiffness, since it has been previously shown that the organic matrix behaves more stiffly in the proximity of mineral platelets. The modelling results are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data for abalone nacre. The results demonstrate that the aragonite platelets, pillars and organic matrix synergistically affect the stiffness of nacre, and the pillars significantly contribute to the mechanical performance of nacre. It is also shown that the roughness induced interactions between the organic matrix and aragonite platelet, represented in the model by asperity elements, play a key role in strength and toughness of abalone nacre. The highly nonlinear behaviour of the proposed multilayered material is the result of distributed deformation in the nacre-like structure due to the existence of nano-asperities and nanopillars with near theoretical strength. Finally, tensile toughness is studied as a function of the components in the microstructure of nacre. PMID:25551150

  17. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Sheng, Guangyao

    1993-01-01

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  18. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, M.A.; Guangyao Sheng.

    1993-05-04

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  19. Evaluation of translucency of monolithic zirconia and framework zirconia materials

    PubMed Central

    Tuncel, İlkin; Üşümez, Aslıhan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The opacity of zirconia is an esthetic disadvantage that hinders achieving natural and shade-matched restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the translucency of non-colored and colored framework zirconia and monolithic zirconia. MATERIALS AND METHODS The three groups tested were: non-colored framework zirconia, colored framework zirconia with the A3 shade according to Vita Classic Scale, and monolithic zirconia (n=5). The specimens were fabricated in the dimensions of 15×12×0.5 mm. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the contrast ratio, which is indicative of translucency. Three measurements were made to obtain the contrast ratios of the materials over a white background (L*w) and a black background (L*b). The data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. One specimen from each group was chosen for scanning electron microscope analysis. The determined areas of the SEM images were divided by the number of grains in order to calculate the mean grain size. RESULTS Statistically significant differences were observed among all groups (P<.05). Non-colored zirconia had the highest translucency with a contrast ratio of 0.75, while monolithic zirconia had the lowest translucency with a contrast ratio of 0.8. The mean grain sizes of the non-colored, colored, and monolithic zirconia were 233, 256, and 361 nm, respectively. CONCLUSION The translucency of the zirconia was affected by the coloring procedure and the grain size. Although monolithic zirconia may not be the best esthetic material for the anterior region, it may serve as an alternative in the posterior region for the bilayered zirconia restorations. PMID:27350851

  20. Evaluation of a conditioning method to improve core-veneer bond strength of zirconia restorations.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jili; Wang, Hang; Liao, Yunmao; Liang, Xing

    2012-06-01

    The high strength and fracture toughness of zirconia have supported its extensive application in esthetic dentistry. However, the fracturing of veneering porcelains remains one of the primary causes of failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, with shear bond strength testing, the effect of a simple and novel surface conditioning method on the core-veneer bond strength of a zirconia ceramic system. The shear bond strength of a zirconia core ceramic to the corresponding veneering porcelain was tested by the Schmitz-Schulmeyer method. Thirty zirconia core specimens (10 × 5 × 5 mm) were layered with a veneering porcelain (5 × 3 × 3 mm). Three different surface conditioning methods were evaluated: polishing with up to 1200 grit silicon carbide paper under water cooling, airborne-particle abrasion with 110 μm alumina particles, and modification with zirconia powder coating before sintering. A metal ceramic system was used as a control group. All specimens were subjected to shear force in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The shear bond strength values were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc pairwise comparisons (α=.05). The fractured specimens were examined with a scanning electron microscope to observe the failure mode. The mean (SD) shear bond strength values in MPa were 47.02 (6.4) for modified zirconia, 36.66 (8.6) for polished zirconia, 39.14 (6.5) for airborne-particle-abraded zirconia, and 46.12 (7.1) for the control group. The mean bond strength of the control (P=.028) and modified zirconia groups (P=.014) was significantly higher than that of the polished zirconia group. The airborne-particle-abraded group was not significantly different from any other group. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation showed that cohesive fracture in the veneering porcelain was the predominant failure mode of modified zirconia, while the other groups principally fractured at the interface. Modifying the zirconia surface

  1. Densification of Zirconia with Borates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-24

    solid electrolytes for fuel cell and oxygen sensor applications.1 ’ 2 The sintering temperatures for commercial quality stabilized zirconia powders are...in the temperature range 1450-1500C). A few studies were also made using a much coarser particle size (- 1-2 pm ave.) cubic stabilized zirconia ... powder , "Zircoa B" [Zirconia Corp. of America]. The additives used as sintering aids were reagent grade horic anhydride, calcium metaborate and calcium

  2. Thermophysical Properties of High-Frequency Induction Heat Sintered Graphene Nanoplatelets/Alumina Ceramic Functional Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Subhani, Tayyab; Wang, Nannan; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2018-05-01

    This paper concerns the thermophysical properties of high-frequency induction heat (HFIH) sintered alumina ceramic nanocomposites containing various graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) concentrations. The GNP/alumina nanocomposites demonstrated high densities, fine-grained microstructures, highest fracture toughness and hardness values of 5.7 MPa m1/2 and 18.4 GPa, which found 72 and 8%, superior to the benchmarked monolithic alumina, respectively. We determine the role of GNP in tuning the microstructure and inducing toughening mechanisms in the nanocomposites. The sintered monolithic alumina exhibited thermal conductivity value of 24.8 W/mK; however, steady drops of 2, 15 and 19% were recorded after adding respective GNP contents of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% in the nanocomposites. In addition, a dwindling trend in thermal conductions with increasing temperatures was recorded for all sintered samples. Simulation of experimental results with proven theoretical thermal models showed the dominant role of GNP dispersions, microstructural porosity, elastic modulus and grain size in controlling the thermal transport properties of the GNP/alumina nanocomposites. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the nanocomposite with up to 0.5 mass% of GNP is thermally stable at the temperatures greater than 875 °C. The GNP/alumina nanocomposites owning a distinctive combination of mechanical and thermal properties are promising contenders for the specific components of the aerospace engine and electronic devices having contact with elevated temperatures.

  3. Alumina Handling Dustiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Authier-Martin, Monique

    Dustiness of calcined alumina is a major concern, causing undesirable working conditions and serious alumina losses. These losses occur primarily during unloading and handling or pot loading and crust breaking. The handling side of the problem is first addressed. The Perra pulvimeter constitutes a simple and reproducible tool to quantify handling dustiness and yields results in agreement with plant experience. Attempts are made to correlate dustiness with bulk properties (particle size, attrition index, …) for a large number of diverse aluminas. The characterization of the dust generated with the Perra pulvimeter is most revealing. The effect of the addition of E.S.P. dust is also reported.

  4. A stable solid acid material: Sulfated ZrO2 dispersed on alumina nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Jiaqi, Chen; Xu, Wang; Rui-Feng, Li

    2017-02-01

    A tubular solid acid catalyst was designed by loading sulfated zirconia into γ-Al2O3 nanotubes using the method of stepwise deposition. The XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption characterization demonstrated that introducing alumina nanotube and SO4 2- anions have played an important role in stabilizing the metastable tetragonal ZrO2 phase, and the sulfated zirconia on the surface of the γ-Al2O3 nanotube has high dispersion and stability. The catalyst reused repeatedly possesses large amounts of acid sites and good acidity, exhibiting high catalytic activity and stability for isopropylbenzene cracking.

  5. Bauxite and alumina

    Bray, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the bauxite and alumina industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It claims that the U.S. mainly relies on imports for its bauxite consumption. Several states, including Alabama, Arkansas and Georgia, however, produce small amounts of bauxite and bauxitic clays for nonmetallurgical purposes. The major exporters of alumina to the U.S. include Australia, Brazil and Jamaica.

  6. Alumina fiber strength improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, R. T.; Nelson, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The effective fiber strength of alumina fibers in an aluminum composite was increased to 173,000 psi. A high temperature heat treatment, combined with a glassy carbon surface coating, was used to prevent degradation and improve fiber tensile strength. Attempts to achieve chemical strengthening of the alumina fiber by chromium oxide and boron oxide coatings proved unsuccessful. A major problem encountered on the program was the low and inconsistent strength of the Dupont Fiber FP used for the investigation.

  7. Toughened Thermal Blanket for MMOD Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal blankets are used extensively on spacecraft to provide passive thermal control of spacecraft hardware from thermal extremes encountered in space. Toughened thermal blankets have been developed that greatly improve protection from hypervelocity micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts. These blankets can be outfitted if so desired with a reliable means to determine the location, depth and extent of MMOD impact damage by incorporating an impact sensitive piezoelectric film. Improved MMOD protection of thermal blankets was obtained by adding selective materials at various locations within the thermal blanket. As given in Figure 1, three types of materials were added to the thermal blanket to enhance its MMOD performance: (1) disrupter layers, near the outside of the blanket to improve breakup of the projectile, (2) standoff layers, in the middle of the blanket to provide an area or gap that the broken-up projectile can expand, and (3) stopper layers, near the back of the blanket where the projectile debris is captured and stopped. The best suited materials for these different layers vary. Density and thickness is important for the disrupter layer (higher densities generally result in better projectile breakup), whereas a highstrength to weight ratio is useful for the stopper layer, to improve the slowing and capture of debris particles.

  8. Fracture resistance and reliability of new zirconia posts.

    PubMed

    Oblak, Cedomir; Jevnikar, Peter; Kosmac, Tomaz; Funduk, Nenad; Marion, Ljubo

    2004-04-01

    The radicular portion of zirconia endodontic posts often need to be reshaped to achieve a definitive form and may be airborne-particle abraded to improve adhesion during luting. Therefore, the surface of the tetragonal zirconia ceramics may be transformed and damaged, influencing the mechanical properties of the material. This study compared the fracture resistance of prefabricated zirconia posts with a new retentive post-head after different surface treatments. Experimental zirconia posts of 2 different diameters, 1.3 mm and 1.5 mm, were produced from commercially available zirconia powder. A cylindro-conical outline form was used for the root portion of the system and a post-head with 3 retentive rings was designed. Sixty posts of each diameter were divided into 3 groups (n=20). Group 1 was ground with a coarse grit diamond bur; Group 2 was airborne-particle abraded with 110-microm fused alumina particles, and Group 3 was left as-received (controls). Posts were luted into the root-shaped artificial canals with the Clearfil adhesive system and Panavia 21 adhesive resin luting agent. The posts were loaded in a universal testing machine at an inclination of 45 degrees with the constant cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. The fracture load (N) necessary to cause post fracture was recorded, and the statistical significance of differences among groups was analyzed with 1-way ANOVA followed by the Fischer LSD test (alpha=.05). The variability was analyzed using Weibull statistics. Load to fracture values of all zirconia posts depended primarily on post diameter. Mean fracture loads (SD) in Newtons were 518.4 (+/-101.3), 993.6 (+/-224.1), and 622.7 (+/-110.3) for Groups 1 through 3, respectively, for thicker posts, and 385.9 (+/-110.3), 627.0 (+/-115.1), and 451.2 (+/-81.4) for Groups 1 through 3, respectively, for thinner posts. Airborne-particle-abraded posts exhibited significantly higher resistance to fracture (P<.05) than those in the other 2 groups for diameters 1.3 mm

  9. Novel Zirconia Surface Treatments for Enhanced Osseointegration: Laboratory Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ewais, Ola H.; Al Abbassy, Fayza; Ghoneim, Mona M.; Aboushelib, Moustafa N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate three novel surface treatments intended to improve osseointegration of zirconia implants: selective infiltration etching treatment (SIE), fusion sputtering (FS), and low pressure particle abrasion (LPPA). The effects of surface treatments on roughness, topography, hardness, and porosity of implants were also assessed. Materials and Methods. 45 zirconia discs (19 mm in diameter × 3 mm in thickness) received 3 different surface treatments: selective infiltration etching, low pressure particle abrasion with 30 µm alumina, and fusion sputtering while nontreated surface served as control. Surface roughness was evaluated quantitatively using profilometery, porosity was evaluated using mercury prosimetry, and Vickers microhardness was used to assess surface hardness. Surface topography was analyzed using scanning and atomic force microscopy (α = 0.05). Results. There were significant differences between all groups regarding surface roughness (F = 1678, P < 0.001), porosity (F = 3278, P < 0.001), and hardness (F = 1106.158, P < 0.001). Scanning and atomic force microscopy revealed a nanoporous surface characteristic of SIE, and FS resulted in the creation of surface microbeads, while LPPA resulted in limited abrasion of the surface. Conclusion. Within the limitations of the study, changes in surface characteristics and topography of zirconia implants have been observed after different surface treatment approaches. Thus possibilities for enhanced osseointegration could be additionally offered. PMID:25349610

  10. Toughening of PMR composites by gradient semi-interpenetrating networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, N. J.; Srinivasan, K.; Peter, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The toughening of the PMR-15 and LARC RP-46 high temperature thermosetting polyimides is presently attempted through the construction of a semiinterpenetrating network at ply interfaces through the use of the Matrimid 5218 thermoplastic polyimide powder, whose 315-320 glass transition temperature is compatible with the PMR matrices. The 60 vol pct fiber composites thus prepared for the two resins, with and without toughening, were comprehensively characterized in flexure, tension, intralaminar and short beam shear, compression and quasi-isotropic short-block compression, as well as modes I and II interlaminar fracture toughness and compression after impact.

  11. Phonon anharmonicity of monoclinic zirconia and yttrium-stabilized zirconia

    SciT

    Li, Chen W.; Smith, Hillary L.; Lan, Tian

    2015-04-13

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on monoclinic zirconia (ZrO 2) and 8 mol% yttrium-stabilized zirconia were performed at temperatures from 300 to 1373 ωK. We reported temperature-dependent phonon densities of states (DOS) and Raman spectra obtained at elevated temperatures. First-principles lattice dynamics calculations with density functional theory gave total and partial phonon DOS curves and mode Grüneisen parameters. These mode Grüneisen parameters were used to predict the experimental temperature dependence of the phonon DOS with partial success. However, substantial anharmonicity was found at elevated temperatures, especially for phonon modes dominated by the motions of oxygen atoms. Yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was somewhatmore » more anharmonic and had a broader phonon spectrum at low temperatures, owing in part to defects in its structure. YSZ also has a larger vibrational entropy than monoclinic zirconia.« less

  12. Transformation toughened ceramics for the heavy duty diesel engine technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musikant, S.; Feingold, E.; Rauch, H.; Samanta, S.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an advanced high temperature oxide structural ceramic for application to the heavy duty diesel engine. The approach is to employ transformation toughening by additions of ZrO.5HfO.5O2 solid solution to the oxide ceramics, mullite (2Al2O3S2SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3). The study is planned for three phases, each 12 months in duration. This report covers Phase 1. During this period, processing techniques were developed to incorporate the ZrO.5HfO.5O2 solid solution in the matrices while retaining the necessary metastable tetragonal phase. Modulus of rupture and of elasticity, coefficient of thermal expansion, fracture toughness by indent technique and thermal diffusivity of representative specimens were measured. In Phase 2, the process will be improved to provide higher mechanical strength and to define the techniques for scale up to component size. In Phase 3, full scale component prototypes will be fabri-]cated.

  13. Effect of an internal coating technique on tensile bond strengths of resin cements to zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Shuzo; Nikaido, Toru; Maruoka, Rena; Zhu, Lei; Ikeda, Masaomi; Watanabe, Akihiko; Foxton, Richard M; Miura, Hiroyuki; Tagami, Junji

    2009-07-01

    This study was conducted to enhance the tensile bond strengths of resin cements to zirconia ceramics. Fifty-six zirconia ceramic specimens (Cercon Base) and twenty-eight silica-based ceramic specimens (GN-1, GN-1 Ceramic Block) were air-abraded using alumina. Thereafter, the zirconia ceramic specimens were divided into two subgroups of 28 each according to the surface pretreatment; no pretreatment (Zr); and the internal coating technique (INT). For INT, the surface of zirconia was coated by fusing silica-based ceramics (Cercon Ceram Kiss). Ceramic surfaces were conditioned with/without a silane coupling agent followed by bonding with one of two resin cements; Panavia F 2.0 (PF) and Superbond C&B (SB). After 24 hours storage in water, the tensile bond strengths were tested (n=7). For both PF and SB, silanization significantly improved the bond strength to GN-1 and INT (p<0.05). The INT coating followed by silanizaton demonstrated enhancement of bonding to zirconia ceramics.

  14. Bauxite and alumina

    Bray, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    The article reports on the global market performance of bauxite and alumina in 2009 and presents an outlook for their 2010 performance. There were only several U.S. states that could produce bauxite and bauxitic clays including Georgia, Arkansas, and Alabama. The prices for imported refractory-grade calcined bauxite ranged between 426 U.S. dollars and 554 dollars per ton.

  15. Solid Lubricant For Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Pepper, Stephen V.; Honecy, Frank S.

    1993-01-01

    Outer layer of silver lubricates, while intermediate layer of titanium ensures adhesion. Lubricating outer films of silver deposited on thin intermediate films of titanium on alumina substrates found to reduce sliding friction and wear. Films provide effective lubrication for ceramic seals, bearings, and other hot sliding components in advanced high-temperature engines.

  16. Role of Y2O3, CaO, MgO additives on structural and microstructural behavior of zirconia/mullite aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, D. K.; Prusty, Sasmita; Mohapatra, B. K.; Singh, S. K.; Behera, S. N.

    2012-07-01

    Zirconia mullite (MUZ), Y2O3-MUZ, CaO-MUZ and MgO-MUZ composites, synthesized through plasma fusion technique, are becoming important due to their commercial scale of production within five minutes of plasma treatment from sillimanite, zircon and alumina mixture. The X-ray diffraction studies reveal the monoclinic zirconia phase in MUZ composite whereas mixed monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic phases of zirconia have been observed in Y2O3, CaO, MgO added MUZ composites. The Y2O3, CaO and MgO additives act as sintering aids to favour the transformation and stabilisation of tetragonal and cubic zirconia phases at room temperature. These additives also play a key role in the development of various forms of microstructure to achieve dense MUZ composites.

  17. Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Toughening Mechanisms of a New Hot Stamping-Bake Toughening Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tao; Song, Hong-Wu; Zhang, Shi-Hong; Cheng, Ming; Liu, Wei-Jie; Chen, Yun

    2015-09-01

    In this article, the hot stamping-bake toughening process has been proposed following the well-known concept of bake hardening. The influences of the bake time on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the hot stamped-baked part were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mechanical tests at room temperature. The results show that the amount of the retained austenite was nearly not changed by the bake process. Also observed were spherical Cu-rich precipitates of about 15 nm in martensite laths. According to the Orowan mechanism, their contribution of the Cu-rich precipitates to the strength is approximately 245 MPa. With the increase of the bake time, the tensile strength of the part was decreased, whereas both the ductility and the product of the tensile strength and ductility were increased then decreased. The tensile strength and ductility product and the tensile strength are as high as 21.9 GPa pct, 2086 MPa, respectively. The excellent combined properties are due to the transformation-induced plasticity effect caused by retained austenite.

  18. Unprecedented simultaneous enhancement in damage tolerance and fatigue resistance of zirconia/Ta composites

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, A.; Beltrán, J. I.; Rodriguez-Suarez, T.; Pecharromán, C.; Muñoz, M. C.; Moya, J. S.; Bartolomé, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    Dense (>98 th%) and homogeneous ceramic/metal composites were obtained by spark plasma sintering (SPS) using ZrO2 and lamellar metallic powders of tantalum or niobium (20 vol.%) as starting materials. The present study has demonstrated the unique and unpredicted simultaneous enhancement in toughness and strength with very high flaw tolerance of zirconia/Ta composites. In addition to their excellent static mechanical properties, these composites also have exceptional resistance to fatigue loading. It has been shown that the major contributions to toughening are the resulting crack bridging and plastic deformation of the metallic particles, together with crack deflection and interfacial debonding, which is compatible with the coexistence in the composite of both, strong and weak ceramic/metal interfaces, in agreement with predictions of ab-initio calculations. Therefore, these materials are promising candidates for designing damage tolerance components for aerospace industry, cutting and drilling tools, biomedical implants, among many others. PMID:28322343

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of bulk yttria-partially-stabilized zirconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, P. G.; Maier, R. D.; Mitchell, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    A commercially available bulk 4.5 mole percent yttria-(Y2O3) partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) was studied by light microscopy, X-ray analysis, microhardness measurement, and fracture toughness testing. The growth of the precipitates and the phase transformations were studied as a function of aging in air at 1500 C. Aging curves were constructed for both the as received and the solution annealed and quenched materials; the curves showed hardness peaks at 1397 and 1517 Kg/sq mm respectively. The rectangular plate shaped tetragonal precipitates were found to have a 110 habit plane. A total of twelve different types of tetragonal precipitates were found. Grinding of the Y2O3 PSZ into powder did not cause a significant amount of metastable tetragonal precipitates to transform into the monoclinc phase, thus indicating that transformation toughening is not a significant mechanism for the material.

  20. Unprecedented simultaneous enhancement in damage tolerance and fatigue resistance of zirconia/Ta composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A.; Beltrán, J. I.; Rodriguez-Suarez, T.; Pecharromán, C.; Muñoz, M. C.; Moya, J. S.; Bartolomé, J. F.

    2017-03-01

    Dense (>98 th%) and homogeneous ceramic/metal composites were obtained by spark plasma sintering (SPS) using ZrO2 and lamellar metallic powders of tantalum or niobium (20 vol.%) as starting materials. The present study has demonstrated the unique and unpredicted simultaneous enhancement in toughness and strength with very high flaw tolerance of zirconia/Ta composites. In addition to their excellent static mechanical properties, these composites also have exceptional resistance to fatigue loading. It has been shown that the major contributions to toughening are the resulting crack bridging and plastic deformation of the metallic particles, together with crack deflection and interfacial debonding, which is compatible with the coexistence in the composite of both, strong and weak ceramic/metal interfaces, in agreement with predictions of ab-initio calculations. Therefore, these materials are promising candidates for designing damage tolerance components for aerospace industry, cutting and drilling tools, biomedical implants, among many others.

  1. The Effect of Femtosecond Laser Treatment on the Effectiveness of Resin-Zirconia Adhesive: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Vicente Prieto, María; Gomes, Ana Luisa Caseiro; Montero Martín, Javier; Alvarado Lorenzo, Alfonso; Seoane Mato, Vicente; Albaladejo Martínez, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: When aesthetics is compromised, dental ceramics are excellent materials for dental restorations; owing to their optical properties and biocompatibility, zirconia ceramics are particularly interesting. Self-adhesive resin cements are the most suitable for bonding to zirconia ceramics, but traditional adhesive chemistry is ineffective and surface treatments are required to improve the adhesive bonding between resin and zirconia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of femtosecond laser treatment on the shear bond strength (SBS) of self-adhesive resin cement on zirconia surfaces and to contrast it with other different surface conditioning methods. Methods: Sixty square-shaped zirconia samples were divided randomly into four groups (n = 15) according to their surface conditioning method: the NT group - no surface treatment; the APA25 group - airborne abrasion with 25 μm alumina particles; the TSC group - tribochemical silica coating, and the FS group - femtosecond laser irradiation (800 nm, 4 mJ, 40 fs/pulse, 1 kHz). Self-adhesive resin cements were bonded at the centre of samples, and after 72 hours, they were tested for SBS with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min, until fracture. Five zirconia surfaces for each group were subjected to a surface morphology analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The failure modes were noted and a third of the specimens were prepared to morphological analysis. Results: The NT group showed lower SBS values than the other groups. Femtosecond laser treatment demonstrated higher values than the control and APA25 groups and similar values to those of the TSC group. In the APA25 group, the surface conditioning method had values close to those of the TSC group, but lower than those obtained with femtosecond laser treatment. Conclusion: The treatment of zirconia with femtosecond laser irradiation created a consistent and profound surface roughness, improving the adhesive

  2. Toughening Mechanisms in Silica-Filled Epoxy Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Binay S.

    Epoxies are widely used as underfill resins throughout the microelectronics industry to mechanically couple and protect various components of flip-chip assemblies. Generally rigid materials largely surround underfill resins. Improving the mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy resins to better match those of their rigid counterparts can help extend the service lifetime of flip-chip assemblies. Recently, researchers have demonstrated that silica nanoparticles are effective toughening agents for lightly-crosslinked epoxies. Improvements in the fracture toughness of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites have primarily been attributed to two toughening mechanisms: particle debonding with subsequent void growth and matrix shear banding. Various attempts have been made to model the contribution of these toughening mechanisms to the overall fracture energy observed in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. However, disparities still exist between experimental and modeled fracture energy results. In this dissertation, the thermal, rheological and mechanical behavior of eight different types of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites was investigated. Each nanocomposite consisted of up to 10 vol% of silica nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm, with a variety of surface treatments and particle structures. Fractographical analysis was conducted with new experimental approaches in order to accurately identify morphological evidence for each proposed toughening mechanism. Overall, three major insights into the fracture behavior of real world silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites were established. First, microcracking was observed as an essential toughening mechanism in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. Microcracking was observed on the surface and subsurface of fractured samples in each type of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposite. The additional toughening contribution of microcracking to overall fracture energy yielded excellent agreement between experimental

  3. Development of ricehusk ash reinforced bismaleimide toughened epoxy nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Kanimozhi, K.; Sethuraman, K.; Selvaraj, V.; Alagar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent past decades have witnessed remarkable advances in composites with potential applications in biomedical devices, aerospace, textiles, civil engineering, energy, electronic engineering, and household products. Thermoset polymer composites have further enhanced and broadened the area of applications of composites. In the present work epoxy-BMI toughened-silica hybrid (RHA/DGEBA-BMI) was prepared using bismaleimide as toughener, bisphenol-A as matrix and a silica precursor derived from rice husk ash as reinforcement with glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane as coupling agent. Differential scanning calorimetry, electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and goniometry were used to characterize RHA/DGEBA-BMI composites developed in the present work. Tensile, impact and flexural strength, tensile and flexural modulus, hardness, dielectric properties were also studied and discussed. The hybrid nanocomposites possess the higher values of the glass transition temperature (Tg) and mechanical properties than those of neat epoxy matrix. PMID:25279372

  4. Development of ricehusk ash reinforced bismaleimide toughened epoxy nanocomposites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, Kanimozhi; Sethuraman, K.; V, Selvaraj; Alagar, Muthukaruppan

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Recent past decades have witnessed remarkable advances in composites with potential applications in biomedical devices, aerospace, textiles, civil engineering, energy, electronic engineering, and household products. Thermoset polymer composites have further enhanced and broadened the area of applications of composites. In the present work epoxy-BMI toughened-silica hybrid (RHA/DGEBA-BMI) was prepared using bismaleimide as toughener, bisphenol-A as matrix and a silica precursor derived from rice husk ash as reinforcement with glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane as coupling agent. Differential scanning calorimetry, electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and goniometry were used to characterize RHA/DGEBA-BMI composites developed in the present work. Tensile, impact and flexural strength, tensile and flexural modulus, hardness, dielectric properties were also studied and discussed. The hybrid nanocomposites possess the higher values of the glass transition temperature (Tg) and mechanical properties than those of neat epoxy matrix.

  5. Toughening reinforced epoxy composites with brominated polymeric additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z. (Inventor); Gilwee, W. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Cured polyfunctional epoxy resins including tris(hydroxyphenyl)methane triglycidyl ether are toughened by addition of polybrominated polymeric additives having an EE below 1500 to the pre-cure composition. Carboxy-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber is optionally present in the pre-cure mixture as such or as a pre-formed copolymer with other reactants. Reinforced composites, particularly carbon-reinforced composites, of these resins are disclosed and shown to have improved toughness.

  6. Toughening mechanism in elastomer-modified epoxy resins, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, A. F.; Pearson, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The role of matrix ductility on the toughenability and toughening mechanism of elastomer-modified DGEBRA epoxies was investigated. Matrix ductility was varied by using epoxide resins of varying epoxide monomer molecular weights. These epoxide resins were cured using 4,4' diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) and, in some cases, modified with 10% HYCAR(r)CTBN 1300X8. Fracture roughness values for the neat epoxies were found to be almost independent on the monomer molecular weight of the epoxide resin used. However, it was found that the fracture toughness of the elastomer-modified epoxies was very dependent upon the epoxide monomer molecular weight. Tensile dilatometry indicated that the toughening mechanism, when present, is similar to the mechanisms found for the piperidine cured epoxies in Part 1. SEM and OM corroborate this finding. Dynamic mechanical studies were conducted to shed light on the toughenability of the epoxies. The time-dependent small strain behavior of these epoxies were separated into their bulk and shear components. The bulk component is related to brittle fracture, whereas the shear component is related to yielding. It can be shown that the rates of shear and bulk strain energy buildup for a given stress are uniquely determined by the values of Poisson's ratio, nu. It was found that nu increases as the monomer molecular weight of the epoxide resin used increases. This increase in nu can be associated with the low temperature beta relaxation. The effect of increasing cross-link density is to shift the beta relaxation to higher temperatures and to decrease the magnitude of the beta relaxation. Thus, increasing cross-link density decreases nu and increases the tendency towards brittle fracture.

  7. Toughening reinforced epoxy composites with brominated polymeric additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z.; Gilwee, W. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Cured polyfunctional epoxy resins including tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane triglycidyl ether are toughened by addition of polybrominated polymeric additives having an EE below 1500 to the pre-cure composition. Carboxy terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber is optionally present in the precure mixture as such or as a pre-formed copolymer with other reactants. Reinforced composites, particularly carbon reinforced composites, of these resins are disclosed and shown to have improved toughness.

  8. Pressureless sintering of whisker-toughened ceramic composites

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, T.N.

    1993-05-04

    A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method.

  9. Pressureless sintering of whiskered-toughened ceramic composites

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, Terry N.

    1994-01-01

    A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method.

  10. Pressureless sintering of whisker-toughened ceramic composites

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, Terry N.

    1993-01-01

    A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method.

  11. Strengthening and toughening metallic glasses: The elastic perspectives and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. Q.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2014-04-01

    There exist general conflicts between strength and toughness in crystalline engineering materials, and various strengthening and toughening strategies have been developed from the dislocation motion perspectives. Metallic glasses (MGs) have demonstrated great potentials owing to their unique properties; however, their structural applications are strictly limited. One of the key problems is that the traditional strengthening and toughening strategies and mechanisms are not applicable in MGs due to the absence of dislocations and crystalline microstructures. Here, we show that the strength and toughness, or equivalently the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio, are invariably mutually exclusive in MGs. Accordingly, the MGs can be categorized into four groups with different levels of integrated mechanical properties. It is further revealed that the conflicts originate fundamentally from the atomic bonding structures and the levels of strength-toughness combinations are indeed dominated by the bulk modulus. Moreover, we propose novel strategies for optimizing the mechanical properties of MGs from the elastic perspectives. We emphasize the significance of developing high bulk modulus MGs to achieve simultaneously both high strength and good toughness and highlight the elastic opportunities for strengthening and toughening materials.

  12. Strengthening and toughening metallic glasses: The elastic perspectives and opportunities

    SciT

    Liu, Z. Q.; Zhang, Z. F., E-mail: zhfzhang@imr.ac.cn

    2014-04-28

    There exist general conflicts between strength and toughness in crystalline engineering materials, and various strengthening and toughening strategies have been developed from the dislocation motion perspectives. Metallic glasses (MGs) have demonstrated great potentials owing to their unique properties; however, their structural applications are strictly limited. One of the key problems is that the traditional strengthening and toughening strategies and mechanisms are not applicable in MGs due to the absence of dislocations and crystalline microstructures. Here, we show that the strength and toughness, or equivalently the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio, are invariably mutually exclusive in MGs. Accordingly, the MGs canmore » be categorized into four groups with different levels of integrated mechanical properties. It is further revealed that the conflicts originate fundamentally from the atomic bonding structures and the levels of strength-toughness combinations are indeed dominated by the bulk modulus. Moreover, we propose novel strategies for optimizing the mechanical properties of MGs from the elastic perspectives. We emphasize the significance of developing high bulk modulus MGs to achieve simultaneously both high strength and good toughness and highlight the elastic opportunities for strengthening and toughening materials.« less

  13. Topological Toughening of graphene and other 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huajian

    It has been claimed that graphene, with the elastic modulus of 1TPa and theoretical strength as high as 130 GPa, is the strongest material. However, from an engineering point of view, it is the fracture toughness that determines the actual strength of materials, as crack-like flaws (i.e., cracks, holes, notches, corners, etc.) are inevitable in the design, fabrication, and operation of practical devices and systems. Recently, it has been demonstrated that graphene has very low fracture toughness, in fact close to that of ideally brittle solids. These findings have raised sharp questions and are calling for efforts to explore effective methods to toughen graphene. Recently, we have been exploring the potential use of topological effects to enhance the fracture toughness of graphene. For example, it has been shown that a sinusoidal graphene containing periodically distributed disclination quadrupoles can achieve a mode I fracture toughness nearly twice that of pristine graphene. Here we report working progresses on further studies of topological toughening of graphene and other 2D materials. A phase field crystal method is adopted to generate the atomic coordinates of material with specific topological patterns. We then perform molecular dynamics simulations of fracture in the designed samples, and observe a variety of toughening mechanisms, including crack tip blunting, crack trapping, ligament bridging, crack deflection and daughter crack initiation and coalescence.

  14. Concerns of Hydrothermal Degradation in CAD/CAM Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J.-W.; Covel, N.S.; Guess, P.C.; Rekow, E.D.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry; however, their susceptibility to hydrothermal degradation remains elusive. We hypothesized that CAD/CAM machining and subsequent surface treatments, i.e., grinding and/or grit-blasting, have marked effects on the hydrothermal degradation behavior of Y-TZP. CAD/CAM-machined Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thick), both with and without subsequent grinding with various grit sizes or grit-blasting with airborne alumina particles, were subjected to accelerated aging tests in a steam autoclave. Results showed that the CAD/CAM-machined surfaces initially exhibited superior hydrothermal degradation resistance, but deteriorated at a faster rate upon prolonged autoclave treatment compared with ground and grit-blasted surfaces. The accelerated hydrothermal degradation of CAD/CAM surfaces is attributed to the CAD/CAM machining damage and the absence of surface compressive stresses in the fully sintered material. Clinical relevance for surface treatments of zirconia frameworks in terms of hydrothermal and structural stabilities is addressed. PMID:19966039

  15. Characterization of Mullite-Zirconia Composite Processed by Non-Transferred and Transferred Arc Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugeswaran, S.; Selvarajan, V.; Lusvarghi, L.; I. Y. Tok, A.; D. Siva Rama, Krishna

    2009-04-01

    The arc plasma melting technique is a simple method to synthesize high temperature reaction composites. In this study, mullite-zirconia composite was synthesized by transferred and non-transferred arc plasma melting, and the results were compared. A mixture of alumina and zircon powders with a mole ratio of 3: 2 were ball milled for four hours and melted for two minutes in the transferred and non-transferred mode of plasma arcs. Argon and air were used as plasma forming gases. The phase and microstructural formation of melted samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The microstructure of the composites was found to be affected by the mode of melting. In transferred arc melting, zirconia flowers with uniform lines along with mullite whiskers were obtained. In the case of non-transferred arc plasma melting, mullite whiskers along with star shape zirconia were formed. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) of the synthesized mullite-zirconia composites provided a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of mullite formation during the two different processes.

  16. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  17. Characterization of glass-infiltrated alumina-based ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Bona, Alvaro Della; Mecholsky, John J; Barrett, Allyson A; Griggs, Jason A

    2010-01-01

    Objective characterize the microstructure, composition, and important properties of glass-infiltrated alumina-based ceramics similar to the In-Ceram system. Methods Materials used were: IA- In-Ceram Alumina (Vita); IAE- IA electrophoretically deposited (Vita); AEM- IA using a vacuum driven method (Vita); VC- Vitro-Ceram (Angelus); TC- Turkom-Cera (Turkom-Ceramic); CC- Ceramcap (Foto-Ceram); and AG- Alglass (EDG). Ceramic specimens were fabricated following manufacturers’ instructions and ISO6872 standard and polished successively through 1μm alumina abrasive. Semi-quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and stereology (Vv). The elastic modulus (E) and Poisson’s ratio (ν) were determined using time-of-flight data measured in an ultrasonic pulser/receiver and the density (ρ) was determined using a helium pycnometer. Vicker’s indentation was used to calculate hardness (H). Bar specimens (25×4×1.2mm3) were loaded in three-point bending to fracture using a universal testing machine with cross-head speed of 1mm/min. Flexural strength (σ3P) was calculated and statistically analyzed using ANOVA, Tukey (α=0.05) and Weibull (m= modulus, σ0= characteristic strength). Results SEM and EDS analyses revealed similar microstructure for all ceramics, except for a lead-based matrix in CC and a zirconia phase in VC. TC, AG and CC showed significantly lower mean σ3P values than the other ceramics (p 0.05). AEM showed the greatest m (16). Conclusion Despite few differences in microstructure and composition, the IA, IAE, AEM and VC ceramics have similar properties. Significance The glass-infiltrated alumina-based ceramics from different manufacturers presented distinct characteristics. It is necessary to characterize new commercially available materials to understand their properties. PMID:18692231

  18. Calcium aluminate in alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altay, Arzu

    The properties of ceramic materials are determined not only by the composition and structure of the phases present, but also by the distribution of impurities, intergranular films and second phases. The phase distribution and microstructure both depend on the fabrication techniques, the raw materials used, the phase-equilibrium relations, grain growth and sintering processes. In this dissertation research, various approaches have been employed to understand fundamental phenomena such as grain growth, impurity segregation, second-phase formation and crystallization. The materials system chosen was alumina intentionally doped with calcium. Atomic-scale structural analyses of grain boundaries in alumina were carried on the processed samples. It was found that above certain calcium concentrations, CA6 precipitated as a second phase at all sintering temperatures. The results also showed that abnormal grain growth can occur after precipitation and it is not only related to the calcium level, but it is also temperature dependent. In order to understand the formation mechanism of CA6 precipitates in calcium doped alumina samples, several studies have been carried out using either bulk materials or thin films The crystallization of CA2 and CA6 powders has been studied. Chemical processing techniques were used to synthesize the powders. It was observed that CA2 powders crystallized directly, however CA6 powders crystallized through gamma-Al 2O3 solid solution. The results of energy-loss near-edge spectrometry confirmed that gamma-Al2O3 can dissolve calcium. Calcium aluminate/alumina reaction couples have also been investigated. All reaction couples were heat treated following deposition. It was found that gamma-Al2O3 was formed at the interface as a result of the interfacial reaction between the film and the substrate. gamma-Al 2O3 at the interface was stable at much higher temperatures compared to the bulk gamma-Al2O3 formed prior to the CA6 crystallization. In order to

  19. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust, alumina dust, and caustic mist in contemporary best-practice bauxite mining and alumina refining operations have not been demonstrated to be associated with clinically significant decrements in lung function. Exposures to bauxite dust and alumina dust at such operations are also not associated with the incidence of cancer. Conclusions: A range of occupational health risks in bauxite mining and alumina refining require the maintenance of effective control measures. PMID:24806720

  20. Effect of surface modifications on the bond strength of zirconia ceramic with resin cement resin.

    PubMed

    Hallmann, Lubica; Ulmer, Peter; Lehmann, Frank; Wille, Sebastian; Polonskyi, Oleksander; Johannes, Martina; Köbel, Stefan; Trottenberg, Thomas; Bornholdt, Sven; Haase, Fabian; Kersten, Holger; Kern, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of surface modifications on the tensile bond strength between zirconia ceramic and resin. Zirconia ceramic surfaces were treated with 150-μm abrasive alumina particles, 150-μm abrasive zirconia particles, argon-ion bombardment, gas plasma, and piranha solution (H2SO4:H2O2=3:1). In addition, slip casting surfaces were examined. Untreated surfaces were used as the control group. Tensile bond strengths (TBS) were measured after water storage for 3 days or 150 days with additional 37,500 thermal cycling for artificial aging. Statistical analyses were performed with 1-way and 3-way ANOVA, followed by comparison of means with the Tukey HSD test. After storage in distilled water for three days at 37 °C, the highest mean tensile bond strengths (TBS) were observed for zirconia ceramic surfaces abraded with 150-μm abrasive alumina particles (TBS(AAP)=37.3 MPa, TBS(CAAP)=40.4 MPa), and 150-μm abrasive zirconia particles (TBS(AZP)=34.8 MPa, TBS(CAZP)=35.8 MPa). Also a high TBS was observed for specimens treated with argon-ion bombardment (TBS(BAI)=37.8 MPa). After 150 days of storage, specimens abraded with 150-μm abrasive alumina particles and 150-μm abrasive zirconia particles revealed high TBS (TBS(AAP)=37.6 MPa, TBS(CAAP)=33.0 MPa, TBS(AZP)=22.1 MPa and TBS(CAZP)=22.8 MPa). A high TBS was observed also for specimens prepared with slip casting (TBS(SC)=30.0 MPa). A decrease of TBS was observed for control specimens (TBS(UNT)=12.5 MPa, TBS(CUNT)=9.0 MPa), specimens treated with argon-ion bombardment (TBS(BAI)=10.3 MPa) and gas plasma (TBS(GP)=11.0 MPa). A decrease of TBS was observed also for specimens treated with piranha solution (TBS(PS)=3.9 MPa, TBS(CPS)=4.1 MPa). A significant difference in TBS after three days storage was observed for specimens treated with different methods (p<0.001). Thermal cycling significantly reduced TBS for all groups (p<0.001) excluding groups: AAP(p>0.05), CAAP(p>0.05) and SC(p>0

  1. Branchy alumina nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jianping; Pu, Lin; Bao, Ximao; Feng, Duan

    2002-02-01

    Branchy alumina nanotubes (bANTs) have been shown to exist in aluminum oxide. Electron-beam evaporated 400 nm Al film on Si substrate is stepwise anodized in dilute sulfuric acid under the constant dc voltage 40 V at 10.0 °C. This electrochemical-anodizing route resulted in the formation of individual bANTs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the length of the bANTs was around 450 nm, and the inner diameter was around 10-20 nm. We deduced that the bANTs, the completely detached multibranchy cells of anodic porous alumina (APA) film, should be evolved from the stagnant cells of the APA mother film. The bANTs may be used as templates in fabrication of individual branchy nanoscale cables, jacks, and heterojunctions. The proposed formation mechanisms of the bANTs and the stagnant cells should give some insights into the long-standing problem of APA film, i.e., the self-ordering mechanism of the cells arrangement in porous anodization of aluminum.

  2. Enhancement of thermal shock resistance of reaction sintered mullite–zirconia composites in the presence of lanthanum oxide

    SciT

    Kumar, P.; Nath, M.; Ghosh, A.

    2015-03-15

    Mullite–zirconia composites containing 20 wt.% zirconia were prepared by reaction sintering of zircon flour, sillimanite beach sand and calcined alumina. 0 to 8 mol% of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} with respect to zirconia was used as sintering aid. The effect of additive on the various physical, microstructures, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties was studied. Quantitative phase analysis shows the change in tetragonal zirconia content with incorporation of lanthanum oxide. La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition has significantly improved the thermal shock resistance of the samples. Samples without additive retained only 20% of initial flexural strength after 5 cycles, whereas samples containing 5 mol% La{submore » 2}O{sub 3} retained almost 78% of its initial flexural strength even after 15 thermal shock cycles. - Highlights: • Mullite–zirconia composites were prepared by reaction sintering route utilizing zircon and sillimanite beach sand. • Lanthanum oxide was used as sintering aid. • The presence of lanthanum oxide decreased the densification temperature. • Lanthanum oxide significantly improved the thermal shock resistance of the composites.« less

  3. Fracture toughness of advanced ceramics at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, George D.; Salem, Jonathan; Bar-On, Isa; Cho, Kyu; Foley, Michael; Fang, HO

    1992-01-01

    Results of round-robin fracture toughness tests on advanced ceramics are reported. A gas-pressure silicon nitride and a zirconia-toughened alumina were tested using three test methods: indentation fracture, indentation strength, and single-edge precracked beam. The latter two methods have produced consistent results. The interpretation of fracture toughness test results for the zirconia alumina composite is shown to be complicated by R-curve and environmentally assisted crack growth phenomena.

  4. Evaluation of Effect of Zirconia Surface Treatment, Using Plasma of Argon and Silane, on the Shear Bond Strength of Two Composite Resin Cements

    PubMed Central

    Ramdev, Poojya; Shruthi, C S

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Yttria stabilised tetragonal zirconia opens new vistas for all ceramic restoration by the mechanism of transformation toughening, making it much stronger compared to all other ceramic materials. Currently, it is the most recent core material for all ceramic fixed partial dentures due to its ability to withstand high simulated masticatory loads. Problems which have been reported with zirconia restorations involve the core cement interface leading to loss of retention of the prosthesis. Different reasons which have been reported for the same include the lack of adhesion between zirconia and commonly used cements due to absence of silica phase which makes zirconia not etchable. In addition, the hydrophobic nature of zirconia causes low wettability of zirconia surface by the adhesive cements which are commonly used. Aim The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare and evaluate the effect of two pre-treatments of zirconia, using plasma of argon and silane, on the shear bond strength values of two composite resin cements to zirconia and to evaluate the failure pattern of the debonded areas using stereomicroscopic analysis. Materials and Methods Sixty zirconia discs (10 mm×2 mm) were randomly divided into three groups (n=20), following surface treatment, with airborne particle abrasion, using 110 µm Al2O3: Group I (control), Group II (plasma of argon cleaning), and Group III (application of silane primer). Each group had two subgroups based on the type of resin cement used for bonding: subgroup A; Rely X Ultimate (3M ESPE) and subgroup B; Panavia F (Kuraray). In subgroup A, Rely X universal silane primer and in subgroup B Clearfil ceramic primer was used. Shear bond strengths were determined after water storage for one day and thermocycling for 5000 cycles. Data (megapascal) were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni test. Specimens were subjected to stereomicroscopic analysis, for evaluation of failure pattern. Results Group III produced the highest

  5. Study of hole characteristics in Laser Trepan Drilling of ZTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Surendra K.; Dubey, Avanish K.; Upadhyay, B. N.; Choubey, A.

    2018-07-01

    Zirconia Toughened Alumina ceramic is widely used for aerospace components, combustion chambers, heat exchangers, bearings and pumps mainly due to its improved mechanical and thermal properties. To make holes in thick section Zirconia Toughened Alumina ceramics is a major challenge due to its unfavorable machining characteristics. Recent researches have explored that laser machining can overcome the machining limitations of advanced materials having improved mechanical properties. In present research, authors have analyzed the effect of Laser Trepan Drilling on hole characteristics of 6.0 mm thick Zirconia Toughened Alumina. Effect of significant process parameters on hole characteristics such as hole circularity at top and bottom, hole taper, and spatter size have been studied. The optimum ranges of these parameters have been suggested on the basis of empirical modeling and optimization.

  6. Adhesive Cementation Promotes Higher Fatigue Resistance to Zirconia Crowns.

    PubMed

    Campos, F; Valandro, L F; Feitosa, S A; Kleverlaan, C J; Feilzer, A J; de Jager, N; Bottino, M A

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the cementation strategy on the fatigue resistance of zirconia crowns. The null hypothesis was that the cementation strategy would not affect the fatigue resistance of the crowns. Seventy-five simplified molar tooth crown preparations were machined in glass fiber-filled epoxy resin. Zirconia crowns were designed (thickness=0.7 mm), milled by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and sintered, as recommended. Crowns were cemented onto the resin preparations using five cementation strategies (n=15): ZP, luting with zinc phosphate cement; PN, luting with Panavia F resin cement; AL, air particle abrasion with alumina particles (125 μm) as the crown inner surface pretreatment + Panavia F; CJ, tribochemical silica coating as crown inner surface pretreatment + Panavia F; and GL, application of a thin layer of porcelain glaze followed by etching with hydrofluoric acid and silanization as crown inner surface pretreatment + Panavia F. Resin cement was activated for 30 seconds for each surface. Specimens were tested until fracture in a stepwise stress fatigue test (10,000 cycles in each step, 600 to 1400 N, frequency of 1.4 Hz). The mode of failure was analyzed by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Mantel-Cox (log rank) tests and a pairwise comparison (p<0.05) and by Weibull analysis. The CJ group had the highest load mean value for failure (1200 N), followed by the PN (1026 N), AL (1026 N), and GL (1013 N) groups, while the ZP group had the lowest mean value (706 N). Adhesively cemented groups (CJ, AL, PN, and GL) needed a higher number of cycles for failure than the group ZP did. The groups' Weibull moduli (CJ=5.9; AL=4.4; GL=3.9; PN=3.7; ZP=2.1) were different, considering the number of cycles for failure data. The predominant mode of failure was a fracture that initiated in the cement/zirconia layer. Finite element analysis showed the different

  7. Addition of platinum and silver nanoparticles to toughen dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, Tokushi; Uno, Mitsunori; Ishigami, Hajime; Kurachi, Masakazu; Wakamatsu, Nobukazu; Doi, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have investigated toughening porcelain that is layered over a frame or a core. The introduction of residual compressive stress to the surface of porcelain has been shown to be effective to strengthen it. In the present study, nanoparticles of precious metals of silver and platinum (rather than non-precious metals) were used to evaluate if they could increase the fracture resistance of porcelain. The addition of silver and platinum nanoparticles was found to improve the mechanical properties of porcelain since it increased both the Young's modulus and the fracture toughness of commercial porcelain.

  8. Toughened epoxy resin system and a method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Janke, C.J.; Dorsey, G.F.; Havens, S.J.; Lopata, V.J.

    1998-03-10

    Mixtures of epoxy resins with cationic initiators are curable under high energy ionizing radiation such as electron beam radiation, X-ray radiation, and gamma radiation. The composition of this process consists of an epoxy resin, a cationic initiator such as a diaryliodonium or triarylsulfonium salt of specific anions, and a toughening agent such as a thermoplastic, hydroxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, epoxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, reactive flexibilizer, rubber, elastomer, or mixture thereof. Cured compositions have high glass transition temperatures, good mechanical properties, and good toughness. These properties are comparable to those of similar thermally cured epoxies.

  9. Toughened epoxy resin system and a method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dorsey, George F.; Havens, Stephen J.; Lopata, Vincent J.

    1998-01-01

    Mixtures of epoxy resins with cationic initiators are curable under high energy ionizing radiation such as electron beam radiation, X-ray radiation, and gamma radiation. The composition of this process consists of an epoxy resin, a cationic initiator such as a diaryliodonium or triarylsulfonium salt of specific anions, and a toughening agent such as a thermoplastic, hydroxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, epoxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, reactive flexibilizer, rubber, elastomer, or mixture thereof. Cured compositions have high glass transition temperatures, good mechanical properties, and good toughness. These properties are comparable to those of similar thermally cured epoxies.

  10. Pressureless sintering of whiskered-toughened ceramic composites

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, T.N.

    1994-12-27

    A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method. 6 figures.

  11. Toughening of PMR composites by semi-interpenetrating networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Srinivansan, K.

    1991-01-01

    Polymerization of monomer reactants (PMR-15) type polyimide and RP46 prepregs were drum wound using IM-7 fibers. Prepregging and processing conditions were optimized to yield good quality laminates with fiber volume fractions of 60 percent (+/- 2 percent). Samples were fabricated and tested to determine comprehensive engineering properties of both systems. These included 0 deg flexure, short beam shear, transverse flexure and tension, 0 deg tension and compression, intralaminar shear, short block compression, mode 1 and 2 fracture toughness, and compression after impact properties. Semi-2-IPN (interpenetrating polymer networks) toughened PMR-15 and RP46 laminates were also fabricated and tested for the same properties.

  12. Towards long lasting zirconia-based composites for dental implants: Transformation induced plasticity and its consequence on ceramic reliability.

    PubMed

    Reveron, Helen; Fornabaio, Marta; Palmero, Paola; Fürderer, Tobias; Adolfsson, Erik; Lughi, Vanni; Bonifacio, Alois; Sergo, Valter; Montanaro, Laura; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2017-01-15

    Zirconia-based composites were developed through an innovative processing route able to tune compositional and microstructural features very precisely. Fully-dense ceria-stabilized zirconia ceramics (84vol% Ce-TZP) containing equiaxed alumina (8vol%Al 2 O 3 ) and elongated strontium hexa-aluminate (8vol% SrAl 12 O 19 ) second phases were obtained by conventional sintering. This work deals with the effect of the zirconia stabilization degree (CeO 2 in the range 10.0-11.5mol%) on the transformability and mechanical properties of Ce-TZP-Al 2 O 3 -SrAl 12 O 19 materials. Vickers hardness, biaxial flexural strength and Single-edge V-notched beam tests revealed a strong influence of ceria content on the mechanical properties. Composites with 11.0mol% CeO 2 or above exhibited the classical behaviour of brittle ceramics, with no apparent plasticity and very low strain to failure. On the contrary, composites with 10.5mol% CeO 2 or less showed large transformation-induced plasticity and almost no dispersion in strength data. Materials with 10.5mol% of ceria showed the highest values in terms of biaxial bending strength (up to 1.1GPa) and fracture toughness (>10MPa√m). In these ceramics, as zirconia transformation precedes failure, the Weibull modulus was exceptionally high and reached a value of 60, which is in the range typically reported for metals. The results achieved demonstrate the high potential of using these new strong, tough and stable zirconia-based composites in structural biomedical applications. Yttria-stabilized (Y-TZP) zirconia ceramics are increasingly used for developing metal-free restorations and dental implants. Despite their success related to their excellent mechanical resistance, Y-TZP can undergo Low Temperature Degradation which could be responsible for restoration damage or even worst the failure of the implant. Current research is focusing on strategies to improve the LTD resistance of Y-TZP or to develop alternative composites with better

  13. Transformation of γ-alumina to θ-alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shuhui; Sohlberg, Karl; Rashkeev, Sergey; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2002-03-01

    γ- and θ-alumina are two metastable phases of aluminum oxide observed along the dehydration sequence of boehmite upon thermal treatment before conversion to the final product α-alumina. The transformation from the γ to the θ phase can best be studied by using Al_16O_24 cells. Motion of eight Al atoms from their γ-alumina positions to new positions and no O motions result in an approximate structure that, upon relaxation by first-principles calculations, becomes the known θ-alumina structure. Total-energy calculations along the paths of atomic motions have been used to map out possible synergistic transformation pathways. This work was supported in part by the USDoE and a NSF GOALI Grant with Alcoa, Inc.

  14. Effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation on bonding property of zirconia ceramics to resin cement.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yihua; Song, Xiaomeng; Chen, Yaming; Zhu, Qingping; Zhang, Wei

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether or not an erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser could improve the bonding property of zirconia ceramics to resin cement. Surface treatments can improve the bonding properties of dental ceramics. However, little is known about the effect of Er:YAG laser irradiated on zirconia ceramics. Specimens of zirconia ceramic pieces were made, and randomly divided into 11 groups according to surface treatments, including one control group (no treatment), one air abrasion group, and nine Er:YAG laser groups. The laser groups were subdivided by applying different energy intensities (100, 200, or 300 mJ) and irradiation times (5, 10, or 15 sec). After surface treatments, ceramic pieces had their surface morphology observed, and their surface roughness was measured. All specimens were bonded to resin cement. Shear bond strength was measured after the bonded specimens were stored in water for 24 h, and additionally aged by thermocycling. Statistical analyses were performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test for shear bond strength, and Dunnett's t test for surface roughness, with α=0.05. Er:YAG laser irradiation changed the morphological characteristics of zirconia ceramics. Higher energy intensities (200, 300 mJ) could roughen the ceramics, but also caused surface cracks. There were no significant differences in the bond strength between the control group and the laser groups treated with different energy intensities or irradiation times. Air abrasion with alumina particles induced highest surface roughness and shear bond strength. Er:YAG laser irradiation cannot improve the bonding property of zirconia ceramics to resin cement. Enhancing irradiation intensities and extending irradiation time have no benefit on the bond of the ceramics, and might cause material defect.

  15. Toughening and its association with the postharvest quality of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) stored at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Danqing; Qin, Xiaoyi; Tian, Pingping; Wang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Toughening-induced textural decay easily occurs in stored mushrooms. The objective of this study was to investigate the textural alteration caused by toughening in relation to other quality attributes of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii). Fresh king oyster mushrooms, packed in low-density polyethylene bags, were stored at different low temperatures for 18 days to measure textural and other quality attributes. It was found that toughening occurred twice during the entire storage time. Highly associated change profiles were observed for the lignin content and activities of three important enzymes involved in lignin synthesis. The chitin and cellulose contents exhibited low correlation with toughening. Malondialdehyde content, electrolyte leakage rate and total phenolics content appeared to be related to toughening, but the browning index showed a negative correlation with toughening. Our results suggested that toughening may be mainly caused by lignification and can affect the postharvest quality of the tested mushrooms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Zirconia-molybdenum disilicide composites

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    Compositions of matter comprised of molybdenum disilicide and zirconium oxide in one of three forms: pure, partially stabilized, or fully stabilized and methods of making the compositions. The stabilized zirconia is crystallographically stabilized by mixing it with yttrium oxide, calcium oxide, cerium oxide, or magnesium oxide and it may be partially stabilized or fully stabilized depending on the amount of stabilizing agent in the mixture.

  17. Toughening mechanism in elastometer-modified epoxy resins: Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, A. F.; Pearson, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Several plaques of Epon 828, cured with piperidine, modified with hycar(r) CTBN 1300X8, Hycar(R) CTBN 1300X13, and Hycar(R) CTBN 1300x15, and in some cases modified with biphenol A (BPA), yielded properly toughened epoxies with rubber particle diameters ranging from 0.1 to 10 microns. Fracture toughness experiments indicate that toughness was more a function of rubber content than the rubber particle size. Tensile volumetric behavior of the near resin exhibits two regions: an initial region where the increase in volume strain was due to the Poisson's effect, and a second region where a slower rate of increase in volume strain was due to shear deformation. Tensile volumetric deformation of an elastomer-modified epoxy exhibits the same type of behavior to that of the neat resin at low rates ( 3.2x0.01 sec(-1)). But at very high strain rates, which correspond more closely to the strain rates at the crack tip, there exists an increase in volume strain beyond the Poisson's effect. TEM, SEM and OM studies indicate that the rubber particles had voided. When a thin section from the deformed region is viewed under crossed-polarized light, shear bands are seen connecting voided rubber particles. From this information cavitation and enhanced shear band formation is proposed as the toughening mechanism.

  18. Toughening elastomers with sacrificial bonds and watching them break

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creton, Costantino

    2014-03-01

    Most unfilled elastomers are relatively brittle, in particular when the average molecular weight between crosslinks is lower than the average molecular weight between entanglements. We created a new class of tough elastomers by introducing isotropically prestretched chains inside ordinary acrylic elastomers by successive swelling and polymerization steps. These new materials combine a high entanglement density with a densely crosslinked structure reaching elastic moduli of 4 MPa and fracture strength of 25 MPa. The highly prestretched chains are the minority in the material and can break in the bulk of the material before catastrophic failure occurs, increasing the toughness of the material by two orders of magnitude up to 5 kJ/m2. To investigate the details of the toughening mechanism we introduced specific sacrificial dioxetane bonds in the prestretched chains that emit light when they break. In uniaxial extension cyclic experiments, we checked that the light emission corresponded exactly and quantitatively to the energy dissipation in each cycle demonstrating that short chains break first and long chains later. We then watched crack propagation in notched samples and mapped spatially the location of bond breakage ahead of the crack tip before and during propagation. This new toughening mechanism for elastomers creates superentangled rubbers and is ideally suited to overcome the trade-off between toughness and stiffness of ordinary elastomers. We gratefully acknowledge funding from DSM Ahead

  19. Extreme Toughening of Soft Materials with Liquid Metal.

    PubMed

    Kazem, Navid; Bartlett, Michael D; Majidi, Carmel

    2018-05-01

    Soft and tough materials are critical for engineering applications in medical devices, stretchable and wearable electronics, and soft robotics. Toughness in synthetic materials is mostly accomplished by increasing energy dissipation near the crack tip with various energy dissipation techniques. However, bio-materials exhibit extreme toughness by combining multi-scale energy dissipation with the ability to deflect and blunt an advancing crack tip. Here, we demonstrate a synthetic materials architecture that also exhibits multi-modal toughening, whereby embedding a suspension of micron sized and highly deformable liquid metal (LM) droplets inside a soft elastomer, the fracture energy dramatically increases by up to 50x (from 250 ± 50 J m -2 to 11,900 ± 2600 J m -2 ) over an unfilled polymer. For some LM-embedded elastomer (LMEE) compositions, the toughness is measured to be 33,500 ± 4300 J m -2 , which far exceeds the highest value previously reported for a soft elastic material. This extreme toughening is achieved by (i) increasing energy dissipation, (ii) adaptive crack movement, and (iii) effective elimination of the crack tip. Such properties arise from the deformability of the LM inclusions during loading, providing a new mechanism to not only prevent crack initiation, but also resist the propagation of existing tears for ultra tough, soft materials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Crunchiness Loss and Moisture Toughening in Puffed Cereals and Snacks.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Micha

    2015-09-01

    Upon moisture uptake, dry cellular cereals and snacks loose their brittleness and become soggy. This familiar phenomenon is manifested in smoothing their compressive force-displacement curves. These curves' degree of jaggedness, expressed by their apparent fractal dimension, can serve as an instrumental measure of the particles' crunchiness. The relationship between the apparent fractal dimension and moisture content or water activity has a characteristic sigmoid shape. The relationship between the sensorily perceived crunchiness and moisture also has a sigmoid shape whose inflection point lies at about the same location. The transition between the brittle and soggy states, however, appears sharper in the apparent fractal dimension compared with moisture plot. Less familiar is the observation that at moderate levels of moisture content, while the particles' crunchiness is being lost, their stiffness actually rises, a phenomenon that can be dubbed "moisture toughening." We show this phenomenon in commercial Peanut Butter Crunch® (sweet starch-based cereal), Cheese Balls (salty starch-based snack), and Pork Rind also known as "Chicharon" (salty deep-fried pork skin), 3 crunchy foods that have very different chemical composition. We also show that in the first 2 foods, moisture toughening was perceived sensorily as increased "hardness." We have concluded that the partial plasticization, which caused the brittleness loss, also inhibited failure propagation, which allowed the solid matrix to sustain higher stresses. This can explain other published reports of the phenomenon in different foods and model systems. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Mechanical Behavior of Sapphire Reinforced Alumina Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Setlock, John A.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.

    1997-01-01

    Zirconia coated sapphire reinforced alumina matrix composites have been tested both after heat treatment to 1400 C and at temperatures ranging from 800 C to 1200 C in. air. Interfacial shear stress has also been measured with fiber pushout tests performed in air at room temperature, 800 C and 1OOO C. Matrix crack spacing was measured for the tensile tested composites and used to estimate interfacial shear stress up to 1200 C. Electron microscopy was used to determine the source of fiber fracture and to study interfacial failure within the composite.

  2. Zirconia in fixed prosthesis. A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Román-Rodríguez, Juan L.; Ferreiroa, Alberto; Solá-Ruíz, María F.; Fons-Font, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Statement of problem: Evidence is limited on the efficacy of zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses. Objective: To carry out a literature review of the behavior of zirconium oxide dental restorations. Material and Methods: This literature review searched the Pubmed, Scopus, Medline and Cochrane Library databases using key search words “zirconium oxide,” “zirconia,” “non-metal restorations,” “ceramic oxides,” “veneering ceramic,” “zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses”. Both in vivo and in vitro studies into zirconia-based prosthodontic restoration behavior were included. Results: Clinical studies have revealed a high rate of fracture for porcelain-veneered zirconia-based restorations that varies between 6% and 15% over a 3- to 5-year period, while for ceramo-metallic restorations the fracture rate ranges between 4 and 10% over ten years. These results provoke uncertainty as to the long-term prognosis for this material in the oral medium. The cause of veneering porcelain fractures is unknown but hypothetically they could be associated with bond failure between the veneer material and the zirconia sub-structure. Key words:Veneering ceramic, zirconia-based ceramic restoration, crown, zirconia, tooth-supported fixed prosthesis. PMID:24596638

  3. Study and development of sulfated zirconia based proton exchange fuel cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Brittany Wilson

    With the increasing consumption of energy, fuel cells are among the most promising alternatives to fossil fuels, provided some technical challenges are overcome. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been investigated and improvements have been made, but the problem with NafionRTM, the main membrane for PEMFCs, has not been solved. NafionRTM restricts the membranes from operating at higher temperatures, thus preventing them from working in small electronics. The problem is to develop a novel fuel cell membrane that performs comparably to NafionRTM in PEMFCs. The membranes were fabricated by applying sulfated zirconia, via template wetting, to porous alumina membranes. The fabricated membranes showed a proton conductivity of 0.016 S/cm in comparison to the proton conductivity of Nafion RTM (0.05 S/cm). Both formic acid and methanol had a lower crossover flux through the sulfated zirconia membranes (formic acid- 2.89x10 -7 mols/cm2s and methanol-1.78x10-9 mols/cm2s) than through NafionRTM (formic acid-2.03x10 -8 mols/cm2s methanol-2.42x10-6 mols/cm 2s), indicating that a sulfated zirconia PEMFC may serve as a replacement for NafionRTM.

  4. The effect of various primers on shear bond strength of zirconia ceramic and resin composite.

    PubMed

    Sanohkan, Sasiwimol; Kukiattrakoon, Boonlert; Larpboonphol, Narongrit; Sae-Yib, Taewalit; Jampa, Thibet; Manoppan, Satawat

    2013-11-01

    To determine the in vitro shear bond strengths (SBS) of zirconia ceramic to resin composite after various primer treatments. Forty zirconia ceramic (Zeno, Wieland Dental) specimens (10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick) were prepared, sandblasted with 50 μm alumina, and divided into four groups (n = 10). Three experimental groups were surface treated with three primers; CP (RelyX Ceramic Primer, 3M ESPE), AP (Alloy Primer, Kuraray Medical), and MP (Monobond Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent AG). One group was not treated and served as the control. All specimens were bonded to a resin composite (Filtek Supreme XT, 3M ESPE) cylinder with an adhesive system (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus Adhesive, 3M ESPE) and then stored in 100% humidity at 37°C for 24 h before SBS testing in a universal testing machine. Mean SBS (MPa) were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (α = 0.05). Group AP yielded the highest mean and standard deviation (SD) value of SBS (16.8 ± 2.5 MPa) and Group C presented the lowest mean and SD value (15.4 ± 1.6 MPa). The SBS did not differ significantly among the groups (P = 0.079). Within the limitations of this study, the SBS values between zirconia ceramic to resin composite using various primers and untreated surface were not significantly different.

  5. Fractographic features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based dental restorations fractured during clinical function.

    PubMed

    Oilo, Marit; Hardang, Anne D; Ulsund, Amanda H; Gjerdet, Nils R

    2014-06-01

    Fractures during clinical function have been reported as the major concern associated with all-ceramic dental restorations. The aim of this study was to analyze the fracture features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based restorations fractured during clinical use. Twenty-seven crowns and onlays were supplied by dentists and dental technicians with information about type of cement and time in function, if available. Fourteen lithium disilicate glass-ceramic restorations and 13 zirconia-based restorations were retrieved and analyzed. Fractographic features were examined using optical microscopy to determine crack initiation and crack propagation of the restorations. The material comprised fractured restorations from one canine, 10 incisors, four premolars, and 11 molars. One crown was not categorized because of difficulty in orientation of the fragments. The results revealed that all core and veneer fractures initiated in the cervical margin and usually from the approximal area close to the most coronally placed curvature of the margin. Three cases of occlusal chipping were found. The margin of dental all-ceramic single-tooth restorations was the area of fracture origin. The fracture features were similar for zirconia, glass-ceramic, and alumina single-tooth restorations. Design features seem to be of great importance for fracture initiation. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  6. Elevated Temperature Testing and Modeling of Advanced Toughened Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a final report for the period of 12/1/03 through 11/30/04 for NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC3-776, entitled "Elevated Temperature Testing and Modeling of Advanced Toughened Ceramic Materials." During this final period, major efforts were focused on both the determination of mechanical properties of advanced ceramic materials and the development of mechanical test methodologies under several different programs of the NASA-Glenn. The important research activities made during this period are: 1. Mechanical properties evaluation of two gas-turbine grade silicon nitrides. 2) Mechanical testing for fuel-cell seal materials. 3) Mechanical properties evaluation of thermal barrier coatings and CFCCs and 4) Foreign object damage (FOD) testing.

  7. Evaluation of spatial and functional roughness parameters on air-abraded zirconia as a function of particle type and deposition pressure.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, José Renato Cavalcanti; Botelho, Marco Antonio; Sousa, Samira Albuquerque de; Martinelli, Antonio Eduardo; Özcan, Mutlu

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the spatial and functional roughness parameters on air-abraded zirconia as a function of particle type and deposition pressure. Polished zirconia blocks (Cercon, Degussa/Dentsply) (N=30) with dimensions of 5 × 4 × 4 mm3 were air abraded according to 2 factors: a) particle type - 30-μm silica-coated alumina (CoJet) or alumina particles (45 μm); b) deposition pressure (1.5, 2.5 and 4.5 bar). Roughness parameters (Sdr, Vi, Sci and Svi) were measured in an optical profilometer (Wyko NT 1100) at the center of the air-abraded area (301.3 × 229.2 μm). Two measurements were made for each parameter from each surface. The means of each group were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's adjustment test and Student's t-test (alpha = 0.05). Both the particle type (p < 0.05) and deposition pressure (p < 0.05) significantly affected the roughness parameters. Interaction terms were significant except for Sci and Svi. With the increase in pressure from 1.5 to 4.5 bar, Sdr (CoJet 1.5: 15.7 ± 0.2; CoJet 4.5: 26.6 ± 0.2; alumina 1.5: 14.7 ± 0.2; alumina 4.5: 24.4 ± 0.2) and Vi (CoJet 1.5: 0.66 ± 0.01; CoJet 4.5: 1.37 ± 0.07; alumina 1.5: 0.62 ± 0.02; alumina 4.5: 1.19 ± 0.02) parameters showed a significant increase with both alumina and CoJet particles. Mean Sci values (CoJet 1.5: 1.62 ± 0.01, CoJet 4.5: 1.49 ± 0.02; alumina 1.5: 1.6 ± 0.03; alumina 4.5: 1.42 ± 0.04) and SVi (CoJet 1.5: 0.98 ± 0.01, CoJet 4.5: 0.112 ± 0.01; alumina 1.5: 0.98 ± 0.01, alumina 4.5: 0.12 ± 0.01) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with the increase in pressure from 1.5 to 4.5 bar. The pressure increase from 2.5 to 4.5 bar did not cause any significant difference (p > 0.05) in these parameters for either particle type. Considering roughness parameters for micromechanical retention and parameters for adsorption mechanisms of adhesion, zirconia surfaces presented better morphological features when air abraded with silica-coated alumina than alumina particles at

  8. Synthesis and Structure Property Studies of Toughened Epoxy Resins Via Functionalized Polysiloxanes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-30

    34 87S N4 SYNTHESIS RNO STRUCTURE PROPERTY STUDIES OF OP NDD mEPOXY RESINS YIN FU.. (U) VIROINIR POLYTECHNIC INST OM STNTE UNIY RCKSBURG DEPT OF C.. J...Classification) Synthesis and Structure Property Studies of Toughened Epoxy Resins Via Functionalized Polysiloxanes 12. PERSONALAUTHOR(S) J. 5. HitTIe... Resins , Toughening 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) Epoxy resins chemically modified with functionally

  9. Gelcasting polycrystalline alumina

    SciT

    Janney, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    This work is being done as part of a CRADA with Osram-Sylvania, Inc. (OSI) OSI is a major U.S. manufacturer of high-intensity lighting. Among its products is the Lumalux{reg_sign} line of high-pressure sodium vapor arc lamps, which are used for industrial, highway, and street lighting. The key to the performance of these lamps is the polycrystalline alumina (PCA) tube that is used to contain the plasma that is formed in the electric arc. That plasma consists of ionized sodium, mercury, and xenon vapors. The key attributes of the PCA tubes are their transparency (95% total transmittance in the visible region),more » their refractoriness (inner wall temperature can reach 1400{degrees}C), and their chemical resistance (sodium and mercury vapor are extremely corrosive). The current efficiency of the lamps is very high, on the order of several hundred lumens / watt. (Compare - incandescent lamps -13 lumens/watt fluorescent lamps -30 lumens/watt.) Osram-Sylvania would like to explore using gelcasting to form PCA tubes for Lumalux{reg_sign} lamps, and eventually for metal halide lamps (known as quartz-halogen lamps). Osram-Sylvania, Inc. currently manufactures PCA tubes by isostatic pressing. This process works well for the shapes that they presently use. However, there are several types of tubes that are either difficult or impossible to make by isostatic pressing. It is the desire to make these new shapes and sizes of tubes that has prompted Osram-Sylvania`s interest in gelcasting. The purpose of the CRADA is to determine the feasibility of making PCA items having sufficient optical quality that they are useful in lighting applications using gelcasting.« less

  10. Synthesis of zirconia monoliths for chromatographic separations.

    PubMed

    Randon, Jérôme; Huguet, Samuel; Piram, Anne; Puy, Guillaume; Demesmay, Claire; Rocca, Jean-Louis

    2006-03-17

    The aim of this work is to join the advantages of two different kinds of stationary phases: monolithic columns and zirconia-based supports. On the one hand, silica monolithic columns allow a higher efficiency with a lower back-pressure than traditional packed columns. On the other hand, chromatographic stationary phases based on zirconia have a higher thermal and chemical stability and specific surface properties. Combining these advantages, a zirconia monolith with a macroporous framework could be a real improvement in separation sciences. Two main strategies can be used in order to obtain a zirconia surface on a monolithic skeleton: coating or direct synthesis. The coverage by a zirconia layer of the surface of a silica-based monolith can be performed using the chemical properties of the silanol surface groups. We realized this coverage using zirconium alkoxide and we further grafted n-dodecyl groups using phosphate derivatives. Any loss of efficiency was observed and fast separations have been achieved. The main advance reported in this paper is related to the preparation of zirconia monoliths by a sol-gel process starting from zirconium alkoxide. The synthesis parameters (hydrolysis ratio, porogen type, precursor concentration, drying step, etc.) were defined in order to produce a macroporous zirconia monoliths usable in separation techniques. We produced various homogeneous structures: zirconia rod 2 cm long with a diameter of 2.3 mm, and zirconia monolith inside fused silica capillaries with a 75 microm I.D. These monoliths have a skeleton size of 2 microm and have an average through pore size of 6 microm. Several separations have been reported.

  11. Attrition resistant gamma-alumina catalyst support

    SciT

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.

    2006-03-14

    A .gamma.-alumina catalyst support having improved attrition resistance produced by a method comprising the steps of treating a particulate .gamma.-alumina material with an acidic aqueous solution comprising water and nitric acid and then, prior to adding any catalytic material thereto, calcining the treated .gamma.-alumina.

  12. Tribochemical Glass Ceramic Coating as a New Approach for Resin Adhesion to Zirconia.

    PubMed

    Wandscher, Vinícius Felipe; Fraga, Sara; Pozzobon, João Luiz; Soares, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck; Foletto, Edson Luiz; May, Liliana Gressler; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    To investigate the effects of a novel tribochemical silica coating technique with powders made from feldspathic ceramic and leucite-based ceramic on the bond strength of zirconia to resin cement before and after aging. Zirconia blocks were divided into 3 groups according to the material used for airborne-particle abrasion: 1) SP (control): silica-coated alumina particles; 2) FP: feldspathic ceramic powder; 3) LP: leucite glass-ceramic powder. After silanization, composite resin cylinders were cemented on the zirconia surface using a dual-curing resin cement. Prior to the shear bond strength (SBS) test, half of the samples (n = 15) were stored in distilled water for 24 h; the other half (n = 15) were submitted to aging (10,000 thermocycles of 5°C to 55°C; 150 days of water storage). The bond strength data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction analysis were performed. The initial bond strengths did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.053). However, after aging procedures, airborne-particle abrasion with feldspathic ceramic powder (FP) resulted in higher values of bond strength (p = 0.0001). SEM and EDS indicated that all the treatments promoted silica deposition on the Y-TZP surface ceramic. Airborne-particle abrasion with FP and LP induced a lower percentage of the monoclinic phase. Airborne abrasion with fine feldspathic ceramic particles is a novel tribochemical technique and appears to be suitable for improving the bond strength between zirconia and resin cements.

  13. Transport properties of alumina nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kau-Fui Vincent; Kurma, Tarun

    2008-08-27

    Recent studies have showed that nanofluids have significantly greater thermal conductivity compared to their base fluids. Large surface area to volume ratio and certain effects of Brownian motion of nanoparticles are believed to be the main factors for the significant increase in the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. In this paper all three transport properties, namely thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and viscosity, were studied for alumina nanofluid (aluminum oxide nanoparticles in water). Experiments were performed both as a function of volumetric concentration (3-8%) and temperature (2-50 °C). Alumina nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 36 nm were dispersed in water. The effect of particle size was not studied. The transient hot wire method as described by Nagaska and Nagashima for electrically conducting fluids was used to test the thermal conductivity. In this work, an insulated platinum wire of 0.003 inch diameter was used. Initial calibration was performed using de-ionized water and the resulting data was within 2.5% of standard thermal conductivity values for water. The thermal conductivity of alumina nanofluid increased with both increase in temperature and concentration. A maximum thermal conductivity of 0.7351 W m(-1) K(-1) was recorded for an 8.47% volume concentration of alumina nanoparticles at 46.6 °C. The effective thermal conductivity at this concentration and temperature was observed to be 1.1501, which translates to an increase in thermal conductivity by 22% when compared to water at room temperature. Alumina being a good conductor of electricity, alumina nanofluid displays an increasing trend in electrical conductivity as volumetric concentration increases. A microprocessor-based conductivity/TDS meter was used to perform the electrical conductivity experiments. After carefully calibrating the conductivity meter's glass probe with platinum tip, using a standard potassium chloride solution, readings were taken at

  14. Two-body wear comparison of zirconia crown, gold crown, and enamel against zirconia.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min-Seok; Oh, Sang-Yeob; Cho, Sung-Am

    2015-07-01

    Full zirconia crowns have recently been used for dental restorations because of their mechanical properties. However, there is little information about their wear characteristics against enamel, gold, and full zirconia crowns. The purpose of this study was to compare the wear rate of enamel, gold crowns, and zirconia crowns against zirconia blocks using an in vitro wear test. Upper specimens were divided into three groups: 10 enamels (group 1), 10 gold crowns (group 2, Type III gold), and 10 zirconia crowns (group 3, Prettau(®)Zirkon 9H, Zirkonzahn, Italy). Each of these specimens was wear tested against a zirconia block (40×30×3mm(3)) as a lower specimen (30 total zirconia blocks). Each specimen of the groups was abraded against the zirconia block for 600 cycles at 1Hz with 15mm front-to-back movement on an abrading machine. Moreover, the load applied during the abrading test was 50N, and the test was performed in a normal saline emulsion for 10min. Three-dimensional images were taken before and after the test, and the statistical analysis was performed using the Krushal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test (p=0.05). The mean volume loss of group 1 was 0.47mm(3), while that of group 2 and group 3 was 0.01mm(3). The wear volume loss of enamels against zirconia was higher than that of gold and zirconia crowns. Moreover, according to this result, zirconia crowns are not recommended for heavy bruxers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On the interfacial fracture resistance of resin-bonded zirconia and glass-infiltrated graded zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Herzl; Kaizer, Marina; Chughtai, Asima; Tong, Hui; Tanaka, Carina; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective A major limiting factor for the widespread use of zirconia in prosthetic dentistry is its poor resin-cement bonding capabilities. We show that this deficiency can be overcome by infiltrating the zirconia cementation surface with glass. Current methods for assessing the fracture resistance of resin-ceramic bonds are marred by uneven stress distribution at the interface, which may result in erroneous interfacial fracture resistance values. We have applied a wedge-loaded double-cantilever-beam testing approach to accurately measure the interfacial fracture resistance of adhesively bonded zirconia-based restorative materials. Methods The interfacial fracture energy GC was determined for adhesively bonded zirconia, graded zirconia and feldspathic ceramic bars. The bonding surfaces were subjected to sandblasting or acid etching treatments. Baseline GC was measured for bonded specimens subjected to 7 days hydration at 37 °C. Long-term GC was determined for specimens exposed to 20,000 thermal cycles between 5 and 55 °C followed by 2-month aging at 37 °C in water. The test data were interpreted with the aid of a 2D finite element fracture analysis. Results The baseline and long-term GC for graded zirconia was 2–3 and 8 times that for zirconia, respectively. More significantly, both the baseline and long-term GC of graded zirconia were similar to those for feldspathic ceramic. Significance The interfacial fracture energy of feldspathic ceramic and graded zirconia was controlled by the fracture energy of the resin cement while that of zirconia by the interface. GC for the graded zirconia was as large as for feldspathic ceramic, making it an attractive material for use in dentistry. PMID:26365987

  16. Ductile-Phase-Toughened Tungsten for Plasma-Facing Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Kevin Hawkins

    A variety of processing approaches were employed to fabricate ductile-phase-toughened (DPT) tungsten (W) composites. Mechanical testing and analytical modeling were used to guide composite development. This work provides a basis for further development of W composites to be used in structural divertor components of future fusion reactors. W wire was tested in tension, showing significant ductility and strength. Coatings of copper (Cu) or tungsten carbide (WC) were applied to the W wire via electrodeposition and carburization, respectively. Composites were fabricated using spark plasma sintering (SPS) to consolidate W powders together with each type of coated W wire. DPT behavior, e.g. crack arrest and crack bridging, was not observed in three-point bend testing of the sintered composites. A laminate was fabricated by hot pressing W and Cu foils together with W wires, and subsequently tested in tension. This laminate was bonded via hot pressing to thick W plate as a reinforcing layer, and the composite was tested in three-point bending. Crack arrest was observed along with some fiber pullout, but significant transverse cracking in the W plate confounded further fracture toughness analysis. The fracture toughness of thin W plate was measured in three-point bending. W plates were brazed with Cu foils to form a laminate. Crack arrest and crack bridging were observed in three-point bend tests of the laminate, and fracture resistance curves were successfully calculated for this DPT composite. An analytical model of crack bridging was developed using the basis described by Chao in previous work by the group. The model uses the specimen geometry, matrix properties, and the stress-displacement function of a ductile reinforcement ("bridging law") to calculate the fracture resistance curve (R-curve) and load-displacement curve (P-D curve) for any test specimen geometry. The code was also implemented to estimate the bridging law of an arbitrary composite using R-curve data

  17. A review of engineered zirconia surfaces in biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ling; Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Alao, Abdur-Rasheed; Song, Xiao-Fei; Abduo, Jaafar; Zhang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Zirconia is widely used for load-bearing functional structures in medicine and dentistry. The quality of engineered zirconia surfaces determines not only the fracture and fatigue behaviour but also the low temperature degradation (ageing sensitivity), bacterial colonization and bonding strength of zirconia devices. This paper reviews the current manufacturing techniques for fabrication of zirconia surfaces in biomedical applications, particularly, in tooth and joint replacements, and influences of the zirconia surface quality on their functional behaviours. It discusses emerging manufacturing techniques and challenges for fabrication of zirconia surfaces in biomedical applications. PMID:29130030

  18. Mesoporous silica templated zirconia nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballem, Mohamed A.; Córdoba, José M.; Odén, Magnus

    2011-07-01

    Nanoparticles of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) were synthesized by infiltration of a zirconia precursor (ZrOCl2·8H2O) into a SBA-15 mesoporous silica mold using a wet-impregnation technique. X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy show formation of stable ZrO2 nanoparticles inside the silica pores after a thermal treatment at 550 °C. Subsequent leaching out of the silica template by NaOH resulted in well-dispersed ZrO2 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4 nm. The formed single crystal nanoparticles are faceted with 110 surfaces termination suggesting it to be the preferred growth orientation. A growth model of these nanoparticles is also suggested.

  19. Zirconia in dental implantology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Apratim, Abhishek; Eachempati, Prashanti; Krishnappa Salian, Kiran Kumar; Singh, Vijendra; Chhabra, Saurabh; Shah, Sanket

    2015-01-01

    Background: Titanium has been the most popular material of choice for dental implantology over the past few decades. Its properties have been found to be most suitable for the success of implant treatment. But recently, zirconia is slowly emerging as one of the materials which might replace the gold standard of dental implant, i.e., titanium. Materials and Methods: Literature was searched to retrieve information about zirconia dental implant and studies were critically analyzed. PubMed database was searched for information about zirconia dental implant regarding mechanical properties, osseointegration, surface roughness, biocompatibility, and soft tissue health around it. The literature search was limited to English language articles published from 1975 to 2015. Results: A total of 45 papers met the inclusion criteria for this review, among the relevant search in the database. Conclusion: Literature search showed that some of the properties of zirconia seem to be suitable for making it an ideal dental implant, such as biocompatibility, osseointegration, favourable soft tissue response and aesthetics due to light transmission and its color. At the same time, some studies also point out its drawbacks. It was also found that most of the studies on zirconia dental implants are short-term studies and there is a need for more long-term clinical trials to prove that zirconia is worth enough to replace titanium as a biomaterial in dental implantology. PMID:26236672

  20. High-Temperature Electrical Insulation Behavior of Alumina Films Prepared at Room Temperature by Aerosol Deposition and Influence of Annealing Process and Powder Impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Michael; Leupold, Nico; Exner, Jörg; Kita, Jaroslaw; Moos, Ralf

    2018-04-01

    Alumina (Al2O3) is a widely used material for highly insulating films due to its very low electrical conductivity, even at high temperatures. Typically, alumina films have to be sintered far above 1200 °C, which precludes the coating of lower melting substrates. The aerosol deposition method (ADM), however, is a promising method to manufacture ceramic films at room temperature directly from the ceramic raw powder. In this work, alumina films were deposited by ADM on a three-electrode setup with guard ring and the electrical conductivity was measured between 400 and 900 °C by direct current measurements according to ASTM D257 or IEC 60093. The effects of film annealing and of zirconia impurities in the powder on the electrical conductivity were investigated. The conductivity values of the ADM films correlate well with literature data and can even be improved by annealing at 900 °C from 4.5 × 10-12 S/cm before annealing up to 5.6 × 10-13 S/cm after annealing (measured at 400 °C). The influence of zirconia impurities is very low as the conductivity is only slightly elevated. The ADM-processed films show a very good insulation behavior represented by an even lower electrical conductivity than conventional alumina substrates as they are commercially available for thick-film technology.

  1. Damage-Resistant Composites Using Electrospun Nanofibers: A Multiscale Analysis of the Toughening Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Daelemans, Lode; van der Heijden, Sam; De Baere, Ives; Rahier, Hubert; Van Paepegem, Wim; De Clerck, Karen

    2016-05-11

    Today, fiber-reinforced polymer composites are a standard material in applications where a high stiffness and strength are required at minimal weight, such as aerospace structures, ultralight vehicles, or even flywheels for highly efficient power storage systems. Although fiber-reinforced polymer composites show many advantages compared to other materials, delamination between reinforcing plies remains a major problem limiting further breakthrough. Traditional solutions that have been proposed to toughen the interlaminar region between reinforcing plies have already reached their limit or have important disadvantages such as a high cost or the need for adapted production processes. Recently, electrospun nanofibers have been suggested as a more viable interlaminar toughening method. Although the expected benefits are numerous, the research on composite laminates enhanced with electrospun nanofibrous veils is still very limited. The work that has been done so far is almost exclusively focused on interlaminar fracture toughness tests with different kinds of nanofibers, where typically a trial and error approach has been used. A thorough understanding of the micromechanical fracture mechanisms and the parameters to obtain toughened composites has not been reported as of yet, but it is crucial to advance the research and design highly damage-resistant composites. This article provides such insight by analyzing the nanofiber toughening effect on three different levels for several nanofiber types. Only by combining the results from different levels, a thorough understanding can be obtained. These levels correspond to the hierarchical nature of a composite: the laminate, the interlaminar region, and the matrix resin. It is found that each level corresponds to certain mechanisms that result in a toughening effect. The bridging of microcracks by electrospun nanofibers is the main toughening mechanism resulting in damage resistance. Nevertheless, the way in which the

  2. Effect of sandblasting, silica coating, and laser treatment on the microtensile bond strength of a dental zirconia ceramic to resin cements.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Nasrin; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Heidari, Solmaz; Khoshro, Kimia

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of laser irradiation as well as other surface treatment methods on the microtensile bond strength of a dental zirconia ceramic to the two types of resin cements. Zirconia ceramic blocks (ICE Zirkon) were sintered according to the manufacturer's instructions and duplicated in resin composites. The ceramic specimens were divided into four groups according to the following surface treatments: no surface treatment (control), sandblasting with alumina, silica coating plus silanization, and Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The specimens were divided equally and then bonded with Panavia F2.0 (self-etching resin cement) and Clearfil SA Luting (self-adhesive resin cement) to the composite blocks. The bonded ceramic-composite blocks were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 72 h, cut to prepare bar-shaped specimens with a bonding area of approximately 1 mm(2), and thermocycled for 3000 cycles between 5 and 55 °C, and the microtensile bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. The results showed that the self-adhesive resin cement used in this study did not improve the microtensile bond strength when the zirconia surface was sandblasted by alumina. The use of the Nd:YAG laser did not enhance the bond strength between the zirconia and both types of resin cements. In addition, silica coating of the zirconia surfaces plus silane application significantly improved the bond strength regardless of the type of resin cement utilized.

  3. Properties of three graphite/toughened resin composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donald L.; Dow, Marvin B.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental evaluation of IM7/977-2, IM7/F655, and T800/F3900. Data presented include ply-level (unidirectional laminate) strength and moduli, unnotched and notched (open hole) tension and compression properties of quasi-isotropic laminates, and compression-after-impact strengths. These data are compared with properties of other toughened (IM7/8551-7 and IM6/18081) and brittle (T300/5208) graphite-epoxy materials. The IM7/977-2, IM7/F655, and T800/F3900 materials are substantially stronger and more damage tolerant than widely used first generation composite materials such as T300/5208. The T800/F3900 outperforms IM7/977-2 and IM7/F655 materials in tolerance to projectile impacts. Compression-after-impact strengths were found to be dependent on impactor velocity for a given impact energy. The open hole compression properties of all three materials are degraded by the combination of heat and moisture.

  4. Toughening mechanisms in interfacially modified HDPE/thermoplastic starch blends.

    PubMed

    Taguet, Aurélie; Bureau, Martin N; Huneault, Michel A; Favis, Basil D

    2014-12-19

    The mechanical behavior of polymer blends containing 80 wt% of HDPE and 20 wt% of TPS and compatibilized with HDPE-g-MA grafted copolymer was investigated. Unmodified HDPE/TPS blends exhibit high fracture resistance, however, the interfacial modification of those blends by addition of HDPE-g-MA leads to a dramatic drop in fracture resistance. The compatibilization of HDPE/TPS blends increases the surface area of TPS particles by decreasing their size. It was postulated that the addition of HDPE-g-MA induces a reaction between maleic anhydride and hydroxyl groups of the glycerol leading to a decrease of the glycerol content in the TPS phase. This phenomenon increases the stiffness of the modified TPS particles and stiffer TPS particles leading to an important reduction in toughness and plastic deformation, as measured by the EWF method. It is shown that the main toughening mechanism in HDPE/TPS blends is shear-yielding. This article demonstrates that stiff, low diameter TPS particles reduce shear band formation and consequently decrease the resistance to crack propagation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rough fibrils provide a toughening mechanism in biological fibers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cameron P; Harnagea, Catalin; Gill, Harinderjit S; Price, Andrew J; Traversa, Enrico; Licoccia, Silvia; Rosei, Federico

    2012-03-27

    Spider silk is a fascinating natural composite material. Its combination of strength and toughness is unrivalled in nature, and as a result, it has gained considerable interest from the medical, physics, and materials communities. Most of this attention has focused on the one to tens of nanometer scale: predominantly the primary (peptide sequences) and secondary (β sheets, helices, and amorphous domains) structure, with some insights into tertiary structure (the arrangement of these secondary structures) to describe the origins of the mechanical and biological performance. Starting with spider silk, and relating our findings to collagen fibrils, we describe toughening mechanisms at the hundreds of nanometer scale, namely, the fibril morphology and its consequences for mechanical behavior and the dissipation of energy. Under normal conditions, this morphology creates a nonslip fibril kinematics, restricting shearing between fibrils, yet allowing controlled local slipping under high shear stress, dissipating energy without bulk fracturing. This mechanism provides a relatively simple target for biomimicry and, thus, can potentially be used to increase fracture resistance in synthetic materials. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  6. Effect of toughened epoxy resin on partial discharge at solid-solid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Manping; Wu, Kai; Zhang, Zhao; Cheng, Yonghong

    2017-02-01

    A series of solid-solid interfaces, consisting of ceramic-epoxy resin interface samples with a tip-plate electrode, were investigated by performing partial discharge tests and real-time electrical tree observations. A toughening agent was added to the epoxy resin at different ratios for comparison. The impact strength, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dielectric properties of the cured compositions and ceramic were tested. The electric field strength at the tip was calculated based on Maxwell’s theory. The test results show that the addition of a toughener can improve the impact strength of epoxy resin but it decreases the partial discharge inception voltage (PDIV) of the interface sample. At the same time, toughening leads to complex branches of the electrical tree. The simulation result suggests that this reduction of the PDIV cannot be explained by a change of permittivity due to the addition of a toughening agent. The microstructural change caused by toughening was considered to be the key factor for lower PDIV and complex electrical tree branches. Supported by China Academy of Engineering Physics (Project 2014B05005).

  7. Experimental comparison of manufacturing techniques of toughened and nanoreinforced polyamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siengchin, S.; Bergmann, C.; Dangtungee, R.

    2011-11-01

    Composites consisting of polyamide-6 (PA-6), nitrile rubber (NBR), and sodium fluorohectorite (FH) or alumina silicate (Sungloss; SG) were produced by different techniques with latex precompounding. Their tensile and thermomechanical properties were determined by using tensile tests and a dynamic-mechanical analysis, performed at various temperatures. The PA-6/NBR composite systems produced by the direct melt compounding outperformed those obtained by using the masterbatch technique with respect to the strength and ductility, but the latter ones had a higher storage modulus.

  8. Molybdenum disilicide composites reinforced with zirconia and silicon carbide

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1995-01-17

    Compositions are disclosed consisting essentially of molybdenum disilicide, silicon carbide, and a zirconium oxide component. The silicon carbide used in the compositions is in whisker or powder form. The zirconium oxide component is pure zirconia or partially stabilized zirconia or fully stabilized zirconia.

  9. Oxygen separation from air using zirconia solid electrolyte membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suitor, J. W.; Marner, W. J.; Schroeder, J. E.; Losey, R. W.; Ferrall, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    Air separation using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane is a possible alternative source of oxygen. The process of zirconia oxygen separation is reviewed, and an oxygen plant concept using such separation is described. Potential cell designs, stack designs, and testing procedures are examined. Fabrication of the materials used in a zirconia module as well as distribution plate design and fabrication are examined.

  10. Molybdenum disilicide composites reinforced with zirconia and silicon carbide

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.

    1995-01-01

    Compositions consisting essentially of molybdenum disilicide, silicon carbide, and a zirconium oxide component. The silicon carbide used in the compositions is in whisker or powder form. The zirconium oxide component is pure zirconia or partially stabilized zirconia or fully stabilized zirconia.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of bulk yttria-partially-stabilized zirconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, P. G.; Maier, R. D.; Mitchell, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    A commercially available bulk 4.5 mole percent yttria-Y2O3)-partially-stabilized zirconia (PSZ) was studied by light microscopy, X-ray analysis, microhardness measurement, and fracture toughness testing. The growth of the precipitates and the phase transformations were studied as a function of aging in air at 1500 C. Aging cuves were constructed for both the as-received and the solution-annealed-and-quenched materials; the curves showed hardness peaks at 1397 and 1517 kg/sq mm, respectively. A total of twelve different types of tetragonal precipitates were found. The rectangular plate-shaped tetragonal precipitates were found to have a (110) habit plane. Grinding of the Y2O3 PSZ into powder did not cause a significant amount of metastable tetragonal precipitates to transform into the monoclinic phase, thus indicating that transformation toughening is not a significant mechanism for the material. The fracture toughness of the aged and of the unaged solution-annealed-and-quenched PSZ was found to be between 2 and 3 MN/cu m/2.

  12. Long-term stability and properties of zirconia ceramics for heavy duty diesel engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, D. C.; Adams, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of commercially available transformation-toughened zirconia are measured. Behavior is related to the material microstructure and phase assemblage. The stability of the materials is assessed after long-term exposure appropriate for diesel engine application. Properties measured included flexure strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, creep, thermal shock, thermal expansion, internal friction, and thermal diffusivity. Stability is assessed by measuring the residual property after 1000 hr/1000C static exposure. Additionally static fatigue and thermal fatigue testing is performed. Both yttria-stabilized and magnesia-stabilized materials are compared and contrasted. The major limitations of these materials are short term loss of properties with increasing temperature as the metastable tetragonal phase becomes more stable. Fine grain yttria-stabilized material (TZP) is higher strength and has a more stable microstructure with respect to overaging phenomena. The long-term limitation of Y-TZP is excessive creep deformation. Magnesia-stabilized PSZ has relatively poor stability at elevated temperature. Overaging, decomposition, and/or destabilization effects are observed. The major limitation of Mg-PSZ is controlling unwanted phase changes at elevated temperature.

  13. Surface modification of yttria stabilized zirconia via polydopamine inspired coating for hydroxyapatite biomineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Norhidayu Muhamad; Hussain, Rafaqat; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    2014-12-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has been widely used as biomedical implant due to its high strength and enhanced toughening characteristics. However, YSZ is a bioinert material which constrains the formation of chemical bonds with bone tissue following implantation. Inspired by the property of mussels, the surface of YSZ ceramics was functionalized by quinone-rich polydopamine to facilitate the biomineralization of hydroxyapatite. YSZ discs were first immersed in 2 mg/mL of stirred or unstirred dopamine solution at either 25 or 37 °C. The samples were then incubated in 1.5 simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7d. The effect of coating temperature for stirred and unstirred dopamine solutions during substrate grafting was investigated on the basis of chemical compositions, wettability and biomineralization of hydroxyapatite on the YSZ functionalized surface. The results revealed that the YSZ substrate grafted at 37 °C in stirred solution of dopamine possessed significantly improved hydrophilicity (water contact angle of 44.0 ± 2.3) and apatite-mineralization ability (apatite ratio of 1.78). In summary, the coating temperature and stirring condition during grafting procedure affected the chemical compositions of the films and thus influenced the formation of apatite layer on the substrate during the biomineralization process.

  14. Method for preparing Pb-. beta. ''-alumina ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Hellstrom, E.E.

    1984-08-30

    A process is disclosed for preparing impermeable, polycrystalline samples of Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic from Na-..beta..''-alumina ceramic by ion exchange. The process comprises two steps. The first step is a high-temperature vapor phase exchange of Na by K, followed by substitution of Pb for K by immersing the sample in a molten Pb salt bath. The result is a polycrystalline Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic that is substantially crack-free.

  15. MCP performance improvement using alumina thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuzhen; Yan, Baojun; Liu, Shulin; Zhao, Tianchi; Yu, Yang; Wen, Kaile; Li, Yumei; Qi, Ming

    2017-10-01

    The performance improvement using alumina thin film on a dual microchannel plate (MCP) detector for single electron counting was investigated. The alumina thin film was coated on all surfaces of the MCPs by atomic layer deposition method. It was found that the gain, the single electron resolution and the peak-to-valley ratio of the dual MCP detector were significantly enhanced by coating the alumina thin film. The optimum operating conditions of the new dual MCP detector have been studied.

  16. [Effects of different surface modifications on micro-structure and adhesion of zirconia ceramic: an in vitro study].

    PubMed

    Siwen, Li; Shishi, Li; Yanhong, Wang; Hongmei, Ma

    2017-02-01

    . This process induced cracks and the film to strip away slightly from the surfaces of Y-TZP substrate. The SBS values from large to small were F and G groups, C and D groups, B and E groups (P<0.05), and control group (P<0.05). Alumina sandblasting, silica powder abrasion, and silica-sol coating affect the surface morphology, structure, and composition of the tooth. This effect can also achieve the improved micro-mechanical interlocking or chemical bonding and finally increase the bond strength between zirconia and tooth. Alumina sandblasting followed by silica coating is an effective technique to increase the bonding strength between the zirconia ceramic and dentin.
.

  17. Investigation on fracture behavior and mechanisms of DGEBF toughened by CTBN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lulu; Tan, Yefa; Wang, Haitao; Gao, Li; Xiao, Chufan

    2018-05-01

    Carboxyl-terminated butadiene-co-acrylonitrile (CTBN) was used as the toughener to improve the mechanical performance and fracture toughness of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF) by prereacted approach. The results show that the chemical bonding interface was formed between DGEBF and CTBN particles in the prepolymerization reaction process, which remarkably enhances the fracture toughness of the composites. Based on the qualitative and quantitative analyses, it shows the main toughening mechanisms are the plastic shear banding effect resulted from the plastic deformation of the EP matrix and the plastic void expansion because of the debonding of CTBN particles from the EP matrix.

  18. On Delamination Toughening of a 14YWT Nanostructured Ferritic Alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Alam, M.E.; Pal, S.; Maloy, Stuart Andrew; ...

    2017-06-22

    The FCRD NFA-1 is a high strength, irradiation tolerant nanostructured ferritic alloy (NFA) produced by ball milling argon atomized Fe-14Cr-3W-0.35Ti-0.25Y (wt.%) and FeO powders, followed by hot extrusion at 850 °C, and subsequent annealing and cross-rolling at 1000 °C. The microstructure of the resulting ≈10 mm thick NFA-1 plate is dominated by ultrafine sub-micron pancake shaped grains, and a large population of microcracks lying on planes parallel to the plate faces. Pre-cracked fracture toughness tests in four different orientations (L-T, T-L, L-S and T-S) show stable crack growth by ductile tearing, with peak load K Jc from ≈ 88 tomore » 154 MPa√m at ambient temperature. Stable crack tearing persists down to ≈ -175 °C and is accompanied by extensive delamination due to the propagation of the microcracks. Depending on the specimen orientation, this unusual toughening mechanism is either due to a reduction of crack tip stresses in thin ligaments formed by the delaminations (L-T and T-L), or 90° deflection of cracks initially running normal to the delaminations (L-S and T-S), thereby suppressing cleavage in both cases. Lastly, understanding the fracture processes in NFA-1 is also important to its irradiation tolerance in nuclear service as well as its fabricability in making defect-free components such as thin-walled tubing.« less

  19. Biologically inspired autonomous structural materials with controlled toughening and healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Michael E.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2010-04-01

    the system to its original operating state. The entire system will effectively detect, self toughen, and subsequently heal damage as biological materials such as bone does.

  20. Influence of hydrophilic pre-treatment on resin bonding to zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Noro, Akio; Kameyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Akiko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric plasma or ultraviolet (UV) treatment alters the surface characteristics of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP), increasing its hydrophilicity by reducing the contact angle against water to zero. This suggests that such treatment would increase the wettability of bonding resin. The purpose of this study was to determine how increasing the hydrophilicity of TZP through plasma irradiation, UV treatment, or application of ceramic primer affected initial bonding with resin composites. Here, the effect of each pre-treatment on the hydrophilicity of TZP surfaces was determined by evaluating change in shear bond strength. Plasma irradiation, UV, or ceramic primer pre-treatment showed no significant effect on bonding strength between TZP surfaces and resin composites. In addition, alumina blasting yielded no significant increase in bond strength. Plasma irradiation, UV treatment, or ceramic primer pre-treatment did not lead to significant increase in bond strength between TZP and resin composites.

  1. Structural Effects of Lanthanide Dopants on Alumina

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ketan; Blair, Victoria; Douglas, Justin; Dai, Qilin; Liu, Yaohua; Ren, Shenqiang; Brennan, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Lanthanide (Ln3+) doping in alumina has shown great promise for stabilizing and promoting desirable phase formation to achieve optimized physical and chemical properties. However, doping alumina with Ln elements is generally accompanied by formation of new phases (i.e. LnAlO3, Ln2O3), and therefore inclusion of Ln-doping mechanisms for phase stabilization of the alumina lattice is indispensable. In this study, Ln-doping (400 ppm) of the alumina lattice crucially delays the onset of phase transformation and enables phase population control, which is achieved without the formation of new phases. The delay in phase transition (θ → α), and alteration of powder morphology, particle dimensions, and composition ratios between α- and θ-alumina phases are studied using a combination of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, electron microscopy, digital scanning calorimetry, and high resolution X-ray diffraction with refinement fitting. Loading alumina with a sparse concentration of Ln-dopants suggests that the dopants reside in the vacant octahedral locations within the alumina lattice, where complete conversion into the thermodynamically stable α-domain is shown in dysprosium (Dy)- and lutetium (Lu)-doped alumina. This study opens up the potential to control the structure and phase composition of Ln-doped alumina for emerging applications. PMID:28059121

  2. Structural Effects of Lanthanide Dopants on Alumina

    SciT

    Patel, Ketan; Blair, Victoria; Douglas, Justin

    Lanthanide (Ln 3+) doping in alumina has shown great promise for stabilizing and promoting desirable phase formation to achieve optimized physical and chemical properties. However, doping alumina with Ln elements is generally accompanied by formation of new phases (i.e. LnAlO 3, Ln 2O 3), and therefore inclusion of Ln-doping mechanisms for phase stabilization of the alumina lattice is indispensable. In this study, Ln-doping (400 ppm) of the alumina lattice crucially delays the onset of phase transformation and enables phase population control, which is achieved without the formation of new phases. In addition, the delay in phase transition (θ → α),more » and alteration of powder morphology, particle dimensions, and composition ratios between α- and θ-alumina phases are studied using a combination of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, electron microscopy, digital scanning calorimetry, and high resolution X-ray diffraction with refinement fitting. Loading alumina with a sparse concentration of Ln-dopants suggests that the dopants reside in the vacant octahedral locations within the alumina lattice, where complete conversion into the thermodynamically stable α-domain is shown in dysprosium (Dy)- and lutetium (Lu)-doped alumina. Lastly, this study opens up the potential to control the structure and phase composition of Ln-doped alumina for emerging applications.« less

  3. Structural Effects of Lanthanide Dopants on Alumina

    SciT

    Patel, Ketan; Blair, Victoria; Douglas, Justin

    Lanthanide (Ln 3+) doping in alumina has shown great promise for stabilizing and promoting desirable phase formation to achieve optimized physical and chemical properties. However, doping alumina with Ln elements is generally accompanied by formation of new phases (i.e. LnAlO3, Ln2O3), and therefore inclusion of Ln-doping mechanisms for phase stabilization of the alumina lattice is indispensable. In this study, Ln-doping (400 ppm) of the alumina lattice crucially delays the onset of phase transformation and enables phase population control, which is achieved without the formation of new phases. The delay in phase transition (θ → α), and alteration of powder morphology,more » particle dimensions, and composition ratios between α- and θ-alumina phases are studied using a combination of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, electron microscopy, digital scanning calorimetry, and high resolution X-ray diffraction with refinement fitting. Loading alumina with a sparse concentration of Ln-dopants suggests that the dopants reside in the vacant octahedral locations within the alumina lattice, where complete conversion into the thermodynamically stable α-domain is shown in dysprosium (Dy)- and lutetium (Lu)-doped alumina. This study opens up the potential to control the structure and phase composition of Ln-doped alumina for emerging applications.« less

  4. Structural Effects of Lanthanide Dopants on Alumina

    DOE PAGES

    Patel, Ketan; Blair, Victoria; Douglas, Justin; ...

    2017-01-06

    Lanthanide (Ln 3+) doping in alumina has shown great promise for stabilizing and promoting desirable phase formation to achieve optimized physical and chemical properties. However, doping alumina with Ln elements is generally accompanied by formation of new phases (i.e. LnAlO 3, Ln 2O 3), and therefore inclusion of Ln-doping mechanisms for phase stabilization of the alumina lattice is indispensable. In this study, Ln-doping (400 ppm) of the alumina lattice crucially delays the onset of phase transformation and enables phase population control, which is achieved without the formation of new phases. In addition, the delay in phase transition (θ → α),more » and alteration of powder morphology, particle dimensions, and composition ratios between α- and θ-alumina phases are studied using a combination of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, electron microscopy, digital scanning calorimetry, and high resolution X-ray diffraction with refinement fitting. Loading alumina with a sparse concentration of Ln-dopants suggests that the dopants reside in the vacant octahedral locations within the alumina lattice, where complete conversion into the thermodynamically stable α-domain is shown in dysprosium (Dy)- and lutetium (Lu)-doped alumina. Lastly, this study opens up the potential to control the structure and phase composition of Ln-doped alumina for emerging applications.« less

  5. Fabrication and Characterization of Dense Zirconia and Zirconia-Silica Ceramic Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Guangqing; Fan, Yuwei

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare dense zirconia-yttria (ZY), zirconia-silica (ZS) and zirconia-yttria-silica (ZYS) nanofibers as reinforcing elements for dental composites. Zirconium (IV) propoxide, yttrium nitrate hexahydrate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) were used as precursors for the preparation of zirconia, yttria, and silica sols. A small amount (1–1.5 wt%) of polyethylene oxide (PEO) was used as a carry polymer. The sols were preheated at 70 °C before electrospinning and their viscosity was measured with a viscometer at different heating time. The gel point was determined by viscosity–time (η–t) curve. The ZY, ZS and ZYS gel nanofibers were prepared using a special reactive electrospinning device under the conditions near the gel point. The as-prepared gel nanofibers had diameters between 200 and 400 nm. Dense (nonporous) ceramic nanofibers of zirconia-yttria (96/4), zirconia-silica (80/20) and zirconia-yttria-silica (76.8/3.2/20) with diameter of 100–300 nm were obtained by subsequent calcinations at different temperatures. The gel and ceramic nanofibers obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM micrograph revealed that ceramic ZY nanofibers had grained structure, while ceramic ZS and ZYS nanofibers had smooth surfaces, both showing no visible porosity under FE-SEM. Complete removal of the polymer PEO was confirmed by TGA/DSC and FT-IR. The formation of tetragonal phase of zirconia and amorphous silica was proved by XRD. In conclusion, dense zirconia-based ceramic nanofibers can be fabricated using the new reactive sol–gel electrospinning technology with minimum organic polymer additives. PMID:21133090

  6. Creep of plasma sprayed zirconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, R. F.; Logan, W. R.; Adams, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings with three different porosities and different initial particle sizes were deformed in compression at initial loads of 1000, 2000, and 3500 psi and temperatures of 1100 C, 1250 C, and 1400 C. The coatings were stabilized with lime, magnesia, and two different concentrations of yttria. Creep began as soon as the load was applied and continued at a constantly decreasing rate until the load was removed. Temperature and stabilization had a pronounced effect on creep rate. The creep rate for 20% Y2O3-80% ZrO2 was 1/3 to 1/2 that of 8% Y2O3-92% ZrO2. Both magnesia and calcia stabilized ZrO2 crept at a rate 5 to 10 times that of the 20% Y2O3 material. A near proportionality between creep rate and applied stress was observed. The rate controlling process appeared to be thermally activated, with an activation energy of approximately 100 cal/gm mole K. Creep deformation was due to cracking and particle sliding.

  7. Tri-reforming of surrogate blogs over Ni/Mg/ceria-zirconia/alumina pellet catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Xianhui; Ngo, Huong T.; Walker, Devin M.; ...

    2018-01-23

    The performance of catalytic tri-reforming under industrially relevant situations (e.g., pellet catalysts, pressurized reactor) was investigated using surrogate biogas as the feedstock. Tri-reforming using Ni/Mg/Ce 0.6Zr 0.4O 2/Al 2O 3 pellet catalysts was studied in a bench scale fixed-bed reactor. The feed molar ratio for CH 4: CO 2: air was fixed as 1.0: 0.70: 0.95. The effects of temperature (800 – 860 °C), pressure (1 – 6 bar), and H 2O/CH 4 molar feed ratio (0.23 – 0.65) were examined. Pressure has substantial impact on the reaction and transport rates and equilibrium conversions, making it a key variable. Atmore » 860 °C, CO 2 conversion increased from 4 to 61% and H 2/CO molar ratio decreased from 2.0 to 1.1 as the pressure changed from 1 to 6 bar. CO 2 conversion and H 2/CO molar ratio were also influenced by the temperature and H 2O/CH 4 molar ratio. At 3 bar, CO 2 conversion varied between 4 and 43% and the H 2/CO molar ratio varied between 1.2 and 1.9 as the temperature changed from 800 to 860 °C. At 3 bar and 860 °C, CO 2 conversion decreased from 35 to 8% and H 2/CO molar ratio increased from 1.7 to 2.4 when the H 2O/CH 4 molar ratio was increased from 0.23 to 0.65. This work demonstrates that the tri-reforming technology is feasible for converting biogas under scaled-up conditions in a fixed-bed reactor.« less

  8. The Peculiarities of Structure Formation and Properties of Zirconia-Based Nanocomposites with Addition of Al2O3 and NiO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilenko, I.; Lasko, G.; Brykhanova, I.; Burkhovetski, V.; Ahkhozov, L.

    2017-02-01

    The present study is devoted to the problem of enhancing fracture toughness of ZrO2 ceramic materials through the formation of composite structure by addition of Al2O3 and NiO particles. In this paper, we analyzed the general and distinguished features of microstructure of both composite materials and its effect on fracture toughness of materials. In this paper, we used the XRD, SEM, and EDS methods for determination of granulometric, phase, and chemical composition of sintered materials. The peculiarities of dependence of fracture toughness values from dopant concentration and changing the Y3+ amount in zirconia grains allow us to assume that at least two mechanisms can affect the fracture toughness of ZrO2 ceramics. Crack bridging/deflection processes with the "transformation toughening" affect the K1C values depending on the dopant concentration. Crack deflection mechanism affects the K1C values when the dopant concentrations are low, and transformation toughening affects the K1C values when the dopant concentrations begin to have an impact on microstructure reorganization-redistribution of Y3+ ions and formation of Y3+-depleted grains with high ability to phase transformation.

  9. Silica, Alumina and Clay Catalyzed Peptide Bond Formation: Enhanced Efficiency of Alumina Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujdák, Juraj; Rode, Bernd M.

    1999-10-01

    Catalytic efficiencies of clay (hectorite), silica and alumina were tested in peptide bond formation reactions of glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala), proline (Pro), valine (Val) and leucine (Leu). The reactions were performed as drying/wetting (hectorite) and temperature fluctuation (silica and alumina) experiments at 85 °C. The reactivity of amino acids decreased in order Gly > Ala > Pro ~ Val ~ Leu. The highest catalytic efficiency was observed for alumina, the only catalyst producing oligopeptides in all investigated reaction systems. The peptide bond formation on alumina is probably catalyzed by the same sites and via similar reaction mechanisms as some alumina-catalyzed dehydration reactions used in industrial chemistry.

  10. Characterization of a Y-TZP Zirconia material for gas gun experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Michael; Millett, Jeremy; Whiteman, Glenn; Collinson, Mark; Ferguson, James

    2017-06-01

    A number of shots were carried out on the AWE single stage gas gun with Het-V diagnostics to determine the shock Hugoniot of a commercial Y-TZP Zirconia ceramic material (ρ 6.05 g/cc). Zirconia ceramic has a higher density and acoustic impedance than alumina, this allows for higher shock pressures to be achieved in impact velocity limited scenarios where conductive materials are not suitable. For example, when using electromagnetic particle velocity gauge diagnostics. The grade examined here was highly reflective to 1550 nm wavelengths, which negated the need for window materials when taking free surface velocity measurements. The shock Hugoniot was determined to be linear up to 13.4 GPa with the form Us = 5.82 + 2.20Up and the HEL was in the range of 7-9 GPa. Additionally data from lateral gauge shots examining the failure behavior of the material are reported on. ©British Crown Owned Copyright 2017/AWE

  11. Polyfunctional epoxies. I - Rubber-toughened brominated and nonbrominated formulations for graphite composites. II - Nonrubber versus rubber-toughened brominated formulations for graphite composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z.; Gilwee, W. J.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    A new trifunctional epoxy resin, Tris-(hydroxyphenyl) methane triglycidyl ether, is compared to a state-of-the-art tetraglycidyl 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl methane (TGDDM), in graphite composites. Rubber-toughened brominated formulations of the epoxy resin are compared to nonbrominated ones in terms of their mechanical performance, environmental stability, thermochemical behavior, and flame retardancy. It is shown that the new resin performs almost the same way as the TGDDM does, but has improved glass transition temperature and environmental properties. Brominated polymeric additives (BPA) of different molecular weights are tested as a Br source to flame retardant graphite epoxy composites. The optimal molecular weight of the BPA and its polymeric backbone length are derived and compared with a 10 percent rubber-toughened formulation of the epoxy resin. Results indicate that when the Br content in the graphite composite is increased without the use of rubber, the mechanical properties improved. The use of BPAs as tougheners for graphite composites is also considered.

  12. Innovations in bonding to zirconia-based materials: Part I.

    PubMed

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Matinlinna, Jukka P; Salameh, Ziad; Ounsi, Hani

    2008-09-01

    Establishing a reliable bond to zirconia-based materials has proven to be difficult which is the major limitation against fabricating adhesive zirconia restorations. This bond could be improved using novel selective infiltration etching conditioning in combination with engineered zirconia primers. Aim of the work was to evaluate resin-to-zirconia bond strength using selective infiltration etching and novel silane-based zirconia primers. Zirconia discs (Procera Zirconia) received selective infiltration etching surface treatment followed by coating with either of five especially engineered experimental zirconia primers. Pre-aged resin-composite discs (Tetric Ivo Ceram) were bonded to the treated surface using an MDP-containing resin-composite (Panavia F 2.0). The bilayered specimens were cut into microbars and the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) was evaluated. 'As-sintered' zirconia discs served as a control (alpha=0.05). The broken microbars were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The combination of selective infiltration etching with experimental zirconia primers significantly improved (F=3805, P<0.0001) the MTBS values (41+/-5.8 MPa) compared to the 'as-sintered' surface using the same primers which demonstrated spontaneous failure and very low bond strength values (2.6+/-3.1 MPa). SEM analysis revealed that selective infiltration etching surface treatment resulted in a nano-retentive surface where the zirconia primers were able to penetrate and interlock which explained the higher MTBS values observed for the treated specimens.

  13. Non-contact temperature Raman measurement in YSZ and alumina ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Juddha; Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Buric, Michael P.

    2018-02-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ: ZrO2 + Y2O3) and alumina (Al2O3) are widely used in high-temperature applications due to their high-temperature stability, low thermal conductivity, and chemical inertness. Alumina is used extensively in engineered ceramic applications such as furnace tubes and thermocouple protection tubes, while YSZ is commonly used in thermal barrier coatings on turbine blades. Because they are already often found in high temperature and combustion applications, these two substances have been compared as candidates for Raman thermometry in high-temperature energy-related applications. Both ceramics were used with as-received rough surfaces, i.e., without polishing or modification. This closely approximates surface conditions in practical high-temperature situations. A single-line argon ion laser at 488nm was used to excite the materials inside a cylindrical furnace while measuring Raman spectra with a fixed-grating spectrometer. The shift in the peak positions of the most intense A1g peak at 418cm-1 (room temperature position) of alumina ceramic and relatively more symmetric Eg peak at 470cm-1 (room temperature position) of YSZ were measured and reported along with a thermocouple-derived reference temperature up to about 1000°C. This study showed that alumina and YSZ ceramics can be used in high-temperature Raman thermometry with an accuracy of 4.54°C and 10.5°C average standard deviations respectively over the range of about 1000°C. We hope that this result will guide future researchers in selecting materials and utilizing Raman non-contact temperature measurements in harsh environments.

  14. Ultrasonic imaging of textured alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stang, David B.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Generazio, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    Ultrasonic images representing the bulk attenuation and velocity of a set of alumina samples were obtained by a pulse-echo contact scanning technique. The samples were taken from larger bodies that were chemically similar but were processed by extrusion or isostatic processing. The crack growth resistance and fracture toughness of the larger bodies were found to vary with processing method and test orientation. The results presented here demonstrate that differences in texture that contribute to variations in structural performance can be revealed by analytic ultrasonic techniques.

  15. Perfluoropolyalkylether decomposition on catalytic aluminas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo

    1994-01-01

    The decomposition of Fomblin Z25, a commercial perfluoropolyalkylether liquid lubricant, was studied using the Penn State Micro-oxidation Test, and a thermal gravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry unit. The micro-oxidation test was conducted using 440C stainless steel and pure iron metal catalyst specimens, whereas the thermal gravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry tests were conducted using catalytic alumina pellets. Analysis of the thermal data, high pressure liquid chromatography data, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data support evidence that there are two different decomposition mechanisms for Fomblin Z25, and that reductive sites on the catalytic surfaces are responsible for the decomposition of Fomblin Z25.

  16. Zirconia-Polyurethane Aneurysm Clip.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Sang; Cho, Kyung-Il; Kim, Jeong Eun; Jang, Tae-Sik; Ha, Eun Jin; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Son, Young-Je; Choi, Seung Hong; Lee, Seunghyun; Kim, Chong-Chan; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2018-03-27

    Susceptibility artifacts from metal clips in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging present an obstacle to evaluating the status of clipped aneurysms, parent arteries and adjacent brain parenchyma. We aimed to develop MR-compatible aneurysm clips. Considering the mechanical and biological properties, and MR compatibility of candidate materials, a prototype clip with a zirconia body and a polyurethane head spring (ZC, straight, 9-mm long) was developed. The closing forces, opening width of blades, and in vitro and in vivo artifact volumes in 3 tesla MR imaging were compared among the prototype and commercial metal clips such as a Yasargil ® clip (YC, curved type, 8.3-mm long) and a Sugita ® clip (SC, straight type, 10-mm long). An in vivo animal study was performed with a canine venous pouch aneurysm model. The closing forces (N) at 1 and 8 mm from the blade tip were 2.09 and 3.77 in YC, 1.85 and 3.04 in SC, and 2.05 and 4.60 in ZC. The maximum opening widths (mm) was 6.8, 9.0, and 3.0 in YC, SC, and ZC, respectively. The in vitro artifact volumes of YC, SC and ZC in time-of-flight MR imaging were 26.9, 29.7 and 1.9 times larger than the respective real volumes. The in vivo artifact volumes of YC, SC, and ZC were respectively 21.4, 29.4, and 2.6 times larger than real ones. ZC showed the smallest susceptibility artifacts and satisfactory closing forces. However, the narrow opening width of the blades was a weak point. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Properties of two composite materials made of toughened epoxy resin and high-strain graphite fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Marvin B.; Smith, Donald L.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental evaluation of IM7/8551-7 and IM6/18081, two new toughened epoxy resin, high strain graphite fiber composite materials. Data include ply-level strengths and moduli, notched tension and compression strengths and compression-after-impact assessments. The measured properties are compared with those of other graphite-epoxy materials.

  18. Impact Damage Detection of Toughened CFRP Laminates with Time Domain Reflectometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-30

    detect damage of the CFRP structures. 3. Experiments Material used for the experiments is IM600/133 highly toughened CFRP prepreg produced by Toho...Tenux Co. Ltd. The long specimen shown in Fig. 5 is made from the prepreg . The cure condition is 180°C×0.7MPa×2h. The specimen’s stacking sequence

  19. 75 FR 55811 - Testing Method of Pressed and Toughened (Specially Tempered) Glassware

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    .... 10-31] Testing Method of Pressed and Toughened (Specially Tempered) Glassware AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice of method CBP uses to test... document adopts modifications to the test method currently applied by U.S. Customs and Border Protection...

  20. Flight Performance of an Advanced Thermal Protection Material: Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Gordon, Michael P.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The flight performance of a new class of low density, high temperature thermal protection materials (TPM) is described and compared to "standard" Space Shuttle TPM. This new functionally gradient material designated as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI), was bonded on a removable panel attached to the base heat shield of Orbiter 105, Endeavour.

  1. Flight Performance of an Advanced Thermal Protection Material: Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Gordon, Michael P.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The flight performance of a new class of low density, high temperature, thermal protection materials (TPM), is described and compared to "standard" Space Shuttle TPM. This new functionally gradient material designated as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI), was bonded on a removable panel attached to the base heatshield of Orbiter 105, Endeavor.

  2. Using glass-graded zirconia to increase delamination growth resistance in porcelain/zirconia dental structures.

    PubMed

    Chai, Herzl; Mieleszko, Adam J; Chu, Stephen J; Zhang, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Porcelain fused to zirconia (PFZ) restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry. However, their tendency to delaminate along the P/Z interface remains a practical problem so that assessing and improving the interfacial strength are important design aspects. This work examines the effect of modifying the zirconia veneering surface with an in-house felspathic glass on the interfacial fracture resistance of fused P/Z. Three material systems are studied: porcelain fused to zirconia (control) and porcelain fused to glass-graded zirconia with and without the presence of a glass interlayer. The specimens were loaded in a four-point-bend fixture with the porcelain veneer in tension. The evolution of damage is followed with the aid of a video camera. The interfacial fracture energy G C was determined with the aid of a FEA, taking into account the stress shielding effects due to the presence of adjacent channel cracks. Similarly to a previous study on PFZ specimens, the fracture sequence consisted of unstable growth of channel cracks in the veneer followed by stable cracking along the P/Z interface. However, the value of GC for the graded zirconia was approximately 3 times that of the control zirconia, which is due to the good adhesion between porcelain and the glass network structure on the zirconia surface. Combined with its improved bonding to resin-based cements, increased resistance to surface damage and good esthetic quality, graded zirconia emerges as a viable material concept for dental restorations. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of nano-structured alumina coating on shear bond strength between Y-TZP ceramic and various dual-cured resin cements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Choi, Jung-Yun; Seo, Jae-Min

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of nano-structured alumina surface coating on shear bond strength between Y-TZP ceramic and various dual-cured resin cements. A total of 90 disk-shaped zirconia specimens (HASS CO., Gangneung, Korea) were divided into three groups by surface treatment method: (1) airborne particle abrasion, (2) tribochemicalsilica coating, and (3) nano-structured alumina coating. Each group was categorized into three subgroups of ten specimens and bonded with three different types of dual-cured resin cements. After thermocycling, shear bond strength was measured and failure modes were observed through FE-SEM. Two-way ANOVA and the Tukey's HSD test were performed to determine the effects of surface treatment method and type of cement on bond strength ( P <.05). To confirm the correlation of surface treatment and failure mode, the Chi-square test was used. Groups treated with the nanostructured alumina coating showed significantly higher shear bond strength compared to other groups treated with airborne particle abrasion or tribochemical silica coating. Clearfil SA Luting showed a significantly higher shear bond strength compared to RelyX ARC and RelyX Unicem. The cohesive failure mode was observed to be dominant in the groups treated with nano-structured alumina coating, while the adhesive failure mode was prevalent in the groups treated with either airborne particle abrasion or tribochemical silica coating. Nano-structured alumina coating is an effective zirconia surface treatment method for enhancing the bond strength between Y-TZP ceramic and various dual-cured resin cements.

  4. Improved Zirconia Oxygen-Separation Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, John V.; Zwissler, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Cell structure distributes feed gas more evenly for more efficent oxygen production. Multilayer cell structure containing passages, channels, tubes, and pores help distribute pressure evenly over zirconia electrolytic membrane. Resulting more uniform pressure distribution expected to improve efficiency of oxygen production.

  5. [Measurement of chromaticity of five hued zirconia].

    PubMed

    Wen, Ning; Shao, Long-quan; Yi, Yuan-fu; Deng, Bin; Liu, Hong-chen

    2009-05-01

    To determine the chroma value of sintered IL1-IL5 zirconia materials in comparison with the Vita In-Ceram YZ color shade. Five types of shading dental zirconia ceramics with color gradient were prepared by adding Fe2O3, CeO2, and Bi2O3 to the zirconia powder, and their chroma values were determined using a spectrophotometer and the color difference was calculated. The chroma value ranges were L: 67.76-77.78, a: -2.19-3.80, and b: 12.13-25.01. Slight deltaE was found between IL1 and LL1, IL2 and LL2, and IL3 and LL3. The deltaE between IL4 and LL4 could be compensated by veneering porcelain, whereas deltaL between IL5 and LL5 could not be compensated in this manner. Shading dental zirconia ceramics can be prepared by addition of metal oxides with color similar to the Vita In-Ceram YZ color shades to match that of the veneering porcelain in clinical practice.

  6. Impedance spectroscopy of reduced monoclinic zirconia.

    PubMed

    Eder, Dominik; Kramer, Reinhard

    2006-10-14

    Zirconia doped with low-valent cations (e.g. Y3+ or Ca2+) exhibits an exceptionally high ionic conductivity, making them ideal candidates for various electrochemical applications including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and oxygen sensors. It is nevertheless important to study the undoped, monoclinic ZrO2 as a model system to construct a comprehensive picture of the electrical behaviour. In pure zirconia a residual number of anion vacancies remains because of contaminants in the material as well as the thermodynamic disorder equilibrium, but electronic conduction may also contribute to the observed conductivity. Reduction of zirconia in hydrogen leads to the adsorption of hydrogen and to the formation of oxygen vacancies, with their concentration affected by various parameters (e.g. reduction temperature and time, surface area, and water vapour pressure). However, there is still little known about the reactivities of defect species and their effect on the ionic and electronic conduction. Thus, we applied electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to investigate the electric performance of pure monoclinic zirconia with different surface areas in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. A novel equivalent circuit model including parallel ionic and electronic conduction has previously been developed for titania and is used herein to decouple the conduction processes. The concentration of defects and their formation energies were measured using volumetric oxygen titration and temperature programmed oxidation/desorption.

  7. Zirconia ceramics for excess weapons plutonium waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W. L.; Lutze, W.; Ewing, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    We synthesized a zirconia (ZrO 2)-based single-phase ceramic containing simulated excess weapons plutonium waste. ZrO 2 has large solubility for other metallic oxides. More than 20 binary systems A xO y-ZrO 2 have been reported in the literature, including PuO 2, rare-earth oxides, and oxides of metals contained in weapons plutonium wastes. We show that significant amounts of gadolinium (neutron absorber) and yttrium (additional stabilizer of the cubic modification) can be dissolved in ZrO 2, together with plutonium (simulated by Ce 4+, U 4+ or Th 4+) and impurities (e.g., Ca, Mg, Fe, Si). Sol-gel and powder methods were applied to make homogeneous, single-phase zirconia solid solutions. Pu waste impurities were completely dissolved in the solid solutions. In contrast to other phases, e.g., zirconolite and pyrochlore, zirconia is extremely radiation resistant and does not undergo amorphization. Baddeleyite (ZrO 2) is suggested as the natural analogue to study long-term radiation resistance and chemical durability of zirconia-based waste forms.

  8. Effects of Impurity Content on the Sintering Characteristics of Plasma-Sprayed Zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, S.; Cipitria, A.; Golosnoy, I. O.; Xie, L.; Dorfman, M. R.; Clyne, T. W.

    2007-12-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia powders, containing different levels of SiO2 and Al2O3, have been plasma sprayed onto metallic substrates. The coatings were detached from their substrates and a dilatometer was used to monitor the dimensional changes they exhibited during prolonged heat treatments. It was found that specimens containing higher levels of silica and alumina exhibited higher rates of linear contraction, in both in-plane and through-thickness directions. The in-plane stiffness and the through-thickness thermal conductivity were also measured after different heat treatments and these were found to increase at a greater rate for specimens with higher impurity (silica and alumina) levels. Changes in the pore architecture during heat treatments were studied using Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP). Fine scale porosity (< ˜50 nm) was found to be sharply reduced even by relatively short heat treatments. This is correlated with improvements in inter-splat bonding and partial healing of intra-splat microcracks, which are responsible for the observed changes in stiffness and conductivity, as well as the dimensional changes.

  9. Role of carbon nanotube dispersion in fracture toughening of plasma sprayed aluminum oxide-carbon nanotube nanocomposite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balani, Kantesh

    Aluminum oxide (Al2O3, or alumina) is a conventional ceramic known for applications such as wear resistant coatings, thermal liners, heaters, crucibles, dielectric systems, etc. However applications of Al 2O3 are limited owing to its inherent brittleness. Due to its excellent mechanical properties and bending strength, carbon nanotubes (CNT) is an ideal reinforcement for Al2O3 matrix to improve its fracture toughness. The role of CNT dispersion in the fracture toughening of the plasma sprayed Al2O3-CNT nanocomposite coating is discussed in the current work. Pretreatment of powder feedstock is required for dispersing CNTs in the matrix. Four coatings namely spray dried Al2O 3 (A-SD), Al2O3 blended with 4wt.% CNT (A4C-B), composite spray dried Al2O3-4wt.% CNT (A4C-SD) and composite spray dried A1203-8wt.% CNT (A8C-SD), are synthesized by plasma spraying. Owing to extreme temperatures and velocities involved in the plasma spraying of ceramics, retention of CNTs in the resulting coatings necessitates optimizing plasma processing parameters using an inflight particle diagnostic sensor. A bimodal microstructure was obtained in the matrix that consists of fully melted and resolidified structure and solid state sintered structure. CNTs are retained both in the fully melted region and solid-state sintered regions of processed coatings. Fracture toughness of A-SD, A4C-B, A4C-SD and A8C-SD coatings was 3.22, 3.86, 4.60 and 5.04 MPa m1/2 respectively. This affirms the improvement of fracture toughness from 20% (in A4C-B coating) to 43% (in A4C-SD coating) when compared to the A-SD coating because of the CNT dispersion. Fracture toughness improvement from 43% (in A4C-SD) to 57% (in A8C-SD) coating is evinced because of the CNT content. Reinforcement by CNTs is described by its bridging, anchoring, hook formation, impact alignment, fusion with splat, and mesh formation. The Al2O3/CNT interface is critical in assisting the stress transfer and utilizing excellent mechanical

  10. Third-generation pure alumina and alumina matrix composites in total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hannouche, Didier; Zingg, Matthieu; Miozzari, Hermes; Nizard, Remy; Lübbeke, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Wear, corrosion and periprosthetic osteolysis are important causes of failure in joint arthroplasty, especially in young patients. Ceramic bearings, developed 40 years ago, are an increasingly popular choice in hip arthroplasty. New manufacturing procedures have increased the strength and reliability of ceramic materials and reduced the risk of complications. In recent decades, ceramics made of pure alumina have continuously improved, resulting in a surgical-grade material that fulfills clinical requirements. Despite the track record of safety and long-term results, third-generation pure alumina ceramics are being replaced in clinical practice by alumina matrix composites, which are composed of alumina and zirconium. In this review, the characteristics of both materials are discussed, and the long-term results with third-generation alumina-on-alumina bearings and the associated complications are compared with those of other available ceramics. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:7-14. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.3.170034 PMID:29657840

  11. Fabrication of thin layer beta alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennenhouse, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Beta alumina tubes having walls 700 microns, 300 microns, and 140 microns were processed by extrusion and sintering utilizing Ford proprietary binder and fabrication systems. Tubes prepared by this method have properties similar to tubes prepared by isostatic pressing and sintering, i.e. density greater than 98% of theoretical and a helium leak rate less than 3 x 10 to the -9th power cc/sq cm/sec. Ford ultrasonic bonding techniques were used for bonding beta alumina end caps to open ended beta -alumina tubes prior to sintering. After sintering, the bond was hermetic, and the integrity of the bonded area was comparable to the body of the tube.

  12. Alumina forming iron base superalloy

    DOEpatents

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Brady, Michael P.

    2014-08-26

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, consists essentially of, in weight percent 2.5 to 4 Al; 25 to 35 Ni; 12 to 19 Cr; at least 1, up to 4 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; 0.5 to 3 Ti; less than 0.5 V; 0.1 to 1 of at least on element selected from the group consisting of Zr and Hf; 0.03 to 0.2 C; 0.005 to 0.1 B; and base Fe. The weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni. The alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, and contains coherent precipitates of .gamma.'-Ni.sub.3Al, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure. The austenitic matrix is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  13. Translucency of zirconia copings made with different CAD/CAM systems.

    PubMed

    Baldissara, Paolo; Llukacej, Altin; Ciocca, Leonardo; Valandro, Felipe L; Scotti, Roberto

    2010-07-01

    Zirconia cores are reported to be less translucent than glass, lithium disilicate, or alumina cores. This could affect the esthetic appearance and the clinical choices made when using zirconia-based restorations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the translucency of zirconia copings for single crowns fabricated using different CAD/CAM systems, using lithium disilicate glass ceramic as a control. Using impressions made from a stainless steel complete-crown master die, 9 stone cast replicas were fabricated, numbered, and distributed into 8 ceramic ZrO(2) CAD/CAM system groups (Lava Frame 0.3 and 0.5, IPS e.max ZirCAD, VITA YZ, Procera AllZircon, Digizon, DC Zircon, and Cercon Base) and to a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic control group (IPS e.max Press) using a simple computer-generated randomization method. From each die, the manufacturer's authorized milling centers supplied 5 copings per group without applying any dying technique to the ceramic base material. The copings were prepared to allow for a 40-mum cement layer and were of different thicknesses according to system specifications. Translucency was measured by the direct transmission method with a digital photoradiometer mounted in a dark chamber. The light source was a 150-W halogen lamp beam. Measurements were repeated 3 times for each specimen. Data obtained were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA and the Bonferroni multiple comparison test (alpha=.05). Among ZrO(2) copings, Lava (0.3 mm and 0.5 mm thick) showed the highest (P<.05) values of translucency measured as light flow units (3.572 + or - 018 x 10(3) lx and 3.181 + or - 0.13 x 10(3) lx, respectively). These values represent 71.7% and 63.9%, respectively, of the glass-ceramic control group (4.98 x 10(3) lx). All ZrO(2) copings demonstrated different levels of light transmission, with the 2 Lava specimens showing the highest values. Translucency of zirconia copings was significantly lower (P=.001) than that of the lithium disilicate glass

  14. Single Crystal Growth of Zirconia Utilizing a Skull Melting Technique,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    23 REFERENCES 24 Illustrations 1. Cutaway View of Skull Crucible 11 2. Section View of Skull Crucible 11 3. Stabilized Zirconia Powder Being Added to...E. R., (1968) J. Cryst. Growth, 2:243. 11 ... . . l l&I. .. . .:. . . N ’ - . . . . . . i . . . . . . . . .: P Figure 3. Stabilized Zirconia Powder Figure...colorless. The zirconia powder used in these experiments was obtained from N. L. Industries, Inc. Samples of the powder with 25 weight percent Y 2 0 3

  15. Novel fabrication method for zirconia restorations: bonding strength of machinable ceramic to zirconia with resin cements.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Soichi; Terui, Yuichi; Higuchi, Daisuke; Goto, Daisuke; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A novel method was developed to fabricate all-ceramic restorations which comprised CAD/CAM-fabricated machinable ceramic bonded to CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia framework using resin cement. The feasibility of this fabrication method was assessed in this study by investigating the bonding strength of a machinable ceramic to zirconia. A machinable ceramic was bonded to a zirconia plate using three kinds of resin cements: ResiCem (RE), Panavia (PA), and Multilink (ML). Conventional porcelain-fused-to-zirconia specimens were also prepared to serve as control. Shear bond strength test (SBT) and Schwickerath crack initiation test (SCT) were carried out. SBT revealed that PA (40.42 MPa) yielded a significantly higher bonding strength than RE (28.01 MPa) and ML (18.89 MPa). SCT revealed that the bonding strengths of test groups using resin cement were significantly higher than those of Control. Notably, the bonding strengths of RE and ML were above 25 MPa even after 10,000 times of thermal cycling -adequately meeting the ISO 9693 standard for metal-ceramic restorations. These results affirmed the feasibility of the novel fabrication method, in that a CAD/CAM-fabricated machinable ceramic is bonded to a CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia framework using a resin cement.

  16. Multilayered thermal insulation formed of zirconia bonded layers of zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, Jr., George E.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.

    1988-01-01

    A multilayered thermal insulating composite is formed of a first layer of zirconia-bonded zirconia fibers for utilization near the hot phase or surface of a furnace or the like. A second layer of zirconia-bonded metal oxide fibers is attached to the zirconia fiber layer by a transition layer formed of intermingled zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers. The thermal insulation is fabricated by vacuum molding with the layers being sequentially applied from aqueous solutions containing the fibers to a configured mandrel. A portion of the solution containing the fibers forming the first layer is intermixed with the solution containing the fibers of the second layer for forming the layer of mixed fibers. The two layers of fibers joined together by the transition layer are saturated with a solution of zirconium oxynitrate which provides a zirconia matrix for the composite when the fibers are sintered together at their nexi.

  17. Multilayered thermal insulation formed of zirconia bonded layers of zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1988-09-13

    A multilayered thermal insulating composite is formed of a first layer of zirconia-bonded zirconia fibers for utilization near the hot phase or surface of a furnace or the like. A second layer of zirconia-bonded metal oxide fibers is attached to the zirconia fiber layer by a transition layer formed of intermingled zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers. The thermal insulation is fabricated by vacuum molding with the layers being sequentially applied from aqueous solutions containing the fibers to a configured mandrel. A portion of the solution containing the fibers forming the first layer is intermixed with the solution containing the fibers of the second layer for forming the layer of mixed fibers. The two layers of fibers joined together by the transition layer are saturated with a solution of zirconium oxynitrate which provides a zirconia matrix for the composite when the fibers are sintered together at their nexi.

  18. Research on surface modification of nano-zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Zhang, Cun-Lin; Yang, Xiao-Yi

    2005-02-01

    The mechanisms about the aggregation and dispersibility of nano-zirconia were analyzed in detail. And nano-zirconia powders which were surface-modified with silane coupling reagent WD70 were prepared in order to disperse homogeneously in ethanol in this investigation. The grain size and grain phase of nano-zirconia were obtained by XRD. Research and characterization on the structure and surface characteristic of surface-modified nano-zirconia were achieved by XPS, TG-DSC, TEM and FT-IR. The results given by FT-IR and XPS showed WD70 was jointed on the surface of nano-zirconia through both physical adsorption and chemical binding after the de-methanol reaction between the methoxyl groups of WD70 and the hydroxy groups on the surface of nano-zirconia. And the corresponding model of surface-modified nano-zirconia was given. The images provided by TEM presented intuitionistic effect of surface modification on the dispersibility of nano-zirconia in ethanol. And TG-DSC analysis ascertained the amount of WD70 that was jointed on the surface of nano-zirconia and the amount was about 6.21 percent.

  19. Everlasting Dark Printing on Alumina by Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Arias-González, F.; Fernández, A.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Riveiro, A.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    Marks or prints are needed in almost every material, mainly for decorative or identification purposes. Despite alumina is widely employed in many different industries, the need of printing directly on its surface is still a complex problem. In this sense, lasers have largely demonstrated their high capacities to mark almost every material including ceramics, but performing dark permanent marks on alumina is still an open challenge. In this work we present the results of a comprehensive experimental analysis on the process of marking alumina by laser. Four different laser sources were used in this study: a fiber laser (1075 nm) and three diode pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers emitting at near-infrared (1064 nm), visible (532 nm) and ultraviolet (355 nm) wavelengths, respectively. The results obtained with the four lasers were compared and physical processes involved were explained in detail. Colorimetric analyses allowed to identify the optimal parameters and conditions to produce everlasting and high contrast marks on alumina.

  20. Alcoa Pressure Calcination Process for Alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sucech, S. W.; Misra, C.

    A new alumina calcination process developed at Alcoa Laboratories is described. Alumina is calcined in two stages. In the first stage, alumina hydrate is heated indirectly to 500°C in a decomposer vessel. Released water is recovered as process steam at 110 psig pressure. Partial transformation of gibbsite to boehmite occurs under hydrothermal conditions of the decomposer. The product from the decomposer containing about 5% LOI is then calcined by direct heating to 850°C to obtain smelting grade alumina. The final product is highly attrition resistant, has a surface area of 50-80 m2/g and a LOI of less than 1%. Accounting for the recovered steam, the effective fuel consumption for the new calcination process is only 1.6 GJ/t A12O3.

  1. TENORM: Bauxite and Alumina Production Wastes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Bauxite is used to produce alumina, which is then used to produce aluminum. Naturally-occurring radioactivity in bauxite ores is concentrated during the refining process, creating TENORM in bauxite refining residuals.

  2. Studies of Plasma-Sprayed Alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilavsky, Jan

    1994-05-01

    Phase transformations and porosity of the plasma sprayed alumina deposits were examined. The dependence of the phase transformations on deposit chemistry was established. Porosity changes during heat treatment were studied and a model for the porosity is proposed. A novel technique in the field of plasma sprayed deposits--small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)--was successfully applied. Deposits were manufactured using the water-stabilized plasma spray system, PAL160, with an input of 160 kW. Phase transformations of the plasma sprayed alumina deposits were studied using XRD and DTA. The deposits were manufactured from 99.9% alumina, alumina-chromia (1.5% Cr_2O_3), gray alumina (3.7% TiO_2) and alumina -titania (17% TiO_2). The addition of chromia increases the temperature of the alpha phase formation by about 40^circ C and the addition of TiO_2 reduces this temperature by about 150^circ C for gray alumina and by about 175^ circC for alumina-titania. The amount of metastable theta phase was found to depend on the chemistry of the feedstock. Porosities of the deposits, made from alumina and gray alumina, were studied using mercury intrusion porosimetry, weighing method (Archimedean porosimetry), image analysis and SANS. Samples were studied in the as -sprayed condition and after heat treatment for 2 hours at 1300^circC and 1500 ^circC. Porosity depends on the deposit chemistry and on the heat treatment and varies from 5% to about 11%. Different porosity measurement techniques yield different results. Surface areas of 1.5 to 7.5 times 10^4 cm^2 /cm^3 (times 10^6 m^{ -1}) were measured using SANS and depend on heat treatment and on the deposit chemistry. The phase transformations can be associated with an increase in pore surface area and decrease in surface area at 1500 ^circC can be associated with sintering. The effective pore radius, R_{ rm eff}, as measured by SANS is a measure of the pore sizes in the 0.08 to 10 μm size range. The R_{rm eff} depends on deposit

  3. NASA/aircraft industry standard specification for graphite fiber toughened thermoset resin composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A standard specification for a selected class of graphite fiber/toughened thermoset resin matrix material was developed through joint NASA/Aircraft Industry effort. This specification was compiled to provide uniform requirements and tests for qualifying prepreg systems and for acceptance of prepreg batches. The specification applies specifically to a class of composite prepreg consisting of unidirectional graphite fibers impregnated with a toughened thermoset resin that produce laminates with service temperatures from -65 F to 200 F when cured at temperatures below or equal to 350 F. The specified prepreg has a fiber areal weight of 145 g sq m. The specified tests are limited to those required to set minimum standards for the uncured prepreg and cured laminates, and are not intended to provide design allowable properties.

  4. Mechanical behavior and failure phenomenon of an in situ-toughened silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Choi, Sung R.; Freedman, Marc R.; Jenkins, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    The Weibull modulus, fracture toughness and crack growth resistance of an in-situ toughened, silicon nitride material used to manufacture a turbine combustor were determined from room temperature to 1371 C. The material exhibited an elongated grain structure that resulted in improved fracture toughness, nonlinear crack growth resistance, and good elevated temperature strength. However, low temperature strength was limited by grains of excessive length (30 to 100 microns). These excessively long grains were surrounded by regions rich in sintering additives.

  5. Comparison of the compressive strengths for stitched and toughened composite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, James R.

    1994-01-01

    The compression strength of a stitched and a toughened matrix graphite/epoxy composite was determined and compared to a baseline unstitched untoughened composite. Two different layups with a variety of test lengths were tested under both ambient and hot/wet conditions. No significant difference in strength was seen for the different materials when the gage lengths of the specimens were long enough to lead to a buckling failure. For shorter specimens, a 30 percent reduction in strength from the baseline was seen due to stitching for both a 48-ply quasi-isotropic and a (0/45/0/-45/90/-45/0/45/0)s laminate. Analysis of the results suggested that the decrease in strength was due to increased fiber misalignment due to the stitches. An observed increasing strength with decreasing gage length, which was seen for all materials, was explained with a size effect model. The model assumed a random distribution of flaws (misaligned fibers). The toughened materials showed a small increase in strength over the baseline material for both laminates presumably due to the compensating effects of a more compliant matrix and straighter fibers in the toughened material. The hot/wet strength of the stitched and baseline material fell 30 percent below their ambient strengths for shorter, nonbuckling specimen, while the strength of the toughened matrix material only fell 20 percent. Video images of the failing specimen were recorded and showed local failures prior to global collapse of the specimen. These images support the theory of a random distribution of flaws controlling composite failure. Failed specimen appearance, however, seems to be a misleading indication of the cause of failure.

  6. Multifunctional Shear Pressed CNT Sheets for Strain Sensing and Composite Joint Toughening

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    overall delamination fracture mechanism shows highly variable from sample to sample and very sensitive to such factors as CNT functionalization, epoxy...fibers). The overall delamination fracture mechanism becomes highly variable from sample to sample and very sensitive to the effects of CNT... Mechanics Reviews, 1994, 47, No. 11, 517-544. 13. Sela, N.; Ishai, O. “Interlaminar Fracture Toughness and Toughening of Laminated Composite

  7. Learning from evolutionary optimisation: what are toughening mechanisms good for in dentine, a nonrepairing bone tissue?

    PubMed

    Zaslansky, Paul; Currey, John D; Fleck, Claudia

    2016-09-12

    The main mass of material found in teeth is dentine, a bone-like tissue, riddled with micron-sized tubules and devoid of living cells. It provides support to the outer wear-resistant layer of enamel, and exhibits toughening mechanisms which contribute to crack resistance. And yet unlike most bone tissues, dentine does not remodel and consequently any accumulated damage does not 'self repair'. Because damage containment followed by tissue replacement is a prime reason for the crack-arresting microstructures found in most bones, the occurrence of toughening mechanisms without the biological capability to repair is puzzling. Here we consider the notion that dentine might be overdesigned for strength, because it has to compensate for the lack of cell-mediated healing mechanisms. Based on our own and on literature-reported observations, including quasistatic and fatigue properties, dentine design principles are discussed in light of the functional conditions under which teeth evolved. We conclude that dentine is only slightly overdesigned for everyday cyclic loading because usual mastication stresses may come close to its endurance strength. The in-built toughening mechanisms constitute an evolutionary benefit because they prevent catastrophic failure during rare overload events, which was probably very advantageous in our hunter gatherer ancestor times. From a bio-inspired perspective, understanding the extent of evolutionary overdesign might be useful for optimising biomimetic structures used for load bearing.

  8. Fracture Toughness of Advanced Ceramics at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, George D.; Salem, Jonathan; Bar-on, Isa; Cho, Kyu; Foley, Michael; Fang, Ho

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results obtained by the five U.S. participating laboratories in the Versailles Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) round-robin for fracture toughness of advanced ceramics. Three test methods were used: indentation fracture, indentation strength, and single-edge pre-cracked beam. Two materials were tested: a gas-pressure sintered silicon nitride and a zirconia toughened alumina. Consistent results were obtained with the latter two test methods. Interpretation of fracture toughness in the zirconia alumina composite was complicated by R-curve and environmentally-assisted crack growth phenomena. PMID:28053447

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of bulk and plasma-sprayed y2O3-partially stabilized zirconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, P. G.; Maier, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Bulk 8.0 weight percent yttria partially stabilied zirconia (PSZ) was studied by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray analysis, microhardness testing, and fracture toughness testing. The as received PSZ contained spheroidal and grain boundary precipitates up to 4 micrometers in size. Spheroids up to 1.26 micrometers were metastable tetragonal; large spheroids were monoclinic. Grinding the PSZ into powder did not cause a significant amount of tetragonal to transform to monoclinic. This indicates that transformation toughness is not a significant mechanism in PSZ. Aging the PSZ at 1500 C caused the fine tetragonal precipitates to grow from 0.06 to 0.12 micrometers, in 250 minutes. A peak hardness of 1400 kg/sq mm was attained after 50 minutes. Solution annealing and quenching the as received PSZ eliminated the large precipitates, but fine tetragonal precipitates reformed on quenching. Aging at 1500 C caused the fine 0.02 micrometers tetragonal precipitates to grow into plates about 0.10 by 0.50 micrometers. A peak hardness of 1517 kg/sq mm was obtained after 250 minutes. On further aging, monoclinic percipitates formed along grain boundaries. The fracture toughness of the aged and unaged solution annealed and quenched PSZ was found to be between 2 and 3 MN /square root of m cubed. This range of fracture toughness is consistent with PSZ's that do not undergo transformation toughening.

  10. Assessment and comparison of retention of zirconia copings luted with different cements onto zirconia and titanium abutments: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Neelima Sreekumar; Kumar, G. P. Surendra; Jnanadev, K. R.; Satish Babu, C. L.; Shetty, Shilpa

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess and compare the retention of zirconia copings luted with different luting agents onto zirconia and titanium abutments. Materials and Methods: Titanium and zirconia abutments were torqued at 35 N/cm onto implant analogs. The samples were divided into two groups: Group A consisted of four titanium abutments and 32 zirconia copings and Group B consisted of four zirconia abutments and 32 zirconia copings and four luting agents were used. The cemented copings were subjected to tensile dislodgement forces and subjected to ANOVA test. Results: Zirconia abutments recorded a higher mean force compared to titanium. Among the luting agents, resin cement recorded the highest mean force followed by zinc phosphate, glass ionomer, and noneugenol zinc oxide cement, respectively. Conclusion: Highest mean retention was recorded for zirconia implant abutments compared to titanium abutments when luted with zirconia copings. PMID:27141162

  11. [Effects of colorants on yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals powder].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yanchun; Wang, Ru

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of Fe2O3 and CeO2 as colorants on yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia poly-crystals (Y-TZP) powder. The spray granulation slurry of colored zirconia was prepared with different concentrations of Fe2O3 (0.15%) and CeO2 (4%), which were added in Y-TZP. Zirconia powder was made by spray granulation. The powder specimens were divided into three groups: uncolored zirconia, Fe2O3 (0.15%) zirconia, and CeO2 (4%) zirconia. The particle morphologies of the powder specimens were measured with a laser particle size analyzer and an optical microscope. The differences in D50 among the three groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Group Fe2O3 showed a significant difference from groups CeO2 and uncolored zirconia (P<0.05). Group uncolored zirconia showed no significant difference from group CeO2 (P>0.05). Mostly spherical powder was observed in the three groups. Fe2O3 as a colorant can affect particles, whereas CeO2 has no effect.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline mesoporous zirconia using supercritical drying.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Beena; Sidhpuria, Kalpesh; Shaik, Basha; Jasra, Raksh Vir

    2006-06-01

    Synthesis of nano-crystalline zirconia aerogel was done by sol-gel technique and supercritical drying using n-propanol solvent at and above supercritical temperature (235-280 degrees C) and pressure (48-52 bar) of n-propanol. Zirconia xerogel samples have also been prepared by conventional thermal drying method to compare with the super critically dried samples. Crystalline phase, crystallite size, surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution were determined for all the samples in detail to understand the effect of gel drying methods on these properties. Supercritical drying of zirconia gel was observed to give thermally stable, nano-crystalline, tetragonal zirconia aerogels having high specific surface area and porosity with narrow and uniform pore size distribution as compared to thermally dried zirconia. With supercritical drying, zirconia samples show the formation of only mesopores whereas in thermally dried samples, substantial amount of micropores are observed along with mesopores. The samples prepared using supercritical drying yield nano-crystalline zirconia with smaller crystallite size (4-6 nm) as compared to higher crystallite size (13-20 nm) observed with thermally dried zirconia.

  13. Durability of resin cement bond to aluminium oxide and zirconia ceramics after air abrasion and laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Foxton, Richard M; Cavalcanti, Andrea N; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Pilecki, Peter; Sherriff, Martyn; Melo, Luciana; Watson, Timothy F

    2011-02-01

    The erbium laser has been introduced for cutting enamel and dentin and may have an application in the surface modification of high-strength aluminum oxide and zirconia ceramics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the durability of the bond of conventional dual-cured resin cements to Procera Al(2)O(3) and zirconium oxide ceramics after surface treatment with air abrasion and erbium laser. One hundred twenty Al(2)O(3) and 120 zirconia specimens measuring 3 × 3 × 0.7 mm(3) were divided equally into three groups, and their surfaces treated as follows: either untreated (controls), air abraded with Al(2)O(3) particles, or erbium-laser-treated at a power setting of 200 mJ. The surface of each specimen was then primed and bonded with one of two dual-cured resin cements (either SCP-100 Ceramic Primer and NAC-100 or Monobond S and Variolink II) using a 1-mm thick Tygon tube mold with a 0.75-mm internal bore diameter. After 24 hours and 6 months of water storage at 37°C, a microshear bond strength test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Surface morphology was examined using a confocal microscope, and failure modes were observed using an optical microscope. The data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier nonparametric survival analysis. In the case of zirconia, air abrasion and Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser treatment of the ceramic surface resulted in a significant reduction in the bond strengths of both resin cements after 6 months water storage; however, when the zirconia surface was left untreated, the SCP-100/NAC-100 group did not significantly reduce in bond strength. In the case of alumina, no treatment, air abrasion and Er:YAG laser treatment of the surface led to no significant reduction in the bond strengths of the three SCP-100/NAC-100 groups after 6 months water storage, whereas all three Monobond S/Variolink II groups showed a significant reduction. Er:YAG laser treatment of the zirconia surface did not result in a durable resin

  14. Internal Nano Voids in Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) Powder

    PubMed Central

    Barad, Chen; Shekel, Gal; Shandalov, Michael; Hayun, Hagay; Kimmel, Giora; Shamir, Dror; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2017-01-01

    Porous yttria-stabilised zirconia ceramics have been gaining popularity throughout the years in various fields, such as energy, environment, medicine, etc. Although yttria-stabilised zirconia is a well-studied material, voided yttria-stabilised zirconia powder particles have not been demonstrated yet, and might play an important role in future technology developments. A sol-gel synthesis accompanied by a freeze-drying process is currently being proposed as a method of obtaining sponge-like nano morphology of embedded faceted voids inside yttria-stabilised zirconia particles. The results rely on a freeze-drying stage as an effective and simple method for generating nano-voided yttria-stabilised zirconia particles without the use of template-assisted additives. PMID:29258227

  15. Internal Nano Voids in Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) Powder.

    PubMed

    Barad, Chen; Shekel, Gal; Shandalov, Michael; Hayun, Hagay; Kimmel, Giora; Shamir, Dror; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2017-12-18

    Porous yttria-stabilised zirconia ceramics have been gaining popularity throughout the years in various fields, such as energy, environment, medicine, etc. Although yttria-stabilised zirconia is a well-studied material, voided yttria-stabilised zirconia powder particles have not been demonstrated yet, and might play an important role in future technology developments. A sol-gel synthesis accompanied by a freeze-drying process is currently being proposed as a method of obtaining sponge-like nano morphology of embedded faceted voids inside yttria-stabilised zirconia particles. The results rely on a freeze-drying stage as an effective and simple method for generating nano-voided yttria-stabilised zirconia particles without the use of template-assisted additives.

  16. To Evaluate Effect of Airborne Particle Abrasion using Different Abrasives Particles and Compare Two Commercial Available Zirconia on Flexural Strength on Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Hari A; Pasha, Naveed; Hilal, Mohammed; Amarnath, G S; Kundapur, Vinaya; Anand, M; Singh, Sumeet

    2017-06-01

    airborne-particle abrasion using 50 µm Al 2 O 3 particles and 50 µm silica coated Al 2 O 3 are applied to the upper and lower surfaces of the specimens. Each specimen is held under a pressure of 30 psi for 15 seconds at a direction perpendicular to the surface and at a distance of 30mm with an airborne particle abrasion device for the specimens in the airborne particle abraded groups. Heat treatments were performed at a starting temperature of 500°C, heating rate of 100°c/ min, ending at a temperature of 1000°C and 15 minutes holding time without vacuum for the specimens in the group 4, 5, 9 and 10. Airborne-particle abrasion mimicking the preparation for cementation was applied to the lower surfaces with 50 µm alumina and silica coated alumina particles for the specimens in the groups 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. The specimens were cleaned for 15 minutes in an ultrasonic bath containing distilled water. To determine the fracture strength, a disc of 10 mm diameter was used to place 3 hardened steel balls of 3 mm diameter separated each other by 120 degrees (described in the ISO standard 6872 for dental ceramics). Each specimen was centrally placed on this disc. The lower surface mimicking the internal surface of zirconia was the tension side, facing the supporting device testing, while the upper surface mimicking the external surface of the zirconia core was loaded with a flat punch (1 mm in diameter). A universal testing machine was used to perform the test at a cross head speed of 1mm/min. The failure stress was calculated with the equation listed in ISO 6872. The results were then statistically analyzed. A post hoc test was used for pair wise comparisons. The mean fracture strength of commercially available Zirconia Ceramill (AMANNGIRBACH) showed a significant higher value compared to the ZR-White (UPCERA) Zirconia ( P <0.001), Airborne abrasion treatment to the specimens showed a significant difference between the abraded groups and the control group ( P <0.001); further

  17. To Evaluate Effect of Airborne Particle Abrasion using Different Abrasives Particles and Compare Two Commercial Available Zirconia on Flexural Strength on Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Hari A.; Pasha, Naveed; Hilal, Mohammed; Amarnath, G. S.; Kundapur, Vinaya; Anand, M; Singh, Sumeet

    2017-01-01

    specimens each. Heat treatment after airborne-particle abrasion using 50 µm Al2O3 particles and 50 µm silica coated Al2O3 are applied to the upper and lower surfaces of the specimens. Each specimen is held under a pressure of 30 psi for 15 seconds at a direction perpendicular to the surface and at a distance of 30mm with an airborne particle abrasion device for the specimens in the airborne particle abraded groups. Heat treatments were performed at a starting temperature of 500°C, heating rate of 100°c/ min, ending at a temperature of 1000°C and 15 minutes holding time without vacuum for the specimens in the group 4, 5, 9 and 10. Airborne-particle abrasion mimicking the preparation for cementation was applied to the lower surfaces with 50 µm alumina and silica coated alumina particles for the specimens in the groups 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. The specimens were cleaned for 15 minutes in an ultrasonic bath containing distilled water. To determine the fracture strength, a disc of 10 mm diameter was used to place 3 hardened steel balls of 3 mm diameter separated each other by 120 degrees (described in the ISO standard 6872 for dental ceramics). Each specimen was centrally placed on this disc. The lower surface mimicking the internal surface of zirconia was the tension side, facing the supporting device testing, while the upper surface mimicking the external surface of the zirconia core was loaded with a flat punch (1 mm in diameter). A universal testing machine was used to perform the test at a cross head speed of 1mm/min. The failure stress was calculated with the equation listed in ISO 6872. The results were then statistically analyzed. A post hoc test was used for pair wise comparisons. Result: The mean fracture strength of commercially available Zirconia Ceramill (AMANNGIRBACH) showed a significant higher value compared to the ZR-White (UPCERA) Zirconia (P<0.001), Airborne abrasion treatment to the specimens showed a significant difference between the abraded groups and the

  18. Influence of heat treatments upon the mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity of ZrO2-toughened MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan-Cai; Wang, Dian-Gang; Meng, Xiang-Guo; Chen, Chuan-Zhong

    2014-09-01

    Zirconia-toughened MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass-ceramics are prepared using sintering techniques, and a series of heat treatment procedures are designed to obtain a glass-ceramic with improved properties. The crystallization behavior, phase composition, and morphology of the glass-ceramics are characterized. The bending strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, and microhardness of the glass-ceramics are investigated, and the effect mechanism of heat treatments upon the mechanical properties is discussed. The bioactivity of glass-ceramics is then evaluated using the in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking test, and the mechanism whereby apatite forms on the glass-ceramic surfaces in the SBF solution is discussed. The results indicate that the main crystal phase of the G-24 sample undergoing two heat treatment procedures is Ca5(PO4)3F (fluorapatite), and those of the G-2444 sample undergoing four heat treatment procedures are Ca5(PO4)3F and β-CaSiO3 (β-wollastonite). The heat treatment procedures are found to greatly influence the mechanical properties of the glass-ceramic, and an apatite layer is induced on the glass-ceramic surface after soaking in the SBF solution.

  19. The local strength of individual alumina particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejchal, Václav; Fornabaio, Marta; Žagar, Goran; Mortensen, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    We implement the C-shaped sample test method and micro-cantilever beam testing to measure the local strength of microscopic, low-aspect-ratio ceramic particles, namely high-purity vapor grown α-alumina Sumicorundum® particles 15-30 μm in diameter, known to be attractive reinforcing particles for aluminum. Individual particles are shaped by focused ion beam micromachining so as to probe in tension a portion of the particle surface that is left unaffected by ion-milling. Mechanical testing of C-shaped specimens is done ex-situ using a nanoindentation apparatus, and in the SEM using an in-situ nanomechanical testing system for micro-cantilever beams. The strength is evaluated for each individual specimen using bespoke finite element simulation. Results show that, provided the particle surface is free of readily observable defects such as pores, twins or grain boundaries and their associated grooves, the particles can achieve local strength values that approach those of high-perfection single-crystal alumina whiskers, on the order of 10 GPa, outperforming high-strength nanocrystalline alumina fibers and nano-thick alumina platelets used in bio-inspired composites. It is also shown that by far the most harmful defects are grain boundaries, leading to the general conclusion that alumina particles must be single-crystalline or alternatively nanocrystalline to fully develop their potential as a strong reinforcing phase in composite materials.

  20. Fracture performance of computer-aided manufactured zirconia and alloy crowns.

    PubMed

    Rosentritt, Martin; Behr, Michael; Thaller, Christian; Rudolph, Heike; Feilzer, Albert

    2009-09-01

    To compare the fracture resistance and fracture performance of CAD/CAM zirconia and alloy crowns. One electrophoretic deposition alumina ceramic (Wolceram, Wolceram) and 4 zirconia-based systems (ce.novation, ce.novation; Cercon, DeguDent; Digizon, Amann Girrbach; and Lava, 3M ESPE) were investigated. A porcelain-fused-to-metal method (Academy, Bego Medical) was used in either conventional casting technique or laser sintering. Sixteen crowns of each material were fabricated and veneered with glass-ceramic as recommended by the manufacturers. Crown and root dimensions were measured, and 8 crowns of each system were adhesively bonded or conventionally cemented. After the crowns were artificially aged in a simulated oral environment (1,200,000 mechanical loads with 50 N; 3,000 thermal cycles with distilled water between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C; 2 minutes per cycle), fracture resistance and fracture patterns were determined and defect sizes investigated. The fracture force varied between 1,111 N and 2,038 N for conventional cementation and between 1,181 N and 2,295 N for adhesive bonding. No significant differences were found between adhesive and conventional cementations. Fracture patterns presented mostly as a chipping of the veneering, in single cases as a fracture of the core, and in 1 case as a fracture of the tooth. Crown material and cementation do not have any significant influence on the fracture force and fracture performance of all-ceramic and metal-based crowns. Therefore, it may be concluded that adhesive bonding is not necessary for the application of high-strength ceramics.

  1. Strength, fracture toughness and microstructure of a selection of all-ceramic materials. Part I. Pressable and alumina glass-infiltrated ceramics.

    PubMed

    Guazzato, Massimiliano; Albakry, Mohammad; Ringer, Simon P; Swain, Michael V

    2004-06-01

    The present study, divided into two parts, aimed to compare the strength, fracture toughness and microstructure of a range of all-ceramic materials. In part I, three hot-pressed glass-ceramics (IPS-Empress, Empress 2 and a new experimental ceramic) and alumina glass-infiltrated ceramics (In-Ceram Alumina), processed by both slip casting and dry pressing, were compared. Tensile strength was appraised on 10 bar-shaped specimens (20 x 4 x 1.2 mm3) for each material with the three-point bending method; the fracture toughness was measured from 20 specimens (20 x 4 x 2 mm3), by using the indentation strength technique. Data were compared with ANOVA and the Sheffé post hoc test (p = 0.05). The volume fraction of each phase, the dimensions and shapes of the grains, porosity and the crack patterns were investigated using SEM. The average and standard deviation in strength (MPa) and fracture toughness (MPa m(1/2)) were: IPS-Empress 106(17)1, 1.2(0.14)1; Empress 2 306(29)2, 2.9(0.51)2, new experimental ceramic 303(49)2, 3.0(0.65)2, In-Ceram Alumina dry-pressed 440(50)2, 3.6(0.26)2, In-Ceram Alumina slip 594(52)3, 4.4(0.48)3. Values with the same superscript number showed no significant statistical difference. Microscopy revealed the relationship between the glass matrix and the crystalline phase and the characteristics of the latter were correlated to the strengthening and toughening mechanisms of these glass-ceramics. The mechanical properties and microstructure of core materials have been advocated as crucial to the clinical long-term performance of all-ceramic dental restorations. This investigation provides the clinician with data regarding strength, fracture toughness and microstructure of a broad range of current materials. Copyright 2003 Academy of Dental Materials

  2. Dielectric Performance of a High Purity HTCC Alumina at High Temperatures - a Comparison Study with Other Polycrystalline Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liangyu

    2014-01-01

    A very high purity (99.99+%) high temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) alumina has recently become commercially available. The raw material of this HTCC alumina is very different from conventional HTCC alumina, and more importantly there is no glass additive in this alumina material for co-firing processing. Previously, selected HTCC and LTCC (low temperature co-fired ceramic) alumina materials were evaluated at high temperatures as dielectric and compared to a regularly sintered 96% polycrystalline alumina (96% Al2O3), where 96% alumina was used as the benchmark. A prototype packaging system based on regular 96% alumina with Au thickfilm metallization successfully facilitated long term testing of high temperature silicon carbide (SiC) electronic devices for over 10,000 hours at 500 C. In order to evaluate this new high purity HTCC alumina for possible high temperature packaging applications, the dielectric properties of this HTCC alumina substrate were measured and compared with those of 96% alumina and a previously tested LTCC alumina from room temperature to 550 C at frequencies of 120 Hz, 1 KHz, 10 KHz, 100 KHz, and 1 MHz. A parallel-plate capacitive device with dielectric of the HTCC alumina and precious metal electrodes were used for measurements of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the co-fired alumina material in the temperature and frequency ranges. The capacitance and AC parallel conductance of the capacitive device were directly measured by an AC impedance meter, and the dielectric constant and parallel AC conductivity of the dielectric were calculated from the capacitance and conductance measurement results. The temperature and frequency dependent dielectric constant, AC conductivity, and dissipation factor of the HTCC alumina substrate are presented and compared to those of 96% alumina and a selected LTCC alumina. Other technical advantages of this new co-fired material for possible high packaging applications are also discussed.

  3. Factors Affecting the Attrition Strength of Alumina Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, J. V.

    The attrition strength of alumina is a matter of increasing interest. The aim of the present paper is to show how the strength of alumina is related to the precipitation parameters and to the morphology of the precursor hydrate particles.

  4. Thermal conductivity of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Beecher, S. C.; Nagaraj, B. A.; Moore, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBC's is of primary importance. Physical vapor description (PVD) and plasma spraying (PS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The PS coatings were applied with either standard power or hollow sphere particles. The hollow sphere particles yielded a lower density and lower thermal conductivity coating. The thermal conductivity of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia, before and after thermal aging, will be compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increase upon being exposed to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. Sintering of the as fabricated plasma sprayed lamellar structure is observed by scanning electron microscopy of coatings isothermally heat treated at temperatures greater than 1100 C. During this sintering process the planar porosity between lamella is converted to a series of small spherical pores. The change in pore morphology is the primary reason for the observed increase in thermal conductivity. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, preliminary results suggest that they have a higher thermal conductivity than PS coatings, both before and after thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for partially stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia have been found to be less than for fully stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia coatings. The high temperature thermal diffusivity data indicates that if these coatings reach a temperature above

  5. Thermal conductivity of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Beecher, S. C.; Nagaraj, B. A.; Moore, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBC's is of primary importance. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma spraying (PS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The PS coatings were applied with either standard powder or hollow sphere particles. The hollow sphere particles yielded a lower density and lower thermal conductivity coating. The thermal conductivity of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia, before and after thermal aging, will be compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposed to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. Sintering of the as-fabricated plasma sprayed lamellar structure is observed by scanning electron microscopy of coatings isothermally heat treated at temperatures greater than 1100 C. During this sintering process the planar porosity between lamella is converted to a series of small spherical pores. The change in pore morphology is the primary reason for the observed increase in thermal conductivity. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, preliminary results suggest that they have a higher thermal conductivity than PS coatings, both before and after thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for partially stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia have been found to be less than for fully stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia coatings. The high temperature thermal diffusivity data indicate that if these coatings reach a temperature above 1100 C

  6. Inlay-retained cantilever fixed dental prostheses to substitute a single premolar: impact of zirconia framework design after dynamic loading.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Ramez; Tannous, Fahed; Kern, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the framework design on the durability of inlay-retained cantilever fixed dental prostheses (IR-FDPs), made from zirconia ceramic, after artificial ageing. Forty-eight caries-free human premolars were prepared as abutments for all-ceramic cantilevered IR-FDPs using six framework designs: occlusal-distal (OD) inlay, OD inlay with an oral retainer wing, OD inlay with two retainer wings, mesial-occlusal-distal (MOD) inlay, MOD inlay with an oral retainer ring, and veneer partial coping with a distal box (VB). Zirconia IR-FDPs were fabricated via computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. The bonding surfaces were air-abraded (50 μm alumina/0.1 MPa), and the frameworks were bonded with adhesive resin cement. Specimens were stored for 150 d in a 37°C water bath during which they were thermocycled between 5 and 55°C for 37,500 cycles; thereafter, they were exposed to 600,000 cycles of dynamic loading with a 5-kg load in a chewing simulator. All surviving specimens were loaded onto the pontic and tested until failure using a universal testing machine. The mean failure load of the groups ranged from 260.8 to 746.7 N. Statistical analysis showed that both MOD groups exhibited significantly higher failure loads compared with the other groups (i.e. the three OD groups and the VB group) and that there was no significant difference in the failure load among the OD groups and the VB group. In conclusion, zirconia IR-FDPs with a modified design exhibited promising failure modes. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  7. Iron films deposited on porous alumina substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Tanabe, Kenichi; Nishida, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2016-12-01

    Iron films were deposited on porous alumina substrates using an arc plasma gun. The pore sizes (120 - 250 nm) of the substrates were controlled by changing the temperature during the anodic oxidation of aluminum plates. Iron atoms penetrated into pores with diameters of less than 160 nm, and were stabilized by forming γ-Fe, whereas α-Fe was produced as a flat plane covering the pores. For porous alumina substrates with pore sizes larger than 200 nm, the deposited iron films contained many defects and the resulting α-Fe had smaller hyperfine magnetic fields. In addition, only a very small amount of γ-Fe was obtained. It was demonstrated that the composition and structure of an iron film can be affected by the surface morphology of the porous alumina substrate on which the film is grown.

  8. Pt/Au nanoalloy supported on alumina and chlorided alumina: DFT and experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, N.; Falamaki, C.; Ghorbanzadeh Ahangari, M.

    2018-04-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) was used to explore the adsorption of Pt/Au nanoalloy onto a pure and chlorided γ-Al2O3(110) surface, which has been applied in numerous catalytic reactions. First, we considered the adsorption properties of Pt clusters (n ≤ 5) onto the Al2O3(110) surface to determine the most stable Pt cluster on alumina surface in reforming processes. After full structural relaxations of Pt clusters at various configurations on alumina, our computed results expressed that the minimum binding energy (‑5.67 eV) is accrued for Pt4 cluster and the distance between the nearest Pt atom in the cluster to the alumina surface is equal to 1.13 Å. Then, we investigated the binding energies, geometries, and electronic properties of adsorbed Aun clusters (n ≤ 6) on the γ-Al2O3(110) surface. Our studied showed that Au5 was the most thermodynamically stable structure on γ-Al2O3. Finally, we inspected these properties for adsorbed Au clusters onto the Pt4-decorated alumina (Aun/Pt4-alumina) system. The binding energy of the Au4/Pt4-alumina system was ‑5.01 eV, and the distance between Au4 cluster and Pt4-alumina was 1.33 Å. The Au4/Pt4alumina system was found to be the most stable nanometer-sized catalyst design. At last, our first-principles calculations predicted that the best position of embedment Cl on the Au4/Pt4-alumina.

  9. Chlorination of alumina in kaolinitic clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grob, B.; Richarz, W.

    1984-09-01

    The chlorination of alumina in kaolinitic clay with Cl2 and CO gas mixtures was studied gravimetrically. The effects of the calcination method and of NaCl addition on the reactivity of the clay were examined. Fast reaction rates were achieved only with samples previously exposed to a sulfating treatment. Optimum conditions, with maximum yield and selectivity to A1C13 and minimum SiO2 conversion, were found between 770 and 970 K. At higher temperatures the SiCl4 formed poisons the reactive alumina surface by selective chemisorption with a marked decrease of the reaction rate.

  10. Effect of cleaning methods after reduced-pressure air abrasion on bonding to zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Attia, Ahmed; Kern, Matthias

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate in vitro the influence of different cleaning methods after low-pressure air abrasion on the bond strength of a phosphate monomer-containing luting resin to zirconia ceramic. A total of 112 zirconia ceramic disks were divided into 7 groups (n = 16). In the test groups, disks were air abraded at low pressure (L) 0.05 MPa using 50-μm alumina particles. Prior to bonding, the disks were ultrasonically (U) cleaned either in isopropanol alcohol (AC), hydrofluoric acid (HF), demineralized water (DW), or tap water (TW), or they were used without ultrasonic cleaning. Disks air abraded at a high (H) pressure of 0.25 MPa and cleaned ultrasonically in isopropanol served as positive control; original (O) milled disks used without air abrasion served as the negative control group. Plexiglas tubes filled with composite resin were bonded with the adhesive luting resin Panavia 21 to the ceramic disks. Prior to testing tensile bond strength (TBS), each main group was further subdivided into 2 subgroups (n=8) which were stored in distilled water either at 37°C for 3 days or for 30 days with 7500 thermal cycles. Statistical analyses were conducted with two- and one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's HSD test. Initial tensile bond strength (TBS) ranged from 32.6 to 42.8 MPa. After 30 days storage in water with thermocycling, TBS ranged from 21.9 to 36.3 MPa. Storage in water and thermocycling significantly decreased the TBS of test groups which were not air abraded (p = 0.05) or which were air abraded but cleaned in tap water (p = 0.002), but not the TBS of the other groups (p > 0.05). Also, the TBS of air-abraded groups were significantly higher than the TBS of the original milled (p < 0.01). Cleaning procedures did not significantly affect TBS either after 3 days or 30 days storage in water and thermocycling (p > 0.05). Air abrasion at 0.05 MPa and ultrasonic cleaning are important factors for improving bonding to zirconia ceramic.

  11. REMOVING RADIUM FROM WATER BY PLAIN AND TREATED ACTIVATED ALUMINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research determined the feasibility of using BaSO4-impregnated activated alumina and plain activated alumina for radium removal from groundwater by fixed-bed adsorption. The major factors influencing radium adsorption onto the two types of alumina were identified. The radium ...

  12. Osteogenic Responses to Zirconia with Hydroxyapatite Coating by Aerosol Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Y.; Hong, J.; Ryoo, H.; Kim, D.; Park, J.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we found that osteogenic responses to zirconia co-doped with niobium oxide (Nb2O5) or tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) are comparable with responses to titanium, which is widely used as a dental implant material. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro osteogenic potential of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated zirconia by an aerosol deposition method for improved osseointegration. Surface analysis by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction proved that a thin as-deposited HA film on zirconia showed a shallow, regular, crater-like surface. Deposition of dense and uniform HA films was measured by SEM, and the contact angle test demonstrated improved wettability of the HA-coated surface. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast attachment did not differ notably between the titanium and zirconia surfaces; however, cells on the HA-coated zirconia exhibited a lower proliferation than those on the uncoated zirconia late in the culture. Nevertheless, ALP, alizarin red S staining, and bone marker gene expression analysis indicated good osteogenic responses on HA-coated zirconia. Our results suggest that HA-coating by aerosol deposition improves the quality of surface modification and is favorable to osteogenesis. PMID:25586588

  13. Sacrificial bonds in stacked-cup carbon nanofibers: biomimetic toughening mechanisms for composite systems.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, Marc J; Putz, Karl W; Brinson, L Catherine

    2010-07-27

    Many natural composites, such as nacre or bone, achieve exceptional toughening enhancements through the rupture of noncovalent secondary bonds between chain segments in the organic phase. This "sacrificial bond" rupture dissipates enormous amounts of energy and reveals significant hidden lengths due to unraveling of the highly coiled macromolecules, leaving the structural integrity of their covalent backbones intact to large extensions. In this work, we present the first evidence of similar sacrificial bond mechanisms in the inorganic phase of composites using inexpensive stacked-cup carbon nanofibers (CNF), which are composed of helically coiled graphene sheets with graphitic spacing between adjacent layers. These CNFs are dispersed in a series of high-performance epoxy systems containing trifunctional and tetrafunctional resins, which are traditionally difficult to toughen in light of their highly cross-linked networks. Nonetheless, the addition of only 0.68 wt % CNF yields toughness enhancements of 43-112% for the various blends. Analysis of the relevant toughening mechanisms reveals two heretofore unseen mechanisms using sacrificial bonds that complement the observed crack deflection, rupture, and debonding/pullout that are common to many composite systems. First, embedded nanofibers can splay discretely between adjacent graphitic layers in the side walls; second, crack-bridging nanofibers can unravel continuously. Both of these mechanisms entail the dissipation of the pi-pi interactions between layers in the side walls without compromising the structural integrity of the graphene sheets. Moreover, increases in electrical conductivity of approximately 7-10 orders of magnitude were found, highlighting the multifunctionality of CNFs as reinforcements for the design of tough, inexpensive nanocomposites with improved electrical properties.

  14. Mechanical properties of hybrid SiC/CNT filled toughened epoxy nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratim, S.; Ahmad, S.; Bonnia, N. N.; Yahaya, Sabrina M.

    2018-01-01

    Mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites filled single filler have been extensively studied by various researchers. However, there are not much discovery on the behavior of hybrid nanocomposite. In this study, single and hybrid nanocomposites of toughened epoxy filled CNT/SiC nanoparticles were investigated. The hybrid nanocomposites samples were prepared by combining CNT and SiC nanoparticles in toughened epoxy matrix via mechanical stirring method assisted with ultrasonic cavitations. Epoxy resin and liquid epoxidized natural rubber (LENR) mixture were first blend prior to the addition of nanofillers. Then, the curing process of the nanocomposite samples were conducted by compression molding technique at 130°C for 2 hours. The purpose of this study is to investigate the hybridization effect of CNT and SiC nanoparticles on mechanical properties toughened epoxy matrix. The total loading of single and hybrid nanofillers were fixed to 4% volume are 0, 4C, 4S, 3S1C, 2S2C, and 1S3C. Mechanical properties of hybrid composites show that the highest value of tensile strength achieved by 3S1C sample at about 7% increment and falls between their single composite values. Meanwhile, the stiffness of the same sample is significantly increased at about 31% of the matrix. On the other hand, a highest flexural property is obtained by 1S3C sample at about 20% increment dominated by CNT content. However, the impact strength shows reduction trend with the addition of SiC and CNT into the matrix. The hybridization of SiC and CNT show highest value in sample 1S3C at about 3.37 kJ/m2 of impact energy absorbed. FESEM micrograph have confirmed that better distributions and interaction observed between SiC nanoparticles and matrix compared to CNT, which contributed to higher tensile strength and modulus.

  15. An overview of zirconia ceramics: basic properties and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Manicone, Paolo Francesco; Rossi Iommetti, Pierfrancesco; Raffaelli, Luca

    2007-11-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) is a ceramic material with adequate mechanical properties for manufacturing of medical devices. Zirconia stabilized with Y2O3 has the best properties for these applications. When a stress occurs on a ZrO2 surface, a crystalline modification opposes the propagation of cracks. Compression resistance of ZrO2 is about 2000 MPa. Orthopedic research led to this material being proposed for the manufacture of hip head prostheses. Prior to this, zirconia biocompatibility had been studied in vivo; no adverse responses were reported following the insertion of ZrO2 samples into bone or muscle. In vitro experimentation showed absence of mutations and good viability of cells cultured on this material. Zirconia cores for fixed partial dentures (FPD) on anterior and posterior teeth and on implants are now available. Clinical evaluation of abutments and periodontal tissue must be performed prior to their use. Zirconia opacity is very useful in adverse clinical situations, for example, for masking of dischromic abutment teeth. Radiopacity can aid evaluation during radiographic controls. Zirconia frameworks are realized by using computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. Cementation of Zr-ceramic restorations can be performed with adhesive luting. Mechanical properties of zirconium oxide FPDs have proved superior to those of other metal-free restorations. Clinical evaluations, which have been ongoing for 3 years, indicate a good success rate for zirconia FPDs. Zirconia implant abutments can also be used to improve the aesthetic outcome of implant-supported rehabilitations. Newly proposed zirconia implants seem to have good biological and mechanical properties; further studies are needed to validate their application.

  16. From Zirconium Nanograins to Zirconia Nanoneedles

    PubMed Central

    Zalnezhad, E.; Hamouda, A. M. S.; Jaworski, J.; Do Kim, Young

    2016-01-01

    Combinations of three simple techniques were utilized to gradually form zirconia nanoneedles from zirconium nanograins. First, a physical vapor deposition magnetron sputtering technique was used to deposit pure zirconium nanograins on top of a substrate. Second, an anodic oxidation was applied to fabricate zirconia nanotubular arrays. Finally, heat treatment was used at different annealing temperatures in order to change the structure and morphology from nanotubes to nanowires and subsequently to nanoneedles in the presence of argon gas. The size of the pure zirconium nanograins was estimated to be approximately 200–300 nm. ZrO2 nanotubular arrays with diameters of 70–120 nm were obtained. Both tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO2 were observed after annealing at 450 °C and 650 °C. Only a few tetragonal peaks appeared at 850 °C, while monoclinic ZrO2 was obtained at 900 °C and 950 °C. In assessing the biocompatibility of the ZrO2 surface, the human cell line MDA-MB-231 was found to attach and proliferate well on surfaces annealed at 850 °C and 450 °C; however, the amorphous ZrO2 surface, which was not heat treated, did not permit extensive cell growth, presumably due to remaining fluoride. PMID:27623486

  17. Systems design of transformation toughened blast-resistant naval hull steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Arup

    A systems approach to computational materials design has demonstrated a new class of ultratough, weldable secondary hardened plate steels combining new levels of strength and toughness while meeting processability requirements. A first prototype alloy has achieved property goals motivated by projected naval hull applications requiring extreme fracture toughness (Cv > 85 ft-lbs (115 J) corresponding to KId > 200 ksi.in1/2 (220 MPa.m1/2)) at strength levels of 150--180 ksi (1034--1241 MPa) yield strength in weldable, formable plate steels. A theoretical design concept was explored integrating the mechanism of precipitated nickel-stabilized dispersed austenite for transformation toughening in an alloy strengthened by combined precipitation of M2C carbides and BCC copper both at an optimal ˜3nm particle size for efficient strengthening. This concept was adapted to plate steel design by employing a mixed bainitic/martensitic matrix microstructure produced by air-cooling after solution-treatment and constraining the composition to low carbon content for weldability. With optimized levels of copper and M2C carbide formers based on a quantitative strength model, a required alloy nickel content of 6.5 wt% was predicted for optimal austenite stability for transformation toughening at the desired strength level of 160 ksi (1100 MPa) yield strength. A relatively high Cu level of 3.65 wt% was employed to allow a carbon limit of 0.05 wt% for good weldability. Hardness and tensile tests conducted on the designed prototype confirmed predicted precipitation strengthening behavior in quench and tempered material. Multi-step tempering conditions were employed to achieve the optimal austenite stability resulting in significant increase of impact toughness to 130 ft-lb (176 J) at a strength level of 160 ksi (1100 MPa). Comparison with the baseline toughness-strength combination determined by isochronal tempering studies indicates a transformation toughening increment of 60% in Charpy

  18. An investigation on the crack growth resistance of human tooth enamel: Anisotropy, microstructure and toughening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahyazadehfar, Mobin

    The enamel of human teeth is generally regarded as a brittle material with low fracture toughness. Consequently, the contributions of this tissue in resisting tooth fracture and the importance of its complex microstructure have been largely overlooked. The primary objective of this dissertation is to characterize the role of enamel's microstructure and degree of decussation on the fracture behavior of human enamel. The importance of the protein content and aging on the fracture toughness of enamel were also explored. Incremental crack growth in sections of human enamel was achieved using a special inset Compact Tension (CT) specimen configuration. Crack extension was achieved in two orthogonal directions, i.e. longitudinal and transverse to the prism axes. Fracture surfaces and the path of crack growth path were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to understand the fundamental mechanisms of crack growth extension. Furthermore, a hybrid approach was adopted to quantify the contribution of toughening mechanisms to the overall toughness. Results of this investigations showed that human enamel exhibits rising R-curve for both directions of crack extension. Cracks extending transverse to the rods in the outer enamel achieved lower rise in toughness with crack extension, and significantly lower toughness (1.23 +/- 0.20 MPa·m 0.5) than in the inner enamel (1.96 +/- 0.28 MPa· 0.5) and in the longitudinal direction (2.01 +/- 0.21 MPa· 0.5). The crack growth resistance exhibited both anisotropy and inhomogeneity, which arise from the complex hierarchical microstructure and the decussated prism structure. Decussation causes deflection of cracks extending from the enamel surface inwards, and facilitates a continuation of transverse crack extension within the outer enamel. This process dissipates fracture energy and averts cracks from extending toward the dentin and vital pulp. This study is the first to investigate the importance of proteins and the effect of

  19. Characterization of the thermal conductivity for Advanced Toughened Uni-piece Fibrous Insulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.; Leiser, Daniel B.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Toughened Uni-piece Fibrous Insulations (TUFI) is discussed in terms of their thermal response to an arc-jet air stream. A modification of the existing Ames thermal conductivity program to predict the thermal response of these functionally gradient materials is described in the paper. The modified program was used to evaluate the effect of density, surface porosity, and density gradient through the TUFI materials on the thermal response of these insulations. Predictions using a finite-difference code and calculated thermal conductivity values from the modified program were compared with in-depth temperature measurements taken from TUFI insulations during short exposures to arc-jet hypersonic air streams.

  20. Elastomer toughened polyimide adhesives. [bonding metal and composite material structures for aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rubber-toughened, addition-type polyimide composition is disclosed which has excellent high temperature bonding characteristics in the fully cured state and improved peel strength and adhesive fracture resistance physical property characteristics. The process for making the improved adhesive involves preparing the rubber-containing amic acid prepolymer by chemically reacting an amine-terminated elastomer and an aromatic diamine with an aromatic dianhydride with which a reactive chain stopper anhydride has been mixed, and utilizing solvent or mixture of solvents for the reaction.

  1. Sol-gel dip coating of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia dental ceramic by aluminosilicate nanocomposite as a novel technique to improve the bonding of veneering porcelain.

    PubMed

    Madani, Azamsadat; Nakhaei, Mohammadreza; Karami, Parisa; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir; Salehi, Sahar; Bagheri, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of silica and aluminosilicate nanocomposite coating of zirconia-based dental ceramic by a sol-gel dip-coating technique on the bond strength of veneering porcelain to the yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) in vitro. Thirty Y-TZP blocks (10 mm ×10 mm ×3 mm) were prepared and were assigned to four experimental groups (n=10/group): C, without any further surface treatment as the control group; S, sandblasted using 110 μm alumina powder; Si, silica sol dip coating + calcination; and Si/Al, aluminosilicate sol dip coating + calcination. After preparing Y-TZP samples, a 3 mm thick layer of the recommended porcelain was fired on the coated Y-TZP surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the coating and the nature of the bonding between the coating and zirconia. To examine the zirconia-porcelain bond strength, a microtensile bond strength (μTBS) approach was chosen. FT-IR study showed the formation of silica and aluminosilicate materials. XRD pattern showed the formation of new phases consisting of Si, Al, and Zr in coated samples. SEM showed the formation of a uniform coating on Y-TZP samples. Maximum μTBS values were obtained in aluminosilicate samples, which were significantly increased compared to control and sandblasted groups (P=0.013 and P<0.001, respectively). This study showed that aluminosilicate sol-gel dip coating can be considered as a convenient, less expensive reliable method for improving the bond strength between dental Y-TZP ceramics and veneering porcelain.

  2. Method of making nanocrystalline alpha alumina

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, Richard W.; Hahn, Horst; Eastman, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Method of making selected phases of nanocrystalline ceramic materials. Various methods of controlling the production of nanocrystalline alpha alumina and titanium oxygen phases are described. Control of the gas atmosphere and use of particular oxidation treatments give rise to the ability to control the particular phases provided in the aluminum/oxygen and titanium/oxygen system.

  3. Synthesis and thermal stability of zirconia and yttria-stabilized zirconia microspheres.

    PubMed

    Leib, Elisabeth W; Vainio, Ulla; Pasquarelli, Robert M; Kus, Jonas; Czaschke, Christian; Walter, Nils; Janssen, Rolf; Müller, Martin; Schreyer, Andreas; Weller, Horst; Vossmeyer, Tobias

    2015-06-15

    Zirconia microparticles produced by sol-gel synthesis have great potential for photonic applications. To this end, identifying synthetic methods that yield reproducible control over size uniformity is important. Phase transformations during thermal cycling can disintegrate the particles. Therefore, understanding the parameters driving these transformations is essential for enabling high-temperature applications. Particle morphology is expected to influence particle processability and stability. Yttria-doping should improve the thermal stability of the particles, as it does in bulk zirconia. Zirconia and YSZ particles were synthesized by improved sol-gel approaches using fatty acid stabilizers. The particles were heated to 1500 °C, and structural and morphological changes were monitored by SEM, ex situ XRD and high-energy in situ XRD. Zirconia particles (0.4-4.3 μm in diameter, 5-10% standard deviation) synthesized according to the modified sol-gel approaches yielded significantly improved monodispersities. As-synthesized amorphous particles transformed to the tetragonal phase at ∼450 °C with a volume decrease of up to ∼75% and then to monoclinic after heating from ∼650 to 850 °C. Submicron particles disintegrated at ∼850 °C and microparticles at ∼1200 °C due to grain growth. In situ XRD revealed that the transition from the amorphous to tetragonal phase was accompanied by relief in microstrain and the transition from tetragonal to monoclinic was correlated with the tetragonal grain size. Early crystallization and smaller initial grain sizes, which depend on the precursors used for particle synthesis, coincided with higher stability. Yttria-doping reduced grain growth, stabilized the tetragonal phase, and significantly improved the thermal stability of the particles. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. On the interfacial fracture of porcelain/zirconia and graded zirconia dental structures.

    PubMed

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J-W; Mieleszko, Adam J; Chu, Stephen J; Zhang, Yu

    2014-08-01

    Porcelain fused to zirconia (PFZ) restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry. However, their susceptibility to fracture remains a practical problem. The failure of PFZ prostheses often involves crack initiation and growth in the porcelain, which may be followed by fracture along the porcelain/zirconia (P/Z) interface. In this work, we characterized the process of fracture in two PFZ systems, as well as a newly developed graded glass-zirconia structure with emphases placed on resistance to interfacial cracking. Thin porcelain layers were fused onto Y-TZP plates with or without the presence of a glass binder. The specimens were loaded in a four-point-bending fixture with the thin porcelain veneer in tension, simulating the lower portion of the connectors and marginal areas of a fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) during occlusal loading. The evolution of damage was observed by a video camera. The fracture was characterized by unstable growth of cracks perpendicular to the P/Z interface (channel cracks) in the porcelain layer, which was followed by stable cracking along the P/Z interface. The interfacial fracture energy GC was determined by a finite-element analysis taking into account stress-shielding effects due to the presence of adjacent channel cracks. The resulting GC was considerably less than commonly reported values for similar systems. Fracture in the graded Y-TZP samples occurred via a single channel crack at a much greater stress than for PFZ. No delamination between the residual glass layer and graded zirconia occurred in any of the tests. Combined with its enhanced resistance to edge chipping and good esthetic quality, graded Y-TZP emerges as a viable material concept for dental restorations. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Zirconia coating stabilized super-iron alkaline cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xingwen; Licht, Stuart

    A low-level zirconia coating significantly stabilizes high energy alkaline super-iron cathodes, and improves the energy storage capacity of super-iron batteries. Zirconia coating is derived from ZrCl 4 in an organic medium through the conversion of ZrCl 4 to ZrO 2. In alkaline battery system, ZrO 2 provides an intact shield for the cathode materials and the hydroxide shuttle through the coating sustains alkaline cathode redox chemistry. Most super-iron cathodes are solid-state stable, such as K 2FeO 4 and Cs 2FeO 4, but tend to be passivated in alkaline electrolyte due to the formation of Fe(III) over layer. Zirconia coating effectively enhances the stability of these super-iron cathodes. However, for solid-state unstable super-iron cathode (e.g. BaFeO 4), only a little stabilization effect of zirconia coating is observed.

  6. Change in surface properties of zirconia and initial attachment of osteoblastlike cells with hydrophilic treatment.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroaki; Saito, Kensuke; Kokubun, Katsutoshi; Sasaki, Hodaka; Yoshinari, Masao

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize change in surface properties of tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (TZP) after hydrophilic treatment, and to determine the effect of such changes on initial attachment of osteoblast-like cells. Roughened surfaces were produced by alumina-blasting and acid-etching. Hydrophilic treatment comprised application of immediately after blasting and acid-etching (Blast/Etch), oxygen plasma (O2-Plasma), ultraviolet light (UV). Specimens stored in air were used as a control. The water contact angle was determined and surface analysis was performed using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Blast/Etch, O2-Plasma and UV specimens showed superhydrophilicity, and these hydrophilic treatments to TZP elicited a marked decrease in carbon content and an increase in hydroxyl groups. Hydrophilic treatments enhanced initial attachment of osteoblast-like cells and a change in cell morphologies. These results indicate that Blast/Etch, O2-Plasma, or UV treatment has potential in the creation and maintenance of superhydrophilic surfaces and enhancing initial attachment of osteoblast-like cells.

  7. Giant panda׳s tooth enamel: Structure, mechanical behavior and toughening mechanisms under indentation.

    PubMed

    Weng, Z Y; Liu, Z Q; Ritchie, R O; Jiao, D; Li, D S; Wu, H L; Deng, L H; Zhang, Z F

    2016-12-01

    The giant panda׳s teeth possess remarkable load-bearing capacity and damage resistance for masticating bamboos. In this study, the hierarchical structure and mechanical behavior of the giant panda׳s tooth enamel were investigated under indentation. The effects of loading orientation and location on mechanical properties of the enamel were clarified and the evolution of damage in the enamel under increasing load evaluated. The nature of the damage, both at and beneath the indentation surfaces, and the underlying toughening mechanisms were explored. Indentation cracks invariably were seen to propagate along the internal interfaces, specifically the sheaths between enamel rods, and multiple extrinsic toughening mechanisms, e.g., crack deflection/twisting and uncracked-ligament bridging, were active to shield the tips of cracks from the applied stress. The giant panda׳s tooth enamel is analogous to human enamel in its mechanical properties, yet it has superior hardness and Young׳s modulus but inferior toughness as compared to the bamboo that pandas primarily feed on, highlighting the critical roles of the integration of underlying tissues in the entire tooth and the highly hydrated state of bamboo foods. Our objective is that this study can aid the understanding of the structure-mechanical property relations in the tooth enamel of mammals and further provide some insight on the food habits of the giant pandas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Data on a Laves phase intermetallic matrix composite in situ toughened by ductile precipitates.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Alexander J; Bhowmik, Ayan; Purkayastha, Surajit; Jones, Nicholas G; Giuliani, Finn; Clegg, William J; Dye, David; Stone, Howard J

    2017-10-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Laves phase intermetallic matrix composite in situ toughened by ductile precipitates" (Knowles et al.) [1]. The composite comprised a Fe 2 (Mo, Ti) matrix with bcc (Mo, Ti) precipitated laths produced in situ by an aging heat treatment, which was shown to confer a toughening effect (Knowles et al.) [1]. Here, details are given on a focused ion beam (FIB) slice and view experiment performed on the composite so as to determine that the 3D morphology of the bcc (Mo, Ti) precipitates were laths rather than needles. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (S(TEM)) micrographs of the microstructure as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) maps are presented that identify the elemental partitioning between the C14 Laves matrix and the bcc laths, with Mo rejected from the matrix into laths. A TEM selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) and key is provided that was used to validate the orientation relation between the matrix and laths identified in (Knowles et al.) [1] along with details of the transformation matrix determined.

  9. Ceramic composites: A review of toughening mechanisms and demonstration of micropillar compression for interface property extraction

    DOE PAGES

    Kabel, Joey; Hosemann, Peter; Zayachuk, Yevhen; ...

    2018-01-24

    We present that ceramic fiber–matrix composites (CFMCs) are exciting materials for engineering applications in extreme environments. By integrating ceramic fibers within a ceramic matrix, CFMCs allow an intrinsically brittle material to exhibit sufficient structural toughness for use in gas turbines and nuclear reactors. Chemical stability under high temperature and irradiation coupled with high specific strength make these materials unique and increasingly popular in extreme settings. This paper first offers a review of the importance and growing body of research on fiber–matrix interfaces as they relate to composite toughening mechanisms. Second, micropillar compression is explored experimentally as a high-fidelity method formore » extracting interface properties compared with traditional fiber push-out testing. Three significant interface properties that govern composite toughening were extracted. For a 50-nm-pyrolytic carbon interface, the following were observed: a fracture energy release rate of ~2.5 J/m 2, an internal friction coefficient of 0.25 ± 0.04, and a debond shear strength of 266 ± 24 MPa. Lastly, this research supports micromechanical evaluations as a unique bridge between theoretical physics models for microcrack propagation and empirically driven finite element models for bulk CFMCs.« less

  10. Ceramic composites: A review of toughening mechanisms and demonstration of micropillar compression for interface property extraction

    SciT

    Kabel, Joey; Hosemann, Peter; Zayachuk, Yevhen

    We present that ceramic fiber–matrix composites (CFMCs) are exciting materials for engineering applications in extreme environments. By integrating ceramic fibers within a ceramic matrix, CFMCs allow an intrinsically brittle material to exhibit sufficient structural toughness for use in gas turbines and nuclear reactors. Chemical stability under high temperature and irradiation coupled with high specific strength make these materials unique and increasingly popular in extreme settings. This paper first offers a review of the importance and growing body of research on fiber–matrix interfaces as they relate to composite toughening mechanisms. Second, micropillar compression is explored experimentally as a high-fidelity method formore » extracting interface properties compared with traditional fiber push-out testing. Three significant interface properties that govern composite toughening were extracted. For a 50-nm-pyrolytic carbon interface, the following were observed: a fracture energy release rate of ~2.5 J/m 2, an internal friction coefficient of 0.25 ± 0.04, and a debond shear strength of 266 ± 24 MPa. Lastly, this research supports micromechanical evaluations as a unique bridge between theoretical physics models for microcrack propagation and empirically driven finite element models for bulk CFMCs.« less

  11. DUCTILE-PHASE TOUGHENED TUNGSTEN FOR PLASMA-FACING MATERIALS IN FUSION REACTORS

    SciT

    Henager, Charles H.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Roosendaal, Timothy J.

    2017-05-01

    Tungsten (W) and W-alloys are the leading candidates for plasma-facing components in nuclear fusion reactor designs because of their high melting point, strength retention at high temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and low sputtering yield. However, tungsten is brittle and does not exhibit the required fracture toughness for licensing in nuclear applications. A promising approach to increasing fracture toughness of W-alloys is by ductile-phase toughening (DPT). In this method, a ductile phase is included in a brittle matrix to prevent on inhibit crack propagation by crack blunting, crack bridging, crack deflection, and crack branching. Model examples of DPT tungsten are exploredmore » in this study, including W-Cu and W-Ni-Fe powder product composites. Three-point and four-point notched and/or pre-cracked bend samples were tested at several strain rates and temperatures to help understand deformation, cracking, and toughening in these materials. Data from these tests are used for developing and calibrating crack-bridging models. Finite element damage mechanics models are introduced as a modeling method that appears to capture the complexity of crack growth in these materials.« less

  12. Study of the toughening mechanisms in bone and biomimetic hydroxyapatite materials using Raman microprobe spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Sakakura, Seiji

    2003-05-01

    A Raman microprobe spectroscopy characterization of microscopic fracture mechanisms is presented for a natural hydroxyapatite material (cortical bovine femur) and two synthetic hydroxyapatite-based materials with biomimetic structures-a hydroxyapatite skeleton interpenetrated with a metallic (silver) or a polymeric (nylon-6) phase. In both the natural and synthetic materials, a conspicuous amount of toughening arose from a microscopic crack-bridging mechanism operated by elasto-plastic stretching of unbroken second-phase ligaments along the crack wake. This mechanism led to a rising R-curve behavior. An additional micromechanism, responsible for stress relaxation at the crack tip, was recognized in the natural bone material and was partly mimicked in the hydroxyapatite/silver composite. This crack-tip mechanism conspicuously enhanced the cortical bone material resistance to fracture initiation. A piezo-spectroscopic technique, based on a microprobe measurement of 980 cm(-1) Raman line of hydroxyapatite, enabled us to quantitatively assess in situ the microscopic stress fields developed during fracture both at the crack tip and along the crack wake. Using the Raman piezo-spectroscopy technique, toughening mechanisms were assessed quantitatively and rationally related to the macroscopic fracture characteristics of hydroxyapatite-based materials. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Study on Strengthening and Toughening Mechanisms of Aluminum Alloy 2618-Ti at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Ma; Tingting, Liu; Ya, Liu; Xuping, Su; Jianhua, Wang

    2018-01-01

    The tensile properties of the alloy 2618 and 2618-Ti were tested using a tensile testing machine. The morphologies of the fracture of tensile samples were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The strengthening and toughening mechanisms of alloy 2618-Ti at elevated temperature were systematically investigated based on the analyses of experimental results. The results showed that the tensile strength of alloy 2618-Ti is much higher than that of alloy 2618 at the temperature range of 250 and 300 °C. But the elongation of alloy 2618-Ti is much higher than that of alloy 2618 at the temperature range of 200 and 300 °C. The equal-strength temperature of intragranular and grain boundary of alloy 2618-Ti is about 235 °C. When the temperature is lower than 235 °C, the strengthening of alloy 2618-Ti is ascribed to the strengthening effect of fine grains and dispersed Al3Ti/Al18Mg3Ti2 phase. When the temperature is higher than 235 °C, the strengthening effect of alloy 2618-Ti is mainly attributed to the load transfer of Al3Ti and Al18Mg3Ti2 particles. The toughening of alloy 2618-Ti at elevated temperature is mainly ascribed to the fine grain microstructure, excellent combination between matrix and dispersed Al3Ti/Al18Mg3Ti2 particles as well as the recrystallization of the alloy at elevated temperature.

  14. Bonding effectiveness to different chemically pre-treated dental zirconia.

    PubMed

    Inokoshi, Masanao; Poitevin, André; De Munck, Jan; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different chemical pre-treatments on the bond durability to dental zirconia. Fully sintered IPS e.max ZirCAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) blocks were subjected to tribochemical silica sandblasting (CoJet, 3M ESPE). The zirconia samples were additionally pre-treated using one of four zirconia primers/adhesives (Clearfil Ceramic Primer, Kuraray Noritake; Monobond Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent; Scotchbond Universal, 3M ESPE; Z-PRIME Plus, Bisco). Finally, two identically pre-treated zirconia blocks were bonded together using composite cement (RelyX Ultimate, 3M ESPE). The specimens were trimmed at the interface to a cylindrical hourglass and stored in distilled water (7 days, 37 °C), after which they were randomly tested as is or subjected to mechanical ageing involving cyclic tensile stress (10 N, 10 Hz, 10,000 cycles). Subsequently, the micro-tensile bond strength was determined, and SEM fractographic analysis performed. Weibull analysis revealed the highest Weibull scale and shape parameters for the 'Clearfil Ceramic Primer/mechanical ageing' combination. Chemical pre-treatment of CoJet (3M ESPE) sandblasted zirconia using Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) and Monobond Plus (Ivoclar Vivadent) revealed a significantly higher bond strength than when Scotchbond Universal (3M ESPE) and Z-PRIME Plus (Bisco) were used. After ageing, Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) revealed the most stable bond durability. Combined mechanical/chemical pre-treatment, the latter with either Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) or Monobond Plus (Ivoclar Vivadent), resulted in the most durable bond to zirconia. As a standard procedure to durably bond zirconia to tooth tissue, the application of a combined 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate/silane ceramic primer to zirconia is clinically highly recommended.

  15. Biaxial flexural strength of bilayered zirconia using various veneering ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Chantranikul, Natravee

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of one zirconia-based ceramic used with various veneering ceramics. MATERIALS AND METHODS Zirconia core material (Katana) and five veneering ceramics (Cerabien ZR; CZR, Lava Ceram; LV, Cercon Ceram Kiss; CC, IPS e.max Ceram; EM and VITA VM9; VT) were selected. Using the powder/liquid layering technique, bilayered disk specimens (diameter: 12.50 mm, thickness: 1.50 mm) were prepared to follow ISO standard 6872:2008 into five groups according to veneering ceramics as follows; Katana zirconia veneering with CZR (K/CZR), Katana zirconia veneering with LV (K/LV), Katana zirconia veneering with CC (K/CC), Katana zirconia veneering with EM (K/EM) and Katana zirconia veneering with VT (K/VT). After 20,000 thermocycling, load tests were conducted using a universal testing machine (Instron). The BFS were calculated and analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD (α=0.05). The Weibull analysis was performed for reliability of strength. The mode of fracture and fractured surface were observed by SEM. RESULTS It showed that K/CC had significantly the highest BFS, followed by K/LV. BFS of K/CZR, K/EM and K/VT were not significantly different from each other, but were significantly lower than the other two groups. Weibull distribution reported the same trend of reliability as the BFS results. CONCLUSION From the result of this study, the BFS of the bilayered zirconia/veneer composite did not only depend on the Young's modulus value of the materials. Further studies regarding interfacial strength and sintering factors are necessary to achieve the optimal strength. PMID:26576251

  16. Optical properties of pre-colored dental monolithic zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2016-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the optical properties of recently marketed pre-colored monolithic zirconia ceramics and to compare with those of veneered zirconia and lithium disilicate glass ceramics. Various shades of pre-colored monolithic zirconia, veneered zirconia, and lithium disilicate glass ceramic specimens were tested (17.0×17.0×1.5mm, n=5). CIELab color coordinates were obtained against white, black, and grey backgrounds with a spectrophotometer. Color differences of the specimen pairs were calculated by using the CIEDE2000 (ΔE 00 ) formula. The translucency parameter (TP) was derived from ΔE 00 of the specimen against a white and a black background. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the crystalline phases of monolithic zirconia specimens. Data were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA, Scheffé post hoc, and Pearson correlation testing (α=0.05). For different shades of the same ceramic brand, there were significant differences in L * , a * , b * , and TP values in most ceramic brands. With the same nominal shade (A2), statistically significant differences were observed in L * , a * , b * , and TP values among different ceramic brands and systems (P<0.001). The color differences between pre-colored monolithic zirconia and veneered zirconia or lithium disilicate glass ceramics of the corresponding nominal shades ranged beyond the acceptability threshold. Due to the high L * values and low a * and b * values, pre-colored monolithic zirconia ceramics can be used with additional staining to match neighboring restorations or natural teeth. Due to their high value and low chroma, unacceptable color mismatch with adjacent ceramic restorations might be expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. OCT and shear-force evaluations of zirconia Fixed Partial Prosthesis processed with a conventional CAD/CAM technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharia, C.; Gabor, A.; Sinescu, C.; Topala, F. I.; Negrutiu, M. L.; Levai, C. M.; Duma, V. F.; Bradu, A.; Podoleanu, A. Gh.

    2016-03-01

    Introduction. Dental ceramics show better biocompatibility and aesthetic properties in dental constructs with regard to metals. However, they also have an insufficient mechanical stability, as well as low resistance limits due to their fragility. Taking into account these aspects, glass infiltrated with ceramic materials such as alumina (i.e., zirconiareinforced ceramics) is being nowadays considered a better material for full fixed partial prostheses (FPPs) than ceramics: the former has a higher mechanical resistance, which makes it more appropriate for restoration areas, where there is an increased mechanical stress. The interest for zirconia is growing due both to its resistance and to the possibility to develop such prostheses using the CAD/CAM technology. Materials and methods. 24 all ceramic FPPs created with CAD/CAM technology were used. The models were scanned with Zeno Wieland Scanner, a one touch scanning machine which requires between 45-60 s for a full model scan. The scanner provides 3 axis-architecture and automatic data processing. The zirconia infrastructures resulted from milling zirconia green disks in Wieland units, followed by the deposition of ceramic masses and then by burning procedures. All the samples were assessed with a Time Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (TD-OCT) system working at a wavelenght of 1300 nm. Using OCT investigations, material defects were detected in the areas of maximal tension, i.e. the connectors, the oclusal, and the cervical areas. These samples with defects in the above areas have not been considered for the study further on. Finally, the samples were loaded in a MultiTest 5 i Mecmesin system and tested until fracture occurred. The MultiTest 5-i creates tensile and compression forces of up to 5 kN. Results and discussions. All the test samples survived a dynamic load of 1.2 x 107 cycles and a thermal cycle mixer simulator version; signs of failure in terms of fracture lines were observed in all samples. The

  18. Properties of zirconia after plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, V. P.; Kulkov, S. N.

    2017-09-01

    The influence of high-frequency plasma treatment on the properties of zirconia powder is shown in the work. The powder was produced by a plasma-chemical method. The powders had a foamy form with the size of agglomerates of 5-10 μm and crystallites of 20-50 nm. The powders were treated by the pulse plasma unit with dielectric barrier discharge generator. It was shown that the plasma processing changes the acidity of water-powder suspensions from 8.1 to 4.3 pH, which signifies the powders' wettability improvement. It was revealed that more intensive mixing using ultrasound influences the acidity level, reducing it in comparison with mixing by paddle-type agitator. It was shown that these changes of surface properties have relaxation by 4% per day and extrapolation of this dependence shows that the powder will have initial properties after 400 hours storage at room conditions.

  19. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl2ṡ8H2O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

  20. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    SciT

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K.

    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl{sub 2}⋅8H{sub 2}O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with themore » theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.« less

  1. Chemical interaction mechanism of 10-MDP with zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Noriyuki; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Feitosa, Victor Pinheiro; Tamada, Yoshiyuki; Irie, Masao; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Hayakawa, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the functional monomer 10-methacryloyloxy-decyl-dihydrogen-phosphate (10-MDP) was documented to chemically bond to zirconia ceramics. However, little research has been conducted to unravel the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to assess the chemical interaction and to demonstrate the mechanisms of coordination between 10-MDP and zirconium oxide using 1H and 31P magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and two dimensional (2D) 1H → 31P heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) NMR. In addition, shear bond-strength (SBS) tests were conducted to determine the effect of 10-MDP concentration on the bonding effectiveness to zirconia. These SBS tests revealed a 10-MDP concentration-dependent SBS with a minimum of 1-ppb 10-MDP needed. 31P-NMR revealed that one P-OH non-deprotonated of the PO3H2 group from 10-MDP chemically bonded strongly to zirconia. 1H-31P HETCOR NMR indicated that the 10-MDP monomer can be adsorbed onto the zirconia particles by hydrogen bonding between the P=O and Zr-OH groups or via ionic interactions between partially positive Zr and deprotonated 10-MDP (P-O−). The combination of 1H NMR and 2D 1H-31P HETCOR NMR enabled to describe the different chemical states of the 10-MDP bonds with zirconia; they not only revealed ionic but also hydrogen bonding between 10-MDP and zirconia. PMID:28358121

  2. Zirconia based dental ceramics: structure, mechanical properties, biocompatibility and applications.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Chandkiram; Joyner, Jarin; Gautam, Amarendra; Rao, Jitendra; Vajtai, Robert

    2016-12-06

    Zirconia (ZrO 2 ) based dental ceramics have been considered to be advantageous materials with adequate mechanical properties for the manufacturing of medical devices. Due to its very high compression strength of 2000 MPa, ZrO 2 can resist differing mechanical environments. During the crack propagation on the application of stress on the surface of ZrO 2 , a crystalline modification diminishes the propagation of cracks. In addition, zirconia's biocompatibility has been studied in vivo, leading to the observation of no adverse response upon the insertion of ZrO 2 samples into the bone or muscle. In vitro experimentation has exhibited the absence of mutations and good viability of cells cultured on this material leading to the use of ZrO 2 in the manufacturing of hip head prostheses. The mechanical properties of zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPDs) have proven to be superior to other ceramic/composite restorations and hence leading to their significant applications in implant supported rehabilitations. Recent developments were focused on the synthesis of zirconia based dental materials. More recently, zirconia has been introduced in prosthetic dentistry for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures in combination with computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. This systematic review covers the results of past as well as recent scientific studies on the properties of zirconia based ceramics such as their specific compositions, microstructures, mechanical strength, biocompatibility and other applications in dentistry.

  3. Failure analysis of fractured dental zirconia implants.

    PubMed

    Gahlert, M; Burtscher, D; Grunert, I; Kniha, H; Steinhauser, E

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was the macroscopic and microscopic failure analysis of fractured zirconia dental implants. Thirteen fractured one-piece zirconia implants (Z-Look3) out of 170 inserted implants with an average in situ period of 36.75±5.34 months (range from 20 to 56 months, median 38 months) were prepared for macroscopic and microscopic (scanning electron microscopy [SEM]) failure analysis. These 170 implants were inserted in 79 patients. The patient histories were compared with fracture incidences to identify the reasons for the failure of the implants. Twelve of these fractured implants had a diameter of 3.25 mm and one implant had a diameter of 4 mm. All fractured implants were located in the anterior side of the maxilla and mandibula. The patient with the fracture of the 4 mm diameter implant was adversely affected by strong bruxism. By failure analysis (SEM), it could be demonstrated that in all cases, mechanical overloading caused the fracture of the implants. Inhomogeneities and internal defects of the ceramic material could be excluded, but notches and scratches due to sandblasting of the surface led to local stress concentrations that led to the mentioned mechanical overloading by bending loads. The present study identified a fracture rate of nearly 10% within a follow-up period of 36.75 months after prosthetic loading. Ninety-two per cent of the fractured implants were so-called diameter reduced implants (diameter 3.25 mm). These diameter reduced implants cannot be recommended for further clinical use. Improvement of the ceramic material and modification of the implant geometry has to be carried out to reduce the failure rate of small-sized ceramic implants. Nevertheless, due to the lack of appropriate laboratory testing, only clinical studies will demonstrate clearly whether and how far the failure rate can be reduced. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Medical Journal Toughens Its Conflict-of-Interest Policy; South Korean Stem-Cell Scientist Admits Some Fabrications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine; Young, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    The failure of at least seven medical researchers to disclose their financial ties to the makers of antidepressants prompted The Journal of the American Medical Association to toughen its conflict-of-interest policy. It also issued a correction of an article those researchers wrote warning of the potential dangers to pregnant women who stop using…

  5. A study on flash sintering and related phenomena in titania and its composite with alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikhar

    In 2010, Cologna et. al. [1] reported that with a help of small electric field 120 Vcm-1, the sintering temperature of 3 mol % yittria stabilized zirconia could be brought down to 850°C from 1450°C. On top of reducing the temperature requirements, the green sample could be sintered from starting density of 50% to near full density in mere 5 seconds, a sintering rate three orders of magnitude higher than conventional methods. This discovery led to the emergence of a new field of enhanced sintering with electric field, named "Flash Sintering". The objective of this thesis is to understand the phenomenological behavior of flash-sintering and related phenomena on titania and its composites with alumina at elevated temperature. The possible mechanisms to explain flash sintering are discussed: Joule heating and the avalanche of defect generation [2], both induced by the rapid rise in conductivity just before the onset of the flash. Apparently, both mechanisms play a role. The thesis covers the response of pure titania and composites of titania-alumina under flash and compared with conventional sintering. We start with the sintering behavior of pure titania and observe lowering of sintering temperature requirements with higher applied electric field. The conductivity of titania during flash is also measured, and compared with the nominal conductivity of titania at equivalent temperatures. The conductivity during flash is determined to be have a different activation energy. For the composites of titania-alumina, effect of flash on the constrained sintering was studied. It is a known fact that sintering of one component of composite slows down when the other component of a different densification rate is added to it, called constrained sintering. In our case, large inclusions of alumina particles were added to nano-grained titania green compact that hindered its densification. Flash sintering was found to be overcoming this problem and near full densification was achieved

  6. Light transmittance of zirconia as a function of thickness and microhardness of resin cements under different thicknesses of zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem; Kaya, Bekir M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare microhardness of resin cements under different thicknesses of zirconia and the light transmittance of zirconia as a function of thickness. Study design: A total of 126 disc-shaped specimens (2 mm in height and 5 mm in diameter) were prepared from dual-cured resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Panavia F and Clearfil SA cement). Photoactivation was performed by using quartz tungsten halogen and light emitting diode light curing units under different thicknesses of zirconia. Then the specimens (n=7/per group) were stored in dry conditions in total dark at 37°C for 24 h. The Vicker’s hardness test was performed on the resin cement layer with a microhardness tester. Statistical significance was determined using multifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) (alpha=.05). Light transmittance of different thicknesses of zirconia (0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 mm) was measured using a hand-held radiometer (Demetron, Kerr). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test (alpha=.05). Results: ANOVA revealed that resin cement and light curing unit had significant effects on microhardness (p < 0.001). Additionally, greater zirconia thickness resulted in lower transmittance. There was no correlation between the amount of light transmitted and microhardness of dual-cured resin cements (r = 0.073, p = 0.295). Conclusion: Although different zirconia thicknesses might result in insufficient light transmission, dual-cured resin cements under zirconia restorations could have adequate microhardness. Key words:Zirconia, microhardness, light transmittance, resin cement. PMID:23385497

  7. Nanoparticles in alumina: Microscopy and Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrobo, Juan C.; Halabica, Andrej; Rashkeev, Sergey; Glazoff, Michael V.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Haglund, Richard F.; Pennycook, Stephen. J.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2007-03-01

    Transition-metal nanoparticles formed by ion implantation in alumina can be used to modify the optical properties of naturally oxidized and anodized aluminum. Here, we report atomic-resolution Z-contrast images using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) of CoFe and other metal nanoparticles in alumina. We also report electron energy loss spectra (EELS) and relate them to visual appearance and optical properties. Finally, we report first-principles density- functional calculations of nucleation mechanisms for these nanoparticles. This research was sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, U.S. Department of Energy, under contract DE-AC05- 00OR22725 with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed and operated by UT-Battelle, by NSF grant No. DMR-0513048, and by Alcoa Inc.

  8. Health Risk Assessments for Alumina Refineries

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe contemporary air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment methodologies applied to alumina refineries and to summarize recent results. Methods: Air dispersion models using emission source and meteorological data have been used to assess ground-level concentrations (GLCs) of refinery emissions. Short-term (1-hour and 24-hour average) GLCs and annual average GLCs have been used to assess acute health, chronic health, and incremental carcinogenic risks. Results: The acute hazard index can exceed 1 close to refineries, but it is typically less than 1 at neighboring residential locations. The chronic hazard index is typically substantially less than 1. The incremental carcinogenic risk is typically less than 10−6. Conclusions: The risks of acute health effects are adequately controlled, and the risks of chronic health effects and incremental carcinogenic risks are negligible around referenced alumina refineries. PMID:24806721

  9. Health risk assessments for alumina refineries.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, A Michael; Coffey, Patrick S

    2014-05-01

    To describe contemporary air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment methodologies applied to alumina refineries and to summarize recent results. Air dispersion models using emission source and meteorological data have been used to assess ground-level concentrations (GLCs) of refinery emissions. Short-term (1-hour and 24-hour average) GLCs and annual average GLCs have been used to assess acute health, chronic health, and incremental carcinogenic risks. The acute hazard index can exceed 1 close to refineries, but it is typically less than 1 at neighboring residential locations. The chronic hazard index is typically substantially less than 1. The incremental carcinogenic risk is typically less than 10(-6). The risks of acute health effects are adequately controlled, and the risks of chronic health effects and incremental carcinogenic risks are negligible around referenced alumina refineries.

  10. New ZrO2/Al2O3 Nanocomposite Fabricated from Hybrid Nanoparticles Prepared by CO2 Laser Co-Vaporization

    PubMed Central

    Bartolomé, José F.; Smirnov, Anton; Kurland, Heinz-Dieter; Grabow, Janet; Müller, Frank A.

    2016-01-01

    Alumina toughened zirconia (ATZ) and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) are currently the materials of choice to meet the need for tough, strong, and bioinert ceramics for medical devices. However, the mechanical properties of ZrO2/Al2O3 dispersion ceramics could be considerably increased by reducing the corresponding grain sizes and by improving the homogeneity of the phase dispersion. Here, we prepare nanoparticles with an intraparticular phase distribution of Zr(1−x)AlxO(2−x/2) and (γ-, δ-)Al2O3 by the simultaneous gas phase condensation of laser co-vaporized zirconia and alumina raw powders. During subsequent spark plasma sintering the zirconia defect structures and transition alumina phases transform to a homogeneously distributed dispersion of tetragonal ZrO2 (52.4 vol%) and α-Al2O3 (47.6 vol%). Ceramics sintered by spark plasma sintering are completely dense with average grain sizes in the range around 250 nm. Outstanding mechanical properties (flexural strength σf = 1500 MPa, fracture toughness KIc = 6.8 MPa m1/2) together with a high resistance against low temperature degradation make these materials promising candidates for next generation bioceramics in total hip replacements and for dental implants. PMID:26846310

  11. New ZrO2/Al2O3 Nanocomposite Fabricated from Hybrid Nanoparticles Prepared by CO2 Laser Co-Vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolomé, José F.; Smirnov, Anton; Kurland, Heinz-Dieter; Grabow, Janet; Müller, Frank A.

    2016-02-01

    Alumina toughened zirconia (ATZ) and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) are currently the materials of choice to meet the need for tough, strong, and bioinert ceramics for medical devices. However, the mechanical properties of ZrO2/Al2O3 dispersion ceramics could be considerably increased by reducing the corresponding grain sizes and by improving the homogeneity of the phase dispersion. Here, we prepare nanoparticles with an intraparticular phase distribution of Zr(1-x)AlxO(2-x/2) and (γ-, δ-)Al2O3 by the simultaneous gas phase condensation of laser co-vaporized zirconia and alumina raw powders. During subsequent spark plasma sintering the zirconia defect structures and transition alumina phases transform to a homogeneously distributed dispersion of tetragonal ZrO2 (52.4 vol%) and α-Al2O3 (47.6 vol%). Ceramics sintered by spark plasma sintering are completely dense with average grain sizes in the range around 250 nm. Outstanding mechanical properties (flexural strength σf = 1500 MPa, fracture toughness KIc = 6.8 MPa m1/2) together with a high resistance against low temperature degradation make these materials promising candidates for next generation bioceramics in total hip replacements and for dental implants.

  12. Effect of sintering temperature on flexural properties of alumina fiber-reinforced, alumina-based ceramics prepared by tape casting technique.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Nemoto, Kimiya

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sintering temperature on flexural properties of an alumina fiber-reinforced, alumina-based ceramic (alumina-fiber/alumina composite) prepared by a tape casting technique. The alumina-based ceramic used a matrix consisting of 60 wt% Al(2)O(3) powder and 40 wt% SiO(2)-B(2)O(3) glass powder with the following composition in terms of wt%: 33 SiO(2), 32 B(2)O(3), 20 CaO, and 15 MgO. Prepreg sheets of alumina-fiber/alumina composite in which uniaxial aligned alumina fibers were infiltrated with the alumina-based matrix were fabricated continuously using a tape casting technique employing a doctor blade system. Four sintering temperatures were investigated: 900 degrees C, 1000 degrees C, 1100 degrees C, and 1200 degrees C, all for 4 hours under atmospheric pressure in a furnace. The surface of the alumina-fiber/alumina composite after sintering was observed with a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). A three-point bending test was carried out to measure the flexural strength and modulus of alumina-fiber/alumina composite specimens. In addition, sintered alumina fiber was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). FE-SEM observation showed that alumina-fiber/alumina composite was confirmed to be densely sintered for all sintering temperatures. Three-point bending measurement revealed that alumina-fiber/alumina composite produced at sintering temperatures of 1100 degrees C and 1200 degrees C exhibit flexural strengths lower than those of alumina-fiber/alumina composite produced at sintering temperatures of 900 degrees C and 1000 degrees C; alumina-fiber/alumina composite produced at sintering temperatures of 1100 degrees C and 1200 degrees C exhibit flexural moduli lower than that of alumina-fiber/alumina composite produced at a sintering temperature of 1000 degrees C. Additional XRD pattern of alumina fiber indicated that with increasing sintering temperature, the crystallographic structure of gamma-alumina

  13. High contrast laser marking of alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Fernández, A.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2015-05-01

    Alumina serves as raw material for a broad range of advanced ceramic products. These elements should usually be identified by some characters or symbols printed directly on them. In this sense, laser marking is an efficient, reliable and widely implemented process in industry. However, laser marking of alumina still leads to poor results since the process is not able to produce a dark mark, yielding bad contrast. In this paper, we present an experimental study on the process of marking alumina by three different lasers working in two wavelengths: 1064 nm (Near-infrared) and 532 nm (visible, green radiation). A colorimetric analysis has been carried out in order to compare the resulting marks and its contrast. The most suitable laser operating conditions were also defined and are reported here. Moreover, the physical process of marking by NIR lasers is discussed in detail. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were also employed to analyze the results. Finally, we propose an explanation for the differences of the coloration induced under different atmospheres and laser parameters. We concluded that the atmosphere is the key parameter, being the inert one the best choice to produce the darkest marks.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabia, A. R.; Ibrahim, A. H.; Zulkepli, N. N.

    2018-03-01

    Activated alumina is a high surface area and highly porous form of aluminum oxide that can be employed for contaminant species adsorb from ether gases or liquids without changing its form. The research in getting this material has generated huge interested. Thus, this paper presented preparation of activated alumina from chemical process. Pure aluminum (99.9% pure) reacted at room temperature with an aqueous NaOH in a reactor to produce a solution of sodium aluminate (NaAlO2). This solution was passed through filter paper and the clear filtrate was neutralized with H2SO4, to pH 6, 7 or 8, resulting in the precipitation of a white gel, Al(OH)3·XH2O. The washed gel for sulfate ions were dried at 80 °C for 6 h, a 60 mesh sieve was to separate and sort them into different sizes. The samples were then calcined (burn) for 3h in a muffle furnace, in air, at a heating rate of 2 °C min-1. The prepared activated alumina was further characterized for better understanding of its physical properties in order to predict its chemical mechanism.

  15. Multi-scale modelling of non-uniform consolidation of uncured toughened unidirectional prepregs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorba, G.; Binetruy, C.; Syerko, E.; Leygue, A.; Comas-Cardona, S.; Belnoue, J. P.-H.; Nixon-Pearson, O. J.; Ivanov, D. S.; Hallett, S. R.; Advani, S. G.

    2018-05-01

    Consolidation is a crucial step in manufacturing of composite parts with prepregs because its role is to eliminate inter- and intra-ply gaps and porosity. Some thermoset prepreg systems are toughened with thermoplastic particles. Depending on their size, thermoplastic particles can be either located in between plies or distributed within the inter-fibre regions. When subjected to transverse compaction, resin will bleed out of low-viscosity unidirectional prepregs along the fibre direction, whereas one would expect transverse squeeze flow to dominate for higher viscosity prepregs. Recent experimental work showed that the consolidation of uncured toughened prepregs involves complex flow and deformation mechanisms where both bleeding and squeeze flow patterns are observed [1]. Micrographs of compacted and cured samples confirm these features as shown in Fig.1. A phenomenological model was proposed [2] where bleeding flow and squeeze flow are combined. A criterion for the transition from shear flow to resin bleeding was also proposed. However, the micrographs also reveal a resin rich layer between plies which may be contributing to the complex flow mechanisms during the consolidation process. In an effort to provide additional insight into these complex mechanisms, this work focuses on the 3D numerical modelling of the compaction of uncured toughened prepregs in the cross-ply configuration described in [1]. A transversely isotropic fluid model is used to describe the flow behaviour of the plies coupled with interplay resin flow of an isotropic fluid. The multi-scale flow model used is based on [3, 4]. A numerical parametric study is carried out where the resin viscosity, permeability and inter-ply thickness are varied to identify the role of important variables. The squeezing flow and the bleeding flow are compared for a range of process parameters to investigate the coupling and competition between the two flow mechanisms. Figure 4 shows the predicted displacement of

  16. Toward Better Personal Ballistic Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-04

    nanotube-reinforced zirconia-toughened alumina composites prepared by spark plasma sintering , Carbon, Vol 50, Iss 2 (2012), 706-717. [4] Bolduc M...attempt to optimize mechanical properties. The processing approaches investigated were pressureless sintering , hot pressing and hot isostatic...pressing (CIP) and pressureless sintering (PS). Test samples were made with high purity commercially available ceramic powder (over 99.5% for Al2O3). For

  17. The Effect of Zirconia in Hydroxyapatite on Staphylococcus epidermidis Growth.

    PubMed

    Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Sunarintyas, Siti; Tontowi, Alva Edy

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used and developed as the material for bone substitute in medical applications. The addition of zirconia is needed to improve the strength of hydroxyapatite as the bone substitute. One of the drawbacks in the use of biomedical materials is the occurrence of biomaterial-centred infections. The recent method of limiting the presence of microorganism on biomaterials is by providing biomaterial-bound metal-containing compositions. In this case, S. epidermidis is the most common infectious organism in biomedical-centred infection. Objective. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of zirconia concentrations in hydroxyapatite on the growth of S. epidermidis. Methods and Materials. The subjects of this study were twenty hydroxyapatite discs, divided into four groups in which one was the control and the other three were the treatment groups. Zirconia powder with the concentrations of 20%, 30%, and 40% was added into the three different treatment groups. Scanning electron microscope analysis was performed according to the hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-zirconia specimens. All discs were immersed into S. epidermidis culture for 24 hours and later on they were soaked into a medium of PBS. The cultured medium was spread on mannitol salt agar. After incubation for 24 hours at 37°C , the number of colonies was measured with colony counter. Data obtained were analyzed using the ANOVA followed by the pairwise comparison. Result. The statistical analysis showed that different concentrations of zirconia powder significantly influenced the number of S. epidermidis colony (P < 0.05) . Conclusion. The addition of zirconia into hydroxyapatite affected the growth of S. epidermidis. Hydroxyapatite with 20% zirconia proved to be an effective concentration to inhibit the growth of S. epidermidis colony.

  18. Bioactive and Thermally Compatible Glass Coating on Zirconia Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Kirsten, A.; Hausmann, A.; Weber, M.; Fischer, J.

    2015-01-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58·10–6 K–1) than that of the zirconia (11.67·10–6 K–1). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants. PMID:25421839

  19. The Effect of Zirconia in Hydroxyapatite on Staphylococcus epidermidis Growth

    PubMed Central

    Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Sunarintyas, Siti; Tontowi, Alva Edy

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used and developed as the material for bone substitute in medical applications. The addition of zirconia is needed to improve the strength of hydroxyapatite as the bone substitute. One of the drawbacks in the use of biomedical materials is the occurrence of biomaterial-centred infections. The recent method of limiting the presence of microorganism on biomaterials is by providing biomaterial-bound metal-containing compositions. In this case, S. epidermidis is the most common infectious organism in biomedical-centred infection. Objective. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of zirconia concentrations in hydroxyapatite on the growth of S. epidermidis. Methods and Materials. The subjects of this study were twenty hydroxyapatite discs, divided into four groups in which one was the control and the other three were the treatment groups. Zirconia powder with the concentrations of 20%, 30%, and 40% was added into the three different treatment groups. Scanning electron microscope analysis was performed according to the hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-zirconia specimens. All discs were immersed into S. epidermidis culture for 24 hours and later on they were soaked into a medium of PBS. The cultured medium was spread on mannitol salt agar. After incubation for 24 hours at 37°C , the number of colonies was measured with colony counter. Data obtained were analyzed using the ANOVA followed by the pairwise comparison. Result. The statistical analysis showed that different concentrations of zirconia powder significantly influenced the number of S. epidermidis colony (P < 0.05) . Conclusion. The addition of zirconia into hydroxyapatite affected the growth of S. epidermidis. Hydroxyapatite with 20% zirconia proved to be an effective concentration to inhibit the growth of S. epidermidis colony. PMID:22919390

  20. Translucency of Zirconia Ceramics before and after Artificial Aging.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Katarzyna; Meißner, Heike; Range, Ursula; Sakkas, Andreas; Boening, Klaus; Wieckiewicz, Mieszko; Konstantinidis, Ioannis

    2018-03-11

    The aging of zirconia ceramics (Y-TZP) is associated with tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation. This change in microstructure may affect the optical properties of the ceramic. This study examines the effect of aging on the translucency of different zirconia materials. 120 disc-shaped specimens were fabricated from four zirconia materials: Cercon ht white, BruxZir Solid Zirconia, Zenostar T0, Lava Plus (n = 30 per group). Accelerated aging was performed in a steam autoclave (134°C, 0.2 MPa, 5 hours). CIELab coordinates (L*, a*, b*) and luminous reflectance (Y) were measured with a spectrophotometer before and after aging. Contrast ratio (CR) and translucency parameter (TP) were calculated from the L*, a*, b*, and Y tristimulus values. The general linear model (Bonferroni adjusted) was used to compare both parameters before and after aging, as well as between the different zirconia materials (p ≤ 0.05). CR and TP differed significantly before and after aging in all groups tested. Before aging, Zenostar T showed the highest and Lava Plus showed the lowest translucency. After aging, Cercon ht and Zenostar T showed the highest and BruxZir and Lava Plus the lowest translucency. Aging reduced the translucency in all specimens tested. Furthermore, translucency differed between the zirconia brands tested. Nevertheless, the differences were below the detectability threshold of the human eye. The aging process can influence the translucency and thus the esthetic outcome of zirconia restorations; however, the changes in translucency were minimal and probably undetectable by the human eye. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  1. Bioactive and thermally compatible glass coating on zirconia dental implants.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, A; Hausmann, A; Weber, M; Fischer, J; Fischer, H

    2015-02-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58 · 10(-6) K(-1)) than that of the zirconia (11.67 · 10(-6) K(-1)). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants. © International & American Associations for Dental

  2. Method for preparing Pb-.beta."-alumina ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Hellstrom, Eric E.

    1986-01-01

    A process is disclosed for preparing impermeable, polycrystalline samples of Pb-.beta."-alumina ceramic from Na-.beta."-alumina ceramic by ion exchange. The process comprises two steps. The first step is a high-temperature vapor phase exchange of Na by K, followed by substitution of Pb for K by immersing the sample in a molten Pb salt bath. The result is a polycrystalline Pb-.beta."-alumina ceramic that is substantially crack-free.

  3. Cold Spray Aluminum–Alumina Cermet Coatings: Effect of Alumina Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Ruben; Jodoin, Bertrand

    2018-04-01

    Deposition behavior and deposition efficiency were investigated for several aluminum-alumina mixture compositions sprayed by cold spray. An increase in deposition efficiency was observed. Three theories postulated in the literature, explaining this increase in deposition efficiency, were investigated and assessed. Through finite element analysis, the interaction between a ceramic particle peening an impacting aluminum particle was found to be a possible mechanism to increase the deposition efficiency of the aluminum particle, but a probability analysis demonstrated that this peening event is too unlikely to contribute to the increment in deposition efficiency observed. The presence of asperities at the substrate and deposited layers was confirmed by a single-layer deposition efficiency measurement and proved to be a major mechanism in the increment of deposition efficiency of the studied mixtures. Finally, oxide removal produced by the impact of ceramic particles on substrate and deposited layers was evaluated as the complement of the other effects and found to also play a major role in increasing the deposition efficiency. It was found that the coatings retained approximately half of the feedstock powder alumina content. Hardness tests have shown a steady increase with the coating alumina content. Dry wear tests have revealed no improvement in wear resistance in samples with an alumina content lower than 22 wt.% compared to pure aluminum coatings. Adhesion strength showed a steady improvement with increasing alumina content in the feedstock powder from 18.5 MPa for pure aluminum coatings to values above 70 MPa for the ones sprayed with the highest feedstock powder alumina content.

  4. Shear bond strength between resin cement and colored zirconia made with metal chlorides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ga-Hyun; Park, Sang-Won; Lee, Kwangmin; Oh, Gye-Jeong; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2015-06-01

    Although the application of zirconia in esthetic prostheses has increased, the shear bond strength (SBS) between colored zirconia and resin cement has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the SBS between resin cement and colored zirconia made with metal chlorides. Sixty-four zirconia specimens were divided into 2 groups: one in which the specimens were bonded with resin cement, including 4-META (4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride), and one in which the specimens were bonded with resin cement (SEcure, Sun Medical) after being processed with zirconia primer (Zirconia Liner), including 4-META. Each group was then divided into 4 subgroups depending on the coloring liquid. The subgroups were noncolored (control), commercial coloring liquid VITA In-Ceram 2000 YZ LL1, aqueous chromium chloride solution 0.1 wt%, and aqueous molybdenum chloride solution 0.1 wt%. Composite resin cylinders (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) were fabricated and bonded to the surface of the zirconia specimen with resin cement (SEcure). All specimens were stored in 37°C distilled water for 24 hours, and the SBS was measured with a universal testing machine. All data were analyzed statistically with 2-way ANOVA and tested post hoc with the Tukey test (α=.05). Significant differences were observed among the SBS values of the colored zirconia depending on the coloring liquid (P<.001) and whether they were processed with zirconia primer (P<.001). The SBS between colored zirconia and resin cement was significantly higher than that of noncolored zirconia and resin cement in groups processed with zirconia primer (P<.05). Colored zirconia immersed in aqueous molybdenum chloride solution showed a significantly higher SBS. Coloring liquid enhanced the SBS between resin cement and zirconia processed with zirconia primer. In particular, colored zirconia immersed in aqueous molybdenum chloride solution showed the highest SBS. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of

  5. Sintering of beta-type alumina bodies using alpha-alumina encapsulation

    DOEpatents

    McEntire, Bryan J.; Virkar, Anil V.

    1981-01-01

    A method of sintering a shaped green, beta-type alumina body comprising: (A) inserting said body into an open chamber prepared by exposing the interior surface of a container consisting essentially of at least about 50 weight percent of alpha-alumina and a remainder of other refractory material to a sodium oxide or sodium oxide producing environment; (B) sealing the chamber; and heating the chamber with the shaped body encapsulated therein to a temperature and for a time necessary to sinter said body to the desired density. The encapsulation chamber prepared as described above is also claimed.

  6. Tablet-level origin of toughening in abalone shells and translation to synthetic composite materials.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Horacio D; Juster, Allison L; Latourte, Felix J; Loh, Owen Y; Gregoire, David; Zavattieri, Pablo D

    2011-02-01

    Nacre, the iridescent material in seashells, is one of many natural materials employing hierarchical structures to achieve high strength and toughness from relatively weak constituents. Incorporating these structures into composites is appealing as conventional engineering materials often sacrifice strength to improve toughness. Researchers hypothesize that nacre's toughness originates within its brick-and-mortar-like microstructure. Under loading, bricks slide relative to each other, propagating inelastic deformation over millimeter length scales. This leads to orders-of-magnitude increase in toughness. Here, we use in situ atomic force microscopy fracture experiments and digital image correlation to quantitatively prove that brick morphology (waviness) leads to transverse dilation and subsequent interfacial hardening during sliding, a previously hypothesized dominant toughening mechanism in nacre. By replicating this mechanism in a scaled-up model synthetic material, we find that it indeed leads to major improvements in energy dissipation. Ultimately, lessons from this investigation may be key to realizing the immense potential of widely pursued nanocomposites.

  7. Superposition of Cohesive Elements to Account for R-Curve Toughening in the Fracture of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Song, Kyongchan

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between a resistance curve (R-curve), the corresponding fracture process zone length, the shape of the traction/displacement softening law, and the propagation of fracture are examined in the context of the through-the-thickness fracture of composite laminates. A procedure that accounts for R-curve toughening mechanisms by superposing bilinear cohesive elements is proposed. Simple equations are developed for determining the separation of the critical energy release rates and the strengths that define the independent contributions of each bilinear softening law in the superposition. It is shown that the R-curve measured with a Compact Tension specimen test can be reproduced by superposing two bilinear softening laws. It is also shown that an accurate representation of the R-curve is essential for predicting the initiation and propagation of fracture in composite laminates.

  8. Toughened and machinable glass matrix composites reinforced with graphene and graphene-oxide nano platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porwal, Harshit; Tatarko, Peter; Grasso, Salvatore; Hu, Chunfeng; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Dlouhý, Ivo; Reece, Mike J.

    2013-10-01

    The processing conditions for preparing well dispersed silica-graphene nanoplatelets and silica-graphene oxide nanoplatelets (GONP) composites were optimized using powder and colloidal processing routes. Fully dense silica-GONP composites with up to 2.5 vol% loading were consolidated using spark plasma sintering. The GONP aligned perpendicularly to the applied pressure during sintering. The fracture toughness of the composites increased linearly with increasing concentration of GONP and reached a value of ˜0.9 MPa m1/2 for 2.5 vol% loading. Various toughening mechanisms including GONP necking, GONP pull-out, crack bridging, crack deflection and crack branching were observed. GONP decreased the hardness and brittleness index (BI) of the composites by ˜30 and ˜50% respectively. The decrease in BI makes silica-GONP composites machinable compared to pure silica. When compared to silica-Carbon nanotube composites, silica-GONP composites show better process-ability and enhanced mechanical properties.

  9. RECENT PROGRESS OF CRACK BRIDGING MODELING OF DUCTILE-PHASE-TOUGHENED W-CU COMPOSITES

    SciT

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Henager, Charles H.; Wagner, Karla B.

    2015-04-16

    A crack bridging model using calculated Cu stress-strain curves has been developed to study the toughening of W-Cu composites. A strengthening factor and necking parameters have been added to the model for the ductile-phase bridges to incorporate constraint effects at small bridge sizes. Parametric studies are performed to investigate the effect of these parameters. The calculated maximum applied stress intensity, aKmax, to induce a 1-mm stable crack is compared to the experimental stress intensity at peak load, Kpeak. Without bridge necking, increasing the strengthening factor improves the agreement between aKmax and Kpeak when plotted vs. logarithm of the displacement rate.more » Improvement can also be achieved by allowing necking with a larger failure strain. While the slope is better matched with this latter approach, the calculated value of aKmax is significantly larger than Kpeak.« less

  10. Samarium and europium beta”-alumina derivatives characterized by XPS

    DOE PAGES

    Myhre, Kristian; Meyer, Harry; Du, Miting

    2017-01-04

    Characterization of sodium, samarium and europium beta -alumina derivatives has been carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Beta -alumina has been widely studied as a material capable of incorporating many different cations into its lattice structure, such as sodium and many of the lanthanide elements. The X-ray photoelectron spectra of samarium and europium in the beta -alumina structure are reported here. Additionally, the spectra of the precursor sodium beta -alumina as well as the europium and samarium trichloride starting materials are presented.

  11. Synthesis and adsorption properties of hollow tubular alumina fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozhkomoev, A. S.; Kazantsev, S. O.; Glazkova, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, composite glass fibers coated with alumina nanoplates and hollow tubular alumina fibers with a diameter of 400-500 nm are synthesized based on glass fiber templated hydrothermal strategy. Porous coatings on glass fibers and hollow fibers consist of cross-linked alumina nanoplates with the size of 100-200 nm and thickness of 2-5 nm. Their formation is attributed to the template-induced heterogeneous growth of alumina nanoplates on glass fibers of the B-06-F type. It is important that composite glass fibers and hollow tubular fibers have opposite surface charges and exhibit selective sorption characteristics towards anionic and cationic dyes.

  12. Zirconia changes after grinding and regeneration firing.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Gabriel R; Polli, Gabriela S; Fais, Laiza M G; Reis, José Maurício Dos S N; Pinelli, Lígia A P

    2017-07-01

    Despite improvements in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) systems, grinding during either laboratory procedures or clinical adjustments is often needed to modify the shape of 3 mol(%) yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) restorations. However, the best way to achieve adjustment is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microstructural and crystallographic phase changes, flexural strength, and Weibull modulus of a 3Y-TZP zirconia after grinding with or without water cooling and regeneration firing. Ninety-six bar-shaped specimens were obtained and divided as follows: as-sintered, control; as-sintered with regeneration firing; grinding without water cooling; grinding and regeneration firing with water cooling; and grinding and regeneration firing. Grinding (0.3 mm) was performed with a 150-μm diamond rotary instrument in a high-speed handpiece. For regeneration firing, the specimens were annealed at 1000°C for 30 minutes. The crystalline phases were evaluated by using x-ray powder diffraction. A 4-point bending test was conducted (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min). The Weibull modulus was used to analyze strength reliability. The microstructure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Data from the flexural strength test were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (α=.05). Tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation was identified in the ground specimens; R regeneration firing groups showed only the tetragonal phase. The median flexural strength of as-sintered specimens was 642.0; 699.3 MPa for as-sintered specimens with regeneration firing; 770.1 MPa for grinding and water-cooled specimens; 727.3 MPa for specimens produced using water-cooled grinding and regeneration firing; 859.9 MPa for those produced by grinding; and 764.6 for those produced by grinding and regeneration firing; with statistically higher values for the ground groups. The regenerative firing did not affect the flexural

  13. A study of processing parameters in thermal-sprayed alumina and zircon mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Khor, K. A.

    2002-06-01

    A method of plasma spraying of alumina and zircon mixtures to form ZrO2-mullite composites has been proposed and developed. The feedstock is prepared by a combination of mechanical alloying, which allows formation of fine-grained, homogeneous solid-solution mixtures, followed by plasma spheroidization that yields rapid solidified microstructures and enhanced compositional homogeneity. The effects of ball-milling duration and milling media were studied. It was found that zirconia is a more efficient milling media and that increasing milling duration enhanced the dissociation of zircon. Flame spray and plasma spray processes were used to spheroidize the spray-dried powders. The temperature of the flame spray was found to be insufficient to melt the powders completely. The processing parameters of the plasma spray played an important role in zircon decomposition and mullite formation. Increasing the arc current or reducing secondary gas pressure caused more zircon to decompose and more mullite to form after heat treatment at 1200 °C for 3 h. Dissociation of zircon and the amount of mullite for med can be enhanced significantly when using the more efficient, computerized plasma-spraying system and increasing the ball-milling duration from 4 to 8 h.

  14. Toughen up.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, D; Mayes, M

    1999-10-01

    Within six months, AHS needed to integrate three recently merged hospitals running on disparate hardware and software systems into one unified system. AHS partnered with DataStudy Inc., Parsippany, N.J., and formed a team to address the specific enterprise resource planning needs of this healthcare organization. The implementation team completed the project within the six-month time frame and incorporated functionality that went beyond the initial specifications for the project. "To maximize the return on the always substantial ERP investment, healthcare executives must be aware of the many pitfalls waiting to derail every well-intentioned implementation."

  15. Ultralow-Carbon Nanotube-Toughened Epoxy: The Critical Role of a Double-Layer Interface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingwei; Chen, Chao; Feng, Yuezhan; Liao, Yonggui; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin; Mai, Yiu-Wing

    2018-01-10

    Understanding the chemistry and structure of interfaces within epoxy resins is important for studying the mechanical properties of nanofiller-filled nanocomposites as well as for developing high-performance polymer nanocomposites. Despite the intensive efforts to construct nanofiller/matrix interfaces, few studies have demonstrated an enhanced stress-transferring efficiency while avoiding unfavorable deformation due to undesirable interface fractures. Here, we report an optimized method to prepare epoxy-based nanocomposites whose interfaces are chemically modulated by poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-poly(hexyl methacrylate) (PGMA-b-PHMA)-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (bc@fMWNTs) and also offer a fundamental explanation of crack growth behavior and the toughening mechanism of the resulting nanocomposites. The presence of block copolymers on the surface of the MWNT results in a promising double-layered interface, in which (1) the outer-layered PGMA segment provides good dispersion in and strong interface bonding with the epoxy matrix, which enhances load transfer efficiency and debonding stress, and (2) the interlayered rubbery PHMA segment around the MWNT provides the maximum removable space for nanotubes as well as triggering cavitation while promoting local plastic matrix deformation, for example, shear banding to dissipate fracture energy. An outstanding toughening effect is achieved with only a 0.05 wt % carbon nanotube loading with the bc@fMWNT, that is, needing only a 20-times lower loading to obtain improvements in fracture toughness comparable to epoxy-based nanocomposites. The enhancements of their corresponding ultimate mode-I fracture toughnesses and fracture energies are 4 times higher than those of pristine MWNT-filled epoxy. These results demonstrate that a MWNT/epoxy interface could be optimized by changing the component structure of grafted modifiers, thereby facilitating the transfer of both mechanical load and energy dissipation

  16. Sub-10-micrometer toughening and crack tip toughness of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Ang, Siang Fung; Schulz, Anja; Pacher Fernandes, Rodrigo; Schneider, Gerold A

    2011-04-01

    In previous studies, enamel showed indications to occlude small cracks in-vivo and exhibited R-curve behaviors for bigger cracks ex-vivo. This study quantifies the crack tip's toughness (K(I0),K(III0)), the crack's closure stress and the cohesive zone size at the crack tip of enamel and investigates the toughening mechanisms near the crack tip down to the length scale of a single enamel crystallite. The crack-opening-displacement (COD) profile of cracks induced by Vickers indents on mature bovine enamel was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The mode I crack tip toughness K(I0) of cracks along enamel rod boundaries and across enamel rods exhibit a similar range of values: K(I0,Ir)=0.5-1.6MPa m(0.5) (based on Irwin's 'near-field' solution) and K(I0,cz)=0.8-1.5MPa m(0.5) (based on the cohesive zone solution of the Dugdale-Muskhelishvili (DM) crack model). The mode III crack tip toughness K(III0,Ir) was computed as 0.02-0.15MPa m(0.5). The crack-closure stress at the crack tip was computed as 163-770 MPa with a cohesive zone length and width 1.6-10.1μm and 24-44 nm utilizing the cohesive zone solution. Toughening elements were observed under AFM and SEM: crack bridging due to protein ligament and hydroxyapatite fibres (micro- and nanometer scale) as well as microcracks were identified. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Grafting Modification of the Reactive Core-Shell Particles to Enhance the Toughening Ability of Polylactide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaokun; Song, Shixin; Zhao, Xuanchen; Lv, Xue; Sun, Shulin

    2017-01-01

    In order to overcome the brittleness of polylactide (PLA), reactive core-shell particles (RCS) with polybutadiene as core and methyl methacrylate-co-styrene-co-glycidyl methacrylate as shell were prepared to toughen PLA. Tert-dodecyl mercaptan (TDDM) was used as chain transfer agent to modify the grafting properties (such as grafting degree, shell thickness, internal and external grafting) of the core-shell particles. The introduction of TDDM decreased the grafting degree, shell thickness and the Tg of the core phase. When the content of TDDM was lower than 1.15%, the RCS particles dispersed in the PLA matrix uniformly—otherwise, agglomeration took place. The addition of RCS particles induced a higher cold crystallization temperature and a lower melting temperature of PLA which indicated the decreased crystallization ability of PLA. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results proved the good miscibility between PLA and the RCS particles and the increase of TDDM in RCS induced higher storage modulus of PLA/RCS blends. Suitable TDDM addition improved the toughening ability of RCS particles for PLA. In the present research, PLA/RCS-T4 (RCS-T4: the reactive core-shell particles with 0.76 wt % TDDM addition) blends displayed much better impact strength than other blends due to the easier cavitation/debonding ability and good dispersion morphology of the RCS-T4 particles. When the RCS-T4 content was 25 wt %, the impact strength of PLA/RCS-T4 blend reached 768 J/m, which was more than 25 times that of the pure PLA. PMID:28813019

  18. Static and dynamic strain energy release rates in toughened thermosetting composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Douglas S.

    1992-01-01

    In this work, the static and dynamic fracture properties of several thermosetting resin based composite laminates are presented. Two classes of materials are explored. These are homogeneous, thermosetting resins and toughened, multi-phase, thermosetting resin systems. Multi-phase resin materials have shown enhancement over homogenous materials with respect to damage resistance. The development of new dynamic tests are presented for composite laminates based on Width Tapered Double Cantilevered Beam (WTDCB) for Mode 1 fracture and the End Notched Flexure (ENF) specimen. The WTDCB sample was loaded via a low inertia, pneumatic cylinder to produce rapid cross-head displacements. A high rate, piezo-electric load cell and an accelerometer were mounted on the specimen. A digital oscilloscope was used for data acquisition. Typical static and dynamic load versus displacement plots are presented. The ENF specimen was impacted in three point bending with an instrumented impact tower. Fracture initiation and propagation energies under static and dynamic conditions were determined analytically and experimentally. The test results for Mode 1 fracture are relatively insensitive to strain rate effects for the laminates tested in this study. The test results from Mode 2 fracture indicate that the toughened systems provide superior fracture initiation and higher resistance to propagation under dynamic conditions. While the static fracture properties of the homogeneous systems may be relatively high, the apparent Mode 2 dynamic critical strain energy release rate drops significantly. The results indicate that static Mode 2 fracture testing is inadequate for determining the fracture performance of composite structures subjected to conditions such as low velocity impact. A good correlation between the basic Mode 2 dynamic fracture properties and the performance is a combined material/structural Compression After Impact (CAI) test is found. These results underscore the importance of

  19. Toughening mechanisms in laminated composites: A biomimetic study in mollusk shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamat, Shekhar Shripad

    2000-10-01

    Mollusk shells can be described as structural biocomposite materials composed of a mineral (aragonite) and a continuous, albeit minor, organic (protein) component. The conch shell, Strombus Gigas, has intermediate strength and high fracture toughness. The high fracture toughness is a result of enhanced energy dissipation during crack propagation due to delamination, crack bridging, frictional sliding etc. A theoretical and experimental study was conducted on the crack bridging mechanisms operative in the shell. Four-point bend tests were conducted. Acoustic emission and post-mortem dye penetrants were used to characterize the crack propagation, together with conventional fractography. A two layer composite configuration is seen in the shells, with the tough and weak layers having a toughness ratio of ˜4 (Ktough = 2.2MPam1/2). This toughness ratio is a requisite for multiple cracking in the weak layer. A theoretical shear lag analysis of the crack bridging phenomena in the tough layer is shown to lead to a bridging law for the crack wake of the form of p = betau1/2 (p is the bridging traction for a crack opening u, with beta, being a constant of proportionality). Finite element analysis yielded a value of beta = 630 Nmm-5/2 and ucritical = 5 mum for the bridging law parameters. In a nonlinear fracture mechanics phenomenology, these values are relevant material parameters, rather than a critical stress intensity factor. The work of fracture for unnotched specimens is three orders of magnitude higher than mineral aragonite, and is demonstrated numerically incorporating the toughening mechanisms in the shell. Similar structural adaptations have been observed and studied in the red abalone shell, haliotis rufescens and the spines of the sea urchin, Heterocentrotus trigonarius. The toughening mechanisms seen in these shells give insight into structural design needs of brittle matrix composites (BMC) as well as conventional structural ceramics.

  20. Grafting Modification of the Reactive Core-Shell Particles to Enhance the Toughening Ability of Polylactide.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaokun; Song, Shixin; Zhao, Xuanchen; Lv, Xue; Sun, Shulin

    2017-08-16

    In order to overcome the brittleness of polylactide (PLA), reactive core-shell particles (RCS) with polybutadiene as core and methyl methacrylate-co-styrene-co-glycidyl methacrylate as shell were prepared to toughen PLA. Tert-dodecyl mercaptan (TDDM) was used as chain transfer agent to modify the grafting properties (such as grafting degree, shell thickness, internal and external grafting) of the core-shell particles. The introduction of TDDM decreased the grafting degree, shell thickness and the T g of the core phase. When the content of TDDM was lower than 1.15%, the RCS particles dispersed in the PLA matrix uniformly-otherwise, agglomeration took place. The addition of RCS particles induced a higher cold crystallization temperature and a lower melting temperature of PLA which indicated the decreased crystallization ability of PLA. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results proved the good miscibility between PLA and the RCS particles and the increase of TDDM in RCS induced higher storage modulus of PLA/RCS blends. Suitable TDDM addition improved the toughening ability of RCS particles for PLA. In the present research, PLA/RCS-T4 (RCS-T4: the reactive core-shell particles with 0.76 wt % TDDM addition) blends displayed much better impact strength than other blends due to the easier cavitation/debonding ability and good dispersion morphology of the RCS-T4 particles. When the RCS-T4 content was 25 wt %, the impact strength of PLA/RCS-T4 blend reached 768 J/m, which was more than 25 times that of the pure PLA.

  1. Energetics of zirconia stabilized by cation and nitrogen substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodetsky, Irina

    Tetragonal and cubic zirconia are used in advanced structural ceramics, fuel cells, oxygen sensors, nuclear waste ceramics and many other applications. These zirconia phases are stabilized at room temperature (relative to monoclinic phase for pure zirconia) by cation and nitrogen substitution. This work is aimed at a better understanding of the mechanisms of stabilization of the high-temperature zirconia. phases. Experimental data are produced on the energetics of zirconia stabilized by yttria and calcia, energetics of nitrogen-oxygen substitution in zirconia and cation doped zirconia, and energetics of x-ray amorphous zirconia. obtained by low-temperature synthesis. High-temperature oxide melt solution enables direct measurement of enthalpies of formation of these refractory oxides. The enthalpy of the monoclinic to cubic phase transition of zirconia is DeltaHm-c = 12.2 +/- 1.2 kJ/mol. For cubic phases of YSZ at low yttria contents, a straight line DeltaH f,YSZ = -(52.4 +/- 3.6)x + (12.2 +/- 1.2) approximates the enthalpy of formation as a function of the yttria content, x (0. 1 < x < 0.3). Use of the quadratic fit DeltaHf,YSZ = 126.36 x 2 - 81.29 x + 12.37 (0.1 ≲ x ≲ 0.53) indicates that yttria stabilizes the cubic phase in enthalpy at low dopant content and destabilizes the cubic phase as yttria content increases. Positive entropy of mixing in YSZ and small enthalpy of long range ordering in 0.47ZrO2-0.53YO1.5, DeltaHord = -2.4 +/- 3.0 kJ/mol, indicate presence of short range ordering in YSZ. The enthalpy of formation of calcia stabilized zirconia as a function of calcia content x, is approximated as DeltaHf,c = (-91.4 +/- 3.8) x + (13.5 +/- 1.7) kJ/mol. The enthalpy of oxygen-nitrogen substitution, DeltaHO-N, in zirconium oxynitrides is a linear function of nitrogen content. DeltaH O-N ˜ -500 kJ/mol N is for Ca (Y)-Zr-N-O and Zr-N-O oxynitrides and DeltaHO-N ˜ -950 kJ/mol N is for Mg-Zr-N-O oxynitrides. X-ray amorphous zirconia is 58.6 +/- 3.3 kJ/mol less

  2. Effect of Impurities on O and Al Boundary Diffusion in Alumina: Application Alumina Scale Growth in Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-24

    of Ni alone enhances transport by approximately a factor of 2 relative to undoped alumina. The diffusive transport of chromium in both pure and Y...doped fine-grained alumina has been investigated over the temperature range 1250 -1650 C. From a quantitative assessment of the chromium diffusion...diffusion of chromium in both undoped and Y-doped fine-grained alumina has been investigated. In this work, Cr + was employed as a plausible substitute

  3. High-temperature zirconia insulation and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Lewis, J. Jr.

    The present invention is directed to a highly pure, partially stabilized, fibrous zirconia composite for use as thermal insulation in environments where temperatures up to about 2,000/sup 0/C are utilized. The composite of the present invention is fabricated into any suitable configuration such as a cone, cylinder dome or the like by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of partially stabilized zirconia fibers into a desired configuration on a suitably shaped mandrel. The molded fibers are infiltrated with zirconyl nitrate and the resulting structure is then dried to form a rigid structure which may be removed and placed in a furnace. The structure is then heated in air to a temperature of about 600/sup 0/C for driving off the nitrate from the structure and for oxidizing the zirconyl ion to zirconia. Thereafter, the structure is heated to about 950/sup 0/ to 1,250/sup 0/C to fuse the zirconia fibers at their nexi in a matrix of zirconia. The composite produced by the present invention is self-supporting and can be readily machined to desired final dimensions. Additional heating to about 1800/sup 0/ to 2000/sup 0/C further improves structural rigidity.

  4. High-temperature zirconia insulation and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Lewis, J. Jr.

    1988-05-10

    The present invention is directed to a highly pure, partially stabilized, fibrous zirconia composite for use as thermal insulation in environments where temperatures up to about 2,000 C are utilized. The composite of the present invention is fabricated into any suitable configuration such as a cone, cylinder, dome or the like by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of partially stabilized zirconia fibers into a desired configuration on a suitably shaped mandrel. The molded fibers are infiltrated with zirconyl nitrate and the resulting structure is then dried to form a rigid structure which may be removed and placed in a furnace. The structure is then heated in air to a temperature of about 600 C for driving off the nitrate from the structure and for oxidizing the zirconyl ion to zirconia. Thereafter, the structure is heated to about 950 to 1,250 C to fuse the zirconia fibers at their nexi in a matrix of zirconia. The composite produced by the present invention is self-supporting and can be readily machined to desired final dimensions. Additional heating to about 1,800 to 2,000 C further improves structural rigidity.

  5. High-temperature zirconia insulation and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, Jr., George E.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Lewis, Jr., John

    1988-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a highly pure, partially stabilized, fibrous zirconia composite for use as thermal insulation in environments where temperatures up to about 2000.degree. C. are utilized. The composite of the present invention is fabricated into any suitable configuration such as a cone, cylinder, dome or the like by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of partially stabilized zirconia fibers into a desired configuration on a suitably shaped mandrel. The molded fibers are infiltrated with zirconyl nitrate and the resulting structure is then dried to form a rigid structure which may be removed and placed in a furnace. The structure is then heated in air to a temperature of about 600.degree. C. for driving off the nitrate from the structure and for oxidizing the zirconyl ion to zirconia. Thereafter, the structure is heated to about 950.degree. to 1,250.degree. C. to fuse the zirconia fibers at their nexi in a matrix of zirconia. The composite produced by the present invention is self-supporting and can be readily machined to desired final dimensions. Additional heating to about 1800.degree. to 2000.degree. C. further improves structural rigidity.

  6. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia.

    PubMed

    Sari, Fatih; Secilmis, Asli; Simsek, Irfan; Ozsevik, Semih

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia.

  7. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia. PMID:27555895

  8. Surface modification using the biomimetic method in alumina-zirconia porous ceramics obtained by the replica method.

    PubMed

    Silva, André D R; Rigoli, Willian R; Osiro, Denise; Mello, Daphne C R; Vasconcellos, Luana M R; Lobo, Anderson O; Pallone, Eliria M J A

    2018-01-12

    The modification of biomaterials approved by the Food and Drug Administration could be an alternative to reduce the period of use in humans. Porous bioceramics are widely used as support structures for bone formation and repair. This composite has essential characteristics for an implant, including good mechanical properties, high chemical stability, biocompatibility and adequate aesthetic appearance. Here, three-dimensional porous scaffolds of Al 2 O 3 containing 5% by volume of ZrO 2 were produced by the replica method. These scaffolds had their surfaces chemically treated with phosphoric acid and were coated with calcium phosphate using the biomimetic method simulated body fluid (SBF, 5×) for 14 days. The scaffolds, before and after biomimetic coating, were characterized mechanically, morphologically and structurally by axial compression tests, scanning electron microscopy, microtomography, apparent porosity, X-ray diffractometry, near-infrared spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and reactivity. The in vitro cell viability and formation of mineralization nodules were used to identify the potential for bone regeneration. The produced scaffols after immersion in SBF were able to induce the nodules formation. These characteristics are advantaged by the formation of different phases of calcium phosphates on the material surface in a reduced incubation period. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Improvements to Zirconia Thick-Film Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskell, William C.; Brett, Daniel J. L.; Brandon, Nigel P.

    2013-06-01

    Thick-film zirconia gas sensors are normally screen-printed onto a planar substrate. A sandwich of electrode-electrolyte-electrode is fired at a temperature sufficient to instigate sintering of the zirconia electrolyte. The resulting porous zirconia film acts as both the electrolyte and as the diffusion barrier through which oxygen diffuses. The high sintering temperature results in de-activation of the electrodes so that sensors must be operated at around 800 °C for measurements in the percentage range of oxygen concentration. This work shows that the use of cobalt oxide as a sintering aid allows reduction of the sensor operating temperature by 100-200 °C with clear benefits. Furthermore, an interesting and new technique is presented for the investigation of the influence of dopants and of the through-porosity of ionically-conducting materials.

  10. Resin cementation of zirconia ceramics with different bonding agents

    PubMed Central

    Tanış, Merve Çakırbay; Akay, Canan; Karakış, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sandblasting and different chemical bonding agents on shear bond strength of zirconia and conventional resin cement. In this study, 35 zirconia specimens were treated as follows: Group I: control; Group II: sandblasting; Group III: sandblasting + Monobond S; Group IV: sandblasting + Monobond Plus; Group V: sandblasting + Z-Prime Plus. The specimens in each group were bonded with conventional composite resin cement Variolink II. After cementation, specimens were stored in distilled water (at 37 °C) for 24 h and shear test was performed. The highest shear bond strength values were observed in Groups IV and V. The lowest shear bond strength values were observed in Group I. Using 10-methacryloyloxy-decyl dihydrogenphosphate monomer-containing priming agents, e.g. Monobond Plus and Z-PRIME Plus, combined with sandblasting can be an effective method for resin bonding of zirconia restorations. PMID:26019653

  11. Study of Laser Drilled Hole Quality of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Surendra K.; Dubey, Avanish K.; Pant, Piyush; Upadhyay, B. N.; Choubey, A.

    2017-09-01

    The Yttria Stabilized Zirconia ceramic is extensively used in aerospace, automotives, medical and microelectronics industries. These applications demand manufacturing of different macro and micro features with close tolerances in this material. To make miniature holes with accurate dimensions in advanced ceramics such as Yttria Stabilized Zirconia is very difficult due to its tailored attributes such as high toughness, hardness, strength, resistance to wear, corrosion and temperature. Due to inherent characteristics of laser drilling, researchers are working to fulfill the requirement of creation of micro holes in advanced ceramics. The present research investigates the laser drilling of 2 mm thick Yttria Stabilized Zirconia with the aim to achieve good micro holes with reduced geometrical inaccuracies and improved hole quality. The results show that multiple quality response comprising hole circularity, hole taper and recast layer thickness has been improved at optimally selected process parameters.

  12. Thermodynamic properties of some metal oxide-zirconia systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1989-01-01

    Metal oxide-zirconia systems are a potential class of materials for use as structural materials at temperatures above 1900 K. These materials must have no destructive phase changes and low vapor pressures. Both alkaline earth oxide (MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO)-zirconia and some rare earth oxide (Y2O3, Sc2O3, La2O3, CeO2, Sm2O3, Gd2O3, Yb2O3, Dy2O3, Ho2O3, and Er2O3)-zirconia system are examined. For each system, the phase diagram is discussed and the vapor pressure for each vapor species is calculated via a free energy minimization procedure. The available thermodynamic literature on each system is also surveyed. Some of the systems look promising for high temperature structural materials.

  13. Study on the neotype zirconia's implant coated nanometer hydroxyapatite ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. W.; Yang, D. W.

    2007-07-01

    In recent years, biologic ceramics is a popular material of implants and bioactive surface modification of dental implant became a research emphasis, which aims to improve bioactivity of implants materials and acquire firmer implants-bone interface. The zirconia ceramic has excellent mechanical properties and nanometer HA ceramics is a bioceramic well known for its bioactivity, therefore, nanometer HA ceramics coating on zirconia, allows combining the excellent mechanical properties of zirconia substrates with its bioactivity. This paper shows a new method for implant shape design and bioactive modification of dental implants surface. Zirconia's implant substrate was prepared by sintered method, central and lateral tunnels were drilled in the zirconia hollow porous cylindrical implants by laser processing. The HA powders and needle-like HA crystals were made by a wet precipitation and calcining method. Its surface was coated with nanometer HA ceramics which was used brush HA slurry and vacuum sintering. Mechanical testing results revealed that the attachment strength of nanometer HA ceramics coated zirconia samples is high. SEM and interface observation after inserted experiment indicated that calcium and phosphor content increased and symmetrically around coated implant-bone tissue interface. A significantly higher affinity index was demonstrated in vivo by histomorphometric evaluation in coated versus uncoated implants. SEM analysis demonstrated better bone adhesion to the material in coated implant at any situation. In addition, the hollow porous cylindrical implant coated with nanometer HA ceramics increase the interaction of bone and implant, the new bone induced into the surface of hollow porous cylindrical implant and through the most tunnels filled into central hole. The branch-like structure makes the implant and bone a body, which increased the contact area and decreased elastic ratio. Therefore, the macroscopical and microcosmic nested structure of

  14. Laser Surface Treatment of Sintered Alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, R.; Noelke, C.; Kaierle, S.; Wesling, V.

    Sintered alumina ceramics are used as refractory materials for industrial aluminum furnaces. In this environment the ceramic surface is in permanent contact with molten aluminum resulting in deposition of oxidic material on its surface. Consequently, a lower volume capacity as well as thermal efficiency of the furnaces follows. To reduce oxidic adherence of the ceramic material, two laser-based surface treatment processes were investigated: a powder- based single-step laser cladding and a laser surface remelting. Main objective is to achieve an improved surface quality of the ceramic material considering the industrial requirements as a high process speed.

  15. Shockless spalling damage of alumina ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erzar, B.; Buzaud, E.

    2012-05-01

    Ceramic materials are commonly used to build multi-layer armour. However reliable test data is needed to identify correctly models and to be able to perform accurate numerical simulation of the dynamic response of armour systems. In this work, isentropic loading waves have been applied to alumina samples to induce spalling damage. The technique employed allows assessing carefully the strain-rate at failure and the dynamic strength. Moreover, specimens have been recovered and analysed using SEM. In a damaged but unbroken specimen, interactions between cracks has been highlighted illustrating the fragmentation process.

  16. Improved Synthesis Of Potassium Beta' '-Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara; Ryan, Margaret A.; O'Connor, Dennis E.; Kisor, Adam; Underwood, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Improved formulations of precursor materials synthesize nearly-phase-pure potassium beta' '-alumina solid electrolyte (K-BASE) powder. Materials are microhomogeneous powders (or, alternatively, gels) containing K(+,) Mg(2+), and Al(3+). K-BASE powder produced used in potassium-working-fluid alkali-metal thermal-to-electric conversion (K-AMTEC), in which heat-input and heat-rejection temperatures lower than sodium-working-fluid AMTEC (Na-AMTEC). Additional potential use lies in purification of pottassium by removal of sodium and calcium.

  17. Fracture-induced amorphization of polycrystalline SiO2 stishovite: a potential platform for toughening in ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Norimasa; Wakai, Fumihiro; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Tamenori, Yusuke; Murata, Hidenobu; Taniguchi, Takashi; Matsushita, Masafumi; Takahashi, Manabu; Kulik, Eleonora; Yoshida, Kimiko; Wada, Kouhei; Bednarcik, Jozef; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Silicon dioxide has eight stable crystalline phases at conditions of the Earth's rocky parts. Many metastable phases including amorphous phases have been known, which indicates the presence of large kinetic barriers. As a consequence, some crystalline silica phases transform to amorphous phases by bypassing the liquid via two different pathways. Here we show a new pathway, a fracture-induced amorphization of stishovite that is a high-pressure polymorph. The amorphization accompanies a huge volume expansion of ~100% and occurs in a thin layer whose thickness from the fracture surface is several tens of nanometers. Amorphous silica materials that look like strings or worms were observed on the fracture surfaces. The amount of amorphous silica near the fracture surfaces is positively correlated with indentation fracture toughness. This result indicates that the fracture-induced amorphization causes toughening of stishovite polycrystals. The fracture-induced solid-state amorphization may provide a potential platform for toughening in ceramics. PMID:25297473

  18. Fracture-induced amorphization of polycrystalline SiO2 stishovite: a potential platform for toughening in ceramics.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Norimasa; Wakai, Fumihiro; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Tamenori, Yusuke; Murata, Hidenobu; Taniguchi, Takashi; Matsushita, Masafumi; Takahashi, Manabu; Kulik, Eleonora; Yoshida, Kimiko; Wada, Kouhei; Bednarcik, Jozef; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2014-10-09

    Silicon dioxide has eight stable crystalline phases at conditions of the Earth's rocky parts. Many metastable phases including amorphous phases have been known, which indicates the presence of large kinetic barriers. As a consequence, some crystalline silica phases transform to amorphous phases by bypassing the liquid via two different pathways. Here we show a new pathway, a fracture-induced amorphization of stishovite that is a high-pressure polymorph. The amorphization accompanies a huge volume expansion of ~100% and occurs in a thin layer whose thickness from the fracture surface is several tens of nanometers. Amorphous silica materials that look like strings or worms were observed on the fracture surfaces. The amount of amorphous silica near the fracture surfaces is positively correlated with indentation fracture toughness. This result indicates that the fracture-induced amorphization causes toughening of stishovite polycrystals. The fracture-induced solid-state amorphization may provide a potential platform for toughening in ceramics.

  19. Integrated ternary artificial nacre via synergistic toughening of reduced graphene oxide/double-walled carbon nanotubes/poly(vinyl alcohol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Shanshan; Wu, Mengxi; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2016-07-01

    The synergistic toughening effect of building blocks and interface interaction exists in natural materials, such as nacre. Herein, inspired by one-dimensional (1D) nanofibrillar chitin and two-dimensional (2D) calcium carbonate platelets of natural nacre, we have fabricated integrated strong and tough ternary bio-inspired nanocomposites (artificial nacre) successfully via the synergistic effect of 2D reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets and 1D double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) and hydrogen bonding cross-linking with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix. Moreover, the crack mechanics model with crack deflection by 2D rGO nanosheets and crack bridging by 1D DWNTs and PVA chains induces resultant artificial nacre exhibiting excellent fatigue-resistance performance. These outstanding characteristics enable the ternary bioinspired nanocomposites have many promising potential applications, for instance, aerospace, flexible electronics devices and so forth. This synergistic toughening strategy also provides an effective way to assemble robust graphene-based nanocomposites.

  20. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010 Section 73.1010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum...

  1. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010 Section 73.1010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum...

  2. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010 Section 73.1010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum...

  3. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white, odorless, tasteless, amorphous powder consisting essentially of aluminum hydroxide (Al2 O3· XH2 O). (2) Color additive...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10120 - Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nanoparticles (generic). 721.10120 Section 721.10120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10120 Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (PMN P-05-687) is subject to reporting under this section...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10120 - Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nanoparticles (generic). 721.10120 Section 721.10120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10120 Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (PMN P-05-687) is subject to reporting under this section...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10120 - Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nanoparticles (generic). 721.10120 Section 721.10120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10120 Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (PMN P-05-687) is subject to reporting under this section...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10120 - Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nanoparticles (generic). 721.10120 Section 721.10120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10120 Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (PMN P-05-687) is subject to reporting under this section...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010 Section 73.1010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) Specifications. Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) shall conform to the following specifications: Acidity or...

  9. Process for the recovery of alumina from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Murtha, M.J.

    1983-08-09

    An improvement in the lime-sinter process for recovering alumina from pulverized coal fly ash is disclosed. The addition of from 2 to 10 weight percent carbon and sulfur to the fly ash-calcium carbonate mixture increase alumina recovery at lower sintering temperatures.

  10. 40 CFR 721.10120 - Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nanoparticles (generic). 721.10120 Section 721.10120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10120 Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (PMN P-05-687) is subject to reporting under this section...

  11. Treatment of chrome plating wastewater (Cr+6) using activated alumina.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sudipta; Gupta, Anirban

    2003-01-01

    Suitability of activated alumina for removal of hexavalent chromium from electroplating wastewater has been investigated. Activated alumina exhibited good sorption capacity for hexavalent chromium and pH has no pronounced effect on the sorption capacity. Both batch and column adsorption studies have been carried out and an adsorption column design indicated reasonable depth of column for practical application.

  12. RECENT PROGRESS IN THE FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DUCTILE-PHASE-TOUGHENED TUNGSTEN LAMINATES FOR PLASMA-FACING MATERIALS

    SciT

    Cunningham, Kevin; Odette, G Robert; Fields, Kirk A.

    2015-09-23

    A promising approach to increasing the fracture toughness of W-alloys is ductile-phase toughening (DPT). A ductile phase reinforcement in a brittle matrix increases toughness primarily by crack bridging. A W-Cu laminate was fabricated and the properties of the constituent metals were characterized along with those for the composite. Development of a design model for large-scale crack bridging continued.

  13. Effect of air-abrasion on the retention of zirconia ceramic crowns luted with different cements before and after artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Ramez; Kern, Matthias

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of intaglio surface air-abrasion on the retention of CAD/CAM produced zirconia ceramic crowns cemented with three different types of cement. In addition the influence of artificial aging in masticatory simulator and thermocycling was tested. Extracted human premolars were prepared for all-ceramic crowns (12 degrees taper, 3 mm axial length). CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were manufactured. Half of the crowns were air-abraded with 50 microm alumina particles at 0.25 MPa, the rest was left as machined. The crowns were luted with zinc phosphate cement (Hoffmann), glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem), or composite resin (Panavia 21), subgroups were either stored for 3 days in 37 degrees water bath or stored for 150 days in 37 degrees water bath, with additional 37,500 thermal cycles (5-55 degrees) and 300,000 cycles dynamic loading with 5 kg in a masticatory simulator. Then crown retention was measured in tension at a crosshead speed of 2 mm/min using a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was performed with three-way ANOVA. Mean retention values were ranged from 2.8 to 7.1 MPa after 3 days and from 1.6 to 6.1 MPa after artificial aging. Air-abrasion significantly increased crown retention (p<0.001), while artificial aging decreased retention (p=0.017). In addition, the luting material had a significant influence on retention (p<0.001) with the adhesive luting resin providing the highest retention. The use of phosphate monomer containing composite resin on air-abraded zirconia ceramic can be recommended as most retentive luting method. Copyright 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sol–gel dip coating of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia dental ceramic by aluminosilicate nanocomposite as a novel technique to improve the bonding of veneering porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Azamsadat; Nakhaei, Mohammadreza; Karami, Parisa; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir; Salehi, Sahar; Bagheri, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of silica and aluminosilicate nanocomposite coating of zirconia-based dental ceramic by a sol–gel dip-coating technique on the bond strength of veneering porcelain to the yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) in vitro. Thirty Y-TZP blocks (10 mm ×10 mm ×3 mm) were prepared and were assigned to four experimental groups (n=10/group): C, without any further surface treatment as the control group; S, sandblasted using 110 μm alumina powder; Si, silica sol dip coating + calcination; and Si/Al, aluminosilicate sol dip coating + calcination. After preparing Y-TZP samples, a 3 mm thick layer of the recommended porcelain was fired on the coated Y-TZP surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the coating and the nature of the bonding between the coating and zirconia. To examine the zirconia–porcelain bond strength, a microtensile bond strength (μTBS) approach was chosen. FT-IR study showed the formation of silica and aluminosilicate materials. XRD pattern showed the formation of new phases consisting of Si, Al, and Zr in coated samples. SEM showed the formation of a uniform coating on Y-TZP samples. Maximum μTBS values were obtained in aluminosilicate samples, which were significantly increased compared to control and sandblasted groups (P=0.013 and P<0.001, respectively). This study showed that aluminosilicate sol–gel dip coating can be considered as a convenient, less expensive reliable method for improving the bond strength between dental Y-TZP ceramics and veneering porcelain. PMID:27478376

  15. pH control of the structure, composition, and catalytic activity of sulfated zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir K.; Baranchikov, Alexander Ye.; Kopitsa, Gennady P.; Lermontov, Sergey A.; Yurkova, Lyudmila L.; Gubanova, Nadezhda N.; Ivanova, Olga S.; Lermontov, Anatoly S.; Rumyantseva, Marina N.; Vasilyeva, Larisa P.; Sharp, Melissa; Pranzas, P. Klaus; Tretyakov, Yuri D.

    2013-02-01

    We report a detailed study of structural and chemical transformations of amorphous hydrous zirconia into sulfated zirconia-based superacid catalysts. Precipitation pH is shown to be the key factor governing structure, composition and properties of amorphous sulfated zirconia gels and nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia. Increase in precipitation pH leads to substantial increase of surface fractal dimension (up to ˜2.7) of amorphous sulfated zirconia gels, and consequently to increase in specific surface area (up to ˜80 m2/g) and simultaneously to decrease in sulfate content and total acidity of zirconia catalysts. Complete conversion of hexene-1 over as synthesized sulfated zirconia catalysts was observed even under ambient conditions.

  16. The mineralogy of bauxite for producing smelter-grade alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Authier-Martin, M.; Forte, G.; Ostap, S.; See, J.

    2001-12-01

    Aluminum-producing companies rely on low-cost, high-purity, smelter-grade alumina (aluminum oxide), and alumina production utilizes the bulk of bauxites mined world-wide. The mineralogy of the bauxites has a significant impact on the operation of the Bayer process for alumina production. Typically, the Bayer process produces smelter-grade alumina of 99.5% Al2O3, starting from bauxite containing 30% to 60% Al2O3. The main objective of the Bayer process is to extract the maximum amount of aluminum from the bauxite at as high an aluminate concentration in solution as possible, while limiting any troublesome side reactions. Only with a better understanding of the chemistry of the mineral species and a strict control of the operating/processing conditions can the Bayer process produce efficiently, a low cost, high-quality alumina with minimum detrimental environmental impact.

  17. Conversion of Conventional Rotary Kiln Into Effective Sandy Alumina Calciner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, M.; Hirano, T.; Yajima, H.

    Using conventional rotary kiln for calcining sandy alumina in potlines, remakable heat-saving and capacity-improving can be achieved. 83 liters of oil per tonne of alumina (3200MJ/tonne) were required for calcining 800 m.t.p.d. of sandy alumina in the rotary kiln at Shimizu Works. The kiln is installed with two stages of flash dryers and planetary coolers, and was originally designed for calcining floury alumina at 550 m.t.p.d. This improvement in capacity and unit oil consumption was achieved mainly through shortening the flame by using a special burner and effective heat recovery. The quality of sandy alumina calcined by the kiln is good enough for potlines.

  18. Comparison of bond strengths of ceramic brackets bonded to zirconia surfaces using different zirconia primers and a universal adhesive.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jaechan; An, Sang In; Park, Jeong-Won

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the shear bond strengths of ceramic brackets bonded to zirconia surfaces using different zirconia primers and universal adhesive. Fifty zirconia blocks (15 × 15 × 10 mm, Zpex, Tosoh Corporation) were polished with 1,000 grit sand paper and air-abraded with 50 µm Al 2 O 3 for 10 seconds (40 psi). They were divided into 5 groups: control (CO), Metal/Zirconia primer (MZ, Ivoclar Vivadent), Z-PRIME Plus (ZP, Bisco), Zirconia Liner (ZL, Sun Medical), and Scotchbond Universal adhesive (SU, 3M ESPE). Transbond XT Primer (used for CO, MZ, ZP, and ZL) and Transbond XT Paste was used for bracket bonding (Gemini clear ceramic brackets, 3M Unitek). After 24 hours at 37°C storage, specimens underwent 2,000 thermocycles, and then, shear bond strengths were measured (1 mm/min). An adhesive remnant index (ARI) score was calculated. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test ( p = 0.05). Surface treatment with primers resulted in increased shear bond strength. The SU group showed the highest shear bond strength followed by the ZP, ZL, MZ, and CO groups, in that order. The median ARI scores were as follows: CO = 0, MZ = 0, ZP = 0, ZL = 0, and SU = 3 ( p < 0.05). Within this experiment, zirconia primer can increase the shear bond strength of bracket bonding. The highest shear bond strength is observed in SU group, even when no primer is used.

  19. Comparison of bond strengths of ceramic brackets bonded to zirconia surfaces using different zirconia primers and a universal adhesive

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to compare the shear bond strengths of ceramic brackets bonded to zirconia surfaces using different zirconia primers and universal adhesive. Materials and Methods Fifty zirconia blocks (15 × 15 × 10 mm, Zpex, Tosoh Corporation) were polished with 1,000 grit sand paper and air-abraded with 50 µm Al2O3 for 10 seconds (40 psi). They were divided into 5 groups: control (CO), Metal/Zirconia primer (MZ, Ivoclar Vivadent), Z-PRIME Plus (ZP, Bisco), Zirconia Liner (ZL, Sun Medical), and Scotchbond Universal adhesive (SU, 3M ESPE). Transbond XT Primer (used for CO, MZ, ZP, and ZL) and Transbond XT Paste was used for bracket bonding (Gemini clear ceramic brackets, 3M Unitek). After 24 hours at 37°C storage, specimens underwent 2,000 thermocycles, and then, shear bond strengths were measured (1 mm/min). An adhesive remnant index (ARI) score was calculated. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test (p = 0.05). Results Surface treatment with primers resulted in increased shear bond strength. The SU group showed the highest shear bond strength followed by the ZP, ZL, MZ, and CO groups, in that order. The median ARI scores were as follows: CO = 0, MZ = 0, ZP = 0, ZL = 0, and SU = 3 (p < 0.05). Conclusions Within this experiment, zirconia primer can increase the shear bond strength of bracket bonding. The highest shear bond strength is observed in SU group, even when no primer is used. PMID:29487838

  20. Internal coating of zirconia restoration with silica-based ceramic improves bonding of resin cement to dental zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Shuzo; Nikaido, Toru; Ikeda, Masaomi; Alireza, Sadr; Miura, Hiroyuki; Tagami, Junji

    2010-01-01

    Resin bonding to zirconia ceramic cannot be established by standard methods that are utilized for conventional silica-based dental ceramics. This study was aimed to examine the tensile bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramic using a new laboratory technique. Sixty-four zirconia ceramic specimens were air-abraded using Al2O3 particles and divided into two groups; the control group with no pretreatment (Control), and the group pretreated using the internal coating technique (INT), in which the surface of the zirconia specimens were thinly coated by fusing silica-based ceramic and air-abraded in the same manner. The specimens in each group were further divided into two subgroups according to the silane coupling agents applied; a mixture of dentin primer/silane coupling agent (Clearfil SE Bond Primer/Porcelain Bond Activator) or a newly developed single-component silane coupling agent (Clearfil Ceramic Primer). After bonding with dual-cured resin cement (Panavia F 2.0), they were stored in water for 24 h and half of them were additionally subjected to thermal cycling. The tensile bond strengths were tested using a universal testing machine. ANOVAs revealed significant influence of ceramic surface pretreatment (p<0.001), silane coupling agent (p<0.001) and thermal cycling (p<0.001); the INT coating technique significantly increased the bond strengths of resin cement to zirconia ceramic, whereas thermal cycling significantly decreased the bond strengths. The use of a single-component silane coupling agent demonstrated significantly higher bond strengths than that of a mixture of dentin primer/silane coupling agent. The internal coating of zirconia dental restorations with silica-based ceramic followed by silanization may be indicated in order to achieve better bonding for the clinical success.

  1. Mono or polycrystalline alumina-modified hybrid ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kaizer, Marina R; Gonçalves, Ana Paula R; Soares, Priscilla B F; Zhang, Yu; Cesar, Paulo F; Cava, Sergio S; Moraes, Rafael R

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of addition of alumina particles (polycrystalline or monocrystalline), with or without silica coating, on the optical and mechanical properties of a porcelain. Groups tested were: control (C), polycrystalline alumina (PA), polycrystalline alumina-silica (PAS), monocrystalline alumina (MA), monocrystalline alumina-silica (MAS). Polycrystalline alumina powder was synthesized using a polymeric precursor method; a commercially available monocrystalline alumina powder (sapphire) was acquired. Silica coating was obtained by immersing alumina powders in a tetraethylorthosilicate solution, followed by heat-treatment. Electrostatic stable suspension method was used to ensure homogenous dispersion of the alumina particles within the porcelain powder. The ceramic specimens were obtained by heat-pressing. Microstructure, translucency parameter, contrast ratio, opalescence index, porosity, biaxial flexural strength, roughness, and elastic constants were characterized. A better interaction between glass matrix and silica coated crystalline particles is suggested in some analyses, yet further investigation is needed to confirm it. The materials did not present significant differences in biaxial flexural strength, due to the presence of higher porosity in the groups with alumina addition. Elastic modulus was higher for MA and MAS groups. Also, these were the groups with optical qualities and roughness closer to control. The PA and PAS groups were considerably more opaque as well as rougher. Porcelains with addition of monocrystalline particles presented superior esthetic qualities compared to those with polycrystalline particles. In order to eliminate the porosity in the ceramic materials investigated herein, processing parameters need to be optimized as well as different glass frites should be tested. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lightweight alumina refractory aggregate. Final report

    SciT

    Swansiger, T.G.; Pearson, A.

    1996-07-16

    Objective was to develop a lightweight, high alumina refractory aggregate for use in various high performance insulating (low thermal conductivity) refractory applications (e.g., in the aluminium, glass, cement, and iron and steel industries). A new aggregate process was developed through bench and pilot-scale experiments involving extrusion of a blend of calcined and activated alumina powders and organic extrusion aids and binders. The aggregate, with a bulk density approaching 2.5 g/cc, exhibited reduced thermal conductivity and adequate fired strength compared to dense tabular aggregate. Refractory manufacturers were moderately enthusiastic over the results. Alcoa prepared an economic analysis for producing lightweight aggregate,more » based on a retrofit of this process into existing Alcoa production facilities. However, a new, competing lightweight aggregate material was developed by another company; this material (Plasmal{trademark})had a significantly more favorable cost base than the Alcoa/DOE material, due to cheap raw materials and fewer processing steps. In late 1995, Alcoa became a distributor of Plasmal. Alcoa estimated that {ge}75% of the market originally envisioned for the Alcoa/DOE aggregate would be taken by Plasmal. Hence, it was decided to terminate the contract without the full- scale demonstration.« less

  3. Pseudopotential Computations for Metal/Alumina Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenqing

    2003-03-01

    Metal/alumina interfaces are found, for example, in electronic devices, as thermal barrier coatings in gas turbines, and in coatings to inhibit corrosion and wear. Of particular importance to their performance is their adhesion. Ultrasoft pseudopotentials combined with plane wave methods and density-functional theory have been employed to compute the properties of these relatively complex interfaces, including effects of impurity segregation. Interfacial stoichiometry and impurity content affect interfacial properties importantly. Thermodynamic links between our first principles results and metallurgical variables such as oxygen activity and oxygen partial pressure are established. This allows for a comparison between theoretical predictions and experimental measurements. Good agreement is obtained for predicted interfacial variables such as atomic structure and adhesive bond strengths on comparison with results of sessile drop, fracture, and other experiments on interfaces of Ni, Cu, Al, and Ag with alumina [1-3], including effects of water and sulfur interfacial impurities. Understanding of the nature of the adhesive bonding at the atomic level is obtained by the pseudopotential first principles approach. [1] W.Zhang, and J.R.Smith, and A.G.Evans, Acta Mater., 50,3803(2002). [2] W.Zhang, and J.R.Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3225(2000). [3] W.Zhang, and J.R.Smith, Phys. Rev. B61, 16883(2000).

  4. Properties of Transition Metal Doped Alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykwest, Erik; Limmer, Krista; Brennan, Ray; Blair, Victoria; Ramprasad, Rampi

    Crystallographic texture can have profound effects on the properties of a material. One method of texturing is through the application of an external magnetic field during processing. While this method works with highly magnetic systems, doping is required to couple non-magnetic systems with the external field. Experiments have shown that low concentrations of rare earth (RE) dopants in alumina powders have enabled this kind of texturing. The magnetic properties of RE elements are directly related to their f orbital, which can have as many as 7 unpaired electrons. Since d-block elements can have as many as 5 unpaired electrons the effects of substitutional doping of 3d transition metals (TM) for Al in alpha (stable) and theta (metastable) alumina on the local structure and magnetic properties, in addition to the energetic cost, have been calculated by performing first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. This study has led to the development of general guidelines for the magnetic moment distribution at and around the dopant atom, and the dependence of this distribution on the dopant atom type and its coordination environment. It is anticipated that these findings can aid in the selection of suitable dopants help to guide parallel experimental efforts. This project was supported in part by an internship at the Army Research Laboratory, administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, along with a grant of computer time from the DoD High Performance Computing Modernization Program.

  5. Combination for electrolytic reduction of alumina

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2002-04-30

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound is, a fluoride; oxide, or carbonate. The metal is nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath is employed in a combination including a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the instant bath during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum improves the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  6. The characterisation of next generation ceramic bearings for orthopaedic hip applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insley, Gerard M.

    Two zirconia toughened alumina ceramic materials were characterised for application as bearing surfaces for hip joint arthroplasty. Both ceramics were supplied by orthopaedic ceramic suppliers in the form of flat discs, flexural strength bars and finished ball heads and cups. Analysis techniques involved standard and novel test methods in order to gauge the suitability of the ZTA for this application. These included mechanical strength testing, phase composition analysis by x-ray diffraction, accelerated and real time stability testing, friction testing and hip simulator testing under standard and nonstandard conditions. Alumina was used as a control in all testing. The results show the ZTA materials to be 50 to 75% stronger and up to 25% tougher than the alumina. Both materials differ in terms of their processing, microstructure and crystalline phase composition, however both showed no tetragonal to monoclinic degradation after both accelerated and real time ageing. The friction and wear tests show the ZTA to be performing as well as the alumina in normal test conditions. However, when microseparation is introduced into the hip simulator testing the ZTA ceramics wear significantly less than the alumina. Clinical analysis of a series of explanted heads showed that microseparation definitely occurs in the clinical situation with wear scars observed in eleven out of sixteen components. Zirconia toughened alumina is suitable as a fourth generation bearing surface for hip joint arthroplasty.

  7. Loading capacity of zirconia implant supported hybrid ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Nadja; Coldea, Andrea; Zitzmann, Nicola U; Fischer, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Recently a polymer infiltrated hybrid ceramic was developed, which is characterized by a low elastic modulus and therefore may be considered as potential material for implant supported single crowns. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the loading capacity of hybrid ceramic single crowns on one-piece zirconia implants with respect to the cement type. Fracture load tests were performed on standardized molar crowns milled from hybrid ceramic or feldspar ceramic, cemented to zirconia implants with either machined or etched intaglio surface using four different resin composite cements. Flexure strength, elastic modulus, indirect tensile strength and compressive strength of the cements were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA (p=0.05). The hybrid ceramic exhibited statistically significant higher fracture load values than the feldspar ceramic. Fracture load values and compressive strength values of the respective cements were correlated. Highest fracture load values were achieved with an adhesive cement (1253±148N). Etching of the intaglio surface did not improve the fracture load. Loading capacity of hybrid ceramic single crowns on one-piece zirconia implants is superior to that of feldspar ceramic. To achieve maximal loading capacity for permanent cementation of full-ceramic restorations on zirconia implants, self-adhesive or adhesive cements with a high compressive strength should be used. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dehydration and crystallization kinetics of zirconia-yttria gels

    SciT

    Ramanathan, S.; Muraleedharan, R.V.; Roy, S.K.

    1995-02-01

    Zirconia and zirconia-yttria gels containing 4 and 8 mol% yttria were obtained by coprecipitation and drying at 373 K. The dehydration and crystallization behavior of the dried gels was studied by DSC, TG, and XRD. The gels undergo elimination of water over a wide temperature range of 373--673 K. The peak temperature of the endotherm corresponding to dehydration and the kinetic constants for the process were not influenced by the yttria content of the gel. The enthalpy of dehydration observed was in good agreement with the heat of vaporization data. The dehydration was followed by a sharp exothermic crystallization process.more » The peak temperature of the exotherm and the activation energy of the process increased with an increase in yttria content, while the enthalpy of crystallization showed a decrease. The ``glow effect`` reduced with increasing yttria content. Pure zirconia crystallizes in the tetragonal form while the zirconia containing 4 and 8 mol% yttria appears to crystallize in the cubic form.« less

  9. Enhanced structural stability of nanoporous zirconia under irradiation of He

    SciT

    Yang, Tengfei; Huang, Xuejun; Wang, Chenxu

    2012-01-01

    This work reports a greatly enhanced tolerance for He irradiation-induced swelling in nanocrystalline zirconia film with interconnected nanoporous structure (hereinafter referred as to NC-C). Compared to bulk yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and another nanocrystalline zirconia film only with discrete nano voids (hereinafter referred as to NC-V), the NC-C film reveals good tolerance for irradiation of high-fluence He. No appreciable surface blistering can be found even at the highest fluence of 6 1017 cm2 in NCC film. From TEM analysis of as-irradiated samples, the enhanced tolerance for volume swelling in NCC film is attributed to the enhanced diffusion mechanism of deposited Hemore » via widely distributed nano channels. Furthermore, the growth of grain size is quite small for both nanocrystalline zirconia films after irradiation, which is ascribed to the decreasing of area of grain boundary due to loose structure and low energy of primary knock-on atoms for He ions.« less

  10. Scandia-and-Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia for Thermal Barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mess, Derek

    2003-01-01

    yttria in suitable proportions has shown promise of being a superior thermal- barrier coating (TBC) material, relative to zirconia stabilized with yttria only. More specifically, a range of compositions in the zirconia/scandia/yttria material system has been found to afford increased resistance to deleterious phase transformations at temperatures high enough to cause deterioration of yttria-stabilized zirconia. Yttria-stabilized zirconia TBCs have been applied to metallic substrates in gas turbine and jet engines to protect the substrates against high operating temperatures. These coatings have porous and microcracked structures, which can accommodate strains induced by thermal-expansion mismatch and thermal shock. The longevity of such a coating depends upon yttria as a stabilizing additive that helps to maintain the zirconia in an yttria-rich, socalled non-transformable tetragonal crystallographic phase, thus preventing transformation to the monoclinic phase with an associated deleterious volume change. However, at a temperature greater than about 1,200 C, there is sufficient atomic mobility that the equilibrium, transformable zirconia phase is formed. Upon subsequent cooling, this phase transforms to the monoclinic phase, with an associated volume change that adversely affects the integrity of the coating. Recently, scandia was identified as a stabilizer that could be used instead of, or in addition to, yttria. Of particular interest are scandia-and-yttria-stabilized zirconia (SYSZ) compositions of about 6 mole percent scandia and 1 mole percent yttria, which have been found to exhibit remarkable phase stability at a temperature of 1,400 C in simple aging tests. Unfortunately, scandia is expensive, so that the problem becomes one of determining whether there are compositions with smaller proportions of scandia that afford the required high-temperature stability. In an attempt to solve this problem, experiments were performed on specimens made with reduced

  11. Sulfation of ceria-zirconia model automotive emissions control catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Alan Edwin

    Cerium-zirconium mixed metal oxides are used in automotive emissions control catalysts to regulate the partial pressure of oxygen near the catalyst surface. The near surface oxygen partial pressure is regulated through transfer of atomic oxygen from the ceria-zirconia solid matrix to the platinum group metals to form metal oxides capable of oxidizing carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. Although the addition of zirconium in the cubic lattice of ceria increases the oxygen storage capacity and thermal stability of the ceria matrix, the cerium-zirconium oxide system remains particularly susceptible to deactivation from sulfur compounds. While the overall effect of sulfur on these systems is understood (partially irreversible deactivation), the fundamental and molecular interaction of sulfur with ceria-zirconia remains a challenging problem. Ceria-zirconia metal oxide solid solutions have been prepared through co-precipitation with nitrate precursors. The prepared powders were calcined and subsequently formed into planer wafers and characterized for chemical and physical attributes. The prepared samples were subsequently exposed to a sulfur dioxide based environment and characterized with spectroscopic techniques to characterize the extent of sulfation and the nature of surface sulfur species. The extent of sulfation of the model ceria-zirconia systems was characterized with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) prior to and after treatment in a microreactor. Strong dependencies were observed between the atomic ratio of ceria to zirconia and the extent of sulfation. In addition, the partial pressure of sulfur dioxide during treatments also correlated to the extent of sulfation, while temperature only slightly effected the extent of sulfation. The AES data suggests the gas phase sulfur dioxide preferentially chemisorbs on surface ceria atoms and the extent of sulfation is heavily dependent on sulfur dioxide concentrations and only slightly dependent on catalyst

  12. Processing and mechanical characterization of alumina laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, John K.

    2002-08-01

    Single-phase ceramics that combine property gradients or steps in monolithic bodies are sought as alternatives to ceramic composites made of dissimilar materials. This work describes novel processing methods to produce stepped-density (or laminated) alumina single-phase bodies that maintain their mechanical integrity. One arrangement consists of a stiff, dense bulk material with a thin, flaw tolerant, porous exterior layer. Another configuration consists of a lightweight, low-density bulk material with a thin, hard, wear resistant exterior layer. Alumina laminates with strong interfaces have been successfully produced in this work using two different direct-casting processes. Gelcasting is a useful near-net shape processing technique that has been combined with several techniques, such as reaction bonding of aluminum oxide and the use of starch as a fugative filler, to successfully produced stepped-density alumina laminates. The other direct casting process that has been developed in this work is thermoreversible gelcasting (TRG). This is a reversible gelation process that has been used to produce near-net shape dense ceramic bodies. Also, individual layers can be stacked together and heated to produce laminates. Bilayer laminate samples were produced with varied thickness of porous and dense layers. It was shown that due to the difference in modulus and hardness, transverse cracking is found upon Hertzian contact when the dense layer is on the exterior. In the opposite arrangement, compacted damage zones formed in the porous material and no damage occurred in the underlying dense layer. Flaw tolerant behavior of the porous exterior/dense underlayer was examined by measuring biaxial strength as a function of Vickers indentation load. It was found that the thinnest layer of porous material results in the greatest flaw tolerance. Also, higher strength was exhibited at large indentation loads when compared to dense monoliths. The calculated stresses on the surfaces

  13. Surface roughness of zirconia for full-contour crowns after clinically simulated grinding and polishing.

    PubMed

    Hmaidouch, Rim; Müller, Wolf-Dieter; Lauer, Hans-Christoph; Weigl, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of controlled intraoral grinding and polishing on the roughness of full-contour zirconia compared to classical veneered zirconia. Thirty bar-shaped zirconia specimens were fabricated and divided into two groups (n=15). Fifteen specimens (group 1) were glazed and 15 specimens (group 2) were veneered with feldspathic ceramic and then glazed. Prior to grinding, maximum roughness depth (Rmax) values were measured using a profilometer, 5 times per specimen. Simulated clinical grinding and polishing were performed on the specimens under water coolant for 15 s and 2 N pressure. For grinding, NTI diamonds burs with grain sizes of 20 µm, 10 µm, and 7.5 µm were used sequentially. The ground surfaces were polished using NTI kits with coarse, medium and fine polishers. After each step, Rmax values were determined. Differences between groups were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The roughness of group 1 was significantly lower than that of group 2. The roughness increased significantly after coarse grinding in both groups. The results after glazing were similar to those obtained after fine grinding for non-veneered zirconia. However, fine-ground veneered zirconia had significantly higher roughness than venerred, glazed zirconia. No significant difference was found between fine-polished and glazed zirconia, but after the fine polishing of veneered zirconia, the roughness was significantly higher than after glazing. It can be concluded that for full-contour zirconia, fewer defects and lower roughness values resulted after grinding and polishing compared to veneered zirconia. After polishing zirconia, lower roughness values were achieved compared to glazing; more interesting was that the grinding of glazed zirconia using the NTI three-step system could deliver smooth surfaces comparable to untreated glazed zirconia surfaces.

  14. Surface roughness of zirconia for full-contour crowns after clinically simulated grinding and polishing

    PubMed Central

    Hmaidouch, Rim; Müller, Wolf-Dieter; Lauer, Hans-Christoph; Weigl, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of controlled intraoral grinding and polishing on the roughness of full-contour zirconia compared to classical veneered zirconia. Thirty bar-shaped zirconia specimens were fabricated and divided into two groups (n=15). Fifteen specimens (group 1) were glazed and 15 specimens (group 2) were veneered with feldspathic ceramic and then glazed. Prior to grinding, maximum roughness depth (Rmax) values were measured using a profilometer, 5 times per specimen. Simulated clinical grinding and polishing were performed on the specimens under water coolant for 15 s and 2 N pressure. For grinding, NTI diamonds burs with grain sizes of 20 µm, 10 µm, and 7.5 µm were used sequentially. The ground surfaces were polished using NTI kits with coarse, medium and fine polishers. After each step, Rmax values were determined. Differences between groups were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The roughness of group 1 was significantly lower than that of group 2. The roughness increased significantly after coarse grinding in both groups. The results after glazing were similar to those obtained after fine grinding for non-veneered zirconia. However, fine-ground veneered zirconia had significantly higher roughness than venerred, glazed zirconia. No significant difference was found between fine-polished and glazed zirconia, but after the fine polishing of veneered zirconia, the roughness was significantly higher than after glazing. It can be concluded that for full-contour zirconia, fewer defects and lower roughness values resulted after grinding and polishing compared to veneered zirconia. After polishing zirconia, lower roughness values were achieved compared to glazing; more interesting was that the grinding of glazed zirconia using the NTI three-step system could deliver smooth surfaces comparable to untreated glazed zirconia surfaces. PMID:25059249

  15. In vitro assessment of cutting efficiency and durability of zirconia removal diamond rotary instruments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Soo; Bae, Ji-Hyeon; Yun, Mi-Jung; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-06-01

    Recently, zirconia removal diamond rotary instruments have become commercially available for efficient cutting of zirconia. However, research of cutting efficiency and the cutting characteristics of zirconia removal diamond rotary instruments is limited. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess and compare the cutting efficiency, durability, and diamond rotary instrument wear pattern of zirconia diamond removal rotary instruments with those of conventional diamond rotary instruments. In addition, the surface characteristics of the cut zirconia were assessed. Block specimens of 3 mol% yttrium cation-doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystal were machined 10 times for 1 minute each using a high-speed handpiece with 6 types of diamond rotary instrument from 2 manufacturers at a constant force of 2 N (n=5). An electronic scale was used to measure the lost weight after each cut in order to evaluate the cutting efficiency. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate diamond rotary instrument wear patterns and machined zirconia block surface characteristics. Data were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Mann-Whitney U test (α=.05). Zirconia removal fine grit diamond rotary instruments showed cutting efficiency that was reduced compared with conventional fine grit diamond rotary instruments. Diamond grit fracture was the most dominant diamond rotary instrument wear pattern in all groups. All machined zirconia surfaces were primarily subjected to plastic deformation, which is evidence of ductile cutting. Zirconia blocks machined with zirconia removal fine grit diamond rotary instruments showed the least incidence of surface flaws. Although zirconia removal diamond rotary instruments did not show improved cutting efficiency compared with conventional diamond rotary instruments, the machined zirconia surface showed smoother furrows of plastic deformation and fewer surface flaws. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council

  16. Toughened and machinable glass matrix composites reinforced with graphene and graphene-oxide nano platelets

    PubMed Central

    Porwal, Harshit; Tatarko, Peter; Grasso, Salvatore; Hu, Chunfeng; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Dlouhý, Ivo; Reece, Mike J

    2013-01-01

    The processing conditions for preparing well dispersed silica–graphene nanoplatelets and silica–graphene oxide nanoplatelets (GONP) composites were optimized using powder and colloidal processing routes. Fully dense silica–GONP composites with up to 2.5 vol% loading were consolidated using spark plasma sintering. The GONP aligned perpendicularly to the applied pressure during sintering. The fracture toughness of the composites increased linearly with increasing concentration of GONP and reached a value of ∼0.9 MPa m1/2 for 2.5 vol% loading. Various toughening mechanisms including GONP necking, GONP pull-out, crack bridging, crack deflection and crack branching were observed. GONP decreased the hardness and brittleness index (BI) of the composites by ∼30 and ∼50% respectively. The decrease in BI makes silica–GONP composites machinable compared to pure silica. When compared to silica–Carbon nanotube composites, silica–GONP composites show better process-ability and enhanced mechanical properties. PMID:27877614

  17. Effects of Cryogenic Temperature on Fracture Toughness of Core-Shell Rubber (CSR) Toughened Epoxy Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J.; Cannon, S. A.; Magee, D.; Schneider, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of core-shell rubber (CSR) nanoparticles on the mechanical properties and fracture toughness of an epoxy resin at ambient and liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures. Varying amounts of Kane Ace MX130 toughening agent were added to a commercially available EPON 862/Epikure W epoxy resin. Elastic modulus was calculated using quasi-static tensile data. Fracture toughness was evaluated by the resulting breaking energy measured in Charpy impact tests conducted on an instrumented drop tower. The size and distribution of the CSR nanoparticles were characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to study the fracture surface morphology. The addition of the CSR nanoparticles increased the breaking energy with negligible change in elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress (UTS). At ambient temperature the breaking energy increased with increasing additions of the CSR nanoparticles, while at LN2 temperatures, it reached a maximum at 5 wt% CSR concentration. KEY WORDS: liquid nitrogen (LN2) properties, fracture toughness, core-shell rubber (CSR).

  18. Phononic band gaps and phase singularities in the ultrasonic response from toughened composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Robert A.; Nelson, Luke J.; Mienczakowski, Martin J.

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasonic 3D characterization of ply-level features in layered composites, such as out-of-plane wrinkles and ply drops, is now possible with carefully applied analytic-signal analysis. Study of instantaneous amplitude, phase and frequency in the ultrasonic response has revealed some interesting effects, which become more problematic for 3D characterization as the inter-ply resin-layer thicknesses increase. In modern particle-toughened laminates, the thicker resin layers cause phase singularities to be observed; these are locations where the instantaneous amplitude is zero, so the instantaneous phase is undefined. The depth at which these occur has been observed experimentally to vary with resin- layer thickness, such that a phase-singularity surface is formed; beyond this surface, the ultrasonic response is reduced and significantly more difficult to interpret, so a method for removing the effect would be advantageous. The underlying physics has been studied using an analytical one-dimensional multi-layer model. This has been sufficient to determine that the cause is linked to a phononic band gap in the ultrasound transmitted through multiple equally-spaced partial reflectors. As a result, the phase singularity also depends on input-pulse center frequency and bandwidth. Various methods for overcoming the confusing effects in the data have been proposed and subsequently investigated using the analytical model. This paper will show experimental and modelled evidence of phase-singularities and phase-singularity surfaces, as well as the success of methods for reducing their effects.

  19. Epoxy Resins Toughened with Surface Modified Epoxidized Natural Rubber Fibers by One-Step Electrospinning

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Ran; Kim, Jung J.

    2017-01-01

    Epoxidized natural rubber fibers (ERFs) are developed through one-step electrospinning and directly deposited into epoxy resins without collecting and distributing of fibers. The shape of ERFs shows rough surface due to different evaporation rate of solvent mixture consisting of chloroform and dichloromethane and the average diameter of ERFs is 6.2 µm. The increase of ERFs loading from 0 to 20 wt % into the epoxy resin increases the fracture strain significantly from 1.2% to 13% and toughness from 0.3 MPa to 1.9 MPa by a factor of 7. However, the tensile strength and Young’s modulus decrease about 34% from 58 MPa to 34 MPa and from 1.4 GPa to 0.9 GPa, respectively. Due to the crosslinking reactions between oxirane groups of ERFs and amine groups in the resin, surface roughness and the high aspect ratio of ERFs, ERFs result in more effective toughening effect with the minimum loss of tensile properties in epoxy resins. PMID:28772822

  20. Toughening of Thermoresponsive Arrested Networks of Elastin-Like Polypeptides To Engineer Cytocompatible Tissue Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Matthew J; Avery, Reginald K; Khademhosseini, Ali; Olsen, Bradley D

    2016-02-08

    Formulation of tissue engineering or regenerative scaffolds from simple bioactive polymers with tunable structure and mechanics is crucial for the regeneration of complex tissues, and hydrogels from recombinant proteins, such as elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs), are promising platforms to support these applications. The arrested phase separation of ELPs has been shown to yield remarkably stiff, biocontinuous, nanostructured networks, but these gels are limited in applications by their relatively brittle nature. Here, a gel-forming ELP is chain-extended by telechelic oxidative coupling, forming extensible, tough hydrogels. Small angle scattering indicates that the chain-extended polypeptides form a fractal network of nanoscale aggregates over a broad concentration range, accessing moduli ranging from 5 kPa to over 1 MPa over a concentration range of 5-30 wt %. These networks exhibited excellent erosion resistance and allowed for the diffusion and release of encapsulated particles consistent with a bicontinuous, porous structure with a broad distribution of pore sizes. Biofunctionalized, toughened networks were found to maintain the viability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in 2D, demonstrating signs of osteogenesis even in cell media without osteogenic molecules. Furthermore, chondrocytes could be readily mixed into these gels via thermoresponsive assembly and remained viable in extended culture. These studies demonstrate the ability to engineer ELP-based arrested physical networks on the molecular level to form reinforced, cytocompatible hydrogel matrices, supporting the promise of these new materials as candidates for the engineering and regeneration of stiff tissues.

  1. A multiscale microstructural approach to ductile-phase toughened tungsten for plasma-facing materials

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Overman, Nicole R.; ...

    2018-05-23

    Increasing fracture toughness and modifying the ductile-brittle transition temperature of a tungsten-alloy relative to pure tungsten has been shown to be feasible by ductile-phase toughening (DPT) of tungsten for future plasma-facing materials for fusion energy. In DPT, a ductile phase is included in a brittle tungsten matrix to increase the overall work of fracture for the material. This research models the deformation behavior of DPT tungsten materials, such as tungsten-copper composites, using a multiscale modeling approach that involves a microstructural dual-phase (copper-tungsten) region of interest where the constituent phases are finely discretized and are described by a continuum damage mechanicsmore » model. Large deformation, damage, and fracture are allowed to occur and are modeled in a region that is connected to adjacent homogenized elastic regions to form a macroscopic structure, such as a test specimen. The present paper illustrates this multiscale modeling approach to analyze unnotched and single-edge notched (SENB) tungsten-copper composite specimens subjected to three-point bending. The predicted load-displacement responses and crack propagation patterns are compared to the corresponding experimental results to validate the model. Furthermore, such models may help design future DPT composite configurations for fusion materials, including volume fractions of ductile phase and microstructural optimization.« less

  2. A multiscale microstructural approach to ductile-phase toughened tungsten for plasma-facing materials

    SciT

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Overman, Nicole R.

    Increasing fracture toughness and modifying the ductile-brittle transition temperature of a tungsten-alloy relative to pure tungsten has been shown to be feasible by ductile-phase toughening (DPT) of tungsten for future plasma-facing materials for fusion energy. In DPT, a ductile phase is included in a brittle tungsten matrix to increase the overall work of fracture for the material. This research models the deformation behavior of DPT tungsten materials, such as tungsten-copper composites, using a multiscale modeling approach that involves a microstructural dual-phase (copper-tungsten) region of interest where the constituent phases are finely discretized and are described by a continuum damage mechanicsmore » model. Large deformation, damage, and fracture are allowed to occur and are modeled in a region that is connected to adjacent homogenized elastic regions to form a macroscopic structure, such as a test specimen. The present paper illustrates this multiscale modeling approach to analyze unnotched and single-edge notched (SENB) tungsten-copper composite specimens subjected to three-point bending. The predicted load-displacement responses and crack propagation patterns are compared to the corresponding experimental results to validate the model. Furthermore, such models may help design future DPT composite configurations for fusion materials, including volume fractions of ductile phase and microstructural optimization.« less

  3. Epoxy Resins Toughened with Surface Modified Epoxidized Natural Rubber Fibers by One-Step Electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Ran; Kim, Jung J

    2017-04-27

    Epoxidized natural rubber fibers (ERFs) are developed through one-step electrospinning and directly deposited into epoxy resins without collecting and distributing of fibers. The shape of ERFs shows rough surface due to different evaporation rate of solvent mixture consisting of chloroform and dichloromethane and the average diameter of ERFs is 6.2 µm. The increase of ERFs loading from 0 to 20 wt % into the epoxy resin increases the fracture strain significantly from 1.2% to 13% and toughness from 0.3 MPa to 1.9 MPa by a factor of 7. However, the tensile strength and Young's modulus decrease about 34% from 58 MPa to 34 MPa and from 1.4 GPa to 0.9 GPa, respectively. Due to the crosslinking reactions between oxirane groups of ERFs and amine groups in the resin, surface roughness and the high aspect ratio of ERFs, ERFs result in more effective toughening effect with the minimum loss of tensile properties in epoxy resins.

  4. Toughening Fe-based Amorphous Coatings by Reinforcement of Amorphous Carbon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Yi-Cheng; Yasir, Muhammad; Wang, Hai-Tao; Liu, Lin

    2017-06-22

    Toughening of Fe-based amorphous coatings meanwhile maintaining a good corrosion resistance remains challenging. This work reports a novel approach to improve the toughness of a FeCrMoCBY amorphous coating through in-situ formation of amorphous carbon reinforcement without reducing the corrosion resistance. The Fe-based composite coating was prepared by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying using a pre-mixed Fe-based amorphous/nylon-11 polymer feedstock powders. The nylon-11 powders were in-situ carbonized to amorphous carbon phase during thermal spraying process, which homogeneously distributed in the amorphous matrix leading to significant enhancement of toughness of the coating. The mechanical properties, including hardness, impact resistance, bending and fatigue strength, were extensively studied by using a series of mechanical testing techniques. The results revealed that the composite coating reinforced by amorphous carbon phase exhibited enhanced impact resistance and nearly twice-higher fatigue strength than that of the monolithic amorphous coating. The enhancement of impact toughness and fatigue properties is owed to the dumping effect of the soft amorphous carbon phase, which alleviated stress concentration and decreased crack propagation driving force.

  5. Toughening of Epoxies: Novel Self-Assembling Block Copolymers Versus Traditional Telechelic Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacigalupo, Lauren N.

    Epoxy resins are commonly utilized because of their adhesive capacity and high strength. However, epoxies are inherently brittle; so much research has been dedicated to improving their fracture toughness. This study will focus on a comparing a traditional telechelic oligomer, CTBN, and a novel self-assembling block copolymer, SBM, as it relates to improving the fracture toughness of a lightly crosslinked epoxy system. After characterizing the modified systems for fracture toughness, mechanical and thermal properties, namely yield stress and the glass transition, will be determined in order to discern the impact these modifiers have on the overall properties of the blend. TEM, SEM and TOM techniques will be utilized for characterizing morphology, fractography and subsurface damage, respectively. Once this was accomplished, it was deduced that the toughening mechanisms of CTBN and SBM-modified epoxies are very similar. The main difference between the two is that the inherent structure of SBM allows the SBM-modified epoxy to retain its compressive yield strength. This, consequently, makes SBM ideal for thin bondline applications in the industrial adhesive and/or electronics industry.

  6. Curing and toughening of epoxy resins with phosphorus containing monomers and polymers

    SciT

    Park, Y.R.; Park, I.Y.; Yoon, T.H.

    1996-12-31

    Epoxy resins have been utilized in many areas, from house holds to airplanes, for the past several decades due to some exceptional properties such as low cost, good mechanical properties and excellent adhesive properties. However, low fracture toughness and flame resistance of epoxy resins have limited their applicability. Therefore, enhancing those properties have been of great interest to many researchers and scientists. As introduced by McGrath and co-workers in 1980s, the reactive thermoplastic polymers have proven to be an excellent toughener for improving not only fracture toughness but also adhesive properties without sacrificing thermo-mechanical properties and chemical resistance. Flame retardencymore » could be improved by adding flame retardent additives which are divided into two groups; additives and reactives. However, among the additives, halogen compounds are known to be toxic gas generator and ozone depleter. Moreover, additives could be potentially leached out of the material, while reactives are inferior to additives. Recently, a reactive type phosphine oxide containing flame retardants have been introduced by McGrath and co-workers and proven to be an excellent flame retardant. In this paper, phospine oxide containing monomers were prepared and utilized as curing agents for expoxy resins, and starting materials for the polymers.« less

  7. Impact Damage and Strain Rate Effects for Toughened Epoxy Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2006-01-01

    Structural integrity of composite systems under dynamic impact loading is investigated herein. The GENOA virtual testing software environment is used to implement the effects of dynamic loading on fracture progression and damage tolerance. Combinations of graphite and glass fibers with a toughened epoxy matrix are investigated. The effect of a ceramic coating for the absorption of impact energy is also included. Impact and post impact simulations include verification and prediction of (1) Load and Impact Energy, (2) Impact Damage Size, (3) Maximum Impact Peak Load, (4) Residual Strength, (5) Maximum Displacement, (6) Contribution of Failure Modes to Failure Mechanisms, (7) Prediction of Impact Load Versus Time, and (8) Damage, and Fracture Pattern. A computer model is utilized for the assessment of structural response, progressive fracture, and defect/damage tolerance characteristics. Results show the damage progression sequence and the changes in the structural response characteristics due to dynamic impact. The fundamental premise of computational simulation is that the complete evaluation of composite fracture requires an assessment of ply and subply level damage/fracture processes as the structure is subjected to loads. Simulation results for the graphite/epoxy composite were compared with the impact and tension failure test data, correlation and verification was obtained that included: (1) impact energy, (2) damage size, (3) maximum impact peak load, (4) residual strength, (5) maximum displacement, and (6) failure mechanisms of the composite structure.

  8. Bridge toughening in fiber-reinforced composites: A three-dimensional discrete fiber model

    SciT

    Hu, K.X.; Huang, Y.; Chandra, A.

    1995-07-01

    The fracture behavior of unidirectionally fiber-reinforced composites is the principal focus of this paper. The model proposed here is three-dimensional and accounts for the effects of local fiber-crack interactions on spatial variations of crack tip behavior. The model also consistently accounts for the effect of composite anisotropy by embedding a penny-shaped crack in an orthotropic composite medium. Three factors are identified that influence the reductions of stress intensity factors (SIFS) due to fiber bridging: a dimensionless configuration constant, a fiber distribution pattern, and a fiber volume fraction. The model reveals that the fiber distribution pattern does not alter the spatialmore » mean of the SIFS, although it does affect the oscillational amplitude. The dimensionless configuration constant determines the extent of the bridging effect and provides guidance regarding possible avenues for enhancing bridge toughening. The design curve of SIFs (retarded by fiber bridging) vs the fiber volume fraction shows that the isotropic and orthotropic solutions differ just slightly from each other. However, the energy release rate obtained by an isotropic analysis (widely claimed to be the equivalent of SIFs in bridging models) could, significantly underestimate the bridging effect.« less

  9. Toughening and healing of composites by CNTs reinforced copolymer nylon micro-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostopoulos, V.; Kotrotsos, A.; Tsokanas, P.; Tsantzalis, S.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, nylon micro-particles, both undoped and doped with multiwall carbon nanotubes played the role of the self-healing agent into carbon fibre/epoxy composites (CFRPs). These micro-particles were blended with epoxy matrix and the resulting mixture was used for the composites fabrication. Three types of composites were manufactured; the reference CFRP and the modified CFRPs with undoped and doped nylon micro-particles. After manufacturing, these composites were tested under mode I and II fracture loading conditions and it was shown that the interlaminar fracture toughness characteristics of both nylon modified composites were significantly increased. After first fracture, healing process was activated for the tested nylon modified samples and revealed high fracture toughness characteristics recovery. Morphology examinations supported the results and elucidated the involved toughening and failure mechanisms. Finally, the in-plane mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of all the composites were characterized for identifying possible knock-down effects due to the nylon modification of composites.

  10. Comparison of peri-implant bone formation around injection-molded and machined surface zirconia implants in rabbit tibiae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong-Kyun; Woo, Kyung mi; Shon, Won-Jun; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Cha, Seunghee; Park, Young-Seok

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare osseointegration and surface characteristics of zirconia implants made by the powder injection molding (PIM) technique and made by the conventional milling procedure in rabbit tibiae. Surface characteristics of 2 types of implant were evaluated. Sixteeen rabbits received 2 types of external hex implants with similar geometry, machined zirconia implants and PIM zirconia implants, in the tibiae. Removal torque tests and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The roughness of PIM zirconia implants was higher than that of machined zirconia implants. The PIM zirconia implants exhibited significantly higher bone-implant contact and removal torque values than the machined zirconia implants (P < 0.001). The osseointegration of the PIM zirconia implant is promising, and PIM, using the roughened mold etching technique, can produce substantially rough surfaces on zirconia implants. PMID:26235717

  11. Activated alumina preparation and characterization: The review on recent advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabia, A. R.; Ibrahim, A. H.; Zulkepli, N. N.

    2018-03-01

    Aluminum and aluminum based material are significant industrial materials synthesis because of their abandonment, low weight and high-quality corrosion resistance. The most advances in aluminum processing are the ability to synthesize it's under suitable chemical composition and conditions, a porous structure can be formed on the surface. Activated alumina particles (AAP) synthesized by the electrochemically process from aluminum have gained serious attention, inexpensive material that can be employed for water filtration due to its active surface. Thus, the paper present a review study based on recent progress and advances in synthesizing activated alumina, various techniques currently being used in preparing activated alumina and its characteristics are studied and summarized

  12. Alumina Paste Sublimation Suppression Barrier for Thermoelectric Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Paik, Jong-Ah (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Alumina as a sublimation suppression barrier for a Zintl thermoelectric material in a thermoelectric power generation device operating at high temperature, e.g. at or above 1000K, is disclosed. The Zintl thermoelectric material may comprise Yb.sub.14MnSb.sub.11. The alumina may be applied as an adhesive paste dried and cured on a substantially oxide free surface of the Zintl thermoelectric material and polished to a final thickness. The sublimation suppression barrier may be finalized by baking out the alumina layer on the Zintl thermoelectric material until it becomes substantially clogged with ytterbia.

  13. Viscoelasticity of nano-alumina dispersions

    SciT

    Rand, B.; Fries, R.

    1996-06-01

    The flow and viscoelastic properties of electrostatically stabilized nano-alumina dispersions have been studied as a function of ionic strength and volume fraction of solids. At low ionic strength the suspensions were deflocculated and showed a transition from viscous to elastic behavior as the solid content increased associated with the onset of double layer interpenetration. The phase transition was progressively shifted to higher solids fractions with increasing ionic strength. At higher ionic strength, above the critical coagulation concentration, the suspensions formed attractive networks characterized by high elasticity. Two independent methods of estimating the effective radius of electrostatically stabilized {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} particles, a{submore » eff}, are presented based on phase angle data and a modified Dougherty-Krieger equation. The results suggest that a{sub eff} is not constant for a given system but changes with both solids fraction and ionic strength.« less

  14. Optimized alumina coagulants for water treatment

    DOEpatents

    Nyman, May D [Albuquerque, NM; Stewart, Thomas A [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-02-21

    Substitution of a single Ga-atom or single Ge-atom (GaAl.sub.12 and GeAl.sub.12 respectively) into the center of an aluminum Keggin polycation (Al.sub.13) produces an optimal water-treatment product for neutralization and coagulation of anionic contaminants in water. GaAl.sub.12 consistently shows .about.1 order of magnitude increase in pathogen reduction, compared to Al.sub.13. At a concentration of 2 ppm, GaAl.sub.12 performs equivalently to 40 ppm alum, removing .about.90% of the dissolved organic material. The substituted GaAl.sub.12 product also offers extended shelf-life and consistent performance. We also synthesized a related polyaluminum chloride compound made of pre-hydrolyzed dissolved alumina clusters of [GaO.sub.4Al.sub.12(OH).sub.24(H.sub.2O).sub.12].sup.7+.

  15. Crystallography of Alumina-YAG-Eutectic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali; Dickerson, Robert M.; Matson, Lawrence E.

    2000-01-01

    Multiple descriptions of the alumina-YAG eutectic crystallography appear in the ceramic literature. The orientation between two phases in a eutectic system has direct impact on residual stress, morphology, microstructural stability, and high temperature mechanical properties. A study to demonstrate that the different crystallographic relationships can be correlated with different growth constraints was undertaken. Fibers produced by Laser-Heated Float Zone (LHFZ) and Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG) were examined. A map of the orientation relationship between Al2O3 and Y3Al5O12 and their relationship to the fiber growth axis as a function of pull rate are presented. Regions in which a single orientation predominates are identified.

  16. Tensile creep behavior of polycrystalline alumina fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, H. M.; Goldsby, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Tensile creep studies were conducted on polycrystalline Nextel 610 and Fiber FP alumina fibers with grain sizes of 100 and 300 nm, respectively. Test conditions were temperatures from 800 to 1050 C and stresses from 60 to 1000 MPa. For both fibers, only a small primary creep portion occurred followed by steady-state creep. The stress exponents for steady-state creep of Nextel 610 and Fiber FP were found to be about 3 and 1, respectively. At lower temperatures, below 1000 C, the finer grained Nextel 610 had a much higher 0.2 percent creep strength for 100 hr than the Fiber FP; while at higher temperatures, Nextel 610 had a comparable creep strength to the Fiber FP. The stress and grain size dependencies suggest Nextel 610 and Fiber FP creep rates are due to grain boundary sliding controlled by interface reaction and Nabarro-Herring mechanisms, respectively.

  17. Nanoporous alumina as templates for multifunctional applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, C. T.; Leitao, D. C.; Proenca, M. P.; Ventura, J.; Pereira, A. M.; Araujo, J. P.

    2014-09-01

    Due to its manufacturing and size tailoring ease, porous anodic alumina (PAA) templates are an elegant physical-chemical nanopatterning approach and an emergent alternative to more sophisticated and expensive methods currently used in nanofabrication. In this review, we will describe the ground work on the fabrication methods of PAA membranes and PAA-based nanostructures. We will present the specificities of the electrochemical growth processes of multifunctional nanomaterials with diversified shapes (e.g., nanowires and nanotubes), and the fabrication techniques used to grow ordered nanohole arrays. We will then focus on the fabrication, properties and applications of magnetic nanostructures grown on PAA and illustrate their dependence on internal (diameter, interpore distance, length, composition) and external (temperature and applied magnetic field intensity and direction) parameters. Finally, the most outstanding experimental findings on PAA-grown nanostructures and their trends for technological applications (sensors, energy harvesting, metamaterials, and biotechnology) will be addressed.

  18. Aluminum-Alloy-Matrix/Alumina-Reinforcement Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashalikar, Uday; Rozenoyer, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Isotropic composites of aluminum-alloy matrices reinforced with particulate alumina have been developed as lightweight, high-specific-strength, less-expensive alternatives to nickel-base and ferrous superalloys. These composites feature a specific gravity of about 3.45 grams per cubic centimeter and specific strengths of about 200 MPa/(grams per cubic centimeter). The room-temperature tensile strength is 100 ksi (689 MPa) and stiffness is 30 Msi (206 GPa). At 500 F (260 C), these composites have shown 80 percent retention in strength and 95 percent retention in stiffness. These materials also have excellent fatigue tolerance and tribological properties. They can be fabricated in net (or nearly net) sizes and shapes to make housings, pistons, valves, and ducts in turbomachinery, and to make structural components of such diverse systems as diesel engines, automotive brake systems, and power-generation, mining, and oil-drilling equipment. Separately, incorporation of these metal matrix composites within aluminum gravity castings for localized reinforcement has been demonstrated. A composite part of this type can be fabricated in a pressure infiltration casting process. The process begins with the placement of a mold with alumina particulate preform of net or nearly net size and shape in a crucible in a vacuum furnace. A charge of the alloy is placed in the crucible with the preform. The interior of the furnace is evacuated, then the furnace heaters are turned on to heat the alloy above its liquidus temperature. Next, the interior of the furnace is filled with argon gas at a pressure about 900 psi (approximately equal to 6.2 MPa) to force the molten alloy to infiltrate the preform. Once infiltrated, the entire contents of the crucible can be allowed to cool in place, and the composite part recovered from the mold.

  19. SEM evaluation of human gingival fibroblasts growth onto CAD/CAM zirconia and veneering ceramic for zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Zizzari, Vincenzo; Borelli, Bruna; De Colli, Marianna; Tumedei, Margherita; Di Iorio, Donato; Zara, Susi; Sorrentino, Roberto; Cataldi, Amelia; Gherlone, Enrico Felice; Zarone, Fernando; Tetè, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim To evaluate the growth of Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGFs) cultured onto sample discs of CAD/CAM zirconia and veneering ceramic for zirconia by means of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis at different experimental times. Methods A total of 26 experimental discs, divided into 2 groups, were used: Group A) CAD/CAM zirconia (3Y-TZP) discs (n=13); Group B) veneering ceramic for zirconia discs (n=13). HGFs were obtained from human gingival biopsies, isolated and placed in culture plates. Subsequently, cells were seeded on experimental discs at 7,5×103/cm2 concentration and cultured for a total of 7 days. Discs were processed for SEM observation at 3h, 24h, 72h and 7 days. Results In Group A, after 3h, HGFs were adherent to the surface and showed a flattened profile. The disc surface covered by HGFs resulted to be wider in Group A than in Group B samples. At SEM observation, after 24h and 72h, differences in cell attachment were slightly noticeable between the groups, with an evident flattening of HGFs on both surfaces. All differences between Group A and group B became less significant after 7 days of culture in vitro. Conclusions SEM analysis of HGFs showed differences in terms of cell adhesion and proliferation, especially in the early hours of culture. Results showed a better adhesion and cell growth in Group A than in Group B, especially up to 72h in vitro. Differences decreased after 7 days, probably because of the rougher surface of CAD/CAM zirconia, promoting better cell adhesion, compared to the smoother surface of veneering ceramic. PMID:24611089

  20. Shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to zirconia: Effect of surface treatment by CNC-milling and composite layer deposition on zirconia.

    PubMed

    Santos, R L P; Silva, F S; Nascimento, R M; Souza, J C M; Motta, F V; Carvalho, O; Henriques, B

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of veneering feldspathic porcelain to zirconia substrates modified by CNC-milling process or by coating zirconia with a composite interlayer. Four types of zirconia-porcelain interface configurations were tested: RZ - porcelain bonded to rough zirconia substrate (n=16); PZ - porcelain bonded to zirconia substrate with surface holes (n=16); RZI - application of a composite interlayer between the veneering porcelain and the rough zirconia substrate (n=16); PZI - application of a composite interlayer between the porcelain and the zirconia substrate treated by CNC-milling (n=16). The composite interlayer was composed of zirconia particles reinforced porcelain (30%, vol%). The mechanical properties of the ceramic composite have been determined. The shear bond strength test was performed at 0.5mm/min using a universal testing machine. The interfaces of fractured and untested specimens were examined by FEG-SEM/EDS. Data was analyzed with Shapiro-Wilk test to test the assumption of normality. The one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD multiple comparison test was used to compare shear bond strength results (α=0.05). The shear bond strength of PZ (100±15MPa) and RZI (96±11MPa) specimens were higher than that recorded for RZ (control group) specimens (89±15MPa), although not significantly (p>0.05). The highest shear bond strength values were recorded for PZI specimens (138±19MPa), yielding a significant improvement of 55% relative to RZ specimens (p<0.05). This study shows that it is possible to highly enhance the zirconia-porcelain bond strength - even by ~55% - by combining surface holes in zirconia frameworks and the application of a proper ceramic composite interlayer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Removing Fluoride Ions with Continously Fed Activated Alumina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yeun C.; Itemaking, Isara Cholapranee

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the mathematical basis for determining fluoride removal during water treatment with activated alumina. The study indicates that decreasing particle size decreases the pore diffusion effect and increases fluoride removal. (AS)

  2. Failure Analysis of Alumina Reinforced Aluminum Microtruss and Tube Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Hsueh Fen (Karen)

    The energy absorption capacity of cellular materials can be dramatically increased by applying a structural coating. This thesis examined the failure mechanisms of alumina reinforced 3003 aluminum alloy microtrusses and tubes. Alumina coatings were produced by hard anodizing and by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). The relatively thin and discontinuous oxide coating at the hinge acted as a localized weak spot which triggered a chain reaction of failure, including oxide fracture, oxide spallation, oxide penetration to the aluminum core and severe local plastic deformation of the core. For the PEO microtrusses, delamination occurred within the oxide coating resulting in a global strut buckling failure mode. A new failure mode for the anodized tubes was observed: (i) axisymmetric folding of the aluminum core, (ii) longitudinal fracture, and (iii) alumina pulverization. Overall, the alumina coating enhanced the buckling resistance of the composites, while the aluminum core supported the oxide during the damage propagation.

  3. Superhydrophobic alumina surface based on stearic acid modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Libang; Zhang, Hongxia; Mao, Pengzhi; Wang, Yanping; Ge, Yang

    2011-02-01

    A novel superhydrophobic alumina surface is fabricated by grafting stearic acid layer onto the porous and roughened aluminum film. The chemical and phase structure, morphology, and the chemical state of the atoms at the superhydrophobic surface were investigated by techniques as FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM, and XPS, respectively. Results show that a super water-repellent surface with a contact angle of 154.2° is generated. The superhydrophobic alumina surface takes on an uneven flowerlike structure with many nanometer-scale hollows distribute in the nipple-shaped protrusions, and which is composed of boehmite crystal and γ-Al2O3. Furthermore, the roughened and porous alumina surface is coated with a layer of hydrophobic alkyl chains which come from stearic acid molecules. Therefore, both the roughened structure and the hydrophobic layer endue the alumina surface with the superhydrophobic behavior.

  4. Potassium Beta-Alumina/Molybdenum/Potassium Electrochemical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M.; Nakamura, B.; Kikert, S.; O'Connor, D.

    1994-01-01

    potassium alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (K-AMTEC) cells utilizing potassium beta alumina solid electrolyte (K-BASE) are predicted to have improved properties for thermal to electric conversion at somewhat lower temperatures than sodium AMTEC's.

  5. Dynamic Mechanical Properties and Fracture Surface Morphologies of Core-Shell Rubber (CSR) Toughened Epoxy at Liquid Nitrogen (Ln2) Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J.; Magee, D.; Schneider, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties and fracture surface morphologies were evaluated for a commercial epoxy resin toughened with two types of core-shell rubber (CSR) toughening agents (Kane Ace(Registered TradeMark) MX130 and MX960). The impact resistance (R) was evaluated by the resulting breaking energy measured in Charpy impact tests conducted on an instrumented drop tower. The resulting fracture surface morphologies were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fractographic observations of the CSR toughened epoxy tested at ambient temperature, showed a fracture as characterized by slender dendrite textures with large voids. The increasing number of dendrites and decreasing size of scale-like texture with more CSR particles corresponded with increased R. As the temperature decreased to Liquid Nitrogen (LN 2), the fracture surfaces showed a fracture characterized by a rough, torn texture containing many river markings and deep furrows.

  6. Alumina Concentration Detection Based on the Kernel Extreme Learning Machine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sen; Zhang, Tao; Yin, Yixin; Xiao, Wendong

    2017-09-01

    The concentration of alumina in the electrolyte is of great significance during the production of aluminum. The amount of the alumina concentration may lead to unbalanced material distribution and low production efficiency and affect the stability of the aluminum reduction cell and current efficiency. The existing methods cannot meet the needs for online measurement because industrial aluminum electrolysis has the characteristics of high temperature, strong magnetic field, coupled parameters, and high nonlinearity. Currently, there are no sensors or equipment that can detect the alumina concentration on line. Most companies acquire the alumina concentration from the electrolyte samples which are analyzed through an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. To solve the problem, the paper proposes a soft sensing model based on a kernel extreme learning machine algorithm that takes the kernel function into the extreme learning machine. K-fold cross validation is used to estimate the generalization error. The proposed soft sensing algorithm can detect alumina concentration by the electrical signals such as voltages and currents of the anode rods. The predicted results show that the proposed approach can give more accurate estimations of alumina concentration with faster learning speed compared with the other methods such as the basic ELM, BP, and SVM.

  7. Carbon dioxide pressure swing adsorption process using modified alumina adsorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gaffney, Thomas Richard; Golden, Timothy Christopher; Mayorga, Steven Gerard; Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard; Taylor, Fred William

    1999-01-01

    A pressure swing adsorption process for absorbing CO.sub.2 from a gaseous mixture containing CO.sub.2 comprising introducing the gaseous mixture at a first pressure into a reactor containing a modified alumina adsorbent maintained at a temperature ranging from 100.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. to adsorb CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 laden alumina adsorbent and a CO.sub.2 depleted gaseous mixture and contacting the CO.sub.2 laden adsorbent with a weakly adsorbing purge fluid at a second pressure which is lower than the first pressure to desorb CO.sub.2 from the CO.sub.2 laden alumina adsorbent. The modified alumina adsorbent which is formed by depositing a solution having a pH of 3.0 or more onto alumina and heating the alumina to a temperature ranging from 100.degree. C. and 600.degree. C., is not degraded by high concentrations of water under process operating conditions.

  8. Carbon dioxide pressure swing adsorption process using modified alumina adsorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gaffney, T.R.; Golden, T.C.; Mayorga, S.G.; Brzozowski, J.R.; Taylor, F.W.

    1999-06-29

    A pressure swing adsorption process for absorbing CO[sub 2] from a gaseous mixture containing CO[sub 2] comprises introducing the gaseous mixture at a first pressure into a reactor containing a modified alumina adsorbent maintained at a temperature ranging from 100 C and 500 C to adsorb CO[sub 2] to provide a CO[sub 2] laden alumina adsorbent and a CO[sub 2] depleted gaseous mixture and contacting the CO[sub 2] laden adsorbent with a weakly adsorbing purge fluid at a second pressure which is lower than the first pressure to desorb CO[sub 2] from the CO[sub 2] laden alumina adsorbent. The modified alumina adsorbent which is formed by depositing a solution having a pH of 3.0 or more onto alumina and heating the alumina to a temperature ranging from 100 C and 600 C, is not degraded by high concentrations of water under process operating conditions. 1 fig.

  9. In Vitro Cell Proliferation and Mechanical Behaviors Observed in Porous Zirconia Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Wang, Xiaobei; Lin, Yuanhua; Deng, Xuliang; Li, Ming; Nan, Cewen

    2016-01-01

    Zirconia ceramics with porous structure have been prepared by solid-state reaction using yttria-stabilized zirconia and stearic acid powders. Analysis of its microstructure and phase composition revealed that a pure zirconia phase can be obtained. Our results indicated that its porosity and pore size as well as the mechanical characteristics can be tuned by changing the content of stearic acid powder. The optimal porosity and pore size of zirconia ceramic samples can be effective for the increase of surface roughness, which results in higher cell proliferation values without destroying the mechanical properties. PMID:28773341

  10. Innovations in bonding to zirconia-based materials. Part II: Focusing on chemical interactions.

    PubMed

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Mirmohamadi, Hesam; Matinlinna, Jukka P; Kukk, Edwin; Ounsi, Hani F; Salameh, Ziad

    2009-08-01

    The zirconia-resin bond strength was enhanced using novel engineered zirconia primers in combination with selective infiltration etching as a surface pre-treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of artificial aging on the chemical stability of the established bond and to understand the activation mechanism of the used primers. Selective infiltration etched zirconia discs (Procera; NobelBiocare) were coated with one of four novel engineered zirconia primers containing reactive monomers and were bonded to resin-composite discs (Panavia F2.0). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was carried out to examine the chemical activation of zirconia primers from mixing time and up to 60min. The bilayered specimens were cut into microbars (1mm(2) in cross-section area) and zirconia-resin microtensile bond strength (MTBS) was evaluated immediately and after 90 days of water storage at 37 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the fracture surface. There was a significant drop in MTBS values after 90 days of water storage for all tested zirconia primers from ca. 28-41MPa to ca. 15-18MPa after completion of artificial aging. SEM revealed increase in percentage of interfacial failure after water storage. FTIR spectra suggested adequate activation of the experimental zirconia primers within 1h of mixing time. The novel engineered zirconia primers produced initially high bond strength values which were significantly reduced after water storage. Long-term bond stability requires developing more stable primers.

  11. Effects of Etching Time and NaOH Concentration on the Production of Alumina Nanowires Using Porous Anodic Alumina Template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghpour-Motlagh, M.; Mokhtari-Zonouzi, K.; Aghajani, H.; Kakroudi, M. Ghassemi

    2014-06-01

    In this work, two-step anodizing of commercial aluminum foil in acid oxalic solution was applied for producing alumina film. Then the anodic alumina film was etched in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution resulting dense and aligned alumina nanowires. This procedure leads to splitting of alumina nanotubes. Subsequently nanowires are produced. The effects of NaOH solution concentration (0.2-1 mol/L) and etching time (60-300 s) at constant temperature on characteristic of nanotubes and produced nanowires were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The results show that an increase in NaOH solution concentration increases the rate of nanowires production and in turn the manipulation process will be more specific.

  12. Increasing M 2(dobdc) Loading in Selective Mixed-Matrix Membranes: A Rubber Toughening Approach

    SciT

    Smith, Zachary P.; Bachman, Jonathan E.; Li, Tao

    Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) were formed by incorporating M 2(dobdc) (M = Mg, Ni; dobdc 4– = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) metal–organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles in a series of poly(ether-imide) copolymers. Addition of the MOF nanoparticles improved the permeability of H 2, N 2, CH 4, and CO 2 relative to the pure copolymer by increasing gas solubility and, in most cases, diffusivity. More limited improvements in diffusivity were observed for the more strongly adsorbing gases. Because of such transport considerations, improvements in permeability and selectivity were most pronounced for H 2/CH 4 and H 2/N 2 separations. Incorporation of a greater ether contentmore » within the copolymers led to the formation of defect-free MMMs by physically sealing polymer–MOF interfacial defects, allowing higher MOF loadings to be achieved. For Mg 2(dobdc), selective, defect-free films could be formed with loadings of up to 51 wt %. However, at these high loadings, films became weak and brittle. The mechanical properties of the composite materials were therefore quantified by tensile tests and compared to those of the neat polymers used commercially for membrane film formation. High contents of flexible ether units and small MOF nanoparticle sizes were found to be necessary to form strong and ductile MMMs, although clear trade-offs exist between transport performance, MOF loading, and mechanical properties. In conclusion, these trade-offs are critically examined to evaluate the current limitations and potential benefits to forming M 2(dobdc) MMMs using this rubber toughening approach.« less

  13. Increasing M 2(dobdc) Loading in Selective Mixed-Matrix Membranes: A Rubber Toughening Approach

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, Zachary P.; Bachman, Jonathan E.; Li, Tao; ...

    2018-01-30

    Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) were formed by incorporating M 2(dobdc) (M = Mg, Ni; dobdc 4– = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) metal–organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles in a series of poly(ether-imide) copolymers. Addition of the MOF nanoparticles improved the permeability of H 2, N 2, CH 4, and CO 2 relative to the pure copolymer by increasing gas solubility and, in most cases, diffusivity. More limited improvements in diffusivity were observed for the more strongly adsorbing gases. Because of such transport considerations, improvements in permeability and selectivity were most pronounced for H 2/CH 4 and H 2/N 2 separations. Incorporation of a greater ether contentmore » within the copolymers led to the formation of defect-free MMMs by physically sealing polymer–MOF interfacial defects, allowing higher MOF loadings to be achieved. For Mg 2(dobdc), selective, defect-free films could be formed with loadings of up to 51 wt %. However, at these high loadings, films became weak and brittle. The mechanical properties of the composite materials were therefore quantified by tensile tests and compared to those of the neat polymers used commercially for membrane film formation. High contents of flexible ether units and small MOF nanoparticle sizes were found to be necessary to form strong and ductile MMMs, although clear trade-offs exist between transport performance, MOF loading, and mechanical properties. In conclusion, these trade-offs are critically examined to evaluate the current limitations and potential benefits to forming M 2(dobdc) MMMs using this rubber toughening approach.« less

  14. Large dielectric constant in zirconia polypyrrole hybrid nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Dey, Ashis; De, S K

    2007-06-01

    Zirconia nanoparticles have been synthesized by a novel two-reverse emulsion technique and combined with polypyrrole (PPY) to form ZrO2-PPY nanocomposites. Complex impedance and dielectric permittivity of ZrO2-PPY nanocomposite have been investigated as a function of frequency and temperature for different compositions. The composite samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The composites reveal ordered semiconducting behaviour. Polypyrrole is the major component in electrical transport process of the samples. A very large dielectric constant of about 12,000 at room temperature has been observed. The colossal dielectric constant is mainly dominated by interfacial polarization due to Maxwell-Wagner relaxation effect. Two completely separate groups of dielectric relaxation have been observed. The low frequency dielectric relaxation arises from surface defect states of zirconia nanoparticles. The broad peak at high frequency is due to Maxwell-Wagner type polarization.

  15. A novel method for the synthesis of zirconia powder

    SciT

    Bohe, A.E.; Pasquevich, D.M.

    A novel method for the synthesis of zirconia powder is presented in this paper. The formation of fine particles of zirconia takes place when metallic zirconium and hematite are heated in the presence of gaseous chlorine. The overall process, which can be described by the following reaction: 3 Zr(s) + 2 Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(s) {r_arrow} 3 ZrO{sub 2}(s) + 4 Fe(s), occurs by a mass-transport mechanism through the vapor phase between 723 and 1223 K. The vapor-mass transport among the solid species takes place by means of zirconium and iron chlorides. The fundamentals of synthesis are discussed on the basismore » of a detailed thermodynamic analysis of reactions involved in the process, as well as by a characterization of the solid phases formed at various temperatures at XRD and SEM examinations.« less

  16. In-vitro bioactivity of zirconia doped borosilicate glasses

    SciT

    Samudrala, Rajkumar; Azeem, P. Abdul, E-mail: rk.satyaswaroop@gmail.com, E-mail: drazeem2002@yahoo.com

    2015-06-24

    Glass composition 31B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20SiO{sub 2}-24.5Na{sub 2}O-(24.5-x) CaO-xZrO{sub 2} x=1,2,3,4,5 were prepared by melt-quenching Technique. The formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of glasses after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) was explored through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses. In this report, we observed that hydroxyapatite formation for 5days of immersion time. Also observed that with increasing the immersion time up to 15days, higher amount of hydroxyapatite layer formation on the surface of glasses. The varying composition of zirconia in glass samples influences shown by XRD, FTIR studies. The present results indicate that,more » in-vitro bioactivity of glasses decreased with increasing zirconia incorporation.« less

  17. Templated electrochemical deposition of zirconia thin films on "recordable CDs.".

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua-Zhong; Rowe, Aaron W; Waugh, Damien M

    2002-11-15

    In this paper, we describe a practical method of using gold films constructed from recordable compact disks (CD-Rs) as simple, inexpensive, and micropatterned conductive substrates for the fabrication of inorganic material microstructures. Extending from their application for the fabrication of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) reported recently, bare and SAM-modified CD-R gold substrates have been used for template-directed electrodeposition of zirconia (ZrO2) thin films (i.e., the controlled formation of zirconia thin films on the different areas of the prefabricated, micrometer mountain-valley CD-R gold substrate surfaces). The present results demonstrate that the variation of the functional groups of the selected SAMs combined with electrodynamic control can be very successful to "customize" the formation and microstructure of functional inorganic thin films, which hold promise for modern technological applications.

  18. Fabrication of composite films containing zirconia and cationic polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xin; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2004-03-30

    Composite films were prepared by electrophoretic deposition of poly(ethylenimine) or poly(allylamine hydrochloride) combined with cathodic precipitation of zirconia. Films of up to several micrometers thick were obtained on Ni, Pt, stainless-steel, graphite, and carbon-felt substrates. When the concentration of polyelectrolytes in solutions and the deposition time were varied, the amount of the deposited material and its composition can be varied. The electrochemical intercalation of yttria-stabilized zirconia particles into the composite films has been demonstrated. Obtained results pave the way for the electrodeposition of other polymer-ceramic composites. The deposits were studied by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The mechanisms of deposition are discussed.

  19. Surface modification for enhanced silanation of zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Piascik, J R; Swift, E J; Thompson, J Y; Grego, S; Stoner, B R

    2009-09-01

    The overall goal of this research was to develop a practical method to chemically modify the surface of high strength dental ceramics (i.e. zirconia) to facilitate viable, robust adhesive bonding using commercially available silanes and resin cements. Investigation focused on a novel approach to surface functionalize zirconia with a Si(x)O(y) "seed" layer that would promote chemical bonding with traditional silanes. ProCAD and ZirCAD blocks were bonded to a dimensionally similar composite block using standard techniques designed for silica-containing materials (silane and resin cement). ZirCAD blocks were treated with SiCl4 by vapor deposition under two different conditions prior to bonding. Microtensile bars were prepared and subjected to tensile forces at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze fracture surfaces and determine failure mode; either composite cohesive failure (partial or complete cohesive failure within composite) or adhesive failure (partial or complete adhesive failure). Peak stress values were analyzed using single-factor ANOVA (p<0.05). Microtensile testing results revealed that zirconia with a surface treatment of 2.6 nm Si(x)O(y) thick "seed" layer was similar in strength to the porcelain group (control). Analysis of failure modes indicated the above groups displayed higher percentages of in-composite failures. Other groups tested had lower strength values and displayed adhesive failure characteristics. Mechanical data support that utilizing a gas-phase chloro-silane pretreatment to deposit ultra-thin silica-like seed layers can improve adhesion to zirconia using traditional silanation and bonding techniques. This technology could have clinical impact on how high strength dental materials are used today.

  20. Oxygen production using solid-state zirconia electrolyte technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suitor, Jerry W.; Clark, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    High purity oxygen is required for a number of scientific, medical, and industrial applications. Traditionally, these needs have been met by cryogenic distillation or pressure swing adsorption systems designed to separate oxygen from air. Oxygen separation from air via solid-state zirconia electrolyte technology offers an alternative to these methods. The technology has several advantages over the traditional methods, including reliability, compactness, quiet operation, high purity output, and low power consumption.

  1. Third-generation pure alumina and alumina matrix composites in total hip arthroplasty: What is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Hannouche, Didier; Zingg, Matthieu; Miozzari, Hermes; Nizard, Remy; Lübbeke, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Wear, corrosion and periprosthetic osteolysis are important causes of failure in joint arthroplasty, especially in young patients.Ceramic bearings, developed 40 years ago, are an increasingly popular choice in hip arthroplasty. New manufacturing procedures have increased the strength and reliability of ceramic materials and reduced the risk of complications.In recent decades, ceramics made of pure alumina have continuously improved, resulting in a surgical-grade material that fulfills clinical requirements.Despite the track record of safety and long-term results, third-generation pure alumina ceramics are being replaced in clinical practice by alumina matrix composites, which are composed of alumina and zirconium.In this review, the characteristics of both materials are discussed, and the long-term results with third-generation alumina-on-alumina bearings and the associated complications are compared with those of other available ceramics. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:7-14. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.3.170034.

  2. Photoluminescent spectroscopy measurements in nanocrystalline praseodymium doped zirconia powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Brito, F.; Murrieta S, H.; Hernández A, J.; Camarillo, E.; García-Hipólito, M.; Martínez-Martínez, R.; Álvarez-Fragoso, O.; Falcony, C.

    2006-05-01

    Praseodymium doped zirconia powder (ZrO2: (0.53 at%) Pr3+) was prepared by a co-precipitation technique and annealed in air at a temperature Ta = 950 °C. The x-ray diffraction pattern shows a nanocrystalline structure composed of 29.6% monoclinic and 70.4% cubic-tetragonal phases. Medium infrared and Raman analysis confirms the monoclinic/cubic-tetragonal crystalline structure and proves the absence of praseodymium aggregates in the material. Photoluminescent spectroscopy over excitations of 457.9 and 514.9 nm (at 20 K), shows two emission spectra composed of many narrow peaks in the visible-near infrared region (VIS-NIR) of the electromagnetic spectrum, associated with 4f inter-level electronic transitions in praseodymium ions incorporated in the zirconia. Excitation and emission spectra show the different mechanisms of the direct and non-direct excitation of the dopant ion (Pr3+), and the preferential relaxation of the material by charge transfer from the host (zirconia) to the 4f5d band and the 4f inter-level of the dopant ion (Pr3+). No evidence of energy transfer from the host to the dopant was observed.

  3. Mechanical properties of zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E; Elnaghy, Amr M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical properties of recently introduced zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic. Two types of CAD/CAM glass-ceramics (Vita Suprinity (VS); zirconia reinforced lithium silicate and IPS e.max CAD (IC); lithium disilicate) were used. Fracture toughness, flexural strength, elastic modulus, hardness, brittleness index, and microstructures were evaluated. Data were analyzed using independent t tests. Weibull analysis of flexural strength data was also performed. VS had significantly higher fracture toughness (2.31±0.17MPam(0.5)), flexural strength (443.63±38.90MPa), elastic modulus (70.44±1.97GPa), and hardness (6.53±0.49GPa) than IC (P<0.001). On the other hand, VS glass-ceramic revealed significantly a higher brittleness index (2.84±0.26μm(-1/2)) (lower machinability) than IC glass-ceramic (P<0.05). VS demonstrated a homogeneous fine crystalline structure while, IC revealed a structure with needle-shaped fine-grained crystals embedded in a glassy matrix. The VS glass-ceramic revealed a lower probability of failure and a higher strength than IC glass-ceramic according to Weibull analysis. The VS zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic revealed higher mechanical properties compared with IC lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity of sulphated zirconia nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mftah, Ae; Alhassan, Fatah H; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Webster, Thomas J; Sh-eldin, Mohammed; Rasedee, Abdullah; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Rashid, Shah Samiur

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle sulphated zirconia with Brønsted acidic sites were prepared here by an impregnation reaction followed by calcination at 600°C for 3 hours. The characterization was completed using X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunner-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the anticancer and antimicrobial effects were investigated for the first time. This study showed for the first time that the exposure of cancer cells to sulphated zirconia nanoparticles (3.9–1,000 μg/mL for 24 hours) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth, as determined by (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Similar promising results were observed for reducing bacteria functions. In this manner, this study demonstrated that sulphated zirconia nanoparticles with Brønsted acidic sites should be further studied for a wide range of anticancer and antibacterial applications. PMID:25632233

  5. Effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Mouhat, Mathieu; Nergård, John Magnus; Lægreid, Solveig Jenssen; Kanno, Taro; Milleding, Percy; Örtengren, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The present study investigated the effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns in relation to their compressive strength. Materials and methods Four different cements were tested: zinc phosphate cement (ZPC), glass-ionomer cement (GIC), self-adhesive resin-based cement (SRC) and resin-based cement (RC). RC was used in both dual cure mode (RC-D) and chemical cure mode (RC-C). First, the compressive strength of each cement was tested according to a standard (ISO 9917-1:2004). Second, load-to-failure test was performed to analyze the crown fracture resistance. CAD/CAM-produced monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm were prepared and cemented to dies with each cement. The crown–die samples were loaded until fracture. Results The compressive strength of SRC, RC-D and RC-C was significantly higher than those of ZPC and GIC (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the fracture load of the crown between the groups. Conclusion The values achieved in the load-to-failure test suggest that monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm may have good resistance against fracture regardless of types of cements. PMID:27335900

  6. Biocompatibility of nanoporous alumina membranes for immunoisolation

    PubMed Central

    La Flamme, Kristen E.; Popat, Ketul C.; Leoni, Lara; Markiewicz, Erica; LaTempa, Thomas J.; Roman, Brian B.; Grimes, Craig A.; Desai, Tejal A.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular immunoisolation using semi-permeable barriers has been investigated over the past several decades as a promising treatment approach for diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Type 1 diabetes. Typically, polymeric membranes are used for immunoisolation applications; however, recent advances in technology have led to the development of more robust membranes that are able to more completely meet the requirements for a successful immunoisolation device, including well controlled pore size, chemical and mechanical stability, non-biodegradability, and biocompatibility with both the graft tissue as well as the host. It has been shown previously that nanoporous alumina biocapsules can act effectively as immunoisolation devices, and support the viability and functionality of encapsulated β cells. The aim of this investigation was to assess the biocompatibility of the material with host tissue. The cytotoxicity of the capsule, as well as its ability to activate complement and inflammation was studied. Further, the effects of PEG-modification on the tissue response to implanted capsules were studied. Our results have shown that the device is non-toxic and does not induce significant complement activation. Further, in vivo work has demonstrated that implantation of these capsules into the peritoneal cavity of rats induces a transient inflammatory response, and that PEG is useful in minimizing the host response to the material. PMID:17335895

  7. Annealing Would Improve beta" - Alumina Solid Electrolyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger; Homer, Margie; Ryan, Margaret; Cortez, Roger; Shields, Virgil; Kisor, Adam

    2003-01-01

    A pre-operational annealing process is under investigation as a potential means of preventing a sudden reduction of ionic conductivity in a Beta"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) during use. On the basis of tests, the sudden reduction of ionic conductivity, followed by a slow recovery, has been found to occur during testing of the solid electrolyte and electrode components of an alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC) cell. At this time, high-temperature tests of limited duration have indicated the superiority of the treated BASE, but reproducible tests over thousands of hours are necessary to confirm that microcracking has been eliminated. The ionic conductivity of the treated BASE is also measured to be higher than untreated BASE at 1,073 K in low-pressure sodium vapor. Microcracking resulting in loss of conductivity was not observed with treated BASE in one high-temperature experiment, but this result must be duplicated over very long testing times to be sure of the effect. Shorter annealing times (10 to 20 hours) were found to result in significantly less loss of mass; it may be necessary for the packed powder mixture to evolve some Na2O before the Na2O can leave the ceramic.

  8. Red mud flocculation process in alumina production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, E. R.; Firsov, A. Yu

    2018-05-01

    The process of thickening and washing red mud is a gooseneck of alumina production. The existing automated systems of the thickening process control involve stabilizing the parameters of the primary technological circuits of the thickener. The actual direction of scientific research is the creation and improvement of models and systems of the thickening process control by model. But the known models do not fully consider the presence of perturbing effects, in particular the particle size distribution in the feed process, distribution of floccules by size after the aggregation process in the feed barrel. The article is devoted to the basic concepts and terms used in writing the population balance algorithm. The population balance model is implemented in the MatLab environment. The result of the simulation is the particle size distribution after the flocculation process. This model allows one to foreseen the distribution range of floccules after the process of aggregation of red mud in the feed barrel. The mud of Jamaican bauxite was acting as an industrial sample of red mud; Cytec Industries of HX-3000 series with a concentration of 0.5% was acting as a flocculant. When simulating, model constants obtained in a tubular tank in the laboratories of CSIRO (Australia) were used.

  9. Crystallization stabilization mechanism of yttria-doped zirconia by hydrothermal treatment of mechanical mixtures of zirconia xerogel and crystalline yttria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agli, G.; Mascolo, G.; Mascolo, M. C.; Pagliuca, C.

    2005-06-01

    Mechanical mixtures of zirconia xerogel and crystalline Y 2O 3 were hydrothermally treated by microwave and traditional route, respectively. Some mixtures were used either as powders form or as cylindrical compacts isostatically pressed at 150 MPa. The microwave-hydrothermal treatments were performed at 110, 150 and 200 °C for reaction times up to 2 h, whereas the traditional hydrothermal treatments were performed at 110 °C at increasing reaction times up to 7 days. All the treatments were performed in the presence of diluted (0.2 M) or concentrated (2.0 M) solution of (K 2CO 3+KOH) mineralizer. The crystallization-stabilization mechanism of synthesized Y-based zirconia powders and the reaction times for the full crystallization at the low temperature of hydrothermal treatments are discussed.

  10. Integrated Ternary Bioinspired Nanocomposites via Synergistic Toughening of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shanshan; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Anyuan; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2015-12-22

    With its synergistic toughening effect and hierarchical micro/nanoscale structure, natural nacre sets a "gold standard" for nacre-inspired materials with integrated high strength and toughness. We demonstrated strong and tough ternary bioinspired nanocomposites through synergistic toughening of reduced graphene oxide and double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT) and covalent bonding. The tensile strength and toughness of this kind of ternary bioinspired nanocomposites reaches 374.1 ± 22.8 MPa and 9.2 ± 0.8 MJ/m(3), which is 2.6 and 3.3 times that of pure reduced graphene oxide film, respectively. Furthermore, this ternary bioinspired nanocomposite has a high conductivity of 394.0 ± 6.8 S/cm and also shows excellent fatigue-resistant properties, which may enable this material to be used in aerospace, flexible energy devices, and artificial muscle. The synergistic building blocks with covalent bonding for constructing ternary bioinspired nanocomposites can serve as the basis of a strategy for the construction of integrated, high-performance, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based nanocomposites in the future.

  11. Durability of zirconia thermal-barrier ceramic coatings on air-cooled turbine blades in cyclic jet engine operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Jacobs, R. E.; Stecura, S.; Morse, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal barrier ceramic coatings of stabilized zirconia over a bond coat of Ni Cr Al Y were tested for durability on air cooled turbine rotor blades in a research turbojet engine. Zirconia stabilized with either yttria, magnesia, or calcia was investigated. On the basis of durability and processing cost, the yttria stabilized zirconia was considered the best of the three coatings investigated.

  12. Tetragonal zirconia quantum dots in silica matrix prepared by a modified sol-gel protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Surbhi; Rani, Saruchi; Kumar, Sushil

    2018-05-01

    Tetragonal zirconia quantum dots (t-ZrO2 QDs) in silica matrix with different compositions ( x)ZrO2-(100 - x)SiO2 were fabricated by a modified sol-gel protocol. Acetylacetone was added as a chelating agent to zirconium propoxide to avoid precipitation. The powders as well as thin films were given thermal treatment at 650, 875 and 1100 °C for 4 h. The silica matrix remained amorphous after thermal treatment and acted as an inert support for zirconia quantum dots. The tetragonal zirconia embedded in silica matrix transformed into monoclinic form due to thermal treatment ≥ 1100 °C. The stability of tetragonal phase of zirconia is found to enhance with increase in silica content. A homogenous dispersion of t-ZrO2 QDs in silica matrix was indicated by the mapping of Zr, Si and O elements obtained from scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analyser. The transmission electron images confirmed the formation of tetragonal zirconia quantum dots embedded in silica. The optical band gap of zirconia QDs (3.65-5.58 eV) was found to increase with increase in zirconia content in silica. The red shift of PL emission has been exhibited with increase in zirconia content in silica.

  13. Adsorption of dispersants on zirconia powder in tape-casting slip compositions

    SciT

    Richards, V.L. II

    This paper reports the determination of adsorption isotherms for menhaden fish oil and glycerol trioleate on doped zirconia powder in solvents composed of 70% methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and 30% ethanol. In order to approach tape-casting zirconia on a sound technical basis, the correspondence of slip viscosities and tape sintered densities to the adsorption isotherms was studied.

  14. Finite Element Analysis of IPS Empress II Ceramic Bridge Reinforced by Zirconia Bar

    PubMed Central

    Kermanshah, H.; Bitaraf, T.; Geramy, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of trenched zirconia bar on the von Mises stress distribution of IPS –Empress II core ceramics. Materials and Methods: The three-dimensional model including a three-unit bridge from the second premolar to the second molar was designed. The model was reinforced with zirconia bar (ZB), zirconia bar with vertical trench (VZB) and zirconia bar with horizontal trench (HZB) (cross sections of these bars were circular). The model without zirconia bar was designed as the control. The bridges were loaded by 200 N and 500 N on the occlusal surface at the middle of the pontic component and von Mises stresses were evaluated along a defined path. Results: In the connector area, von Mises stress in MPa were approximately identical in the specimens with ZB (at molar connector (MC): 4.75 and at premolar connector (PC): 6.40) and without ZB (MC: 5.50, PC: 6.68), and considerable differences were not recognized. Whereas, Von-Mises stress (MPa) in the specimens with horizontal trenched Zirconia bar (HZB) (MC: 3.91, PC: 2.44) and Vertical trenched Zirconia bar (VZB) (MC: 2.53, PC: 2.56) was decreased considerably. Conclusion: Embeded trenched zirconia bar could reinforce IPS-Empress II at the connector area which is a main failure region in all ceramic fixed partial dentures. PMID:23323181

  15. Finite Element Analysis of IPS Empress II Ceramic Bridge Reinforced by Zirconia Bar.

    PubMed

    Kermanshah, H; Bitaraf, T; Geramy, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of trenched zirconia bar on the von Mises stress distribution of IPS -Empress II core ceramics. The three-dimensional model including a three-unit bridge from the second premolar to the second molar was designed. The model was reinforced with zirconia bar (ZB), zirconia bar with vertical trench (VZB) and zirconia bar with horizontal trench (HZB) (cross sections of these bars were circular). The model without zirconia bar was designed as the control. The bridges were loaded by 200 N and 500 N on the occlusal surface at the middle of the pontic component and von Mises stresses were evaluated along a defined path. IN THE CONNECTOR AREA, VON MISES STRESS IN MPA WERE APPROXIMATELY IDENTICAL IN THE SPECIMENS WITH ZB (AT MOLAR CONNECTOR (MC): 4.75 and at premolar connector (PC): 6.40) and without ZB (MC: 5.50, PC: 6.68), and considerable differences were not recognized. Whereas, Von-Mises stress (MPa) in the specimens with horizontal trenched Zirconia bar (HZB) (MC: 3.91, PC: 2.44) and Vertical trenched Zirconia bar (VZB) (MC: 2.53, PC: 2.56) was decreased considerably. Embeded trenched zirconia bar could reinforce IPS-Empress II at the connector area which is a main failure region in all ceramic fixed partial dentures.

  16. The Application of a Novel Ceramic Liner Improves Bonding between Zirconia and Veneering Porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee-Sung

    2017-01-01

    The adhesion of porcelain to zirconia is a key factor in the success of bilayered restorations. In this study, the efficacy of a novel experimental liner (EL) containing zirconia for improved bonding between zirconia and veneering porcelain was tested. Four ELs containing various concentrations (0, 3.0, 6.0, and 9.0 wt %) of zirconia were prepared. Testing determined the most effective EL (EL3 containing 3.0 wt % zirconia) in terms of shear bond strength value (n = 15). Three different bar-shaped zirconia/porcelain bilayer specimens were prepared for a three-point flexural strength (TPFS) test (n = 15): no-liner (NL), commercial liner (CL), and EL3. Specimens were tested for TPFS with the porcelain under tension and the maximum load was measured at the first sign of fracture. The strength data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05) as well as Weibull distribution. When compared to NL, the CL application had no effect, while the EL3 application had a significant positive effect (p < 0.001) on the flexural strength. Weibull analysis also revealed the highest shape and scale parameters for group EL3. Within the limitations of this study, the novel ceramic liner containing 3.0 wt % zirconia (EL3) significantly enhanced the zirconia/porcelain interfacial bonding. PMID:28869512

  17. Simple Heat Treatment of Zirconia Ceramic Pre-Treated with Silane Primer to Improve Resin Bonding.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jung-Yun; Son, Jun Sik; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a strong resin bond to dental zirconia ceramic remains difficult. Previous studies have shown that the conventional application of silane does not work well with zirconia. This paper reports that a silane pre-treatment of dental zirconia ceramic combined with subsequent heat treatment has potential as an adhesive cementation protocol for improving zirconia-resin bonding. Among the various concentrations (0.1 to 16 vol%) of experimental γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPTS) primers assessed, the 1% solution was found to be the most effective in terms of the shear bond strength of the resin cement to dental zirconia ceramic. A high shear bond strength (approx. 30 MPa) was obtained when zirconia specimens were pre-treated with this primer and then heat-treated in a furnace for 60 min at 150 degrees C. Heat treatment appeared to remove the hydrophilic constituents from the silane film formed on the zirconia ceramic surface and accelerate the condensation reactions between the silanol groups of the hydrolyzed silane molecules at the zirconia/resin interface, finally making a more desirable surface for bonding with resin. This estimation was supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the silanes prepared in this study.

  18. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. RESULTS The mean fracture strengths were as follows: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. CONCLUSION The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain. PMID:23755332

  19. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Yang, Jae-Ho; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun; Yeo, In-Sung

    2013-05-01

    All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. THE MEAN FRACTURE STRENGTHS WERE AS FOLLOWS: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain.

  20. Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suitor, J. W.; Clark, D. J.; Losey, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation.

  1. PRELIMINARY PROGRESS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DUCTILE-PHASE TOUGHENED TUNGSTEN FOR PLASMA-FACING MATERIALS: DUAL-PHASE FINITE ELEMENT DAMAGE MODELS

    SciT

    Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kurtz, Richard J.

    The objective of this study is to develop a finite element continuum damage model suitable for modeling deformation, cracking, and crack bridging for W-Cu, W-Ni-Fe, and other ductile phase toughened W-composites, or more generally, any multi-phase composite structure where two or more phases undergo cooperative deformation in a composite system.

  2. Strength degradation and lifetime prediction of dental zirconia ceramics under cyclic normal loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanzhong; Xu, Yingqiang; He, Huiming; Zhao, Haidan; Sun, Jian; Hou, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Clinical cases show that zirconia restoration could happen fracture by accident under overloading after using a period of time. The purpose of this study is to research mechanical behavior and predict lifetime of dental zirconia ceramics under cyclic normal contact loading with experiments. Cyclic normal contact loading test and three point bending test are carried on specimens made of two brands of dental zirconia ceramic to obtain flexure strength and damage degree after different number of loading cycles. By means of damage mechanics model, damage degree under different number of contact loading cycles are calculated according to flexure strength, and verified by SEM photographs of cross section morphology of zirconia ceramics specimen phenomenologically. Relation curve of damage degree and number of cycles is fitted by polynomial fitting, then the number of loading cycles can be concluded when the specimen is complete damage. Strength degradation of two brands dental zirconia ceramics are researched in vitro, and prediction method of contact fatigue lifetime is established.

  3. A sol-powder coating technique for fabrication of yttria stabilised zirconia

    SciT

    Wattanasiriwech, Darunee; Wattanasiriwech, Suthee; Stevens, Ron

    Yttria stabilised zirconia has been prepared using a simple sol-powder coating technique. The polymeric yttria sol, which was prepared using 1,3 propanediol as a network modifier, was homogeneously mixed with nanocrystalline zirconia powder and it showed a dual function: as a binder which promoted densification and a phase modifier which stabilised zirconia in the tetragonal and cubic phases. Thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction revealed that the polymeric yttria sol which decomposed at low temperature into yttrium oxide could change the m {sup {yields}} t phase transformation behaviour of the zirconia, possibly due to the small particle size and very highmore » surface area of both yttria and zirconia particles allowing rapid alloying. The sintered samples exhibited three crystalline phases: monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic, in which cubic and tetragonal are the major phases. The weight fractions of the individual phases present in the selected specimens were determined using quantitative Rietveld analysis.« less

  4. Effect of nanoparticles dispersion on viscoelastic properties of epoxy–zirconia polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sushil Kumar; Kumar, Abhishek; Jain, Anuj

    2018-03-01

    In the present work zirconia-nanoparticles were dispersed in epoxy matrix to form epoxy-zirconia polymer nanocomposites using ultrasonication and viscoelastic properties of nanocomposites were investigated. For the same spherical zirconia-nanoparticles (45 nm) were dispersed in weight fraction of 2, 4, 6 and 8 % to reinforce the epoxy. DMA results show the significant enhancement in viscoelastic properties with the dispersion of zirconia nanoparticles in the epoxy matrix. The value of storage modulus and glass transition temperature increases from 179 MPa (pristine) to 225 MPa (6 wt.% ZrO2) and 61 °C (pristine) to 70 °C (6 wt.% ZrO2) respectively with the dispersion of zirconia nanoparticles in the epoxy.

  5. Effect of nanoparticles dispersion on viscoelastic properties of epoxy-zirconia polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sushil Kumar; Kumar, Abhishek; Jain, Anuj

    2018-03-01

    In the present work zirconia-nanoparticles were dispersed in epoxy matrix to form epoxy-zirconia polymer nanocomposites using ultrasonication and viscoelastic properties of nanocomposites were investigated. For the same spherical zirconia-nanoparticles (45 nm) were dispersed in weight fraction of 2, 4, 6 and 8 % to reinforce the epoxy. DMA results show the significant enhancement in viscoelastic properties with the dispersion of zirconia nanoparticles in the epoxy matrix. The value of storage modulus and glass transition temperature increases from 179 MPa (pristine) to 225 MPa (6 wt.% ZrO2) and 61 °C (pristine) to 70 °C (6 wt.% ZrO2) respectively with the dispersion of zirconia nanoparticles in the epoxy.

  6. Synthesis of Mesoporous Nanocrystalline Zirconia by Surfactant-Assisted Hydrothermal Approach.

    PubMed

    Nath, Soumav; Biswas, Ashik; Kour, Prachi P; Sarma, Loka S; Sur, Ujjal Kumar; Ankamwar, Balaprasad G

    2018-08-01

    In this paper, we have reported the chemical synthesis of thermally stable mesoporous nanocrystalline zirconia with high surface area using a surfactant-assisted hydrothermal approach. We have employed different type of surfactants such as CTAB, SDS and Triton X-100 in our synthesis. The synthesized nanocrystalline zirconia multistructures exhibit various morphologies such as rod, mortar-pestle with different particle sizes. We have characterized the zirconia multistructures by X-ray diffraction study, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Attenuated total refection infrared spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The thermal stability of as synthesized zirconia multistructures was studied by thermo gravimetric analysis, which shows the high thermal stability of nanocrystalline zirconia around 900 °C temperature.

  7. Resin adhesion strengths to zirconia ceramics after primer treatment with silane coupling monomer or oligomer.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Inoue, Kazusa; Irie, Masao; Taketa, Hiroaki; Torii, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2017-09-26

    Resin bonding to zirconia ceramics is difficult to achieve using the standard methods for conventional silica-based dental ceramics, which employ silane coupling monomers as primers. The hypothesis in this study was that a silane coupling oligomer -a condensed product of silane coupling monomers- would be a more suitable primer for zirconia. To prove this hypothesis, the shear bond strengths between a composite resin and zirconia were compared after applying either a silane coupling monomer or oligomer. The shear bond strength increased after applying a non-activated ethanol solution of the silane coupling oligomer compared with that achieved when applying the monomer. Thermal treatment of the zirconia at 110°C after application of the silane coupling agents was essential to improve the shear bond strength between the composite resin cement and zirconia.

  8. Molecular dynamics studies of interfacial water at the alumina surface.

    SciT

    Argyris, Dr. Dimitrios; Ho, Thomas; Cole, David

    2011-01-01

    Interfacial water properties at the alumina surface were investigated via all-atom equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations at ambient temperature. Al-terminated and OH-terminated alumina surfaces were considered to assess the structural and dynamic behavior of the first few hydration layers in contact with the substrates. Density profiles suggest water layering up to {approx}10 {angstrom} from the solid substrate. Planar density distribution data indicate that water molecules in the first interfacial layer are organized in well-defined patterns dictated by the atomic terminations of the alumina surface. Interfacial water exhibits preferential orientation and delayed dynamics compared to bulk water. Water exhibits bulk-like behavior atmore » distances greater than {approx}10 {angstrom} from the substrate. The formation of an extended hydrogen bond network within the first few hydration layers illustrates the significance of water?water interactions on the structural properties at the interface.« less

  9. Thermal and Electrical Characterization of Alumina Substrate for Microelectronic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Ibrahim, A.; Alias, R.; Shapee, S. M.; Ambak, Z.; Zakaria, S. Z.; Yahya, M. R.; Mat, A. F. A.

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on thermal and electrical properties of alumina material as substrate for microelectronic devices. Alumina materials in the form of green sheet with 1 mm thickness were sintered at 1100° C, 1300° C and 1500° C for about 20 hours using heating and cooling rates of 2° C/min. The densities were measured using densitometer and the microstructures of the samples were analyzed using SEM micrographs. Meanwhile thermal and electrical properties of the samples were measured using flash method and impedance analyzer respectively. It was found that thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the substrate increases as sintering temperature increases. It was found also that the dielectric constant of alumina substrate increases as the sintering temperature increases.

  10. Dynamic fragmentation of cellular, ice-templated alumina scaffolds

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, Yi Ming; Cervantes, Octavio; Nam, SeanWoo; ...

    2016-01-08

    Here, we examine the dynamic failure of ice-templated freeze-cast alumina scaffolds that are being considered as biomimetic hierarchical structures. Three porosities of alumina freeze-cast structures were fabricated, and a systematic variation in microstructural properties such as lamellar width and thickness was observed with changing porosity. Dynamic impact tests were performed in a light-gas gun to examine the failure properties of these materials under high strain-rate loading. Nearly complete delamination was observed following impact, along with characteristic cracking across the lamellar width. Average fragment size decreases with increasing porosity, and a theoretical model was developed to explain this behavior based onmore » microstructural changes. Using an energy balance between kinetic, strain, and surface energies within a single lamella, we are able to accurately predict the characteristic fragment size using only standard material properties of bulk alumina.« less

  11. Phase study and surface morphology of beta-alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tak, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Beta alumina ceramic is well known as a polycrystalline ceramic material. The characteristic crystal structure of beta-alumina makes it useful as a separator in sodium sulphur batteries and other electrochemical devices requiring the passage of sodium ions. β"-alumina powders for this study were prepared by zeta process. The pellets were sintered at different microwave power levels and power schedule to optimize the sintering conditions to obtain preferred β" phase with improved microstructure. Phase identification was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD analysis shows increase in β'' phase as the sintering temperature was increased from 1400°C to 1600°C. Surface morphology of the pellets was carried out by Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM). SEM studies revealed the formation and growth of platelet grains with interconnected porosity.

  12. Evaluation of participants' perception and taste thresholds with a zirconia palatal plate.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takeshi; Takano, Tomofumi; Tasaka, Akinori; Ueda, Takayuki; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2016-10-01

    Zirconia and cobalt-chromium can withstand a similar degree of loading. Therefore, using a zirconia base for removable dentures could allow the thickness of the palatal area to be reduced similarly to metal base dentures. We hypothesized that zirconia palatal plate for removable dentures provides a high level of participants' perception without influencing taste thresholds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the participants' perception and taste thresholds of zirconia palatal plate. Palatal plates fabricated using acrylic resin, zirconia, and cobalt-chromium alloy were inserted into healthy individuals. Taste thresholds were investigated using the whole-mouth gustatory test, and participants' perception was evaluated using the 100-mm visual analog scale to assess the ease of pronunciation, ease of swallowing, sensation of temperature, metallic taste, sensation of foreign body, subjective sensory about weight, adhesiveness of chewing gum, and general satisfaction. For the taste thresholds, no significant differences were noted in sweet, salty, sour, bitter, or umami tastes among participants wearing no plate, or the resin, zirconia, and metal plates. Speech was easier and foreign body sensation was lower with the zirconia plate than with the resin plate. Evaluation of the adhesiveness of chewing gum showed that chewing gum does not readily adhere to the zirconia plate in comparison with the metal plate. The comprehensive participants' perception of the zirconia plate was evaluated as being superior to the resin plate. A zirconia palatal plate provides a high level of participants' perception without influencing taste thresholds. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Design of Pressure Safety Systems in the Alumina Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haneman, Brady

    The alumina refinery presents the designer with multiple challenges. For a given process flowsheet, the mechanical equipment installed must be routinely inspected and maintained. Piping systems must also be inspected routinely for signs of erosion and/or corrosion. Rapid deposits of chemical species such as lime, silica, and alumina on equipment and piping need special consideration in the mechanical design of the facilities, such that fluid flows are not unduly interrupted. Above and beyond all else, the process plant must be a safe place of work for refinery personnel.

  14. Failure probability of three designs of zirconia crowns

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, G. Freitas; Monteiro, E. Barbosa Carmona; Bottino, M.A.; Zhang, Y.; de Melo, R. Marques

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study utilized a 2-parameter Weibull analysis for evaluation of lifetime of fully or partially porcelain-/glaze-veneered zirconia crowns after fatigue test. Methods Sixty first molars were selected and prepared for full-coverage crowns with three different designs(n = 20): Traditional –crowns with zirconia framework covered with feldspathic porcelain; Modified– crowns partially covered with veneering porcelain; and Monolithic–full-contour zirconia crowns. All specimens were treated with a glaze layer. Specimens were subjected to mechanical cycling (100N, 3Hz) with a piston with hemispherical tip (Ø=6 mm) until the specimens failed or up to 2×106 cycles. Every 500,000 cycles intervals, the fatigue tests were interrupted, and stereomicroscopy (10 X) was used to inspect the specimens for damage. We performed Weibull analysis of interval data to calculate the number of failures in each interval. Results The types and number of failures according to the groups were: cracking (Traditional-13, Modified-6) and chipping (Traditional-4) of the feldspathic porcelain, followed by delamination (Traditional-1) at the veneer/core interface and debonding (Monollithic-2) at the cementation interface. Weibull parameters (beta, scale; and eta, shape), with a two-sided confidence interval of 95%, were: Traditional – 1.25 and 0.9 × 106cycles; Modified– 0.58 and 11.7 × 106 cycles; and Monolithic – 1.05 and 16.5 × 106 cycles. Traditional crowns showed greater susceptibility to fatigue, the Modified group presented higher propensity to early failures, and the Monolithic group showed no susceptibility to fatigue. The Modified and Monolithic groups presented the highest number of crowns with no failures after the fatigue test. Conclusions The three crown designs presented significantly different behaviors under fatigue. The Modified and the Monolithic groups presented less probability to failure after 2×106cycles. PMID:26509988

  15. Relative Translucency of a Multilayered Ultratranslucent Zirconia Material.

    PubMed

    Shamseddine, Loubna; Majzoub, Zeina

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the translucency parameter (TP) of ultratranslucent multilayered (UTML) zirconia according to thickness and layer level. Rectangles of UTML zirconia with four layers [dentin layer (DEL), first transitional layer (FTL), second transitional layer (STL), and enamel layer (ENL)] and four different thicknesses (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1 mm) were milled from blanks. Digital images were taken in a dark studio against white and black backgrounds under simulated daylight illumination and international commission on illumination (CIE) Lab* color values recorded using Photoshop Creative Cloud software. The TP was computed and compared according to thickness and layer level using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni post hoc analysis for multiple comparisons. Significance was set at p < 0.05. In each thickness, TP values were similar between any two layers. The significant effect of thickness on the TP was observed only in the first two layers. In the DEL, translucency was significantly greater at 0.4 mm than all other thicknesses. In the FTL, differences were significant between 0.4 and 0.8 mm and between 0.4 and 1 mm. The investigated zirconia does not seem to show gradational changes in relative translucency from dentin to enamel levels regardless of the thickness used. Thickness affected the TP only in the first two layers with better translu-cency at 0.4 mm. Since relative translucency does not seem to be significantly different between layers, clinicians can modify the apicocoronal positioning of the UTML layers within the restoration according to the desired Chroma without any implications on the clinically perceived translucency. While the thickness of 0.4 mm may be suggested for anterior esthetic veneers because of its higher translucency, the other thicknesses of 0.6 to 1 mm can be used to mask colored abutments in full contour restorations.

  16. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOEpatents

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Huang, Y.Y.

    1998-07-28

    Methods are disclosed for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physical sorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics. 17 figs.

  17. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOEpatents

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H.; Huang, Yin-Yan

    1998-01-01

    Methods for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physisorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics.

  18. Stability of yttria-stabilized zirconia during pyroprocessing tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Lee, Jeong; Lee, Sung-Jai; Kim, Sung-Wook; Jeon, Sang-Chae; Cho, Soo Haeng; Oh, Seung Chul; Jeon, Min Ku; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kang, Hyun Woo; Hur, Jin-Mok

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the feasibility of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was investigated for use as a ceramic material, which can be commonly used for both electrolytic reduction and electrorefining. First, the stability of YSZ in salts for electrolytic reduction and electrorefining was examined. Then, its stability was demonstrated by a series of pyroprocessing tests, such as electrolytic reduction, LiCl distillation, electrorefining, and LiClsbnd KCl distillation, using a single stainless steel wire mesh basket containing fuel and YSZ. A single basket was used by its transportation from one test to subsequent tests without the requirements for unloading.

  19. Phase analysis of plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, N. R.; Berndt, C. C.; Herman, H.

    1983-01-01

    Phase analysis of plasma-sprayed 8 wt pct-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings and powders was carried out by X-ray diffraction. Step scanning was used for increased peak resolution. Plasma spraying of the YSZ powder into water or onto a steel substrate to form a coating reduced the cubic and monoclinic phases with a simultaneous increase in the tetragonal phase. Heat treatment of the coating at 1150 C for 10 h in an Ar atmosphere increased the amount of cubic and monoclinic phases. The implications of these transformations on coating performance and integrity are discussed.

  20. Zirconium nitride precipitation in nominally pure yttria-stabilized zirconia

    SciT

    Gomez-Garcia, D.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.

    Nominally pure yttria-stabilized zirconia alloys are shown to contain unexpectedly large amounts of dissolved nitrogen. Its presence in the lattice was detected through the observation of large precipitates in alloys with three different concentrations of yttria deformed in compression in argon in the temperature range 1,600--1,800 C. Electron diffraction, EDS and PEELS analyses, and Moire imaging were used to identify the precipitates as ZrN. The possible origin of the nitrogen, its likely effects on properties, and the role of annealing atmosphere are briefly discussed.

  1. Aqueous-Phase Acetic Acid Ketonization over Monoclinic Zirconia

    SciT

    Cai, Qiuxia; Lopez-Ruiz, Juan A.; Cooper, Alan R.

    The effect of aqueous phase on the acetic acid ketonization over monoclinic zirconia has been investigated using first-principles based density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To capture the aqueous phase chemistry over the solid zirconia catalyst surface, the aqueous phase is represented by 111 explicit water molecules with a liquid water density of 0.93 g/cm3 and the monoclinic zirconia is modeled by the most stable surface structure . The dynamic nature of aqueous phase/ interface was studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation, indicating that nearly half of the surface Zr sites are occupied by either adsorbed water molecules or hydroxylmore » groups at 550 K. DFT calculations show that the adsorption process of acetic acid from the liquid water phase to the surface is nearly thermodynamically neutral with a Gibbs free energy of -2.3 kJ/mol although the adsorption strength of acetic acid on the surface in aqueous phase is much stronger than in vapor phase. Therefore it is expected that the adsorption of acetic acid will dramatically affects aqueous phase ketonization reactivity over the monoclinic zirconia catalyst. Using the same ketonization mechanism via the β-keto acid intermediate, we have compared acetic acid ketonization to acetone in both vapor and aqueous phases. Our DFT calculation results show although the rate-determining step of the β-keto acid formation via the C-C coupling is not pronouncedly affected, the presence of liquid water molecules will dramatically affect dehydrogenation and hydrogenation steps via proton transfer mechanism. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE)’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute. Computing time and advanced catalyst characterization use was granted by a user proposal at the William R. Wiley

  2. Effect of conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of phosphate monomer-based cement on zirconia ceramic in dry and aged conditions.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Regina; Ozcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Balducci, Ivan; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the durability of bond strength between a resin cement and aluminous ceramic submitted to various surface conditioning methods. Twenty-four blocks (5 x 5 x 4 mm(3)) of a glass-infiltrated zirconia-alumina ceramic (In-Ceram Zirconia Classic) were randomly divided into three surface treatment groups: ST1-Air-abrasion with 110-mum Al2O3 particles + silanization; ST2-Laboratory tribochemical silica coating method (110-microm Al2O3, 110-microm silica) (Rocatec) + silanization; ST3-Chairside tribochemical silica coating method (30-microm SiO(x)) (CoJet) + silanization. Each treated ceramic block was placed in its silicone mold with the treated surface exposed. The resin cement (Panavia F) was prepared and injected into the mold over the treated surface. Specimens were sectioned to achieve nontrimmed bar specimens (14 sp/block) that were randomly divided into two conditions: (a) Dry-microtensile test after sectioning; (b) Thermocycling (TC)-(6,000x, 5-55 degrees C) and water storage (150 days). Thus, six experimental groups were obtained (n = 50): Gr1-ST1 + dry; Gr2-ST1 + TC(;) Gr3-ST2 + dry; Gr4-ST2 + TC; Gr5-ST3 + dry; Gr6-ST3 + TC. After microtensile testing, the failure types were noted. ST2 (25.1 +/- 11) and ST3 (24.1 +/- 7.4) presented statistically higher bond strength (MPa) than that of ST1 (17.5 +/- 8) regardless of aging conditions (p < 0.0001). While Gr2 revealed the lowest results (13.3 +/- 6.4), the other groups (21.7 +/- 7.4-25. 9 +/- 9.1) showed statistically no significant differences (two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test, alpha = 0.05). The majority of the failures were mixed (82%) followed by adhesive failures (18%). Gr2 presented significantly higher incidence of ADHESIVE failures (54%) than those of other groups (p = 0.0001). Both laboratory and chairside silica coating plus silanization showed durable bond strength. After aging, air-abrasion with 110-microm Al(2)O(3) + silanization showed the largest decrease

  3. Binary Synergy Strengthening and Toughening of Bio-Inspired Nacre-like Graphene Oxide/Sodium Alginate Composite Paper.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Shi, Bin; Yue, Yonghai; Qi, Juanjuan; Guo, Lin

    2015-08-25

    A crucial requirement for most engineering materials is the excellent balance of strength and toughness. By mimicking the hybrid hierarchical structure in nacre, a kind of nacre-like paper based on binary hybrid graphene oxide (GO)/sodium alginate (SA) building blocks has been successfully fabricated. Systematic evaluation for the mechanical property in different (dry/wet) environment/after thermal annealing shows a perfect combination of high strength and toughness. Both of the parameters are nearly many-times higher than those of similar materials because of the synergistic strengthening/toughening enhancement from the binary GO/SA hybrids. The successful fabrication route offers an excellent approach to design advanced strong integrated nacre-like composite materials, which can be applied in tissue engineering, protection, aerospace, and permeable membranes for separation and delivery.

  4. Effects of intra- and inter-laminar resin content on the mechanical properties of toughened composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grande, Dodd H.; Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Avery, William B.; Bascom, Willard D.

    1991-01-01

    Composite materials having multiphase toughened matrix systems and laminate architectures characterized by resin-rich interlaminar layers (RIL) have been the subject of much recent attention. Such materials are likely to find applications in thick compressively loaded structures such as the keel area of commercial aircraft fuselages. The effects of resin content and its interlaminar and intralaminar distribution on mechanical properties were investigated with test and analysis of two carbon-epoxy systems. The RIL was found to reduce the in situ strengthening effect for matrix cracking in laminates. Mode 2 fracture toughness was found to increase with increasing RIL thickness over the range investigated, and Mode 1 interlaminar toughness was negligibly affected. Compressive failure strains were found to increase with increasing resin content for specimens having no damage, holes, and impact damage. Analytical tools for predicting matrix cracking of off-axis plies and damage tolerance in compression after impact (CAI) were successfully applied to materials with RIL.

  5. Comparison of Mode II and III Monotonic and Fatigue Delamination Onset Behavior for Carbon/Toughened Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian; OBrien, T. Kevin; Lee, Shaw Ming

    1997-01-01

    Monotonic and fatigue tests were performed to compare the Mode II and III interlaminar fracture toughness and fatigue delamination onset for Tenax-HTA/R6376 carbon/toughened epoxy composites. The Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness and fatigue delamination onset were characterized using the end-notched flexure (ENF) test while the Mode III interlaminar fracture toughness and fatigue delamination onset were characterized by using the edge crack torsion (ECT) test. Monotonic tests show that the Mode III fracture toughness is higher than the Mode II fracture toughness. Both Mode II and III cyclic loading greatly increases the tendency for a delamination to grow relative to a single monotonically increasing load. Under fatigue loading, the Mode III specimen also has a longer life than the Mode II specimen.

  6. Osseointegration of zirconia implants: an SEM observation of the bone-implant interface.

    PubMed

    Depprich, Rita; Zipprich, Holger; Ommerborn, Michelle; Mahn, Eduardo; Lammers, Lydia; Handschel, Jörg; Naujoks, Christian; Wiesmann, Hans-Peter; Kübler, Norbert R; Meyer, Ulrich

    2008-11-06

    The successful use of zirconia ceramics in orthopedic surgery led to a demand for dental zirconium-based implant systems. Because of its excellent biomechanical characteristics, biocompatibility, and bright tooth-like color, zirconia (zirconium dioxide, ZrO2) has the potential to become a substitute for titanium as dental implant material. The present study aimed at investigating the osseointegration of zirconia implants with modified ablative surface at an ultrastructural level. A total of 24 zirconia implants with modified ablative surfaces and 24 titanium implants all of similar shape and surface structure were inserted into the tibia of 12 Göttinger minipigs. Block biopsies were harvested 1 week, 4 weeks or 12 weeks (four animals each) after surgery. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed at the bone implant interface. Remarkable bone attachment was already seen after 1 week which increased further to intimate bone contact after 4 weeks, observed on both zirconia and titanium implant surfaces. After 12 weeks, osseointegration without interposition of an interfacial layer was detected. At the ultrastructural level, there was no obvious difference between the osseointegration of zirconia implants with modified ablative surfaces and titanium implants with a similar surface topography. The results of this study indicate similar osseointegration of zirconia and titanium implants at the ultrastructural level.

  7. Sintering behavior and mechanical properties of zirconia compacts fabricated by uniaxial press forming.

    PubMed

    Oh, Gye-Jeong; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Lee, Kwang-Min; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Park, Sang-Won

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the linear sintering behavior of presintered zirconia blocks of various densities. The mechanical properties of the resulting sintered zirconia blocks were then analyzed. Three experimental groups of dental zirconia blocks, with a different presintering density each, were designed in the present study. Kavo Everest® ZS blanks (Kavo, Biberach, Germany) were used as a control group. The experimental group blocks were fabricated from commercial yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia powder (KZ-3YF (SD) Type A, KCM. Corporation, Nagoya, Japan). The biaxial flexural strengths, microhardnesses, and microstructures of the sintered blocks were then investigated. The linear sintering shrinkages of blocks were calculated and compared. Despite their different presintered densities, the sintered blocks of the control and experimental groups showed similar mechanical properties. However, the sintered block had different linear sintering shrinkage rate depending on the density of the presintered block. As the density of the presintered block increased, the linear sintering shrinkage decreased. In the experimental blocks, the three sectioned pieces of each block showed the different linear shrinkage depending on the area. The tops of the experimental blocks showed the lowest linear sintering shrinkage, whereas the bottoms of the experimental blocks showed the highest linear sintering shrinkage. Within the limitations of this study, the density difference of the presintered zirconia block did not affect the mechanical properties of the sintered zirconia block, but affected the linear sintering shrinkage of the zirconia block.

  8. Sintering behavior and mechanical properties of zirconia compacts fabricated by uniaxial press forming

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Gye-Jeong; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Lee, Kwang-Min; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare the linear sintering behavior of presintered zirconia blocks of various densities. The mechanical properties of the resulting sintered zirconia blocks were then analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three experimental groups of dental zirconia blocks, with a different presintering density each, were designed in the present study. Kavo Everest® ZS blanks (Kavo, Biberach, Germany) were used as a control group. The experimental group blocks were fabricated from commercial yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia powder (KZ-3YF (SD) Type A, KCM. Corporation, Nagoya, Japan). The biaxial flexural strengths, microhardnesses, and microstructures of the sintered blocks were then investigated. The linear sintering shrinkages of blocks were calculated and compared. RESULTS Despite their different presintered densities, the sintered blocks of the control and experimental groups showed similar mechanical properties. However, the sintered block had different linear sintering shrinkage rate depending on the density of the presintered block. As the density of the presintered block increased, the linear sintering shrinkage decreased. In the experimental blocks, the three sectioned pieces of each block showed the different linear shrinkage depending on the area. The tops of the experimental blocks showed the lowest linear sintering shrinkage, whereas the bottoms of the experimental blocks showed the highest linear sintering shrinkage. CONCLUSION Within the limitations of this study, the density difference of the presintered zirconia block did not affect the mechanical properties of the sintered zirconia block, but affected the linear sintering shrinkage of the zirconia block. PMID:21165274

  9. Surface Modification of Zirconia Substrate by Calcium Phosphate Particles Using Sol-Gel Method.

    PubMed

    Jin, So Dam; Um, Sang Cheol; Lee, Jong Kook

    2015-08-01

    Surface modification with a biphasic composition of hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) was performed on a zirconia substrate using a sol-gel method. An initial calcium phosphate sol was prepared by mixing a solution of Ca(NO3)2 · 4H20 and (C2H5O)3P(O), while both porous and dense zirconia were used as substrates. The sol-gel coating was performed using a spin coater. The coated porous zirconia substrate was re-sintered at 1350 °C 2 h, while coated dense zirconia substrate was heat-treated at 750 °C 1 h. The microstructure of the resultant HA/TCP coatings was found to be dependent on the type of zirconia substrate used. With porous zirconia as a starting substrate, numerous isolated calcium phosphate particles (TCP and HA) were uniformly dispersed on the surface, and the particle size and covered area were dependent on the viscosity of the calcium phosphate sol. Conversely, when dense zirconia was used as a starting substrate, a thick film of nano-sized HA particles was obtained after heat treatment, however, substantial agglomeration and cracking was also observed.

  10. Toughening modification of poly(butylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) blends by an epoxy-functionalized elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weizhou; Wang, Kai; Yan, Wei; Guo, Weihong

    2017-10-01

    New toughened poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) (40/60 wt%) blends were obtained by melting with Glycidyl methacrylate grafted poly(ethylene octane) copolymer (POE-g-GMA), varying the POE-g-GMA content up to 20 wt%, in a twin-screw extruder, followed by injection molding. The influence of POE-g-GMA on the properties of the PBT/PET blends was investigated by mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis, gel fractions analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The mechanical testing results indicated that the incorporation of POE-g-GMA led to increases in the notched impact strength and decreases in the tensile strength, flexural strength, and flexural modulus. When POE-g-GMA content reached 20 wt%, the notched impact strength (8.0 kJ m-2) was achieved for the PBT/PET/POE-g-GMA blends. FT-IR results proved that some PBT/PET/POE-g-GMA copolymers were produced, which improved the compatibility between POE-g-GMA and the PBT/PET matrix. The extent of crosslinking was observed by gel fraction measurements. DMA results further testified chain-extending and micro-crosslink reactions occurred between POE-g-GMA and PBT/PET blends. In addition, the reactions induced by POE-g-GMA affected the crystallization behavior of PBT/PET blends obviously, as observed from DSC results. By means of SEM observation of the impact fracture surface morphology, and the discussion of the micro-crosslink reaction process between the epoxide-containing elastomers and PBT/PET matrix, the toughening mechanism was proposed to be taken into account the shear yielding of PBT/PET matrix and cavitation of elastomer particles.

  11. Domination of volumetric toughening by silver nanoparticles over interfacial strengthening of carbon nanotubes in bactericidal hydroxyapatite biocomposite.

    PubMed

    Herkendell, Katharina; Shukla, Vishnu Raj; Patel, Anup Kumar; Balani, Kantesh

    2014-01-01

    In order to address the problem of bacterial infections in bone-substitution surgery, it is essential that bone replacement biomaterials are equipped with bactericidal components. This research aims to optimize the content of silver (Ag), a well-known antibacterial metal, in a multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced hydroxyapatite (HA) composite, to yield a bioceramic which can be used as an antibacterial and tough surface of bone replacement prosthesis. The bactericidal properties evaluated using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis indicate that CNT reinforcement supports growth of Gram negative E. coli bacteria (~8.5% more adhesion than pure HA); but showed a strong decrease of Gram positive S. epidermidis bacteria (~diminished to 66%) compared to that of pure HA. Small amounts of silver (2-5wt.%) already show a severe bactericidal effect when compared to that of HA-CNT (by 30% and ~60% respectively). MTT assay confirmed enhanced biocompatibility of L929 cells on HA-4wt.% CNT (~121%), HA-4wt.% CNT-1wt.% Ag (~124%) sample and HA-4wt.% CNT-2wt.% Ag (~100%) when compared to that of pure HA. The samples with higher silver content showed decreased biocompatibility (77% for HA-4wt.% CNT-5wt.% Ag sample and 73% for HA-4wt.% CNT-10wt.% Ag). Though reinforcement of 4wt.% CNT has shown an increase of fracture toughness by ~62%, silver reinforcement has shown enhancement of up to 244% (i.e. 3.43 times). Accordingly, isolation of toughening contribution indicates that volumetric toughening by silver dominates over interfacial strengthening contributed by CNTs towards enhanced fracture toughness of potential HA-Ag-CNT biocomposites. © 2013.

  12. Microstructural studies of nanocrystalline α-alumina powder produced from Al13-cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harun Al Rashid Megat Ahmad, Megat; Aziz Mohamed, Abdul; Ibrahim, Azmi; Seman Mahmood, Che; Giri Rachman Putra, Edy; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Kasim, Razali; Rawi Muhammad Zin, Muhammad

    2007-12-01

    Nanocrystalline alumina powder was produced from calcinations of Al13-oxalate precipitates at 1100 °C. A nearly normal distribution of agglomerated alumina powder was obtained with an average particle size of about 1 μm. XRD measurement confirmed that the alumina produced was of high purity and crystalline α-phase. Microstructural features of both the precipitates and alumina obtained were studied using the small angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique. SANS examinations show the formation of microstructures in the alumina powder of mass fractals type with dimension of ˜2.8 indicative of low intra-granular porosity.

  13. Development of an imaging system for the detection of alumina on turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwell, S. J.; Kell, J.; Day, J. C. C.

    2014-03-01

    An imaging system capable of detecting alumina on turbine blades by acquiring LED-induced fluorescence images has been developed. Acquiring fluorescence images at adjacent spectral bands allows the system to distinguish alumina from fluorescent surface contaminants. Repair and overhaul processes require that alumina is entirely removed from the blades by grit blasting and chemical stripping. The capability of the system to detect alumina has been investigated with two series of turbine blades provided by Rolls-Royce plc. The results illustrate that the system provides a superior inspection method to visual assessment when ascertaining whether alumina is present on turbine blades during repair and overhaul processes.

  14. Development of Cast Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidharan, G.; Yamamoto, Y.; Brady, M. P.; Walker, L. R.; Meyer, H. M., III; Leonard, D. N.

    2016-11-01

    Cast Fe-Ni-Cr chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels with Ni levels up to 45 wt.% are used at high temperatures in a wide range of industrial applications that demand microstructural stability, corrosion resistance, and creep strength. Although alumina scales offer better corrosion protection at these temperatures, designing cast austenitic alloys that form a stable alumina scale and achieve creep strength comparable to existing cast chromia-forming alloys is challenging. This work outlines the development of cast Fe-Ni-Cr-Al austenitic stainless steels containing about 25 wt.% Ni with good creep strength and the ability to form a protective alumina scale for use at temperatures up to 800-850°C in H2O-, S-, and C-containing environments. Creep properties of the best alloy were comparable to that of HK-type cast chromia-forming alloys along with improved oxidation resistance typical of alumina-forming alloys. Challenges in the design of cast alloys and a potential path to increasing the temperature capability are discussed.

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Zinc Oxide-Coated Nanoporous Alumina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    microorganisms, including Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, E. coli, methicillin - sensitive S. aureus , methicillin - resistant S. aureus , S... Staphylococcus aureus , and Staphylococcus epidermidis. On the other hand, zinc 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY...alumina membranes against several bacteria found on the skin surface, including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus , and

  16. Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies on Copper-Alumina Interfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    association with alumina, such as, copper, aluminum, chromium, silver, and gold . In particular, copper has been chosen because of its excellent...similar results in variance. However, the oxide calculation program assumes that all elements are 100% oxidized with no monoatomic species or mixed oxide

  17. Development of cast alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels

    DOE PAGES

    Muralidharan, G.; Yamamoto, Y.; Brady, M. P.; ...

    2016-09-06

    Cast Fe-Ni-Cr chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels with Ni levels up to 45 wt. % are used at high temperatures in a wide range of industrial applications that demand microstructural stability, corrosion resistance, and creep strength. Although alumina scales offer better corrosion protection at these temperatures, designing cast austenitic alloys that form a stable alumina scale and achieve creep strength comparable to existing cast chromia-forming alloys is challenging. This work outlines the development of cast Fe-Ni-Cr-Al austenitic stainless steels containing about 25 wt. % Ni with good creep strength and the ability to form a protective alumina scale for use atmore » temperatures up to 800 C - 850 C in H 2O-, S-, and C- containing environments. Creep properties of the best alloy were comparable to that of HK-type cast chromia-forming alloy along with improved oxidation resistance typical of alumina-forming alloys. Lastly, challenges in the design of cast alloys and a potential path to increasing the temperature capability are discussed.« less

  18. Ionic Segregation on Grain Boundaries in Thermally Grown Alumina Scales

    SciT

    Pint, Bruce A; Unocic, Kinga A

    2012-01-01

    This study first examined segregation behaviour in the alumina scale formed after 100 h at 1100 C on bare and MCrAlYHfSi-coated single-crystal superalloys with {approx}10 ppma La and Y. For the bare superalloy, Hf and Ti were detected on the grain boundaries of the inner columnar alumina layer. Increasing the oxidation temperature to 1200 C for 2 h did not change the segregation behavior. With the bond coating, both Y and Hf were segregated to the grain boundaries as expected. However, there was evidence of Ti-rich oxide particles near the gas interface suggesting that Ti diffused from the superalloy throughmore » the coating. To further understand these segregation observations with multiple dopants, other alumina-forming systems were examined. Alumina scale grain boundary co-segregation of Ti with Y is common for FeCrAl alloys. Co-segregation of Hf and Ti was observed in the scale formed on co-doped NiAl. No La segregation was detected in the scale formed on NiCrAl with only a 19 ppma La addition, however, the scale was adherent.« less

  19. Viscosity of alumina nanoparticles dispersed in car engine coolant

    SciT

    Kole, Madhusree; Dey, T.K.

    The present paper, describes our experimental results on the viscosity of the nanofluid prepared by dispersing alumina nanoparticles (<50 nm) in commercial car coolant. The nanofluid prepared with calculated amount of oleic acid (surfactant) was tested to be stable for more than 80 days. The viscosity of the nanofluids is measured both as a function of alumina volume fraction and temperature between 10 and 50 C. While the pure base fluid display Newtonian behavior over the measured temperature, it transforms to a non-Newtonian fluid with addition of a small amount of alumina nanoparticles. Our results show that viscosity of themore » nanofluid increases with increasing nanoparticle concentration and decreases with increase in temperature. Most of the frequently used classical models severely under predict the measured viscosity. Volume fraction dependence of the nanofluid viscosity, however, is predicted fairly well on the basis of a recently reported theoretical model for nanofluids that takes into account the effect of Brownian motion of nanoparticles in the nanofluid. The temperature dependence of the viscosity of engine coolant based alumina nanofluids obeys the empirical correlation of the type: log ({mu}{sub nf}) = A exp(BT), proposed earlier by Namburu et al. (author)« less

  20. Balancing Sodium Impurities in Alumina for Improved Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayaratne, Hasini; Hyland, Margaret; McIntosh, Grant; Perander, Linus; Metson, James

    2018-06-01

    As there are direct and indirect impacts of feed material purity on the aluminum production process and metal grade, there is a high demand on the so-called pure smelter grade alumina (SGA)—the main feedstock for aluminum production. In this work, impurities within the precursor gibbsite used for SGA production and SGA are studied using NanoSIMS and XPS with a focus on sodium—the most abundant impurity. Although the industry trend is towards minimizing sodium due to the well-known negative impacts on the process, high sodium is also correlated with relatively attrition-resistant calcined products. Here, we show that this relationship is indirect and arises from sodium's role in inhibiting α-alumina formation. Alpha alumina formation in SGA has previously been demonstrated to induce a macro-porous and therefore attrition-prone microstructure. Sodium distribution within the precursor gibbsite and its migration during the calcination process are proposed to be most likely responsible for the spatial distribution of α-alumina within the calcined product grain. This in turn determines the behavior of the product during its transportation and handling (i.e., attrition). Therefore, tolerance of a certain amount of sodium within the precursor material does demonstrate a net benefit while balancing its negative impacts on the process.