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Sample records for zirconia ysz anode

  1. Preconditioning of the YSZ-NiO Fuel Cell Anode in Hydrogenous Atmospheres Containing Water Vapor.

    PubMed

    Vasyliv, Bogdan; Podhurska, Viktoriya; Ostash, Orest

    2017-12-01

    The YSZ-NiO ceramics for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) anode have been investigated. A series of specimens were singly reduced in a hydrogenous atmosphere (Ar-5 vol% H 2 mixture) at 600 °C under the pressure of 0.15 MPa or subjected to 'reduction in the mixture-oxidation in air' (redox) cycling at 600 °C. The YSZ-Ni cermets formed in both treatment conditions were then aged in 'water vapor in Ar-5 vol% H 2 mixture' atmosphere at 600 °C under the pressure of 0.15 MPa. Additionally, the behaviour of the as-received material in this atmosphere was studied. It was revealed that small amount of water vapor in Ar-5 vol% H 2 mixture (water vapor pressure below 0.03 MPa) does not affect the reduction of the nickel phase in the YSZ-NiO ceramics, but causes some changes in the YSZ-Ni cermet structure. In particular, nanopore growth in tiny Ni particles takes place. At higher concentration of water vapor in the mixture (water vapor pressure above 0.03-0.05 MPa), converse changes in the kinetics of reduction occur. The best physical and mechanical properties were revealed for the material treated by redox cycling after holding at 600 °C in water depleted gas mixture. The dual effect of water vapor on nickel-zirconia anode behaviour is discussed basing on scanning electron microscopy analysis data, material electrical conductivity, and strength.

  2. Internal Nano Voids in Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) Powder

    PubMed Central

    Barad, Chen; Shekel, Gal; Shandalov, Michael; Hayun, Hagay; Kimmel, Giora; Shamir, Dror; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2017-01-01

    Porous yttria-stabilised zirconia ceramics have been gaining popularity throughout the years in various fields, such as energy, environment, medicine, etc. Although yttria-stabilised zirconia is a well-studied material, voided yttria-stabilised zirconia powder particles have not been demonstrated yet, and might play an important role in future technology developments. A sol-gel synthesis accompanied by a freeze-drying process is currently being proposed as a method of obtaining sponge-like nano morphology of embedded faceted voids inside yttria-stabilised zirconia particles. The results rely on a freeze-drying stage as an effective and simple method for generating nano-voided yttria-stabilised zirconia particles without the use of template-assisted additives. PMID:29258227

  3. Internal Nano Voids in Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) Powder.

    PubMed

    Barad, Chen; Shekel, Gal; Shandalov, Michael; Hayun, Hagay; Kimmel, Giora; Shamir, Dror; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2017-12-18

    Porous yttria-stabilised zirconia ceramics have been gaining popularity throughout the years in various fields, such as energy, environment, medicine, etc. Although yttria-stabilised zirconia is a well-studied material, voided yttria-stabilised zirconia powder particles have not been demonstrated yet, and might play an important role in future technology developments. A sol-gel synthesis accompanied by a freeze-drying process is currently being proposed as a method of obtaining sponge-like nano morphology of embedded faceted voids inside yttria-stabilised zirconia particles. The results rely on a freeze-drying stage as an effective and simple method for generating nano-voided yttria-stabilised zirconia particles without the use of template-assisted additives.

  4. Growth and micro structural studies on Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Strontium Titanate (STO) buffer layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, S.; Pinto, R.; Pai, S. P.; Dsousa, D. P.; Apte, P. R.; Kumar, D.; Purandare, S. C.; Bhatnagar, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    Microstructure of Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Strontium Titanate (STO) of radio frequency magnetron sputtered buffer layers was studied at various sputtering conditions on Si (100), Sapphire and LaAlO3 (100) substrates. The effect of substrate temperatures up to 800 C and sputtering gas pressures in the range of 50 mTorr. of growth conditions was studied. The buffer layers of YSZ and STO showed a strong tendency for columnar growth was observed above 15 mTorr sputtering gas pressure and at high substrate temperatures. Post annealing of these films in oxygen atmosphere reduced the oxygen deficiency and strain generated during growth of the films. Strong c-axis oriented superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) thin films were obtained on these buffer layers using pulsed laser ablation technique. YBCO films deposited on multilayers of YSZ and STO were shown to have better superconducting properties.

  5. Brazing of Stainless Steels to Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) Using Silver -Base Brazes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Shpargel, Tarah P.; Asthana, Rajiv

    2005-01-01

    Three silver-base brazes containing either noble metal palladium (Palcusil-10 and Palcusil-15) or active metal titanium (Ticusil) were evaluated for high-temperature oxidation resistance, and their effectiveness in joining yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to a corrosion-resistant ferritic stainless steel. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and optical- and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were used to evaluate the braze oxidation behavior and the structure and chemistry of the YSZ/braze/steel joints. The effect of the braze type and processing conditions on the interfacial microstructure and composition of the joint regions is discussed with reference to the chemical changes that occur at the interface. It was found that chemical interdiffusion of the constituents of YSZ, steel and the brazes led to compositional changes and/or interface reconstruction, and metallurgically sound joints.

  6. Plasma sprayed metal supported YSZ/Ni-LSGM-LSCF ITSOFC with nanostructured anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Changsing; Tsai, Chun-Huang; Lo, Chih-Hung; Sun, Cha-Hong

    Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (ITSOFCs) supported by a porous Ni-substrate and based on Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode and nanostructured yttria stabilized zirconia-nickel (YSZ/Ni) cermet anode have been fabricated successfully by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). From ac impedance analysis, the sprayed YSZ/Ni cermet anode with a novel nanostructure and advantageous triple phase boundaries after hydrogen reduction has a low resistance. It shows a good electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen oxidation reactions. The sprayed LSGM electrolyte with ∼60 μm in thickness and ∼0.054 S cm -1 conductivity at 800 °C shows a good gas tightness and gives an open circuit voltage (OCV) larger than 1 V. The sprayed LSCF cathode with ∼30 μm in thickness and ∼30% porosity has a minimum resistance after being heated at 1000 °C for 2 h. This cathode keeps right phase structure and good porous network microstructure for conducting electrons and negative oxygen ions. The APS sprayed cell after being heated at 1000 °C for 2 h has a minimum inherent resistance and achieves output power densities of ∼440 mW cm -2 at 800 °C, ∼275 mW cm -2 at 750 °C and ∼170 mW cm -2 at 700 °C. Results from SEM, XRD, ac impedance analysis and I- V- P measurements are presented here.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Anode-Supported YSZ Thin Film Electrolyte by Co-Tape Casting and Co-Sintering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q. L.; Fu, C. J.; Chan, S. H.; Pasciak, G.

    2011-06-01

    In this study, a co-tape casting and co-sintering process has been developed to prepare yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte films supported on Ni-YSZ anode substrates in order to substantially reduce the fabrication cost of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Through proper control of the process, the anode/electrolyte bilayer structures with a size of 7.8cm × 7.8cm were achieved with good flatness. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation indicated that the YSZ electrolyte film was about 16 μm in thickness, highly dense, crack free and well-bonded to the anode support. The electrochemical properties of the prepared anode-supported electrolyte film was evaluated in a button cell mode incorporating a (LaSr)MnO3-YSZ composite cathode. With humidified hydrogen as the fuel and stationary air as the oxidant, the cell demonstrated an open-circuit voltage of 1.081 V and a maximum power density of 1.01 W/cm2 at 800°C. The obtained results represent the important progress in the development of anode-supported intermediate temperature SOFC with reduced fabrication cost.

  8. 3D Microstructure Effects in Ni-YSZ Anodes: Prediction of Effective Transport Properties and Optimization of Redox Stability

    PubMed Central

    Pecho, Omar M.; Stenzel, Ole; Iwanschitz, Boris; Gasser, Philippe; Neumann, Matthias; Schmidt, Volker; Prestat, Michel; Hocker, Thomas; Flatt, Robert J.; Holzer, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of microstructure on the effective ionic and electrical conductivities of Ni-YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia) anodes. Fine, medium, and coarse microstructures are exposed to redox cycling at 950 °C. FIB (focused ion beam)-tomography and image analysis are used to quantify the effective (connected) volume fraction (Φeff), constriction factor (β), and tortuosity (τ). The effective conductivity (σeff) is described as the product of intrinsic conductivity (σ0) and the so-called microstructure-factor (M): σeff = σ0 × M. Two different methods are used to evaluate the M-factor: (1) by prediction using a recently established relationship, Mpred = εβ0.36/τ5.17, and (2) by numerical simulation that provides conductivity, from which the simulated M-factor can be deduced (Msim). Both methods give complementary and consistent information about the effective transport properties and the redox degradation mechanism. The initial microstructure has a strong influence on effective conductivities and their degradation. Finer anodes have higher initial conductivities but undergo more intensive Ni coarsening. Coarser anodes have a more stable Ni phase but exhibit lower YSZ stability due to lower sintering activity. Consequently, in order to improve redox stability, it is proposed to use mixtures of fine and coarse powders in different proportions for functional anode and current collector layers. PMID:28793523

  9. The impact of steam and current density on carbon formation from biomass gasification tar on Ni/YSZ, and Ni/CGO solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermelstein, Joshua; Millan, Marcos; Brandon, Nigel

    The combination of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and biomass gasification has the potential to become an attractive technology for the production of clean renewable energy. However the impact of tars, formed during biomass gasification, on the performance and durability of SOFC anodes has not been well established experimentally. This paper reports an experimental study on the mitigation of carbon formation arising from the exposure of the commonly used Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium-doped ceria) SOFC anodes to biomass gasification tars. Carbon formation and cell degradation was reduced through means of steam reforming of the tar over the nickel anode, and partial oxidation of benzene model tar via the transport of oxygen ions to the anode while operating the fuel cell under load. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that a threshold current density of 365 mA cm -2 was required to suppress carbon formation in dry conditions, which was consistent with the results of experiments conducted in this study. The importance of both anode microstructure and composition towards carbon deposition was seen in the comparison of Ni/YSZ and Ni/CGO anodes exposed to the biomass gasification tar. Under steam concentrations greater than the thermodynamic threshold for carbon deposition, Ni/YSZ anodes still exhibited cell degradation, as shown by increased polarization resistances, and carbon formation was seen using SEM imaging. Ni/CGO anodes were found to be more resilient to carbon formation than Ni/YSZ anodes, and displayed increased performance after each subsequent exposure to tar, likely due to continued reforming of condensed tar on the anode.

  10. Laser surface modification of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating on AISI H13 tool steel substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, M. S.; Aqida, S. N.; Ismail, I.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents laser surface modification of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating to seal porosity defect. Laser surface modification on plasma sprayed YSZ was conducted using 300W JK300HPS Nd: YAG laser at different operating parameters. Parameters varied were laser power and pulse frequency with constant residence time. The coating thickness was measured using IM7000 inverted optical microscope and surface roughness was analysed using two-dimensional Mitutoyo Surface Roughness Tester. Surface roughness of laser surface modification of YSZ H-13 tool steel decreased significantly with increasing laser power and decreasing pulse frequency. The re-melted YSZ coating showed higher hardness properties compared to as-sprayed coating surface. These findings were significant to enhance thermal barrier coating surface integrity for dies in semi-solid processing.

  11. RETRACTED: Chemical densification of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings for high temperature wear and corrosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yaping; Fehr, Karl Thomas; Faulstich, Martin; Wolf, Gerhard

    2012-12-01

    Plasma-sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ceramic coatings have been widely used as wear- and corrosion-resistant coatings in high temperature applications and an aggressive environment due to their high hardness, wear resistance, heat and chemical resistance, and low thermal conductivity. The highly porous structure of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings and their poor adhesion to the substrate usually lead to the coating degradation and failure. In this study, a two-layer system consisting of atmospheric plasma-sprayed 8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) and Ni-based alloy coatings was post-treated by means of a novel chemical sealing process at moderate temperatures of 600-800 °C. Microstructure characteristics of the YSZ coatings were studied using an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). Results revealed that the ceramic top coat was densified by the precipitated zirconia in the open pores. Therefore, the sealed YSZ coatings exhibit reduced porosity, higher hardness and a better adhesion onto the bond coat. The mechanisms for the sealing process were also proposed.

  12. High performance novel gadolinium doped ceria/yttria stabilized zirconia/nickel layered and hybrid thin film anodes for application in solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Garcia, F. J.; Beltrán, A. M.; Yubero, F.; González-Elipe, A. R.; Lambert, R. M.

    2017-09-01

    Magnetron sputtering under oblique angle deposition was used to produce Ni-containing ultra thin film anodes comprising alternating layers of gadolinium doped ceria (GDC) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) of either 200 nm or 1000 nm thickness. The evolution of film structure from initial deposition, through calcination and final reduction was examined by XRD, SEM, TEM and TOF-SIMS. After subsequent fuel cell usage, the porous columnar architecture of the two-component layered thin film anodes was maintained and their resistance to delamination from the underlying YSZ electrolyte was superior to that of corresponding single component Ni-YSZ and Ni-GDC thin films. Moreover, the fuel cell performance of the 200 nm layered anodes compared favorably with conventional commercially available thick anodes. The observed dependence of fuel cell performance on individual layer thicknesses prompted study of equivalent but more easily fabricated hybrid anodes consisting of simultaneously deposited Ni-GDC and Ni-YSZ, which procedure resulted in exceptionally intimate mixing and interaction of the components. The hybrids exhibited very unusual and favorable Isbnd V characteristics, along with exceptionally high power densities at high currents. Their discovery is the principal contribution of the present work.

  13. Brazing of Stainless Steels to Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shpargel, Tarah P.; Needham, Robert J.; Singh, M.; Kung, Steven C.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in research, development, and commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells. Joining and sealing are critical issues that will need to be addressed before SOFC's can truly perform as expected. Ceramics and metals can be difficult to join together, especially when the joint must withstand up to 900 C operating temperature of the SOFC's. The goal of the present study is to find the most suitable braze material for joining of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to stainless steels. A number of commercially available braze materials TiCuSil, TiCuNi, Copper-ABA, Gold-ABA, and Gold-ABA-V have been evaluated. The oxidation behavior of the braze materials and steel substrates in air was also examined through thermogravimetric analysis. The microstructure and composition of the brazed regions have been examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy and EDS analysis. Effect of braze composition and processing conditions on the interfacial microstructure and composition of the joint regions will be presented.

  14. A prefilter for mitigating PH 3 contamination of a Ni-YSZ anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chunchuan; Zondlo, John W.; Sabolsky, Edward M.

    Ni-YSZ is used as the anode of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) because it has excellent electrochemical performance for operation with coal-derived syngas. However, trace impurities, PH 3 H 2S AsH 3, and Sb in coal-syngas can cause SOFC degradation. Described here is a means of removing PH 3 impurity from syngas by using a Ni-based prefilter. In one test, a thin Ni-based filter was set upstream of a Ni-YSZ anode-supported SOFC. The SOFC was exposed to syngas with PH 3 under a constant current load at 800 °C. The filter decreased 20 ppm PH 3 in the feed to a level which did not degrade the SOFC for over 400 h until the filter became saturated. In another test, both H 2S and PH 3 were co-fed to the cell with Ni-based and Fe/Ni-based filters. The interaction between these two impurities did not significantly impact the filter performance with respect to PH 3 removal for both filter formulations. The cell performance was evaluated by current-voltage measurements and impedance spectroscopy. Post-mortem analyses of the cell and filter were performed by means of XRD, SEM/EDS and XPS. With proper filter design, the Ni-YSZ SOFC can operate on contaminated coal-syngas without degradation over a prescribed period of time.

  15. Polarization-Induced Interfacial Reactions between Nickel and Selenium in Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes and Comparison with Sulfur Poisoning

    SciT

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.

    2011-01-10

    Three distinctly different characteristic responses of a nickel/yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ) cermet anode to the presence of hydrogen selenide in synthetic coal gas were observed, depending on temperature (650-800oC), H2Se concentration (0-40 ppm), and especially on the extent of anodic polarization (0 to ~0.5 V). The first level of response was characterized by a rapid but modest decrease in power density to a new steady state, with no further degradation observed in tests up to 700 hours in duration. Mostly observed at high temperatures, low H2Se concentrations, and low anodic polarizations, this response level was similar to effects caused by themore » presence of H2S, but with slower onset and lower reversibility. Higher anodic polarization at a constant current could trigger a second level of response characterized by oscillatory behavior involving cycles of rapid performance loss followed by rapid recovery. Oscillations at the constant current density were accompanied by the appearance and disappearance of a new feature in the electrochemical impedance spectrum with a summit frequency of ~100 Hz. Oscillatory behavior ceased when the current density was lowered. Such behavior was not observed for cells operated at a constant potential of similar magnitude, though. A third level of response, irreversible cell failure, could be induced by further increases in anodic polarization, additionally favored by low temperature and high H2Se concentration. Post-test analyses of failed cells by electron microscopy revealed the extensive microstructural changes including the appearance of nickel oxide and nickel selenide alteration phases, only at the anode/electrolyte interface. From bulk thermochemical considerations the formation of nickel selenides could not be expected. Local chemical conditions created at the anode/electrolyte interface appear to be of overriding importance with respect to the extent of Ni/YSZ anode interactions with H2Se in coal gas.« less

  16. 3D Microstructure Effects in Ni-YSZ Anodes: Influence of TPB Lengths on the Electrochemical Performance.

    PubMed

    Pecho, Omar M; Mai, Andreas; Münch, Beat; Hocker, Thomas; Flatt, Robert J; Holzer, Lorenz

    2015-10-21

    3D microstructure-performance relationships in Ni-YSZ anodes for electrolyte-supported cells are investigated in terms of the correlation between the triple phase boundary (TPB) length and polarization resistance ( R pol ). Three different Ni-YSZ anodes of varying microstructure are subjected to eight reduction-oxidation (redox) cycles at 950 °C. In general the TPB lengths correlate with anode performance . However, the quantitative results also show that there is no simplistic relationship between TPB and R pol . The degradation mechanism strongly depends on the initial microstructure. Finer microstructures exhibit lower degradation rates of TPB and R pol . In fine microstructures, TPB loss is found to be due to Ni coarsening, while in coarse microstructures reduction of active TPB results mainly from loss of YSZ percolation. The latter is attributed to weak bottlenecks associated with lower sintering activity of the coarse YSZ. The coarse anode suffers from complete loss of YSZ connectivity and associated drop of TPB active by 93%. Surprisingly, this severe microstructure degradation did not lead to electrochemical failure. Mechanistic scenarios are discussed for different anode microstructures. These scenarios are based on a model for coupled charge transfer and transport, which allows using TPB and effective properties as input. The mechanistic scenarios describe the microstructure influence on current distributions, which explains the observed complex relationship between TPB lengths and anode performances. The observed loss of YSZ percolation in the coarse anode is not detrimental because the electrochemical activity is concentrated in a narrow active layer. The anode performance can be predicted reliably if the volume-averaged properties (TPB active , effective ionic conductivity) are corrected for the so-called short-range effect, which is particularly important in cases with a narrow active layer.

  17. 3D Microstructure Effects in Ni-YSZ Anodes: Influence of TPB Lengths on the Electrochemical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Pecho, Omar M.; Mai, Andreas; Münch, Beat; Hocker, Thomas; Flatt, Robert J.; Holzer, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    3D microstructure-performance relationships in Ni-YSZ anodes for electrolyte-supported cells are investigated in terms of the correlation between the triple phase boundary (TPB) length and polarization resistance (Rpol). Three different Ni-YSZ anodes of varying microstructure are subjected to eight reduction-oxidation (redox) cycles at 950 °C. In general the TPB lengths correlate with anode performance. However, the quantitative results also show that there is no simplistic relationship between TPB and Rpol. The degradation mechanism strongly depends on the initial microstructure. Finer microstructures exhibit lower degradation rates of TPB and Rpol. In fine microstructures, TPB loss is found to be due to Ni coarsening, while in coarse microstructures reduction of active TPB results mainly from loss of YSZ percolation. The latter is attributed to weak bottlenecks associated with lower sintering activity of the coarse YSZ. The coarse anode suffers from complete loss of YSZ connectivity and associated drop of TPBactive by 93%. Surprisingly, this severe microstructure degradation did not lead to electrochemical failure. Mechanistic scenarios are discussed for different anode microstructures. These scenarios are based on a model for coupled charge transfer and transport, which allows using TPB and effective properties as input. The mechanistic scenarios describe the microstructure influence on current distributions, which explains the observed complex relationship between TPB lengths and anode performances. The observed loss of YSZ percolation in the coarse anode is not detrimental because the electrochemical activity is concentrated in a narrow active layer. The anode performance can be predicted reliably if the volume-averaged properties (TPBactive, effective ionic conductivity) are corrected for the so-called short-range effect, which is particularly important in cases with a narrow active layer. PMID:28793624

  18. Characterization of Ni-YSZ anodes for solid oxide fuel cells fabricated by solution precursor plasma spraying with axial feedstock injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Craig; Lay-Grindler, Elisa; Kesler, Olivera

    2014-02-01

    Nickel and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes were fabricated by solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) and incorporated into metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). A power density of 0.45 W cm-2 at 0.7 V and a peak power density of 0.52 W cm-2 at 750 °C in humidified H2 was obtained, which are the first performance results reported for an SOFC having an anode fabricated by SPPS. The effects of solution composition, plasma gas composition, and stand-off distance on the composition of the deposited Ni-YSZ coatings by SPPS were evaluated. It was found that the addition of citric acid to the aqueous solution delayed re-solidification of NiO particles, improving the deposition efficiency and coating adhesion. The composition of the deposited coatings was found to vary with torch power. Increasing torch power led to coatings with decreasing Ni content, as a result of Ni vaporizing in-flight at stand-off distances less than 60 mm from the torch nozzle exit.

  19. In situ Van der Pauw measurements of the Ni/YSZ anode during exposure to syngas with phosphine contaminant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demircan, Oktay; Xu, Chunchuan; Zondlo, John; Finklea, Harry O.

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) represent an option to provide a bridging technology for energy conversion (coal syngas) as well as a long-term technology (hydrogen from biomass). Whether the fuel is coal syngas or hydrogen from biomass, the effect of impurities on the performance of the anode is a vital question. The anode resistivity during SOFC operation with phosphine-contaminated syngas was studied using the in situ Van der Pauw method. Commercial anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (Ni/YSZ composite anodes, YSZ electrolytes) were exposed to a synthetic coal syngas mixture (H 2, H 2O, CO, and CO 2) at a constant current and their performance evaluated periodically with electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and polarization curves). In one test, after 170 h of phosphine exposure, a significant degradation of cell performance (loss of cell voltage, increase of series resistance and increase of polarization resistance) was evident. The rate of voltage loss was 1.4 mV h -1. The resistivity measurements on Ni/YSZ anode by the in situ Van der Pauw method showed that there were no significant changes in anode resistivity both under clean syngas and syngas with 10 ppm PH 3. XRD analysis suggested that Ni 5P 2 and P 2O 5 are two compounds accumulated on the anode. XPS studies provided support for the presence of two phosphorus phases with different oxidation states on the external anode surface. Phosphorus, in a positive oxidation state, was observed in the anode active layer. Based on these observations, the effect of 10 ppm phosphine impurity (or its reaction products with coal syngas) is assigned to the loss of performance of the Ni/YSZ active layer next to the electrolyte, and not to any changes in the thick Ni/YSZ support layer.

  20. Quantification of the degradation of Ni-YSZ anodes upon redox cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bowen; Ruiz-Trejo, Enrique; Bertei, Antonio; Brandon, Nigel P.

    2018-01-01

    Ni-YSZ anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells are vulnerable to microstructural damage during redox cycling leading to a decrease in the electrochemical performance. This study quantifies the microstructural changes as a function of redox cycles at 800 °C and associates it to the deterioration of the mechanical properties and polarisation resistance. A physically-based model is used to estimate the triple-phase boundary (TPB) length from impedance spectra, and satisfactorily matches the TPB length quantified by FIB-SEM tomography: within 20 redox cycles, the TPB density decreases from 4.63 μm-2 to 1.06 μm-2. Although the polarisation resistance increases by an order of magnitude after 20 cycles, after each re-reduction the electrode polarisation improves consistently due to the transient generation of Ni nanoparticles around the TPBs. Nonetheless, the long-term degradation overshadows this transient improvement due to the nickel agglomeration. In addition, FIB-SEM tomography reveals fractures along YSZ grain boundaries, Ni-YSZ detachment and increased porosity in the composite that lead to irreversible mechanical damage: the elastic modulus diminishes from 36.4 GPa to 20.2 GPa and the hardness from 0.40 GPa to 0.15 GPa. These results suggest that microstructural, mechanical and electrochemical properties are strongly interdependent in determining the degradation caused by redox cycling.

  1. Fracture toughness improvements of dental ceramic through use of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin-film coatings.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ryan N; Stoner, Brian R; Thompson, Jeffrey Y; Scattergood, Ronald O; Piascik, Jeffrey R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate strengthening mechanisms of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin film coatings as a viable method for improving fracture toughness of all-ceramic dental restorations. Bars (2mm×2mm×15mm, n=12) were cut from porcelain (ProCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) blocks and wet-polished through 1200-grit using SiC abrasive. A Vickers indenter was used to induce flaws with controlled size and geometry. Depositions were performed via radio frequency magnetron sputtering (5mT, 25°C, 30:1 Ar/O2 gas ratio) with varying powers of substrate bias. Film and flaw properties were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Flexural strength was determined by three-point bending. Fracture toughness values were calculated from flaw size and fracture strength. Data show improvements in fracture strength of up to 57% over unmodified specimens. XRD analysis shows that films deposited with higher substrate bias displayed a high %monoclinic volume fraction (19%) compared to non-biased deposited films (87%), and resulted in increased film stresses and modified YSZ microstructures. SEM analysis shows critical flaw sizes of 67±1μm leading to fracture toughness improvements of 55% over unmodified specimens. Data support surface modification of dental ceramics with YSZ thin film coatings to improve fracture toughness. Increase in construct strength was attributed to increase in compressive film stresses and modified YSZ thin film microstructures. It is believed that this surface modification may lead to significant improvements and overall reliability of all-ceramic dental restorations. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrogen oxidation mechanisms on Ni/yttria stabilized zirconia anodes: Separation of reaction pathways by geometry variation of pattern electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doppler, M. C.; Fleig, J.; Bram, M.; Opitz, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrodes are affecting the overall performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in general and strongly contribute to the cell resistance in case of novel metal supported SOFCs in particular. The electrochemical fuel conversion mechanisms in these electrodes are, however, still only partly understood. In this study, micro-structured Ni thin film electrodes on YSZ with 15 different geometries are utilized to investigate reaction pathways for the hydrogen electro-oxidation at Ni/YSZ anodes. From electrodes with constant area but varying triple phase boundary (TPB) length a contribution to the electro-catalytic activity is found that does not depend on the TPB length. This additional activity could clearly be attributed to a yet unknown reaction pathway scaling with the electrode area. It is shown that this area related pathway has significantly different electrochemical behavior compared to the TPB pathway regarding its thermal activation, sulfur poisoning behavior, and H2/H2O partial pressure dependence. Moreover, possible reaction mechanisms of this reaction pathway are discussed, identifying either a pathway based on hydrogen diffusion through Ni with water release at the TPB or a path with oxygen diffusion through Ni to be a very likely explanation for the experimental results.

  3. Effect of SDC-impregnated LSM cathodes on the performance of anode-supported YSZ films for SOFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kongfa; Lü, Zhe; Ai, Na; Chen, Xiangjun; Hu, Jinyan; Huang, Xiqiang; Su, Wenhui

    Sm 0.2Ce 0.8O 1.9 (SDC)-impregnated La 0.7Sr 0.3MnO 3 (LSM) composite cathodes were fabricated on anode-supported yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films. Electrochemical performances of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) were investigated in the present study. Four single cells, i.e., Cell-1, Cell-2, Cell-3 and Cell-4 were obtained after the fabrication of four different cathodes, i.e., pure LSM and SDC/LSM composites in the weight ratios of 25/75, 36/64 and 42/58, respectively. Impedance spectra under open-circuit conditions showed that the cathode performance was gradually improved with the increasing SDC loading. Similarly, the maximum power densities (MPD) of the four cells were increased with the SDC amount below 700 °C. Whereas, the cell performance of Cell-4 was lower than that of Cell-3 at 800 °C, arising from the increased concentration polarization at high current densities. This was caused by the lowered porosity with the impregnation cycle. This disadvantage could be suppressed by lowering the operating temperature or by increasing the oxygen concentration at the cathode side. The ratio of electrode polarization loss in the total voltage drop versus current density showed that the cell performance was primarily determined by the electrode polarization. The contribution of the ohmic resistance was increased when the operating temperature was lowered. When a 100 ml min -1 oxygen flow was introduced to the cathode side, Cell-3 produced MPDs of 1905, 1587 and 1179 mW cm -2 at 800, 750 and 700 °C, respectively. The high cell outputs demonstrated the merits of the novel and effective SDC-impregnated LSM cathodes.

  4. Formulation of steam-methane reforming rate in Ni-YSZ porous anode of solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, Shinichi; Kawamura, Yusuke; Iwai, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    The steam-methane reforming reaction on a Ni-YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia) cermet was experimentally investigated under atmospheric pressure and in the temperature range from 650 to 750 °C. We examined the effects of the partial pressures of methane and steam in the supply gas on the reaction rate. The experiments were conducted with a low Ni contained Ni-YSZ cermet sheet of thickness 0.1 mm. Its porous microstructure and accompanied parameters were quantified using the FIB-SEM (focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy) technique. A power-law-type rate equation incorporating the reaction-rate-limiting conditions was obtained on the basis of the unit surface area of the Ni-pore contact surface in the cermet. The kinetics indicated a strong positive dependence on the methane partial pressure and a negative dependence on the steam partial pressure. The obtained rate equation successfully reproduced the experimental results for Ni-YSZ samples having different microstructures in the case of low methane consumption. The equation also reproduced the limiting-reaction behaviours at different temperatures.

  5. Polypropylene Oil as a Fuel for Ni-YSZ | YSZ | LSCF Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, Andini W.; Rahmawati, Fitria; Rochman, Refada A.; Syahputra, Rahmat J. E.; Prameswari, Arum P.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to convert polypropylene plastic to polypropylene oil through pyrolysis method and use the polypropylene oil as fuel for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, SOFC, to produce electricity. The material for SOFC single cell are Ni-YSZ, YSZ, and LSCF as anode, electrolyte and cathode, respectively. YSZ is yttria-stabilized-zirconia. Meanwhile, LSCF is a commercial La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3. The Ni-YSZ is a composite of YSZ with nickel powder. LSCF and Ni-YSZ slurry coated both side of YSZ electrolyte pellet through screen printing method. The result shows that, the produced polypropylene oil consist of C8 to C27 hydrocarbon chain. Meanwhile, a single cell performance test at 673 K, 773 K and 873 K with polypropylene oil as fuel, found that the maximum power density is 1.729 μW. cm-2 at 673 K with open circuit voltage value of 9.378 mV.

  6. The Evolution of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Nickel-Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Anodes Studied Using Electrochemical and Three-Dimensional Microstructural Characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennouche, David O.

    This thesis focuses on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs). The 21st century will see major changes in the way energy is produced, stored, and used around the world. SOFCs, which provide an efficient, scalable, and low-pollution alternative method for electricity generation, are expected to play an important role. SOFCs can also be operated in electrolysis mode for energy storage, important since health and economic reasons are causing a shift towards intermittent renewable energy resources. However, multiple limitations mainly linked to cost and durability have prevented the expansion of this technology to mass markets. This work focuses on the Nickel - Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (Ni-YSZ) anode that is widely used in SOFCs. Coarsening of Ni in the Ni-YSZ anode has been widely cited as a primary cause of long-term SOFC degradation. While there have been numerous studies of Ni coarsening reported, these have typically only tracked the evolution of Ni particle size, not the entire microstructure, and have typically not been correlated directly with electrochemical performance. In this thesis, the advanced tomography techniques Focused Ion Beam - Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) tomography and Trans- mission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) have been utilized to enable insight into the evolution of Ni-YSZ structure and how it relates to performance degradation. Extensive anode aging studies were done for relatively short times using temperatures higher than in normal SOFC operation in order to accelerate microstructural evolution. In addition the microstructure changes were correlated with changes in anode polarization resistance. While most of the measurements were done by comparing different anodes aged under different conditions, the first example of a "pseudo in situ" measurement where the same anode was 3D imaged repeatedly with intervening aging steps, was also demonstrated. A microstructural evolution model that focuses on the active three-phase boundary density was

  7. Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin

    SciT

    Marina, Olga A.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2011-02-28

    Surface Ni/Sb and Ni/Sb alloys were found to efficiently minimize the negative effects of sulfur on the performance of Ni/zirconia anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Prior to operating on fuel gas containing low concentrations of H2S, the nickel/zirconia anodes were briefly exposed to antimony or tin vapor, which only slightly affected the SOFC performance. During the subsequent exposures to 1 and 5 ppm H2S, increases in anodic polarization losses were minimal compared to those observed for the standard nickel/zirconia anodes. Post-test XPS analyses showed that Sb and Sn tended to segregate to the surface of Ni particles, and furthermore » confirmed a significant reduction of adsorbed sulfur on the Ni surface in Ni/Sn and Ni/Sb samples compared to the Ni. The effect may be the result of weaker sulfur adsorption on bimetallic surfaces, adsorption site competition between sulfur and Sb or Sn on Ni, or other factors. The use of dilute binary alloys of Ni-Sb or Ni-Sn in the place of Ni, or brief exposure to Sb or Sn vapor, may be effective means to counteract the effects of sulfur poisoning in SOFC anodes and Ni catalysts. Other advantages, including suppression of coking or tailoring the anode composition for the internal reforming, are also expected.« less

  8. The influence of pore formers on the microstructure of plasma-sprayed NiO-YSZ anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Michael; Kesler, Olivera

    2012-07-01

    Four types of pore formers: high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK), mesocarbon-microbead (MCMB) carbon powder, and baking flour, are processed and characterized, then incorporated with NiO-YSZ nano-agglomerate powder to produce plasma sprayed SOFC anode coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the coating microstructure, gas permeability measurements, and porosity determinations by image analysis are used to evaluate the effectiveness of each potential pore former powder. Under the spray conditions studied, the flour and MCMB pore former powders are effective as plasma sprayed pore formers, increasing the permeability of the coatings by factors of four and two, respectively, compared to a similarly sprayed NiO-YSZ coating without pore formers. The HDPE powder is unable to survive the plasma spray process and does not contribute to the final coating porosity. The PEEK pore former, though ineffective with the current powder characteristics and spray parameters, exhibits the highest relative deposition efficiency and the most favorable thermal characteristics.

  9. Suspension chemistry and electrophoretic deposition of zirconia electrolyte on conducting and non-conducting substrates

    SciT

    Das, Debasish; Basu, Rajendra N., E-mail: rnbasu@cgcri.res.in

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Stable suspension of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) obtained in isopropanol medium. • Suspension chemistry and process parameters for electrophoretic deposition optimized. • Deposited film quality changed with iodine and water (dispersants) concentration. • Dense YSZ film (∼5 μm) fabricated onto non-conducting porous NiO-YSZ anode substrate. - Abstract: Suspensions of 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) particulates in isopropanol medium are prepared using acetylacetone, iodine and water as dispersants. The effect of dispersants concentration on suspension stability, particle size distribution, electrical conductivity and pH of the suspensions are studied in detail to optimize the suspension chemistry.more » Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) has been conducted to produce thin and dense YSZ electrolyte films. Deposition kinetics have been studied in depth and good quality films on conducting substrate are obtained at an applied voltage of 15 V for 3 min. YSZ films are also fabricated on non-conducting NiO-YSZ anode substrate using a steel plate on the reverse side of the substrate. Upon co-firing at 1400 °C for 6 h a dense YSZ film of thickness ∼5 μm is obtained. Such a half cell (anode + electrolyte) can be used to fabricate a solid oxide fuel cell on applying a suitable cathode layer.« less

  10. Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    DOE PAGES

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kennouche, David; Scott Cronin, J.; ...

    2016-02-25

    The coarsening of Ni in Ni–yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure—including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions—are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors.more » Here in this paper, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and analyzed at sub-100 nm resolution. It is shown quantitatively that increasing the Ni/YSZ ratio increases the Ni coarsening rate. This is due to both increased pore volume and a decrease in the YSZ volume fraction, such that there is more free volume and a less obtrusive YSZ network, both of which allow greater Ni coarsening. The results are shown to be in good agreement with a power-law coarsening model. In conclusion, the finding is critical for informing the design of SOFC electrode microstructures that limit coarsening and performance degradation.« less

  11. Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    SciT

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kennouche, David; Scott Cronin, J.

    2016-02-22

    The coarsening of Ni in Ni–yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure—including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions—are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors.more » Here, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and analyzed at sub-100 nm resolution. It is shown quantitatively that increasing the Ni/YSZ ratio increases the Ni coarsening rate. This is due to both increased pore volume and a decrease in the YSZ volume fraction, such that there is more free volume and a less obtrusive YSZ network, both of which allow greater Ni coarsening. The results are shown to be in good agreement with a power-law coarsening model. The finding is critical for informing the design of SOFC electrode microstructures that limit coarsening and performance degradation.« less

  12. Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    SciT

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kennouche, David; Scott Cronin, J.

    The coarsening of Ni in Ni–yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure—including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions—are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors.more » Here in this paper, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and analyzed at sub-100 nm resolution. It is shown quantitatively that increasing the Ni/YSZ ratio increases the Ni coarsening rate. This is due to both increased pore volume and a decrease in the YSZ volume fraction, such that there is more free volume and a less obtrusive YSZ network, both of which allow greater Ni coarsening. The results are shown to be in good agreement with a power-law coarsening model. In conclusion, the finding is critical for informing the design of SOFC electrode microstructures that limit coarsening and performance degradation.« less

  13. Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kennouche, David; Scott Cronin, J.; Barnett, Scott A.; Wang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The coarsening of Ni in Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure—including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions—are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors. Here, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and analyzed at sub-100 nm resolution. It is shown quantitatively that increasing the Ni/YSZ ratio increases the Ni coarsening rate. This is due to both increased pore volume and a decrease in the YSZ volume fraction, such that there is more free volume and a less obtrusive YSZ network, both of which allow greater Ni coarsening. The results are shown to be in good agreement with a power-law coarsening model. The finding is critical for informing the design of SOFC electrode microstructures that limit coarsening and performance degradation.

  14. Mixed conductivity, structural and microstructural characterization of titania-doped yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline/titania-doped yttria stabilized zirconia composite anode matrices

    SciT

    Colomer, M.T., E-mail: tcolomer@icv.csic.e; Maczka, M.

    2011-02-15

    Taking advantage of the fact that TiO{sub 2} additions to 8YSZ cause not only the formation of a titania-doped YSZ solid solution but also a titania-doped YTZP solid solution, composite materials based on both solutions were prepared by solid state reaction. In particular, additions of 15 mol% of TiO{sub 2} give rise to composite materials constituted by 0.51 mol fraction titania-doped yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline and 0.49 mol fraction titania-doped yttria stabilized zirconia (0.51TiYTZP/0.49TiYSZ). Furthermore, Y{sub 2}(Ti{sub 1-y}Zr{sub y}){sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrochlore is present as an impurity phase with y close to 1, according to FT-Raman results. Lower and highermore » additions of titania than that of 15 mol%, i.e., x=0, 5, 10, 20, 25 and 30 mol% were considered to study the evolution of 8YSZ phase as a function of the TiO{sub 2} content. Furthermore, zirconium titanate phase (ZrTiO{sub 4}) is detected when the titania content is equal or higher than 20 mol% and this phase admits Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} in solid solution according to FE-SEM-EDX. The 0.51TiYTZP/0.49TiYSZ duplex material was selected in this study to establish the mechanism of its electronic conduction under low oxygen partial pressures. In the pO{sub 2} range from 0.21 to 10{sup -7.5} atm. the conductivity is predominantly ionic and constant over the range and its value is 0.01 S/cm. The ionic plus electronic conductivity is 0.02 S/cm at 1000 {sup o}C and 10{sup -12.3} atm. Furthermore, the onset of electronic conductivity under reducing conditions exhibits a -1/4 pO{sub 2} dependence. Therefore, it is concluded that the n-type electronic conduction in the duplex material can be due to a small polaron-hopping between Ti{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 4+}. -- Graphical abstract: FE-SEM micrograph of a polished and thermal etched surface of a Ti-doped YTZP/Ti-doped YSZ composite material. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Ti-doped YTZP/Ti-doped YSZ composite materials are mixed conductors

  15. Image contrast enhancement of Ni/YSZ anode during the slice-and-view process in FIB-SEM.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Sheng; Takayama, Akiko; Matsumura, Syo; Koyama, Michihisa

    2016-03-01

    Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) is a widely used and easily operational equipment for three-dimensional reconstruction with flexible analysis volume. It has been using successfully and increasingly in the field of solid oxide fuel cell. However, the phase contrast of the SEM images is indistinct in many cases, which will bring difficulties to the image processing. Herein, the phase contrast of a conventional Ni/yttria stabilized zirconia anode is tuned in an FIB-SEM with In-Lens secondary electron (SE) and backscattered electron detectors. Two accessories, tungsten probe and carbon nozzle, are inserted during the observation. The former has no influence on the contrast. When the carbon nozzle is inserted, best and distinct contrast can be obtained by In-Lens SE detector. This method is novel for contrast enhancement. Phase segmentation of the image can be automatically performed. The related mechanism for different images is discussed. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. Thermal Aging Behavior of Axial Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuexing; Wang, Liang; Yang, Jiasheng; Li, Dachuan; Zhong, Xinghua; Zhao, Huayu; Shao, Fang; Tao, Shunyan

    2015-02-01

    7.5YSZ thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were deposited onto the stainless steel substrates using axial suspension plasma spraying (ASPS). Free-standing coatings were isothermally aged in air from 1200 to 1600 °C for 24 h and at 1550 °C for 20 to 100 h, respectively. Thermal aging behavior such as phase composition, microstructure evolutions, grain growth, and mechanical properties for thermal-aged coatings were investigated. Results show that the as-sprayed metastable tetragonal (t'-ZrO2) phase decomposes into equilibrium tetragonal (t-ZrO2) and cubic (c-ZrO2) phases during high-temperature exposures. Upon further cooling, the c-ZrO2 may be retained or transform into another metastable tetragonal (t″-ZrO2) phase, and tetragonal → monoclinic phase transformation occurred after 1550 °C/40 h aging treatment. The coating exhibits a unique structure with segmentation cracks and micro/nano-size grains, and the grains grow gradually with increasing aging temperature and time. In addition, the hardness ( H) and Young's modulus ( E) significantly increased as a function of temperature due to healing of pores or cracks and grain growth of the coating. And a nonmonotonic variation is found in the coatings thermal aged at a constant temperature (1550 °C) with prolonged time, this is a synergetic effect of coating sintering and m-ZrO2 phase formation.

  17. Small stack performance of intermediate temperature-operating solid oxide fuel cells using stainless steel interconnects and anode-supported single cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Joongmyeon; Lim, Sungkwang; Jee, Hyunjin; Kim, Jung Hyun; Yoo, Young-Sung; Lee, Taehee

    We are developing 1 kW class solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for residential power generation (RPG) application supported by Korean Government. Anode-supported single cells with thin electrolyte layer of YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia) or ScSZ (scandia-stabilized zirconia) for intermediate temperature operation (650-750 °C), respectively, were fabricated and small stacks were built and evaluated. The LSCF/ScSZ/Ni-YSZ single cell showed performance of 543 mW cm -2 at 650 °C and 1680 mW cm -2 at 750 °C. The voltage of 15-cell stack based on 5 cm × 5 cm single cell (LSM/YSZ/Ni-YSZ) at 150 mW was 12.5 V in hydrogen as fuel of 120 sccm per cell at 750 °C and decreased to about 10.9 V at 500 h operation time. A 5-cell stack based on the LSCF/YSZ/FL/Ni-YSZ showed the maximum power density of 30 W, 25 W and 20 W at 750 °C, 700 °C and 650 °C, respectively. LSCF/ScSZ/Ni-YSZ-based stack showed better performance than LSCF/YSZ/Ni-YSZ stack from the experiment temperature range. I- V characteristics by using hydrogen gas and reformate gas of methane as fuel were investigated at 750 °C in LSCF/ScSZ/FL/Ni-YSZ-based 5-cell stack.

  18. Enhanced electrochemical performance and carbon anti-coking ability of solid oxide fuel cells with silver modified nickel-yttrium stabilized zirconia anode by electroless plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei; Kong, Xiaowei; Wang, Jinghui; Sun, Kening; Zhou, Xiaoliang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, silver (Ag) particles are introduced into the conventional Ni/YSZ anode by utilizing electroless plating method to improve its carbon anti-coking ability in hydrocarbons. The experimental results show that electrochemical performances of the decorated cells in H2, CH4 and C2H6 are all increased as compared to the cell with unmodified Ni/YSZ anode, which are verified by impedance spectrums as well. The durability experiment is carried out for as long as 24 h at the current density of 0.33 A/cm2 where the modified anode is subjected to dry C2H6 indicating the anti-coking ability of the anode is greatly improved. Scanning electron microscope shows that the slight decreasing in the cell terminal voltage can be attributed to the minimized carbon deposition which maybe resulted from the aggregation of silver particles at high temperature. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy line scanning results after long-term stability operation of the anode suggest that the carbon deposition can be depressed effectively both inside the anode and on the surface of the anode. Therefore, the results show that silver is a promising candidate material for modifying the Ni/YSZ anode with regard to improving electrochemical performance and suppressing the carbon deposition when taking the hydrocarbons as fuels.

  19. Effect of PH 3 poisoning on a Ni-YSZ anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell under various operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chunchuan; Zondlo, John W.; Gong, Mingyang; Liu, XingBo

    The Ni-YSZ anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) can generate electrical power by using coal-derived syngas as the fuel. However, trace contamination of phosphine (PH 3) in the syngas can cause irreversible degradation in cell performance. A series of tests at 10 ppm PH 3 in the fuel gas was carried out under a variety of operating conditions, viz, with/without electrochemical reaction in syngas and with/without H 2O in H 2 fuel at 750 °C, 800 °C and 850 °C. The poisoning effects were evaluated by both electrochemical methods and chemical analyses. The post-mortem analyses of the SOFC anode were performed by means of XRD, SEM/EDS, and XPS. The results show that the degradation rate is larger at the higher cell working temperature using syngas with PH 3 in a 200 h test though PH 3 is more reactive with Ni in the anode at lower working temperature and produces a secondary nickel phosphide (Ni xP y) phase. The dominant compositions of Ni xP y on the cell anode are Ni 5P 2 with the presence of H 2O, and Ni 12P 5 without the presence of H 2O. The production of Ni xP y can be generated on the cell anode using syngas or dry H 2 fuel with 10 ppm PH 3 contaminant. Further, the appearance of Ni xP y phases is independent of the electrochemical reactions in the cell.

  20. Study on the influences of reduction temperature on nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anode using nickel oxide-film electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Zhenjun; Ueno, Ai; Suzuki, Yuji; Shikazono, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the reduction processes of nickel oxide at different temperatures were investigated using nickel-film anode to study the influences of reduction temperature on the initial performances and stability of nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia anode. Compared to conventional nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia composite cermet anode, nickel-film anode has the advantage of direct observation at nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia interface. The microstructural changes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The reduction process of nickel oxide is considered to be determined by the competition between the mechanisms of volume reduction in nickel oxide-nickel reaction and nickel sintering. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied to analyze the time variation of the nickel-film anode electrochemical characteristics. The anode performances and microstructural changes before and after 100 hours discharging and open circuit operations were analyzed. The degradation of nickel-film anode is considered to be determined by the co-effect between the nickel sintering and the change of nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia interface bonding condition.

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of Nanoporous Niobia, and Nanotubular Tantala, Titania and Zirconia via Anodization

    PubMed Central

    Minagar, Sepideh; Berndt, Christopher C.; Wen, Cuie

    2015-01-01

    Valve metals such as titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) that confer a stable oxide layer on their surfaces are commonly used as implant materials or alloying elements for titanium-based implants, due to their exceptional high corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of the nanostructures of tantala (Ta2O5), niobia (Nb2O5), zirconia (ZrO2) and titania (TiO2) in accordance to their roughness and wettability. Therefore, four kinds of metal oxide nanoporous and nanotubular Ta2O5, Nb2O5, ZrO2 and TiO2 were fabricated via anodization. The nanosize distribution, morphology and the physical and chemical properties of the nanolayers and their surface energies and bioactivities were investigated using SEM-EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and 3D profilometer. It was found that the nanoporous Ta2O5 exhibited an irregular porous structure, high roughness and high surface energy as compared to bare tantalum metal; and exhibited the most superior bioactivity after annealing among the four kinds of nanoporous structures. The nanoporous Nb2O5 showed a uniform porous structure and low roughness, but no bioactivity before annealing. Overall, the nanoporous and nanotubular layers of Ta2O5, Nb2O5, ZrO2 and TiO2 demonstrated promising potential for enhanced bioactivity to improve their biomedical application alone or to improve the usage in other biocompatible metal implants. PMID:25837724

  2. Samaria-doped Ceria Modified Ni/YSZ Anode for Direct Methane Fuel in Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells by Impregnation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Long-shan; Gao, Jian-feng; Tian, Rui-fen; Xia, Chang-rong

    2009-08-01

    A porous NiO/yttria-stabilized zirconia anode substrate for tubular solid oxide fuel cells was prepared by gel casting technique. Nano-scale samaria-doped ceria (SDC) particles were formed onto the anode substrate to modify the anode microstructure by the impregnation of solution of Sm(NO3)3 and Ce(NO3)3. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, current-voltage and current-powder curves of the cells were measured using an electrochemical workstation. Scanning electron microcopy was used to observe the microstructure. The results indicate that the stability of the performance of the cell operated on humidified methane can be significantly improved by incorporating the nano-structured SDC particles, compared with the unmodified cell. This verifies that the coated SDC electrodes are very effective in suppressing catalytic carbon formation by blocking methane from approaching the Ni, which is catalytically active towards methane pyrolysis. In addition, it was found that a small amount of deposited carbon is beneficial to the performance of the anode. The cell showed a peak power density of 225 mW/cm2 when it was fed with H2 fuel at 700 °C, but the power density increased to 400 mW/cm2 when the fuel was switched from hydrogen to methane at the same flow rate. Methane conversion achieved about 90%, measured by gas chromatogram with a 10.0 mL/min flow rate of fuel at 700 °C. Although the carbon deposition was not suppressed absolutely, some deposited carbon was beneficial for performance improvement.

  3. Micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell based on a porous yttria-stabilized zirconia support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panthi, Dhruba; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2014-08-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising electrochemical energy conversion devices owing to their high power generation efficiency and environmentally benign operation. Micro-tubular SOFCs, which have diameters ranging from a few millimeters to the sub-millimeter scale, offer several advantages over competing SOFCs such as high volumetric power density, good endurance against thermal cycling, and flexible sealing between fuel and oxidant streams. Herein, we successfully realized a novel micro-tubular SOFC design based on a porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) support using multi-step dip coating and co-sintering methods. The micro-tubular SOFC consisted of Ni-YSZ, YSZ, and strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM)-YSZ as the anode, electrolyte, and cathode, respectively. In addition, to facilitate current collection from the anode and cathode, Ni and LSM were applied as an anode current collector and cathode current collector, respectively. Micro-crystalline cellulose was selected as a pore former to achieve better shrinkage behavior of the YSZ support so that the electrolyte layer could be densified at a co-sintering temperature of 1300°C. The developed micro-tubular design showed a promising electrochemical performance with maximum power densities of 525, 442, and 354 mW cm-2 at 850, 800, and 750°C, respectively.

  4. Investigation on the thermo-chemical reaction mechanism between yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate (CMAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong-Bo; Wang, Bin-Yi; Cao, Jian; Song, Guan-Yu; Liu, Juan-Bo

    2015-03-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) top coat play a very important role in advanced turbine blades by considerably increasing the engine efficiency and improving the performance of highly loaded blades. However, at high temperatures, environment factors result in the failure of TBCs. The influence of calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate (CMAS) is one of environment factors. Although thermo-physical effect is being paid attention to, the thermo-chemical reaction becomes the hot-spot in the research area of TBCs affected by CMAS. In this paper, traditional twolayered structured TBCs were prepared by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) as the object of study. TBCs coated with CMAS were heated at 1240°C for 3 h. Additionally, 15 wt.% simulated molten CMAS powder and YSZ powder were mixed and heated at 1240°C or 1350°C for 48 h. SEM and EDS were adopted to detect morphology and elements distribution. According to XRD and TEM results, it was revealed that CMAS react with YSZ at high temperature and form ZrSiO4, Ca0.2Zr0.8O1.8 and Ca0.15Zr0.85O1.85 after reaction, as a result, leading to the failure of TBCs and decreasing the TBC lifetime.

  5. 18O-tracer diffusion along nanoscaled Sc2O3/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) multilayers: on the influence of strain.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Halit; Korte, Carsten; Janek, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    The oxygen tracer diffusion coefficient describing transport along nano-/microscaled YSZ/Sc 2 O 3 multilayers as a function of the thick-ness of the ion-conducting YSZ layers has been measured by isotope exchange depth profiling (IEDP), using secondary ion mass spec-trometry (SIMS). The multilayer samples were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on (0001) Al 2 O 3 single crystalline substrates. The values for the oxygen tracer diffusion coefficient were analyzed as a combination of contributions from bulk and interface contributions and compared with results from YSZ/Y 2 O 3 -multilayers with similar microstructure. Using the Nernst-Einstein equation as the relation between diffusivity and electrical conductivity we find very good agreement between conductivity and diffusion data, and we exclude substantial electronic conductivity in the multilayers. The effect of hetero-interface transport can be well explained by a simple interface strain model. As the multilayer samples consist of columnar film crystallites with a defined inter-face structure and texture, we also discuss the influence of this particular microstructure on the interfacial strain.

  6. 18O-tracer diffusion along nanoscaled Sc2O3/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) multilayers: on the influence of strain

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Halit; Korte, Carsten; Janek, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The oxygen tracer diffusion coefficient describing transport along nano-/microscaled YSZ/Sc2O3 multilayers as a function of the thick­ness of the ion-conducting YSZ layers has been measured by isotope exchange depth profiling (IEDP), using secondary ion mass spec­trometry (SIMS). The multilayer samples were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on (0001) Al2O3 single crystalline substrates. The values for the oxygen tracer diffusion coefficient were analyzed as a combination of contributions from bulk and interface contributions and compared with results from YSZ/Y2O3-multilayers with similar microstructure. Using the Nernst–Einstein equation as the relation between diffusivity and electrical conductivity we find very good agreement between conductivity and diffusion data, and we exclude substantial electronic conductivity in the multilayers. The effect of hetero-interface transport can be well explained by a simple interface strain model. As the multilayer samples consist of columnar film crystallites with a defined inter­face structure and texture, we also discuss the influence of this particular microstructure on the interfacial strain. PMID:27877580

  7. Characterization of Ni-YSZ anodes for solid oxide fuel cells fabricated by suspension plasma spraying with axial feedstock injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Craig; Kuhn, Joel; Kesler, Olivera

    2013-12-01

    Composite Ni-Y0.15Zr0.85O1.925 anodes were fabricated by axial-injection suspension plasma spraying in open atmosphere conditions. The composition of the anode is controllable by adjustment of the plasma gas composition, stand-off distance, and suspension feed rate. The total porosity is controllable through the addition of carbon black to the suspension as a sacrificial pore-forming material as well as by adjustment of the suspension feed rate. The size of the NiO particles in suspension affects both the composition and total porosity, with larger NiO particles leading to increased Ni content and porosity in the deposited coatings. The surface roughness increases with a decrease of the in-flight droplet momentum, which results from both smaller NiO particles in suspension and the addition of low density pore-forming materials. A solid oxide fuel cell was fabricated with both electrodes and electrolyte fabricated by axial-injection plasma spraying. Peak power densities of 0.718 W cm-2 and 1.13 W cm-2 at 750 °C and 850 °C, respectively, were achieved.

  8. Reversible Poisoning of the Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes by Hydrogen Chloride in Coal Gas

    SciT

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Thomsen, Edwin C.

    2010-10-15

    The performance of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) was evaluated in synthetic coal gas containing HCl in the temperature range 650 to 850oC. Exposure to up to 800 ppm HCl resulted in reversible poisoning of the Ni/zirconia anode by chlorine species adsorption, the magnitude of which decreased with increased temperature. Performance losses increased with the concentration of HCl to ~100 ppm, above which losses were insensitive to HCl concentration. Cell voltage had no effect on poisoning. No evidence was found for long-term degradation that can be attributed to HCl exposure. Similarly, no evidence of microstructural changes or formation ofmore » new solid phases as a result of HCl exposure was found. From thermodynamic calculations, solid nickel chloride phase formation was shown to be highly unlikely in coal gas. Further, the presence of HCl at even the highest anticipated concentrations in coal gas would minimally increase the volatility of nickel.« less

  9. Phonon anharmonicity of monoclinic zirconia and yttrium-stabilized zirconia

    SciT

    Li, Chen W.; Smith, Hillary L.; Lan, Tian

    2015-04-13

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on monoclinic zirconia (ZrO 2) and 8 mol% yttrium-stabilized zirconia were performed at temperatures from 300 to 1373 ωK. We reported temperature-dependent phonon densities of states (DOS) and Raman spectra obtained at elevated temperatures. First-principles lattice dynamics calculations with density functional theory gave total and partial phonon DOS curves and mode Grüneisen parameters. These mode Grüneisen parameters were used to predict the experimental temperature dependence of the phonon DOS with partial success. However, substantial anharmonicity was found at elevated temperatures, especially for phonon modes dominated by the motions of oxygen atoms. Yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was somewhatmore » more anharmonic and had a broader phonon spectrum at low temperatures, owing in part to defects in its structure. YSZ also has a larger vibrational entropy than monoclinic zirconia.« less

  10. Synthesis and characterization of scandia ceria stabilized zirconia powders prepared by polymeric precursor method for integration into anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Hengyong; Liu, Xin; Yu, Qingchun

    2011-03-01

    Scandia ceria stabilized zirconia (10Sc1CeSZ) powders are synthesized by polymeric precursor method for use as the electrolyte of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The synthesized powders are characterized in terms of crystalline structure, particle shape and size distribution by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). 10Sc1CeSZ electrolyte films are deposited on green anode substrate by screen-printing method. Effects of 10Sc1CeSZ powder characteristics on sintered films are investigated regarding the integration process for application as the electrolytes in anode-supported SOFCs. It is found that the 10Sc1CeSZ films made from nano-sized powders with average size of 655 nm are very porous with many open pores. In comparison, the 10Sc1CeSZ films made from micron-sized powders with average size of 2.5 μm, which are obtained by calcination of nano-sized powders at higher temperatures, are much denser with a few closed pinholes. The cell performances are 911 mW cm-2 at the current density of 1.25 A cm-2 and 800 °C by application of Ce0.8Gd0.2O2 (CGO) barrier layer and La0.6Sr0.4CoO3 (LSC) cathode.

  11. Model anodes and anode models for understanding the mechanism of hydrogen oxidation in solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Bessler, Wolfgang G; Vogler, Marcel; Störmer, Heike; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Utz, Annika; Weber, André; Ivers-Tiffée, Ellen

    2010-11-14

    This article presents a literature review and new results on experimental and theoretical investigations of the electrochemistry of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model anodes, focusing on the nickel/yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ) materials system with operation under H(2)/H(2)O atmospheres. Micropatterned model anodes were used for electrochemical characterization under well-defined operating conditions. Structural and chemical integrity was confirmed by ex situ pre-test and post-test microstructural and chemical analysis. Elementary kinetic models of reaction and transport processes were used to assess reaction pathways and rate-determining steps. The comparison of experimental and simulated electrochemical behaviors of pattern anodes shows quantitative agreement over a wide range of operating conditions (p(H(2)) = 8×10(2) - 9×10(4) Pa, p(H(2)O) = 2×10(1) - 6×10(4) Pa, T = 400-800 °C). Previously published experimental data on model anodes show a strong scatter in electrochemical performance. Furthermore, model anodes exhibit a pronounced dynamics on multiple time scales which is not reproduced in state-of-the-art models and which is also not observed in technical cermet anodes. Potential origin of these effects as well as consequences for further steps in model anode and anode model studies are discussed.

  12. Preparation of functional layers for anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells by the reverse roll coating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mücke, R.; Büchler, O.; Bram, M.; Leonide, A.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.; Buchkremer, H. P.

    The roll coating technique represents a novel method for applying functional layers to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). This fast process is already used for mass production in other branches of industry and offers a high degree of automation. It was utilized for coating specially developed anode (NiO + 8YSZ, 8YSZ: 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia) and electrolyte (8YSZ) suspensions on green and pre-sintered tape-cast anode supports (NiO + 8YSZ). The layers formed were co-fired in a single step at 1400 °C for 5 h. As a result, the electrolyte exhibited a thickness of 14-18 μm and sufficient gas tightness. Complete cells with a screen-printed and sintered La 0.65Sr 0.3MnO 3- δ (LSM)/8YSZ cathode yielded a current density of 0.9-1.1 A cm -2 at 800 °C and 0.7 V, which is lower than the performance of non-co-fired slip-cast or screen-printed Jülich standard cells with thinner anode and electrolyte layers. The contribution of the cell components to the total area-specific resistance (ASR) was calculated by analyzing the distribution function of the relaxation times (DRTs) of measured electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and indicates the potential improvement in the cell performance achievable by reducing the thickness of the roll-coated layers. The results show that the anode-supported planar half-cells can be fabricated cost-effectively by combining roll coating with subsequent co-firing.

  13. Effect of thermally growth oxides (TGO) on adhesion strength for high purity yitria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) and rare - Earth lanthanum zirconates (LZ) multilayer thermal barrier coating before and after isothermal heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, Salmi Mohd; Johari, Azril Dahari; Husin, Shuib

    2017-12-01

    Investigation on the effect of Thermally Growth Oxides (TGO) on the adhesion strength for thermal barrier coating (TBC) was carried out. The TBC under studied was the multilayer systems which consist of NiCrAlY bond coat and YSZ/LZ ceramic coating deposited on Ni-based superalloy substrates. The development of thermally growth oxides (TGO) for both TBC systems after isothermal heat treatment was measured. Isothermal heat treatment was carried out at 1100 ˚C for 100 hours to age the samples. ASTM D4541: Standard Test Method for Pull-off Strength of Coatings using Portable Adhesion Tester was used to measure the adhesion strength of both TBC systems before and after heat treatment. The effect of the developed TGO on the measured adhesion strength was examined and correlation between them was established individually for both TBC systems. The failure mechanism of the both system was also identified; either cohesive or adhesive or the combination of both. The results showed that TGO has more than 50% from the bond coat layer for rare-earth LZ system compared to the typical YSZ system, which was less than 10 % from the bond coat layer. This leads to the lower adhesion strength of rare-earth LZ coating system compared to typical YSZ system. Failure mechanism during the pull-off test also was found to be different for both TBC systems. The typical YSZ system experienced cohesive failure whereas the rare-earth LZ system experienced the combination of cohesive and adhesive failure.

  14. Structural evolution of plasma-sprayed nanoscale 3 mol% and 5 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings during sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Gao, Yang

    2017-12-01

    The microstructure of plasma-sprayed nanostructured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings may change during high-temperature exposure, which would influence the coating performance and service lifetime. In this study, the phase structure and the microstructural evolution of 3YSZ (zirconia-3 mol% yttria) and 5YSZ (zirconia-5 mol% yttria) nanostructured coatings were investigated by means of sintering at 1400 °C for 50-100 h. The microhardness, elastic moduli, and thermal shock cycles of the 3YSZ and 5YSZ nanostructured coatings were also investigated. The results showed that the redistribution of yttrium ions at 1400 °C caused the continuous increase of monoclinic-phase zirconia, but no obvious inter-splat cracking formed at the cross-sections, even after 100 h. Large voids appeared around the nanoporous zone because of the sintering of nanoscale granules upon high-temperature exposure. The microhardness and elastic moduli of the nanostructured coatings first increased and then decreased with increasing sintering times. The growth rate of the nanograins in the 3YSZ coating was lower than that in 5YSZ, which slowed the changes in 3YSZ coating porosity during sintering. Although the 3YSZ coating was prone to monoclinic phase transition, the experimental results showed that the thermal shock resistance of the 3YSZ coating was better than that of the 5YSZ coating.

  15. The crystal structure and morphology of NiO-YSZ composite that prepared from local zircon concentrate of Bangka Island

    SciT

    Rahmawati, F., E-mail: fitria@mipa.uns.ac.id; Apriyani, K.; Heraldy, E.

    2016-03-29

    In order to increase the economic value of local zircon concentrate from Bangka Island, NiO-YSZ was synthesized from Zirconia, ZrO{sub 2} that was prepared from local zircon concentrate. The NiO-YSZ composite was synthesized by solid state reaction method. XRD analysis equipped with Le Bail refinement was carried out to analyze the crystal structure and cell parameters of the prepared materials. The result showed that zirconia was crystallized in tetragonal structure with a space group of P42/NMC. Yttria-Stabilized-Zirconia (YSZ) was prepared by doping 8% mol yttrium oxide into zirconia and then sintered at 1250°C for 3 hours. Doping of 8% molmore » Yttria allowed phase transformation of zirconia from tetragonal into the cubic structure. Meanwhile, the composite of NiO-YSZ consists of two crystalline phases, i.e. the NiO with cubic structure and the YSZ with cubic structure. SEM analysis of the prepared materials shows that the addition of NiO into YSZ allows the morphology to become more roughness with larger grain size.« less

  16. Environmental Barrier Coatings Having a YSZ Top Coat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N.; Gray, Hugh (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) with a Si bond coat, a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coat, and various intermediate coats were investigated. EBCs were processed by atmospheric pressure plasma spraying. The EBC durability was determined by thermal cycling tests in water vapor at 1300 C and 1400 C, and in air at 1400 C and 1500 C. EBCs with a mullite (3Al2O3 (dot) 2SiO2) + BSAS (1 - xBaO (dot) xSrO (dot) Al2O3 (dot) 2SiO2) intermediate coat were more durable than EBCs with a mullite intermediate coat, while EBCs with a mullite/BSAS duplex intermediate coat resulted in inferior durability. The improvement with a mullite + BSAS intermediate coat was attributed to enhanced compliance of the intermediate coat due to the addition of a low modulus BSAS second phase. Mullite + BSAS/YSZ and BSAS/YSZ interfaces produced a low melting (less than 1400 C) reaction product, which is expected to degrade the EBC performance by increasing the thermal conductivity. EBCs with a mullite + BSAS / graded mullite + YSZ intermediate coat showed the best durability among the EBCs investigated in this study. This improvement was attributed to diffused CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) mismatch stress and improved chemical stability due to the compositionally graded mullite+YSZ layer.

  17. Atomistic modeling of La 3+ doping segregation effect on nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Shenli; Sha, Haoyan; Castro, Ricardo H. R.; ...

    2018-01-01

    The effect of La 3+ doping on the structure and ionic conductivity change in nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was studied using a combination of Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations.

  18. Physical vapor deposition and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of yttria-stabilized zirconia thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, David Y.

    Two vapor deposition techniques, dual magnetron oblique sputtering (DMOS) and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), have been developed to produce yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films with unique microstructures. In particular, biaxially textured thin films on amorphous substrates and dense thin films on porous substrates have been fabricated by DMOS and MOCVD, respectively. DMOS YSZ thin films were deposited by reactive sputtering onto Si (native oxide surface) substrates positioned equidistant between two magnetron sources such that the fluxes arrived at oblique angles with respect to the substrate normal. Incident fluxes from two complimentary oblique directions were necessary for the development of biaxial texture. The films displayed a strong [001] out-of-plane orientation with the <110> direction in the film aligned with the incident flux. Biaxial texture improved with increasing oblique angle and film thickness, and was stronger for films deposited with Ne than with Ar. The films displayed a columnar microstructure with grain bundling perpendicular to the projected flux direction, the degree of which increased with oblique angle and thickness. The texture decreased by sputtering at pressures at which the flux of sputtered atoms was thermalized. These results suggested that grain alignment is due to directed impingement of both sputtered atoms and reflected energetic neutrals. The best texture, a {111} phi FWHM of 23°, was obtained in a 4.8 mum thick film deposited at an oblique angle of 56°. MOCVD YSZ thin films were deposited in a vertical cold-wall reactor using Zr(tmhd)4 and Y(tmhd)3 precursors. Fully stabilized YSZ films with 9 mol% could be deposited by controlling the bubbler temperatures. YSZ films on Si substrates displayed a transition at 525°C from surface kinetic limited growth, with an activation energy of 5.5 kJ/mole, to mass transport limited growth. Modifying the reactor by lowering the inlet height and introducing an Ar baffle

  19. Processing of Alumina-Toughened Zirconia Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2003-01-01

    Dense and crack-free 10-mol%-yttria-stabilized zirconia (10YSZ)-alumina composites, containing 0 to 30 mol% of alumina, have been fabricated by hot pressing. Release of pressure before onset of cooling was crucial in obtaining crack-free material. Hot pressing at 1600 C resulted in the formation of ZrC by reaction of zirconia with grafoil. However, no such reaction was observed at 1500 C. Cubic zirconia and -alumina were the only phases detected from x-ray diffraction indicating no chemical reaction between the composite constituents during hot pressing. Microstructure of the composites was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Density and elastic modulus of the composites followed the rule-of-mixtures. Addition of alumina to 10YSZ resulted in lighter, stronger, and stiffer composites by decreasing density and increasing strength and elastic modulus.

  20. Use of La 0.75Sr 0.25Cr 0.5Mn 0.5O 3 materials in composite anodes for direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiao-Feng; Wang, S. R.; Wang, Z. R.; Hu, Q.; Sun, X. F.; Wen, T. L.; Wen, Z. Y.

    The perovskite system La 1- xSr xCr 1- yM yO 3- δ (M, Mn, Fe and V) has recently attracted much attention as a candidate material for the fabrication of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to its stability in both H 2 and CH 4 atmospheres at temperatures up to 1000 °C. In this paper, we report the synthesis of La 0.75Sr 0.25Cr 0.5Mn 0.5O 3 (LSCM) by solid-state reaction and its employment as an alternative anode material for anode-supported SOFCs. Because LSCM shows a greatly decreased electronic conductivity in a reducing atmosphere compared to that in air, we have fabricated Cu-LSCM-ScSZ (scandia-stabilized zirconia) composite anodes by tape-casting and a wet-impregnation method. Additionally, a composite structure (support anode, functional anode and electrolyte) structure with a layer of Cu-LSCM-YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia) on the supported anode surface has been manufactured by tape-casting and screen-printing. Single cells with these two kinds of anodes have been fabricated, and their performance characteristics using hydrogen and ethanol have been measured. In the operation period, no obvious carbon deposition was observed when these cells were operated on ethanol. These results demonstrate the stability of LSCM in an ethanol atmosphere and its potential utilization in anode-supported SOFCs.

  1. Multilayer Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Architectures Utilizing Rare Earth Doped YSZ and Rare Earth Pyrochlores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Michael P.; Rai, Amarendra K.; Bhattacharya, Rabi; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    To allow for increased gas turbine efficiencies, new insulating thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be developed to protect the underlying metallic components from higher operating temperatures. This work focused on using rare earth doped (Yb and Gd) yttria stabilized zirconia (t' Low-k) and Gd2Zr2O7 pyrochlores (GZO) combined with novel nanolayered and thick layered microstructures to enable operation beyond the 1200 C stability limit of current 7 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) coatings. It was observed that the layered system can reduce the thermal conductivity by approximately 45 percent with respect to YSZ after 20 hr of testing at 1316 C. The erosion rate of GZO is shown to be an order to magnitude higher than YSZ and t' Low-k, but this can be reduced by almost 57 percent when utilizing a nanolayered structure. Lastly, the thermal instability of the layered system is investigated and thought is given to optimization of layer thickness.

  2. Stability of yttria-stabilized zirconia during pyroprocessing tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Lee, Jeong; Lee, Sung-Jai; Kim, Sung-Wook; Jeon, Sang-Chae; Cho, Soo Haeng; Oh, Seung Chul; Jeon, Min Ku; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kang, Hyun Woo; Hur, Jin-Mok

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the feasibility of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was investigated for use as a ceramic material, which can be commonly used for both electrolytic reduction and electrorefining. First, the stability of YSZ in salts for electrolytic reduction and electrorefining was examined. Then, its stability was demonstrated by a series of pyroprocessing tests, such as electrolytic reduction, LiCl distillation, electrorefining, and LiClsbnd KCl distillation, using a single stainless steel wire mesh basket containing fuel and YSZ. A single basket was used by its transportation from one test to subsequent tests without the requirements for unloading.

  3. Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell With La and Cr Co-doped SrTiO3 as Anode.

    PubMed

    Yi, Fenyun; Chen, Hongyu; Li, He

    2014-06-01

    The La 0.3 Sr 0.55 Ti 0.9 Cr 0.1 O 3-δ (LSTC10) anode material was synthesized by citric acid-nitrate process. The yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte-supported cell was fabricated by screen printing method using LSTC10 as anode and (La 0.75 Sr 0.25 ) 0.95 MnO 3-δ (LSM) as cathode. The electrochemical performance of cell was tested by using dry hydrogen as fuel and air as oxidant in the temperature range of 800-900 °C. At 900 °C, the open circuit voltage (OCV) and the maximum power density of cell are 1.08 V and 13.0 mW·cm -2 , respectively. The microstructures of cell after performance testing were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that the anode and cathode films are porous and closely attached to the YSZ electrolyte. LSTC10 is believed to be a kind of potential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material.

  4. Electrodeposition of thin yttria-stabilized zirconia layers using glow-discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogumi, Zempachi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Tsuji, Yoichiro; Takehara, Zen-ichiro

    1992-08-01

    A novel process for preparation of thin yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layers was developed. This process differs from other vapor-phase deposition methods in that a dc bias circuit, separate from the plasma-generation circuit, is used for the electrodeposition process. The YSZ layer was electrodeposited from ZrCl4 and YCl3 on a nonporous calcia-stabilized zirconia substrate. Scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and x-ray-diffraction measurements confirmed the electrodeposition of a smooth, pinhole-free yttria-stabilized zirconia film of about 3 μm thickness.

  5. Thermal cycling and electrochemical characteristics of solid oxide fuel cell supported on stainless steel with a new 3-phase composite anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayaghi, Amir Masoud; Kim, Kun Joong; Kim, Sun Jae; Kim, Sunwoong; Bae, Hongyeul; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2017-06-01

    We report design, fabrication method, and fast thermal-cycling ability of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) that use stainless steel (STS) as a support, and a new 3-phase anode. La and Ni co-doped SrTiO3 (La0.2Sr0.8Ti0.9Ni0.1O3-d, LSTN), replaces some of the Ni in conventional Ni-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode; the resultant LSTN-YSZ-Ni 3-phase-composite anode is tested as a new reduction (or decomposition)-resistant anode of STS-supported SOFCs that can be co-fired with STS. A multi-layered cell with YSZ electrolyte (thickness ∼5 μm), composite anode, STS-cermet contact-layer, and STS support is designed, then fabricated by tape casting, lamination, and co-firing at 1250 °C in reducing atmosphere. The maximum power density (MPD) is 325 mW cm-2 at 650 °C; this is one of the highest among STS-supported cells fabricated by co-firing. The cell also shows stable open-circuit voltage and Ohmic resistance during 100 rapid thermal cycles between 170 and 600 °C. STS support minimizes stress and avoids cracking of electrolyte during rapid thermal cycling. The excellent MPD and stability during thermal cycles, and promising characteristics of SOFC as a power source for vehicle or mobile devices that requires rapid thermal cycles, are attributed to the new design of the cell with new anode structure.

  6. Evidence of yttrium silicate inclusions in YSZ-porcelain veneers.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Brian R; Griggs, Jason A; Neidigh, John; Piascik, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    This report introduces the discovery of crystalline defects that can form in the porcelain veneering layer when in contact with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The focus was on dental prostheses and understanding the defects that form in the YSZ/porcelain system; however the data reported herein may have broader implications toward the use and stability of YSZ-based ceramics in general. Specimens were cut from fully sintered YSZ plates and veneering porcelain was applied (<1 mm thick) to one surface and fired under manufacturer's recommended protocol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with integrated electron dispersive X-ray (EDAX) was used for microstructural and elemental analysis. EDAX, for chemical analysis and transmission electron diffraction (TED) for structural analysis were both performed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Additionally, in order to spatially resolve Y-rich precipitates, micro-CT scans were conducted at varying depths within the porcelain veneer. Local EDAX (SEM) was performed in the regions of visible inclusions and showed significant increases in yttrium concentration. TEM specimens also showed apparent inclusions in the porcelain and selected area electron diffraction was performed on these regions and found the inclusions to be crystalline and identified as either yttrium-silicate (Y2 SiO5 ) or yttrium-disilicate (Y2 Si2 O7 ). Micro-CT data showed that yttrium-silicate precipitates were distributed throughout the thickness of the porcelain veneer. Future studies are needed to determine whether many of the premature failures associated with this materials system may be the result of crystalline flaws that form as a result of high temperature yttrium diffusion near the surfaces of YSZ. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Examination of charge transfer in Au/YSZ for high-temperature optical gas sensing

    SciT

    Baltrus, John P.; Ohodnicki, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Au-nanoparticle incorporated oxide thin film materials demonstrate significant promise as functionalsensor materials for high temperature optical gas sensing in severe environments relevant for fossil andnuclear based power generation. The Au/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) system has been extensivelystudied in the literature and serves as a model system for fundamental investigations that seek to betterunderstand the mechanistic origin of the plasmonic gas sensing response. In this work, X-ray photoelec-tron spectroscopy techniques are applied to Au/YSZ films in an attempt to provide further experimentalevidence for a proposed sensing mechanism involving a change in free carrier density of Au nanoparticles due to charge transfer.

  8. Slurry spin coating of thin film yttria stabilized zirconia/gadolinia doped ceria bi-layer electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Joong; Kim, Manjin; Neoh, Ke Chean; Han, Gwon Deok; Bae, Kiho; Shin, Jong Mok; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2016-09-01

    Thin ceramic bi-layered membrane comprising yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) is fabricated by the cost-effective slurry spin coating technique, and it is evaluated as an electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). It is demonstrated that the slurry spin coating method is capable of fabricating porous ceramic films by adjusting the content of ethyl-cellulose binders in the source slurry. The porous GDC layer deposited by spin coating under an optimal condition functions satisfactorily as a cathode-electrolyte interlayer in the test SOFC stack. A 2-μm-thick electrolyte membrane of the spin-coated YSZ/GDC bi-layer is successfully deposited as a dense and stable film directly on a porous NiO-YSZ anode support without any interlayers, and the SOFC produces power output over 200 mW cm-2 at 600 °C, with an open circuit voltage close to 1 V. Electrochemical impedance spectra analysis is conducted to evaluate the performance of the fuel cell components in relation with the microstructure of the spin-coated layers.

  9. Alumina-Reinforced Zirconia Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2003-01-01

    Alumina-reinforced zirconia composites, used as electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells, were fabricated by hot pressing 10 mol percent yttria-stabilized zirconia (10-YSZ) reinforced with two different forms of alumina particulates and platelets each containing 0 to 30 mol percent alumina. Major mechanical and physical properties of both particulate and platelet composites including flexure strength, fracture toughness, slow crack growth, elastic modulus, density, Vickers microhardness, thermal conductivity, and microstructures were determined as a function of alumina content either at 25 C or at both 25 and 1000 C. Flexure strength and fracture toughness at 1000 C were maximized with 30 particulate and 30 mol percent platelet composites, respectively, while resistance to slow crack growth at 1000 C in air was greater for 30 mol percent platelet composite than for 30 mol percent particulate composites.

  10. Application of infiltrated LSCM-GDC oxide anode in direct carbon/coal fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiangling; Arenillas, Ana; Irvine, John T S

    2016-08-15

    Hybrid direct carbon/coal fuel cells (HDCFCs) utilise an anode based upon a molten carbonate salt with an oxide conducting solid electrolyte for direct carbon/coal conversion. They can be fuelled by a wide range of carbon sources, and offer higher potential chemical to electrical energy conversion efficiency and have the potential to decrease CO2 emissions compared to coal-fired power plants. In this study, the application of (La, Sr)(Cr, Mn)O3 (LSCM) and (Gd, Ce)O2 (GDC) oxide anodes was explored in a HDCFC system running with two different carbon fuels, an organic xerogel and a raw bituminous coal. The electrochemical performance of the HDCFC based on a 1-2 mm thick 8 mol% yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and the GDC-LSCM anode fabricated by wet impregnation procedures was characterized and discussed. The infiltrated oxide anode showed a significantly higher performance than the conventional Ni-YSZ anode, without suffering from impurity formation under HDCFC operation conditions. Total polarisation resistance (Rp) reached 0.8-0.9 Ω cm(2) from DCFC with an oxide anode on xerogel and bituminous coal at 750 °C, with open circuit voltage (OCV) values in the range 1.1-1.2 V on both carbon forms. These indicated the potential application of LSCM-GDC oxide anode in HDCFCs. The chemical compatibility of LSCM/GDC with carbon/carbonate investigation revealed the emergence of an A2BO4 type oxide in place of an ABO3 perovskite structure in the LSCM in a reducing environment, due to Li attack as a result of intimate contact between the LSCM and Li2CO3, with GDC being stable under identical conditions. Such reaction between LSCM and Li2CO3 was not observed on a LSCM-YSZ pellet treated with Li-K carbonate in 5% H2/Ar at 700 °C, nor on a GDC-LSCM anode after HDCFC operation. The HDCFC durability tests of GDC-LSCM oxide on a xerogel and on raw bituminous coal were performed under potentiostatic operation at 0.7 V at 750 °C. The degradation mechanisms were

  11. Zirconia toughened mica glass ceramics for dental restorations.

    PubMed

    Gali, Sivaranjani; K, Ravikumar; Murthy, B V S; Basu, Bikramjit

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to understand the role of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in achieving the desired spectrum of clinically relevant mechanical properties (hardness, elastic modulus, fracture toughness and brittleness index) and chemical solubility of mica glass ceramics. The glass-zirconia mixtures with varying amounts of YSZ (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20wt.%) were ball milled, compacted and sintered to obtain pellets of glass ceramic-YSZ composites. Phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction and microstructural characterization with SEM revealed the crystal morphology of the composites. Mechanical properties such as Vickers hardness, elastic modulus, indentation fracture toughness and chemical solubility were assessed. Phase analysis of sintered pellets of glass ceramic-YSZ composites revealed the characteristic peaks of fluorophlogopite (FPP) and tetragonal zirconia. Microstructural investigation showed plate and lath-like interlocking mica crystals with embedded zirconia. Vickers hardness of 9.2GPa, elastic modulus of 125GPa, indentation toughness of 3.6MPa·m 1/2 , and chemical solubility of 30μg/cm 2 (well below the permissible limit) were recorded with mica glass ceramics containing 20wt.% YSZ. An increase in hardness and toughness of the glass ceramic-YSZ composites with no compromise on their brittleness index and chemical solubility has been observed. Such spectrum of properties can be utilised for developing a machinable ceramic for low stress bearing inlays, onlays and veneers. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dense zig-zag microstructures in YSZ thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stender, Dieter; Schäuble, Nina; Weidenkaff, Anke; Montagne, Alex; Ghisleni, Rudy; Michler, Johann; Schneider, Christof W.; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The very brittle oxygen ion conductor yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a typical solid electrolyte for miniaturized thin film fuel cells. In order to decrease the fuel cell operating temperature, the thickness of yttria stabilized zirconia thin films is reduced. Often, these thin membranes suffer from mechanical failure and gas permeability. To improve these mechanical issues, a glancing angle deposition approach is used to grow yttria stabilized zirconia thin films with tilted columnar structures. Changes of the material flux direction during the deposition result in a dense, zigzag-like structure with columnar crystallites. This structure reduces the elastic modulus of these membranes as compared to columnar yttria stabilized zirconia thin films as monitored by nano-indentation which makes them more adaptable to applied stress.

  13. Anomalous Epitaxial Growth in Thermally Sprayed YSZ and LZ Splats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Guan-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings are essentially layered materials, and lamellar interfaces are of great importance to coatings' performances. In the present study, to investigate the microstructures and defect features at thermally sprayed coating interfaces, homoepitaxial 8 mol.% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and heteroepitaxial lanthanum zirconia (LZ) films were fabricated. The epitaxial interfaces were examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) in detail. As a result, we report, for the first time, an anomalous incommensurate homoepitaxial growth with mismatch-induced dislocations in thermally sprayed YSZ splats to create a homointerface. We also find the anomalous heteroepitaxial growth in thermally sprayed LZ splats. The mechanism of the anomalous incommensurate growth was analyzed in detail. Essentially, it is a pseudo-heteroepitaxy because of the lattice mismatch between the film and the locally heated substrate, as the locally heated substrate is significantly strained by its cold surroundings. Moreover, the super-high-density dislocations were found in the interfacial region, which resulted from sufficient thermal fluctuations and extremely rapid cooling rates. Both the anomalous lattice mismatch and super-high-density dislocations lead to weak interfaces and violent cracking in thermally sprayed coatings. These were also the essential differences between the conventional and the present epitaxy by thermal spray technique.

  14. Positron annihilation studies of zirconia doped with metal cations of different valence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochazka, I.; Cizek, J.; Melikhova, O.; Konstantinova, T. E.; Danilenko, I. A.; Yashchishyn, I. A.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.

    2013-06-01

    New results obtained by applying positron annihilation spectroscopy to the investigation of zirconia-based nanomaterials doped with metal cations of different valence are reported. The slow-positron implantation spectroscopy combined with Doppler broadening measurements was employed to study the sintering of pressure-compacted nanopowders of tetragonal yttria-stabilised zirconia (t-YSZ) and t-YSZ with chromia additive. Positronium (Ps) formation in t-YSZ was proven by detecting 3γ-annihilations of ortho-Ps and was found to gradually decrease with increasing sintering temperature. A subsurface layer with enhanced 3γ-annihilations, compared to the deeper regions, could be identified. Addition of chromia was found to inhibit Ps formation. In addition, first results of positron lifetime measurements on nanopowders of zirconia phase-stabilised with MgO and CeO2 are presented.

  15. Cubic zirconia as a species permeable coating for zinc diffusion in gallium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisberg, J. E.; Dabkowski, F. P.; Chin, A. K.

    1988-10-01

    Diffusion of zinc into GaAs through an yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia (YSZ) passivation layer has been demonstrated with an open-tube diffusion method. Pure zinc or GaAs/Zn2As3 sources produced high quality planar p-n junctions. The YSZ layer protects the GaAs surface from excessive loss of arsenic, yet is permeable to zinc, allowing its diffusion into the semiconductor. The YSZ films, deposited by electron beam evaporation, were typically 2000 Å thick. Zinc diffusion coefficients (DT) at 650 °C in the YSZ passivated GaAs ranged from 3.6×10-10 cm2/min for the GaAs/Zn2As3 source to 1.9×10-9 cm2/min for the pure zinc source. Doping concentrations for both YSZ passivated and uncapped samples were approximately 5×1019 cm-3.

  16. Heteroepitaxial growth of tin-doped indium oxide films on single crystalline yttria stabilized zirconia substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamei, Masayuki; Yagami, Teruyuki; Takaki, Satoru; Shigesato, Yuzo

    1994-05-01

    Heteroepitaxial growth of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) film was achieved for the first time by using single crystalline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as substrates. The epitaxial relationship between ITO film and YSZ substrate was ITO[100]∥YSZ[100]. By comparing the electrical properties of this epitaxial ITO film with that of a randomly oriented polycrystalline ITO film grown on a glass substrate, neither the large angle grain boundaries nor the crystalline orientation were revealed to be dominant in determining the carrier mobility in ITO films.

  17. Fabrication of biaxially oriented YBCO on (001) biaxially oriented yttria-stabilized-zirconia on polycrystalline substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, P.; Foltyn, S.; Wu, Xin Di; Townsend, J.; Adams, C.; Hawley, M.; Tiwari, P.; Maley, M.; Willis, J.; Moseley, D.

    Ion-assisted, ion-beam sputter deposition is used to obtain (001) biaxially oriented films of cubic yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) on polycrystalline metal substrates. Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) is then heteroepitaxially pulse laser deposited onto the YSZ. Phi scans of the films show the full-width-half maxima of the YSZ (202) and the YBCO (103) reflections to be 14 deg and 10 deg, respectively. Our best dc transport critical current density measurement for the YBCO is 800,000 A/sq cm at 75 K and 0 T. At 75 K, the total dc transport current in a 1 cm wide YBCO film is 23 A.

  18. Phase analysis of plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, N. R.; Berndt, C. C.; Herman, H.

    1983-01-01

    Phase analysis of plasma-sprayed 8 wt pct-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings and powders was carried out by X-ray diffraction. Step scanning was used for increased peak resolution. Plasma spraying of the YSZ powder into water or onto a steel substrate to form a coating reduced the cubic and monoclinic phases with a simultaneous increase in the tetragonal phase. Heat treatment of the coating at 1150 C for 10 h in an Ar atmosphere increased the amount of cubic and monoclinic phases. The implications of these transformations on coating performance and integrity are discussed.

  19. Energetics of zirconia stabilized by cation and nitrogen substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodetsky, Irina

    Tetragonal and cubic zirconia are used in advanced structural ceramics, fuel cells, oxygen sensors, nuclear waste ceramics and many other applications. These zirconia phases are stabilized at room temperature (relative to monoclinic phase for pure zirconia) by cation and nitrogen substitution. This work is aimed at a better understanding of the mechanisms of stabilization of the high-temperature zirconia. phases. Experimental data are produced on the energetics of zirconia stabilized by yttria and calcia, energetics of nitrogen-oxygen substitution in zirconia and cation doped zirconia, and energetics of x-ray amorphous zirconia. obtained by low-temperature synthesis. High-temperature oxide melt solution enables direct measurement of enthalpies of formation of these refractory oxides. The enthalpy of the monoclinic to cubic phase transition of zirconia is DeltaHm-c = 12.2 +/- 1.2 kJ/mol. For cubic phases of YSZ at low yttria contents, a straight line DeltaH f,YSZ = -(52.4 +/- 3.6)x + (12.2 +/- 1.2) approximates the enthalpy of formation as a function of the yttria content, x (0. 1 < x < 0.3). Use of the quadratic fit DeltaHf,YSZ = 126.36 x 2 - 81.29 x + 12.37 (0.1 ≲ x ≲ 0.53) indicates that yttria stabilizes the cubic phase in enthalpy at low dopant content and destabilizes the cubic phase as yttria content increases. Positive entropy of mixing in YSZ and small enthalpy of long range ordering in 0.47ZrO2-0.53YO1.5, DeltaHord = -2.4 +/- 3.0 kJ/mol, indicate presence of short range ordering in YSZ. The enthalpy of formation of calcia stabilized zirconia as a function of calcia content x, is approximated as DeltaHf,c = (-91.4 +/- 3.8) x + (13.5 +/- 1.7) kJ/mol. The enthalpy of oxygen-nitrogen substitution, DeltaHO-N, in zirconium oxynitrides is a linear function of nitrogen content. DeltaH O-N ˜ -500 kJ/mol N is for Ca (Y)-Zr-N-O and Zr-N-O oxynitrides and DeltaHO-N ˜ -950 kJ/mol N is for Mg-Zr-N-O oxynitrides. X-ray amorphous zirconia is 58.6 +/- 3.3 kJ/mol less

  20. A sputtered zirconia primer for improved thermal shock resistance of plasma sprayed ceramic turbine seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.; Sovey, J.; Allen, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    The development of plasma-sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ceramic turbine blade tip seal components is discussed. The YSZ layers are quite thick (0.040 to 0.090 in.). The service potential of seal components with such thick ceramic layers is cyclic thermal shock limited. The most usual failure mode is ceramic layer delamination at or very near the interface between the plasma sprayed YSZ layer and the NiCrAlY bondcoat. Deposition of a thin RF sputtered YSZ primer to the bondcoat prior to deposition of the thick plasma sprayed YSZ layer was found to reduce laminar cracking in cyclic thermal shock testing. The cyclic thermal shock life of one ceramic seal design was increased by a factor of 5 to 6 when the sputtered YSZ primer was incorporated. A model based on thermal response of plasma sprayed YSZ particles impinging on the bondcoat surface with and without the sputtered YSZ primer provides a basis for understanding the function of the primer.

  1. Heterogeneous electrolyte (YSZ-Al 2O 3) based direct oxidation solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thokchom, J. S.; Xiao, H.; Rottmayer, M.; Reitz, T. L.; Kumar, B.

    Bilayers comprised of dense and porous YSZ-Al 2O 3 (20 wt%) composite were tape cast, processed, and then fabricated into working solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The porous part of the bilayer was converted into anode for direct oxidation of fuels by infiltrating CeO 2 and Cu. The cathode side of the bilayer was coated with an interlayer [YSZ-Al 2O 3 (20 wt%)]: LSM (1:1) and LSM as cathode. Several button cells were evaluated under hydrogen/air and propane/air atmospheres in intermediate temperature range and their performance data were analyzed. For the first time the feasibility of using YSZ-Al 2O 3 material for fabricating working SOFCs with high open circuit voltage (OCV) and power density is demonstrated. AC impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to characterize the membrane and cell.

  2. An Investigation of LSF-YSZ Conductive Scaffolds for Infiltrated SOFC Cathodes

    SciT

    Cheng, Yuan; Oh, Tae-Sik; Wilson, Rachel

    Porous composites of Sr-doped LaFeO 3 (LSF) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were investigated as conductive scaffolds for infiltrated SOFC cathodes with the goal of producing scaffolds for which only a few perovskite infiltration steps are required to achieve sufficient conductivity. While no new phases form when LSF-YSZ composites are calcined to 1623 K, shifts in the lattice parameters indicate Zr can enter the perovskite phase. Measurements on dense, LSF-YSZ composites show that the level of Zr doping depends on the Sr:La ratio. Because conductivity of undoped LSF increases with Sr content while both the ionic and electronic conductivities of Zr-dopedmore » LSF decrease with the level of Zr in the perovskite phase, there is an optimum initial Sr content corresponding to La 0.9Sr 0.1FeO 3 (LSF91). Although scaffolds made with 100% LSF had a higher conductivity than scaffolds made with 50:50 LSF-YSZ mixtures, the 50:50 mixture provides the optimal interfacial structure with the electrolyte and sufficient conductivity, providing the best cathode performance upon infiltration of La 0.6Sr 0.4Co 0.2Fe 0.8O 3 (LSCF).« less

  3. An Investigation of LSF-YSZ Conductive Scaffolds for Infiltrated SOFC Cathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Yuan; Oh, Tae-Sik; Wilson, Rachel; ...

    2017-03-24

    Porous composites of Sr-doped LaFeO 3 (LSF) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were investigated as conductive scaffolds for infiltrated SOFC cathodes with the goal of producing scaffolds for which only a few perovskite infiltration steps are required to achieve sufficient conductivity. While no new phases form when LSF-YSZ composites are calcined to 1623 K, shifts in the lattice parameters indicate Zr can enter the perovskite phase. Measurements on dense, LSF-YSZ composites show that the level of Zr doping depends on the Sr:La ratio. Because conductivity of undoped LSF increases with Sr content while both the ionic and electronic conductivities of Zr-dopedmore » LSF decrease with the level of Zr in the perovskite phase, there is an optimum initial Sr content corresponding to La 0.9Sr 0.1FeO 3 (LSF91). Although scaffolds made with 100% LSF had a higher conductivity than scaffolds made with 50:50 LSF-YSZ mixtures, the 50:50 mixture provides the optimal interfacial structure with the electrolyte and sufficient conductivity, providing the best cathode performance upon infiltration of La 0.6Sr 0.4Co 0.2Fe 0.8O 3 (LSCF).« less

  4. Increasing the Thermal Stability of Aluminum Titanate for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Jeffrey B.

    2004-01-01

    Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) show great potential as a power source for future space exploration missions. Because SOFCs operate at temperatures significantly higher than other types of fuel cells, they can reach overall efficiencies of up to 60% and are able to utilize fossil fuels. The SOFC team at GRC is leading NASA's effort to develop a solid oxide fuel cell with a power density high enough to be used for aeronautics and space applications, which is approximately ten times higher than ground transport targets. layers must be able to operate as a single unit at temperatures upwards of 900'C for at least 40,000 hours with less than ten percent degradation. One key challenge to meeting this goal arises from the thermal expansion mismatch between different layers. The amount a material expands upon heating is expressed by its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). If the CTEs of adjacent layers are substantially different, thermal stresses will arise during the cell's fabrication and operation. These stresses, accompanied by thermal cycling, can fracture and destroy the cell. While this is not an issue at the electrolyte-cathode interface, it is a major concern at the electrolyte-anode interface, especially in high power anode-supported systems. electrolyte are nearly identical. Conventionally, this has been accomplished by varying the composition of the anode to match the CTE of the yittria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte (approx.10.8x10(exp -6/degC). A Ni/YSZ composite is typically used as a base material for the anode due to its excellent electrochemical properties, but its CTE is about 13.4x10(exp -6/degC). One potential way to lower the CTE of this anode is to add a small percentage of polycrystalline Al2TiO5, with a CTE of 0.68x10(exp -6/degC, to the Ni/YSZ base. However, Al2TiO5 is thermally unstable and loses its effectiveness as it decomposes to Al2O3 and TiO2 between 750 C and 1280 C. be used as additives to increase the thermal stability of Al2

  5. Hot corrosion behavior of YSZ, Gd2Zr2O7 and YSZ/Gd2Zr2O7 thermal barrier coatings exposed to molten sulfate and vanadate salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgurluk, Yasin; Doleker, Kadir Mert; Karaoglanli, Abdullah Cahit

    2018-04-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are mostly used in critical components of aircraft gas turbine engines. Hot corrosion is among the main deteriorating factors in TBCs which results from the effect of molten salt on the coating-gas interface. This type of corrosion is observed as a result of contamination accumulated during combustion processes. Fuels used in aviation industry generally contain impurities such as vanadium oxide (V2O5) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). These impurities damage turbines' inlet at elevated temperatures because of chemical reaction. Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a conventional top coating material for TBCs while Gd2Zr2O7 is a new promising top coating material for TBCs. In this study, CoNiCrAlY metallic bond coat was deposited on Inconel 718 nickel based superalloy substrate material with a thickness about 100 μm using cold gas dynamic spray (CGDS) method. Production of TBCs were done with deposition of YSZ, Gd2Zr2O7, YSZ/Gd2Zr2O7 ceramic top coating materials using EB-PVD method, having a total thickness of 300 μm. Hot corrosion behavior of YSZ, Gd2Zr2O7, YSZ/Gd2Zr2O7 TBC systems were exposed to 45 wt.% Na2SO4 and 55 wt.% V2O5 molten salt mixtures at 1000 °C temperature. TBC samples were investigated and compared using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The hot corrosion failure mechanisms of YSZ, Gd2Zr2O7 and YSZ/Gd2Zr2O7 TBCs in the molten salts were evaluated.

  6. High-quality crystalline yttria-stabilized-zirconia thin layer for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaud, Guillaume; Matzen, Sylvia; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Le Roux, Xavier; Berciano, Mathias; Maroutian, Thomas; Agnus, Guillaume; Aubert, Pascal; Largeau, Ludovic; Pillard, Valérie; Serna, Samuel; Benedikovic, Daniel; Pendenque, Christopher; Cassan, Eric; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Lecoeur, Philippe; Vivien, Laurent

    2018-03-01

    Functional oxides are considered as promising materials for photonic applications due to their extraordinary and various optical properties. Especially, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has a high refractive index (˜2.15), leading to a good confinement of the optical mode in waveguides. Furthermore, YSZ can also be used as a buffer layer to expand toward a large family of oxides-based thin-films heterostructures. In this paper, we report a complete study of the structural properties of YSZ for the development of integrated optical devices on sapphire in telecom wavelength range. The substrate preparation and the epitaxial growth using pulsed-laser deposition technique have been studied and optimized. High-quality YSZ thin films with remarkably sharp x-ray diffraction rocking curve peaks in 10-3∘ range have then been grown on sapphire (0001). It was demonstrated that a thermal annealing of sapphire substrate before the YSZ growth allowed controlling the out-of-plane orientation of the YSZ thin film. Single-mode waveguides were finally designed, fabricated, and characterized for two different main orientations of high-quality YSZ (001) and (111). Propagation loss as low as 2 dB/cm at a wavelength of 1380 nm has been demonstrated for both orientations. These results pave the way for the development of a functional oxides-based photonics platform for numerous applications including on-chip optical communications and sensing.

  7. Anode regeneration following carbon depositions in an industrial-sized anode supported solid oxide fuel cell operating on synthetic diesel reformate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subotić, Vanja; Schluckner, Christoph; Mathe, Jörg; Rechberger, Jürgen; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Hochenauer, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    Carbon deposition is a primary concern during operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) fueled with carbon-containing fuels. It leads to cell degradation and thus reduces SOFC sustained operation and durability. This paper reports on an experimental investigation of carbon formation on the nickel/yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ) anode of an anode-supported SOFC and its regeneration. The cell was fueled with a synthetically produced diesel reformate to investigate and simulate the cell behavior under real operating conditions. For this purpose the cell was operated under load to determine the critical operating time. Rapid carbon generation, such as at open circuit voltage (OCV), can be prevented when the cell is under load. Carbon depositions were detected using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and further analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Industrial-size cells suitable for commercial applications were studied. This study proves the reversibility of carbon formation and the reproducibility of the regeneration process. It shows that carbon formations can be recognized and effectively, fully and cell-protecting regenerated. It indicates the excellent possibility of using SOFCs in the automotive industry as an auxiliary power unit (APU) or combined power-heat unit, operated with diesel reformate, without danger from cell degradation caused by carbon-containing fuels.

  8. Phase Stabilization of Zirconia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-30

    preparing stabilized zirconia pursuant to this disclosure, an insoluble alumina powder is mixed with zirconia powder using a liquid dispersant, such...in a drying oven or a furnace. When mixing the alumina and zirconia powders , it is not necessary to have zirconia in any particular phase to achieve...phase stabilization, as disclosed herein. When mixed with alumina powder, zirconia powder can be in cubic, tetragonal or 20 monoclinic phases

  9. Defect studies of nanocrystalline zirconia powders and sintered ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čížek, Jakub; Melikhova, Oksana; Procházka, Ivan; Kuriplach, Jan; Kužel, Radomír; Brauer, Gerhard; Anwand, Wolfgang; Konstantinova, Tatyana E.; Danilenko, Igor A.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to communicate a study of defects behavior in zirconia-based nanomaterials—pressure-compacted yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanopowders with different contents of Y2O3 and ceramics obtained by sintering the YZS nanopowders. In addition, YZS single crystals were also investigated. Positron annihilation techniques including positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening with a conventional positron source and Doppler broadening experiments on a monoenergetic positron beam were involved in this study as the principal tools. These techniques were supplemented with transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction observations. In order to get better support of the experimental data interpretation, the state-of-art theoretical calculations of positron parameters were performed for the perfect ZrO2 lattice and selected defect configurations in the YSZ. Theoretical calculations have indicated that neither the oxygen vacancies nor their neutral complexes with substitutional yttrium atoms are capable of positron trapping. On the other hand, the zirconium vacancies are deep positron traps and obviously are responsible for the saturated positron trapping observed in the YSZ single crystals. In the compacted YSZ nanopowders, a majority of positrons is trapped either in the vacancylike defects situated in the negative space-charge layers along grain boundaries (τ1≈185ps) or in vacancy clusters at intersections of grain boundaries (τ2≈370ps) . The intensity ratio I2/I1 was found to be correlated with the mean grain size d as I2/I1˜d-2 . A small fraction of positrons (≈10%) form positronium in large pores (τ3≈2ns,τ4≈30ns) . A significant grain growth during sintering of the YSZ nanopowders above 1000°C was observed.

  10. Influence of low temperature ageing on optical and mechanical properties of transparent yittria stabilized-zirconia cranial prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoodzadeh, Nami; Uahengo, Gottlieb; Halaney, David; Garay, Javier E.; Aguilar, Guillermo

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based diagnostics and therapeutics show promise for many neurological disorders. However, the poor transparency of cranial bone limits the spatial resolution and interaction depth that can be achieved. We addressed this limitation previously, by introducing a novel cranial prosthesis made of a transparent nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia (nc-YSZ) which aims to enhance the diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases by providing chronic optical access to the brain. By using optical coherence tomography, we have demonstrated the initial feasibility of ncYSZ implants for cortical imaging in an acute murine model. Although zirconia-based implants have been known for their excellent mechanical properties, the in vivo application was found to be affected by long-term failures, due to low temperature degradation. Accelerated aging simulations in humid environments at slightly elevated temperatures and over long periods typically transforms the ceramic surface into a monoclinic structure through a stress-corrosion-type mechanism. It was expected that the new nc-YSZ would show sufficient resistance to humid environments in comparison to the conventional zirconia implant. However, even a modest amount of transformation can change optical characteristics such as transparency. Herein we present the results of a simulated ageing study following the guidelines from the ISO 13356:2008 on aging of surgical zirconia ceramics. Comparison of %monoclinic transformation, optical transparency and mechanical hardness of nc-YSZ samples at baseline and following 25 and 100 h hydrothermal treatments shows our implant can withstand these extended ageing treatments.

  11. Development of Carbon and Sulphur Tolerant Anodes of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-14

    LSCM/YSZ) composite anode is investigated in detail for the direct utilization of ethanol and methane (the main component of natural gas) in SOFCs...Impregnation of Pd nanoparticles significantly promotes the electrocatalytic activity of LSCM/YSZ composite anodes for the ethanol and methane... electrooxidation reaction. At 800°C, the electrode polarization resistance for the methane oxidation is reduced by a factor of 3 after impregnation of 0.10

  12. Characterization of Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films and yttria-stabilized zirconia intermediate layers on metal alloys grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reade, R. P.; Mao, X. L.; Russo, R. E.

    1991-08-01

    The use of an intermediate layer is necessary for the growth of YBaCuO thin films on polycrystalline metallic alloys for tape conductor applications. A pulsed laser deposition process to grow controlled-orientation yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films as intermediate layers on Haynes Alloy No. 230 was developed and characterized. YBaCuO films deposited on these YSZ-coated substrates are primarily c-axis oriented and superconducting as deposited. The best YBaCuO films grow on (001)-oriented YSZ intermediate layers and have Tc (R = 0) = 86.0 K and Jc about 3000 A/sq cm at 77 K.

  13. Synthesis of nanocrystalline Ni/Ce-YSZ powder via a polymerization route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolghasemi, Z.; Tamizifar, M.; Arzani, K.; Nemati, A.; Khanfekr, A.; Bolandi, M.

    2013-08-01

    Pechini process was used for preparation of three kinds of nanocrystalline powders of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ): doped with 1.5 mol% nickel oxide, doped with 15 mol% ceria, and doped with 1.5 mol% nickel oxide plus 15 mol% ceria. Zirconium chloride, yttrium nitrate, cerium nitrate, nickel nitrate, citric acid and ethylene glycol were polymerized at 80 °C to produce a gel. XRD, SEM and TEM analyses were used to investigate the crystalline phases and microstructures of obtained compounds. The results of XRD revealed the formation of nanocrystalline powder at 900 °C. Morphology of the powder calcined at 900 °C, examined with a scanning electron microscope, showed that the presence of nickel and cerium inhibited the grain growth in the system. The average crystallite size of the material doped with nickel oxide (9.33 nm) was bigger than the one doped with cerium oxide (9.29 nm), while the YSZ doping with the two oxides simultaneously promoted the grain growth with crystallite size of 11.37 nm. Yttria-stabilized zirconia powder with a mean crystallite size of 9.997 nm was prepared successfully by this method.

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of plasma sprayed HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Khor, K A; Gu, Y W; Pan, D; Cheang, P

    2004-08-01

    Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on titanium alloy substrate have been used extensively due to their excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. However, the erratic bond strength between HA and Ti alloy has raised concern over the long-term reliability of the implant. In this paper, HA/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings that possess superior mechanical properties to conventional plasma sprayed HA coatings were developed. Ti-6Al-4V powders coated with fine YSZ and HA particles were prepared through a unique ceramic slurry mixing method. The so-formed composite powder was employed as feedstock for plasma spraying of the HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V coatings. The influence of net plasma energy, plasma spray standoff distance, and post-spray heat treatment on microstructure, phase composition and mechanical properties were investigated. Results showed that coatings prepared with the optimum plasma sprayed condition showed a well-defined splat structure. HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V solid solution was formed during plasma spraying which was beneficial for the improvement of mechanical properties. There was no evidence of Ti oxidation from the successful processing of YSZ and HA coated Ti-6Al-4V composite powders. Small amount of CaO apart from HA, ZrO(2) and Ti was present in the composite coatings. The microhardness, Young's modulus, fracture toughness, and bond strength increased significantly with the addition of YSZ. Post-spray heat treatment at 600 degrees C and 700 degrees C for up to 12h was found to further improve the mechanical properties of coatings. After the post-spray heat treatment, 17.6% increment in Young's modulus (E) and 16.3% increment in Vicker's hardness were achieved. The strengthening mechanisms of HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings were related to the dispersion strengthening by homogeneous distribution of YSZ particles in the matrix, the good mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V and the formation of solid solution among HA

  15. Yttria stabilized zirconia transparent films prepared by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hisanori; Hirai, Toshio

    1989-04-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) transparent films were prepared on quartz glass substrates at the temperature of 1375 K under atmospheric pressure using ZrCl 4, YCl 3 and O 2 gases as source materials. The growth rate of the film thickness was 1.5 to 2.0 μm/h. Cubic YSZ films were obtained at the value of x between 20 to 60, where x is defined by x( wt%) = YCl3×100/( YCl3+ ZrCl4). The lattice parameter of the cubic YSZ increased from 5.14 to 5.19 Å with the increase of x. Transparent films were obtained at the interval where the x value was between 20 to 45. The (100) plane of YSZ is oriented parallel to the surface of the substrate. For transparent film obtained at x = 29 (1.5 μm in thickness) the optical transmittance was 50-70% in the wavelength range of 250-800 nm.

  16. Brazing of Stainless Steel to Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Using Gold-Based Brazes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Shpargel, T. P.; Asthana, R.

    2007-01-01

    Two gold-base active metal brazes (gold-ABA and gold-ABA-V) were evaluated for oxidation resistance to 850 C, and used to join yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to a corrosion-resistant ferritic stainless steel for possible use in solid oxide fuel cells. Thermogravimetric analysis and optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to evaluate the braze oxidation behavior, and microstructure and composition of the YSZ/braze/steel joints. Both gold-ABA and gold-ABA-V exhibited nearly linear oxidation kinetics at 850 C, with gold-ABA-V showing faster oxidation than gold-ABA. Both brazes produced metallurgically sound YSZ/steel joints due to chemical interactions of Ti and V with the YSZ and steel substrates.

  17. Surface modification of yttria stabilized zirconia via polydopamine inspired coating for hydroxyapatite biomineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Norhidayu Muhamad; Hussain, Rafaqat; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    2014-12-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has been widely used as biomedical implant due to its high strength and enhanced toughening characteristics. However, YSZ is a bioinert material which constrains the formation of chemical bonds with bone tissue following implantation. Inspired by the property of mussels, the surface of YSZ ceramics was functionalized by quinone-rich polydopamine to facilitate the biomineralization of hydroxyapatite. YSZ discs were first immersed in 2 mg/mL of stirred or unstirred dopamine solution at either 25 or 37 °C. The samples were then incubated in 1.5 simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7d. The effect of coating temperature for stirred and unstirred dopamine solutions during substrate grafting was investigated on the basis of chemical compositions, wettability and biomineralization of hydroxyapatite on the YSZ functionalized surface. The results revealed that the YSZ substrate grafted at 37 °C in stirred solution of dopamine possessed significantly improved hydrophilicity (water contact angle of 44.0 ± 2.3) and apatite-mineralization ability (apatite ratio of 1.78). In summary, the coating temperature and stirring condition during grafting procedure affected the chemical compositions of the films and thus influenced the formation of apatite layer on the substrate during the biomineralization process.

  18. Novel Cranial Implants of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia as Acoustic Windows for Ultrasonic Brain Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Mario I; Penilla, Elias H; Leija, Lorenzo; Vera, Arturo; Garay, Javier E; Aguilar, Guillermo

    2017-11-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound can induce changes in tissues by means of thermal and nonthermal effects. It is proposed for treatment of some brain pathologies such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's diseases, and cancer. However, cranium highly absorbs ultrasound reducing transmission efficiency. There are clinical applications of transcranial focused ultrasound and implantable ultrasound transducers proposed to address this problem. In this paper, biocompatible materials are proposed for replacing part of the cranium (cranial implants) based on low porosity polycrystalline 8 mol% yttria-stabilized-zirconia (8YSZ) ceramics as acoustic windows for brain therapy. In order to assess the viability of 8YSZ implants to effectively transmit ultrasound, various 8YSZ ceramics with different porosity are tested; their acoustic properties are measured; and the results are validated using finite element models simulating wave propagation to brain tissue through 8YSZ windows. The ultrasound attenuation is found to be linearly dependent on ceramics' porosity. Results for the nearly pore-free case indicate that 8YSZ is highly effective in transmitting ultrasound, with overall maximum transmission efficiency of ≈81%, compared to near total absorption of cranial bone. These results suggest that 8YSZ polycrystals could be suitable acoustic windows for ultrasound brain therapy at 1 MHz. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of substrate preheating treatment on the microstructure and ultrasonic cavitation erosion behavior of plasma-sprayed YSZ coatings.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wen; An, Yulong; Hou, Guoliang; Li, Shuangjian; Zhou, Huidi; Chen, Jianmin

    2018-09-01

    Inconel 718 was used as the substrate and preheated at different temperatures to deposit yttrium stabilized zirconia (denoted as YSZ) coatings by atmospheric plasma spraying. The microstructure of the as-deposited YSZ coatings and those after cavitation-erosion tests were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and their hardness and toughness as well as cavitation-erosion resistance were evaluated in relation to the effect of substrate preheating temperature. Results indicate that the as-deposited YSZ coatings exhibit typical layered structure and consist of columnar crystals. With the increase of the substrate preheating temperature, the compactness and cohesion strength of coatings are obviously enhanced, which result in the increases in the hardness, elastic modulus and toughness as well as cavitation-erosion resistance of the ceramic coatings therewith. Particularly, the YSZ coating deposited at a substrate preheating temperature of 800 °C exhibits the highest hardness and toughness as well as the strongest lamellar interfacial bonding and cavitation-erosion resistance (its cavitation-erosion life is as much as 8 times than that of deposited at room temperature). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. YSZ thin films with minimized grain boundary resistivity

    SciT

    Mills, Edmund M.; Kleine-Boymann, Matthias; Janek, Juergen

    2016-03-31

    In recent years, interface engineering of solid electrolytes has been explored to increase their ionic conductivity and improve the performance of solid oxide fuel cells and other electrochemical power sources. It has been observed that the ionic conductivity of epitaxially grown thin films of some electrolytes is dramatically enhanced, which is often attributed to effects (e. g. strain-induced mobility changes) at the heterophase boundary with the substrate. Still largely unexplored is the possibility of manipulation of grain boundary resistivity in polycrystalline solid electrolyte films, clearly a limiting factor in their ionic conductivity. Here we report that the ionic conductivity ofmore » yttria stabilized zirconia thin films with nano-­ columnar grains grown on a MgO substrate nearly reaches that of the corresponding single crystal when the thickness of the films becomes less than roughly 8 nm (smaller by a factor of three at 500°C). Using impedance spectroscopy, the grain boundary resistivity was probed as a function of film thickness. The resistivity of the grain boundaries near the film- substrate interface and film surface (within 4 nm of each) was almost entirely eliminated. This minimization of grain boundary resistivity is attributed to Mg2+ diffusion from the MgO substrate into the YSZ grain boundaries, which is supported by time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements. We suggest grain boundary “design” as an attractive method to obtain highly conductive solid electrolyte thin films.« less

  1. YSZ thin films with minimized grain boundary resistivity

    DOE PAGES

    Mills, Edmund M.; Kleine-Boymann, Matthias; Janek, Juergen; ...

    2016-03-31

    In recent years, interface engineering of solid electrolytes has been explored to increase their ionic conductivity and improve the performance of solid oxide fuel cells and other electrochemical power sources. It has been observed that the ionic conductivity of epitaxially grown thin films of some electrolytes is dramatically enhanced, which is often attributed to effects (e.g. strain-induced mobility changes) at the heterophase boundary with the substrate. Still largely unexplored is the possibility of manipulation of grain boundary resistivity in polycrystalline solid electrolyte films, clearly a limiting factor in their ionic conductivity. Here in this paper, we report that the ionicmore » conductivity of yttria stabilized zirconia thin films with nano-columnar grains grown on a MgO substrate nearly reaches that of the corresponding single crystal when the thickness of the films becomes less than roughly 8 nm (smaller by a factor of three at 500 °C). Using impedance spectroscopy, the grain boundary resistivity was probed as a function of film thickness. The resistivity of the grain boundaries near the film–substrate interface and film surface (within 4 nm of each) was almost entirely eliminated. This minimization of grain boundary resistivity is attributed to Mg 2+ diffusion from the MgO substrate into the YSZ grain boundaries, which is supported by time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements. We suggest grain boundary “design” as an attractive method to obtain highly conductive solid electrolyte thin films.« less

  2. Non-contact temperature Raman measurement in YSZ and alumina ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Juddha; Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Buric, Michael P.

    2018-02-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ: ZrO2 + Y2O3) and alumina (Al2O3) are widely used in high-temperature applications due to their high-temperature stability, low thermal conductivity, and chemical inertness. Alumina is used extensively in engineered ceramic applications such as furnace tubes and thermocouple protection tubes, while YSZ is commonly used in thermal barrier coatings on turbine blades. Because they are already often found in high temperature and combustion applications, these two substances have been compared as candidates for Raman thermometry in high-temperature energy-related applications. Both ceramics were used with as-received rough surfaces, i.e., without polishing or modification. This closely approximates surface conditions in practical high-temperature situations. A single-line argon ion laser at 488nm was used to excite the materials inside a cylindrical furnace while measuring Raman spectra with a fixed-grating spectrometer. The shift in the peak positions of the most intense A1g peak at 418cm-1 (room temperature position) of alumina ceramic and relatively more symmetric Eg peak at 470cm-1 (room temperature position) of YSZ were measured and reported along with a thermocouple-derived reference temperature up to about 1000°C. This study showed that alumina and YSZ ceramics can be used in high-temperature Raman thermometry with an accuracy of 4.54°C and 10.5°C average standard deviations respectively over the range of about 1000°C. We hope that this result will guide future researchers in selecting materials and utilizing Raman non-contact temperature measurements in harsh environments.

  3. Molybdenum dioxide-based anode for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Byeong Wan; Ellefson, Caleb; Breit, Joe; Kim, Jinsoo; Grant Norton, M.; Ha, Su

    2013-12-01

    The present paper describes the fabrication and performance of a molybdenum dioxide (MoO2)-based anode for liquid hydrocarbon/oxygenated hydrocarbon-fueled solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). These fuel cells first internally reform the complex liquid fuel into carbon fragments and hydrogen, which are then electrochemically oxidized to produce electrical energy without external fuel processors. The MoO2-based anode was fabricated on to an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte via combined electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) and direct painting methods. The cell performance was measured by directly feeding liquid fuels such as n-dodecane (i.e., a model diesel/kerosene fuel) or biodiesel (i.e., a future biomass-based liquid fuel) to the MoO2-based anode at 850 °C. The maximum initial power densities obtained from our MoO2-based SOFC were 34 mW cm-2 and 45 mW cm-2 using n-dodecane and biodiesel, respectively. The initial power density of the MoO2-based SOFC was improved up to 2500 mW cm-2 by optimizing the porosity of the MoO2-based anode. To test the long-term stability of the MoO2-based anode SOFC against coking, n-dodecane was continuously fed into the cell for 24 h at the open circuit voltage (OCV). During long-term testing, voltage-current density (V-I) plots were periodically obtained and they showed no significant changes over the operation time. Microstructural examination of the tested cells indicated that the MoO2-based anode displayed negligible coke formation, which explains its stability. On the other hand, SOFCs with conventional nickel (Ni)-based anodes under the same operating conditions showed a significant amount of coke formation on the metal surface, which led to a rapid drop in cell performance. Hence, the present work demonstrates that MoO2-based anodes exhibit outstanding tolerance to coke formation. This result opens up the opportunity for more efficiently generating electrical energy from both existing transportation and next generation

  4. Validating the technological feasibility of yttria-stabilized zirconia-based semiconducting-ionic composite in intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yixiao; Wang, Baoyuan; Wang, Yi; Xia, Chen; Qiao, Jinli; van Aken, Peter A.; Zhu, Bin; Lund, Peter

    2018-04-01

    YSZ as the electrolyte of choice has dominated the progressive development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technologies for many years. To enable SOFCs operating at intermediate temperatures of 600 °C or below, major technical advances were built on a foundation of a thin-film YSZ electrolyte, NiO anode, and perovskite cathode, e.g. La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (LSCF). Inspired by functionalities in engineered heterostructure interfaces, the present work uses the components from state-of-the-art SOFCs, i.e, the anode NiO-YSZ and the cathode LSCF-YSZ, or the convergence of all three components, i.e., NiO-YSZ-LSCF, to fabricate semiconductor-ionic membranes (SIMs) and devices. A series of proof-of-concept fuel cell devices are designed by using each of the above SIMs sandwiched between two semiconducting Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05LiO2-δ (NCAL) layers. We systematically compare these novel designs at 600 °C with two reference fuel cells: a commercial product of anode-supported YSZ electrolyte thin-film cell, and a lab-assembled fuel cell with a conventional configuration of NiO-YSZ (anode)/YSZ (electrolyte)/LSCF-YSZ (cathode). In comparison to the reference cells, the SIM device in a configuration of NCAL/NiO-YSZ-LSCF/NCAL reaches more than 3-fold enhancement of the maximum power output. By using spherical aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy approaches, this work offers insight into the mechanisms underlying SIM-associated SOFC performance enhancement.

  5. Poisoning of Ni-Based anode for proton conducting SOFC by H2S, CO2, and H2O as fuel contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shichen; Awadallah, Osama; Cheng, Zhe

    2018-02-01

    It is well known that conventional solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based on oxide ion conducting electrolyte (e.g., yttria-stabilized zirconia, YSZ) and nickel (Ni) - ceramic cermet anodes are susceptible to poisoning by trace amount of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) while not significantly impacted by the presence of carbon dioxide (CO2) and moisture (H2O) in the fuel stream unless under extreme operating conditions. In comparison, the impacts of H2S, CO2, and H2O on proton-conducting SOFCs remain largely unexplored. This study aims at revealing the poisoning behaviors caused by H2S, CO2, and H2O for proton-conducting SOFCs. Anode-supported proton-conducting SOFCs with BaZe0.1Ce0.7Y0.1Yb0.1O3 (BZCYYb) electrolyte and Ni-BZCYYb anode and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF) cathode as well as Ni-BZCYYb/BZCYYb/Ni-BZCYYb anode symmetrical cells were subjected to low ppm-level H2S or low percentage-level CO2 or H2O in the hydrogen fuel, and the responses in cell electrochemical behaviors were recorded. The results suggest that, contrary to conventional SOFCs that show sulfur poisoning and CO2 and H2O tolerance, such proton-conducting SOFCs with Ni-BZCYYb cermet anode seem to be poisoned by all three types of "contaminants". Beyond that, the implications of the experimental observations on understanding the fundamental mechanism of anode hydrogen electrochemical oxidation reaction in proton conducting SOFCs are also discussed.

  6. Synthesis of multi-hierarchical structured yttria-stabilized zirconia powders and their enhanced thermophysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fengmei; Gao, Yanfeng; Chen, Hongfei; Liu, Xinling; Tang, Xiaoping; Luo, Hongjie

    2013-06-01

    Multi-hierarchical structured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal-calcination process. The morphology, crystallinity, and microstructure of the products were characterized by SEM, XRD, TEM, and BET. A possible formation mechanism of the unique structure formed during hydrothermal processing was also investigated. The measured thermophysical results indicated that the prepared YSZ powders had a low thermal conductivity (0.63-1.27 W m-1 K-1), good short-term high-temperature stability up to 1300 °C. The influence of the morphology and microstructure on their thermophysical properties was briefly discussed. The unique multi-hierarchical structure makes the prepared YSZ powders candidates for use in enhanced applications involving thermal barrier coatings.

  7. Thermal Conductivity of Alumina-Toughened Zirconia Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dong-Ming

    2003-01-01

    10-mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (10YSZ)-alumina composites containing 0 to 30 mol% alumina were fabricated by hot pressing at 1500 C in vacuum. Thermal conductivity of the composites, determined at various temperatures using a steady-state laser heat flux technique, increased with increase in alumina content. Composites containing 0, 5, and 10-mol% alumina did not show any change in thermal conductivity with temperature. However, those containing 20 and 30-mol% alumina showed a decrease in thermal conductivity with increase in temperature. The measured values of thermal conductivity were in good agreement with those calculated from simple rule of mixtures.

  8. Performance evaluation of GDC-SrMoO4-YSZ SOFCs prepared with different pore formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongxin, You; Lian, Peng; Xiaojuan, Wang; Cong, Zhao; Yajun, Guan; Tao, Yu; Lijun, Xu; Abuliti

    2018-04-01

    The paper aims to evaluate the performance of anodes prepared with different pore formers. Anodic precursor material SrMoO4 was prepared by hard template method. Gd0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (GDC) was introduced to the precursor to prepare composite anode material GDC-SrMoO4-YSZ by wet impregnation method. Cotton-fibers, graphite powder, flour and activated carbon fibers (ACF) were added as pore formers to the anode to prepare the corresponding solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), respectively. The electrical performance testing was conducted under the methane environment at 800°C. The result showed that the single cell with 5wt% cotton-fibers as anode pore-former performed best with the maximum power density (464.49 mW.cm2). The cross section samples of the test cells indicated that the anode was left with a plenty of continuous long channels because of the burning of cotton-fibers. Thus, the influence of the amount of cotton-fibers (2wt%, 4wt%, 5wt%, 7wt%, 10wt%) of the anode on the performance of SOFC was tested and further analyzed by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was indicated that the optimum adding amount of cotton-fibers was 5wt%.

  9. Effect of Porosity on Synthetic Sand Infiltration within Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Pellets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Sand infiltration was investigated for several yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) pellets of varying porosity. The pellets were synthesized through...each. Several characterization techniques were used to correlate the sand infiltration to porosity. It was found that there was no significant...difference in the results of low and high porosity samples. Interestingly, sand had infiltrated all samples to some degree although the magnitude of the

  10. Effect of the co-spun anode functional layer on the performance of the direct-methane microtubular solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiuxia; Gong, Xun; Yin, Yimei; Yang, Naitao; Tan, Xiaoyao; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2014-02-01

    NiO-YSZ/porous YSZ (NiO-YSZ/p-YSZ) dual-layer hollow fibers have been fabricated by a co-spinning-sintering method, on which a dense YSZ films has been formed by a dip-coating and sintering process. A LSM-YSZ ink has been dip-coated on the dense YSZ films as cathode, while the Cu-CeO2 carbon-resistant catalyst has been impregnated in the p-YSZ layer to form double-anode supported micro tubular fuel cells (MT-SOFCs). The thickness of the Ni-YSZ layer, so called anode functional layer (AFL), is controlled from 74 μm to 13 μm by varying the spinning rates of the NiO-YSZ dopes. The maximum power density of an MT-SOFC, which is fabricated based on a thin co-spun AFL, reaches 566 mW cm-2 operated at 850 °C fed with dry methane, and is stably operated for 85 h without power declination.

  11. Improvement of adhesion and barrier properties of biomedical stainless steel by deposition of YSZ coatings using RF magnetron sputtering

    SciT

    Sánchez-Hernández, Z.E.; CICATA—Altamira, IPN. Grupo CIAMS, Km 14.5, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira, C. P. 89600, Altamira, Tamps, México; Domínguez-Crespo, M.A., E-mail: mdominguezc@ipn.mx

    The AISI 316L stainless steel (SS) has been widely used in both artificial knee and hip joints in biomedical applications. In the present study, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ, ZrO{sub 2} + 8% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films were deposited on AISI 316L SS by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering using different power densities (50–250 W) and deposition times (30–120 min) from a YSZ target. The crystallographic orientation and surface morphology were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of the surface modification on the corrosion performance of AISI 316L SS were evaluated in phosphatemore » buffered saline (PBS) solution using an electrochemical test on both the virgin and coated samples. The YSZ coatings have a (111) preferred orientation during crystal growth along the c-axis for short deposition times (30–60 min), whereas a polycrystalline structure forms during deposition times from 90 to 120 min. The corrosion protective character of the YSZ coatings depends on the crystal size and film thickness. A significant increase in adhesion and corrosion resistance by at least a factor of 46 and a higher breakdown potential were obtained for the deposited coatings at 200 W (120 min). - Highlights: • Well-formed and protective YSZ coatings were achieved on AISI 316L SS substrates. • Films grown at high power and long deposition time have polycrystalline structures. • The crystal size varies from ∼ 5 to 30 nm as both power and deposition time increased. • The differences of corrosion resistance are attributed to internal film structure.« less

  12. Carbon tolerance of Ni-Cu and Ni-Cu/YSZ sub-μm sized SOFC thin film model systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götsch, Thomas; Schachinger, Thomas; Stöger-Pollach, Michael; Kaindl, Reinhard; Penner, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Thin films of YSZ, unsupported Ni-Cu 1:1 alloy phases and YSZ-supported Ni-Cu 1:1 alloy solutions have been reproducibly prepared by magnetron sputter deposition on Si wafers and NaCl(001) single crystal facets at two selected substrate temperatures of 298 K and 873 K. Subsequently, the layer properties of the resulting sub-μm thick thin films as well as the tendency towards carbon deposition following treatment in pure methane at 1073 K has been tested comparatively. Well-crystallized structures of cubic YSZ, cubic NiCu and cubic NiCu/YSZ have been obtained following deposition at 873 K on both substrates. Carbon is deposited on all samples following the trend Ni-Cu (1:1) = Ni-Cu (1:1)/YSZ > pure YSZ, indicating that at least the 1:1 composition of layered Ni-Cu alloy phases is not able to suppress the carbon deposition completely, rendering it unfavorable for usage as anode component in sub-μm sized fuel cells. It is shown that surfaces with a high Cu/Ni ratio nevertheless prohibit any carbon deposition.

  13. Enhanced structural stability of nanoporous zirconia under irradiation of He

    SciT

    Yang, Tengfei; Huang, Xuejun; Wang, Chenxu

    2012-01-01

    This work reports a greatly enhanced tolerance for He irradiation-induced swelling in nanocrystalline zirconia film with interconnected nanoporous structure (hereinafter referred as to NC-C). Compared to bulk yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and another nanocrystalline zirconia film only with discrete nano voids (hereinafter referred as to NC-V), the NC-C film reveals good tolerance for irradiation of high-fluence He. No appreciable surface blistering can be found even at the highest fluence of 6 1017 cm2 in NCC film. From TEM analysis of as-irradiated samples, the enhanced tolerance for volume swelling in NCC film is attributed to the enhanced diffusion mechanism of deposited Hemore » via widely distributed nano channels. Furthermore, the growth of grain size is quite small for both nanocrystalline zirconia films after irradiation, which is ascribed to the decreasing of area of grain boundary due to loose structure and low energy of primary knock-on atoms for He ions.« less

  14. Synthesis and thermal stability of zirconia and yttria-stabilized zirconia microspheres.

    PubMed

    Leib, Elisabeth W; Vainio, Ulla; Pasquarelli, Robert M; Kus, Jonas; Czaschke, Christian; Walter, Nils; Janssen, Rolf; Müller, Martin; Schreyer, Andreas; Weller, Horst; Vossmeyer, Tobias

    2015-06-15

    Zirconia microparticles produced by sol-gel synthesis have great potential for photonic applications. To this end, identifying synthetic methods that yield reproducible control over size uniformity is important. Phase transformations during thermal cycling can disintegrate the particles. Therefore, understanding the parameters driving these transformations is essential for enabling high-temperature applications. Particle morphology is expected to influence particle processability and stability. Yttria-doping should improve the thermal stability of the particles, as it does in bulk zirconia. Zirconia and YSZ particles were synthesized by improved sol-gel approaches using fatty acid stabilizers. The particles were heated to 1500 °C, and structural and morphological changes were monitored by SEM, ex situ XRD and high-energy in situ XRD. Zirconia particles (0.4-4.3 μm in diameter, 5-10% standard deviation) synthesized according to the modified sol-gel approaches yielded significantly improved monodispersities. As-synthesized amorphous particles transformed to the tetragonal phase at ∼450 °C with a volume decrease of up to ∼75% and then to monoclinic after heating from ∼650 to 850 °C. Submicron particles disintegrated at ∼850 °C and microparticles at ∼1200 °C due to grain growth. In situ XRD revealed that the transition from the amorphous to tetragonal phase was accompanied by relief in microstrain and the transition from tetragonal to monoclinic was correlated with the tetragonal grain size. Early crystallization and smaller initial grain sizes, which depend on the precursors used for particle synthesis, coincided with higher stability. Yttria-doping reduced grain growth, stabilized the tetragonal phase, and significantly improved the thermal stability of the particles. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Insight into the grain boundary effect on the ionic transport of yttria-stabilized zirconia at elevated temperatures from a molecular modeling perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kai-Shiun; Lin, Yi-Feng; Tung, Kuo-Lun

    A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is used to reveal the grain boundary effect on the ionic transport of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The oxygen ion displacements and diffusivities of the ideal and grain boundary-inserted YSZ models are analyzed at elevated temperatures. An optimized Y 2O 3 concentration within YSZ for the best ionic conductivity is achieved by balancing the trade-off between the increased vacancies and the decreased accessible free space. The mass transfer resistance of the grain boundary in YSZ can be more easily found at higher temperatures by observing the oxygen ion diffusivities or traveling trajectories. At lower temperatures, the grain interior and the grain boundary control the ionic transport. In contrast, the grain boundary effect on the diffusion barrier is gradually eliminated at elevated temperatures. The modeled results in this work agree well with previous experimental data.

  16. Re-activation of degraded nickel cermet anodes - Nano-particle formation via reverse current pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauch, A.; Marchese, M.; Lanzini, A.; Graves, C.

    2018-02-01

    The Ni/yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) cermet is the most commonly applied fuel electrode for solid oxide cells (SOCs). Loss of Ni/YSZ electrode activity is a key life-time limiting factor of the SOC. Developing means to mitigate this loss of performance or re-activate a fuel electrode is therefore important. In this work, we report a series of five tests on state-of-the-art Ni/YSZ-YSZ-CGObarrier-LSC/CGO cells. All cells were deliberately degraded via gas stream impurities in CO2/CO or harsh steam electrolysis operation. The cells were re-activated via a variety of reverse current treatments (RCTs). Via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, we found that the Ni/YSZ electrode performance could be recovered via RCT, but not via constant fuel cell operation. For optimized RCT, we obtained a lower Ni/YSZ electrode resistance than the initial resistance. E.g. at 700 °C we measured fuel electrode resistance of 180 mΩ cm2, 390 mΩ cm2, and 159 mΩ cm2 before degradation, after degradation and after re-activation via RCT, respectively. Post-test SEM revealed that the RCT led to formation of nano-particles in the fuel electrode. Besides the remarkable improvement, the results also showed that RCTs can weaken Ni/YSZ interfaces and the electrode/electrolyte interface. This indicates that finding an optimum RCT profile is crucial for achieving maximum benefit.

  17. Stabilizing Ir(001) Epitaxy on Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Using a Thin Ir Seed Layer Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    SciT

    Fan, Lisha; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Rouleau, Christopher M.

    In this paper, we demonstrate the reproducible epitaxial growth of 100 nm thick Ir(001) films on a heteroepitaxial stack consisting of 5 nm Ir and 100 nm yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) grown on Si(001) substrates. It is shown that a 5 nm thick Ir layer grown by pulsed laser deposition in the same chamber as the YSZ film without breaking the vacuum is the key to stabilizing Ir(001) epitaxial growth. Growth of the Ir seed layer with pure (001) orientation occurs only in a narrow growth temperature window from 550 to 750 °C, and the fraction of Ir(111) increases at substratemore » temperatures outside of this window. The Ir seed layer prevents exposure of the YSZ film to air during sample transfer and enables highly reproducible Ir(001) heteroepitaxy on YSZ buffered Si(001). In contrast, if Ir is grown directly on a bare YSZ layer that was exposed to ambient conditions, the films are prone to change orientation to (111). These results reveal that preserving the chemical and structural purity of the YSZ surface is imperative for achieving Ir(001) epitaxy. The narrow range of the mosaic spread values from eight experiments demonstrates the high yield and high reproducibility of Ir(001) heteroepitaxy by this approach. Lastly, the improved Ir(001) epitaxial growth method is of great significance for integrating a variety of technologically important materials such as diamond, graphene, and functional oxides on a Si platform.« less

  18. Stabilizing Ir(001) Epitaxy on Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Using a Thin Ir Seed Layer Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Lisha; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; ...

    2016-11-18

    In this paper, we demonstrate the reproducible epitaxial growth of 100 nm thick Ir(001) films on a heteroepitaxial stack consisting of 5 nm Ir and 100 nm yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) grown on Si(001) substrates. It is shown that a 5 nm thick Ir layer grown by pulsed laser deposition in the same chamber as the YSZ film without breaking the vacuum is the key to stabilizing Ir(001) epitaxial growth. Growth of the Ir seed layer with pure (001) orientation occurs only in a narrow growth temperature window from 550 to 750 °C, and the fraction of Ir(111) increases at substratemore » temperatures outside of this window. The Ir seed layer prevents exposure of the YSZ film to air during sample transfer and enables highly reproducible Ir(001) heteroepitaxy on YSZ buffered Si(001). In contrast, if Ir is grown directly on a bare YSZ layer that was exposed to ambient conditions, the films are prone to change orientation to (111). These results reveal that preserving the chemical and structural purity of the YSZ surface is imperative for achieving Ir(001) epitaxy. The narrow range of the mosaic spread values from eight experiments demonstrates the high yield and high reproducibility of Ir(001) heteroepitaxy by this approach. Lastly, the improved Ir(001) epitaxial growth method is of great significance for integrating a variety of technologically important materials such as diamond, graphene, and functional oxides on a Si platform.« less

  19. Subsurface segregation of yttria in yttria stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ridder, M.; van Welzenis, R. G.; van der Gon, A. W. Denier; Brongersma, H. H.; Wulff, S.; Chu, W.-F.; Weppner, W.

    2002-09-01

    The segregation behavior in 3 and 10 mol % polycrystalline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), calcined at temperatures ranging from 300 to 1600 degC, is characterized using low-energy ion scattering (LEIS). In order to be able to separate the Y and Zr LEIS signals, YSZ samples have been prepared using isotopically enriched 94ZrO2 instead of natural zirconia. The samples are made via a special precipitation method at a low temperature. The segregation to the outermost surface layer is dominated by impurities. The increased impurity levels are restricted to this first layer, which underlines the importance of the use of LEIS for this study. For temperatures of 1000 degC and higher, the oxides of the impurities Na, Si, and Ca even cover the surface completely. The performance of a device like the solid oxide fuel cell which has an YSZ electrolyte and a working temperature around 1000 degC, will, therefore, be strongly hampered by these impurities. The reduction of impurities, to prevent accumulation at the surface, will only be effective if the total impurity bulk concentration can be reduced below the 10 ppm level. Due to the presence of the impurities, yttria cannot accumulate in the outermost layer. It does so, in contrast to the general belief, in the subsurface layer and to much higher concentrations than the values reported previously. The difference in the interfacial free energies of Y2O3 and ZrO2 is determined to be -21plus-or-minus3 kJ/mol.

  20. Zirconia in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Wei; Moussi, Joelle; Drury, Jeanie L; Wataha, John C

    2016-10-01

    The use of zirconia in medicine and dentistry has rapidly expanded over the past decade, driven by its advantageous physical, biological, esthetic, and corrosion properties. Zirconia orthopedic hip replacements have shown superior wear-resistance over other systems; however, risk of catastrophic fracture remains a concern. In dentistry, zirconia has been widely adopted for endosseous implants, implant abutments, and all-ceramic crowns. Because of an increasing demand for esthetically pleasing dental restorations, zirconia-based ceramic restorations have become one of the dominant restorative choices. Areas covered: This review provides an updated overview of the applications of zirconia in medicine and dentistry with a focus on dental applications. The MEDLINE electronic database (via PubMed) was searched, and relevant original and review articles from 2010 to 2016 were included. Expert commentary: Recent data suggest that zirconia performs favorably in both orthopedic and dental applications, but quality long-term clinical data remain scarce. Concerns about the effects of wear, crystalline degradation, crack propagation, and catastrophic fracture are still debated. The future of zirconia in biomedical applications will depend on the generation of these data to resolve concerns.

  1. Dominant pinning mechanisms in YBa2Cu3O7-x films on single and polycrystalline yttria stabilized zirconia substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harshavardhan, K. S.; Rajeswari, M.; Hwang, D. M.; Chen, C. Y.; Sands, T.; Venkatesan, T.; Tkaczyk, J. E.; Lay, K. W.; Safari, A.

    1992-04-01

    Critical-current densities have been measured in YBa2Cu3O7-x films deposited on (100) yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and polycrystalline YSZ substrates as a function of temperature (4.5-88 K), magnetic field (0-1 T) and orientation relative to the applied field. The results indicate that in films on polycrystalline substrates, surface and interface pinning play a dominant role at high temperatures. In films on (100) YSZ, pinning is mainly due to intrinsic layer pinning as well as extrinsic pinning associated with the interaction of the fluxoids with point defects and low energy planar (2D) boundaries. The differences are attributed to the intrinsic rigidity of single fluxoids which is reduced in films on polycrystalline substrates thereby weakening the intrinsic layer pinning.

  2. Functionally Graded Bismuth Oxide/Zirconia Bilayer Electrolytes for High-Performance Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (IT-SOFCs).

    PubMed

    Joh, Dong Woo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Doyeub; Wachsman, Eric D; Lee, Kang Taek

    2017-03-15

    A functionally graded Bi 1.6 Er 0.4 O 3 (ESB)/Y 0.16 Zr 0.84 O 1.92 (YSZ) bilayer electrolyte is successfully developed via a cost-effective screen printing process using nanoscale ESB powders on the tape-cast NiO-YSZ anode support. Because of the highly enhanced oxygen incorporation process at the cathode/electrolyte interface, a novel bilayer solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) yields extremely high power density of ∼2.1 W cm -2 at 700 °C, which is a 2.4 times increase compared to that of the YSZ single electrolyte SOFC.

  3. Manufacturing of Composite Coatings by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying Using Different Feed-Stock Materials as YSZ and MoSi2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, D.; Mauer, G.; Vaßen, R.

    2017-04-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the state-of-the-art material for the top coat of thermal barrier coatings. To increase the efficiency and lifetime of gas turbines, the integration of MoSi2 as a healing material was proposed. A new method of manufacture was explored in order to enable the spraying of a homogeneous mixed layer of YSZ and MoSi2. As the chemical and physical properties of these powders are very different, they require contrasting process conditions. Due to the evaporation of Si from MoSi2 at spraying conditions suitable for YSZ, more moderate conditions and a shorter time of flight are required for depositing MoSi2. At the same time, the spraying conditions still need to be sufficient for melting the YSZ particles in order to produce a coating. To obtain a homogeneous mixture, both conditions can be matched using an injection system that allows powder injection at two different locations of the plasma jet. Two-color pyrometry during flight (DPV-2000, Tecnar) was used to monitor the actual particle temperature. By optimizing the injection point for the MoSi2, a mixed coating was obtained without decomposition of the MoSi2, which has been analyzed by means of XRD and SEM.

  4. Parallel Large-Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulation Opens New Perspective to Clarify the Effect of a Porous Structure on the Sintering Process of Ni/YSZ Multiparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingxiang; Higuchi, Yuji; Ozawa, Nobuki; Sato, Kazuhisa; Hashida, Toshiyuki; Kubo, Momoji

    2017-09-20

    Ni sintering in the Ni/YSZ porous anode of a solid oxide fuel cell changes the porous structure, leading to degradation. Preventing sintering and degradation during operation is a great challenge. Usually, a sintering molecular dynamics (MD) simulation model consisting of two particles on a substrate is used; however, the model cannot reflect the porous structure effect on sintering. In our previous study, a multi-nanoparticle sintering modeling method with tens of thousands of atoms revealed the effect of the particle framework and porosity on sintering. However, the method cannot reveal the effect of the particle size on sintering and the effect of sintering on the change in the porous structure. In the present study, we report a strategy to reveal them in the porous structure by using our multi-nanoparticle modeling method and a parallel large-scale multimillion-atom MD simulator. We used this method to investigate the effect of YSZ particle size and tortuosity on sintering and degradation in the Ni/YSZ anodes. Our parallel large-scale MD simulation showed that the sintering degree decreased as the YSZ particle size decreased. The gas fuel diffusion path, which reflects the overpotential, was blocked by pore coalescence during sintering. The degradation of gas diffusion performance increased as the YSZ particle size increased. Furthermore, the gas diffusion performance was quantified by a tortuosity parameter and an optimal YSZ particle size, which is equal to that of Ni, was found for good diffusion after sintering. These findings cannot be obtained by previous MD sintering studies with tens of thousands of atoms. The present parallel large-scale multimillion-atom MD simulation makes it possible to clarify the effects of the particle size and tortuosity on sintering and degradation.

  5. Advanced study of thermal behaviour of CSZ comparing with the classic YSZ coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragomirescu, A.; Constantin, N.; Ştefan, A.; Manoliu, V.; Truşcă, R.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are advanced materials typically applied to metal surfaces subjected to extreme temperatures to protect them and increase their lifetime. Ceria stabilized zirconia ceramic layer (CSZ) is increasingly used as an alternative improved as replace for classical TBC system - yttria stabilized zirconia - thanks to superior properties, including mechanical and high resistance to thermal corrosion. The paper describes the thermal shock testing of two types of thermal barrier coatings used to protect a nickel super alloy. For the experimental procedure, it was used plate samples from nickel super alloy with a bond coat and a ceramic top coat. The top coat was different: on some samples, it was used YSZ and on others CSZ. Ni based super alloys have good corrosion resistance in reducing environments action, but poor in oxidizing conditions. Extreme environments can lead to loss of material by oxidation / corrosion, along with decreased mechanical properties of the substrate due to damaging elements which diffuses into the substrate at high temperatures. Using laboratory equipment, the TBC systems were exposed repeatedly to extreme high temperatures for a short time and then cooled. After the thermal shock tests, the samples were morph-structured characterized using electronic microscopy to analyze the changes. The experimental results were compared to rank the TBC systems in order of performance.

  6. Effect of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Columnar Microstructure and Bond Coat Surface Preparation on Thermal Barrier Coating Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Benjamin; Quet, Aurélie; Bianchi, Luc; Schick, Vincent; Joulia, Aurélien; Malié, André; Rémy, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is identified as promising for the enhancement of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems used in gas turbines. Particularly, the emerging columnar microstructure enabled by the SPS process is likely to bring about an interesting TBC lifetime. At the same time, the SPS process opens the way to a decrease in thermal conductivity, one of the main issues for the next generation of gas turbines, compared to the state-of-the-art deposition technique, so-called electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). In this paper, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings presenting columnar structures, performed using both SPS and EB-PVD processes, were studied. Depending on the columnar microstructure readily adaptable in the SPS process, low thermal conductivities can be obtained. At 1100 °C, a decrease from 1.3 W m-1 K-1 for EB-PVD YSZ coatings to about 0.7 W m-1 K-1 for SPS coatings was shown. The higher content of porosity in the case of SPS coatings increases the thermal resistance through the thickness and decreases thermal conductivity. The lifetime of SPS YSZ coatings was studied by isothermal cyclic tests, showing equivalent or even higher performances compared to EB-PVD ones. Tests were performed using classical bond coats used for EB-PVD TBC coatings. Thermal cyclic fatigue performance of the best SPS coating reached 1000 cycles to failure on AM1 substrates with a β-(Ni,Pt)Al bond coat. Tests were also performed on AM1 substrates with a Pt-diffused γ-Ni/γ'-Ni3Al bond coat for which more than 2000 cycles to failure were observed for columnar SPS YSZ coatings. The high thermal compliance offered by both the columnar structure and the porosity allowed the reaching of a high lifetime, promising for a TBC application.

  7. Development and evaluation of suspension plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia coatings as thermal barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Every, Kent J.

    The insulating effects from thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in gas turbine engines allow for increased operational efficiencies and longer service lifetimes. Consequently, improving TBCs can lead to enhanced gas turbine engine performance. This study was conducted to investigate if yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings, the standard industrial choice for TBCs, produced from nano-sized powder could provide better thermal insulation than current commericial YSZ coatings generated using micron-sized powders. The coatings for this research were made via the recently developed suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process. With SPS, powders are suspended in a solvent containing dispersing agents; the suspension is then injected directly into a plasma flow that evaporates the solvent and melts the powder while transporting it to the substrate. Although related to the industrial TBC production method of air plasma spraying (APS), SPS has two important differences---the ability to spray sub-micron diameter ceramic particles, and the ability to alloy the particles with chemicals dissolved in the solvent. These aspects of SPS were employed to generate a series of coatings from suspensions containing ˜100 nm diameter YSZ powder particles, some of which were alloyed with neodymium and ytterbium ions from the solvent. The SPS coatings contained columnar structures not observed in APS TBCs; thus, a theory was developed to explain the formation of these features. The thermal conductivity of the coatings was tested to evaluate the effects of these unique microstructures and the effects of the alloying process. The results for samples in the as-sprayed and heat-treated conditions were compared to conventional YSZ TBCs. This comparison showed that, relative to APS YSZ coatings, the unalloyed SPS samples typically exhibited higher as-sprayed and lower heat-treated thermal conductivities. All thermal conductivity values for the alloyed samples were lower than conventional YSZ TBCs

  8. Wear behavior of carbide tool coated with Yttria-stabilized zirconia nano particles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, Pavandatta M.; Reddy, Narala Suresh Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Wear mechanism takes predominant role in reducing the tool life during machining of Titanium alloy. Challenges of wear mechanisms such as variation in chip, high pressure loads and spring back are responsible for tool wear. In addition, many tool materials are inapt for machining due to low thermal conductivity and volume specific heat of these materials results in high cutting temperature during machining. To confront this issue Electrostatic Spray Coating (ESC) coating technique is utilized to enhance the tool life to an acceptable level. The Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) acts as a thermal barrier coating having high thermal expansion coefficient and thermal shock resistance. This investigation focuses on the influence of YSZ nanocoating on the tungsten carbide tool material and improve the machinability of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. YSZ nano powder was coated on the tungsten carbide pin by using ESC technique. The coatings have been tested for wear and friction behavior by using a pin-on-disc tribological tester. The dry sliding wear test was performed on Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) disc and YSZ coated tungsten carbide (pin) at ambient atmosphere. The performance parameters like wear rate and temperature rise were considered upon performing the dry sliding test on Ti-6Al-4V alloy disc. The performance parameters were calculated by using coefficient of friction and frictional force values which were obtained from the pin on disc test. Substantial resistance to wear was achieved by the coating.

  9. Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Oxygen and Cation Diffusion in Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is of interest to the aerospace community, notably for its application as a thermal barrier coating for turbine engine components. In such an application, diffusion of both oxygen ions and cations is of concern. Oxygen diffusion can lead to deterioration of a coated part, and often necessitates an environmental barrier coating. Cation diffusion in YSZ is much slower than oxygen diffusion. However, such diffusion is a mechanism by which creep takes place, potentially affecting the mechanical integrity and phase stability of the coating. In other applications, the high oxygen diffusivity of YSZ is useful, and makes the material of interest for use as a solid-state electrolyte in fuel cells. The kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) method offers a number of advantages compared with the more widely known molecular dynamics simulation method. In particular, kMC is much more efficient for the study of processes, such as diffusion, that involve infrequent events. We describe the results of kinetic Monte Carlo computer simulations of oxygen and cation diffusion in YSZ. Using diffusive energy barriers from ab initio calculations and from the literature, we present results on the temperature dependence of oxygen and cation diffusivity, and on the dependence of the diffusivities on yttria concentration and oxygen sublattice vacancy concentration. We also present results of the effect on diffusivity of oxygen vacancies in the vicinity of the barrier cations that determine the oxygen diffusion energy barriers.

  10. Effect of far-field stresses and residual stresses incorporation in predicting fracture toughness of carbon nanotube reinforced yttria stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahato, Neelima; Nisar, Ambreen; Mohapatra, Pratyasha; Rawat, Siddharth; Ariharan, S.; Balani, Kantesh

    2017-10-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a potential thermal insulating ceramic for high temperature applications (>1000 °C). YSZ reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was processed via spark plasma sintering to produce dense, crack-free homogeneous sample and avoid any degradation of MWNTs when sintered using conventional routes. Despite porosity, the addition of MWNT has a profound effect in improving the damage tolerance of YSZ by allowing the retention of tetragonal phase. However, at some instances, the crack lengths in the MWNT reinforced YSZ matrices have been found to be longer than the standalone counterparts. Therefore, it becomes inappropriate to apply Anstis equation to calculate fracture toughness values. In this regard, a combined analytical cum numerical method is used to estimate the theoretical fracture toughness and quantitatively analyze the mechanics of matrix cracking in the reinforced composite matrices incorporating the effects of various factors (such as far-field stresses, volume fraction of MWNTs, change in the modulus and Poisson's ratio values along with the increase in porosity, and bridging and phase transformation mechanism) affecting the fracture toughness of YSZ-MWNT composites. The results suggest that the incorporation of far-field stresses cannot be ignored in estimating the theoretical fracture toughness of YSZ-MWNT composites.

  11. Determination of oxygen vacancy limit in Mn substituted yttria stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepień, Joanna; Sikora, Marcin; Kapusta, Czesław; Pomykalska, Daria; Bućko, Mirosław M.

    2018-05-01

    A series of Mnx(Y0.148Zr0.852)1-xO2-δ ceramics was systematically studied by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and DC magnetic susceptibility. The XAS and XES results show the changes in manganese oxidation state and a gradual evolution of the local atomic environment around Mn ions upon increasing dopant contents, which is due to structural relaxation caused by the growing amount of oxygen vacancies. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that Mn3O4 precipitates are formed for x ≥ 0.1 and enable independent determination of the actual quantity of Mn ions dissolved in Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) solid solution. We show that the amount of oxygen vacancies generated by manganese doping into YSZ is limited to ˜0.17 per formula unit.

  12. Design and Fabrication of Porous Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Ceramics for Hot Gas Filtration Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahini, Shayan

    Hot gas filtration has received growing attention in a variety of applications over the past few years. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a promising candidate for such an application. In this study, we fabricated disk-type porous YSZ filters using the pore forming procedure, in which poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used as the pore-forming agent. After fabricating the pellets, we characterized them to determine their potential for application as gas filters. We investigated the effect of sintering temperature, polymer particle size, and polymer-to-ceramic ratio on the porosity, pore size, gas permeability, and Vickers hardness of the sintered pellets. Furthermore, we designed two sets of experiments to investigate the robustness of the fabricated pellets--i.e., cyclic heating/cooling and high temperature exposure. This study ushers in a robust technique to fabricate such porous ceramics, which have the potential to be utilized in hot gas filtration.

  13. Zirconia and Pyrochlore Oxides for Thermal Barrier Coatings in Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    2014-06-01

    One of the important applications of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is as a thermal barrier coating for gas turbine engines. While YSZ performs well in this function, the need for increased operating temperatures to achieve higher energy conversion efficiencies, requires the development of improved materials. To meet this challenge, some rare-earth zirconates that form the cubic fluorite-derived pyrochlore structure are being developed for use in thermal barrier coatings due to their low thermal conductivity, excellent chemical stability, and other suitable properties. In this paper, the thermal conductivities of current and prospective oxides for use in thermal barrier coatings are reviewed. The factors affecting the variations and differences in the thermal conductivities and the degradation behaviors of these materials are discussed.

  14. Processing and Mechanical Properties of Various Zirconia/Alumina Composites for Fuel Cell Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2002-01-01

    Various electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells were fabricated by hot pressing 10 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (10-YSZ) reinforced with two different forms of alumina, particulates and platelets, each containing 0 to 30 mol% alumina. Flexure strength and fracture toughness of both particulate and platelet composites at ambient temperature increased with increasing alumina content, reaching a maximum at 30 mot% alumina. For a given alumina content, strength of particulate composites was greater than that of platelet composites, whereas, the difference in fracture toughness between the two composite systems was negligible. No virtual difference in elastic modulus and density was observed for a given alumina content between particulate and platelet composites. Thermal cycling up to 10 cycles between 200 to 1000 C did not show any effect on strength degradation of the 30 mol% platelet composites, indicative of negligible influence of CTE mismatches between YSZ matrix and alumina grains.

  15. Antibacterial studies of ZnO nanoparticle coatings on nanocrystalline YSZ irradiated with femtosecond laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Crysthal; Garcia, Valeria; Cuando, Natanael; Aguilar, Guillermo

    2018-02-01

    Recently, efforts have been made to create a transparent ceramic cranial implant comprised of nanocrystalline yttriastabilized zirconia (nc-YSZ) that will provide optical access to the brain. This has been referred to as Window to the Brain (WttB) in the literature. WttB will allow the use of laser and photonic treatments and diagnostics in areas with difficult optical access in the brain. Nevertheless, infection is still one of the frequent cranial implant complications. In most cases a second surgery is required to replace the infected implant. To address potential infections in the WttB platform, we have studied the antibacterial effect of a Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles coating on nc-YSZ. After coating with ZnO nanoparticles, the implant was irradiated with infrared femtosecond laser light. We synthesized ZnO nanoparticles through the Laser Ablation of Solids in Liquids (LASL) method, using a Zinc solid target in a liquid medium (water/acetone). Antibacterial coatings were obtained by air brush, using a precursor solution of ZnO nanoparticles in distilled water. Escherichia coli (E. coli) have been used as representative, clinical relevant bacteria to probe the antibacterial effect of the coating. Our previous studies suggested that the use of ZnO nanoparticles inhibit bacterial growth. Laser irradiation treatment alone also offers inhibition of bacterial growth, up to 70%. The incorporation of nanoparticles offers an additional 20% inhibition. Thus, this work represents the next step towards the development of a clinically-oriented transparent cranial implant.

  16. Structural and optical properties of electron beam evaporated yttria stabilized zirconia thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirubaharan, A. Kamalan; Kuppusami, P.; Singh, Akash; Dharini, T.; Ramachandran, D.; Mohandas, E.

    2015-06-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia (10 mole % Y2O3) thin films were deposited on quartz substrates using electron beam physical vapor deposition at the substrate temperatures in the range 300 - 973 K. XRD analysis showed cubic crystalline phase of YSZ films with preferred orientation along (111). The surface roughness was found to increase with the increase of deposition temperatures. The optical band gap of ˜5.7 eV was calculated from transmittance curves. The variation in the optical properties is correlated with the changes in the microstructural features of the films prepared as a function of substrate temperature.

  17. Oxygen diffusion in nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia: the effect of grain boundaries.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Roger A; Pietrowski, Martha J; Anselmi-Tamburini, Umberto; Kim, Sangtae; Munir, Zuhair A; Martin, Manfred

    2008-04-21

    The transport of oxygen in dense samples of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), of average grain size d approximately 50 nm, has been studied by means of 18O/16O exchange annealing and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Oxygen diffusion coefficients (D*) and oxygen surface exchange coefficients (k*) were measured for temperatures 673

  18. Radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline ceramics: insights from Yttria Stabilized Zirconia.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sanchita; Drazin, John W; Wang, Yongqiang; Valdez, James A; Holesinger, Terry G; Uberuaga, Blas P; Castro, Ricardo H R

    2015-01-13

    Materials for applications in hostile environments, such as nuclear reactors or radioactive waste immobilization, require extremely high resistance to radiation damage, such as resistance to amorphization or volume swelling. Nanocrystalline materials have been reported to present exceptionally high radiation-tolerance to amorphization. In principle, grain boundaries that are prevalent in nanomaterials could act as sinks for point-defects, enhancing defect recombination. In this paper we present evidence for this mechanism in nanograined Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), associated with the observation that the concentration of defects after irradiation using heavy ions (Kr(+), 400 keV) is inversely proportional to the grain size. HAADF images suggest the short migration distances in nanograined YSZ allow radiation induced interstitials to reach the grain boundaries on the irradiation time scale, leaving behind only vacancy clusters distributed within the grain. Because of the relatively low temperature of the irradiations and the fact that interstitials diffuse thermally more slowly than vacancies, this result indicates that the interstitials must reach the boundaries directly in the collision cascade, consistent with previous simulation results. Concomitant radiation-induced grain growth was observed which, as a consequence of the non-uniform implantation, caused cracking of the nano-samples induced by local stresses at the irradiated/non-irradiated interfaces.

  19. Radiation Tolerance of Nanocrystalline Ceramics: Insights from Yttria Stabilized Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Sanchita; Drazin, John W.; Wang, Yongqiang; Valdez, James A.; Holesinger, Terry G.; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Castro, Ricardo H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Materials for applications in hostile environments, such as nuclear reactors or radioactive waste immobilization, require extremely high resistance to radiation damage, such as resistance to amorphization or volume swelling. Nanocrystalline materials have been reported to present exceptionally high radiation-tolerance to amorphization. In principle, grain boundaries that are prevalent in nanomaterials could act as sinks for point-defects, enhancing defect recombination. In this paper we present evidence for this mechanism in nanograined Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), associated with the observation that the concentration of defects after irradiation using heavy ions (Kr+, 400 keV) is inversely proportional to the grain size. HAADF images suggest the short migration distances in nanograined YSZ allow radiation induced interstitials to reach the grain boundaries on the irradiation time scale, leaving behind only vacancy clusters distributed within the grain. Because of the relatively low temperature of the irradiations and the fact that interstitials diffuse thermally more slowly than vacancies, this result indicates that the interstitials must reach the boundaries directly in the collision cascade, consistent with previous simulation results. Concomitant radiation-induced grain growth was observed which, as a consequence of the non-uniform implantation, caused cracking of the nano-samples induced by local stresses at the irradiated/non-irradiated interfaces. PMID:25582769

  20. Radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline ceramics: Insights from yttria stabilized zirconia

    DOE PAGES

    Dey, Sanchita; Drazin, John W.; Wang, Yongqiang; ...

    2015-01-13

    Materials for applications in hostile environments, such as nuclear reactors or radioactive waste immobilization, require extremely high resistance to radiation damage, such as resistance to amorphization or volume swelling. Nanocrystalline materials have been reported to present exceptionally high radiation-tolerance to amorphization. In principle, grain boundaries that are prevalent in nanomaterials could act as sinks for point-defects, enhancing defect recombination. In this paper we present evidence for this mechanism in nanograined Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), associated with the observation that the concentration of defects after irradiation using heavy ions (Kr⁺, 400 keV) is inversely proportional to the grain size. HAADF imagesmore » suggest the short migration distances in nanograined YSZ allow radiation induced interstitials to reach the grain boundaries on the irradiation time scale, leaving behind only vacancy clusters distributed within the grain. Because of the relatively low temperature of the irradiations and the fact that interstitials diffuse thermally more slowly than vacancies, this result indicates that the interstitials must reach the boundaries directly in the collision cascade, consistent with previous simulation results. Concomitant radiation-induced grain growth was observed which, as a consequence of the non-uniform implantation, caused cracking of the nano-samples induced by local stresses at the irradiated/non-irradiated interfaces.« less

  1. YSZ-based sensor using Cr-Fe-based spinel-oxide electrodes for selective detection of CO.

    PubMed

    Anggraini, Sri Ayu; Fujio, Yuki; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Miura, Norio

    2017-08-22

    A selective carbon monoxide (CO) sensor was developed by the use of both of CuCrFeO 4 and CoCrFeO 4 as the sensing electrode (SE) for yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based potentiometric sensor. The sensing-characteristic examinations of the YSZ-based sensors using each of spinel oxides as the single-SE sensor showed that CuCrFeO 4 -SE had the ability to detect CO, hydrocarbons and NO x gases, while CoCrFeO 4 -SE was sensitive to hydrocarbons and NO x gases. Thus, when both SEs were paired as a combined-SEs sensor, the resulting sensor could generate a selective response to CO at 450 °C under humid conditions. The sensor was also capable of detecting CO in the concentration range of 20-700 ppm. Its sensing mechanism that was examined via polarization-curve measurements was confirmed to be based on mixed-potential model. The CO response generated by the combined-SEs sensor was unaffected by the change of water vapor concentration in the range of 1.3-11.5 vol% H 2 O. Additionally, the sensing performance was stable during 13 days tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanical properties, electrochemical corrosion and in-vitro bioactivity of yttria stabilized zirconia reinforced hydroxyapatite coatings prepared by gas tunnel type plasma spraying.

    PubMed

    Yugeswaran, S; Yoganand, C P; Kobayashi, A; Paraskevopoulos, K M; Subramanian, B

    2012-05-01

    Yttria stabilized zirconia reinforced hydroxyapatite coatings were deposited by a gas tunnel type plasma spray torch under optimum spraying conditions. For this purpose, 10, 20 and 30 wt% of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders were premixed individually with hydroxyapatite (HA) powder and were used as the feedstocks for the coatings. The effect of YSZ reinforcement on the phase formation and mechanical properties of the coatings such as hardness, adhesive strength and sliding wear rates was examined. The results showed that the reinforcement of YSZ in HA could significantly enhance the hardness and adhesive strength of the coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements showed that the reinforced coatings exhibited superior corrosion resistance compared to the HA coating in SBF solution. Further the results of the bioactivity test conducted by immersion of coatings in SBF showed that after 10 days of immersion of the obtained coatings with all the above compositions commonly exhibited the onset of bioactive apatite formation except for HA+10%YSZ coating. The cytocompatibility was investigated by culturing the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled marrow stromal cells (MSCs) on the coating surface. The cell culture results revealed that the reinforced coatings have superior cell growth than the pure HA coatings. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Densification kinetics of nanocrystalline zirconia powder using microwave and spark plasma sintering--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Vasylkiv, Oleg; Demirskyi, Dmytro; Sakka, Yoshio; Ragulya, Andrey; Borodianska, Hanna

    2012-06-01

    Two-stage densification process of nanosized 3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (3Y-SZ) polycrystalline compacts during consolidation via microwave and spark-plasma sintering have been observed. The values of activation energies obtained for microwave and spark-plasma sintering 260-275 kJ x mol(-1) are quite similar to that of conventional sintering of zirconia, suggesting that densification during initial stage is controlled by the grain-boundary diffusion mechanism. The sintering behavior during microwave sintering was significantly affected by preliminary pressing conditions, as the surface diffusion mechanism (230 kJ x mol(-1)) is active in case of cold-isostatic pressing procedure was applied.

  4. Evaluation of translucency of monolithic zirconia and framework zirconia materials

    PubMed Central

    Tuncel, İlkin; Üşümez, Aslıhan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The opacity of zirconia is an esthetic disadvantage that hinders achieving natural and shade-matched restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the translucency of non-colored and colored framework zirconia and monolithic zirconia. MATERIALS AND METHODS The three groups tested were: non-colored framework zirconia, colored framework zirconia with the A3 shade according to Vita Classic Scale, and monolithic zirconia (n=5). The specimens were fabricated in the dimensions of 15×12×0.5 mm. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the contrast ratio, which is indicative of translucency. Three measurements were made to obtain the contrast ratios of the materials over a white background (L*w) and a black background (L*b). The data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. One specimen from each group was chosen for scanning electron microscope analysis. The determined areas of the SEM images were divided by the number of grains in order to calculate the mean grain size. RESULTS Statistically significant differences were observed among all groups (P<.05). Non-colored zirconia had the highest translucency with a contrast ratio of 0.75, while monolithic zirconia had the lowest translucency with a contrast ratio of 0.8. The mean grain sizes of the non-colored, colored, and monolithic zirconia were 233, 256, and 361 nm, respectively. CONCLUSION The translucency of the zirconia was affected by the coloring procedure and the grain size. Although monolithic zirconia may not be the best esthetic material for the anterior region, it may serve as an alternative in the posterior region for the bilayered zirconia restorations. PMID:27350851

  5. Fabrication and Performance of Zirconia Electrolysis Cells for Cabon Dioxide Reduction for Mars In Situ Resource Utilization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, N. Q.; Chung, B. W.; Doshi, R.; Lear, G. R.; Montgomery, K.; Ong, E. T.

    1999-01-01

    Use of the Martian atmosphere (95% CO2) to produce oxygen (for propellant and life support) can significantly lower the required launch mass and dramatically reduce the total cost for Mars missions. Zirconia electrolysis cells are one of the technologies being considered for oxygen generation from carbon dioxide in Mars In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) production plants. The attractive features of the zirconia cell for this application include simple operation and lightweight, low volume system. A zirconia electrolysis cell is an all-solid state device, based on oxygen-ion conducting zirconia electrolytes, that electrochemically reduces carbon dioxide to oxygen and carbon monoxide. The cell consists of two porous electrodes (the anode and cathode) separated by a dense zirconia electrolyte. Typical zirconia cells contain an electrolyte layer which is 200 to 400 micrometer thick. The electrical conductivity requirement for the electrolyte necessitates an operating temperature of 9000 to 10000C. Recently, the fabrication of zirconia cells by the tape calendering has been evaluated. This fabrication process provides a simple means of making cells having very thin electrolytes (5 to 30 micrometers). Thin zirconia electrolytes reduce cell ohmic losses, permitting efficient operation at lower temperatures (8000C or below). Thus, tape-calendered cells provides not only the potential of low temperature operation but also the flexibility in operating temperatures. This paper describes the fabrication of zirconia cells by the tape calendering method and discusses the performance results obtained to date.

  6. Mechanical reliability, fatigue strength and survival analysis of new polycrystalline translucent zirconia ceramics for monolithic restorations.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gabriel K R; Guilardi, Luís F; Dapieve, Kiara S; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Rippe, Marília P; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2018-05-23

    This study characterized the mechanical properties (static and under fatigue), the crystalline microstructure (monoclinic - m, tetragonal - t and cubic - c phase contents) and the surface topography of three yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) materials with different translucent properties, before and after aging in an autoclave (low temperature degradation). Disc-shaped specimens were produced from second generation (Katana ML/HT - high-translucent) and third generations (Katana STML - super-translucent and UTML - ultra-translucent) YSZ ceramics (Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc.), following ISO 6872-2015 guidelines for biaxial flexural strength testing (final dimensions: 15 mm in diameter and 1.2 ± 0.2 mm in thickness), and then subjected to the respective tests and analyses. ML was mainly composed of tetragonal crystals, while STML and UTML presented cubic content. Aging increased the monoclinic content for ML and did not affect STML and UTML. Topographical analysis highlights different grain sizes on the ceramic surface (UTML > STML > ML) and aging had no effect on this outcome. Weibull analysis showed the highest characteristic strength for ML both before and after aging, and statistically similar Weibull moduli for all groups. ML material also obtained the highest survival rates (ML > STML > UTML) for both fatigue strength and number of cycles to failure. All fractures originated from surface defects on the tensile side. Third generation zirconia (Katana STML and UTML) are fully stabilized materials (with tetragonal and cubic crystals), being totally inert to the autoclave aging, and presented lower mechanical properties than the second-generation zirconia (Katana ML - metastable zirconia). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Degradation of yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings by vanadium pentoxide, phosphorous pentoxide, and sodium sulfate

    SciT

    Mohan, P.; Yuan, B.; Patterson, T.

    2007-11-15

    The presence of vanadium, phosphorus, and sodium impurities in petcoke and coal/petcoke blends used in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants warrants a clear understanding of high-temperature material degradation for the development of fuel-flexible gas turbines. In this study, degradation reactions of free-standing air plasma-sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in contact with V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were investigated at temperatures up to 1200{sup o}C. Phase transformations and microstructural development were examined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Molten V{sub 2}O{sub 5} reacted with solid YSZ to form ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7}more » at temperatures below 747{sup o}C. However, at temperatures above 747{sup o}C, molten V{sub 2}O{sub 5} reacted with YSZ to form yttrium vanadate (YVO{sub 4}). The formation of YVO{sub 4} led to the depletion of the Y2O{sub 3} stabilizer and deleterious transformation to the monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} phase. In addition, studies on YSZ degradation by Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and a Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+V{sub 2}O{sub 5} mixture (50-50 mol%) showed that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} itself had no effect on the degradation of YSZ. However, in the presence of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at high temperatures, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} forms vanadate compounds having a lower melting point such as sodium metavanadate (610{sup o}C), which was found to degrade YSZ by the formation of YVO{sub 4} at a relatively lower temperature of 700{sup o}C. P{sub 2}O{sub 5} was found to react with APS YSZ by the formation of ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7} at all the temperatures studied. At temperatures as low as 200{sup o}C and as high as 1200{sup o}C, molten P{sub 2}O{sub 5} was observed to react with solid YSZ to yield ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, which led to the depletion of ZrO{sub 2} in YSZ that promoted the formation of the fluorite-cubic ZrO{sub 2} phase.« less

  8. Densification of Zirconia with Borates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-24

    solid electrolytes for fuel cell and oxygen sensor applications.1 ’ 2 The sintering temperatures for commercial quality stabilized zirconia powders are...in the temperature range 1450-1500C). A few studies were also made using a much coarser particle size (- 1-2 pm ave.) cubic stabilized zirconia ... powder , "Zircoa B" [Zirconia Corp. of America]. The additives used as sintering aids were reagent grade horic anhydride, calcium metaborate and calcium

  9. °Enhancing High Temperature Anode Performance with 2° Anchoring Phases

    SciT

    Walker, Robert A.; Sofie, Stephen W.; Amendola, Roberta

    2015-10-01

    Project accomplishments included developing and optimizing strength testing of aluminum titanate (ALT)-doped Ni-YSZ materials and identified the dopant levels that optimized mechanical strength and enhanced electrochemical performance. We also optimized our ability to fabricate electrolyte supported button cells with anodes consisting of powders provided by Fuel Cell Energy. In several instances, those anodes were infiltrated with ALT and tested with hydrogen for 30 hours at 800°C at an applied potential of 0.4 V. Our research activities were focused in three areas: 1) mechanical strength testing on as prepared and reducced nickel-YSZ structures that were either free of a dopant ormore » prepared by mechanically mixing in ALT at various weight percents (up to 10 wt%); 2) 24-hour electrochemical testing of electroylte supported cells having anodes made from Ni/YSZ and Ni/YSZ/ALT anodes with specific attention focused on modeling degradation rates; and 3) operando EIS and optical testing of both in-house fabricated devices as well as membrane electrode assemblies that were acquired from commercial vendors.« less

  10. From Zirconium Nanograins to Zirconia Nanoneedles

    PubMed Central

    Zalnezhad, E.; Hamouda, A. M. S.; Jaworski, J.; Do Kim, Young

    2016-01-01

    Combinations of three simple techniques were utilized to gradually form zirconia nanoneedles from zirconium nanograins. First, a physical vapor deposition magnetron sputtering technique was used to deposit pure zirconium nanograins on top of a substrate. Second, an anodic oxidation was applied to fabricate zirconia nanotubular arrays. Finally, heat treatment was used at different annealing temperatures in order to change the structure and morphology from nanotubes to nanowires and subsequently to nanoneedles in the presence of argon gas. The size of the pure zirconium nanograins was estimated to be approximately 200–300 nm. ZrO2 nanotubular arrays with diameters of 70–120 nm were obtained. Both tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO2 were observed after annealing at 450 °C and 650 °C. Only a few tetragonal peaks appeared at 850 °C, while monoclinic ZrO2 was obtained at 900 °C and 950 °C. In assessing the biocompatibility of the ZrO2 surface, the human cell line MDA-MB-231 was found to attach and proliferate well on surfaces annealed at 850 °C and 450 °C; however, the amorphous ZrO2 surface, which was not heat treated, did not permit extensive cell growth, presumably due to remaining fluoride. PMID:27623486

  11. Controlling Microstructure of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Prepared from Suspensions and Solutions by Plasma Spraying with High Feed Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musalek, Radek; Medricky, Jan; Tesar, Tomas; Kotlan, Jiri; Pala, Zdenek; Lukac, Frantisek; Illkova, Ksenia; Hlina, Michal; Chraska, Tomas; Sokolowski, Pawel; Curry, Nicholas

    2017-12-01

    Introduction of suspension and solution plasma spraying led to a breakthrough in the deposition of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings and enabled preparation of new types of layers. However, their deposition with high feed rates needed, for example, for the deposition of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) on large-scale components, is still challenging. In this study, possibility of high-throughput plasma spraying of YSZ coatings is demonstrated for the latest generation of high-enthalpy hybrid water-stabilized plasma (WSP-H) torch technology. The results show that microstructure of the coatings prepared by WSP-H may be tailored for specific applications by the choice of deposition conditions, in particular formulation of the liquid feedstock. Porous and columnar coatings with low thermal conductivity (0.5-0.6 W/mK) were prepared from commercial ethanol-based suspension. Dense vertically cracked coatings with higher thermal conductivity but also higher internal cohesion were deposited from suspension containing ethanol/water mixture and coarser YSZ particles. Spraying of solution formulated from diluted zirconium acetate and yttrium nitrate hexahydrate led also to the successful deposition of YSZ coating combining regions of porous and denser microstructure and providing both low thermal conductivity and improved cohesion of the coating. Enthalpy content, liquid-plasma interaction and coating buildup mechanisms are also discussed.

  12. Double-Layer Gadolinium Zirconate/Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings Deposited by the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chen; Jordan, Eric H.; Harris, Alan B.; Gell, Maurice; Roth, Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    Advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with lower thermal conductivity, increased resistance to calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS), and improved high-temperature capability, compared to traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) TBCs, are essential to higher efficiency in next generation gas turbine engines. Double-layer rare-earth zirconate/YSZ TBCs are a promising solution. From a processing perspective, solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process with its unique and beneficial microstructural features can be an effective approach to obtaining the double-layer microstructure. Previously durable low-thermal-conductivity YSZ TBCs with optimized layered porosity, called the inter-pass boundaries (IPBs) were produced using the SPPS process. In this study, an SPPS gadolinium zirconate (GZO) protective surface layer was successfully added. These SPPS double-layer TBCs not only retained good cyclic durability and low thermal conductivity, but also demonstrated favorable phase stability and increased surface temperature capabilities. The CMAS resistance was evaluated with both accumulative and single applications of simulated CMAS in isothermal furnaces. The double-layer YSZ/GZO exhibited dramatic improvement in the single application, but not in the continuous one. In addition, to explore their potential application in integrated gasification combined cycle environments, double-layer TBCs were tested under high-temperature humidity and encouraging performance was recorded.

  13. Structure and Thermal Expansion of YSZ and La 2Zr 2O 7 Above 1500°C from Neutron Diffraction on Levitated Samples

    DOE PAGES

    Ushakov, Sergey V.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Weber, Richard J. K.; ...

    2015-07-28

    High-temperature time-of-flight neutron diffraction experiments were performed in this paper on cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ, 10 mol% YO 1.5) and lanthanum zirconate (LZ) prepared by laser melting. Three spheroids of each composition were aerodynamically levitated and rotated in argon flow and heated with a CO 2 laser. Unit cell, positional and atomic displacement parameters were obtained by Rietveld analysis. Below ~1650°C the mean thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) for YSZ is higher than for LZ (13 ± 1 vs. 10.3 ± 0.6) × 10 -6/K. From ~1650°C to the onset of melting of LZ at ~2250°C, TEC for YSZ and LZmore » are similar and within (7 ± 2) × 10 -6/K. LZ retains the pyrochlore structure up to the melting temperature with Zr coordination becoming closer to perfectly octahedral. Congruently melting LZ is La deficient. The occurrence of thermal disordering of oxygen sublattice (Bredig transition) in defect fluorite structure was deduced from the rise in YSZ TEC to ~25 × 10 -6/K at 2350°C–2550°C with oxygen displacement parameters (U iso) reaching 0.1 Å 2, similar to behavior observed in UO 2. Acquisition of powder-like high-temperature neutron diffraction data from solid-levitated samples is feasible and possible improvements are outlined. Finally, this methodology should be applicable to a wide range of materials for high-temperature applications.« less

  14. Impact of yttria stabilized zirconia nanoinclusions on the thermal conductivity of n-type Si80Ge20 alloys prepared by spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahwal, Ali; Bhattacharya, S.; He, Jian; Wu, Di; Peterson, A.; Poon, S. J.; Williams, L.; Dehkordi, A. Mehdizadeh; Tritt, T. M.

    2015-04-01

    Nanocomposites have become a new paradigm for thermoelectric research in recent years and have resulted in the reduction of thermal conductivity via the nano-inclusion and grain boundary scattering. In this work, we report the preparation and thermoelectric study of SiGe-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanocomposites prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). We experimentally investigated the reduction of lattice thermal conductivity (κL) in the temperature range (30-800 K) of n-type Si80Ge20P2 alloys with the incorporation of YSZ nanoparticles (20-40 nm diameter) into the Si-Ge matrix. These samples synthesized by using the SPS technique were found to have densities > 95% of the theoretical density. The thermal conductivity, at both low and high temperatures, was measured by steady state and laser flash techniques, respectively. At room temperature, we observed approximately a 50% reduction in the lattice thermal conductivity as result of adding 10% YSZ by volume to the Si80Ge20P2 host matrix. A phenomenological model developed by Callaway was used to corroborate both the temperature dependence and reduction of κ L over the measured temperature range (30-800 K) of both Si80Ge20P2 and Si80Ge20P2 + YSZ samples. The observed κL is discussed and interpreted in terms of various phonon scattering mechanisms such as alloy disorder, the Umklapp phonon scattering, and boundary scattering. In addition, a contribution from the phonon scattering by YSZ nanoparticles was further included to account for the κL of Si80Ge20P2 + YSZ sample. The theoretical calculations are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental results for both the Si80Ge20P2 and Si80Ge20P2 + YSZ alloys.

  15. High temperature mechanical properties of zirconia tapes used for electrolyte supported solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, Felix; Bermejo, Raul; Danzer, Robert; Mai, Andreas; Graule, Thomas; Kuebler, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Solid-Oxide-Fuel-Cell systems are efficient devices to convert the chemical energy stored in fuels into electricity. The functionality of the cell is related to the structural integrity of the ceramic electrolyte, since its failure can lead to drastic performance losses. The mechanical property which is of most interest is the strength distribution at all relevant temperatures and how it is affected with time due to the environment. This study investigates the impact of the temperature on the strength and the fracture toughness of different zirconia electrolytes as well as the change of the elastic constants. 3YSZ and 6ScSZ materials are characterised regarding the influence of sub critical crack growth (SCCG) as one of the main lifetime limiting effects for ceramics at elevated temperatures. In addition, the reliability of different zirconia tapes is assessed with respect to temperature and SCCG. It was found that the strength is only influenced by temperature through the change in fracture toughness. SCCG has a large influence on the strength and the lifetime for intermediate temperature, while its impact becomes limited at temperatures higher than 650 °C. In this context the tetragonal 3YSZ and 6ScSZ behave quite different than the cubic 10Sc1CeSZ, so that at 850 °C it can be regarded as competitive compared to the tetragonal compounds.

  16. Novel erbia-yttria co-doped zirconia fluorescent thermal history sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copin, E. B.; Massol, X.; Amiel, S.; Sentenac, T.; Le Maoult, Y.; Lours, P.

    2017-01-01

    Thermochromic pigments are commonly used for off-line temperature mapping on components from systems operating at a temperature higher than 1073 K. However, their temperature resolution is often limited by the discrete number of color transitions they offer. This paper investigates the potential of erbia-yttria co-doped zirconia as a florescent thermal history sensor alternative to thermochromic pigments. Samples of yttria-stabilized zirconia powder (YSZ, 8.3 mol% YO1.5) doped with 1.5 mol% ErO1.5 and synthesized by a sol-gel route are calcined for 15 minutes under isothermal conditions between 1173 and 1423 K. The effects of temperature on their crystal structure and room temperature fluorescence properties are then studied. Results show a steady increase of the crystallinity of the powders with temperature, causing a significant and permanent increase of the emission intensity and fluorescence lifetime which could be used to determine temperature with a calculated theoretical resolution lower than 1 K for intensity. The intensity ratio obtained using a temperature insensitive YSZ:Eu3+ reference phosphor is proposed as a more robust parameter regarding experimental conditions for determining thermal history. Finally, the possibilities for integrating this fluorescent marker into sol-gel deposited coatings for future practical thermal history sensing applications is also discussed.

  17. High-power hybrid plasma spraying of large yttria-stabilized zirconia powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Heji; Eguchi, Keisuke; Yoshida, Toyonobu

    2006-03-01

    To testify to the advantage of large ceramic powder spraying, numerical simulations and experimental studies on the behavior of large yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powder in a high-power hybrid plasma spraying process have been carried out. Numeric predictions and experimental results showed that, with the high radio frequency (RF) input power of 100 kW, the most refractory YSZ powder with particle sizes as large as 88 μm could be fully melted and well-flattened splats could be formed. A large degree of flattening (ξ) of 4.7 has been achieved. The improved adhesive strength between the large splat and the substrate was confirmed based on the measurement of the crack density inside of the splats. A thick YSZ coating >300 μm was successfully deposited on a large CoNiCrAlY-coated Inconel substrate (50×50×4 mm in size). The ultradense microstructure without clear boundaries between the splats and the clean and crack-free interface between the top-coat and the bond-coat also indicate the good adhesion. These results showed that highpower hybrid plasma spraying of large ceramic powder is a very promising process for deposition of highquality coatings, especially in the application of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs).

  18. Infrared Radiative Properties of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeff I.; Spuckler, Charles M.; Street, Ken W.; Markham, Jim R.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The infrared (IR) transmittance and reflectance of translucent thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have important implications for both the performance of these coatings as radiation barriers and emitters as well as affecting measurements of TBC thermal conductivity, especially as TBCs are being pushed to higher temperatures. In this paper, the infrared spectral directional-hemispherical transmittance and reflectance of plasma-sprayed 8wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) TBCs are reported. These measurements are compared to those for single crystal YSZ specimens to show the effects of the plasma-sprayed coating microstructure. It is shown that the coatings exhibit negligible absorption at wavelengths up to about 5 micrometers, and that internal scattering rather than surface reflections dominates the hemispherical reflectance. The translucent nature of the 8YSZ TBCs results in the absorptance/emittance and reflectance of TBC-coated substrates depending on the TBC thickness, microstructure, as well as the radiative properties of the underlying substrate. The effects of these properties on TBC measurements and performance are discussed.

  19. Colour centre recovery in yttria-stabilised zirconia: photo-induced versus thermal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Touati, Nadia; Binet, Laurent; Lelong, Gérald; Guillaumet, Maxime; Beuneu, François

    2018-05-01

    The photo-annealing of colour centres in yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy upon UV-ray or laser light illumination, and compared to thermal annealing. Stable hole centres (HCs) were produced in as-grown YSZ single crystals by UV-ray irradiation at room temperature (RT). The HCs produced by 200-MeV Au ion irradiation, as well as the F+-type centres (? centres involving oxygen vacancies) were left unchanged upon UV illumination. In contrast, a significant photo-annealing of the latter point defects was achieved in 1.4-MeV electron-irradiated YSZ by 553-nm laser light irradiation at RT. Almost complete photo-bleaching was achieved by laser irradiation inside the absorption band of ? centres centred at a wavelength 550 nm. Thermal annealing of these colour centres was also followed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy showing full bleaching at 523 K. Colour-centre evolutions by photo-induced and thermally activated processes are discussed on the basis of charge exchange processes between point defects.

  20. Color center annealing and ageing in electron and ion-irradiated yttria-stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Beuneu, François

    2005-04-01

    We have used X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements at room-temperature (RT) to study the thermal annealing and RT ageing of color centers induced in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), i.e. ZrO2:Y with 9.5 mol% Y2O3, by swift electron and ion-irradiations. YSZ single crystals with the <1 0 0> orientation were irradiated with 2.5 MeV electrons, and implanted with 100 MeV 13C ions. Electron and ion beams produce the same two color centers, namely an F+-type center (singly ionized oxygen vacancy) and the so-called T-center (Zr3+ in a trigonal oxygen local environment) which is also produced by X-ray irradiations. Isochronal annealing was performed in air up to 973 K. For both electron and ion irradiations, the defect densities are plotted versus temperature or time at various fluences. The influence of a thermal treatment at 1373 K of the YSZ single crystals under vacuum prior to the irradiations was also investigated. In these reduced samples, color centers are found to be more stable than in as-received samples. Two kinds of recovery processes are observed depending on fluence and heat treatment.

  1. Atomic structure and composition of the yttria-stabilized zirconia (111) surface.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Vedran; Khorshidi, Navid; Stierle, Andreas; Dosch, Helmut

    2013-06-01

    Anomalous and nonanomalous surface X-ray diffraction is used to investigate the atomic structure and composition of the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)(111) surface. By simulation it is shown that the method is sensitive to Y surface segregation, but that the data must contain high enough Fourier components in order to distinguish between different models describing Y/Zr disorder. Data were collected at room temperature after two different annealing procedures. First by applying oxidative conditions at 10 - 5  mbar O 2 and 700 K to the as-received samples, where we find that about 30% of the surface is covered by oxide islands, which are depleted in Y as compared with the bulk. After annealing in ultrahigh vacuum at 1270 K the island morphology of the surface remains unchanged but the islands and the first near surface layer get significantly enriched in Y. Furthermore, the observation of Zr and oxygen vacancies implies the formation of a porous surface region. Our findings have important implications for the use of YSZ as solid oxide fuel cell electrode material where yttrium atoms and zirconium vacancies can act as reactive centers, as well as for the use of YSZ as substrate material for thin film and nanoparticle growth where defects control the nucleation process.

  2. The thermomechanical stability of micro-solid oxide fuel cells fabricated on anodized aluminum oxide membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jae-Il; Kim, Ki-Bum; Lee, Hae-Weon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won

    2012-07-01

    The thermomechanical stability of micro-solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) fabricated on an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template is investigated. The full structure consists of the following layers: AAO membrane (600 nm)/Pt anode/YSZ electrolyte (900 nm)/porous Pt cathode. The utilization of a 600-nm-thick AAO membrane significantly improves the thermomechanical stability due to its well-known honeycomb-shaped nanopore structure. Moreover, the Pt anode layer deposited in between the AAO membrane and the YSZ electrolyte preserves its integrity in terms of maintaining the triple-phase boundary (TPB) and electrical conductivity during high-temperature operation. Both of these results guarantee thermomechanical stability of the micro-SOFC and extend the cell lifetime, which is one of the most critical issues in the fabrication of freestanding membrane-type micro-SOFCs.

  3. Radiation damage in cubic ZrO 2 and yttria-stabilized zirconia from molecular dynamics simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2014-11-20

    Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulation on cubic ZrO 2 and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to elucidate defect cluster formation resulting from radiation damage, and evaluate the impact of Y-dopants. Interstitial clusters composed of split-interstitial building blocks, i.e., Zr-Zr or Y-Zr are formed. Moreover, oxygen vacancies control cation defect migration; in their presence, Zr interstitials aggregate to form split-interstitials whereas in their absence Zr interstitials remain immobile, as isolated single-interstitials. Y-doping prevents interstitial cluster formation due to sequestration of oxygen vacancies.

  4. Calculations of single crystal elastic constants for yttria partially stabilised zirconia from powder diffraction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunt, A. J. G.; Xie, M. Y.; Baimpas, N.; Zhang, S. Y.; Kabra, S.; Kelleher, J.; Neo, T. K.; Korsunsky, A. M.

    2014-08-01

    Yttria Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) is a tough, phase-transforming ceramic that finds use in a wide range of commercial applications from dental prostheses to thermal barrier coatings. Micromechanical modelling of phase transformation can deliver reliable predictions in terms of the influence of temperature and stress. However, models must rely on the accurate knowledge of single crystal elastic stiffness constants. Some techniques for elastic stiffness determination are well-established. The most popular of these involve exploiting frequency shifts and phase velocities of acoustic waves. However, the application of these techniques to YSZ can be problematic due to the micro-twinning observed in larger crystals. Here, we propose an alternative approach based on selective elastic strain sampling (e.g., by diffraction) of grain ensembles sharing certain orientation, and the prediction of the same quantities by polycrystalline modelling, for example, the Reuss or Voigt average. The inverse problem arises consisting of adjusting the single crystal stiffness matrix to match the polycrystal predictions to observations. In the present model-matching study, we sought to determine the single crystal stiffness matrix of tetragonal YSZ using the results of time-of-flight neutron diffraction obtained from an in situ compression experiment and Finite Element modelling of the deformation of polycrystalline tetragonal YSZ. The best match between the model predictions and observations was obtained for the optimized stiffness values of C11 = 451, C33 = 302, C44 = 39, C66 = 82, C12 = 240, and C13 = 50 (units: GPa). Considering the significant amount of scatter in the published literature data, our result appears reasonably consistent.

  5. Calculations of single crystal elastic constants for yttria partially stabilised zirconia from powder diffraction data

    SciT

    Lunt, A. J. G., E-mail: alexander.lunt@eng.ox.ac.uk; Xie, M. Y.; Baimpas, N.

    2014-08-07

    Yttria Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) is a tough, phase-transforming ceramic that finds use in a wide range of commercial applications from dental prostheses to thermal barrier coatings. Micromechanical modelling of phase transformation can deliver reliable predictions in terms of the influence of temperature and stress. However, models must rely on the accurate knowledge of single crystal elastic stiffness constants. Some techniques for elastic stiffness determination are well-established. The most popular of these involve exploiting frequency shifts and phase velocities of acoustic waves. However, the application of these techniques to YSZ can be problematic due to the micro-twinning observed in larger crystals.more » Here, we propose an alternative approach based on selective elastic strain sampling (e.g., by diffraction) of grain ensembles sharing certain orientation, and the prediction of the same quantities by polycrystalline modelling, for example, the Reuss or Voigt average. The inverse problem arises consisting of adjusting the single crystal stiffness matrix to match the polycrystal predictions to observations. In the present model-matching study, we sought to determine the single crystal stiffness matrix of tetragonal YSZ using the results of time-of-flight neutron diffraction obtained from an in situ compression experiment and Finite Element modelling of the deformation of polycrystalline tetragonal YSZ. The best match between the model predictions and observations was obtained for the optimized stiffness values of C11 = 451, C33 = 302, C44 = 39, C66 = 82, C12 = 240, and C13 = 50 (units: GPa). Considering the significant amount of scatter in the published literature data, our result appears reasonably consistent.« less

  6. Anodizing Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This anodizing process traces its origin to the 1960's when Reynolds Metals Company, under contract with Goddard Space Flight Center, developed a multipurpose anodizing electrolyte (MAE) process to produce a hard protective finish for spacecraft aluminum. MAE produces a high-density, abrasion-resistant film prior to the coloring step, in which the pores of the film are impregnated with a metallic form of salt. Tru-Color product applications include building fronts, railing, curtain walls, doors and windows.

  7. Spatial Distribution of Oxygen Chemical Potential under Potential Gradients and Theoretical Maximum Power Density with 8YSZ Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Dae-Kwang; Im, Ha-Ni; Song, Sun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The maximum power density of SOFC with 8YSZ electrolyte as the function of thickness was calculated by integrating partial conductivities of charge carriers under various DC bias conditions at a fixed oxygen chemical potential gradient at both sides of the electrolyte. The partial conductivities were successfully taken using the Hebb-Wagner polarization method as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure, and the spatial distribution of oxygen partial pressure across the electrolyte was calculated based on Choudhury and Patterson’s model by considering zero electrode polarization. At positive voltage conditions corresponding to SOFC and SOEC, the high conductivity region was expanded, but at negative cell voltage condition, the low conductivity region near n-type to p-type transition was expanded. In addition, the maximum power density calculated from the current-voltage characteristic showed approximately 5.76 W/cm2 at 700 oC with 10 μm thick-8YSZ, while the oxygen partial pressure of the cathode and anode sides maintained ≈0.21 and 10-22 atm.

  8. Investigations in the mechanism of carbothermal reduction of yttria stabilized zirconia for ultra-high temperature ceramics application and its influence on yttria contained in it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sondhi, Anchal

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is a high modulus ceramic with an ultra-high melting temperature and, consequently, is capable of withstanding extreme environments. Carbon-carbon composites (CCCs) are important structural materials in current commercial and future hypersonic aircraft; however, these materials may be susceptible to degradation when exposed to elevated temperatures during extreme velocities. At speeds of exceeding Mach 5, intense heating of leading edges of the aircraft triggers rapid oxidation of carbon in CCCs resulting in degradation of the structure and probable failure. Environmental/thermal barrier coatings (EBC/TBC) are employed to protect airfoil structures from extreme conditions. Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a well-known EBC/TBC material currently used to protect metallic turbine blades and other aerospace structures. In this work, 3 mol% YSZ has been studied as a potential EBC/TBC on CCCs. However, YSZ is an oxygen conductor and may not sufficiently slow the oxidation of the underlying CCC. Under appropriate conditions, ZrC can form at the interface between CCC and YSZ. Because ZrC is a poor oxygen ion conductor in addition to its stability at high temperatures, it can reduce the oxygen transport to the CCC and thus increase the service lifetime of the structure. This dissertation investigates the thermodynamics and kinetics of the YSZ/ZrC/CCC system and the resulting structural changes across multiple size scales. A series of experiments were conducted to understand the mechanisms and species involved in the carbothermal reduction of ZrO2 to form ZrC. 3 mol% YSZ and graphite powders were uniaxially pressed into pellets and reacted in a graphite (C) furnace. Rietveld x-ray diffraction phase quantification determined that greater fractions of ZrC were formed when carbon was the majority mobile species. These results were validated by modeling the process thermochemically and were confirmed with additional experiments. Measurements were

  9. Reaction mechanism of electrochemical-vapor deposition of yttria-stabilized zirconia film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Hirokazu; Yakawa, Chiori; Otoshi, Shoji; Suzuki, Minoru; Ippommatsu, Masamichi

    1993-10-01

    The reaction mechanism for electrochemical-vapor deposition of yttria-stabilized zirconia was studied. Yttria-stabilized zirconia films were deposited on porous La(Sr)MnOx using the electrochemical-vapor-deposition process. The distribution of yttria concentration through the film was investigated by means of secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy and x-ray microanalysis and found to be nearly constant. The deposition rate was approximately proportional to the minus two-thirds power of the film thickness, the one-third power of the partial pressure of ZrCl4/YCl3 mixed gas, and the two-thirds power of the product of the reaction temperature and the electronic conductivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia film. These experimental results were explained by a model for electron transport through the YSZ film and reaction between the surface oxygen and the metal chloride on the chloride side of the film, both of which affect the deposition rate. If the film thickness is very small, the deposition rate is thought to be controlled by the surface reaction step. On the other hand, if large, the electron transport step is rate controlling.

  10. Effect of milling methods on performance of Ni-Y 2O 3-stabilized ZrO 2 anode for solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyoup Je; Choi, Gyeong Man

    A Ni-YSZ (Y 2O 3-stabilized ZrO 2) composite is commonly used as a solid oxide fuel cell anode. The composite powders are usually synthesized by mixing NiO and YSZ powders. The particle size and distribution of the two phases generally determine the performance of the anode. Two different milling methods are used to prepare the composite anode powders, namely, high-energy milling and ball-milling that reduce the particle size. The particle size and the Ni distribution of the two composite powders are examined. The effects of milling on the performance are evaluated by using both an electrolyte-supported, symmetric Ni-YSZ/YSZ/Ni-YSZ cell and an anode-supported, asymmetric cell. The performance is examined at 800 °C by impedance analysis and current-voltage measurements. Pellets made by using high-energy milled NiO-YSZ powders have much smaller particle sizes and a more uniform distribution of Ni particles than pellets made from ball-milled powder, and thus the polarization resistance of the electrode is also smaller. The maximum power density of the anode-supported cell prepared by using the high-energy milled powder is ∼850 mW cm -2 at 800 °C compared with ∼500 mW cm -2 for the cell with ball-milled powder. Thus, high-energy milling is found to be more effective in reducing particle size and obtaining a uniform distribution of Ni particles.

  11. Chemical vapor deposition of yttria-stabilized zirconia as a thermal barrier coating for gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varanasi, Venu Gopal

    The gas turbine engine uses an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating to provide thermal insulation for its turbine blades. This YSZ coating must be tetragonal in crystal structure, columnar in microstructure, and be 100--250 mum thick to provide for adequate protection for the turbine blades in the severe engine environment. Currently, YSZ coatings are fabricated by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD), but this fabrication method is cost intensive. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a more commercially viable processing method and a possible alternative to EB-PVD. The deposition of tetragonal YSZ from gaseous metal and oxidation sources were studied. A chemical equilibrium analysis modeled the feasibility of depositing tetragonal YSZ for both chloride CVD (Zr-Y-C-O-Cl-H-Inert system) and metal-organic CVD (MOCVD) (Zr-Y-C-O-H system). Pure thermochemical properties and the assessed YSZ phase diagram were used in this analysis. Using the molar input of metals ((nY + nZr) and ( nY/(nY + nZr ) = 0.08)) as bases, equilibrium calculations showed that tetragonal YSZ formation was feasible. Tetragonal YSZ formation was feasible with high oxygen content (nO/(nY + nZr) > 8) and high temperature (T > 100°C) in the case of chloride CVD (Zr-Y-C-O-Cl-H-Inert). Tetragonal YSZ formation was feasible with high oxygen content (nO/( nY + nZr) > 5) and high temperature (T > 950°C) in the case of MOCVD (Zr-Y-C-O-H). Although solid carbon formation did not appear in chloride CVD, additional oxygen (nO/( nY + nZr) > 32) and low hydrogen content relative to carbon (nH/nC < 2) were required to avoid solid carbon formation in MOCVD. Coatings were deposited using a set of base conditions derived from the chemical equilibrium analysis. In chloride CVD, YCl3 was not included because of its low vapor pressure, thus, ZrCl4 was oxidized with the H2-CO2 gas mixture. Monoclinic ZrO2 coatings were deposited at the thermochemically optimized conditions (n O/(nY + nZr) > 8, T > 1004

  12. Improvement of Toluene Selectivity via the Application of an Ethanol Oxidizing Catalytic Cell Upstream of a YSZ-Based Sensor for Air Monitoring Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomoaki; Breedon, Michael; Miura, Norio

    2012-01-01

    The sensing characteristics of a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based sensor utilizing a NiO sensing-electrode (SE) towards toluene (C7H8) and interfering gases (C3H6, H2, CO, NO2 and C2H5OH) were evaluated with a view to selective C7H8 monitoring in indoor atmospheres. The fabricated YSZ-based sensor showed preferential responses toward 480 ppb C2H5OH, rather than the target 50 ppb C7H8 at an operational temperature of 450 °C under humid conditions (RH ≃ 32%). To overcome this limitation, the catalytic activity of Cr2O3, SnO2, Fe2O3 and NiO powders were evaluated for their selective ethanol oxidation ability. Among these oxides, SnO2 was found to selectively oxidize C2H5OH, thus improving C7H8 selectivity. An inline pre-catalytic cell loaded with SnO2 powder was installed upstream of the YSZ-based sensor utilizing NiO-SE, which enabled the following excellent abilities by selectively catalyzing common interfering gases; sensitive ppb level detection of C7H8 lower than the established Japanese Guideline value; low interferences from 50 ppb C3H6, 500 ppb H2, 100 ppb CO, 40 ppb NO2, as well as 480 ppb C2H5OH. These operational characteristics are all indicative that the developed sensor may be suitable for real-time C7H8 concentration monitoring in indoor environments. PMID:22666053

  13. Derivative effect of laser cladding on interface stability of YSZ@Ni coating on GH4169 alloy: An experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Haizhong; Li, Bingtian; Tan, Yong; Li, Guifa; Shu, Xiaoyong; Peng, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia YSZ@Ni core-shell nanoparticles were used to prepare a thermal barrier coating (TBC) on a GH4169 alloy by laser cladding. Microstructural analysis showed that the TBC was composed of two parts: a ceramic and a bonding layer. In places where the ZrO2/Al2O3 eutectic structure was present in the ceramic layer, the Ni atoms diffused into the bonding layer, as confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The derivative effect of laser cladding results in the original YSZ@Ni core-shell nanoparticles being translated into the Al2O3 crystal, activating the YSZ. The mechanism of ceramic/metal interface cohesion was studied in depth via first-principles and molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the trend in the diffusion coefficients of Ni, Fe, Al, and Ti is DNi > DFe > DTi > DAl in the melting or solidification process of the material. The enthalpy of formation for Al2O3 is less than that of TiO2, resulting in a thermally grown oxide (TGO) Al2O3 phase transformation. With regard to the electronic structure, the trend in Mulliken population is QO-Ni > QZr-O > QO-Al. Although the bonding is slightly weakened between ZrO2/Al2O3 (QZr-O = 0.158 < QO-Ni = 0.220) compared to that in ZrO2/Ni, TGO Al2O3 can improve the oxidation resistance of the metal matrix. Thus, by comparing the connective and diffusive processes, our findings lay the groundwork for detailed and comprehensive studies of the laser cladding process for the production of composite materials.

  14. Corrosion Behavior of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia-Coated 9Cr-1Mo Steel in Molten UCl3-LiCl-KCl Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeeswara Rao, Ch.; Venkatesh, P.; Prabhakara Reddy, B.; Ningshen, S.; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2017-02-01

    For the electrorefining step in the pyrochemical reprocessing of spent metallic fuels of future sodium cooled fast breeder reactors, 9Cr-1Mo steel has been proposed as the container material. The electrorefining process is carried out using 5-6 wt.% UCl3 in LiCl-KCl molten salt as the electrolyte at 500 °C under argon atmosphere. In the present study, to protect the container vessel from hot corrosion by the molten salt, 8-9% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ceramic coating was deposited on 9Cr-1Mo steel by atmospheric plasma spray process. The hot corrosion behavior of YSZ-coated 9Cr-1Mo steel specimen was investigated in molten UCl3-LiCl-KCl salt at 600 °C for 100-, 500-, 1000- and 2000-h duration. The results revealed that the weight change in the YSZ-coated specimen was insignificant even after exposure to molten salt for 2000 h, and delamination of coating did not occur. SEM examination showed the lamellar morphology of the YSZ coating after the corrosion test with occluded molten salt. The XRD analysis confirmed the presence of tetragonal and cubic phases of ZrO2, without any phase change. Formation of UO2 in some regions of the samples was evident from XRD results.

  15. Microscopic observation of laser glazed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morks, M. F.; Berndt, C. C.; Durandet, Y.; Brandt, M.; Wang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are frequently used as insulation system for hot components in gas-turbine, combustors and power plant industries. The corrosive gases which come from combustion of low grade fuels can penetrate into the TBCs and reach the metallic components and bond coat and cause hot corrosion and erosion damage. Glazing the top coat by laser beam is advanced approach to seal TBCs surface. The laser beam has the advantage of forming a dense thin layer composed of micrograins. Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating was glazed with Nd-YAG laser at different operating conditions. The surface morphologies, before and after laser treatment, were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Laser beam assisted the densification of the surface by remelting a thin layer of the exposed surface. The laser glazing converted the rough surface of TBCs into smooth micron-size grains with size of 2-9 μm and narrow grain boundaries. The glazed surfaces showed higher Vickers hardness compared to as-sprayed coatings. The results revealed that the hardness increases as the grain size decreases.

  16. Development of zirconia based phosphors for application in lighting and as luminescent bioprobes =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Maria Rosa Nunes

    The strong progress evidenced in photonic and optoelectronic areas, accompanied by an exponential development in the nanoscience and nanotechnology, gave rise to an increasing demand for efficient luminescent materials with more and more exigent characteristics. In this field, wide band gap hosts doped with lanthanide ions represent a class of luminescent materials with a strong technological importance. Within wide band gap material, zirconia owns a combination of physical and chemical properties that potentiate it as an excellent host for the aforementioned ions, envisaging its use in different areas, including in lighting and optical sensors applications, such as pressure sensors and biosensors. Following the demand for outstanding luminescent materials, there is also a request for fast, economic and an easy scale-up process for their production. Regarding these demands, laser floating zone, solution combustion synthesis and pulsed laser ablation in liquid techniques are explored in this thesis for the production of single crystals, nanopowders and nanoparticles of lanthanides doped zirconia based hosts. Simultaneously, a detailed study of the morphological, structural and optical properties of the produced materials is made. The luminescent characteristics of zirconia and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) doped with different lanthanide ions (Ce3+ (4f1), Pr3+ (4f2), Sm3+ (4f5), Eu3+ (4f6), Tb3+ (4f8), Dy3+ (4f9), Er3+ (4f11), Tm3+ (4f12), Yb3+ (4f13)) and co-doped with Er3+,Yb3+ and Tm3+,Yb3+ are analysed. Besides the Stokes luminescence, the anti- Stokes emission upon infrared excitation (upconversion and black body radiation) is also analysed and discussed. The comparison of the luminescence characteristics in materials with different dimensions allowed to analyse the effect of size in the luminescent properties of the dopant lanthanide ions. The potentialities of application of the produced luminescent materials in solid state light, biosensors and pressure

  17. Hot Corrosion Resistance and Mechanical Behavior of Atmospheric Plasma Sprayed Conventional and Nanostructured Zirconia Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saremi, Mohsen; Keyvani, Ahmad; Heydarzadeh Sohi, Mahmoud

    Conventional and nanostructured zirconia coatings were deposited on In-738 Ni super alloy by atmospheric plasma spray technique. The hot corrosion resistance of the coatings was measured at 1050°C using an atmospheric electrical furnace and a fused mixture of vanadium pent oxide and sodium sulfate respectively. According to the experimental results nanostructured coatings showed a better hot corrosion resistance than conventional ones. The improved hot corrosion resistance could be explained by the change of structure to a dense and more packed structure in the nanocoating. The evaluation of mechanical properties by nano indentation method showed the hardness (H) and elastic modulus (E) of the YSZ coating increased substantially after hot corrosion.

  18. Determination of Scattering and Absorption Coefficients for Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Spuckler, Charles M.; Markham, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the scattering and absorption coefficients for a set of freestanding plasma-sprayed 8 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was determined at temperatures up to 1360 C in a wavelength range from 1.2 micrometers up to the 8YSZ absorption edge. The scattering and absorption coefficients were determined by fitting the directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance values calculated by a four-flux Kubelka Munk method to the experimentally measured hemispherical-directional reflectance and transmittance values obtained for five 8YSZ thicknesses. The scattering coefficient exhibited a continuous decrease with increasing wavelength and showed no significant temperature dependence. The scattering is primarily attributed to the relatively temperature-insensitive refractive index mismatch between the 8YSZ and its internal voids. The absorption coefficient was very low (less than 1 per centimeter) at wavelengths between 2 micrometers and the absorption edge and showed a definite temperature dependence that consisted of a shift of the absorption edge to shorter wavelengths and an increase in the weak absorption below the absorption edge with increasing temperature. The shift in the absorption edge with temperature is attributed to strongly temperature-dependent multiphonon absorption. While TBC hemispherical transmittance beyond the absorption edge can be predicted by a simple exponential decrease with thickness, below the absorption edge, typical TBC thicknesses are well below the thickness range where a simple exponential decrease in hemispherical transmittance with TBC thickness is expected. [Correction added after online publication August 11, 2009: "edge to a shorter wavelengths" has been updated as edge to shorter wavelengths."

  19. Ionic conductivity and thermal stability of magnetron-sputtered nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillassen, M.; Eklund, P.; Sridharan, M.; Pryds, N.; Bonanos, N.; Bøttiger, J.

    2009-05-01

    Thermally stable, stoichiometric, cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin-film electrolytes have been synthesized by reactive pulsed dc magnetron sputtering from a Zr-Y (80/20 at. %) alloy target. Films deposited at floating potential had a ⟨111⟩ texture. Single-line profile analysis of the 111 x-ray diffraction peak yielded a grain size of ˜20 nm and a microstrain of ˜2% regardless of deposition temperature. Films deposited at 400 °C and selected bias voltages in the range from -70 to -200 V showed a reduced grain size for higher bias voltages, yielding a grain size of ˜6 nm and a microstrain of ˜2.5% at bias voltages of -175 and -200 V with additional incorporation of argon. The films were thermally stable; very limited grain coarsening was observed up to an annealing temperature of 800 °C. Temperature-dependent impedance spectroscopy analysis of the YSZ films with Ag electrodes showed that the in-plane ionic conductivity was within one order of magnitude higher in films deposited with substrate bias corresponding to a decrease in grain size compared to films deposited at floating potential. This suggests that there is a significant contribution to the ionic conductivity from grain boundaries. The activation energy for oxygen ion migration was determined to be between 1.14 and 1.30 eV.

  20. Effects of sputtering mode on the microstructure and ionic conductivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Tsung-Her; Lin, Ruei-De; Cherng, Bo-Ruei; Cherng, Jyh-Shiarn

    2018-05-01

    The microstructure and ionic conductivity of reactively sputtered yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films are systematically studied. Those films were reactively sputtered in various sputtering modes using a closed-loop controlled system with plasma emission monitoring. A transition-mode sputtering corresponding to 45% of target poisoning produces a microstructure with ultrafine crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix, which undergoes an abnormal grain growth upon annealing at 800 °C. At 500 °C, the measured ionic conductivity of this annealed film is higher, by about a half order of magnitude, than those of its poisoned-mode counterparts, which are in turn significantly higher than that of the YSZ bulk by about two orders of magnitude. The abnormally-grown ultra-large grain size of the film deposited in the transition mode and then annealed is believed to be responsible for the former comparison due to the suppression of the grain boundary blocking effect, while the latter comparison can be attributed to the interface effect.

  1. Strength, Fracture Toughness, and Slow Crack Growth of Zirconia/alumina Composites at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2003-01-01

    Various electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells were fabricated by hot pressing 10 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (10-YSZ) reinforced with two different forms of alumina particulates and platelets each containing 0 to 30 mol% alumina. Flexure strength and fracture toughness of platelet composites were determined as a function of alumina content at 1000 C in air and compared with those of particulate composites determined previously. In general, elevated-temperature strength and fracture toughness of both composite systems increased with increasing alumina content. For a given alumina content, flexure strength of particulate composites was greater than that of platelet composites at higher alumina contents (greater than or equal to 20 mol%), whereas, fracture toughness was greater in platelet composites than in particulate composites, regardless of alumina content. The results of slow crack growth (SCG) testing, determined at 1000 C via dynamic fatigue testing for three different composites including 0 mol% (10-YSZ matrix), 30 mol % particulate and 30 mol% platelet composites, showed that susceptibility to SCG was greatest with SCG parameter n = 6 to 8 for both 0 and 30 mol% particulate composites and was least with n = 33 for the 30 mol% platelet composite.

  2. Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process

    DOEpatents

    Pal, Uday B

    2014-02-25

    An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

  3. High performance anode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cells fabricated by a novel slurry-casting method

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Nan-Qi; Yan, Dong; Chi, Bo; Pu, Jian; Jian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Tubular solid oxide fuel cells were fabricated and evaluated for their microstructure and electrochemical performance. The tubular substrate was prepared by casting NiO-Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) slurry on the inner wall of a plastic mold (tube). The wall thickness and uniformity were controlled by slurry viscosity and rotation speed of the tube. The cells consisted of Ni-YSZ functional anode, YSZ electrolyte and (La0.8Sr0.2)0.95MnO3-δ (LSM)-YSZ cathode prepared in sequence on the substrate by dip-coating and sintering. Their dimension was 50 mm in length, 0.8 mm in thickness and 10.5 mm in outside diameter. The peak power density of the cell at temperatures between 650 and 850°C was in the range from 85 to 522 mW cm−2 and was greatly enhanced to the range from 308 to 1220 mW cm−2 by impregnating PdO into LSM-YSZ cathode. During a cell testing at 0.7 A cm−2 and 750°C for 282 h, the impregnated PdO particles grew by coalescence, which increased the cathode polarization resistance and so that decreased the cell performance. According to the degradation tendency, the cell performance will be stabilized in a longer run. PMID:25640168

  4. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous zirconia and aluminated mesoporous zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Elizabeth Sun

    Synthesis of mesoporous zirconia has been performed by slowly hydrolyzing zirconium propoxide in the presence of anionic surfactants: namely, dodecyl phosphate or sulfate (P12 and Sf12) and hexadecyl sulfonate (So16) The zirconia. outgassed at 140--150°C has T-plot surface areas higher than 400 M2/g. This outgassing does not remove the surfactant. After calcination in air at 500°C and combustion of the surfactant, the mesoporous volume is reduced by a factor of about 2, whereas the pore wall material crystallizes in the tetragonal phase. The high-resolution electron microscopic study reveals the presence of a disorganized network of polygonal pores structure. It is suggested that the chemistry of the hydrolysis solution is instrumental in determining the pore structure. A schematic model in which the surfactant is a scaffold component is suggested in order to explain these results and the fixation of PO4, or SO4 in the walls may help to preserve the porous structure. It is very different from the templating mechanism. From the density obtained from phase transition temperature, and from the mesoporous volume (N2 adsorption), the thickness of the wall can be calculated as well as the pseudo-length of the pores. From the thickness, the T-plot area can be recalculated and agrees well with the measured T-plot surface area for the sample calcined at 500°C. Around 900°C, the walls become thicker and crystallizes into monoclinic zirconia without pore structure. In order to try to modify, the acidity of the mesoporous sulfated and oxo-phosphated zirconia, they were doped with aluminum. The sulfated zirconia only has a coating layer of amorphous alumina, while the phosphated zirconia has aluminum in the lattice and the alumina coat. A maximum ratio of Al/Zr ˜ 0.04 can be reached in the lattice. The introduction of aluminum into the lattice prevents the crystallization of the oxo-phosphate at 900°C, and helps to preserve the surface area and porosity of the sulfated

  5. Phase Transformation and Lattice Parameter Changes of Non-trivalent Rare Earth-Doped YSZ as a Function of Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shengli; Huang, Xiao; He, Zhang; Buyers, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    To examine the effect of doping/co-doping on high-temperature phase compositions of YSZ, stand-alone YSZ and CeO2 and Nb2O5 co-doped YSZ samples were prepared using mechanical alloy and high-temperature sintering. XRD analysis was performed on these samples from room temperature to 1100 °C. The results show that the structure for the co-doped samples tends to be thermally stable when the test temperature is higher than a critical value. Monoclinic phase was dominant in Nb2O5 co-doped YSZ at temperatures lower than 600 °C, while for the YSZ and CeO2 co-doped YSZ, cubic/tetragonal phase was dominant in the whole test temperature range. The lattice parameters for all the samples increase with increasing test temperature generally. The lattice parameters for the two non-trivalent rare earth oxides co-doped YSZ show that the lattice parameter a for the cubic phase of the Ce4+ co-doped YSZ is consistently greater than that of 7YSZ which is related to the presence of larger radius of Ce4+ in the matrix. The lattice parameters a, b, c for the monoclinic phase of Ce4+ co-doped YSZ are much closer to each other than that of the Nb5+ co-doped YSZ, indicating the former has better tendency to form cubic/tetragonal phase, which is desired for vast engineering applications.

  6. Phase Transformation and Lattice Parameter Changes of Non-trivalent Rare Earth-Doped YSZ as a Function of Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shengli; Huang, Xiao; He, Zhang; Buyers, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    To examine the effect of doping/co-doping on high-temperature phase compositions of YSZ, stand-alone YSZ and CeO2 and Nb2O5 co-doped YSZ samples were prepared using mechanical alloy and high-temperature sintering. XRD analysis was performed on these samples from room temperature to 1100 °C. The results show that the structure for the co-doped samples tends to be thermally stable when the test temperature is higher than a critical value. Monoclinic phase was dominant in Nb2O5 co-doped YSZ at temperatures lower than 600 °C, while for the YSZ and CeO2 co-doped YSZ, cubic/tetragonal phase was dominant in the whole test temperature range. The lattice parameters for all the samples increase with increasing test temperature generally. The lattice parameters for the two non-trivalent rare earth oxides co-doped YSZ show that the lattice parameter a for the cubic phase of the Ce4+ co-doped YSZ is consistently greater than that of 7YSZ which is related to the presence of larger radius of Ce4+ in the matrix. The lattice parameters a, b, c for the monoclinic phase of Ce4+ co-doped YSZ are much closer to each other than that of the Nb5+ co-doped YSZ, indicating the former has better tendency to form cubic/tetragonal phase, which is desired for vast engineering applications.

  7. Zirconia-molybdenum disilicide composites

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    Compositions of matter comprised of molybdenum disilicide and zirconium oxide in one of three forms: pure, partially stabilized, or fully stabilized and methods of making the compositions. The stabilized zirconia is crystallographically stabilized by mixing it with yttrium oxide, calcium oxide, cerium oxide, or magnesium oxide and it may be partially stabilized or fully stabilized depending on the amount of stabilizing agent in the mixture.

  8. Zirconia in fixed prosthesis. A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Román-Rodríguez, Juan L.; Ferreiroa, Alberto; Solá-Ruíz, María F.; Fons-Font, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Statement of problem: Evidence is limited on the efficacy of zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses. Objective: To carry out a literature review of the behavior of zirconium oxide dental restorations. Material and Methods: This literature review searched the Pubmed, Scopus, Medline and Cochrane Library databases using key search words “zirconium oxide,” “zirconia,” “non-metal restorations,” “ceramic oxides,” “veneering ceramic,” “zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses”. Both in vivo and in vitro studies into zirconia-based prosthodontic restoration behavior were included. Results: Clinical studies have revealed a high rate of fracture for porcelain-veneered zirconia-based restorations that varies between 6% and 15% over a 3- to 5-year period, while for ceramo-metallic restorations the fracture rate ranges between 4 and 10% over ten years. These results provoke uncertainty as to the long-term prognosis for this material in the oral medium. The cause of veneering porcelain fractures is unknown but hypothetically they could be associated with bond failure between the veneer material and the zirconia sub-structure. Key words:Veneering ceramic, zirconia-based ceramic restoration, crown, zirconia, tooth-supported fixed prosthesis. PMID:24596638

  9. Epitaxial growth of YBa2Cu3O7 - delta films on oxidized silicon with yttria- and zirconia-based buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechen, E. V.; Schoenberger, R.; Brunner, B.; Ritzinger, S.; Renk, K. F.; Sidorov, M. V.; Oktyabrsky, S. R.

    1993-09-01

    A study of epitaxial growth of YBa2Cu3O7-δ films on oxidized Si with yttria- and zirconia-based buffer layers is reported. Using substrates with either SiO2 free or naturally oxidized (100) surfaces of Si it was found that a thin SiO2 layer on top of the Si favors high-quality superconducting film formation. Compared to yttria-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) single layers, YSZY2O3 double and YSZ/Y2O3YSZ triple layers allows the deposition of thin YBa2Cu3O7-δ films with improved properties including reduced aging effects. In epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-δ films grown on the double buffer layers a critical temperature Tc(R=0)=89.5 K and critical current densities of 3.5×106 A/cm2 at 77 K and 1×107 A/cm2 at 66 K were reached.

  10. Structural and chemical degradation mechanisms of pure YSZ and its components ZrO2 and Y2O3 in carbon-rich fuel gases.

    PubMed

    Köck, Eva-Maria; Kogler, Michaela; Götsch, Thomas; Klötzer, Bernhard; Penner, Simon

    2016-05-25

    Structural and chemical degradation mechanisms of metal-free yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ-8, 8 mol% Y2O3 in ZrO2) in comparison to its pure oxidic components ZrO2 and Y2O3 have been studied in carbon-rich fuel gases with respect to coking/graphitization and (oxy)carbide formation. By combining operando electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), operando Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the removal and suppression of CH4- and CO-induced carbon deposits and of those generated in more realistic fuel gas mixtures (syngas, mixtures of CH4 or CO with CO2 and H2O) was examined under SOFC-relevant conditions up to 1273 K and ambient pressures. Surface-near carbidization is a major problem already on the "isolated" (i.e. Nickel-free) cermet components, leading to irreversible changes of the conduction properties. Graphitic carbon deposition takes place already on the "isolated" oxides under sufficiently fuel-rich conditions, most pronounced in the pure gases CH4 and CO, but also significantly in fuel gas mixtures containing H2O and CO2. For YSZ, a comparative quantification of the total amount of deposited carbon in all gases and mixtures is provided and thus yields favorable and detrimental experimental approaches to suppress the carbon formation. In addition, the effectivity and reversibility of removal of the coke/graphite layers was comparably studied in the pure oxidants O2, CO2 and H2O and their effective contribution upon addition to the pure fuel gases CO and CH4 verified.

  11. Evaluation of laser bacterial anti-fouling of transparent nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized-zirconia cranial implant.

    PubMed

    Damestani, Yasaman; De Howitt, Natalie; Halaney, David L; Garay, Javier E; Aguilar, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    The development and feasibility of a novel nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized-zirconia (nc-YSZ) cranial implant has been recently established. The purpose of what we now call "window to the brain (WttB)" implant (or platform), is to improve patient care by providing a technique for delivery and/or collection of light into/from the brain, on demand, over large areas, and on a chronically recurring basis without the need for repeated craniotomies. WttB holds the transformative potential for enhancing light-based diagnosis and treatment of a wide variety of brain pathologies including cerebral edema, traumatic brain injury, stroke, glioma, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, bacterial adhesion to the cranial implant is the leading factor for biofilm formation (fouling), infection, and treatment failure. Escherichia coli (E. coli), in particular, is the most common isolate in gram-negative bacillary meningitis after cranial surgery or trauma. The transparency of our WttB implant may provide a unique opportunity for non-invasive treatment of bacterial infection under the implant using medical lasers. A drop of a diluted overnight culture of BL21-293 E. coli expressing luciferase was seeded between the nc-YSZ implant and the agar plate. This was followed by immediate irradiation with selected laser. After each laser treatment the nc-YSZ was removed, and cultures were incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C. The study examined continuous wave (CW) and pulsed wave (PW) modes of near-infrared (NIR) 810 nm laser wavelength with a power output ranging from 1 to 3 W. During irradiation, the temperature distribution of nc-YSZ surface was monitored using an infrared thermal camera. Relative luminescence unit (RLU) was used to evaluate the viability of bacteria after the NIR laser treatment. Analysis of RLU suggests that the viability of E. coli biofilm formation was reduced with NIR laser treatment when compared to the control group (P < 0.01) and loss of viability

  12. Progress in Metal-Supported Axial-Injection Plasma Sprayed Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Using Nanostructured NiO-Y0.15Zr0.85O1.925 Dry Powder Anode Feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, C.; Harris, J.; Kuhn, J.; Marr, M.; Kesler, O.

    2013-06-01

    A composite NiO-Y0.15Zr0.85O1.925 (YSZ) agglomerated feedstock having nanoscale NiO and YSZ primary particles was used to fabricate anodes having sub-micrometer structure. These anodes were incorporated into two different metal-supported SOFC architectures, which differ in the order of electrode deposition. The composition of the composite Ni-YSZ anodes is controllable by selection of the agglomerate size fraction and standoff distance, while the porosity is controllable by selection of agglomerate size fraction and addition of a sacrificial pore-forming material. A bi-layer anode was fabricated having a total porosity of 33% for the diffusion layer and 23% porosity for the functional layer. A power density of 630 mW/cm2 was obtained at 750 °C in humidified H2 with cells having the bi-layer anode deposited on the metal support. Cells having the cathode deposited on the metal support showed poor performance due to a significant number of vertical cracks through the electrolyte, allowing excessive gas cross-over between the anode and the cathode compartments.

  13. The effect of CMAS interaction on thermal cycle lifetime of YSZ based thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Emre; Karabaş, Muhammet; Yılmaz Taptık, İ.

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to produce CMAS resistant YSZ based TBCs and compare thermal cycle performance of the TBCs before and after CMAS interaction. Plasma sprayed YSZ (Y), YSZ + Alumina (YA), YSZ + Titania (YT), and YSZ + Alumina + Titania (YTA) coatings have been exposed to CMAS at 1250 °C for 18 h. Thermal cycling tests were carried out with a propane + oxygen flame at 1250 ± 50 °C. Thermal cycle lifetime of YSZ, YA, YT, YTA, and CMAS contaminated Y, YA, YT, YTA coatings are 450, 416, 426, 438, 122, 211, 141, 298 respectively. After CMAS interaction, while the life span of other coatings has fallen to their life span’s quarter, the life span of YTA coating has decreased slightly. Damages in the coatings after thermal cycle tests have been studied by using SEM to observe the microstructure and x-ray diffraction techniques to analyze the phase composition. Also to see areal distribution of the CMAS through the coating, EDS mapping has been carried out.

  14. Straight-chain halocarbon forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production - Tests with yttria-stabilized zirconia microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Braley, J. C.

    2015-03-01

    Current methods of TRISO fuel kernel production in the United States use a sol-gel process with trichloroethylene (TCE) as the forming fluid. After contact with radioactive materials, the spent TCE becomes a mixed hazardous waste, and high costs are associated with its recycling or disposal. Reducing or eliminating this mixed waste stream would not only benefit the environment, but would also enhance the economics of kernel production. Previous research yielded three candidates for testing as alternatives to TCE: 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane. This study considers the production of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) kernels in silicone oil and the three chosen alternative formation fluids, with subsequent characterization of the produced kernels and used forming fluid. Kernels formed in silicone oil and bromotetradecane were comparable to those produced by previous kernel production efforts, while those produced in chlorooctadecane and iodododecane experienced gelation issues leading to poor kernel formation and geometry.

  15. Synthesis of zirconia monoliths for chromatographic separations.

    PubMed

    Randon, Jérôme; Huguet, Samuel; Piram, Anne; Puy, Guillaume; Demesmay, Claire; Rocca, Jean-Louis

    2006-03-17

    The aim of this work is to join the advantages of two different kinds of stationary phases: monolithic columns and zirconia-based supports. On the one hand, silica monolithic columns allow a higher efficiency with a lower back-pressure than traditional packed columns. On the other hand, chromatographic stationary phases based on zirconia have a higher thermal and chemical stability and specific surface properties. Combining these advantages, a zirconia monolith with a macroporous framework could be a real improvement in separation sciences. Two main strategies can be used in order to obtain a zirconia surface on a monolithic skeleton: coating or direct synthesis. The coverage by a zirconia layer of the surface of a silica-based monolith can be performed using the chemical properties of the silanol surface groups. We realized this coverage using zirconium alkoxide and we further grafted n-dodecyl groups using phosphate derivatives. Any loss of efficiency was observed and fast separations have been achieved. The main advance reported in this paper is related to the preparation of zirconia monoliths by a sol-gel process starting from zirconium alkoxide. The synthesis parameters (hydrolysis ratio, porogen type, precursor concentration, drying step, etc.) were defined in order to produce a macroporous zirconia monoliths usable in separation techniques. We produced various homogeneous structures: zirconia rod 2 cm long with a diameter of 2.3 mm, and zirconia monolith inside fused silica capillaries with a 75 microm I.D. These monoliths have a skeleton size of 2 microm and have an average through pore size of 6 microm. Several separations have been reported.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of anode-supported micro-tubular solide oxide fuel cell by phase inversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Cong

    Nowadays, the micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs), especially the anode supported MT-SOFCs have been extensively developed to be applied for SOFC stacks designation, which can be potentially used for portable power sources and vehicle power supply. To prepare MT-SOFCs with high electrochemical performance, one of the main strategies is to optimize the microstructure of the anode support. Recently, a novel phase inversion method has been applied to prepare the anode support with a unique asymmetrical microstructure, which can improve the electrochemical performance of the MT-SOFCs. Since several process parameters of the phase inversion method can influence the pore formation mechanism and final microstructure, it is essential and necessary to systematically investigate the relationship between phase inversion process parameters and final microstructure of the anode supports. The objective of this study is aiming at correlating the process parameters and microstructure and further preparing MT-SOFCs with enhanced electrochemical performance. Non-solvent, which is used to trigger the phase separation process, can significantly influence the microstructure of the anode support fabricated by phase inversion method. To investigate the mechanism of non-solvent affecting the microstructure, water and ethanol/water mixture were selected for the NiO-YSZ anode supports fabrication. The presence of ethanol in non-solvent can inhibit the growth of the finger-like pores in the tubes. With the increasing of the ethanol concentration in the non-solvent, a relatively dense layer can be observed both in the outside and inside of the tubes. The mechanism of pores growth and morphology obtained by using non-solvent with high concentration ethanol was explained based on the inter-diffusivity between solvent and non-solvent. Solvent and non-solvent pair with larger Dm value is benefit for the growth of finger-like pores. Three cells with different anode geometries was

  17. Thickness determination of large-area films of yttria-stabilized zirconia produced by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryds, N.; Toftmann, B.; Bilde-Sørensen, J. B.; Schou, J.; Linderoth, S.

    2006-04-01

    Films of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) on a polished silicon substrate of diameter up to 125 mm have been produced in a large-area pulsed laser deposition (PLD) setup under typical PLD conditions. The film thickness over the full film area has been determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with use of a method similar to one described by Bishop and Poole. The attenuation of the electron-induced X-rays from the Si wafer by the film was monitored at a number of points along a diameter and the thickness was determined by Monte Carlo simulations of the attenuation for various values of film thickness with the program CASINO. These results have been compared with direct measurements in the SEM of the film thickness on a cross-section on one of the wafers. The results of these measurements demonstrate the ability of this technique to accurately determine the thickness of a large film, i.e. up to diameters of 125 mm, in a relatively short time, without destroying the substrate, without the need of a standard sample and without the need of a flat substrate. We have also demonstrated that by controlling the deposition parameters large-area YSZ films with uniform thickness can be produced.

  18. Zirconia-based mixed potential sensor with Pt electrode prepared by spin-coating of polymeric precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzan, A.; Woźniak, Ł.; Szymczewska, D.; Jasiński, P.

    2016-11-01

    Many types of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) based gas sensors have been explored extensively in recent years. Great attention have been directed to mixed-potential-type gas sensors. It is due to growing concerns with environmental issues. Not without a significance is the fact of very attractive performance of this type of sensor allowing to detect low concentration of pollutant gases. In this paper two types of YSZ based mixed-potential planar sensors were investigated, with platinum electrode painted using commercial paste and with spin coated platinum layer. Both types had second electrode in the form of porous gold. Measurements were performed at 400 °C in synthetic air and different concentrations of SO2. Gas flow was set to 100 cm3min-1 and the concentration of 50 ppm SO2 was tested. During this measurements the sensor was sintered in-situ at increasing temperatures. Sensor with 100 nm spin-coated platinum layer sintered at 700 °C was shown to exhibit two times smaller response than sensor with 5 μm porous electrode, while consisting of over 20 times smaller amount of Pt. The influence of sintering temperature on electrical conductivity of platinum films was also examined. Moreover, the platinum microstructure was investigated using SEM microscopy.

  19. Investigation of the oxygen exchange mechanism on Pt|yttria stabilized zirconia at intermediate temperatures: Surface path versus bulk path

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Alexander K.; Lutz, Alexander; Kubicek, Markus; Kubel, Frank; Hutter, Herbert; Fleig, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    The oxygen exchange kinetics of platinum on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was investigated by means of geometrically well-defined Pt microelectrodes. By variation of electrode size and temperature it was possible to separate two temperature regimes with different geometry dependencies of the polarization resistance. At higher temperatures (550–700 °C) an elementary step located close to the three phase boundary (TPB) with an activation energy of ∼1.6 eV was identified as rate limiting. At lower temperatures (300–400 °C) the rate limiting elementary step is related to the electrode area and exhibited a very low activation energy in the order of 0.2 eV. From these observations two parallel pathways for electrochemical oxygen exchange are concluded. The nature of these two elementary steps is discussed in terms of equivalent circuits. Two combinations of parallel rate limiting reaction steps are found to explain the observed geometry dependencies: (i) Diffusion through an impurity phase at the TPB in parallel to diffusion of oxygen through platinum – most likely along Pt grain boundaries – as area-related process. (ii) Co-limitation of oxygen diffusion along the Pt|YSZ interface and charge transfer at the interface with a short decay length of the corresponding transmission line (as TPB-related process) in parallel to oxygen diffusion through platinum. PMID:22210951

  20. Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Ceramic Deposition on SS430 Ferritic Steel Grown by PLD - Pulsed Laser Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid Rivai, Abu; Mardiyanto; Agusutrisno; Suharyadi, Edi

    2017-01-01

    Development of high temperature materials are one of the key issues for the deployment of advanced nuclear reactors due to higher temperature operation. One of the candidate materials for that purpose is ceramic-coated ferritic steel that one of the functions is to be a thermal barrier coating (TBC). Thin films of YSZ (Ytrria-Stabilized Zirconia) ceramic have been deposited on a SS430 ferritic steel using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) at Center For Science and Technology of Advanced Materials laboratory - National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN). The thin film was deposited with the chamber pressure range of 200-225 mTorr, the substrate temperature of 800oC, and the number of laser shots of 3×104, 6×104 and 9×104. Afterward, the samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscope (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Vickers hardness tester. The results showed that the YSZ could homogeneously and sticky deposited on the surface of the ferritic steel. The surfaces were very smoothly formed with the surface roughness was in the range of 70 nm. Furthermore, thickness, composition of Zr4+ dan Y3+, the crystallinity, and hardness property was increased with the increasing the number of the shots.

  1. Advances in aluminum anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dale, K. H.

    1969-01-01

    White anodize is applied to aluminum alloy surfaces by specific surface preparation, anodizing, pigmentation, and sealing techniques. The development techniques resulted in alloys, which are used in space vehicles, with good reflectance values and excellent corrosive resistance.

  2. FLUORINE CELL ANODE ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Cable, R.E.; Goode, W.B. Jr.; Henderson, W.K.; Montillon, G.H.

    1962-06-26

    An improved anode assembly is deslgned for use in electrolytlc cells ln the productlon of hydrogen and fluorlne from a moIten electrolyte. The anode assembly comprises a copper post, a copper hanger supported by the post, a plurality of carbon anode members, and bolt means for clamplng half of the anode members to one slde of the hanger and for clamplng the other half of the anode members to the other slde of the hanger. The heads of the clamplng bolts are recessed withln the anode members and carbon plugs are inserted ln the recesses above the bolt heads to protect the boIts agalnst corroslon. A copper washer is provided under the head of each clamplng boIt such that the anode members can be tightly clamped to the hanger with a resultant low anode jolnt resistance. (AEC)

  3. Two-body wear comparison of zirconia crown, gold crown, and enamel against zirconia.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min-Seok; Oh, Sang-Yeob; Cho, Sung-Am

    2015-07-01

    Full zirconia crowns have recently been used for dental restorations because of their mechanical properties. However, there is little information about their wear characteristics against enamel, gold, and full zirconia crowns. The purpose of this study was to compare the wear rate of enamel, gold crowns, and zirconia crowns against zirconia blocks using an in vitro wear test. Upper specimens were divided into three groups: 10 enamels (group 1), 10 gold crowns (group 2, Type III gold), and 10 zirconia crowns (group 3, Prettau(®)Zirkon 9H, Zirkonzahn, Italy). Each of these specimens was wear tested against a zirconia block (40×30×3mm(3)) as a lower specimen (30 total zirconia blocks). Each specimen of the groups was abraded against the zirconia block for 600 cycles at 1Hz with 15mm front-to-back movement on an abrading machine. Moreover, the load applied during the abrading test was 50N, and the test was performed in a normal saline emulsion for 10min. Three-dimensional images were taken before and after the test, and the statistical analysis was performed using the Krushal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test (p=0.05). The mean volume loss of group 1 was 0.47mm(3), while that of group 2 and group 3 was 0.01mm(3). The wear volume loss of enamels against zirconia was higher than that of gold and zirconia crowns. Moreover, according to this result, zirconia crowns are not recommended for heavy bruxers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On the interfacial fracture resistance of resin-bonded zirconia and glass-infiltrated graded zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Herzl; Kaizer, Marina; Chughtai, Asima; Tong, Hui; Tanaka, Carina; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective A major limiting factor for the widespread use of zirconia in prosthetic dentistry is its poor resin-cement bonding capabilities. We show that this deficiency can be overcome by infiltrating the zirconia cementation surface with glass. Current methods for assessing the fracture resistance of resin-ceramic bonds are marred by uneven stress distribution at the interface, which may result in erroneous interfacial fracture resistance values. We have applied a wedge-loaded double-cantilever-beam testing approach to accurately measure the interfacial fracture resistance of adhesively bonded zirconia-based restorative materials. Methods The interfacial fracture energy GC was determined for adhesively bonded zirconia, graded zirconia and feldspathic ceramic bars. The bonding surfaces were subjected to sandblasting or acid etching treatments. Baseline GC was measured for bonded specimens subjected to 7 days hydration at 37 °C. Long-term GC was determined for specimens exposed to 20,000 thermal cycles between 5 and 55 °C followed by 2-month aging at 37 °C in water. The test data were interpreted with the aid of a 2D finite element fracture analysis. Results The baseline and long-term GC for graded zirconia was 2–3 and 8 times that for zirconia, respectively. More significantly, both the baseline and long-term GC of graded zirconia were similar to those for feldspathic ceramic. Significance The interfacial fracture energy of feldspathic ceramic and graded zirconia was controlled by the fracture energy of the resin cement while that of zirconia by the interface. GC for the graded zirconia was as large as for feldspathic ceramic, making it an attractive material for use in dentistry. PMID:26365987

  5. A review of engineered zirconia surfaces in biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ling; Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Alao, Abdur-Rasheed; Song, Xiao-Fei; Abduo, Jaafar; Zhang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Zirconia is widely used for load-bearing functional structures in medicine and dentistry. The quality of engineered zirconia surfaces determines not only the fracture and fatigue behaviour but also the low temperature degradation (ageing sensitivity), bacterial colonization and bonding strength of zirconia devices. This paper reviews the current manufacturing techniques for fabrication of zirconia surfaces in biomedical applications, particularly, in tooth and joint replacements, and influences of the zirconia surface quality on their functional behaviours. It discusses emerging manufacturing techniques and challenges for fabrication of zirconia surfaces in biomedical applications. PMID:29130030

  6. Mesoporous silica templated zirconia nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballem, Mohamed A.; Córdoba, José M.; Odén, Magnus

    2011-07-01

    Nanoparticles of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) were synthesized by infiltration of a zirconia precursor (ZrOCl2·8H2O) into a SBA-15 mesoporous silica mold using a wet-impregnation technique. X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy show formation of stable ZrO2 nanoparticles inside the silica pores after a thermal treatment at 550 °C. Subsequent leaching out of the silica template by NaOH resulted in well-dispersed ZrO2 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4 nm. The formed single crystal nanoparticles are faceted with 110 surfaces termination suggesting it to be the preferred growth orientation. A growth model of these nanoparticles is also suggested.

  7. Zirconia in dental implantology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Apratim, Abhishek; Eachempati, Prashanti; Krishnappa Salian, Kiran Kumar; Singh, Vijendra; Chhabra, Saurabh; Shah, Sanket

    2015-01-01

    Background: Titanium has been the most popular material of choice for dental implantology over the past few decades. Its properties have been found to be most suitable for the success of implant treatment. But recently, zirconia is slowly emerging as one of the materials which might replace the gold standard of dental implant, i.e., titanium. Materials and Methods: Literature was searched to retrieve information about zirconia dental implant and studies were critically analyzed. PubMed database was searched for information about zirconia dental implant regarding mechanical properties, osseointegration, surface roughness, biocompatibility, and soft tissue health around it. The literature search was limited to English language articles published from 1975 to 2015. Results: A total of 45 papers met the inclusion criteria for this review, among the relevant search in the database. Conclusion: Literature search showed that some of the properties of zirconia seem to be suitable for making it an ideal dental implant, such as biocompatibility, osseointegration, favourable soft tissue response and aesthetics due to light transmission and its color. At the same time, some studies also point out its drawbacks. It was also found that most of the studies on zirconia dental implants are short-term studies and there is a need for more long-term clinical trials to prove that zirconia is worth enough to replace titanium as a biomaterial in dental implantology. PMID:26236672

  8. Nanosilica coating for bonding improvements to zirconia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Chen, Gang; Xie, Haifeng; Dai, Wenyong; Zhang, Feimin

    2013-01-01

    Resin bonding to zirconia cannot be established from standard methods that are currently utilized in conventional silica-based dental ceramics. The solution-gelatin (sol-gel) process is a well developed silica-coating technique used to modify the surface of nonsilica-based ceramics. Here, we use this technique to improve resin bonding to zirconia, which we compared to zirconia surfaces treated with alumina sandblasting and tribochemical silica coating. We used the shear bond strength test to examine the effect of the various coatings on the short-term resin bonding of zirconia. Furthermore, we employed field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to characterize the zirconia surfaces. Water-mist spraying was used to evaluate the durability of the coatings. To evaluate the biological safety of the experimental sol-gel silica coating, we conducted an in vitro Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames mutagenicity test), cytotoxicity tests, and in vivo oral mucous membrane irritation tests. When compared to the conventional tribochemical silica coating, the experimental sol-gel silica coating provided the same shear bond strength, higher silicon contents, and better durability. Moreover, we observed no apparent mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, or irritation in this study. Therefore, the sol-gel technique represents a promising method for producing silica coatings on zirconia.

  9. Nanosilica coating for bonding improvements to zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Chen, Gang; Xie, Haifeng; Dai, Wenyong; Zhang, Feimin

    2013-01-01

    Resin bonding to zirconia cannot be established from standard methods that are currently utilized in conventional silica-based dental ceramics. The solution–gelatin (sol–gel) process is a well developed silica-coating technique used to modify the surface of nonsilica-based ceramics. Here, we use this technique to improve resin bonding to zirconia, which we compared to zirconia surfaces treated with alumina sandblasting and tribochemical silica coating. We used the shear bond strength test to examine the effect of the various coatings on the short-term resin bonding of zirconia. Furthermore, we employed field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to characterize the zirconia surfaces. Water–mist spraying was used to evaluate the durability of the coatings. To evaluate the biological safety of the experimental sol–gel silica coating, we conducted an in vitro Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames mutagenicity test), cytotoxicity tests, and in vivo oral mucous membrane irritation tests. When compared to the conventional tribochemical silica coating, the experimental sol–gel silica coating provided the same shear bond strength, higher silicon contents, and better durability. Moreover, we observed no apparent mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, or irritation in this study. Therefore, the sol–gel technique represents a promising method for producing silica coatings on zirconia. PMID:24179333

  10. Hot Corrosion of Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Deposited by Air Plasma Spray on a Nickel-Based Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallejo, N. Diaz; Sanchez, O.; Caicedo, J. C.; Aperador, W.; Zambrano, G.

    In this research, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel analysis were utilized to study the hot corrosion performance at 700∘C of air plasma-sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings with a NiCrAlY bond coat grown by high velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF), deposited on an INCONEL 625 substrate, in contact with corrosive solids salts as vanadium pentoxide V2O5 and sodium sulfate Na2SO4. The EIS data were interpreted based on proposed equivalent electrical circuits using a suitable fitting procedure performed with Echem AnalystTM Software. Phase transformations and microstructural development were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), with Rietveld refinement for quantitative phase analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determinate the coating morphology and corrosion products. The XRD analysis indicated that the reaction between sodium vanadate (NaVO3) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3) produces yttrium vanadate (YVO4) and leads to the transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia phase.

  11. Electrochemical Sensor for Organophosphate Pesticides and Nerve Agents Using Zirconia Nanoparticles as Selective Sorbents

    SciT

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-09-15

    Electrochemical sensor for detection of organophosphate (OP) pesticides and nerve agents using zirconia (ZrO₂) nanoparticles as selective sorbents is presented. Zirconia nanoparticles were electrodynamically deposited onto the polycrystalline gold electrode by cyclic voltammetry. Because of a strong affinity of zirconia to the phosphoric group, nitroaromatic OPs strongly bind to the ZrO₂ nanoparticle surface. The electrochemical characterization and anodic stripping voltammetric performance of bound OPs were evaluated using cyclic voltammetric and square-wave voltammetric (SWV) analysis. SWV was used to monitor the amount of bound OPs and provide simple, fast, and facile quantitative methods for nitroaromatic OP compounds. The sensor surface canmore » be regenerated by successively running SWV scanning. Operational parameters, including the amount of nanoparticles, adsorption time, and the pH of the reaction medium have been optimized. The stripping voltammetric response is highly linear over the 5–200 ng/mL (ppb) methyl parathion range examined (2-min adsorption), with a detection limit of 1 ng/mL (10 min accumulation), and good precision (RSD=5.3 %, n = 10). The promising stripping voltammetric performances open new opportunities for fast, simple, and sensitive analyzing of OPs in environmental and biological samples. These findings can lead to a widespread use of electrochemical sensors to detect OP contaminates.« less

  12. Molybdenum disilicide composites reinforced with zirconia and silicon carbide

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1995-01-17

    Compositions are disclosed consisting essentially of molybdenum disilicide, silicon carbide, and a zirconium oxide component. The silicon carbide used in the compositions is in whisker or powder form. The zirconium oxide component is pure zirconia or partially stabilized zirconia or fully stabilized zirconia.

  13. Oxygen separation from air using zirconia solid electrolyte membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suitor, J. W.; Marner, W. J.; Schroeder, J. E.; Losey, R. W.; Ferrall, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    Air separation using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane is a possible alternative source of oxygen. The process of zirconia oxygen separation is reviewed, and an oxygen plant concept using such separation is described. Potential cell designs, stack designs, and testing procedures are examined. Fabrication of the materials used in a zirconia module as well as distribution plate design and fabrication are examined.

  14. Molybdenum disilicide composites reinforced with zirconia and silicon carbide

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.

    1995-01-01

    Compositions consisting essentially of molybdenum disilicide, silicon carbide, and a zirconium oxide component. The silicon carbide used in the compositions is in whisker or powder form. The zirconium oxide component is pure zirconia or partially stabilized zirconia or fully stabilized zirconia.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Nanoparticles Doped with Ytterbium and Gadolinium: ZrO2 9.5Y2O3 5.6Yb2O3 5.2Gd2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahamirian, M.; Hadavi, S. M. M.; Rahimipour, M. R.; Farvizi, M.; Keyvani, A.

    2018-03-01

    Defect cluster thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are attractive alternatives to Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in advanced applications. In this study, YSZ nanoparticles doped with ytterbium and gadolinium (ZrO2 9.5Y2O3 5.6Yb2O3 5.2Gd2O3 (ZGYbY)) were synthesized through a chemical co-precipitation and calcination method, and characterized by in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis in the temperature range of 25 °C to 1000 °C (HTK-XRD), thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Precise cell parameters of t-prime phase and the best zirconia phase for TBC applications were calculated by Cohen's and Rietveld refinement methods. Optimum crystallization temperature of the precursor powder was found to be 1000 °C. Furthermore, FE-SEM results for the calcined ZGYbY powders indicated orderly particles of uniform shape and size with a small tendency toward agglomeration. Average lattice thermal expansion coefficient in the temperature range of 25 °C to 1000 °C was determined to be 31.71 × 10-6 K-1.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Nanoparticles Doped with Ytterbium and Gadolinium: ZrO2 9.5Y2O3 5.6Yb2O3 5.2Gd2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahamirian, M.; Hadavi, S. M. M.; Rahimipour, M. R.; Farvizi, M.; Keyvani, A.

    2018-06-01

    Defect cluster thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are attractive alternatives to Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in advanced applications. In this study, YSZ nanoparticles doped with ytterbium and gadolinium (ZrO2 9.5Y2O3 5.6Yb2O3 5.2Gd2O3 (ZGYbY)) were synthesized through a chemical co-precipitation and calcination method, and characterized by in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis in the temperature range of 25 °C to 1000 °C (HTK-XRD), thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Precise cell parameters of t-prime phase and the best zirconia phase for TBC applications were calculated by Cohen's and Rietveld refinement methods. Optimum crystallization temperature of the precursor powder was found to be 1000 °C. Furthermore, FE-SEM results for the calcined ZGYbY powders indicated orderly particles of uniform shape and size with a small tendency toward agglomeration. Average lattice thermal expansion coefficient in the temperature range of 25 °C to 1000 °C was determined to be 31.71 × 10-6 K-1.

  17. Biogas as a fuel for solid oxide fuel cells and synthesis gas production: effects of ceria-doping and hydrogen sulfide on the performance of nickel-based anode materials.

    PubMed

    Laycock, Christian J; Staniforth, John Z; Ormerod, R Mark

    2011-05-28

    Numerous investigations have been carried out into the conversion of biogas into synthesis gas (a mixture of H(2) + CO) over Ni/YSZ anode cermet catalysts. Biogas is a variable mixture of gases consisting predominantly of methane and carbon dioxide (usually in a 2 : 1 ratio, but variable with source), with other constituents including sulfur-containing gases such as hydrogen sulfide, which can cause sulfur poisoning of nickel catalysts. The effect of temperature on carbon deposition and sulfur poisoning of 90 : 10 mol% Ni/YSZ under biogas conversion conditions has been investigated by carrying out a series of catalytic reactions of methane-rich (2 : 1) CH(4)/CO(2) mixtures in the absence and presence of H(2)S over the temperature range 750-1000 °C. The effect of ceria-doping on carbon dioxide reforming, carbon deposition and sulfur tolerance has also been investigated by carrying out a similar series of reactions over ceria-doped Ni/YSZ. Ceria was doped at 5 mol% of the nickel content to give an anode catalyst composition of 85.5 : 4.5 : 10 mol% Ni/CeO(2)/YSZ. Reactions were followed using quadrupolar mass spectrometry (QMS) and the amount of carbon deposition was analysed by subjecting the reacted catalyst samples to a post-reaction temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). On undoped Ni/YSZ, carbon deposition occurred predominantly through thermal decomposition of methane. Ceria-doping significantly suppressed methane decomposition and at high temperatures simultaneously promoted the reverse Boudouard reaction, significantly lowering carbon deposition. Sulfur poisoning of Ni/YSZ occurred in two phases, the first of which caused the most activity loss and was accelerated on increasing the reaction temperature, while the second phase had greater stability and became more favourable with increasing reaction temperature. Adding H(2)S significantly inhibited methane decomposition, resulting in much less carbon deposition. Ceria-doping significantly increased the sulfur

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of Dense Zirconia and Zirconia-Silica Ceramic Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Guangqing; Fan, Yuwei

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare dense zirconia-yttria (ZY), zirconia-silica (ZS) and zirconia-yttria-silica (ZYS) nanofibers as reinforcing elements for dental composites. Zirconium (IV) propoxide, yttrium nitrate hexahydrate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) were used as precursors for the preparation of zirconia, yttria, and silica sols. A small amount (1–1.5 wt%) of polyethylene oxide (PEO) was used as a carry polymer. The sols were preheated at 70 °C before electrospinning and their viscosity was measured with a viscometer at different heating time. The gel point was determined by viscosity–time (η–t) curve. The ZY, ZS and ZYS gel nanofibers were prepared using a special reactive electrospinning device under the conditions near the gel point. The as-prepared gel nanofibers had diameters between 200 and 400 nm. Dense (nonporous) ceramic nanofibers of zirconia-yttria (96/4), zirconia-silica (80/20) and zirconia-yttria-silica (76.8/3.2/20) with diameter of 100–300 nm were obtained by subsequent calcinations at different temperatures. The gel and ceramic nanofibers obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM micrograph revealed that ceramic ZY nanofibers had grained structure, while ceramic ZS and ZYS nanofibers had smooth surfaces, both showing no visible porosity under FE-SEM. Complete removal of the polymer PEO was confirmed by TGA/DSC and FT-IR. The formation of tetragonal phase of zirconia and amorphous silica was proved by XRD. In conclusion, dense zirconia-based ceramic nanofibers can be fabricated using the new reactive sol–gel electrospinning technology with minimum organic polymer additives. PMID:21133090

  19. Creep of plasma sprayed zirconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, R. F.; Logan, W. R.; Adams, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings with three different porosities and different initial particle sizes were deformed in compression at initial loads of 1000, 2000, and 3500 psi and temperatures of 1100 C, 1250 C, and 1400 C. The coatings were stabilized with lime, magnesia, and two different concentrations of yttria. Creep began as soon as the load was applied and continued at a constantly decreasing rate until the load was removed. Temperature and stabilization had a pronounced effect on creep rate. The creep rate for 20% Y2O3-80% ZrO2 was 1/3 to 1/2 that of 8% Y2O3-92% ZrO2. Both magnesia and calcia stabilized ZrO2 crept at a rate 5 to 10 times that of the 20% Y2O3 material. A near proportionality between creep rate and applied stress was observed. The rate controlling process appeared to be thermally activated, with an activation energy of approximately 100 cal/gm mole K. Creep deformation was due to cracking and particle sliding.

  20. Evolution of the plasma-sprayed microstructure in 7 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings during uniaxial stress relaxation and the concomitant changes in material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petorak, Christopher

    The understanding of failure mechanisms in plasma sprayed 7 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a key step toward optimizing thermal barrier coating (TBC) usage, design, and life prediction. The purpose of the present work is to characterize and understand the stress relaxation behavior occurring in plasma-sprayed YSZ coatings, so that the correlating magnitude of unfavorable tensile stress, which coatings experienced upon cooling, may be reduced through microstructural design. The microstructure and properties of as-sprayed coatings changes immensely during service at high temperature, and therefore the effects of long heat-treatment times, and the concomitant change within the microstructure, on the time-dependent mechanical behavior of stand-alone YSZ coatings was studied in parallel with the as-sprayed coating condition. Aside from influencing the mechanical properties, stress relaxation also affects the insulating efficiency of plasma-sprayed 7wt% YSZ coatings. Directionally dependent changes in microstructure due to stress relaxation of a uniaxially applied stress at 1200°C were observed in plasma-sprayed coatings. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation of coatings after stress relaxation displayed a 46% reduction in the specific surface area connected to the load-orientation dependent closure of void surface area perpendicular to the applied load when compared to coatings sintered in air, i.e. no applied load. These anisotropic microstructural changes were linked to the thermal properties of the coating. For example, a coating stress relaxed from 60 MPa for 5-min at 1200°C exhibited a thermal conductivity of 2.1 W/m-K. A coating that was only heat-treated for 5-min at 1200°C (i.e. no stress applied) exhibited a thermal conductivity of 1.7 W/m·K. In the current study, uniaxial stress relaxation in plasma-sprayed 7wt% YSZ coatings was determined the result of: (1) A more uniform distribution of the applied load with time, (2) A reduction

  1. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOEpatents

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  2. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOEpatents

    Donado, Rafael A.; Hrdina, Kenneth E.; Remick, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  3. Structural characterization of hard materials by transmission electron microscopy (TEM): Diamond-Silicon Carbide composites and Yttria-stabilized Zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joon Seok

    2008-10-01

    Diamond-Silicon Carbide (SiC) composites are excellent heat spreaders for high performance microprocessors, owing to the unparalleled thermal conductivity of the former component. Such a combination is obtained by the infiltration of liquid silicon in a synthetic diamond compact, where a rigid SiC matrix forms by the reaction between the raw materials. As well as the outstanding thermal properties, this engineered compound also retains the extreme hardness of the artificial gem. This makes it difficult to perform structural analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), for it is not possible to produce thin foils out of this solid by conventional polishing methods. For the first time, a dual-beam focused ion beam (FIB) instrument successfully allowed site-specific preparation of electron-transparent specimens by the lift-out technique. Subsequent TEM studies revealed that the highest concentration of structural defects occurs in the vicinity of the diamond-SiC interfaces, which are believed to act as the major barriers to the transport of thermal energy. Diffraction contrast analyses showed that the majority of the defects in diamond are isolated perfect screw or 60° dislocations. On the other hand, SiC grains contain partial dislocations and a variety of imperfections such as microtwins, stacking faults and planar defects that are conjectured to consist of antiphase (or inversion) boundaries. Clusters of nanocrystalline SiC were also observed at the diamond-SiC boundaries, and a specific heteroepitaxial orientation relationship was discovered for all cubic SiC that grows on diamond {111} facets. Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) is the most common electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. It is an ionic conductor in which charge transfer is achieved by the transport of oxygen ions (O 2-). Like the diamond composite above, it is hard and brittle, and difficult to make into electron transparent TEM samples. Provided an effective

  4. Atomistic modeling of La3+ doping segregation effect on nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenli; Sha, Haoyan; Castro, Ricardo H R; Faller, Roland

    2018-05-16

    The effect of La3+ doping on the structure and ionic conductivity change in nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was studied using a combination of Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation revealed the segregation of La3+ at eight tilt grain boundary (GB) structures and predicted an average grain boundary (GB) energy decrease of 0.25 J m-2, which is close to the experimental values reported in the literature. Cation stabilization was found to be the main reason for the GB energy decrease, and energy fluctuations near the grain boundary are smoothed out with La3+ segregation. Both dynamic and energetic analysis on the Σ13(510)/[001] GB structure revealed La3+ doping hinders O2- diffusion in the GB region, where the diffusion coefficient monotonically decreases with increasing La3+ doping concentration. The effect was attributed to the increase in the site-dependent migration barriers for O2- hopping caused by segregated La3+, which also leads to anisotropic diffusion at the GB.

  5. Irradiation-induced grain growth and defect evolution in nanocrystalline zirconia with doped grain boundaries

    DOE PAGES

    Dey, Sanchita; Mardinly, John; Wang, Yongqiang; ...

    2016-05-27

    Grain boundaries are effective sinks for radiation-induced defects, ultimately impacting the radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline materials (dense materials with nanosized grains) against net defect accumulation. However, irradiation-induced grain growth leads to grain boundary area decrease, shortening potential benefits of nanostructures. A possible approach to mitigate this is the introduction of dopants to target a decrease in grain boundary mobility or a reduction in grain boundary energy to eliminate driving forces for grain growth (using similar strategies as to control thermal growth). Here, in this study, we tested this concept in nanocrystalline zirconia doped with lanthanum. Although the dopant is observedmore » to segregate to the grain boundaries, causing grain boundary energy decrease and promoting dragging forces for thermally activated boundary movement, irradiation induced grain growth could not be avoided under heavy ion irradiation, suggesting a different growth mechanism as compared to thermal growth. Furthermore, it is apparent that reducing the grain boundary energy reduced the effectiveness of the grain boundary as sinks, and the number of defects in the doped material is higher than in undoped (La-free) YSZ.« less

  6. Ageing and thermal recovery of paramagnetic centers induced by electron irradiation in yttria-stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, J. M.; Beuneu, F.

    We have used electron spin resonance spectroscopy to study the defects induced in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single crystals by 2.5-MeV electron irradiations. Two paramagnetic centers are produced: the first one with an axial <111> symmetry is similar to the trigonal Zr3+ electron center (T center) found after X-ray irradiation or thermo-chemical reduction, whereas the second one is a new oxygen hole center with an axial <100> symmetry different from the orthorhombic O- center induced by X-ray irradiation. At a fluence around 10(18) e/cm(2) , both centers are bleached out near 600 K, like the corresponding X-ray induced defects. At a fluence around 10(19) e/cm(2) , defects are much more stable, since complete thermal bleaching occurs near 1000 K. Accordingly, ageing of as-irradiated samples shows that high-dose defects at more stable than the low-dose ones.

  7. Development of graded Ni-YSZ composite coating on Alloy 690 by Pulsed Laser Deposition technique to reduce hazardous metallic nuclear waste inventory.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Pranesh; Rogalla, Detlef; Becker, Hans Werner; Dey, Gautam Kumar; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2011-08-15

    Alloy 690 based 'nuclear waste vitrification furnace' components degrade prematurely due to molten glass-alloy interactions at high temperatures and thereby increase the volume of metallic nuclear waste. In order to reduce the waste inventory, compositionally graded Ni-YSZ (Y(2)O(3) stabilized ZrO(2)) composite coating has been developed on Alloy 690 using Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. Five different thin-films starting with Ni80YSZ20 (Ni 80 wt%+YSZ 20 wt%), through Ni60YSZ40 (Ni 60 wt%+YSZ 40 wt%), Ni40YSZ60 (Ni 40 wt%+YSZ 60 wt%), Ni20YSZ80 (Ni 20 wt%+YSZ 80 wt%) and Ni0YSZ100 (Ni 0 wt%+YSZ 100 wt%), were deposited successively on Alloy 690 coupons. Detailed analyses of the thin-films identify them as homogeneous, uniform, pore free and crystalline in nature. A comparative study of coated and uncoated Alloy 690 coupons, exposed to sodium borosilicate melt at 1000°C for 1-6h suggests that the graded composite coating could substantially reduced the chemical interactions between Alloy 690 and borosilicate melt. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Innovations in bonding to zirconia-based materials: Part I.

    PubMed

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Matinlinna, Jukka P; Salameh, Ziad; Ounsi, Hani

    2008-09-01

    Establishing a reliable bond to zirconia-based materials has proven to be difficult which is the major limitation against fabricating adhesive zirconia restorations. This bond could be improved using novel selective infiltration etching conditioning in combination with engineered zirconia primers. Aim of the work was to evaluate resin-to-zirconia bond strength using selective infiltration etching and novel silane-based zirconia primers. Zirconia discs (Procera Zirconia) received selective infiltration etching surface treatment followed by coating with either of five especially engineered experimental zirconia primers. Pre-aged resin-composite discs (Tetric Ivo Ceram) were bonded to the treated surface using an MDP-containing resin-composite (Panavia F 2.0). The bilayered specimens were cut into microbars and the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) was evaluated. 'As-sintered' zirconia discs served as a control (alpha=0.05). The broken microbars were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The combination of selective infiltration etching with experimental zirconia primers significantly improved (F=3805, P<0.0001) the MTBS values (41+/-5.8 MPa) compared to the 'as-sintered' surface using the same primers which demonstrated spontaneous failure and very low bond strength values (2.6+/-3.1 MPa). SEM analysis revealed that selective infiltration etching surface treatment resulted in a nano-retentive surface where the zirconia primers were able to penetrate and interlock which explained the higher MTBS values observed for the treated specimens.

  9. Zirconia-Polyurethane Aneurysm Clip.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Sang; Cho, Kyung-Il; Kim, Jeong Eun; Jang, Tae-Sik; Ha, Eun Jin; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Son, Young-Je; Choi, Seung Hong; Lee, Seunghyun; Kim, Chong-Chan; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2018-03-27

    Susceptibility artifacts from metal clips in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging present an obstacle to evaluating the status of clipped aneurysms, parent arteries and adjacent brain parenchyma. We aimed to develop MR-compatible aneurysm clips. Considering the mechanical and biological properties, and MR compatibility of candidate materials, a prototype clip with a zirconia body and a polyurethane head spring (ZC, straight, 9-mm long) was developed. The closing forces, opening width of blades, and in vitro and in vivo artifact volumes in 3 tesla MR imaging were compared among the prototype and commercial metal clips such as a Yasargil ® clip (YC, curved type, 8.3-mm long) and a Sugita ® clip (SC, straight type, 10-mm long). An in vivo animal study was performed with a canine venous pouch aneurysm model. The closing forces (N) at 1 and 8 mm from the blade tip were 2.09 and 3.77 in YC, 1.85 and 3.04 in SC, and 2.05 and 4.60 in ZC. The maximum opening widths (mm) was 6.8, 9.0, and 3.0 in YC, SC, and ZC, respectively. The in vitro artifact volumes of YC, SC and ZC in time-of-flight MR imaging were 26.9, 29.7 and 1.9 times larger than the respective real volumes. The in vivo artifact volumes of YC, SC, and ZC were respectively 21.4, 29.4, and 2.6 times larger than real ones. ZC showed the smallest susceptibility artifacts and satisfactory closing forces. However, the narrow opening width of the blades was a weak point. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Synthesis and surface characterization of alumina-silica-zirconia nanocomposite ceramic fibres on aluminium at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak Ali, M.; Raj, V.

    2010-04-01

    Alumina-silica-zirconia nanocomposite (ASZNC) ceramic fibres were synthesized by conventional anodization route. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDAX) were used to characterize the morphology and crystalloid structure of ASZNC fibres. Current density (DC) is one of the important parameters to get the alumina-silica-zirconia nanocomposite (ASZNC) ceramic fibres by this route. Annealing of the films exhibited a drastic change in the properties due to improved crystallinity. The root mean square roughness of the sample observed from atomic force microscopic analysis is about 71.5 nm which is comparable to the average grain size of the coatings which is about 72 nm obtained from X-Ray diffraction. The results indicate that, the ASZNC fibres are arranged well in the nanostructure. The thickness of the coating increased with the anodizing time, but the coatings turned rougher and more porous. At the initial stage the growth of ceramic coating increases inwards to the metal substrate and outwards to the coating surface simultaneously. Subsequently, it mainly grows towards the metal substrate and the density of the ceramic coating increases gradually, which results in the decrease of the total thickness as anodizing time increases. This new approach of preparing ASZNC ceramic fibres may be important in applications ranging from gas sensors to various engineering materials.

  11. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are…

  12. Anodized aluminum on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1993-01-01

    A compilation of reported analyses and results obtained for anodized aluminum flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was prepared. Chromic acid, sulfuric acid, and dyed sulfuric acid anodized surfaces were exposed to the space environment. The vast majority of the anodized surface on LDEF was chromic acid anodize because of its selection as a thermal control coating for use on the spacecraft primary structure, trays, tray clamps, and space end thermal covers. Reports indicate that the chromic acid anodize was stable in solar absorptance and thermal emittance, but that contamination effects caused increases in absorptance on surfaces exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. There were some discrepancies, however, in that some chromic acid anodized specimens exhibited significant increases in absorptance. Sulfuric acid anodized surfaces also appeared stable, although very little surface area was available for evaluation. One type of dyed sulfuric acid anodize was assessed as an optical baffle coating and was observed to have improved infrared absorptance characteristics with exposure on LDEF.

  13. Using glass-graded zirconia to increase delamination growth resistance in porcelain/zirconia dental structures.

    PubMed

    Chai, Herzl; Mieleszko, Adam J; Chu, Stephen J; Zhang, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Porcelain fused to zirconia (PFZ) restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry. However, their tendency to delaminate along the P/Z interface remains a practical problem so that assessing and improving the interfacial strength are important design aspects. This work examines the effect of modifying the zirconia veneering surface with an in-house felspathic glass on the interfacial fracture resistance of fused P/Z. Three material systems are studied: porcelain fused to zirconia (control) and porcelain fused to glass-graded zirconia with and without the presence of a glass interlayer. The specimens were loaded in a four-point-bend fixture with the porcelain veneer in tension. The evolution of damage is followed with the aid of a video camera. The interfacial fracture energy G C was determined with the aid of a FEA, taking into account the stress shielding effects due to the presence of adjacent channel cracks. Similarly to a previous study on PFZ specimens, the fracture sequence consisted of unstable growth of channel cracks in the veneer followed by stable cracking along the P/Z interface. However, the value of GC for the graded zirconia was approximately 3 times that of the control zirconia, which is due to the good adhesion between porcelain and the glass network structure on the zirconia surface. Combined with its improved bonding to resin-based cements, increased resistance to surface damage and good esthetic quality, graded zirconia emerges as a viable material concept for dental restorations. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tribological characterization of zirconia coatings deposited on Ti6Al4V components for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Berni, M; Lopomo, N; Marchiori, G; Gambardella, A; Boi, M; Bianchi, M; Visani, A; Pavan, P; Russo, A; Marcacci, M

    2016-05-01

    One of the most important issues leading to the failure of total joint arthroplasty is related to the wear of the plastic components, which are generally made of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Therefore, the reduction of joint wear represents one of the main challenges the research in orthopedics is called to address nowadays. Surface treatments and coatings have been recognized as innovative methods to improve tribological properties, also in the orthopedic field. This work investigated the possibility to realize hard ceramic coatings on the metal component of a prosthesis, by means of Pulsed Plasma Deposition, in order to reduce friction and wear in the standard coupling against UHMWPE. Ti6Al4V substrates were coated with a 2 μm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer. The mechanical properties of the YSZ coatings were assessed by nanoindentation tests performed on flat Ti6Al4V substrates. Tribological performance was evaluated using a ball-on-disk tribometer in dry and lubricated (i.e. with fetal bovine serum) highly-stressing conditions, up to an overall distance of 10 km. Tribology was characterized in terms of coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of the UHMWPE disk. After testing, specimens were analyzed through optical microscopy and SEM images, in order to check the wear degradation mechanisms. Progressive loading scratch tests were also performed in dry and wet conditions to determine the effects of the environment on the adhesion of the coating. Our results supported the beneficial effect of YSZ coating on metal components. In particular, the proposed solution significantly reduced UHMWPE wear rate and friction. At 10 km of sliding distance, a wear rate reduction of about 18% in dry configuration and of 4% in presence of serum, was obtained by the coated group compared to the uncoated group. As far as friction in dry condition is concerned, the coating allowed to maintain low CoF values until the end of the tests, with an

  15. Air Plasma-Sprayed Yttria and Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings Subjected to Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate (CMAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenshuai; Zhao, Huayu; Zhong, Xinghua; Wang, Liang; Tao, Shunyan

    2014-08-01

    Yttria (Y2O3) and zirconia (ZrO2) stabilized by 8 and 20 wt.%Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) subjected to calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate (CMAS) have been investigated. Free-standing Y2O3, 8 and 20 wt.%YSZ coatings covered with synthetic CMAS slurry were heated at 1300 °C in air for 24 h in order to assess the effect of Y2O3 on the corrosion resistance of the coatings subjected to CMAS. The microstructures and phase compositions of the coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD, RS, and TEM. TBCs with higher Y2O3 content exhibited better CMAS corrosion resistance. Phase transformation of ZrO2 from tetragonal (t) to monoclinic (m) occurred during the interaction of 8YSZ TBCs and CMAS, due to the depletion of Y2O3 in the coating. Some amounts of original c-ZrO2 still survived in 20YSZ TBCs along with a small amount of m-ZrO2 that appeared after reaction with CMAS. Furthermore, Y2O3 coating was found to be particularly highly effective in resisting the penetration of molten CMAS glass at high temperature (1300 °C). This may be ascribed to the formation of sealing layers composed of Y-apatite phase [based on Ca4Y6 (SiO4)6O and Y4.67(SiO4)3O] by the high-temperature chemical interactions of Y2O3 coating and CMAS glass.

  16. Effects of Dopant Metal Variation and Material Synthesis Method on the Material Properties of Mixed Metal Ferrites in Yttria Stabilized Zirconia for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production

    DOE PAGES

    Leonard, Jeffrey; Reyes, Nichole; Allen, Kyle M.; ...

    2015-01-01

    Mixed metal ferrites have shown much promise in two-step solar-thermochemical fuel production. Previous work has typically focused on evaluating a particular metal ferrite produced by a particular synthesis process, which makes comparisons between studies performed by independent researchers difficult. A comparative study was undertaken to explore the effects different synthesis methods have on the performance of a particular material during redox cycling using thermogravimetry. This study revealed that materials made via wet chemistry methods and extended periods of high temperature calcination yield better redox performance. Differences in redox performance between materials made via wet chemistry methods were minimal and thesemore » demonstrated much better performance than those synthesized via the solid state method. Subsequently, various metal ferrite samples (NiFe 2 O 4 , MgFe 2 O 4 , CoFe 2 O 4 , and MnFe 2 O 4 ) in yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) were synthesized via coprecipitation and tested to determine the most promising metal ferrite combination. It was determined that 10 wt.% CoFe 2 O 4 in 8YSZ produced the highest and most consistent yields of O 2 and CO. By testing the effects of synthesis methods and dopants in a consistent fashion, those aspects of ferrite preparation which are most significant can be revealed. More importantly, these insights can guide future efforts in developing the next generation of thermochemical fuel production materials.« less

  17. Improved Zirconia Oxygen-Separation Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, John V.; Zwissler, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Cell structure distributes feed gas more evenly for more efficent oxygen production. Multilayer cell structure containing passages, channels, tubes, and pores help distribute pressure evenly over zirconia electrolytic membrane. Resulting more uniform pressure distribution expected to improve efficiency of oxygen production.

  18. [Measurement of chromaticity of five hued zirconia].

    PubMed

    Wen, Ning; Shao, Long-quan; Yi, Yuan-fu; Deng, Bin; Liu, Hong-chen

    2009-05-01

    To determine the chroma value of sintered IL1-IL5 zirconia materials in comparison with the Vita In-Ceram YZ color shade. Five types of shading dental zirconia ceramics with color gradient were prepared by adding Fe2O3, CeO2, and Bi2O3 to the zirconia powder, and their chroma values were determined using a spectrophotometer and the color difference was calculated. The chroma value ranges were L: 67.76-77.78, a: -2.19-3.80, and b: 12.13-25.01. Slight deltaE was found between IL1 and LL1, IL2 and LL2, and IL3 and LL3. The deltaE between IL4 and LL4 could be compensated by veneering porcelain, whereas deltaL between IL5 and LL5 could not be compensated in this manner. Shading dental zirconia ceramics can be prepared by addition of metal oxides with color similar to the Vita In-Ceram YZ color shades to match that of the veneering porcelain in clinical practice.

  19. Impedance spectroscopy of reduced monoclinic zirconia.

    PubMed

    Eder, Dominik; Kramer, Reinhard

    2006-10-14

    Zirconia doped with low-valent cations (e.g. Y3+ or Ca2+) exhibits an exceptionally high ionic conductivity, making them ideal candidates for various electrochemical applications including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and oxygen sensors. It is nevertheless important to study the undoped, monoclinic ZrO2 as a model system to construct a comprehensive picture of the electrical behaviour. In pure zirconia a residual number of anion vacancies remains because of contaminants in the material as well as the thermodynamic disorder equilibrium, but electronic conduction may also contribute to the observed conductivity. Reduction of zirconia in hydrogen leads to the adsorption of hydrogen and to the formation of oxygen vacancies, with their concentration affected by various parameters (e.g. reduction temperature and time, surface area, and water vapour pressure). However, there is still little known about the reactivities of defect species and their effect on the ionic and electronic conduction. Thus, we applied electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to investigate the electric performance of pure monoclinic zirconia with different surface areas in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. A novel equivalent circuit model including parallel ionic and electronic conduction has previously been developed for titania and is used herein to decouple the conduction processes. The concentration of defects and their formation energies were measured using volumetric oxygen titration and temperature programmed oxidation/desorption.

  20. Zirconia ceramics for excess weapons plutonium waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W. L.; Lutze, W.; Ewing, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    We synthesized a zirconia (ZrO 2)-based single-phase ceramic containing simulated excess weapons plutonium waste. ZrO 2 has large solubility for other metallic oxides. More than 20 binary systems A xO y-ZrO 2 have been reported in the literature, including PuO 2, rare-earth oxides, and oxides of metals contained in weapons plutonium wastes. We show that significant amounts of gadolinium (neutron absorber) and yttrium (additional stabilizer of the cubic modification) can be dissolved in ZrO 2, together with plutonium (simulated by Ce 4+, U 4+ or Th 4+) and impurities (e.g., Ca, Mg, Fe, Si). Sol-gel and powder methods were applied to make homogeneous, single-phase zirconia solid solutions. Pu waste impurities were completely dissolved in the solid solutions. In contrast to other phases, e.g., zirconolite and pyrochlore, zirconia is extremely radiation resistant and does not undergo amorphization. Baddeleyite (ZrO 2) is suggested as the natural analogue to study long-term radiation resistance and chemical durability of zirconia-based waste forms.

  1. A simplified approach to predict performance degradation of a solid oxide fuel cell anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Muhammad Zubair; Mehran, Muhammad Taqi; Song, Rak-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Won; Lee, Seung-Bok; Lim, Tak-Hyoung

    2018-07-01

    The agglomeration of nickel (Ni) particles in a Ni-cermet anode is a significant degradation phenomenon for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). This work aims to predict the performance degradation of SOFCs due to Ni grain growth by using a simplified approach. Accelerated aging of Ni-scandia stabilized zirconia (SSZ) as an SOFC anode is carried out at 900 °C and subsequent microstructural evolution is investigated every 100 h up to 1000 h using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting morphological changes are quantified using a two-dimensional image analysis technique that yields the particle size, phase proportion, and triple phase boundary (TPB) point distribution. The electrochemical properties of an anode-supported SOFC are characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The changes of particle size and TPB length in the anode as a function of time are in excellent agreement with the power-law coarsening model. This model is further combined with an electrochemical model to predict the changes in the anode polarization resistance. The predicted polarization resistances are in good agreement with the experimentally obtained values. This model for prediction of anode lifetime provides deep insight into the time-dependent Ni agglomeration behavior and its impact on the electrochemical performance degradation of the SOFC anode.

  2. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  3. Strong Flux Pinning of Nano-Sized Ysz Particles in Ybco Films Prepared by Mod Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, S.; Suo, H. L.; Liu, M.; Tang, X.; Wu, Z. P.; Zhao, Y.; Zhou, M. L.

    The YBCO films with doped YSZ nanoparticles have been prepared successfully by metal organic doepositon method using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) through dissolving Zr organic salt into the YBCO precursor solution. The doped films have well in-plane and out-plane textures detected by both XRD Φ-scan and ω-scan. The YSZ nanoparticles with the size of about 5 ~ 15 nm were observed on the surface of the YBCO films using both FE-SEM and TEM. By comparing the superconducting properties, it was found that the doped YBCO films had lower Tc than that of undoped YBCO films. However, as increasing the applied magnetic field, Jc of the doped YBCO films were much better than that of undoped one. The Jc was as higher as 2.5 times than that of undoped YBCO film at 77 K and 1 T applied field.

  4. Single Crystal Growth of Zirconia Utilizing a Skull Melting Technique,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    23 REFERENCES 24 Illustrations 1. Cutaway View of Skull Crucible 11 2. Section View of Skull Crucible 11 3. Stabilized Zirconia Powder Being Added to...E. R., (1968) J. Cryst. Growth, 2:243. 11 ... . . l l&I. .. . .:. . . N ’ - . . . . . . i . . . . . . . . .: P Figure 3. Stabilized Zirconia Powder Figure...colorless. The zirconia powder used in these experiments was obtained from N. L. Industries, Inc. Samples of the powder with 25 weight percent Y 2 0 3

  5. Effects of cementation surface modifications on fracture resistance of zirconia.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Ramanathan; Kosmac, Tomaz; Della Bona, Alvaro; Yin, Ling; Zhang, Yu

    2015-04-01

    To examine the effects of glass infiltration (GI) and alumina coating (AC) on the indentation flexural load and four-point bending strength of monolithic zirconia. Plate-shaped (12 mm × 12 mm × 1.0 mm or 1.5 or 2.0 mm) and bar-shaped (4 mm × 3 mm × 25 mm) monolithic zirconia specimens were fabricated. In addition to monolithic zirconia (group Z), zirconia monoliths were glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their tensile surfaces to form groups ZGI and ZAC, respectively. They were also glass-infiltrated on their upper surfaces, and glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their lower (tensile) surfaces to make groups ZGI2 and ZAC2, respectively. For comparison, porcelain-veneered zirconia (group PVZ) and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (group LiDi) specimens were also fabricated. The plate-shaped specimens were cemented onto a restorative composite base for Hertzian indentation using a tungsten carbide spherical indenter with a radius of 3.2mm. Critical loads for indentation flexural fracture at the zirconia cementation surface were measured. Strengths of bar-shaped specimens were evaluated in four-point bending. Glass infiltration on zirconia tensile surfaces increased indentation flexural loads by 32% in Hertzian contact and flexural strength by 24% in four-point bending. Alumina coating showed no significant effect on resistance to flexural damage of zirconia. Monolithic zirconia outperformed porcelain-veneered zirconia and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramics in terms of both indentation flexural load and flexural strength. While both alumina coating and glass infiltration can be used to effectively modify the cementation surface of zirconia, glass infiltration can further increase the flexural fracture resistance of zirconia. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of cementation surface modifications on fracture resistance of zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, Ramanathan; Kosmac, Tomaz; Bona, Alvaro Della; Yin, Ling; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effects of glass infiltration (GI) and alumina coating (AC) on the indentation flexural load and four-point bending strength of monolithic zirconia. Methods Plate-shaped (12 mm × 12 mm × 1.0 mm or 1.5 mm or 2.0 mm) and bar-shaped (4 mm × 3 mm × 25 mm) monolithic zirconia specimens were fabricated. In addition to monolithic zirconia (group Z), zirconia monoliths were glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their tensile surfaces to form groups ZGI and ZAC, respectively. They were also glass-infiltrated on their upper surfaces, and glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their lower (tensile) surfaces to make groups ZGI2 and ZAC2, respectively. For comparison, porcelain-veneered zirconia (group PVZ) and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (group LiDi) specimens were also fabricated. The plate-shaped specimens were cemented onto a restorative composite base for Hertzian indentation using a tungsten carbide spherical indenter with a radius of 3.2 mm. Critical loads for indentation flexural fracture at the zirconia cementation surface were measured. Strengths of bar-shaped specimens were evaluated in four-point bending. Results Glass infiltration on zirconia tensile surfaces increased indentation flexural loads by 32% in Hertzian contact and flexural strength by 24% in four-point bending. Alumina coating showed no significant effect on resistance to flexural damage of zirconia. Monolithic zirconia outperformed porcelain-veneered zirconia and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramics in terms of both indentation flexural load and flexural strength. Significance While both alumina coating and glass infiltration can be used to effectively modify the cementation surface of zirconia, glass infiltration can further increase the flexural fracture resistance of zirconia. PMID:25687628

  7. Novel fabrication method for zirconia restorations: bonding strength of machinable ceramic to zirconia with resin cements.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Soichi; Terui, Yuichi; Higuchi, Daisuke; Goto, Daisuke; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A novel method was developed to fabricate all-ceramic restorations which comprised CAD/CAM-fabricated machinable ceramic bonded to CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia framework using resin cement. The feasibility of this fabrication method was assessed in this study by investigating the bonding strength of a machinable ceramic to zirconia. A machinable ceramic was bonded to a zirconia plate using three kinds of resin cements: ResiCem (RE), Panavia (PA), and Multilink (ML). Conventional porcelain-fused-to-zirconia specimens were also prepared to serve as control. Shear bond strength test (SBT) and Schwickerath crack initiation test (SCT) were carried out. SBT revealed that PA (40.42 MPa) yielded a significantly higher bonding strength than RE (28.01 MPa) and ML (18.89 MPa). SCT revealed that the bonding strengths of test groups using resin cement were significantly higher than those of Control. Notably, the bonding strengths of RE and ML were above 25 MPa even after 10,000 times of thermal cycling -adequately meeting the ISO 9693 standard for metal-ceramic restorations. These results affirmed the feasibility of the novel fabrication method, in that a CAD/CAM-fabricated machinable ceramic is bonded to a CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia framework using a resin cement.

  8. Revisiting the Birth of 7YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings: Steve Stecura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Miller, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are widely used in all turbine engines, typically using a 7 wt% Y2O3-ZrO2 formulation. Extensive research and development over many decades have refined the processing and structure of these coatings for increased durability and reliability. New compositions demonstrate some unique advantages and are gaining in application. However, the "7YSZ" formulation predominates and is still in widespread use. This special composition has been universally found to produce nanoscale precipitates of metastable t' tetragonal phase, giving rise to a unique toughening mechanism via ferro-elastic switching under stress. This note recalls the original study that identified superior properties of 6 to 8 wt% YSZ plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings, published in 1978. The impact of this discovery, arguably, continues in some form to this day. At one point, 7YSZ thermal barrier coatings were used in every new aircraft and ground power turbine engine produced worldwide. It is a tribute to its inventor, Dr. Stephan J. Stecura, NASA retiree.

  9. Electrophoretic deposition of bi-layered LSM/LSM-YSZ cathodes for solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itagaki, Yoshiteru; Watanabe, Shinji; Yamaji, Tsuyoshi; Asamoto, Makiko; Yahiro, Hidenori; Sadaoka, Yoshihiko

    2012-09-01

    Bi-layered cathodes with the LSM/LSM-YSZ structure for solid oxide fuel cells were successfully formed on the carbon-sputtered surface of a YSZ sheet by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The thicknesses of the first layer of LSM-YSZ (LY) and the second layer of La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 (LSM) could be controlled by adjusting the deposition time in the EPD process. The cathodic properties of the bi-layered structures were superior to those of the mono-layered structures, and were dependent on the thickness of each layer. Decreasing the thickness of the first layer and increasing that of the second layer tended to reduce both polarization and ohmic resistances. The optimal thickness of the first layer at the operating temperature of 600 °C was 4 μm, suggesting that an effective three-phase boundary was extended from the interface between the electrolyte and cathode film to around 4 μm thickness.

  10. Electron beam physical vapor deposition of YSZ electrolyte coatings for SOFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaodong; Meng, Bin; Sun, Yue; Liu, Bochao; Li, Mingwei

    2008-09-01

    YSZ electrolyte coatings were prepared by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) at a high deposition rate of up to 1 μm/min. The YSZ coating consisted of a single cubic phase and no phase transformation occurred after annealing treatment at 1000 °C. A typical columnar structure was observed in this coating by SEM and feather-like characteristics appeared in every columnar grain. In columnar grain boundaries there were many micron-sized gaps and pores. In TEM image, many white lines were found, originating from the alignment of nanopores existing within feather-like columnar grains. The element distribution along the cross-section of the coating was homogeneous except Zr with a slight gradient. The coating exhibited a characteristic anisotropic behavior in electrical conductivity. In the direction perpendicular to coating surface the electrical conductivity was remarkably higher than that in the direction parallel to coating surface. This mainly attributed to the typical columnar structure for EB-PVD coating and the existence of many grain boundaries along the direction parallel to coating surface. For as-deposited coating, the gas permeability coefficient of 9.78 × 10 -5 cm 4 N -1 s -1 was obtained and this value was close to the critical value of YSZ electrolyte layer required for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation.

  11. Anodic oxidation of benzoquinone using diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Panizza, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The anodic degradation of 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), one of the most toxic xenobiotic, was investigated by electrochemical oxidation at boron-doped diamond anode. The electrolyses have been performed in a single-compartment flow cell in galvanostatic conditions. The influence of applied current (0.5-2 A), BQ concentration (1-2 g dm(-3)), temperature (20-45 °C) and flow rate (100-300 dm(3) h(-1)) has been studied. BQ decay kinetic, the evolution of its oxidation intermediates and the mineralization of the aqueous solutions were monitored during the electrolysis by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements. The results obtained show that the use of diamond anode leads to total mineralization of BQ in any experimental conditions due to the production of oxidant hydroxyl radicals electrogenerated from water discharge. The decay kinetics of BQ removal follows a pseudo-first-order reaction, and the rate constant increases with rising current density. The COD removal rate was favoured by increasing of applied current, recirculating flow rate and it is almost unaffected by solution temperature.

  12. Infiltrated La0.4Sr0.4Fe0.03Ni0.03Ti0.94O3 based anodes for all ceramic and metal supported solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Persson, Åsa H.; Sudireddy, Bhaskar R.; Irvine, John T. S.; Thydén, Karl

    2017-12-01

    For improved robustness, durability and to avoid severe processing challenges alternatives to the Ni:YSZ composite electrode is highly desirable. The Ni:YSZ composite electrode is conventionally used for solid oxide fuel cell and solid oxide electrolysis cell. In the present study we report on high performing nanostructured Ni:CGO electrocatalyst coated A site deficient Lanthanum doped Strontium Titanate (La0.4Sr0.4Fe0.03Ni0.03Ti0.94O3) based anodes. The anodes were incorporated into the co-sintered DTU metal supported solid oxide fuel cell design and large sized 12 cm × 12 cm cells were fabricated. The titanate material showed good processing characteristics and surface wetting properties towards the Ni:CGO electrocatalyst coating. The cell performances were evaluated on single cell level (active area 16 cm2) and a power density at 0.7 V and 700 °C of 0.650 Wcm-2 with a fuel utilization of 31% was achieved. Taking the temperature into account the performances of the studied anodes are among the best reported for redox stable and corrosion resistant alternatives to the conventional Ni:YSZ composite solid oxide cell electrode.

  13. Direct modeling of the electrochemistry in the three-phase boundary of solid oxide fuel cell anodes by density functional theory: a critical overview.

    PubMed

    Shishkin, M; Ziegler, T

    2014-02-07

    The first principles modeling of electrochemical reactions has proven useful for the development of efficient, durable and low cost solid oxide full cells (SOFCs). In this account we focus on recent advances in modeling of structural, electronic and catalytic properties of the SOFC anodes based on density functional theory (DFT) first principle calculations. As a starting point, we highlight that the adequate analysis of cell electrochemistry generally requires modeling of chemical reactions at the metal/oxide interface rather than on individual metal or oxide surfaces. The atomic models of Ni/YSZ and Ni/CeO2 interfaces, required for DFT simulations of reactions on SOFC anodes are discussed next, together with the analysis of the electronic structure of these interfaces. Then we proceed to DFT-based findings on charge transfer mechanisms during redox reactions on these two anodes. We provide a comparison of the electronic properties of Ni/YSZ and Ni/CeO2 interfaces and present an interpretation of their different chemical performances. Subsequently we discuss the computed energy pathways of fuel oxidation mechanisms, obtained by various groups to date. We also discuss the results of DFT studies combined with microkinetic modeling as well as the results of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. In conclusion we summarize the key findings of DFT modeling of metal/oxide interfaces to date and highlight possible directions in the future modeling of SOFC anodes.

  14. Multilayered thermal insulation formed of zirconia bonded layers of zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, Jr., George E.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.

    1988-01-01

    A multilayered thermal insulating composite is formed of a first layer of zirconia-bonded zirconia fibers for utilization near the hot phase or surface of a furnace or the like. A second layer of zirconia-bonded metal oxide fibers is attached to the zirconia fiber layer by a transition layer formed of intermingled zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers. The thermal insulation is fabricated by vacuum molding with the layers being sequentially applied from aqueous solutions containing the fibers to a configured mandrel. A portion of the solution containing the fibers forming the first layer is intermixed with the solution containing the fibers of the second layer for forming the layer of mixed fibers. The two layers of fibers joined together by the transition layer are saturated with a solution of zirconium oxynitrate which provides a zirconia matrix for the composite when the fibers are sintered together at their nexi.

  15. Multilayered thermal insulation formed of zirconia bonded layers of zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1988-09-13

    A multilayered thermal insulating composite is formed of a first layer of zirconia-bonded zirconia fibers for utilization near the hot phase or surface of a furnace or the like. A second layer of zirconia-bonded metal oxide fibers is attached to the zirconia fiber layer by a transition layer formed of intermingled zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers. The thermal insulation is fabricated by vacuum molding with the layers being sequentially applied from aqueous solutions containing the fibers to a configured mandrel. A portion of the solution containing the fibers forming the first layer is intermixed with the solution containing the fibers of the second layer for forming the layer of mixed fibers. The two layers of fibers joined together by the transition layer are saturated with a solution of zirconium oxynitrate which provides a zirconia matrix for the composite when the fibers are sintered together at their nexi.

  16. Overview of zirconia with respect to gas turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Phase relationships and the mechanical properties of zirconia are examined as well as the thermal conductivity, deformation, diffusion, and chemical reactivity of this refractory material. Observations from the literature particular to plasma-sprayed material and implications for gas turbine engine applications are discussed. The literature review indicates that Mg-PSZ (partially stabilized zirconia) and Ca-PSZ are unsuitable for advanced gas turbine applications; a thorough characterization of the microstructure of plasma-sprayed zirconia is needed. Transformation-toughened zirconia may be suitable for use in monolithic components.

  17. Research on surface modification of nano-zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Zhang, Cun-Lin; Yang, Xiao-Yi

    2005-02-01

    The mechanisms about the aggregation and dispersibility of nano-zirconia were analyzed in detail. And nano-zirconia powders which were surface-modified with silane coupling reagent WD70 were prepared in order to disperse homogeneously in ethanol in this investigation. The grain size and grain phase of nano-zirconia were obtained by XRD. Research and characterization on the structure and surface characteristic of surface-modified nano-zirconia were achieved by XPS, TG-DSC, TEM and FT-IR. The results given by FT-IR and XPS showed WD70 was jointed on the surface of nano-zirconia through both physical adsorption and chemical binding after the de-methanol reaction between the methoxyl groups of WD70 and the hydroxy groups on the surface of nano-zirconia. And the corresponding model of surface-modified nano-zirconia was given. The images provided by TEM presented intuitionistic effect of surface modification on the dispersibility of nano-zirconia in ethanol. And TG-DSC analysis ascertained the amount of WD70 that was jointed on the surface of nano-zirconia and the amount was about 6.21 percent.

  18. Glass ceramic toughened with tetragonal zirconia

    DOEpatents

    Keefer, K.D.

    1984-02-10

    A phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic and a process for making it are disclosed. A mixture of particulate network-forming oxide, network-modifying oxide, and zirconium oxide is heated to yield a homogeneous melt, and this melt is then heat treated to precipitate an appreciable quantity of tetragonal zirconia, which is retained at ambient temperature to form a phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic. Nuclearing agents and stabilizing agents may be added to the mixture to facilitate processing and improve the ceramic's properties. Preferably, the mixture is first melted at a temperature from 1200 to 1700/sup 0/C and is then heat-treated at a temperature within the range of 800 to 1200/sup 0/C in order to precipitate tetragonal ZrO/sub 2/. The composition, as well as the length and temperature of the heat treatment, must be carefully controlled to prevent solution of the precipitated tetragonal zirconia and subsequent conversion to the monoclinic phase.

  19. Development of Ni-Ba(Zr,Y)O3 cermet anodes for direct ammonia-fueled solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Kazunari; Okanishi, Takeou; Muroyama, Hiroki; Matsui, Toshiaki; Eguchi, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the availability of Ni-Ba(Zr,Y)O3-δ (BZY) cermet for the anode of direct ammonia-fueled solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is evaluated. In this device, the anodes need to be active for the catalytic ammonia decomposition as well as the electrochemical hydrogen oxidation. In the catalytic activity test, ammonia decomposes completely over Ni-BZY at ca. 600 °C, while higher temperature is required to accomplish the complete decomposition over the conventional SOFC anode of Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia cermet. The high activity of Ni-BZY is attributed to the high basicity of BZY and the high resistance to hydrogen poisoning effect. The electrochemical property of Ni-BZY anode is also evaluated with the anode-supported cell of Ni-BZY|BZY|Pt at 600-700 °C with feeding ammonia or hydrogen as a fuel. Since the residence time of ammonia fuel in the thick Ni-BZY anode is long, the difference in the cell performance between two fuels is relatively small. Furthermore, it is proved that the steam concentration in the fuel strongly affects the cell performance. We find that this factor is important to satisfy the above mentioned requirements for the anode of direct ammonia-fueled SOFCs. Throughout this study, it is concluded that Ni-BZY cermet will be a promising anode.

  20. Resistive anode image converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampton, M. L.; Paresce, F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    The invention of an apparatus for imaging soft X-ray and ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation and charged particles was described. The apparatus includes a pair of microchannel electron multiplier plates connected in a cascaded chevron configuration which intercepts an incident beam of radiation or charged particles. Incident photons or charged particles strike the front surface of the chevron configuration causing emission of electrons. The electrons are accelerated by a voltage gradient and strike the inner side walls of the individual channels, causing emission of secondary electrons. Accelerated and multiplied secondary electrons impinge upon a resistive anode after they transverse the chevron configuration. A pulse position circuit converts the magnitude or transit time of the currents flowing from the point of impact of the electrons on the resistive anode to four contact electrodes mounted on their periphery of the resistive anode into the spatial coordinates of electron impact.

  1. Structural, thermal and electrical conductivity characteristics of Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (Ln: La, Nd and Sm) complex perovskites as anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell

    SciT

    Jeong, Jihoon; Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712; Azad, Abul K.

    2015-03-15

    The Ti and Mn replaced complex perovskites, Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (Ln: La, Nd and Sm), were reported as potential anode materials for high temperature-operating solid oxide fuel cells (HT-SOFCs). For the present research study, synthesis, crystallographic, thermal and electrical conductivity properties of Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} complex perovskites were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rietveld method, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and electrical conductivity to apply these oxide materials for the HT-SOFC anode materials. XRD results showed that Ln{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} oxide systems synthesized as single phases did not react with 8 mol% yttriamore » stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) and 10 mol% Gd-doped cerium oxide (CGO91) up to 1500 °C and did not decompose under dry 3.9% hydrogen at 850 °C. The crystal structures of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (LSTM), Nd{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (NSTM) and Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d} (SSTM) showed orthorhombic symmetry with the space group Pbnm and SSTM showed a more distorted structure. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) proved weight gains in these three sample occurred under oxidizing conditions and weight loss under reducing conditions. Electrical conductivity values of NSTM were higher than those of LSTM and SSTM under oxidizing and reducing conditions. - Graphical abstract: The B-site cations (Ti/Mn) are surrounded by regular octahedra of oxygen in Nd{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 3±d}(NSTM). These octahedra are linked together in a corner sharing three dimensional framework, while Nd/Sr ion occupies 12-coordinated A-site between these octahedra. The Ti/Mn–O{sub 6} octahedra are elongated along the c-axis. The crystal structure distortion was due to the smaller ionic radius of the A-site cations, which force the (Ti

  2. Assessment and comparison of retention of zirconia copings luted with different cements onto zirconia and titanium abutments: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Neelima Sreekumar; Kumar, G. P. Surendra; Jnanadev, K. R.; Satish Babu, C. L.; Shetty, Shilpa

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess and compare the retention of zirconia copings luted with different luting agents onto zirconia and titanium abutments. Materials and Methods: Titanium and zirconia abutments were torqued at 35 N/cm onto implant analogs. The samples were divided into two groups: Group A consisted of four titanium abutments and 32 zirconia copings and Group B consisted of four zirconia abutments and 32 zirconia copings and four luting agents were used. The cemented copings were subjected to tensile dislodgement forces and subjected to ANOVA test. Results: Zirconia abutments recorded a higher mean force compared to titanium. Among the luting agents, resin cement recorded the highest mean force followed by zinc phosphate, glass ionomer, and noneugenol zinc oxide cement, respectively. Conclusion: Highest mean retention was recorded for zirconia implant abutments compared to titanium abutments when luted with zirconia copings. PMID:27141162

  3. [Effects of colorants on yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals powder].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yanchun; Wang, Ru

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of Fe2O3 and CeO2 as colorants on yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia poly-crystals (Y-TZP) powder. The spray granulation slurry of colored zirconia was prepared with different concentrations of Fe2O3 (0.15%) and CeO2 (4%), which were added in Y-TZP. Zirconia powder was made by spray granulation. The powder specimens were divided into three groups: uncolored zirconia, Fe2O3 (0.15%) zirconia, and CeO2 (4%) zirconia. The particle morphologies of the powder specimens were measured with a laser particle size analyzer and an optical microscope. The differences in D50 among the three groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Group Fe2O3 showed a significant difference from groups CeO2 and uncolored zirconia (P<0.05). Group uncolored zirconia showed no significant difference from group CeO2 (P>0.05). Mostly spherical powder was observed in the three groups. Fe2O3 as a colorant can affect particles, whereas CeO2 has no effect.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline mesoporous zirconia using supercritical drying.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Beena; Sidhpuria, Kalpesh; Shaik, Basha; Jasra, Raksh Vir

    2006-06-01

    Synthesis of nano-crystalline zirconia aerogel was done by sol-gel technique and supercritical drying using n-propanol solvent at and above supercritical temperature (235-280 degrees C) and pressure (48-52 bar) of n-propanol. Zirconia xerogel samples have also been prepared by conventional thermal drying method to compare with the super critically dried samples. Crystalline phase, crystallite size, surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution were determined for all the samples in detail to understand the effect of gel drying methods on these properties. Supercritical drying of zirconia gel was observed to give thermally stable, nano-crystalline, tetragonal zirconia aerogels having high specific surface area and porosity with narrow and uniform pore size distribution as compared to thermally dried zirconia. With supercritical drying, zirconia samples show the formation of only mesopores whereas in thermally dried samples, substantial amount of micropores are observed along with mesopores. The samples prepared using supercritical drying yield nano-crystalline zirconia with smaller crystallite size (4-6 nm) as compared to higher crystallite size (13-20 nm) observed with thermally dried zirconia.

  5. Spectroscopic investigation of the electronic structure of yttria-stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götsch, Thomas; Bertel, Erminald; Menzel, Alexander; Stöger-Pollach, Michael; Penner, Simon

    2018-03-01

    The electronic structure and optical properties of yttria-stabilized zirconia are investigated as a function of the yttria content using multiple experimental and theoretical methods, including electron energy-loss spectroscopy, Kramers-Kronig analysis to obtain the optical parameters, photoelectron spectroscopy, and density functional theory. It is shown that many properties, including the band gaps, the crystal field splitting, the so-called defect gap between acceptor (YZr') and donor (VO••) states, as well as the index of refraction in the visible range exhibit the same "zig-zag-like" trend as the unit cell height does, showing the influence of an increased yttria content as well as of the tetragonal-cubic phase transition between 8 mol % and 20 mol %Y2O3 . Also, with Čerenkov spectroscopy (CS), a new technique is presented, providing information complementary to electron energy-loss spectroscopy. In CS, the Čerenkov radiation emitted inside the TEM is used to measure the onset of optical absorption. The apparent absorption edges in the Čerenkov spectra correspond to the energetic difference between the disorder states close to the valence band and the oxygen-vacancy-related electronic states within the band gap. Theoretical computations corroborate this assignment: they find both, the acceptor states and the donor states, at the expected energies in the band structures for diverse yttria concentrations. In the end, a schematic electronic structure diagram of the area around the band gap is constructed, including the chemical potential of the electrons obtained from photoelectron spectroscopy. The latter reveal that tetragonal YSZ corresponds to a p -type semiconductor, whereas the cubic samples exhibit n -type semiconductor properties.

  6. Paramagnetic Defects in Electron-Irradiated Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia: Effect of Yttria Content

    SciT

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Beuneu, Francois; Morrison-Smith, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the effect of the yttria content on the paramagnetic centres in electron-irradiated yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2: Y3+) or YSZ. Single crystals with 9.5 mol% or 18 mol% Y2O3 were irradiated with electrons of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 MeV. The paramagnetic centre production was studied by X-band EPR spectroscopy. The same paramagnetic centres were identified for both chemical compositions, namely two electron centres, i.e. i) F+-type centres (involving singly ionized oxygen vacancies), and ii) so-called T centres (Zr3+ in a trigonal symmetry site), and hole-centres. A strong effect is observed on the production of hole-centres which are stronglymore » enhanced when doubling the yttria content. However, no striking effect is found on the electron centres (except the enhancement of an extra line associated to the F+-type centres). It is concluded that hole-centres are produced by inelastic interactions, whereas F+-type centres are produced by elastic collisions with no effect of the yttria content on the defect production rate. In the latter case, the threshold displacement energy (Ed) of oxygen is estimated from the electron-energy dependence of the F+-type centre production rate, with no significant effect of the yttria content on Ed. An Ed value larger than 120 eV is found. Accordingly, classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a Buckingham-type potential show that Ed values for Y and O are likely to be in excess of 200 eV. Due to the difficulty in displacing O or Y atoms, the radiation-induced defects may alternatively be a result of Zr atom displacements for Ed = 80 1 eV with subsequent defect re-arrangement.« less

  7. Performance and properties of anodes reinforced with metal oxide nanoparticles for molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardo, Grazia; Frattini, Domenico; Yoon, Sung Pil; Ham, Hyung Chul; Nam, Suk Woo

    2017-12-01

    Development of electrode materials for molten carbonate fuel cells is a fundamental issue as a balance between mechanical and electrochemical properties is required due to the particular operating environments of these cells. As concern the anode, a viable strategy is to use nano-reinforced particles during electrodes' fabrication. Candidate nanomaterials comprise, but are not limited to, ZrO2, CeO2, TiO2, Ti, Mg, Al, etc. This work deals with the characterization and test of two different types of hard oxide nanoparticles as reinforce for NiAl-based anodes in molten carbonate fuel cells. Nano ceria and nano zirconia are compared each other and single cell test performances are presented. Compared to literature, the use of hard metal oxide nanoparticles allows good performance and promising perspectives with respect to the use a third alloying metal. However, nano zirconia performed slightly better than nano ceria as polarization and power curves are higher even if nano ceria has the highest mechanical properties. This means that the choice of nanoparticles to obtain improved anodes performance and properties is not trivial and a trade-off between relevant properties plays a key role.

  8. Methane Decomposition and Carbon Growth on Y2O3, Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia, and ZrO2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Carbon deposition following thermal methane decomposition under dry and steam reforming conditions has been studied on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), Y2O3, and ZrO2 by a range of different chemical, structural, and spectroscopic characterization techniques, including aberration-corrected electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electric impedance spectroscopy, and volumetric adsorption techniques. Concordantly, all experimental techniques reveal the formation of a conducting layer of disordered nanocrystalline graphite covering the individual grains of the respective pure oxides after treatment in dry methane at temperatures T ≥ 1000 K. In addition, treatment under moist methane conditions causes additional formation of carbon-nanotube-like architectures by partial detachment of the graphite layers. All experiments show that during carbon growth, no substantial reduction of any of the oxides takes place. Our results, therefore, indicate that these pure oxides can act as efficient nonmetallic substrates for methane-induced growth of different carbon species with potentially important implications regarding their use in solid oxide fuel cells. Moreover, by comparing the three oxides, we could elucidate differences in the methane reactivities of the respective SOFC-relevant purely oxidic surfaces under typical SOFC operation conditions without the presence of metallic constituents. PMID:24587591

  9. Structure and chemistry of epitaxial ceria thin films on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates, studied by high resolution electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Sinclair, Robert; Lee, Sang Chul; Shi, Yezhou; ...

    2017-03-18

    Here, we have applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to study the structure and chemistry of epitaxial ceria thin films, grown by pulsed laser deposition onto (001) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. There are few observable defects apart from the expected mismatch interfacial dislocations and so the films would be expected to have good potential for applications. Under high electron beam dose rate (above about 6000 e-/Å 2s) domains of an ordered structure appear and these are interpreted as being created by oxygen vacancy ordering. The ordered structure does not appear at lower losemore » rates (ca. 2600 e-/Å 2s) and can be removed by imaging under 1 mbar oxygen gas in an environmental TEM. EELS confirms that there is both oxygen deficiency and the associated increase in Ce 3+ versus Ce 4+ cations in the ordered domains. In situ high resolution TEM recordings show the formation of the ordered domains as well as atomic migration along the ceria thin film (001) surface.« less

  10. Structure and chemistry of epitaxial ceria thin films on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates, studied by high resolution electron microscopy

    SciT

    Sinclair, Robert; Lee, Sang Chul; Shi, Yezhou

    Here, we have applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to study the structure and chemistry of epitaxial ceria thin films, grown by pulsed laser deposition onto (001) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. There are few observable defects apart from the expected mismatch interfacial dislocations and so the films would be expected to have good potential for applications. Under high electron beam dose rate (above about 6000 e-/Å 2s) domains of an ordered structure appear and these are interpreted as being created by oxygen vacancy ordering. The ordered structure does not appear at lower losemore » rates (ca. 2600 e-/Å 2s) and can be removed by imaging under 1 mbar oxygen gas in an environmental TEM. EELS confirms that there is both oxygen deficiency and the associated increase in Ce 3+ versus Ce 4+ cations in the ordered domains. In situ high resolution TEM recordings show the formation of the ordered domains as well as atomic migration along the ceria thin film (001) surface.« less

  11. Anode initiated surface flashover switch

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P.; Koss, Robert J.

    2003-04-29

    A high voltage surface flashover switch has a pair of electrodes spaced by an insulator. A high voltage is applied to an anode, which is smaller than the opposing, grounded, cathode. When a controllable source of electrons near the cathode is energized, the electrons are attracted to the anode where they reflect to the insulator and initiate anode to cathode breakdown.

  12. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev [Latham, NY

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  13. Thermal conductivity of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Beecher, S. C.; Nagaraj, B. A.; Moore, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBC's is of primary importance. Physical vapor description (PVD) and plasma spraying (PS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The PS coatings were applied with either standard power or hollow sphere particles. The hollow sphere particles yielded a lower density and lower thermal conductivity coating. The thermal conductivity of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia, before and after thermal aging, will be compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increase upon being exposed to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. Sintering of the as fabricated plasma sprayed lamellar structure is observed by scanning electron microscopy of coatings isothermally heat treated at temperatures greater than 1100 C. During this sintering process the planar porosity between lamella is converted to a series of small spherical pores. The change in pore morphology is the primary reason for the observed increase in thermal conductivity. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, preliminary results suggest that they have a higher thermal conductivity than PS coatings, both before and after thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for partially stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia have been found to be less than for fully stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia coatings. The high temperature thermal diffusivity data indicates that if these coatings reach a temperature above

  14. Thermal conductivity of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Beecher, S. C.; Nagaraj, B. A.; Moore, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) applied to the hot gas components of turbine engines lead to enhanced fuel efficiency and component reliability. Understanding the mechanisms which control the thermal transport behavior of the TBC's is of primary importance. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma spraying (PS) are the two most commonly used coating techniques. These techniques produce coatings with unique microstructures which control their performance and stability. The PS coatings were applied with either standard powder or hollow sphere particles. The hollow sphere particles yielded a lower density and lower thermal conductivity coating. The thermal conductivity of both fully and partially stabilized zirconia, before and after thermal aging, will be compared. The thermal conductivity of the coatings permanently increases upon exposed to high temperatures. These increases are attributed to microstructural changes within the coatings. Sintering of the as-fabricated plasma sprayed lamellar structure is observed by scanning electron microscopy of coatings isothermally heat treated at temperatures greater than 1100 C. During this sintering process the planar porosity between lamella is converted to a series of small spherical pores. The change in pore morphology is the primary reason for the observed increase in thermal conductivity. This increase in thermal conductivity can be modeled using a relationship which depends on both the temperature and time of exposure. Although the PVD coatings are less susceptible to thermal aging effects, preliminary results suggest that they have a higher thermal conductivity than PS coatings, both before and after thermal aging. The increases in thermal conductivity due to thermal aging for partially stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia have been found to be less than for fully stabilized plasma sprayed zirconia coatings. The high temperature thermal diffusivity data indicate that if these coatings reach a temperature above 1100 C

  15. Internal reforming characteristics of cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell using yttria stabilized zirconia fed with partially reformed methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momma, Akihiko; Takano, Kiyonami; Tanaka, Yohei; Negishi, Akira; Kato, Ken; Nozaki, Ken; Kato, Tohru; Ichigi, Takenori; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Ryu, Takashi

    In order to investigate the internal reforming characteristics in a cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using YSZ as the electrolyte, the concentration profiles of the gaseous species along the gas flow direction in the anode were measured. Partially reformed methane using a pre-reformer kept at a constant temperature is supplied to the center of the cell which is operated with a seal-less structure at the gas outlet. The anode gas is sucked in via silica capillaries to the initially evacuated gas tanks. The process is simultaneously carried out using five sampling ports. The sampled gas is analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Most of the measurements are made at the cell temperature (T cell) of 750 °C and at various temperatures of the pre-reformer (T ref) with various fuel utilizations (U f) of the cell. The composition of the fuel at the inlet of the anode was confirmed to be almost the same as that theoretically calculated assuming equilibrium at the temperature of the pre-reformer. The effect of internal reforming in the anode is clearly observed as a steady decrease in the methane concentration along the flow axis. The effect of the water-gas shift reaction is also observed as a decrease in the CO 2 concentration and an increase of CO concentration around the gas inlet region, as the water-gas shift reaction inversely proceeds when T cell is higher than T ref. The diffusion of nitrogen from the seal-less outermost edge is observed, and the diffusion is confirmed to be more significant as U f decreases. The observations are compared with the results obtained by the SOFC supported by lanthanum gallate electrolyte. With respect to the internal reforming performance, the cell investigated here is found to be more effective when compared to the previously reported electrolyte supported cell.

  16. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    DOEpatents

    Bird, C.R.; Rockett, P.D.

    1987-08-04

    An x-ray source is disclosed having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events. 5 figs.

  17. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    DOEpatents

    Bird, Charles R.; Rockett, Paul D.

    1987-01-01

    An x-ray source having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events.

  18. Osteogenic Responses to Zirconia with Hydroxyapatite Coating by Aerosol Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Y.; Hong, J.; Ryoo, H.; Kim, D.; Park, J.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we found that osteogenic responses to zirconia co-doped with niobium oxide (Nb2O5) or tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) are comparable with responses to titanium, which is widely used as a dental implant material. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro osteogenic potential of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated zirconia by an aerosol deposition method for improved osseointegration. Surface analysis by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction proved that a thin as-deposited HA film on zirconia showed a shallow, regular, crater-like surface. Deposition of dense and uniform HA films was measured by SEM, and the contact angle test demonstrated improved wettability of the HA-coated surface. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast attachment did not differ notably between the titanium and zirconia surfaces; however, cells on the HA-coated zirconia exhibited a lower proliferation than those on the uncoated zirconia late in the culture. Nevertheless, ALP, alizarin red S staining, and bone marker gene expression analysis indicated good osteogenic responses on HA-coated zirconia. Our results suggest that HA-coating by aerosol deposition improves the quality of surface modification and is favorable to osteogenesis. PMID:25586588

  19. An overview of zirconia ceramics: basic properties and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Manicone, Paolo Francesco; Rossi Iommetti, Pierfrancesco; Raffaelli, Luca

    2007-11-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) is a ceramic material with adequate mechanical properties for manufacturing of medical devices. Zirconia stabilized with Y2O3 has the best properties for these applications. When a stress occurs on a ZrO2 surface, a crystalline modification opposes the propagation of cracks. Compression resistance of ZrO2 is about 2000 MPa. Orthopedic research led to this material being proposed for the manufacture of hip head prostheses. Prior to this, zirconia biocompatibility had been studied in vivo; no adverse responses were reported following the insertion of ZrO2 samples into bone or muscle. In vitro experimentation showed absence of mutations and good viability of cells cultured on this material. Zirconia cores for fixed partial dentures (FPD) on anterior and posterior teeth and on implants are now available. Clinical evaluation of abutments and periodontal tissue must be performed prior to their use. Zirconia opacity is very useful in adverse clinical situations, for example, for masking of dischromic abutment teeth. Radiopacity can aid evaluation during radiographic controls. Zirconia frameworks are realized by using computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. Cementation of Zr-ceramic restorations can be performed with adhesive luting. Mechanical properties of zirconium oxide FPDs have proved superior to those of other metal-free restorations. Clinical evaluations, which have been ongoing for 3 years, indicate a good success rate for zirconia FPDs. Zirconia implant abutments can also be used to improve the aesthetic outcome of implant-supported rehabilitations. Newly proposed zirconia implants seem to have good biological and mechanical properties; further studies are needed to validate their application.

  20. Glass ceramic toughened with tetragonal zirconia

    DOEpatents

    Keefer, Keith D.; Michalske, Terry A.

    1986-01-01

    A phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic and a process for making it are disclosed. A mixture of particulate network-forming oxide, network-modifying oxide, and zirconium oxide is heated to yield a homogeneous melt, and this melt is then heat-treated to precipitate an appreciable quantity of tetragonal zirconia, which is retained at ambient temperature to form a phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic. Nucleating agents and stabilizing agents may be added to the mixture to facilitate processing and improve the ceramic's properties. Preferably, the mixture is first melted at a temperature from 1200.degree. to 1700.degree. C. and is then heat-treated at a temperature within the range of 800.degree. to 1200.degree. C. in order to precipitate tetragonal ZrO.sub.2. The composition, as well as the length and temperature of the heat-treatment, must be carefully controlled to prevent solution of the precipitated tetragonal zirconia and subsequent conversion to the monoclinic phase.

  1. SciT

    Chen, Yun; Chen, Song; Hackett, Gregory

    The interaction of trace (ppm) phosphine with the nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode of commercial solid oxide fuel cells has been investigated and evaluated for both synthesis gas and hydrogen fuels in an effort to examine P–Y reactions. The Ni poisoning effects reported in literature were confirmed and degradation was examined by electrochemical methods and post-test microstructural and chemical analyses. The results indicate that P-induced degradation rates and mechanisms are fuel dependent and that degradation of cells operated in synthesis gas (syngas) with phosphine is more severe than that of cells operated in hydrogen with phosphine. As reported in publishedmore » literature, a cell operated in syngas containing 10 ppm phosphine demonstrated significant microstructural degradation within the Ni phase, including formation of Ni–P phases concentrated on the outer layer of the anode and significant pitting corrosion in the Ni grains. In this research, a previously undetected YPO{sub 4} phase is observed at the YSZ/YSZ/Ni triple grain junctions located at the interface with the YSZ electrolyte. Tetragonal YSZ (t-YSZ) and cubic-YSZ (c-YSZ) domains with sizes of several tens of nanometers are also newly observed along the Ni/YSZ interface. These observations contrast with data obtained for a cell operated in dry hydrogen with phosphine, where no YPO{sub 4} phase is observed and the alternating t-YSZ and c-YSZ domains at the Ni/YSZ interface are smaller with typical sizes of 5–10 nm. The data imply that electrolyte attack by P is a potentially debilitating mode of degradation in SOFC anodes, and that the associated reaction mechanisms and rates are worthy of further examination.« less

  2. Fabrication of porous anodic alumina using normal anodization and pulse anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, I. K.; Yam, F. K.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-05-01

    This article reports on the fabrication of porous anodic alumina (PAA) by two-step anodizing the low purity commercial aluminum sheets at room temperature. Different variations of the second-step anodization were conducted: normal anodization (NA) with direct current potential difference; pulse anodization (PA) alternate between potential differences of 10 V and 0 V; hybrid pulse anodization (HPA) alternate between potential differences of 10 V and -2 V. The method influenced the film homogeneity of the PAA and the most homogeneous structure was obtained via PA. The morphological properties are further elucidated using measured current-transient profiles. The absent of current rise profile in PA indicates the anodization temperature and dissolution of the PAA structure were greatly reduced by alternating potential differences.

  3. Quadrant anode image sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampton, M.; Malina, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    A position-sensitive event-counting electronic readout system for microchannel plates (MCPs) is described that offers the advantages of high spatial resolution and fast time resolution. The technique relies upon a four-quadrant electron-collecting anode located behind the output face of the microchannel plate, so that the electron cloud from each detected event is partly intercepted by each of the four quadrants. The relative amounts of charge collected by each quadrant depend on event position, permitting each event to be localized with two ratio circuits. A prototype quadrant anode system for ion, electron, and extreme ultraviolet imaging is described. The spatial resolution achieved, about 10 microns, allows individual MCP channels to be distinguished.

  4. The influence of incorporating MgO into Ni-based cermets by plasma spraying on anode microstructural and chemical stability in dry methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, E.; Metcalfe, C.; Kesler, O.

    2012-11-01

    The Solution Precursor Plasma Spray (SPPS) process was successfully used to deposit cermet coatings that exhibit fine microstructures with high surface area. MgO addition in Ni-YSZ and Ni-SDC cermets results in (Ni,Mg)O solid solution formation, and nickel particles after reduction are finer than in coatings without magnesia. The influence of MgO on the chemical stability of cermets in anodic operating conditions is discussed. It was found that a sufficient amount of magnesia addition (Ni0.9(MgO)0.1) helps to reduce carbon deposition in dry methane.

  5. ANODIC TREATMENT OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for effecting eloctrolytic dissolution of a metallic uranium article at a uniform rate. The uranium is made the anode in an aqueous phosphoric acid solution containing nitrate ions furnished by either ammonium nitrate, lithium nitrate, sodium nitrate, or potassium nitrate. A stainless steel cathode is employed and electrolysls carried out at a current density of about 0.1 to 1 ampere per square inch.

  6. On the interfacial fracture of porcelain/zirconia and graded zirconia dental structures.

    PubMed

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J-W; Mieleszko, Adam J; Chu, Stephen J; Zhang, Yu

    2014-08-01

    Porcelain fused to zirconia (PFZ) restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry. However, their susceptibility to fracture remains a practical problem. The failure of PFZ prostheses often involves crack initiation and growth in the porcelain, which may be followed by fracture along the porcelain/zirconia (P/Z) interface. In this work, we characterized the process of fracture in two PFZ systems, as well as a newly developed graded glass-zirconia structure with emphases placed on resistance to interfacial cracking. Thin porcelain layers were fused onto Y-TZP plates with or without the presence of a glass binder. The specimens were loaded in a four-point-bending fixture with the thin porcelain veneer in tension, simulating the lower portion of the connectors and marginal areas of a fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) during occlusal loading. The evolution of damage was observed by a video camera. The fracture was characterized by unstable growth of cracks perpendicular to the P/Z interface (channel cracks) in the porcelain layer, which was followed by stable cracking along the P/Z interface. The interfacial fracture energy GC was determined by a finite-element analysis taking into account stress-shielding effects due to the presence of adjacent channel cracks. The resulting GC was considerably less than commonly reported values for similar systems. Fracture in the graded Y-TZP samples occurred via a single channel crack at a much greater stress than for PFZ. No delamination between the residual glass layer and graded zirconia occurred in any of the tests. Combined with its enhanced resistance to edge chipping and good esthetic quality, graded Y-TZP emerges as a viable material concept for dental restorations. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrode Reaction Pathway in Oxide Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenyuan

    the electrolyte to change 3PB kinetics. Compared to Ni, Co doping activates the bulk oxygen more significantly, promoting the reaction at 2PB. The active surface reaction zone is found to be enlarged by the electrolyte with high oxygen activity (SSZ vs. YSZ) when charge transfer is one of the RDS. Due to the larger exchange current for charge transfer in 3PB with SSZ electrolyte, the adsorption gradient zone is broadened, leading to enhanced surface reaction kinetics. The potential application of such finding is demonstrated on SSZ/YSZ/SSZ sandwich, showing largely improved electrode performance, opening a wide door for the utilization of electrolytes that are too expensive, fragile or instable to be used before. The bulk path way in 2PB reaction can be affected by overpotential in terms of local vacancy concentration, built-in electrical field and stability. It is proven that an uneven distribution of lattice oxygen is established under operation conditions with overpotential by both qualitative analysis and analytic solution. An electrostatic field force is present besides the concentration gradient in the anode lattice to control the motion of oxygen ions. Compared to the usual estimation based on chemical diffusion mechanism, the real deviation of ionic defects concentration under polarization from the equilibrium state near electrode/electrolyte interface is smaller with the built-in electrical field. The overpotential is demonstrated to be able to open up or shut down the bulk pathway depending on the ionic defects of electrodes. The analysis on the bulk pathway in terms of local charged species and various potentials provides new insight in anion diffusion and electrode stability.

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell anode image segmentation based on a novel quantum-inspired fuzzy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaowei; Xiang, Yuhan; Chen, Li; Xu, Xin; Li, Xi

    2015-12-01

    High quality microstructure modeling can optimize the design of fuel cells. For three-phase accurate identification of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) microstructure, this paper proposes a novel image segmentation method on YSZ/Ni anode Optical Microscopic (OM) images. According to Quantum Signal Processing (QSP), the proposed approach exploits a quantum-inspired adaptive fuzziness factor to adaptively estimate the energy function in the fuzzy system based on Markov Random Filed (MRF). Before defuzzification, a quantum-inspired probability distribution based on distance and gray correction is proposed, which can adaptively adjust the inaccurate probability estimation of uncertain points caused by noises and edge points. In this study, the proposed method improves accuracy and effectiveness of three-phase identification on the micro-investigation. It provides firm foundation to investigate the microstructural evolution and its related properties.

  9. Role of temperature in the radiation stability of yttria stabilized zirconia under swift heavy ion irradiation: A study from the perspective of nuclear reactor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Parswajit; Ghosh, Santanu; Sattonnay, Gaël; Singh, Udai B.; Grover, Vinita; Shukla, Rakesh; Amirthapandian, S.; Meena, Ramcharan; Tyagi, A. K.; Avasthi, Devesh K.

    2017-07-01

    The search for materials that can withstand the harsh radiation environments of the nuclear industry has become an urgent challenge in the face of ever-increasing demands for nuclear energy. To this end, polycrystalline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) pellets were irradiated with 80 MeV Ag6+ ions to investigate their radiation tolerance against fission fragments. To better simulate a nuclear reactor environment, the irradiations were carried out at the typical nuclear reactor temperature (850 °C). For comparison, irradiations were also performed at room temperature. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements reveal degradation in crystallinity for the room temperature irradiated samples. No bulk structural amorphization was however observed, whereas defect clusters were formed as indicated by transmission electron microscopy and supported by thermal spike simulation results. A significant reduction of the irradiation induced defects/damage, i.e., improvement in the radiation tolerance, was seen under irradiation at 850 °C. This is attributed to the fact that the rapid thermal quenching of the localized hot molten zones (arising from spike in the lattice temperature upon irradiation) is confined to 850 °C (i.e., attributed to the resistance inflicted on the rapid thermal quenching of the localized hot molten zones by the high temperature of the environment) thereby resulting in the reduction of the defects/damage produced. Our results present strong evidence for the applicability of YSZ as an inert matrix fuel in nuclear reactors, where competitive effects of radiation damage and dynamic thermal healing mechanisms may lead to a strong reduction in the damage production and thus sustain its physical integrity.

  10. Zirconia coating stabilized super-iron alkaline cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xingwen; Licht, Stuart

    A low-level zirconia coating significantly stabilizes high energy alkaline super-iron cathodes, and improves the energy storage capacity of super-iron batteries. Zirconia coating is derived from ZrCl 4 in an organic medium through the conversion of ZrCl 4 to ZrO 2. In alkaline battery system, ZrO 2 provides an intact shield for the cathode materials and the hydroxide shuttle through the coating sustains alkaline cathode redox chemistry. Most super-iron cathodes are solid-state stable, such as K 2FeO 4 and Cs 2FeO 4, but tend to be passivated in alkaline electrolyte due to the formation of Fe(III) over layer. Zirconia coating effectively enhances the stability of these super-iron cathodes. However, for solid-state unstable super-iron cathode (e.g. BaFeO 4), only a little stabilization effect of zirconia coating is observed.

  11. Bonding effectiveness to different chemically pre-treated dental zirconia.

    PubMed

    Inokoshi, Masanao; Poitevin, André; De Munck, Jan; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different chemical pre-treatments on the bond durability to dental zirconia. Fully sintered IPS e.max ZirCAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) blocks were subjected to tribochemical silica sandblasting (CoJet, 3M ESPE). The zirconia samples were additionally pre-treated using one of four zirconia primers/adhesives (Clearfil Ceramic Primer, Kuraray Noritake; Monobond Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent; Scotchbond Universal, 3M ESPE; Z-PRIME Plus, Bisco). Finally, two identically pre-treated zirconia blocks were bonded together using composite cement (RelyX Ultimate, 3M ESPE). The specimens were trimmed at the interface to a cylindrical hourglass and stored in distilled water (7 days, 37 °C), after which they were randomly tested as is or subjected to mechanical ageing involving cyclic tensile stress (10 N, 10 Hz, 10,000 cycles). Subsequently, the micro-tensile bond strength was determined, and SEM fractographic analysis performed. Weibull analysis revealed the highest Weibull scale and shape parameters for the 'Clearfil Ceramic Primer/mechanical ageing' combination. Chemical pre-treatment of CoJet (3M ESPE) sandblasted zirconia using Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) and Monobond Plus (Ivoclar Vivadent) revealed a significantly higher bond strength than when Scotchbond Universal (3M ESPE) and Z-PRIME Plus (Bisco) were used. After ageing, Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) revealed the most stable bond durability. Combined mechanical/chemical pre-treatment, the latter with either Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) or Monobond Plus (Ivoclar Vivadent), resulted in the most durable bond to zirconia. As a standard procedure to durably bond zirconia to tooth tissue, the application of a combined 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate/silane ceramic primer to zirconia is clinically highly recommended.

  12. Biaxial flexural strength of bilayered zirconia using various veneering ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Chantranikul, Natravee

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of one zirconia-based ceramic used with various veneering ceramics. MATERIALS AND METHODS Zirconia core material (Katana) and five veneering ceramics (Cerabien ZR; CZR, Lava Ceram; LV, Cercon Ceram Kiss; CC, IPS e.max Ceram; EM and VITA VM9; VT) were selected. Using the powder/liquid layering technique, bilayered disk specimens (diameter: 12.50 mm, thickness: 1.50 mm) were prepared to follow ISO standard 6872:2008 into five groups according to veneering ceramics as follows; Katana zirconia veneering with CZR (K/CZR), Katana zirconia veneering with LV (K/LV), Katana zirconia veneering with CC (K/CC), Katana zirconia veneering with EM (K/EM) and Katana zirconia veneering with VT (K/VT). After 20,000 thermocycling, load tests were conducted using a universal testing machine (Instron). The BFS were calculated and analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD (α=0.05). The Weibull analysis was performed for reliability of strength. The mode of fracture and fractured surface were observed by SEM. RESULTS It showed that K/CC had significantly the highest BFS, followed by K/LV. BFS of K/CZR, K/EM and K/VT were not significantly different from each other, but were significantly lower than the other two groups. Weibull distribution reported the same trend of reliability as the BFS results. CONCLUSION From the result of this study, the BFS of the bilayered zirconia/veneer composite did not only depend on the Young's modulus value of the materials. Further studies regarding interfacial strength and sintering factors are necessary to achieve the optimal strength. PMID:26576251

  13. Optical properties of pre-colored dental monolithic zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2016-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the optical properties of recently marketed pre-colored monolithic zirconia ceramics and to compare with those of veneered zirconia and lithium disilicate glass ceramics. Various shades of pre-colored monolithic zirconia, veneered zirconia, and lithium disilicate glass ceramic specimens were tested (17.0×17.0×1.5mm, n=5). CIELab color coordinates were obtained against white, black, and grey backgrounds with a spectrophotometer. Color differences of the specimen pairs were calculated by using the CIEDE2000 (ΔE 00 ) formula. The translucency parameter (TP) was derived from ΔE 00 of the specimen against a white and a black background. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the crystalline phases of monolithic zirconia specimens. Data were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA, Scheffé post hoc, and Pearson correlation testing (α=0.05). For different shades of the same ceramic brand, there were significant differences in L * , a * , b * , and TP values in most ceramic brands. With the same nominal shade (A2), statistically significant differences were observed in L * , a * , b * , and TP values among different ceramic brands and systems (P<0.001). The color differences between pre-colored monolithic zirconia and veneered zirconia or lithium disilicate glass ceramics of the corresponding nominal shades ranged beyond the acceptability threshold. Due to the high L * values and low a * and b * values, pre-colored monolithic zirconia ceramics can be used with additional staining to match neighboring restorations or natural teeth. Due to their high value and low chroma, unacceptable color mismatch with adjacent ceramic restorations might be expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural and Chemical Analysis of the Zirconia-Veneering Ceramic Interface.

    PubMed

    Inokoshi, M; Yoshihara, K; Nagaoka, N; Nakanishi, M; De Munck, J; Minakuchi, S; Vanmeensel, K; Zhang, F; Yoshida, Y; Vleugels, J; Naert, I; Van Meerbeek, B

    2016-01-01

    The interfacial interaction of veneering ceramic with zirconia is still not fully understood. This study aimed to characterize morphologically and chemically the zirconia-veneering ceramic interface. Three zirconia-veneering conditions were investigated: 1) zirconia-veneering ceramic fired on sandblasted zirconia, 2) zirconia-veneering ceramic on as-sintered zirconia, and 3) alumina-veneering ceramic (lower coefficient of thermal expansion [CTE]) on as-sintered zirconia. Polished cross-sectioned ceramic-veneered zirconia specimens were examined using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (Feg-SEM). In addition, argon-ion thinned zirconia-veneering ceramic interface cross sections were examined using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) at high resolution. Finally, the zirconia-veneering ceramic interface was quantitatively analyzed for tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation and residual stress using micro-Raman spectroscopy (µRaman). Feg-SEM revealed tight interfaces for all 3 veneering conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) disclosed an approximately 1.0-µm transformed zone at sandblasted zirconia, in which distinct zirconia grains were no longer observable. Straight grain boundaries and angular grain corners were detected up to the interface of zirconia- and alumina-veneering ceramic with as-sintered zirconia. EDS mapping disclosed within the zirconia-veneering ceramic a few nanometers thick calcium/aluminum-rich layer, touching the as-sintered zirconia base, with an equally thick silicon-rich/aluminum-poor layer on top. µRaman revealed t-ZrO2-to-m-ZrO2 phase transformation and residual compressive stress at the sandblasted zirconia surface. The difference in CTE between zirconia- and the alumina-veneering ceramic resulted in residual tensile stress within the zirconia immediately adjacent to its interface with the veneering ceramic. The rather minor chemical

  15. Properties of zirconia after plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, V. P.; Kulkov, S. N.

    2017-09-01

    The influence of high-frequency plasma treatment on the properties of zirconia powder is shown in the work. The powder was produced by a plasma-chemical method. The powders had a foamy form with the size of agglomerates of 5-10 μm and crystallites of 20-50 nm. The powders were treated by the pulse plasma unit with dielectric barrier discharge generator. It was shown that the plasma processing changes the acidity of water-powder suspensions from 8.1 to 4.3 pH, which signifies the powders' wettability improvement. It was revealed that more intensive mixing using ultrasound influences the acidity level, reducing it in comparison with mixing by paddle-type agitator. It was shown that these changes of surface properties have relaxation by 4% per day and extrapolation of this dependence shows that the powder will have initial properties after 400 hours storage at room conditions.

  16. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl2ṡ8H2O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

  17. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    SciT

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K.

    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl{sub 2}⋅8H{sub 2}O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with themore » theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.« less

  18. Chemical interaction mechanism of 10-MDP with zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Noriyuki; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Feitosa, Victor Pinheiro; Tamada, Yoshiyuki; Irie, Masao; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Hayakawa, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the functional monomer 10-methacryloyloxy-decyl-dihydrogen-phosphate (10-MDP) was documented to chemically bond to zirconia ceramics. However, little research has been conducted to unravel the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to assess the chemical interaction and to demonstrate the mechanisms of coordination between 10-MDP and zirconium oxide using 1H and 31P magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and two dimensional (2D) 1H → 31P heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) NMR. In addition, shear bond-strength (SBS) tests were conducted to determine the effect of 10-MDP concentration on the bonding effectiveness to zirconia. These SBS tests revealed a 10-MDP concentration-dependent SBS with a minimum of 1-ppb 10-MDP needed. 31P-NMR revealed that one P-OH non-deprotonated of the PO3H2 group from 10-MDP chemically bonded strongly to zirconia. 1H-31P HETCOR NMR indicated that the 10-MDP monomer can be adsorbed onto the zirconia particles by hydrogen bonding between the P=O and Zr-OH groups or via ionic interactions between partially positive Zr and deprotonated 10-MDP (P-O−). The combination of 1H NMR and 2D 1H-31P HETCOR NMR enabled to describe the different chemical states of the 10-MDP bonds with zirconia; they not only revealed ionic but also hydrogen bonding between 10-MDP and zirconia. PMID:28358121

  19. Zirconia based dental ceramics: structure, mechanical properties, biocompatibility and applications.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Chandkiram; Joyner, Jarin; Gautam, Amarendra; Rao, Jitendra; Vajtai, Robert

    2016-12-06

    Zirconia (ZrO 2 ) based dental ceramics have been considered to be advantageous materials with adequate mechanical properties for the manufacturing of medical devices. Due to its very high compression strength of 2000 MPa, ZrO 2 can resist differing mechanical environments. During the crack propagation on the application of stress on the surface of ZrO 2 , a crystalline modification diminishes the propagation of cracks. In addition, zirconia's biocompatibility has been studied in vivo, leading to the observation of no adverse response upon the insertion of ZrO 2 samples into the bone or muscle. In vitro experimentation has exhibited the absence of mutations and good viability of cells cultured on this material leading to the use of ZrO 2 in the manufacturing of hip head prostheses. The mechanical properties of zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPDs) have proven to be superior to other ceramic/composite restorations and hence leading to their significant applications in implant supported rehabilitations. Recent developments were focused on the synthesis of zirconia based dental materials. More recently, zirconia has been introduced in prosthetic dentistry for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures in combination with computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. This systematic review covers the results of past as well as recent scientific studies on the properties of zirconia based ceramics such as their specific compositions, microstructures, mechanical strength, biocompatibility and other applications in dentistry.

  20. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee [Lakewood, CO; Tracy, C Edwin [Golden, CO; Liu, Ping [Denver, CO

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  1. A dynamic inert metal anode.

    SciT

    Hryn, J. N.

    1998-11-09

    A new concept for a stable anode for aluminum electrowinning is described. The anode consists of a cup-shaped metal alloy container filled with a molten salt that contains dissolved aluminum. The metal alloy can be any of a number of alloys, but it must contain aluminum as a secondary alloying metal. A possible alloy composition is copper with 5 to 15 weight percent aluminum. In the presence of oxygen, aluminum on the metal anode's exterior surface forms a continuous alumina film that is thick enough to protect the anode from chemical attack by cryolite during electrolysis and thin enough tomore » maintain electrical conductivity. However, the alumina film is soluble in cryolite, so it must be regenerated in situ. Film regeneration is achieved by the transport of aluminum metal from the anode's molten salt interior through the metal wall to the anode's exterior surface, where the transported aluminum oxidizes to alumina in the presence of evolving oxygen to maintain the protective alumina film. Periodic addition of aluminum metal to the anode's interior keeps the aluminum activity in the molten salt at the desired level. This concept for an inert anode is viable as long as the amount of aluminum produced at the cathode greatly exceeds the amount of aluminum required to maintain the anode's protective film.« less

  2. Failure analysis of fractured dental zirconia implants.

    PubMed

    Gahlert, M; Burtscher, D; Grunert, I; Kniha, H; Steinhauser, E

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was the macroscopic and microscopic failure analysis of fractured zirconia dental implants. Thirteen fractured one-piece zirconia implants (Z-Look3) out of 170 inserted implants with an average in situ period of 36.75±5.34 months (range from 20 to 56 months, median 38 months) were prepared for macroscopic and microscopic (scanning electron microscopy [SEM]) failure analysis. These 170 implants were inserted in 79 patients. The patient histories were compared with fracture incidences to identify the reasons for the failure of the implants. Twelve of these fractured implants had a diameter of 3.25 mm and one implant had a diameter of 4 mm. All fractured implants were located in the anterior side of the maxilla and mandibula. The patient with the fracture of the 4 mm diameter implant was adversely affected by strong bruxism. By failure analysis (SEM), it could be demonstrated that in all cases, mechanical overloading caused the fracture of the implants. Inhomogeneities and internal defects of the ceramic material could be excluded, but notches and scratches due to sandblasting of the surface led to local stress concentrations that led to the mentioned mechanical overloading by bending loads. The present study identified a fracture rate of nearly 10% within a follow-up period of 36.75 months after prosthetic loading. Ninety-two per cent of the fractured implants were so-called diameter reduced implants (diameter 3.25 mm). These diameter reduced implants cannot be recommended for further clinical use. Improvement of the ceramic material and modification of the implant geometry has to be carried out to reduce the failure rate of small-sized ceramic implants. Nevertheless, due to the lack of appropriate laboratory testing, only clinical studies will demonstrate clearly whether and how far the failure rate can be reduced. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Light transmittance of zirconia as a function of thickness and microhardness of resin cements under different thicknesses of zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem; Kaya, Bekir M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare microhardness of resin cements under different thicknesses of zirconia and the light transmittance of zirconia as a function of thickness. Study design: A total of 126 disc-shaped specimens (2 mm in height and 5 mm in diameter) were prepared from dual-cured resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Panavia F and Clearfil SA cement). Photoactivation was performed by using quartz tungsten halogen and light emitting diode light curing units under different thicknesses of zirconia. Then the specimens (n=7/per group) were stored in dry conditions in total dark at 37°C for 24 h. The Vicker’s hardness test was performed on the resin cement layer with a microhardness tester. Statistical significance was determined using multifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) (alpha=.05). Light transmittance of different thicknesses of zirconia (0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 mm) was measured using a hand-held radiometer (Demetron, Kerr). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test (alpha=.05). Results: ANOVA revealed that resin cement and light curing unit had significant effects on microhardness (p < 0.001). Additionally, greater zirconia thickness resulted in lower transmittance. There was no correlation between the amount of light transmitted and microhardness of dual-cured resin cements (r = 0.073, p = 0.295). Conclusion: Although different zirconia thicknesses might result in insufficient light transmission, dual-cured resin cements under zirconia restorations could have adequate microhardness. Key words:Zirconia, microhardness, light transmittance, resin cement. PMID:23385497

  4. Fabrication of low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells with a nanothin protective layer by atomic layer deposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Anode aluminum oxide-supported thin-film fuel cells having a sub-500-nm-thick bilayered electrolyte comprising a gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) layer and an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer were fabricated and electrochemically characterized in order to investigate the effect of the YSZ protective layer. The highly dense and thin YSZ layer acted as a blockage against electron and oxygen permeation between the anode and GDC electrolyte. Dense GDC and YSZ thin films were fabricated using radio frequency sputtering and atomic layer deposition techniques, respectively. The resulting bilayered thin-film fuel cell generated a significantly higher open circuit voltage of approximately 1.07 V compared with a thin-film fuel cell with a single-layered GDC electrolyte (approximately 0.3 V). PMID:23342963

  5. The Effect of Zirconia in Hydroxyapatite on Staphylococcus epidermidis Growth.

    PubMed

    Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Sunarintyas, Siti; Tontowi, Alva Edy

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used and developed as the material for bone substitute in medical applications. The addition of zirconia is needed to improve the strength of hydroxyapatite as the bone substitute. One of the drawbacks in the use of biomedical materials is the occurrence of biomaterial-centred infections. The recent method of limiting the presence of microorganism on biomaterials is by providing biomaterial-bound metal-containing compositions. In this case, S. epidermidis is the most common infectious organism in biomedical-centred infection. Objective. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of zirconia concentrations in hydroxyapatite on the growth of S. epidermidis. Methods and Materials. The subjects of this study were twenty hydroxyapatite discs, divided into four groups in which one was the control and the other three were the treatment groups. Zirconia powder with the concentrations of 20%, 30%, and 40% was added into the three different treatment groups. Scanning electron microscope analysis was performed according to the hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-zirconia specimens. All discs were immersed into S. epidermidis culture for 24 hours and later on they were soaked into a medium of PBS. The cultured medium was spread on mannitol salt agar. After incubation for 24 hours at 37°C , the number of colonies was measured with colony counter. Data obtained were analyzed using the ANOVA followed by the pairwise comparison. Result. The statistical analysis showed that different concentrations of zirconia powder significantly influenced the number of S. epidermidis colony (P < 0.05) . Conclusion. The addition of zirconia into hydroxyapatite affected the growth of S. epidermidis. Hydroxyapatite with 20% zirconia proved to be an effective concentration to inhibit the growth of S. epidermidis colony.

  6. Bioactive and Thermally Compatible Glass Coating on Zirconia Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Kirsten, A.; Hausmann, A.; Weber, M.; Fischer, J.

    2015-01-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58·10–6 K–1) than that of the zirconia (11.67·10–6 K–1). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants. PMID:25421839

  7. The Effect of Zirconia in Hydroxyapatite on Staphylococcus epidermidis Growth

    PubMed Central

    Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Sunarintyas, Siti; Tontowi, Alva Edy

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used and developed as the material for bone substitute in medical applications. The addition of zirconia is needed to improve the strength of hydroxyapatite as the bone substitute. One of the drawbacks in the use of biomedical materials is the occurrence of biomaterial-centred infections. The recent method of limiting the presence of microorganism on biomaterials is by providing biomaterial-bound metal-containing compositions. In this case, S. epidermidis is the most common infectious organism in biomedical-centred infection. Objective. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of zirconia concentrations in hydroxyapatite on the growth of S. epidermidis. Methods and Materials. The subjects of this study were twenty hydroxyapatite discs, divided into four groups in which one was the control and the other three were the treatment groups. Zirconia powder with the concentrations of 20%, 30%, and 40% was added into the three different treatment groups. Scanning electron microscope analysis was performed according to the hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-zirconia specimens. All discs were immersed into S. epidermidis culture for 24 hours and later on they were soaked into a medium of PBS. The cultured medium was spread on mannitol salt agar. After incubation for 24 hours at 37°C , the number of colonies was measured with colony counter. Data obtained were analyzed using the ANOVA followed by the pairwise comparison. Result. The statistical analysis showed that different concentrations of zirconia powder significantly influenced the number of S. epidermidis colony (P < 0.05) . Conclusion. The addition of zirconia into hydroxyapatite affected the growth of S. epidermidis. Hydroxyapatite with 20% zirconia proved to be an effective concentration to inhibit the growth of S. epidermidis colony. PMID:22919390

  8. Translucency of Zirconia Ceramics before and after Artificial Aging.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Katarzyna; Meißner, Heike; Range, Ursula; Sakkas, Andreas; Boening, Klaus; Wieckiewicz, Mieszko; Konstantinidis, Ioannis

    2018-03-11

    The aging of zirconia ceramics (Y-TZP) is associated with tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation. This change in microstructure may affect the optical properties of the ceramic. This study examines the effect of aging on the translucency of different zirconia materials. 120 disc-shaped specimens were fabricated from four zirconia materials: Cercon ht white, BruxZir Solid Zirconia, Zenostar T0, Lava Plus (n = 30 per group). Accelerated aging was performed in a steam autoclave (134°C, 0.2 MPa, 5 hours). CIELab coordinates (L*, a*, b*) and luminous reflectance (Y) were measured with a spectrophotometer before and after aging. Contrast ratio (CR) and translucency parameter (TP) were calculated from the L*, a*, b*, and Y tristimulus values. The general linear model (Bonferroni adjusted) was used to compare both parameters before and after aging, as well as between the different zirconia materials (p ≤ 0.05). CR and TP differed significantly before and after aging in all groups tested. Before aging, Zenostar T showed the highest and Lava Plus showed the lowest translucency. After aging, Cercon ht and Zenostar T showed the highest and BruxZir and Lava Plus the lowest translucency. Aging reduced the translucency in all specimens tested. Furthermore, translucency differed between the zirconia brands tested. Nevertheless, the differences were below the detectability threshold of the human eye. The aging process can influence the translucency and thus the esthetic outcome of zirconia restorations; however, the changes in translucency were minimal and probably undetectable by the human eye. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. Bioactive and thermally compatible glass coating on zirconia dental implants.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, A; Hausmann, A; Weber, M; Fischer, J; Fischer, H

    2015-02-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58 · 10(-6) K(-1)) than that of the zirconia (11.67 · 10(-6) K(-1)). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants. © International & American Associations for Dental

  10. Anode film formation and control

    DOEpatents

    Koski, Oscar; Marschman, Steven C.

    1990-01-01

    A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film function to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film.

  11. Anode film formation and control

    DOEpatents

    Koski, O.; Marschman, S.C.

    1990-05-01

    A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film functions to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film. 3 figs.

  12. Origin of electrolyte-dopant dependent sulfur poisoning of SOFC anodes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, ZhenHua; Björketun, Mårten E; Ebbesen, Sune; Mogensen, Mogens B; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2013-05-14

    The mechanisms governing the sulfur poisoning of the triple phase boundary (TPB) of Ni-XSZ (X2O3 stabilized zirconia) anodes have been investigated using density functional theory. The calculated sulfur adsorption energies reveal a clear correlation between the size of the cation dopant X(3+) and the sulfur tolerance of the Ni-XSZ anode; the smaller the ionic radius, the higher the sulfur tolerance. The mechanistic study shows that the size of X(3+) strongly influences XSZ's surface energy, which in turn determines the adhesion of Ni to XSZ. The Ni-XSZ interaction has a direct impact on the Ni-S interaction and on the relative stability of reconstructed and pristine Ni(100) facets at the TPB. Together, these two effects control the sulfur adsorption on the Ni atoms at the TPB. The established relationships explain experimentally observed dopant-dependent anode performances and provide a blueprint for the future search for and preparation of highly sulfur tolerant anodes.

  13. Shear bond strength between resin cement and colored zirconia made with metal chlorides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ga-Hyun; Park, Sang-Won; Lee, Kwangmin; Oh, Gye-Jeong; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2015-06-01

    Although the application of zirconia in esthetic prostheses has increased, the shear bond strength (SBS) between colored zirconia and resin cement has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the SBS between resin cement and colored zirconia made with metal chlorides. Sixty-four zirconia specimens were divided into 2 groups: one in which the specimens were bonded with resin cement, including 4-META (4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride), and one in which the specimens were bonded with resin cement (SEcure, Sun Medical) after being processed with zirconia primer (Zirconia Liner), including 4-META. Each group was then divided into 4 subgroups depending on the coloring liquid. The subgroups were noncolored (control), commercial coloring liquid VITA In-Ceram 2000 YZ LL1, aqueous chromium chloride solution 0.1 wt%, and aqueous molybdenum chloride solution 0.1 wt%. Composite resin cylinders (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) were fabricated and bonded to the surface of the zirconia specimen with resin cement (SEcure). All specimens were stored in 37°C distilled water for 24 hours, and the SBS was measured with a universal testing machine. All data were analyzed statistically with 2-way ANOVA and tested post hoc with the Tukey test (α=.05). Significant differences were observed among the SBS values of the colored zirconia depending on the coloring liquid (P<.001) and whether they were processed with zirconia primer (P<.001). The SBS between colored zirconia and resin cement was significantly higher than that of noncolored zirconia and resin cement in groups processed with zirconia primer (P<.05). Colored zirconia immersed in aqueous molybdenum chloride solution showed a significantly higher SBS. Coloring liquid enhanced the SBS between resin cement and zirconia processed with zirconia primer. In particular, colored zirconia immersed in aqueous molybdenum chloride solution showed the highest SBS. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of

  14. Zirconia changes after grinding and regeneration firing.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Gabriel R; Polli, Gabriela S; Fais, Laiza M G; Reis, José Maurício Dos S N; Pinelli, Lígia A P

    2017-07-01

    Despite improvements in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) systems, grinding during either laboratory procedures or clinical adjustments is often needed to modify the shape of 3 mol(%) yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) restorations. However, the best way to achieve adjustment is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microstructural and crystallographic phase changes, flexural strength, and Weibull modulus of a 3Y-TZP zirconia after grinding with or without water cooling and regeneration firing. Ninety-six bar-shaped specimens were obtained and divided as follows: as-sintered, control; as-sintered with regeneration firing; grinding without water cooling; grinding and regeneration firing with water cooling; and grinding and regeneration firing. Grinding (0.3 mm) was performed with a 150-μm diamond rotary instrument in a high-speed handpiece. For regeneration firing, the specimens were annealed at 1000°C for 30 minutes. The crystalline phases were evaluated by using x-ray powder diffraction. A 4-point bending test was conducted (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min). The Weibull modulus was used to analyze strength reliability. The microstructure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Data from the flexural strength test were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (α=.05). Tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation was identified in the ground specimens; R regeneration firing groups showed only the tetragonal phase. The median flexural strength of as-sintered specimens was 642.0; 699.3 MPa for as-sintered specimens with regeneration firing; 770.1 MPa for grinding and water-cooled specimens; 727.3 MPa for specimens produced using water-cooled grinding and regeneration firing; 859.9 MPa for those produced by grinding; and 764.6 for those produced by grinding and regeneration firing; with statistically higher values for the ground groups. The regenerative firing did not affect the flexural

  15. CAD/CAM ZIRCONIA VS. SLIP-CAST GLASS-INFILTRATED ALUMINA/ZIRCONIA ALL-CERAMIC CROWNS: 2-YEAR RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Çehreli, Murat Cavit; Kökat, Ali Murat; Akça, Kivanç

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the early clinical outcome of slip-cast glass-infiltrated Alumina/Zirconia and CAD/CAM Zirconia all-ceramic crowns. A total of 30 InCeram® Zirconia and Cercon® Zirconia crowns were fabricated and cemented with a glass ionomer cement in 20 patients. At baseline, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year recall appointments, Californian Dental Association (CDA) quality evaluation system was used to evaluate the prosthetic replacements, and plaque and gingival index scores were used to explore the periodontal outcome of the treatments. No clinical sign of marginal discoloration, persistent pain and secondary caries was detected in any of the restorations. All InCeram® Zirconia crowns survived during the 2-year period, although one nonvital tooth experienced root fracture coupled with the fracture of the veneering porcelain of the restoration. One Cercon® Zirconia restoration fractured and was replaced. According to the CDA criteria, marginal integrity was rated excellent for InCeram® Zirconia (73%) and Cercon® Zirconia (80%) restorations, respectively. Slight color mismatch rate was higher for InCeram® Zirconia restorations (66%) than Cercon® Zirconia (26%) restorations. Plaque and gingival index scores were mostly zero and almost constant over time. Time-dependent changes in plaque and gingival index scores within and between groups were statistically similar (p>0.05). This clinical study demonstrates that single-tooth InCeram® Zirconia and Cercon® Zirconia crowns have comparable early clinical outcome, both seem as acceptable treatment modalities, and most importantly, all-ceramic alumina crowns strengthened by 25% zirconia can sufficiently withstand functional load in the posterior zone. PMID:19148406

  16. High-temperature zirconia insulation and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Lewis, J. Jr.

    The present invention is directed to a highly pure, partially stabilized, fibrous zirconia composite for use as thermal insulation in environments where temperatures up to about 2,000/sup 0/C are utilized. The composite of the present invention is fabricated into any suitable configuration such as a cone, cylinder dome or the like by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of partially stabilized zirconia fibers into a desired configuration on a suitably shaped mandrel. The molded fibers are infiltrated with zirconyl nitrate and the resulting structure is then dried to form a rigid structure which may be removed and placed in a furnace. The structure is then heated in air to a temperature of about 600/sup 0/C for driving off the nitrate from the structure and for oxidizing the zirconyl ion to zirconia. Thereafter, the structure is heated to about 950/sup 0/ to 1,250/sup 0/C to fuse the zirconia fibers at their nexi in a matrix of zirconia. The composite produced by the present invention is self-supporting and can be readily machined to desired final dimensions. Additional heating to about 1800/sup 0/ to 2000/sup 0/C further improves structural rigidity.

  17. Zirconia in dentistry: part 2. Evidence-based clinical breakthrough.

    PubMed

    Koutayas, Spiridon Oumvertos; Vagkopoulou, Thaleia; Pelekanos, Stavros; Koidis, Petros; Strub, Jörg Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    An ideal all-ceramic restoration that conforms well and demonstrates enhanced biocompatibility, strength, fit, and esthetics has always been desirable in clinical dentistry. However, the inherent brittleness, low flexural strength, and fracture toughness of conventional glass and alumina ceramics have been the main obstacles for extensive use. The recent introduction of zirconia-based ceramics as a restorative dental material has generated considerable interest in the dental community, which has been expressed with extensive industrial, clinical, and research activity. Contemporary zirconia powder technology contributes to the fabrication of new biocompatible all-ceramic restorations with improved physical properties for a wide range of promising clinical applications. Especially with the development of computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems, high-strength zirconia frameworks can be viable for the fabrication of full and partial coverage crowns, fixed partial dentures, veneers, posts and/or cores, primary double crowns, implant abutments, and implants. Data from laboratory and clinical studies are promising regarding their performance and survival. However, clinical data are considered insufficient and the identified premature complications should guide future research. In addition, different zirconia-based dental auxiliary components (i.e., cutting burs and surgical drills, extra-coronal attachments and orthodontic brackets) can also be technologically feasible. This review aims to present and discuss zirconia manufacturing methods and their potential for successful clinical application in dentistry.

  18. Multinuclear NMR study of silica fiberglass modified with zirconia.

    PubMed

    Lapina, O B; Khabibulin, D F; Terskikh, V V

    2011-01-01

    Silica fiberglass textiles are emerging as uniquely suited supports in catalysis, which offer unprecedented flexibility in designing advanced catalytic systems for chemical and auto industries. During manufacturing fiberglass materials are often modified with additives of various nature to improve glass properties. Glass network formers, such as zirconia and alumina, are known to provide the glass fibers with higher strength and to slow down undesirable devitrification processes. In this work multinuclear (1)H, (23)Na, (29)Si, and (91)Zr NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize the effect of zirconia on the molecular-level fiberglass structure. (29)Si NMR results help in understanding why zirconia-modified fiberglass is more stable towards devitrification comparing with pure silica glass. Internal void spaces formed in zirconia-silica glass fibers after acidic leaching correlate with sodium and water distributions in the starting bulk glass as probed by (23)Na and (1)H NMR. These voids spaces are important for stabilization of catalytically active species in the supported catalysts. Potentials of high-field (91)Zr NMR spectroscopy to study zirconia-containing glasses and similarly disordered systems are illustrated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High-temperature zirconia insulation and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Lewis, J. Jr.

    1988-05-10

    The present invention is directed to a highly pure, partially stabilized, fibrous zirconia composite for use as thermal insulation in environments where temperatures up to about 2,000 C are utilized. The composite of the present invention is fabricated into any suitable configuration such as a cone, cylinder, dome or the like by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of partially stabilized zirconia fibers into a desired configuration on a suitably shaped mandrel. The molded fibers are infiltrated with zirconyl nitrate and the resulting structure is then dried to form a rigid structure which may be removed and placed in a furnace. The structure is then heated in air to a temperature of about 600 C for driving off the nitrate from the structure and for oxidizing the zirconyl ion to zirconia. Thereafter, the structure is heated to about 950 to 1,250 C to fuse the zirconia fibers at their nexi in a matrix of zirconia. The composite produced by the present invention is self-supporting and can be readily machined to desired final dimensions. Additional heating to about 1,800 to 2,000 C further improves structural rigidity.

  20. High-temperature zirconia insulation and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Wrenn, Jr., George E.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Lewis, Jr., John

    1988-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a highly pure, partially stabilized, fibrous zirconia composite for use as thermal insulation in environments where temperatures up to about 2000.degree. C. are utilized. The composite of the present invention is fabricated into any suitable configuration such as a cone, cylinder, dome or the like by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of partially stabilized zirconia fibers into a desired configuration on a suitably shaped mandrel. The molded fibers are infiltrated with zirconyl nitrate and the resulting structure is then dried to form a rigid structure which may be removed and placed in a furnace. The structure is then heated in air to a temperature of about 600.degree. C. for driving off the nitrate from the structure and for oxidizing the zirconyl ion to zirconia. Thereafter, the structure is heated to about 950.degree. to 1,250.degree. C. to fuse the zirconia fibers at their nexi in a matrix of zirconia. The composite produced by the present invention is self-supporting and can be readily machined to desired final dimensions. Additional heating to about 1800.degree. to 2000.degree. C. further improves structural rigidity.

  1. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia.

    PubMed

    Sari, Fatih; Secilmis, Asli; Simsek, Irfan; Ozsevik, Semih

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia.

  2. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia. PMID:27555895

  3. Calculation of contact angles at triple phase boundary in solid oxide fuel cell anode using the level set method

    SciT

    Sun, Xiaojun; Hasegawa, Yosuke; CREST, JST

    2014-10-15

    A level set method is applied to characterize the three dimensional structures of nickel, yttria stabilized zirconia and pore phases in solid oxide fuel cell anode reconstructed by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope. A numerical algorithm is developed to evaluate the contact angles at the triple phase boundary based on interfacial normal vectors which can be calculated from the signed distance functions defined for each of the three phases. Furthermore, surface tension force is estimated from the contact angles by assuming the interfacial force balance at the triple phase boundary. The average contact angle values of nickel, yttria stabilized zirconiamore » and pore are found to be 143°–156°, 83°–138° and 82°–123°, respectively. The mean contact angles remained nearly unchanged after 100 hour operation. However, the contact angles just after reduction are different for the cells with different sintering temperatures. In addition, standard deviations of the contact angles are very large especially for yttria stabilized zirconia and pore phases. The calculated surface tension forces from mean contact angles were close to the experimental values found in the literature. Slight increase of surface tensions of nickel/pore and nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia were observed after operation. Present data are expected to be used not only for the understanding of the degradation mechanism, but also for the quantitative prediction of the microstructural temporal evolution of solid oxide fuel cell anode. - Highlights: • A level set method is applied to characterize the 3D structures of SOFC anode. • A numerical algorithm is developed to evaluate the contact angles at the TPB. • Surface tension force is estimated from the contact angles. • The average contact angle values are found to be 143o-156o, 83o-138o and 82o-123o. • Present data are expected to understand degradation and predict evolution of SOFC.« less

  4. Bulk and Interface Thermodynamics of Calcia-, and Yttria-doped Zirconia Ceramics: Nanograined Phase Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drazin, John Walter

    Calcia-, and yttria- doped zirconia powders and samples are essential systems in academia and industry due to their observed bulk polymorphism. Pure zirconia manifests as Baddeleyite, a monoclinic structured mineral with 7-fold coordination. This bulk form of zirconia has little application due to its asymmetry. Therefore dopants are added to the grain in-order to induce phase transitions to either a tetragonal or cubic polymorph with the incorporation of oxygen vacancies due to the dopant charge mis-match with the zirconia matrix. The cubic polymorph has cubic symmetry such that these samples see applications in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to the high oxygen vacancy concentrations and high ionic mobility at elevated temperatures. The tetragonal polymorph has slight asymmetry in the c-axis compared to the a-axis such that the tetragonal samples have increased fracture toughness due to an impact induced phase transformation to a cubic structure. These ceramic systems have been extensively studied in academia and used in various industries, but with the advent of nanotechnology one can wonder whether smaller grain samples will see improved characteristics similar to their bulk grain counterparts. However, there is a lack of data and knowledge of these systems in the nano grained region which provides us with an opportunity to advance the theory in these systems. The polymorphism seen in the bulk grains samples is also seen in the nano-grained samples, but at slightly distinct dopant concentrations. The current theory hypothesizes that a surface excess, gamma (J/m 2), can be added to the Gibbs Free energy equation to account for the additional free energy of the nano-grain atoms. However, these surface energies have been difficult to measure and therefore thermodynamic data on these nano-grained samples have been sparse. Therefore, in this work, I will use a well established water adsorption microcalorimetry apparatus to measure the water coverage isotherms

  5. Effect of La2O3 addition on interface chemistry between 4YSZ top layer and Ni based alloy bond coat in thermal barrier coating by EB PVD.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Young; Yang, Young-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Won; Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Jang, Byung-Koog; Lim, Dae-Soon; Oh, Yoon-Suk

    2014-11-01

    The effect of a 5 mol% La2O3 addition on the forming behavior and compositional variation at interface between a 4 mol% Yttria (Y2O3) stabilized ZrO2 (4YSZ) top coat and bond coat (NiCrAlY) as a thermal barrier coating (TBC) has been investigated. Top coats were deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB PVD) onto a super alloy (Ni-Cr-Co-Al) substrate without pre-oxidation of the bond coat. Top coats are found to consist of dense columnar grains with a thin interdiffusion layer between metallic bond coats. In the as-received 4YSZ coating, a thin interdiffusion zone at the interface between the top and bond coats was found to consist of a Ni-Zr intermetallic compound with a reduced quantity of Y, Al or O elements. On the other hand, in the case of an interdiffusion area of 5 mol% La2O3-added 4YSZ coating, it was found that the complicated composition and structure with La-added YSZ and Ni-Al rich compounds separately. The thermal conductivity of 5 mol% La2O3-added 4YSZ coating (- 1.6 W/m x k at 1100 degrees C) was lower than a 4YSZ coating (- 3.2 W/m x k at 1100 degrees C) alone.

  6. Paramagnetic defects in electron-irradiated yttria-stabilized zirconia: Effect of yttria content

    SciT

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Beuneu, Francois; Morrison-Smith, Sarah E.

    2011-12-20

    We have studied the effect of the yttria content on the paramagnetic centres in electron-irradiated yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2: Y3+) or YSZ. Single crystals with 9.5 mol% or 18 mol% Y2O3 were irradiated with electrons of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 MeV. The paramagnetic centre production was studied by X-band EPR spectroscopy. The same paramagnetic centres were identified for both chemical compositions, namely two electron centres, i.e. i) F+-type centres (involving singly ionized oxygen vacancies), and ii) so-called T centres (Zr3+ in a trigonal symmetry site), and hole-centres. A strong effect is observed on the production of hole-centres which are stronglymore » enhanced when doubling the yttria content. However, no striking effect is found on the electron centres (except the enhancement of an extra line associated to the F+-type centres). It is concluded that hole-centres are produced by inelastic interactions, whereas F+-type centres are produced by elastic collisions with no effect of the yttria content on the defect production rate. In the latter case, the threshold displacement energy (Ed) of oxygen is estimated from the electron-energy dependence of the F+-type centre production rate, with no significant effect of the yttria content on Ed. An Ed value larger than 120 eV is found. Accordingly, classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a Buckingham-type potential show that Ed values for Y and O are likely to be in excess of 200 eV. It is concluded that F+-type centres might be actually oxygen divacancies (F2+-type centres). Due to the difficulty in displacing O or Y atoms, the radiation-induced defects may alternatively be a result of Zr atom displacements for Ed = 80 ± 1 eV with subsequent defect re-arrangement.« less

  7. [Influence on mechanical properties and microstructure of nano-zirconia toughened alumina ceramics with nano-zirconia content].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Kui; Kang, Hong; Bao, Guang-Jie; Lv, Jin-Jun; Gao, Fei

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties and microstructure of nano -zirconia toughened alumina ceramics with variety of nano-zirconia content in centrifugal infiltrate casting processing of dental all-ceramic. Composite powder with different ethanol-water ratio, obtained serosity from ball milling and centrifugal infiltrate cast processing of green, then sintered at 1 450 degrees C for 8 h. The physical and mechanical properties of the sintered sample after milling and polishing were tested. Microstructures of the surface and fracture of the sintered sample were investigated by SEM. The experimental results showed that there had statistical significience (P < 0.01) on static three-point flexure strength and Vickers Hardness in three kinds of different nano-zirconia content sintered sample. Fracture toughness of 20% group was different from other two groups, while 10% group had not difference from 30% group (P < 0.05). The mechanical properties of this ceramic with 20% nano-zirconia was the best of the three, the static three-point flexure strength was (433 +/- 19) MPa and fracture toughness was (7.50 +/- 0.56) MPa x min 1/2. The intra/inter structure, fracture of intragranular and intergranular on the surface and fracture of sintered sample in microstrucre was also found. Intra/inter structure has strengthen toughness in ceramics. It has better toughness with 20% nano-zirconia, is suitable dental all-ceramic restoratives.

  8. Improvements to Zirconia Thick-Film Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskell, William C.; Brett, Daniel J. L.; Brandon, Nigel P.

    2013-06-01

    Thick-film zirconia gas sensors are normally screen-printed onto a planar substrate. A sandwich of electrode-electrolyte-electrode is fired at a temperature sufficient to instigate sintering of the zirconia electrolyte. The resulting porous zirconia film acts as both the electrolyte and as the diffusion barrier through which oxygen diffuses. The high sintering temperature results in de-activation of the electrodes so that sensors must be operated at around 800 °C for measurements in the percentage range of oxygen concentration. This work shows that the use of cobalt oxide as a sintering aid allows reduction of the sensor operating temperature by 100-200 °C with clear benefits. Furthermore, an interesting and new technique is presented for the investigation of the influence of dopants and of the through-porosity of ionically-conducting materials.

  9. Resin cementation of zirconia ceramics with different bonding agents

    PubMed Central

    Tanış, Merve Çakırbay; Akay, Canan; Karakış, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sandblasting and different chemical bonding agents on shear bond strength of zirconia and conventional resin cement. In this study, 35 zirconia specimens were treated as follows: Group I: control; Group II: sandblasting; Group III: sandblasting + Monobond S; Group IV: sandblasting + Monobond Plus; Group V: sandblasting + Z-Prime Plus. The specimens in each group were bonded with conventional composite resin cement Variolink II. After cementation, specimens were stored in distilled water (at 37 °C) for 24 h and shear test was performed. The highest shear bond strength values were observed in Groups IV and V. The lowest shear bond strength values were observed in Group I. Using 10-methacryloyloxy-decyl dihydrogenphosphate monomer-containing priming agents, e.g. Monobond Plus and Z-PRIME Plus, combined with sandblasting can be an effective method for resin bonding of zirconia restorations. PMID:26019653

  10. Study of Laser Drilled Hole Quality of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Surendra K.; Dubey, Avanish K.; Pant, Piyush; Upadhyay, B. N.; Choubey, A.

    2017-09-01

    The Yttria Stabilized Zirconia ceramic is extensively used in aerospace, automotives, medical and microelectronics industries. These applications demand manufacturing of different macro and micro features with close tolerances in this material. To make miniature holes with accurate dimensions in advanced ceramics such as Yttria Stabilized Zirconia is very difficult due to its tailored attributes such as high toughness, hardness, strength, resistance to wear, corrosion and temperature. Due to inherent characteristics of laser drilling, researchers are working to fulfill the requirement of creation of micro holes in advanced ceramics. The present research investigates the laser drilling of 2 mm thick Yttria Stabilized Zirconia with the aim to achieve good micro holes with reduced geometrical inaccuracies and improved hole quality. The results show that multiple quality response comprising hole circularity, hole taper and recast layer thickness has been improved at optimally selected process parameters.

  11. Thermodynamic properties of some metal oxide-zirconia systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1989-01-01

    Metal oxide-zirconia systems are a potential class of materials for use as structural materials at temperatures above 1900 K. These materials must have no destructive phase changes and low vapor pressures. Both alkaline earth oxide (MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO)-zirconia and some rare earth oxide (Y2O3, Sc2O3, La2O3, CeO2, Sm2O3, Gd2O3, Yb2O3, Dy2O3, Ho2O3, and Er2O3)-zirconia system are examined. For each system, the phase diagram is discussed and the vapor pressure for each vapor species is calculated via a free energy minimization procedure. The available thermodynamic literature on each system is also surveyed. Some of the systems look promising for high temperature structural materials.

  12. Alumina additions may improve the damage tolerance of soft machined zirconia-based ceramics.

    PubMed

    Oilo, Marit; Tvinnereim, Helene M; Gjerdet, Nils Roar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the damage tolerance of different zirconia-based materials. Bars of one hard machined and one soft machined dental zirconia and an experimental 95% zirconia 5% alumina ceramic were subjected to 100,000 stress cycles (n = 10), indented to provoke cracks on the tensile stress side (n = 10), and left untreated as controls (n = 10). The experimental material demonstrated a higher relative damage tolerance, with a 40% reduction compared to 68% for the hard machined zirconia and 84% for the soft machined zirconia.

  13. Study on the neotype zirconia's implant coated nanometer hydroxyapatite ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. W.; Yang, D. W.

    2007-07-01

    In recent years, biologic ceramics is a popular material of implants and bioactive surface modification of dental implant became a research emphasis, which aims to improve bioactivity of implants materials and acquire firmer implants-bone interface. The zirconia ceramic has excellent mechanical properties and nanometer HA ceramics is a bioceramic well known for its bioactivity, therefore, nanometer HA ceramics coating on zirconia, allows combining the excellent mechanical properties of zirconia substrates with its bioactivity. This paper shows a new method for implant shape design and bioactive modification of dental implants surface. Zirconia's implant substrate was prepared by sintered method, central and lateral tunnels were drilled in the zirconia hollow porous cylindrical implants by laser processing. The HA powders and needle-like HA crystals were made by a wet precipitation and calcining method. Its surface was coated with nanometer HA ceramics which was used brush HA slurry and vacuum sintering. Mechanical testing results revealed that the attachment strength of nanometer HA ceramics coated zirconia samples is high. SEM and interface observation after inserted experiment indicated that calcium and phosphor content increased and symmetrically around coated implant-bone tissue interface. A significantly higher affinity index was demonstrated in vivo by histomorphometric evaluation in coated versus uncoated implants. SEM analysis demonstrated better bone adhesion to the material in coated implant at any situation. In addition, the hollow porous cylindrical implant coated with nanometer HA ceramics increase the interaction of bone and implant, the new bone induced into the surface of hollow porous cylindrical implant and through the most tunnels filled into central hole. The branch-like structure makes the implant and bone a body, which increased the contact area and decreased elastic ratio. Therefore, the macroscopical and microcosmic nested structure of

  14. Silicon carbide whisker-zirconia reinforced mullite and alumina ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Becher, Paul F.; Tiegs, Terry N.

    1987-01-01

    The flexural strength and/or fracture toughness of SiC whisker-reinforced composites utilizing mullite or alumina as the matrix material for the composite are increased by the addition of zirconia in a monoclinic or tetragonal phase to the matrix. The zirconia addition also provides for a lower hot-pressing temperature and increases the flexural strength and/or fracture toughness of the SiC whisker-reinforced composites over SiC whisker-reinforced composites of the similar matrix materials reinforced with similar concentrations of SiC whiskers.

  15. Nano structural anodes for radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Serkiz, Steven M.; McWhorter, Christopher S.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-07-07

    Anodes for proportional radiation counters and a process of making the anodes is provided. The nano-sized anodes when present within an anode array provide: significantly higher detection efficiencies due to the inherently higher electric field, are amenable to miniaturization, have low power requirements, and exhibit a small electromagnetic field signal. The nano-sized anodes with the incorporation of neutron absorbing elements (e.g., .sup.10B) allow the use of neutron detectors that do not use .sup.3He.

  16. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to < or = 10(exp 9) Omega-cm. The present treatment does this. The treatment is a direct electrodeposition process in which the outer anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic

  17. pH control of the structure, composition, and catalytic activity of sulfated zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir K.; Baranchikov, Alexander Ye.; Kopitsa, Gennady P.; Lermontov, Sergey A.; Yurkova, Lyudmila L.; Gubanova, Nadezhda N.; Ivanova, Olga S.; Lermontov, Anatoly S.; Rumyantseva, Marina N.; Vasilyeva, Larisa P.; Sharp, Melissa; Pranzas, P. Klaus; Tretyakov, Yuri D.

    2013-02-01

    We report a detailed study of structural and chemical transformations of amorphous hydrous zirconia into sulfated zirconia-based superacid catalysts. Precipitation pH is shown to be the key factor governing structure, composition and properties of amorphous sulfated zirconia gels and nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia. Increase in precipitation pH leads to substantial increase of surface fractal dimension (up to ˜2.7) of amorphous sulfated zirconia gels, and consequently to increase in specific surface area (up to ˜80 m2/g) and simultaneously to decrease in sulfate content and total acidity of zirconia catalysts. Complete conversion of hexene-1 over as synthesized sulfated zirconia catalysts was observed even under ambient conditions.

  18. Anodized Steel Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Sagu, Jagdeep S; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Bohm, Mallika; Bohm, Siva; Kumar Rout, Tapan

    2016-03-09

    Steel was anodized in 10 M NaOH to enhance its surface texture and internal surface area for application as an electrode in supercapacitors. A mechanism was proposed for the anodization process. Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) studies of anodized steel revealed that it contains a highly porous sponge like structure ideal for supercapacitor electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that the surface of the anodized steel was Fe2O3, whereas X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that the bulk remained as metallic Fe. The supercapacitor performance of the anodized steel was tested in 1 M NaOH and a capacitance of 18 mF cm(-2) was obtained. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed that there was a large psueudocapacitive contribution which was due to oxidation of Fe to Fe(OH)2 and then further oxidation to FeOOH, and the respective reduction of these species back to metallic Fe. These redox processes were found to be remarkably reversible as the electrode showed no loss in capacitance after 10000 cycles. The results demonstrate that anodization of steel is a suitable method to produce high-surface-area electrodes for supercapacitors with excellent cycling lifetime.

  19. Comparison of bond strengths of ceramic brackets bonded to zirconia surfaces using different zirconia primers and a universal adhesive.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jaechan; An, Sang In; Park, Jeong-Won

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the shear bond strengths of ceramic brackets bonded to zirconia surfaces using different zirconia primers and universal adhesive. Fifty zirconia blocks (15 × 15 × 10 mm, Zpex, Tosoh Corporation) were polished with 1,000 grit sand paper and air-abraded with 50 µm Al 2 O 3 for 10 seconds (40 psi). They were divided into 5 groups: control (CO), Metal/Zirconia primer (MZ, Ivoclar Vivadent), Z-PRIME Plus (ZP, Bisco), Zirconia Liner (ZL, Sun Medical), and Scotchbond Universal adhesive (SU, 3M ESPE). Transbond XT Primer (used for CO, MZ, ZP, and ZL) and Transbond XT Paste was used for bracket bonding (Gemini clear ceramic brackets, 3M Unitek). After 24 hours at 37°C storage, specimens underwent 2,000 thermocycles, and then, shear bond strengths were measured (1 mm/min). An adhesive remnant index (ARI) score was calculated. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test ( p = 0.05). Surface treatment with primers resulted in increased shear bond strength. The SU group showed the highest shear bond strength followed by the ZP, ZL, MZ, and CO groups, in that order. The median ARI scores were as follows: CO = 0, MZ = 0, ZP = 0, ZL = 0, and SU = 3 ( p < 0.05). Within this experiment, zirconia primer can increase the shear bond strength of bracket bonding. The highest shear bond strength is observed in SU group, even when no primer is used.

  20. Comparison of bond strengths of ceramic brackets bonded to zirconia surfaces using different zirconia primers and a universal adhesive

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to compare the shear bond strengths of ceramic brackets bonded to zirconia surfaces using different zirconia primers and universal adhesive. Materials and Methods Fifty zirconia blocks (15 × 15 × 10 mm, Zpex, Tosoh Corporation) were polished with 1,000 grit sand paper and air-abraded with 50 µm Al2O3 for 10 seconds (40 psi). They were divided into 5 groups: control (CO), Metal/Zirconia primer (MZ, Ivoclar Vivadent), Z-PRIME Plus (ZP, Bisco), Zirconia Liner (ZL, Sun Medical), and Scotchbond Universal adhesive (SU, 3M ESPE). Transbond XT Primer (used for CO, MZ, ZP, and ZL) and Transbond XT Paste was used for bracket bonding (Gemini clear ceramic brackets, 3M Unitek). After 24 hours at 37°C storage, specimens underwent 2,000 thermocycles, and then, shear bond strengths were measured (1 mm/min). An adhesive remnant index (ARI) score was calculated. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test (p = 0.05). Results Surface treatment with primers resulted in increased shear bond strength. The SU group showed the highest shear bond strength followed by the ZP, ZL, MZ, and CO groups, in that order. The median ARI scores were as follows: CO = 0, MZ = 0, ZP = 0, ZL = 0, and SU = 3 (p < 0.05). Conclusions Within this experiment, zirconia primer can increase the shear bond strength of bracket bonding. The highest shear bond strength is observed in SU group, even when no primer is used. PMID:29487838

  1. Internal coating of zirconia restoration with silica-based ceramic improves bonding of resin cement to dental zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Shuzo; Nikaido, Toru; Ikeda, Masaomi; Alireza, Sadr; Miura, Hiroyuki; Tagami, Junji

    2010-01-01

    Resin bonding to zirconia ceramic cannot be established by standard methods that are utilized for conventional silica-based dental ceramics. This study was aimed to examine the tensile bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramic using a new laboratory technique. Sixty-four zirconia ceramic specimens were air-abraded using Al2O3 particles and divided into two groups; the control group with no pretreatment (Control), and the group pretreated using the internal coating technique (INT), in which the surface of the zirconia specimens were thinly coated by fusing silica-based ceramic and air-abraded in the same manner. The specimens in each group were further divided into two subgroups according to the silane coupling agents applied; a mixture of dentin primer/silane coupling agent (Clearfil SE Bond Primer/Porcelain Bond Activator) or a newly developed single-component silane coupling agent (Clearfil Ceramic Primer). After bonding with dual-cured resin cement (Panavia F 2.0), they were stored in water for 24 h and half of them were additionally subjected to thermal cycling. The tensile bond strengths were tested using a universal testing machine. ANOVAs revealed significant influence of ceramic surface pretreatment (p<0.001), silane coupling agent (p<0.001) and thermal cycling (p<0.001); the INT coating technique significantly increased the bond strengths of resin cement to zirconia ceramic, whereas thermal cycling significantly decreased the bond strengths. The use of a single-component silane coupling agent demonstrated significantly higher bond strengths than that of a mixture of dentin primer/silane coupling agent. The internal coating of zirconia dental restorations with silica-based ceramic followed by silanization may be indicated in order to achieve better bonding for the clinical success.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization, and Optimization of Novel Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Elizabeth C.

    presents opportunities for the new kinds of ex situ and in situ experiments performed in this thesis. Ex situ experiments involved reducing powder samples at SOFC operating temperatures under hydrogen gas and characterizing them via electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For the in situ experiments, powders were heated, then reduced at temperature, and catalyst exsolution was observed in real-time. Pechini-synthesized cerium oxide substituted with 2-5 mol% Pd was studied using in situ X-ray heating experiments at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source. In these experiments, the powder was subjected to several cycles of reduction and oxidation at 800°C, and Pd metal formation was confirmed through the appearance of Pd peaks in the X-ray spectra. Next, Fe- and Ru-substituted lanthanum strontium chromite (LSCrFeRu14) synthesized by solid state reaction was characterized with ex situ and in situ microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in situ heating experiments were conducted to observe Ru nanoparticle evolution under the reducing conditions of the TEM vacuum chamber. LSCrFeRu14 was heated to 750°C and observed over ˜ 90 min at temperature during which time nanoparticle formation, coarsening, and di?usion were observed. Experiments on both materials sought to understand the conditions and timing of nanoparticle formation in the anode, which is not necessarily apparent from electrochemical data. Reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs from the current state-of-the-art range of 700-800°C to ≤ 650°C has many advantages, among them increased long-term stability, reduced balance of plant costs, fewer interconnect/seal material issues, and decreased start-up times. In order to maintain good performance at reduced temperature, these intermediate temperature SOFCs require new materials including highly active alternatives to micron-scale Ni-YSZ composite anodes. The present work focuses on the development of IT-SOFCs with Sr0.8La 0.2TiO3

  3. Influence of Laser Glazing on the Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Jiangwei; Liao, Hanlin; Darut, Geoffrey; Stella, Jorge; Poirier, Thierry; Planche, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia powder was deposited on the substrates by atmospheric plasma spray. The coatings were post-treated by laser glazing under different parameters in order to densify them. The characterization of the laser molten pools under different laser treatment conditions was studied. Preheating processes were also employed. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the surface and cross section of as-sprayed and laser-glazed coatings were carried out to investigate the influence of laser glazing on the microstructure on laser-glazed coatings. The results show that preheating processes improve the coating in terms of deepening the laser-glazed layer, reducing the number of vertical cracks and surface density of cracks and widening the molten pool. Finally, the influences of linear energy density on the characterization of the glazed layer are discussed.

  4. Reactivating the Ni-YSZ electrode in solid oxide cells and stacks by infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skafte, Theis Løye; Hjelm, Johan; Blennow, Peter; Graves, Christopher

    2018-02-01

    The solid oxide cell (SOC) could play a vital role in energy storage when the share of intermittent electricity production is high. However, large-scale commercialization of the technology is still hindered by the limited lifetime. Here, we address this issue by examining the potential for repairing various failure and degradation mechanisms occurring in the fuel electrode, thereby extending the potential lifetime of a SOC system. We successfully infiltrated the nickel and yttria-stabilized zirconia cermet electrode in commercial cells with Gd-doped ceria after operation. By this method we fully reactivated the fuel electrode after simulated reactant starvation and after carbon formation. Furthermore, by infiltrating after 900 h of operation, the degradation of the fuel electrode was reduced by a factor of two over the course of 2300 h. Lastly, the scalability of the concept is demonstrated by reactivating an 8-cell stack based on a commercial design.

  5. Titanium doped LSCM anode for hydrocarbon fuelled SOFCs

    SciT

    Azad, Abul K.; Hakem, Afizul; Petra, Pg. M. Iskandar

    2015-05-15

    La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}Cr{sub 0.5-x}Mn{sub 0.5}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0.1, 0.2) has been synthesized in solid state reaction method and tested as a potential anode material for solid oxide fuel cells. Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data using Fullprof software shows that the materials crystallize in the rhombohedral symmetry in the R-3C space group. The cell parameters are: a = b = 5.5286 (4) Å, c = 13.408(1) Å, α = β = 90°, γ = 120°. Particle size distribution measurements show that the average particle size for x = 0.1 and 0.2 was 232.66 nm and 176.63 nm, respectively. Themore » potential on particles were found to be −22.86 mV and −27.73 mV, for x = 0.1 and x = 0.2, respectively. Thermal expansion measurement using thermo-mechanical analyzer shows that the thermal expansion coefficient is 13.96 × 10{sup −6}/°C which is close to the thermal expansion of the state-of–the art YSZ electrolyte. Microstructure has been observed from scanning electron microscopy which shows a porous structure. Energy dispersive X-ray shows that the percentage of the different cations and anions in the structure are close to the chemical occupancies.« less

  6. Loading capacity of zirconia implant supported hybrid ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Nadja; Coldea, Andrea; Zitzmann, Nicola U; Fischer, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Recently a polymer infiltrated hybrid ceramic was developed, which is characterized by a low elastic modulus and therefore may be considered as potential material for implant supported single crowns. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the loading capacity of hybrid ceramic single crowns on one-piece zirconia implants with respect to the cement type. Fracture load tests were performed on standardized molar crowns milled from hybrid ceramic or feldspar ceramic, cemented to zirconia implants with either machined or etched intaglio surface using four different resin composite cements. Flexure strength, elastic modulus, indirect tensile strength and compressive strength of the cements were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA (p=0.05). The hybrid ceramic exhibited statistically significant higher fracture load values than the feldspar ceramic. Fracture load values and compressive strength values of the respective cements were correlated. Highest fracture load values were achieved with an adhesive cement (1253±148N). Etching of the intaglio surface did not improve the fracture load. Loading capacity of hybrid ceramic single crowns on one-piece zirconia implants is superior to that of feldspar ceramic. To achieve maximal loading capacity for permanent cementation of full-ceramic restorations on zirconia implants, self-adhesive or adhesive cements with a high compressive strength should be used. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dehydration and crystallization kinetics of zirconia-yttria gels

    SciT

    Ramanathan, S.; Muraleedharan, R.V.; Roy, S.K.

    1995-02-01

    Zirconia and zirconia-yttria gels containing 4 and 8 mol% yttria were obtained by coprecipitation and drying at 373 K. The dehydration and crystallization behavior of the dried gels was studied by DSC, TG, and XRD. The gels undergo elimination of water over a wide temperature range of 373--673 K. The peak temperature of the endotherm corresponding to dehydration and the kinetic constants for the process were not influenced by the yttria content of the gel. The enthalpy of dehydration observed was in good agreement with the heat of vaporization data. The dehydration was followed by a sharp exothermic crystallization process.more » The peak temperature of the exotherm and the activation energy of the process increased with an increase in yttria content, while the enthalpy of crystallization showed a decrease. The ``glow effect`` reduced with increasing yttria content. Pure zirconia crystallizes in the tetragonal form while the zirconia containing 4 and 8 mol% yttria appears to crystallize in the cubic form.« less

  8. Carbon Anode Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogumi, Zempachi; Wang, Hongyu

    Accompanying the impressive progress of human society, energy storage technologies become evermore urgent. Among the broad categories of energy sources, batteries or cells are the devices that successfully convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Lithium-based batteries stand out in the big family of batteries mainly because of their high-energy density, which comes from the fact that lithium is the most electropositive as well as the lightest metal. However, lithium dendrite growth after repeated charge-discharge cycles easily will lead to short-circuit of the cells and an explosion hazard. Substituting lithium metal for alloys with aluminum, silicon, zinc, and so forth could solve the dendrite growth problem.1 Nevertheless, the lithium storage capacity of alloys drops down quickly after merely several charge-discharge cycles because the big volume change causes great stress in alloy crystal lattice, and thus gives rise to cracking and crumbling of the alloy particles. Alternatively, Sony Corporation succeeded in discovering the highly reversible, low-voltage anode, carbonaceous material and commercialized the C/LiCoO2 rocking chair cells in the early 1990s.2 Figure 3.1 schematically shows the charge-discharge process for reversible lithium storage in carbon. By the application of a lithiated carbon in place of a lithium metal electrode, any lithium metal plating process and the conditions for the growth of irregular dendritic lithium could be considerably eliminated, which shows promise for reducing the chances of shorting and overheating of the batteries. This kind of lithium-ion battery, which possessed a working voltage as high as 3.6 V and gravimetric energy densities between 120 and 150 Wh/kg, rapidly found applications in high-performance portable electronic devices. Thus the research on reversible lithium storage in carbonaceous materials became very popular in the battery community worldwide.

  9. Fracture resistance and reliability of new zirconia posts.

    PubMed

    Oblak, Cedomir; Jevnikar, Peter; Kosmac, Tomaz; Funduk, Nenad; Marion, Ljubo

    2004-04-01

    The radicular portion of zirconia endodontic posts often need to be reshaped to achieve a definitive form and may be airborne-particle abraded to improve adhesion during luting. Therefore, the surface of the tetragonal zirconia ceramics may be transformed and damaged, influencing the mechanical properties of the material. This study compared the fracture resistance of prefabricated zirconia posts with a new retentive post-head after different surface treatments. Experimental zirconia posts of 2 different diameters, 1.3 mm and 1.5 mm, were produced from commercially available zirconia powder. A cylindro-conical outline form was used for the root portion of the system and a post-head with 3 retentive rings was designed. Sixty posts of each diameter were divided into 3 groups (n=20). Group 1 was ground with a coarse grit diamond bur; Group 2 was airborne-particle abraded with 110-microm fused alumina particles, and Group 3 was left as-received (controls). Posts were luted into the root-shaped artificial canals with the Clearfil adhesive system and Panavia 21 adhesive resin luting agent. The posts were loaded in a universal testing machine at an inclination of 45 degrees with the constant cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. The fracture load (N) necessary to cause post fracture was recorded, and the statistical significance of differences among groups was analyzed with 1-way ANOVA followed by the Fischer LSD test (alpha=.05). The variability was analyzed using Weibull statistics. Load to fracture values of all zirconia posts depended primarily on post diameter. Mean fracture loads (SD) in Newtons were 518.4 (+/-101.3), 993.6 (+/-224.1), and 622.7 (+/-110.3) for Groups 1 through 3, respectively, for thicker posts, and 385.9 (+/-110.3), 627.0 (+/-115.1), and 451.2 (+/-81.4) for Groups 1 through 3, respectively, for thinner posts. Airborne-particle-abraded posts exhibited significantly higher resistance to fracture (P<.05) than those in the other 2 groups for diameters 1.3 mm

  10. Scandia-and-Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia for Thermal Barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mess, Derek

    2003-01-01

    yttria in suitable proportions has shown promise of being a superior thermal- barrier coating (TBC) material, relative to zirconia stabilized with yttria only. More specifically, a range of compositions in the zirconia/scandia/yttria material system has been found to afford increased resistance to deleterious phase transformations at temperatures high enough to cause deterioration of yttria-stabilized zirconia. Yttria-stabilized zirconia TBCs have been applied to metallic substrates in gas turbine and jet engines to protect the substrates against high operating temperatures. These coatings have porous and microcracked structures, which can accommodate strains induced by thermal-expansion mismatch and thermal shock. The longevity of such a coating depends upon yttria as a stabilizing additive that helps to maintain the zirconia in an yttria-rich, socalled non-transformable tetragonal crystallographic phase, thus preventing transformation to the monoclinic phase with an associated deleterious volume change. However, at a temperature greater than about 1,200 C, there is sufficient atomic mobility that the equilibrium, transformable zirconia phase is formed. Upon subsequent cooling, this phase transforms to the monoclinic phase, with an associated volume change that adversely affects the integrity of the coating. Recently, scandia was identified as a stabilizer that could be used instead of, or in addition to, yttria. Of particular interest are scandia-and-yttria-stabilized zirconia (SYSZ) compositions of about 6 mole percent scandia and 1 mole percent yttria, which have been found to exhibit remarkable phase stability at a temperature of 1,400 C in simple aging tests. Unfortunately, scandia is expensive, so that the problem becomes one of determining whether there are compositions with smaller proportions of scandia that afford the required high-temperature stability. In an attempt to solve this problem, experiments were performed on specimens made with reduced

  11. Sulfation of ceria-zirconia model automotive emissions control catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Alan Edwin

    Cerium-zirconium mixed metal oxides are used in automotive emissions control catalysts to regulate the partial pressure of oxygen near the catalyst surface. The near surface oxygen partial pressure is regulated through transfer of atomic oxygen from the ceria-zirconia solid matrix to the platinum group metals to form metal oxides capable of oxidizing carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. Although the addition of zirconium in the cubic lattice of ceria increases the oxygen storage capacity and thermal stability of the ceria matrix, the cerium-zirconium oxide system remains particularly susceptible to deactivation from sulfur compounds. While the overall effect of sulfur on these systems is understood (partially irreversible deactivation), the fundamental and molecular interaction of sulfur with ceria-zirconia remains a challenging problem. Ceria-zirconia metal oxide solid solutions have been prepared through co-precipitation with nitrate precursors. The prepared powders were calcined and subsequently formed into planer wafers and characterized for chemical and physical attributes. The prepared samples were subsequently exposed to a sulfur dioxide based environment and characterized with spectroscopic techniques to characterize the extent of sulfation and the nature of surface sulfur species. The extent of sulfation of the model ceria-zirconia systems was characterized with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) prior to and after treatment in a microreactor. Strong dependencies were observed between the atomic ratio of ceria to zirconia and the extent of sulfation. In addition, the partial pressure of sulfur dioxide during treatments also correlated to the extent of sulfation, while temperature only slightly effected the extent of sulfation. The AES data suggests the gas phase sulfur dioxide preferentially chemisorbs on surface ceria atoms and the extent of sulfation is heavily dependent on sulfur dioxide concentrations and only slightly dependent on catalyst

  12. Enhanced Sintering of β"-Al2O3/YSZ with the Sintering Aids of TiO2 and MnO2

    SciT

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong

    2015-07-11

    β"-Al2O3 has been the dominated choice for the electrolyte materials of sodium batteries because of its high ionic conductivity, excellent stability with the electrode materials, satisfactory mechanical strength, and low material cost. To achieve adequate electrical and mechanical performance, sintering of β"-Al2O3 is typically carried out at temperatures above 1600oC with deliberate efforts on controlling the phase, composition, and microstructure. Here, we reported a simple method to fabricate β"-Al2O3/YSZ electrolyte at relatively lower temperatures. With the starting material of boehmite, single phase of β"-Al2O3 can be achieved at as low as 1200oC. It was found that TiO2 was extremely effectivemore » as a sintering aid for the densification of β"-Al2O3 and similar behavior was observed with MnO2 for YSZ. With the addition of 2 mol% TiO2 and 5 mol% MnO2, the β"-Al2O3/YSZ composite was able to be densified at as low as 1400oC with a fine microstructure and good electrical/mechanical performance. This study demonstrated a new approach of synthesis and sintering of β"-Al2O3/YSZ composite, which represented a simple and low-cost method for fabrication of high-performance β"-Al2O3/YSZ electrolyte.« less

  13. Surface roughness of zirconia for full-contour crowns after clinically simulated grinding and polishing.

    PubMed

    Hmaidouch, Rim; Müller, Wolf-Dieter; Lauer, Hans-Christoph; Weigl, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of controlled intraoral grinding and polishing on the roughness of full-contour zirconia compared to classical veneered zirconia. Thirty bar-shaped zirconia specimens were fabricated and divided into two groups (n=15). Fifteen specimens (group 1) were glazed and 15 specimens (group 2) were veneered with feldspathic ceramic and then glazed. Prior to grinding, maximum roughness depth (Rmax) values were measured using a profilometer, 5 times per specimen. Simulated clinical grinding and polishing were performed on the specimens under water coolant for 15 s and 2 N pressure. For grinding, NTI diamonds burs with grain sizes of 20 µm, 10 µm, and 7.5 µm were used sequentially. The ground surfaces were polished using NTI kits with coarse, medium and fine polishers. After each step, Rmax values were determined. Differences between groups were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The roughness of group 1 was significantly lower than that of group 2. The roughness increased significantly after coarse grinding in both groups. The results after glazing were similar to those obtained after fine grinding for non-veneered zirconia. However, fine-ground veneered zirconia had significantly higher roughness than venerred, glazed zirconia. No significant difference was found between fine-polished and glazed zirconia, but after the fine polishing of veneered zirconia, the roughness was significantly higher than after glazing. It can be concluded that for full-contour zirconia, fewer defects and lower roughness values resulted after grinding and polishing compared to veneered zirconia. After polishing zirconia, lower roughness values were achieved compared to glazing; more interesting was that the grinding of glazed zirconia using the NTI three-step system could deliver smooth surfaces comparable to untreated glazed zirconia surfaces.

  14. Surface roughness of zirconia for full-contour crowns after clinically simulated grinding and polishing

    PubMed Central

    Hmaidouch, Rim; Müller, Wolf-Dieter; Lauer, Hans-Christoph; Weigl, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of controlled intraoral grinding and polishing on the roughness of full-contour zirconia compared to classical veneered zirconia. Thirty bar-shaped zirconia specimens were fabricated and divided into two groups (n=15). Fifteen specimens (group 1) were glazed and 15 specimens (group 2) were veneered with feldspathic ceramic and then glazed. Prior to grinding, maximum roughness depth (Rmax) values were measured using a profilometer, 5 times per specimen. Simulated clinical grinding and polishing were performed on the specimens under water coolant for 15 s and 2 N pressure. For grinding, NTI diamonds burs with grain sizes of 20 µm, 10 µm, and 7.5 µm were used sequentially. The ground surfaces were polished using NTI kits with coarse, medium and fine polishers. After each step, Rmax values were determined. Differences between groups were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The roughness of group 1 was significantly lower than that of group 2. The roughness increased significantly after coarse grinding in both groups. The results after glazing were similar to those obtained after fine grinding for non-veneered zirconia. However, fine-ground veneered zirconia had significantly higher roughness than venerred, glazed zirconia. No significant difference was found between fine-polished and glazed zirconia, but after the fine polishing of veneered zirconia, the roughness was significantly higher than after glazing. It can be concluded that for full-contour zirconia, fewer defects and lower roughness values resulted after grinding and polishing compared to veneered zirconia. After polishing zirconia, lower roughness values were achieved compared to glazing; more interesting was that the grinding of glazed zirconia using the NTI three-step system could deliver smooth surfaces comparable to untreated glazed zirconia surfaces. PMID:25059249

  15. In vitro assessment of cutting efficiency and durability of zirconia removal diamond rotary instruments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Soo; Bae, Ji-Hyeon; Yun, Mi-Jung; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-06-01

    Recently, zirconia removal diamond rotary instruments have become commercially available for efficient cutting of zirconia. However, research of cutting efficiency and the cutting characteristics of zirconia removal diamond rotary instruments is limited. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess and compare the cutting efficiency, durability, and diamond rotary instrument wear pattern of zirconia diamond removal rotary instruments with those of conventional diamond rotary instruments. In addition, the surface characteristics of the cut zirconia were assessed. Block specimens of 3 mol% yttrium cation-doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystal were machined 10 times for 1 minute each using a high-speed handpiece with 6 types of diamond rotary instrument from 2 manufacturers at a constant force of 2 N (n=5). An electronic scale was used to measure the lost weight after each cut in order to evaluate the cutting efficiency. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate diamond rotary instrument wear patterns and machined zirconia block surface characteristics. Data were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Mann-Whitney U test (α=.05). Zirconia removal fine grit diamond rotary instruments showed cutting efficiency that was reduced compared with conventional fine grit diamond rotary instruments. Diamond grit fracture was the most dominant diamond rotary instrument wear pattern in all groups. All machined zirconia surfaces were primarily subjected to plastic deformation, which is evidence of ductile cutting. Zirconia blocks machined with zirconia removal fine grit diamond rotary instruments showed the least incidence of surface flaws. Although zirconia removal diamond rotary instruments did not show improved cutting efficiency compared with conventional diamond rotary instruments, the machined zirconia surface showed smoother furrows of plastic deformation and fewer surface flaws. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council

  16. Comparison of peri-implant bone formation around injection-molded and machined surface zirconia implants in rabbit tibiae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong-Kyun; Woo, Kyung mi; Shon, Won-Jun; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Cha, Seunghee; Park, Young-Seok

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare osseointegration and surface characteristics of zirconia implants made by the powder injection molding (PIM) technique and made by the conventional milling procedure in rabbit tibiae. Surface characteristics of 2 types of implant were evaluated. Sixteeen rabbits received 2 types of external hex implants with similar geometry, machined zirconia implants and PIM zirconia implants, in the tibiae. Removal torque tests and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The roughness of PIM zirconia implants was higher than that of machined zirconia implants. The PIM zirconia implants exhibited significantly higher bone-implant contact and removal torque values than the machined zirconia implants (P < 0.001). The osseointegration of the PIM zirconia implant is promising, and PIM, using the roughened mold etching technique, can produce substantially rough surfaces on zirconia implants. PMID:26235717

  17. Improved Oxidation Life of Segmented Plasma Sprayed 8YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2004-03-01

    Unconventional plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems were produced and evaluated by interrupted or cyclic furnace oxidation life testing. First, approximately 250 µm thick 8YSZ coatings were directly sprayed onto grit blasted surfaces of PWA 1484, without a bond coat, to take advantage of the excellent oxidation resistance of this superalloy. For nominal sulfur (S) contents of 1 ppmw, total coating separation took place at relatively short times (200 h at 1100°C). Reductions in the S content, by melt desulfurization commercially (0.3 ppmw) or by hydrogen (H2) annealing in the laboratory (0.01 ppmw), improved scale adhesion and extended life appreciably, by factors of 5-10. However, edge-initiated failure persisted, producing massive delamination as one sheet of coating. Secondly, surfaces of melt desulfurized PWA 1484 were machined with a grid of grooves or ribs (˜250 µm wide and high), resulting in a segmented TBC surface macrostructure, for the purpose of subverting this failure mechanism. In this case, failure occurred only as independent, single-segment events. For grooved samples, 1100 °C segment life was extended to ˜1000h for 5 mm wide segments, with no failure observed out to 2000 h for segments ≤2.5 mm wide. Ribbed samples were even more durable, and segments ≤6 mm remained intact for 2000 h. Larger segments failed by buckling at times inversely related to the segment width and decreased by oxidation effects at higher temperatures. This critical buckling size was consistent with that predicted for elastic buckling of a TBC plate subject to thermal expansion mismatch stresses. Thus, low S substrates demonstrate appreciable coating lives without a bond coat, while rib segmenting extends life considerably.

  18. Growth, stress, and defects of heteroepitaxial diamond on Ir/YSZ/Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallheber, B.-C.; Fischer, M.; Mayr, M.; Straub, J.; Schreck, M.

    2018-06-01

    Basic understanding of the fundamental processes in crystal growth as well as the structural quality of diamond synthesized by chemical vapour deposition on iridium surfaces has reached a high level for samples with (001) orientation. Diamond deposition on the alternative (111) surface is generally more challenging but of appreciable technological interest, too. In the present work, heteroepitaxy of diamond on Ir/YSZ/Si(111) with different off-axis angles and directions has been studied. During the growth of the first microns, strong and complex intrinsic stress states were rapidly formed. They restricted the range of suitable temperatures in this study to values between 830 °C and 970 °C. At low-stress conditions, the maximum growth rates were about 1 μm/h. They facilitated long-time processes which yielded pronounced structural improvements with minimum values of 0.08° for the azimuthal mosaic spread, 4 × 107 cm-2 for the dislocation density and 1.8 cm-1 for the Raman line width. This refinement is even faster than on (001) growth surfaces. It indicates substantial differences between the two crystal directions in terms of merging of mosaic blocks and annihilation of dislocations. Crystals with a thickness of up to 330 μm have been grown. The correlation of photoluminescence and μ-Raman tomograms with topography data also revealed fundamental differences in the off-axis growth between (001) and (111) orientation. Finally, the analysis of the microscopic structures at the growth surface provided the base for a model that can conclusively explain the intriguing reversal of stress tensor anisotropy caused by a simple inversion in sign of the off-axis angle.

  19. SEM evaluation of human gingival fibroblasts growth onto CAD/CAM zirconia and veneering ceramic for zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Zizzari, Vincenzo; Borelli, Bruna; De Colli, Marianna; Tumedei, Margherita; Di Iorio, Donato; Zara, Susi; Sorrentino, Roberto; Cataldi, Amelia; Gherlone, Enrico Felice; Zarone, Fernando; Tetè, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim To evaluate the growth of Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGFs) cultured onto sample discs of CAD/CAM zirconia and veneering ceramic for zirconia by means of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis at different experimental times. Methods A total of 26 experimental discs, divided into 2 groups, were used: Group A) CAD/CAM zirconia (3Y-TZP) discs (n=13); Group B) veneering ceramic for zirconia discs (n=13). HGFs were obtained from human gingival biopsies, isolated and placed in culture plates. Subsequently, cells were seeded on experimental discs at 7,5×103/cm2 concentration and cultured for a total of 7 days. Discs were processed for SEM observation at 3h, 24h, 72h and 7 days. Results In Group A, after 3h, HGFs were adherent to the surface and showed a flattened profile. The disc surface covered by HGFs resulted to be wider in Group A than in Group B samples. At SEM observation, after 24h and 72h, differences in cell attachment were slightly noticeable between the groups, with an evident flattening of HGFs on both surfaces. All differences between Group A and group B became less significant after 7 days of culture in vitro. Conclusions SEM analysis of HGFs showed differences in terms of cell adhesion and proliferation, especially in the early hours of culture. Results showed a better adhesion and cell growth in Group A than in Group B, especially up to 72h in vitro. Differences decreased after 7 days, probably because of the rougher surface of CAD/CAM zirconia, promoting better cell adhesion, compared to the smoother surface of veneering ceramic. PMID:24611089

  20. Atomic layer deposition of ultrathin blocking layer for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell on nanoporous substrate

    SciT

    Yu, Wonjong; Cho, Gu Young; Noh, Seungtak

    2015-01-15

    An ultrathin yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) blocking layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was utilized for improving the performance and reliability of low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) supported by an anodic aluminum oxide substrate. Physical vapor-deposited YSZ and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) electrolyte layers were deposited by a sputtering method. The ultrathin ALD YSZ blocking layer was inserted between the YSZ and GDC sputtered layers. To investigate the effects of an inserted ultrathin ALD blocking layer, SOFCs with and without an ultrathin ALD blocking layer were electrochemically characterized. The open circuit voltage (1.14 V) of the ALD blocking-layered SOFC was visiblymore » higher than that (1.05 V) of the other cell. Furthermore, the ALD blocking layer augmented the power density and improved the reproducibility.« less

  1. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Structure and Ion Transport in the Ce1 - x Gd x O2 - δ|YSZ Heterosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galin, M. Z.; Ivanov-Schitz, A. K.; Mazo, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been used to develop a realistic atomistic model of two-layer Ce1 - x Gd x O2 - δ|YSZ heterosystem. It is shown that Ce1 - x Gd x O2 - δ and YSZ layers (about 15 and 16 Å thick, respectively) retain their crystal structure on the whole. The main structural distortions are found to occur near the Ce1 - x Gd x O2 - δ|YSZ geometric interface, within a narrow interfacial region of few angstroms thick. Both the generalized diffusion characteristics of the system as a whole and the oxygen diffusion coefficients in the layers are calculated, and the diffusion activation energies are determined.

  2. Shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to zirconia: Effect of surface treatment by CNC-milling and composite layer deposition on zirconia.

    PubMed

    Santos, R L P; Silva, F S; Nascimento, R M; Souza, J C M; Motta, F V; Carvalho, O; Henriques, B

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of veneering feldspathic porcelain to zirconia substrates modified by CNC-milling process or by coating zirconia with a composite interlayer. Four types of zirconia-porcelain interface configurations were tested: RZ - porcelain bonded to rough zirconia substrate (n=16); PZ - porcelain bonded to zirconia substrate with surface holes (n=16); RZI - application of a composite interlayer between the veneering porcelain and the rough zirconia substrate (n=16); PZI - application of a composite interlayer between the porcelain and the zirconia substrate treated by CNC-milling (n=16). The composite interlayer was composed of zirconia particles reinforced porcelain (30%, vol%). The mechanical properties of the ceramic composite have been determined. The shear bond strength test was performed at 0.5mm/min using a universal testing machine. The interfaces of fractured and untested specimens were examined by FEG-SEM/EDS. Data was analyzed with Shapiro-Wilk test to test the assumption of normality. The one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD multiple comparison test was used to compare shear bond strength results (α=0.05). The shear bond strength of PZ (100±15MPa) and RZI (96±11MPa) specimens were higher than that recorded for RZ (control group) specimens (89±15MPa), although not significantly (p>0.05). The highest shear bond strength values were recorded for PZI specimens (138±19MPa), yielding a significant improvement of 55% relative to RZ specimens (p<0.05). This study shows that it is possible to highly enhance the zirconia-porcelain bond strength - even by ~55% - by combining surface holes in zirconia frameworks and the application of a proper ceramic composite interlayer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of synthesis process on the microstructure and electrical conductivity of nickel/yttria-stabilized zirconia powders prepared by urea hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jyung-Dong; Wu, Zhao-Lun

    In this study, NiO/YSZ composite powders were synthesized using hydrolysis on two solutions, one contains YSZ particles and Ni 2+ ion, and the other contains NiO particles, Zr 4+, and Y 3+ ions, with the aid of urea. The microstructure of the powders and sintered bulks was further characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that various synthesis processes yielded NiO/YSZ powders with different morphologies. The NiO precursors would deposit onto the surface of YSZ particles, and NiO-deposited YSZ composite powders were obtained. Alternatively, it was not observed that YSZ precursors deposited onto the surface of NiO particles, thus, a uniform powder mixture of fine NiO and fine YSZ particles was produced. After sintering and subsequent reduction, these powders would lead to the variations of Ni distribution in the YSZ matrix and conductivity of cermets. Owing to the core-shell structure of the powders and the higher size ratio of YSZ and NiO particles, the conductivity of cermet with NiO-deposited YSZ powders containing 23 wt% NiO is comparable to those with a NiO/YSZ powder mixture containing 50 wt% NiO.

  4. Silicon Anode Consortium | Transportation Research | NREL

    Stabilization, Second Quarter Progress Report 2018 Next Generation Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries, Second 2018 Next Generation Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries, First Quarter Progress Report 2018 Contact For consortium focuses on understanding and eliminating barriers to implementing silicon-based anodes in Li-ion

  5. Anode power deposition in quasi-steady MPD arcs. [accelerator anode heat flux measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saber, A. J.; Jahn, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    The power deposited in the anode of a quasi-steady MPD accelerator has been measured directly by thermocouples attached to the inside surface of a shell anode which provide a local measurement of anode heat flux. The results over a range of arc currents from 5.5 to 44 kiloamperes and argon mass flows from 1 g/sec to 48 g/sec show that the fraction of the total input power deposited in the anode decreases drastically from 50% at an arc power of 200 kW to 10% at 20 MW, and that anode power is not uniformly deposited in the anode. A theoretical model of the anode heat transfer, including effects of anode work function, electron thermal energy, and anode sheath, can be brought into reasonable agreement with the measurements, provided the effective range of the conduction electrons from within the discharge plasma to the anode surface is properly acknowledged.

  6. High-temperature electrolysis of CO2-enriched mixtures by using fuel-electrode supported La0.6Sr0.4CoO3/YSZ/Ni-YSZ solid oxide cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Si-Won; Bae, Yonggyun; Yoon, Kyung Joong; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Jong-Heun; Hong, Jongsup

    2018-02-01

    To mitigate CO2 emissions, its reduction by high-temperature electrolysis using solid oxide cells is extensively investigated, for which excessive steam supply is assumed. However, such condition may degrade its feasibility due to massive energy required for generating hot steam, implying the needs for lowering steam demand. In this study, high-temperature electrolysis of CO2-enriched mixtures by using fuel-electrode supported La0.6Sr0.4CoO3/YSZ/Ni-YSZ solid oxide cells is considered to satisfy such needs. The effect of internal and external steam supply on its electrochemical performance and gas productivity is elucidated. It is shown that the steam produced in-situ inside the fuel-electrode by a reverse water gas shift reaction may decrease significantly the electrochemical resistance of dry CO2-fed operations, attributed to self-sustaining positive thermo-electrochemical reaction loop. This mechanism is conspicuous at low current density, whereas it is no longer effective at high current density in which total reactant concentrations for electrolysis is critical. To overcome such limitations, a small amount of external steam supply to the CO2-enriched feed stream may be needed, but this lowers the CO2 conversion and CO/H2 selectivity. Based on these results, it is discussed that there can be minimum steam supply sufficient for guaranteeing both low electrochemical resistance and high gas productivity.

  7. Electrochemical cell with calcium anode

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Hosmer, Pamela K.; Kelly, Benjamin E.

    1979-01-01

    An electrochemical cell comprising a calcium anode and a suitable cathode in an alkaline electrolyte consisting essentially of an aqueous solution of an hydroxide and a chloride. Specifically disclosed is a mechanically rechargeable calcium/air fuel cell with an aqueous NaOH/NaCl electrolyte.

  8. Surface crystalline phases and nanoindentation hardness of explanted zirconia femoral heads.

    PubMed

    Catledge, Shane A; Cook, Monique; Vohra, Yogesh K; Santos, Erick M; McClenny, Michelle D; David Moore, K

    2003-10-01

    One new and nine explanted zirconia femoral heads were studied using glancing angle X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation hardness techniques. All starting zirconia implants consisted only of tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (TZP). For comparison, one explanted alumina femoral head was also studied. Evidence for a surface tetragonal-to-monoclinic zirconia phase transformation was observed in some implants, the extent of which was varied for different in-service conditions. A strong correlation was found between increasing transformation to the monoclinic phase and decreasing surface hardness. Microscopic investigations of some of the explanted femoral heads revealed ultra high molecular weight polyethylene and metallic transfer wear debris.

  9. In Vitro Cell Proliferation and Mechanical Behaviors Observed in Porous Zirconia Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Wang, Xiaobei; Lin, Yuanhua; Deng, Xuliang; Li, Ming; Nan, Cewen

    2016-01-01

    Zirconia ceramics with porous structure have been prepared by solid-state reaction using yttria-stabilized zirconia and stearic acid powders. Analysis of its microstructure and phase composition revealed that a pure zirconia phase can be obtained. Our results indicated that its porosity and pore size as well as the mechanical characteristics can be tuned by changing the content of stearic acid powder. The optimal porosity and pore size of zirconia ceramic samples can be effective for the increase of surface roughness, which results in higher cell proliferation values without destroying the mechanical properties. PMID:28773341

  10. Innovations in bonding to zirconia-based materials. Part II: Focusing on chemical interactions.

    PubMed

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Mirmohamadi, Hesam; Matinlinna, Jukka P; Kukk, Edwin; Ounsi, Hani F; Salameh, Ziad

    2009-08-01

    The zirconia-resin bond strength was enhanced using novel engineered zirconia primers in combination with selective infiltration etching as a surface pre-treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of artificial aging on the chemical stability of the established bond and to understand the activation mechanism of the used primers. Selective infiltration etched zirconia discs (Procera; NobelBiocare) were coated with one of four novel engineered zirconia primers containing reactive monomers and were bonded to resin-composite discs (Panavia F2.0). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was carried out to examine the chemical activation of zirconia primers from mixing time and up to 60min. The bilayered specimens were cut into microbars (1mm(2) in cross-section area) and zirconia-resin microtensile bond strength (MTBS) was evaluated immediately and after 90 days of water storage at 37 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the fracture surface. There was a significant drop in MTBS values after 90 days of water storage for all tested zirconia primers from ca. 28-41MPa to ca. 15-18MPa after completion of artificial aging. SEM revealed increase in percentage of interfacial failure after water storage. FTIR spectra suggested adequate activation of the experimental zirconia primers within 1h of mixing time. The novel engineered zirconia primers produced initially high bond strength values which were significantly reduced after water storage. Long-term bond stability requires developing more stable primers.

  11. Sliding Wear Response of Nanostructured YSZ Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossman, S.; Chicot, D.; Decoopman, X.; Iost, A.; van Gorp, A.; Meillot, E.; Puchi-Cabrera, E. S.; Santana, Y. Y.; Staia, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    Nanostructured yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings for applications in high-temperature environments can be deposited by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) techniques. The present research has been conducted in order to study the sliding wear response of a SPS ZrO2-8% mol. Y2O3 coating (75 μm in thickness) deposited onto a Haynes 230 substrate, using pin-on-disc tests. Some of the coated samples were subsequently heat-treated for 1 h at 300 and 600 °C. Samples characterization prior and after the wear tests was carried out by SEM, EDS, XRD and optical profilometry techniques. Instrumented indentation was employed to determine elastic modulus and hardness. The results have shown that the as-sprayed and heat-treated samples experienced severe wear (10-13 m3/Nm) and the worst wear performance corresponded to the sample heat treated at 600 °C. Such a behavior could be related to both the structural changes that took place during heat treatment and the nature and level of the residual stresses in the coatings. In general, the morphologies of the wear tracks observed by SEM have shown a smoothing of the surface, brittle fracture, smearing and grain pull-out.

  12. Permeability and Microstructure of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Electrolytes for SOFCs on Various Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, Michael; Kesler, Olivera

    2012-12-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte coatings for solid oxide fuel cells were deposited by suspension plasma spraying using a range of spray conditions and a variety of substrates, including finely structured porous stainless steel disks and cathode layers on stainless steel supports. Electrolyte permeability values and trends were found to be highly dependent on which substrate was used. The most gas-tight electrolyte coatings were those deposited directly on the porous metal disks. With this substrate, permeability was reduced by increasing the torch power and reducing the stand-off distance to produce dense coating microstructures. On the substrates with cathodes, electrolyte permeability was reduced by increasing the stand-off distance, which reduced the formation of segmentation cracks and regions of aligned and concentrated porosity. The formation mechanisms of the various permeability-related coating features are discussed and strategies for reducing permeability are presented. The dependences of electrolyte deposition efficiency and surface roughness on process conditions and substrate properties are also presented.

  13. High-Temperature Creep Degradation of the AM1/NiAlPt/EBPVD YSZ System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riallant, Fanny; Cormier, Jonathan; Longuet, Arnaud; Milhet, Xavier; Mendez, José

    2014-01-01

    The failure mechanisms of a NiAlPt/electron beam physical vapor deposition yttria-stabilized-zirconia thermal barrier coating system deposited on the AM1 single crystalline substrate have been investigated under pure creep conditions in the temperature range from 1273 K to 1373 K (1000 °C to 1100 °C) and for durations up to 1000 hours. Doubly tapered specimens were used allowing for the analysis of different stress states and different accumulated viscoplastic strains for a given creep condition. Under such experiments, two kinds of damage mechanisms were observed. Under low applied stress conditions ( i.e., long creep tests), microcracking is localized in the vicinity of the thermally grown oxide (TGO). Under high applied stress conditions, an unconventional failure mechanism at the substrate/bond coat interface is observed because of large creep strains and fast creep deformation, hence leading to a limited TGO growth. This unconventional failure mechanism is observed although the interfacial bond coat/top coat TGO thickening is accelerated by the mechanical applied stress beyond a given stress threshold.

  14. Structure and Oxidation Behavior of Nickel Nanoparticles Supported by YSZ(111)

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Nickel nanoparticles supported by the yttria-stabilized zirconia (111) surface show several preferential epitaxial relationships, as revealed by in situ X-ray diffraction. The two main nanoparticle orientations are found to have their [111] direction parallel to the substrate surface normal and ∼41.3 degrees tilted from this direction. The former orientation is described by a cube-on-cube stacking at the oxide–metal interface and the latter by a so-called coherent tilt strain-relieving mechanism, which is hitherto unreported for nanoparticles in literature. A modified Wulff construction used for the 111-oriented particles results in a value of the adhesion energy ranging from 1.4 to 2.2 Jm2, whereby the lower end corresponds to more rounded particles and the upper to relatively flat geometries. Upon oxidation at 10–3 Pa of molecular oxygen and 673 K, a NiO shell forms epitaxially on the [111]-oriented particles. Only a monolayer of metallic nickel of the top (111) facets oxidizes, whereas the side facets seem to react more severely. An apparent size increase of the remaining metallic Ni core is discussed in relation to a size-dependent oxidation mechanism, whereby smaller nanoparticles react at a faster rate. We argue that such a preferential oxidation mechanism, which inactivates the smallest and most reactive metal nanoparticles, might play a role for the long-term degradation of solid oxide fuel cells. PMID:28217243

  15. CeO2-Y2O3-ZrO2 Membrane with Enhanced Molten Salt Corrosion Resistance for Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xingli; Li, Xin; Shen, Bin; Lu, Xionggang; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu; Ding, Weizhong

    2017-02-01

    Innovative CeO2-Y2O3-ZrO2 membrane has been successfully developed and used in the solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process for green metallic materials production. The x mol pct ceria/(8- x) mol pct yttria-costabilized zirconia ( xCe(8- x)YSZ, x = 0, 1, 4, or 7) membranes have been fabricated and investigated as the membrane-based inert anodes to control the SOM electroreduction process in molten salt. The characteristics of these fabricated xCe(8- x)YSZ membranes including their corrosion resistances in molten salt and their degradation mechanisms have been systematically investigated and compared. The results show that the addition of ceria in the YSZ-based membrane can inhibit the depletion of yttrium during the SOM electrolysis, which thus makes the ceria-reinforced YSZ-based membranes possess enhanced corrosion resistances to molten salt. The ceria/yttria-costabilized zirconia membranes can also provide reasonable oxygen ion conductivity during electrolysis. Further investigation shows that the newly modified 4Ce4YSZ ceramic membrane has the potential to be used as novel inert SOM anode for the facile and sustainable production of metals/alloys/composites materials such as Si, Ti5Si3, TiC, and Ti5Si3/TiC from their metal oxides precursors in molten CaCl2.

  16. Large dielectric constant in zirconia polypyrrole hybrid nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Dey, Ashis; De, S K

    2007-06-01

    Zirconia nanoparticles have been synthesized by a novel two-reverse emulsion technique and combined with polypyrrole (PPY) to form ZrO2-PPY nanocomposites. Complex impedance and dielectric permittivity of ZrO2-PPY nanocomposite have been investigated as a function of frequency and temperature for different compositions. The composite samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The composites reveal ordered semiconducting behaviour. Polypyrrole is the major component in electrical transport process of the samples. A very large dielectric constant of about 12,000 at room temperature has been observed. The colossal dielectric constant is mainly dominated by interfacial polarization due to Maxwell-Wagner relaxation effect. Two completely separate groups of dielectric relaxation have been observed. The low frequency dielectric relaxation arises from surface defect states of zirconia nanoparticles. The broad peak at high frequency is due to Maxwell-Wagner type polarization.

  17. A novel method for the synthesis of zirconia powder

    SciT

    Bohe, A.E.; Pasquevich, D.M.

    A novel method for the synthesis of zirconia powder is presented in this paper. The formation of fine particles of zirconia takes place when metallic zirconium and hematite are heated in the presence of gaseous chlorine. The overall process, which can be described by the following reaction: 3 Zr(s) + 2 Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(s) {r_arrow} 3 ZrO{sub 2}(s) + 4 Fe(s), occurs by a mass-transport mechanism through the vapor phase between 723 and 1223 K. The vapor-mass transport among the solid species takes place by means of zirconium and iron chlorides. The fundamentals of synthesis are discussed on the basismore » of a detailed thermodynamic analysis of reactions involved in the process, as well as by a characterization of the solid phases formed at various temperatures at XRD and SEM examinations.« less

  18. In-vitro bioactivity of zirconia doped borosilicate glasses

    SciT

    Samudrala, Rajkumar; Azeem, P. Abdul, E-mail: rk.satyaswaroop@gmail.com, E-mail: drazeem2002@yahoo.com

    2015-06-24

    Glass composition 31B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20SiO{sub 2}-24.5Na{sub 2}O-(24.5-x) CaO-xZrO{sub 2} x=1,2,3,4,5 were prepared by melt-quenching Technique. The formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of glasses after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) was explored through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses. In this report, we observed that hydroxyapatite formation for 5days of immersion time. Also observed that with increasing the immersion time up to 15days, higher amount of hydroxyapatite layer formation on the surface of glasses. The varying composition of zirconia in glass samples influences shown by XRD, FTIR studies. The present results indicate that,more » in-vitro bioactivity of glasses decreased with increasing zirconia incorporation.« less

  19. Templated electrochemical deposition of zirconia thin films on "recordable CDs.".

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua-Zhong; Rowe, Aaron W; Waugh, Damien M

    2002-11-15

    In this paper, we describe a practical method of using gold films constructed from recordable compact disks (CD-Rs) as simple, inexpensive, and micropatterned conductive substrates for the fabrication of inorganic material microstructures. Extending from their application for the fabrication of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) reported recently, bare and SAM-modified CD-R gold substrates have been used for template-directed electrodeposition of zirconia (ZrO2) thin films (i.e., the controlled formation of zirconia thin films on the different areas of the prefabricated, micrometer mountain-valley CD-R gold substrate surfaces). The present results demonstrate that the variation of the functional groups of the selected SAMs combined with electrodynamic control can be very successful to "customize" the formation and microstructure of functional inorganic thin films, which hold promise for modern technological applications.

  20. The development of Zirconia and Copper toughened Alumina ceramic insert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalina Sabuan, Nur; Zolkafli, Nurfatini; Mebrahitom, A.; Azhari, Azmir; Mamat, Othman

    2018-04-01

    Ceramic cutting tools have been utilized in industry for over a century for its productivity and efficiency in machine tools and cutting tool material. However, due to the brittleness property the application has been limited. In order to manufacture high strength ceramic cutting tools, there is a need for suitable reinforcement to improve its toughness. In this case, copper (Cu) and zirconia (ZrO2) powders were added to investigate the hardness and physical properties of the developed composite insert. A uniaxial pre-forming process of the mix powder was done prior to densification by sintering at 1000 and 1300°C. The effect of the composition of the reinforcement on the hardness, density, shrinkage and microstructure of the inserts was investigated. It was found that an optimum density of 3.26 % and hardness 1385HV was obtained for composite of 10wt % zirconia and 10wt% copper at temperature 1000 °C.

  1. Fabrication of composite films containing zirconia and cationic polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xin; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2004-03-30

    Composite films were prepared by electrophoretic deposition of poly(ethylenimine) or poly(allylamine hydrochloride) combined with cathodic precipitation of zirconia. Films of up to several micrometers thick were obtained on Ni, Pt, stainless-steel, graphite, and carbon-felt substrates. When the concentration of polyelectrolytes in solutions and the deposition time were varied, the amount of the deposited material and its composition can be varied. The electrochemical intercalation of yttria-stabilized zirconia particles into the composite films has been demonstrated. Obtained results pave the way for the electrodeposition of other polymer-ceramic composites. The deposits were studied by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The mechanisms of deposition are discussed.

  2. Ellipsometry of anodic film growth

    SciT

    Smith, C.G.

    1978-08-01

    An automated computer interpretation of ellisometer measurements of anodic film growth was developed. Continuous mass and charge balances were used to utilize more fully the time dependence of the ellipsometer data and the current and potential measurements. A multiple-film model was used to characterize the growth of films which proceeds via a dissolution--precipitation mechanism; the model also applies to film growth by adsorption and nucleation mechanisms. The characteristic parameters for film growth describe homogeneous and heterogeneous crystallization rates, film porosities and degree of hydration, and the supersaturation of ionic species in the electrolyte. Additional descriptions which may be chosen aremore » patchwise film formation, nonstoichiometry of the anodic film, and statistical variations in the size and orientation of secondary crystals. Theories were developed to describe the optical effects of these processes. An automatic, self-compensating ellipsometer was used to study the growth in alkaline solution of anodic films on silver, cadmium, and zinc. Mass-transport conditions included stagnant electrolyte and forced convection in a flow channel. Multiple films were needed to characterize the optical properties of these films. Anodic films grew from an electrolyte supersatuated in the solution-phase dissolution product. The degree of supersaturation depended on transport conditions and had a major effect on the structure of the film. Anodic reaction rates were limited by the transport of charge carriers through a primary surface layer. The primary layers on silver, zinc, and cadmium all appeared to be nonstoichiometric, containing excess metal. Diffusion coefficients, transference numbers, and the free energy of adsorption of zinc oxide were derived from ellipsometer measurements. 97 figures, 13 tables, 198 references.« less

  3. Anode sheath transition in an anodic arc for synthesis of nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemchinsky, V. A.; Raitses, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The arc discharge with ablating anode or so-called anodic arc is widely used for synthesis of nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes and fullerens, metal nanoparticles etc. We present the model of this arc, which confirms the existence of the two different modes of the arc operation with two different anode sheath regimes, namely, with negative anode sheath and with positive anode sheath. It was previously suggested that these regimes are associated with two different anode ablating modes—low ablation mode with constant ablation rate and the enhanced ablation mode (Fetterman et al 2008 Carbon 46 1322). The transition of the arc operation from low ablation mode to high ablation mode is determined by the current density at the anode. The model can be used to self-consistently determine the distribution of the electric field, electron density and electron temperature in the near-anode region of the arc discharge. Simulations of the carbon arc predict that for low arc ablating modes, the current is driven mainly by the electron diffusion to the anode. For positive anode sheath, the anode voltage is close to the ionization potential of anode material, while for negative anode sheath, the anode voltage is an order of magnitude smaller. It is also shown that the near-anode plasma, is far from the ionization equilibrium.

  4. Surface modification for enhanced silanation of zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Piascik, J R; Swift, E J; Thompson, J Y; Grego, S; Stoner, B R

    2009-09-01

    The overall goal of this research was to develop a practical method to chemically modify the surface of high strength dental ceramics (i.e. zirconia) to facilitate viable, robust adhesive bonding using commercially available silanes and resin cements. Investigation focused on a novel approach to surface functionalize zirconia with a Si(x)O(y) "seed" layer that would promote chemical bonding with traditional silanes. ProCAD and ZirCAD blocks were bonded to a dimensionally similar composite block using standard techniques designed for silica-containing materials (silane and resin cement). ZirCAD blocks were treated with SiCl4 by vapor deposition under two different conditions prior to bonding. Microtensile bars were prepared and subjected to tensile forces at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze fracture surfaces and determine failure mode; either composite cohesive failure (partial or complete cohesive failure within composite) or adhesive failure (partial or complete adhesive failure). Peak stress values were analyzed using single-factor ANOVA (p<0.05). Microtensile testing results revealed that zirconia with a surface treatment of 2.6 nm Si(x)O(y) thick "seed" layer was similar in strength to the porcelain group (control). Analysis of failure modes indicated the above groups displayed higher percentages of in-composite failures. Other groups tested had lower strength values and displayed adhesive failure characteristics. Mechanical data support that utilizing a gas-phase chloro-silane pretreatment to deposit ultra-thin silica-like seed layers can improve adhesion to zirconia using traditional silanation and bonding techniques. This technology could have clinical impact on how high strength dental materials are used today.

  5. Oxygen production using solid-state zirconia electrolyte technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suitor, Jerry W.; Clark, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    High purity oxygen is required for a number of scientific, medical, and industrial applications. Traditionally, these needs have been met by cryogenic distillation or pressure swing adsorption systems designed to separate oxygen from air. Oxygen separation from air via solid-state zirconia electrolyte technology offers an alternative to these methods. The technology has several advantages over the traditional methods, including reliability, compactness, quiet operation, high purity output, and low power consumption.

  6. Photoluminescent spectroscopy measurements in nanocrystalline praseodymium doped zirconia powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Brito, F.; Murrieta S, H.; Hernández A, J.; Camarillo, E.; García-Hipólito, M.; Martínez-Martínez, R.; Álvarez-Fragoso, O.; Falcony, C.

    2006-05-01

    Praseodymium doped zirconia powder (ZrO2: (0.53 at%) Pr3+) was prepared by a co-precipitation technique and annealed in air at a temperature Ta = 950 °C. The x-ray diffraction pattern shows a nanocrystalline structure composed of 29.6% monoclinic and 70.4% cubic-tetragonal phases. Medium infrared and Raman analysis confirms the monoclinic/cubic-tetragonal crystalline structure and proves the absence of praseodymium aggregates in the material. Photoluminescent spectroscopy over excitations of 457.9 and 514.9 nm (at 20 K), shows two emission spectra composed of many narrow peaks in the visible-near infrared region (VIS-NIR) of the electromagnetic spectrum, associated with 4f inter-level electronic transitions in praseodymium ions incorporated in the zirconia. Excitation and emission spectra show the different mechanisms of the direct and non-direct excitation of the dopant ion (Pr3+), and the preferential relaxation of the material by charge transfer from the host (zirconia) to the 4f5d band and the 4f inter-level of the dopant ion (Pr3+). No evidence of energy transfer from the host to the dopant was observed.

  7. Novel Zirconia Surface Treatments for Enhanced Osseointegration: Laboratory Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ewais, Ola H.; Al Abbassy, Fayza; Ghoneim, Mona M.; Aboushelib, Moustafa N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate three novel surface treatments intended to improve osseointegration of zirconia implants: selective infiltration etching treatment (SIE), fusion sputtering (FS), and low pressure particle abrasion (LPPA). The effects of surface treatments on roughness, topography, hardness, and porosity of implants were also assessed. Materials and Methods. 45 zirconia discs (19 mm in diameter × 3 mm in thickness) received 3 different surface treatments: selective infiltration etching, low pressure particle abrasion with 30 µm alumina, and fusion sputtering while nontreated surface served as control. Surface roughness was evaluated quantitatively using profilometery, porosity was evaluated using mercury prosimetry, and Vickers microhardness was used to assess surface hardness. Surface topography was analyzed using scanning and atomic force microscopy (α = 0.05). Results. There were significant differences between all groups regarding surface roughness (F = 1678, P < 0.001), porosity (F = 3278, P < 0.001), and hardness (F = 1106.158, P < 0.001). Scanning and atomic force microscopy revealed a nanoporous surface characteristic of SIE, and FS resulted in the creation of surface microbeads, while LPPA resulted in limited abrasion of the surface. Conclusion. Within the limitations of the study, changes in surface characteristics and topography of zirconia implants have been observed after different surface treatment approaches. Thus possibilities for enhanced osseointegration could be additionally offered. PMID:25349610

  8. Mechanical properties of zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E; Elnaghy, Amr M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical properties of recently introduced zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic. Two types of CAD/CAM glass-ceramics (Vita Suprinity (VS); zirconia reinforced lithium silicate and IPS e.max CAD (IC); lithium disilicate) were used. Fracture toughness, flexural strength, elastic modulus, hardness, brittleness index, and microstructures were evaluated. Data were analyzed using independent t tests. Weibull analysis of flexural strength data was also performed. VS had significantly higher fracture toughness (2.31±0.17MPam(0.5)), flexural strength (443.63±38.90MPa), elastic modulus (70.44±1.97GPa), and hardness (6.53±0.49GPa) than IC (P<0.001). On the other hand, VS glass-ceramic revealed significantly a higher brittleness index (2.84±0.26μm(-1/2)) (lower machinability) than IC glass-ceramic (P<0.05). VS demonstrated a homogeneous fine crystalline structure while, IC revealed a structure with needle-shaped fine-grained crystals embedded in a glassy matrix. The VS glass-ceramic revealed a lower probability of failure and a higher strength than IC glass-ceramic according to Weibull analysis. The VS zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic revealed higher mechanical properties compared with IC lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity of sulphated zirconia nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mftah, Ae; Alhassan, Fatah H; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Webster, Thomas J; Sh-eldin, Mohammed; Rasedee, Abdullah; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Rashid, Shah Samiur

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle sulphated zirconia with Brønsted acidic sites were prepared here by an impregnation reaction followed by calcination at 600°C for 3 hours. The characterization was completed using X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunner-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the anticancer and antimicrobial effects were investigated for the first time. This study showed for the first time that the exposure of cancer cells to sulphated zirconia nanoparticles (3.9–1,000 μg/mL for 24 hours) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth, as determined by (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Similar promising results were observed for reducing bacteria functions. In this manner, this study demonstrated that sulphated zirconia nanoparticles with Brønsted acidic sites should be further studied for a wide range of anticancer and antibacterial applications. PMID:25632233

  10. Effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Mouhat, Mathieu; Nergård, John Magnus; Lægreid, Solveig Jenssen; Kanno, Taro; Milleding, Percy; Örtengren, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The present study investigated the effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns in relation to their compressive strength. Materials and methods Four different cements were tested: zinc phosphate cement (ZPC), glass-ionomer cement (GIC), self-adhesive resin-based cement (SRC) and resin-based cement (RC). RC was used in both dual cure mode (RC-D) and chemical cure mode (RC-C). First, the compressive strength of each cement was tested according to a standard (ISO 9917-1:2004). Second, load-to-failure test was performed to analyze the crown fracture resistance. CAD/CAM-produced monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm were prepared and cemented to dies with each cement. The crown–die samples were loaded until fracture. Results The compressive strength of SRC, RC-D and RC-C was significantly higher than those of ZPC and GIC (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the fracture load of the crown between the groups. Conclusion The values achieved in the load-to-failure test suggest that monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm may have good resistance against fracture regardless of types of cements. PMID:27335900

  11. Anode power in quasisteady magnetoplasmadynamic accelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saber, A. J.; Jahn, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    Anode heat flux in a quasi-steady MPD accelerator has been measured directly and locally by thermocouples attached to the inside surface of a shell anode. These measurements show that over a range of arc current from 5.5 to 44 kA, and argon mass flow from 1 to 48 g/s, the fraction of the total arc power deposited in the anode decreases from 50% at 200 kW to 10% at 20 MW. A theoretical model of the anode heat transfer asserts that energy exchange between electrons and heavy particles in the plasma near the anode occurs over distances greater than the anode sheath thickness, and hence the usual anode fall voltage, electron temperature, and work function contributions to the anode heat flux are supplemented by a contribution from the interelectrode potential. Calculations of anode heat flux using the measured current density, plasma potential, and electron temperature in the plasma adjacent to the anode agree with the direct measurements and indicate that the decrease in anode power fraction at higher arc powers can be attributed to the smaller mean free paths in the interelectrode plasma.

  12. Crystallization stabilization mechanism of yttria-doped zirconia by hydrothermal treatment of mechanical mixtures of zirconia xerogel and crystalline yttria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agli, G.; Mascolo, G.; Mascolo, M. C.; Pagliuca, C.

    2005-06-01

    Mechanical mixtures of zirconia xerogel and crystalline Y 2O 3 were hydrothermally treated by microwave and traditional route, respectively. Some mixtures were used either as powders form or as cylindrical compacts isostatically pressed at 150 MPa. The microwave-hydrothermal treatments were performed at 110, 150 and 200 °C for reaction times up to 2 h, whereas the traditional hydrothermal treatments were performed at 110 °C at increasing reaction times up to 7 days. All the treatments were performed in the presence of diluted (0.2 M) or concentrated (2.0 M) solution of (K 2CO 3+KOH) mineralizer. The crystallization-stabilization mechanism of synthesized Y-based zirconia powders and the reaction times for the full crystallization at the low temperature of hydrothermal treatments are discussed.

  13. Ultra-High Density Single Nanometer-Scale Anodic Alumina Nanofibers Fabricated by Pyrophosphoric Acid Anodizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nishinaga, Osamu; Nakajima, Daiki; Kawashima, Jun; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-12-01

    Anodic oxide fabricated by anodizing has been widely used for nanostructural engineering, but the nanomorphology is limited to only two oxides: anodic barrier and porous oxides. Therefore, the discovery of an additional anodic oxide with a unique nanofeature would expand the applicability of anodizing. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a third-generation anodic oxide, specifically, anodic alumina nanofibers, by anodizing in a new electrolyte, pyrophosphoric acid. Ultra-high density single nanometer-scale anodic alumina nanofibers (1010 nanofibers/cm2) consisting of an amorphous, pure aluminum oxide were successfully fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The nanomorphologies of the anodic nanofibers can be controlled by the electrochemical conditions. Anodic tungsten oxide nanofibers can also be fabricated by pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The aluminum surface covered by the anodic alumina nanofibers exhibited ultra-fast superhydrophilic behavior, with a contact angle of less than 1°, within 1 second. Such ultra-narrow nanofibers can be used for various nanoapplications including catalysts, wettability control, and electronic devices.

  14. Ultra-High Density Single Nanometer-Scale Anodic Alumina Nanofibers Fabricated by Pyrophosphoric Acid Anodizing

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nishinaga, Osamu; Nakajima, Daiki; Kawashima, Jun; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-01-01

    Anodic oxide fabricated by anodizing has been widely used for nanostructural engineering, but the nanomorphology is limited to only two oxides: anodic barrier and porous oxides. Therefore, the discovery of an additional anodic oxide with a unique nanofeature would expand the applicability of anodizing. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a third-generation anodic oxide, specifically, anodic alumina nanofibers, by anodizing in a new electrolyte, pyrophosphoric acid. Ultra-high density single nanometer-scale anodic alumina nanofibers (1010 nanofibers/cm2) consisting of an amorphous, pure aluminum oxide were successfully fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The nanomorphologies of the anodic nanofibers can be controlled by the electrochemical conditions. Anodic tungsten oxide nanofibers can also be fabricated by pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The aluminum surface covered by the anodic alumina nanofibers exhibited ultra-fast superhydrophilic behavior, with a contact angle of less than 1°, within 1 second. Such ultra-narrow nanofibers can be used for various nanoapplications including catalysts, wettability control, and electronic devices. PMID:25491282

  15. Elaboration of Alumina-Zirconia Composites: Role of the Zirconia Content on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Naglieri, Valentina; Palmero, Paola; Montanaro, Laura; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Alumina-zirconia (AZ) composites are attractive structural materials, which combine the high hardness and Young’s modulus of the alumina matrix with additional toughening effects, due to the zirconia dispersion. In this study, AZ composites containing different amounts of zirconia (in the range 5–20 vol %) were prepared by a wet chemical method, consisting on the surface coating of alumina powders by mixing them with zirconium salt aqueous solutions. After spray-drying, powders were calcined at 600 °C for 1 h. Green bodies were then prepared by two methods: uniaxial pressing of spray-dried granules and slip casting of slurries, obtained by re-dispersing the spray dried granulates. After pressureless sintering at 1500 °C for 1 h, the slip cast samples gave rise to fully dense materials, characterized by a quite homogeneous distribution of ZrO2 grains in the alumina matrix. The microstructure, phase composition, tetragonal to monoclinic transformation behavior and mechanical properties were investigated and are here discussed as a function of the ZrO2 content. The material containing 10 vol % ZrO2 presented a relevant hardness and exhibited the maximum value of KI0, mainly imputable to the t → m transformation at the crack tip. PMID:28809262

  16. Durability of zirconia thermal-barrier ceramic coatings on air-cooled turbine blades in cyclic jet engine operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Jacobs, R. E.; Stecura, S.; Morse, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal barrier ceramic coatings of stabilized zirconia over a bond coat of Ni Cr Al Y were tested for durability on air cooled turbine rotor blades in a research turbojet engine. Zirconia stabilized with either yttria, magnesia, or calcia was investigated. On the basis of durability and processing cost, the yttria stabilized zirconia was considered the best of the three coatings investigated.

  17. Variable anodic thermal control coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliland, C. S.; Duckett, J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A process for providing a thermal control solar stable surface coating for aluminum surfaces adapted to be exposed to solar radiation wherein selected values within the range of 0.10 to 0.72 thermal emittance (epsilon sub tau) and 0.2 to 0.4 solar absorptance (alpha subs) are reproducibly obtained by anodizing the surface area in a chromic acid solution for a selected period of time. The rate voltage and time, along with the parameters of initial epsilon sub tau and alpha subs, temperature of the chromic acid solution, acid concentration of the solution and the material anodized determines the final values of epsilon/tau sub and alpha sub S. 9 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures.

  18. Preventing Cracking of Anodized Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Charles C.; Heslin, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    Anodized coatings have been used as optical and thermal surfaces in spacecraft. Particulate contamination from cracked coatings is a concern for many applications. The major cause for the cracking is the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the oxide coatings and the aluminum substrate. The loss of water when the coating is exposed to a vacuum also could induce cracking of the coating. Hot-water sealing was identified as the major cause for the cracking of the coatings because of the large temperature change when the parts were immersed in boiling water and the water was absorbed in the coating. when the hot-water sealing process was eliminated, the cracking resistance of the anodized coatings was greatly improved. Also, it was found that dyed black coatings were more susceptible than clear coatings to cracking during thermo-vacuum cyclings.

  19. Reborn quadrant anode image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokazov, Yury; Turbin, Evgeny; Vitali, Marco; Herzog, Andreas; Michaelis, Bernd; Zuschratter, Werner; Kemnitz, Klaus

    2009-06-01

    We describe a position sensitive photon counting microchannel plate based detector with an improved quadrant anode (QA) readout system. The technique relies on a combination of the four planar elements pattern and an additional fifth electrode. The charge cloud induced by single particle detection is split between the electrodes. The measured charge values uniquely define the position of the initial event. QA has been first published in 1976 by Lampton and Malina. This anode configuration was undeservedly forgotten and its potential has been hardly underestimated. The presented approach extends the operating spatial range to the whole sensitive area of the microchannel plate surface and demonstrates good linearity over the field of view. Therefore, the novel image sensor results in spatial resolution better then 50 μm and count rates up to one million events per second.

  20. Plasma-anode electron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoru, Joseph; Schumacher, Robert W.; Gregoire, Daniel J.

    1994-11-01

    The plasma-anode electron gun (PAG) is an electron source in which the thermionic cathode is replaced with a cold, secondary-electron-emitting electrode. Electron emission is stimulated by bombarding the cathode with high-energy ions. Ions are injected into the high-voltage gap through a gridded structure from a plasma source (gas pressure less than or equal to 50 mTorr) that is embedded in the anode electrode. The gridded structure serves as both a cathode for the plasma discharge and as an anode for the PAG. The beam current is modulated at near ground potential by modulating the plasma source, eliminating the need for a high-voltage modulator system. During laboratory tests, the PAG has demonstrated square-wave, 17-microsecond-long beam pulses at 100 kV and 10 A, and it has operated stably at 70 kV and 2.5 A for 210 microsecond pulse lengths without gap closure.

  1. Tetragonal zirconia quantum dots in silica matrix prepared by a modified sol-gel protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Surbhi; Rani, Saruchi; Kumar, Sushil

    2018-05-01

    Tetragonal zirconia quantum dots (t-ZrO2 QDs) in silica matrix with different compositions ( x)ZrO2-(100 - x)SiO2 were fabricated by a modified sol-gel protocol. Acetylacetone was added as a chelating agent to zirconium propoxide to avoid precipitation. The powders as well as thin films were given thermal treatment at 650, 875 and 1100 °C for 4 h. The silica matrix remained amorphous after thermal treatment and acted as an inert support for zirconia quantum dots. The tetragonal zirconia embedded in silica matrix transformed into monoclinic form due to thermal treatment ≥ 1100 °C. The stability of tetragonal phase of zirconia is found to enhance with increase in silica content. A homogenous dispersion of t-ZrO2 QDs in silica matrix was indicated by the mapping of Zr, Si and O elements obtained from scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analyser. The transmission electron images confirmed the formation of tetragonal zirconia quantum dots embedded in silica. The optical band gap of zirconia QDs (3.65-5.58 eV) was found to increase with increase in zirconia content in silica. The red shift of PL emission has been exhibited with increase in zirconia content in silica.

  2. Adsorption of dispersants on zirconia powder in tape-casting slip compositions

    SciT

    Richards, V.L. II

    This paper reports the determination of adsorption isotherms for menhaden fish oil and glycerol trioleate on doped zirconia powder in solvents composed of 70% methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and 30% ethanol. In order to approach tape-casting zirconia on a sound technical basis, the correspondence of slip viscosities and tape sintered densities to the adsorption isotherms was studied.

  3. Finite Element Analysis of IPS Empress II Ceramic Bridge Reinforced by Zirconia Bar

    PubMed Central

    Kermanshah, H.; Bitaraf, T.; Geramy, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of trenched zirconia bar on the von Mises stress distribution of IPS –Empress II core ceramics. Materials and Methods: The three-dimensional model including a three-unit bridge from the second premolar to the second molar was designed. The model was reinforced with zirconia bar (ZB), zirconia bar with vertical trench (VZB) and zirconia bar with horizontal trench (HZB) (cross sections of these bars were circular). The model without zirconia bar was designed as the control. The bridges were loaded by 200 N and 500 N on the occlusal surface at the middle of the pontic component and von Mises stresses were evaluated along a defined path. Results: In the connector area, von Mises stress in MPa were approximately identical in the specimens with ZB (at molar connector (MC): 4.75 and at premolar connector (PC): 6.40) and without ZB (MC: 5.50, PC: 6.68), and considerable differences were not recognized. Whereas, Von-Mises stress (MPa) in the specimens with horizontal trenched Zirconia bar (HZB) (MC: 3.91, PC: 2.44) and Vertical trenched Zirconia bar (VZB) (MC: 2.53, PC: 2.56) was decreased considerably. Conclusion: Embeded trenched zirconia bar could reinforce IPS-Empress II at the connector area which is a main failure region in all ceramic fixed partial dentures. PMID:23323181

  4. Finite Element Analysis of IPS Empress II Ceramic Bridge Reinforced by Zirconia Bar.

    PubMed

    Kermanshah, H; Bitaraf, T; Geramy, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of trenched zirconia bar on the von Mises stress distribution of IPS -Empress II core ceramics. The three-dimensional model including a three-unit bridge from the second premolar to the second molar was designed. The model was reinforced with zirconia bar (ZB), zirconia bar with vertical trench (VZB) and zirconia bar with horizontal trench (HZB) (cross sections of these bars were circular). The model without zirconia bar was designed as the control. The bridges were loaded by 200 N and 500 N on the occlusal surface at the middle of the pontic component and von Mises stresses were evaluated along a defined path. IN THE CONNECTOR AREA, VON MISES STRESS IN MPA WERE APPROXIMATELY IDENTICAL IN THE SPECIMENS WITH ZB (AT MOLAR CONNECTOR (MC): 4.75 and at premolar connector (PC): 6.40) and without ZB (MC: 5.50, PC: 6.68), and considerable differences were not recognized. Whereas, Von-Mises stress (MPa) in the specimens with horizontal trenched Zirconia bar (HZB) (MC: 3.91, PC: 2.44) and Vertical trenched Zirconia bar (VZB) (MC: 2.53, PC: 2.56) was decreased considerably. Embeded trenched zirconia bar could reinforce IPS-Empress II at the connector area which is a main failure region in all ceramic fixed partial dentures.

  5. The Application of a Novel Ceramic Liner Improves Bonding between Zirconia and Veneering Porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee-Sung

    2017-01-01

    The adhesion of porcelain to zirconia is a key factor in the success of bilayered restorations. In this study, the efficacy of a novel experimental liner (EL) containing zirconia for improved bonding between zirconia and veneering porcelain was tested. Four ELs containing various concentrations (0, 3.0, 6.0, and 9.0 wt %) of zirconia were prepared. Testing determined the most effective EL (EL3 containing 3.0 wt % zirconia) in terms of shear bond strength value (n = 15). Three different bar-shaped zirconia/porcelain bilayer specimens were prepared for a three-point flexural strength (TPFS) test (n = 15): no-liner (NL), commercial liner (CL), and EL3. Specimens were tested for TPFS with the porcelain under tension and the maximum load was measured at the first sign of fracture. The strength data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05) as well as Weibull distribution. When compared to NL, the CL application had no effect, while the EL3 application had a significant positive effect (p < 0.001) on the flexural strength. Weibull analysis also revealed the highest shape and scale parameters for group EL3. Within the limitations of this study, the novel ceramic liner containing 3.0 wt % zirconia (EL3) significantly enhanced the zirconia/porcelain interfacial bonding. PMID:28869512

  6. Simple Heat Treatment of Zirconia Ceramic Pre-Treated with Silane Primer to Improve Resin Bonding.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jung-Yun; Son, Jun Sik; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a strong resin bond to dental zirconia ceramic remains difficult. Previous studies have shown that the conventional application of silane does not work well with zirconia. This paper reports that a silane pre-treatment of dental zirconia ceramic combined with subsequent heat treatment has potential as an adhesive cementation protocol for improving zirconia-resin bonding. Among the various concentrations (0.1 to 16 vol%) of experimental γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPTS) primers assessed, the 1% solution was found to be the most effective in terms of the shear bond strength of the resin cement to dental zirconia ceramic. A high shear bond strength (approx. 30 MPa) was obtained when zirconia specimens were pre-treated with this primer and then heat-treated in a furnace for 60 min at 150 degrees C. Heat treatment appeared to remove the hydrophilic constituents from the silane film formed on the zirconia ceramic surface and accelerate the condensation reactions between the silanol groups of the hydrolyzed silane molecules at the zirconia/resin interface, finally making a more desirable surface for bonding with resin. This estimation was supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the silanes prepared in this study.

  7. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. RESULTS The mean fracture strengths were as follows: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. CONCLUSION The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain. PMID:23755332

  8. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Yang, Jae-Ho; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun; Yeo, In-Sung

    2013-05-01

    All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. THE MEAN FRACTURE STRENGTHS WERE AS FOLLOWS: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain.

  9. Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suitor, J. W.; Clark, D. J.; Losey, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation.

  10. Ni-doped (CeO2- δ )-YSZ mesoarchitectured with nanocrystalline framework: the effect of thermal treatment on structure, surface chemistry and catalytic properties in the partial oxidation of methane (CPOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somacescu, Simona; Florea, Mihaela; Osiceanu, Petre; Calderon-Moreno, Jose Maria; Ghica, Corneliu; Serra, Jose Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Ni-doped (CeO2- δ )-YSZ (5 mol% Ni oxide, 10 mol% ceria) mesoarchitectures (MA) with nanocrystalline framework have been synthesized by an original, facile and cheap approach based on Triton X100 nonionic surfactant as template and water as solvent at a strong basic pH value. Following the hydrothermal treatment under autogenous pressure ( 18 bars), Ni, Ce, Y, and Zr were well ordered as MA with nanocrystalline framework, assuring thermal stability. A comprehensive investigation of structure, texture, morphology, and surface chemistry was performed by means of a variety of complementary techniques (X-Ray Diffraction, XRD; Raman Spectroscopy, RS; Brunauer—Emmett—Teller, BET; Temperature—Programmed Reduction, TPR; Transmission Electron Microscopy, TEM and DF-STEM; X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, XPS; Catalytic activity and selectivity). N2 sorption measurements highlighted that the mesoporous structure is formed at 600 °C and remains stable at 800 °C. At 900 °C, the MA collapses, favoring the formation of macropores. The XRD and Raman Spectroscopy of all samples showed the presence of a pure, single phase with fluorite-type structure. At 900 °C, an increased tetragonal distortion of the cubic lattice was observed. The surface chemistry probed by XPS exhibits a mixture of oxidation states (Ce3+ + Ce4+) with high percentage of Ce3+ valence state 35 % and (Ni3+ and Ni2+) oxidation states induced by the thermal treatment. These nanoparticles assembled into MA show high stability and selectivity over time in catalytic partial oxidation of methane (CPOM). These promising performances suggest an interesting prospect for introduction as anode within IT-SOFC assemblies.

  11. Strength degradation and lifetime prediction of dental zirconia ceramics under cyclic normal loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanzhong; Xu, Yingqiang; He, Huiming; Zhao, Haidan; Sun, Jian; Hou, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Clinical cases show that zirconia restoration could happen fracture by accident under overloading after using a period of time. The purpose of this study is to research mechanical behavior and predict lifetime of dental zirconia ceramics under cyclic normal contact loading with experiments. Cyclic normal contact loading test and three point bending test are carried on specimens made of two brands of dental zirconia ceramic to obtain flexure strength and damage degree after different number of loading cycles. By means of damage mechanics model, damage degree under different number of contact loading cycles are calculated according to flexure strength, and verified by SEM photographs of cross section morphology of zirconia ceramics specimen phenomenologically. Relation curve of damage degree and number of cycles is fitted by polynomial fitting, then the number of loading cycles can be concluded when the specimen is complete damage. Strength degradation of two brands dental zirconia ceramics are researched in vitro, and prediction method of contact fatigue lifetime is established.

  12. A sol-powder coating technique for fabrication of yttria stabilised zirconia

    SciT

    Wattanasiriwech, Darunee; Wattanasiriwech, Suthee; Stevens, Ron

    Yttria stabilised zirconia has been prepared using a simple sol-powder coating technique. The polymeric yttria sol, which was prepared using 1,3 propanediol as a network modifier, was homogeneously mixed with nanocrystalline zirconia powder and it showed a dual function: as a binder which promoted densification and a phase modifier which stabilised zirconia in the tetragonal and cubic phases. Thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction revealed that the polymeric yttria sol which decomposed at low temperature into yttrium oxide could change the m {sup {yields}} t phase transformation behaviour of the zirconia, possibly due to the small particle size and very highmore » surface area of both yttria and zirconia particles allowing rapid alloying. The sintered samples exhibited three crystalline phases: monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic, in which cubic and tetragonal are the major phases. The weight fractions of the individual phases present in the selected specimens were determined using quantitative Rietveld analysis.« less

  13. Effect of nanoparticles dispersion on viscoelastic properties of epoxy–zirconia polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sushil Kumar; Kumar, Abhishek; Jain, Anuj

    2018-03-01

    In the present work zirconia-nanoparticles were dispersed in epoxy matrix to form epoxy-zirconia polymer nanocomposites using ultrasonication and viscoelastic properties of nanocomposites were investigated. For the same spherical zirconia-nanoparticles (45 nm) were dispersed in weight fraction of 2, 4, 6 and 8 % to reinforce the epoxy. DMA results show the significant enhancement in viscoelastic properties with the dispersion of zirconia nanoparticles in the epoxy matrix. The value of storage modulus and glass transition temperature increases from 179 MPa (pristine) to 225 MPa (6 wt.% ZrO2) and 61 °C (pristine) to 70 °C (6 wt.% ZrO2) respectively with the dispersion of zirconia nanoparticles in the epoxy.

  14. Effect of nanoparticles dispersion on viscoelastic properties of epoxy-zirconia polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sushil Kumar; Kumar, Abhishek; Jain, Anuj

    2018-03-01

    In the present work zirconia-nanoparticles were dispersed in epoxy matrix to form epoxy-zirconia polymer nanocomposites using ultrasonication and viscoelastic properties of nanocomposites were investigated. For the same spherical zirconia-nanoparticles (45 nm) were dispersed in weight fraction of 2, 4, 6 and 8 % to reinforce the epoxy. DMA results show the significant enhancement in viscoelastic properties with the dispersion of zirconia nanoparticles in the epoxy matrix. The value of storage modulus and glass transition temperature increases from 179 MPa (pristine) to 225 MPa (6 wt.% ZrO2) and 61 °C (pristine) to 70 °C (6 wt.% ZrO2) respectively with the dispersion of zirconia nanoparticles in the epoxy.

  15. Synthesis of Mesoporous Nanocrystalline Zirconia by Surfactant-Assisted Hydrothermal Approach.

    PubMed

    Nath, Soumav; Biswas, Ashik; Kour, Prachi P; Sarma, Loka S; Sur, Ujjal Kumar; Ankamwar, Balaprasad G

    2018-08-01

    In this paper, we have reported the chemical synthesis of thermally stable mesoporous nanocrystalline zirconia with high surface area using a surfactant-assisted hydrothermal approach. We have employed different type of surfactants such as CTAB, SDS and Triton X-100 in our synthesis. The synthesized nanocrystalline zirconia multistructures exhibit various morphologies such as rod, mortar-pestle with different particle sizes. We have characterized the zirconia multistructures by X-ray diffraction study, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Attenuated total refection infrared spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The thermal stability of as synthesized zirconia multistructures was studied by thermo gravimetric analysis, which shows the high thermal stability of nanocrystalline zirconia around 900 °C temperature.

  16. Resin adhesion strengths to zirconia ceramics after primer treatment with silane coupling monomer or oligomer.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Inoue, Kazusa; Irie, Masao; Taketa, Hiroaki; Torii, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2017-09-26

    Resin bonding to zirconia ceramics is difficult to achieve using the standard methods for conventional silica-based dental ceramics, which employ silane coupling monomers as primers. The hypothesis in this study was that a silane coupling oligomer -a condensed product of silane coupling monomers- would be a more suitable primer for zirconia. To prove this hypothesis, the shear bond strengths between a composite resin and zirconia were compared after applying either a silane coupling monomer or oligomer. The shear bond strength increased after applying a non-activated ethanol solution of the silane coupling oligomer compared with that achieved when applying the monomer. Thermal treatment of the zirconia at 110°C after application of the silane coupling agents was essential to improve the shear bond strength between the composite resin cement and zirconia.

  17. Ion beam synthesis of Fe nanoparticles in MgO and yttria-stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potzger, K.; Reuther, H.; Zhou, Shengqiang; Mücklich, A.; Grötzschel, R.; Eichhorn, F.; Liedke, M. O.; Fassbender, J.; Lichte, H.; Lenk, A.

    2006-04-01

    To form embedded Fe nanoparticles, MgO(001) and YSZ(001) single crystals have been implanted at elevated temperatures with Fe ions at energies of 100 keV and 110 keV, respectively. The ion fluence was fixed at 6×1016 cm-2. As a result, γ- and α-phase Fe nanoparticles were synthesized inside MgO and YSZ, respectively. A synthesis efficiency of 100% has been achieved for implantation at 1273 K into YSZ. The ferromagnetic behavior of the α-Fe nanoparticles is reflected by a magnetic hyperfine field of 330 kOe and a hysteretic magnetization reversal. Electron holography showed a fringing magnetic field around some, but not all of the particles.

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonet, J.; Kapelski, G.; Bouvard, D.

    2008-02-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells are multi-layered designed. The most prevalent structure is an anode supported cell with a thick porous layer of nickel oxide NiO and yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ) composite acting as an anode, a thin dense layer of YSZ as an electrolyte, a composite thin porous layer of lanthanum strontium manganate LSM and YSZ and a current collector layer of porous LSM. Regular operating temperature is 1000 °C. The industrial development requires designing cathodes with acceptable electrochemical and mechanical properties at a lower temperature, typically between 700 and 800 °C. A solution consists in designing composite bulk cathodes with more numerous electro-chemical reaction sites. This requirement could be met by grading the composition of the cathode in increasing the YSZ volume fraction near the electrolyte and the LSM volume fraction near the current collector layer so that the repartition of reaction sites and the interfacial adhesion between the cathode and electrolyte layers are optimal. The fabrication of graded composite cathode has been investigated using a sedimentation process that consists of preparing a suspension containing the powder mixture and allowing the particles to fall by gravity upon a substrate. Different composite cathodes with continuous composition gradient have been obtained by sedimentation of LSM and YSZ powder mixture upon a dense YSZ substrate and subsequent firing. Their compositions and microstructures have been analysed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Electron Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS).

  19. Evaluation of participants' perception and taste thresholds with a zirconia palatal plate.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takeshi; Takano, Tomofumi; Tasaka, Akinori; Ueda, Takayuki; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2016-10-01

    Zirconia and cobalt-chromium can withstand a similar degree of loading. Therefore, using a zirconia base for removable dentures could allow the thickness of the palatal area to be reduced similarly to metal base dentures. We hypothesized that zirconia palatal plate for removable dentures provides a high level of participants' perception without influencing taste thresholds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the participants' perception and taste thresholds of zirconia palatal plate. Palatal plates fabricated using acrylic resin, zirconia, and cobalt-chromium alloy were inserted into healthy individuals. Taste thresholds were investigated using the whole-mouth gustatory test, and participants' perception was evaluated using the 100-mm visual analog scale to assess the ease of pronunciation, ease of swallowing, sensation of temperature, metallic taste, sensation of foreign body, subjective sensory about weight, adhesiveness of chewing gum, and general satisfaction. For the taste thresholds, no significant differences were noted in sweet, salty, sour, bitter, or umami tastes among participants wearing no plate, or the resin, zirconia, and metal plates. Speech was easier and foreign body sensation was lower with the zirconia plate than with the resin plate. Evaluation of the adhesiveness of chewing gum showed that chewing gum does not readily adhere to the zirconia plate in comparison with the metal plate. The comprehensive participants' perception of the zirconia plate was evaluated as being superior to the resin plate. A zirconia palatal plate provides a high level of participants' perception without influencing taste thresholds. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbial fuel cell with improved anode

    DOEpatents

    Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2010-04-13

    The present invention relates to a method for preparing a microbial fuel cell, wherein the method includes: (i) inoculating an anodic liquid medium in contact with an anode of the microbial fuel cell with one or more types of microorganisms capable of functioning by an exoelectrogenic mechanism; (ii) establishing a biofilm of the microorganisms on and/or within the anode along with a substantial absence of planktonic forms of the microorganisms by substantial removal of the planktonic microorganisms during forced flow and recirculation conditions of the anodic liquid medium; and (iii) subjecting the microorganisms of the biofilm to a growth stage by incorporating one or more carbon-containing nutritive compounds in the anodic liquid medium during biofilm formation or after biofilm formation on the anode has been established.

  1. Interaction of nickel-based SOFC anodes with trace contaminants from coal-derived synthesis gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackett, Gregory Allen

    New and efficient methods of producing electrical energy from natural resources have become an important topic for researchers. Integrated gasification and fuel cell (IGFC) systems offer a fuel-flexible, high-efficiency method of energy generation. Specifically, in coal gasification processes, coal can be changed into a high-quality gaseous fuel suitable for feeding solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, trace species found in coal synthesis gas (syngas) may have a deleterious effect on the performance of nickel-based SOFC anodes. Generally, the cost of removing these species down to parts per million (ppm) levels is high. The purpose of this research is to determine the highest amount of contaminant that results in a low rate (˜1% per 1000 h) of cell performance degradation, allowing the SOFC to produce usable power for 40,000 hours. The cell performance degradation rate was determined for benzene, naphthalene, and mercury-doped syngas based on species concentration. Experimental data are fitted with degradation models to predict cell lifetime behavior. From these results, the minimum coal syngas cleanup required for these trace materials is determined. It is found that for a final cell voltage of 0.6 V, naphthalene and benzene must be cleaned to 360 ppm and less than 150 ppm, respectively. No additional cleaning is required for mercury beyond established environmental standards. Additionally, a detailed attack and recovery mechanism is proposed for the hydrocarbon species and their interaction with the fuel cell. This mechanism is proposed by considering the type of degradation models predicted and how carbon would interact with the Ni-YSZ anode to justify those models. The mechanism postulates that carbon is diffusing into the nickel structure, creating a metal solution. Once the nickel is saturated, the carbon begins to deposit on the nickel surface, reducing the electrode active area. The formation of metal solutions and the deposition of carbon results in

  2. Conduction in In 2O 3/YSZ heterostructures: Complex interplay between electrons and ions, mediated by interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Veal, B. W.; Eastman, J. A.

    2017-03-01

    Thin film In 2O 3/YSZ heterostructures exhibit significant increases in electrical conductance with time when small in-plane electric fields are applied. Contact resistances between the current electrodes and film, and between current electrodes and substrate are responsible for the behavior. With an in-plane electric field, different field profiles are established in the two materials, with the result that oxygen ions can be driven across the heterointerface, altering the doping of the n-type In 2O 3. Furthermore, a low frequency inductive feature observed in AC impedance spectroscopy measurements under DC bias conditions was found to be due to frequency-dependent changes inmore » the contact resistance.« less

  3. Precision and accuracy of luminescence lifetime-based phosphor thermometry: A case study of Eu(III):YSZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeg, B.; Jenkins, T. P.

    2013-09-01

    Laser induced phosphor thermometry as a reliable technique requires an analysis of factors controlling or contributing to the precision and accuracy of a measurement. In this paper, we discuss several critical design parameters in the development of luminescence lifetime-based phosphor thermometry instrumentation for use at elevated temperatures such as encountered in hot sections of gas turbine engines. As precision is predominantly governed by signal and background photon shot noise and detector noise, a brief summary is presented of how these noise contributions may affect the measurement. Accuracy, on the other hand, is governed by a range of effects including, but not limited to, detector response characteristics, laser-induced effects, the photo-physics of the sensor materials, and also the method of data reduction. The various possible outcomes of measurement precision and accuracy are discussed with luminescence lifetime measurements on Eu(III):YSZ sensor coatings.

  4. Anodizing And Sealing Aluminum In Nonchromated Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmons, John R.; Kallenborn, Kelli J.

    1995-01-01

    Improved process for anodizing and sealing aluminum involves use of 5 volume percent sulfuric acid in water as anodizing solution, and 1.5 to 2.0 volume percent nickel acetate in water as sealing solution. Replaces process in which sulfuric acid used at concentrations of 10 to 20 percent. Improved process yields thinner coats offering resistance to corrosion, fatigue life, and alloy-to-alloy consistency equal to or superior to those of anodized coats produced with chromated solutions.

  5. Niobium Doped Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite as A Redox-Stable and Sulfur-Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingwei; Wei, Bo; Cao, Zhiqun; Yue, Xing; Zhang, Yaxin; Lü, Zhe

    2018-01-10

    The Nb-doped lanthanum strontium ferrite perovskite oxide La 0.8 Sr 0.2 Fe 0.9 Nb 0.1 O 3-δ (LSFNb) is evaluated as an anode material in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The effects of Nb partial substitution in the crystal structure, the electrical conductivity, and the valence of Fe ions are studied. LSFNb exhibits good structural stability in a severe reducing atmosphere at 800 °C, suggesting that high-valent Nb can effectively promote the stability of the lattice structure. The concentration of Fe 2+ increases after Nb doping, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The maximum power density of a thick Sc-stabilized zirconia (ScSZ) electrolyte-supported single cell reached 241.6 mW cm -2 at 800 °C with H 2 as fuel. The cell exhibited excellent stability for 100 h continuous operation without detectable degeneration. Scanning electron microscopy clearly revealed exsolution on the LSFNb surface after operation. Meanwhile, LSFNb particles agglomerated significantly during long-term stability testing. Impedance spectra suggested that both the LSFNb anode and the (La 0.75 Sr 0.25 ) 0.95 MnO 3-δ /ScSZ cathode underwent an activation process during long-term testing, through which the charge transfer ability increased significantly. Meanwhile, low-frequency resistance (R L ) mainly attributed to the anode (80 %) significantly increased, probably due to the agglomeration of LSFNb particles. The LSFNb anode exhibits excellent anti-sulfuring poisoning ability and redox stability. These results demonstrate that LSFNb is a promising anode material for SOFCs. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Effect of anode firing on the performance of lanthanum and nickel co-doped SrTiO3 (La0.2Sr0.8Ti0.9Ni0.1O3-δ) anode of solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byung Hyun; Choi, Gyeong Man

    2015-10-01

    Perovskite oxides have potential for use as alternative anode materials in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to stability in anode atmosphere; donor-doped SrTiO3 (e.g., La0.2Sr0.8TiO3-δ) is a good candidate for this purpose. Electro-catalytic nanoparticles can be produced in oxide anodes by the ex-solution method, e.g., by incorporating Ni into a perovskite oxide in air, then reducing the oxide in H2 atmosphere. In this study, we varied the temperature (1100, 1250 °C) and atmosphere (air, H2) of La0.2Sr0.8Ti0.9Ni0.1O3-δ (LSTN) anode firing to control the degree of Ni ex-solution and microstructure. LSTN fired at 1250 °C in H2 showed the best anodic performance for scandia-stabilized zirconia (ScSZ) electrolyte-supported cells in H2 and CH4 fuels due to the favorable microstructure and Ni ex-solution.

  7. Failure probability of three designs of zirconia crowns

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, G. Freitas; Monteiro, E. Barbosa Carmona; Bottino, M.A.; Zhang, Y.; de Melo, R. Marques

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study utilized a 2-parameter Weibull analysis for evaluation of lifetime of fully or partially porcelain-/glaze-veneered zirconia crowns after fatigue test. Methods Sixty first molars were selected and prepared for full-coverage crowns with three different designs(n = 20): Traditional –crowns with zirconia framework covered with feldspathic porcelain; Modified– crowns partially covered with veneering porcelain; and Monolithic–full-contour zirconia crowns. All specimens were treated with a glaze layer. Specimens were subjected to mechanical cycling (100N, 3Hz) with a piston with hemispherical tip (Ø=6 mm) until the specimens failed or up to 2×106 cycles. Every 500,000 cycles intervals, the fatigue tests were interrupted, and stereomicroscopy (10 X) was used to inspect the specimens for damage. We performed Weibull analysis of interval data to calculate the number of failures in each interval. Results The types and number of failures according to the groups were: cracking (Traditional-13, Modified-6) and chipping (Traditional-4) of the feldspathic porcelain, followed by delamination (Traditional-1) at the veneer/core interface and debonding (Monollithic-2) at the cementation interface. Weibull parameters (beta, scale; and eta, shape), with a two-sided confidence interval of 95%, were: Traditional – 1.25 and 0.9 × 106cycles; Modified– 0.58 and 11.7 × 106 cycles; and Monolithic – 1.05 and 16.5 × 106 cycles. Traditional crowns showed greater susceptibility to fatigue, the Modified group presented higher propensity to early failures, and the Monolithic group showed no susceptibility to fatigue. The Modified and Monolithic groups presented the highest number of crowns with no failures after the fatigue test. Conclusions The three crown designs presented significantly different behaviors under fatigue. The Modified and the Monolithic groups presented less probability to failure after 2×106cycles. PMID:26509988

  8. Relative Translucency of a Multilayered Ultratranslucent Zirconia Material.

    PubMed

    Shamseddine, Loubna; Majzoub, Zeina

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the translucency parameter (TP) of ultratranslucent multilayered (UTML) zirconia according to thickness and layer level. Rectangles of UTML zirconia with four layers [dentin layer (DEL), first transitional layer (FTL), second transitional layer (STL), and enamel layer (ENL)] and four different thicknesses (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1 mm) were milled from blanks. Digital images were taken in a dark studio against white and black backgrounds under simulated daylight illumination and international commission on illumination (CIE) Lab* color values recorded using Photoshop Creative Cloud software. The TP was computed and compared according to thickness and layer level using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni post hoc analysis for multiple comparisons. Significance was set at p < 0.05. In each thickness, TP values were similar between any two layers. The significant effect of thickness on the TP was observed only in the first two layers. In the DEL, translucency was significantly greater at 0.4 mm than all other thicknesses. In the FTL, differences were significant between 0.4 and 0.8 mm and between 0.4 and 1 mm. The investigated zirconia does not seem to show gradational changes in relative translucency from dentin to enamel levels regardless of the thickness used. Thickness affected the TP only in the first two layers with better translu-cency at 0.4 mm. Since relative translucency does not seem to be significantly different between layers, clinicians can modify the apicocoronal positioning of the UTML layers within the restoration according to the desired Chroma without any implications on the clinically perceived translucency. While the thickness of 0.4 mm may be suggested for anterior esthetic veneers because of its higher translucency, the other thicknesses of 0.6 to 1 mm can be used to mask colored abutments in full contour restorations.

  9. Anode composite for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Zarnoch, Kenneth P.

    1983-01-01

    An anode composite useful for a molten carbonate fuel cell comprised of a porous sintered metallic anode component having a porous bubble pressure barrier integrally sintered to one face thereof, said barrier being comprised of metal coated ceramic particles sintered together and to said anode by means of said metal coating, said metal coating enveloping said ceramic particle and being selected from the group consisting of nickel, copper and alloys thereof, the median pore size of the barrier being significantly smaller than that of the anode.

  10. Metallic anodes for next generation secondary batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hansu; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Young-Ugk; Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Cheol-Min; Sohn, Hun-Joon

    2013-12-07

    Li-air(O2) and Li-S batteries have gained much attention recently and most relevant research has aimed to improve the electrochemical performance of air(O2) or sulfur cathode materials. However, many technical problems associated with the Li metal anode have yet to be overcome. This review mainly focuses on the electrochemical behaviors and technical issues related to metallic Li anode materials as well as other metallic anode materials such as alkali (Na) and alkaline earth (Mg) metals, including Zn and Al when these metal anodes were employed for various types of secondary batteries.

  11. Surface modifications for carbon lithium intercalation anodes

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Tri D.; Kinoshita, Kimio

    2000-01-01

    A prefabricated carbon anode containing predetermined amounts of passivating film components is assembled into a lithium-ion rechargeable battery. The modified carbon anode enhances the reduction of the irreversible capacity loss during the first discharge of a cathode-loaded cell. The passivating film components, such as Li.sub.2 O and Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, of a predetermined amount effective for optimal passivation of carbon, are incorporated into carbon anode materials to produce dry anodes that are essentially free of battery electrolyte prior to battery assembly.

  12. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOEpatents

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Huang, Y.Y.

    1998-07-28

    Methods are disclosed for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physical sorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics. 17 figs.

  13. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOEpatents

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H.; Huang, Yin-Yan

    1998-01-01

    Methods for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physisorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics.

  14. Zirconium nitride precipitation in nominally pure yttria-stabilized zirconia

    SciT

    Gomez-Garcia, D.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.

    Nominally pure yttria-stabilized zirconia alloys are shown to contain unexpectedly large amounts of dissolved nitrogen. Its presence in the lattice was detected through the observation of large precipitates in alloys with three different concentrations of yttria deformed in compression in argon in the temperature range 1,600--1,800 C. Electron diffraction, EDS and PEELS analyses, and Moire imaging were used to identify the precipitates as ZrN. The possible origin of the nitrogen, its likely effects on properties, and the role of annealing atmosphere are briefly discussed.

  15. Aqueous-Phase Acetic Acid Ketonization over Monoclinic Zirconia

    SciT

    Cai, Qiuxia; Lopez-Ruiz, Juan A.; Cooper, Alan R.

    The effect of aqueous phase on the acetic acid ketonization over monoclinic zirconia has been investigated using first-principles based density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To capture the aqueous phase chemistry over the solid zirconia catalyst surface, the aqueous phase is represented by 111 explicit water molecules with a liquid water density of 0.93 g/cm3 and the monoclinic zirconia is modeled by the most stable surface structure . The dynamic nature of aqueous phase/ interface was studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation, indicating that nearly half of the surface Zr sites are occupied by either adsorbed water molecules or hydroxylmore » groups at 550 K. DFT calculations show that the adsorption process of acetic acid from the liquid water phase to the surface is nearly thermodynamically neutral with a Gibbs free energy of -2.3 kJ/mol although the adsorption strength of acetic acid on the surface in aqueous phase is much stronger than in vapor phase. Therefore it is expected that the adsorption of acetic acid will dramatically affects aqueous phase ketonization reactivity over the monoclinic zirconia catalyst. Using the same ketonization mechanism via the β-keto acid intermediate, we have compared acetic acid ketonization to acetone in both vapor and aqueous phases. Our DFT calculation results show although the rate-determining step of the β-keto acid formation via the C-C coupling is not pronouncedly affected, the presence of liquid water molecules will dramatically affect dehydrogenation and hydrogenation steps via proton transfer mechanism. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE)’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute. Computing time and advanced catalyst characterization use was granted by a user proposal at the William R. Wiley

  16. Adhesive Cementation Promotes Higher Fatigue Resistance to Zirconia Crowns.

    PubMed

    Campos, F; Valandro, L F; Feitosa, S A; Kleverlaan, C J; Feilzer, A J; de Jager, N; Bottino, M A

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the cementation strategy on the fatigue resistance of zirconia crowns. The null hypothesis was that the cementation strategy would not affect the fatigue resistance of the crowns. Seventy-five simplified molar tooth crown preparations were machined in glass fiber-filled epoxy resin. Zirconia crowns were designed (thickness=0.7 mm), milled by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and sintered, as recommended. Crowns were cemented onto the resin preparations using five cementation strategies (n=15): ZP, luting with zinc phosphate cement; PN, luting with Panavia F resin cement; AL, air particle abrasion with alumina particles (125 μm) as the crown inner surface pretreatment + Panavia F; CJ, tribochemical silica coating as crown inner surface pretreatment + Panavia F; and GL, application of a thin layer of porcelain glaze followed by etching with hydrofluoric acid and silanization as crown inner surface pretreatment + Panavia F. Resin cement was activated for 30 seconds for each surface. Specimens were tested until fracture in a stepwise stress fatigue test (10,000 cycles in each step, 600 to 1400 N, frequency of 1.4 Hz). The mode of failure was analyzed by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Mantel-Cox (log rank) tests and a pairwise comparison (p<0.05) and by Weibull analysis. The CJ group had the highest load mean value for failure (1200 N), followed by the PN (1026 N), AL (1026 N), and GL (1013 N) groups, while the ZP group had the lowest mean value (706 N). Adhesively cemented groups (CJ, AL, PN, and GL) needed a higher number of cycles for failure than the group ZP did. The groups' Weibull moduli (CJ=5.9; AL=4.4; GL=3.9; PN=3.7; ZP=2.1) were different, considering the number of cycles for failure data. The predominant mode of failure was a fracture that initiated in the cement/zirconia layer. Finite element analysis showed the different

  17. Evaluation of a conditioning method to improve core-veneer bond strength of zirconia restorations.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jili; Wang, Hang; Liao, Yunmao; Liang, Xing

    2012-06-01

    The high strength and fracture toughness of zirconia have supported its extensive application in esthetic dentistry. However, the fracturing of veneering porcelains remains one of the primary causes of failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, with shear bond strength testing, the effect of a simple and novel surface conditioning method on the core-veneer bond strength of a zirconia ceramic system. The shear bond strength of a zirconia core ceramic to the corresponding veneering porcelain was tested by the Schmitz-Schulmeyer method. Thirty zirconia core specimens (10 × 5 × 5 mm) were layered with a veneering porcelain (5 × 3 × 3 mm). Three different surface conditioning methods were evaluated: polishing with up to 1200 grit silicon carbide paper under water cooling, airborne-particle abrasion with 110 μm alumina particles, and modification with zirconia powder coating before sintering. A metal ceramic system was used as a control group. All specimens were subjected to shear force in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The shear bond strength values were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc pairwise comparisons (α=.05). The fractured specimens were examined with a scanning electron microscope to observe the failure mode. The mean (SD) shear bond strength values in MPa were 47.02 (6.4) for modified zirconia, 36.66 (8.6) for polished zirconia, 39.14 (6.5) for airborne-particle-abraded zirconia, and 46.12 (7.1) for the control group. The mean bond strength of the control (P=.028) and modified zirconia groups (P=.014) was significantly higher than that of the polished zirconia group. The airborne-particle-abraded group was not significantly different from any other group. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation showed that cohesive fracture in the veneering porcelain was the predominant failure mode of modified zirconia, while the other groups principally fractured at the interface. Modifying the zirconia surface

  18. Anodically bonded submicron microfluidic chambers.

    PubMed

    Dimov, S; Bennett, R G; Córcoles, A; Levitin, L V; Ilic, B; Verbridge, S S; Saunders, J; Casey, A; Parpia, J M

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of anodic bonding to fabricate cells with characteristic size as large as 7 x 10 mm(2), with height of approximately 640 nm, and without any internal support structure. The cells were fabricated from Hoya SD-2 glass and silicon wafers, each with 3 mm thickness to maintain dimensional stability under internal pressure. Bonding was carried out at 350 degrees C and 450 V with an electrode structure that excluded the electric field from the open region. We detail fabrication and characterization steps and also discuss the design of the fill line for access to the cavity.

  19. Anodization process produces opaque, reflective coatings on aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Opaque, reflective coatings are produced on aluminum articles by an anodizing process wherein the anodizing bath contains an aqueous dispersion of finely divided insoluble inorganic compounds. These particles appear as uniformly distributed occlusions in the anodic deposit on the aluminum.

  20. Osseointegration of zirconia implants: an SEM observation of the bone-implant interface.

    PubMed

    Depprich, Rita; Zipprich, Holger; Ommerborn, Michelle; Mahn, Eduardo; Lammers, Lydia; Handschel, Jörg; Naujoks, Christian; Wiesmann, Hans-Peter; Kübler, Norbert R; Meyer, Ulrich

    2008-11-06

    The successful use of zirconia ceramics in orthopedic surgery led to a demand for dental zirconium-based implant systems. Because of its excellent biomechanical characteristics, biocompatibility, and bright tooth-like color, zirconia (zirconium dioxide, ZrO2) has the potential to become a substitute for titanium as dental implant material. The present study aimed at investigating the osseointegration of zirconia implants with modified ablative surface at an ultrastructural level. A total of 24 zirconia implants with modified ablative surfaces and 24 titanium implants all of similar shape and surface structure were inserted into the tibia of 12 Göttinger minipigs. Block biopsies were harvested 1 week, 4 weeks or 12 weeks (four animals each) after surgery. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed at the bone implant interface. Remarkable bone attachment was already seen after 1 week which increased further to intimate bone contact after 4 weeks, observed on both zirconia and titanium implant surfaces. After 12 weeks, osseointegration without interposition of an interfacial layer was detected. At the ultrastructural level, there was no obvious difference between the osseointegration of zirconia implants with modified ablative surfaces and titanium implants with a similar surface topography. The results of this study indicate similar osseointegration of zirconia and titanium implants at the ultrastructural level.

  1. Sintering behavior and mechanical properties of zirconia compacts fabricated by uniaxial press forming.

    PubMed

    Oh, Gye-Jeong; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Lee, Kwang-Min; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Park, Sang-Won

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the linear sintering behavior of presintered zirconia blocks of various densities. The mechanical properties of the resulting sintered zirconia blocks were then analyzed. Three experimental groups of dental zirconia blocks, with a different presintering density each, were designed in the present study. Kavo Everest® ZS blanks (Kavo, Biberach, Germany) were used as a control group. The experimental group blocks were fabricated from commercial yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia powder (KZ-3YF (SD) Type A, KCM. Corporation, Nagoya, Japan). The biaxial flexural strengths, microhardnesses, and microstructures of the sintered blocks were then investigated. The linear sintering shrinkages of blocks were calculated and compared. Despite their different presintered densities, the sintered blocks of the control and experimental groups showed similar mechanical properties. However, the sintered block had different linear sintering shrinkage rate depending on the density of the presintered block. As the density of the presintered block increased, the linear sintering shrinkage decreased. In the experimental blocks, the three sectioned pieces of each block showed the different linear shrinkage depending on the area. The tops of the experimental blocks showed the lowest linear sintering shrinkage, whereas the bottoms of the experimental blocks showed the highest linear sintering shrinkage. Within the limitations of this study, the density difference of the presintered zirconia block did not affect the mechanical properties of the sintered zirconia block, but affected the linear sintering shrinkage of the zirconia block.

  2. Sintering behavior and mechanical properties of zirconia compacts fabricated by uniaxial press forming

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Gye-Jeong; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Lee, Kwang-Min; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare the linear sintering behavior of presintered zirconia blocks of various densities. The mechanical properties of the resulting sintered zirconia blocks were then analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three experimental groups of dental zirconia blocks, with a different presintering density each, were designed in the present study. Kavo Everest® ZS blanks (Kavo, Biberach, Germany) were used as a control group. The experimental group blocks were fabricated from commercial yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia powder (KZ-3YF (SD) Type A, KCM. Corporation, Nagoya, Japan). The biaxial flexural strengths, microhardnesses, and microstructures of the sintered blocks were then investigated. The linear sintering shrinkages of blocks were calculated and compared. RESULTS Despite their different presintered densities, the sintered blocks of the control and experimental groups showed similar mechanical properties. However, the sintered block had different linear sintering shrinkage rate depending on the density of the presintered block. As the density of the presintered block increased, the linear sintering shrinkage decreased. In the experimental blocks, the three sectioned pieces of each block showed the different linear shrinkage depending on the area. The tops of the experimental blocks showed the lowest linear sintering shrinkage, whereas the bottoms of the experimental blocks showed the highest linear sintering shrinkage. CONCLUSION Within the limitations of this study, the density difference of the presintered zirconia block did not affect the mechanical properties of the sintered zirconia block, but affected the linear sintering shrinkage of the zirconia block. PMID:21165274

  3. Surface Modification of Zirconia Substrate by Calcium Phosphate Particles Using Sol-Gel Method.

    PubMed

    Jin, So Dam; Um, Sang Cheol; Lee, Jong Kook

    2015-08-01

    Surface modification with a biphasic composition of hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) was performed on a zirconia substrate using a sol-gel method. An initial calcium phosphate sol was prepared by mixing a solution of Ca(NO3)2 · 4H20 and (C2H5O)3P(O), while both porous and dense zirconia were used as substrates. The sol-gel coating was performed using a spin coater. The coated porous zirconia substrate was re-sintered at 1350 °C 2 h, while coated dense zirconia substrate was heat-treated at 750 °C 1 h. The microstructure of the resultant HA/TCP coatings was found to be dependent on the type of zirconia substrate used. With porous zirconia as a starting substrate, numerous isolated calcium phosphate particles (TCP and HA) were uniformly dispersed on the surface, and the particle size and covered area were dependent on the viscosity of the calcium phosphate sol. Conversely, when dense zirconia was used as a starting substrate, a thick film of nano-sized HA particles was obtained after heat treatment, however, substantial agglomeration and cracking was also observed.

  4. A fractographic study of clinically retrieved zirconia-ceramic and metal-ceramic fixed dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhen; Chughtai, Asima; Sailer, Irena; Zhang, Yu

    2015-10-01

    A recent 3-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) of tooth supported three- to five-unit zirconia-ceramic and metal-ceramic posterior fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) revealed that veneer chipping and fracture in zirconia-ceramic systems occurred more frequently than those in metal-ceramic systems [1]. This study seeks to elucidate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the fracture phenomena observed in this RCT using a descriptive fractographic analysis. Vinyl-polysiloxane impressions of 12 zirconia-ceramic and 6 metal-ceramic FDPs with veneer fractures were taken from the patients at the end of a mean observation of 40.3±2.8 months. Epoxy replicas were produced from these impressions [1]. All replicas were gold coated, and inspected under the optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for descriptive fractography. Among the 12 zirconia-ceramic FDPs, 2 had small chippings, 9 had large chippings, and 1 exhibited delamination. Out of 6 metal-ceramic FDPs, 5 had small chippings and 1 had large chipping. Descriptive fractographic analysis based on SEM observations revealed that fracture initiated from the wear facet at the occlusal surface in all cases, irrespective of the type of restoration. Zirconia-ceramic and metal-ceramic FDPs all fractured from microcracks that emanated from occlusal wear facets. The relatively low fracture toughness and high residual tensile stress in porcelain veneer of zirconia restorations may contribute to the higher chipping rate and larger chip size in zirconia-ceramic FDPs relative to their metal-ceramic counterparts. The low veneer/core interfacial fracture energy of porcelain-veneered zirconia may result in the occurrence of delamination in zirconia-ceramic FDPs. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of experimental coating to improve the zirconia-veneering ceramic bond strength.

    PubMed

    Matani, Jay D; Kheur, Mohit; Jambhekar, Shantanu Subhashchandra; Bhargava, Parag; Londhe, Aditya

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) between zirconia and veneering ceramic following different surface treatments of zirconia. The efficacy of an experimental zirconia coating to improve the bond strength was also evaluated. Zirconia strips were fabricated and were divided into four groups as per their surface treatment: polished (control), airborne-particle abrasion, laser irradiation, and application of the experimental coating. The surface roughness and the residual monoclinic content were evaluated before and after the respective surface treatments. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the experimental surfaces was performed. All specimens were subjected to shear force in a universal testing machine. The SBS values were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc for groupwise comparisons. The fractured specimens were examined to observe the failure mode. The SBS (29.17 MPa) and roughness values (0.80) of the experimental coating group were the highest among the groups. The residual monoclinic content was minimal (0.32) when compared to the remaining test groups. SEM analysis revealed a homogenous surface well adhered to an undamaged zirconia base. The other test groups showed destruction of the zirconia surface. The analysis of failure following bond strength testing showed entirely cohesive failures in the veneering ceramic in all study groups. The experimental zirconia surface coating is a simple technique to increase the microroughness of the zirconia surface, and thereby improve the SBS to the veneering ceramic. It results in the least monoclinic content and produces no structural damage to the zirconia substructure. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. 3D-characterization of the veneer-zirconia interface using FIB nano-tomography.

    PubMed

    Mainjot, Amélie K; Douillard, Thierry; Gremillard, Laurent; Sadoun, Michaël J; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2013-02-01

    The phenomena occurring during zirconia frameworks veneering process are not yet fully understood. In particular the study of zirconia behavior at the interface with the veneer remains a challenge. However this interface has been reported to act on residual stress in the veneering ceramic, which plays a significant role in clinical failures such as chipping. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the veneer-zirconia interface using a recent 3D-analysis tool and to confront these observations to residual stress measurements in the veneering ceramic. Two cross-sectioned bilayered disc samples (veneer on zirconia), exhibiting different residual stress profiles in the veneering ceramic, were investigated using 2D and 3D imaging (respectively Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Focused Ion Beam nanotomography (FIB-nt), associated with chemical analysis by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The observations did not reveal any structural change in the bulk of zirconia layer of both samples. However the presence of structural alterations and sub-surface microcracks were highlighted in the first micrometer of zirconia surface, exclusively for the sample exhibiting interior tensile stress in the veneering ceramic. No interdiffusion phenomena were observed. FIB nanotomography was proven to be a powerful technique to study the veneer-zirconia interface. The determination of the origin and the nature of zirconia alterations need to be further studied. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that zirconia surface property changes could be involved in the development of tensile stress in the veneering ceramic, increasing the risk of chipping. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Concerns of Hydrothermal Degradation in CAD/CAM Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J.-W.; Covel, N.S.; Guess, P.C.; Rekow, E.D.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry; however, their susceptibility to hydrothermal degradation remains elusive. We hypothesized that CAD/CAM machining and subsequent surface treatments, i.e., grinding and/or grit-blasting, have marked effects on the hydrothermal degradation behavior of Y-TZP. CAD/CAM-machined Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thick), both with and without subsequent grinding with various grit sizes or grit-blasting with airborne alumina particles, were subjected to accelerated aging tests in a steam autoclave. Results showed that the CAD/CAM-machined surfaces initially exhibited superior hydrothermal degradation resistance, but deteriorated at a faster rate upon prolonged autoclave treatment compared with ground and grit-blasted surfaces. The accelerated hydrothermal degradation of CAD/CAM surfaces is attributed to the CAD/CAM machining damage and the absence of surface compressive stresses in the fully sintered material. Clinical relevance for surface treatments of zirconia frameworks in terms of hydrothermal and structural stabilities is addressed. PMID:19966039

  8. Method of producing high purity zirconia powder from zircon powder

    SciT

    Funahashi, T.; Uchimura, R.; Oguchi, Y.

    A method is described of producing a zirconia powder from zirconia containing SiO/sub 2/, comprising the steps of: preparing a raw material mixture comprising the zircon powder containing the SiO/sub 2/ and a powdery carbon-containing material such that the mole ratio of C, which is contained in the carbon-containing material and does not gasify at temperatures below 100/sup 0/C. in a nonoxidizing atmosphere, to SiO/sub 2/ contained in the zircon powder is in the range from 0.4 to 2.0; and subjecting the raw material mixture to a desiliconizing heat treatment in a nonoxidizing atmosphere of which the presence is notmore » higher than 0.6 atm, the desiliconizing heat treatment being a combination of a first-stage heat treatment which is performed at a temperature in the range from 1200/sup 0/ to 1550/sup 0/C. for separating silica from the zircon powder and a second-stage heat treatment which is performed at a higher temperature in the range from above 1550/sup 0/C. to 2000/sup 0/C. for completely converting silica in the mixture under heat treatment into gaseous SiO and dissipating the gaseous SiO, wherein the raw material mixture is subjected to the desiliconizing heat treatment in the form of at least one lump whose bulk density is in the range from 0.7 to 2.0.« less

  9. Phase transformation of dental zirconia following artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Thomas J; Lawson, Nathaniel C; Janowski, Gregg M; Burgess, John O

    2015-10-01

    Low-temperature degradation (LTD) of yttria-stabilized zirconia can produce increased surface roughness with a concomitant decrease in strength. This study determined the effectiveness of artificial aging (prolonged boiling/autoclaving) to induce LTD of Y-TZP (yttria-tetragonal zirconia-polycrystals) and used artificial aging for transformation depth progression analyses. The null hypothesis is aging techniques tested produce the same amount of transformation, transformation is not time/temperature dependent and LTD causes a constant transformation throughout the Y-TZP samples. Dental-grade Y-TZP samples were randomly divided into nine subgroups (n = 5): as received, 3.5 and 7 day boiling, 1 bar autoclave (1, 3, 5 h), and 2 bar autoclave (1, 3, 5 h). A 4-h boil treatment (n = 2) was performed post-experiment for completion of data. Transformation was measured using traditional X-ray diffraction and low-angle X-ray diffraction. The fraction of t → m transformation increased with aging time. The 3.5 day boil and 2 bar 5 h autoclave produced similar transformation results, while the 7 day boiling treatment revealed the greatest transformation. The surface layer of the aged specimen underwent the most transformation while all samples displayed decreasing transformation with depth. Surface transformation was evident, which can lead to rougher surfaces and increased wear of opposing dentition/materials. Therefore, wear studies addressing LTD of Y-TZP are needed utilizing accelerated aging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Zirconia and its allotropes; A Quantum Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokisaari, Andrea; Benali, Anouar; Shin, Hyeondeok; Luo, Ye; Lopez Bezanilla, Alejandro; Ratcliff, Laura; Littlewood, Peter; Heinonen, Olle

    With a high strength and stability at elevated temperatures, Zirconia (zirconium dioxide) is one of the best corrosion-resistant and refractive materials used in metallurgy, and is used in structural ceramics, catalytic converters, oxygen sensors, nuclear industry, and in chemically passivating surfaces. The wide range of applications of ZrO2 has motivated a large number of electronic structures studies of its known allotropes (monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic). Density Functional Theory has been successful at reproducing some of the fundamental properties of some of the allotropes, but these results remain dependent on the specific combination of exchange-correlation functional and type of pseudopotentials, making any type of structural prediction or defect analysis uncertain. Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) is a many-body quantum theory solving explicitly the electronic correlations, allowing reproducing and predicting materials properties with a limited number of controlled approximations. In this study, we use QMC to revisit the energetic stability of Zirconia's allotropes and compare our results with those obtained from density functional theory.

  11. Investigation of hydrogen interaction with defects in zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikhova, O.; Kuriplach, J.; Čížek, J.; Procházka, I.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.

    2010-04-01

    Defect studies of a ZrO2 + 9 mol. % Y2O3 single crystal were performed in this work using a high resolution positron lifetime spectroscopy combined with slow positron implantation spectroscopy. In order to elucidate the nature of positron trapping sites observed experimentally, the structural relaxations of several types of vacancy-like defects in zirconia were performed and positron characteristics for them were calculated. Relaxed atomic configurations of studied defects were obtained by means of ab initio pseudopotential method within the supercell approach. Theoretical calculations indicated that neither oxygen vacancies nor their neutral complexes with substitute yttrium atoms are capable of positron trapping. On the other hand, zirconium vacancies are deep positron traps and are most probably responsible for the saturated positron trapping observed in yttria stabilized zirconia single crystals. However, the calculated positron lifetime for zirconium vacancy is apparently longer than the experimental value corresponding to a single-component spectrum measured for the cubic ZrO2 + 9 mol. % Y2O3 single crystal. It was demonstrated that this effect can be explained by hydrogen trapped in zirconium vacancies. On the basis of structure relaxations, we found that zirconium vacancy - hydrogen complexes represent deep positron traps with the calculated lifetime close to the experimental one. In zirconium vacancy - hydrogen complexes the hydrogen atom forms an O-H bond with one of the nearest neighbour oxygen atoms. The calculated bond length is close to 1 Å.

  12. Quick-Change Anode for Plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed fastener for attaching electroplating anode improves quality of plating and increases productivity. Notches in twist-lock fastener mates with projections on end of anode bar. Fastener made of titanium for compatibility with copper-plating solution. Also constructed in snap-on, snap-off configuration.

  13. Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Roose, Lars D.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode.

  14. Growth behavior of anodic oxide formed by aluminum anodizing in glutaric and its derivative acid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Daiki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-12-01

    The growth behavior of anodic oxide films formed via anodizing in glutaric and its derivative acid solutions was investigated based on the acid dissociation constants of electrolytes. High-purity aluminum foils were anodized in glutaric, ketoglutaric, and acetonedicarboxylic acid solutions under various electrochemical conditions. A thin barrier anodic oxide film grew uniformly on the aluminum substrate by glutaric acid anodizing, and further anodizing caused the film to breakdown due to a high electric field. In contrast, an anodic porous alumina film with a submicrometer-scale cell diameter was successfully formed by ketoglutaric acid anodizing at 293 K. However, the increase and decrease in the temperature of the ketoglutaric acid resulted in non-uniform oxide growth and localized pitting corrosion of the aluminum substrate. An anodic porous alumina film could also be fabricated by acetonedicarboxylic acid anodizing due to the relatively low dissociation constants associated with the acid. Acid dissociation constants are an important factor for the fabrication of anodic porous alumina films.

  15. Anode power deposition in a MPD thruster with a magnetically annulled Hall parameter anode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, Alec D.; Kelly, Arnold J.; Jahn, Robert G.

    1992-01-01

    Results from previous studies indicate that the anode fall increases monotonically with the electron Hall parameter. In an attempt to reduce the anode fall by decreasing the local electron Hall parameter, a proof-of-concept test was performed in which an array of 36 permanent magnets were imbedded within the anode of a high power quasi-steady MPD thruster to decrease the local azimuthal component of the induced magnetic field. The modified thruster was operated at power levels between 150 kW and 4 MW with Ar and He propellants. Terminal voltage, triple probe, floating probe, and magnetic probe measurements were made to characterize the performance of the thruster with new anode. Incorporation of the modified anode resulted in a reduction of the anode fall by up to 15 V with Ar and 20 V with He, which corresponded to decreased anode power fractions of 40 and 45 percent with Ar and He, respectively.

  16. Ionic liquid-templated preparation of mesoporous silica embedded with nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Antony J.; Pujari, Ajit A.; Costanzo, Lorenzo; Masters, Anthony F.; Maschmeyer, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    A series of mesoporous silicas impregnated with nanocrystalline sulphated zirconia was prepared by a sol-gel process using an ionic liquid-templated route. The physicochemical properties of the mesoporous sulphated zirconia materials were studied using characterisation techniques such as inductively coupled optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Analysis of the new silicas indicates isomorphous substitution of silicon with zirconium and reveals the presence of extremely small (< 10 nm) polydispersed zirconia nanoparticles in the materials with zirconium loadings from 27.77 to 41.4 wt.%.

  17. Ionic liquid-templated preparation of mesoporous silica embedded with nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A series of mesoporous silicas impregnated with nanocrystalline sulphated zirconia was prepared by a sol-gel process using an ionic liquid-templated route. The physicochemical properties of the mesoporous sulphated zirconia materials were studied using characterisation techniques such as inductively coupled optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Analysis of the new silicas indicates isomorphous substitution of silicon with zirconium and reveals the presence of extremely small (< 10 nm) polydispersed zirconia nanoparticles in the materials with zirconium loadings from 27.77 to 41.4 wt.%. PMID:21711725

  18. Experimental research on the relationship between fit accuracy and fracture resistance of zirconia abutments.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xinxin; Wei, Huasha; Wang, Dashan; Han, Yan; Deng, Jing; Wang, Yongliang; Wang, Junjun; Yang, Jianjun

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the correlation between fit accuracy and fracture resistance of zirconia abutments, as well as its feasibility for clinical applications. Twenty self-made zirconia abutments were tested with 30 Osstem GSII implants. First, 10 Osstem GSII implants were cut into two parts along the long axis and assembled with the zirconia abutments. The microgaps between the implants and the zirconia abutments were measured under a scanning electron microscope. Second, the zirconia abutments were assembled with 20 un-cut implants and photographed before and after being fixed with a central screw of 30-Ncm torque. The dental films were measured by Digora for Windows 2.6 software. Then the fracture resistance of zirconia abutments was measured using the universal testing machine at 90°. All results were analyzed using SPSS13.0 software. The average internal-hexagon microgaps between the implants and zirconia abutments were 19.38±1.34μm. The average Morse taper microgap in the implant-abutment interface was 17.55±1.68μm. The dental film showed that the Morse taper gap in the implant-abutment interface disappeared after being fixed with a central screw of 30-Ncm torque, and the average moving distance of the zirconia abutments to the implants was 0.19±0.02mm. The average fracture resistance of zirconia abutments was 282.93±17.28N. The internal-hexagon microgap between the implants and zirconia abutments was negatively related to the fracture resistance of the abutments (r1=-0.97, p<0.01). The Morse taper microgap in the implant-abutment interface was negatively related to the fracture resistance of the abutments (r2=-0.84, p<0.01). The microgap between implant and abutment was negatively related to the fracture resistance of the abutment, while the internal-hexagon microgap has better correlation than the Morse taper microgap. The closure of microgap is helpful to improve the fracture resistance of zirconia abutments. The fracture

  19. Effect of high intensity ultrasound on the mesostructure of hydrated zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopitsa, G. P.; Baranchikov, A. E.; Ivanova, O. S.; Yapryntsev, A. D.; Grigoriev, S. V.; Pranzas, P. Klaus; Ivanov, V. K.

    2012-02-01

    We report structural changes in amorphous hydrated zirconia caused by high intensity ultrasonic treatment studied by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was established that sonication affects the mesostructure of ZrO2×xH2O gels (i.e. decreases their homogeneity, increases surface fractal dimension and the size of monomer particles). Ultrasound induced structural changes in hydrated zirconia governs its thermal behaviour, namely decreases the rate of tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia phase transition.

  20. Combining monolithic zirconia crowns, digital impressioning, and regenerative cement for a predictable restorative alternative to PFM.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Jack D

    2013-03-01

    Advances in indirect esthetic materials in recent years have provided the dental profession higher levels of strength and esthetics than ever before with products like lithium disilicate and zirconium oxide. Providing excellent fit and versatile performance, and because there is no porcelain to delaminate, chip, or fracture, monolithic zirconia crowns have the potential to outperform other layered restorations such as porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM). This review of monolithic zirconia highlights a clinical case in which all-zirconia restorations were combined with CAD/CAM technology for a successful esthetic restorative outcome.

  1. Titanium dental implant surfaces obtained by anodic spark deposition - From the past to the future.

    PubMed

    Kaluđerović, Milena R; Schreckenbach, Joachim P; Graf, Hans-Ludwig

    2016-12-01

    Commercial titanium-based dental implants are obtained applying various methods such as machining, acid etching, anodization, plasma spraying, grit blasting or combination techniques yielding materials with smooth or micro-roughened surfaces. Those techniques are used to optimize the surface properties and to maximize biocompatibility and bioactivity with bone tissue. Present review is focused on the material surfaces obtained by anodic spark deposition (ASD). From the early 1980s till present, the results of numerous studies have shown that anodically oxidized surfaces with different dopants express a positive effect on osteoblasts behavior in vitro and osseointegration in vivo. Those surfaces demonstrated a high biocompatibility and rapid osseointegration in clinical application. This paper provides an overview of the preparation of implant surfaces by employing ASD process. Moreover, reviewed are clinically used ASD implant surfaces (Ticer, TiUnite, Osstem, etc.). The electrolyte variations in ASD process and their influence on surface properties are given herein. Using different electrolytes, anode voltages and temperatures, the above fabrication process can yield various surface morphologies from smooth to rough, porous surfaces. Furthermore, ASD enables thickening of oxide layers and enrichment with different dopands from used electrolyte, which hinder release of potentially toxic titanium ions in surrounding tissue. Particularly exciting results were achieved by calcium and phosphorus doping of the oxide layer (Ticer, ZL Microdent; TiUnite, Nobel Biocare Holding AB) which significantly increased the osteocompatibility. Ticer, a dental implant with anodically oxidized surface and the first among similar materials employed in clinical practice, was found to promote fast osteoblast cell differentiation and mineralization processes. Moreover, Ticer accelerate the integration with the bone, increase the bone/implant contact and improve primary and secondary

  2. Effect of Nano-Si3N4 Additives and Plasma Treatment on the Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Al2O3-8YSZ Ceramic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Junfeng; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Qiwen; Wang, You; Wang, Chaohui

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the effect of nano-Si3N4 additives and plasma treatment on the wear behavior of Al2O3-8YSZ ceramic coatings was studied. Nano-Al2O3, nano-8YSZ (8 wt.% Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2) and nano-Si3N4 powders were used as raw materials to fabricate four types of sprayable feedstocks. Plasma treatment was used to improve the properties of the feedstocks. The surface morphologies of the ceramic coatings were observed. The mechanical properties of the ceramic coatings were measured. The dry sliding wear behavior of the Al2O3-8YSZ coatings with and without Si3N4 additives was studied. Nano-Si3N4 additives and plasma treatment can improve the morphologies of the coatings by prohibiting the initiation of micro-cracks and reducing the unmelted particles. The hardness and bonding strength of AZSP (Al2O3-18 wt.% 8YSZ-10 wt.% Si3N4-plasma treatment) coating increased by 79.2 and 44% compared to those of AZ (Al2O3-20 wt.% 8YSZ) coating. The porosity of AZSP coating decreased by 85.4% compared to that of AZ coating. The wear test results showed that the addition of nano-Si3N4 and plasma treatment could improve the wear resistance of Al2O3-8YSZ coatings.

  3. Deposition of crystalline hydroxyapatite nano-particle on zirconia ceramic: a potential solution for the poor bonding characteristic of zirconia ceramics to resin cement.

    PubMed

    Azari, Abbas; Nikzad, Sakineh; Yazdani, Arash; Atri, Faezeh; Fazel Anvari-Yazdi, Abbas

    2017-07-01

    The poor bonding strength of zirconia to different dental substrates is one of the challenging issues in restorative dentistry. Hydroxyapatite is an excellent biocompatible material with fine bonding properties. In this study, it was hypothesized that hydroxyapatite coating on zirconia would improve its bond strength. Forty-five zirconia blocks were prepared and randomly divided into three groups: hydroxyapatite coating, sandblasting, and no preparation (control). The blocks were bonded to cement and the micro-shear bond strength was measured following load application. The bond strength values were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test in 3 groups and paired comparisons were made using the Mann-Whitney U test. The failure patterns of the specimens were studied by a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope and then analyzed by the chi-square test (significance level = 0.05). Deposition of hydroxyapatite on the zirconia surface significantly improved its bond strength to the resin cement in comparison with the control specimens (p < 0.0001). Also, the bond strength was similar to the sandblasted group (p = 0.34). The sandblasted and control group only showed adhesive failure, but the hydroxyapatite coated group had mixed failures, indicating the better quality of bonding (p < 0.0001). As a final point, hydroxyapatite coating on the zirconia surface improved the bond strength quality and values.

  4. Metal Adatoms and Clusters on Ultrathin Zirconia Films

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nucleation and growth of transition metals on zirconia has been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Since STM requires electrical conductivity, ultrathin ZrO2 films grown by oxidation of Pt3Zr(0001) and Pd3Zr(0001) were used as model systems. DFT studies were performed for single metal adatoms on supported ZrO2 films as well as the (1̅11) surface of monoclinic ZrO2. STM shows decreasing cluster size, indicative of increasing metal–oxide interaction, in the sequence Ag < Pd ≈ Au < Ni ≈ Fe. Ag and Pd nucleate mostly at steps and domain boundaries of ZrO2/Pt3Zr(0001) and form three-dimensional clusters. Deposition of low coverages of Ni and Fe at room temperature leads to a high density of few-atom clusters on the oxide terraces. Weak bonding of Ag to the oxide is demonstrated by removing Ag clusters with the STM tip. DFT calculations for single adatoms show that the metal–oxide interaction strength increases in the sequence Ag < Au < Pd < Ni on monoclinic ZrO2, and Ag ≈ Au < Pd < Ni on the supported ultrathin ZrO2 film. With the exception of Au, metal nucleation and growth on ultrathin zirconia films follow the usual rules: More reactive (more electropositive) metals result in a higher cluster density and wet the surface more strongly than more noble metals. These bind mainly to the oxygen anions of the oxide. Au is an exception because it can bind strongly to the Zr cations. Au diffusion may be impeded by changing its charge state between −1 and +1. We discuss differences between the supported ultrathin zirconia films and the surfaces of bulk ZrO2, such as the possibility of charge transfer to the substrate of the films. Due to their large in-plane lattice constant and the variety of adsorption sites, ZrO2{111} surfaces are more reactive than many other oxygen-terminated oxide surfaces. PMID:27213024

  5. Zirconia crowns for rehabilitation of decayed primary incisors: an esthetic alternative.

    PubMed

    Ashima, G; Sarabjot, K Bhatia; Gauba, K; Mittal, H C

    2014-01-01

    Esthetic management of extensively decayed primary maxillary anterior teeth requiring full coronal coverage restoration is usually challenging to the pediatric dentists especially in very young children. Many esthetic options have been tried over the years each having its own advantages, disadvantages and associated technical, functional or esthetic limitations. Zirconia crowns have provided a treatment alternative to address the esthetic concerns and ease of placement of extra-coronal restorations on primary anterior teeth. The present article presents a case where grossly decayed maxillary primary incisors were restored esthetically and functionally with ready made zirconia crowns (ZIRKIZ, HASS Corp; Korea). After endodontic treatment the decayed teeth were restored with zirconia crowns. Over a 30 months period, the crowns have demonstrated good retention and esthetic results. Dealing with esthetic needs in children with extensive loss of tooth structure, using Zirconia crowns would be practical and successful. The treatment described is simple and effective and represents a promising alternative for rehabilitation of decayed primary teeth.

  6. Plasmachemical synthesis of nanopowders of yttria and zirconia from dispersed water-salt-organic mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, Ivan; Karengin, Alexander; Shamanin, Igor; Alyukov, Evgeny; Gusev, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    Article represents results on theoretical and experimental research of yttria and zirconia plasmachemical synthesis in air plasma from water-salt-organic mixtures "yttrium nitrate-water-acetone" and "zirconyl nitrate-water-acetone". On the basis of thermotechnical calculations the influence of organic component on lower heat value and adiabatic combustion temperature of water-salt-organic mixtures as well as compositions of mixtures providing their energy-efficient plasma treatment were determined. The calculations found the influence of mass fraction and temperature of air plasma supporting gas on the composition of plasma treatment products. It was determined the conditions providing yttria and zirconia plasmachemical synthesis in air plasma. During experiments it was b eing carried out the plasmachemical synthesis of yttria and zirconia powders in air plasma flow from water -salt-organic mixtures. Analysis of the results for obtained powders (scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, BET analysis) confirm nanostructure of yttria and zirconia.

  7. Properties of zirconia-toughened-alumina prepared via powder processing and colloidal processing routes.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, A; Alsebaie, A M; Olabi, A G; Prescott, T

    2009-01-15

    Alumina-zirconia composites were prepared by two routes: powder processing, and colloidal processing. Unstabilised zirconia powder was added to alumina in 5 wt%, 10 wt% and 20 wt% quantities. For the colloidal method, zirconium(IV) propoxide solution was added to alumina powder, also in 5 wt%, 10 wt% and 20 wt% quantities. Additions of glacial acetic acid were needed to form stable suspensions. Suspension stability was verified by pH measurements and sedimentation testing. For the powder processed samples Vickers hardness decreased indefinitely with increasing ZrO(2) additions, but for colloidal samples the hardness at first decreased but then increased again above >10 wt% ZrO(2). Elastic modulus (E) values decreased with ZrO(2) additions. However, samples containing 20 wt% zirconia prepared via a colloidal method exhibited a much higher modulus than the powder processed equivalent. This was due to the homogeneous dispersion of zirconia yielding a sample which was less prone to microcracking.

  8. Adhesion/cementation to zirconia and other non-silicate ceramics: Where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jeffrey Y; Stoner, Brian R.; Piascik, Jeffrey R.; Smith, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Non-silicate ceramics, especially zirconia, have become a topic of great interest in the field of prosthetic and implant dentistry. A clinical problem with use of zirconia-based components is the difficulty in achieving suitable adhesion with intended synthetic substrates or natural tissues. Traditional adhesive techniques used with silica-based ceramics do not work effectively with zirconia. Currently, several technologies are being utilized clinically to address this problem, and other approaches are under investigation. Most focus on surface modification of the inert surfaces of high strength ceramics. The ability to chemically functionalize the surface of zirconia appears to be critical in achieving adhesive bonding. This review will focus on currently available approaches as well as new advanced technologies to address this problem. PMID:21094526

  9. Investigations on composition and morphology of electrochemical alumina and alumina yttria stabilised zirconia deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hajjaji, S.; Manov, S.; Roy, J.; Aigouy, T.; Ben Bachir, A.; Aries, L.

    2001-08-01

    Conversion coatings modified by deposits of electrolytic alumina added or not with yttria and/or zirconia, have been studied which are well known for their resistance to chemical attack and high temperature. Conversion coating, characterised by a particular morphology and strong interfacial adhesion with the substrate, facilitate the electrochemical deposition of ceramic layers and enhance their adhesion to the substrate. Zirconia-alumina coating behaviour at 1000°C is similar to that of alumina coating; from 800°C, the chromium diffuses from the stainless steel through the electrolytic refractory coating up to the external interface, provokes discontinuities and can modify its protective character. Yttrium stabilises the cubic and the tetragonal form of the zirconia; so, during cooling, the phase transformation near 1000°C of tetragonal zirconia to monoclinic form cannot take place.

  10. Properties and rapid sintering of a nanostructured tetragonal zirconia composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, In-Jin; Yoon, Jin-Kook; Hong, Kyung-Tae

    2017-09-01

    4YSZ is generally used as oxygen sensors, fuel cells, thermal barrier and hip and knee joint replacements as a result of these excellent properties with its high biocompatibility, low density, good resistance against corrosion, high ionic conductivity, hard phase and melting point. However, 4YTZ with coarse grain has low resistance to wear and abrasion because of low hardness and low fracture toughness at room temperature. The fracture toughness and hardness of a 4YTZ can be improved by forming nanostructured composites and addition of a second hard phase. In this study, nanostuctured 4YTZ-graphene composites with nearly full density were achieved using high-frequency induction heated sintering for one min at a pressure of 80 MPa. The rapid consolidation and addition of graphene to 4YTZ retained the nano-scale structure of the ceramic by inhibiting grain growth. The grain size of 4YTZ was reduced remarkably by the addition of graphene and the addition of graphene to 4YTZ greatly improved the fracture toughness without decrease of hardness.

  11. Anodizing of High Electrically Stressed Components

    SciT

    Flores, P.; Henderson, D. J.; Good, D. E.

    2013-06-01

    Anodizing creates an aluminum oxide coating that penetrates into the surface as well as builds above the surface of aluminum creating a very hard ceramic-type coating with good dielectric properties. Over time and use, the electrical carrying components (or spools in this case) experience electrical breakdown, yielding undesirable x-ray dosages or failure. The spool is located in the high vacuum region of a rod pinch diode section of an x-ray producing machine. Machine operators have recorded decreases in x-ray dosages over numerous shots using the reusable spool component, and re-anodizing the interior surface of the spool does not provide themore » expected improvement. A machine operation subject matter expert coated the anodized surface with diffusion pump oil to eliminate electrical breakdown as a temporary fix. It is known that an anodized surface is very porous, and it is because of this porosity that the surface may trap air that becomes a catalyst for electrical breakdown. In this paper we present a solution of mitigating electrical breakdown by oiling. We will also present results of surface anodizing improvements achieved by surface finish preparation and surface sealing. We conclude that oiling the anodized surface and using anodized hot dip sealing processes will have similar results.« less

  12. Shear bond strength between an indirect composite layering material and feldspathic porcelain-coated zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Fushiki, Ryosuke; Komine, Futoshi; Blatz, Markus B; Koizuka, Mai; Taguchi, Kohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of both feldspathic porcelain coating of zirconia frameworks and priming agents on shear bond strength between an indirect composite material and zirconia frameworks. A total of 462 airborne-particle-abraded zirconia disks were divided into three groups: untreated disks (ZR-AB), airborne-particle-abraded zirconia disks coated with feldspathic porcelain, (ZR-PO-AB), and hydrofluoric acid-etched zirconia disks coated with feldspathic porcelain (ZR-PO-HF). Indirect composite (Estenia C&B) was bonded to zirconia specimens with no (CON) or one of four priming agents--Clearfil Photo Bond (CPB), Clearfil Photo Bond with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator (CPB + activator), Estenia Opaque primer, or Porcelain Liner M Liquid B (PLB)--with or without an opaque material (Estenia C&B Opaque). All specimens were tested for shear bond strength before and after 20,000 thermocycles. The Steel-Dwass test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare shear bond strength. In ZR-AB specimens, the initial bond strength of the CPB and CPB + Activator groups was significantly higher as compared with the other three groups (P < 0.05), whereas the PLB and CPB + Activator groups had the highest pre- and post-thermocycling bond strengths in ZR-PO-AB and ZR-PO-HF specimens. Among CON disks without opaque material, bond strength was significantly lower in ZR-AB specimens than in ZR-PO-AB and ZR-PO-HF specimens (P < 0.05). Feldspathic porcelain coating of a Katana zirconia framework enhanced the bond strength of Estenia C&B indirect composite to zirconia independent of surface treatment. The use of a silane coupling agent and opaque material yields durable bond strength between the indirect composite and feldspathic-porcelain-coated zirconia. The results of the present study suggest that feldspathic porcelain coating of zirconia frameworks is an effective method to obtain clinically acceptable bond strengths of a layering indirect

  13. Fracture loads and failure modes of customized and non-customized zirconia abutments.

    PubMed

    Moris, Izabela Cristina Maurício; Chen, Yung-Chung; Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Fok, Alex Sui-Lun; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira

    2018-05-05

    This study aimed to evaluate the fracture load and pattern of customized and non-customized zirconia abutments with Morse-taper connection. 18 implants were divided into 3 groups according to the abutments used: Zr - with non-customized zirconia abutments; Zrc - with customized zirconia abutments; and Ti - with titanium abutments. To test their load capacity, a universal test machine with a 500-kgf load cell and a 0.5-mm/min speed were used. After, one implant-abutment assembly from each group was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). For fractographic analysis, the specimens were transversely sectioned above the threads of the abutment screw in order to examine their fracture surfaces using SEM. A significant difference was noted between the groups (Zr=573.7±11.66N, Zrc=768.0±8.72N and Ti=659.1±7.70N). Also, the zirconia abutments fractured while the titanium abutments deformed plastically. Zrc presented fracture loads significantly higher than Zr (p=0.009). All the zirconia abutments fractured below the implant platform, starting from the area of contact between the abutment and implant and propagating to the internal surface of the abutment. All the zirconia abutments presented complete cleavage in the mechanical test. Fractography detected differences in the position and pattern of fracture between the two groups with zirconia abutments, probably because of the different diameters in the transmucosal region. Customization of zirconia abutments did not affect their fracture loads, which were comparable to that of titanium and much higher than the maximum physiological limit for the anterior region of the maxilla. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fracture resistance of inter-joined zirconia abutment of dental implant system with injection molding technique.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Ke; Liu, Guangyuan; Wang, Dashan

    2013-11-01

    Zirconia powder in nanometers can be fabricated into inter-joined abutment of dental implant system with the injection shaping technique. This study was to detect the resistance of inter-joined zirconia abutment with different angle loading for clinical applications. The inter-joined abutments were shaped with the technique of injection of zirconia powder in nanometers. Sixty Osstem GSII 5 × 10 mm implants were used with 30 zirconia abutments and 30 Osstem GSII titanium abutments for fixation using 40 N torque force. The loading applications included 90°, 30°, and 0° formed by the long axis of abutments and pressure head of universal test machine. The fracture resistances of zirconia and titanium abutments were documented and analyzed. The inter-joined zirconia abutments were assembled to the Osstem GSII implants successfully. In the 90° loading mode, the fracture resistance of zirconia abutment group and titanium abutment group were 301.5 ± 15.4 N and 736.4 ± 120.1 N, respectively. And those in the 30° groups were 434.7 ± 36.1 N and 1073.1 ± 74 N, correspondingly. Significant difference in the two groups was found using t-test and Wilcoxon test. No damage on the abutments of the two groups but S-shaped bending on the implants was found when the 0° loading was 1300-2000 N. Through the assembly of Zirconia abutments and implants, all the components presented sufficient resistance acquired for the clinical application under loadings with different angle. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Morphology of zirconia particles exposed to D.C. arc plasma jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, Isidor

    1987-01-01

    Zirconia particles were sprayed into water with an arc plasma gun in order to determine the effect of various gun operating parameters on their morphology. The collected particles were examined by XRD and SEM techniques. A correlation was established between the content of spherical (molten) particles and the operating parameters by visual inspection and regression analysis. It was determined that the composition of the arc gas and the power input were the predominant parameters that affected the melting of zirconia particles.

  16. [Preliminary evaluation of clinical effect of computer aided design and computer aided manufacture zirconia crown].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-guang; Xing, Yan-xi; Sun, Yu-chun; Zhao, Yi-jiao; Lü, Pei-jun; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate clinical effects of computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) milled zirconia crown in three aspects: aesthetic, contact wear and fracture. Sixty patients were divided into two groups.In one group, 35 full contour CAD/CAM zirconia crown were made on molars of 30 patients. The manufacturing process of zirconia crown was as follow. First, the three dimensional(3-D) data of working models, antagonist impression and check records were acquired by 3-D laser scanning Dental wings S50. Then full contour zirconia crowns, which had functional occlusal contacts with antagonistic teeth, and appropriate contact with adjacent teeth were designed with Zeno-CAD(V4.2.5.5.12919) software. ZENOSTAR Zr pure zirconia material was milled in digital controlled machine WIELAND 4030 M1.In the end, the zirconia crown were completed with the method of second sintering and polishing. After clinical try-in, the crown was cemented.In the control group, thirty gold alloy full crown were made and cemented on molars of 30 patients. According to the modified U S Public Health Service Criteria(USPHS) evaluation standard, all crowns were evaluated on the same day, at three months, half a year, one year and two years following delivery. There were three aspects we were focusing on in the evaluation: aesthetic, contact wear(restoration and antagonist), and fracture. In all the prosthesis we evaluated during the 24 months, no fracture was found. Contact wear of crowns varies according to different antagonist teeth. The zirconia crowns show privilege in aesthesis, toughness and anti-wearing.However, there is contact wear on antagonistic natural teeth. Thus it is a good choice when full zirconia crowns are indicated on two antagonistic teeth in both jaws.

  17. Effect of coping thickness and background type on the masking ability of a zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaian, Farhad; Taghizade, Fateme; Namdari, Mahshid

    2018-01-01

    The masking ability of zirconia ceramics as copings is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of coping thickness and background type on the masking ability of a zirconia ceramic and to determine zirconia coping thickness cut offs for masking the backgrounds investigated. Thirty zirconia disks in 3 thickness groups of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 mm were placed on 9 backgrounds to measure CIELab color attributes using a spectrophotometer. The backgrounds included A1, A2, and A3.5 shade composite resin, A3 shade zirconia, nickel-chromium alloy, nonprecious gold-colored alloy, amalgam, black, and white. ΔE values were measured to determine color differences between the specimens on the A2 shade composite resin background and the same specimens on the other backgrounds. The color change (ΔE) values were compared with threshold values for acceptability (ΔE=5.5) and perceptibility (ΔE=2.6). Repeated measures ANOVA, the Bonferroni test, and 1-sample t tests were used to analyze data (α=.05). Mean ΔE values ranged between 1.44 and 7.88. The zirconia coping thickness, the background type, and their interaction affected the CIELab and ΔE values (P<.001). To achieve ideal masking, the minimum thickness of a zirconia coping should be 0.4 mm for A1 and A3.5 shade composite resin, A3 shade zirconia, and nonprecious gold-colored alloy, 0.6 mm for amalgam, and 0.8 mm for nickel-chromium alloy. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Zirconia Ceramic Using Adhesive Primers.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Ariovaldo; Brito, Rui Barbosa; Kina, Sidney; Andrade, Oswaldo Scopin; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Carvalho, Andreia Assis; Giannini, Marcelo

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the influence of adhesive primers on the microshear bond strength of resin cements to zirconia ceramic. Fifty zirconia plates (12 mm × 5 mm × 1.5 mm thick) of a commercially available zirconium oxide ceramic (ZirCad) were sintered, sandblasted with aluminum oxide particles, and cleaned ultrasonically before bonding. The plates were randomly divided into five groups of 10. Three resin cements were selected (RelyX ARC, Multilink Automix, Clearfil SA Cement self-adhesive resin cement), along with two primers (Metal-Zirconia Primer, Alloy Primer) and one control group. The primers and resin cements were used according to manufacturers' recommendations. The control group comprised the conventional resin cement (RelyX ARC) without adhesive primer. Test cylinders (0.75 mm diameter × 1 mm high) were formed on zirconia surfaces by filling cylindrical Tygon tube molds with resin cement. The specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C, then tested for shear strength on a Shimadzu EZ Test testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. Bond strength data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Dunnett's test (5%). The bond strength means in MPa (± s.d.) were: RelyX ARC: 28.1 (6.6); Multilink Automix: 37.6 (4.5); Multilink Automix + Metal-Zirconia Primer: 55.7 (4.0); Clearfil SA Cement: 46.2 (3.3); and Clearfil SA Cement + Alloy Primer: 47.0 (4.1). Metal-Zirconia Primer increased the bond strength of Multilink Automix resin cement to zirconia, but no effect was observed for Alloy Primer using Clearfil SA Cement. RelyX ARC showed the lowest bond strength to zirconia. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Iron on mixed zirconia-titania substrate Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Paul N.; Nordquist, Andrew F.; Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1986-01-01

    A Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising iron co-deposited with or deposited on particles comprising a mixture of zirconia and titania, preferably formed by co-precipitation of compounds convertible to zirconia and titania, such as zirconium and titanium alkoxide. The invention also comprises the method of making this catalyst and an improved Fischer-Tropsch reaction process in which the catalyst is utilized.

  20. F-T process using an iron on mixed zirconia-titania supported catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Paul N.; Nordquist, Andrew F.; Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    A Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising iron co-deposited with or deposited on particles comprising a mixture of zirconia and titania, preferably formed by co-precipitation of compounds convertible to zirconia and titania, such as zirconium and titanium alkoxide. The invention also comprises the method of making this catalyst and an improved Fischer-Tropsch reaction process in which the catalyst is utilized.

  1. Computer-aided fabrication of a zirconia 14-unit removable dental prosthesis: a technical report.

    PubMed

    Grösser, Julian; Sachs, Caroline; Stadelmann, Markus; Schweiger, Josef; Güthe, Jan-Frederik; Beuer, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Double crown systems with primary crowns made from zirconia are used to support removable dental prostheses (RDPs). However, the fabrication of RDPs is labor-intensive and costly. Manufacturing primary and secondary crowns from zirconia with a CAD/CAM system might simplify the fabrication protocol and reduce costs. Furthermore, only ceramic materials are used in this method, providing an RDP with the highest possible biocompatibility and greatest possible esthetics. This article describes the fabrication protocol step by step.

  2. Bonding of Resin Cement to Zirconia with High Pressure Primer Coating

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-jie; Jiao, Kai; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Wei; Shen, Li-juan; Fang, Ming; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiang; Tay, Franklin R.; Chen, Ji-hua

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of air-drying pressure during ceramic primer coating on zirconia/resin bonding and the surface characteristics of the primed zirconia. Methods Two ceramic primers (Clearfil Ceramic Primer, CCP, Kuraray Medical Inc. and Z-Prime Plus, ZPP, Bisco Inc.) were applied on the surface of air-abraded zirconia (Katana zirconia, Noritake) and dried at 4 different air pressures (0.1–0.4 MPa). The primed zirconia ceramic specimens were bonded with a resin-based luting agent (SA Luting Cement, Kuraray). Micro-shear bond strengths of the bonded specimens were tested after 3 days of water storage or 5,000× thermocycling (n = 12). Failure modes of the fractured specimens were examined with scanning electron miscopy. The effects of air pressure on the thickness of the primer layers and the surface roughness (Sa) of primed zirconia were evaluated using spectroscopic ellipsometry (n = 6), optical profilometry and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) (n = 6), respectively. Results Clearfil Ceramic Primer air-dried at 0.3 and 0.4 MPa, yielding significantly higher µSBS than gentle air-drying subgroups (p<0.05). Compared to vigorous drying conditions, Z-Prime Plus air-dried at 0.2 MPa exhibited significantly higher µSBS (p<0.05). Increasing air-drying pressure reduced the film thickness for both primers. Profilometry measurements and ESEM showed rougher surfaces in the high pressure subgroups of CCP and intermediate pressure subgroup of ZPP. Conclusion Air-drying pressure influences resin/zirconia bond strength and durability significantly. Higher air-drying pressure (0.3-0.4 MPa) for CCP and intermediate pressure (0.2 MPa) for ZPP are recommended to produce strong, durable bonds between resin cement and zirconia ceramics. PMID:24992678

  3. Dual-Anode Nickel/Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, Randall F.; Ryan, Timothy P.

    1994-01-01

    Use of two hydrogen anodes in nickel/hydrogen cell reduces ohmic and concentration polarizations contributing to internal resistance, yielding cell with improved discharging performance compared to single-anode cell. Dual-anode concept incorporated into nickel/hydrogen cells of individual pressure-vessel type (for use aboard spacecraft) and common pressure-vessel type, for use on Earth to store electrical energy from photovoltaic sources, "uninterruptible" power supplies of computer and telephone systems, electric vehicles, and load leveling on power lines. Also applicable to silver/hydrogen and other metal/gas batteries.

  4. Anode materials for electrochemical waste destruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molton, Peter M.; Clarke, Clayton

    1990-01-01

    Electrochemical Oxidation (ECO) offers promise as a low-temperature, atmospheric pressure method for safe destruction of hazardous organic chemical wastes in water. Anode materials tend to suffer corrosion in the intensely oxidizing environment of the ECO cell. There is a need for cheaper, more resistant materials. In this experiment, a system is described for testing anode materials, with examples of several common anodes such as stainless steel, graphite, and platinized titanium. The ECO system is simple and s