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Sample records for zirconia-based solid state

  1. Validating the technological feasibility of yttria-stabilized zirconia-based semiconducting-ionic composite in intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yixiao; Wang, Baoyuan; Wang, Yi; Xia, Chen; Qiao, Jinli; van Aken, Peter A.; Zhu, Bin; Lund, Peter

    2018-04-01

    YSZ as the electrolyte of choice has dominated the progressive development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technologies for many years. To enable SOFCs operating at intermediate temperatures of 600 °C or below, major technical advances were built on a foundation of a thin-film YSZ electrolyte, NiO anode, and perovskite cathode, e.g. La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (LSCF). Inspired by functionalities in engineered heterostructure interfaces, the present work uses the components from state-of-the-art SOFCs, i.e, the anode NiO-YSZ and the cathode LSCF-YSZ, or the convergence of all three components, i.e., NiO-YSZ-LSCF, to fabricate semiconductor-ionic membranes (SIMs) and devices. A series of proof-of-concept fuel cell devices are designed by using each of the above SIMs sandwiched between two semiconducting Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05LiO2-δ (NCAL) layers. We systematically compare these novel designs at 600 °C with two reference fuel cells: a commercial product of anode-supported YSZ electrolyte thin-film cell, and a lab-assembled fuel cell with a conventional configuration of NiO-YSZ (anode)/YSZ (electrolyte)/LSCF-YSZ (cathode). In comparison to the reference cells, the SIM device in a configuration of NCAL/NiO-YSZ-LSCF/NCAL reaches more than 3-fold enhancement of the maximum power output. By using spherical aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy approaches, this work offers insight into the mechanisms underlying SIM-associated SOFC performance enhancement.

  2. The Organic Solid State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Dwaine O.; Wlygul, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews interesting and useful electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of the organic solid state. Offers speculation as to areas of fruitful research. Discusses organic superconductors, conducting organic polymers, organic metals, and traces recent history of creation of organic metals. (JM)

  3. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T.; Dreifuerst, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  4. Solid-State Nanopore.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhishan; Wang, Chengyong; Yi, Xin; Ni, Zhonghua; Chen, Yunfei; Li, Tie

    2018-02-20

    Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: "top-down" etching technology and "bottom-up" shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  5. Solid-State Nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhishan; Wang, Chengyong; Yi, Xin; Ni, Zhonghua; Chen, Yunfei; Li, Tie

    2018-02-01

    Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: "top-down" etching technology and "bottom-up" shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  6. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  7. Solid-State Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine Corps enlisted personnel with the principles of solid-state devices and their functions. The course contains four study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work…

  8. Solid State Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Titan-CW Ti:sapphire (titanium-doped sapphire) tunable laser is an innovation in solid-state laser technology jointly developed by the Research and Solid State Laser Divisions of Schwartz Electro-optics, Inc. (SEO). SEO is producing the laser for the commercial market, an outgrowth of a program sponsored by Langley Research Center to develop Ti:sapphire technology for space use. SEO's Titan-CW series of Ti:sapphire tunable lasers have applicability in analytical equipment designed for qualitative analysis of carbohydrates and proteins, structural analysis of water, starch/sugar analyses, and measurements of salt in meat. Further applications are expected in semiconductor manufacture, in medicine for diagnosis and therapy, and in biochemistry.

  9. Solid State Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-07

    Excimer-Laser Projection Lithography 38 4.5 Observation of Millimeter-Wave Oscillations from Resonant- Tunneling Diodes and Some Theroretical...and SIMOX Circuits 32 4-1 Resonant Tunneling Diode Parameters 41 XI INTRODUCTION 1. SOLID STATE DEVICE RESEARCH Optoelectronic switches have...radiation and reflective optics. Oscillation frequencies as high as 56 GHz have been observed from resonant- tunneling double- barrier diodes. Recent

  10. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Chung, Brandon W.; Raistrick, Ian D.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  11. Solid State Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-21

    266-nm, l-,W, 500-ps laser pulse from a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG microchip laser operating at 10 kHz. Fluorescence and elastic scattering from the...on Solid State Research xv Organization xxiii QUANTUM ELECTRONICS 1.1 Fluorescence-Cued Laser -Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Detection of Bioaerosols...2. ELECTRO-OfI’ICAL MATERIALS AND DEVICES 2.1 Narrow-Linewidth, High-Power 1556-nm Slab-Coupled Optical Waveguide External-Cavity Laser 7 3

  12. Solid State Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-23

    pumped at frequencies up to 5.5 kHz (with 10-W pumping). At high pulse repetition rates the radius of the beam waist decreases to ~60 jum, owing to...1998) A 1.3-GHz SOI CMOS Test Chip for R. Berger Low-Power High -Speed Pulse W. G. Lyons Processing A. M. Soares IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits...Goodhue D. E. Mull J. M. Rossler Y. Royter C.G.Fonstad* /. Vac. Sei. Technol. Modeling the Microwave Impedance of High -Tc Long Josephson

  13. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1983-08-09

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

  14. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  15. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  16. Solid State Humidity Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Song-Lin

    There are only a few solid state humidity sensors available today. Most of those sensors use a porous oxide material as a principal part of the device. The devices work on the basis of a change in resistance as the moisture in the air varies. In this experiment, two solid state humidity sensors have been developed for use under practical conditions. One is a Polymer Oxide Semiconductor device with a POLYOX film that absorbs the moisture from the air. The amount of water dipoles absorbed by the polymer is a function of relative humidity. This sensor can measure relative humidity from 20% to 90%. The other is a Dew Point sensor. The sensor is in contact with the upper surface of a miniature Peltier cooler. Water molecules deposited on the sensor surface cause the electrical current through the sensor to increase. The operator adjusts the temperature of the Peltier cooler until a saturated current through the sensor is reached. About one min. is required to measure low relative humidities. The Dew Point sensor can measure a range of relative humidities of 30% to 80%.

  17. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  18. Polarized Solid State Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutz, Hartmut; Goertz, Stefan; Meyer, Werner

    2017-01-01

    The polarized solid state target is an indispensable experimental tool to study single and double polarization observables at low intensity particle beams like tagged photons. It was one of the major components of the Crystal-Barrel experiment at ELSA. Besides the operation of the 'CB frozen spin target' within the experimental program of the Crystal-Barrel collaboration both collaborative groups of the D1 project, the polarized target group of the Ruhr Universität Bochum and the Bonn polarized target group, have made significant developments in the field of polarized targets within the CRC16. The Bonn polarized target group has focused its work on the development of technically challenging polarized solid target systems towards the so called '4π continuous mode polarized target' to operate them in combination with 4π-particle detection systems. In parallel, the Bochum group has developed various highly polarized deuterated target materials and high precision NMR-systems, in the meantime used for polarization experiments at CERN, JLAB and MAMI, too.

  19. Solid state microdosimetry.

    PubMed

    Bradley, P D; Rosenfeld, A B; Zaider, M

    2001-09-01

    A review of solid state microdosimetry is presented with an emphasis on silicon-based devices. The historical foundations and basics of microdosimetry are briefly provided. Various methods of experimental regional microdosimetry are discussed to facilitate a comparison with the more recent development of silicon microdosimetry. In particular, the performance characteristics of a proportional gas counter and a silicon microdosimeter are compared. Recent improvements in silicon microdosimetry address the issues of requirement specification, non-spherical shape, tissue equivalence, sensitive volume definition (charge collection complexity) and low noise requirements which have previously impeded the implementation of silicon-based microdosimetry. A prototype based on silicon-on-insulator technology is described along with some example results from clinical high LET radiotherapy facilities. A brief summary of the applications of microdosimetry is included. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Solid state rapid thermocycling

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2014-05-13

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

  1. Solid state television camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a solid state television camera using a new charge-coupled imaging device are reported. An RCA charge-coupled device arranged in a 512 by 320 format and directly compatible with EIA format standards was the sensor selected. This is a three-phase, sealed surface-channel array that has 163,840 sensor elements, which employs a vertical frame transfer system for image readout. Included are test results of the complete camera system, circuit description and changes to such circuits as a result of integration and test, maintenance and operation section, recommendations to improve the camera system, and a complete set of electrical and mechanical drawing sketches.

  2. Solid state power controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The rationale, analysis, design, breadboarding and testing of the incremental functional requirements are reported that led to the development of prototype 1 and 5 Amp dc and 1 Amp ac solid state power controllers (SSPC's). The SSPC's are to be considered for use as a replacement of electro-mechanical relays and circuit breakers in future spacecraft and aircraft. They satisfy the combined function of both the relay and circuit breaker and can be remotely controlled by small signals, typically 10 mA, 5 to 28 Vdc. They have the advantage over conventional relay/circuit breaker systems in that they can be located near utilization equipment and the primary ac or dc bus. The low level control, trip indication and status signals can be circuited by small guage wire for control, computer interface, logic, electrical multiplexing, unboard testing, and power management and distribution purposes. This results in increased system versatility at appreciable weight saving and increased reliability.

  3. Solid State Ultracapacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolin, Terry D.

    2015-01-01

    NASA analyzes, tests, packages, and fabricates electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts used in space vehicles. One area that NASA wishes to advance is energy storage and delivery. Currently, space vehicles use rechargeable batteries that utilize silver zinc or lithium ion electrochemical processes. These current state-of-the-art rechargeable batteries cannot be rapidly charged, contain harmful chemicals, and suffer from early wear-out mechanisms. A solid state ultracapacitor is an EEE part that offers significant advantages over current electrochemical and electrolytic devices. The objective of this research is to develop an internal barrier layer ultracapacitor (IBLC) using novel dielectric materials as a battery replacement with a focus on these advantages: longer life, lower mass-toweight ratio, rapid charging, on-demand pulse power, improved on-pad standby time without maintenance, and environmental friendliness. The approach is unique in two areas. A deposition technique is used that has been shown to produce a more uniformly coated nanoparticle than sol-gel, which has resulted in colossal permittivities. These particles are then distributed in an ink formulation developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and deposited utilizing a 3D aerosol jet technique. This additive manufacturing technique controls layer thickness, resulting in extremely large capacitance and energy density.

  4. A Solid State Pyranometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  5. Solid state laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rines, Glen A. (Inventor); Moulton, Peter F. (Inventor); Harrison, James (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A wavelength-tunable, injection-seeded, dispersion-compensated, dispersively-pumped solid state laser includes a lasing medium; a highly reflective mirror; an output coupler; at least one isosceles Brewster prism oriented to the minimum deviation angle between the medium and the mirror for directing light of different wavelengths along different paths; means for varying the angle of the highly reflective mirror relative to the light from at least one Brewster angle for selecting a predetermined laser operating wavelength; a dispersion compensation apparatus associated with the lasing medium; a laser injection seeding port disposed between the dispersion compensation apparatus and one of the mirror and coupler and including a reflective surface at an acute non-Brewster angle to the laser beam for introducing a seed input; a dispersion compensation apparatus associated with the laser medium including opposite chirality optical elements; the lasing medium including a pump surface disposed at an acute angle to the laser beam to define a discrete path for the pumping laser beam separate from the pumped laser beam.

  6. Solid state power controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Solid state power controllers (SSPC's) are to be considered for use as replacements of electromechanical relays and circuit breakers in future spacecraft and aircraft. They satisfy the combined function of both the relay and circuit breaker and can be remotely controlled by small signals, typically 10 mA, 5 to 28 v(dc). They have the advantage over conventional relay/circuit breaker systems in that they can be located near the utilization equipment and the primary ac or dc bus. The low level control, trip indication and status signals can be circuited by small gauge wire for control, computer interface, logic, electrical multiplexing, onboard testing, power management, and distribution purposes. This results in increased system versatility at appreciable weight saving and increased reliability. Conventional systems require the heavy gage load wiring and the control wiring to be routed from the bus to the load to other remote relay contacts, switches, sensors, etc. and to the circuit breaker located in the flight engineer's compartment for purposes of manual reset.

  7. Solid state electrochemical current source

    DOEpatents

    Potanin, Alexander Arkadyevich; Vedeneev, Nikolai Ivanovich

    2002-04-30

    A cathode and a solid state electrochemical cell comprising said cathode, a solid anode and solid fluoride ion conducting electrolyte. The cathode comprises a metal oxide and a compound fluoride containing at least two metals with different valences. Representative compound fluorides include solid solutions of bismuth fluoride and potassium fluoride; and lead fluoride and potassium fluoride. Representative metal oxides include copper oxide, lead oxide, manganese oxide, vanadium oxide and silver oxide.

  8. Development of zirconia based phosphors for application in lighting and as luminescent bioprobes =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Maria Rosa Nunes

    The strong progress evidenced in photonic and optoelectronic areas, accompanied by an exponential development in the nanoscience and nanotechnology, gave rise to an increasing demand for efficient luminescent materials with more and more exigent characteristics. In this field, wide band gap hosts doped with lanthanide ions represent a class of luminescent materials with a strong technological importance. Within wide band gap material, zirconia owns a combination of physical and chemical properties that potentiate it as an excellent host for the aforementioned ions, envisaging its use in different areas, including in lighting and optical sensors applications, such as pressure sensors and biosensors. Following the demand for outstanding luminescent materials, there is also a request for fast, economic and an easy scale-up process for their production. Regarding these demands, laser floating zone, solution combustion synthesis and pulsed laser ablation in liquid techniques are explored in this thesis for the production of single crystals, nanopowders and nanoparticles of lanthanides doped zirconia based hosts. Simultaneously, a detailed study of the morphological, structural and optical properties of the produced materials is made. The luminescent characteristics of zirconia and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) doped with different lanthanide ions (Ce3+ (4f1), Pr3+ (4f2), Sm3+ (4f5), Eu3+ (4f6), Tb3+ (4f8), Dy3+ (4f9), Er3+ (4f11), Tm3+ (4f12), Yb3+ (4f13)) and co-doped with Er3+,Yb3+ and Tm3+,Yb3+ are analysed. Besides the Stokes luminescence, the anti- Stokes emission upon infrared excitation (upconversion and black body radiation) is also analysed and discussed. The comparison of the luminescence characteristics in materials with different dimensions allowed to analyse the effect of size in the luminescent properties of the dopant lanthanide ions. The potentialities of application of the produced luminescent materials in solid state light, biosensors and pressure

  9. Glass for Solid State Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    Glass film has low intrinsic compressive stress for isolating active layers of magnetic-bubble and other solid-state devices. Solid-state device structure incorporates low-stress glasses as barrier and spacer layers. Glass layers mechanically isolate substrate, conductor, and nickel/iron layers.

  10. Evaluation of a new carbon/zirconia-based sorbent for the cleanup of food extracts in multiclass analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel carbon/zirconia based material, SupelTM QuE Verde (Verde), was evaluated in a filter-vial dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) cleanup of QuEChERS extracts of pork, salmon, kale, and avocado for residual analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants. Low pressure (LP) GC-MS/MS w...

  11. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. INVITED PAPERS * Diffusion of Cations and Anions in Solid Electrolytes * Silver Ion Conductors in the Crystalline State * NMR Studies of Superionic Conductors * Hall Effect and Thermoelectric Power in High Tc Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O Ceramics * Solid Electrolyte Materials Prepared by Sol-Gel Chemistry * Preparation of Proton-Conducting Gel Films and their Application to Electrochromic Devices * Thin Film Fuel Cells * Zirconia based Solid Oxide Ion Conductors in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * The Influence of Anion Substitution on Some Phosphate-based Ion Conducting Glasses * Lithium Intercalation in Carbon Electrodes and its Relevance in Rocking Chair Batteries * Chemical Sensors using Proton Conducting Ceramics * NMR/NQR Studies of Y-Ba-Cu-O Superconductors * Silver Molybdate Glasses and Battery Systems * New Highly Conducting Polymer Ionics and their Application in Electrochemical Devices * Study of Li Electrokinetics on Oligomeric Electrolytes using Microelectrodes * Calculation of Conductivity for Mixed-Phase Electrolytes PEO-MX-Immiscible Additive by Means of Effective Medium Theory * II. CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Phase Relationship and Electrical Conductivity of Sr-V-O System with Vanadium Suboxide * Amorphous Li+ Ionic Conductors in Li2SO4-Li2O-P2O5 System * Fast Ion Transport in KCl-Al2O3 Composites * The Effect of the Second Phase Precipitation on the Ionic Conductivity of Zr0.85Mg0.15O1.85 * Conductivity Measurements and Phase Relationships in CaCl2-CaHCl Solid Electrolyte * Relationships Between Crystal Structure and Sodium Ion Conductivity in Na7Fe4(AsO4)6 and Na3Al2(AsO4)3 * Electrical Conductivity and Solubility Limit of Ti4+ Ion in Na1+x TiyZr2-ySixP3-xO12 System * Study on Sodium Fast Ion Conductors of Na1+3xAlxTi2-xSi2xP3-2xO12 System * Influences of Zirconia on the Properties of β''-Alumina Ceramics * Decay of Luminescence from Cr3+ Ions in β-Alumina * Lithium Ion Conductivity in the Li4XO4-Li2

  12. Solid State Sciences Committee Forum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    3. REPOT TYPE AND CATES COVERED I Final Report 01 Mar 91-29 Feb 92 4. MrlLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNOG4 NUMBERS SOLID STATE SCIENCES COMMITTEE FORUM AFOSR...lON IU2EM , Appeved kv pub~e We=% I3. ABSTRACT (MaOimum 200 wovij The 1991 SSSC Forum was conductted under the auspices of the Board on Physics and...Astronomy’s Solid State Sciences Committe (SSSC) and cosponsored with the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The Forum was the culmination of a

  13. Advances in Solid State Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Bernhard

    The present volume 45 of Advances in Solid-State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft in the World Year of Physics 2005, the Einstein Year, which was held from 4 - 11 March 2005 in Berlin, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The book presents, to some extent, the status of the field of solid-state physics in 2005 not only in Germany but also internationally.

  14. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOEpatents

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  15. Zirconia based dental ceramics: structure, mechanical properties, biocompatibility and applications.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Chandkiram; Joyner, Jarin; Gautam, Amarendra; Rao, Jitendra; Vajtai, Robert

    2016-12-06

    Zirconia (ZrO 2 ) based dental ceramics have been considered to be advantageous materials with adequate mechanical properties for the manufacturing of medical devices. Due to its very high compression strength of 2000 MPa, ZrO 2 can resist differing mechanical environments. During the crack propagation on the application of stress on the surface of ZrO 2 , a crystalline modification diminishes the propagation of cracks. In addition, zirconia's biocompatibility has been studied in vivo, leading to the observation of no adverse response upon the insertion of ZrO 2 samples into the bone or muscle. In vitro experimentation has exhibited the absence of mutations and good viability of cells cultured on this material leading to the use of ZrO 2 in the manufacturing of hip head prostheses. The mechanical properties of zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPDs) have proven to be superior to other ceramic/composite restorations and hence leading to their significant applications in implant supported rehabilitations. Recent developments were focused on the synthesis of zirconia based dental materials. More recently, zirconia has been introduced in prosthetic dentistry for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures in combination with computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. This systematic review covers the results of past as well as recent scientific studies on the properties of zirconia based ceramics such as their specific compositions, microstructures, mechanical strength, biocompatibility and other applications in dentistry.

  16. Solid-state radioluminescent compositions

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L.; Gill, John T.; Hawkins, Daniel B.; Renschler, Clifford L.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Smith, Henry M.

    1991-01-01

    A solid state radioluminescent composition for light source comprises an optically clear polymer organic matrix containing tritiated organic materials and dyes capable of "red" shifting primary scintillation emissions from the polymer matrix. The tritiated organic materials are made by reducing, with tritium, an unsaturated organic compound that prior to reduction contains olefinic or alkynylic bonds.

  17. Solid-state power controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, D. A.; Fullemann, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Compact, solid state, electric-power controller switches power on and off at remote load, limits current drawn by load, and shuts off (with 2- to 3- second trip time) in case of short circuit. Lightweight efficient hybrid unit operates at 28 volts dc and at maximum currents of from 3 to 2 amperes.

  18. Versatile solid-state relay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Solid-state relay (SSR), containing multinode control logic, is operated as normally open, normally closed, or latched. Moreover several can be paralleled to form two-pole or double-throw relays. Versatile unit ends need to design custom control circuit for every relay application. Technique can be extended to incorporate selectable time delay, on operation or release, or pulsed output.

  19. Barochemistry: Predictive Solid State Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Choong-Shik

    The application of compression energy comparable to that of chemical bonds, but substantially greater than those of defects and grain boundaries in solids allows us to pursue novel concepts of high-pressure chemistry (or barochemistry) in materials development by design. At such extreme pressures, simple molecular solids covert into densely packed extended network structures that can be predicted from first principles. In recent years, a significant number of new materials and novel extended structures have been designed and discovered in highly compressed states of the first- and second- row elemental solids, including Li, C, H2,N2, O2, CO, CO2, and H2O. These extended solids are extremely hard, have high energy density, and exhibit novel electronic and nonlinear optical properties that are superior to other known materials at ambient conditions. However, these materials are often formed at formidable pressures and are highly metastable at ambient conditions; only a few systems have been recovered, limiting the materials within a realm of fundamental scientific discoveries. Therefore, an exciting new research area has emerged on the barochemistry to understand and, ultimately, control the stability, bonding, structure, and properties of low Z extended solids. In this paper, we will present our recent research to develop hybrid low Z extended solids amenable to scale up synthesis and ambient stabilization, utilizing kinetically controlled processes in dense solid mixtures and discuss the governing fundamental principles of barochemistry. This work was performed in support of the NSF (DMR-1203834), DTRA (HDTRA1-12-01-0020), and DARPA (W31P4Q-12-1-0009).

  20. Solid-state membrane module

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  1. Solid-state membrane module

    DOEpatents

    Hinklin, Thomas Ray; Lewinsohn, Charles Arthur

    2015-06-30

    A module for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture comprising planar solid-state membrane units, each membrane unit comprising planar dense mixed conducting oxides layers, planar channel-free porous support layers, and one or more planar intermediate support layers comprising at least one channeled porous support layer. The porosity of the planar channeled porous support layers is less than the porosity of the planar channel-free porous support layers.

  2. Solid-State Quantum Refrigeration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    i n a l Te c h n... i c a l Re p o r t Name of Grantee: Northwestern University Grant Title: Solid-State Quantum Refrigeration Grant #: FA9550-09-1...200 -150 -100 -50 0 Anglewavelength b a c k c o u p lin g i n to th e w a v e g u id e l o s s ( d B ) Figure 8. results of a) percentage

  3. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  4. Solid-state proton conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewulski, J. R.; Osif, T. L.; Remick, R. J.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling, and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies are described which include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells are presented which include the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms.

  5. A Novel Solid State Ultracapacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cortes-Pena, A. Y.; Rolin, T. D.; Hill, C. W.

    2017-01-01

    Novel dielectric materials were researched to develop an internal barrier layer capacitor that is fully solid state. These materials included reduced nanoparticles of barium titanate that were coated with various atomic layer deposited oxides. The nanoparticle powders were then densified into pellets and characterized using a dielectric test fixture over a frequency range of 20 Hz to 2 MHz. Densification and sintering were evaluated using scanning electron microscopic techniques. Ultimately, the samples showing the most promising electrical characteristics of permittivity, dissipation factor and equivalent series resistance were chosen to manufacture devices for subsequent testing.

  6. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1990-01-01

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  7. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1993-01-01

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  8. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1993-12-07

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  9. Solid-state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1981-01-07

    A solid state optical microscope is described wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. Means for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions are provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  10. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, S.F.; Rauh, R.D.

    1990-07-03

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counter electrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films. 4 figs.

  11. Solid state photochemistry of polycarbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, A.; Rembaum, A.; Moacanin, J.

    1978-01-01

    The quantum yield of photoFries rearrangement in a polycarbonate film has been analyzed as a function of temperature and humidity on the basis of previously reported (Koyler and Mann, 1977) experimental data. Results indicate that in the homogeneous amorphous phase, photoFries rearrangement is a concerted process proceeding either from the pi star reversed arrow n singlet, in which case it must be subject to considerable self quenching, or from a triplet, presumably the first triplet since the lifetime of higher triplets is expected to be very short in the solid phase. If the parent excited state is the first triplet, chain scission is possibly an independent process, probably occurring from the pi star reversed arrow n singlet. Evidence of chain scission on photodegradation in the solid state includes loss of C-O and C-C bond intensities revealed in the Fourier transform infrared spectra, gel permeation chromotography elution profiles of degraded film samples dissolved in CHCl3, and a decrease in tensile strength and T sub g as photodegradation proceeds. Chain scission is apparently inhibited as photoFries products accumulate.

  12. Innovations in bonding to zirconia-based materials: Part I.

    PubMed

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Matinlinna, Jukka P; Salameh, Ziad; Ounsi, Hani

    2008-09-01

    Establishing a reliable bond to zirconia-based materials has proven to be difficult which is the major limitation against fabricating adhesive zirconia restorations. This bond could be improved using novel selective infiltration etching conditioning in combination with engineered zirconia primers. Aim of the work was to evaluate resin-to-zirconia bond strength using selective infiltration etching and novel silane-based zirconia primers. Zirconia discs (Procera Zirconia) received selective infiltration etching surface treatment followed by coating with either of five especially engineered experimental zirconia primers. Pre-aged resin-composite discs (Tetric Ivo Ceram) were bonded to the treated surface using an MDP-containing resin-composite (Panavia F 2.0). The bilayered specimens were cut into microbars and the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) was evaluated. 'As-sintered' zirconia discs served as a control (alpha=0.05). The broken microbars were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The combination of selective infiltration etching with experimental zirconia primers significantly improved (F=3805, P<0.0001) the MTBS values (41+/-5.8 MPa) compared to the 'as-sintered' surface using the same primers which demonstrated spontaneous failure and very low bond strength values (2.6+/-3.1 MPa). SEM analysis revealed that selective infiltration etching surface treatment resulted in a nano-retentive surface where the zirconia primers were able to penetrate and interlock which explained the higher MTBS values observed for the treated specimens.

  13. Solid State Lighting Program (Falcon)

    SciTech Connect

    Meeks, Steven

    2012-06-30

    Over the past two years, KLA-Tencor and partners successfully developed and deployed software and hardware tools that increase product yield for High Brightness LED (HBLED) manufacturing and reduce product development and factory ramp times. This report summarizes our development effort and details of how the results of the Solid State Light Program (Falcon) have started to help HBLED manufacturers optimize process control by enabling them to flag and correct identified killer defect conditions at any point of origin in the process manufacturing flow. This constitutes a quantum leap in yield management over current practice. Current practice consists of die dispositioningmore » which is just rejection of bad die at end of process based upon probe tests, loosely assisted by optical in-line monitoring for gross process deficiencies. For the first time, and as a result of our Solid State Lighting Program, our LED manufacturing partners have obtained the software and hardware tools that optimize individual process steps to control killer defects at the point in the processes where they originate. Products developed during our two year program enable optimized inspection strategies for many product lines to minimize cost and maximize yield. The Solid State Lighting Program was structured in three phases: i) the development of advanced imaging modes that achieve clear separation between LED defect types, improves signal to noise and scan rates, and minimizes nuisance defects for both front end and back end inspection tools, ii) the creation of defect source analysis (DSA) software that connect the defect maps from back-end and front-end HBLED manufacturing tools to permit the automatic overlay and traceability of defects between tools and process steps, suppress nuisance defects, and identify the origin of killer defects with process step and conditions, and iii) working with partners (Philips Lumileds) on product wafers, obtain a detailed statistical correlation of

  14. Solid-state radar switchboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiebaud, P.; Cross, D. C.

    1980-07-01

    A new solid-state radar switchboard equipped with 16 input ports which will output data to 16 displays is presented. Each of the ports will handle a single two-dimensional radar input, or three ports will accommodate a three-dimensional radar input. A video switch card of the switchboard is used to switch all signals, with the exception of the IFF-mode-control lines. Each card accepts inputs from up to 16 sources and can pass a signal with bandwidth greater than 20 MHz to the display assigned to that card. The synchro amplifier of current systems has been eliminated and in the new design each PPI receives radar data via a single coaxial cable. This significant reduction in cabling is achieved by adding a serial-to-parallel interface and a digital-to-synchro converter located at the PPI.

  15. Study of solid state photomultiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, K. M.; Laviolette, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Available solid state photomultiplier (SSPM) detectors were tested under low-background, low temperature conditions to determine the conditions producing optimal sensitivity in a space-based astronomy system such as a liquid cooled helium telescope in orbit. Detector temperatures varied between 6 and 9 K, with background flux ranging from 10 to the 13th power to less than 10 to the 6th power photons/square cm-s. Measured parameters included quantum efficiency, noise, dark current, and spectral response. Experimental data were reduced, analyzed, and combined with existing data to build the SSPM data base included herein. The results were compared to analytical models of SSPM performance where appropriate models existed. Analytical models presented here were developed to be as consistent with the data base as practicable. Significant differences between the theory and data are described. Some models were developed or updated as a result of this study.

  16. Solid state VRX CT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBianca, Frank A.; Melnyk, Roman; Sambari, Aniket; Jordan, Lawrence M.; Laughter, Joseph S.; Zou, Ping

    2000-04-01

    A technique called Variable-Resolution X-ray (VRX) detection that greatly increases the spatial resolution in computed tomography (CT) and digital radiography (DR) is presented. The technique is based on a principle called 'projective compression' that allows the resolution element of a CT detector to scale with the subject or field size. For very large (40 - 50 cm) field sizes, resolution exceeding 2 cy/mm is possible and for very small fields, microscopy is attainable with resolution exceeding 100 cy/mm. Preliminary results from a 576-channel solid-state detector are presented. The detector has a dual-arm geometry and is comprised of CdWO4 scintillator crystals arranged in 24 modules of 24 channels/module. The scintillators are 0.85 mm wide and placed on 1 mm centers. Measurements of signal level, MTF and SNR, all versus detector angle, are presented.

  17. Extending solid state laser performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miesak, Ed

    2017-02-01

    Coherent Diode-Pumped Solid-State Orlando (CDO), formerly known as Lee Laser, headquartered in Orlando Florida produces CW and pulsed solid state lasers. Primary wavelengths include 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. Other wavelengths produced include 1320 nm, 15xx nm, and 16xx nm. Pulse widths are in the range of singles to hundreds of nanoseconds. Average powers are in the range of a few watts to 1000 watts. Pulse repetition rates are typically in the range of 100 Hz to 100 KHz. Laser performance parameters are often modified according to customer requests. Laser parameters that can be adjusted include average power, pulse repetition rate, pulse length, beam quality, and wavelength. Laser parameters are typically cross-coupled such that adjusting one may change some or all of the others. Customers often request one or more parameters be changed without changing any of the remaining parameters. CDO has learned how to accomplish this successfully with rapid turn-around times and minimal cost impact. The experience gained by accommodating customer requests has produced a textbook of cause and effect combinations of laser components to accomplish almost any parameter change request. Understanding the relationships between component combinations provides valuable insight into lasing effects allowing designers to extend laser performance beyond what is currently available. This has led to several break through products, i.e. >150W average power 355 nm, >60W average power 6 ps 1064 nm, pulse lengths longer than 400 ns at 532 nm with average power >100W, >400W 532 nm with pulse lengths in the 100 ns range.

  18. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    DOEpatents

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  19. Solid State Research, 1980:1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-15

    ESD-TR-79-325 H 1 Solid State Research 1980 Prepared under Electronic Systems Division Contract FI%28-80-C-0002 by Lincoln Laboratory MASSkCHIISETTS...it is no longer needed. MASSACHUSETTS IN*STITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY LINCOLN LABORATORY V SOLID STATE RESEARCH QUARTERLY TECHNICAL SUMMARY REPORT I NOVEMBER...January 1990. The topics covered a-e Solid State Device Research , Quantum Electronics, Materials Rese.rch, Microelec- tronics, and Analog Device

  20. High temperature solid state storage cell

    DOEpatents

    Rea, Jesse R.; Kallianidis, Milton; Kelsey, G. Stephen

    1983-01-01

    A completely solid state high temperature storage cell comprised of a solid rechargeable cathode such as TiS.sub.2, a solid electrolyte which remains solid at the high temperature operating conditions of the cell and which exhibits high ionic conductivity at such elevated temperatures such as an electrolyte comprised of lithium iodide, and a solid lithium or other alkali metal alloy anode (such as a lithium-silicon alloy) with 5-50% by weight of said anode being comprised of said solid electrolyte.

  1. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  2. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1986-01-01

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  3. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "positive" terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "negative" terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  4. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-02-23

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating positive'' terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating negative'' terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  5. A GdAlO3 Perovskite Oxide Electrolyte-Based NOx Solid-State Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yihong; Wang, Dongmei; Cai, Guohui; Zheng, Yong; Zhong, Fulan

    2016-11-01

    NOx is a notorious emission from motor vehicles and chemical factories as the precursor of acid rain and photochemical smog. Although zirconia-based NOx sensors have been developed and showed high sensitivity and selectivity at a high temperature of above 800 °C, they fail to show good performance, and even don’t work at the typical work temperature window of the automotive engine (<500 °C). It still is a formidable challenge for development of mild-temperature NOx detector or sensor. Herein, a novel amperometric solid-state NOx sensor was developed using perovskite-type oxide Gd1-xCaxAlO3-δ(GCA) as the electrolyte and NiO as the sensing electrode. NOx sensing properties of the device were investigated at the temperature region of 400-500 °C. The response current value at -300 mV was almost linearly proportional to the NOx concentration between 300 and 500 ppm at 500 °C. At such a temperature, the optimal sensor gave the highest NO2 sensitivity of 20.15 nA/ppm, and the maximum response current value reached 5.57 μA. Furthermore, a 90% response and 90% recover time to 500 ppm NO2 were about 119 and 92 s, respectively. The excellent selectivity and stability towards NOx sensing showed the potential application of the sensor in motor vehicles.

  6. Solid state recorders for airborne reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klang, Mark R.

    2003-08-01

    Solid state recorders have become the recorder of choice for meeting airborne ruggedized requirements for reconnaissance and flight test. The cost of solid state recorders have decreased over the past few years that they are now less expense than the traditional high speed tape recorders. CALCULEX, Inc manufactures solid state recorders called MONSSTR (Modular Non-volatile Solid State Recorder). MONSSTR is being used on many different platforms such as F/A-22, Global Hawk, F-14, F-15, F-16, U-2, RF-4, and Tornado. This paper will discuss the advantages of using solid state recorders to meet the airborne reconnaissance requirement and the ability to record instrumentation data. The CALCULEX recorder has the ability to record sensor data and flight test data in the same chassis. This is an important feature because it eliminates additional boxes on the aircraft. The major advantages to using a solid state recorder include; reliability, small size, light weight, and power. Solid state recorders also have a larger storage capacity and higher bandwidth capability than other recording devices.

  7. Solid-state diffusion in amorphous zirconolite

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-11-14

    We discuss how structural disorder and amorphization affect solid-state diffusion, and consider zirconolite as a currently important case study. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we disentangle the effects of amorphization and density, and show that a profound increase of solid-state diffusion takes place as a result of amorphization. Importantly, this can take place at the same density as in the crystal, representing an interesting general insight regarding solid-state diffusion. We find that decreasing the density in the amorphous system increases pre-factors of diffusion constants, but does not change the activation energy in the density range considered. We also findmore » that atomic species in zirconolite are affected differently by amorphization and density change. Our microscopic insights are relevant for understanding how solid-state diffusion changes due to disorder and for building predictive models of operation of materials to be used to encapsulate nuclear waste.« less

  8. Solid state laser technology - A NASA perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allario, F.

    1985-01-01

    NASA's program for developing solid-state laser technology and applying it to the Space Shuttle and Space Platform is discussed. Solid-state lasers are required to fulfill the Earth Observation System's requirements. The role of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology in developing a NASA tunable solid-state laser program is described. The major goals of the program involve developing a solid-state pump laser in the green, using AlGaAs array technology, pumping a Nd:YAG/SLAB crystal or glass, and fabricating a lidar system, with either a CO2 laser at 10.6 microns or a Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 microns, to measure tropospheric winds to an accuracy of + or - 1 m/s and a vertical resolution of 1 km. The procedures to be followed in order to visualize this technology plan include: (1) material development and characterization, (2) laser development, and (3) implementation of the lasers.

  9. Microfluidic multiplexing of solid-state nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Tarun; Rasera, Benjamin C.; Guerrero, Ricardo Jose S.; Lim, Jong-Min; Karnik, Rohit

    2017-12-01

    Although solid-state nanopores enable electronic analysis of many clinically and biologically relevant molecular structures, there are few existing device architectures that enable high-throughput measurement of solid-state nanopores. Herein, we report a method for microfluidic integration of multiple solid-state nanopores at a high density of one nanopore per (35 µm2). By configuring microfluidic devices with microfluidic valves, the nanopores can be rinsed from a single fluid input while retaining compatibility for multichannel electrical measurements. The microfluidic valves serve the dual purpose of fluidic switching and electric switching, enabling serial multiplexing of the eight nanopores with a single pair of electrodes. Furthermore, the device architecture exhibits low noise and is compatible with electroporation-based in situ nanopore fabrication, providing a scalable platform for automated electronic measurement of a large number of integrated solid-state nanopores.

  10. Grating enhanced solid-state laser amplifiers

    DOEpatents

    Erlandson, Alvin C.; Britten, Jerald A.

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. Such an invention, as disclosed herein, uses diffraction gratings to increase gain, stored energy density, and pumping efficiency of solid-state laser gain media, such as, but not limited to rods, disks and slabs. By coupling predetermined gratings to solid-state gain media, such as crystal or ceramic laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.

  11. Solid state ionics: a Japan perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Osamu

    2017-12-01

    The 70-year history of scientific endeavor of solid state ionics research in Japan is reviewed to show the contribution of Japanese scientists to the basic science of solid state ionics and its applications. The term 'solid state ionics' was defined by Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University, Japan: it refers to ions in solids, especially solids that exhibit high ionic conductivity at a fairly low temperature below their melting points. During the last few decades of exploration, many ion conducting solids have been discovered in Japan such as the copper-ion conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13, proton conductor SrCe1-xYxO3, oxide-ion conductor La0.9Sr0.9Ga0.9Mg0.1O3, and lithium-ion conductor Li10GeP2S12. Rb4Cu16I7Cl13 has a conductivity of 0.33 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest of all room temperature ion conductive solid electrolytes reported to date, and Li10GeP2S12 has a conductivity of 0.012 S cm-1 at 25 °C, which is the highest among lithium-ion conductors reported to date. Research on high-temperature proton conducting ceramics began in Japan. The history, the discovery of novel ionic conductors and the story behind them are summarized along with basic science and technology.

  12. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Peramunage, D.

    1998-06-16

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and their derivatives. 5 figs.

  13. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  14. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  15. Modular nonvolatile solid state recorder (MONSSTR) update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klang, Mark R.; Small, Martin B.; Beams, Tom

    2001-12-01

    Solid state recorders have begun replacing traditional tape recorders in fulfilling the requirement to record images on airborne platforms. With the advances in electro-optical, IR, SAR, Multi and Hyper-spectral sensors and video recording requirements, solid state recorders have become the recorder of choice. Solid state recorders provide the additional storage, higher sustained bandwidth, less power, less weight and smaller footprint to meet the current and future recording requirements. CALCULEX, Inc., manufactures a non-volatile flash memory solid state recorder called the MONSSTR (Modular Non-volatile Solid State Recorder). MONSSTR is being used to record images from many different digital sensors on high performance aircraft such as the RF- 4, F-16 and the Royal Air Force Tornado. MONSSTR, with its internal multiplexer, is also used to record instrumentation data. This includes multiple streams of PCM and multiple channels of 1553 data. Instrumentation data is being recorded by MONSSTR systems in a range of platforms including F-22, F-15, F-16, Comanche Helicopter and US Navy torpedos. MONSSTR can also be used as a cockpit video recorder. This paper will provide an update of the MONSSTR.

  16. Five-year prospective clinical study of posterior three-unit zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Roberto; De Simone, Giorgio; Tetè, Stefano; Russo, Simona; Zarone, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    This prospective clinical trial aimed at evaluating the clinical performance of three-unit posterior zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) after 5 years of clinical function. Thirty-seven patients received 48 three-unit zirconia-based FDPs. The restorations replaced either a premolar or a molar. Specific inclusion criteria were needed. Tooth preparation was standardized. Computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing frameworks with a 9-mm(2) cross section of the connector and a 0.6-mm minimum thickness of the retainer were made. The restorations were luted with resin cement. The patients were recalled after 1, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The survival and success of the ceramics and zirconia were evaluated. The technical and aesthetic outcomes were examined using the United States Public Health Service criteria. The biologic outcomes were analyzed at abutment and contralateral teeth. Descriptive statistics were performed. All FDPs completed the study, resulting in 100% cumulative survival rate and 91.9% and 95.4% cumulative success rates for patients wearing one and two FDPs, respectively. No losses of retention were recorded. Forty-two restorations were rated alpha in all measured parameters. A minor chipping of the ceramics was detected in three restorations. No significant differences between the periodontal parameters of the test and control teeth were observed. Five-year clinical results proved that three-unit posterior zirconia-based FDPs were successful in the medium term for both function and aesthetic. Zirconia can be considered a promising substitute of metal frameworks for the fabrication of short-span posterior prostheses.

  17. Solid state characterization of dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Chang, L C; Caira, M R; Guillory, J K

    1995-10-01

    thermal analysis data, from S2 > form S3 > form S1 > form I > form II > form III. However, the results of the dissolution rate determination were inconsistent with the heat of solution data. The stable form I shows a higher initial dissolution rate than the metastable form II and unstable form III. All modifications were converted into the stable monohydrate, form S2, during the dissolution study, suggesting that the moisture level in solid formulations should be carefully controlled.

  18. Solid state recording current meter conversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Wang, Lichen

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the conversion of an Endeco-174 current meter to a solid-state recording current meter. A removable solid-state module was designed to fit in the space originally occupied by an 8-track tape cartridge. The module contains a CPU and 128 kilobytes of nonvolatile CMOS memory. The solid-state module communicates with any terminal or computer using an RS-232C interface at 4800 baud rate. A primary consideration for conversion was to keep modifications of the current meter to a minimum. The communication protocol was designed to emulate the Endeco tape translation unit, thus the need for a translation unit was eliminated and the original data reduction programs can be used without any modification. After conversion, the data recording section of the current meter contains no moving parts; the storage capacity of the module is equivalent to that of the original tape cartridge.

  19. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  20. Monolithic solid-state lasers for spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Merritt, Scott; Glebov, Leonid; Glebova, Larissa; Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Smirnov, Vadim; Mu, Xiaodong; Meissner, Stephanie; Meissner, Helmuth

    2015-02-01

    A new solution for building high power, solid state lasers for space flight is to fabricate the whole laser resonator in a single (monolithic) structure or alternatively to build a contiguous diffusion bonded or welded structure. Monolithic lasers provide numerous advantages for space flight solid-state lasers by minimizing misalignment concerns. The closed cavity is immune to contamination. The number of components is minimized thus increasing reliability. Bragg mirrors serve as the high reflector and output coupler thus minimizing optical coatings and coating damage. The Bragg mirrors also provide spectral and spatial mode selection for high fidelity. The monolithic structure allows short cavities resulting in short pulses. Passive saturable absorber Q-switches provide a soft aperture for spatial mode filtering and improved pointing stability. We will review our recent commercial and in-house developments toward fully monolithic solid-state lasers.

  1. Density functional theory in the solid state

    PubMed Central

    Hasnip, Philip J.; Refson, Keith; Probert, Matt I. J.; Yates, Jonathan R.; Clark, Stewart J.; Pickard, Chris J.

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) has been used in many fields of the physical sciences, but none so successfully as in the solid state. From its origins in condensed matter physics, it has expanded into materials science, high-pressure physics and mineralogy, solid-state chemistry and more, powering entire computational subdisciplines. Modern DFT simulation codes can calculate a vast range of structural, chemical, optical, spectroscopic, elastic, vibrational and thermodynamic phenomena. The ability to predict structure–property relationships has revolutionized experimental fields, such as vibrational and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, where it is the primary method to analyse and interpret experimental spectra. In semiconductor physics, great progress has been made in the electronic structure of bulk and defect states despite the severe challenges presented by the description of excited states. Studies are no longer restricted to known crystallographic structures. DFT is increasingly used as an exploratory tool for materials discovery and computational experiments, culminating in ex nihilo crystal structure prediction, which addresses the long-standing difficult problem of how to predict crystal structure polymorphs from nothing but a specified chemical composition. We present an overview of the capabilities of solid-state DFT simulations in all of these topics, illustrated with recent examples using the CASTEP computer program. PMID:24516184

  2. Solid State Lasers from an Efficiency Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.

    2007-01-01

    Solid state lasers have remained a vibrant area of research because several major innovations expanded their capability. Major innovations are presented with emphasis focused on the laser efficiency. A product of efficiencies approach is developed and applied to describe laser performance. Efficiency factors are presented in closed form where practical and energy transfer effects are included where needed. In turn, efficiency factors are used to estimate threshold and slope efficiency, allowing a facile estimate of performance. Spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical data are provided for common solid state laser materials.

  3. Compression selective solid-state chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Anguang

    Compression selective solid-state chemistry refers to mechanically induced selective reactions of solids under thermomechanical extreme conditions. Advanced quantum solid-state chemistry simulations, based on density functional theory with localized basis functions, were performed to provide a remarkable insight into bonding pathways of high-pressure chemical reactions in all agreement with experiments. These pathways clearly demonstrate reaction mechanisms in unprecedented structural details, showing not only the chemical identity of reactive intermediates but also how atoms move along the reaction coordinate associated with a specific vibrational mode, directed by induced chemical stress occurred during bond breaking and forming. It indicates that chemical bonds in solids can break and form precisely under compression as we wish. This can be realized through strongly coupling of mechanical work to an initiation vibrational mode when all other modes can be suppressed under compression, resulting in ultrafast reactions to take place isothermally in a few femtoseconds. Thermodynamically, such reactions correspond to an entropy minimum process on an isotherm where the compression can force thermal expansion coefficient equal to zero. Combining a significantly brief reaction process with specific mode selectivity, both statistical laws and quantum uncertainty principle can be bypassed to precisely break chemical bonds, establishing fundamental principles of compression selective solid-state chemistry. Naturally this leads to understand the ''alchemy'' to purify, grow, and perfect certain materials such as emerging novel disruptive energetics.

  4. A GdAlO3 Perovskite Oxide Electrolyte-Based NOx Solid-State Sensor.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yihong; Wang, Dongmei; Cai, Guohui; Zheng, Yong; Zhong, Fulan

    2016-11-25

    NO x is a notorious emission from motor vehicles and chemical factories as the precursor of acid rain and photochemical smog. Although zirconia-based NO x sensors have been developed and showed high sensitivity and selectivity at a high temperature of above 800 °C, they fail to show good performance, and even don't work at the typical work temperature window of the automotive engine (<500 °C). It still is a formidable challenge for development of mild-temperature NO x detector or sensor. Herein, a novel amperometric solid-state NO x sensor was developed using perovskite-type oxide Gd 1-x Ca x AlO 3-δ (GCA) as the electrolyte and NiO as the sensing electrode. NO x sensing properties of the device were investigated at the temperature region of 400-500 °C. The response current value at -300 mV was almost linearly proportional to the NO x concentration between 300 and 500 ppm at 500 °C. At such a temperature, the optimal sensor gave the highest NO 2 sensitivity of 20.15 nA/ppm, and the maximum response current value reached 5.57 μA. Furthermore, a 90% response and 90% recover time to 500 ppm NO 2 were about 119 and 92 s, respectively. The excellent selectivity and stability towards NO x sensing showed the potential application of the sensor in motor vehicles.

  5. Solid state ionics: a Japan perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The 70-year history of scientific endeavor of solid state ionics research in Japan is reviewed to show the contribution of Japanese scientists to the basic science of solid state ionics and its applications. The term ‘solid state ionics’ was defined by Takehiko Takahashi of Nagoya University, Japan: it refers to ions in solids, especially solids that exhibit high ionic conductivity at a fairly low temperature below their melting points. During the last few decades of exploration, many ion conducting solids have been discovered in Japan such as the copper-ion conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13, proton conductor SrCe1–xYxO3, oxide-ion conductor La0.9Sr0.9Ga0.9Mg0.1O3, and lithium-ion conductor Li10GeP2S12. Rb4Cu16I7Cl13 has a conductivity of 0.33 S cm–1 at 25 °C, which is the highest of all room temperature ion conductive solid electrolytes reported to date, and Li10GeP2S12 has a conductivity of 0.012 S cm–1 at 25 °C, which is the highest among lithium-ion conductors reported to date. Research on high-temperature proton conducting ceramics began in Japan. The history, the discovery of novel ionic conductors and the story behind them are summarized along with basic science and technology. PMID:28804526

  6. Solid-State Neutron Detector Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensaoula, Abdelhak (Inventor); Starikov, David (Inventor); Pillai, Rajeev (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The structure and methods of fabricating a high efficiency compact solid state neutron detector based on III-Nitride semiconductor structures deposited on a substrate. The operation of the device is based on absorption of neutrons, which results in generation of free carriers.

  7. Solid state, S-band, power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digrindakis, M.

    1973-01-01

    The final design and specifications for a solid state, S-band, power amplifier is reported. Modifications from a previously proposed design were incorporated to improve efficiency and meet input overdrive and noise floor requirements. Reports on the system design, driver amplifier, power amplifier, and voltage and current limiter are included along with a discussion of the testing program.

  8. Solid-state NMR for bacterial biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Courtney; Cegelski, Lynette

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria associate with surfaces and one another by elaborating an extracellular matrix to encapsulate cells, creating communities termed biofilms. Biofilms are beneficial in some ecological niches, but also contribute to the pathogenesis of serious and chronic infectious diseases. New approaches and quantitative measurements are needed to define the composition and architecture of bacterial biofilms to help drive the development of strategies to interfere with biofilm assembly. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is uniquely suited to the examination of insoluble and complex macromolecular and whole-cell systems. This article highlights three examples that implement solid-state NMR to deliver insights into bacterial biofilm composition and changes in cell-wall composition as cells transition to the biofilm lifestyle. Most recently, solid-state NMR measurements provided a total accounting of the protein and polysaccharide components in the extracellular matrix of an Escherichia coli biofilm and transformed our qualitative descriptions of matrix composition into chemical parameters that permit quantitative comparisons among samples. We present additional data for whole biofilm samples (cells plus the extracellular matrix) that complement matrix-only analyses. The study of bacterial biofilms by solid-state NMR is an exciting avenue ripe with many opportunities and we close the article by articulating some outstanding questions and future directions in this area.

  9. Technique for improving solid state mosaic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saboe, J. M.

    1969-01-01

    Method identifies and corrects mosaic image faults in solid state visual displays and opto-electronic presentation systems. Composite video signals containing faults due to defective sensing elements are corrected by a memory unit that contains the stored fault pattern and supplies the appropriate fault word to the blanking circuit.

  10. Solid-state NMR imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Dieckman, Stephen L.; Ellingson, William A.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for use with a solid-state NMR spectrometer includes a special imaging probe with linear, high-field strength gradient fields and high-power broadband RF coils using a back projection method for data acquisition and image reconstruction, and a real-time pulse programmer adaptable for use by a conventional computer for complex high speed pulse sequences.

  11. Nanoscale solid-state cooling: a review.

    PubMed

    Ziabari, Amirkoushyar; Zebarjadi, Mona; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The recent developments in nanoscale solid-state cooling are reviewed. This includes both theoretical and experimental studies of different physical concepts, as well as nanostructured material design and device configurations. We primarily focus on thermoelectric, thermionic and thermo-magnetic coolers. Particular emphasis is given to the concepts based on metal-semiconductor superlattices, graded materials, non-equilibrium thermoelectric devices, Thomson coolers, and photon assisted Peltier coolers as promising methods for efficient solid-state cooling. Thermomagnetic effects such as magneto-Peltier and Nernst-Ettingshausen cooling are briefly described and recent advances and future trends in these areas are reviewed. The ongoing progress in solid-state cooling concepts such as spin-calorimetrics, electrocalorics, non-equilibrium/nonlinear Peltier devices, superconducting junctions and two-dimensional materials are also elucidated and practical achievements are reviewed. We explain the thermoreflectance thermal imaging microscopy and the transient Harman method as two unique techniques developed for characterization of thermoelectric microrefrigerators. The future prospects for solid-state cooling are briefly summarized.

  12. High power diode and solid state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, H. J.; Fritsche, H.; Lux, O.; Strohmaier, S. G.

    2017-01-01

    Diode lasers are now basic pump sources of crystal, glass fiber and other solid state lasers. Progress in the performance of all these lasers is related. Examples of recently developed diode pumped lasers and Raman frequency converters are described for applications in materials processing, Lidar and medical surgery.

  13. The Pythagorean Theorem and the Solid State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Brenda S.; Splittgerber, Allan G.

    2005-01-01

    Packing efficiency and crystal density can be calculated from basic geometric principles employing the Pythagorean theorem, if the unit-cell structure is known. The procedures illustrated have applicability in courses such as general chemistry, intermediate and advanced inorganic, materials science, and solid-state physics.

  14. Solid-state switch increases switching speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowan, G. F.

    1966-01-01

    Solid state switch for commutating capacitors in an RC commutated network increases switching speed and extends the filtering or commutating frequency spectrum well into the kilocycle region. The switch is equivalent to the standard double- pole double-throw /DPDT/ relay and is driven from digital micrologic circuits.

  15. Solar-pumped solid state Nd lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Zapata, L.

    1985-01-01

    Solid state neodymium lasers are considered candidates for space-based polar-pumped laser for continuous power transmission. Laser performance for three different slab laser configurations has been computed to show the excellent power capability of such systems if heat problems can be solved. Ideas involving geometries and materials are offered as potential solutions to the heat problem.

  16. Coordinated garbage collection for raid array of solid state disks

    DOEpatents

    Dillow, David A; Ki, Youngjae; Oral, Hakki S; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

    2014-04-29

    An optimized redundant array of solid state devices may include an array of one or more optimized solid-state devices and a controller coupled to the solid-state devices for managing the solid-state devices. The controller may be configured to globally coordinate the garbage collection activities of each of said optimized solid-state devices, for instance, to minimize the degraded performance time and increase the optimal performance time of the entire array of devices.

  17. Programmable solid state atom sources for nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Han, Han; Imboden, Matthias; Stark, Thomas; del Corro, Pablo G; Pardo, Flavio; Bolle, Cristian A; Lally, Richard W; Bishop, David J

    2015-06-28

    In this paper we discuss the development of a MEMS-based solid state atom source that can provide controllable atom deposition ranging over eight orders of magnitude, from ten atoms per square micron up to hundreds of atomic layers, on a target ∼1 mm away. Using a micron-scale silicon plate as a thermal evaporation source we demonstrate the deposition of indium, silver, gold, copper, iron, aluminum, lead and tin. Because of their small sizes and rapid thermal response times, pulse width modulation techniques are a powerful way to control the atomic flux. Pulsing the source with precise voltages and timing provides control in terms of when and how many atoms get deposited. By arranging many of these devices into an array, one has a multi-material, programmable solid state evaporation source. These micro atom sources are a complementary technology that can enhance the capability of a variety of nano-fabrication techniques.

  18. Broadband spectrally dynamic solid state illumination source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, David B.; Asghar, Ali; Gupta, Shalini; Kang, Hun; Pan, Ming; Strassburg, Martin; Summers, Chris; Ferguson, Ian T.

    2006-06-01

    Solid state lighting has done well recently in niche markets such as signage and displays, however, no available SSL technologies incorporate all the necessary attributes for general illumination. Development of a novel solid state general illumination source is discussed here. Two LEDs emitting at two distinct wavelengths can be monolithically grown and used to excite two or more phosphors with varied excitation spectra. The combined phosphorescence spectrum can then be controlled by adjusting the relative intensities of the two LED emissions. Preliminary phosphor analysis shows such a scheme to be viable for use in a spectrally dynamic broadband general illumination source. A tunnel junction is envisioned as a means of current spreading in a buried layer for three terminal operation. However, tunnel junction properties in GaN based materials are not well understood, and require further optimization to be practical devices. Preliminary results on GaN tunnel junctions are presented here as well.

  19. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Diode-laser-pumped solid-state laser oscillators and nonlinear processes were investigated. A new generation on nonplanar oscillator was fabricated, and it is anticipated that passive linewidths will be pushed to the kilohertz regime. A number of diode-pumped laser transitions were demonstrated in the rod configuration. Second-harmonic conversion efficiencies as high as 15% are routinely obtained in a servo-locked external resonant doubling crystal at 15 mW cw input power levels at 1064 nm.

  20. Rechargeable sodium all-solid-state battery

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Weidong; Li, Yutao; Xin, Sen; ...

    2017-01-03

    A reversible plating/stripping of a dendrite-free metallic-sodium anode with a reduced anode/ceramic interfacial resistance is created by a thin interfacial interlayer formed in situ or by the introduction of a dry polymer film. Wetting of the sodium on the interfacial interlayer suppresses dendrite formation and growth at different discharge/charge C-rates. Furthermore, all-solid-state batteries were obtained with a high cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency at 65 °C.

  1. Solid-state-laser-rod holder

    DOEpatents

    Gettemy, D.J.; Barnes, N.P.; Griggs, J.E.

    1981-08-11

    The disclosure relates to a solid state laser rod holder comprising Invar, copper tubing, and epoxy joints. Materials and coefficients of expansion of the components of the holder combine with the rod to produce a joint which will give before the rod itself will. The rod may be lased at about 70 to 80/sup 0/K and returned from such a temperature to room temperature repeatedly without its or the holder's destruction.

  2. Solid state synthesis of poly(dichlorophosphazene)

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Christopher W.; Hneihen, Azzam S.; Peterson, Eric S.

    2001-01-01

    A method for making poly(dichlorophosphazene) using solid state reactants is disclosed and described. The present invention improves upon previous methods by removing the need for chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents, eliminating complicated equipment and simplifying the overall process by providing a "single pot" two step reaction sequence. This may be accomplished by the condensation reaction of raw materials in the melt phase of the reactants and in the absence of an environmentally damaging solvent.

  3. Pulsed solid state lasers for medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertesz, Ivan; Danileiko, A. Y.; Denker, Boris I.; Kroo, Norbert; Osiko, Vyacheslav V.; Prokhorov, Alexander M.

    1994-02-01

    The effect on living tissues of different pulsed solid state lasers: Nd:YAG ((lambda) equals 1.06 micrometers ) Er:glass (1.54 micrometers ), Ho:YAG (2.1 micrometers ) and Er:YAG (2.94 micrometers ) is compared with the continuous wave Nd:YAG- and CO2-lasers used in operating theaters. Portable Er:glass- and Er:YAG-lasers are developed for surgery/cosmetics and HIV-safe blood testing.

  4. Solid-State Thyratron Replacement. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, Ian

    2017-12-12

    Under this SBIR, DTI developed a solid-state switch as an alternative to legacy thyratron equipment. Our Phase II objective was to make a solid-state thyratron replacement that would provide equivalent or better performance, much higher reliability (at least a 20 year lifetime, compared to a thyratron’s two-year lifetime) and would sell for ~3x the cost of a thyratron, or less than $40k. We were successful in building a solid-state switch which could reliably function as a thyratron replacement. The unit was designed to directly replace the thyratrons currently being used at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and was builtmore » in a tank that was small enough to fit into the existing thyratron cabinet, providing a true form-fit-function replacement path. We tested the switch at the full operating specifications: 48 kV, 6.3 kA, and 1 µs risetime. We also demonstrated a peak-to-peak pulse jitter of 1.5 ns, which is five times shorter than is typical for thyratrons. This lower jitter would improve the performance of the LCLS beam. The predicted reliability is more than 80 years, which is 40 times greater than a thyratron.« less

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Solid State Physics: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakoby, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula in natural and engineering sciences (biophysics, mechatronics, etc), a compact text in solid state physics would be appreciated by students of these disciplines as well. The book features 11 chapters where each is provided with supplementary discussion questions and problems. The first chapters deal with a review of chemical bonding mechanisms, crystal structures and mechanical properties of solids, which are brief but by no means superficial. The following, somewhat more detailed chapter on thermal properties of lattices includes a nice introduction to phonons. The foundations of solid state electronics are treated in the next three chapters. Here the author first discusses the classical treatment of electronic behaviour in metals (Drude model) and continues with a quantum-theoretical approach starting with the free-electron model and leading to the band structures in conductive solids. The next chapter is devoted to semiconductors and ends with a brief but, with respect to the topical scope, adequate discussion of semiconductor devices. The classical topics of magnetic and dielectric behaviour are treated in the sequel. The book closes with a chapter on superconductivity and a brief chapter covering the modern topics of quantum confinement and aspects of nanoscale physics. In my opinion, the author has succeeded in creating a very concise yet not superficial textbook. The account presented often probes subjects deep enough to lay the basis for a thorough understanding, preparing the reader for more specialized textbooks. For instance, I think that this book may serve as an excellent first

  6. A Model of Solid State Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woestman, J. T.; Brailsford, A. D.; Shane, M.; Logothetis, E. M.

    1997-03-01

    Solid state gas sensors are widely used to measure the concentrations of gases such as CO, CH_4, C_3H_6, H_2, C_3H8 and O2 The applications of these sensors range from air-to-fuel ratio control in combustion processes including those in automotive engines and industrial furnaces to leakage detection of inflammable and toxic gases in domestic and industrial environments. As the need increases to accurately measure smaller and smaller concentrations, problems such as poor selectivity, stability and response time limit the use of these sensors. In an effort to overcome some of these limitations, a theoretical model of the transient behavior of solid state gas sensors has been developed. In this presentation, a model for the transient response of an electrochemical gas sensor to gas mixtures containing O2 and one reducing species, such as CO, is discussed. This model accounts for the transport of the reactive species to the sampling electrode, the catalyzed oxidation/reduction reaction of these species and the generation of the resulting electrical signal. The model will be shown to reproduce the results of published steady state models and to agree with experimental steady state and transient data.

  7. Solid-state single-photon emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonovich, Igor; Englund, Dirk; Toth, Milos

    2016-10-01

    Single-photon emitters play an important role in many leading quantum technologies. There is still no 'ideal' on-demand single-photon emitter, but a plethora of promising material systems have been developed, and several have transitioned from proof-of-concept to engineering efforts with steadily improving performance. Here, we review recent progress in the race towards true single-photon emitters required for a range of quantum information processing applications. We focus on solid-state systems including quantum dots, defects in solids, two-dimensional hosts and carbon nanotubes, as these are well positioned to benefit from recent breakthroughs in nanofabrication and materials growth techniques. We consider the main challenges and key advantages of each platform, with a focus on scalable on-chip integration and fabrication of identical sources on photonic circuits.

  8. Enhanced electrodes for solid state gas sensors

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Brosha, Eric L.

    2001-01-01

    A solid state gas sensor generates an electrical potential between an equilibrium electrode and a second electrode indicative of a gas to be sensed. A solid electrolyte substrate has the second electrode mounted on a first portion of the electrolyte substrate and a composite equilibrium electrode including conterminous transition metal oxide and Pt components mounted on a second portion of the electrolyte substrate. The composite equilibrium electrode and the second electrode are electrically connected to generate an electrical potential indicative of the gas that is being sensed. In a particular embodiment of the present invention, the second electrode is a reference electrode that is exposed to a reference oxygen gas mixture so that the electrical potential is indicative of the oxygen in a gas stream.

  9. Alumina additions may improve the damage tolerance of soft machined zirconia-based ceramics.

    PubMed

    Oilo, Marit; Tvinnereim, Helene M; Gjerdet, Nils Roar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the damage tolerance of different zirconia-based materials. Bars of one hard machined and one soft machined dental zirconia and an experimental 95% zirconia 5% alumina ceramic were subjected to 100,000 stress cycles (n = 10), indented to provoke cracks on the tensile stress side (n = 10), and left untreated as controls (n = 10). The experimental material demonstrated a higher relative damage tolerance, with a 40% reduction compared to 68% for the hard machined zirconia and 84% for the soft machined zirconia.

  10. Solid State Research, 1977:3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-15

    Reflectivity of CdGeAs, G.D. Holah* A. Miller* W. D. Dunnett* G.W. Iseler Solid State Commun. 23, 75 (1977) 4726 Thin-Film VO2 Submillimeter- Wave...Measure- ments 4439 X-Ray Lithographic and Pro- cessing Technologies for Fabricating Surface Relief Gratings with Profile Control < 400 A S. A...stripe-geometry lasers. The stripe width is 1 3 |i.m, and the cavity length is typically 3 80 to 400 |im. Ohmic contacts were made by

  11. Fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Kecker, K.H.; Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Thorngate, J.H.

    1975-07-22

    This patent relates to an improved fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter that does not require separation of materials before it can be read out, that utilizes materials that do not melt or otherwise degrade at about 300$sup 0$C readout temperature, that provides a more efficient dosimeter, and that can be reused. The dosimeters are fabricated by intimately mixing a TL material, such as CaSO$sub 4$:Dy, with a powdered polyphenyl, such as p-sexiphenyl, and hot- pressing the mixture to form pellets, followed by out-gassing in a vacuum furnace at 150$sup 0$C prior to first use dosimeters. (auth)

  12. Solid state transport-based thermoelectric converter

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhiyu

    2010-04-13

    A solid state thermoelectric converter includes a thermally insulating separator layer, a semiconducting collector and an electron emitter. The electron emitter comprises a metal nanoparticle layer or plurality of metal nanocatalyst particles disposed on one side of said separator layer. A first electrically conductive lead is electrically coupled to the electron emitter. The collector layer is disposed on the other side of the separator layer, wherein the thickness of the separator layer is less than 1 .mu.m. A second conductive lead is electrically coupled to the collector layer.

  13. Solid-state turn coordinator display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.; Crouch, R. K.; Kelly, W. L., IV

    1975-01-01

    A solid state turn coordinator display which employs light emitting diodes (LED's) as the display medium was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of such displays for aircraft applications. The input to the display is supplied by a fluidic inertial rate sensor used in an aircraft wing leveler system. The display is composed of the LED radial display face and the electronics necessary to address and drive the individual lines of LED's. Three levels of brightness are provided to compensate for the different amounts of ambient light present in the cockpit.

  14. Rechargeable Sodium All-Solid-State Battery

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A reversible plating/stripping of a dendrite-free metallic-sodium anode with a reduced anode/ceramic interfacial resistance is created by a thin interfacial interlayer formed in situ or by the introduction of a dry polymer film. Wetting of the sodium on the interfacial interlayer suppresses dendrite formation and growth at different discharge/charge C-rates. All-solid-state batteries were obtained with a high cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency at 65 °C. PMID:28149953

  15. Solid-state-based analog of optomechanics

    DOE PAGES

    Naumann, Nicolas L.; Droenner, Leon; Carmele, Alexander; ...

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigate a semiconductor quantum dot as a microscopic analog of a basic optomechanical setup. We show that optomechanical features can be reproduced by the solid-state platform, arising from parallels of the underlying interaction processes, which in the optomechanical case is the radiation pressure coupling and in the semiconductor case the electron–phonon coupling. We discuss bistabilities, lasing, and phonon damping, and recover the same qualitative behaviors for the semiconductor and the optomechanical cases expected for low driving strengths. However, in contrast to the optomechanical case, distinct signatures of higher order processes arise in the semiconductor model.

  16. High Speed Solid State Circuit Breaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podlesak, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Fort Monmouth, NJ, has developed and is installing two 3.3 MW high speed solid state circuit breakers at the Army's Pulse Power Center. These circuit breakers will interrupt 4160V three phase power mains in no more than 300 microseconds, two orders of magnitude faster than conventional mechanical contact type circuit breakers. These circuit breakers utilize Gate Turnoff Thyristors (GTO's) and are currently utility type devices using air cooling in an air conditioned enclosure. Future refinements include liquid cooling, either water or two phase organic coolant, and more advanced semiconductors. Each of these refinements promises a more compact, more reliable unit.

  17. Spacecraft solid state power distribution switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praver, G. A.; Theisinger, P. C.

    1986-01-01

    As a spacecraft performs its mission, various loads are connected to the spacecraft power bus in response to commands from an on board computer, a function called power distribution. For the Mariner Mark II set of planetary missions, the power bus is 30 volts dc and when loads are connected or disconnected, both the bus and power return side must be switched. In addition, the power distribution function must be immune to single point failures and, when power is first applied, all switches must be in a known state. Traditionally, these requirements have been met by electromechanical latching relays. This paper describes a solid state switch which not only satisfies the requirements but incorporates several additional features including soft turn on, programmable current trip point with noise immunity, instantaneous current limiting, and direct telemetry of load currents and switch status. A breadboard of the design has been constructed and some initial test results are included.

  18. Fractographic features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based dental restorations fractured during clinical function.

    PubMed

    Oilo, Marit; Hardang, Anne D; Ulsund, Amanda H; Gjerdet, Nils R

    2014-06-01

    Fractures during clinical function have been reported as the major concern associated with all-ceramic dental restorations. The aim of this study was to analyze the fracture features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based restorations fractured during clinical use. Twenty-seven crowns and onlays were supplied by dentists and dental technicians with information about type of cement and time in function, if available. Fourteen lithium disilicate glass-ceramic restorations and 13 zirconia-based restorations were retrieved and analyzed. Fractographic features were examined using optical microscopy to determine crack initiation and crack propagation of the restorations. The material comprised fractured restorations from one canine, 10 incisors, four premolars, and 11 molars. One crown was not categorized because of difficulty in orientation of the fragments. The results revealed that all core and veneer fractures initiated in the cervical margin and usually from the approximal area close to the most coronally placed curvature of the margin. Three cases of occlusal chipping were found. The margin of dental all-ceramic single-tooth restorations was the area of fracture origin. The fracture features were similar for zirconia, glass-ceramic, and alumina single-tooth restorations. Design features seem to be of great importance for fracture initiation. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  19. Efficient scalable solid-state neutron detector.

    PubMed

    Moses, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    We report on scalable solid-state neutron detector system that is specifically designed to yield high thermal neutron detection sensitivity. The basic detector unit in this system is made of a (6)Li foil coupled to two crystalline silicon diodes. The theoretical intrinsic efficiency of a detector-unit is 23.8% and that of detector element comprising a stack of five detector-units is 60%. Based on the measured performance of this detector-unit, the performance of a detector system comprising a planar array of detector elements, scaled to encompass effective area of 0.43 m(2), is estimated to yield the minimum absolute efficiency required of radiological portal monitors used in homeland security.

  20. Solid state potentiometric gaseous oxide sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wachsman, Eric D. (Inventor); Azad, Abdul Majeed (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A solid state electrochemical cell (10a) for measuring the concentration of a component of a gas mixture (12) includes first semiconductor electrode (14) and second semiconductor electrode (16) formed from first and second semiconductor materials, respectively. The materials are selected so as to undergo a change in resistivity upon contacting a gas component, such as CO or NO. An electrolyte (18) is provided in contact with the first and second semiconductor electrodes. A reference cell can be included in contact with the electrolyte. Preferably, a voltage response of the first semiconductor electrode is opposite in slope direction to that of the second semiconductor electrode to produce a voltage response equal to the sum of the absolute values of the control system uses measured pollutant concentrations to direct adjustment of engine combustion conditions.

  1. Compact high voltage solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.

    2003-09-23

    A compact, solid state, high voltage switch capable of high conduction current with a high rate of current risetime (high di/dt) that can be used to replace thyratrons in existing and new applications. The switch has multiple thyristors packaged in a single enclosure. Each thyristor has its own gate drive circuit that circuit obtains its energy from the energy that is being switched in the main circuit. The gate drives are triggered with a low voltage, low current pulse isolated by a small inexpensive transformer. The gate circuits can also be triggered with an optical signal, eliminating the trigger transformer altogether. This approach makes it easier to connect many thyristors in series to obtain the hold off voltages of greater than 80 kV.

  2. Solid State Surfaces and Interfaces VIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincik, Emil

    2014-09-01

    The conference SSSI VIII (November 25-28, 2013) was the 8th continuation of the series of the Solid State Surfaces and Interfaces conferences taking place usually in the Smolenice castle in the western part of the Slovak Republic. The event was organized by the following institutions of Slovak Republic: Institute of Physics of SAS Bratislava, Institute of Aurel Stodola of University of Žilina, and Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics of Comenius University Bratislava. More than 150 scientists of the three continents (Europe, Asia and Africa) participated on the event with almost 100 poster presentations. The representatives of all organizing institutions consider this event as very important for Middle Europe region.

  3. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

  4. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, David K.; Haverty, Thomas W.; Nordin, Carl W.; Tyree, William H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  5. Zwitterionic metal carboxylate complexes: In solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Bhaskar; Kalita, Dipjyoti; Baruah, Jubaraj B.

    2012-07-01

    A flexible dicarboxylic acid having composition [(CH(o-C5H4N)(p-C6H4OCH2CO2H)2] derived from corresponding bis-phenol reacts with various metal(II) acetates such as manganese(II), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) acetate leads to zwtterionic complexes with compositions [CH(o-C5H4N)(p-C6H4OCH2CO2){p-C6H4OCH2CO2M(H2O)5}].6H2O (where M = Mn, Co, Ni). The complexes are characterised by X-ray crystallography. These complexes have chiral center due to unsymmetric structure conferred to the ligand through coordination at only one carboxylate group of the ligand. In solid state these complexes are racemic.

  6. Noise in solid-state nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, R. M. M.; Keyser, U. F.; Dekker, N. H.; Dekker, C.

    2008-01-01

    We study ionic current fluctuations in solid-state nanopores over a wide frequency range and present a complete description of the noise characteristics. At low frequencies (f ≲ 100 Hz) we observe 1/f-type of noise. We analyze this low-frequency noise at different salt concentrations and find that the noise power remarkably scales linearly with the inverse number of charge carriers, in agreement with Hooge's relation. We find a Hooge parameter α = (1.1 ± 0.1) × 10−4. In the high-frequency regime (f ≳ 1 kHz), we can model the increase in current power spectral density with frequency through a calculation of the Johnson noise. Finally, we use these results to compute the signal-to-noise ratio for DNA translocation for different salt concentrations and nanopore diameters, yielding the parameters for optimal detection efficiency. PMID:18184817

  7. Noise in solid-state nanopores.

    PubMed

    Smeets, R M M; Keyser, U F; Dekker, N H; Dekker, C

    2008-01-15

    We study ionic current fluctuations in solid-state nanopores over a wide frequency range and present a complete description of the noise characteristics. At low frequencies (f approximately < 100 Hz) we observe 1/f-type of noise. We analyze this low-frequency noise at different salt concentrations and find that the noise power remarkably scales linearly with the inverse number of charge carriers, in agreement with Hooge's relation. We find a Hooge parameter alpha = (1.1 +/- 0.1) x 10(-4). In the high-frequency regime (f approximately > 1 kHz), we can model the increase in current power spectral density with frequency through a calculation of the Johnson noise. Finally, we use these results to compute the signal-to-noise ratio for DNA translocation for different salt concentrations and nanopore diameters, yielding the parameters for optimal detection efficiency.

  8. High-efficiency solid state power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, Robert E. (Inventor); Cheng, Sheng (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A high-efficiency solid state power amplifier (SSPA) for specific use in a spacecraft is provided. The SSPA has a mass of less than 850 g and includes two different X-band power amplifier sections, i.e., a lumped power amplifier with a single 11-W output and a distributed power amplifier with eight 2.75-W outputs. These two amplifier sections provide output power that is scalable from 11 to 15 watts without major design changes. Five different hybrid microcircuits, including high-efficiency Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor (HFET) amplifiers and Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) phase shifters have been developed for use within the SSPA. A highly efficient packaging approach enables the integration of a large number of hybrid circuits into the SSPA.

  9. A solid state lightning propagation speed sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David

    1989-01-01

    A device to measure the propagation speeds of cloud-to-ground lightning has been developed. The lightning propagation speed (LPS) device consists of eight solid state silicon photodetectors mounted behind precision horizontal slits in the focal plane of a 50-mm lens on a 35-mm camera. Although the LPS device produces results similar to those obtained from a streaking camera, the LPS device has the advantages of smaller size, lower cost, mobile use, and easier data collection and analysis. The maximum accuracy for the LPS is 0.2 microsec, compared with about 0.8 microsecs for the streaking camera. It is found that the return stroke propagation speed for triggered lightning is different than that for natural lightning if measurements are taken over channel segments less than 500 m. It is suggested that there are no significant differences between the propagation speeds of positive and negative flashes. Also, differences between natural and triggered dart leaders are discussed.

  10. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Todd (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  11. Nanoscale solid-state quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardavan, A.; Austwick, M.; Benjamin, S.C.; Briggs, G.A.D.; Dennis, T.J.S.; Ferguson, A.; Hasko, D.G.; Kanai, M.; Khlobystov, A.N.; Lovett, B.W.; Morley, G.W.; Oliver, R.A.; Pettifor, D.G.; Porfyrakis, K.; Reina, J.H.; Rice, J.H.; Smith, J.D.; Taylor, R.A.; Williams, D.A.; Adelmann, C.; Mariette, H.; Hamers, R.J.

    2003-07-01

    Most experts agree that it is too early to say how quantum computers will eventually be built, and several nanoscale solid-state schemes are being implemented in a range of materials. Nanofabricated quantum dots can be made in designer configurations, with established technology for controlling interactions and for reading out results. Epitaxial quantum dots can be grown in vertical arrays in semiconductors, and ultrafast optical techniques are available for controlling and measuring their excitations. Single-walled carbon nanotubes can be used for molecular self-assembly of endohedral fullerenes, which can embody quantum information in the electron spin. The challenges of individual addressing in such tiny structures could rapidly become intractable with increasing numbers of qubits, but these schemes are amenable to global addressing methods for computation.

  12. "Solid State" Chemistry in Titan Ice Particles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-20

    Scientists from NASA's Cassini mission suggested in a 2016 paper that the appearance of a cloud of dicyanoacetylene (C4N2) ice in Titan's stratosphere may be explained by "solid-state" chemistry taking place inside ice particles. The particles have an inner layer of cyanoacetylene (HC3N) ice coated with an outer layer of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) ice. Left: When a photon of light penetrates the outer shell, it can interact with the HC3N, producing C3N and H. Center: The C3N then reacts with HCN to yield C4N2 and H (shown at right). Another reaction that also yields C4N2 ice and H also is possible, but the researchers think it is less likely. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20715

  13. Modified Reference SPS with Solid State Transmitting Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, G. R.; Sperber, B. R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of solid state microwave power amplifiers for a solar power satellite transmitting antenna is discussed. State-of-the-art power-added efficiency, gain, and single device power of various microwave solid state devices are compared. The GaAs field effect transistors and the Si-bipolar transistors appear potentially feasible for solar power satellite use. The integration of solid state devices into antenna array elements is examined and issues concerning antenna integration and consequent satellite configurations are examined.

  14. Nanoprobes, nanostructured materials and solid state materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Houping

    2005-07-01

    Novel templates have been developed to prepare nanostructured porous materials through nonsurfactant templated pathway. And new applications of these materials, such as drug delivery and molecular imprinting, have been explored. The relationship between template content and pore structure has been investigated. The composition and pore structures were studied in detail using IR, TGA, SEM, TEM, BET and XRD. The obtained mesoporous materials have tunable diameters in the range of 2--12 nm. Due to the many advantages of this nonsurfactant templated pathway, such as environment friendly and biocompatibility, controlled release of antibiotics in the nanoporous materials were studied. The in vitro release properties were found to depend on the silica structures which were well tuned by varying the template content. A controlled long-term release pattern of vancomycin was achieved when the template content was 30 wt% or lower. Nanoscale electrochemical probes with dimensions as small as 50 nm in diameter and 1--2 mum in length were fabricated using electron beam deposition on the apex of conventional micron size electrodes. The electroactive region was limited to the extreme tip of the nanoprobe by coating with an insulating polymer and re-opening of the coating at the extreme tip. The novel nanoelectrodes thus prepared were employed to probe neurons in mouse brain slice and the results suggest that the nanoprobes were capable of recording neuronal excitatory postsynaptic potential signals. Interesting solid state chemistry was found in oxygenated iron phthalocyanine. Their Mossbauer spectra show the formation of four oxygenated species apart from the unoxygenated parent compound. The oxygen-bridged compounds formed in the solid matrix bear no resemblance to the one formed by solution chemistry. Tentative assignment of species has been made with the help of Mossbauer and IR spectroscopy. An effort to modify aniline trimer for potential nanoelectronics applications and to

  15. Solid state lighting devices and methods with rotary cooling structures

    SciTech Connect

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    Solid state lighting devices and methods for heat dissipation with rotary cooling structures are described. An example solid state lighting device includes a solid state light source, a rotating heat transfer structure in thermal contact with the solid state light source, and a mounting assembly having a stationary portion. The mounting assembly may be rotatably coupled to the heat transfer structure such that at least a portion of the mounting assembly remains stationary while the heat transfer structure is rotating. Examples of methods for dissipating heat from electrical devices, such as solid state lighting sources are also described. Heat dissipationmore » methods may include providing electrical power to a solid state light source mounted to and in thermal contact with a heat transfer structure, and rotating the heat transfer structure through a surrounding medium.« less

  16. Lithium Polymer Electrolytes and Solid State NMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkeley, Emily R.

    2004-01-01

    Research is being done at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) developing new kinds of batteries that do not depend on a solution. Currently, batteries use liquid electrolytes containing lithium. Problems with the liquid electrolyte are (1) solvents used can leak out of the battery, so larger, more restrictive, packages have to be made, inhibiting the diversity of application and decreasing the power density; (2) the liquid is incompatible with the lithium metal anode, so alternative, less efficient, anodes are required. The Materials Department at GRC has been working to synthesize polymer electrolytes that can replace the liquid electrolytes. The advantages are that polymer electrolytes do not have the potential to leak so they can be used for a variety of tasks, small or large, including in the space rover or in space suits. The polymers generated by Dr. Mary Ann Meador's group are in the form of rod -coil structures. The rod aspect gives the polymer structural integrity, while the coil makes it flexible. Lithium ions are used in these polymers because of their high mobility. The coils have repeating units of oxygen which stabilize the positive lithium by donating electron density. This aids in the movement of the lithium within the polymer, which contributes to higher conductivity. In addition to conductivity testing, these polymers are characterized using DSC, TGA, FTIR, and solid state NMR. Solid state NMR is used in classifying materials that are not soluble in solvents, such as polymers. The NMR spins the sample at a magic angle (54.7') allowing the significant peaks to emerge. Although solid state NMR is a helpful technique in determining bonding, the process of preparing the sample and tuning it properly are intricate jobs that require patience; especially since each run takes about six hours. The NMR allows for the advancement of polymer synthesis by showing if the expected results were achieved. Using the NMR, in addition to looking at polymers, allows for

  17. Translucency of zirconia-based pressable ceramics with different core and veneer thicknesses.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Il-Do; Bae, So-Yeon; Kim, Dong-Yeon; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Woong-Chul

    2016-06-01

    Little information is available on the translucency of zirconia-based pressable ceramic restorations with a pressed ceramic veneer and zirconia core in various thickness combinations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the translucency of 3 types of zirconia-based pressable ceramics for different core-veneer thickness combinations. A bilayered ceramic specimen was prepared with a pressable ceramic (IPS e.max Zirpress, Initial IQ, Rosetta UltraPress) veneer over a zirconia core (Zenostar Zr). Three groups of specimens (n=7) were formed with the following core+veneer thicknesses: 1 +0.5 mm, 0.7 +0.8 mm, and 0.5 +1 mm. To obtain consistent thickness and high translucency, all specimens were subjected to surface grinding with a grinding machine. To eliminate the effect of differences in roughness on the translucency, the surface roughness of the ground specimens was measured with a scanning profiler, and the consistency of these measured values was verified through statistical analysis. The luminous transmittance of the specimens was measured with a spectrophotometer. The effects of the pressable ceramic type and core-veneer thickness combination on transmittance were assessed using a 2-way ANOVA (α=.05). The consistency of the surface roughness among the tested specimens was confirmed using a 1-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD post hoc test (P<.05). The luminous transmittance exhibited a statistically significant dependence on both the type of pressable ceramic and the core-veneer thickness combination (P<.05). The type of pressable ceramic and core-veneer thickness combination affected the translucency of the restoration. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An isothermal equation of state for solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose Roy, Papiya; Bose Roy, Sushil

    2004-07-01

    An isothermal equation of state (EOS) for solids, recently suggested by the authors in the realistic form, V/ V0= f( P), with relative volume as the dependent and the pressure as the independent variable, was shown to have an advantage for some close-packed materials in that it allows B‧ ∞=(∂ Bs/∂ P) s( P→∞) to be fitted, and this is where the usual standard equations fail. In the present study, our EOS is applied to a number of inorganic as well as organic solids, including alloys, glasses, rubbers and plastics; varying widely in their bonding and structural characteristics, as well as in their bulk modulus values. A very good agreement is observed between the data and fits. The results obtained are compared with those from two well-known equations, expressible in the realistic form, proposed by Murnaghan and Luban. Further, the results are also compared with those from the widely used two- and three-parameter EOSs, expressible in the unrealistic form only, P= f( V/ V0), proposed by Birch-and also with those from the EOS model of Keane in which B‧ ∞ is explicitly expressed as an equation of state parameter. The results obtained from our model compare well to these EOSs. Our EOS, in general, yields the smallest mean-squared deviations between data and fits. The values of B‧ ∞calculated from our EOS are compared with those from Keane's model. Further, we have studied the variation of B‧ ∞with temperature using the experimental isotherms of Mo and W at 10 different temperatures ranging from 100 to 1000 K, and observed that the values of B‧ ∞ yielded by our model and that of Keane vary, as expected, within a narrow range. Furthermore, our EOS is applied to study the stability of the fit parameters with variation in the pressure ranges with reference to the isothermal compression data on Mo and W-and also to study the variation of isothermal bulk modulus with pressure, with reference to the ultrasonic data on NaCl and noted a very good

  19. Atomistic Simulation of Interfaces in Materials of Solid State Ionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov-Schitz, A. K.; Mazo, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    The possibilities of describing correctly interfaces of different types in solids within a computer experiment using molecular statics simulation, molecular dynamics simulation, and quantum chemical calculations are discussed. Heterophase boundaries of various types, including grain boundaries and solid electrolyte‒solid electrolyte and ionic conductor‒electrode material interfaces, are considered. Specific microstructural features and mechanisms of the ion transport in real heterophase structures (cationic conductor‒metal anode and anionic conductor‒cathode) existing in solid state ionics devices (such as solid-state batteries and fuel cells) are discussed.

  20. Radiation-Hardened Solid-State Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    A method is provided for a radiationhardened (rad-hard) solid-state drive for space mission memory applications by combining rad-hard and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) non-volatile memories (NVMs) into a hybrid architecture. The architecture is controlled by a rad-hard ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) or a FPGA (field programmable gate array). Specific error handling and data management protocols are developed for use in a rad-hard environment. The rad-hard memories are smaller in overall memory density, but are used to control and manage radiation-induced errors in the main, and much larger density, non-rad-hard COTS memory devices. Small amounts of rad-hard memory are used as error buffers and temporary caches for radiation-induced errors in the large COTS memories. The rad-hard ASIC/FPGA implements a variety of error-handling protocols to manage these radiation-induced errors. The large COTS memory is triplicated for protection, and CRC-based counters are calculated for sub-areas in each COTS NVM array. These counters are stored in the rad-hard non-volatile memory. Through monitoring, rewriting, regeneration, triplication, and long-term storage, radiation-induced errors in the large NV memory are managed. The rad-hard ASIC/FPGA also interfaces with the external computer buses.

  1. Solid state photomultiplier for astronomy, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Besser, P. J.; Hays, K. M.; Laviolette, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Epitaxial layers with varying donor concentration profiles were grown on silicon substrate wafers using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques, and solid state photomultiplier (SSPM) devices were fabricated from the wafers. Representative detectors were tested in a low background photon flux, low temperature environment to determine the device characteristics for comparison to NASA goals for astronomical applications. The SSPM temperatures varied between 6 and 11 K with background fluxes in the range from less than 5 x 10 to the 6th power to 10 to the 13th power photons/square cm per second at wavelengths of 3.2 and 20 cm. Measured parameters included quantum efficiency, dark count rate and bias current. Temperature for optimal performance is 10 K, the highest ever obtained for SSPMs. The devices exhibit a combination of the lowest dark current and highest quantum efficiency yet achieved. Experimental data were reduced, analyzed and used to generate recommendations for future studies. The background and present status of the microscopic theory of SSPM operation were reviewed and summarized. Present emphasis is on modeling of the avalanche process which is the basis for SSPM operation. Approaches to the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation are described and the treatment of electron scattering mechanisms is presented. The microscopic single-electron transport theory is ready to be implemented for large-scale computations.

  2. Solid state replacement of rotating mirror cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Alan M.; Bartolick, Joseph M.

    2007-01-01

    Rotating mirror cameras have been the mainstay of mega-frame per second imaging for decades. There is still no electronic camera that can match a film based rotary mirror camera for the combination of frame count, speed, resolution and dynamic range. The rotary mirror cameras are predominantly used in the range of 0.1 to 100 micro-seconds per frame, for 25 to more than a hundred frames. Electron tube gated cameras dominate the sub microsecond regime but are frame count limited. Video cameras are pushing into the microsecond regime but are resolution limited by the high data rates. An all solid state architecture, dubbed 'In-situ Storage Image Sensor' or 'ISIS', by Prof. Goji Etoh has made its first appearance into the market and its evaluation is discussed. Recent work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has concentrated both on evaluation of the presently available technologies and exploring the capabilities of the ISIS architecture. It is clear though there is presently no single chip camera that can simultaneously match the rotary mirror cameras, the ISIS architecture has the potential to approach their performance.

  3. Solid-state characterization of nevirapine.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Mahua; Perumal, O P; Panchagnula, R

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to characterize nevirapine from commercial samples and samples crystallized from different solvents under various conditions. The solid-state behavior of nevirapine samples was investigated using a variety of complementary techniques such as microscopy (optical, polarized, hot stage microscopy), differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffractometry. The commercial samples of nevirapine had the same polymorphic crystalline form with an anhedral crystal habit. Intrinsic dissolution of nevirapine was similar for both the commercial batches. Powder dissolution showed pH dependency, with maximum dissolution in acidic pH and there was no significant effect of particle size. The samples recrystallized from different solvent systems with varying polarity yielded different crystal habits. Stirring and degrees of supersaturation influenced the size and shape of the crystals. The recrystallized samples did not produce any new polymorphic form, but weak solvates with varying crystal habit were produced. Recrystallized samples showed differences in the x-ray diffractograms. However, all the samples had the same internal crystal lattice as revealed from their similar melting points and heat of fusion. The intrinsic dissolution rate of recrystallized samples was lower than the commercial sample. It was found that the compression pressure resulted in desolvation and partial conversion of the crystal form. After compression, the recrystallized samples showed similar x-ray diffractograms to the commercial sample. Amorphous form showed slightly higher aqueous solubility than the commercial crystalline form.

  4. NASA developments in solid state power amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Regis F.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last ten years, NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of solid state power amplifiers for space applications. Historically, the program may be divided into three phases. The first efforts were carried out in support of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) program, which is developing an experimental version of a Ka-band commercial communications system. These first amplifiers attempted to use hybrid technology. The second phase was still targeted at ACTS frequencies, but concentrated on monolithic implementations, while the current, third phase, is a monolithic effort that focusses on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and stresses amplifier efficiency. The topics covered include: (1) 20 GHz hybrid amplifiers; (2) 20 GHz monolithic MESFET power amplifiers; (3) Texas Instruments' (TI) 20 GHz variable power amplifier; (4) TI 20 GHz high power amplifier; (5) high efficiency monolithic power amplifiers; (6) GHz high efficiency variable power amplifier; (7) TI 32 GHz monolithic power amplifier performance; (8) design goals for Hughes' 32 GHz variable power amplifier; and (9) performance goals for Hughes' pseudomorphic 60 GHz power amplifier.

  5. Composite Polymer-Garnet Solid State Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Andres; Oduncu, Muhammed R.; Scofield, Gregory D.; Marinero, Ernesto E.; Forbey, Scott

    Solid-state electrolytes provide a potential solution to the safety and reliability issues of Li-ion batteries. We have synthesized cubic-phase Li7-xLa3Zr2-xBixO12 compounds utilizing inexpensive, scalable Sol-gel synthesis and obtained ionic conductivities 1.2 x 10-4 S/cm at RT in not-fully densified pellets. In this work we report on the fabrication of composite polymer-garnet ceramic particle electrolytes to produce flexible membranes that can be integrated with standard battery electrodes without the need for a separator. As a first step we incorporated the ceramic particles into polyethylene oxide polymers (PEO) to form flexible membranes. Early results are encouraging yielding ionic conductivity values 1.0 x 10-5 S/cm at RT. To increment the conductivity in the membranes, we are optimizing amongst other: the ceramic particle size distribution and weight load, the polymer molecular weight and chemical composition and the solvated Li-salt composition and content. Unhindered ion transport across interfaces between the composites and the battery electrode materials is paramount for battery performance. To this end, we are investigating the effect of interface morphology, its atomic composition and exploring novel electrode structures that facilitate ionic transport.

  6. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  7. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee

    2003-12-08

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burnmore » internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.« less

  8. Optofluidic devices with integrated solid-state nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Aaron R.; Schmidt, Holger

    2016-01-01

    This review (with 90 refs.) covers the state of the art in optofluidic devices with integrated solid-state nanopores for use in detection and sensing. Following an introduction into principles of optofluidics and solid-state nanopore technology, we discuss features of solid-state nanopore based assays using optofluidics. This includes the incorporation of solid-state nanopores into optofluidic platforms based on liquid-core anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs), methods for their fabrication, aspects of single particle detection and particle manipulation. We then describe the new functionalities provided by solid-state nanopores integrated into optofluidic chips, in particular acting as smart gates for correlated electro-optical detection and discrimination of nanoparticles. This enables the identification of viruses and λ-DNA, particle trajectory simulations, enhancing sensitivity by tuning the shape of nanopores. The review concludes with a summary and an outlook. PMID:27046940

  9. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee

    2004-05-07

    The objective of this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine.more » This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate; and Task 10 Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program. In this reporting period, unless otherwise noted Task 6--System Fabrication and Task 7--System Testing will be reported within Task 1 System Design and Integration. Task 8--Program Management, Task 9--Stack Testing with Coal Based Reformate, and Task 10--Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program will be reported on in the Executive Summary section of this report.« less

  10. Synthesis of azines in solid state: reactivity of solid hydrazine with aldehydes and ketones.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeongno; Lee, Kyu Hyung; Cho, Jaeheung; Nam, Wonwoo; Hur, Nam Hwi

    2011-12-16

    Highly conjugated azines were prepared by solid state grinding of solid hydrazine and carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes and ketones, using a mortar and a pestle. Complete conversion to the azine product is generally achieved at room temperature within 24 h, without using solvents or additives. The solid-state reactions afford azines as the sole products with greater than 97% yield, producing only water and carbon dioxide as waste.

  11. Solid-state optical refrigeration to sub-100 Kelvin regime

    PubMed Central

    Melgaard, Seth D.; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Hehlen, Markus P.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    Since the first demonstration of net cooling twenty years ago, optical refrigeration of solids has progressed to outperform all other solid-state cooling processes. It has become the first and only solid-state refrigerator capable of reaching cryogenic temperatures, and now the first solid-state cooling below 100 K. Such substantial progress required a multi-disciplinary approach of pump laser absorption enhancement, material characterization and purification, and thermal management. Here we present the culmination of two decades of progress, the record cooling to ≈ 91 K from room temperature. PMID:26847703

  12. Solid-state optical refrigeration to sub-100 Kelvin regime

    SciTech Connect

    Melgaard, Seth D.; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Hehlen, Markus P.

    We report that since the first demonstration of net cooling twenty years ago, optical refrigeration of solids has progressed to outperform all other solid-state cooling processes. It has become the first and only solid-state refrigerator capable of reaching cryogenic temperatures, and now the first solid-state cooling below 100 K. Such substantial progress required a multi-disciplinary approach of pump laser absorption enhancement, material characterization and purification, and thermal management. Here we present the culmination of two decades of progress, the record cooling to ≈91K from room temperature.

  13. Solid-state optical refrigeration to sub-100 Kelvin regime

    DOE PAGES

    Melgaard, Seth D.; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Hehlen, Markus P.; ...

    2016-02-05

    We report that since the first demonstration of net cooling twenty years ago, optical refrigeration of solids has progressed to outperform all other solid-state cooling processes. It has become the first and only solid-state refrigerator capable of reaching cryogenic temperatures, and now the first solid-state cooling below 100 K. Such substantial progress required a multi-disciplinary approach of pump laser absorption enhancement, material characterization and purification, and thermal management. Here we present the culmination of two decades of progress, the record cooling to ≈91K from room temperature.

  14. A survey of current solid state star tracker technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, R. W.; Staley, D. A.

    1985-12-01

    This paper is a survey of the current state of the art in design of star trackers for spacecraft attitude determination systems. Specific areas discussed are sensor technology, including the current state-of-the-art solid state sensors and techniques of mounting and cooling the sensor, analog image preprocessing electronics performance, and digital processing hardware and software. Three examples of area array solid state star tracker development are presented - ASTROS, developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Retroreflector Field Tracker (RFT) by Ball Aerospace, and TRW's MADAN. Finally, a discussion of solid state line arrays explores the possibilities for one-dimensional imagers which offer simplified scan control electronics.

  15. Solid state protein monolayers: Morphological, conformational, and functional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompa, P. P.; Biasco, A.; Frascerra, V.; Calabi, F.; Cingolani, R.; Rinaldi, R.; Verbeet, M. Ph.; de Waal, E.; Canters, G. W.

    2004-12-01

    We have studied the morphological, conformational, and electron-transfer (ET) function of the metalloprotein azurin in the solid state, by a combination of physical investigation methods, namely atomic force microscopy, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. We demonstrate that a "solid state protein film" maintains its nativelike conformation and ET function, even after removal of the aqueous solvent.

  16. Advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy of natural organic matter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solid-state NMR is essential for the characterization of natural organic matter (NOM) and is gaining importance in geosciences and environmental sciences. This review is intended to highlight advanced solid-state NMR techniques, especially the systematic approach to NOM characterization, and their ...

  17. Solid State Joining of Dissimilar Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Todd W.

    Solid state joining of titanium via friction stir welding and diffusion bonding have emerged as enablers of efficient monolithic structural designs by the eliminations fasteners for the aerospace industry. As design complexity and service demands increase, the need for joints of dissimilar alloys has emerged. Complex thermomechanical conditions in friction stir weld joints and high temperature deformation behavior differences between alloys used in dissimilar joints gives rise to a highly variable flow pattern within a stir zone. Experiments performed welding Ti-6Al-4V to beta21S show that mechanical intermixing of the two alloys is the primary mechanism for the generation of the localized chemistry and microstructure, the magnitude of which can be directly related to pin rotation and travel speed weld parameters. Mechanical mixing of the two alloys is heavily influenced by strain rate softening phenomena, and can be used to manipulate weld nugget structure by switching which alloy is subjected to the advancing side of the pin. Turbulent mixing of a weld nugget and a significant reduction in defects and weld forces are observed when the beta21S is put on the advancing side of the weld where higher strain rates are present. Chemical diffusion driven by the heat of weld parameters is characterized using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and is shown to be a secondary process responsible for generating short-range chemical gradients that lead to a gradient of alpha particle structures. Diffusion calculations are inconsistent with an assumption of steady-state diffusion and show that material interfaces in the weld nugget evolve through the break-down of turbulent interface features generated by material flows. A high degree of recrystallization is seen throughout the welds, with unique, hybrid chemistry grains that are generated at material interfaces in the weld nugget that help to unify the crystal structure of dissimilar alloys. The degree of

  18. Current status of solid-state lithium batteries employing solid redox polymerization cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visco, S. J.; Doeff, M. M.; Dejonghe, L. C.

    1991-03-01

    The rapidly growing demand for secondary batteries having high specific energy and power has naturally led to increased efforts in lithium battery technology. Still, the increased safety risks associated with high energy density systems has tempered the enthusiasm of proponents of such systems for use in the consumer marketplace. The inherent advantages of all-solid-state batteries in regards to safety and reliability are strong factors in advocating their introduction to the marketplace. However, the low ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes relative to nonaqueous liquid electrolytes implies low power densities for solid state systems operating at ambient temperatures. Recent advances in polymer electrolytes have led to the introduction of solid electrolytes having conductivities in the range of 10(exp -4)/ohm cm at room temperature; this is still two orders of magnitude lower than liquid electrolytes. Although these improved ambient conductivities put solid state batteries in the realm of practical devices, it is clear that solid state batteries using such polymeric separators will be thin film devices. Fortunately, thin film fabrication techniques are well established in the plastics and paper industry, and present the possibility of continuous web-form manufacturing. This style of battery manufacture should make solid polymer batteries very cost-competitive with conventional secondary cells. In addition, the greater geometric flexibility of thin film solid state cells should provide benefits in terms of the end-use form factor in device design. This work discusses the status of solid redox polymerization cathodes.

  19. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belton, M.J.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Clary, M.C.; Anderson, J.L.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Greeley, R.; Anderson, D.; Bolef, L.K.; Townsend, T.E.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J. W.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Fanale, F.P.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Masursky, H.; Morrison, D.; Pollack, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment on the Galileo Orbiter spacecraft utilizes a high-resolution (1500 mm focal length) television camera with an 800 ?? 800 pixel virtual-phase, charge-coupled detector. It is designed to return images of Jupiter and its satellites that are characterized by a combination of sensitivity levels, spatial resolution, geometric fiedelity, and spectral range unmatched by imaging data obtained previously. The spectral range extends from approximately 375 to 1100 nm and only in the near ultra-violet region (??? 350 nm) is the spectral coverage reduced from previous missions. The camera is approximately 100 times more sensitive than those used in the Voyager mission, and, because of the nature of the satellite encounters, will produce images with approximately 100 times the ground resolution (i.e., ??? 50 m lp-1) on the Galilean satellites. We describe aspects of the detector including its sensitivity to energetic particle radiation and how the requirements for a large full-well capacity and long-term stability in operating voltages led to the choice of the virtual phase chip. The F/8.5 camera system can reach point sources of V(mag) ??? 11 with S/N ??? 10 and extended sources with surface brightness as low as 20 kR in its highest gain state and longest exposure mode. We describe the performance of the system as determined by ground calibration and the improvements that have been made to the telescope (same basic catadioptric design that was used in Mariner 10 and the Voyager high-resolution cameras) to reduce the scattered light reaching the detector. The images are linearly digitized 8-bits deep and, after flat-fielding, are cosmetically clean. Information 'preserving' and 'non-preserving' on-board data compression capabilities are outlined. A special "summation" mode, designed for use deep in the Jovian radiation belts, near Io, is also described. The detector is 'preflashed' before each exposure to ensure the photometric linearity

  20. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance Delphi SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Gary Blake; Sean Kelly

    2006-12-31

    The following report details the results under the DOE SECA program for the period July 2006 through December 2006. Developments pertain to the development of a 3 to 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. This report details technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the SOFC Power System: Task 1 SOFC System Development; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant Components; Task 5 Project Management; and Task 6 System Modeling & Cell Evaluation for Highmore » Efficiency Coal-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid System.« less

  1. Evaluation of a new carbon/zirconia-based sorbent for the cleanup of food extracts in multiclass analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Han, Lijun; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Matarrita, Jessie

    2016-12-01

    A novel carbon/zirconia-based material, Supel TM QuE Verde, was evaluated in a filter-vial dispersive solid-phase extraction cleanup of pork, salmon, kale, and avocado extracts for the residual analysis of 65 pesticides and 52 environmental contaminants (flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) using low-pressure gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. An amount of 180 mg sorbent per 0.6 mL extract in filter-vial dispersive solid-phase extraction cleanup was found the optimum in terms of achieving satisfactory removal of co-extractives and recoveries of analytes, especially for structurally planar compounds. For analytes partially retained by Verde, normalization to an internal standard resulted in 62-107% recoveries. Addition of Verde to primary secondary amine and C 18 in cleanup resulted in 38% more removal of gas-chromatography-amenable co-extractives in avocado, 30% in kale, 39% in salmon, and 50% in pork. The removal efficiency of co-extracted chlorophyll was 93% for kale and 64% for avocado based on ultraviolet-visible absorbance. The developed method was validated at three spiking levels (10, 25, and 100 ng/g), and 70-120% recoveries with ≤20% relative standard deviation were achieved for 96 (83%) out of 117 analytes in pork, 79 (69%) in salmon, 71 (62%) in kale, and 75 (65%) in avocado. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. All-solid state lithium carbon monofluoride batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Chengdu; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan

    A solid state lithium carbon monofluoride battery includes an anode comprising Li, a solid electrolyte, and a cathode including CF.sub.x and LPS. The cathode can also include a carbon compound. The solid electrolyte can include LPS. The LPS can include .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4. The cathode LPS can include .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4. A method of making a battery is also disclosed.

  3. Effects of framework design and layering material on fracture strength of implant-supported zirconia-based molar crowns.

    PubMed

    Kamio, Shingo; Komine, Futoshi; Taguchi, Kohei; Iwasaki, Taro; Blatz, Markus B; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of framework design and layering material on the fracture strength of implant-supported zirconia-based molar crowns. Sixty-six titanium abutments (GingiHue Post) were tightened onto dental implants (Implant Lab Analog). These abutment-implant complexes were randomly divided into three groups (n = 22) according to the design of the zirconia framework (Katana), namely, uniform-thickness (UNI), anatomic (ANA), and supported anatomic (SUP) designs. The specimens in each design group were further divided into two subgroups (n = 11): zirconia-based all-ceramic restorations (ZAC group) and zirconia-based restorations with an indirect composite material (Estenia C&B) layered onto the zirconia framework (ZIC group). All crowns were cemented on implant abutments, after which the specimens were tested for fracture resistance. The data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U-test with the Bonferroni correction (α = 0.05). The following mean fracture strength values (kN) were obtained in UNI design, ANA design, and SUP design, respectively: Group ZAC, 3.78, 6.01, 6.50 and Group ZIC, 3.15, 5.65, 5.83. In both the ZAC and ZIC groups, fracture strength was significantly lower for the UNI design than the other two framework designs (P = 0.001). Fracture strength did not significantly differ (P > 0.420) between identical framework designs in the ZAC and ZIC groups. A framework design with standardized layer thickness and adequate support of veneer by zirconia frameworks, as in the ANA and SUP designs, increases fracture resistance in implant-supported zirconia-based restorations under conditions of chewing attrition. Indirect composite material and porcelain perform similarly as layering materials on zirconia frameworks. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) solid-state antenna power combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A low loss power-combining microstrip antenna suitable for solid state solar power satellite (SPS) application was developed. A unique approach for performing both the combining and radiating function in a single cavity-type circuit was verified, representing substantial refinements over previous demonstration models in terms of detailed geometry to obtain good matching and adequate bandwidth at the design frequency. The combiner circuit was designed, built, and tested and the overall results support the view that the solid state power-combining antenna approach is a viable candidate for a solid state SPS antenna building block.

  5. The solid state detector technology for picosecond laser ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prochazka, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    We developed an all solid state laser ranging detector technology, which makes the goal of millimeter accuracy achievable. Our design and construction philosophy is to combine the techniques of single photon ranging, ultrashort laser pulses, and fast fixed threshold discrimination while avoiding any analog signal processing within the laser ranging chain. The all solid state laser ranging detector package consists of the START detector and the STOP solid state photon counting module. Both the detectors are working in an optically triggered avalanche switching regime. The optical signal is triggering an avalanche current buildup which results in the generation of a uniform, fast risetime output pulse.

  6. [Failure of zirconia-based prostheses on natural teeth and implants: focus on risk factors].

    PubMed

    Dupont, N; Koenig, V; Vanheusden, A; Mainjot, A

    2014-01-01

    Cohesive fracture of the veneering ceramic (chipping) is the first cause of failure of zirconia-based prostheses on natural teeth and implants. Besides risk factors related to the material (thermal stresses generated during the manufacturing process, framework inappropriate design), there are some clinical risk factors, which can influence the restoration prognosis. Indeed, unfavorable occlusal relationships and/or the presence of parafunctions such as bruxism and clenching, which are frequent pathologies, engender significant overloading. A retrospective study was performed at the University Hospital Center (CHU) of Liege on 147 dental and implants prostheses, placed between May 2003 and January 2012. This study highlighted a significant correlation between chipping and the absence of an occlusal nightguard (p = 0.0048), the presence of a ceramic restoration as an antagonist (p = 0.013), the presence of occlusal parafunctions (p = 0.018), and the presence of implants as support of the restorations (p = 0.026). These results underline the importance of external stress and occlusal risk factors diagnosis, as the need to perform an occlusal nightguard to patients with parafunctions.

  7. In vitro comparison of fracture load of implant-supported, zirconia-based, porcelain- and composite-layered restorations after artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Komine, Futoshi; Taguchi, Kohei; Fushiki, Ryosuke; Kamio, Shingo; Iwasaki, Taro; Matsumura, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated fracture load of single-tooth, implant-supported, zirconia-based, porcelain- and indirect composite-layered restorations after artificial aging. Forty-four zirconia-based molar restorations were fabricated on implant abutments and divided into four groups, namely, zirconia-based all-ceramic restorations (ZAC group) and three types of zirconia-based composite-layered restorations (ZIC-P, ZIC-E, and ZIC groups). Before layering an indirect composite material, the zirconia copings in the ZIC-P and ZIC-E groups were primed with Clearfil Photo Bond and Estenia Opaque Primer, respectively. All restorations were cemented on the abutments with glass-ionomer cement and then subjected to thermal cycling and cyclic loading. All specimens survived thermal cycling and cyclic loading. The fracture load of the ZIC-P group (2.72 kN) was not significantly different from that of the ZAC group (3.05 kN). The fracture load of the zirconia-based composite-layered restoration primed with Clearfil Photo Bond (ZIC-P) was comparable to that of the zirconia-based all-ceramic restoration (ZAC) after artificial aging.

  8. Solid-State Powered X-band Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, Mohamed A.K.; Nann, Emilio A.; Dolgashev, Valery A.

    2017-03-06

    In this report we disseminate the hot test results of an X-band 100-W solid state amplifier chain for linear accelerator (linac) applications. Solid state power amplifiers have become increasingly attractive solutions for achieving high power in radar and maritime applications. Here the performance of solid state amplifiers when driving an RF cavity is investigated. Commercially available, matched and fully-packaged GaN on SiC HEMTs are utilized, comprising a wideband driver stage and two power stages. The amplifier chain has a high poweradded- efficiency and is able to supply up to ~1.2 MV/m field gradient at 9.2 GHz in a simple testmore » cavity, with a peak power exceeding 100 W. These findings set forth the enabling technology for solid-state powered linacs.« less

  9. A hybrid electromechanical solid state switch for ac power control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Bidirectional thyristor coupled to a series of actuator driven electromechanical contacts generates hybrid electromechanical solid state switch for ac power control. Device is useful in power control applications where zero crossover switching is required.

  10. Solid state technology: A compilation. [on semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A compilation, covering selected solid state devices developed and integrated into systems by NASA to improve performance, is presented. Data are also given on device shielding in hostile radiation environments.

  11. Solid-state Bonding of Superplastic Aluminum Alloy 7475 Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byun, T. D. S.; Vastava, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental works were carried out to study the feasibility of solid state bonding of superplastic aluminum 7475 sheet. Amount of deformation, bonding time, surface cleaning method and intermediate layer were the process parameters investigated. Other parameters, held constant by the superplastic forming condition which is required to obtain a concurrent solid state bonding, are bonding temperature, bonding pressure and atmosphere. Bond integrity was evaluated through metallographic examination, X-ray line scan analysis, SEM fractographic analysis and lap shear tests. The early results of the development program indicated that sound solid state bonding was accomplished for this high strength 7475 alloy with significant amounts of deformation. A thin intermediate layer of the soft 5052 aluminum alloy aided in achieving a solid state bonding by reducing the required amount of plastic deformation at the interface. Bond strength was substantially increased by a post bond heat treatment.

  12. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials,more » and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)« less

  13. Solid-state X-band Combiner Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitzalis, O., Jr.; Russell, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of developing solid-state amplifiers at 4 and 10 GHz for application in spacecraft altimeters was studied. Bipolar-transistor, field-effect-transistor, and Impatt-diode amplifier designs based on 1980 solid-state technology are investigated. Several output power levels of the pulsed, low-duty-factor amplifiers are considered at each frequency. Proposed transistor and diode amplifier designs are illustrated in block diagrams. Projections of size, weight, and primary power requirements are given for each design.

  14. Solid-state resistor for pulsed power machines

    SciTech Connect

    Stoltzfus, Brian; Savage, Mark E.; Hutsel, Brian Thomas

    2016-12-06

    A flexible solid-state resistor comprises a string of ceramic resistors that can be used to charge the capacitors of a linear transformer driver (LTD) used in a pulsed power machine. The solid-state resistor is able to absorb the energy of a switch prefire, thereby limiting LTD cavity damage, yet has a sufficiently low RC charge time to allow the capacitor to be recharged without disrupting the operation of the pulsed power machine.

  15. 3D-Printing Electrolytes for Solid-State Batteries.

    PubMed

    McOwen, Dennis W; Xu, Shaomao; Gong, Yunhui; Wen, Yang; Godbey, Griffin L; Gritton, Jack E; Hamann, Tanner R; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Gregory T; Hu, Liangbing; Wachsman, Eric D

    2018-05-01

    Solid-state batteries have many enticing advantages in terms of safety and stability, but the solid electrolytes upon which these batteries are based typically lead to high cell resistance. Both components of the resistance (interfacial, due to poor contact with electrolytes, and bulk, due to a thick electrolyte) are a result of the rudimentary manufacturing capabilities that exist for solid-state electrolytes. In general, solid electrolytes are studied as flat pellets with planar interfaces, which minimizes interfacial contact area. Here, multiple ink formulations are developed that enable 3D printing of unique solid electrolyte microstructures with varying properties. These inks are used to 3D-print a variety of patterns, which are then sintered to reveal thin, nonplanar, intricate architectures composed only of Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 solid electrolyte. Using these 3D-printing ink formulations to further study and optimize electrolyte structure could lead to solid-state batteries with dramatically lower full cell resistance and higher energy and power density. In addition, the reported ink compositions could be used as a model recipe for other solid electrolyte or ceramic inks, perhaps enabling 3D printing in related fields. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee

    2003-06-09

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with piped-in water (Demonstration System A); and Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustionmore » engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July through December 2002 under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246 for the 5 kW mass-market automotive (gasoline) auxiliary power unit. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the automotive 5 kW system: Task 1--System Design and Integration; Task 2--Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3--Reformer Developments; Task 4--Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5--Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6--System Fabrication; and Task 7--System Testing.« less

  17. Universal features of the equation of state of solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, Pascal; Rose, James H.; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the energetics of solids leads to the conclusion that the equation of state for all classes of solids in compression can be expressed in terms of a universal function. The form of this universal function is determined by scaling experimental compression data for measured isotherms of a wide variety of solids. The equation of state is thus known (in the absence of phase transitions), if zero-pressure volume and isothermal compression and its pressure derivative are known. The discovery described in this paper has two immediate consequences: first, despite the well known differences in the microscopic energetics of the various classes of solids, there is a single equation of state for all classes in compression; and second, a new method is provided for analyzing measured isotherms and extrapolating high-pressure data from low-pressure (e.g. acoustic) data.

  18. Evaluation of the adaptation of zirconia-based fixed partial dentures using micro-CT technology.

    PubMed

    Borba, Márcia; Miranda, Walter Gomes; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Griggs, Jason Allan; Bona, Alvaro Della

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to measure the marginal and internal fit of zirconia-based all-ceramic three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) (Y-TZP - LAVA, 3M-ESPE), using a novel methodology based on micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technology. Stainless steel models of prepared abutments were fabricated to design FPDs. Ten frameworks were produced with 9 mm2 connector cross-sections using a LAVATM CAD-CAM system. All FPDs were veneered with a compatible porcelain. Each FPD was seated on the original model and scanned using micro-CT. Files were processed using NRecon and CTAn software. Adobe Photoshop and Image J software were used to analyze the cross-sectional images. Five measuring points were selected, as follows: MG - marginal gap; CA - chamfer area; AW - axial wall; AOT - axio-occlusal transition area; OA - occlusal area. Results were statistically analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis and Tukey's post hoc test (α= 0.05). There were significant differences for the gap width between the measurement points evaluated. MG showed the smallest median gap width (42 µm). OA had the highest median gap dimension (125 µm), followed by the AOT point (105 µm). CA and AW gap width values were statistically similar, 66 and 65 µm respectively. Thus, it was possible to conclude that different levels of adaptation were observed within the FPD, at the different measuring points. In addition, the micro-CT technology seems to be a reliable tool to evaluate the fit of dental restorations.

  19. Novel approach for solid state cryocoolers.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Azzurra; Di Lieto, Alberto; Tonelli, Mauro

    2015-04-06

    Laser cooling in solids is based on anti-Stokes luminescence, via the annihilation of lattice phonons needed to compensate the energy of emitted photons, higher than absorbed ones. Usually the anti-Stokes process is obtained using a rare-earth active ion, like Yb. In this work we demonstrate a novel approach for optical cooling based not only to Yb anti-Stokes cycle but also to virtuous energy-transfer processes from the active ion, obtaining an increase of the cooling efficiency of a single crystal LiYF(4) (YLF) doped Yb at 5at.% with a controlled co-doping of 0.0016% Thulium ions. A model for efficiency enhancement based on Yb-Tm energy transfer is also suggested.

  20. Solid-State Cloud Radar System (CRS) Upgrade and Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLinden, Matt; Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Lihua; Racette, Paul; Coon, Michael; Venkatesh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The recent decade has brought rapid development in solid-state power amplifier (SSPA) technology. This has enabled the use of solid-state precipitation radar in place of high-power and high-voltage systems such as those that use Klystron or Magnetron transmitters. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has recently completed a comprehensive redesign of the 94 gigahertz Cloud Radar System (CRS) to incorporate a solid-state transmitter. It is the first cloud radar to achieve sensitivity comparable to that of a high-voltage transmitter using solid-state. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Cloud Radar System (CRS) is a 94 gigahertz Doppler radar that flies on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The upgraded CRS system utilizes a state-of-the-art solid-state 94 gigahertz power amplifier with a peak transmit power of 30 watts. The modernized CRS system is detailed here with data results from its deployment during the 2014 Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX).

  1. Electrochemical properties of all solid state Li/S battery

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Ji-Hyun; Park, Jin-Woo; Wang, Qing

    All-solid-state lithium/sulfur (Li/S) battery is prepared using siloxane cross-linked network solid electrolyte at room temperature. The solid electrolytes show high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability with lithium and sulfur. In the first discharge curve, all-solid-state Li/S battery shows three plateau potential regions of 2.4 V, 2.12 V and 2.00 V, respectively. The battery shows the first discharge capacity of 1044 mAh g{sup −1}-sulfur at room temperature. This first discharge capacity rapidly decreases in 4th cycle and remains at 512 mAh g{sup −1}-sulfur after 10 cycles.

  2. Solid State Energy Conversion Energy Alliance (SECA)

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessy, Daniel; Sibisan, Rodica; Rasmussen, Mike

    2011-09-12

    The overall objective is to develop a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack that can be economically produced in high volumes and mass customized for different applications in transportation, stationary power generation, and military market sectors. In Phase I, work will be conducted on system design and integration, stack development, and development of reformers for natural gas and gasoline. Specifically, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW stationary power generation system consisting of a SOFC stack, a steam reformer for natural gas, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components, having an expected efficiency of ≥ 35 percent (AC/LHV). In Phase II andmore » Phase III, the emphasis will be to improve the SOFC stack, reduce start-up time, improve thermal cyclability, demonstrate operation on diesel fuel, and substantially reduce materials and manufacturing cost by integrating several functions into one component and thus reducing the number of components in the system. In Phase II, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and demonstrate two SOFC systems: an improved stationary power generation system consisting of an improved SOFC stack with integrated reformation of natural gas, and the BOP components, with an expected efficiency of ≥ 40 percent (AC/LHV), and a mobile 5 kW system for heavy-duty trucks and military power applications consisting of an SOFC stack, reformer utilizing anode tailgate recycle for diesel fuel, and BOP components, with an expected efficiency of ≥ 30 percent (DC/LHV). Finally, in Phase III, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for mass-market automotive application consisting of an optimized SOFC stack, an optimized catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) reformer for gasoline, and BOP components, having an expected efficiency of ≥ 30 percent (DC/LHV) and a factory cost of ≤ $400/kW.« less

  3. Solid State Energy Conversion Energy Alliance (SECA)

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessy, Daniel; Sibisan, Rodica; Rasmussen, Mike

    2011-09-12

    The overall objective is to develop a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack that can be economically produced in high volumes and mass customized for different applications in transportation, stationary power generation, and military market sectors. In Phase I, work will be conducted on system design and integration, stack development, and development of reformers for natural gas and gasoline. Specifically, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW stationary power generation system consisting of a SOFC stack, a steam reformer for natural gas, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components, having an expected efficiency of 35 percent (AC/LHV). In Phase II and Phasemore » III, the emphasis will be to improve the SOFC stack, reduce start-up time, improve thermal cyclability, demonstrate operation on diesel fuel, and substantially reduce materials and manufacturing cost by integrating several functions into one component and thus reducing the number of components in the system. In Phase II, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and demonstrate two SOFC systems: an improved stationary power generation system consisting of an improved SOFC stack with integrated reformation of natural gas, and the BOP components, with an expected efficiency of ≥40 percent (AC/LHV), and a mobile 5 kW system for heavy-duty trucks and military power applications consisting of an SOFC stack, reformer utilizing anode tailgate recycle for diesel fuel, and BOP components, with an expected efficiency of ≥30 percent (DC/LHV). Finally, in Phase III, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for mass-market automotive application consisting of an optimized SOFC stack, an optimized catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) reformer for gasoline, and BOP components, having an expected efficiency of 30 percent (DC/LHV) and a factory cost of ≤$400/kW.« less

  4. Recent Advances in Fast Ion Conducting Materials and Devices - Proceedings of the 2nd Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Liu, Qingguo; Chen, Liquan

    * Measurement of Sulfur Concentration with Zirconia-Based Electrolyte Cell in Molten Iron * Influence of SO2 on the Conductivity of Calcia Stabilized Zirconia * Reactions between YSZ and La1-xCaxMnO3 as a Cathode for SOFC * Preparation and Electrical Properties of Lithium β''-Alumina * Influence of Lithia Content on Properties of β''-Alumina Ceramics * Electrical Conductivity of Solid Solutions of Na2SO4 with Na2SeO4 * Effect of Antagonist XO42- = MoO42- and WO42- Ion Substitution on the Electrical Conductivity of Li2SO4 : Li2CO3 Eutectic System * Study on the Electrical Properties and Structure of Multicrystal Materials Li5+xGe1-xCrxV3O12 * Preliminary Study on Synthesis of Silver Zirconium Silicophosphates by Sol - Gel Process * Sodium Ion Conduction in Iron(III) Exchanged Y Zeolite * Electrical Properties of V5O9+x (x = 0, 1) and CuxV5O9.1 * Electrical Properties of the Tetragonal ZrO2 Stabilized with CeO2, CeO2 + Gd2O3 * Study of Preparation and Ionic Conduction of Doped Barium Cerate Perovskite * Preparing Fine Alumina Powder by Homogeneous Precipitation Method for Fabricating β''-Al2O3 * Amorphous Lithium Ion Conductors in Li2S-SiS2-LiBO2 System * Mixed Alkali Effect of Glass Super Ionic Conductors * Electrical Property and Phase Separation, Crystallization Behavior of A Cu+-Conducting Glass * Investigation of Phase Separation and Crystallization for 0.4CuI-0.3 Cu2O-0.3P2O5 Glass by SEM and XRD * Study on the Lithium Solid Electrolytes of Li3N-LiX(X = F, Cl, Br, I)-B2O3 Ternary Systems * Synthesis and Characterization of the Li2O : P2O5 : WO3 Glasses * The Electrochromic Properties of Electrodeposited Ni-O Films in Nonaqueous Electrolytes * All Solid-State WO3-MnO2 Based Electrochromic Window * Electrochromism in Nickel Oxide Films * E S R of X-Irradiated Melt Quenched Li2SO4 * Mixed-Alkali Effect in the Li2O-Na2O-TeO2 Glass System * Electrical and Thermal Studies on Silver Tellurite Glasses * Late Entries (Invited Papers) * Proton Conducting Polymers * Light

  5. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2012-10-09

    Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

  6. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2008-04-01

    Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

  7. 20th International Conference on Solid State Ionics (SSI 20)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-20

    Candidate as a Solid Electrolyte for Lithium - Ion Batteries Miriam Botros1, Ruzica Djenadic1, 2, 3 and Horst Hahn1, 2, 3; 1Joint Research Laboratory...Earth and Algae Based Aqueous Binders Make Environmentally Friendly High-Performance Anodes for Lithium - Ion Batteries Muhammad Hasanuzzaman and...Alberta, Canada. C2.22 Electrochemical Properties of All-Solid-State Lithium - Ion Batteries Using Li2CO3-Li3BO3 Electrolyte Toyoki Okumura, Tomonari

  8. Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2011-10-01

    We consider the energy-saving potential of solid-state street lighting due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state light sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state light sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of energy in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated energy savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street lighting system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.

  9. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm−3 at 0.8 A cm−3 with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm−3, representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors. PMID:27225484

  10. Path toward a high-energy solid-state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Gary L.; Merkle, Larry D.; Dubinskii, Mark; Zandi, Bahram

    2004-04-01

    Lasers have come a long way since the first demonstration by Maiman of a ruby crystal laser in 1960. Lasers are used as scientific tools as well as for a wide variety of applications for both commercial industry and the military. Today lasers come in all types, shapes and sizes depending on their application. The solid-state laser has some distinct advantages in that it can be rugged, compact, and self contained, making it reliable over long periods of time. With the advent of diode laser pumping a ten times increase in overall laser efficiency has been realized. This significant event, and others, is changing the way solid-state lasers are applied and allows new possibilities. One of those new areas of exploration is the high energy laser. Solid-state lasers for welding are already developed and yield energies in the 0.5 to 6 kilojoule range. These lasers are at the forefront of what is possible in terms of high energy solid-state lasers. It is possible to achieve energies of greater than 100 kJ. These sorts of energies would allow applications, in addition to welding, such as directed energy weapons, extremely remote sensing, power transfer, propulsion, biological and chemical agent neutralization and unexploded and mine neutralization. This article will review these new advances in solid-state lasers and the different paths toward achieving a high energy laser. The advantages and challenges of each approach will be highlighted.

  11. Advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy of natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jingdong; Cao, Xiaoyan; Olk, Dan C; Chu, Wenying; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2017-05-01

    Solid-state NMR is essential for the characterization of natural organic matter (NOM) and is gaining importance in geosciences and environmental sciences. This review is intended to highlight advanced solid-state NMR techniques, especially a systematic approach to NOM characterization, and their applications to the study of NOM. We discuss some basics of how to acquire high-quality and quantitative solid-state 13 C NMR spectra, and address some common technical mistakes that lead to unreliable spectra of NOM. The identification of specific functional groups in NOM, primarily based on 13 C spectral-editing techniques, is described and the theoretical background of some recently-developed spectral-editing techniques is provided. Applications of solid-state NMR to investigating nitrogen (N) in NOM are described, focusing on limitations of the widely used 15 N CP/MAS experiment and the potential of improved advanced NMR techniques for characterizing N forms in NOM. Then techniques used for identifying proximities, heterogeneities and domains are reviewed, and some examples provided. In addition, NMR techniques for studying segmental dynamics in NOM are reviewed. We also briefly discuss applications of solid-state NMR to NOM from various sources, including soil organic matter, aquatic organic matter, organic matter in atmospheric particulate matter, carbonaceous meteoritic organic matter, and fossil fuels. Finally, examples of NMR-based structural models and an outlook are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Solid State Research, 1977:2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-15

    February through 15 May 1977 PUBLISHED REPORTS Journal Articles JA No. 4621 Minority Carriers in Graphite and the H- Point Magnetoreflec- tion... point , the light at the output face must emerge from the coupled guide. In principle, both switch states can be achieved us- ing the A/3...Fermi level moves downward with increasing proton dose until it becomes pinned at a position designated as the high-dose Fermi level. At this point

  13. 43Ca NMR in solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellot, P.-V.; Trokiner, A.; Zhdanov, Yu.; Yakubovskii, A.

    1998-02-01

    In this paper we show that 43Ca is a suitable NMR probe to study the properties of high-Tc superconducting oxides. In the normal state, we report the temperature and doping dependencies of the spin susceptibility measured by 43Ca NMR. In the superconducting state and more exactly in the mixed state, by analysing 43Ca NMR linewidth, we have studied the magnetic induction distribution due to the presence of vortices and deduced λ, the penetration depth. Dans cet article, on montre que l'isotope 43 du calcium est une bonne sonde RMN pour l'étude des propriétés des oxydes supraconducteurs à haute température. Dans l'état normal, par la détermination du déplacement de la raie, en fonction de la température, on accède à la variation thermique de la susceptibilité de spin. Dans l'état supraconducteur et plus particulièrement dans l'état mixte, la largeur de raie RMN permet d'étudier la distribution d'induction magnétique due à la présence des vortex et de déterminer λ, la longueur de pénétration.

  14. Preliminary Analysis of a Fully Solid State Magnetocaloric Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar

    Magnetocaloric refrigeration is an alternative refrigeration technology with significant potential energy savings compared to conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology. Most of the reported active magnetic regenerator (AMR) systems that operate based on the magnetocaloric effect use heat transfer fluid to exchange heat, which results in complicated mechanical subsystems and components such as rotating valves and hydraulic pumps. In this paper, we propose an alternative mechanism for heat transfer between the AMR and the heat source/sink. High-conductivity moving rods/sheets (e.g. copper, brass, iron, graphite, aluminum or composite structures from these) are utilized instead of heat transfer fluid significantly enhancing the heatmore » transfer rate hence cooling/heating capacity. A one-dimensional model is developed to study the solid state AMR. In this model, the heat exchange between the solid-solid interfaces is modeled via a contact conductance, which depends on the interface apparent pressure, material hardness, thermal conductivity, surface roughness, surface slope between the interfaces, and material filled in the gap between the interfaces. Due to the tremendous impact of the heat exchange on the AMR cycle performance, a sensitivity analysis is conducted employing a response surface method, in which the apparent pressure, effective surface roughness and grease thermal conductivity are the uncertainty factors. COP and refrigeration capacity are presented as the response in the sensitivity analysis to reveal the important factors influencing the fully solid state AMR and optimize the solid state AMR efficiency. The performances of fully solid state AMR and traditional AMR are also compared and discussed in present work. The results of this study will provide general guidelines for designing high performance solid state AMR systems.« less

  15. Solid State Research: 1981:3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-15

    United States Government. The Public Affairs Office has reviewed this report, and it is releasable to the National Technical Information Service, where it...will be available to the general public, including foreign nationals. This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. FOR...n D.. II .. I swat rai~. Bruv,d,~ S( . J.1x,la. L.i),’, It C. ’ . it. -11..... It. Bre,lab. ’ .1. IN. kalaaaaal. H. . M ~ Ia~ ~ . .1. [’aaa. I

  16. New, Efficient Optically Pumped Solid State Lasers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-21

    Lasers", during the contract period from 15 August 1984 thru 11 November 1988 (AFOSR-88-0378) has led to some notable advances. This effort h,.s focused...lower laser states of both Er and 1Ho. This work has led to the inves t igation of the Nd,Er ion-ion interactions in other crystals such as Nd,Er:YALO...backed pyrex reflector. While the laser may work in a gold-plated cavity, the many visible, blue and near uv pump bands suggest better efficiency is

  17. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    DOEpatents

    Dane, Clifford B.; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1999-01-01

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases.

  18. Advances in Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Jeff; Schneider, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the metals used in the oil and gas industry are difficult to fusion weld including Titanium and its alloys. Solid state joining processes are being pursued as an alternative process to produce robust structures more amenable to high pressure applications. Various solid state joining processes include friction stir welding (FSW) and a patented modification termed thermal stir welding (TSW). The configuration of TSWing utilizes an induction coil to preheat the material minimizing the burden on the weld tool extending its life. This provides the ability to precisely select and control the temperature to avoid detrimental changes to the microstructure. The work presented in this presentation investigates the feasibility of joining various titanium alloys using the solid state welding processes of FSW and TSW. Process descriptions and attributes of each weld process will be presented. Weld process set ]up and welding techniques will be discussed leading to the challenges experienced. Mechanical property data will also be presented.

  19. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  20. Modeling solid-state transformations occurring in dissolution testing.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Timo; Aaltonen, Jaakko

    2013-04-15

    Changes in the solid-state form can occur during dissolution testing of drugs. This can often complicate interpretation of results. Additionally, there can be several mechanisms through which such a change proceeds, e.g. solvent-mediated transformation or crystal growth within the drug material itself. Here, a mathematical model was constructed to study the dissolution testing of a material, which undergoes such changes. The model consisted of two processes: the recrystallization of the drug from a supersaturated liquid state caused by the dissolution of the more soluble solid form and the crystal growth of the stable solid form at the surface of the drug formulation. Comparison to experimental data on theophylline dissolution showed that the results obtained with the model matched real solid-state changes and that it was able to distinguish between cases where the transformation was controlled either by solvent-mediated crystallization or solid-state crystal growth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quasi-Solid-State Single-Atom Transistors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fangqing; Peukert, Andreas; Bender, Thorsten; Obermair, Christian; Wertz, Florian; Schmieder, Philipp; Schimmel, Thomas

    2018-06-21

    The single-atom transistor represents a quantum electronic device at room temperature, allowing the switching of an electric current by the controlled and reversible relocation of one single atom within a metallic quantum point contact. So far, the device operates by applying a small voltage to a control electrode or "gate" within the aqueous electrolyte. Here, the operation of the atomic device in the quasi-solid state is demonstrated. Gelation of pyrogenic silica transforms the electrolyte into the quasi-solid state, exhibiting the cohesive properties of a solid and the diffusive properties of a liquid, preventing the leakage problem and avoiding the handling of a liquid system. The electrolyte is characterized by cyclic voltammetry, conductivity measurements, and rotation viscometry. Thus, a first demonstration of the single-atom transistor operating in the quasi-solid-state is given. The silver single-atom and atomic-scale transistors in the quasi-solid-state allow bistable switching between zero and quantized conductance levels, which are integer multiples of the conductance quantum G 0  = 2e 2 /h. Source-drain currents ranging from 1 to 8 µA are applied in these experiments. Any obvious influence of the gelation of the aqueous electrolyte on the electron transport within the quantum point contact is not observed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. [Microwave sintering of nanometer powder of alumina and zirconia-based dental ceramics].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Fan; Lu, Dong-Mei; Wan, Qian-Bing; Jin, Yong; Zhu, Ju-Mu

    2006-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility and reliability of sintering alumina and zirconia-based all-ceramic materials through a recently introduced microwave heating technique. The variation of crystal phases, the growth of grain sizes and microstructural features of these materials were evaluated after sintering. Four different groups of powder (l00%Al2O3, 60%Al2O3+40%ZrO2, 40% Al2O3+60%ZrO2, 100% ZrO2) were respectively press-compacted to fabricate green disk samples, 5 specimen of each group were prepared. All the samples were surrounded by refractory materials for heat containment and processed at 1 600 degrees C in a domestic microwave oven (850 W, 2 450 MHz), 1 600 degrees C/5 min for heating rate, 10 min for holding time. After sintering, the phase composition and average grain size of these ceramics were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their microstructure characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the specimens were successfully sintered with the application of microwave heating system in combination with a suitable thermal insulator. No phase change was found in alumina while monoclinic-zirconia was found to be transformed to tetragonal-zirconia. A little grain size growth of Al2O3 and ZrO2 has been observed with Al2O3 24.1 nm/before and 51.8 nm/after; ZrO2 25.3 nm/before and 29.7 nm/after. The SEM photos indicated that the microwave-sintered Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramics had a uniform crystal distribution and their crystal sizes could be maintained within the range of nanometers. It is expected that in the near future microwave heating system could be a promising substitute for conventional processing methods due to its unparalled advantages, including more rapid heating rate, shortened sintering time, superfine grain size, improved microstructure and much less expensive equipment.

  3. Two Universal Equations of State for Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiu-Xun; Wu, Qiang; Guo, Yang; Cai, Ling-Cang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, two equations of state (EOSs) (Sun Jiu-Xun-Morse with parameters n = 3 and 4, designated by SMS3 and SMS4) with two parameters are proposed to satisfy four merits proposed previously and give improved results for the cohesive energy. By applying ten typical EOSs to fit experimental compression data of 50 materials, it is shown that the SMS4 EOS gives the best results; the Baonza and Morse EOSs give the second best results; the SMS3 and modified generalized Lennard-Jones (mGLJ) EOSs give the third best results. However, the Baonza and mGLJ EOSs cannot give physically reasonable values of cohesive energy and P-V curves in the expansion region; the SMS3 and SMS4 EOS give fairly good results, and have some advantages over the Baonza and mGLJ EOSs in practical applications.

  4. Majorana modes in solid state systems and its dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Wu, Biao

    2018-04-01

    We review the properties of Majorana fermions in particle physics and point out that Majorana modes in solid state systems are significantly different. The key reason is the concept of anti-particle in solid state systems is different from its counterpart in particle physics. We define Majorana modes as the eigenstates of Majorana operators and find that they can exist both at edges and in the bulk. According to our definition, only one single Majorana mode can exist in a system no matter at edges or in the bulk. Kitaev's spinless p-wave superconductor is used to illustrate our results and the dynamical behavior of the Majorana modes.

  5. A Solid-State Modulator for High Speed Kickers

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J A; Cook, E G; Chen, Y J

    2001-06-11

    An all solid-state modulator with multi-pulse burst capability, very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility, and amplitude modulation capability for use with high-speed beam kickers has been designed and tested at LLNL. The modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration. It provides a nominal 18kV pulse with {+-} 10% amplitude modulation on the order of several MHz, rise times on the order of 10nS, and can be configured for either positive or negative polarity. The presentation will include measured performance data.

  6. What would Edison do with solid state lighting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Ian T.; Melton, Andrew; Xu, Tianming; Jamil, Muhammad; Fenwick, Will

    2010-08-01

    Thomas Edison is widely regarded as the greatest inventor in history and the most prominent individual behind the invention of the electric light. His impressive characteristics as an individual that led to his amazing success as an innovator continue to be an inspiration for researchers today. This paper considers how Edison might proceed in developing solid state lighting into a technology capable of displacing incumbent light sources, including his own incandescent lamps, then reviews some of the "Edison-like" contributions made to solid state lighting by the Next Generation Lighting research program at Georgia Tech.

  7. Solid State Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.; Walker, Bryant

    2012-01-01

    What is TSW and USW? TSW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and non-rotating containment plates Independent heating, stirring and forging controls Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW. USW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and a non-rotating containment plate; Ultrasonic energy integrated into non-rotating containment plate and stir rod; Independent heating, stirring and forging controls; Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW.

  8. High power RF solid state power amplifier system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A high power, high frequency, solid state power amplifier system includes a plurality of input multiple port splitters for receiving a high-frequency input and for dividing the input into a plurality of outputs and a plurality of solid state amplifier units. Each amplifier unit includes a plurality of amplifiers, and each amplifier is individually connected to one of the outputs of multiport splitters and produces a corresponding amplified output. A plurality of multiport combiners combine the amplified outputs of the amplifiers of each of the amplifier units to a combined output. Automatic level control protection circuitry protects the amplifiers and maintains a substantial constant amplifier power output.

  9. Solid-state greenhouses and their implications for icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, Dennis L.; Brown, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    The 'solid-state greenhouse effect' model constituted by the subsurface solar heating of translucent, high-albedo materials is presently applied to the study of planetary surfaces, with attention to frost and ice surfaces of the solar system's outer satellites. Temperature is computed as a function of depth for an illustrative range of thermal variables, and it is discovered that the surfaces and interiors of such bodies can be warmer than otherwise suspected. Mechanisms are identified through which the modest alteration of surface properties can substantially change the solid-state greenhouse and force an interior temperature adjustment.

  10. Review on solid electrolytes for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Feng; Kotobuki, Masashi; Song, Shufeng; Lai, Man On; Lu, Li

    2018-06-01

    All-solid-state (ASS) lithium-ion battery has attracted great attention due to its high safety and increased energy density. One of key components in the ASS battery (ASSB) is solid electrolyte that determines performance of the ASSB. Many types of solid electrolytes have been investigated in great detail in the past years, including NASICON-type, garnet-type, perovskite-type, LISICON-type, LiPON-type, Li3N-type, sulfide-type, argyrodite-type, anti-perovskite-type and many more. This paper aims to provide comprehensive reviews on some typical types of key solid electrolytes and some ASSBs, and on gaps that should be resolved.

  11. Facilitated ion transport in all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bong Gill; Hong, Jinkee; Hong, Won Hi; Hammond, Paula T; Park, HoSeok

    2011-09-27

    The realization of highly flexible and all-solid-state energy-storage devices strongly depends on both the electrical properties and mechanical integrity of the constitutive materials and the controlled assembly of electrode and solid electrolyte. Herein we report the preparation of all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors (SCs) through the easy assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (f-RGO) thin films (as electrode) and solvent-cast Nafion electrolyte membranes (as electrolyte and separator). In particular, the f-RGO-based SCs (f-RGO-SCs) showed a 2-fold higher specific capacitance (118.5 F/g at 1 A/g) and rate capability (90% retention at 30 A/g) compared to those of all-solid-state graphene SCs (62.3 F/g at 1A/g and 48% retention at 30 A/g). As proven by the 4-fold faster relaxation of the f-RGO-SCs than that of the RGO-SCs and more capacitive behavior of the former at the low-frequency region, these results were attributed to the facilitated ionic transport at the electrical double layer by means of the interfacial engineering of RGO by Nafion. Moreover, the superiority of all-solid-state flexible f-RGO-SCs was demonstrated by the good performance durability under the 1000 cycles of charging and discharging due to the mechanical integrity as a consequence of the interconnected networking structures. Therefore, this research provides new insight into the rational design and fabrication of all-solid-state flexible energy-storage devices as well as the fundamental understanding of ion and charge transport at the interface. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. Challenges and perspectives of garnet solid electrolytes for all solid-state lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi; Geng, Zhen; Han, Cuiping; Fu, Yongzhu; Li, Song; He, Yan-bing; Kang, Feiyu; Li, Baohua

    2018-06-01

    Garnet Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) solid electrolytes recently have attracted tremendous interest as they have the potential to enable all solid-state lithium batteries (ASSLBs) owing to high ionic conductivity (10-3 to 10-4 S cm-1), negligible electronic transport, wide potential window (up to 9 V), and good chemical stability. Here we present the key issues and challenges of LLZO in the aspects of ion conduction property, interfacial compatibility, and stability in air. First, different preparation methods of LLZO are reviewed. Then, recent progress about the improvement of ionic conductivity and interfacial property between LLZO and electrodes are presented. Finally, we list some emerging LLZO-based solid-state batteries and provide perspectives for further research. The aim of this review is to summarize the up-to-date developments of LLZO and lead the direction for future development which could enable LLZO-based ASSLBs.

  13. A New All Solid State Approach to Gaseous Pollutant Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, V.; Tamstorf, K.

    1971-01-01

    Recent efforts in our laboratories have concentrated on the development of an all solid state gas sensor, by combining solid electrolyte (ion exchange membrane) technology with advanced thin film deposition processes. With the proper bias magnitude and polarity these miniature electro-chemical,cells show remarkable current responses for many common pollution gases. Current activity is now focused on complementing a multiple array (matrix) of these solid state sensors, with a digital electronic scanner device possessing "scan-compare-identify-alarm: capability. This innovative approach to multi-component pollutant gas analysis may indeed be the advanced prototype for the "third generation" class of pollution analysis instrumentation so urgently needed in the decade ahead.

  14. Self-healing liquid/solid state battery

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Paul J.; Chung, Brice H.V.; Phadke, Satyajit R.

    A battery system that exchanges energy with an external device is provided. The battery system includes a positive electrode having a first metal or alloy, a negative electrode having a second metal or alloy, and an electrolyte including a salt of the second metal or alloy. The positive electrode, the negative electrode, and the electrolyte are in a liquid phase at an operating temperature during at least one portion of operation. The positive electrode is entirely in a liquid phase in one charged state and includes a solid phase in another charged state. The solid phase of the positive electrodemore » includes a solid intermetallic formed by the first and the second metals or alloys. Methods of storing electrical energy from an external circuit using such a battery system are also provided.« less

  15. Entangling distant solid-state spins via thermal phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Puhao; Betzholz, Ralf; Zhang, Shaoliang; Cai, Jianming

    2017-12-01

    The implementation of quantum entangling gates between qubits is essential to achieve scalable quantum computation. Here, we propose a robust scheme to realize an entangling gate for distant solid-state spins via a mechanical oscillator in its thermal equilibrium state. By appropriate Hamiltonian engineering and usage of a protected subspace, we show that the proposed scheme is able to significantly reduce the thermal effect of the mechanical oscillator on the spins. In particular, we demonstrate that a high entangling gate fidelity can be achieved even for a relatively high thermal occupation. Our scheme can thus relax the requirement for ground-state cooling of the mechanical oscillator, and may find applications in scalable quantum information processing in hybrid solid-state architectures.

  16. Solid State Technology Branch of NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A collection of papers written by the members of the Solid State Technology Branch of NASA LeRC from Jun. 1991 - Jun. 1992 is presented. A range of topics relating to superconductivity, Monolithic Microwave Circuits (MMIC's), coplanar waveguides, and material characterization is covered.

  17. Solid state lift for micrometering in a fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Milam, David M.; Carroll, Thomas S.; Lee, Chien-Chang; Miller, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    A fuel injector performs main fuel injection by raising fuel pressure in a nozzle chamber to lift a check valve member to a fully open position, and performs preinjection or microinjection by operating a solid state motor to lift the check valve member a much smaller distance.

  18. Designing Birefringent Filters For Solid-State Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monosmith, Bryan

    1992-01-01

    Mathematical model enables design of filter assembly of birefringent plates as integral part of resonator cavity of tunable solid-state laser. Proper design treats polarization eigenstate of entire resonator as function of wavelength. Program includes software modules for variety of optical elements including Pockels cell, laser rod, quarter- and half-wave plates, Faraday rotator, and polarizers.

  19. Solid state remote power controllers for 120 VDC power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, G. R.; Baker, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Solid state remote power controllers can be applied to any dc power system up to 120 Vdc and distribute power up to 3.6 kW per hour. Devices have demonstrated total electrical efficiencies of 98.5 percent to 99.0 percent at rated load currents.

  20. Applications of solid-state NMR to membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Ladizhansky, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Membrane proteins mediate flow of molecules, signals, and energy between cells and intracellular compartments. Understanding membrane protein function requires a detailed understanding of the structural and dynamic properties involved. Lipid bilayers provide a native-like environment for structure-function investigations of membrane proteins. In this review we give a general discourse on the recent progress in the field of solid-state NMR of membrane proteins. Solid-state NMR is a variation of NMR spectroscopy that is applicable to molecular systems with restricted mobility, such as high molecular weight proteins and protein complexes, supramolecular assemblies, or membrane proteins in a phospholipid environment. We highlight recent advances in applications of solid-state NMR to membrane proteins, specifically focusing on the recent developments in the field of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization, proton detection, and solid-state NMR applications in situ (in cell membranes). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biophysics in Canada, edited by Lewis Kay, John Baenziger, Albert Berghuis and Peter Tieleman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnun, Jacob J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Brown, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy finds growing application to inorganic and organic materials, biological samples, polymers, proteins, and cellular membranes. However, this technique is often neither included in laboratory curricula nor typically covered in undergraduate courses. On the other hand, spectroscopy and…

  2. Solid-state Distributed Temperature Control for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon B.; Reagan, Shawn E.; Day, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A newly developed solid-state temperature controller will offer greater flexibility in the thermal control of aerospace vehicle structures. A status of the hardware development along with its implementation on the Multi- Purpose Logistics Module will be provided. Numerous advantages of the device will also be discussed with regards to current and future flight vehicle implementations.

  3. Diode pumped solid-state laser oscillators for spectroscopic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.; Basu, S.; Fan, T. Y.; Kozlovsky, W. J.; Nabors, C. D.; Nilsson, A.; Huber, G.

    1987-01-01

    The rapid improvement in diode laser pump sources has led to the recent progress in diode laser pumped solid state lasers. To date, electrical efficiencies of greater than 10 percent were demonstrated. As diode laser costs decrease with increased production volume, diode laser and diode laser array pumped solid state lasers will replace the traditional flashlamp pumped Nd:YAG laser sources. The use of laser diode array pumping of slab geometry lasers will allow efficient, high peak and average power solid state laser sources to be developed. Perhaps the greatest impact of diode laser pumped solid state lasers will be in spectroscopic applications of miniature, monolithic devices. Single-stripe diode-pumped operation of a continuous-wave 946 nm Nd:YAG laser with less than 10 m/w threshold was demonstrated. A slope efficiency of 16 percent near threshold was shown with a projected slope efficiency well above a threshold of 34 percent based on results under Rhodamine 6G dye-laser pumping. Nonlinear crystals for second-harmonic generation of this source were evaluated. The KNbO3 and periodically poled LiNbO3 appear to be the most promising.

  4. Screening Plastic-Encapsulated Solid-State Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buldhaupt, L.

    1984-01-01

    Suitability of plastic-encapsulated solid-state electronic devices for use in spacecraft discussed. Conclusion of preliminary study was plasticencapsulated parts sufficiently reliable to be considered for use in lowcost equipment used at moderate temperature and low humidity. Useful to engineers as guides to testing or use of plastic encapsulated semiconductors in severe terrestrial environments.

  5. Promises and challenges in solid-state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Fred

    2010-03-01

    Lighting technologies based on semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer unprecedented promises that include three major benefits: (i) Gigantic energy savings enabled by efficient conversion of electrical energy to optical energy; (ii) Substantial positive contributions to sustainability through reduced emissions of global-warming gases, acid-rain gases, and toxic substances such as mercury; and (iii) The creation of new paradigms in lighting driven by the unique controllability of solid-state lighting sources. Due to the powerful nature of these benefits, the transition from conventional lighting sources to solid-state lighting is virtually assured. This presentation will illustrate the new world of lighting and illustrate the pervasive changes to be expected in lighting, displays, communications, and biotechnology. The presentation will also address the formidable challenges that must be addressed to continue the further advancement of solid-state lighting technology. These challenges offer opportunities for research and innovation. Specific challenges include light management, carrier transport, and optical design. We will present some innovative approaches in order to solve known technical challenges faced by solid-state lighting. These approaches include the demonstration and use of new optical thin-film materials with a continuously tunable refractive index. These approaches also include the use of polarization-matched structures that reduce the polarization fields in GaInN LEDs and the hotly debated efficiency droop, that is, the decreasing LED efficiency at high currents.

  6. Solid state electro-optic color filter and iris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Test results obtained have confirmed the practicality of the solid state electro-optic filters as an optical control element in a television system. Neutral-density control range in excess of 1000:1 has been obtained on sample filters. Test results, measurements in a complete camera system, discussions of problem areas, analytical comparisons, and recommendations for future investigations are included.

  7. Nanoscale Solid State Batteries Enabled by Thermal Atomic Layer Deposition of a Lithium Polyphosphazene Solid State Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Pearse, Alexander J.; Schmitt, Thomas E.; Fuller, Elliot J.

    Several active areas of research in novel energy storage technologies, including three-dimensional solid state batteries and passivation coatings for reactive battery electrode components, require conformal solid state electrolytes. We describe an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for a member of the lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) family, which is employed as a thin film lithium-conducting solid electrolyte. The reaction between lithium tert-butoxide (LiO tBu) and diethyl phosphoramidate (DEPA) produces conformal, ionically conductive thin films with a stoichiometry close to Li 2PO 2N between 250 and 300°C. The P/N ratio of the films is always 1, indicative of a particular polymorph ofmore » LiPON which closely resembles a polyphosphazene. Films grown at 300°C have an ionic conductivity of (6.51 ± 0.36)×10 -7 S/cm at 35°C, and are functionally electrochemically stable in the window from 0 to 5.3V vs. Li/Li +. We demonstrate the viability of the ALD-grown electrolyte by integrating it into full solid state batteries, including thin film devices using LiCoO 2 as the cathode and Si as the anode operating at up to 1 mA/cm 2. The high quality of the ALD growth process allows pinhole-free deposition even on rough crystalline surfaces, and we demonstrate the fabrication and operation of thin film batteries with the thinnest (<40nm) solid state electrolytes yet reported. Finally, we show an additional application of the moderate-temperature ALD process by demonstrating a flexible solid state battery fabricated on a polymer substrate.« less

  8. Nanoscale Solid State Batteries Enabled by Thermal Atomic Layer Deposition of a Lithium Polyphosphazene Solid State Electrolyte

    DOE PAGES

    Pearse, Alexander J.; Schmitt, Thomas E.; Fuller, Elliot J.; ...

    2017-04-10

    Several active areas of research in novel energy storage technologies, including three-dimensional solid state batteries and passivation coatings for reactive battery electrode components, require conformal solid state electrolytes. We describe an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for a member of the lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) family, which is employed as a thin film lithium-conducting solid electrolyte. The reaction between lithium tert-butoxide (LiO tBu) and diethyl phosphoramidate (DEPA) produces conformal, ionically conductive thin films with a stoichiometry close to Li 2PO 2N between 250 and 300°C. The P/N ratio of the films is always 1, indicative of a particular polymorph ofmore » LiPON which closely resembles a polyphosphazene. Films grown at 300°C have an ionic conductivity of (6.51 ± 0.36)×10 -7 S/cm at 35°C, and are functionally electrochemically stable in the window from 0 to 5.3V vs. Li/Li +. We demonstrate the viability of the ALD-grown electrolyte by integrating it into full solid state batteries, including thin film devices using LiCoO 2 as the cathode and Si as the anode operating at up to 1 mA/cm 2. The high quality of the ALD growth process allows pinhole-free deposition even on rough crystalline surfaces, and we demonstrate the fabrication and operation of thin film batteries with the thinnest (<40nm) solid state electrolytes yet reported. Finally, we show an additional application of the moderate-temperature ALD process by demonstrating a flexible solid state battery fabricated on a polymer substrate.« less

  9. Frequency stabilization of diode-laser-pumped solid state lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Sunlite program is to fly two diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers on the space shuttle and while doing so to perform a measurement of their frequency stability and temporal coherence. These measurements will be made by combining the outputs of the two lasers on an optical radiation detector and spectrally analyzing the beat note. Diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers have several characteristics that will make them useful in space borne experiments. First, this laser has high electrical efficiency. Second, it is of a technology that enables scaling to higher powers in the future. Third, the laser can be made extremely reliable, which is crucial for many space based applications. Fourth, they are frequency and amplitude stable and have high temporal coherence. Diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers are inherently efficient. Recent results have shown 59 percent slope efficiency for a diode-laser-pumped solid-state laser. As for reliability, the laser proposed should be capable of continuous operation. This is possible because the diode lasers can be remote from the solid state gain medium by coupling through optical fibers. Diode lasers are constructed with optical detectors for monitoring their output power built into their mounting case. A computer can actively monitor the output of each diode laser. If it sees any variation in the output power that might indicate a problem, the computer can turn off that diode laser and turn on a backup diode laser. As for stability requirements, it is now generally believed that any laser can be stabilized if the laser has a frequency actuator capable of tuning the laser frequency as far as it is likely to drift in a measurement time.

  10. Analysis of measurements for solid state laser remote lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin

    1995-01-01

    The merits of using lidar systems for remote measurements of various atmospheric processes such as wind, turbulence, moisture, and aerosol concentration are widely recognized. Although the lidar technology has progressed considerably over the past two decades, significant research particularly in the area of solid state lidars remains to be conducted in order to fully exploit this technology. The work performed by the UAH (University of Alabama in Huntsville) personnel under this Delivery Order concentrated on analyses of measurements required in support of solid state laser remote sensing lidar systems which are to be designed, deployed, and used to measure atmospheric processes and constituents. UAH personnel has studied and recommended to NASA/MSFC the requirements of the optical systems needed to characterize the detection devices suitable for solid state wavelengths and to evaluate various heterodyne detection schemes. The 2-micron solid state laser technology was investigated and several preliminary laser designs were developed and their performance for remote sensing of atmospheric winds and clouds from a spaceborne platform were specified. In addition to the laser source and the detector, the other critical technologies necessary for global wind measurements by a spaceborne solid state coherent lidar systems were identified to be developed and demonstrated. As part of this work, an analysis was performed to determine the atmospheric wind velocity estimation accuracy using the line-of-sight measurements of a scanning coherent lidar. Under this delivery order, a computer database of materials related to the theory, development, testing, and operation of lidar systems was developed to serve as a source of information for lidar research and development.

  11. All-Solid-State Batteries with Thick Electrode Configurations.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuki; Shiotani, Shinya; Morita, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kota; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji

    2018-02-01

    We report the preparation of thick electrode all-solid-state lithium-ion cells in which a large geometric capacity of 15.7 mAh cm -2 was achieved at room temperature using a 600 μm-thick cathode layer. The effect of ionic conductivity on the discharge performance was then examined using two different materials for the solid electrolyte. Furthermore, important morphological information regarding the tortuosity factor was electrochemically extracted from the capacity-current data. The effect of tortuosity on cell performance was also quantitatively discussed.

  12. Production of microbial biosurfactants by solid-state cultivation.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nadia; Camilios Neto, Doumit; Mitchell, David Alexander

    2010-01-01

    In recent years biosurfactants have attracted attention because of their low toxicity, biodegradability and ecological acceptability. However, their use is currently extremely limited due to their high cost in relation to that of chemical surfactants. Solid-state cultivation represents an alternative technology for biosurfactant production that can bring two important advantages: firstly, it allows the use of inexpensive substrates and, secondly, it avoids the problem of foaming that complicates submerged cultivation processes for biosurfactant production. In this chapter we show that, despite its potential, to date relatively little attention has been given to solid-state cultivation for biosurfactant production. We also note that this cultivation technique brings its own challenges, such as the selection of a bioreactor type that will allow adequate heat removal, of substrates with appropriate physico-chemical properties and of methods for monitoring of the cultivation process and recovering the biosurfactants from the fermented solid. With suitable efforts in research, solid-state cultivation can be used for large-scale production of biosurfactants.

  13. Assessment of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, P.; Uhlmann, C.; Weiss, M.; Weber, A.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.

    2018-07-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASSBs) are considered as next generation energy storage systems. A model might be very useful, which describes all contributions to the internal cell resistance, enables an optimization of the cell design, and calculates the performance of an open choice of cell architectures. A newly developed one-dimensional model for ASSBs is presented, based on a design concept which employs the use of composite electrodes. The internal cell resistance is calculated by linking two-phase transmission line models representing the composite electrodes with an ohmic resistance representing the solid electrolyte (separator). Thereby, electrical parameters, i.e. ionic and electronic conductivity, electrochemical parameters, i.e. charge-transfer resistance at interfaces and lithium solid-state diffusion, and microstructure parameters, i.e. electrode thickness, particle size, interface area, phase composition and tortuosity, are considered as the most important material and design parameters. Subsequently, discharge curves are simulated, and energy- and power-density characteristics of all-solid-state cell architectures are calculated. These model calculations are discussed and compared with experimental data from literature for a high power LiCoO2-Li10GeP2S12/Li10GeP2S12/Li4Ti5O12-Li10GeP2S12 cell.

  14. Solid State Physics in the People's Republic of China. A Trip Report of the American Solid State Physics Delegation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Anne; Slichter, Charles P.

    This is the fifth chapter of a six chapter report which discusses Chinese research and education in solid state physics, and their relations to technology and the other sciences. This specific chapter concerns the communication of information in the scientific community and the transfer of information to students and practical users…

  15. Atomic layer deposition of lithium phosphates as solid-state electrolytes for all-solid-state microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Biqiong; Liu, Jian; Sun, Qian; Li, Ruying; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Sun, Xueliang

    2014-12-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been shown as a powerful technique to build three-dimensional (3D) all-solid-state microbattery, because of its unique advantages in fabricating uniform and pinhole-free thin films in 3D structures. The development of solid-state electrolyte by ALD is a crucial step to achieve the fabrication of 3D all-solid-state microbattery by ALD. In this work, lithium phosphate solid-state electrolytes were grown by ALD at four different temperatures (250, 275, 300, and 325 °C) using two precursors (lithium tert-butoxide and trimethylphosphate). A linear dependence of film thickness on ALD cycle number was observed and uniform growth was achieved at all four temperatures. The growth rate was 0.57, 0.66, 0.69, and 0.72 Å/cycle at deposition temperatures of 250, 275, 300, and 325 °C, respectively. Furthermore, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the compositions and chemical structures of lithium phosphates deposited by ALD. Moreover, the lithium phosphate thin films deposited at 300 °C presented the highest ionic conductivity of 1.73 × 10-8 S cm-1 at 323 K with ˜0.51 eV activation energy based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity was calculated to be 3.3 × 10-8 S cm-1 at 26 °C (299 K).

  16. Solid State Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, M.K.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    Research activities are reported in programs on theoretical solid state physics, physical properties of solids, radiation effects in metals, neutron scattering, research materials, and isotope research materials. (JRD)

  17. Solid-state fermentation for cellulase production by Pestalotiopsis versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.N.A.; Mithal, B.M.; Thakkur, R.N.

    1983-03-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) refers to the fermentation process on solid substrate without the presence of free liquid. It is found to be ideal when the organism is a fungus and the substrate is insoluble, like cellulose. Production of cellulase by SSF has been studied in detail by Toyama and Ogawa. It has been found that more concentrated enzyme preparations can be obtained by SSF than in liquid type since the enzyme gets diluted in the whole medium in liquid culture. In the present study, a plant pathogenic fungus Pestalotiopsis versicolor has been grown on various solid cultures of cellulosic substancesmore » and production of cellulase has been studied. Earlier, we had studied the production of cellulase by P. versicolor in liquid culture. (Refs. 7).« less

  18. Prediction of recrystallization behavior of troglitazone/polyvinylpyrrolidone solid dispersion by solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Ito, Atsutoshi; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Yada, Shuichi; Hamaura, Takeshi; Nakagami, Hiroaki; Higashi, Kenjirou; Moribe, Kunikazu; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2010-01-04

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate the relationship between the (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectra and the recrystallization behavior during the storage of troglitazone solid dispersions. The solid dispersions were prepared by either the solvent method or by co-grinding. The recrystallization behavior under storage conditions at 40 degrees C/94% RH was evaluated by the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) equation. Solid dispersions prepared by the solvent method or by prolonged grinding brought about inhibition of the nucleation and the nuclei growth at the same time. No differences in the PXRD profiles were found in the samples prepared by the co-grinding and solvent methods, however, (13)C CP/MAS NMR showed significant differences in the spectra. The correlation coefficients using partial least square regression analysis between the PXRD profiles and the apparent nuclei-growth constant or induction period to nucleation were 0.1305 or 0.6350, respectively. In contrast, those between the (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectra and the constant or the period were 0.9916 or 0.9838, respectively. The (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectra had good correlation with the recrystallization kinetic parameters evaluated by the KJMA equation. Consequently, solid-state NMR was judged to be a useful tool for the prediction of the recrystallization behavior of solid dispersions.

  19. Electrical control of a solid-state flying qubit.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Michihisa; Takada, Shintaro; Bäuerle, Christopher; Watanabe, Kenta; Wieck, Andreas D; Tarucha, Seigo

    2012-03-18

    Solid-state approaches to quantum information technology are attractive because they are scalable. The coherent transport of quantum information over large distances is a requirement for any practical quantum computer and has been demonstrated by coupling super-conducting qubits to photons. Single electrons have also been transferred between distant quantum dots in times shorter than their spin coherence time. However, until now, there have been no demonstrations of scalable 'flying qubit' architectures-systems in which it is possible to perform quantum operations on qubits while they are being coherently transferred-in solid-state systems. These architectures allow for control over qubit separation and for non-local entanglement, which makes them more amenable to integration and scaling than static qubit approaches. Here, we report the transport and manipulation of qubits over distances of 6 µm within 40 ps, in an Aharonov-Bohm ring connected to two-channel wires that have a tunable tunnel coupling between channels. The flying qubit state is defined by the presence of a travelling electron in either channel of the wire, and can be controlled without a magnetic field. Our device has shorter quantum gates (<1 µm), longer coherence lengths (∼86 µm at 70 mK) and higher operating frequencies (∼100 GHz) than other solid-state implementations of flying qubits.

  20. Towards long lasting zirconia-based composites for dental implants: Transformation induced plasticity and its consequence on ceramic reliability.

    PubMed

    Reveron, Helen; Fornabaio, Marta; Palmero, Paola; Fürderer, Tobias; Adolfsson, Erik; Lughi, Vanni; Bonifacio, Alois; Sergo, Valter; Montanaro, Laura; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2017-01-15

    Zirconia-based composites were developed through an innovative processing route able to tune compositional and microstructural features very precisely. Fully-dense ceria-stabilized zirconia ceramics (84vol% Ce-TZP) containing equiaxed alumina (8vol%Al 2 O 3 ) and elongated strontium hexa-aluminate (8vol% SrAl 12 O 19 ) second phases were obtained by conventional sintering. This work deals with the effect of the zirconia stabilization degree (CeO 2 in the range 10.0-11.5mol%) on the transformability and mechanical properties of Ce-TZP-Al 2 O 3 -SrAl 12 O 19 materials. Vickers hardness, biaxial flexural strength and Single-edge V-notched beam tests revealed a strong influence of ceria content on the mechanical properties. Composites with 11.0mol% CeO 2 or above exhibited the classical behaviour of brittle ceramics, with no apparent plasticity and very low strain to failure. On the contrary, composites with 10.5mol% CeO 2 or less showed large transformation-induced plasticity and almost no dispersion in strength data. Materials with 10.5mol% of ceria showed the highest values in terms of biaxial bending strength (up to 1.1GPa) and fracture toughness (>10MPa√m). In these ceramics, as zirconia transformation precedes failure, the Weibull modulus was exceptionally high and reached a value of 60, which is in the range typically reported for metals. The results achieved demonstrate the high potential of using these new strong, tough and stable zirconia-based composites in structural biomedical applications. Yttria-stabilized (Y-TZP) zirconia ceramics are increasingly used for developing metal-free restorations and dental implants. Despite their success related to their excellent mechanical resistance, Y-TZP can undergo Low Temperature Degradation which could be responsible for restoration damage or even worst the failure of the implant. Current research is focusing on strategies to improve the LTD resistance of Y-TZP or to develop alternative composites with better

  1. Solid-state NMR and IR for the analysis of pharmaceutical solids: polymorphs of fosinopril sodium.

    PubMed

    Brittain, H G; Morris, K R; Bugay, D E; Thakur, A B; Serajuddin, A T

    1993-01-01

    The two polymorphic modifications of fosinopril sodium have been characterized as to their differences in melting behaviour, powder X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), and solid-state 31P- and 13C-NMR spectra. The polymorphs were found to be enantiotropically related based upon melting point, heat of fusion, and solution mediated transformation data. Analysis of the solid-state FTIR and 13C-NMR data indicated that the environment of the acetal side chain of fosinopril sodium differed in two polymorphs, and that there might be cis-trans isomerization about the C6-N peptide bond. These conformational differences are postulated as the origin of the observed polymorphism.

  2. Detection of pulsed neutrons with solid-state electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzakis, J.; Rigakis, I.; Hassan, S. M.; Clark, E. L.; Lee, P.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of the spatial and time-resolved characteristics of pulsed neutron sources require large area detection materials and fast circuitry that can process the electronic pulses readout from the active region of the detector. In this paper, we present a solid-state detector based on the nuclear activation of materials by neutrons, and the detection of the secondary particle emission of the generated radionuclides’ decay. The detector utilizes a microcontroller that communicates using a modified SPI protocol. A solid-state, pulse shaping filter follows a charge amplifier, and it is designed as an inexpensive, low-noise solution for measuring pulses measured by a digital counter. An imaging detector can also be made by using an array of these detectors. The system can communicate with an interface unit and pass an image to a personal computer.

  3. Solid-State Ultracapacitor for Improved Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a solid-state ultracapacitor using a novel nanocomposite, dielectric material. The material's design is based on the internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) concept, and it uses novel dielectric and metallic conductive ink formulations. Novel processing methods developed by NASA provide for unique dielectric properties at the grain level. Nanoscale raw material powders are tailored using a variety of techniques and then formulated into a special ink. This dielectric ink is used with novel metallic conductive ink to print a capacitor layer structure into any design necessary to meet a range of technical requirements. The innovation is intended to replace current range safety batteries that NASA uses to power the systems that destroy off-course space vehicles. A solid-state design provides the needed robustness and safety for this demanding application.

  4. Advances in solid-state NMR of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Foston, Marcus

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a well-established analytical and enabling technology in biofuel research. Over the past few decades, lignocellulosic biomass and its conversion to supplement or displace non-renewable feedstocks has attracted increasing interest. The application of solid-state NMR spectroscopy has long been seen as an important tool in the study of cellulose and lignocellulose structure, biosynthesis, and deconstruction, especially considering the limited number of effective solvent systems and the significance of plant cell wall three-dimensional microstructure and component interaction to conversion yield and rate profiles. This article reviews common and recent applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy methods that provide insight into the structural and dynamic processes of cellulose that control bulk properties and biofuel conversion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurements of electron detection efficiencies in solid state detectors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupton, J. E.; Stone, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    Detailed laboratory measurement of the electron response of solid state detectors as a function of incident electron energy, detector depletion depth, and energy-loss discriminator threshold. These response functions were determined by exposing totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors with depletion depths between 50 and 1000 microns to the beam from a magnetic beta-ray spectrometer. The data were extended to 5000 microns depletion depth using the results of previously published Monte Carlo electron calculations. When the electron counting efficiency of a given detector is plotted as a function of energy-loss threshold for various incident energies, the efficiency curves are bounded by a smooth envelope which represents the upper limit to the detection efficiency. These upper limit curves, which scale in a simple way, make it possible to easily estimate the electron sensitivity of solid-state detector systems.

  6. Solid-State Water Electrolysis with an Alkaline Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, YJ; Chen, G; Mendoza, AJ

    2012-06-06

    We report high-performance, durable alkaline membrane water electrolysis in a solid-state cell. An anion exchange membrane (AEM) and catalyst layer ionomer for hydroxide ion conduction were used without the addition of liquid electrolyte. At 50 degrees C, an AEM electrolysis cell using iridium oxide as the anode catalyst and Pt black as the cathode catalyst exhibited a current density of 399 mA/cm(2) at 1.80 V. We found that the durability of the AEM-based electrolysis cell could be improved by incorporating a highly durable ionomer in the catalyst layer and optimizing the water feed configuration. We demonstrated an AEM-based electrolysis cellmore » with a lifetime of > 535 h. These first-time results of water electrolysis in a solid-state membrane cell are promising for low-cost, scalable hydrogen production.« less

  7. Solid state amorphization kinetic of alpha lactose upon mechanical milling.

    PubMed

    Caron, Vincent; Willart, Jean-François; Lefort, Ronan; Derollez, Patrick; Danède, Florence; Descamps, Marc

    2011-11-29

    It has been previously reported that α-lactose could be totally amorphized by ball milling. In this paper we report a detailed investigation of the structural and microstructural changes by which this solid state amorphization takes place. The investigations have been performed by Powder X-ray Diffraction, Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((13)C CP-MAS) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The results reveal the structural complexity of the material in the course of its amorphization so that it cannot be considered as a simple mixture made of a decreasing crystalline fraction and an increasing amorphous fraction. Heating this complexity can give rise to a fully nano-crystalline material. The results also show that chemical degradations upon heating are strongly connected to the melting process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Solid-state coherent laser radar wind shear measuring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. Milton

    1992-01-01

    Coherent Technologies, Inc. (CTI) was established in 1984 to engage in the development of coherent laser radar systems and subsystems with applications in atmospheric remote sensing, and in target tracking, ranging and imaging. CTI focuses its capabilities in three major areas: (1) theoretical performance and design of coherent laser radar system; (2) development of coherent laser radar systems for government agencies such as DoD and NASA; and (3) development of coherent laser radar systems for commercial markets. The topics addressed are: (1) 1.06 micron solid-state coherent laser radar system; (2) wind measurement using 1.06 micron system; and flashlamp-pumped 2.09 micron solid-state coherent laser radar system.

  9. Solid-State Ionic Diodes Demonstrated in Conical Nanopores

    DOE PAGES

    Plett, Timothy S.; Cai, Wenjia; Le Thai, Mya; ...

    2017-02-27

    Ionic transport at the nanoscale features phenomena that are not observed in larger systems. Nonlinear current–voltage curves characteristic of ionic diodes as well as ion selectivity are examples of effects observed at the nanoscale. Many man-made nanopore systems are inspired by biological channels in a cell membrane, thus measurements are often performed in aqueous solutions. Consequently, much less is known about ionic transport in nonaqueous systems, especially in solid-state electrolytes. Here we show ionic transport through single pores filled with gel electrolyte of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) doped with LiClO 4 in propylene carbonate. The system has no liquid interface andmore » the ionic transport occurs through the porous gel structure. We demonstrate that a conically shaped nanopore filled with the gel rectifies the current and works as a solid-state ionic diode.« less

  10. Solid state television camera (CCD-buried channel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The development of an all solid state television camera, which uses a buried channel charge coupled device (CCD) as the image sensor, was undertaken. A 380 x 488 element CCD array is utilized to ensure compatibility with 525 line transmission and display monitor equipment. Specific camera design approaches selected for study and analysis included (a) optional clocking modes for either fast (1/60 second) or normal (1/30 second) frame readout, (b) techniques for the elimination or suppression of CCD blemish effects, and (c) automatic light control and video gain control (i.e., ALC and AGC) techniques to eliminate or minimize sensor overload due to bright objects in the scene. Preferred approaches were determined and integrated into a deliverable solid state TV camera which addressed the program requirements for a prototype qualifiable to space environment conditions.

  11. Solid state television camera (CCD-buried channel), revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    An all solid state television camera was designed which uses a buried channel charge coupled device (CCD) as the image sensor. A 380 x 488 element CCD array is utilized to ensure compatibility with 525-line transmission and display monitor equipment. Specific camera design approaches selected for study and analysis included (1) optional clocking modes for either fast (1/60 second) or normal (1/30 second) frame readout, (2) techniques for the elimination or suppression of CCD blemish effects, and (3) automatic light control and video gain control techniques to eliminate or minimize sensor overload due to bright objects in the scene. Preferred approaches were determined and integrated into a deliverable solid state TV camera which addressed the program requirements for a prototype qualifiable to space environment conditions.

  12. Repetitively Pulsed High Power RF Solid-State System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Chris; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth E.; Prager, James; Quinley, Morgan

    2017-10-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. (EHT) is developing a low-cost, fully solid-state architecture for the generation of the RF frequencies and power levels necessary for plasma heating and diagnostic systems at validation platform experiments within the fusion science community. In Year 1 of this program, EHT has developed a solid-state RF system that combines an inductive adder, nonlinear transmission line (NLTL), and antenna into a single system that can be deployed at fusion science experiments. EHT has designed and optimized a lumped-element NLTL that will be suitable RF generation near the lower-hybrid frequency at the High Beta Tokamak (HBT) located at Columbia University. In Year 2, EHT will test this system at the Helicity Injected Torus at the University of Washington and HBT at Columbia. EHT will present results from Year 1 testing and optimization of the NLTL-based RF system. With support of DOE SBIR.

  13. Solid-State Explosive Reaction for Nanoporous Bulk Thermoelectric Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kunpeng; Duan, Haozhi; Raghavendra, Nunna; Qiu, Pengfei; Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Wenqing; Yang, Jihui; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong

    2017-11-01

    High-performance thermoelectric materials require ultralow lattice thermal conductivity typically through either shortening the phonon mean free path or reducing the specific heat. Beyond these two approaches, a new unique, simple, yet ultrafast solid-state explosive reaction is proposed to fabricate nanoporous bulk thermoelectric materials with well-controlled pore sizes and distributions to suppress thermal conductivity. By investigating a wide variety of functional materials, general criteria for solid-state explosive reactions are built upon both thermodynamics and kinetics, and then successfully used to tailor material's microstructures and porosity. A drastic decrease in lattice thermal conductivity down below the minimum value of the fully densified materials and enhancement in thermoelectric figure of merit are achieved in porous bulk materials. This work demonstrates that controlling materials' porosity is a very effective strategy and is easy to be combined with other approaches for optimizing thermoelectric performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Structures And Fabrication Techniques For Solid State Electrochemical Devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2005-12-27

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

  15. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2003-08-12

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

  16. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-10-10

    Low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures provide solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one aspect the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another aspect, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe and Cu, or alloys thereof.

  17. Design of a miniature solid state NIR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hanyi; Wang, Xiaolu L.; Soos, Jolanta I.; Crisp, Joy A.

    1995-06-01

    For aerospace applications a miniature, solid-state near infrared (NIR) spectrometer based on an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) has been developed and built at Brimrose Corp. of America. In this spectrometer a light emitting diode (LED) array as light source, a set of optical fibers as the lightwave transmission route, and a miniature AOTF as a tunable filter were adopted. This approach makes the spectrometer very compact, light-weight, rugged and reliable, with low operating power and long lifetime.

  18. Diode-pumped solid state green laser for ophthalmologic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eno, Taizo; Goto, Yoshiaki; Momiuchi, Masayuki

    2002-10-01

    We have developed diode pumped solid state green laser suitable for ophthalmologic applications. Beam parameters were designed by considering the coagulation system. We have lowered the beam quality to multi transverse and longitudinal mode on purpose to improve the speckle noise of the slit lamp output beam. The beam profile shows homogeneous intensity and it is very useful for ophthalmologic application. End pumping and short cavity configuration made it possible.

  19. Position sensitive solid-state photomultipliers, systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Kanai S; Christian, James; Stapels, Christopher; Dokhale, Purushottam; McClish, Mickel

    2014-11-11

    An integrated silicon solid state photomultiplier (SSPM) device includes a pixel unit including an array of more than 2.times.2 p-n photodiodes on a common substrate, a signal division network electrically connected to each photodiode, where the signal division network includes four output connections, a signal output measurement unit, a processing unit configured to identify the photodiode generating a signal or a center of mass of photodiodes generating a signal, and a global receiving unit.

  20. Kilovolt dc solid state remote power controller development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The experience gained in developing and applying solid state power controller (SSPC) technology at high voltage dc (HVDC) potentials and power levels of up to 25 kilowatts is summarized. The HVDC switching devices, power switching concepts, drive circuits, and very fast acting overcurrent protection circuits were analyzed. A 25A bipolar breadboard with Darlington connected switching transistor was built. Fault testing at 900 volts was included. A bipolar transistor packaged breadboard design was developed. Power MOSFET remote power controller (RPC) was designed.

  1. Advances in Theory of Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Mananga, Eugene S; Moghaddasi, Jalil; Sana, Ajaz; Akinmoladun, Andrew; Sadoqi, Mostafa

    Recent advances in theory of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) such as Floquet-Magnus expansion and Fer expansion, address alternative methods for solving a time-dependent linear differential equation which is a central problem in quantum physics in general and solid-state NMR in particular. The power and the salient features of these theoretical approaches that are helpful to describe the time evolution of the spin system at all times are presented. This review article presents a broad view of manipulations of spin systems in solid-state NMR, based on milestones theories including the average Hamiltonian theory and the Floquet theory, and the approaches currently developing such as the Floquet-Magnus expansion and the Fer expansion. All these approaches provide procedures to control and describe the spin dynamics in solid-state NMR. Applications of these theoretical methods to stroboscopic and synchronized manipulations, non-synchronized experiments, multiple incommensurated frequencies, magic-angle spinning samples, are illustrated. We also reviewed the propagators of these theories and discussed their convergences. Note that the FME is an extension of the popular Magnus Expansion and Average Hamiltonian Theory. It aims is to bridge the AHT to the Floquet Theorem but in a more concise and efficient formalism. Calculations can then be performed in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space instead of an infinite dimensional space within the so-called Floquet theory. We expected that the FME will provide means for more accurate and efficient spin dynamics simulation and for devising new RF pulse sequence.

  2. First Solid-state Cooling Below 100K

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-13

    Seth Melgaard, Denis Seletskiy, Alexander Albrecht, and Mansoor Sheik- Bahae Advances in material purity and laser light absorption offer new possi...all- solid-state cryocooler. Denis Seletskiy University of Konstanz Konstanz, Germany Alexander Albrecht and Mansoor Sheik- Bahae University of New...Unterschied von Lumineszenz- und Tem- peraturstrahlung, Z. Phys. 57, p. 739, 1929. 3. R. I . Epstein,M. I . Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and

  3. Low voltage solid-state lateral coloration electrochromic device

    DOEpatents

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.; Ruth, M.R.

    1984-12-21

    A solid-state transition metal oxide device comprising a plurality of layers having a predisposed orientation including an electrochromic oxide layer. Conductive material including anode and cathode contacts is secured to the device. Coloration is actuated within the electrochromic oxide layer after the application of a predetermined potential between the contacts. The coloration action is adapted to sweep or dynamically extend across the length of the electrochromic oxide layer.

  4. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in using color therapy to synchronize crew circadian rhythms. Current RGB LED technology does not produce sufficient brightness to adequately address general lighting in addition to color therapy. The intent is to address both through a mix of white and RGB LEDs designing for fully addressable alertness/relaxation levels as well as more dramatic circadian shifts.

  5. Solid-state Terahertz Sources for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiwald, Frank; Pearson, John C.; Ward, John S.; Schlecht, Erich; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Ferber, R.; Tsang, Raymond; Lin, Robert H.; Peralta, Alejandro; hide

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of solid-state frequency multiplier chains utilized far teraherz receiver applications such as the Herschel Space Observatory . Emphasis will he placed on the specific requirements to be met and challenges that were encountered. The availability of high power amplifiers at 100 GHz makes it possible to cascade frequency doublers and triplers with sufficient RF power to pump heterodyne receivers at THz frequencies. The environmental and mechanical constraints will be addressed as well as reliability issues.

  6. Solid state laser media driven by remote nuclear powered fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Prelas, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for driving a solid state laser by a nuclear powered fluorescence source which is located remote from the fluorescence source. A nuclear reaction produced in a reaction chamber generates fluorescence or photons. The photons are collected from the chamber into a waveguide, such as a fiber optic waveguide. The waveguide transports the photons to the remote laser for exciting the laser.

  7. Oxygen production using solid-state zirconia electrolyte technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suitor, Jerry W.; Clark, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    High purity oxygen is required for a number of scientific, medical, and industrial applications. Traditionally, these needs have been met by cryogenic distillation or pressure swing adsorption systems designed to separate oxygen from air. Oxygen separation from air via solid-state zirconia electrolyte technology offers an alternative to these methods. The technology has several advantages over the traditional methods, including reliability, compactness, quiet operation, high purity output, and low power consumption.

  8. Cladding for transverse-pumped solid-state laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L. (Inventor); Fan, Tso Y. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    In a transverse pumped, solid state laser, a nonabsorptive cladding surrounds a gain medium. A single tranverse mode, namely the Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) sub 00 mode, is provided. The TEM sub 00 model has a cross sectional diameter greater than a transverse dimension of the gain medium but less than a transverse dimension of the cladding. The required size of the gain medium is minimized while a threshold for laser output is lowered.

  9. Nanoscale Devices for Solid State Refrigeration and Power Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    techniques such as ballistic electron emission microscopy, scanning thermal microscopy, X - ray photoelectron emission spectroscopy, etc. The main emphasis is...0-7803-8363- X /04/$20.00 ©2004 IEEE 20th IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium Nanoscale Devices for Solid State Refrigeration and Power Generation Ali...theories [9,23,24]. Since thermal conductivity is an average bulk effect involving many lattice vibrations (phonons modes), it is hard to

  10. Conceptual design of 100 TW solid state laser system

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    Currently the main solid state laser facilities used for plasma physics research in the United Kingdom are the VULCAN laser at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the HELEN facility at the Atomic Weapons Establishment. In the future it is proposed to replace HELEN with a new 100 TW facility to come on line early in the next century. A brief review is given of the VULCAN and HELEN. Then the authors discuss the design for the HELEN replacement.

  11. Low voltage solid-state lateral coloration electrochromic device

    DOEpatents

    Tracy, C. Edwin; Benson, David K.; Ruth, Marta R.

    1987-01-01

    A solid-state transition metal oxide device comprising a plurality of lay having a predisposed orientation including an electrochromic oxide layer. Conductive material including anode and cathode contacts is secured to the device. Coloration is actuated within the electrochromic oxide layer after the application of a predetermined potential between the contacts. The coloration action is adapted to sweep or dynamically extend across the length of the electrochromic oxide layer.

  12. Solid-state experiments at high pressure and strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantar, D. H.

    1999-11-01

    We are developing experiments on intense laser facilities to study shock compressed metal foils in the solid state. At high pressure, Rayleigh-Taylor induced perturbation growth can be reduced by the strength of the material. [1] We use this to characterize the strength of the metal foils accelerated at high pressure in the solid state. In our experiments, Al and Cu foils are compressed and accelerated with staged shocks using a temporally shaped x-ray drive that is generated in a Nova laser hohlraum target. [2] The peak pressures exceed 1 Mbar (100 GPa), and strain rates are very high, 10^7-10^9 s-1. The instability growth is observed by x-ray radiography. To probe the state of the material under compression and to demonstrate that it remains solid, we are using the dynamic Bragg diffraction technique. [3] This technique has been demonstrated on the Nova laser [4] using Si crystals shocked to 200-500 kbar. Additionally, we have observed diffraction from Cu crystals that are shocked to 100-200 kbar by direct laser irradiation on the Trident and OMEGA lasers. Compressions of up to a 10in the crystal lattice spacing have been observed. We will present the results of our work to develop these high pressure solid-state hydrodynamics experiments. 1. J. F. Barnes et al, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 727 (1974); A. I. Lebedev et al , Proc. 4th IWPCTM, 29 March-1 April, 1993, p. 81. 2. D. H. Kalantar et al., to appear in Int. J. of Impact Eng. (1999). 3. R. R. Whitlock and J. S. Wark, Phys. Rev. B 52, 8 (1995). 4. D. H. Kalantar et al, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 629 (1999).

  13. Solid-State Electrolyte Anchored with a Carboxylated Azo Compound for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chao; Ji, Xiao; Chen, Ji; Gaskell, Karen J; He, Xinzi; Liang, Yujia; Jiang, Jianjun; Wang, Chunsheng

    2018-05-23

    Organic electrode materials are promising for green and sustainable lithium-ion batteries. However, the high solubility of organic materials in the liquid electrolyte results in the shuttle reaction and fast capacity decay. Herein, azo compounds are firstly applied in all-solid-state lithium batteries (ASSLB) to suppress the dissolution challenge. Due to the high compatibility of azobenzene (AB) based compounds to Li 3 PS 4 (LPS) solid electrolyte, the LPS solid electrolyte is used to prevent the dissolution and shuttle reaction of AB. To maintain the low interface resistance during the large volume change upon cycling, a carboxylate group is added into AB to provide 4-(phenylazo) benzoic acid lithium salt (PBALS), which could bond with LPS solid electrolyte via the ionic bonding between oxygen in PBALS and lithium ion in LPS. The ionic bonding between the active material and solid electrolyte stabilizes the contact interface and enables the stable cycle life of PBALS in ASSLB. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Dissolved Solids in Streams of the Conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anning, D. W.; Flynn, M.

    2014-12-01

    Studies have shown that excessive dissolved-solids concentrations in water can have adverse effects on the environment and on agricultural, municipal, and industrial water users. Such effects motivated the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program to develop a SPAtially-Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model to improve the understanding of dissolved solids in streams of the United States. Using the SPARROW model, annual dissolved-solids loads from 2,560 water-quality monitoring stations were statistically related to several spatial datasets serving as surrogates for dissolved-solids sources and transport processes. Sources investigated in the model included geologic materials, road de-icers, urban lands, cultivated lands, and pasture lands. Factors affecting transport from these sources to streams in the model included climate, soil, vegetation, terrain, population, irrigation, and artificial-drainage characteristics. The SPARROW model was used to predict long-term mean annual conditions for dissolved-solids sources, loads, yields, and concentrations in about 66,000 stream reaches and corresponding incremental catchments nationwide. The estimated total amount of dissolved solids delivered to the Nation's streams is 272 million metric tons (Mt) annually, of which 194 million Mt (71%) are from geologic sources, 38 million Mt (14%) are from road de-icers, 18 million Mt (7%) are from pasture lands, 14 million Mt (5 %) are from urban lands, and 8 million Mt (3%) are from cultivated lands. The median incremental-catchment yield delivered to local streams is 26 metric tons per year per square kilometer [(Mt/yr)/km2]. Ten percent of the incremental catchments yield less than 4 (Mt/yr)/km2, and 10 percent yield more than 90 (Mt/yr)/km2. In 13% of the reaches, predicted flow-weighted concentrations exceed 500 mg/L—the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary non-enforceable drinking-water standard.

  15. Modular compact solid-state modulators for particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Churanov, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The building of the radio frequency (RF) particle accelerator needs high-voltage pulsed modulator as a power supply for klystron or magnetron to feed the RF accelerating system. The development of a number of solid-state modulators for use in linear accelerators has allowed to develop a series of modular IGBT based compact solid-state modulators with different parameters. This series covers a wide range of needs in accelerator technology to feed a wide range of loads from the low power magnetrons to powerful klystrons. Each modulator of the series is built on base of a number of unified solid-state modules connected to the pulse transformer, and covers a wide range of modulators: voltage up to 250 kV, a peak current up to 250 A, average power up to 100 kW and the pulse duration up to 20 μsec. The parameters of the block with an overall dimensions 880×540×250 mm are: voltage 12 kV, peak current 1600 A, pulse duration 20 μsec, average power 10 kW with air-cooling and 40 kW with liquidcooling. These parameters do not represent a physical limit, and modulators to parameters outside these ranges can be created on request.

  16. Solid State Pathways towards Molecular Complexity in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnartz, Harold; Bossa, Jean-Baptiste; Bouwman, Jordy; Cuppen, Herma M.; Cuylle, Steven H.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Fayolle, Edith C.; Fedoseev, Gleb; Fuchs, Guido W.; Ioppolo, Sergio; Isokoski, Karoliina; Lamberts, Thanja; Öberg, Karin I.; Romanzin, Claire; Tenenbaum, Emily; Zhen, Junfeng

    2011-12-01

    It has been a long standing problem in astrochemistry to explain how molecules can form in a highly dilute environment such as the interstellar medium. In the last decennium more and more evidence has been found that the observed mix of small and complex, stable and highly transient species in space is the cumulative result of gas phase and solid state reactions as well as gas-grain interactions. Solid state reactions on icy dust grains are specifically found to play an important role in the formation of the more complex ``organic'' compounds. In order to investigate the underlying physical and chemical processes detailed laboratory based experiments are needed that simulate surface reactions triggered by processes as different as thermal heating, photon (UV) irradiation and particle (atom, cosmic ray, electron) bombardment of interstellar ice analogues. Here, some of the latest research performed in the Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics in Leiden, the Netherlands is reviewed. The focus is on hydrogenation, i.e., H-atom addition reactions and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation of interstellar ice analogues at astronomically relevant temperatures. It is shown that solid state processes are crucial in the chemical evolution of the interstellar medium, providing pathways towards molecular complexity in space.

  17. High power diode lasers for solid-state laser pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Mcdonnell, Patrick N.

    1994-01-01

    The development and commercial application of high power diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps is described. Such solid-state laser pumps are significantly more efficient and reliable than conventional flash-lamps. This paper describes the design and fabrication of diode lasers emitting in the 780 - 900 nm spectral region, and discusses their performance and reliability. Typical measured performance parameters include electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent, narrow-band spectral emission of 2 to 3 nm FWHM, pulsed output power levels of 50 watts/bar with reliability values of over 2 billion shots to date (tests to be terminated after 10 billion shots), and reliable operation to pulse lengths of 1 ms. Pulse lengths up to 5 ms have been demonstrated at derated power levels, and CW performance at various power levels has been evaluated in a 'bar-in-groove' laser package. These high-power 1-cm stacked-bar arrays are now being manufactured for OEM use. Individual diode laser bars, ready for package-mounting by OEM customers, are being sold as commodity items. Commercial and medical applications of these laser arrays include solid-state laser pumping for metal-working, cutting, industrial measurement and control, ranging, wind-shear/atmospheric turbulence detection, X-ray generation, materials surface cleaning, microsurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and dental procedures.

  18. Solid state photosensitive devices which employ isolated photosynthetic complexes

    DOEpatents

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2009-09-22

    Solid state photosensitive devices including photovoltaic devices are provided which comprise a first electrode and a second electrode in superposed relation; and at least one isolated Light Harvesting Complex (LHC) between the electrodes. Preferred photosensitive devices comprise an electron transport layer formed of a first photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the first electrode and the LHC; and a hole transport layer formed of a second photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the second electrode and the LHC. Solid state photosensitive devices of the present invention may comprise at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material disposed between the first electrode and the electron transport layer; and at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material, disposed between the second electrode and the hole transport layer. Methods of generating photocurrent are provided which comprise exposing a photovoltaic device of the present invention to light. Electronic devices are provided which comprise a solid state photosensitive device of the present invention.

  19. Solid-state flat panel imager with avalanche amorphous selenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuermann, James R.; Howansky, Adrian; Goldan, Amir H.; Tousignant, Olivier; Levéille, Sébastien; Tanioka, K.; Zhao, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Active matrix flat panel imagers (AMFPI) have become the dominant detector technology for digital radiography and fluoroscopy. For low dose imaging, electronic noise from the amorphous silicon thin film transistor (TFT) array degrades imaging performance. We have fabricated the first prototype solid-state AMFPI using a uniform layer of avalanche amorphous selenium (a-Se) photoconductor to amplify the signal to eliminate the effect of electronic noise. We have previously developed a large area solid-state avalanche a-Se sensor structure referred to as High Gain Avalanche Rushing Photoconductor (HARP) capable of achieving gains of 75. In this work we successfully deposited this HARP structure onto a 24 x 30 cm2 TFT array with a pixel pitch of 85 μm. An electric field (ESe) up to 105 Vμm-1 was applied across the a-Se layer without breakdown. Using the HARP layer as a direct detector, an X-ray avalanche gain of 15 +/- 3 was achieved at ESe = 105 Vμm-1. In indirect mode with a 150 μm thick structured CsI scintillator, an optical gain of 76 +/- 5 was measured at ESe = 105 Vμm-1. Image quality at low dose increases with the avalanche gain until the electronic noise is overcome at a constant exposure level of 0.76 mR. We demonstrate the success of a solid-state HARP X-ray imager as well as the largest active area HARP sensor to date.

  20. Influence of different resin cements and surface treatments on microshear bond strength of zirconia-based ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Petrauskas, Anderson; Novaes Olivieri, Karina Andrea; Pupo, Yasmine Mendes; Berger, Guilherme; Gonçalves Betiol, Ederson Áureo

    2018-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to evaluate the microshear bond strength of zirconia-based ceramics with different resin cement systems and surface treatments. Materials and Methods: Forty blocks of zirconia-based ceramic were prepared and embedded in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes with acrylic resin. After polishing, the samples were washed in an ultrasonic bath and dried in an oven for 10 min. Half of the samples were subjected to sandblasting with aluminum oxide. Blocks were divided into four groups (n = 10) in which two resin cements were used as follows: (1) RelyX™ U100 with surface-polished zirconia; (2) RelyX™ U100 with surface-blasted zirconia; (3) Multilink with surface-polished zirconia; and 4) Multilink with surface-blasted zirconia. After performing these surface treatments, translucent tubes (n = 30 per group) were placed on the zirconia specimens, and resin cement was injected into them and light cured. The PVC tubes were adapted in a universal testing machine; a stiletto blade, which was bolted to the machine, was positioned on the cementation interface. The microshear test was performed at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. Failure mode was analyzed in an optical microscope and classified as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed. Results: The null hypothesis of this study was rejected because there was a difference found between the resin cement and the surface treatment. There was a statistical difference (P < 0.005) in RelyX™ U100 with surface-blasted zirconia, in relation to the other three groups. For Multilink groups, there was no statistical difference between them. Conclusion: Self-adhesive resin cement showed a more significant tendency toward bond strength in the ceramic-based zirconium oxide grit-blasted surfaces. PMID:29674825

  1. Production of fungal antibiotics using polymeric solid supports in solid-state and liquid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bigelis, Ramunas; He, Haiyin; Yang, Hui Y; Chang, Li-Ping; Greenstein, Michael

    2006-10-01

    The use of inert absorbent polymeric supports for cellular attachment in solid-state fungal fermentation influenced growth, morphology, and production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Two filamentous fungi exemplified the utility of this approach to facilitate the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds. Cylindrocarpon sp. LL-Cyan426 produced pyrrocidines A and B and Acremonium sp. LL-Cyan416 produced acremonidins A-E when grown on agar bearing moist polyester-cellulose paper and generated distinctly different metabolite profiles than the conventional shaken or stationary liquid fermentations. Differences were also apparent when tenfold concentrated methanol extracts from these fermentations were tested against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, and zones of inhibition were compared. Shaken broth cultures of Acremonium sp. or Cylindrocarpon sp. showed complex HPLC patterns, lower levels of target compounds, and high levels of unwanted compounds and medium components, while agar/solid support cultures showed significantly increased yields of pyrrocidines A and B and acremonidins A-E, respectively. This method, mixed-phase fermentation (fermentation with an inert solid support bearing liquid medium), exploited the increase in surface area available for fungal growth on the supports and the tendency of some microorganisms to adhere to solid surfaces, possibly mimicking their natural growth habits. The production of dimeric anthraquinones by Penicillium sp. LL-WF159 was investigated in liquid fermentation using various inert polymeric immobilization supports composed of polypropylene, polypropylene cellulose, polyester-cellulose, or polyurethane. This culture produced rugulosin, skyrin, flavomannin, and a new bisanthracene, WF159-A, after fermentation in the presence and absence of polymeric supports for mycelial attachment. The physical nature of the different support systems influenced culture morphology and relative

  2. Thermoacoustics of solids: A pathway to solid state engines and refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Haitian; Scalo, Carlo; Sen, Mihir; Semperlotti, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    Thermoacoustic oscillations have been one of the most exciting discoveries of the physics of fluids in the 19th century. Since its inception, scientists have formulated a comprehensive theoretical explanation of the basic phenomenon which has later found several practical applications to engineering devices. To date, all studies have concentrated on the thermoacoustics of fluid media where this fascinating mechanism was exclusively believed to exist. Our study shows theoretical and numerical evidence of the existence of thermoacoustic instabilities in solid media. Although the underlying physical mechanism exhibits some interesting similarities with its counterpart in fluids, the theoretical framework highlights relevant differences that have important implications on the ability to trigger and sustain the thermoacoustic response. This mechanism could pave the way to the development of highly robust and reliable solid-state thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators.

  3. Solid state and aqueous behavior of uranyl peroxide cage clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Kristi Lynn

    Uranyl peroxide cage clusters include a large family of more than 50 published clusters of a variety of sizes, which can incorporate various ligands including pyrophosphate and oxalate. Previous studies have reported that uranyl clusters can be used as a method to separate uranium from a solid matrix, with potential applications in reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel. Because of the potential applications of these novel structures in an advanced nuclear fuel cycle and their likely presence in areas of contamination, it is important to understand their behavior in both solid state and aqueous systems, including complex environments where other ions are present. In this thesis, I examine the aqueous behavior of U24Pp 12, as well as aqueous cluster systems with added mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. The resulting solutions were analyzed using dynamic light scattering and ultra-small angle X-ray scattering to evaluate the species in solution. Precipitates of these systems were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Raman spectroscopy. The results of these analyses demonstrate the importance of cation size, charge, and concentration of added cations on the aqueous behavior of uranium macroions. Specifically, aggregates of various sizes and shapes form rapidly upon addition of cations, and in some cases these aggregates appear to precipitate into an X-ray amorphous material that still contains U24Pp12 clusters. In addition, I probe aggregation of U24Pp12 and U60, another uranyl peroxide cage cluster, in mixed solvent water-alcohol systems. The aggregation of uranyl clusters in water-alcohol systems is a result of hydrogen bonding with polar organic molecules and the reduction of the dielectric constant of the system. Studies of aggregation of uranyl clusters also allow for comparison between the newer uranyl polyoxometalate family and century-old transition metal polyoxometalates. To complement the solution studies of uranyl

  4. Monitoring Cocrystal Formation via In Situ Solid-State NMR.

    PubMed

    Mandala, Venkata S; Loewus, Sarel J; Mehta, Manish A

    2014-10-02

    A detailed understanding of the mechanism of organic cocrystal formation remains elusive. Techniques that interrogate a reacting system in situ are preferred, though experimentally challenging. We report here the results of a solid-state in situ NMR study of the spontaneous formation of a cocrystal between a pharmaceutical mimic (caffeine) and a coformer (malonic acid). Using (13)C magic angle spinning NMR, we show that the formation of the cocrystal may be tracked in real time. We find no direct evidence for a short-lived, chemical shift-resolved amorphous solid intermediate. However, changes in the line width and line center of the malonic acid methylene resonance, in the course of the reaction, provide subtle clues to the mode of mass transfer that underlies cocrystal formation.

  5. 1D quantum simulation using a solid state platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkendall, Megan; Irvin, Patrick; Huang, Mengchen; Levy, Jeremy; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom

    Understanding the properties of large quantum systems can be challenging both theoretically and numerically. One experimental approach-quantum simulation-involves mapping a quantum system of interest onto a physical system that is programmable and experimentally accessible. A tremendous amount of work has been performed with quantum simulators formed from optical lattices; by contrast, solid-state platforms have had only limited success. Our experimental approach to quantum simulation takes advantage of nanoscale control of a metal-insulator transition at the interface between two insulating complex oxide materials. This system naturally exhibits a wide variety of ground states (e.g., ferromagnetic, superconducting) and can be configured into a variety of complex geometries. We will describe initial experiments that explore the magnetotransport properties of one-dimensional superlattices with spatial periods as small as 4 nm, comparable to the Fermi wavelength. The results demonstrate the potential of this solid-state quantum simulation approach, and also provide empirical constraints for physical models that describe the underlying oxide material properties. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from AFOSR (FA9550-12-1- 0057 (JL), FA9550-10-1-0524 (JL) and FA9550-12-1-0342 (CBE)), ONR N00014-15-1-2847 (JL), and NSF DMR-1234096 (CBE).

  6. Highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chuizhou; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Luzhuo; Hu, Chunhua; Fan, Shoushan

    2010-10-13

    In recent years, much effort have been dedicated to achieve thin, lightweight and even flexible energy-storage devices for wearable electronics. Here we demonstrate a novel kind of ultrathin all-solid-state supercapacitor configuration with an extremely simple process using two slightly separated polyaniline-based electrodes well solidified in the H(2)SO(4)-polyvinyl alcohol gel electrolyte. The thickness of the entire device is much comparable to that of a piece of commercial standard A4 print paper. Under its highly flexible (twisting) state, the integrate device shows a high specific capacitance of 350 F/g for the electrode materials, well cycle stability after 1000 cycles and a leakage current of as small as 17.2 μA. Furthermore, due to its polymer-based component structure, it has a specific capacitance of as high as 31.4 F/g for the entire device, which is more than 6 times that of current high-level commercial supercapacitor products. These highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors may bring new design opportunities of device configuration for energy-storage devices in the future wearable electronic area.

  7. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices. PMID:21569579

  8. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  9. Analysis of Technology for Solid State Coherent Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin

    1997-01-01

    Over the past few years, considerable advances have been made in the areas of the diode-pumped, eye-safe, solid state lasers, wide bandwidth, semiconductor detectors operating in the near-infrared region. These advances have created new possibilities for the development of low-cost, reliable, and compact coherent lidar systems for measurements of atmospheric winds and aerosol backscattering from a space-based platform. The work performed by the UAH personnel concentrated on design and analyses of solid state pulsed coherent lidar systems capable of measuring atmospheric winds from space, and design and perform laboratory experiments and measurements in support of solid state laser radar remote sensing systems which are to be designed, deployed, and used by NASA to measure atmospheric processes and constituents. A lidar testbed system was designed and analyzed by considering the major space operational and environmental requirements, and its associated physical constraints. The lidar optical system includes a wedge scanner and the compact telescope designed by the UAH personnel. The other major optical components included in the design and analyses were: polarizing beam splitter, routing mirrors, wave plates, signal beam derotator, and lag angle compensator. The testbed lidar optical train was designed and analyzed, and different design options for mounting and packaging the lidar subsystems and components and support structure were investigated. All the optical components are to be mounted in a stress-free and stable manner to allow easy integration and alignment, and long term stability. This lidar system is also intended to be used for evaluating the performance of various lidar subsystems and components that are to be integrated into a flight unit and for demonstrating the integrity of the signal processing algorithms by performing actual atmospheric measurements from a ground station.

  10. UV diode-pumped solid state laser for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonov, Victor V.; Konstantinov, K. V.; Sirotkin, A. A.

    1999-07-01

    A compact, solid-state, high-efficiency, and safe UV laser medical system with optical fiber output was created for treatment of destructive forms of pulmonary tuberculosis. A frequency-quadruped quasi-CW Nd:YVO4 laser system pumped by laser-diode array is investigated with various resonator configurations. A longitudinal end-pumping scheme was used in a compact acousto-optical Q-switched laser for producing stable pulses of UV radiation at the repetition frequency 10-20 kHz and the duration 7-10 ns with the fiber-guide output power exceeding 10 mW.

  11. Three types of solid state remote power controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three types of solid state Remote Power Controller (RPC) circuits for 120 Vdc spacecraft distribution systems have been developed and evaluated. Both current limiting and noncurrent limiting modes of overload protection were developed and were demonstrated to be feasible. A second generation of circuits was developed which offers comparable performance with substantially less cost and complexity. Electrical efficiency for both generations is 98.5 to 99%. This paper describes various aspects of the circuit design, trade-off studies, and experimental test results. Comparisons of design parameters, component requirements, and engineering model evaluations will emphasize the high efficiency and reliability of the designs.

  12. Galileo spacecraft solid-state imaging system view of Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Galileo spacecraft solid-state imaging system view of Antarctica was taken during its first encounter with the Earth. This color picture of Antarctica is part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire polar continent showing the Ross Ice Shelf and its border with the sea and mountains poking through the ice near the McMurdo Station. From top to bottom, the frame looks across about half of Antarctica. View provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with alternate number P-37297.

  13. Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.

    2013-10-07

    A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.

  14. Design Considerations of a Solid State Thermal Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janbozorgi, Mohammad; Houssainy, Sammy; Thacker, Ariana; Ip, Peggy; Ismail, Walid; Kavehpour, Pirouz

    2016-11-01

    With the growing governmental restrictions on carbon emission, renewable energies are becoming more prevalent. A reliable use of a renewable source however requires a built-in storage to overcome the inherent intermittent nature of the available energy. Thermal design of a solid state energy storage has been investigated for optimal performance. The impact of flow regime, laminar vs. turbulent, on the design and sizing of the system is also studied. The implications of low thermal conductivity of the storage material are discussed and a design that maximizes the round trip efficiency is presented. This study was supported by Award No. EPC-14-027 Granted by California Energy Commission (CEC).

  15. Space-charge-limited solid-state triode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumka, A. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A solid-state triode is provided from a wafer of nearinstrinsic semiconductor material sliced into filaments of rectangular cross section. Before slicing, emitter and collector regions are formed on the narrow sides of the filaments, and after slicing gate regions are formed in arrow strips extending longitudinally along the midsections of the wide sides of the filaments. Contacts are then formed on the emitter, collector and gate regions of each filament individually for a single filament device, or in parallel for an array of filament devices to increase load current.

  16. Method for joining metal by solid-state bonding

    DOEpatents

    Burkhart, L. Elkin; Fultz, Chester R.; Maulden, Kerry A.

    1979-01-01

    The present development is directed to a method for joining metal at relatively low temperatures by solid-state bonding. Planar surfaces of the metal workpieces are placed in a parallel abutting relationship with one another. A load is applied to at least one of the workpieces for forcing the workpieces together while one of the workpieces is relatively slowly oscillated in a rotary motion over a distance of about 1.degree.. After a preselected number of oscillations, the rotary motion is terminated and the bond between the abutting surfaces is effected. An additional load may be applied to facilitate the bond after terminating the rotary motion.

  17. FTIR spectrometer with solid-state drive system

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, Slobodan; Seals, Roland D.; Egert, Charles M.

    1999-01-01

    An FTIR spectrometer (10) and method using a solid-state drive system with thermally responsive members (27) that are subject to expansion upon heating and to contraction upon cooling. Such members (27) are assembled in the device (10) so as to move an angled, reflective surface (22) a small distance. The sample light beam (13) is received at a detector (24) along with a reference light beam (13) and there it is combined into a resulting signal. This allows the "interference" between the two beams to occur for spectral analysis by a processor (29).

  18. Solid-state circularly polarized luminescence measurements: Theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Takunori; Kuroda, Reiko; Moriyama, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    Because a circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) spectrophotometer is a polarization-modulation instrument, artifacts resulting from optical anisotropies that are unique to the solid state necessarily accompany CPL signals. A set of procedures for obtaining the true CPL signal has been derived based on the Stokes-Mueller matrix method. Experiments on chiral fluorophore single crystals of benzil with larger and smaller optical anisotropies have shown that our method can eliminate parasitic artifacts to obtain the true CPL signal, even in cases where optical anisotropies are substantial.

  19. Surface acoustic wave solid-state rotational micromotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilton, Richie J.; Langelier, Sean M.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.

    2012-01-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are used to drive a 1 mm diameter rotor at speeds exceeding 9000 rpm and torque of nearly 5 nNm. Unlike recent high-speed SAW rotary motors, however, the present design does not require a fluid coupling layer but interestingly exploits adhesive stiction as an internal preload, a force usually undesirable at these scales; with additional preloads, smaller rotors can be propelled to 15 000 rpm. This solid-state motor has no moving parts except for the rotor and is sufficiently simple to allow integration into miniaturized drive systems for potential use in microfluidic diagnostics, optical switching and microrobotics.

  20. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices.

    PubMed

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule, and on how the electron transport properties of the molecule depend on the strength of the electronic coupling between it and the electrodes. A variety of phenomena are observed depending on whether this coupling is weak, intermediate or strong.

  1. Advanced Solid State Lighting for Human Evaluation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Holbert, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    Lighting intensity and color have a significant impact on human circadian rhythms. Advanced solid state lighting was developed for the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Deep Space Habitat(DSH) concept demonstrator. The latest generation of assemblies using the latest commercially available LED lights were designed for use in the Bigelow Aerospace Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) simulator and the University of Hawaii's Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (Hi-SEAS) habitat. Agreements with both these organizations will allow the government to receive feedback on the lights and lighting algorithms from long term human interaction.

  2. Ground state energy of solid molecular hydrogen at high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebner, C.; Sung, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    The present status of the theoretical equation of state of solid molecular hydrogen is reviewed. Different quantum mechanical calculations by several groups lead to results which generally agree with each other but which disagree systematically with the measured pressure-volume curve at pressures larger than about 3000 atm. A new calculation of this curve is presented including the effect of the anisotropic interaction between H2 molecules within a completely quantum-mechanical formalism. The results show that inclusion of this interaction removes the discrepancy between theory and experiment at high pressures and that a quantum-mechanical treatment is necessary to realize its full effect.

  3. Theoretical Study of Solid State Quantum Information Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-28

    0. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.035302 08/31/2012 22.00 Yu-xi Liu, Franco Nori, Xuedong Hu. Strong coupling of a spin qubit to a superconducting ...applications to current EDSR experiments on nanowire QDs, g-factor optimization of confined electrons, and spin decay measurements in DQD spin-orbit qubits ...program is to provide theoretical support to the study of solid state quantum computing, with a focus on spin qubits . Our main research thrusts have been

  4. Solid-State Recorders Enhance Scientific Data Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Goddard Space Flight Center, SEAKR Engineering Inc., of Centennial, Colorado, crafted a solid-state recorder (SSR) to replace the tape recorder onboard a Spartan satellite carrying NASA's Inflatable Antenna Experiment. Work for that mission and others has helped SEAKR become the world leader in SSR technology for spacecraft. The company has delivered more than 100 systems, more than 85 of which have launched onboard NASA, military, and commercial spacecraft including imaging satellites that provide much of the high-resolution imagery for online mapping services like Google Earth.

  5. Solid-state lasers for coherent communication and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Work in the stabilization of monolithic Nd:YAG lasers and the application of these lasers to nonlinear optical frequency conversion is discussed. The intrinsic stability of semiconductor diode laser pumped solid state lasers has facilitated a number of demonstration in external resonant cavity harmonic generation and stable optical parametric oscillation. Relative laser frequency stabilization of 0.3 Hz was achieved, and absolute stability of a few hundred hertz is anticipated. The challenge is now to reproduce this frequency stability in the output of tunable nonlinear optical devices. Theoretical and experimental work toward this goal are continuing.

  6. Temperature effects on the universal equation of state of solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, P.; Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.; Rose, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently it has been argued based on theoretical calculations and experimental data that there is a universal form for the equation of state of solids. This observation was restricted to the range of temperatures and pressures such that there are no phase transitions. The use of this universal relation to estimate pressure-volume relations (i.e., isotherms) required three input parameters at each fixed temperature. It is shown that for many solids the input data needed to predict high temperature thermodynamical properties can be dramatically reduced. In particular, only four numbers are needed: (1) the zero pressure (P=0) isothermal bulk modulus; (2)it P=0 pressure derivative; (3) the P=0 volume; and (4) the P=0 thermal expansion; all evaluated at a single (reference) temperature. Explicit predictions are made for the high temperature isotherms, the thermal expansion as a function of temperature, and the temperature variation of the isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative. These predictions are tested using experimental data for three representative solids: gold, sodium chloride, and xenon. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  7. Temperature effects on the universal equation of state of solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinet, Pascal; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.; Rose, James H.

    1987-01-01

    Recently it has been argued based on theoretical calculations and experimental data that there is a universal form for the equation of state of solids. This observation was restricted to the range of temperatures and pressures such that there are no phase transitions. The use of this universal relation to estimate pressure-volume relations (i.e., isotherms) required three input parameters at each fixed temperature. It is shown that for many solids the input data needed to predict high temperature thermodynamical properties can be dramatically reduced. In particular, only four numbers are needed: (1) the zero pressure (P = 0) isothermal bulk modulus; (2) its P = 0 pressure derivative; (3) the P = 0 volume; and (4) the P = 0 thermal expansion; all evaluated at a single (reference) temperature. Explicit predictions are made for the high temperature isotherms, the thermal expansion as a function of temperature, and the temperature variation of the isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative. These predictions are tested using experimental data for three representative solids: gold, sodium chloride, and xenon. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  8. The solid-state characterization of fusidic acid.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Samuel E; Letchford, Kevin; Burt, Helen M

    2012-01-17

    The aim of this work was to characterize the solid-state properties of fusidic acid (FA). Solid forms of FA were prepared by solvent-mediated polymorphic transformation of commercial FA (Form III) in acetonitrile (ACN), and methanol:H(2)O (50:50), or generated by solvent recrystallization from dichloromethane (DCM). Polymorphs were characterized using, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), polarizing hot stage microscopy (HSM), and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR). Slurrying commercial FA (Form III) in methanol:H(2)O (50:50), yielded a metastable form (Form IV). This metastable form converts to Form I or back to Form III in ACN and H(2)O, respectively, and Form II upon recrystallization from DCM. IDR of Form IV was 0.092 mg/min/cm(2), and was statistically different (p<0.05) from the IDR of Forms I, II, and III, with IDR of 0.053, 0.043, and 0.045mg/min/cm(2), respectively. The amorphous FA had an IDR of 0.125 mg/min/cm(2), and was significantly higher (p<0.05) than any other solid form. There were no statistical differences in the IDR of Form I, II, or III. This work provides evidence for the existence of two previously unreported polymorphic forms of FA (Forms II and IV) and an amorphate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  10. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    SciTech Connect

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is stillmore » the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid

  11. Novel Nanostructured Solid Materials for Modulating Oral Drug Delivery from Solid-State Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Dening, Tahnee J; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Prestidge, Clive A

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) have gained significant attention in recent times, owing to their ability to overcome the challenges limiting the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. Despite the successful commercialization of several LBDDS products over the years, a large discrepancy exists between the number of poorly water-soluble drugs displaying suboptimal in vivo performances and the application of LBDDS to mitigate their various delivery challenges. Conventional LBDDS, including lipid solutions and suspensions, emulsions, and self-emulsifying formulations, suffer from various drawbacks limiting their widespread use and commercialization. Accordingly, solid-state LBDDS, fabricated by adsorbing LBDDS onto a chemically inert solid carrier material, have attracted substantial interest as a viable means of stabilizing LBDDS whilst eliminating some of the various limitations. This review describes the impact of solid carrier choice on LBDDS performance and highlights the importance of appropriate solid carrier material selection when designing hybrid solid-state LBDDS. Specifically, emphasis is placed on discussing the ability of the specific solid carrier to modulate drug release, control lipase action and lipid digestion, and enhance biopharmaceutical performance above the original liquid-state LBDDS. To encourage the interested reader to consider their solid carrier choice on a higher level, various novel materials with the potential for future use as solid carriers for LBDDS are described. This review is highly significant in guiding future research directions in the solid-state LBDDS field and fostering the translation of these delivery systems to the pharmaceutical marketplace.

  12. Applying Molecular Bonding Concepts to the Solid State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunnington, Benjamin D.

    In this thesis, we describe the extension and application of Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis to periodic systems. This enables the translation of rigorous, quantum mechanical calculation results of solid systems into the localized lone pairs and two-center bonds of Lewis structures. Such localized bonding descriptions form the basic language of chemistry, and application of these ideas to solids allows for the understanding of complex phenomena in bulk systems using readily accessible concepts from molecular science. In addition to the algorithmic adjustments needed for to account for periodic boundary conditions in the NBO process, we also discuss methodology to interface the ubiquitous plane wave basis sets of the solid state with the atom-centered basis functions needed as input for NBO analysis. We will describe one method using projection of the plane wave eigenstates, and a second projection-free method that involves the direct calculation of matrix elements of the plane wave Hamiltonian in an atom-centered basis. The reliance of many localized, post-computational analysis techniques on an atom-centered description of the orbitals, means these interfaces will have applicability beyond our NBO development. An ideal area for application of such molecular descriptions of periodic systems is heterogeneous catalysis, where reactants from a gas/liquid phase react on a solid catalyst surface. Previous studies of these systems have originated from the delocalized perspective of the bulk catalyst. NBO provides an explicit description of the perturbative effect of the catalyst on the covalent bonds of the reactant, which is correlated with the catalytic activity of the material. Such a shift to an adsorbate focused description of surface reactivity will enable understanding of catalysis across a variety of materials.

  13. Majorana Fermions in Particle Physics, Solid State and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsten, L.; Duff, M. J.

    This review is based on lectures given by M. J. Duff summarising the far reaching contributions of Ettore Majorana to fundamental physics, with special focus on Majorana fermions in all their guises. The theoretical discovery of the eponymous fcrmion in 1937 has since had profound implications for particlc physics, solid state and quantum computation. The breadth of these disciplines is testimony to Majorana's genius, which continues to permeate physics today. These lectures offer a whistle-stop tour through some limited subset of the key ideas. In addition to touching on these various applications, we will draw out some fascinating relations connecting the normed division algebras R, ℂ, H, O to spinors, trialities. K-theory and the classification of stable topological states of symmetry-protected gapped free-fermion systems.

  14. Fabrication of Solid-State Multilayer Glass Capacitors

    DOE PAGES

    Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Casias, Adrian L.; ...

    2017-07-31

    Alkali-free glasses show immense promise for the development of high-energy density capacitors. The high breakdown strengths on single-layer sheets of glass suggest the potential for improved energy densities over existing state-of-the art polymer capacitors. In this paper, we demonstrate the ability to package thin glass to make solid-state capacitors. Individual layers are bonded using epoxy, leading to capacitors that exhibit stable operation over the temperature range -55 °C to +65 °C. Here, this fabrication approach is scalable and allows for proof testing individual layers prior to incorporation of the stack, providing a blueprint for the fabrication of high-energy density capacitors.

  15. The 20 GHz spacecraft FET solid state transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The engineering development of a solid state transmitter amplifier operating in the 20 GHz frequency band using GaAs field effect transistors (FETs) was detailed. The major efforts include GaAs FET device development, single-ended amplifier stage, balanced amplifier stage, cascaded stage and radial combiner designs, and amplifier integration and test. A multistage GaAs FET amplifier capable of 8.2 W CW output over the 17.9 to 19.1 GHz frequency band was developed. The GaAs FET devices developed represent state of the art FET power device technology. Further device improvements are necessary to increase the bandwidth to 2.5 GHz, improve dc-to-RF efficiency, and increase power capability at the device level. Higher power devices will simplify the amplifier combining scheme, reducing the size and weight of the overall amplifier.

  16. Equation of state for shock compression of distended solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Dennis; Fenton, Gregg; Vogler, Tracy

    2014-05-01

    Shock Hugoniot data for full-density and porous compounds of boron carbide, silicon dioxide, tantalum pentoxide, uranium dioxide and playa alluvium are investigated for the purpose of equation-of-state representation of intense shock compression. Complications of multivalued Hugoniot behavior characteristic of highly distended solids are addressed through the application of enthalpy-based equations of state of the form originally proposed by Rice and Walsh in the late 1950's. Additive measures of cold and thermal pressure intrinsic to the Mie-Gruneisen EOS framework is replaced by isobaric additive functions of the cold and thermal specific volume components in the enthalpy-based formulation. Additionally, experimental evidence reveals enhancement of shock-induced phase transformation on the Hugoniot with increasing levels of initial distension for silicon dioxide, uranium dioxide and possibly boron carbide. Methods for addressing this experimentally observed feature of the shock compression are incorporated into the EOS model.

  17. Equation of State for Shock Compression of High Distension Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Dennis

    2013-06-01

    Shock Hugoniot data for full-density and porous compounds of boron carbide, silicon dioxide, tantalum pentoxide, uranium dioxide and playa alluvium are investigated for the purpose of equation-of-state representation of intense shock compression. Complications of multivalued Hugoniot behavior characteristic of highly distended solids are addressed through the application of enthalpy-based equations of state of the form originally proposed by Rice and Walsh in the late 1950's. Additivity of cold and thermal pressure intrinsic to the Mie-Gruneisen EOS framework is replaced by isobaric additive functions of the cold and thermal specific volume components in the enthalpy-based formulation. Additionally, experimental evidence supports acceleration of shock-induced phase transformation on the Hugoniot with increasing levels of initial distention for silicon dioxide, uranium dioxide and possibly boron carbide. Methods for addressing this experimentally observed facet of the shock compression are introduced into the EOS model.

  18. Fabrication of Solid-State Multilayer Glass Capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Casias, Adrian L.

    Alkali-free glasses show immense promise for the development of high-energy density capacitors. The high breakdown strengths on single-layer sheets of glass suggest the potential for improved energy densities over existing state-of-the art polymer capacitors. In this paper, we demonstrate the ability to package thin glass to make solid-state capacitors. Individual layers are bonded using epoxy, leading to capacitors that exhibit stable operation over the temperature range -55 °C to +65 °C. Here, this fabrication approach is scalable and allows for proof testing individual layers prior to incorporation of the stack, providing a blueprint for the fabrication of high-energy density capacitors.

  19. Development of Ceramic Solid-State Laser Host Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Kutcher, Susan; Wang, Chen-Chia; Kim, Joo-Soo; Hommerich, Uwe; Shukla, Vijay; Sadangi, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    Polycrystalline ceramic laser materials are gaining importance in the development of novel diode-pumped solid-state lasers. Compared to single-crystals, ceramic laser materials offer advantages in terms of ease of fabrication, shape, size, and control of dopant concentrations. Recently, we have developed Neodymium doped Yttria (Nd:Y2O3) as a solid-state ceramic laser material. A scalable production method was utilized to make spherical non agglomerated and monodisperse metastable ceramic powders of compositions that were used to fabricate polycrystalline ceramic material components. This processing technique allowed for higher doping concentrations without the segregation problems that are normally encountered in single crystalline growth. We have successfully fabricated undoped and Neodymium doped Yttria material up to 2" in diameter, Ytterbium doped Yttria, and erbium doped Yttria. We are also in the process of developing other sesquioxides such as scandium Oxide (Sc2O3) and Lutesium Oxide (Lu2O3) doped with Ytterbium, erbium and thulium dopants. In this paper, we present our initial results on the material, optical, and spectroscopic properties of the doped and undoped sesquioxide materials. Polycrystalline ceramic lasers have enormous potential applications including remote sensing, chem.-bio detection, and space exploration research. It is also potentially much less expensive to produce ceramic laser materials compared to their single crystalline counterparts because of the shorter fabrication time and the potential for mass production in large sizes.

  20. Solid-State NMR Study of the Cicada Wing.

    PubMed

    Gullion, John D; Gullion, Terry

    2017-08-17

    Wings of flying insects are part of the cuticle which forms the exoskeleton. The primary molecular components of cuticle are protein, chitin, and lipid. How these components interact with one another to form the exoskeleton is not completely understood. The difficulty in characterizing the cuticle arises because it is insoluble and noncrystalline. These properties severely limit the experimental tools that can be used for molecular characterization. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments have been used in the past to characterize the exoskeleton of beetles and have found that chitin and protein make comparable contributions to the molecular matrix. However, little work has been done to characterize the components of the wing, which includes vein and membrane. In this work, solid-state NMR was used to characterize the wing of the 17-year cycle cicada (Magicicada cassini) that appeared in northern West Virginia during the summer of 2016. The NMR results show noticeable differences between the molecular components of the vein and membrane.

  1. First demonstration of an all-solid-state optical cryocooler

    SciTech Connect

    Hehlen, Markus P.; Meng, Junwei; Albrecht, Alexander R.

    Solid-state optical refrigeration uses anti-Stokes fluorescence to cool macroscopic objects to cryogenic temperatures without vibrations. Crystals such as Yb 3+-doped YLiF 4 (YLF:Yb) have previously been laser-cooled to 91 K. In this study, we show for the first time laser cooling of a payload connected to a cooling crystal. A YLF:Yb crystal was placed inside a Herriott cell and pumped with a 1020-nm laser (47 W) to cool a HgCdTe sensor that is part of a working Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer to 135 K. This first demonstration of an all-solid-state optical cryocooler was enabled by careful control of themore » various desired and undesired heat flows. Fluorescence heating of the payload was minimized by using a single-kink YLF thermal link between the YLF:Yb cooling crystal and the copper coldfinger that held the HgCdTe sensor. The adhesive-free bond between YLF and YLF:Yb showed excellent thermal reliability. This laser-cooled assembly was then supported by silica aerogel cylinders inside a vacuum clamshell to minimize undesired conductive and radiative heat loads from the warm surroundings. Our structure can serve as a baseline for future optical cryocooler devices.« less

  2. First demonstration of an all-solid-state optical cryocooler

    DOE PAGES

    Hehlen, Markus P.; Meng, Junwei; Albrecht, Alexander R.; ...

    2018-06-06

    Solid-state optical refrigeration uses anti-Stokes fluorescence to cool macroscopic objects to cryogenic temperatures without vibrations. Crystals such as Yb 3+-doped YLiF 4 (YLF:Yb) have previously been laser-cooled to 91 K. In this study, we show for the first time laser cooling of a payload connected to a cooling crystal. A YLF:Yb crystal was placed inside a Herriott cell and pumped with a 1020-nm laser (47 W) to cool a HgCdTe sensor that is part of a working Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer to 135 K. This first demonstration of an all-solid-state optical cryocooler was enabled by careful control of themore » various desired and undesired heat flows. Fluorescence heating of the payload was minimized by using a single-kink YLF thermal link between the YLF:Yb cooling crystal and the copper coldfinger that held the HgCdTe sensor. The adhesive-free bond between YLF and YLF:Yb showed excellent thermal reliability. This laser-cooled assembly was then supported by silica aerogel cylinders inside a vacuum clamshell to minimize undesired conductive and radiative heat loads from the warm surroundings. Our structure can serve as a baseline for future optical cryocooler devices.« less

  3. Templated Solid-State Dewetting of Thin Silicon Films.

    PubMed

    Naffouti, Meher; David, Thomas; Benkouider, Abdelmalek; Favre, Luc; Delobbe, Anne; Ronda, Antoine; Berbezier, Isabelle; Abbarchi, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Thin film dewetting can be efficiently exploited for the implementation of functionalized surfaces over very large scales. Although the formation of sub-micrometer sized crystals via solid-state dewetting represents a viable method for the fabrication of quantum dots and optical meta-surfaces, there are several limitations related to the intrinsic features of dewetting in a crystalline medium. Disordered spatial organization, size, and shape fluctuations are relevant issues not properly addressed so far. This study reports on the deterministic nucleation and precise positioning of Si- and SiGe-based nanocrystals by templated solid-state dewetting of thin silicon films. The dewetting dynamics is guided by pattern size and shape taking full control over number, size, shape, and relative position of the particles (islands dimensions and relative distances are in the hundreds nm range and fluctuate ≈11% for the volumes and ≈5% for the positioning). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The 20 GHz spacecraft IMPATT solid state transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, T.; Ngan, Y. C.

    1986-01-01

    The engineering development of a solid-state transmitter amplifier operating in the 20-GHz frequency range is described. This effort involved a multitude of disciplines including IMPATT device development, circulator design, multiple-diode circuit design, and amplifier integration and test. The objective was to develop a transmitter amplifier demonstrating the feasibility of providing an efficient, reliable, lightweight solid-state transmitter to be flown on a 30 to 20 GHz communication demonstration satellite. The work was done under contract from NASA/Lewis Research Center for a period of three years. The result was the development of a GaAs IMPACT diode amplifier capable of an 11-W CW output power and a 2-dB bandwidth of 300 MHz. GaAs IMPATT diodes incorporating diamond heatsink and double-Read doping profile capable of 5.3-W CW oscillator output power and 15.5% efficiency were developed. Up to 19% efficiency was also observed for an output power level of 4.4 W. High performance circulators with a 0.2 dB inserting loss and bandwidth of 5 GHz have also been developed. These represent a significant advance in both device and power combiner circuit technologies in K-band frequencies.

  5. Solid-State Photomultiplier with Integrated Front End Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, James; Stapels, Christopher; Johnson, Erik; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmistha; Jie Chen, Xiao; Miskimen, Rory

    2009-10-01

    The instrumentation cost of physics experiments has been reduced per channel, by the use of solid-state detectors, but these cost-effective techniques have not been translated to scintillation-based detectors. When considering photodetectors, the cost per channel is determined by the use of high-voltage, analog-to-digital converters, BNC cables, and any other ancillary devices. The overhead associated with device operation limits the number of channels for the detector system, while potentially limiting the scope of physics that can be explored. The PRIMEX experiment at JLab, which is being designed to measure the radiative widths of the η and η' pseudo-scalar mesons for a more comprehensive understanding of QCD at low energies, is an example where CMOS solid-state photomultipliers (SSPMs) can be implemented. The ubiquitous nature of CMOS allows for on-chip signal processing to provide front-end electronics within the detector package. We present the results of the device development for the PRIMEX calorimeter, discussing the characteristics of SSPMs, the potential cost savings, and experimental results of on-chip signal processing.

  6. Damage resistant optics for a megajoule solid state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Jack H.; Rainer, Frank; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Wolfe, C. Robert; Thomas, Ian M.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1991-06-01

    Research on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has progressed rapidly in the past several years. As a consequence LLNL is developing plans to upgrade the current 120 kJ solid state (Nd3-phosphate glass) Nova laser to a 1 . 5 to 2 megajoule system with the goal of achieving fusion ignition. The design of the planned Nova Upgrade is briefly discussed. Because of recent improvements in the damage resistance of optical materials it is now technically and economically feasible to build a megajoule-class solid state laser. Specifically the damage threshold of Nd3- doped phosphate laser glass muliilayer dielectric coatings and non-linear optical crystals (e. g. KDP) have been dramatically improved. These materials now meet the fluence requirements for a 1. 5-2 MJ Nd3-glass laser operating at 1054 and 351 nm and at a pulse length of 3 ns. The recent improvements in damage thresholds are reviewed threshold data at both 1064 and 355 nm and the measured pulse length scaling are presented. 1.

  7. Femtosecond all-solid-state laser for refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zickler, Leander; Han, Meng; Giese, G.'nter; Loesel, Frieder H.; Bille, Josef F.

    2003-06-01

    Refractive surgery in the pursuit of perfect vision (e.g. 20/10) requires firstly an exact measurement of abberations induced by the eye and then a sophisticated surgical approach. A recent extension of wavefront measurement techniques and adaptive optics to ophthalmology has quantitatively characterized the quality of the human eye. The next milestone towards perfect vision is developing a more efficient and precise laser scalpel and evaluating minimal-invasive laser surgery strategies. Femtosecond all-solid-state MOPA lasers based on passive modelocking and chirped pulse amplification are excellent candidates for eye surgery due to their stability, ultra-high intensity and compact tabletop size. Furthermore, taking into account the peak emission in the near IR and diffraction limited focusing abilities, surgical laser systems performing precise intrastromal incisions for corneal flap resection and intrastromal corneal reshaping promise significant improvement over today's Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) and Laser Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) techniques which utilize UV excimer lasers. Through dispersion control and optimized regenerative amplification, a compact femtosecond all-solid-state laser with pulsed energy well above LIOB threshold and kHz repetition rate is constructed. After applying a pulse sequence to the eye, the modified corneal morphology is investigated by high resolution microscopy (Multi Photon/SHG Confocal Microscope).

  8. Synthesisofc-lifepo4 composite by solid state reaction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahayu, I.; Hidayat, S.; Noviyanti, A. R.; Rakhmawaty, D.; Ernawati, E.

    2017-02-01

    In this research, the enhancement of LiFePO4 conductivity was conducted by doping method with carbon materials. Carbon-based materials were obtained from the mixture of sucrose, and the precursor of LiH2PO4 and α-Fe2O3 was synthesized by solid state reaction. Sintering temperature was varied at 700°C, 800°C, 900°C and 1,000°C. The result showed that C-LiFePO4 could be synthesized by using solid state reaction method. Based on the XRD and FTIR spectrums, C-LiFePO4 can be identified as the type of crystal, characterized by the appearance of sharp signal on (011), (211) and typical peak of LiFePO4 materials. The result of conductivity measurement from C-LiFePO4 at sintering temperature of 900°C and 1,000°C was 2×10-4 S/cm and 4×10-4S/cm, respectively. The conductivity value at sintering temperature of 700°C and 800°C was very small (<10-6 S/cm), which cannot be measured by the existing equipment.

  9. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, Nixon; Slipher, Geoffrey A., E-mail: geoffrey.a.slipher.civ@mail.mil; Mrozek, Randy A.

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease ofmore » manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.« less

  10. Corneal reshaping using a pulsed UV solid-state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Qiushi; Simon, Gabriel; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Shen, Jin-Hui; Takesue, Yoshiko

    1993-06-01

    Replacing the gas ArF (193 nm) excimer laser with a solid state laser source in the far-UV spectrum region would eliminate the hazards of a gas laser and would reduce its size which is desirable for photo-refractive keratectomy (PRK). In this study, we investigated corneal reshaping using a frequency-quintupled (213 nm) pulsed (10 ns) Nd:YAG laser coupled to a computer-controlled optical scanning delivery system. Corneal topographic measurements showed myopic corrections ranging from 2.3 to 6.1 diopters. Post-operative examination with the slit-lamp and operating microscope demonstrated a smoothly ablated surface without corneal haze. Histological results showed a smoothly sloping surface without recognizable steps. The surface quality and cellular effects were similar to that of previously described excimer PRK. Our study demonstrated that a UV solid state laser coupled to an optical scanning delivery system is capable of reshaping the corneal surface with the advantage of producing customized, aspheric corrections without corneal haze which may improve the quality of vision following PRK.

  11. Amorphous lithium lanthanum titanate for solid-state microbatteries

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Jungwoo Z.; Wang, Ziying; Xin, Huolin L.; ...

    2016-12-16

    Lithium lanthanum titanate (LLTO) is a promising solid state electrolyte for solid state batteries due to its demonstrated high bulk ionic conductivity. However, crystalline LLTO has a relatively low grain boundary conductivity, limiting the overall material conductivity. In this work, we investigate amorphous LLTO (a-LLTO) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). By controlling the background pressure and temperature we are able to optimize the ionic conductivity to 3 × 10 –4 S/cm and electronic conductivity to 5 × 10 –11 S/cm. XRD, TEM, and STEM/EELS analysis confirm that the films are amorphous and indicate that oxygen background gasmore » is necessary during the PLD process to decrease the oxygen vacancy concentration, decreasing the electrical conductivity. Amorphous LLTO is deposited onto high voltage LiNi 0.5Mn 1.5O 4 (LNMO) spinel cathode thin films and cycled up to 4.8 V vs. Li showing excellent capacity retention. Finally, these results demonstrate that a-LLTO has the potential to be integrated into high voltage thin film batteries.« less

  12. Tannase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Cashew Apple Bagasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podrigues, Tigressa H. S.; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/gds) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/gds and enzyme productivity of 128.5×10-3 U·gds -1·h-1.

  13. Probe DNA-Cisplatin Interaction with Solid-State Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Hu, Ying; Li, Wei; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Pengye; Bai, Xuedong; Shan, Xinyan; Lu, Xinghua; Nanopore Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the mechanism of DNA-cisplatin interaction is essential for clinical application and novel drug design. As an emerging single-molecule technology, solid-state nanopore has been employed in biomolecule detection and probing DNA-molecule interactions. Herein, we reported a real-time monitoring of DNA-cisplatin interaction by employing solid-state SiN nanopores. The DNA-cisplatin interacting process is clearly classified into three stages by measuring the capture rate of DNA-cisplatin adducts. In the first stage, the negative charged DNA molecules were partially discharged due to the bonding of positive charged cisplatin and forming of mono-adducts. In the second stage, forming of DNA-cisplatin di-adducts with the adjacent bases results in DNA bending and softening. The capture rate increases since the softened bi-adducts experience a lower barrier to thread into the nanopores. In the third stage, complex structures, such as micro-loop, are formed and the DNA-cisplatin adducts are aggregated. The capture rate decreases to zero as the aggregated adduct grows to the size of the pore. The characteristic time of this stage was found to be linear with the diameter of the nanopore and this dynamic process can be described with a second-order reaction model. We are grateful to Laboratory of Microfabrication, Dr. Y. Yao, and Prof. R.C. Yu (Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for technical assistance.

  14. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Michael A.; Page, Richard A.

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-statemore » hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according

  15. Influence of surface treatment on the in-vitro fracture resistance of zirconia-based all-ceramic anterior crowns.

    PubMed

    Schmitter, M; Lotze, G; Bömicke, W; Rues, S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of surface treatment on the fracture resistance of zirconia-based all-ceramic anterior crowns. Sixty-four zirconia-based all-ceramic anterior crowns, veneered by use of a press-on technique, were produced. For 48 crowns intraoral adjustment was simulated (A-group), 16 crowns remained unadjusted (WA-group). The adjusted area was then treated in three ways: 1. no further surface treatment; 2. polishing, with irrigation, using polishers interspersed with diamond grit for ceramics; and 3. polishing and glaze firing. Half of the specimens were loaded until fracture in an universal testing device without artificial ageing; the other crowns underwent thermocycling and chewing simulation before ultimate-load testing. Explorative statistical analysis was performed by use of non-parametric and parametric tests. In addition, fracture-strength tests according to ISO 6872 were performed for veneer ceramic subjected to the different surface treatments. Finite element analysis was also conducted for the crowns, and surface roughness was measured. Crowns in the A-group were more sensitive to aging than crowns in the WA-group (p=0.038). Although both polishing and glaze firing slightly improved the fracture resistance of the specimens, the fracture resistance in the WA-group (initial fracture resistance (IFR): 652.0 ± 107.7N, remaining fracture resistance after aging (RFR): 560.6 ± 233.3N) was higher than the fracture resistance in the A-group (polished: IFR: 477.9 ± 108.8N, RFR: 386.0 ± 218.5N; glaze firing: IFR: 535.5 ± 128.0N, RFR: 388.6 ± 202.2N). Surface roughness without adjustment was Ra=0.1 μm; for adjustment but without further treatment it was Ra=1.4 μm; for adjustment and polishing it was Ra=0.3 μm; and for adjustment, polishing, and glazing it was Ra=0.6 μm. Stress distributions obtained by finite element analysis in combination with fracture strength tests showed that fractures most probably originated from

  16. Large scale synthesis of nanostructured zirconia-based compounds from freeze-dried precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, A.; Villanueva, R.; Vie, D.

    2013-01-15

    Nanocrystalline zirconia powders have been obtained at the multigram scale by thermal decomposition of precursors resulting from the freeze-drying of aqueous acetic solutions. This technique has equally made possible to synthesize a variety of nanostructured yttria or scandia doped zirconia compositions. SEM images, as well as the analysis of the XRD patterns, show the nanoparticulated character of those solids obtained at low temperature, with typical particle size in the 10-15 nm range when prepared at 673 K. The presence of the monoclinic, the tetragonal or both phases depends on the temperature of the thermal treatment, the doping concentration and themore » nature of the dopant. In addition, Rietveld refinement of the XRD profiles of selected samples allows detecting the coexistence of the tetragonal and the cubic phases for high doping concentration and high thermal treatment temperatures. Raman experiments suggest the presence of both phases also at relatively low treatment temperatures. - Graphical abstract: Zr{sub 1-x}A{sub x}O{sub 2-x/2} (A=Y, Sc; 0{<=}x{<=}0.12) solid solutions have been prepared as nanostructured powders by thermal decomposition of precursors obtained by freeze-drying, and this synthetic procedure has been scaled up to the 100 g scale. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zr{sub 1-x}A{sub x}O{sub 2-x/2} (A=Y, Sc; 0{<=}x{<=}0.12) solid solutions have been prepared as nanostructured powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthetic method involves the thermal decomposition of precursors obtained by freeze-drying. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature of the thermal treatment controls particle sizes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The preparation procedure has been scaled up to the 100 g scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method is appropriate for the large-scale industrial preparation of multimetallic systems.« less

  17. Design principles for solid-state lithium superionic conductors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Richards, William Davidson; Ong, Shyue Ping; Miara, Lincoln J; Kim, Jae Chul; Mo, Yifei; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-10-01

    Lithium solid electrolytes can potentially address two key limitations of the organic electrolytes used in today's lithium-ion batteries, namely, their flammability and limited electrochemical stability. However, achieving a Li(+) conductivity in the solid state comparable to existing liquid electrolytes (>1 mS cm(-1)) is particularly challenging. In this work, we reveal a fundamental relationship between anion packing and ionic transport in fast Li-conducting materials and expose the desirable structural attributes of good Li-ion conductors. We find that an underlying body-centred cubic-like anion framework, which allows direct Li hops between adjacent tetrahedral sites, is most desirable for achieving high ionic conductivity, and that indeed this anion arrangement is present in several known fast Li-conducting materials and other fast ion conductors. These findings provide important insight towards the understanding of ionic transport in Li-ion conductors and serve as design principles for future discovery and design of improved electrolytes for Li-ion batteries.

  18. Thermal conductivity of solid monohydroxyl alcohols in polyamorphous states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivchikov, A. I.; Korolyuk, O. A.; Sharapova, I. V.

    2012-01-01

    New measurements of the thermal conductivity of solid ethyl alcohol C2H5OH in the interval from 2 K to the melting temperature are presented. An annealing effect in the thermal conductivity of the orientationally ordered phase of the alcohol has been observed over a wide range of temperatures. This phase was obtained as a result of an irreversible first-order phase transition from an orientationally disordered crystal with a cubic structure at T = 109 K. The thermal conductivity was observed to increase as the monoclinic lattice changed from a less stable phase to a more stable one. The growth may be due to the improved quality of the completely ordered crystal. A comparative analysis of the temperature dependences of the thermal conductivity κ(T) is made for the solid monohydroxyl alcohols CH3OH, C2H5OH, С2D5OD, C3H7OH, and C4H9OH in their disordered orientational and structural states. At low temperatures the thermal conductivity of the series of monohydroxyl structural glasses of the alcohols increases linearly with the mass of the alcohol molecule.

  19. Solid-state lasers for coherent communication and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    Semiconductor-diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers have properties that are superior to other lasers for the applications of coherent communication and remote sensing. These properties include efficiency, reliability, stability, and capability to be scaled to higher powers. We have demonstrated that an optical phase-locked loop can be used to lock the frequency of two diode-pumped 1.06 micron Nd:YAG lasers to levels required for coherent communication. Monolithic nonplanar ring oscillators constructed from solid pieces of the laser material provide better than 10 kHz frequency stability over 0.1 sec intervals. We have used active feedback stabilization of the cavity length of these lasers to demonstrate 0.3 Hz frequency stabilization relative to a reference cavity. We have performed experiments and analysis to show that optical parametric oscillators (OPO's) reproduce the frequency stability of the pump laser in outputs that can be tuned to arbitrary wavelengths. Another measurement performed in this program has demonstrated the sub-shot-noise character of correlations of the fluctuations in the twin output of OPO's. Measurements of nonlinear optical coefficients by phase-matched second harmonic generation are helping to resolve inconsistency in these important parameters.

  20. Investigation of Rhodopsin Dynamics in its Signaling State by Solid-State Deuterium NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Struts, Andrey V.; Chawla, Udeep; Perera, Suchithranga M.D.C.; Brown, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Site-directed deuterium NMR spectroscopy is a valuable tool to study the structural dynamics of biomolecules in cases where solution NMR is inapplicable. Solid-state 2H NMR spectral studies of aligned membrane samples of rhodopsin with selectively labeled retinal provide information on structural changes of the chromophore in different protein states. In addition, solid-state 2H NMR relaxation time measurements allow one to study the dynamics of the ligand during the transition from the inactive to the active state. Here we describe the methodological aspects of solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy for functional studies of rhodopsin, with an emphasis on the dynamics of the retinal cofactor. We provide complete protocols for the preparation of NMR samples of rhodopsin with 11-cis-retinal selectively deuterated at the methyl groups in aligned membranes. In addition, we review optimized conditions for trapping the rhodopsin photointermediates; and lastly we address the challenging problem of trapping the signaling state of rhodopsin in aligned membrane films. PMID:25697522

  1. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  2. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    DOEpatents

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  3. Solid state control system for oil well bailer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Senghaas, K. A.; Senghaas, P.

    1985-05-14

    A solid state switching controller for use with various types of oil well bailer pumps. Individually programmable steps with lockouts provide multiple mutual exclusivity between various circuit operations. A trickle charge battery system powers the control circuits. A tank overflow float protects against oil spillage. An automatic production rate adjustment circuit is provided which increases cycle time in proportion to the rate of production. The circuit includes a low power voltage detector for disabling the control circuits until the line voltage is acceptable. A three-phase power and control system with an isolation transformer for the controls avoids unreliable ground connections.more » The timers include a dividing circuit with an RC circuit. All power actuated apparatus are actuated by triac switches which are controlled by an opto driver. The bailer brake is pulse actuated for allowing the bailer to sink into crude oil without excess cable looseness.« less

  4. Advances in Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeff; Schneider, Judy; Walker, Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Many of the metals used in the oil and gas industry are difficult to fusion weld including titanium and its alloys. Thus solid state joining processes, such as friction stir welding (FSWing) and a patented modification termed thermal stir welding (TSWing), are being pursued as alternatives to produce robust structures more amenable to high pressure applications. Unlike the FSWing process where the tool is used to heat the workpiece, TSWing utilizes an induction coil to preheat the material prior to stirring thus minimizing the burden on the weld tool and thereby extending its life. This study reports on the initial results of using a hybrid (H)-TSW process to join commercially pure, 1.3cm thick panels of titanium (CP Ti) Grade 2.

  5. Solid state instrumentation concepts for earth resource observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    Late in 1980, specifications were prepared for detail design definition of a six band solid state multispectral instrument having three visible (VIS), one near infrared (NIR), and two short wave infrared (SWIR) bands. This instrument concept, known as the Multispectral Linear Array (MLA), also offered increased spatial resolution, on board gain and offset correction, and additional operational modes which would allow for cross track and stereoscopic viewing as well as a multialtitude operational capability. A description is presented of a summary of some of the salient features of four different MLA design concepts, as developed by four American companies. The designs ranged from the use of multiple refractive telescopes utilizing three groups of focal plane detectors electronic correlation processing for achieving spatial registration, and incorporating palladium silicide (PdSi) SWIR detectors, to a four-mirror all-reflective telecentric system utilizing a beam splitter for spatial registration.

  6. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael

    2014-09-23

    The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean energy technologies, such as solid-state lighting (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the lighting market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean energy technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean energy technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of Energy's Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reducemore » risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.« less

  7. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State Lighting Video

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael

    2014-09-23

    The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean energy technologies, such as solid-state lighting (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the lighting market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean energy technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean energy technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of Energy's Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reducemore » risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.« less

  8. Thermal Stir Welding: A New Solid State Welding Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Thermal stir welding is a new welding process developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Thermal stir welding is similar to friction stir welding in that it joins similar or dissimilar materials without melting the parent material. However, unlike friction stir welding, the heating, stirring and forging elements of the process are all independent of each other and are separately controlled. Furthermore, the heating element of the process can be either a solid-state process (such as a thermal blanket, induction type process, etc), or, a fusion process (YG laser, plasma torch, etc.) The separation of the heating, stirring, forging elements of the process allows more degrees of freedom for greater process control. This paper introduces the mechanics of the thermal stir welding process. In addition, weld mechanical property data is presented for selected alloys as well as metallurgical analysis.

  9. Thermal Stir Welding: A New Solid State Welding Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Thermal stir welding is a new welding process developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Thermal stir welding is similar to friction stir welding in that it joins similar or dissimilar materials without melting the parent material. However, unlike friction stir welding, the heating, stirring and forging elements of the process are all independent of each other and are separately controlled. Furthermore, the heating element of the process can be either a solid-state process (such as a thermal blanket, induction type process, etc), or, a fusion process (YG laser, plasma torch, etc.) The separation of the heating, stirring, forging elements of the process allows more degrees of freedom for greater process control. This paper introduces the mechanics of the thermal stir welding process. In addition, weld mechanical property data is presented for selected alloys as well as metallurgical analysis.

  10. Solid state modulator for klystron power supply XFEL TDS INJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Zybin, D. A.; Churanov, D. V.; Shemarykin, P. V.

    2016-09-01

    The transverse deflecting system XFEL TDS INJ for European X-ray Free Electron Laser includes power supply for the CPI VKS-8262HS klystron. It has been designed for pulse high-voltage, cathode heating, solenoid and klystron ion pump. The klystron power supply includes solid state modulator, pulse transformer, controlled power supply for cathode heating and commercial power supplies for solenoid and ion pump. Main parameters of the modulator are 110 kV of peak voltage, 72 A peak current, and pulse length up to 6 μs. The klystron power supply has been developed, designed, manufactured, tuned, tested and installed in the XFEL building. All designed parameters are satisfied.

  11. Two-dimensional periodic structures in solid state laser resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okulov, Alexey Y.

    1991-07-01

    Transverse effects in nonlinear optical devices are being widely investigated. Recently, synchronization of a laser set by means of the Talbot effect has been demonstrated experimentally. This paper considers a Talbot cavity formed by a solid-state amplifying laser separated from the output mirror by a free space interval. This approach involves the approximation of the nonlinear medium as a thin layer, within which the diffraction is negligible. The other part of a resonator is empty, and the wave field is transformed by the Fresnel-Kirchoff integral. As a result, the dynamics of the transverse (and temporal) structure is computed by a successively iterated nonlinear local map (one- or two-dimensional) and a linear nonlocal map (generally speaking, infinitely dimensional).

  12. High average power diode pumped solid state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yue; Wang, Yanjie; Chan, Amy; Dawson, Murray; Greene, Ben

    2017-03-01

    A new generation of high average power pulsed multi-joule solid state laser system has been developed at EOS Space Systems for various space related tracking applications. It is a completely diode pumped, fully automated multi-stage system consisting of a pulsed single longitudinal mode oscillator, three stages of pre-amplifiers, two stages of power amplifiers, completely sealed phase conjugate mirror or stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) cell and imaging relay optics with spatial filters in vacuum cells. It is capable of generating pulse energy up to 4.7 J, a beam quality M 2 ~ 3, pulse width between 10-20 ns, and a pulse repetition rate between 100-200 Hz. The system has been in service for more than two years with excellent performance and reliability.

  13. Prototype Solid State Induction Modulator for SLAC NLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassel, R. L.; DeLamare, J. E.; Nguyen, M. N.; Pappas, G. C.; Cook, E.

    2002-08-01

    The Next Linear Collider accelerator proposal at SLAC requires a high efficiency, highly reliable, and low cost pulsed power modulator to drive the X band klystrons. The present NLC envisions a solid-state induction modulator design to drive up to 8 klystrons to 500kV for 3muS at 120 PPS with one modulator (>1,000 megawatt pulse, 500kW average). A prototype modulator is presently under construction, which well power 4 each 5045 SLAC klystron to greater than 380 kV for 3muS (>600 megawatt pulse, >300 kW Ave.). The modulator will be capable of driving the 8 each X band klystrons when they become available. The paper covers the design, construction, fabrication and preliminary testing of the prototype modulator.

  14. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOEpatents

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2003-11-04

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electromechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  15. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOEpatents

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2004-09-28

    An electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  16. Unravelling radiative energy transfer in solid-state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikov, Rustamzhon; Press, Daniel Aaron; Ganesh Kumar, Baskaran; Sadeghi, Sadra; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2018-01-01

    Today, a wide variety of organic and inorganic luminescent materials (e.g., phosphors, quantum dots, etc.) are being used for lighting and new materials (e.g., graphene, perovskite, etc.) are currently under investigation. However, the understanding of radiative energy transfer is limited, even though it is critical to understand and improve the performance levels of solid-state lighting devices. In this study, we derived a matrix approach that includes absorption, reabsorption, inter-absorption and their iterative and combinatorial interactions for one and multiple types of fluorophores, which is simplified to an analytical matrix. This mathematical approach gives results that agree well with the measured spectral and efficiency characteristics of color-conversion light-emitting diodes. Moreover, it also provides a deep physical insight by uncovering the entire radiative interactions and their contribution to the output optical spectrum. The model is universal and applicable for all kinds of fluorophores.

  17. Solid-State Lighting 2017 Suggested Research Topics

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2017-09-29

    A 2017 update to the Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan that is divided into two documents. The first document describes a list of suggested SSL priority research topics and the second document provides context and background, including information drawn from technical, market, and economic studies. Widely referenced by industry and government both here and abroad, these documents reflect SSL stakeholder inputs on key R&D topics that will improve efficacy, reduce cost, remove barriers to adoption, and add value for LED and OLED lighting solutions over the next three to five years, and discuss those applications that drive and prioritize the specificmore » R&D.« less

  18. Solid-State Lighting 2017 Suggested Research Topics

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    A 2017 update to the Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan that is divided into two documents. The first document describes a list of suggested SSL priority research topics and the second document provides context and background, including information drawn from technical, market, and economic studies. Widely referenced by industry and government both here and abroad, these documents reflect SSL stakeholder inputs on key R&D topics that will improve efficacy, reduce cost, remove barriers to adoption, and add value for LED and OLED lighting solutions over the next three to five years, and discuss those applications that drive and prioritize the specificmore » R&D.« less

  19. Solid-state dewetting of magnetic binary multilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esterina, Ria; Liu, X. M.; Adeyeye, A. O.; Ross, C. A.; Choi, W. K.

    2015-10-01

    We examined solid-state dewetting behavior of magnetic multilayer thin film in both miscible (CoPd) and immiscible (CoAu) systems and found that CoPd and CoAu dewetting stages follow that of elemental materials. We established that CoPd alloy morphology and dewetting rate lie in between that of the elemental materials. Johnson-Mehl-Avrami analysis was utilized to extract the dewetting activation energy of CoPd. For CoAu, Au-rich particles and Co-rich particles are distinguishable and we are able to predict the interparticle spacings and particle densities for the particles that agree well with the experimental results. We also characterized the magnetic properties of CoPd and CoAu nanoparticles.

  20. Molecular Structure of Humin and Melanoidin via Solid State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Herzfeld, Judith; Rand, Danielle; Matsuki, Yoh; Daviso, Eugenio; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody; Mamajanov, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Sugar-derived humins and melanoidins figure significantly in food chemistry, agricultural chemistry, biochemistry and prebiotic chemistry. Despite wide interest and significant experimental attention, the amorphous and insoluble nature of the polymers has made them resistant to conventional structural characterization. Here we make use of solid-state NMR methods, including selective 13C substitution, 1H-dephasing, and double quantum filtration. The spectra, and their interpretation, are simplified by relying exclusively on hydronium for catalysis. The results for polymers derived from ribose, deoxyribose and fructose indicate diverse pathways to furans, suggest a simple route to pyrroles in the presence of amines, and reveal a heterogenous network-type polymer in which sugar molecules cross-link the heterocycles. PMID:21456563

  1. Solid State Laser Technology Development for Atmospheric Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, James C.

    1998-01-01

    NASA atmospheric scientists are currently planning active remote sensing missions that will enable global monitoring of atmospheric ozone, water vapor, aerosols and clouds as well as global wind velocity. The measurements of these elements and parameters are important because of the effects they have on climate change, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, atmospheric transport and, in general, the health of the planet. NASA will make use of Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and backscatter lidar techniques for active remote sensing of molecular constituents and atmospheric phenomena from advanced high-altitude aircraft and space platforms. This paper provides an overview of NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC's) development of advanced solid state lasers, harmonic generators, and wave mixing techniques aimed at providing the broad range of wavelengths necessary to meet measurement goals of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  2. Solid state electro-optic color filter and iris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A pair of solid state electro-optic filters (SSEF) in a binocular holder were designed and fabricated for evaluation of field sequential stereo TV applications. The electronic circuitry for use with the stereo goggles was designed and fabricated, requiring only an external video input. A polarizing screen suitable for attachment to various size TV monitors for use in conjunction with the stereo goggles was designed and fabricated. An improved engineering model 2 filter was fabricated using the bonded holder technique developed previously and integrated to a GCTA color TV camera. An engineering model color filter was fabricated and assembled using PLZT control elements. In addition, a ruggedized holder assembly was designed, fabricated and tested. This assembly provides electrical contacts, high voltage protection, and support for the fragile PLZT disk, and also permits mounting and optical alignment of the associated polarizers.

  3. Photoswitchable Sn-Cyt c Solid-State Devices.

    PubMed

    Nakamaru, Satoshi; Scholz, Frank; Ford, William E; Goto, Yoshio; von Wrochem, Florian

    2017-06-01

    Electron transfer across proteins plays an important role in many biological processes, including those relevant for the conversion of solar photons to chemical energy. Previous studies demonstrated the generation of photocurrents upon light irradiation in a number of photoactive proteins, such as photosystem I or bacteriorhodopsin. Here, it is shown that Sn-cytochrome c layers act as reversible and efficient photoelectrochemical switches upon integration into large-area solid-state junctions. Photocurrents are observed both in the Soret band (λ = 405 nm) and in the Q band (λ = 535 nm), with current on/off ratios reaching values of up to 25. The underlying modulation in charge-transfer rate is attributed to a hole-transport channel created by the photoexcitation of the Sn-porphyrin. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. 2018 DOE Solid-State Lighting Project Portfolio

    SciTech Connect

    None

    The 2018 Solid-State Lighting Project Portfolio provides an overview of all SSL projects that have been funded by DOE since 2000. Projects that were active during 2017 are found in the main body of this report, and all historic projects can be found in the appendix. Within these sections, project profiles are sorted by technology type (i.e., LED or OLED) and then by performer name. A profile is provided on each project. Each profile includes a brief technical description, as well as information about project partners, funding, and the research period. This report is updated annually, although the research describedmore » in the Portfolio changes periodically as new projects are initiated and existing ones are concluded.« less

  5. Conformational dimorphism of isochroman-1-ones in the solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babjaková, Eva; Hanulíková, Barbora; Dastychová, Lenka; Kuřitka, Ivo; Nečas, Marek; Vícha, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Isochroman-1-one derivatives, which are relatives of coumarins, display a broad spectrum of biological activity; therefore, these derivatives attract the attention of chemists. A series of new isochroman-1-ones were prepared by the reaction of benzyl-derived Grignard reagents with acyl chlorides. All of the prepared compounds were characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction as well as FT-IR, NMR and MS techniques. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the isochromanones can adopt two distinct conformations in the solid state. For one of the compounds, two polymorphs with unique forms crystallized separately under different temperatures. The packing of all of the examined crystals is stabilized via weak intramolecular C-H⋯π and/or C-H⋯O interactions. Although the closed conformer was predominantly found in the actual crystals, the open conformer is thermochemically more stable for all of the examined compounds according to DFT calculations.

  6. A clock transition in a solid-state system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, G. J. A.; Potnis, S.; Vutha, A. C.

    2017-04-01

    With the impending redefinition of the SI second based on optical frequency standards, new secondary frequency standards are needed in order to form clock ensembles. Ideally such secondary standards will offer enhanced robustness, portability and high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), to enable rapid and precise comparisons to be made against primary standards. A clock based on a narrow optical transition, in atoms that are doped into a solid-state host, offers the experimental simplicity and large SNR to satisfy these requirements. The intra-configuration 7F0 ->5D0 transition, in Sm2+ ions doped into a host crystal, is an attractive candidate for such secondary standards due to its low susceptibility to perturbations from the crystal environment. We present results from the interrogation of this clock transition with a narrow linewidth laser.

  7. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State Lighting Video

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Raman, Sudhakar

    2018-01-16

    The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean energy technologies, such as solid-state lighting (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the lighting market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean energy technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean energy technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of Energy's Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.

  8. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State Lighting

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Rama

    2018-05-30

    The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean energy technologies, such as solid-state lighting (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the lighting market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean energy technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean energy technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of Energy's Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.

  9. All solid-state high power visible laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, William M.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objective of this Phase 2 effort was to develop and deliver to NASA a high repetition rate laser-diode-pumped solid-state pulsed laser system with output in the green portion of the spectrum. The laser is for use in data communications, and high efficiency, short pulses, and low timing jitter are important features. A short-pulse 1 micron laser oscillator, a new multi-pass amplifier to boost the infrared power, and a frequency doubler to take the amplified infrared pulsed laser light into the green. This produced 1.5 W of light in the visible at a pulse repetition rate of 20 kHz in the laboratory. The pulses have a full-width at half maximum of near 1 ns. The results of this program are being commercialized.

  10. Learning through ferroelectric domain dynamics in solid-state synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyn, Sören; Grollier, Julie; Lecerf, Gwendal; Xu, Bin; Locatelli, Nicolas; Fusil, Stéphane; Girod, Stéphanie; Carrétéro, Cécile; Garcia, Karin; Xavier, Stéphane; Tomas, Jean; Bellaiche, Laurent; Bibes, Manuel; Barthélémy, Agnès; Saïghi, Sylvain; Garcia, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    In the brain, learning is achieved through the ability of synapses to reconfigure the strength by which they connect neurons (synaptic plasticity). In promising solid-state synapses called memristors, conductance can be finely tuned by voltage pulses and set to evolve according to a biological learning rule called spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Future neuromorphic architectures will comprise billions of such nanosynapses, which require a clear understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for plasticity. Here we report on synapses based on ferroelectric tunnel junctions and show that STDP can be harnessed from inhomogeneous polarization switching. Through combined scanning probe imaging, electrical transport and atomic-scale molecular dynamics, we demonstrate that conductance variations can be modelled by the nucleation-dominated reversal of domains. Based on this physical model, our simulations show that arrays of ferroelectric nanosynapses can autonomously learn to recognize patterns in a predictable way, opening the path towards unsupervised learning in spiking neural networks.

  11. An all-solid-state lithium/polyaniline rechargeable cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changzhi; Peng, Xinsheng; Zhang, Borong; Wang, Baochen

    1992-07-01

    The performance of an all-solid-state cell having a lithium negative electrode, a modified polyethylene oxide (PEO)-epoxy resin (ER) electrolyte, and a polyaniline (PAn) positive electrode has been studied using cyclic voltammetry, charge/discharge cycling, and polarization curves at various temperatures. The redox reaction of the PAn electrode at the PAn/modified PEO-ER interface exhibits good reversibility. At 50-80 C, the Li/PEO-ER-LiClO4/PAn cell shows more than 40 charge/discharge cycles, 90 percent charge/discharge efficiency, and 54 W h kg discharge energy density (on PAn weight basis) at 50 micro-A between 2 and 4 V. The polarization performance of the battery improves steadily with increase in temperature.

  12. An all-solid-state lithium/polyaniline rechargeable cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changzhi, Li; Xinsheng, Peng; Borong, Zhang; Baochen, Wang

    The performance of an all-solid-state cell having a lithium negative electrode, a modified polyethylene oxide (PEO)—epoxy resin (ER) electrolyte, and a polyaniline (PAn) positive electrode has been studied using cyclic voltammetry, charge/discharge cycling, and polarization curves at various temperatures. The redox reaction of the PAn electrode at the PAn/modifed PEOER interface exhibits good reversibility. At 50-80 °C, the Li/PEOERLiClO 4/PAn cell shows more than 40 charge/discharge cycles, 90% charge/discharge efficiency, and 54 W h kg -1 discharge energy density (on PAn weight basis) at 50 μA between 2 and 4 V. The polarization performance of the battery improves steadily with increase in temperature.

  13. Solid state light source driver establishing buck or boost operation

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Fred

    A solid state light source driver circuit that operates in either a buck convertor or a boost convertor configuration is provided. The driver circuit includes a controller, a boost switch circuit and a buck switch circuit, each coupled to the controller, and a feedback circuit, coupled to the light source. The feedback circuit provides feedback to the controller, representing a DC output of the driver circuit. The controller controls the boost switch circuit and the buck switch circuit in response to the feedback signal, to regulate current to the light source. The controller places the driver circuit in its boostmore » converter configuration when the DC output is less than a rectified AC voltage coupled to the driver circuit at an input node. The controller places the driver circuit in its buck converter configuration when the DC output is greater than the rectified AC voltage at the input node.« less

  14. Large scale synthesis of nanostructured zirconia-based compounds from freeze-dried precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, A.; Villanueva, R.; Vie, D.; Murcia-Mascaros, S.; Martínez, E.; Beltrán, A.; Sapiña, F.; Vicent, M.; Sánchez, E.

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystalline zirconia powders have been obtained at the multigram scale by thermal decomposition of precursors resulting from the freeze-drying of aqueous acetic solutions. This technique has equally made possible to synthesize a variety of nanostructured yttria or scandia doped zirconia compositions. SEM images, as well as the analysis of the XRD patterns, show the nanoparticulated character of those solids obtained at low temperature, with typical particle size in the 10-15 nm range when prepared at 673 K. The presence of the monoclinic, the tetragonal or both phases depends on the temperature of the thermal treatment, the doping concentration and the nature of the dopant. In addition, Rietveld refinement of the XRD profiles of selected samples allows detecting the coexistence of the tetragonal and the cubic phases for high doping concentration and high thermal treatment temperatures. Raman experiments suggest the presence of both phases also at relatively low treatment temperatures.

  15. X-Band, 17-Watt Solid-State Power Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittskus, Anthony; Stone, Ernest; Boger, William; Burgess, David; Honda, Richard; Nuckolls, Carl

    2005-01-01

    An advanced solid-state power amplifier that can generate an output power of as much as 17 W at a design operating frequency of 8.4 GHz has been designed and constructed as a smaller, lighter, less expensive alternative to traveling-wave-tube X-band amplifiers and to prior solid-state X-band power amplifiers of equivalent output power. This amplifier comprises a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifier module and a power-converter module integrated into a compact package (see Figure 1). The amplifier module contains an input variable-gain amplifier (VGA), an intermediate driver stage, a final power stage, and input and output power monitors (see Figure 2). The VGA and the driver amplifier are 0.5-m GaAs-based metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs). The final power stage contains four parallel high-efficiency, GaAs-based pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistors (PHEMTs). The gain of the VGA is voltage-variable over a range of 10 to 24 dB. To provide for temperature compensation of the overall amplifier gain, the gain-control voltage is generated by an operational-amplifier circuit that includes a resistor/thermistor temperature-sensing network. The driver amplifier provides a gain of 14 dB to an output power of 27 dBm to drive the four parallel output PHEMTs, each of which is nominally capable of putting out as much as 5 W. The driver output is sent to the input terminals of the four parallel PHEMTs through microstrip power dividers; the outputs of these PHEMTs are combined by microstrip power combiners (which are similar to the microstrip power dividers) to obtain the final output power of 17 W.

  16. The NSLS 100 element solid state array detector

    PubMed Central

    Furenlid, L.R.; Kraner, H.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Cramer, S.P.; Stephani, D.; Beuttenmuller, R.H.; Beren, J.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray absorption studies of dilute samples require fluorescence detection techniques. Since signal-to-noise ratios are governed by the ratio of fluorescent to scattered photons counted by a detector, solid state detectors which can discriminate between fluorescence and scattered photons have become the instruments of choice for trace element measurements. Commercially available 13 element Ge array detectors permitting total count rates < 500000 counts per second are now in routine use. Since X-ray absorption beamlines at high brightness synchrotron sources can already illuminate most dilute samples with enough flux to saturate the current generation of solid state detectors, the development of next-generation instruments with significantly higher total count rates is essential. We present the design and current status of the 100 element Si array detector being developed in a collaboration between the NSLS and the Instrumentation Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The detecting array consists of a 10×10 matrix of 4 mm×4 mm elements laid out on a single piece of ultrahigh purity silicon mounted at the front end of a liquid nitrogen dewar assembly. A matrix of charge sensitive integrating preamplifiers feed signals to an array of shaping amplifiers, single channel analyzers, and scalers. An electronic switch, delay amplifier, linear gate, digital scope, peak sensing A/D converter, and histogramining memory module provide for complete diagnostics and channel calibration. The entire instrument is controlled by a LabView 2 application on a MacII ci; the software also provides full control over beamline hardware and performs the data collection. PMID:26722135

  17. Review of Graphene as a Solid State Diffusion Barrier.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Wayne K; Pearton, Stephen J; Ren, Fan

    2016-01-06

    Conventional thin-film diffusion barriers consist of 3D bulk films with high chemical and thermal stability. The purpose of the barrier material is to prevent intermixing or penetration from the two materials that encase it. Adhesion to both top and bottom materials is critical to the success of the barrier. Here, the effectiveness of a single atomic layer of graphene as a solid-state diffusion barrier for common metal schemes used in microelectronics is reviewed, and specific examples are discussed. Initial studies of electrical contacts to graphene show a distinct separation in behavior between metallic groups that strongly or weakly bond to it. The two basic classes of metal reactions with graphene are either physisorbed metals, which bond weakly with graphene, or chemisorbed metals, which bond strongly to graphene. For graphene diffusion barrier testing on Si substrates, an effective barrier can be achieved through the formation of a carbide layer with metals that are chemisorbed. For physisorbed metals, the barrier failure mechanism is loss of adhesion at the metal–graphene interface. A graphene layer encased between two metal layers, in certain cases, can increase the binding energy of both films with graphene, however, certain combinations of metal films are detrimental to the bonding with graphene. While the prospects for graphene's future as a solid-state diffusion barrier are positive, there are open questions, and areas for future research are discussed. A better understanding of the mechanisms which influence graphene's ability to be an effective diffusion barrier in microelectronic applications is required, and additional experiments are needed on a broader range of metals, as well as common metal stack contact structures used in microelectronic applications. The role of defects in the graphene is also a key area, since they will probably influence the barrier properties. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. ARPA solid state laser and nonlinear materials program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, Peter F.

    1994-06-01

    The Research Division of Schwartz Electro-Optics, as part of the ARPA Solid State Laser and Nonlinear Materials Program, conducted a three-year study 'Erbium-Laser-Based Infrared Sources.' The aim of the study was to improve the understanding of semiconductor-laser-pumped, infrared (IR) solid state lasers based on the trivalent rare-earth ion erbium (Er) doped into a variety of host crystals. The initial program plan emphasized operation of erbium-doped materials on the 2.8-3.0 micrometers laser transition. Pulsed, Q-switched sources using that transition, when employed as a pump source for parametric oscillators, can provide tunable mid-IR energy. The dynamics of erbium lasers are more complex than conventional neodymium (Nd)-doped lasers and we intended to use pump-probe techniques to measure the level and temporal behavior of gain in various materials. To do so we constructed a number of different cw Er-doped lasers as probe sources and employed the Cr:LiSAF(LiSrAlF6) laser as a pulsed pump source that would simulate pulsed diode arrays. We identified the 970-nm wavelength pump band of Er as the most efficient and were able to make use of recently developed cw and pulsed InGaAs strained-quantum-well diode lasers in the effort. At the conclusion of the program we demonstrated the first pulsed diode bar pumping of the most promising materials for pulsed operation, the oxide garnets YSGG and GGG and the fluoride BaY2F8.

  19. Digital imaging with solid state x-ray image intensifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damento, Michael A.; Radspinner, Rachel; Roehrig, Hans

    1999-10-01

    X-ray cameras in which a CCD is lens coupled to a large phosphor screen are known to suffer from a loss of x-ray signal due to poor light collection from conventional phosphors, making them unsuitable for most medical imaging applications. By replacing the standard phosphor with a solid-state image intensifier, it may be possible to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the images produced with these cameras. The solid-state x-ray image intensifier is a multi- layer device in which a photoconductor layer controls the light output from an electroluminescent phosphor layer. While prototype devices have been used for direct viewing and video imaging, they are only now being evaluated in a digital imaging system. In the present work, the preparation and evaluation of intensifiers with a 65 mm square format are described. The intensifiers are prepared by screen- printing or doctor blading the following layers onto an ITO coated glass substrate: ZnS phosphor, opaque layer, CdS photoconductor, and carbon conductor. The total thickness of the layers is approximately 350 micrometers , 350 VAC at 400 Hz is applied to the device for operation. For a given x-ray dose, the intensifiers produce up to three times the intensity (after background subtracting) of Lanex Fast Front screens. X-ray images produced with the present intensifiers are somewhat noisy and their resolution is about half that of Lanex screens. Modifications are suggested which could improve the resolution and noise of the intensifiers.

  20. Management of immunization solid wastes in Kano State, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Oke, I.A.

    Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated inmore » either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites.« less

  1. Metastable States Arising from the Ablation of Solid Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrejeva, Anna; Harris, Joe; Wright, Tim

    2014-06-01

    Laser ablation is a popular method for generating metal atoms so that metal clusters, complexes, and molecules may be investigated in gas phase spectroscopic studies. However, the initial production of a highly energetic metal plasma from the surface of a solid metal target can produce atoms which are not in their ground electronic state, and consequently atomic spectra can become quite complicated due to transitions arising from metastable atomic excited states which remain populated on the experimental timescale. Presented herein are details of the laser vaporisation source in use by our group. Spectra of atomic copper are presented, recorded via (1+1') and (2+1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionisation (REMPI) spectroscopy. The energetic regions examined are expected to correspond to the (4s24p) 2P ← 2S and the (4s2nd) 2D ← 2S Rydberg series respectively, but the observed spectra also exhibit many additional contributions which are found to arise from electronically excited states, and these will be discussed.

  2. Progress and prospect on failure mechanisms of solid-state lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; Chen, Bingbing; Wang, Longlong; Cui, Guanglei

    2018-07-01

    By replacing traditional liquid organic electrolyte with solid-state electrolyte, the solid-state lithium batteries powerfully come back to the energy storage field due to their eminent safety and energy density. In recent years, a variety of solid-state lithium batteries based on excellent solid-state electrolytes are developed. However, the performance degradation of solid-state lithium batteries during cycling and storing is still a serious challenge for practical application. Therefore, this review summarizes the research progress of solid-state lithium batteries from the perspectives of failure phenomena and failure mechanisms. Additionally, the development of methodologies on studying the failure mechanisms of solid-state lithium batteries is also reviewed. Moreover, some perspectives on the remaining questions for understanding the failure behaviors and achieving long cycle life, high safety and high energy density solid-state lithium batteries are presented. This review will help researchers to recognize the status of solid-state lithium batteries objectively and attract much more research interest in conquering the failure issues of solid-state lithium batteries.

  3. Solid-state lighting life prediction using extended Kalman filter

    SciTech Connect

    Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Davis, Lynn

    2013-07-16

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. The U.S. Department of Energy has made a long term commitment to advance the efficiency, understandingmore » and development of solid-state lighting (SSL) and is making a strong push for the acceptance and use of SSL products to reduce overall energy consumption attributable to lighting. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of SSL Luminaires from LM-80 test data. The TM-21 model uses an Arrhenius Equation with an Activation Energy, Pre-decay factor and Decay Rates. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a luminaire at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Arrhenius Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, a Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filters have been used to develop a 70% Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for a LEDs used in SSL luminaires. This model can be used to calculate acceleration factors, evaluate failure-probability and identify ALT methodologies for reducing test time. Ten

  4. Materials Development for All-Solid-State Battery Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weimin

    Solid electrolytes in all solid-state batteries, provide higher attainable energy density and improved safety. Ideal solid electrolytes require high ionic conductivity, a high elastic modulus to prevent dendrite growth, chemical compatibility with electrodes, and ease of fabrication into thin films. Although various materials types, including polymers, ceramics, and composites, are under intense investigation, unifying design principles have not been identified. In this thesis, we study the key ion transport mechanisms in relation to the structural characteristics of polymers and glassy solids, and apply derived material design strategies to develop polymer-silica hybrid materials with improved electrolyte performance characteristics. Poly(ethylene) oxide-based solid electrolytes containing ceramic nanoparticles are attractive alternatives to liquid electrolytes for high-energy density Li batteries. We compare the effect of Li1.3Al0.3Ti 1.7(PO4)3 active nanoparticles, passive TiO 2 nanoparticles and fumed silica. Up to two orders of magnitude enhancement in ionic conductivity is observed for composites with active nanoparticles, attributed to cation migration through a percolating interphase region that develops around the active nanoparticles, even at low nanoparticle loading. We investigate the structural origin of elastic properties and ionic migration mechanisms in sodium borosilicate and sodium borogermanate glass electrolyte system. A new statistical thermodynamic reaction equilibrium model is used in combination with data from nuclear magnetic resonance and Brillouin light scattering measurements to determine network structural unit fractions. The highly coordinated structural units are found to be predominantly responsible for effective mechanical load transmission, by establishing three-dimensional covalent connectivity. A strong correlation exists between bulk modulus and the activation energy for ion conduction. We describe the activated process in

  5. Differential Enzyme Flexibility Probed Using Solid-State Nanopores.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rui; Rodrigues, João V; Waduge, Pradeep; Yamazaki, Hirohito; Cressiot, Benjamin; Chishti, Yasmin; Makowski, Lee; Yu, Dapeng; Shakhnovich, Eugene; Zhao, Qing; Wanunu, Meni

    2018-05-22

    Enzymes and motor proteins are dynamic macromolecules that coexist in a number of conformations of similar energies. Protein function is usually accompanied by a change in structure and flexibility, often induced upon binding to ligands. However, while measuring protein flexibility changes between active and resting states is of therapeutic significance, it remains a challenge. Recently, our group has demonstrated that breadth of signal amplitudes in measured electrical signatures as an ensemble of individual protein molecules is driven through solid-state nanopores and correlates with protein conformational dynamics. Here, we extend our study to resolve subtle flexibility variation in dihydrofolate reductase mutants from unlabeled single molecules in solution. We first demonstrate using a canonical protein system, adenylate kinase, that both size and flexibility changes can be observed upon binding to a substrate that locks the protein in a closed conformation. Next, we investigate the influence of voltage bias and pore geometry on the measured electrical pulse statistics during protein transport. Finally, using the optimal experimental conditions, we systematically study a series of wild-type and mutant dihydrofolate reductase proteins, finding a good correlation between nanopore-measured protein conformational dynamics and equilibrium bulk fluorescence probe measurements. Our results unequivocally demonstrate that nanopore-based measurements reliably probe conformational diversity in native protein ensembles.

  6. Solid-state gas sensors for breath analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Di Natale, Corrado; Paolesse, Roberto; Martinelli, Eugenio; Capuano, Rosamaria

    2014-05-08

    The analysis of volatile compounds is an efficient method to appraise information about the chemical composition of liquids and solids. This principle is applied to several practical applications, such as food analysis where many important features (e.g. freshness) can be directly inferred from the analysis of volatile compounds. The same approach can also be applied to a human body where the volatile compounds, collected from the skin, the breath or in the headspace of fluids, might contain information that could be used to diagnose several kinds of diseases. In particular, breath is widely studied and many diseases can be potentially detected from breath analysis. The most fascinating property of breath analysis is the non-invasiveness of the sample collection. Solid-state sensors are considered the natural complement to breath analysis, matching the non-invasiveness with typical sensor features such as low-cost, easiness of use, portability, and the integration with the information networks. Sensors based breath analysis is then expected to dramatically extend the diagnostic capabilities enabling the screening of large populations for the early diagnosis of pathologies. In the last years there has been an increased attention to the development of sensors specifically aimed to this purpose. These investigations involve both specific sensors designed to detect individual compounds and non-specific sensors, operated in array configurations, aimed at clustering subjects according to their health conditions. In this paper, the recent significant applications of these sensors to breath analysis are reviewed and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Superior Blends Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Integrated Hierarchical Architectures for All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dechao; Zhang, Long; Yang, Kun; Wang, Hongqiang; Yu, Chuang; Xu, Di; Xu, Bo; Wang, Li-Min

    2017-10-25

    Exploration of advanced solid electrolytes with good interfacial stability toward electrodes is a highly relevant research topic for all-solid-state batteries. Here, we report PCL/SN blends integrating with PAN-skeleton as solid polymer electrolyte prepared by a facile method. This polymer electrolyte with hierarchical architectures exhibits high ionic conductivity, large electrochemical windows, high degree flexibility, good flame-retardance ability, and thermal stability (workable at 80 °C). Additionally, it demonstrates superior compatibility and electrochemical stability toward metallic Li as well as LiFePO 4 cathode. The electrolyte/electrode interfaces are very stable even subjected to 4.5 V at charging state for long time. The LiFePO 4 /Li all-solid-state cells based on this electrolyte deliver high capacity, outstanding cycling stability, and superior rate capability better than those based on liquid electrolyte. This solid polymer electrolyte is eligible for next generation high energy density all-solid-state batteries.

  8. Effect of milling conditions on solid-state amorphization of glipizide, and characterization and stability of solid forms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kailin; Xiong, Xinnuo; Zhai, Yuanming; Wang, Lili; Li, Shanshan; Yan, Jin; Wu, Di; Ma, Xiaoli; Li, Hui

    2016-09-10

    In this study, the amorphization of glipizide was systematically investigated through high-energy ball milling at different temperatures. The results of solid-state amorphization through milling indicated that glipizide underwent direct crystal-to-glass transformation at 15 and 25°C and crystal-to-glass-to-crystal conversion at 35°C; hence, milling time and temperature had significant effects on the amorphization of glipizide, which should be effectively controlled to obtain totally amorphous glipizide. Solid forms of glipizide were detailedly characterized through analyses of X-ray powder diffraction, morphology, thermal curves, vibrational spectra, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. The physical stability of solid forms was investigated under different levels of relative humidity (RH) at 25°C. Forms I and III are kinetically stable and do not form any new solid-state forms at various RH levels. By contrast, Form II is kinetically unstable, undergoing direct glass-to-crystal transformation when RH levels higher than 32.8%. Therefore, stability investigation indicated that Form II should be stored under relatively dry conditions to prevent rapid crystallization. High temperatures can also induce the solid-state transformation of Form II; the conversion rate increased with increasing temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mathematical modeling of ethanol production in solid-state fermentation based on solid medium' dry weight variation.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Davood; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Zamir, Seyed Morteza; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad

    2018-04-21

    In this work, mathematical modeling of ethanol production in solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been done based on the variation in the dry weight of solid medium. This method was previously used for mathematical modeling of enzyme production; however, the model should be modified to predict the production of a volatile compound like ethanol. The experimental results of bioethanol production from the mixture of carob pods and wheat bran by Zymomonas mobilis in SSF were used for the model validation. Exponential and logistic kinetic models were used for modeling the growth of microorganism. In both cases, the model predictions matched well with the experimental results during the exponential growth phase, indicating the good ability of solid medium weight variation method for modeling a volatile product formation in solid-state fermentation. In addition, using logistic model, better predictions were obtained.

  10. Reactivity and Characterization of Solid State Hydrodesulfurization Catalysts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, James Henry

    1990-01-01

    The identification of the phase responsible for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity has been the subject of extensive research. In this study, model solid state catalysts prepared from elemental starting materials were synthesized, characterized, and then used to desulfurize thiophene at temperatures ranging from 200-400 ^circC and a pressure of one atmosphere. The results of this work indicate that an increased HDS activity can be correlated with the presence of a poorly crystalline molybdenum sulfide-like phase detected by XRD, HREM, or AEM. The formation of this sulfur-deficient, non-stoichiometric phase could be accomplished by either removing sulfur directly from the catalyst synthesis mixture to yield a non-stoichiometric MoS_{ rm 2-x} moiety, or by introducing a transition metal promoter such as Fe, Co, Ni, or Cu into the system. The promoter atoms induced structural changes in the molybdenum sulfide edge planes by effectively scavenging sulfur during catalyst synthesis to form promoter sulfide species, which enhanced the formation of a non-stoichiometric, highly active molybdenum sulfide. This morphological effect was the primary function of the promoter in this system. All model catalysts displayed similar structure in the (0002) basal plane of MoS_2; however, only the catalytically active samples showed a high concentration of defects and disorder in the (1010), (1011), and (1012) edge planes. The HREM images obtained from these edge planes and their correlation with HDS activity dramatically illustrated the importance of the often-discussed edge plane structure of MoS_2 and its significance on HDS catalysis. Normalization of the HDS activities for the solid state models and a commercial catalyst with O_2 or CO chemisorption uptakes suggested that a similarity may exist between the catalytically active sites of these materials. In-situ XPS revealed that increasing promoter atom concentrations resulted in a more complete reduction of the promoter atom; but

  11. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-01

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for

  12. Effect of the shades of background substructures on the overall color of zirconia-based all-ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Tulapornchai, Chantana; Mamani, Jatuphol; Kamchatphai, Wannaporn; Thongpun, Noparat

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the color of a background substructure on the overall color of a zirconia-based all-ceramic crown. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty one posterior zirconia crowns were made for twenty subjects. Seven premolar crowns and six molar crowns were cemented onto abutments with metal post and core in the first and second group. In the third group, eight molar crowns were cemented onto abutments with a prefabricated post and composite core build-up. The color measurements of all-ceramic crowns were made before try-in, before and after cementation. A repeated measure ANOVA was used for a statistical analysis of a color change of all-ceramic crowns at α=.05. Twenty four zirconia specimens, with different core thicknesses (0.4-1 mm) were also prepared to obtain the contrast ratio of zirconia materials after veneering. RESULTS L*, a*, and b* values of all-ceramic crowns cemented either on a metal cast post and core or on a prefabricated post did not show significant changes (P>.05). However, the slight color changes of zirconia crowns were detected and represented by ΔE*ab values, ranging from 1.2 to 3.1. The contrast ratios of zirconia specimens were 0.92-0.95 after veneering. CONCLUSION No significant differences were observed between the L*, a*, and b* values of zirconia crowns cemented either on a metal cast post and core or a prefabricated post and composite core. However, the color of a background substructure could affect the overall color of posterior zirconia restorations with clinically recommended core thickness according to ΔE*ab values. PMID:24049574

  13. Towards long lasting zirconia-based composites for dental implants. Part I: innovative synthesis, microstructural characterization and in vitro stability.

    PubMed

    Palmero, Paola; Fornabaio, Marta; Montanaro, Laura; Reveron, Helen; Esnouf, Claude; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2015-05-01

    In order to fulfill the clinical requirements for strong, tough and stable ceramics used in dental applications, we designed and developed innovative zirconia-based composites, in which equiaxial α-Al2O3 and elongated SrAl12O19 phases are dispersed in a ceria-stabilized zirconia matrix. The composite powders were prepared by an innovative surface coating route, in which commercial zirconia powders were coated by inorganic precursors of the second phases, which crystallize on the zirconia particles surface under proper thermal treatment. Samples containing four different ceria contents (in the range 10.0-11.5 mol%) were prepared by carefully tailoring the amount of the cerium precursor during the elaboration process. Slip cast green bodies were sintered at 1450 °C for 1 h, leading to fully dense materials. Characterization of composites by SEM and TEM analyses showed highly homogeneous microstructures with an even distribution of both equiaxial and elongated-shape grains inside a very fine zirconia matrix. Ce content plays a major role on aging kinetics, and should be carefully controlled: sample with 10 mol% of ceria were transformable, whereas above 10.5 mol% there is negligible or no transformation during autoclave treatment. Thus, in this paper we show the potential of the innovative surface coating route, which allows a perfect tailoring of the microstructural, morphological and compositional features of the composites; moreover, its processing costs and environmental impacts are limited, which is beneficial for further scale-up and real use in the biomedical field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical risk factors related to failures with zirconia-based restorations: an up to 9-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Vinciane; Vanheusden, Alain J; Le Goff, Stéphane O; Mainjot, Amélie K

    2013-12-01

    The first objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate zirconia-based restorations (ZBR). The second was to correlate failures with clinical parameters and to identify and to analyse chipping failures using fractographic analysis. 147 ZBR (tooth- and implant-supported crowns and fixed partial dentures (FPDs)) were evaluated after a mean observation period of 41.5 ± 31.8 months. Accessorily, zirconia implant abutments (n=46) were also observed. The technical (USPHS criteria) and the biological outcomes of the ZBR were evaluated. Occlusal risk factors were examined: occlusal relationships, parafunctional habits, and the presence of occlusal nightguard. SEM fractographic analysis was performed using the intra-oral replica technique. The survival rate of crowns and FPDs was 93.2%, the success rate was 81.63% and the 9-year Kaplan-Meier estimated success rate was 52.66%. The chipping rate was 15% and the framework fracture rate was 2.7%. Most fractographic analyses revealed that veneer fractures originated from occlusal surface roughness. Several parameters were shown to significantly influence veneer fracture: the absence of occlusal nightguard (p=0.0048), the presence of a ceramic restoration as an antagonist (p=0.013), the presence of parafunctional activity (p=0.018), and the presence of implants as support (p=0.026). The implant abutments success rate was 100%. The results of the present study confirm that chipping is the first cause of ZBR failure. They also underline the importance of clinical parameters in regards to the explanation of this complex problem. This issue should be considered in future prospective clinical studies. Practitioners can reduce chipping failures by taking into account several risk parameters, such as the presence of a ceramic restoration as an antagonist, the presence of parafunctional activity and the presence of implants as support. The use of an occlusal nightguard can also decrease failure rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  15. Solid state high resolution multi-spectral imager CCD test phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The program consisted of measuring the performance characteristics of charge coupled linear imaging devices, and a study defining a multispectral imaging system employing advanced solid state photodetection techniques.

  16. An extrapolation scheme for solid-state NMR chemical shift calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Takahito

    2017-06-01

    Conventional quantum chemical and solid-state physical approaches include several problems to accurately calculate solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties. We propose a reliable computational scheme for solid-state NMR chemical shifts using an extrapolation scheme that retains the advantages of these approaches but reduces their disadvantages. Our scheme can satisfactorily yield solid-state NMR magnetic shielding constants. The estimated values have only a small dependence on the low-level density functional theory calculation with the extrapolation scheme. Thus, our approach is efficient because the rough calculation can be performed in the extrapolation scheme.

  17. Solid-state NMR as an effective method of polymorphic analysis: solid dosage forms of clopidogrel hydrogensulfate.

    PubMed

    Pindelska, Edyta; Szeleszczuk, Lukasz; Pisklak, Dariusz Maciej; Mazurek, Andrzej; Kolodziejski, Waclaw

    2015-01-01

    Clopidogrel hydrogensulfate (HSCL) is an antiplatelet agent, one of top-selling drugs in the world. In this paper, we have described a rapid and convenient method of verification which polymorph of HSCL is present in its final solid dosage form. Our methodology based on solid-state NMR spectroscopy and ab initio gauge-including projector-augmented wave calculations of NMR shielding constants is appropriate for currently available commercial solid dosage forms of HSCL. Furthermore, such structural characterization can assist with the development of new pharmaceutical products containing HSCL and also be useful in the identification of counterfeit drugs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Silver flip chip interconnect technology and solid state bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Chu-Hsuan

    In this dissertation, fluxless transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding and solid state bonding between thermal expansion mismatch materials have been developed using Ag-In binary systems, pure Au, Ag, and Cu-Ag composite. In contrast to the conventional soldering process, fluxless bonding technique eliminates any corrosion and contamination problems caused by flux. Without flux, it is possible to fabricate high quality joints in large bonding areas where the flux is difficult to clean entirely. High quality joints are crucial to bonding thermal expansion mismatch materials since shear stress develops in the bonded pair. Stress concentration at voids in joints could increases breakage probability. In addition, intermetallic compound (IMC) formation between solder and underbump metallurgy (UBM) is essential for interconnect joint formation in conventional soldering process. However, the interface between IMC and solder is shown to be the weak interface that tends to break first during thermal cycling and drop tests. In our solid state bonding technique, there is no IMC involved in the bonding between Au to Au, Ag and Cu, and Ag and Au. All the reliability issues related to IMC or IMC growth is not our concern. To sum up, ductile bonding media, such as Ag or Au, and proper metallic layered structure are utilized in this research to produce high quality joints. The research starts with developing a low temperature fluxless bonding process using electroplated Ag/In/Ag multilayer structures between Si chip and 304 stainless steel (304SS) substrate. Because the outer thin Ag layer effectively protects inner In layer from oxidation, In layer dissolves Ag layer and joints to Ag layer on the to-be-bonded Si chip when temperature reaches the reflow temperature of 166ºC. Joints consist of mainly Ag-rich Ag-In solid solution and Ag2In. Using this fluxless bonding technique, two 304SS substrates can be bonded together as well. From the high magnification SEM images taken at cross

  19. Solid-state harmonics beyond the atomic limit.

    PubMed

    Ndabashimiye, Georges; Ghimire, Shambhu; Wu, Mengxi; Browne, Dana A; Schafer, Kenneth J; Gaarde, Mette B; Reis, David A

    2016-06-23

    Strong-field laser excitation of solids can produce extremely nonlinear electronic and optical behaviour. As recently demonstrated, this includes the generation of high harmonics extending into the vacuum-ultraviolet and extreme-ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. High harmonic generation is shown to occur fundamentally differently in solids and in dilute atomic gases. How the microscopic mechanisms in the solid and the gas differ remains a topic of intense debate. Here we report a direct comparison of high harmonic generation in the solid and gas phases of argon and krypton. Owing to the weak van der Waals interaction, rare (noble)-gas solids are a near-ideal medium in which to study the role of high density and periodicity in the generation process. We find that the high harmonic generation spectra from the rare-gas solids exhibit multiple plateaus extending well beyond the atomic limit of the corresponding gas-phase harmonics measured under similar conditions. The appearance of multiple plateaus indicates strong interband couplings involving multiple single-particle bands. We also compare the dependence of the solid and gas harmonic yield on laser ellipticity and find that they are similar, suggesting the importance of electron-hole recollision in these solids. This implies that gas-phase methods such as polarization gating for attosecond pulse generation and orbital tomography could be realized in solids.

  20. Solid-state fractional capacitor using MWCNT-epoxy nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Dina A.; Banerjee, Susanta; Bohannan, Gary W.; Biswas, Karabi

    2017-04-01

    Here, we propose the fabrication of a solid state fractional capacitor for which constant phase (CP) angles were attained in different frequency zones: 110 Hz-1.1 kHz, 10 kHz-118 kHz, and 230 kHz-20 MHz. The configuration makes use of epoxy resin as the matrix in which multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are dispersed. Adhesive nature of the epoxy resin is utilized for binding the electrodes, which avoids the extra step for packaging. The fractional capacitive behavior is contributed by the distribution of time constants for the electron to travel from one electrode to the other. The distributive nature of the time constant is ensured by inserting a middle plate which is coated with a porous film of polymethyl-methacrylate in between the two electrodes. The phase angle trend for the configuration is studied in detail, and it is observed that as the % of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) loading increases, the CP angle increases from - 85 ° to - 45 ° in the frequency zones above 100 Hz. The developed device is compact and it can be easily integrated with the electronic circuits.

  1. Recovery of failed solid-state anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liangcheng; Ge, Xumeng; Li, Yebo

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the performance of three methods for recovering failed solid-state anaerobic digesters. The 9-L digesters, which were fed with corn stover, failed at a feedstock/inoculum (F/I) ratio of 10 with negligible methane yields. To recover the systems, inoculum was added to bring the F/I ratio to 4. Inoculum was either added to the top of a failed digester, injected into it, or well-mixed with the existing feedstock. Digesters using top-addition and injection methods quickly resumed and achieved peak yields in 10days, while digesters using well-mixed method recovered slowly but showed 50% higher peak yields. Overall, these methods recovered 30-40% methane from failed digesters. The well-mixed method showed the highest methane yield, followed by the injection and top-addition methods. Recovered digesters outperformed digesters had a constant F/I ratio of 4. Slow mass transfer and slow growth of microbes were believed to be the major limiting factors for recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of multiport solid state imagers at megahertz data rates

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; Pena, C.R.; Turko, B.T.

    1994-08-01

    Test results obtained from two recently developed multiport Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) operated at pixel rates in the 10-to-100 MHz range will be presented . The CCDs were evaluated in Los Alamos National Laboratory`s High Speed Solid State Imager Test Station (HSTS) which features PC-based programmable clock waveform generation (Tektronix DAS 9200) and synchronously clocked Digital Sampling Oscilloscopes (DSOs) (LeCroy 9424/9314 series) for CCD pixel data acquisition, analysis and storage. The HSTS also provided special designed optical pinhole array test patterns in the 5-to-50 micron diameter range for use with Xenon Strobe and pulsed laser light sources to simultaneously provide multiplemore » single-pixel illumination patterns to study CCD point-spread-function (PSF) and pixel smear characteristics. The two CCDs tested, EEV model CCD-13 and EG&G Reticon model HSO512J, are both 512 {times} 512 pixel arrays with eight (8) and sixteen (16) video output ports respectively. Both devices are generically Frame Transfer CCDs (FT CCDs) designed for parallel bi-directional vertical readout to augment their multiport design for increased pixel rates over common single port serial readout architecture. Although both CCDs were tested similarly, differences in their designs precluded normalization or any direct comparisons of test results. Rate dependent parameters investigated include S/N, PSF, and MTF. The performance observed for the two imagers at various pixel rates from selected typical output ports is discussed.« less

  3. Solid state consolidation nanocrystalline copper-tungsten using cold spray

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Aaron Christopher; Sarobol, Pylin; Argibay, Nicolas

    It is well known that nanostructured metals can exhibit significantly improved properties compared to metals with conventional grain size. Unfortunately, nanocrystalline metals typically are not thermodynamically stable and exhibit rapid grain growth at moderate temperatures. This severely limits their processing and use, making them impractical for most engineering applications. Recent work has shown that a number of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metal alloys exist. These alloys have been prepared as powders using severe plastic deformation (e.g. ball milling) processes. Consolidation of these powders without compromise of their nanocrystalline microstructure is a critical step to enabling their use as engineering materials. Wemore » demonstrate solid-state consolidation of ball milled copper-tantalum nanocrystalline metal powder using cold spray. Unfortunately, the nanocrystalline copper-tantalum powder that was consolidated did not contain the thermodynamically stable copper-tantalum nanostructure. Nevertheless, this does this demonstrates a pathway to preparation of bulk thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Furthermore, it demonstrates a pathway to additive manufacturing (3D printing) of nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Additive manufacturing of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metals is attractive because it enables maximum flexibility and efficiency in the use of these unique materials.« less

  4. High Voltage, Solid-State Switch for Fusion Science Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemba, Timothy; Prager, James; Miller, Kenneth E.; Slobodov, Ilia

    2017-10-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. is developing a series stack of solid-state switches to produce a single high voltage switch that can be operated at over 35 kV. During the Phase I program, EHT developed two high voltage switch modules: one with isolated power gate drive and a second with inductively coupled gate drive. These switches were tested at 15 kV and up to 300 A at switching frequencies up to 500 kHz for 10 ms bursts. Robust switching was demonstrated for both IGBTs and SiC MOSFETs. During the Phase II program, EHT will develop a higher voltage switch (>35 kV) that will be suitable for high pulsed and average power applications. EHT will work with LTX to utilize these switches to design, build, and test a pulsed magnetron driver that will be delivered to LTX before the completion of the program. EHT will present data from the Phase I program as well as preliminary results from the start of the Phase II program. With support of DOE SBIR.

  5. Progress in LED technology for solid-state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Jy; Guth, Greg; Cesaratto, John M.; Shchekin, Oleg B.; Soer, Wouter A.; Götz, Werner; Bonné, Ron; Song, Zhihua F.; den Breejen, Jeroen

    2017-02-01

    As solid-state lighting adoption moves from bulb socket replacement to lighting system engineering, luminaire manufacturers are beginning to actualize far greater cost savings through luminaire optimization rather than the simplistic process of component cost pareto management. Indeed, there are an increasing number of applications in which we see major shifts in the value chain in terms of increasing the L1 (LED) and L2 (LED array on PCB) value. The L1 value increase stems from a number of factors ranging from simply higher performing LEDs reducing the LED count, to L1 innovation such as high voltage LEDs, optimizing driver efficiency or to the use of high luminance LEDs enabling compact optics, allowing not only more design freedom but also cost reduction through space and weight savings. The L2 value increase is realized predominantly through increasing L2 performance with the use of algorithms that optimize L1 selection and placement and/or through L2 integration of drivers, control electronics, sensors, secondary lens and/or environmental protection, which is also initiating level collapse in the value chain. In this paper we will present the L1 and L2 innovations that are enabling this disruption as well as provide examples of fixture/luminaire level benefits.

  6. Learning through ferroelectric domain dynamics in solid-state synapses

    SciTech Connect

    Boyn, Soren; Grollier, Julie; Lecerf, Gwendal

    In the brain, learning is achieved through the ability of synapses to reconfigure the strength by which they connect neurons (synaptic plasticity). In promising solid-state synapses called memristors, conductance can be finely tuned by voltage pulses and set to evolve according to a biological learning rule called spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Future neuromorphic architectures will comprise billions of such nanosynapses, which require a clear understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for plasticity. Here we report on synapses based on ferroelectric tunnel junctions and show that STDP can be harnessed from inhomogeneous polarization switching. Through combined scanning probe imaging, electrical transport andmore » atomic-scale molecular dynamics, we demonstrate that conductance variations can be modelled by the nucleation-dominated reversal of domains. Finally, based on this physical model, our simulations show that arrays of ferroelectric nanosynapses can autonomously learn to recognize patterns in a predictable way, opening the path towards unsupervised learning in spiking neural networks.« less

  7. Protecting solid-state spins from a strongly coupled environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mo; Calvin Sun, Won Kyu; Saha, Kasturi; Jaskula, Jean-Christophe; Cappellaro, Paola

    2018-06-01

    Quantum memories are critical for solid-state quantum computing devices and a good quantum memory requires both long storage time and fast read/write operations. A promising system is the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond, where the NV electronic spin serves as the computing qubit and a nearby nuclear spin as the memory qubit. Previous works used remote, weakly coupled 13C nuclear spins, trading read/write speed for long storage time. Here we focus instead on the intrinsic strongly coupled 14N nuclear spin. We first quantitatively understand its decoherence mechanism, identifying as its source the electronic spin that acts as a quantum fluctuator. We then propose a scheme to protect the quantum memory from the fluctuating noise by applying dynamical decoupling on the environment itself. We demonstrate a factor of 3 enhancement of the storage time in a proof-of-principle experiment, showing the potential for a quantum memory that combines fast operation with long coherence time.

  8. Development of a solid state laser of Nd:YLF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doamaralneto, R.

    The CW laser action was obtained at room temperature of a Nd:YLF crystal in an astigmatically compensated cavity, pumped by an argon laser. This laser was completely projected, constructed and characterized in our laboratories. It initiates a broader project on laser development that will have several applications like nuclear fusion, industry, medicine, telemetry, etc. Throught the study of the optical properties of the Nd:YLF crystal, laser operation was predicted using a small volume gain medium on the mentioned cavity, pumped by an Ar 514,5 nm laser line. To obtain the laser action at polarizations sigma (1,053 (MU)m) and (PI) (1.047 (MU)m) an active medium was prepared which was a crystalline plate with a convenient crystallographic orientation. The laser characterization is in reasonable agreement with the initial predictions. For a 3.5% output mirror transmission, the oscillation threshold is about 0.15 W incident on the crystal, depending upon the sample used. For 1 W of incident pump light, the output power is estimated to be 12 mw, which corresponds to almost 1.5% slope efficiency. The versatile arrangement is applicable to almost all optically pumped solid state laser materials.

  9. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOEpatents

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. In one embodiment, a sheet of conductive material is processed by employing a known milling, stamping, or chemical etching technique to include a connection pattern which provides for flexible and selective interconnecting of individual electrochemical cells within the housing, which may be a hermetically sealed housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  10. Heat-Assisted Multiferroic Solid-State Memory

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A heat-assisted multiferroic solid-state memory design is proposed and analysed, based on a PbNbZrSnTiO3 antiferroelectric layer and Ni81Fe19 magnetic free layer. Information is stored as magnetisation direction in the free layer of a magnetic tunnel junction element. The bit writing process is contactless and relies on triggering thermally activated magnetisation switching of the free layer towards a strain-induced anisotropy easy axis. A stress is generated using the antiferroelectric layer by voltage-induced antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase change, and this is transmitted to the magnetic free layer by strain-mediated coupling. The thermally activated strain-induced magnetisation switching is analysed here using a three-dimensional, temperature-dependent magnetisation dynamics model, based on simultaneous evaluation of the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation and heat flow equation, together with stochastic thermal fields and magnetoelastic contributions. The magnetisation switching probability is calculated as a function of stress magnitude and maximum heat pulse temperature. An operating region is identified, where magnetisation switching always occurs, with stress values ranging from 80 to 180 MPa, and maximum temperatures normalised to the Curie temperature ranging from 0.65 to 0.99. PMID:28841185

  11. Analysis of Measurements for Solid State Lidar Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin

    1996-01-01

    A Detector Characterization Facility (DCF), capable of measuring 2-micron detection devices and evaluating heterodyne receivers, was developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The DCF is capable of providing all the necessary detection parameters for design, development, and calibration of coherent and incoherent solid state laser radar (lidar) systems. The coherent lidars in particular require an accurate knowledge of detector heterodyne quantum efficient, nonlinearity properties, and voltage-current relationship as a function of applied optical power. At present, no detector manufacturer provides these qualities or adequately characterizes their detectors for heterodyne detection operation. In addition, the detector characterization facility measures the detectors DC and AC quantum efficiencies noise equivalent power and frequency response up to several GHz. The DCF is also capable of evaluating various heterodyne detection schemes such as balanced detectors and fiber optic interferometers. The design and analyses of measurements for the DCF were preformed over the previous year and a detailed description of its design and capabilities was provided in the NASA report NAS8-38609/DO77. It should also be noted that the DCF design was further improved to allow for the characterization of diffractive andholographical optical elements and other critical components of coherent lidar systems.

  12. Membrane solid-state NMR in Canada: A historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Auger, Michèle

    2017-11-01

    This manuscript presents an overview of more than 40years of membrane solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) research in Canada. This technique is a method of choice for the study of the structure and dynamics of lipid bilayers; bilayer interactions with a variety of molecules such as membrane peptides, membrane proteins and drugs; and to investigate membrane peptide and protein structure, dynamics, and topology. Canada has a long tradition in this field of research, starting with pioneering work on natural and model membranes in the 1970s in a context of emergence of biophysics in the country. The 1980s and 1990s saw an emphasis on studying lipid structures and dynamics, and peptide-lipid and protein-lipid interactions. The study of bicelles began in the 1990s, and in the 2000s there was a rise in the study of membrane protein structures. Novel perspectives include using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) for membrane studies and using NMR in live cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biophysics in Canada, edited by Lewis Kay, John Baenziger, Albert Berghuis and Peter Tieleman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Solid State NMR Studies of the Aluminum Hydride Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Son-Jong; Bowman, R. C., Jr.; Graetz, Jason; Reilly, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Several solid state NMR techniques including magic-angle-spinning (MAS) and multiple-quantum (MQ) MAS experiments have been used to characterize various AlH3 samples. MAS-NMR spectra for the 1H and 27Al nuclei have been obtained on a variety of AlH3 samples that include the (beta)- and (gamma)- phases as well as the most stable (alpha)-phase. While the dominant components in these NMR spectra correspond to the aluminum hydride phases, other species were found that include Al metal, molecular hydrogen (H2), as well as peaks that can be assigned to Al-O species in different configurations. The occurrence and concentration of these extraneous components are dependent upon the initial AlH3 phase composition and preparation procedures. Both the (beta)-AlH3 and (gamma)-AlH3 phases were found to generate substantial amounts of Al metal when the materials were stored at room temperature while the (alpha)-phase materials do not exhibit these changes.

  14. Monitoring tetracycline through a solid-state nanopore sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuechuan; Chen, Yanling; Fu, Yongqi; Ying, Cuifeng; Feng, Yanxiao; Huang, Qimeng; Wang, Chao; Pei, De-Sheng; Wang, Deqiang

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics as emerging environmental contaminants, are widely used in both human and veterinary medicines. A solid-state nanopore sensing method is reported in this article to detect Tetracycline, which is based on Tet-off and Tet-on systems. rtTA (reverse tetracycline-controlled trans-activator) and TRE (Tetracycline Responsive Element) could bind each other under the action of Tetracycline to form one complex. When the complex passes through nanopores with 8 ~ 9 nanometers in diameter, we could detect the concentrations of Tet from 2 ng/mL to 2000 ng/mL. According to the Logistic model, we could define three growth zones of Tetracycline for rtTA and TRE. The slow growth zone is 0-39.5 ng/mL. The rapid growth zone is 39.5-529.7 ng/mL. The saturated zone is > 529.7 ng/mL. Compared to the previous methods, the nanopore sensor could detect and quantify these different kinds of molecule at the single-molecule level.

  15. Six-color solid state illuminator for cinema projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junejei; Wang, Yuchang

    2014-09-01

    Light source for cinema projector requires reliability, high brightness, good color and 3D for without silver screens. To meet these requirements, a laser-phosphor based solid state illuminator with 6 primary colors is proposed. The six primary colors are divided into two groups and include colors of R1, R2, G1, G2, B1 and B2. Colors of B1, B2 and R2 come from lasers of wavelengths 440 nm, 465 nm and 639 nm. Color of G1 comes from G-phosphor pumped by B2 laser. Colors of G2 and R1 come from Y-phosphor pumped by B1 laser. Two groups of colors are combined by a multiband filter and working by alternately switching B1 and B2 lasers. The combined two sequences of three colors are sent to the 3-chip cinema projector and synchronized with frame rate of 120Hz. In 2D mode, the resulting 6 primary colors provide a very wide color gamut. In 3D mode, two groups of red, green and blue primary colors provide two groups of images that received by left and right eyes.

  16. Solid state solubility of copper oxides in hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykin, Mikhail A.; Vasiliev, Alexander V.; Trusov, Lev A.; Dinnebier, Robert E.; Jansen, Martin; Kazin, Pavel E.

    2018-06-01

    Samples containing copper oxide doped hydroxyapatite with the composition Ca10(PO4)6(CuxOH1-x-δ)2, x = 0.054 - 0.582, in the mixture with CuO/Cu2O were prepared by a solid-state high-temperature treatment at varying annealing temperatures and at different partial water vapor and oxygen pressures. The crystal structures of the apatite compounds were refined using powder X-ray diffraction patterns and the content of copper ions x in the apatite was determined. Copper ions enter exclusively into the apatite trigonal channels formally substituting protons of OH-groups and the hexagonal cell parameters grow approximately linearly with x, the channel volume mostly expanding while the remaining volume of the crystal lattice changing only slightly. The equilibrium copper content in the apatite increases drastically, by almost a factor of 10 with the annealing temperature rising from 800° to 1200°C. The reduction of the water partial pressure leads to a further increase of x, while the dependence of x on the oxygen partial pressure exhibits a maximum. The observed relations are consistent with the proposed chemical reactions implying the copper introduction is followed by the release of a considerable quantity of gaseous products - water and oxygen. The analysis of interatomic distances suggests that the maximum content of copper ions in the channel cannot exceed 2/3.

  17. Tunable All-Solid-State Local Oscillators to 1900 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, John; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Maestrini, Alain; Schlecht, Erich; Gill, John; Javadi, Hamid; Pukala, David; Maiwald, Frank; Mehdi, Imran

    2004-01-01

    We present a status report of an ongoing effort to develop robust tunable all-solid-state sources up to 1900 GHz for the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory. GaAs based multi-chip power amplifier modules at W-band are used to drive cascaded chains of multipliers. We have demonstrated performance from chains comprised of four doublers up to 1600 GHz as well as from a x2x3x3 chain to 1900 GHz. Measured peak output power of 23 (micro)W at 1782 GHz and 2.6 (micro)W at 1900 GHz has been achieved when the multipliers are cooled to 120K. The 1900 GHz tripler was pumped with a four anode tripler that produces a peak of 4 mW at 630 GHz when cooled to 120 K. We believe that these sources can now be used to pump hot electron bolometer (HEB) heterodyne mixers.ter (HEB) heterodyne mixers.

  18. Measurements of the Reactor Antineutrino with Solid State Scintillation Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, I.; Belov, V.; Brudanin, V.; Danilov, M.; Egorov, V.; Filosofov, D.; Fomina, M.; Hons, Z.; Kazartsev, S.; Kobyakin, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Machikhiliyan, I.; Medvedev, D.; Nesterov, V.; Olshevsky, A.; Pogorelov, N.; Ponomarev, D.; Rozova, I.; Rumyantseva, N.; Rusinov, V.; Salamatin, A.; Samigullin, E.; Shevchik, Ye.; Shirchenko, M.; Shitov, Yu.; Skrobova, N.; Starostin, A.; Svirida, D.; Tarkovsky, E.; Tikhomirov, I.; Vlášek, J.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D.

    Measurements of reactor antineutrino play an important role in the efforts at the frontier of the modern physics. The DANSS collaboration presents preliminary results of a one year run with a cubic meter solid state detector placed below 3.1 GW industrial light water reactor. The experiment is sensitive to sterile neutrino in the most interesting region of mixing parameter space. 2500 scintillation strips of the sensitive volume of the detector have multilayer passive shielding of copper, lead and borated polyethylene and active muon veto. Detector position below the reactor gives an advantage of overburden about 50 m of water equivalent providing factor of six in cosmic muon suppression and eliminating fast neutrons.The detector is placed on a vertically movable platform which allows to change the distance to the reactor core center in the range 10.7-12.7 m within a few minutes. The strips are read out individually by SiPMs and in groups of 50 by PMTs. 5000 inverse beta-decay events per day are collected in the fiducial volume, which is 78% of the whole detector, at the position closest to the reactor. Overburden, active veto and good segmentation of the detector result in an excellent signal to background ratio. The talk is dedicated to the data analysis and preliminary results. The experiment status is also presented.

  19. Solid-state laser sources for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.; Kane, T.; Eggleston, J.; Long, S. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Recent progress in slab-geometry and conventional rod Nd:YAG solid-state lasers for applications in remote sensing is presented. Developments in slab geometry lasers, which were aimed at improving pulse energy and tuning range, have been based on the use of a Nd:glass substrate with a zig-zag optical path, with selective Raman shifting in gases and harmonic generation in LiNbO3 and KDP to extend the tuning range into the UV and visible regions. The theoretically predicted advantages of the elimination of birefringence and thermal and stress-induced focusing in the slab-geometry laser have been confirmed in measurements on a test-bed Nd:glass system, and a CW lamp pumped Nd:YAG oscillator, which have also demonstrated an order of magnitude improvement in laser performance. A single axial mode Nd:YAG oscillator has also been designed which, operating in a 3-msec quasi-CW mode, has a chirp rate of 30 kHz/microsec and a free-running stability of + or - 20 MHz. With chirp compensation, this stability is adequate for wind velocity measurements by coherent lidar.

  20. The state of municipal solid waste management in Israel.

    PubMed

    Daskal, Shira; Ayalon, Ofira; Shechter, Mordechai

    2018-06-01

    Regulation is a key tool for implementing municipal solid waste (MSW) management strategies and plans. While local authorities in Israel are responsible for the storage, collection, and disposal of MSW, Israel's Ministry of Environmental Protection (MoEP) is responsible for the formulation and implementation of waste management policies and legislation. For the past 12 years, about 80% of the MSW in Israel has been landfilled and recycling rates have not increased, despite regulations. This paper presents the state of MSW management in Israel in light of the MoEP's strategic goal of landfilling reduction, the regulations and legislation designed and implemented for achieving this goal, and the ensuing results. Among other things, the results indicate the importance of monitoring and assessing policy and regulations to examine whether regulation is in fact effective and whether it keeps track of its own targets and goals or not. It is also concluded that even when there is an extensive regulation that includes a wide range of laws, economic penalties and financial incentives (such as landfill levy and financing of MSW separation at source arrangements), this does not guarantee proper treatment or even an improvement in waste management. The key to success is first and foremost a suitable infrastructure that will enable achievement of the desired results.

  1. Acousto-optic modulation in diode pumped solid state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabczynski, Jan K.; Zendzian, Waldemar; Kwiatkowski, Jacek

    2007-02-01

    The main properties of acousto-optic modulators (AOM) applied in laser technology are presented and discussed in the paper. The critical review of application of AOMs in several types of diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSSL) is given. The short description of few DPSSLs developed in our group is presented in the following chapters of the paper. The parameters of a simple AO-Q-switched Nd:YVO 4 laser (peak power up to 60 kW, pulse duration of 5-15 ns, repetition rate in the range 10-100 kHz, with average power above 5 W) are satisfactory for different application as follows: higher harmonic generation, pumping of 'eye-safe' OPOs etc. The achieved brightness of 10 17 W/m2/srd is comparable to the strongest technological Q-switched lasers of kW class of average power. The main aim of paper is to present novel type of lasers with acousto-optic modulation namely: AO-q-switched and mode locked (AO-QML) lasers. We have designed the 3.69-m long Z-type resonator of the frequency matched to the RF frequency of AOM. As a gain medium the Nd:YVO 4 crystal end pumped by 20 W laser diode was applied. The energy of envelope of QML pulse train was up to 130 μJ with sub-nanosecond mode locked pulse of maximum 30-μJ energy.

  2. integrating Solid State NMR and Computations in Membrane Protein Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    Helical membrane protein structures are influenced by their native environment. Therefore the characterization of their structure in an environment that models as closely as possible their native environment is critical for achieving not only structural but functional understanding of these proteins. Solid state NMR spectroscopy in liquid crystalline lipid bilayers provides an excellent tool for such characterizations. Two classes of restraints can be obtained - absolute restraints that constrain the structure to a laboratory frame of reference when using uniformly oriented samples (approximately 1° of mosaic spread) and relative restraints that restrain one part of the structure with respect to another part such as torsional and distance restraints. Here, I will discuss unique restraints derived from uniformly oriented samples and the characterization of initial structures utilizing both restraint types, followed by restrained molecular dynamics refinement in the same lipid bilayer environment as that used for the experimental restraint collection. Protein examples will be taken from Influenza virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When available comparisons of structures to those obtained using different membrane mimetic environments will be shown and the causes for structural distortions explained based on an understanding of membrane biophysics and its sophisticated influence on membrane proteins.

  3. A solid-state digital temperature recorder for space use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westbrook, R. M.; Bennett, L. D.; Steinhaver, R. A.; Deboo, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    A solid-state, digital, temperature recorder has been developed for use in space experiments. The recorder is completely self-contained and includes a temperature sensor; all necessary electronics for signal conditioning, processing, storing, control and timing; and a battery power supply. No electrical interfacing with the particular spacecraft on which the unit is used is required. The recorder is small, light, and sturdy, and has no moving parts. It uses only biocompatible materials and has passed vibration and shock spaceflight qualification tests. The unit is capable of storing 2048, -10 to +45 C, 8-bit temperature measurements taken at intervals selectable by factors of 2 from 1.875 to 240 min; data can be retained for at least 6 months. The basic recorder can be simplified to accommodate a variety of applications by adding memory to allow more data to be recorded, by changing the front end to permit measurements other than temperature to be made, and by using different batteries to realize various operating periods. Stored flight data are read out from the recorder by means of a ground read-out unit.

  4. Nanogap Electrodes towards Solid State Single-Molecule Transistors.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ajuan; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping

    2015-12-01

    With the establishment of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-based integrated circuit technology, it has become more difficult to follow Moore's law to further downscale the size of electronic components. Devices based on various nanostructures were constructed to continue the trend in the minimization of electronics, and molecular devices are among the most promising candidates. Compared with other candidates, molecular devices show unique superiorities, and intensive studies on molecular devices have been carried out both experimentally and theoretically at the present time. Compared to two-terminal molecular devices, three-terminal devices, namely single-molecule transistors, show unique advantages both in fundamental research and application and are considered to be an essential part of integrated circuits based on molecular devices. However, it is very difficult to construct them using the traditional microfabrication techniques directly, thus new fabrication strategies are developed. This review aims to provide an exclusive way of manufacturing solid state gated nanogap electrodes, the foundation of constructing transistors of single or a few molecules. Such single-molecule transistors have the potential to be used to build integrated circuits. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Heat-Assisted Multiferroic Solid-State Memory.

    PubMed

    Lepadatu, Serban; Vopson, Melvin M

    2017-08-25

    A heat-assisted multiferroic solid-state memory design is proposed and analysed, based on a PbNbZrSnTiO₃ antiferroelectric layer and Ni 81 Fe 19 magnetic free layer. Information is stored as magnetisation direction in the free layer of a magnetic tunnel junction element. The bit writing process is contactless and relies on triggering thermally activated magnetisation switching of the free layer towards a strain-induced anisotropy easy axis. A stress is generated using the antiferroelectric layer by voltage-induced antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase change, and this is transmitted to the magnetic free layer by strain-mediated coupling. The thermally activated strain-induced magnetisation switching is analysed here using a three-dimensional, temperature-dependent magnetisation dynamics model, based on simultaneous evaluation of the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation and heat flow equation, together with stochastic thermal fields and magnetoelastic contributions. The magnetisation switching probability is calculated as a function of stress magnitude and maximum heat pulse temperature. An operating region is identified, where magnetisation switching always occurs, with stress values ranging from 80 to 180 MPa, and maximum temperatures normalised to the Curie temperature ranging from 0.65 to 0.99.

  6. Complete solid state lighting (SSL) line at CEA LETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, I. C.; Ferret, P.; Dussaigne, A.; Bougerol, C.; Salomon, D.; Chen, X. J.; Charles, M.; Tchoulfian, P.; Gasse, A.; Lagrange, A.; Consonni, M.; Bono, H.; Levy, F.; Desieres, Y.; Aitmani, A.; Makram-Matta, S.; Bialic, E.; Gorrochategui, P.; Mendizabal, L.

    2014-09-01

    With a long experience in optoelectronics, CEA-LETI has focused on Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting since 2006. Today, all the technical challenges in the implementation of GaN LED based solid state lighting (SSL) are addressed at CEA-LETI who is now an RandD player throughout the entire value chain of LED lighting. The SSL Line at CEA-LETI first deals with the simulation of the active structures and LED devices. Then the growth is addressed in particular 2D growth on 200 mm silicon substrates. Then, technological steps are developed for the fabrication of LED dies with innovative architectures. For instance, Versatile LED Array Devices are currently being developed with a dedicated μLED technology. The objective in this case is to achieve monolithical LED arrays reported and interconnected through a silicon submount. In addition to the required bonding and 3D integration technologies, new solutions for LED chip packaging, thermal management of LED lamps and luminaires are also addressed. LETI is also active in Smart Lighting concepts which offer the possibility of new application fields for SSL technologies. An example is the recent development at CEA LETI of Visible Light Communication Technology also called LiFi. With this technology, we demonstrated a transmission rate up to 10 Mb/s and real time HD-Video transmission.

  7. RNA Characterization by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yufei; Wang, Shenlin

    2018-06-21

    The structures of RNAs, which play critical roles in various biological processes, provide important clues and insights into the biological functions of these molecules. However, RNA structure determination remains a challenging topic. In recent years, magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR (MAS SSNMR) has emerged as an alternative technique for structural and dynamic characterization of RNA. MAS SSNMR has been successfully applied to provide atomic-level structural information about several RNA molecules and RNA-protein complexes. In this Minireview, we give an overview of recent progress in the field of MAS SSNMR based RNA structural characterization, and introduce sample preparation strategies and SSNMR spectroscopic techniques that have been incorporated to identify RNA structural elements. We also highlight a few impressive examples of RNAs that have been investigated extensively by SSNMR. Finally, we briefly discuss future technical trends in the use of MAS SSNMR to facilitate RNA structure determination. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Learning through ferroelectric domain dynamics in solid-state synapses

    DOE PAGES

    Boyn, Soren; Grollier, Julie; Lecerf, Gwendal; ...

    2017-04-03

    In the brain, learning is achieved through the ability of synapses to reconfigure the strength by which they connect neurons (synaptic plasticity). In promising solid-state synapses called memristors, conductance can be finely tuned by voltage pulses and set to evolve according to a biological learning rule called spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Future neuromorphic architectures will comprise billions of such nanosynapses, which require a clear understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for plasticity. Here we report on synapses based on ferroelectric tunnel junctions and show that STDP can be harnessed from inhomogeneous polarization switching. Through combined scanning probe imaging, electrical transport andmore » atomic-scale molecular dynamics, we demonstrate that conductance variations can be modelled by the nucleation-dominated reversal of domains. Finally, based on this physical model, our simulations show that arrays of ferroelectric nanosynapses can autonomously learn to recognize patterns in a predictable way, opening the path towards unsupervised learning in spiking neural networks.« less

  9. Computer Simulations of Polytetrafluoroethylene in the Solid State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, D. B.; Farmer, B. L.; Eby, R. K.; Macturk, K. S.

    1996-03-01

    Force field parameters (Set I) for fluoropolymers were previously derived from MOPAC AM1 semiempirical data on model molecules. A second set (Set II) was derived from the AM1 results augmented by ab initio calculations. Both sets yield reasonable helical and phase II packing structures for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) chains. However, Set I and Set II differ in the strength of van der Waals interactions, with Set II having deeper potential wells (order of magnitude). To differentiate which parameter set provides a better description of PTFE behavior, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed with Biosym Discover on clusters of PTFE chains which begin in a phase II packing environment. Added to the model are artificial constraints which allow the simulation of thermal expansion without having to define periodic boundary conditions for each specific temperature of interest. The preliminary dynamics simulations indicate that the intra- and intermolecular interactions provided by Set I are too weak. The degree of helical disorder and chain motion are high even at temperatures well below the phase II-phase IV transition temperature (19 C). Set II appears to yield a better description of PTFE in the solid state.

  10. Solid State Synthesis and Properties of Monoclinic Celsian

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1996-01-01

    Monoclinic celsian of Ba(0.75)Sr(0.25)Al2Si2O8 (BSAS-1) and B(0.85)Sr(O.15)Al2Si2O8 (BSAS-2) compositions have been synthesized from metal carbonates and oxides by solid state reaction. A mixture of BaCO3, SrCO3, Al2O3, and SiO2 powders was precalcined at approx. 900-940 C to decompose the carbonates followed by hot pressing at approx. 1300 C. The hot pressed BSAS-1 material was almost fully dense and contained the monoclinic celsian phase, with complete absence of the undesirable hexacelsian as indicated by x-ray diffraction. In contrast, a small fraction of hexacelsian was still present in hot pressed BSAS-2. However, on further heat treatment at 1200 C for 24 h, the hexacelsian phase was completely eliminated. The average linear thermal expansion coefficients of BSAS-1 and BSAS-2 compositions, having the monoclinic celsian phase, were measured to be 5.28 x 10(exp -6)/deg C and 5.15 x 10(exp -6)/deg C, respectively from room temperature to 1200 C. The hot pressed BSAS-1 celsian showed room temperature flexural strength of 131 MPa, elastic modulus of 96 GPa and was stable in air up to temperatures as high as approx. 1500 C.

  11. Solid state phase change materials for thermal energy storage in passive solar heated buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, D. K.; Christensen, C.

    1983-11-01

    A set of solid state phase change materials was evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol, pentaglycerine and neopentyl glycol. Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature within the range from less than 25 deg to 188 deg. Thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, density and volumetric expansion were measured. Computer simulations were used to predict the performance of various Trombe wall designs incorporating solid state phase change materials. Optimum performance was found to be sensitive to the choice of phase change temperatures and to the thermal conductivity of the phase change material. A molecular mechanism of the solid state phase transition is proposed and supported by infrared spectroscopic evidence.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of thermally stable zirconia based mesoporous nanosilica with metalloporphyrin encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Saad; Iqbal, Farukh; Mutalib, Mohamed Ibrahim Abdul; Abdullah, Bawadi; Shaharun, Maizatul Shima

    2017-10-01

    Metal composite materials-48 (MCM-48) with silica zirconia mesoporous matrix (having a Zr/Si ratio of 0.02) has been developed successfully using autogenous conditions and Copper tetra phenyl porphyrin (CuTPP) inclusion via flexible ligand approach. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to study the thermal stability which gives the stability up to 700°C, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for the functional group attachment also confirmed the MCM-48 structure and the Zirconia addition and X-Ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) for the binding energies and bonding also revealed the surface Zr4+ states. DRS-UV-Vis study for the photophysical behaviour, visible light activation and band gap reduction which reduced from 5.6 to 2.8 eV. All the characterizations have confirmed that nanoscale mesoporous silica with successful inclusion of zirconia in the matrix and the encapsulation of CuTPP was confirmed via diffuse reflectance (DR Uv-Vis) spectroscopy.

  13. Solid State Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1985-03-01

    During the reporting period, relatively minor changes have occurred in the research areas of interest to the Division. Nearly all the research of the Division can be classified broadly as mission-oriented basic research. Topics covered include: theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; and preparation and characterization of research materials. (GHT)

  14. DLTS Analysis and Interface Engineering of Solution Route Fabricated Zirconia Based MIS Devices Using Plasma Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mondal, Sandip; Koteswara Rao, K. S. R.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we have fabricated low-temperature sol-gel spin-coated and oxygen (O2) plasma treated ZrO2 thin film-based metal-insulator-semiconductor devices. To understand the impact of plasma treatment on the Si/ZrO2 interface, deep level transient spectroscopy measurements were performed. It is reported that the interface state density ( D it) comes down to 7.1 × 1010 eV-1 cm-2 from 4 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2, after plasma treatment. The reduction in D it is around five times and can be attributed to the passivation of oxygen vacancies near the Si/ZrO2 interface, as they try to relocate near the interface. The energy level position ( E T) of interfacial traps is estimated to be 0.36 eV below the conduction band edge. The untreated ZrO2 film displayed poor leakage behavior due to the presence of several traps within the film and at the interface; O2 plasma treated films show improved leakage current density as they have been reduced from 5.4 × 10-8 A/cm2 to 1.98 × 10-9 A/cm2 for gate injection mode and 6.4 × 10-8 A/cm2 to 6.3 × 10-10 A/cm2 for substrate injection mode at 1 V. Hence, we suggest that plasma treatment might be useful in future device fabrication technology.

  15. Composting of Municipal Solid Wastes in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidenbach, Andrew W.

    To gain more comprehensive knowledge about composting as a solid waste management tool and to better assess the limited information available, the Federal solid waste management program, within the U. S. Public Health Service, entered into a joint experimental windrow composting project in 1966 with the Tennessee Valley Authority and the City of…

  16. Microstructural optimization of solid-state sintered silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Gonzalez, Lionel R.

    Silicon carbide armor, manufactured through solid-state sintering, liquid-phase sintering, and hot-pressing, is being used by the United States Armed Forces for personal and vehicle protection. There is a lack of consensus, however, on which process results in the best-performing ballistic armor. Previous studies have shown that hot-pressed ceramics processed with secondary oxide and/or rare earth oxides, which exhibit high fracture toughness, perform well in handling and under ballistic impact. This high toughness is due to the intergranular nature of the fracture, creating a tortuous path for cracks and facilitating crack deflection and bridging. However, it has also been shown that higher-hardness sintered SiC materials might perform similarly or better to hot-pressed armor, in spite of the large fracture toughness deficit, if the microstructure (density, grain size, purity) of these materials are improved. In this work, the development of theoretically-dense, clean grain boundary, high hardness solid-state sintered silicon carbide (SiC) armor was pursued. Boron carbide and graphite (added as phenolic resin to ensure the carbon is finely dispersed throughout the microstructure) were used as the sintering aids. SiC batches between 0.25--4.00 wt.% carbon were mixed and spray dried. Cylindrical pellets were pressed at 13.7 MPa, cold-isostatically pressed (CIP) at 344 MPa, sintered under varying sintering soaking temperatures and heating rates, and varying post hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) parameters. Carbon additive amounts between 2.0--2.5 wt.% (based on the resin source), a 0.36 wt.% B4C addition, and a 2050°C sintering soak yielded parts with high sintering densities (˜95.5--96.5%) and a fine, equiaxed microstructure (d50 = 2.525 mum). A slow ramp rate (10°C/min) prevented any occurrence of abnormal grain growth. Post-HIPing at 1900°C removed the remaining closed porosity to yield a theoretically-dense part (3.175 g/cm3, according to rule of mixtures). These

  17. Molecular Clusters: Nanoscale Building Blocks for Solid-State Materials.

    PubMed

    Pinkard, Andrew; Champsaur, Anouck M; Roy, Xavier

    2018-04-17

    The programmed assembly of nanoscale building blocks into multicomponent hierarchical structures is a powerful strategy for the bottom-up construction of functional materials. To develop this concept, our team has explored the use of molecular clusters as superatomic building blocks to fabricate new classes of materials. The library of molecular clusters is rich with exciting properties, including diverse functionalization, redox activity, and magnetic ordering, so the resulting cluster-assembled solids, which we term superatomic crystals (SACs), hold the promise of high tunability, atomic precision, and robust architectures among a diverse range of other material properties. Molecular clusters have only seldom been used as precursors for functional materials. Our team has been at the forefront of new developments in this exciting research area, and this Account focuses on our progress toward designing materials from cluster-based precursors. In particular, this Account discusses (1) the design and synthesis of molecular cluster superatomic building blocks, (2) their self-assembly into SACs, and (3) their resulting collective properties. The set of molecular clusters discussed herein is diverse, with different cluster cores and ligand arrangements to create an impressive array of solids. The cluster cores include octahedral M 6 E 8 and cubane M 4 E 4 (M = metal; E = chalcogen), which are typically passivated by a shell of supporting ligands, a feature upon which we have expanded upon by designing and synthesizing more exotic ligands that can be used to direct solid-state assembly. Building from this library, we have designed whole families of binary SACs where the building blocks are held together through electrostatic, covalent, or van der Waals interactions. Using single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) to determine the atomic structure, a remarkable range of compositional variability is accessible. We can also use this technique, in tandem with vibrational

  18. The solid-state terahertz spectrum of MDMA (Ecstasy) - A unique test for molecular modeling assignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allis, Damian G.; Hakey, Patrick M.; Korter, Timothy M.

    2008-10-01

    The terahertz (THz, far-infrared) spectrum of 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine hydrochloride (Ecstasy) is simulated using solid-state density functional theory. While a previously reported isolated-molecule calculation is noteworthy for the precision of its solid-state THz reproduction, the solid-state calculation predicts that the isolated-molecule modes account for only half of the spectral features in the THz region, with the remaining structure arising from lattice vibrations that cannot be predicted without solid-state molecular modeling. The molecular origins of the internal mode contributions to the solid-state THz spectrum, as well as the proper consideration of the protonation state of the molecule, are also considered.

  19. Atomic solid state energy scale: Universality and periodic trends in oxidation state

    SciTech Connect

    Pelatt, Brian D.; Kokenyesi, Robert S.; Ravichandran, Ram

    2015-11-15

    The atomic solid state energy (SSE) scale originates from a plot of the electron affinity (EA) and ionization potential (IP) versus band gap (E{sub G}). SSE is estimated for a given atom by assessing an average EA (for a cation) or an average IP (for an anion) for binary inorganic compounds having that specific atom as a constituent. Physically, SSE is an experimentally-derived average frontier orbital energy referenced to the vacuum level. In its original formulation, 69 binary closed-shell inorganic semiconductors and insulators were employed as a database, providing SSE estimates for 40 elements. In this contribution, EA and IPmore » versus E{sub G} are plotted for an additional 92 compounds, thus yielding SSE estimates for a total of 64 elements from the s-, p-, d-, and f-blocks of the periodic table. Additionally, SSE is refined to account for its dependence on oxidation state. Although most cations within the SSE database are found to occur in a single oxidation state, data are available for nine d-block transition metals and one p-block main group metal in more than one oxidation state. SSE is deeper in energy for a higher cation oxidation state. Two p-block main group non-metals within the SSE database are found to exist in both positive and negative oxidation states so that they can function as a cation or anion. SSEs for most cations are positioned above −4.5 eV with respect to the vacuum level, and SSEs for all anions are positioned below. Hence, the energy −4.5 eV, equal to the hydrogen donor/acceptor ionization energy ε(+/−) or equivalently the standard hydrogen electrode energy, is considered to be an absolute energy reference for chemical bonding in the solid state. - Highlights: • Atomic solid-state energies are estimated for 64 elements from experimental data. • The relationship between atomic SSEs and oxidation state is assessed. • Cations are positioned above and absolute energy of −4.5 eV and anions below.« less

  20. A solid state actuator based on polypyrrole (PPy) and a solid electrolyte NBR working in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Misuk; Nam, Jaedo; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Jachoon; Lee, Youngkwan

    2005-05-01

    The solid polymer electrolyte based conducting polymer actuator was presented. In the preparation of acutuator module, an ionic liquid impregnated a synthetic rubber (NBR) and PPy were used as a solid polymer electrolyte and conducting polymer, respectively. An ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)imide (BMITFSI) is gradually dispersed into the NBR film and the conducting polymer, PPy was synthesized on the surface of NBR. The ionic conductivity of new type solid polymer electrolyte as a function of the immersion time was investigated. The cyclic voltammetry responsed and the redox switching dynamics of PEDOT in NBR matrix were studied. The displacement of the actuator was measured by laser beam.

  1. Effect of Solid-State Power-Converter Harmonics on Electric-Power-Supply Systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1973-03-01

    The United States utility industry has not set suitable standards, other than TIF (Telephone Interference Factor), for controlling the design of solid-state wayside and on-board power-conversion equipment, to limit the harmonic currents and voltages ...

  2. Patterned solid state growth of barium titanate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugorek, Michael Stephen

    An understanding of microstructure evolution in ceramic materials, including single crystal development and abnormal/enhanced grain growth should enable more controlled final ceramic element structures. In this study, two different approaches were used to control single crystal development in a patterned array. These two methods are: (1) patterned solid state growth in BaTiO 3 ceramics, and (2) metal-mediated single crystal growth in BaTiO 3. With the patterned solid state growth technique, optical photolithography was used to pattern dopants as well as [001] and [110] BaTiO3 single crystal template arrays with a 1000 microm line pattern array with 1000 microm spacings. These patterns were subsequently used to control the matrix grain growth evolution and single crystal development in BaTiO3. It was shown that the growth kinetics can be controlled by a small initial grain size, atmosphere conditions, and the introduction of a dopant at selective areas/interfaces. By using a PO2 of 1x10-5 atm during high temperature heat treatment, the matrix coarsening has been limited (to roughly 2 times the initial grain size), while retaining single crystal boundary motion up to 0.5 mm during growth for dwell times up to 9 h at 1300°C. The longitudinal and lateral growth rates were optimized at 10--15 microm/h at 1300°C in a PO2 of 1x10 -5 atm for single crystal growth with limited matrix coarsening. Using these conditions, a patterned microstructure in BaTiO3 was obtained. With the metal-mediated single crystal growth technique, a novel approach for fabricating 2-2 single crystal/polymer composites with a kerf < 5 microns was demonstrated. Surface templated grain growth was used to propagate a single crystal interface into a polycrystalline BaTiO3 or Ba(Zr0.05 Ti0.95)O3 matrix with lamellar nickel layers. The grain growth evolution and texture development were studied using both [001] and [110] BaTiO3 single crystals templates. By using a PO 2 of 1x10-11 atm during high

  3. From dense monomer salt crystals to CO2 selective microporous polyimides via solid-state polymerization.

    PubMed

    Unterlass, Miriam M; Emmerling, Franziska; Antonietti, Markus; Weber, Jens

    2014-01-14

    Fully aromatic polyimides are synthesized via solid-state polymerization of the corresponding monomer salts. The crystal structure of salts shows strong hydrogen bonding of the reactive groups and thereby paves the way for solid-state transformations. The polycondensation yields copies of the initial salt crystallite habits, accompanied by the development of a porosity especially suited for CO2.

  4. A review of lithium and non-lithium based solid state batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo Gon; Son, Byungrak; Mukherjee, Santanu; Schuppert, Nicholas; Bates, Alex; Kwon, Osung; Choi, Moon Jong; Chung, Hyun Yeol; Park, Sam

    2015-05-01

    Conventional lithium-ion liquid-electrolyte batteries are widely used in portable electronic equipment such as laptop computers, cell phones, and electric vehicles; however, they have several drawbacks, including expensive sealing agents and inherent hazards of fire and leakages. All solid state batteries utilize solid state electrolytes to overcome the safety issues of liquid electrolytes. Drawbacks for all-solid state lithium-ion batteries include high resistance at ambient temperatures and design intricacies. This paper is a comprehensive review of all aspects of solid state batteries: their design, the materials used, and a detailed literature review of various important advances made in research. The paper exhaustively studies lithium based solid state batteries, as they are the most prevalent, but also considers non-lithium based systems. Non-lithium based solid state batteries are attaining widespread commercial applications, as are also lithium based polymeric solid state electrolytes. Tabular representations and schematic diagrams are provided to underscore the unique characteristics of solid state batteries and their capacity to occupy a niche in the alternative energy sector.

  5. The Iron-Iron Carbide Phase Diagram: A Practical Guide to Some Descriptive Solid State Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Gary J.; Leighly, H. P., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the solid state chemistry of iron and steel in terms of the iron-iron carbide phase diagram. Suggests that this is an excellent way of introducing the phase diagram (equilibrium diagram) to undergraduate students while at the same time introducing the descriptive solid state chemistry of iron and steel. (Author/JN)

  6. Method and system for making integrated solid-state fire-sets and detonators

    DOEpatents

    O`Brien, D.W.; Druce, R.L.; Johnson, G.W.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Lee, R.S.

    1998-03-24

    A slapper detonator comprises a solid-state high-voltage capacitor, a low-jitter dielectric breakdown switch and trigger circuitry, a detonator transmission line, an exploding foil bridge, and a flier material. All these components are fabricated in a single solid-state device using thin film deposition techniques. 13 figs.

  7. 40 CFR 256.02 - Scope of the State solid waste management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., General Requirements, Definitions § 256.02 Scope of the State solid waste management plan. (a)(1) The... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scope of the State solid waste management plan. 256.02 Section 256.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  8. 40 CFR 256.02 - Scope of the State solid waste management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., General Requirements, Definitions § 256.02 Scope of the State solid waste management plan. (a)(1) The... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scope of the State solid waste management plan. 256.02 Section 256.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  9. 40 CFR 256.02 - Scope of the State solid waste management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., General Requirements, Definitions § 256.02 Scope of the State solid waste management plan. (a)(1) The... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scope of the State solid waste management plan. 256.02 Section 256.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  10. 40 CFR 256.02 - Scope of the State solid waste management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., General Requirements, Definitions § 256.02 Scope of the State solid waste management plan. (a)(1) The... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of the State solid waste management plan. 256.02 Section 256.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  11. 40 CFR 256.02 - Scope of the State solid waste management plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., General Requirements, Definitions § 256.02 Scope of the State solid waste management plan. (a)(1) The... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Scope of the State solid waste management plan. 256.02 Section 256.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  12. CO2-Doped Diamond: A Potential Solid-State CO2 Laser Material?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tratt, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a novel concept for a solid-state CO subscript 2 laser medium which, by eschewing the gas-phase approach, may offer prospects for a compact, robust 9 - 11 (micro)m coherent source, coupled with the potentially superior frequency stability characteristics afforded by monolithic solid-state construction.

  13. Method and system for making integrated solid-state fire-sets and detonators

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Dennis W.; Druce, Robert L.; Johnson, Gary W.; Vogtlin, George E.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Lee, Ronald S.

    1998-01-01

    A slapper detonator comprises a solid-state high-voltage capacitor, a low-jitter dielectric breakdown switch and trigger circuitry, a detonator transmission line, an exploding foil bridge, and a flier material. All these components are fabricated in a single solid-state device using thin film deposition techniques.

  14. Arabidopsis thalianafrom Polarization Transfer Solid-State NMR

    SciTech Connect

    White, Paul B; Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum

    2014-07-23

    Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are hydrated under functional conditions, but the molecular interactions between water and polysaccharides in the wall have not been investigated. In this work, we employ polarization transfer solid-state NMR techniques to study the hydration of primary-wall polysaccharides of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. By transferring water 1H polarization to polysaccharides through distance- and mobility-dependent 1H–1H dipolar couplings and detecting it through polysaccharide 13C signals, we obtain information about water proximity to cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins as well as water mobility. Both intact and partially extracted cell wall samples are studied. Our results show that water–pectin polarizationmore » transfer is much faster than water–cellulose polarization transfer in all samples, but the extent of extraction has a profound impact on the water–polysaccharide spin diffusion. Removal of calcium ions and the consequent extraction of homogalacturonan (HG) significantly slowed down spin diffusion, while further extraction of matrix polysaccharides restored the spin diffusion rate. These trends are observed in cell walls with similar water content, thus they reflect inherent differences in the mobility and spatial distribution of water. Combined with quantitative analysis of the polysaccharide contents, our results indicate that calcium ions and HG gelation increase the amount of bound water, which facilitates spin diffusion, while calcium removal disrupts the gel and gives rise to highly dynamic water, which slows down spin diffusion. The recovery of spin diffusion rates after more extensive extraction is attributed to increased water-exposed surface areas of the polysaccharides. Water–pectin spin diffusion precedes water–cellulose spin diffusion, lending support to the single-network model of plant primary walls in which a substantial fraction of the cellulose surface is surrounded by pectins.« less

  15. Solid-state NMR covariance of homonuclear correlation spectra.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bingwen; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Trebosc, Julien; Deschamps, Michael; Tricot, Gregory

    2008-04-07

    Direct covariance NMR spectroscopy, which does not involve a Fourier transformation along the indirect dimension, is demonstrated to obtain homonuclear correlation two-dimensional (2D) spectra in the solid state. In contrast to the usual 2D Fourier transform (2D-FT) NMR, in a 2D covariance (2D-Cov) spectrum the spectral resolution in the indirect dimension is determined by the resolution along the detection dimension, thereby largely reducing the time-consuming indirect sampling requirement. The covariance method does not need any separate phase correction or apodization along the indirect dimension because it uses those applied in the detection dimension. We compare in detail the specifications obtained with 2D-FT and 2D-Cov, for narrow and broad resonances. The efficiency of the covariance data treatment is demonstrated in organic and inorganic samples that are both well crystallized and amorphous, for spin -1/2 nuclei with 13C, 29Si, and 31P through-space or through-bond homonuclear 2D correlation spectra. In all cases, the experimental time has been reduced by at least a factor of 10, without any loss of resolution and signal to noise ratio, with respect to what is necessary with the 2D-FT NMR. According to this method, we have been able to study the silicate network of glasses by 2D NMR within reasonable experimental time despite the very long relaxation time of the 29Si nucleus. The main limitation of the 2D-Cov data treatment is related to the introduction of autocorrelated peaks onto the diagonal, which does not represent any actual connectivity.

  16. Solid state radiolysis of amino acids in an astrochemical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, Franco; Angelini, Giancarlo; Iglesias-Groth, Susana; Manchado, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The aliphatic amino acids L-alanine and L-leucine and the aromatic amino acids L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan were irradiated in the solid state to a dose of 3.2 MGy. The degree of decomposition was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore the degree of radioracemization was measured by optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) spectroscopy. From the DSC measurement a radiolysis rate constant k and the half life T1/2 for each amino acid have been determined and extrapolated to a dose of 14 MGy, which corresponds to the expected total dose delivered by the decay of radionuclides to the organic molecules present in comets and asteroids in 4.6×109 years, the age of the Solar System. It is shown that all the amino acids studied can survive a radiation dose of 14 MGy although they are reduced to 1/4-1/5 of their original value they had at the beginning of the history of the Solar System. Consequently, the amount of alanine or leucine found today in the meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites is just 1/4-1/5 of the amount originally present at the epoch of the formation of the Solar System 4.6×109 years ago. Among the amino acids studied, tyrosine shows the highest radiation resistance while tryptophan does not combine its relatively high radiation resistance with an elevated level of radioracemization resistance. Apart from the exception of tryptophan, it is shown that the radiolysis rate constants k of all the amino acids studied are in reasonable agreement with the radioracemization rate constant krac.

  17. Modeling of Solid State Transformer for the FREEDM System Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Youyuan

    The Solid State Transformer (SST) is an essential component in the FREEDM system. This research focuses on the modeling of the SST and the controller hardware in the loop (CHIL) implementation of the SST for the support of the FREEDM system demonstration. The energy based control strategy for a three-stage SST is analyzed and applied. A simplified average model of the three-stage SST that is suitable for simulation in real time digital simulator (RTDS) has been developed in this study. The model is also useful for general time-domain power system analysis and simulation. The proposed simplified av-erage model has been validated in MATLAB and PLECS. The accuracy of the model has been verified through comparison with the cycle-by-cycle average (CCA) model and de-tailed switching model. These models are also implemented in PSCAD, and a special strategy to implement the phase shift modulation has been proposed to enable the switching model simulation in PSCAD. The implementation of the CHIL test environment of the SST in RTDS is described in this report. The parameter setup of the model has been discussed in detail. One of the dif-ficulties is the choice of the damping factor, which is revealed in this paper. Also the grounding of the system has large impact on the RTDS simulation. Another problem is that the performance of the system is highly dependent on the switch parameters such as voltage and current ratings. Finally, the functionalities of the SST have been realized on the platform. The distributed energy storage interface power injection and reverse power flow have been validated. Some limitations are noticed and discussed through the simulation on RTDS.

  18. GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shunfeng; Waag, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, GaN nanorods are emerging as a very promising novel route toward devices for nano-optoelectronics and nano-photonics. In particular, core-shell light emitting devices are thought to be a breakthrough development in solid state lighting, nanorod based LEDs have many potential advantages as compared to their 2 D thin film counterparts. In this paper, we review the recent developments of GaN nanorod growth, characterization, and related device applications based on GaN nanorods. The initial work on GaN nanorod growth focused on catalyst-assisted and catalyst-free statistical growth. The growth condition and growth mechanisms were extensively investigated and discussed. Doping of GaN nanorods, especially p-doping, was found to significantly influence the morphology of GaN nanorods. The large surface of 3 D GaN nanorods induces new optical and electrical properties, which normally can be neglected in layered structures. Recently, more controlled selective area growth of GaN nanorods was realized using patterned substrates both by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Advanced structures, for example, photonic crystals and DBRs are meanwhile integrated in GaN nanorod structures. Based on the work of growth and characterization of GaN nanorods, GaN nanoLEDs were reported by several groups with different growth and processing methods. Core/shell nanoLED structures were also demonstrated, which could be potentially useful for future high efficient LED structures. In this paper, we will discuss recent developments in GaN nanorod technology, focusing on the potential advantages, but also discussing problems and open questions, which may impose obstacles during the future development of a GaN nanorod based LED technology.

  19. An all-solid-state CO2 laser driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birx, Daniel

    1991-03-01

    New, all-solid-state pulse generators are described which meet military requirements for an efficient, reliable pulsed power source to drive a space based CO2 laser. These SCR-commutated, nonlinear magnetic pulse compressors are fully-compatible with the present Spectra Technologies laser head design planned for use on LOWKATER. By employing SCRs rather than thyratron commutators, these pulsers should provide a significant increase in reliability over the current generation of pulsed power drivers. The first pulser which was designed and constructed was denoted COLD-I. COLD-I was designed to meet the original LOWKATER specifications and delivered at 150 joule, 20 kV pulse into a laser load at 10 to 20 Hz repetition rate. The second pulser, denoted COLD-II, was designed to provide a 45 joule, 500 nsec duration pulse at a voltage of 20 kV and a repetition rate of 1 kHz peak and 50 to 100 Hz average. The electrical efficiency was measured to be 80 percent with an input drive of 500 VDC. This pulse served as a design verification testbed for a third pulser, presently designed but not constructed and denoted COLD-III. COLD-III would be capable of producing 36 joules at the same pulse length and repetition rate at voltages of 20 kV. The Phase-II effort was a high risk, high payoff effort aimed at developing a light weight, high reliability RF power source for advanced RF CO2 laser heads under development. COLD-IV a Branched Magnetic RF Nonlinear Magnetic Pulse Compressor was built as a bread

  20. All-Solid-State Sodium-Selective Electrode with a Solid Contact of Chitosan/Prussian Blue Nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Tanushree; Rieger, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Conventional ion-selective electrodes with a liquid junction have the disadvantage of potential drift. All-solid-state ion-selective electrodes with solid contact in between the metal electrode and the ion-selective membrane offer high capacitance or conductance to enhance potential stability. Solution-casted chitosan/Prussian blue nanocomposite (ChPBN) was employed as the solid contact layer for an all-solid-state sodium ion-selective electrode in a potentiometric sodium ion sensor. Morphological and chemical analyses confirmed that the ChPBN is a macroporous network of chitosan that contains abundant Prussian blue nanoparticles. Situated between a screen-printed carbon electrode and a sodium-ionophore-filled polyvinylchloride ion-selective membrane, the ChPBN layer exhibited high redox capacitance and fast charge transfer capability, which significantly enhanced the performance of the sodium ion-selective electrode. A good Nernstian response with a slope of 52.4 mV/decade in the linear range from 10−4–1 M of NaCl was observed. The stability of the electrical potential of the new solid contact was tested by chronopotentiometry, and the capacitance of the electrode was 154 ± 4 µF. The response stability in terms of potential drift was excellent (1.3 µV/h) for 20 h of continuous measurement. The ChPBN proved to be an efficient solid contact to enhance the potential stability of the all-solid-state ion-selective electrode. PMID:29099804

  1. Review—Practical Challenges Hindering the Development of Solid State Li Ion Batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Kerman, Kian; Luntz, Alan; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; ...

    2017-06-09

    Solid state electrolyte systems boasting Li+ conductivity of >10 mS cm -1 at room temperature have opened the potential for developing a solid state battery with power and energy densities that are competitive with conventional liquid electrolyte systems. The primary focus of this review is twofold. First, differences in Li penetration resistance in solid state systems are discussed, and kinetic limitations of the solid state interface are highlighted. Second, technological challenges associated with processing such systems in relevant form factors are elucidated, and architectures needed for cell level devices in the context of product development are reviewed. Specific research vectorsmore » that provide high value to advancing solid state batteries are outlined and discussed.« less

  2. Nanowire membrane-based nanothermite: towards processable and tunable interfacial diffusion for solid state reactions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Peng-peng; Zhang, Zhi-cheng; Liu, Hui-ling; Zhang, Jingchao; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2013-01-01

    Interfacial diffusion is of great importance in determining the performance of solid-state reactions. For nanometer sized particles, some solid-state reactions can be triggered accidently by mechanical stress owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio compared with the bulk ones. Therefore, a great challenge is the control of interfacial diffusion for solid state reactions, especially for energetic materials. Here we demonstrate, through the example of nanowire-based thermite membrane, that the thermite solid-state reaction can be easily tuned via the introduction of low-surface-energy coating layer. Moreover, this silicon-coated thermite membrane exhibit controlled wetting behavior ranging from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic and, simultaneously, to significantly reduce the friction sensitivity of thermite membrane. This effect enables to increase interfacial resistance by increasing the amount of coating material. Indeed, our results described here make it possible to tune the solid-state reactions through the manipulation of interfacial diffusion between the reactants.

  3. Nanowire Membrane-based Nanothermite: towards Processable and Tunable Interfacial Diffusion for Solid State Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Peng-peng; Zhang, Zhi-cheng; Liu, Hui-ling; Zhang, Jingchao; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2013-01-01

    Interfacial diffusion is of great importance in determining the performance of solid-state reactions. For nanometer sized particles, some solid-state reactions can be triggered accidently by mechanical stress owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio compared with the bulk ones. Therefore, a great challenge is the control of interfacial diffusion for solid state reactions, especially for energetic materials. Here we demonstrate, through the example of nanowire-based thermite membrane, that the thermite solid-state reaction can be easily tuned via the introduction of low-surface-energy coating layer. Moreover, this silicon-coated thermite membrane exhibit controlled wetting behavior ranging from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic and, simultaneously, to significantly reduce the friction sensitivity of thermite membrane. This effect enables to increase interfacial resistance by increasing the amount of coating material. Indeed, our results described here make it possible to tune the solid-state reactions through the manipulation of interfacial diffusion between the reactants. PMID:23603809

  4. Nanowire Membrane-based Nanothermite: towards Processable and Tunable Interfacial Diffusion for Solid State Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Peng-Peng; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Hui-Ling; Zhang, Jingchao; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2013-04-01

    Interfacial diffusion is of great importance in determining the performance of solid-state reactions. For nanometer sized particles, some solid-state reactions can be triggered accidently by mechanical stress owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio compared with the bulk ones. Therefore, a great challenge is the control of interfacial diffusion for solid state reactions, especially for energetic materials. Here we demonstrate, through the example of nanowire-based thermite membrane, that the thermite solid-state reaction can be easily tuned via the introduction of low-surface-energy coating layer. Moreover, this silicon-coated thermite membrane exhibit controlled wetting behavior ranging from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic and, simultaneously, to significantly reduce the friction sensitivity of thermite membrane. This effect enables to increase interfacial resistance by increasing the amount of coating material. Indeed, our results described here make it possible to tune the solid-state reactions through the manipulation of interfacial diffusion between the reactants.

  5. Emerging applications of spark plasma sintering in all solid-state lithium-ion batteries and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongzheng; Liu, Jian

    2018-07-01

    Solid-state batteries have received increasing attention due to their high safety aspect and high energy and power densities. However, the development of solid-state batteries is hindered by inferior solid-solid interfaces between the solid-state electrolyte and electrode, which cause high interfacial resistance, reduced Li-ion and electron transfer rate, and limited battery performance. Recently, spark plasma sintering (SPS) is emerging as a promising technique for fabricating solid-state electrolyte and electrode pellets with clean and intimate solid-solid interfaces. During the SPS process, the unique reaction mechanism through the combination of current, pressure and high heating rate allow the formation of desirable solid-solid interfaces between active material particles. Herein, this work focuses on the overview of the application of SPS for fabricating solid-state electrolyte and electrode in all solid-state Li-ion batteries, and beyond, such as solid-state Li-S and Na-ion batteries. The correlations among SPS parameters, interfacial resistance, and electrochemical properties of solid-state electrolytes and electrodes are discussed for different material systems. In the end, we point out future opportunities and challenges associated with SPS application in the hot area of solid-state batteries. It is expected that this timely review will stimulate more fundamental and applied research in the development of solid-state batteries by SPS.

  6. Solid-State Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1983-09-01

    Progress and activities are reported on: theoretical solid-state physics (surfaces; electronic, vibrational, and magnetic properties; particle-solid interactions; laser annealing), surface and near-surface properties of solids (surface, plasma-material interactions, ion implantation and ion-beam mixing, pulsed-laser and thermal processing), defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, impurities and defects, semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion), transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, mass and charge transport in materials), neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, magnetic properties, structure and instrumentation), and preparation and characterization of research materials (growth and preparative methods, nuclear waste forms, special materials). (DLC)

  7. Optimized multiple quantum MAS lineshape simulations in solid state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, William J.; Davis, Michael C.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2009-10-01

    The majority of nuclei available for study in solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance have half-integer spin I>1/2, with corresponding electric quadrupole moment. As such, they may couple with a surrounding electric field gradient. This effect introduces anisotropic line broadening to spectra, arising from distinct chemical species within polycrystalline solids. In Multiple Quantum Magic Angle Spinning (MQMAS) experiments, a second frequency dimension is created, devoid of quadrupolar anisotropy. As a result, the center of gravity of peaks in the high resolution dimension is a function of isotropic second order quadrupole and chemical shift alone. However, for complex materials, these parameters take on a stochastic nature due in turn to structural and chemical disorder. Lineshapes may still overlap in the isotropic dimension, complicating the task of assignment and interpretation. A distributed computational approach is presented here which permits simulation of the two-dimensional MQMAS spectrum, generated by random variates from model distributions of isotropic chemical and quadrupole shifts. Owing to the non-convex nature of the residual sum of squares (RSS) function between experimental and simulated spectra, simulated annealing is used to optimize the simulation parameters. In this manner, local chemical environments for disordered materials may be characterized, and via a re-sampling approach, error estimates for parameters produced. Program summaryProgram title: mqmasOPT Catalogue identifier: AEEC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3650 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 73 853 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C, OCTAVE Computer: UNIX

  8. Two dimensional electron systems for solid state quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Sumit

    Two dimensional electron systems based on GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures are extremely useful in various scientific investigations of recent times including the search for quantum computational schemes. Although significant strides have been made over the past few years to realize solid state qubits on GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEGs, there are numerous factors limiting the progress. We attempt to identify factors that have material and design-specific origin and develop ways to overcome them. The thesis is divided in two broad segments. In the first segment we describe the realization of a new field-effect induced two dimensional electron system on GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure where the novel device-design is expected to suppress the level of charge noise present in the device. Modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures are utilized extensively in the study of quantum transport in nanostructures, but charge fluctuations associated with remote ionized dopants often produce deleterious effects. Electric field-induced carrier systems offer an attractive alternative if certain challenges can be overcome. We demonstrate a field-effect transistor in which the active channel is locally devoid of modulation-doping, but silicon dopant atoms are retained in the ohmic contact region to facilitate low-resistance contacts. A high quality two-dimensional electron gas is induced by a field-effect that is tunable over a density range of 6.5x10 10cm-2 to 2.6x1011cm-2 . Device design, fabrication, and low temperature (T=0.3K) characterization results are discussed. The demonstrated device-design overcomes several existing limitations in the fabrication of field-induced 2DEGs and might find utility in hosting nanostructures required for making spin qubits. The second broad segment describes our effort to correlate transport parameters measured at T=0.3K to the strength of the fractional quantum Hall state observed at nu=5/2 in the second Landau level of high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional

  9. Fabrication, testing and simulation of all solid state three dimensional Li-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Talin, Albert Alec; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Kolmakov, Andrei; ...

    2016-11-10

    Realization of safe, long cycle life and simple to package solid-state rechargeable batteries with high energy and power density has been a long-standing goal of the energy storage community. [1,2] Much of the research activity has been focused on developing new solid electrolytes with high Li ionic conductivity. In addition, LiPON, the only solid electrolyte currently used in commercial thin film solid state Li-ion batteris (SSLIBs), has a conductivity of ~10 -6 S/cm, compared to ~0.01 S/cm typically observed for liquid organic electrolytes [3].

  10. Ceramic surfaces, interfaces and solid-state reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffelfinger, Jason Roy

    Faceting, the decomposition of a surface into two or more surfaces of different orientation, is studied as a function of annealing time for ceramic surfaces. Single-crystals of Alsb2Osb3\\ (alpha-Alsb2Osb3 or corundum structure) are carefully prepared and characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanisms by which the originally smooth vicinal surface transforms into either a hill-and-valley or a terrace-and-step structure have been characterized. The progression of faceting is found to have a series of stages: surface smoothing, nucleation and growth of individual facets, formation of facet domains, coalescence of individual and facet domains and facet coarsening. These stages provide a model for the mechanisms of how other ceramic surfaces may facet into hill-and-valley and terrace-and-step surface microstructures. The well characterized Alsb2Osb3 surfaces provide excellent substrates by which to study the effect of surface structure on thin-film growth. Pulsed-laser deposition was used to grow thin films of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and Ysb2Osb3 onto annealed Alsb2Osb3 substrates. The substrate surface structure, such as surface steps and terraces, was found to have several effects on thin-film growth. Thin-films grown onto single-crystal substrates serve as a model geometry for studying thin-film solid-state reactions. Here, the reaction sequence and orientation relationship between thin films of Ysb2Osb3 and an Alsb2Osb3 substrate were characterized for different reaction temperatures. In a system were multiple reaction phases can form, the yttria aluminum monoclinic phase (YAM) was found to form prior to formation of other phases in this system. In a second system, a titanium alloy was reacted with single crystal Alsb2Osb3 in order to study phase formation in an intermetallic system. Both Tisb3Al and TiAl were found to form as reaction products and their orientation relationships

  11. Application and Development of Microstructured Solid-State Neutron Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltz, Adam D.

    Neutron detectors are useful for a number of applications, including the identification of nuclear weapons, radiation dosimetry, and nuclear reactor monitoring, among others. Microstructured solid-state neutron detectors (SSNDs) developed at RPI have the potential to reinvent a variety of neutron detection systems due to their compact size, zero bias requirement, competitive thermal neutron detection efficiency (up to 29%), low gamma sensitivity (below the PNNL recommendation of 10-6 corresponding to a 10 mR/hr gamma exposure), and scalability to large surface areas with a single preamplifier (<20% loss in relative efficiency from 1 to 16 cm2). These microstructured SSNDs have semiconducting substrate etched with a repeated, three-dimensional microstructure of high aspect ratio holes filled with 10B. MCNP simulations optimized the dimensions of each microstructure geometry for each detector application, improving the overall performance. This thesis outlines the development of multiple, novel neutron detection applications using microstructured SSNDs developed at RPI. The Directional and Spectral Neutron Detection System (DSNDS) is a modular and portable system that uses rings of microstructured SSNDs embedded in polyethylene in order to gather real-time information about the directionality and spectrum of an unidentified neutron source. This system can be used to identify the presence of diverted special nuclear material (SNM), determine its position, and gather spectral information in real-time. The compact and scalable zero-bias SSNDs allow for customization and modularity of the detector array, which provides design flexibility and enhanced portability. Additionally, a real-time personal neutron dosimeter is a wearable device that uses a combination of fast and thermal microstructured SSNDs in order to determine an individual's neutron dose rate. This system demonstrates that neutron detection systems utilizing microstructured SSNDs are applicable for personal

  12. Ultra-Thin Solid-State Nanopores: Fabrication and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Aaron Tzeyang

    Solid-state nanopores are a nanofluidic platform with unique advantages for single-molecule analysis and filtration applications. However, significant improvements in device performance and scalable fabrication methods are needed to make nanopore devices competitive with existing technologies. This dissertation investigates the potential advantages of ultra-thin nanopores in which the thickness of the membrane is significantly smaller than the nanopore diameter. Novel, scalable fabrication methods were first developed and then utilized to examine device performance for water filtration and single molecule sensing applications. Fabrication of nanometer-thin pores in silicon nitride membranes was achieved using a feedback-controlled ion beam method in which ion sputtering is arrested upon detection of the first few ions that drill through the membrane. Performing fabrication at liquid nitrogen temperatures prevents surface atom rearrangements that have previously complicated similar processes. A novel cross-sectional imaging method was also developed to allow careful examination of the full nanopore geometry. Atomically-thin graphene nanopores were fabricated via an electrical pulse method in which sub-microsecond electrical pulses applied across a graphene membrane in electrolyte solution are used to create a defect in the membrane and controllably enlarge it into a nanopore. This method dramatically increases the accuracy and reliability of graphene nanopore production, allowing consistent production of single nanopores down to subnanometer sizes. In filtration applications in which nanopores are used to selectively restrict the passage of dissolved contaminants, ultra-thin nanopores minimize the flow resistance, increasing throughput and energy-efficiency. The ability of graphene nanopores to separate different ions was characterized via ionic conductance and reversal potential measurements. Graphene nanopores were observed to conduct cations preferentially over

  13. Laser Based Phosphor Converted Solid State White Light Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantore, Michael

    Artificial lighting and as a consequence the ability to be productive when the sun does not shine may be a profound achievement in society that is largely taken for granted. As concerns arise due to our dependence on energy sources with finite lifespan or environmentally negative effects, efforts to reduce energy consumption and create clean renewable alternatives has become highly valued. In the scope of artificial lighting, the use of incandescent lamps has shifted to more efficient light sources. Fluorescent lighting made the first big gains in efficiency over incandescent lamps with peak efficiency for mature designs reaching luminous efficacy of approximately 90 lm/W; more than three times as efficient as an incandescent lamp. Lamps based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) which can produce light at even greater efficiency, color quality and without the potential for hazardous chemical release from lamp failure. There is a significant challenge with LED based light sources. Their peak efficiency occurs at low current densities and then droops as the current density increases. Laser diodes (LDs) do not suffer from decreasing efficiency due to increased current. An alternative solid state light source using LDs has potential to make further gains in efficiency as well as allow novel illuminant designs which may be impractical or even impossible even with LED or other conventional sources. While similar to LEDS, the use of LDs does present new challenges largely due to the increased optical power density which must be accommodated in optics and phosphor materials. Single crystal YAG:Ce has been shown to be capable of enduring this more extreme operating environment while retaining the optical and fluorescing qualities desired for use as a wavelength converter in phosphor converted LD based white emitting systems. The incorporation of this single crystal phosphor in a system with a commercial laser diode with peak wall plug efficiency of 31% resulted in emission of

  14. State and prospects of solid propellant rocket development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, V. Kh.

    1992-07-01

    An overview is presented of aspects of solid-propellant rocket engine (SPRE) development with individual treatment given to sustainer and spacecraft SPRE technologies. The paper focuses on low-modulus fuels of composite solid propellant, requirements for adhesion stability, and enhancement of the power characteristics of solid propellants. R&D activities are described that relate to the use of SPREs with extending nozzles and to the design of ultradimensional nozzles for upper-stage engines. Other developments for the SPREs include engines with separate loading and pasty fuel applications, and progress is reported in the direction of detonation SPREs. The SPREs using pasty propellants provide good control over thrust characteristics and fuel qualities. A device is incorporated that assures fuel burning in the combustion region and reliable ignition during restarting of these engines.

  15. Far infrared spectra of solid state aliphatic amino acids in different protonation states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivella, Aurélien; Gaillard, Thomas; Stote, Roland H.; Hellwig, Petra

    2010-03-01

    Far infrared spectra of zwitterionic, cationic, and anionic forms of aliphatic amino acids in solid state have been studied experimentally. Measurements were done on glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine, and L-isoleucine powder samples and film samples obtained from dried solutions prepared at pH ranging from 1 to 13. Solid state density functional theory calculations were also performed, and detailed potential energy distributions were obtained from normal mode results. A good correspondence between experimental and simulated spectra was achieved and this allowed us to propose an almost complete band assignment for the far infrared spectra of zwitterionic forms. In the 700-50 cm-1 range, three regions were identified, each corresponding to a characteristic set of normal modes. A first region between 700 and 450 cm-1 mainly contained the carboxylate bending, rocking, and wagging modes as well as the ammonium torsional mode. The 450-250 cm-1 region was representative of backbone and sidechain skeletal bending modes. At last, the low wavenumber zone, below 250 cm-1, was characteristic of carboxylate and skeletal torsional modes and of lattice modes. Assignments are also proposed for glycine cationic and anionic forms, but could not be obtained for all aliphatic amino acids due to the lack of structural data. This work is intended to provide fundamental information for the understanding of peptides vibrational properties.

  16. The mechanics of solids in the plastically-deformable state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mises, R. V.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanics of continua, which is based on the general stress model of Cauchy, up to the present has almost exclusively been applied to liquid and solid elastic bodies. Saint-Venant has developed a theory for the plastic or remaining form changes of solids, but it does not give the required number of equations for determining motion. A complete set of equations of motion for plastic deformable bodies is derived. This is done within the framework of Cauch mechanics. And it is supported by certain experimental facts which characterize the range of applications.

  17. Graphene quantum dots as the electrolyte for solid state supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Su; Li, Yutong; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Hong, Song; Huang, Minglu

    2016-01-01

    We propose that graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with a sufficient number of acidic oxygen-bearing functional groups such as -COOH and -OH can serve as solution- and solid- type electrolytes for supercapacitors. Moreover, we found that the ionic conductivity and ion-donating ability of the GQDs could be markedly improved by simply neutralizing their acidic functional groups by using KOH. These neutralized GQDs as the solution- or solid-type electrolytes greatly enhanced the capacitive performance and rate capability of the supercapacitors. The reason for the enhancement can be ascribed to the fully ionization of the weak acidic oxygen-bearing functional groups after neutralization. PMID:26763275

  18. Accessing the bottleneck in all-solid state batteries, lithium-ion transport over the solid-electrolyte-electrode interface.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuang; Ganapathy, Swapna; Eck, Ernst R H van; Wang, Heng; Basak, Shibabrata; Li, Zhaolong; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2017-10-20

    Solid-state batteries potentially offer increased lithium-ion battery energy density and safety as required for large-scale production of electrical vehicles. One of the key challenges toward high-performance solid-state batteries is the large impedance posed by the electrode-electrolyte interface. However, direct assessment of the lithium-ion transport across realistic electrode-electrolyte interfaces is tedious. Here we report two-dimensional lithium-ion exchange NMR accessing the spontaneous lithium-ion transport, providing insight on the influence of electrode preparation and battery cycling on the lithium-ion transport over the interface between an argyrodite solid-electrolyte and a sulfide electrode. Interfacial conductivity is shown to depend strongly on the preparation method and demonstrated to drop dramatically after a few electrochemical (dis)charge cycles due to both losses in interfacial contact and increased diffusional barriers. The reported exchange NMR facilitates non-invasive and selective measurement of lithium-ion interfacial transport, providing insight that can guide the electrolyte-electrode interface design for future all-solid-state batteries.

  19. Realisation of an all solid state lithium battery using solid high temperature plastic crystal electrolytes exhibiting liquid like conductivity.

    PubMed

    Shekibi, Youssof; Rüther, Thomas; Huang, Junhua; Hollenkamp, Anthony F

    2012-04-07

    Replacement of volatile and combustible electrolytes in conventional lithium batteries is desirable for two reasons: safety concerns and increase in specific energy. In this work we consider the use of an ionic organic plastic crystal material (IOPC), N-ethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate, [C2mpyr][BF(4)], as a solid-state electrolyte for lithium battery applications. The effect of inclusion of 1 to 33 mol% lithium tetrafluoroborate, LiBF(4), into [C2mpyr][BF(4)] has been investigated over a wide temperature range by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and cycling of full Li|LiFePO(4) batteries. The increases in ionic conductivity by orders of magnitude observed at higher temperature are most likely associated with an increase in Li ion mobility in the highest plastic phase. At concentrations >5 mol% LiBF(4) the ionic conductivity of these solid-state composites is comparable to the ionic conductivity of room temperature ionic liquids. Galvanostatic cycling of Li|Li symmetrical cells showed that the reversibility of the lithium metal redox reaction at the interface of this plastic crystal electrolyte is sufficient for lithium battery applications. For the first time we demonstrate an all solid state lithium battery incorporating solid electrolytes based on IOPC as opposed to conventional flammable organic solvents.

  20. Solid anaerobic digestion: State-of-art, scientific and technological hurdles.

    PubMed

    André, Laura; Pauss, André; Ribeiro, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a state-of-art about solid anaerobic digestion (AD), focused on recent progress and trends of research is proposed. Solid anaerobic digestion should be the most appropriate process for degradation of by-products with high total solid (TS) content, especially lignocellulosic materials like agricultural waste (straw, manure), household waste and food waste. Solid AD is already widely used in waste water treatment plant for treating plant for sewage sludge but could be more developed for lignocellulosic materials with high TS content. Many research works were carried out in Europe on solid AD, focused on current hurdles (BMP, codigestion, inhibition, microbial population, rheology, water transfers, inoculum, etc.) in order to optimize the solid AD process. In conclusion, hurdles of solid AD process should and must be solved in order to propose better productivity and profitability of such system operating with high TS content (>15%), favouring reliable industrial processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Zirconia-based dental crown to support a removable partial denture: a three-dimensional finite element analysis using contact elements and micro-CT data.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Freitas, Amilcar Chagas; Martini, Ana Paula; Sotto-Maior, Bruno Sales; Luersen, Marco Antonio; Ko, Ching Chang

    2015-01-01

    Veneer fracture is the most common complication in zirconia-based restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of a zirconia-based crown in a lower canine tooth supporting removable partial denture (RPD) prosthesis, varying the bond quality of the veneer/coping interface. Microtomography (μCT) data of an extracted left lower canine were used to build the finite element model (M) varying the core material (gold core - MAu; zirconia core - MZi) and the quality of the veneer/core interface (complete bonded - MZi; incomplete bonded - MZi-NL). The incomplete bonding condition was only applied for zirconia coping by using contact elements (Target/Contact) with 0.3 frictional coefficients. Stress fields were obtained using Ansys Workbench 10.0. The loading condition (L = 1 N) was vertically applied at the base of the RPD prosthesis metallic support towards the dental apex. Maximum principal (σmax) and von Mises equivalent (σvM) stresses were obtained. The σmax (MPa) for the bonded condition was similar between gold and zirconia cores (MAu, 0.42; MZi, 0.40). The incomplete bonded condition (MZi-NL) raised σmax in the veneer up to 800% (3.23 MPa) in contrast to the bonded condition. The peak of σvM increased up to 270% in the MZi-NL. The incomplete bond condition increasing the stress in the veneer/zirconia interface.

  2. Harnessing Solid-State Ionic Transport for Nanomanufacturing and Nanodevices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Keng Hao

    2009-01-01

    Through this work a new all-solid, ambient processing condition direct metal patterning technique has been developed and characterized. This ionic-transport-based patterning technique is capable of sub-50nm feature resolution under ambient conditions. It generates features with a rate that is comparable to conventional dry-etching techniques. A…

  3. Tunable, rare earth-doped solid state lasers

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, John L.; Jacobs, Ralph R.; Krupke, William F.; Weber, Marvin J.

    1980-01-01

    Laser apparatus comprising combinations of an excimer pump laser and a rare earth-doped solid matrix, utilizing the 5d-4f radiative transition in a rare earth ion to produce visible and ultra-violet laser radiation with high overall efficiency in selected cases and relatively long radiative lifetimes.

  4. NASA satellite communications application research. Phase 2: Efficient high power, solid state amplifier for EFH communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benet, James

    1993-01-01

    The final report describes the work performed from 9 Jun. 1992 to 31 Jul. 1993 on the NASA Satellite Communications Application Research (SCAR) Phase 2 program, Efficient High Power, Solid State Amplifier for EHF Communications. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate the feasibility of high-efficiency, high-power, EHF solid state amplifiers that are smaller, lighter, more efficient, and less costly than existing traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifiers by combining the output power from up to several hundred solid state amplifiers using a unique orthomode spatial power combiner (OSPC).

  5. Magnetic coupling between liquid 3He and a solid state substrate: a new approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkov, Alexander V.; Naletov, Vladimir V.; Tayurskii, Dmitrii A.; Tagirov, Murat S.; Suzuki, Haruhiko

    2000-07-01

    We suggest a new approach for solving the long-standing problem of a magnetic coupling between liquid 3He and a solid state substrate at temperatures above the Fermi temperature. The approach is based on our previous careful investigations of the physical state of a solid substrate by means of several experimental methods (EPR, NMR, conductometry, and magnetization measurements). The developed approach allows, first, to get more detailed information about the magnetic coupling phenomenon by varying the repetition time in pulse NMR investigations of liquid 3He in contact with the solid state substrate and, second, to compare the obtained dependences and the data of NMR-cryoporometry and AFM-microscopy.

  6. Dendritic copper phthalocyanine with aggregation induced blue emission and solid-state fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiayi; Pan, Lin; Zhou, Xuefei; Jia, Kun; Liu, Xiaobo

    2016-09-01

    In this work, dendritic copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) showing obvious aggregation induced emission (AIE) and strong solid-state fluorescence was synthesized. It was found that synthesized CuPc can be easily solubilized in polar aprotic solvent, where no fluorescence signal was detected. Interestingly, both the CuPc aggregates in solution and solid-state powder exhibited strong fluorescence emission around 480 nm, which should be attributed to the restriction of intramolecular rotation as rationalized in aggregation induced emission framework. Meanwhile the obvious crystalline enhanced solid-state fluorescent emission is observed for CuPc powder.

  7. [The design of all solid-state tunable pulsed Ti:sapphire laser system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Ku, Geng; Wan, Junchao; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Chuanqing

    2013-05-01

    This paper presented a design of broadly all solid-state tunable pulsed Ti:sapphire laser with high power and stable performance. The laser was pumped by custom-made Nd:YAG laser which had water cooling system and amplified by two stage amplifier. The method accomplished tunable output of all solid-state tunable pulsed Ti:sapphire laser by modifying the reflection angle of the back mirror. We investigated the relationship between the power of the pumping laser and the all solid-state tunable pulsed Ti: sapphire laser by changing the power of the pumping source.

  8. Solid-state chemistry and particle engineering with supercritical fluids in pharmaceutics.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Irene; Bettini, Ruggero; Giordano, Ferdinando

    2006-03-01

    The present commentary aims to review the modern and innovative strategies in particle engineering by the supercritical fluid technologies and it is principally concerned with the aspects of solid-state chemistry. Supercritical fluids based processes for particle production have been proved suitable for controlling solid-state, morphology and particle size of pharmaceuticals, in some cases on an industrial scale. Supercritical fluids should be considered in a prominent position in the development processes of drug products for the 21st century. In this respect, this innovative technology will help in meeting the more and more stringent requirements of regulatory authorities in terms of solid-state characterisation and purity, and environmental acceptability.

  9. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOEpatents

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2005-09-27

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  10. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOEpatents

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammels, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  11. On the Lennard-Jones and Devonshire theory for solid state thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Rolf

    2017-06-01

    The Lennard-Jones and Devonshire theory is developed into a self-consistent scheme for essentially complete thermodynamic information. The resulting methodology is compared with molecular simulation of the Lennard-Jones system in the face-centred-cubic solid state over an excessive range of state points. The thermal and caloric equations of state are in almost perfect agreement along the entire fluid-solid coexistence lines over more than six orders of magnitude in pressure. For homogeneous densities greater than twice the solid triple point density, the theory is essentially exact for derivatives of the Helmholtz energy. However, the fluid-solid phase equilibria are in disagreement with simulation. It is shown that the theory is in error by an additive constant to the Helmholtz energy A/(NkBT). Empirical inclusion of the error term makes all fluid-solid equilibria indistinguishable from exact results. Some arguments about the origin of the error are given.

  12. Solid-state NMR of Complex Nano- and Microcrystalline Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsh, David A.

    The work in this thesis demonstrates the utility and broad applicability of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy to the study of complex materials containing mixtures of multiple structures and/or disparate local environments. Multinuclear SSNMR is particularly well-suited to the characterization of such systems, and can provide a wealth of information that cannot be obtained with other instrumental methods. Studies involving two classes of materials are detailed herein, namely rare-earth nanoparticles and active pharmaceutical ingredients. The first three projects described involve the study of inorganic rare-earth (RE, RE = Y, Sc, La-Lu) nanoparticles (NP), which have unique optical and magnetic properties that are desirable for a diverse range of applications. Many of the properties of these materials are related to the incorporation of dopants into the host structures. The chemical reactions necessary to prepare these materials are complex and challenging to optimize; however, careful structural analysis of these materials is imperative to inform and to improve their rational design. Herein, we first use multinuclear (i.e., 19F, 23Na, 89Y, 1H, 13C, 45Sc) SSNMR to establish the molecular-level structure of a widely used undoped host material, beta-NaYF4, resolving a longstanding debate regarding the crystal structure. Similar experiments are used to probe the structures of NaYF4 nanomaterials formed with advanced core/shell structures containing multiple RE-materials and having oleates bound to their surfaces. Expanding on this foundation, the structural effects of the incorporation of paramagnetic dopant ions in NaYF4 NPs is described in a second study. Through the use of ultra-fast magic angle spinning (UFMAS) SSNMR experiments, we have obtained spectra with valuable details regarding the distributions of the dopant ions and their mean distances from other atoms in the NP cores and surfaces. The final project in this area pertains to a

  13. Solid-state dosimeters: A new approach for mammography measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Brateman, Libby F., E-mail: bratel@radiology.ufl.edu; Heintz, Philip H.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To compare responses of modern commercially available solid-state dosimeters (SStDs) used in mammography medical physics surveys for two major vendors of current digital mammography units. To compare differences in dose estimates among SStD responses with ionization chamber (IC) measurements for several target/filter (TF) combinations and report their characteristics. To review scientific bases for measurements of quantities required for mammography for traditional measurement procedures and SStDs. Methods: SStDs designed for use with modern digital mammography units were acquired for evaluation from four manufacturers. Each instrument was evaluated under similar conditions with the available mammography beams provided by two modern full-fieldmore » digital mammography units in clinical use: a GE Healthcare Senographe Essential (Essential) and a Hologic Selenia Dimensions 5000 (Dimensions), with TFs of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh; and Rh/Rh and W/Rh, W/Ag, and W/Al, respectively. Measurements were compared among the instruments for the TFs over their respective clinical ranges of peak tube potentials for kVp and half-value layer (HVL) measurements. Comparisons for air kerma (AK) and their associated relative calculated average glandular doses (AGDs), i.e., using fixed mAs, were evaluated over the limited range of 28–30 kVp. Measurements were compared with reference IC measurements for AK, reference HVLs and calculated AGD, for two compression paddle heights for AK, to evaluate scatter effects from compression paddles. SStDs may require different positioning from current mammography measurement protocols. Results: Measurements of kVp were accurate in general for the SStDs (within −1.2 and +1.1 kVp) for all instruments over a wide range of set kVp’s and TFs and most accurate for Mo/Mo and W/Rh. Discrepancies between measurements and reference values were greater for HVL and AK. Measured HVL values differed from reference values by −6.5% to +3.5% depending on the

  14. Solid-state, triboelectrostatic and dissolution characteristics of spray-dried piroxicam-glucosamine solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Adebisi, Adeola O; Kaialy, Waseem; Hussain, Tariq; Al-Hamidi, Hiba; Nokhodchi, Ali; Conway, Barbara R; Asare-Addo, Kofi

    2016-10-01

    This work explores the use of both spray drying and d-glucosamine HCl (GLU) as a hydrophilic carrier to improve the dissolution rate of piroxicam (PXM) whilst investigating the electrostatic charges associated with the spray drying process. Spray dried PXM:GLU solid dispersions were prepared and characterised (XRPD, DSC, SEM). Dissolution and triboelectric charging were also conducted. The results showed that the spray dried PXM alone, without GLU produced some PXM form II (DSC results) with no enhancement in solubility relative to that of the parent PXM. XRPD results also showed the spray drying process to decrease the crystallinity of GLU and solid dispersions produced. The presence of GLU improved the dissolution rate of PXM. Spray dried PXM: GLU at a ratio of 2:1 had the most improved dissolution. The spray drying process generally yielded PXM-GLU spherical particles of around 2.5μm which may have contributed to the improved dissolution. PXM showed a higher tendency for charging in comparison to the carrier GLU (-3.8 versus 0.5nC/g for untreated material and -7.5 versus 3.1nC/g for spray dried materials). Spray dried PXM and spray dried GLU demonstrated higher charge densities than untreated PXM and untreated GLU, respectively. Regardless of PXM:GLU ratio, all spray dried PXM:GLU solid dispersions showed a negligible charge density (net-CMR: 0.1-0.3nC/g). Spray drying of PXM:GLU solid dispersions can be used to produce formulation powders with practically no charge and thereby improving handling as well as dissolution behaviour of PXM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High-Resolution Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy: Characterization of Polymorphism in Cimetidine, a Pharmaceutical Compound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacilio, Julia E.; Tokarski, John T.; Quiñones, Rosalynn; Iuliucci, Robbie J.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy has many advantages as a tool to characterize solid-phase material that finds applications in polymer chemistry, nanotechnology, materials science, biomolecular structure determination, and others, including the pharmaceutical industry. The technology associated with achieving high resolution…

  16. A Solid-State NMR Experiment: Analysis of Local Structural Environments in Phosphate Glasses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stanley E.; Saiki, David; Eckert, Hellmut; Meise-Gresch, Karin

    2004-01-01

    An experiment that can be used to directly study the local chemical environments of phosphorus in solid amorphous materials is demonstrated. The experiment aims at familiarizing the students of chemistry with the principles of solid-state NMR, by having them synthesize a simple phosphate glass, and making them observe the (super 31)P NMR spectrum,…

  17. Solid State Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.H.; Hinton, L.W.

    1992-09-01

    During this period, the division conducted a broad, interdisciplinary materials research program with emphasis on theoretical solid state physics, superconductivity, neutron scattering, synthesis and characterization of materials, ion beam and laser processing, and the structure of solids and surfaces. The High Flux Isotope Reactor was returned to full operation.

  18. Steady-state flow of solid CO2: preliminary results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durham, William B.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Stern, Laura A.

    1999-01-01

    To help answer the question of how much solid CO2 exists in the Martian south polar cap, we performed a series of laboratory triaxial deformation experiments at constant displacement rate in compression on jacketed cylinders of pure, polycrystalline CO2. Test conditions were temperatures 150 −8 ≤ ε ≤4.3×10−4 s−1. Most of the measurements follow a constitutive law of the form ε = Aσnexp(−Q/RT), where σ is the applied differential stress, R is the gas constant, and the other constants have values as follows: A = 103 86 MPa−ns−1, n = 5.6, and Q = 33 kJ/mol. Solid CO2 is markedly weaker than water ice. Our results suggest that the south polar cap on Mars is unlikely to be predominately solid CO2, because the elevation and estimated age of the cap is difficult to reconcile with the very weak rheology of the material.

  19. Integrated Interface Strategy toward Room Temperature Solid-State Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jiangwei; Wang, Yantao; Chen, Bingbing; Ma, Jun; Dong, Shanmu; Chai, Jingchao; Qu, Hongtao; Cui, Longfei; Wu, Xiuxiu; Cui, Guanglei

    2018-04-25

    Solid-state lithium batteries have drawn wide attention to address the safety issues of power batteries. However, the development of solid-state lithium batteries is substantially limited by the poor electrochemical performances originating from the rigid interface between solid electrodes and solid-state electrolytes. In this work, a composite of poly(vinyl carbonate) and Li 10 SnP 2 S 12 solid-state electrolyte is fabricated successfully via in situ polymerization to improve the rigid interface issues. The composite electrolyte presents a considerable room temperature conductivity of 0.2 mS cm -1 , an electrochemical window exceeding 4.5 V, and a Li + transport number of 0.6. It is demonstrated that solid-state lithium metal battery of LiFe 0.2 Mn 0.8 PO 4 (LFMP)/composite electrolyte/Li can deliver a high capacity of 130 mA h g -1 with considerable capacity retention of 88% and Coulombic efficiency of exceeding 99% after 140 cycles at the rate of 0.5 C at room temperature. The superior electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the good compatibility of the composite electrolyte with Li metal and the integrated compatible interface between solid electrodes and the composite electrolyte engineered by in situ polymerization, which leads to a significant interfacial impedance decrease from 1292 to 213 Ω cm 2 in solid-state Li-Li symmetrical cells. This work provides vital reference for improving the interface compatibility for room temperature solid-state lithium batteries.

  20. THE IMPACT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technological advancements in United States (U.S.) municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and a focus on the environmental advantages of integrated MSW management have greatly reduced the environmental impacts of MSW management, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study ...